Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1963

Hong Kong

11953

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Crown Copyright Reserved

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URBAN

HONG KONG 1963

COUNCIL

PUBLIC

URBAN

市政局

COUNCIL

港市政

LIBRARIES

| PRESENTED BY:

Mr K. Y. Lau

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS BUREAU

General Post Office, Hong Kong,

and from

THE CROWN AGENTS FOR OVERSEAS GOVERNMENTS

AND ADMINISTRATIONS

4, Millbank, London, SW1

A list of current publications will be found at Appendix XIV of this Report

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

   His Excellency the Governor, Sir Robert Black, G.C.M.G., O.B.E., and Lady Black, with their two daughters, Barbara and Kathryn, photographed in the grounds of Government House. His Excellency, who has been Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Hong Kong for the past six years, will leave the Colony on retirement in April, 1964. He will be succeeded as Governor and Commander-in-Chief, by Sir David Trench, K.C.M.G., M.C.

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the Year 1963

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1964

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706582 0

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1964

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

Acc. No.

672440

Class.

HK 951.25

Author

How

HKCr

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

   The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all those organizations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter to this Report. Particular acknowledgement is given to Professor S. G. Davis, PhD, MSc, FGS, of the University of Hong Kong for the Geography chapter, to Mr G. B. Endacott, MA, BLitt, DipE, of the University for the History chapter, and to Mr J. M. Braga for compiling the Bibliography.

   All illustrations in this Report are the work of official photographers. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustrations should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

PART I-REVIEW

1

LAND

3

2

POPULATION

Urban Population

New Territories.

3 EMPLOYMENT

PART II

41

42

43

Occupations

Wages and Conditions of Employment

Labour Administration

46

49

51

Industrial Relations

Legislation

52

55

Safety, Health and Welfare

56

New Territories .

58

4

PUBLIC FINANCES

61

Excise Duties

64

Rates.

65

Internal Revenue

66

5

CURRENCY AND BANKING

69

Banking

71

6

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

General Review .

73

Trade.

74

Growth of Industry

76

Heavy Industry .

78

Textile Industry.

Diversification and Land Productivity

79

81

82

vii

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

6

INDUSTRY AND TRADE-Contd

Industrial Management and Supervisory Training

83

International Trading Problems .

84

Administration

89

The Preventive Service

95

Trade Associations

97

Overseas Representation

98

7

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Agricultural Land in the New Territories.

100

Land Utilization

102

Policy and Administration.

104

Agriculture

105

Animal Industries

108

Forestry

109

Fishing

111

Marketing.

Co-operative Societies

Mining

8

EDUCATION

114

118

120

Re-organization of Primary and Secondary

Education

The Chinese University

School Expansion Programme

Primary Education

Secondary Education .

122

123

124

125

126

Post-Secondary Education.

Further Education Overseas

Adult Education

127

130

131

Teachers and Teacher-Training.

132

Examinations

133

Overseas Scholarships and Bursaries.

135

Expenditure and Legislation

136

Board of Education and School Administration.

137

viii

Chapter

8 EDUCATION-Contd

CONTENTS

Voluntary Education, Welfare Work and

Page

Libraries

139

Physical Education, Music, Drama and Art

140

Education Conference and Exhibition

141

9

HEALTH

Public Health Administration

143

General Health.

144

Communicable Diseases

145

Health Services

154

Hospitals

158

Out-patient Clinics and Services

160

Specialist Services

161

Dental Services .

162

Training

163

Urban Services

165

166

171

Hygiene Section.

New Territories

10

LAND AND HOUSING

Land.

173

Housing

Resettlement

182

·

186

Rent Controls

193

11

SOCIAL WELFARE

197

12

LEGISLATION

206

13

LAW, ORDER AND RECORDS

The Courts of Justice.

210

Police Force

212

Prisons

220

Fire Services

221

Preventive Service and Records

223

14

IMMIGRATION

231

ix

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

234

15 TOURISM

16 PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

The Water Emergency

240

Buildings and Public Works

249

Public Utilities

256

17

COMMUNICATIONS

Marine

260

Civil Aviation

264

Kowloon-Canton Railway .

266

Roads

267

Car Parks and Metered Zones .

269

Internal Public Transport .

270

Post Office

276

Telecommunications

278

18

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

281

283

The Year's Weather.

19 PUBLICATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

Press.

286

Publishing

289

Sound Broadcasting and Television

289

Radio Hong Kong

290

Commercial Radio

293

Rediffusion

Film Industry

Government Information Services

Public Enquiry Service

295

297

298

304

220

LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

305

21

RESEARCH

University Government

22 RELIGION

·

X

310

314

316

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

23

THE ARTS.

325

Government Collections

330

British Council.

331

24

SPORT AND RECREATION

333

Parks, Playgrounds and other amenities

336

PART III

25

GEOGRAPHY

Geographical setting.

343

Topography and Geology .

343

Vegetation.

345

Population

345

Climate

346

26

NATURAL HISTORY

27

HISTORY

348

Antecedents

The Island Colony, 1841-60

357

361

Extensions to the Colony, 1860-99

363

Development of the Colony up to 1941

364

The Chinese Revolution and Two World Wars.

367

The Post-War Years.

368

28 CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Constitution

371

Judiciary

372

Administration

372

New Territories Administration .

377

The Public Service

378

29

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

381

30 BIBLIOGRAPHY

382

xi

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

His Excellency the Governor and family.

Land

Page

Frontispiece

between 20 - 1

Chinese festivals

between

44 - 5

Expanding industry

between 92-3

Agriculture

between 116-7

The Chinese University

between 140 - 1

Queen Elizabeth Hospital .

between 164 - 5

Housing

between 188 - 9

Fire and rescue .

between 212 - 3

Tourist amenities

Transport .

between 236-7

between 260 - 1

The water emergency

between 284 - 5

Vocational training.

between 332 - 3

Hong Kong-the old and new .

between 356 - 7

DIAGRAMS

Reclamation in the harbour

between

20 - 1

Land use and revenue

between 32-3

Imports and exports.

between 56-7

MAPS

Kowloon Peninsula in 1863

Hong Kong and the New Territories .

between 20 - 1

front end-paper

Districts in Victoria and Kowloon

back end-paper

Kowloon and Victoria street maps

preceding back end-paper

xii

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

II

EMPLOYMENT

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in main industrial groups-In selected indus- tries in some main industrial groups-Monthly Retail Price Indices-Industrial and occupa- tional accidents Factory registrations and inspections.

PUBLIC FINANCES

Statement of Assets

Revenue - Expenditure and Liabilities - Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expendi- ture-Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees - Public Debt-Colonial Development and Welfare schemes Statement of Approved Projects - Balance Sheet as at 31st March 1963 Summary of Receipts and Payments for 1962-3.

-

Page

413

417

III

CURRENCY AND BANKING

430

Currency in circulation and bank deposits- Banking Assets.

IV

TRADE

432

V

VI

Composition of trade by international trade classifications-Value of Merchandise Trade

- Cargo Tonnages

Commodity pattern and

sources of imports Commodity pattern and direction of exports and re-exports.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Summary - Livestock population - Marketing Organization statistics-Production of minerals -Co-operative Societies.

EDUCATION

Overseas examinations - Awards by Govern- ment Students pursuing further studies in Britain Categories of schools-School enrol- ments New schools built and number of class- rooms-Expenditure.

xiii

445

449

CONTENTS

Appendix

VII

Page

HEALTH

453

Students in training - Vital statistics -- Infec- tious diseases Tuberculosis Medical and Allied Personnel-Hospital beds.

VIII

LAND SALES AND HOUSING

457

Sales of Crown land- Housing provided

Resettlement estates.

IX

LAW, ORDER AND RECORDS

459

Court cases-Serious crime-Traffic accidents -Registered vehicles.

X

COMMUNICATIONS

463

-

-

Marine Railway Vehicles Air traffic Postal traffic Telecommunications Com- parisons of Rainfall Amounts during Various Periods.

XI

SOME LEADING NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES.

467

XII

EXECUTIVE And Legislative COUNCILS.

468

XIII

URBAN COUNCIL

472

XIV

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

473

INDEX

477

xiv

Part I

1

Review

LAND

LAND has always been a paramount factor in Hong Kong's economy. Despite, or indeed because of, the limited area of the Colony, dealings in land and its development constitute a signifi- cant part of the day-to-day financial transactions of the community and impinge on the daily life of almost every citizen.

In the financial year 1962-3 the number of private land assign- ments was 10,553 and the stated value of these transactions $1,066 million. Over the same period the gross revenue from all forms of land transactions conducted by the Government amounted to $234 million-one-fifth of the total and the second highest head of revenue for that year. In addition, revenue from rates was $128 million and from Crown rents $2.4 million. Expenditure by the Government on new buildings amounted to $162 million, whilst private enterprise completed 1,075 buildings at a total cost of $370 million, an average of just over one million dollars a day.

To support this expansion the Government spent $150 million on civil engineering works, including $120 million for additional water supplies. The 1961 census gave 58,209 people as employed in the building industry, a figure somewhat greater than the number engaged in either farming or fishing. Of the 1,149 new companies registered during the year 437, or 38 per cent were incorporated specifically to invest in land and buildings and it has been estimated that capital in the order of $2,000 million is at present tied up in private development projects of one form or another.

      Land is the base of all human activity and the source of all wealth; it supplies the raw materials, the soil, water, minerals, animal resources and other attributes of nature which are essential to man's development and well-being. In an expanding community land is in ever increasing demand for the construction of new towns, of schools, hospitals, universities and clinics, for factories,

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roads and reservoirs, for parks, playgrounds, shops and houses, for harbours, piers and ports. The importance of land makes the policy adopted for its administration the concern of all.

THE SEARCH BEGINS

     To the merchants sheltering in the waters off Hong Kong Island in 1839 the steep, uninhabited, rock-strewn foreshore must have appeared uninviting; none could have foreseen the trans- formation to be wrought by enterprise, hard work and freedom. But, when the island was formally ceded in January 1841, the scramble for land started at once.

     On 1st May 1841 Captain Elliot issued a public notice setting out 'the principles and conditions upon which allotments of land will be made pending Her Majesty's further pleasure'. The number of lots sold was to be limited to the 'actual public wants' and each lot put up to 'auction at a certain upset rate of quit rent and to be disposed of to the highest bidder' with a condition requiring a 'building of a certain value'. No arrangement was to be made with the local inhabitants in actual occupancy of land except through the Government. In the event the Government offered some 33 marine lots totalling nine acres for sale, the upset price per annum being £10 a lot, and there was considerable competi- tion, the prices reaching an average of £350 an acre a year and totalling £3,032 a year.

     Even at the time, the prices realized must have disturbed the community since on 17th June we find Elliot in Macau writing to Messrs Jardine Matheson and Company and Messrs Dent and Company that his object was 'to secure to firms and all other persons, British and foreigners, having permanent interests in the country, sufficient space for their necessities, at moderate rates, with as little competition as might enable parties to accommodate themselves according to their respective wants' and on 15th October 1841 the following notice was issued:

'With reference to the Public Notice and Declaration under date the 1st May 1841 it is now found desirable that persons applying for lots of land for the purpose of building upon, should be at once accommodated upon terms which will be made known to them by application in person to the Land Officer'.

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The terms of sale referred to in this notification were the average rate of rental realized at the sale on the 14th June 1841 and at the rate of £20 a year for each quarter acre for town inland lots, and £5 for each quarter acre for suburban inland lots.

This procedure of sale by private treaty was short lived but must have been extensively employed during its life, since much building took place during this period which clearly could not have been contained within 33 marine lots. Six months later on 22nd March 1842, owing to the uncertain description of the lots sold, the claims made for allotments of land, the alteration, curtail- ment and enlargement of boundaries by the making of new roads, and the uncertain tenure upon which the land was to be held, it was necessary to establish a committee to investigate claims and to mark boundaries. The land officer was to attend the com- mittee and give effect to its proceedings. But two months later on 21st May 1842 all further grants of land were prohibited, the post of land officer temporarily abolished and a land and road inspector appointed in his place.

       The instructions issued to the inspector were to take no action on applications for land since 'the existing prohibition against further grants of land is to continue in full force pending the receipt of Commands from Her Majesty's Government'. These Commands came in the form of the Royal Charter and Instructions dated 5th April 1843 which laid down the principle of sale by auction. In August the Governor received instructions from Lord Stanley directing him to 'abstain from alienating any land for any time of greater length than might be necessary to induce and enable the tenants to erect substantial building', refusing to sanction any grants already made and requiring a committee to be set up to inquire into the equitable claims of all holders of land.

On 4th January 1844 this committee (with the land officer now reinstated as chairman) reported that the sale of the marine lots gave an average annual rental of nearly £350 an acre, and, looking to the fact that this was the result of a public sale, and that the purchasers were under the impression that the time for which the land was disposed of was unlimited, it recommended that all the marine lots hitherto sold or granted should be rec- ognized and confirmed for a period of 75 years, excepting those which had been abandoned or forfeited, and considering that, in

6

REVIEW

some instances, the rate of annual rent at £20 a quarter acre at which inland town lots had been sold was too low, and in others, too high, further recommended that all lots, other than marine, that had hitherto been granted or occupied should be classified and rated according to a scale determined with reference to locality. This scale varied from £160 to 10/- an acre a year.

       It would appear that the report gained acceptance since a few weeks later, on 22nd January 1844, the second series of auction sales took place comprising 101 lots aggregating 25 acres and fetching a total annual Crown rent of £2,562. The term of lease was 75 years from 26th June 1843 (the date of ratification of the Treaty of Nanking) and the sale included marine and inland lots situated north and south of Queen's Road between Pedder Street and Ice House Street and along Wellington Street, Pottinger Street and Hollywood Road. In his despatch of 31st January 1844 the Secretary of State adopted the period of 75 years and confirmed disposal by auction, bidding to turn on the amount of annual Crown rent.

       So ended a period of uncertainty and dispute between the local interests and the Home Government. It is not surprising that the local interests at that time desired not only cheap access to land but also perpetual title without competition. There is also no doubt that it was greatly to the later advantage of the Colony that the Home Government maintained the principle of auction and leasehold tenure.

PRINCIPLES AND PRECEDENTS

The Island of Hong Kong and its Dependencies became the 'Colony of Hong Kong' by Royal Charter dated 5th April 1843, nearly two years after the first land sale, and the Governor received authority to make and execute grants of land subject to such Instructions as Her Majesty might address to him. Sir Henry Pottinger in an earlier notice dated 22nd March 1842 had advised Hong Kong residents that 'no purchases of ground from private persons . . . will be recognized it being the basis of the

footing on which the Island of Hong Kong has been taken posses- sion of.... that the proprietary of the soil is vested and appertains solely to the Crown'. Subsequently Her Majesty's Instructions,

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bearing the same date as the Royal Charter and dealing with the land of the Colony, stated in part:

'And it is Our further Will and pleasure that no such lands shall be sold or let except at public auction; and that at every such auction, the lands to be then sold or let, be put up at a reserved, or minimum price equal to the fair reasonable price and value or annual rent thereof'.

'And it is Our Will and pleasure and We do strictly enjoin and require you that you do not on any account, or on any pretence whatsoever, grant, convey or demise to any person or persons any lands required or reserved for a public purpose.. .. nor permit or suffer any such lands to be occupied by any private person for any private purposes'.

      In this way all land became Crown land. Article XIII of the Hong Kong Letters Patent 1917-1960, introduced in its present form in 1960, now regulates its disposal. This Article includes the stipulations that

'(1) The Governor, in Our name and on Our behalf, may make and execute grants and dispositions of any lands within the Colony that may be lawfully granted or disposed of by Us'; and

    '(4) Grants and dispositions of land made under this Article shall be made in conformity with the provisions of such Instructions as may from time to time be given to the Governor under Our Royal Sign Manual and Signet or through a Secretary of State and such laws as may for the time being be in force in the Colony'.

      This Article provides also that the powers conferred on the Governor may be exercised on his behalf by persons authorized by him and on such conditions as he may decide. He has so far delegated these powers to the holders of the offices of Director of Public Works, Superintendent of Crown Lands and Survey, District Commissioner, New Territories, Deputy District Commissioner, New Territories, Registrar General and Deputy Registrar General.

      Royal Instructions relating to land are contained in Article XXXI, and are brief and to the point. They provide, first, that before disposing of vacant or waste land it shall be surveyed and

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the necessary reservations made for roads and other public pur- poses; second, that the Governor himself shall not acquire land without specific approval. Disposal of land over the years has been controlled largely by a series of Secretary of State despatches which, together with local rulings, may be conveniently referred to as Colonial Instructions. These instructions are too numerous and detailed to be dealt with comprehensively but can best be con- sidered by the changes they have effected since 1841 in the method of disposal, length of lease and manner of payment for the various transactions concerned.

Method of disposal

      The somewhat confusing history of land dealings in the first two years from the date when Captain Elliot declared Hong Kong a British Colony in January 1841 to the ratification of the Treaty of Nanking in June 1843 terminated with Lord Stanley's despatch of August 1843. In January 1844 came the Secretary of State's despatch No 31 which required that-

'ALL lands are to be disposed of in the first instance by auction, not in perpetuity, nor for a sum paid down, but for an amount of annual rent, on leases for such terms as may be fixed by the Governor for the time being, not exceeding 75 years in the case of lands sold for building purposes'.

      The same despatch also required adequate publicity and suffi- cient upset price to prevent the auction becoming a mere form and, while allowing country lands, that is, lands other than marine, town or suburban lots, that had been put to auction but not sold, to be disposed of by private treaty at upset price, recommended that such lands might well be exposed to auction a second time. This despatch also provided that grants of land to public institu- tions should be made with caution and not of greater area than can be effectively used for the immediate purpose. Grants for com- mercial enterprises should not be made and 'the principle that land is not to be given gratuitously to any person or under any pretext cannot be too strongly insisted on'. These principles have remained intact to the present day.

       In the case of reclamations it was provided that 'all land re- claimed beyond the limits of marine lots belongs to the Crown'

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and again 'land recovered from the sea, whether artificially or naturally, belongs to the Crown and the Crown is at liberty to dispose of it like any other land in the Colony'. Where marine lots were diminished in value or rendered useless for the purpose for which they were acquired by reclamation to the seaward, the solution proposed was to put up the reclaimed land as a new marine lot for sale by auction and allow the proprietor of the original lot to purchase it if he so wished at the highest price bid, or to claim compensation for any damage to the original lot. This was the principle followed in the case of the To Kwa Wan reclama- tion in East Kowloon where reclamation of the seabed in front of certain marine lots is now in hand.

In 1895 the Governor received permission to issue leases of lands in outlying districts for periods not exceeding five years without recourse to auction, and sale of land by private treaty in undeveloped parts of the New Territories was sanctioned in 1909 subject to certain stringent regulations. Private treaty grants were allowed in the case of schools at the market value of the site as fixed by the Government; in the event of the land ceasing to be used for educational purposes the site would revert to the Government. Grants for religious purposes were dealt with on their merits, the sanction of the Secretary of State being sought in each case. These very strict rules indicate how closely the principle of public competition has been guarded and the limited resources of Crown land husbanded over the years.

       When the new industrial township of Kwun Tong was estab- lished in the mid 1950's it was originally argued that the land should be allocated directly to existing and potential industrialists at cost and without auction. The Government turned its back on such a proposition which would have been impossible to imple- ment equitably, but in an effort to meet the special claims of the industrialists for cheap land decided to sub-divide the first zone into five industrial classes or groups, the area of land in each group being roughly proportional to the anticipated demand for factories of that type. The lots were then sold at auction, the use of the land being restricted to the manufacture of the particular industrial products concerned. Although the classification was wide, it proved in practice not to be wide enough. Thus a purchaser of a site for one group found he could not manufacture some

10

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small item essential to his product or a change in demand neces- sitated a change in production beyond the limits of the lease and, further, prices for differently restricted land varied artificially. As a consequence it became necessary to modify the leases of many of the lots subject to these restrictive user conditions. Today- other than in exceptional circumstances-industrial land is sold with the minimum of restriction on use; normally the lease merely requires the purchaser to use the land for general industrial pur- poses excluding offensive trades.

       In post-war years there has been an extension of private treaty grants for community purposes to meet more directly the problems arising from a rapidly expanding community, particularly in the sphere of housing and education. There have been a large number of grants for non-profit making schools, for clinics, hospitals and other welfare purposes; the most recent grant of importance is that to the new Chinese University, involving some 250 acres in the New Territories. Land is also sold on concessionary terms to employers who undertake to house their staff, to the Housing Authority and Housing Society to provide housing for persons of small means, and to housing co-operatives organized by local civil servants. In addition, the public utility companies are able to obtain land by private treaty at full market value, if essential to their particular undertaking, and subject to an agreement not to dispose of such land, or any other land used for the undertaking, without the Government's approval in each particular case. Apart, however, from grants for these restricted purposes, public auction remains the basic method by which the Government transfers rights in land from the public to the private sector.

Length of lease

      The period for which a Crown lease should be granted has been the subject of much argument over the last 120 years. The notifica- tion of the first land sales on 1st May 1841 referred to 'the tenure of quit rent to the Crown' but mentioned the possibility of acquir- ing the freehold 'if that tenancy shall be offered by Her Majesty's Government'. In August 1843 the Governor received instructions from the Secretary of State directing him 'to abstain from alien- ating any of the land on the Island for any time of greater length than might be necessary to induce and enable the tenants to erect substantial buildings'. Grants already made were the subject of a

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11

committee of inquiry and eventually were confirmed for a period of 75 years without the option of renewal. This period was authorized by the Secretary of State in despatches of 1844 and 1845 and extended to non-building as well as building land.

      In response to complaints from landowners about short tenure and high Crown rents, the Governor in 1848 sought authority to extend the 75 year term to a period of 999 years so as to 'convey to the landholders all the advantages that attach to a permanent grant without saddling them with the inconvenience sometimes attending the tenure of real property'. The Secretary of State accepted this proposal, albeit reluctantly, in preference to an actual reduction in Crown rent, as the only solution acceptable to the general body of landowners and in March 1849 extensions of 924 years free of charge, were offered in respect of all urban 75 year leases. All offers appear to have been accepted. For the next 50 years 999 years became the standard period of lease for all marine and inland lots (but not normally Kowloon inland lots); rural building and garden lots and all but a few Kowloon inland lots were granted for periods of 75 years only.

       In 1898 it was laid down that no further 999 year leases should be granted and there was established the term of '75 years re- newable for a further period of 75 years at a reassessed Crown rent' which has remained the standard term of lease for land in the ceded territory (including Kowloon) since that time. This des- patch also allowed, as an exception to the general rule, the grant of 99 year leases with renewal for a further 99 years, and leases on this term were issued in a number of areas, notably for land granted on the Praya East reclamation in the 1920's. In the New Territories (including New Kowloon) the period of lease was, until late 1959, expressed as the remainder of a period of 75 years from 1st July 1898 with the option of renewal at a reassessed Crown rent for a period of 24 years less the last three days, thus covering the period up to the expiry of the term for which the New Terri- tories itself is leased to Great Britain, subject to revision of Crown rent in 1973. Since 1959 leases in this area are expressed as being for terms of 99 years from 1st July 1898 less three days, thus giving, in 1964, a term of 33 years without revision of the Crown rent.

      In Kowloon from 1860 until 1898 the standard period of lease was 75 years only. This period saw the planning and sale of the

12

REVIEW

      districts of Tsim Sha Tsui and Yau Ma Tei, and the original leases of many lots in these areas have thus expired in the last 20 years. New leases extending the lease term for a period of 75 years from the original expiry date have been granted, on mutually agreed terms, for the great majority of the lots so far affected. In a few cases where special circumstances require or make it desirable, leases are issued for short periods; for example, 10 and 21 year recreational leases, 21 year leases of petrol filling and service stations, and 11 year leases of sawmill sites affecting Crown foreshore.

Manner of payment

       In addition to the method of disposal and length of lease, the manner in which the Government has required purchasers to pay for their land is of fundamental importance. In the early years no lump sum payment was required, bidding at auction being for an amount of annual rent. In 1849, following the Parliamentary Commission of two years before, a committee was appointed to report upon land tenure generally and to consider if Crown rent was extravagant and whether it would not be in the interest of the Colony to reserve a portion only of the price in the form of rental, the competition to turn on the premium offered. The com- mittee reported in 1850 and the following year Earl Grey directed that 'as regards the system of selling Crown lands to the highest bidder of an annual rent he was decidedly of the opinion that, in future, biddings for Crown lands shall not be in the form of an advance of rent, but that any such property should be offered for lease at a moderate rent to be determined by the Crown Sur- veyor and that the competition should be in the amount to be paid down as a premium for the leases at the rent so reserved'. This practice has been followed ever since. It has led to the crea- tion of a series of arbitrary 'zone rents' applicable to particular districts, rarely revised and unrelated to the actual economic annual value of the land in question. Thus in 1939 the zone rent for the whole of the City of Victoria was $1,000 an acre a year and at the present day the zone rent applicable in the southern part of Kowloon is $5,000 an acre a year.

The Government has normally required payment of the premium within three days of the day of sale, a deposit of 10 per cent of

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13

the upset price being payable on the fall of the hammer. Recently the period for the payment of the balance was increased to one month and in certain transactions payment is accepted by instal- ments over a period of years. Thus the balance of the premium of industrial lots at Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan after payment of 10 per cent of the realized price within three days, is payable by instalments over a maximum period of 20 years at five per cent interest. The purpose of this concession is to reduce the sum required to obtain entry to land, thus leaving more capital for investment in buildings, plant and equipment. Similarly payment of regrant premium in respect of 75 year non-renewable leases is, in certain circumstances, accepted by instalments over 21 years at 10 per cent. A new development in 1963 has been the giving of permission for the premium payable for industrial land, other than at Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, to be paid in four equal instal- ments spread over two years from the date of sale.

       In the case of non-commercial transactions greater concessions are sometimes made; sites for non-profit-making schools are granted free of premium, for Government-aided housing at one- third of market value less cost of site formation, and for employees' housing schemes and housing co-operatives at one-third market value. In all these cases payment in a lump sum is required.

      Registration of documents concerning land takes place in the Land Office, a division of the Registrar General's Department, and in the district land offices. The first reference to the post of land officer appears in a Government notification of 15th October 1841 and he was in attendance on the land committee appointed in March 1842 to consider claims. At this time, holders had begun to make private sales of lots and difficulties had arisen as to the liabilities of the purchasers to the Crown since, as there was no system of registration, the purchasers were known only to the sellers. On 2nd May a notice was issued requiring all such sales to be brought to the attention of the land officer. On 27th May the post was temporarily abolished and all further sales prohibited; it was re-established during 1843 and on 28th February 1844 the Land Registration Ordinance become law. It provided that all dealings in land or its disposition by deed or will should be regis- tered in the Land Office-a public office established for that pur- pose. Memorial No 1 was presented by Alexander Matheson in

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REVIEW

     May 1844 and since then over 400,000 memorials have been regis- tered, more than half of these being deposited since 1946, including 28,000 in 1962-3 alone. Fortunately these land office records remained largely intact during the Japanese occupation when many other records were lost.

All lots when sold by the Crown are given a lot number; there are many series of numbers according to the nature and location of the lot, such as marine lots, Kowloon inland lots, rural building lots, etc. A comprehensive card index, open to the public, is kept of all these lots and their sub-divisions; by using this it is a simple matter to trace the records relating to any property. The street index shows where any lot in the urban area is and conversely the lot number on which any given house stands. These records can all be inspected during working hours at a fee of $1 a record and photostat copies can be obtained at a reasonable charge. Thus the interests of prospective purchasers are safeguarded since they or their solicitors can always discover the conditions under which any particular property is held, any restriction on use or extent of building, or whether the property is subject to a mortgage or other charge.

      The principal Rent Roll for lots registered in the Urban Land Office as at 31.12.62 was as follows:

Locality

Hong Kong

Kowloon

New Kowloon

NT Lots ..

Exempted from NT Ordin-

ance and registered in the Land Office

NT Mining Lots

Pier Leases

No of Lots

Total Crown Rent

10,644

$960,056.66

6,259

3,779

$803,511.76

$436,966.92

79

$ 29,493.00

3

$1,715.00

67

$148,859.34

20,831

$2,380,602.68

      In addition, at the same date the separate Rent Roll of village lots in the urban area contained 1,320 lots at a total Crown rent of $1,066.60. New Territory lots registered in the various district land offices are not included in the above, but when the New Territories were first leased 354,277 lots were surveyed and 15,919

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15

lots have since been sold. Many of these have been subdivided and others resumed or surrendered. The Crown rent paid in respect of leased land in the New Territories in the financial year 1962-3 was $398,111.57.

GOVERNMENT LAND TRANSACTIONS

Apart from sales of Crown land by auction or private treaty, Government land transactions include renewal, grant of new leases and modification of Crown leases, exchanges, pier leases, tem- porary occupation permits and sales by tender.

       The standard form of Crown lease for land in the ceded territory, has, since 1898, been for a term of 75 years renewable for a further 75 years. These leases are renewable at the option of the lessee on the same terms and conditions contained in the original lease subject to 'such rent as shall be fairly and impartially fixed by the Director of Public Works as the fair and reasonable rental value of the ground at the date of such renewal'. This is the full economic annual value of the lessee's interest in the land; it may be, and usually is, many times the zone rent or the existing Crown rent. In 1963 the Government introduced a new policy designed to lessen the effect of this sudden increase in respect of lessees whose land is under-developed or developed by buildings subject to rent restrictions who do not wish to redevelop their property immediately on renewal of the lease. Such lessees can now elect to surrender their lease and take a new lease restricted to the existing development with the revised Crown rent based on the land value as developed. In the event of the lessee wishing to redevelop at a later date he would then have to pay a premium as a capital sum, representing the increase in land value arising from the removal of the restrictions previously imposed.

      Another large group of Crown leases mainly issued between 1865 and 1898, largely in Kowloon, are for a 75 year term absolute. In these cases, the Government has been prepared, as a concession, to waive its legal rights, and to grant a new lease to the sitting tenant except when the land is required for a public purpose. Lessees can apply for a new lease at any time within 20 years of expiry and the premium payable is based on the value of the land at date of application, an appropriate allowance being made

HONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

REVIEW

for the value of the unexpired portion of the existing lease. Allowance is also made for any depreciation in the value of the land due to its being occupied by buildings subject to the provi- sions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance.

      Over the years covenants have been included in Crown leases restricting development to that considered desirable at the time of sale. For example, many lots sold in the inter-war years and earlier were subject to a condition limiting buildings to a maximum of three storeys or 35 feet in height. Times and policies change and in some areas it is now possible to permit more intensive develop- ment than that stipulated in the lease. In these cases the Govern- ment varies the restrictive covenants to permit development to present-day standards on payment of a premium based on-and, in the case of pre-war lots, usually one half of the difference between the land value as restricted and that after modification. Thus the Government and the lessee share the land value increment.

      Exchanges fall into two categories, those which take place with- out change in location and those which involve a move from one district to another. The former occurs where it becomes necessary to amend the boundaries of a lot, usually on redevelopment or change of user, to comply with, say, a road widening scheme or a town planning layout; the lessee surrenders his lot and, in exchange, is granted a new lot with the boundaries suitably amended. The latter variety occurs mainly where private land is compulsorily acquired for a public purpose and the lessee offered an alternative site elsewhere. In the urban area these exchanges, where granted, are effected on a value-for-value basis, certain con- cessions being made when the land concerned is situated in long- standing village areas where land ownership has a special signifi- cance. In the New Territories when agricultural land is required in connexion with urban development within a planned layout, the policy is to grant exchanges on the basis of two square feet of building land for each five square feet of agricultural land surrendered; this ratio is based on the observation that some 60 per cent of the land in an urban area is required for roads, schools, clinics or other public uses. For building land, exchanges are granted on a foot-for-foot basis. In both cases a premium is also payable, equal to the difference in value between the land granted

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17

and that surrendered. Outside layout areas exchanges are nego- tiated in particular cases on their merits.

In view of the importance of the port in the life of the Colony pier leases have always been the subject of special consideration. Prior to 1899 such piers as were in existence were let on various conditions but in that year it was decided to grant pier leases for a term of 50 years terminating on 31st December 1949. In the early years after the war, the Government considered the question of the terms of renewal of these leases and the general policy was covered by an official announcement on 29th August 1947 which envisaged, subject to the satisfaction of certain criteria, the grant of new leases to existing lessees for a period of 15 years expiring 31st December 1964, with the option of renewal for two further periods of 15 years each. The new leases were to be free of premium and subject to the payment of a rental assessed on the basis of the location of the pier, the degree of shelter and the natural depth of water alongside; the maximum rental was fixed at 25 cents a square foot a year. In the event the Government granted 60 new leases, actual rents varying from 25 cents to 18 cents a square foot. The leases issued were renewable for one period for 15 years only 'at such re-assessed rent as shall be fairly and im- partially fixed by the Governor as the fair and reasonable rental value of the said piers at the expiration of the term'. New pier leases are granted and old pier leases renewed only where it is known that reclamation is unlikely to take place during the life of the lease. Where new leases are granted it is customary to charge a premium based on the value of the seabed, together with an annual rent calculated at the zone rent of the district.

Temporary occupation

      When land cannot for any reason be granted on lease or where the purpose for which it is required does not justify more than temporary use, it has been the practice to grant permission to occupy under the provisions of the Summary Offences Ordinance (Chapter 228 of the Laws of Hong Kong). Regulations made under this Ordinance prescribe the purposes and the fees for the permits or licences that may be issued. While individually of small account, the total annual revenue from permits is not inappreciable. In 1962-3 it amounted to over $7 million.

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REVIEW

The procedure is simple and flexible to cover any eventuality. It has enabled land to be used which would otherwise have been left vacant, or been occupied by squatters, pending future planned development, and it has allowed that development to proceed at the appropriate time without large compensation payments for land. and buildings. However, the system suffers many disadvantages and with the advent of the flatted factory, which provides space for the small industrialist, and the availability of greater areas of land, planned, formed and serviced ready for development, it now plays a less important role in the industrialization of the Colony. In part it has been replaced by short-term leases such as those now granted for the temporary occupation of land on the Hung Hom reclamation, the former Kowloon Naval Yard and elsewhere.

      In the New Territories permits are granted reasonably freely for temporary structures intended for domestic accommodation usually related to agricultural pursuits. In addition, modifications of tenancy are given to allow the erection of temporary structures on private agricultural land for domestic accommodation. A development of the permit system has, since 1950, enabled culti- vators to purchase, by private treaty, the land they have had on permit after ten years provided that the land has been cared for in a 'good and husbandlike manner' and is not likely to be required for development. This is in fact the manner in which most agricul- tural land has been sold since 1950. It has the great advantage of giving farmers the opportunity to acquire their own land without the hazards of public auction. A condition of the sale is that the land must be used solely for agriculture and it is the policy not to modify this condition for at least 10 years and then only in the public interest. Prohibited areas where no more building per- mits will be allowed are declared from time to time in order to prevent overcrowding and fire risks and in general no new permits are being issued for industrial undertakings although existing per- mits are normally renewed.

      In recent years a few lots which failed to obtain a purchaser at auction have been sold by tender, but experience has shown that this system cannot normally be used as a practical alternative to auction. Its special advantage in exceptional cases lies in the fact that it enables aspects other than the bid price to be considered by Government in its selection of the purchaser. Thus an area

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19

was sold by tender during 1962 for an amusement park, the tenderer being required to submit a scheme as well as a price. The District Commissioner is also following this procedure at the present time in disposing of boatyard and sawmill sites in the New Territories since the Government wishes to ensure, so far as possible, that only persons already engaged in such business, or those interested in entering the trade, are granted the land. Two lots, comprising some 13 acres in Central Victoria on Hong Kong Island, previously part of the Naval Dockyard, are also to be sold in this way, tenderers having the option of submitting a bid on the basis of the Town Planning Board's scheme or alternatively submitting a revised development plan of their own, together with a price.

Acquisition of private land

While Government land transactions have been mainly con- cerned with transferring land from the public to the private sector, it is necessary on occasion to acquire private leased land for public purposes. Street widening schemes, the provision of land for community buildings, particularly Government-aided housing and associated schools, clinics etc, and the implementation of town planning and large scale development proposals, are the main classes which have arisen in recent times. The method of acquisi- tion has not changed greatly over the years. Where possible land is acquired by negotiation. On occasion, however, compulsory powers have to be used; this has been particularly the case in post-war years when development has extended to much agricul- tural land where individual holdings were small, of irregular pattern and wholly unsuitable to urban development. One notable example of land acquisition concerns the old Kai Tak airport. During the military occupation this airport was extended over a large number of private lots by the Japanese authorities; after the liberation a special ordinance was passed providing for compensa- tion for the properties affected.

The standard form of Crown lease provides for resumption of the lot and any buildings thereon at three months notice if required for the improvement of the Colony or any other public purpose. There is also provision for full and fair compensation. In addition the Crown Lands Resumption Ordinance, which first became law

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in November 1900, provides for the compulsory acquisition of land required for a public purpose. For many years all private land required for Government projects has been obtained under the provisions of this Ordinance. In such cases the compensation pay- able is decided by a Resumption Compensation Board consisting of a chairman appointed by the Chief Justice and two members, one representing the lessees whose land is affected and one appointed by the Government. Since the war some 184 such Resumption Compensation Boards have been set up to hear claims and make awards. In order to speed up acquisition of land to be resumed, the Government normally makes an offer of compensa- tion to lessees for the voluntary surrender of their land and in many cases this is accepted without waiting for a board to arbitrate. In parts of the New Territories a land exchange may be offered instead of cash compensation. During the past 10 years some 100 acres of land have been acquired for public purposes in the urban area and 1,188 acres have been acquired in the New Territories, 190 acres by resumption and 998 by surrender.

       Land for street widening has for many years been obtained by negotiation as and when redevelopment takes place. Improvement lines are first established for all streets which it is intended should be widened and, when any particular property is redeveloped, the lessee is required to set his building back to the new line, the strip in front being surrendered to the Crown either in exchange for cash or for a building concession of equal value. By this means the cost of street widening is kept low since no cash payment has to be made for buildings; social disturbance is also minimized. However, the practice has led to some strange results. Since widening only takes place on redevelopment it is very slow and occurs irregularly and piecemeal, the full advantage only being realized when the last building in a street is redeveloped. Thus Queen's Road East, which has been subject to a 60 foot widening and realignment scheme for the last 30 years, is still far from complete since a high proportion of the buildings affected have not yet been redeveloped. Similarly, in Queen's Road Central, which has been subject for many years to a scheme involving the raising of levels, pedestrians have still to go up and down steps when using the side-walks due to some properties not yet having been redeveloped to the appropriate higher level.

Why

Although small by comparison with the reclamation projects in the new towns, a vital scheme to ease congestion in the Central district of Hong Kong Island is now well under way. This will link the Star Ferry pier with the vehicular ferry concourse where a new bus terminal is also planned. The total area of land to be reclaimed in this section is 12 acres.

Part of the Kwai Chung reclamation scheme (above) in the west of the Kowloon peninsula. The project calls for the filling in of Kwai Chung Bay and the construction of a new dual-carriageway ring road. On Hong Kong Island another major development scheme will take place in the dockyard area. An impression (below) of how the area might look in the future.

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This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

G

IBRARIE

In January, 1963, the first complete aerial survey of the Colony began. The detailed work of photographing Hong Kong from the air was carried out at heights ranging from 2,700 feet to 3,700 feet and called for 5,000 photo- graphs. From these, plans will be compiled. It is estimated this work will take five years. A section (above) of the Cheung Sha Wan reclamation.

LAI

CHI KOK

حمد

CHEUNG SHA WAN

SHAM SHUI PO

HONG KONG HARBOUR-STAGES OF RECLAMATION

1

TA! KÖK TSUI

STONECUTTERS ISLAND

RECLAMATION UP TO 1887

BETWEEN 1887 & 1904

RECLAMATION

RECLAMATION BETWEEN 1904 & 1924

RECLAMATION BETWEEN 1924 & 1945

N

KOWLOON BAY

+

KOWLOON

ΤΟ KWA WAN

Y AU MA TEI

KWUN

TONG

HUNG HOM BAY

RECLAMATION BETWEEN 1945 & 1963

APPROVED RECLAMATION (WORK IN HAND)

KENNEDY TOWN

SA! YING

PUN

VICTORIA

TSIM SHA

VICTORIA

TSUI

HARBOR

CAUSEWAY

WAN CHAI

BAY

NORTH POINT

MA YAU TONG

LEI

YUE

MUN

HONG HONG KONG ISLAND

QUARRY

BAY

C LIBR

SHAU

ΚΕΙ WAN

Hemmed in by hills to the north and south Hong Kong can only expand into the sea. Reclamation has been going on since 1851 and still continues. The constant redevelopment of the urban areas ensures that any site chosen for reclamation in centrally located areas is filled as fast as mechanical aids can make spoil available.

Kowloon-tong

N

Cheng-chin-kok

Sheung kok

Mong-kong

Koon

Chung

Proposed Battery

Proposed Canton

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5Q

t so cy

Proposed Battery

Church

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Kowloon - sel

182

pai-tsoy

KOWLOON

TOWN

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Fort

Ngar-yow-tow

E 0

Ngar-chin-loong

Boundary Stone

Ma-tow-chune

Sung wong-toe

Wong-li

Kow-hole sheek

Too-kawan

A

Shek--pai

Proposed Battery

ΡΙ

ay/may

Ba

sun-show-wye

be

reclaimed

Hung-ham

ABC LIB

00

Foo chuy kol

Tseen-sha-tow

Proposed Battery

XIX

FIL

Hung-hum Point

KOWLOON 1863

PROPOSED

ROADS

An early map of the Kowloon peninsula showing proposals for new roads. Some of the roads outlined in the Tsim Sha Tsui area were built according to the plan although the waterfront reclamation and the Kowloon-Canton Railway had not at that time been conceived. Early surveyors had plans, which never materialised, to reclaim a large portion of the harbour.

T

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BC

UP

No Lot Areas USER No Lot Area sx1000x1000 USER

2

B

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000

6

7

3

4

9

5

10

All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown and public auctions are held weekly in the City Hall (above) and periodically in the New Territories when lots are sold to the highest bidder for planned development. On a hillside at Kwai Chung, a bulldozer (below) prepares more land for the auctioneer's hammer.

Surveyors (above) use a tellurometer, the latest type of electronic distance measuring equipment. The tellurometer can be used regardless of fog or haze. A cartographic assistant (below) in the Crown Lands and Survey Office of the Public Works Department, revises an old map from photo- graphs taken during the recent aerial survey of the Colony.

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Village lands affected by the expansion of urban development have always presented special problems. Government policy has been designed to lessen, as far as practicable, the inevitable dis- turbance of the villager's way of life and to pay particular regard to his traditional interest in land ownership. The ways in which villages and their occupants are affected by land requirements are varied and each case must be dealt with on its own merits within this general policy. Lengthy negotiations are necessary to strike a proper balance between the needs of the Colony and those of the particular community affected.

In the New Territories where established villages have had to be moved to make way for the construction of reservoirs at Shing Mun, Tai Lam Chung and Shek Pik lengthy negotiations have been undertaken to re-provision the villagers not only with houses but also with some livelihood to substitute for that provided by their agricultural lands. Since the war most villagers have elected to accept accommodation in Tsuen Wan where families have been provided with shop premises as an alternative means of gaining a livelihood. A somewhat different problem has arisen where the development of a new town like Tsuen Wan has surrounded low- lying villages which present drainage, health and fire risks in such surroundings. Again particular negotiations have had to be under- taken to give such villagers alternative houses which fit in with the new urban surroundings. In most cases the villagers have already abandoned farming and sold their agricultural land. In all cases the policy is to respect the established social units which such villages represent and to make the transition to a new environ- ment as easy as possible.

Land revenue

The degree of reliance placed on revenue from land and the proportion of annual revenue that this has represented has fluctu- ated considerably over the years. In the early days it was a main source of revenue and it was the importance of this revenue in 1848 which finally persuaded Earl Grey to grant a free extension of 924 years to all 75 year leaseholders in the city rather than face a reduction in rent income. From the figures available it appears that up to 1847 about 50 per cent of local revenue was derived from Crown rent. By 1887 the percentage had fallen to

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     11 per cent and by 1933 to two per cent. Today, although revenue from sale of 'new' Crown land and variation of conditions of existing Crown leases brings in an appreciable sum-20 per cent of total revenue in 1962-3-Crown rent has shrunk to less than one-third of one per cent of total Colony revenue. On the other hand, land values have increased many times. City land, which has brought in a revenue of about £50 an acre a year in Crown rent since its disposal in the early 1840's, now commands a capital value of over £100 a square foot, say £4 million an acre or £250,000 an acre a year even on a conservative estimate of yield. The 15 years since 1947 have seen a general rise in the value of land in the main built-up sections of the Colony in the order of 30 times. In 1947 industrial land could be obtained in parts of Kowloon at $3 or $4 a square foot which in 1955 would have cost $40 to $50 and today sells at $100-$120 a square foot. Similarly land in certain residential/commercial areas of the Island or Kowloon sold at $5-$10 a square foot in 1947, would have cost $70-$80 in 1955, and today commands a price in the order of $250-$300 a square foot or even higher.

These increases have occurred during the same period of years in which the Colony has been establishing itself as an industrial manufacturing centre and overcoming great problems of housing and shortages of community services. They are the direct con- sequence of the demands of an increasing population and the roads, water, transport, power and other services provided to meet these demands. A part of this increase in land values has come back to the Government in the form of stamp duty, increased rates and Inland Revenue taxes, and some in the form of sales of new Crown land; but by far the greater part has remained in private hands.

From this outline of the rulings established and practices followed over the last 120 years it is possible to discern a pattern influencing the trend of events. Sectional interests have maintained constant pressure upon the Government, as the residual owner of all Crown land, to grant land at concessionary rates and while, in the public interest, it has resisted these pressures, the Govern- ment has, at the same time, sought to meet all vital land require- ments. While the main principles were laid down in the early days, land policy has been built up over the years by custom and

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precedent; it is not controlled by statute or codified by regulation but free to change to meet the needs of the times. Notwithstanding this flexibility, the principles adopted in the early years of the Colony have changed very little. Fundamentally the policy has been for the Government to allow private enterprise full rein, with minimum restriction, while retaining the long-term interest in land in the hands of the Crown; the only serious departure from this was the extension of 75 year leases to 999 years in 1848. Land from the earliest days has been of first importance in the life of the Colony and a source of great wealth and the policy has been to maintain a balance between the interest of the com- munity and that of the individual.

THE FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT

The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island, including a number of small adjacent

islands; 29 square miles

(b) Kowloon and Stonecutters Island: 33 square miles (c) The New Territories, including the mainland north of

Kowloon and some 235 islands: 365 square miles.

The boundaries of these districts are defined in the Interpretation Ordinance. Of the total land area of 3981 square miles some 320 square miles or roughly 80 per cent is waste, grassy or rocky precipitous hillside with an occasional area of scrub forest in the ravines and valleys; of the remainder roughly 55 square miles or 35,000 acres comprises agricultural land of one form or another, the balance of 25 square miles (16,000 acres) being largely urbanized. In this 25 square miles upwards of 34 million people live and work. In order that land may be developed to support this number of people and to allow for their increase in so small a compass, it is necessary that it be mapped, planned, levelled and provided with services. The techniques by which these proc- esses have been carried out and their degree of application, have, of necessity, become more elaborate from one decade to the next, and particularly so in the post-war years, in order to meet the demands of more varied, more concentrated and more sophisticated uses. But the principle remains the same it is to provide the

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framework within which both private and public enterprise may make the most efficient and economic use of available land.

Sound land administration and development is based on accurate plans and maps. Article XXXI of the Royal Instructions requires that 'Before disposing of any vacant or waste land to Us belonging, the Governor shall cause the same to be surveyed .'. Never- theless the survey of the Colony would appear in the early years to have been a very sporadic affair, lacking in policy and con- tinuity and greatly dependent on the personality and ability of a few surveyors; great reliance was placed on the military to provide maps. A Government officer known as the 'Colonial Surveyor' was appointed in 1843, but from the very first he appears to have been concerned mainly with the day-to-day task of selling land and setting out new roads, etc and being responsible for their main- tenance. In fact he gathered under his wing such items as gardens and afforestation and was not a surveyor in charge of a survey department, as was usual in other Colonies. The first known map of the Island of Hong Kong was produced by Lieutenant Collinson, Royal Engineers, in 1845. No record remains to show how it was surveyed, but it was obviously very useful to the administration as it was 'revised' 50 years later in 1895.

      The City of Victoria expanded rapidly and various surveys at different scales were produced to illustrate this expansion and the various reclamation proposals. In 1889 a large scale plan of the city was produced and printed in colour by Messrs Stanfords, the well-known English map-producing firm. During the same period various large scale plans were made of villages such as Aberdeen, Wong Nei Chung and Shau Kei Wan, mainly to determine land claims and to regularize title. Plans were also produced of develop- ment proposals at Kennedy Town and the first settlements on the Peak. In 1860, when the Kowloon Peninsula was ceded to the British, the treaty map illustrating the grant was only a rough sketch which would appear to indicate that no real survey across the harbour had been attempted at this time. Nevertheless, by 1863 a map showing the proposed new roads was published. Similarly, the leasing of the New Territories in 1898 brought a new burst of interest in survey and map production. The Govern- ment sought the assistance of the Survey of India to prepare plans of all land occupied by village houses or used for agriculture so

REVIEW

25

that claims could be investigated and recorded. This survey took three years to complete. About the same time the military produced a series of maps at different scales compiled from various sources and obviously based on some kind of triangulation system, but no record of this basic survey remains.

      In the period between the two world wars, the military decided to produce a map using the new survey method of air photography. A Colonial Survey Section came to the Colony in 1924-5 and produced a triangulation on which a 1/20,000 map was based. This map was drawn on 24 sheets and was one of the first in the Empire to be produced by air survey methods. In addition the Crown Lands and Survey Office produced its own series of 200′ to 1′′ and 50′ to 1" sheets of the developed areas of the Colony at about this time. When the Colony was liberated in 1945, very little of the pre-war survey remained; the first task of the land surveyors not employed on land administration was to collect what data and plans they could find and reconstruct. By 1952 these problems of reconstruction had been largely overcome and atten- tion turned to the question of the New Territories.

      The survey sheets produced 50 years previously were inade- quate for efficient land administration and the Government decided to undertake a new survey at a scale of 1/1,200 (100′ to 1"). Work started in 1953 and by 1962 over 72,000 acres of the more valuable and accessible parts of the New Territories had been surveyed. This progress, however, was not sufficient to meet the needs of a rapidly expanding community, quite apart from the fact that the plans produced were planimetric only, whereas for the many development and engineering schemes, con- tours were essential. At the end of 1962 tenders were invited on a world-wide basis for a complete air survey of the Colony. Early in 1963 the Government awarded the contract to Messrs Hunting Surveys Limited and the air photographs were taken during fortunate period of clear weather in January and February. Ground control and all necessary local survey is being undertaken by the Government. The results of this work, in the form of up-to-date large scale contoured plans covering the greater part of the Colony, are likely to appear in stages from early 1964. The project is one of the largest of its kind in the Commonwealth.

26

Town planning

REVIEW

      If land survey was sporadic in its approach, town planning was even more so. A good start was made. In April 1843 Her Majesty instructed Sir Henry Pottinger 'to ascertain what particular lands it may be proper to reserve in the said Colony for public roads and other internal communication whether by land or by water, or as the sites of Towns, Villages, Churches, School-houses .or Parsonage-houses, or as places for the interment of the dead, or as places for the future extension of any existing Towns or Villages, or as places fit to be set apart for the recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of any Town or Village, or for promoting the health of such inhabitants or as the sites of quays or landing places, which it may at any future time be expedient to erect, form, or establish on the sea coast, or which it may be desirable to reserve for any other purposes of public convenience, utility, health or enjoyment, and you are to cause such tracts, pieces or parcels of land as may appear best adapted to answer and promote the several public purposes before mentioned, to be distinguished on the public charts of the said Colony, or in some other authentic manner'.

      This was a very full and detailed planning brief but not one easy of execution in those early days nor for that matter today. Prior to this Instruction, Sir Henry had, in March 1842, appointed a committee 'to fix the direction, breadth, etc etc of the Queen's and all other public roads.

and to examine the best

with a view to

points for laying down new road lines . . . providing locations to meet the demands that may be expected from the rapidly increasing population'. These were more practical terms of reference and although the Committee appears to have done little long-term planning it granted some more land and no doubt paved the way for some new roads. Despite the fact that the Colony had not yet received its Royal Charter the enterprising merchants who had been so largely instrumental in its establish- ment were going ahead with development. Particularly enthusi- astic were Matheson, Dent and Lyndsay. Matheson established warehouses in the area now known as East Point; Dent chose a site on Queen's Road near Ice House Street, while Lyndsay settled in Wan Chai in a district soon to be known as Spring Gardens, in which area the first Government House was built. Residences

REVIEW

27

were set up in Wong Nei Chung and at Morrison Hill, while the military established cantonments at West Point and Stanley and a fort on Kellett Island. Plans of the City of Victoria dated 1850 show it laid out and developed from West Point to Morrison Hill and beyond, and within a few years of taking over Kowloon a development plan had been prepared showing lines of proposed roads.

Throughout the history of the Colony down to the present day the tradition has been to exercise whatever planning control was considered necessary and practicable through the administration of the land. It was not until 1935 that a separate town planning organization was established and in 1939 the Town Planning Ordinance was passed. In 1948 Sir Patrick Abercrombie, a leading British architect and town planner, visited the Colony and pro- duced a preliminary planning report but this, unfortunately, was overrun by events arising from disturbances in China. The next development was the establishment of the present planning division in the Crown Lands and Survey Office, thus continuing the associa- tion of planning with land. Most of the urbanised parts of the Colony are now covered by development plans prepared by the planning division and also, generally in the newly expanding areas, by statutory plans prepared by the Town Planning Board, the most recent being that of the new industrial township of Tsuen Wan, approved in 1963 and designed to accommodate over one million persons by the late 1970's. In 1962 the Government authorized the preparation of a Colony Outline Plan with a view to providing the framework for the long term development of the Colony to meet the 'rapidly increasing population'-much the same terms of reference as were given to the first planning committee appointed by Sir Henry Pottinger 120 years earlier.

The problem facing the planners has not changed materially over the years-it has been and still is one of a search for land and the provision of water, communications and other services necessary for its development. In 1957 consultant engineers were engaged to examine the relative merits of reclamation at a number of localities in the New Territories including Tai Po, Sha Tin, Kwai Chung, Junk Bay and Castle Peak. In 1960 the Government decided to proceed with the scheme at Kwai Chung between Tsuen Wan and Kowloon, and work is now well in hand. Junk Bay has

28

REVIEW

     been largely set aside for the ship-breaking industry and present trends appear to indicate a preference by industrialists for locations on the southern water frontage of Kowloon and the New Terri- tories, stretching from Junk Bay through Kwun Tong, Ma Tau Kok, Tai Kok Tsui and Cheung Sha Wan to Kwai Chung, Tsuen Wan and Castle Peak.

Reclamation

Victoria harbour, the raison d'être for Hong Kong's foundation, formed the focal point around which the original settlers clustered and around which the banks, business houses, the shipyards and later, the factories were built. Hemmed in by hills both north and south, the population became concentrated on the limited flat or less steeply sloping land available along the coast. Expansion was only possible by reclamation into the sea and by higher buildings upwards into the sky. Both these processes have taken place over the years but despite this the land has become so congested as barely to serve the demands made upon it by its many occupants. The solution has been sought in still further reclamations now extending beyond the harbour and into the New Territories.

The first praya reclamation scheme was partly carried out in 1851, but aroused the opposition of lessees who not only claimed marine rights but extended their boundaries over the foreshore absorbing such land as could easily be reclaimed. This delayed matters; but despite this and the destruction of the original praya wall by a typhoon in 1867, further land was reclaimed at Kowloon Point and at West Point at about this time. Twenty three acres were reclaimed at Causeway Bay in 1884, and a year later a similar area at Kennedy Town. In 1887 the Land Commission recom- mended further reclamation to alleviate overcrowding in the city. In 1890 came the Praya Reclamation Ordinance and a year later Mr Paul Chater, later Sir Paul Chater, initiated the reclamation of an area of 65 acres extending two miles westward from Murray Road along the northern foreshore of the Island.

During the next 80 years, reclamation continued; the largest schemes are those at Wan Chai (90 acres), Tai Kok Tsui (54 acres), Kai Tak (205 acres) and Sham Shui Po (66 acres), all completed around 1930. Since the war, reclamation and large formation schemes have together made available some 2,060 acres

REVIEW

29

at a total cost of roughly $95 million. This excludes the 170 acres reclaimed for the Kai Tak airport and some 26 acres of private reclamation completed since October 1959. The most important reclamation work carried out since the war is that at Kwun Tong on the north eastern harbour frontage where 588 acres of new land is to be formed, two thirds of which is already complete; some 200 acres of this has been set aside for private commercial, in- dustrial and residential development; 160 acres for public buildings, including Government-aided housing, and another 220 acres for roads, services and open space. The total cost of this scheme, including earth works, seawalls, roads and drains, up to the end of the financial year 1962-3 was rather more than $50 million and the revenue due from land sales by this date $150 million. The main contract for the Kwai Chung Reclamation Scheme was let in 1963 and will provide some 500 acres of new land over the next five years.

Engineering services

      An adequate road framework is vital to an expanding city and roads, being seen and directly used, are normally of much greater interest to the public than underground services which tend to be taken for granted unless they do not exist or until they fail; the records of the Colony are dotted with accounts of new roads brought into use but little mention is made of sewers. The first road was Queen's Road following the line of the original seashore. By 1842 there were roads on the coast to Shau Kei Wan and a year or two later Stanley and Aberdeen had been connected with the city centre; thereafter each year saw some extension to open up new land for development. Roads are not only traffic links; they serve many other functions. Principally they provide an open frontage upon which buildings can abut and obtain light and air, the height and volume of the building being dependent on the street width. They also provide space for underground services, stormwater drains and sewers, electricity cables, gas and water mains, telephone and rediffusion cables and in recent years for salt- water pipe lines, and, in one rare case, an oil pipe line to supply the Queen Elizabeth Hospital from the harbour. This multitude of pipes and cables often takes up the whole width of the street; the area of supply of salt water in the City of Victoria has recently had to be limited to buildings near the new waterfront due to the

30

REVIEW

physical impossibility of providing space for pipes under the street to supply buildings further afield. When redevelopment takes place new service connexions have to be made; 20 storey buildings, re- placing four storey ones, demand enlarged services and soon new trunk mains become necessary. The constant digging up of the roads consequent on redevelopment is an all too familiar feature of Hong Kong life.

      A city is built on its sewers and early in the history of the Colony there was talk of the need for better drainage to protect public health. Since 1847, when 2,440 yards of city drains were laid, up to the present time, it has been merely a question of keeping ahead of development. This has not been easy but today nearly all built-up districts have water-borne drainage. In recent years it has been necessary to give increasing attention to the treat- ment of sewage at the main outfalls in order to lessen harbour pollution; also to the enlargement of existing trunk services to deal adequately with the very high population densities, particularly in Kowloon. Excessively high rainfall over a few hours-the highest on record for any 24 hours is 27.85 inches in May 1889-is a potential source of flooding and any development of low-lying land, particularly the reclamation of river estuaries, involves the construc- tion of large storm-water drains or culverts; the work now in hand in the market town of Yuen Long is a case in point. In the early days it was usual to solve such problems by large open channels or nullahs running down the centre of main roads. Many of these have now been culverted or decked, not only to improve drainage conditions but also to effect a much needed street improvement.

Sir Charles Elliot's notice of 1st May 1841 required, inter alia, that 'no run of water be diverted from its course' and Sir Henry Pottinger directed the 1842 Land Committee to 'select the most eligible spot with a running stream of good water' to provide a 'watering place for shipping'. In 1851 five wells were sunk for the city water supply and 20 years later the first reservoir at Pok Fu Lam was completed. Thereafter, as for other civil engineering serv- ices, it has been a constant race against population and development with periods of adequacy and points of shortage. It has been necessary to import water three times during the Colony's history -in 1903, 1929 and today. Geographical and climatic conditions make it necessary to store enough water for a seven-month dry

REVIEW

31

season during the winter months-four fifths of the average annual rainfall falls in the five months from May to September-and this has led to the construction of large impounding reservoirs with ex- tensive catchment areas. The need in recent years to conserve fresh water supplies has also resulted in a wide use of salt water for sanitary and air-conditioning purposes and such supplies are be- coming increasingly important.

      A growing population and the needs of industry have led to a particularly rapid expansion of both demand and supply in the last 10 years as the following figures indicate:

Population in supply area

24 hour winter demand

Storage capacity

Reservoir & Catchment area

1952

2 millions

41 million gallons 6,000 million gallons 13,650 acres

* Including Shek Pik completed 1963.

1962

3 millions

104 million gallons

15,983* million gallons 31,750* acres

      When Plover Cove is completed in 1968-9, storage capacity will be increased by a further 30,000 million gallons, yielding an aver- age of 65 million gallons a day.

      The continuing search for more land for development means a complementary need for an extension of the water supply distribu- tion system. In 1946 the supply area, including filtered and un- filtered water, was 8,650 acres, while today it is 12,540 acres, an increase of 3,890 acres or 45 per cent in 15 years, thus keeping pace with the expansion of the built-up areas. So far there has been little conflict between the land required for development and that set aside for water catchments. Most of the catchments are in hilly land unsuitable for or remote from development, but it has been customary for many years to allow a degree of building in catchment areas and as these areas increase the possibility of extending this practice grows in importance.

LAND USE: DIVERSITY AND INTENSITY

       In 1841 the Island of Hong Kong was not only 'a barren island with hardly a house upon it' but also largely a bare rock with few trees or other growth. Afforestation, largely on health grounds but also for shade and amenity, received early attention but much of the work was undone by the destruction of trees between 1941

32

REVIEW

and 1945. Today some 12,000 acres of Government afforestation, mainly co-extensive with water catchment areas, and 2,500 acres of traditional village plantation exist out of the 150,000 acres of hill lands suitable for this use. Pressure on agricultural land comes from two directions-the steady demand for urbanisation to meet an expanding, largely industrial, population and from the growing needs of the rural community itself. The urban expansion en- croaches directly upon arable land; although most of the new town schemes of post-war years have been carried out very largely by reclamation of shallow bays and estuaries, adjoining cultivated land has inevitably been over run. In recent years, however, this loss of arable land has been more than offset by the opening up of marginal land. Changes which have taken place over the last 8 years are indicated by the following table:

Land Use

Approximate Area (Acres)

(1955)

(1963)

2-crop fresh-water paddy land

20,192

15,336

1-crop upland rice land

248

101

1-crop brackish water paddy land

2,912

2,619

Vegetable land

..

2,255

7,822

Orchard land

952

1,564

Field crop land

3,480

4,271

Fish pond

495

1,144

Temporarily abandoned land

2,715

2,033

33,249

34,890

     It will be noted that while paddy still accounts for over half of the arable land, market gardening has expanded more than three times in the last eight years, mainly at the expense of paddy. There is also a distinct trend in favour of the expansion of fish pond culture which makes profitable and concentrated use of poor quality land.

     Mining in the Colony, mainly for iron ore, wolframite and kaolin has been and remains of relatively small importance. Prospecting and mining interests occupied only 1,140 acres of land in 1963, mainly in hill areas. During the Korean war, uncontrolled mining had an adverse effect on agriculture but since that time there has been a distinct decline in activity with consequently less distur- bance to other land uses.

250

GOVERNMENT LAND REVENUE

225-

200-

175-

150

125

100-

75

50-

25

IN MILLIONS OF HK$

(10 YEAR TOTAL $550,000,000)

共圖

-55

55-56

56-57

57-58

58-59

59-60

60-61

61-62

1,200-

1,100-

1,000-

PRIVATE LAND TRANSACTIONS

HONG

VG K

900-

800

700-

600

500

400-

IN MILLIONS OF HK$

(10 YEAR TOTAL $5,558,000,000)

AG PUBLIC

BRAR

300-

200

100-

1953-54 54-55

55-56

56-57

57-58

58-59

59-60

60-61

61-62 62-1963

PREDOMINANT LAND USE IN ACRES

AS AT MARCH, 1961

TOTAL

NON-URBAN

URBAN

URBAN

RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

COMMUNITY USAGE

DEVELOPED OPEN SPACE

INDUSTRIAL USAGE

HONG KO

HONG KONG

ISLAND

15,120

NON-URBAN

GROSS ACREAGE

POPULATION

GROSS DENSITY PER ACRE

4,930

NON-URBAN

KOWLOON AND

NEW KOWLOON

GROSS ACREAGE

POPULATION

GROSS DENSITY PER ACRE

29,160

NON-URBAN

NEW TERRITORIES

(TOWNSHIPS AND

ENVIRONS)

1,940

330

580

+8.600

1,005,000

54

1,670

P1,010

210

8,200 1,568,000

224

620

GROSS ACREAGE

POPULATION

GROSS DENSITY PER ACRE

30,300 244,000

8

RIES

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33

Although some 25 square miles is said to be urbanized, in fact 80 per cent of the population at census date in March 1961 lived in an area of rather more than half of this. Of this 8,000 acres, more than half was used for residential purposes and one-tenth for industry. In the last 10 years the demand for building land has continued unabated and in the Urban Area alone some 98 acres have been sold or granted for residential/commercial purposes and 171 acres for industrial use. During the same period land grants for Government-aided housing totalled 790 acres and for schools, clinics and welfare establishments 170 acres-132 acres of this was for schools. In the New Territories during this period 372 acres have been granted for industrial use, 326 acres for residential/ commercial use including village land, 723 acres for institutional purposes and 175 acres for agriculture. The institutional grants include two islands set aside as medical rehabilitation centres. More and more agricultural land is being exchanged for building land in the New Territories and during the last five years 271 acres of building land have been regranted for 350 acres of agricultural land and 39 acres of old building land which have been surrendered.

Generally speaking the Government has resisted pressure to sell land restricted to special types of industry, but a few industries do exist which require particular facilities and for which special arrangements have been made in recent years. In order that the port of Hong Kong may function efficiently, ship and boat repair- ing yards must be available in the harbour area; land restricted to this use was therefore sold at Cheung Sha Wan and Yau Tong and North Tsing Yi. Similarly the sawmill and timber industry needs water frontage land and large water storage areas. Floating storage has therefore been set aside at north-east Lantau and Junk Bay, and sites sold for sawmills at Castle Peak, Yau Tong and Tsuen Wan. It has also been the practice since the war to restrict the sale of land fronting the harbour to purposes requiring such a frontage.

Shortage of land has resulted in the adoption of many interesting devices to conserve supply. For example, the tops of service reservoirs double as playgrounds; small industries are accom- modated in multi-storey factory buildings; and roofs of schools

34

REVIEW

and resettlement blocks are used as playgrounds. But before con- sidering the question of intensity of urban land use more fully, two special aspects of the land question in Hong Kong-military lands and squatters-require mention.

Military lands

       In 1841 the military authorities not unnaturally selected land conveniently situated near the town and waterfront. And since the early days the civil administration has, again not unnaturally, been pressing the military authorities to move to more distant parts. In 1887 the Land Commission referred to the need to press the naval and military authorities to give up their central city lands to make way for the increasing population and mention is made of the fact that the lands occupied were 'steadily increasing in value' and could be used 'very much to the public advantage'. In 1924 the Oakley Report on Military Lands established a basis. for surrender of some of the more valuable central areas, but no effective steps could be taken before the threat of war postponed further action. As a result of disturbances in China and Korea, the military needed additional areas in the late 1940's and early 1950's and only in the last few years has it been possible to give effect to the long-term wishes of the civil administration. On the land known for over 100 years as Murray Parade Ground an hotel and a Government multi-storey car park now stand, while the site of the former Murray Barracks awaits a new Government office and the greater part of the Naval Dockyard awaits the implementation by private developers of the Central District Re- development Plan. In a like manner plans were announced in 1962 for the return of Whitfield Barracks, an area of 36 acres in the centre of Kowloon, and the Town Planning Board is engaged in drawing up proposals for its development.

       All these recent transactions, which were negotiated on terms favourable to the Services, fell outside the scope of the Military Land Account. This procedure, which the British Government established in 1894 throughout the Colonies and despite local objections from Hong Kong, provided for the transfer and sur- render of land required for military purposes, with the value of the land transferred being credited to the Colonial Government,

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35

and the value of the land surrendered, valued at the date of sur- render, being credited to the War Office. Any credit balance avail- able to the War Office could be used for transfer of additional land and also to defray the cost of capital defence works. Between 1898 and 1939 regular transfers of land took place on this basis, but post-war conditions in Hong Kong have made this procedure increasingly unrealistic. It has therefore been the Government's policy to negotiate with the military authorities outside the scope of the account in the same way as with the other two Services.

A Government proclamation was issued on 21st October 1844 calling attention to the fact that 'a great number of Chinese and others have, without permission and in direct opposition to Law and Custom, settled themselves upon the Queen's Road and at divers places along the coast of this Island' and it called upon them to remove themselves forthwith, failing which they would be ejected. The constant reference throughout the years to tres- passers and other illegal occupants of Crown land makes it clear that such encroachments have continued to occur. The 1887 Land Commission examined the question in great detail and the Surveyor General is recorded as referring to the 'poachers surreptitiously appropriating Crown land' and opposing the recommendations of the commission that such trespassers should receive compensation for disturbance no matter how long standing their illegal occupa- tion. Despite all the efforts that were made throughout the first half of the next century, squatters continued to be an endemic problem and by 1950, as a result of the incursion of great numbers of immigrants, very large areas of Crown land had been overrun. In these circumstances, a more humane and practical approach was called for than that adopted 100 years earlier and in 1952 the Government announced the policy of resettlement which has had such a major influence on subsequent development of the Colony and aroused the interest of people in many parts of the world.

This policy was, and is still, directed basically towards the clearance of Crown land to facilitate its development by permanent buildings. During the last 10 years, some 2,000 acres of land have been cleared and over 500,000 people have been rehoused in the process. But it is estimated that some 600,000 still remain, mainly

36

REVIEW

on steep hillsides or on land not yet ripe for permanent de- velopment.

Residential densities

Physical conditions and limited funds for the construction of roads and other services, combined with the strong economic pull of the port, have led to the intense development of the relatively small portion of the Colony immediately surrounding the harbour. The factors which control this intensity of development are there- fore of great significance. The Buildings Ordinance has, during the present century, been the main controlling force over building volumes in the urban area. It has been revised on several occasions, the latest and most important revision being eight years ago. The 1955 Ordinance allowed much increased building volumes. At the same time it became the practice to sell flats individually, there being nothing in the law to prohibit division of ownership in a horizontal plane nor one piece of land being owned by a multi- plicity of co-owners. The combination of these two factors has led to the construction of vast multi-storey multi-user buildings, the ownership of which is divided between many individuals- occasionally several hundred. By the end of 1962 no less than 3,968 buildings were sub-divided into two or more shares, the total number of shares involved being 65,455. Seventeen buildings were sub-divided into more than 300 shares each. From this development, the pressure of population and the rising standard of living has sprung the great increase in land values experienced in the last 10 years.

       Residential densities of land use in Hong Kong are some of the highest in the world. It is not unusual to find 22 or more persons living in one floor of a tenement building with a frontage of 16 feet and a depth of 50 feet, giving a gross floor area of roughly 36 square feet a person. With four storey buildings (three over a shop) and 30 tenements to the acre this gives a residential density of 2,000 persons an acre or more. When a block of these buildings is replaced by a structure covering the same ground area, 20 storeys high (including two floors of shops) and occupied at a similar but rather less intensity, the population density rises to- wards 10,000 persons an acre. Such alarmingly high densities have not yet been recorded, but until the new Building (Planning)

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337

(Amendment) Regulations, 1962 take full effect in 1966, they are possible. Intensity of development in certain districts has been controlled over the years by means of lease conditions stipulating the height to which buildings may be erected or the form which building shall take. This is particularly the case in areas such as the central spine of the Kowloon peninsula and the rural parts of Hong Kong Island where buildings of two or three storeys only were permitted. In recent years much higher buildings have been allowed, subject to certain limitations on the proportion of the lot which may be built upon. The 1962 Building Regulations follow the same principle and lay down scales of maximum percentage coverage and maximum plot ratio (the ratio of the gross floor area to the area of the lot) for three classes of site. These regula- tions are designed, in the main, to reduce building volumes and so improve light and air and lessen the increase in congestion in the urban areas. In addition to the Buildings Ordinance, the height to which a building may be erected is also limited by the Hong Kong Airport (Control of Obstructions) Order, 1957 and this has an important and increasing effect on development, mainly in the Kowloon peninsula.

       In addition to all these factors, the traditional Chinese belief in geomantic influences has played a part in the history of develop- ment in Hong Kong. The Chinese term fung shui, meaning literally wind and water, may be described as an interpretation of the basic elements of a place for purposes of the auspicious siting of a building, grave, road etc. In its positive form, the theory is that beneficent influences in, for instance, a hill, tree or rock will protect and lend prosperity to a building sited in accordance with accepted practice. In its negative form, the feeling is that disturbance of the ground in certain places will upset the beneficent influences and result in calamity for the desecrators and nearby residents. To-day, in the crowded urban areas of the Colony, it is possibly true to say that fung shui plays little or no part in the main siting of commercial buildings, although it may have some in- fluence amongst traditionalists in the internal arrangements of buildings. But, in many parts of the New Territories and rural areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon, the belief persists and, where possible, is respected by the Government. The ever increasing demand for land however has tended to lead to a conflict of

38

REVIEW

interest between developers and local believers in fung shui. But a careful study of objections to development proposals often re- veals that small alterations to the plans can be effected to meet genuine fung shui objections. A patient treatment of these problems leads to better mutual understanding between local inhabitants and new developers, whether they be Government or private. This in turn helps to create a better community spirit which is an essential ingredient of progressive development.

THE SEARCH CONTINUES

      The value of a review of the past lies in the guide which it provides for the future. Over the years the demand for land in Hong Kong has remained intense and recently it has been insati- able, to meet not only the immediate requirements of an expanding population but also the needs which arise from greater prosperity. The first warnings against over-crowding and the 'remarkable hoarding together of people' were made as long ago as 1849, and the 1887 Land Commission was apprehensive about the consequent dangers to health and social stability. It was pointed out that the Government had a monopoly of all unused land and that the problem of over-crowding was basically a land problem. Since that time and despite the many changes which have taken place and the new areas that have been brought into use, over-crowding and congestion remain the Colony's most serious social problem.

       In 1841, a few months after the Colony was founded, there was a scramble for land. The scramble was brought under control but the demand continued. It is greater today than it has ever been. Past experience points the way for the immediate future-policy must be directed to the provision of new land together with adequate services to support intensive occupation and use, notwith- standing the comparatively greater cost of developing marginal land. This policy may mean still greater reclamation schemes, involve longer lines of communication and make greater demands on public services: but the search for land must go on.

Part II

2

Population

THE total population of the Colony at the end of 1963 was estimated to be 3,642,500. Of this number, on the basis of language and place of origin, some 98 per cent could be described as Chinese. This estimate is based on the census of population taken in February and March 1961, adjusted for births, deaths and migration. Details of the census have been published in Report of the Census, 1961.*

      The census in 1961 found the total population (including 3,483 transients) to be 3,133,131. It had increased by over 2 millions since the last census taken in 1931. Another census should have been held in 1941, but the unsettled conditions which followed the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the fluctuations in popula- tion after the attack on Canton in 1938 and later the Japanese occupation of the Colony, caused the plan to be abandoned. An unofficial count by air-raid wardens in 1941 before the Japanese attack put the population at about 1,600,000. This number was greatly reduced during the occupation and the total population was estimated to be less than 600,000 when the Colony was liberated in August 1945. The population grew rapidly again with the end of hostilities. An assessment of the population in September 1949, by the then Department of Statistics put the total at 1,857,000.

      During 1963, the population increased by 116,000 to reach the estimated total of 3,642,500. Of this increase, 95,500 was due to the excess of registered births over registered deaths and 20,500 represented the estimated net balance of migration. The influx of immigration which reached an unprecedented height in 1962 re- laxed to a more normal flow in 1963.

      The actual number of registered births was 115,263 in 1963 compared with 111,905 in 1962, registered deaths numbered 19,748 compared with 20,324 in 1962. These figures yield for 1963 a

* The report consists of three volumes and costs $40. It can be obtained at the Government publications counter in the General Post Office, Hong Kong; overseas orders should be sent direct to the Government Printer, Java Road, Hong Kong and should include postage.

42

POPULATION

crude birth rate of 32.1 per mille and a crude death rate of 5.5 per mille, on a mid-year population of 3,592,100.

For purposes of future planning, the Colony's first population projections and life tables were prepared. Details of these have been published in Population Projections, 1961-1971 and Hong Kong Life Tables, 1961-1968 respectively. It had not been possible hitherto to undertake these calculations due to the lack of suffi- ciently accurate data and to the highly fluid nature of the Colony's population prior to the Pacific War. Since then, however, the population has become gradually more stable although it has been swollen from time to time by waves of immigration. Three sets of population projections have been prepared, namely, high, medium and low projections. These calculations have been based on certain generally accepted assumptions for births, deaths and migration and are valid so long as the basic assumptions remain correct. The life tables revealed that on the whole, the chances of survival for the average woman exceed that for the average man, and that for both sexes the expectation of life is comparable with that of advanced industrial societies. A steady rise in life expecta- tion may be forecast over the next seven years for both sexes and all ages.

URBAN POPULATION

The total number (except transients) claiming at the time of the census to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong was 33,140 of whom 27,936 resided in the urban area. The census questions did not include nationality but the figure provided by the Aliens' Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents (excluding visitors staying for periods less than three months and excluding children under 16 years old) at the end of 1963 totalled 9,619 of whom the largest groups were American (2,593), Portuguese (2,019), Japanese (973), Filipino (506), Dutch (418), Indonesian (396), French (328), Italian (334) and German (371). Approximately half of the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth. Most of these and the greater part of the immigrant population originated from Kwangtung province. The districts of Kwangtung, which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population, are neighbouring Po On and Tung Kwun (principally Punti) Wai Yeung and Mui Yuen (prin- cipally Hakka), Chiuchow, Sze Yap or the so-called four Districts

POPULATION

43

(really five-Hoi Ping, Hok Shan, San Wui, Toi Shan and Yan Ping), Nam Hoi, Pun Yue, Shun Tak and Chung Shan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien community and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung and Fukien.

Cantonese, by which is meant not any dialect of Kwangtung province but the dialect of Canton City and others sufficiently like it to be intelligible, is the lingua franca of the urban area and is the mother tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon. Next come other languages of Kwangtung-Hoklo, Sze Yap and Hakka in that order, followed by Shanghainese, English and Kuoyu. It is an increasing tendency for children whose families originated in North China to adopt Cantonese as their first language. Knowledge of English is increas- ing and is taught to a lesser or greater extent in all local schools. Kuoyu on the other hand seems to be on the ebb and its use is now almost confined to the academic world.

      Certain language groups are found clustered in particular parts of the Colony. On Hong Kong Island there is a concentration of Chiuchow speakers in the Western district, of Fukien speakers (and a smaller number of Shanghai speakers) at North Point and of Sze Yap speakers in Wan Chai. Across the harbour, the Chiu- chow concentration is at Wong Tai Sin opposite Kai Tak airport, the Sze Yap concentration in Mong Kok and Cheung Sha Wan and the Shanghai concentration in Hung Hom. The only notable speakers of Kuoyu are around the University of Hong Kong and Rennie's Mill and the only districts where Portuguese speakers reach three figures are Tsim Sha Tsui and North Point.

NEW TERRITORIES

      The indigenous population of the New Territories consists of four main groups-the Cantonese, Hakka, Tanka and Hoklo. These groups show differences in physical appearance, dress, organization and customs. The Cantonese and Hakka groups are traditionally land-dwellers whereas the Tanka and Hoklo groups are traditionally boat-dwellers. The latter two are probably of non- Chinese origin but all these groups now regard themselves as Chinese. The usual village community consists of a single clan but

44

POPULATION

two and three clan villages are common and multi-clan villages also occur. By custom, men are compelled to marry outside their own clan but it is believed that no intermarriage occurs between land and boat-dwellers.

The Cantonese who form the majority community occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long District, have a history of continuous settle- ment since the late eleventh century. On Lantau Island there are Cantonese villagers near Shek Pik and Mui Wo dating back to about the same time while some in the Tung Chung Valley date back to the late thirteenth century. City Cantonese (Pun Yue dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese or possibly even before. However, the latter were the more successful settlers and in areas where both groups live side by side, the Hakka are always found upstream, along foothills and generally on the poorer land. After a period of sub- servience to the powerful Cantonese families, the balance was restored by heavy immigration. They are now almost the exclusive possessors of the Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung and Hang Hau peninsulas and of the foothills of Tai Mo Shan. They form the biggest community in Tai Po and Sha Tin and on the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan. The relations between Hakka and Cantonese have endured a period of strife but are now peaceful. Inter-marriage is not uncommon and the two groups share some of the villages.

The Tanka comprise a majority of the boat-dwellers and they very seldom settle ashore. At Tai O, however, there is the rare instance of a fairly large group of Tanka living in huts built on stakes over a mud creek. The Tanka have been in the region since time unknown and are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. They speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese, indeed of

The majority of Hong Kong's people still adhere to traditional Chinese beliefs and enjoy the many colourful festivals held throughout the year such as the occasion (above) when girls who wish to find a husband pay homage to the mythical meeting of the cowherd and the girl weaver. The coloured buns (below) are a thanksgiving offering at the Festival of Tin Hau.

+

One of the most spi¡acular of all Chinese festivals is the Bun Festival (above), held each year on Cheung Chau Island. The original purpose of the festival was to placate malevolent spirits who were said to roam the island.

The climax of the Cheung Chau Bun Festival comes when a priest announces the departure of the last spirit and crowds swarm the pylons (left) to pull off the buns. To blow awaj þad luck at the Tin Hau Festival

hese brightly painted fans. (right) are

مجانا

11-21

To those who earn their livelihood aboard junks, lighters and sampans operating in Hong Kong's busy harbour, the Festival of Tin Hau (above) has a special significance. Tin Hau is a major deity in Chinese religious life. At another part of the year comes the Festival of the Hungry Ghosts (below) when the spirits have to be pacified.

1.4

POPULATION

45

every thousand of the boat population, 930 speak this dialect, 50 speak Hoklo and the rest are splinter groups.

      The Hoklo resemble the Tanka in many respects and like the latter have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in the eastern waters of the Colony. However, in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations and there are influential Hoklo land communities on Cheung Chau and Peng Chau, and at Silver Mine Bay.

      Since the Chinese revolution, the influx of people into the New Territories from China has been so great that only in the Sai Kung district is the truly indigenous population still in the majority. The newcomers are mostly from the Kwangtung Province and where they are not from Kwangtung, they usually become assimi- lated to the Cantonese. The process of assimilation has been much slower for immigrants from Shanghai, the East River area and the Swatow district. Almost the only group which has successfully resisted assimilation is the well-organized community of miners from northern China at the foot of Ma On Shan.

       There are also in the New Territories an increasing number of families of all nationalities from the urban areas who prefer the country life, commuting to Hong Kong or Kowloon by ferry, train, bus or motor car. The rapid spread of industry, commerce and public services in the New Territories has contributed in no small measure to this shift of population.

      Some of the principal towns of the New Territories are expand- ing so rapidly that it is not useful to continue to quote 1961 census figures. At the end of 1963 the estimated population, excluding boat-people, was Tsuen Wan (150,000), Yuen Long (39,000), Tai Po (36,700), Cheung Chau (17,500), Shek Wu Hui (35,000), Castle Peak (13,860 including Old Town, New Town and Sam Shing Hui), Luen Wo Hui (13,300) and Sha Tin (25,300 including Tai Wai). These figures, being calculated from records of new buildings and estimated densities of occupancy, are far from precise but serve to indicate the speed with which some of the country towns have expanded.

3

Employment

OCCUPATIONS

THERE are no comprehensive official employment statistics and the only data regularly collected concern members of the civil service and employees of factories and industrial undertakings. The Labour Department which is responsible for matters affecting the health, welfare and safety of industrial workers computes its employment figures from quarterly reports submitted voluntarily by the majority of industrial employers. While these figures give a reasonable picture of industrial employment, they do not include out-workers or those employed in very small industrial under- takings, in building and engineering construction, in agriculture and fisheries or in cottage industries.

      The 1961 census gave more comprehensive employment figures than those previously produced by the Labour Department and indicated that 1,211,999 people were economically active in a total population of 3,133,131. Of these 1,191,099 claimed to be em- ployed. Nearly 51 per cent were workers in construction, manu- facturing, mining, quarrying and utilities, while 22 per cent provided various types of services. Commerce employed 11 per cent, and agriculture, forestry, fisheries and hunting just over seven per cent, as did communications. Manufacturing, with 475,520 persons or nearly 40 per cent of the working population, was the largest single employer. Workers formed 38 per cent of the total population, (849,572 males and 341,527 females) while in-workers (those who work at their employers' place of business and cannot take their work away to complete) numbered 788,474 permanently employed and 37,334 casually or seasonally employed persons. Other categories included 123,861 self-employed persons, 52,798 unpaid family workers, 11,172 apprentices, trainees and learners, 10,794 out-workers and 9,256 workers employed on commission. There were 57,400 employers.

EMPLOYMENT

47

      The occupational pattern may have altered a little as a result of the influx of immigrants in 1962 but generally it should not differ materially from the pattern reflected in the census. Simple pro- jection produces a distribution of employed persons sufficiently indicative of the balance of employment between different sectors of the economy, and the following figures are given on this basis for the end of 1963 (with a work force calculated at approximately 1,400,000):-manufacturing 558,600, services 312,200, commerce 154,000, construction 117,600, farming and fishing 103,600, com- munications 102,200, public utilities 22,400, mines and quarries 9,800, others 19,600.

The number of people directly employed in factories registered or recorded by the Labour Department increased throughout 1963 and reached a total of 354,394, an increase of 56,497 over 1962. Although the rise was steady, there were fluctuations within in- dividual industries. Those engaged in weaving, spinning, knitting and the manufacture of garments and made-up textile goods accounted for a total of 148,558 and remained the largest section of the industrial labour force. The plastics industry, in which a large number of out-workers are employed, continued to expand, and before the end of the year was the second largest employer of workers after the garments and shirts industry.

When severe water supply restrictions were introduced at the be- ginning of June, it was thought it would have an adverse effect on employment in industry, but a subsequent survey by the inspector- ate of the Labour Department showed that while initially some unemployment occurred in those sections of industry which nor- mally consumed large quantities of water, this was more than offset by increased employment in industry as a whole.

Although the construction of industrial buildings continued, particularly in Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, there still re- mains an acute shortage of premises for the small manufacturer of limited means. Nevertheless, the number of registered and re- corded factories increased by 1,043 to 8,348, many of them small concerns. Privately owned factory buildings and Government re- settlement factories were completed at San Po Kong in Kowloon, and industrial development continued in the areas of Cheung Sha Wan, Quarry Bay and Aberdeen. Tables at Appendix I show development in the main industrial groups and selected industries.

48

EMPLOYMENT

      Unemployment. Although the 1961 census reported some 16,000 persons as unemployed the extent of unemployment or under- employment in Hong Kong remains indeterminate, as compre- hensive statistics on employment are not available. It is possible that some of those reported to be unemployed receive a fluctuating income from casual or indirect employment, since employers fre- quently report difficulty in recruiting labour despite better facilities and, in many cases, better wages. While there were fluctuations in employment in some industries, reduced employment in one sector tended to be offset by increased employment in another. Changes of this kind do not necessarily imply any lengthy period of un- employment for individual workers, since the majority of semi- skilled and unskilled workers are adaptable and can move from one industry to another similar industry.

Migration for employment. As many countries maintain strict control over the entry of Chinese, the scope for employment of Hong Kong Chinese overseas is comparatively limited. The prin- cipal sources of overseas employment are Sabah (formerly North Borneo), Brunei and Sarawak, where skilled and semi-skilled workers are in great demand in the construction industry and the oil fields. Another outlet is in Nauru and Ocean Islands for which the British Phosphate Commissioners continue to recruit Hong Kong workers, and an Australian construction company also re- cruited building labour for a workers' housing project. Singapore continued to attract more fishermen and a number of enamel workers went to Thailand, Africa and Pakistan. Chinese-style restaurants in Britain and other countries provided employment for many waiters and cooks at attractive wages. Except for British subjects taking up employment in Britain, all emigrant manual workers held contracts of service drawn up in accordance with international labour conventions and approved by the Labour Department. Before their departure, emigrant workers have the terms of their contracts explained to them. During 1963 1,638 such contracts were approved, compared with 1,514 in 1962.

Under the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, which came into force on 1st July 1962, a Hong Kong Chinese or a Commonwealth citizen able to claim British nationality by birth who wishes to go to Britain to work must, if he has not found a prospective employer

EMPLOYMENT

49

there, apply to the Ministry of Labour in Britain for an employ- ment voucher before entry can be considered. The Labour Depart- ment undertakes to forward such applications under arrangements with the British issuing authorities. During the year 51 applications were received and 18 vouchers were issued. Most of the applicants were non-manual workers. At the request of the Ministry of Labour 78 vouchers for which prospective employers had made direct applications on behalf of workers whom they had engaged, were distributed to successful applicants.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

Wages. The wages of workers not engaged on piece rates are calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are custom- arily paid at weekly or fortnightly intervals. Supervisors, techni- cians, employees of public utility companies, and all Government servants with the exception of a few casual workers are normally paid on a monthly basis. Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in manufacturing industries and in the printing trade are on daily rates of pay. There is no differentiation in rates of pay for men and women engaged in piece work, but men engaged on a time basis are generally more highly paid than their female counterparts. Appren- tices receive progressively increasing rates of pay throughout a training period varying between two and five years, rising to a maximum which approximates that of an unskilled worker.

During 1963 wide-spread demands for wage increases were made by employees in utility companies, public transport, shipyards, port work, dairy farming, building construction, engineering under- takings, certain manufacturing industries, and a section of Govern- ment service. In most cases, the industries or occupations affected had adjusted wage rates in 1960. Workers, through their unions, represented that they were experiencing a decline in standards of living owing to an increase in living costs which had not been balanced by an increase in earnings. On average, increases in monthly take-home pay granted during 1963 by utility companies were between $21 and $32, (7 per cent to 15 per cent). In the case of officers on Scale I in Government service, the increases varied from $26 to $33 (11 per cent to 14 per cent). The two leading shipyards granted a flat increase of $41.60, representing 33 per cent for labourers and 17.6 per cent for skilled workers. Prior to

50

EMPLOYMENT

     adjustment, wages in the dockyards were below average although cash earnings were not abnormally low as wages are payable on a basis of an eight-hour day for a 26-day month and overtime is worked on a large scale. In the tram, bus and taxicab companies the increases granted were between $18 and $25 (7 per cent to 11 per cent). Because of the casual nature of their employment, stevedores and ship-painters received an increase of 37 per cent in their daily wages, while tallyclerks were granted an increase of 16.6 per cent to 18.8 per cent. As a result of this wide-spread adjustment in wages, the current wage rates for daily rated workers were: skilled $9 to $24; semi-skilled $8 to $11.50; unskilled $3.50 to $9. Many employers provide their workers with free accom- modation, subsidized meals or food allowances, good attendance bonuses, paid rest-days, and also a Chinese New Year bonus of one month's pay.

      Working hours. There are no legal restrictions on the hours of work for men. Most of those in industry work 10 hours a day or less, while civil servants and those employed in concerns operating on Western lines work eight hours. Regulations made under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, provide for maximum daily hours, limited overtime, weekly rest-days and rest periods for women and young persons.

      Young persons between the ages of 14 and 16 may work only eight hours a day, with a break of one hour after five hours' con- tinuous work. Children under the age of 14 are prohibited from working in industry, and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground. Restrictions on the hours of work for women, introduced on 1st January 1959, have resulted in a decrease in the number of hours worked by men employed in the same concerns. By the end of 1963, 141 cotton spinning, cotton weaving and silk spinning mills had introduced a system of three eight-hour daily shifts and it was estimated that 25,412 men and 20,496 women were working eight hours a day. A rest period of one hour a day is customary throughout industry, but when working hours exceed eight a day, the rest period may be prolonged to as much as three hours. Except where continuous production demands a rotation of rest days, which are usually unpaid, Sunday is the most common rest day. Many male industrial

EMPLOYMENT

51

     workers do not have a rest day but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

Retail Price Index. The Commerce and Industry Department compiles and publishes a monthly retail price index which covers a wide range of items found in the normal budget of both industrial and white-collar workers, calculated on the basis of a survey carried out in 1948. A base of 100 for March 1947 is used. Although Government has abandoned the payment of variable cost of living allowances based on this index, except for lower paid grades, some employers still follow the scales of cost of living allowances published monthly by the Labour Department.

       In 1963 the index fluctuated between 120 and 125 with an average of 122.9. Details are shown in Appendix I.

Implementation of Government's earlier decision to conduct a budgetary survey of household expenditure with a view to prepar- ing a consumer price index, to reflect the expenditure patterns of a wider section of the community than the retail price index, was begun during the year. The survey is undertaken by a special unit in the Commerce and Industry Department. Mr G. C. Hamilton, Principal Assistant Colonial Secretary, who was appointed by Government in 1962 to conduct an interim survey on wages and salaries in Government service, published the report of his survey in April. With the information available, Mr Hamilton reached the conclusion that between 1958 and 1962 the cost of living for labourers and artisans had increased by 3.5 per cent and by five per cent for those living in uncontrolled premises. For white-collar staff, using the 1959 weights in the retail price index modified in certain respects, the cost of living since April 1959 was estimated to have increased by about five per cent for clerical staff, seven per cent for executive staff and nine per cent for professional staff.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

      Labour Department. The rapid expansion of local industry since the war has been reflected in a corresponding growth of the Labour Department with 23 officers in 1947 and 177 in 1963, when it was reorganized to have a Factory Inspectorate separate from the Labour Inspectorate. The former is responsible for the technical aspect of factory inspection and the latter for the enforcement of social legislation e.g. on conditions of employment of women and

52

EMPLOYMENT

young persons, holidays with pay, sickness allowances, and such other non-statutory inspection services as may be required. To- gether with the Registry of Trade Unions, the Labour Department is primarily responsible for carrying out Government's labour policy and the Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Government on labour and industrial relations. He is ex officio chairman of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both labour and management are represented, and at present chairman of the Standing Committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training. He is also, ex officio, a member of the Radiation Board and the Port Committee. He is concurrently Commissioner of Mines. All labour legislation is initiated in the department, which is also responsible for ensuring that Hong Kong's obligations under international labour conventions are observed. The registration of industrial undertakings, coupled with regular inspection, is the basis for ensuring safe and healthy working conditions. The department conciliates in disputes between management and labour and offers advice on the establishment of appropriate machinery for joint consultation or negotiation. Trade unions are guided in their formation and classes are organized to assist union officials in accountancy and administration. Largely through the investiga- tions of the labour inspectorate and the health visitors, the depart- ment administers legislation governing workmen's compensation and the working conditions of women and young persons employed in industry. The department also provides training in supervisory techniques. Special protection is given to emigrant labour and help in seeking work is given to redundant workers from military and civil establishments.

Throughout the year, posters on industrial safety were displayed in factories, and the press reported on many aspects of the depart- ment's work. Talks on general safety in workplaces and on safe practices in specific processes were given by officers of the depart- ment to members of employers' associations, workers' unions and students of the Technical College. Two Safety Committees, cover- ing shipbuilding and repair and cargo-handling, continued to hold regular meetings.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Trade Unions. With few exceptions trade unions are affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear

EMPLOYMENT

53

     allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided politically, and further splintered by language, the number of unions has grown beyond practical needs, and divergent loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organizations. Ignorance of trade union movement principles makes it difficult to improve this structure.

      The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 63 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills and public utilities, or are seafarers. A further 27 unions, nominally inde- pendent, align themselves with the federation and take part in its activities. Early in the year, the federation allocated funds to affiliated unions whose members were affected by the fire in Fuk Wah Village and offered free medical treatment in FTU clinics to all workers and their families who were victims. During the water crisis, a delegation from the federation called at the Colonial Secretariat and the Labour Department to inform Government of the effects of the water shortage on industry and presented letters putting forward suggestions for improving the situation.

The other trade union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathizes with the policies of the Taiwan authorities. Most of the members of its 63 affiliated unions and of the 43 nominally independent unions, which generally support the TUC, are employed in the catering and building trades. Although the number of unions sympathetic to it far exceed those adhering to the FTU, both the declared and estimated paid-up membership figures of the TUC unions are very much lower than those in the other group. The TUC is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Five officers from unions affiliated or friendly to the TUC attended a trade union education course in Taiwan organized by the Asian Regional Office of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU- ARO). In November, five other officers attended a 15-days' seminar in Bombay to study the role of trade unions in economic develop- ment. In conjunction with the ICFTU-ARO, the TUC organized one simple and two advanced training courses in trade union education. As a number of medical clinics are operated by trade unions, the TUC showed considerable concern over the new

54

EMPLOYMENT

     Medical Clinics Ordinance and held meetings to study its implications.

There are 45 independent unions, a number of which continued to make improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members. During the year, a large number of trade unions put forward demands for wage increases, and strike action occurred in several instances following failure to reach agreement with employers. Both the FTU and the TUC supported the wage demands.

       A successful series of classes organized by the Labour Depart- ment for officers of the trade union movement was held during the year. The Fourth Trade Union Leadership Course in June was attended by 21 principal officers from 19 unions. Other activities included four series of classes on labour legislation, two courses on trade union administration, three courses on simple trade union accounting, lectures on safety in industry, a series of advanced classes in trade union accounting for officers who are directly con- cerned with the financial administration of trade unions and a course for women officers of trade unions.

The Labour Department prepared and issued three publications for use in its trade union educational programme, one of which entitled Dictionary of Trade Union Terms, was published in English and Chinese at the request of a number of trade union leaders interested in understanding union terms used in various parts of the world. The other two, entitled Elections in Trade Unions and Trade Unions and Education, were published in Chinese in the series How To Make Your Union Effective.

      Labour disputes. Although demands for wage increases were widespread, strike action took place in a comparatively small number of trades and industries. These included stevedoring, ship painting, cargo-tallying, shipbreaking, house painting, junk build- ing, manufacture of umbrellas and glassware, tailoring, wool spin- ning, cotton spinning and the manufacture of carpets and rugs. Wage demands in the utility companies, road transport undertakings and dairy farming were settled by direct negotiation between man- agements and trade unions. In some cases, negotiations lasted for over five months before settlements were reached. There were altogether 19 strikes, and the number of man-days lost in disputes up to the end of the year was estimated at 87,199. During the year

EMPLOYMENT

55

     182 large wage claims and 1,573 minor disputes were dealt with by the Labour Department.

The Employment Liaison Office, originally set up in November 1957 to help redundant workers of Service establishments to find alternative employment, ceased to register such personnel, but continued to provide facilities for those already registered but still unemployed. Of a registered total of 6,562 redundant employees, only 225 remained unemployed at the end of the year, most of whom are unable to work because of poor health or old age. Needy registrants receive relief rations from the Social Welfare Depart- ment, or in some cases, a grant from a statutory memorial fund called the Brewin Trust Fund.

LEGISLATION

The Boilers and Pressure Receivers Ordinance No 38 of 1962, which repealed and replaced the Steam Boilers Ordinance (Chapter 56) was brought into operation by proclamation on 1st March 1963, with the exception of provisions relating to pressure vessels and the issuing of certificates of competency, which are to be brought into force at a later date. The Ordinance requires boilers and other pressure equipment (with certain exceptions) to be registered and prescribes frequency of examination and methods of operation and maintenance.

      The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordin- ance, 1963, became law on 6th June and was brought into effect by proclamation on 25th October. This amending legisla- tion permits the Commissioner of Labour to grant provi- sional, rather than full, registration to premises not in an industrial zone or a recognized industrial area and not specifically designed for industrial use. This will depend on whether the use of these premises for industrial purposes can be continued temporarily without endangering the health, safety and welfare of persons working therein, or of the public at large. Over the years the shortage of industrial buildings, and in particular of premises suitable for use by small industrial enterprises, has encouraged the establishment of industry in unregistrable premises. Prosecution would have involved their ultimate closure thereby affecting the livelihood of thousands of workers. Provisional registration will

56

EMPLOYMENT

provide the practical degree of control required to cope with the present problem and will enable the Labour Department gradually, as industrial premises become available, to persuade factories in- adequately housed in buildings never intended for industrial use to move into proper industrial premises where they may be fully registered.

      Amendments to the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance and the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance to cover occupational diseases were being finalized at the end of the year and draft legislation concerning recruitment and contracts for over- seas employment was in an advanced stage.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

      Industrial health. The protection of workers' health in work- places and the detection and prevention of occupational diseases are the particular concern of the industrial health section of the Labour Department which also has an important secondary role in solving the attendant medical and social problems of persons injured in occupational accidents. Health control of working en- vironments is maintained by routine inspection of selected indus- trial undertakings, supported by field surveys and atmospheric monitoring where necessary. Special instruments are used to collect and measure atmospheric dust, fumes and gases, to record tem- perature, humidity and air velocities, and to measure levels of radioactivity.

      The provision of adequate first-aid arrangements in factories is encouraged, and first-aid training classes for industrial workers are organized in conjunction with the St John Ambulance Association. Since these classes were started in 1956, a total of 886 workers have obtained first-aid certificates. The need for first-aid rooms or clinics is now recognized by local industry and the larger firms provide them. Under the Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance, 1961, applications from industrial undertakings for recognition of medical treatment schemes are considered.

Periodic physical examinations, blood tests and urine examina- tions were carried out on lead workers and workers handling radio- active substances or X-ray apparatus and, following the introduc- tion of fluoridation of urban water in 1962, a survey was made

8,500

8,000

7,500

7,000

VALUE OF HONG KONG'S

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN MILLION DOLLARS)

6,500

Total Imports Total Exports

Imports from China

Exports to China

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0

1952 '53

'54

'55

'56

'57

'58

'59

'60

'61

'62

'63

8,500

8,000

7,500

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

7,000

Total Imports

Imports from China

6,500

Total Exports

Exports to China

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0

1952

'53

'54

'55

'56

'57

'58

$59

'60

'61

'62

'63

EMPLOYMENT

57

      on the absorption of fluorides among plant attendants. This survey showed that the quantity of fluorides absorbed by them during their work was not excessive. X-ray examinations are given to selected groups of workers in dusty trades where a pneumoconiosis hazard is known to exist. Silicosis appears to be the major local occupational disease, partly because of the preponderance of granite rock, (containing a high percentage of free silica) with which quarry workers and others have to deal in the course of their work. The notification of cases of specific occupational disease is not yet compulsory, and reliance is placed on cases being discovered by Government medical officers or reported by private doctors.

The chief causes of sickness absenteeism in Hong Kong appear to be respiratory tract infections and gastro-intestinal upsets. Three health visitors do case work on persons injured by occupational accidents and maintain contact with hospitals, clinics, doctors, factory managers and other officers of the Labour Department who deal with workmen's compensation. Degrees of permanent inca- pacity for workmen's compensation cases are usually assessed at weekly medical boards in the Queen Mary and Kowloon hospitals. The opening of the medical centre of the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation at Kwun Tong in September 1962 marked a step forward in the treatment of injured workers. In the centre, which is designed to accommodate 80 persons, men suffering temporary or permanent incapacity through occupational accidents receive physiotherapy, occupational therapy and vocational training.

Industrial welfare. Many industrial managements now realize the importance of staff welfare and provide their employees with more comprehensive facilities than are required by labour legis- lation. First-aid equipment and drinking water must be pro- vided if a factory is to be registered, and where appropriate, the department strongly recommends the inclusion of dining and rest rooms in plans for new factories. Many of the larger concerns have clinics and free medical treatment is sometimes given to both employees and their families. Free or subsidized meals are com- monly provided by managements, and free or cheap accommoda- tion is sometimes offered to workers in the larger factories. Some firms employ full-time welfare officers while others organize cine- ma and opera shows and provide facilities for football, basketball

58

EMPLOYMENT

and swimming. Adult education is sometimes arranged with free or subsidized tuition for employees' children. There are also voluntary organizations which provide hostels and playgrounds catering specifically for industrial workers.

Workmen's compensation. Workmen injured while working, and the dependants of those fatally injured, are entitled to compensa- tion under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1953, which stipulates the minimum rates of compensation. Assistance and advice are given by the Labour Department in all cases of work- men's compensation. Most claims are settled by amicable agree- ment approved by the department. Fatal cases are dealt with by the Courts and free legal aid is provided where necessary. During the year $2,403,822.37 was paid to injured workmen, and depend- ants in 137 fatal cases were awarded a total of $1,146,928.00.

Apprenticeship. Government employs apprentices in the work- shops of the Public Works Department, the Printing Department and the Kowloon-Canton Railway. Apprentices must sign inden- tures and attend technical classes. Several large firms also employ apprentices who are encouraged to attend technical classes, the tuition fees often being paid by the employers. Several of the larger spinning and weaving mills operate apprenticeship schemes for mechanics or junior engineers, and arrange classes on their own premises in both technical and general subjects.

      On the advice of the Labour Advisory Board, an ad hoc sub- committee of the standing committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training was set up to study the subject of apprentice- ship, and its report was being studied by Government at the end of the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

The 1961 census showed that farming and fishing were no longer the major occupations in the New Territories. Only 30 per cent of the working population were so employed as against 30 per cent in manufacture, eight per cent in commerce and 20 per cent in transport and services.

      Rice is the traditional farming crop and was formerly cultivated to the virtual exclusion of all others. During the 1950's, however, there was a marked changeover to vegetable production, particu- larly by immigrants, while more recently pigs and poultry have

EMPLOYMENT

59

been reared on a large scale. During the 1961 census 30 per cent of farmers described rice as their main crop as against 34 per cent for vegetables and 14 per cent and 11 per cent for pigs and poultry respectively. (More details of the farming and fishing in- dustries will be found in chapter 7).

      The increase in industrial employment has mainly been caused by the rapid growth of the modern industrial complex of Tsuen Wan/Kwai Chung where workers are mainly engaged in the textile industry with a certain number in metal and enamel ware manu- facture, foodstuffs and plastics production. This industrial concen- tration also includes nearby Tsing Yi Island where there is a modern plywood factory as well as limekilns and shipbreaking. Further west along the Castle Peak Road at Sham Tseng is the Colony's brewery and a large textile works. At Castle Peak itself there are textile, plastic and carpet factories. At Sha Tin there is a dyeing and finishing works, while carpets are manufactured at Tai Po. Junk Bay, on the south-east side of the New Territories, has been designated as an area for the Colony's flourishing ship- breaking industry together with its associated trades such as the production of rolled steel bars. Mining and quarrying also employ a small labour force in a number of places, the largest being the iron ore mine at Ma On Shan.

Traditional village industries still provide a certain amount of employment in the market towns of the New Territories such as Cheung Chau, Yuen Long and Tai Po. Examples are the prepara- tion of salt-fish, fish-paste, bean curd, soya sauce and preserved fruits; the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime; brick manu- facture; boat building and repairing. On Peng Chau Island there is an old-established match factory for which villagers on neigh- bouring islands make match-boxes by hand as a subsidiary occupation.

       The intensification of agriculture and the spread of industry have been factors in the growth of the New Territories townships, where increasing numbers of people are now employed in commerce, retail trade and hawking and in services such as Government and transport. Public and private building development is also taking place in the New Territories on an increasing scale, and this employs a large labour force.

60

EMPLOYMENT

Young men from the New Territories have for many generations sought their fortunes overseas, sending back money to their families and often returning later to their villages as men of substance-at least by local standards. In recent years, there has been a very marked movement of young men going to Britain to work in Chinese restaurants and 1,747 New Territories people are known to have left for work in Britain in 1962. At the present time there are believed to be about 1,300 Chinese restaurants in Britain employing more than 20,000 Hong Kong workers, the majority from the New Territories. Since the Commonwealth Immigrants Act came into force on 1st July 1962 this emigration has slowed down to a certain extent as reflected in the number of 780 travellers (712 from the New Territories) in 1963. Overseas remittances, almost entirely from Britain, are now an important factor in the economy of the New Territories. During 1963, for example, postal and money orders to the value of $20,973,152.60 were cashed at New Territories post offices. This does not include the amount remitted through banks, which is not known but is likely to be of the same order.

4

Public Finances

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies is still required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

       Hong Kong is financially self-supporting apart from the cost of its external defence (to which, however, a substantial contribution is made), and raises its revenue from local sources to meet the cost of all local works and services. The Colony's Legislative Council is the sole taxing and spending authority. Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies similar to the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. The Colony's revenue and expenditure figures therefore represent all the public income and all the public expenditure of the Colony excluding 'below the line' operations covering various funds. Comparative figures for the past five years

are:

Financial Year

Expenditure $ million

Revenue

(1st April to 31st March)

$ million

Surplus $ million

1958-9

629.3

589.9

...

39.4

Deficit

1959-60 ...

664.6

709.9

45.3

Surplus

1960-1

1961-2

1962-3

859.2

845.3

13.9

1,030.4

953.2

77.2

1,253.1

1,113.3

139.8

There was a small deficit in the first financial year (1946-7) after the war, caused by the legacy of the world conflict, but in each of the next 12 years substantial surpluses were accumulated. Not until the financial year 1959-60 was a further deficit recorded and this has been followed by the further surpluses shown in the table above. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying

62

PUBLIC FINANCES

economic conditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement. Perhaps equally noteworthy is the fact that it has been achieved after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing. Some indication of how heavy this capital expenditure has been is shown by the figures for the past three years. In 1960-1 capital expenditure totalled $276 million; in 1961-2 $324 million and in 1962-3 $426 million.

      The principal reason for these results, which appear so favour- able, is that during the last twelve years exceptionally rapid in- creases in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield of taxation and other sources of revenue sub- stantially without any appreciable increase in their rates. Thus revenue was able to expand from $291.7 million in 1950-1 to $1,253.1 million in 1962-3. The rate of increase was affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend was continuous. On the expendi- ture side there was inevitably a time-lag before Government could develop the public and social services necessary for the increased population. However, as these services were developed and the rate of their development has gradually accelerated-the margin between recurrent expenditure and recurrent revenue tended to narrow. For example, in 1952-3 recurrent expenditure absorbed only 50 per cent of the recurrent revenue but by 1959-60 the figure had risen to 82 per cent and in the latter year the surplus of revenue over expenditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure. An overall deficit of $45.3 million thus occurred. Subsequent budgets anticipated that recurrent expenditure would continue to absorb some 80 per cent of the recurrent revenue while capital expenditure would continue to expand. Further and substantial deficits, therefore, seemed likely. Measures were accord- ingly taken to control expenditure more closely and to expand revenue by increases in various duties and charges and by an additional tax on new private cars. The picture now available suggests, however, that the economic strength and resilience of the Colony was under-estimated for while recurrent expenditure has continued at approximately the levels expected the proportion of the recurrent revenue absorbed in meeting this expenditure has

PUBLIC FINANCES

63

fallen. Thus the figure of 82 per cent mentioned for 1959-60 fell in 1960-1 to 74 per cent (the estimate was 88 per cent), to 69 per cent (against an estimated 80 per cent) in 1961-2 and to 68 per cent (against an estimated 78 per cent) in 1962-3. These varia- tions were due mainly to an upsurge in recurrent revenue arising from the very active trading conditions which have prevailed in the Colony. At the same time capital expenditure, though rising substantially, was rather lower than originally forecast, and capital revenue, mainly from land sales, showed a marked increase.

A comparative statement of recurrent and capital income and expenditure for the years 1959-60 (actual) to 1963-4 (estimated) is included in Appendix II. It will be seen that a deficit of nearly $163 million is estimated for 1963-4, indicating that revenue will no longer be able to finance all capital expenditure. Such expendi- ture arises from Government's very heavy programme of non- recurrent Public Works, mainly for more schools, medical facilities and housing as well as for water supplies, roads and land develop- ment schemes. The estimated deficit may well prove to be pessi- mistic but, even so, the possibility exists that money will have to be raised in succeeding years by loans and additional taxation if development in these fields is not to be curbed.

       The Colony's statement of assets and liabilities at 31st March 1963 and analyses of the Colony's revenue and expenditure in the financial years 1961-2 and 1962-3, together with the estimates for 1963-4, are at Appendix II. In 1962-3 the revenue of $1,253 million was $191 million more than the original estimate. The largest excess was under land sales ($102 million) but most of the recurrent heads also recorded excesses; of the latter internal revenue with $22 million (including $9 million on earnings and profits tax and $8 million on estate duty), revenue from lands, interests, rents, with $16 million (including $12 million from interest) and Post Office with $15 million were the largest. Expendi- ture for the year was $1,113 million against the estimate of $1,226 million, a saving of $113 million of which $60 million on public works non-recurrent arose from certain projects not progressing as fast as expected.

The statement of assets and liabilities shows that at 31st March 1963 net available public assets were $797 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a

64

PUBLIC FINANCES

reserve against future deficits on current account. There was, in addition, a Development Loan Fund of $314 million, used to finance social and economic development projects (see Appendix II) of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes. At 31st March 1963 outstanding com- mitments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $27 million by $171 million. According to normal Government practice the statement of assets and liabilities excludes the public debt of the Colony from the liabilities. The debt at 31st March 1963 was equivalent to approximately $25 per head of population. Indebted- ness decreased by $3.8 million during the year owing mainly to the repayment of $3.2 million of the United Kingdom's interest- free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak airport. This loan is repayable in 15 annual instalments; the first repay- ment was made on 1st October 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $21 million on 31st March 1963. Details of public debt, Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are also given in Appendix II.

EXCISE DUTIES

      There is no general import tariff and only five groups of com- modities, namely alcoholic liquors, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol, whether imported or manufactured locally, are subject to excise duty. All firms engaged in the import, export, or sale of dutiable commodities must be licensed. Duty is collected by the Director of Commerce and Industry and is pay- able, in the case of goods imported into the Colony, before their release from a shipping agent's bonded warehouse or, if they are manufactured in the Colony, upon their release from the factory's bonded store.

      Samples, bona fide gifts and donations to charitable organiza- tions for free distribution within the Colony, are normally exempted from duty. Drawback is allowed upon the dutiable elements of manufactured goods exported from the Colony.

       The rates of duty are, in general, low. A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is at present levied at

PUBLIC FINANCES

65

      between 66 per cent and 89 per cent of the rate for non-Common- wealth liquor; locally-produced beer enjoys a further preferential margin over Commonwealth beer. Duty on all types of liquor ranges from $1.60 a gallon on locally brewed beer to $72 a gallon for liquors and spirits of non-Commonwealth origin.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $2.50 a pound for Chinese prepared tobacco to $9 a pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted for unmanu- factured tobacco of Commonwealth origin and to cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth origin or manufacture.

The duties on motor spirits and other light oils are $1.50 and 10 cents a gallon respectively. The general rate of duty on heavy oils is $1 a gallon although public omnibus operators and marine and industrial users pay much reduced rates. The rates of duty on table waters and methyl alcohol are 48 cents and $7.50 a gallon respectively.

        A new Dutiable Commodities Ordinance No 26 of 1963 was enacted in September and came into operation by proclamation on 16th October 1963. It repealed and replaced the Dutiable Com- modities Ordinance (Chapter 109), enacted in 1931, to which many amendments had been made over the years. In the main, the new ordinance merely consolidates these amendments.

RATES

       Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845 when an ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands, houses and premises 'for the upholding of the requisite Police Force'. The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a 'tenement', by which is meant any land or building (or part thereof) held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown. The valuation list covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and also a part of the New Territories adjacent to the main road from Lai Chi Kok to Castle Peak. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value. In the New Territories (outside New Kowloon) the charge is 11 per cent. The valuation list is prepared by the Com- missioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to

66

PUBLIC FINANCES

bring it up-to-date. Rates are due quarterly in advance and demand notes are issued by the Accountant General and are payable at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears. Revenue from rates has about doubled over the last five years and nearly trebled over the last eight years. The estimate for 1963-4 is $141,050,000.

      There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, charitable and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies running these establishments receive back the amount of rates paid in the form either of direct subventions or contributions toward

rates.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Tax on Earnings and Profits. Income was first subjected to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 with the introduction of the War Revenue Ordinance. This act was a temporary measure 'for the purpose of raising funds by way of tax on income to assist His Majesty's Government in the prosecution of the war'. The stated object of the imposition disappeared in 1945 and no attempt was made to collect tax after the liberation of the Colony, although the ordinance was not repealed until 1947.

The calls upon the Colony's finances were such that in 1947 a new source of revenue was essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on incomes as a permanent measure. The Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947, followed the principle of the old War Revenue Ordinance in charging tax only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted here or not. The ordinance aims at simplicity and to this end charges tax generally at source and at a flat rate rather than in the hands of the eventual recipient on a sliding scale. By so doing the necessity of ascertaining the total income of each individual is avoided.

Incomes and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which is subject to a separate tax, namely, Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A fifth and aggregate tax known as Personal Assessment is chargeable upon persons who so elect. The effect of election is that the individual's income other- wise chargeable to the four separate taxes is aggregated in a single sum which is reduced by personal allowances and charged

PUBLIC FINANCES

67

on a sliding scale. The privilege of election is not available to non- residents.

       The standard rate of tax has remained unchanged at 12 per cent since 1950. Business profits, interest received from loans and the interest element of purchased annuities are charged to tax at the full standard rate. However where the profits of a non- corporate business are below $7,000 for any year no tax is charged and tax chargeable on such businesses is restricted to one-half of the amount by which the profits exceed $7,000. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony with the exception of those situated in the New Territories and those wholly occupied by the owner as his residence. Up to and including the financial year 1960-1 Property Tax was charged at half the standard rate. An amendment made at the end of March 1961 increased this charge to the full standard rate for properties where the rent is not controlled by reference to the 1941 rentals. Salaries Tax is charged on the total income from employment reduced by allowances which are at present: allowance for tax- payer, $7,000; allowance for taxpayer's wife, $7,000; allowance for children, from $2,000 for each of the first two children down to $200 for the ninth child. Premiums paid for life insurance are allowed to an amount not exceeding one-sixth of the amount by which the income exceeds $7,000. Tax is charged on a scale which begins at one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of the net income and rises by one-fifth of the standard rate on each subsequent $5,000 until, at $45,000, the maximum of twice the standard rate is reached. The total Salaries Tax payable by any individual is restricted to an amount not exceeding the standard rate on his gross salary.

       It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during the financial year 1963-4 will be $223 million.

       Estate Duty. This was first introduced in 1931 and generally follows the lines of the tax having the same name in the United Kingdom. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong, no charge being made in respect of estates out- side the Colony. The rates of duty range from two per cent on estates valued between $100,000 and $200,000 to 40 per cent on estates over $15 million. Yield for the year ending on 31st March 1964 is estimated at $16 million.

68

PUBLIC FINANCES

Stamp Duty. This is modelled on Stamp Duty in the United Kingdom and fixed duties are charged on various documents. The lowest is 15 cents on bills of lading and receipts and the highest $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty on various other documents ranges from 15 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. A special duty at the rate of three per cent is payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current financial year is $52 million.

Entertainments, Dance Halls & Bets and Sweeps Taxes. Sub- stantial revenue accrues from these taxes and it is estimated they will yield $40,800,000 during the current year. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertainment. The rate of charge varies with the amount charged for admission and averages approximately 22 per cent. Certain types of enter- tainment given for philanthropic, charitable or educational pur- poses are taxed at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax is a levy of 10 per cent on all dance halls charges. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 7 per cent on totalizator receipts and 25 per cent on cash sweepstake receipts.

Business Registration. Registration of businesses on payment of a fee was first introduced in 1952 by the Business Regulation Ordinance, which was replaced by the Business Registration Ordinance in 1959. With certain exceptions including charitable institutions, every business carried on in the Colony must be registered and pay annually a registration fee of $25. Exemption is granted when the business is very small. These fees are expected to yield approximately $2,200,000.

LO

5

Currency and Banking

      WHEN Hong Kong was founded in 1841 China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. However the Government kept its accounts in sterling until 1862, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold. A mint was set up in 1866 which produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. The machinery was sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

An Order of the Queen in Council dated 2nd February 1895 authorized a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

        In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and by 1890, they had become established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank); by then the

70

CURRENCY AND BANKING

Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India had been reorganized. In 1911 this reorganized Mercantile Bank of India (now the Mercantile Bank) joined the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues, in exchange for certificates of indebted- ness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in sterling and operates in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

       At the same time Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960, owing to the heavy expense of keeping clean notes in circulation, a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a British florin was reintroduced. Stocks are sufficient to replace all the notes and banks have been asked to withdraw all notes received in the course of business, but many notes still remain in circulation. The dollar notes and coins are backed by Security Funds which maintain their assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of five cents, 10 cents and 50 cents and notes of the value of one cent. Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1/3d sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December 1963

was:

Bank note issue

   Government $1 note issue Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coins and notes

$1,140,185,910.00 19,087,487.00

$

$ 31,997,631.00

38,522,146.30

CURRENCY AND BANKING

71

      The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modi- fications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

      The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor in Council and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of the year 87 licences had been approved and 48 banks were also authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Many of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities. There are at present 20 full members of the Clearing House who also act as agents for 50 sub-members. Monthly clearings during the year averaged $2,877 million. Banking activities continued to expand; one new bank was licensed during the year, while some additional branches of existing banks were opened. The table at Appendix III illustrates the rapidity of expansion between December 1955 and December 1963. Total deposits had then reached $5,425 million and at the same date loans and advances to commerce and industry totalled $3,642 million.

      This expansion and the difficulties in which one local bank found itself in 1961 led the Banking Advisory Committee to re- commend the revision of the Banking Ordinance, 1948, to provide more adequately for the supervision of banking operations. Mr H. J. Tomkins of the Bank of England spent some time in the Colony in the early part of 1962. His report on the Hong Kong banking system, published in April 1962, contained a full discus- sion of the situation together with recommendations for a new banking ordinance. These were circulated to interested parties whose comments were considered by the Banking Advisory Com- mittee before the formulation of drafting instructions. A new bill on banking to provide for the proper protection of the interests of depositors and for the adequate inspection of banks was read

72

CURRENCY AND BANKING

for the first time in June. The draft attracted further comment from banking interests and the accounting profession. Following resolution of the many points raised it was decided to withdraw the current bill and to present a fresh bill, the first reading of which was expected to take place early in 1964.

6

Industry and Trade

GENERAL REVIEW

HONG KONG may perhaps be included among what are now usually described as developing countries. It is unique among such terri- tories in the dependence of its economy on industrialization. No less than 40 per cent of the labour force is engaged in the manu- facturing industry, an estimated 90 per cent of whose production is exported. Furthermore, as Hong Kong is a free port, its in- dustries have grown up exposed to the full competition of products from the most industrially advanced countries. They enjoy no form of protection and few special advantages, but important among these is stability of administration and currency, and access on preferential terms to the markets of Britain and a number of the smaller Commonwealth territories under the Ottawa Agreements of 1932. Since 1952, because of American restrictions on products originating in the Peoples' Republic of China, Hong Kong has been in a position to supply the United States market with like products, which has stimulated the growth of certain kinds of industry. Finally, the Government grants concessionary terms regarding terms of payment for Crown land sold with limitation to industrial

users.

Exposure to world competition puts a premium on industrial efficiency. Industry and exports have expanded with remarkable rapidity and the standard of living of the population has un- doubtedly risen in the face, not only of natural increase at a rate normal by Asian standards, but of immigration on a scale un- paralleled for so small a territory.

But this very success has provoked a reaction among some advanced countries, and rather less than liberal policies are now being applied in international trade in the product in which Hong Kong has been most successful, that is, textiles.

The development of industry has coincided with the decline of the entrepôt trade with the Mainland. This has not faded away

74

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

completely and has, to some extent, been replaced by a newer kind of trade in which Hong Kong acts as a warehouse for prod- ucts from the developed countries to be marketed in south-east Asia and the islands of the Western Pacific; re-exports now represent less than a quarter of total exports, such is the now dominant role of local industry.

TRADE

      The value of merchandise imported, exported and re-exported in 1963 amounted to $12,403 million, an increase of over 12 per cent on the total for 1962 and the highest annual total ever recorded. Imports and domestic exports rose considerably in value and although re-exports rose by eight per cent, the increase in value was moderate by comparison. Cargo tonnages by all means of transport were 10.7 million tons, as against 9.5 million tons in 1962. The main features of the Colony's trade for the past two years, and a breakdown by countries and by commodities for the years 1961 to 1963, are given in Appendix IV*.

Imports in 1963 were valued at $7,412 million, which was 11 per cent higher than the previous year. Although domestic supplies of agricultural produce and fish are substantial, most of the Colony's foodstuffs have to be imported. Food was therefore the principal import, representing nearly 23 per cent of all imports and being worth $1,733 million, which was an increase of eight per cent over 1962. The chief items of edible imports were rice, live ani- mals, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, sugar and sugar prepa- rations, and fish and fish preparations. Other imported consumer goods included medicinal and pharmaceutical products, watches, radios, gramophones, tape recorders, tobacco and alcoholic bever- ages. Of considerable importance were the imports of raw ma- terials, and semi-manufactured goods for use in the Colony's industries, such as textile yarn and fabrics, raw cotton, base metals and plastic moulding materials, and capital goods such as ma- chinery and transport equipment, and mineral fuels and lubricants.

      The sources of imports are determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade channels. China was the Colony's principal supplier with 20 per cent by value of all

* See also graphs between pages 56 and 57.

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imports and 42 per cent of all the Colony's food imports. Other imports from China included textile yarn and fabrics. The value of goods imported from China increased by 23 per cent compared with 1962. Imports from Japan, the second largest supplier, showed an increase of 13 per cent in value compared with 1962. Imports of textile goods represented 36 per cent of all imports from Japan. Other imports from Japan included machinery, base metals, chemi- cals and miscellaneous manufactured articles. Among other major suppliers, imports from the United States fell, while those from Britain recorded an increase over 1962. Imports from Britain con- sisted mainly of machinery, transport equipment, textiles and base metals. The principal imports from the United States were ma- chinery, tobacco, fruits and vegetables, raw cotton, silver, platinum, gems and jewellery, plastic moulding materials and medicinal and pharmaceutical products.

      Despite the shortage of water which persisted throughout the year, the value of the Colony's domestic exports reached the record total of $3,831 million in 1963. This was an increase of 15 per cent over the previous year and represented nearly 77 per cent of total exports by value. Domestic exports continued to be con- centrated heavily on the products of the textile and garment manu- facturing industries, which accounted for 53 per cent by value in 1963. Exports of the Colony's next largest export industry, the manufacture of plastic goods, such as artificial flowers, toys and dolls and buttons, made up a further 10 per cent. The balance included a wide range of light industrial products. The direction of the export trade is influenced by many factors, among the more important being the advantages of the Commonwealth preference system and the varying degrees of protection practised particularly in the more developed countries. The volume depends in many cases upon the extent to which trade promotion activities and negotiation can find new outlets and overcome such barriers as exchange controls, quota restrictions and tariffs.

       In 1963, the United States remained the largest market for the Colony's domestic products, taking 25 per cent by value. Purchases by the United States increased by nearly $95 million or 11 per cent; but the rate of increase had slowed down compared with 1962. Other important purchasers of Hong Kong goods were the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Western Germany, Japan, Canada and

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     Australia, but domestic exports were also sent to practically every country in the world.

An indication of the size of the entrepôt trade may be gained from the value of re-exports, which totalled $1,160 million. This represented an increase of eight per cent compared with 1962. Although re-exports to China remained considerable, being valued at $62 million, it was only the fourth largest purchaser of re- exports. The first three were Malaysia, Japan and Macau. Chief commodities entering the re-export trade were gems and jewellery, textiles, medicinal and pharmaceutical products, sugar and sugar preparations, animal and vegetable crude materials and fruits and vegetables.

GROWTH OF INDUSTRY

      Hong Kong's first industries were services allied to the develop- ment of the port and the earliest was ship-building and repairing. The first Hong Kong-built vessel was launched in 1843. Two sugar refineries were established in 1878 and 1882, not so much to satisfy the needs of the then small population as to meet the requirements of ships' victualling officers. In 1885 a rope factory was started, again primarily to cater for the seafaring trade, and a cement factory was transferred to Hong Kong from Macau in 1899.

       From time to time there were efforts to set up new industries. Some were unsuccessful; a spinning mill was started in 1899 but closed down a few years later. Some industries, however, obtained a firm foothold. In 1902 the manufacture of rattanware began and in 1910 the knitting of cotton singlets and vests became established. Although these industries flourished they went more or less un- noticed amid the Colony's growing entrepôt activities. The first world war gave some impetus to the development of industry when the Colony was denied various manufactured goods from European sources and the immediate post-war years also saw some expan- sion. A weaving factory, operating 30 hand looms, was opened in 1922 and was followed five years later by the first flashlight factory.

       The Ottawa Agreements of 1932, under which Hong Kong prod- ucts became entitled to Imperial (now Commonwealth) Preference, were the first real encouragement to Hong Kong industry, enabling manufacturers to seek wider markets for their goods and attracting

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new investment. The merchant houses played a substantial part in this development. The first years of the second world war provided an additional stimulus, when military and civilian sup- plies produced in Hong Kong again partially replaced imports from overseas, and it is estimated that by the end of 1940 there were some 800 factories in the Colony.

Factory rehabilitation, after almost four years of enemy occupa- tion, was rapid, impelled by an acute shortage of consumer goods throughout war-scarred south-east Asia. The year 1949, when the influx of immigrants from China reached its peak, was a vital one for industry. Most of the immigrants arrived destitute, but many brought capital and technical skills, both of which found ready employment in Hong Kong.

The Korean War and the resultant embargo on trade in strategic commodities with China drastically reduced the volume of Hong Kong's commerce. Only industrial expansion could stabilize the economy and provide employment for the Colony's greatly swollen and still growing population. Industrialists reacted quickly to the new situation and, despite difficulties in obtaining certain raw materials, an increasing volume and range of Hong Kong products from many new and reinvigorated industries began to flow out to world markets.

Today there are 8,348 registered and recorded factories employ- ing 354,394 persons (for details see Appendix I). At the 1961 census, 603,248 persons claimed to be employed in factory-type operations, building construction and mining. Most industrialists are Chinese, although there are several important ventures owned and operated by non-Chinese or on a joint basis. Overseas interests have, to a growing extent, also entered into licensing arrangements with Hong Kong firms, authorizing the manufacture of products under internationally famous brand names, and into other forms of industrial co-operation.

Although no special benefits are available to industry by way of tax rebates or protective tariffs, the general facility with which industry may be established and conducted in Hong Kong has proved attractive both to investors here and overseas. Apart from a few revenue-producing excise duties, the Colony is a free port and Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

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      The variety of goods produced in Hong Kong is now consider- able. In general, while the heavier industries such as ship-building and ship-breaking continue to be important, the Colony has be- come best known for the price, quality and range of the products of its light industries. Of importance are cotton piecegoods, cotton yarn, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, cotton and woollen knitwear, enamelware, aluminiumware, torches, torch batteries and bulbs, transistor radios, electronic components, vacuum flasks, plasticware including plastic flowers, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather footwear, and rattanware. Among traditional Chinese goods the best known are brocade piecegoods, embroideries and drawnwork, crocheted gloves, carved articles of wood, ivory, jade and semi-precious stones, and the manufacture of articles from brass, pewter and other metals.

      There are many factors favouring industrial development in the Colony. They include low taxation, plentiful productive labour, the advantages of a free port, excellent shipping and commercial facilities and freedom from locally imposed trade restrictions. These, in general, more than compensate for three important handicaps, namely, an absence of raw materials, a scarcity of water and a shortage of land suitable for industrial purposes. While the first cannot be remedied the last two are being vigorously tackled. Extensive action to alleviate the water problem has been, and is being, taken. The opening of a new reservoir at Shek Pik on Lantau Island (see chapter 16) has increased the total storage capacity of the Colony's reservoirs by 50 per cent. A further scheme at Plover Cove is now under way and when completed should treble the existing water storage capacity.

HEAVY INDUSTRY

As already mentioned, ship-building and repairing is the oldest of Hong Kong's industries. Following naturally from its develop- ment as a trading port, the Colony has become one of the finest ship-building and repair centres in the East. Hong Kong shipyards can build ocean-going vessels of up to 10,000 tons dead-weight and can also construct and install their engines. At the other end of the scale, pleasure craft and utility vessels of all kinds including ocean-going yachts, vehicle and passenger ferries, sloops, cruisers, speed-boats of wood and fibre glass, tugs, yawls and steel lighters

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are regularly produced for local use and for export. The traditional Chinese junk, slightly modified from the basic design in use for many centuries, has also found acceptance abroad as a comfortable and stable pleasure craft.

The ship-breaking industry, though still of major economic importance was not as active as in previous years, having found it necessary to cut back its activities because of a general depres- sion in world metal markets. In spite of this contraction, Hong Kong is still one of the leading ship-breaking centres of the world. Much of the scrap obtained is used in local rolling mills, which produce an estimated average of 16,000 tons a month of mild steel bars, window sections, channels, etc. This represents a large part of the requirements of the Colony's building industry and in addition a considerable quantity of rods and bars is shipped abroad, principally to south-east Asian territories. Several rolling mills produce brass and aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are used locally for the manufacture of consumer goods. Among other heavy industries in the Colony, one which is of growing significance is the manufacture of machinery and parts. Built originally for domestic light industries, Hong Kong-made machine tools are now exported to over 70 countries. Of particular importance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, power presses, lathes and planing machines. Aircraft engineering is another important industry. One large establishment provides maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines using Kai Tak airport as well as for several national air forces. Facilities are available for complete airframe and engine overhaul, and work is received from 38 countries as far afield as Australia and Canada. The Colony also meets much of its requirements for cement through local manufacture, the raw materials being imported, with the exception of some clay and iron ore.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY

       The textile and garment industry is the Colony's largest; it dominates Hong Kong's economy and deserves, therefore, special attention. About 147,000 workers, or 41 per cent of the total labour force in registered and recorded factories and industrial under- takings, were employed at the end of the year in the spinning of cotton, silk, rayon and woollen yarns, weaving, knitting, dyeing,

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     printing and finishing of piecegoods, and the manufacture of all types of garments and made-up goods. The industry's exports during the year represented 53 per cent of the Colony's exports of domestic products. In all sectors of the textile industry, the manu- facture and processing of cotton goods predominates; wool, silk and artificial fibres take a secondary place. The cotton spinning mills, operating over 632,000 spindles, are among the most up- to-date in the world and first-class amenities are generally provided for workers. Cotton yarns counts range from 10's to 60's carded and combed in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1963 was estimated at approximately 235 million pounds, the greater part of which was consumed by local weaving establish-

ments.

      In the piecegoods weaving section-which increased its capacity during the year to about 19,000 looms-grey cotton drill, canvas, shirting-poplins, ginghams and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. Corduroy is also manufactured. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1963 was estimated at approx- imately 540 million square yards. Most of this was exported although there is an increasing tendency for the Colony's garment manufacturers to use local materials. Other products of the Colony's weaving industry are silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, woollen piecegoods, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, cotton open mesh, carpets and rugs.

      Development in the dyeing, printing and finishing of cotton textiles continued during the year. Multi-colour screen and roller printing, pre-shrinking by several processes under licence and polymerizing for the production of 'drip-dry' fabrics were under- taken for the local garment industry and for export.

An almost unlimited range and variety of garments are manufac- tured in Hong Kong, the most important being shirts. Embroidered blouses, underwear and nightwear, silk and brocade house and evening coats have a world-wide popularity in quality markets. Custom and mail order tailoring, principally of men's suits, has rapidly developed in recent years into an important branch of the industry. Suits of excellent cut and quality are exported all over the world. The Colony's knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, singlets, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, sweaters, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool, rayon and other fabrics.

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The value of woollen knitwear exports rose to a new record level of $272 million in 1963.

INDUSTRIAL DIVERSIFICATION

      Whilst textiles still dominate Hong Kong's industrial economy, the search for new products, materials and processes is never end- ing. As an example, processes ranging from spinning of polyester/ cotton and polyester/viscose yarn mixtures to the finishing and dyeing of the fabric itself are now being carried out in leading textile mills. Other well established industries have similarly under- gone internal diversification in product ranges and quality. The manufacture of plastics, one of the Colony's largest sources of employment, is a prime example. From very simple beginnings this industry now produces an extremely wide range of products, includ- ing plastic flowers which are now world-famous. Household furni- ture of polypropylene, foam plastic articles, and PVC coated fabric are among the more recent additions.

      A striking example of diversification is the electronics industry, which was not established until late in 1959 when one firm began assembling transistor radios from wholly imported parts. There are now more than 20 factories manufacturing or assembling transistor radios. As an indication of the growth of this industry, exports of transistor radios in 1963 totalled over 2,550,000 sets valued at $68 million as compared with 1.04 million sets valued at $37 million in 1962, and 263,000 sets valued at $12.7 million in 1961. The United States and Britain were the principal buyers. The manufacture of electronic component parts has also made great headway. Silicon transistors are now being produced in Hong Kong by a large American concern, whilst electronic com- ponents such as condensers and transformers are being made in the Colony in large quantities, either under licence or as a joint venture with foreign interests. Other new industries in recent years include the manufacture of air conditioners, plywood, carpets, and other furnishings, stainless steel cutlery, electric fans, clocks, cameras, binoculars and other optical equipment.

LAND FOR INDUSTRY

      To offset the shortage of flat land, Government continues to level hills and use the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. The

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largest and most advanced of these schemes is at Kwun Tong, an area fronting Kowloon Bay adjacent to urban Kowloon. Between 1955 and the end of 1963 land reclaimed at Kwun Tong for industrial use was 249.6 acres; the full scheme involves the forma- tion of some 641.1 acres of useful land. Of this, 153.9 acres are designed solely for industrial use, and the rest for commercial and residential use and other services. At the end of the year there were over 170 factories operating in the area. Further sites of various sizes are being sold frequently, according to a pre-determined programme of sales. The number of workers in the area exceeds 25,000 and represents roughly 7.05 per cent of the total industrial work force. More than 150,000 persons already live in the growing township and the eventual population is expected to be over 300,000.

      Several other schemes to provide much needed industrial land are either planned or under way. The largest of these involves the filling of what was formerly known as Gin Drinker's Bay at Kwai Chung in the New Territories, where development will be carried out alongside the present industrial centre of Tsuen Wan. The ship- breaking industry and its associated steel rolling plants will shortly be re-established in an area set aside for them in Junk Bay. Leases for five sites totalling over 1,700,000 square feet have already been sold by auction to local ship-breaking and steel rolling concerns and development of these sites is well in hand.

PRODUCTIVITY

It was apparent by 1963 that, with Hong Kong's increasing reliance on continued industrial development in maintaining economic viability, it was necessary for the Government to take the initiative in co-ordinating ways and means of introducing new methods into Hong Kong's industries in order to increase produc- tivity. Early in the year the Governor appointed a working com- mittee which was commissioned to study and advise on methods to increase the productivity of local firms. The committee, under the chairmanship of the Commissioner of Labour, includes repre- sentatives of interested Government departments and of various local trade and industrial associations.

In June the Colony was admitted as the ninth member in the Asian Productivity Organization. This is a non-political, non-profit- making and non-discriminatory organization established in May

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     1961 with the object of increasing productivity in Asian countries by mutual co-operation. Since its entry, Hong Kong has sent repre- sentatives to seminars and study groups organized by this body in member countries. In addition the Asian Productivity Organization has, in conjunction with the Hong Kong Management Association and the Commerce and Industry Department, arranged lectures by a Japanese expert for local industrialists and Government officers.

INDUSTRIAL MANAGEMENT

The rapid expansion of Hong Kong industry has created organizations quite different from the traditional pattern of a small family business and this has produced a corresponding need to develop managerial skills at all levels. To meet these needs in the upper levels of management, the Hong Kong Management Association, formed in 1960 under the sponsorship of the Federa- tion of Hong Kong Industries, provides a series of training courses in management studies developed to suit the particular circum- stances of Hong Kong. These courses cover general, office, per- sonnel, financial, production and marketing management; they employ such methods of instruction as lectures, discussions, forums and case studies. During the year, special courses on principles and practice in modern management were conducted by experts from the Urwick Orr Management Centre. The Association also participated in a congress held by the Comite International de l'Organisation Scientifique (CIOS) in New York.

The Hong Kong Technical College includes management studies in its full-time diploma course in building and engineering and provides evening courses in management subjects and work study. The technical college also offers short courses of three or four weeks each on productivity, dealing with such matters as plant layout, handling of materials, production planning and control, quality control, work study and allied subjects. The courses are intended for persons at middle management level, particularly those engaged in actual production work.

SUPERVISORY TRAINING FOR INDUSTRY

The Supervisory Training Section of the Labour Department also offers training in supervisory techniques free of charge to staff

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of industrial and commercial concerns and to civil servants. The four basic courses offered comprise the internationally recognized programme of training within industry. Firms are invited to nominate members of their staff for instruction as trainers and these then return to their own organizations to run courses them- selves. The section also offers courses for supervisors of those organizations which do not wish to employ trainers of their own. The scheme is well supported and to date altogether 3,770 persons have been trained in the four programmes.

INTERNATIONAL TRADING PROBLEMS

      The uncertainty over the future of the Colony's exports to Britain, which had persisted throughout the previous year as a result of the British Government's negotiations for entry into the European Economic Community, was to a large extent dispelled by the breakdown of these negotiations in January. The negotia- tions had, however, stimulated great interest locally in the markets presented by the Community for the type of goods produced by the Colony, and the year saw a considerable increase in exports to each of the Six, with the exception of Italy. Hong Kong exports to countries in the European Free Trade Association likewise recorded satisfactory increases.

      Another feature of the year with significance for Hong Kong's trade generally, which was given close study in the period under review, was the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Trade and Navigation, which was ratified in February. The treaty has among its principal objects the gradual removal of restrictions on the entry of Japanese goods into Britain, an objective assisted by the parallel disinvoca- tion by Britain of the use of Article XXXV of the GATT in respect of Japan and there was a strong presumption that its implementation would result in increased competition in the British market for a wide range of Hong Kong products. The treaty con- tains however a number of safeguards against damage to the established trade of manufacturers in Britain and its dependent territories arising from a sudden liberalization of entry of Japanese imports, but these can only be invoked on behalf of a dependent territory which has similarly disinvoked the use of Article XXXV of the GATT. This matter, and the connected question of the

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     possible extension of the treaty to cover Hong Kong, were given careful consideration during the year.

      The Colony studied with great interest the preparations for the 1964 round of tariff negotiations to be held within the framework of the GATT, and given impetus by the late President Kennedy's Trade Expansion Act. During the year attention was also paid to the results of the full revision of the United States tariff commenced in 1954, which were brought into effect in August. Although the intention had been throughout to simplify, and not to alter, the duty rates, the United States Government recognized that some alterations were unavoidable and that the trade of some countries supplying the American market could be affected. It was, therefore, agreed that contracting parties to the GATT had a right to com- pensation in such circumstances. Hong Kong's interest in certain items of a specialized nature resulted in the Colony having a case for compensation and representations were prepared for submission by the British Government to the United States during negotiations under the auspices of the GATT.

       Elsewhere, new restrictions on trade again exceeded measures for its liberalization, although the latter category included a number which were of some significance. The last Canadian import sur- charges imposed during the previous year were withdrawn in April, while the Federal Parliament of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in March passed legislation restoring preference under the Federal rebate tariff to a number of items from which it had been withdrawn in 1955. A welcome move by the Australian Government was the cancellation of the primage duty of 10 per cent on textile items other than piecegoods.

      By contrast Hong Kong's trade was adversely affected through, among other measures, a complete ban on all imports from the Colony imposed without warning by the Iraqi Government early in the year. Despite representations made through the British Government, the ban remained in being throughout the year and no reason was given for its imposition.

      In September, the Nigerian Government substituted for the previous open general licence a system of specific import licences in respect of a number of important Hong Kong exports to that country. This action was taken without prior consultation and was discriminatory. It followed similar action against Japan, and was

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apparently taken with the intention of controlling possible tran- shipment of Japanese goods to Nigeria through the Colony. Repre- sentations were made through the British Government, and these pointed out that adequate safeguards against such transhipment existed in the local system of certification of Hong Kong origin. Assurances were received that licences would be issued without restriction for Hong Kong goods, but the position remains unsatis- factory because of its discriminatory nature.

Turning to the very special problem of cotton textiles; following negotiations between the British and Hong Kong industries in 1958, Hong Kong entered into an undertaking, effective from 1st February 1959 and to apply for three years, to limit annual exports of cotton textiles to Britain to an equivalent of 164 million square yards. This undertaking was subsequently renewed for an 11 month interim period from 1st February to 31st December 1962 and later was extended again for a further three years from 1st January 1963 with an increased annual maximum equivalent of 185 million square yards. Within this overall quota level, there is a broad sub- division into two categories, namely, piecegoods and made-ups (including garments). Hong Kong voluntarily introduced further sub-divisions in the piecegoods category, separating loomstate (grey) cloth and finished materials and in the made-ups category by providing separate quotas for towels, pillowcases, other made- ups and garments. During 1962 agreement was also reached on the inclusion in the undertaking of cotton yarn and exports of this commodity were brought under quantitative control during the second half of 1962. This was the position at the beginning of 1963, with all cotton textile exports to Britain under restraint and subject to an overall yardage ceiling, allowing for no annual growth, but within which there was considerable scope for quota holders to adjust their production to meet changing British con- sumer demand. There was also provision for a six months carry- over each year to allow maximum utilization of quota.

The Hong Kong/United Kingdom Cotton Undertaking has un- doubtedly contributed to slowing down the expansion in productive capacity which characterized the development of the textile in- dustry between 1953 and 1962. Whilst this is unfortunate from Hong Kong's point of view, it has been recognized by the Hong Kong Government and by the textile industry, whose views are made

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available to the Government through the Cotton Advisory Board, that the British industry faced a difficult situation arising from rapidly increasing imports, particularly from Commonwealth coun- tries with their duty free entry into Britain under Commonwealth preference arrangements.

Had the voluntary restrictions entered into in respect of cotton textiles exported to Britain remained the only barrier to further expansion and development of the Hong Kong textile industry, the economic effect might not have been too serious, since other lucrative and potentially large markets remained open to Hong Kong textiles. Unfortunately, the United States Government, alarmed at the apparent danger to its textile industry presented by increasing imports of textiles, took the initiative of proposing dis- cussions in Geneva between all interested countries to find ways and means of regulating the growth of the trade by international agreement under the aegis of the GATT. The result of these dis- cussions was the Geneva Short Term Cotton Textiles Arrangement to which 18 countries acceded including Hong Kong. This arrange- ment was effective from 1st October 1961 for one year and enabled importing countries to request the exporting country or itself to apply restraints on imports of specific categories of cotton textiles in certain circumstances. During the course of the Short Term Arrangement, the United States Government requested the applica- tion of restraints on 30 categories of Hong Kong cotton textiles representing over 90 per cent of Hong Kong's exports. The Canadian Government also requested restraint on four categories of Hong Kong textiles during the course of the year.

      Following further discussions in September 1962 at Geneva, 22 countries, including Hong Kong, acceded to the International Long Term Cotton Textiles Arrangement which succeeded the Short Term Arrangement and which became effective on 1st October 1962 for five years. Acting under the terms of this arrangement, the Hong Kong Government agreed to continue restraint in the first year on exports to America on the 30 categories of textiles restrained during 1961-2. Subsequently, during the course of the first Long Term year the United States Government sought restraint on a further eight categories, in some of which Hong Kong's export performance was negligible.

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Late in 1962, the Hong Kong Government asked the United States Government to enter into negotiations regarding the admin- istration of export controls for the second Long Term year begin- ning on 1st October 1963. As a result a delegation from Hong Kong, headed by the Director of Commerce and Industry and including representatives of the Hong Kong textile industry as advisers, visited Washington at the latter end of May 1963 and entered into detailed negotiations with officials of the State, Com- merce and Labour Departments. These negotiations were discon- tinued in early June, there being a number of outstanding areas of disagreement between the two sides. Further protracted negotia- tions continued by correspondence and were finally brought to a conclusion by discussions in Hong Kong in October. Hong Kong will continue to exercise restraint over exports in 35 categories of textiles with one further restraint limiting the total yardage of corduroy which may be utilized in garment exports (which are already almost wholly under restriction under a variety of garment categories). The United States Government lifted restrictions in three categories which had been restrained during the first Long Term year.

One of Hong Kong's most promising textile customers during recent years has been West Germany. The Federal Government decided in August 1963 to utilize the Long Term Arrangement to request restraint on exports of cotton nightwear and cotton towels during the second Long Term year at very low levels. Hong Kong, acting within the terms of the Long Term Arrangement, has asked for further information to support the German claims that their market is being disrupted. Pending consideration of this and to protect the existing trade from speculation, provisional quotas to local shippers and manufacturers were issued in both categories. Shortly after receipt of the German requests for restraint in nightwear and towels, the Hong Kong Government was informed that the West German Government had lifted import restrictions on cotton woven shirts from Hong Kong. This category had been subject to restraint during the first Long Term year but exports from Hong Kong had fallen short of the annual restraint level (700,000 dozens) agreed.

      The Hong Kong Government continued to exercise restraint over exports of cotton woven nightwear and cotton woven shirts

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     (except dress shirts) to Norway in accordance with the terms of the five-year agreement entered into between Hong Kong and Norway in 1962. The Director of Commerce and Industry, on behalf of the Hong Kong Government, signed the Memorandum of Agreement which set out the details of the five year restraints in Oslo on 28th March 1963.

ADMINISTRATION

       Trade Promotion. On the advice of the Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the members of which are representative of the Colony's various industrial and commercial interests, under the chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry, trade promotion during the year was concentrated on securing a larger market in Western Europe for the increasing range of Hong Kong products. To this end Government embarked on an extensive pro- gramme of activities including the despatch of a trade mission to the countries forming the European Economic Community and participation in trade fairs in Germany and Britain. Trade promo- tion activities elsewhere in the world comprised participation in a trade fair in Australia and the despatch of a trade mission to the Middle East.

       Following the suspension of negotiations between Britain and the countries of the European Economic Community concerning the admission of the former to membership of the Community, the Trade and Industry Advisory Board advised that active promo- tion of the Colony's products in Europe should be renewed and that, in addition, every effort should be made to explain Hong Kong's economic position and industrial development. With this in mind, the board suggested that an official mission be despatched to the six member countries of the Community and, following the preparatory visit of an officer of the Commerce and Industry Department in May, an itinerary was drawn up comprising visits to Paris, Luxembourg, Brussels, Antwerp, the Hague, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Bonn, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Milan and Rome. The mission, which was led by Dr the Honourable Sir Sik-nin Chau, CBE, comprised five businessmen and a senior official as members together with a secretariat of three. The Financial Secretary accom- panied the mission on its visits to Paris and Brussels. The mission assembled in London on 4th October and left for Paris and

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Luxembourg two days later. The mission's task was essentially to encourage a more liberal attitude towards trading with Hong Kong and the members had talks with Government officials, merchants and industrialists to this end. At the same time, they took every opportunity to promote Hong Kong products and to suggest that Common Market industrialists should participate in Hong Kong's industrial expansion.

      Particular attention was paid during the year to the German market, in an endeavour to broaden the range of goods exported to that country, which had previously consisted almost entirely of clothing. Hong Kong participated in the Frankfurt Autumn Fair from 25th-29th August with an exhibit which aroused much in- terest among visitors to the fair. It consisted of a prestige display organized by Government, a stand arranged by the Hong Kong Tourist Association and a commercial exhibit comprising stalls rented out to local firms for independent displays. Two of the leading banks in the Colony were also represented. A delegation of nine led by the Honourable R. C. Lee, CBE, a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils, recorded a total of 747 trade inquiries covering a wide variety of Hong Kong products.

      Government also accepted an invitation to take part in the German Industries Exhibition in Berlin from 12th - 27th October as one of the Far Eastern countries invited by the Berlin authorities to exhibit under the theme Partners for Progress. The motif of the Hong Kong stand, built to a uniform design by the exhibition architects in an area of about 120 square metres, was industrial development, illustrated by a scale model of the Kwun Tong industrial estate. Photographs and samples of Hong Kong products completed the display. The delegation of nine was led by Mr Daniel H. Lam, a member of the Trade and Industry Advisory Board. The Hong Kong stand attracted considerable attention both from the public and also from the press, radio and television. The opening of the exhibition was attended by the Commissioner of Labour and three prominent Hong Kong residents, the Honourable Fung Ping-fan, OBE, Mr Mou Lee and Dr S. Y. Chung, who were present as guests of honour of the Berlin Senate.

      Earlier in the year the Colony had made a re-appearance in exhibitions in Britain. An offer from the organizers of the Ideal

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Homes Exhibition, held in London from 5th - 30th March to pro- vide space for a Hong Kong exhibit as one of the principal features presented the Colony with an excellent opportunity of promoting both trade and public relations (see also chapter 19). The Hong Kong stand covered an area of 1,000 square feet and was designed in the form of a street, in which the principal feature was a section where craftsmen in ivory, jade and wood carving, carpet weavers and wallpaper artists demonstrated their skills in stalls built as replicas of their Hong Kong workshops. In addition to a prestige exhibit of carefully selected items illustrating what Hong Kong can produce for domestic use, the display included a small booth run by welfare organizations in the Colony featuring the work of those not in regular employment.

Four weeks after the close of the Ideal Homes Exhibition, where Hong Kong's exhibit met with a very enthusiastic reception, the Colony was officially represented by an information stand at the London International Engineering Exhibition, which was held from 23rd April to 2nd May. The purpose in participating in this specialized exhibition was primarily to encourage investment in the Colony's young engineering industry and to publicize the poten- tialities which exist in the fields of structural, mechanical and electrical engineering.

      Promotion in other markets was not neglected. As part of the programme decided upon by the Trade and Industry Advisory Board in 1962, a trade mission had left Hong Kong for the Middle East at the end of that year. In order to cover the area effectively the mission, consisting of five businessmen and two officials, was organized in two groups with different itineraries, and led respec- tively by Mr P. Y. Tang and Mr R. G. L. Oliphant. Both groups returned to Hong Kong on 22nd January, having between them visited 13 countries-Iran, Iraq, U.A.R. (Egypt), Libya, Cyprus, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. The mission found extensive interest in Hong Kong's products throughout the area and its report which was published later in the year aroused some attention outside the Colony.

      To keep Hong Kong before the eyes of Australian importers and as a follow-up to exhibits at the Melbourne and Sydney trade fairs in 1959 and 1961 respectively, Government organized a small prestige exhibit at the Sydney International Trade Fair from 26th

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July to 10th August. The Colony's stand of 1,320 square feet featured a range of goods carefully selected for the Australian market and proved popular with the Australian public. Stand officials recorded a total of 264 inquiries covering a wide variety of Hong Kong products.

      Trade promotion at home was continued in the form of the Display Centre of Hong Kong products which was opened in late 1962 and is situated on the second floor of the high block of the City Hall. Facilities are available for a display of some 2,500 items of local manufacture. It is in effect a 'shop window' designed to stimulate the interest of business and tourist visitors in the growing variety of Hong Kong merchandise. By changing part of the display monthly it is possible to afford all sections of industry the chance to show their products.

      The Commerce and Industry Department is not only responsible for organizing the Colony's official trade promotion activities, but also for answering trade inquiries, mediating in commercial com- plaints and arranging for the reception of overseas trade missions and business visitors. During the year, Government-sponsored trade missions from Tasmania and the United States visited the Colony, in addition to several unofficial missions and a large number of individual businessmen and foreign government officials.

      The department also publishes and distributes the annual Com- merce, Industry and Finance Directory, and the monthly Trade Bulletin. The Directory is a comprehensive guide to Hong Kong business in its economic and administrative setting. The Trade Bulletin is a general guide to Hong Kong's products in magazine form and each month features different aspects of the commercial and industrial scene. Both these publications are illustrated in colour and are distributed free to overseas business interests.

      One aspect of trade promotion which received much attention during the year was the creation of a favourable climate of opinion towards Hong Kong industry and its products through publicity media and personal contact. This subject has for some time been one in which the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries have taken an active in- terest. In September 1962, Government recognized this interest by the provision of funds, on an experimental basis for a period of two years, for the joint use of the two associations for activities

i

Everything from a needle to an anchor

the old adage could well be adopted by Hong Kong's manufacturers. Their diversification over the past decade has opened up new markets for the Colony's products throughout the world. Now they can claim to produce everything from a transistor to a thimble in factories equipped with the latest scientific aids.

Sheet metal work (above) together with enamelware and aluminiumware form much of the Colony's light engineering products. From scrap metal local rolling mills can provide a large part of the requirements for the Colony's building industry. Several large companies are engaged in manu- facturing paint (below).

Although a comparatively small in- dustry, the traditional skill of glass blowing (left) assists in Hong Kong's export drive. Individual crafts have earned Hong Kong a high reputation overseas. A wide range of electrical products (above) are manufactured in the Colony ranging from heavy duty motors and switch gear to domestic appliances. Well known 'brand names' are produced under licence. Precision engineering (below) also has a pro- minent place. Several Hong Kong firms are now engaged in the export of scientific and controlling instruments.

+

HIP BIN

"

2

COO

Completely new townships have been developed to increase and assist the Colony's industrialization programme. At Kwun Tong (above) on the east of the Kowloon peninsula land has been reclaimed from the sea for factory development purposes. Purchasers of industrial sites in Kwun Tong can pay the land premium by up to 20 annual instalments at five per cent interest.

Another major satellite project has taken place at Tsuen Wan (left). Here, a resettlement estate has been created from land levelled out of the hillsides to house workers in the adjacent new industrial areas. The factories are on land reclaimed from the sea and extensions to this area are in progress. The system of long-term site purchasing also applies.

F

The latest research methods (above left) are used in the textile mills. Textiles remain Hong Kong's principal export and the mills are among the most modern in the world. There is now a demand for quality-built yachts (above right) and pleasure craft. The manufacture of plastic flowers are an important export while air conditioners (bottom left) are made under licence.

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ར"

At Tai Po (above) carpets are woven to individual designs and sizes. Local girls have been trained to undertake this intricate work and examples of their craft are to be seen in many famous hotels and buildings. Apart from dining facilities (below) many of Hong Kong's larger firms provide clinics, dormitory accommodation and recreation rooms for their workers.

KONG

The Display Centre of Hong Kong Products (above) in the City Hall features the latest selection of items made in the Colony. Products are changed frequently and prospective buyers can be put in touch with manufacturers. Hong Kong craftsmen (below) travelled to London to take part in the Daily Mail Ideal Homes Exhibition in March, 1963.

HKS THE FOK

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

93

in this field. To avoid duplication of effort a Commercial Public Relations Co-ordinating Committee was appointed at the same time, under the chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry, with a membership comprising the Chairmen of the two associations principally concerned, the Executive Director of the Hong Kong Tourist Association and the Director of Information Services. This committee met monthly during the year.

      Statistics. The Commerce and Industry Department publishes monthly commodity by country statistics of the quantity and value of all goods imported, exported and re-exported. These are classified in accordance with the Hong Kong imports and exports classification list, which is based on the United Nations standard international trade classification. Country by commodity statistics are also tabulated and are available in the department, but are not published. In the absence of customs machinery, the trade statistics are compiled on punched cards from declarations which importers and exporters are required by law to file with the department.

A household expenditure survey was begun in September after considerable preparatory work in the first part of the year. The survey covers a sample of 3,000 households spread over the Colony and will last for one year; for a period of one month each house- hold has agreed to maintain, with the assistance of interviewing officers, a detailed record of expenditure. The results of the survey will provide a weighting pattern for a new Consumer Price Index. Information obtained during the survey will also be of value to the national income survey which is being undertaken by an expert on a Government fellowship at the University of Hong Kong, and for which the extraction and analysis of data from Government records has progressed during the year.

      Trade Controls. Import and export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum and there were no significant changes in the few existing regulations during the year. Licences are required only for materials of a strategic nature and for a few items in respect of which it is necessary to retain control for health, foreign exchange and other such reasons. The Commerce and Industry Department processes applications for licences within a few hours.

The department is also responsible for the legal and administra- tive arrangements required to implement the undertaking to limit exports of cotton textiles to Britain, Canada, the United States, and

94

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     Norway and ensures, by means of a system of export licensing, that exports do not exceed the agreed quantities. Mention should be made of the Cotton Advisory Board which was formed in July 1961 to advise Government on the problems facing the cotton textile industry and particularly those arising from requests by importing countries for restrictions on the export of cotton textiles from Hong Kong. The Board, under the ex officio chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry, comprises leading members of the spinning, weaving, dyeing and finishing, and made- up goods sections of the industry, as well as members of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manufacturers' Association. Members are appointed in their individual capacity and not as representatives of any association.

     Documentation of Origin. With the growth in the export of Hong Kong products, the certification of origin of locally manufactured goods has become increasingly important. Since Hong Kong has practically no raw materials, the origin of goods manufactured by local factories is established by the work carried out in trans- forming imported raw materials into entirely new products. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce issue certificates of Hong Kong origin which are acceptable in varying degrees to overseas authorities. Some of these associations also issue certificates of other than Hong Kong origin in respect of goods entering the entrepôt trade. Many overseas authorities, however, continue to require imports of Hong Kong products to be covered by certificates of origin issued by the Commerce and Industry Department. During 1963 the department, by a system of factory registration and inspection, continued to ensure that the goods certified were in fact entitled to claim Hong Kong origin.

The department also issued forms E 120 and Commonwealth preference certificates to enable Hong Kong products to claim preferential rates of duty on entry into Britain and those Common- wealth territories which grant preference to Hong Kong. Common- wealth preference certificates indicate the Commonwealth content

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

95

      in the goods covered and are issued against either specific under- takings to use certain Commonwealth raw materials or detailed cost statements prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. For exports to Britain claiming preference, approved public accountants prepare forms E 120 which must be presented to the department for countersigning before they become acceptable to the British customs authorities. In all other matters pertaining to documentation they deal direct with HM Customs and Excise in London.

The co-operation and liaison established with overseas customs authorities continued during 1963 and proved to be beneficial to both the promotion and control of exports under certificates of origin of all types. During the year exports of goods certified by the Commerce and Industry Department to be of Hong Kong origin were valued at $978.58 million. Exports to Commonwealth territories, including Britain, covered by Commonwealth preference certificates were valued at $1,046.13 million.

      The Foreign Assets Control Regulations of the United States Treasury Department prohibit the importation from Hong Kong of a wide range of goods which are presumed by American law to originate in the Peoples' Republic of China or in North Korea, unless evidence is produced to the contrary. The department kept under continual revision procedures to establish this evidence. During the year, 'presumptive' goods valued at $546.73 million were exported to the United States and its dependencies under comprehensive certificates of origin issued solely for this purpose. During 1963 the department issued 434,040 certificates of all kinds, an average of 1,440 a working day.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

The Preventive Service is the uniformed and disciplined branch of the Commerce and Industry Department, with powers similar to those normally exercised by a customs and excise service for the protection of revenue from dutiable commodities. There are five dutiable commodities in Hong Kong (see chapter 4). The service is also responsible for anti-narcotics controls (see chapter 13) and for enforcing trade controls and inspecting factories and goods in connexion with the export of Hong Kong products under certificates of origin and Commonwealth preference certificates.

96

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

The chief preventive officer, responsible to the Commissioner of the Preventive Service, commands a force of three gazetted officers, 234 inspectors and 352 rank and file.

       To exercise closer control over sections and to attain better operational co-ordination the service was divided into two main operational divisions during the year. This re-organization was enhanced by the completion of the Kwun Tong District Office building which enabled a Kowloon and New Territories head- quarters unit to be formed and at the same time provided excellent accommodation for the service's training section.

       The whole of Kowloon and the New Territories are now under the command of the deputy chief preventive officer and he is assisted by four senior revenue inspectors. This headquarters has assumed responsibility of a new revenue station at Tai Lam Chung which was completed in August.

The Hong Kong division is responsible for all preventive and excise duties on Hong Kong Island and in the harbour and the main sea approaches. The assistant chief preventive officer in charge is assisted by three senior revenue inspectors based at Western Revenue Station on the Hong Kong waterfront, Eastern Revenue Station in the Causeway Bay Magistracy and the Special (Anti-Narcotics) section, based in the Fire Brigade Building.

A third division, the Investigation Bureau, commanded by an assistant chief preventive officer, is responsible for all factory in- spections, more complex investigations and for all departmental prosecutions. He is assisted by four senior revenue inspectors in charge of investigations (general), investigations (certification), prosecution and industrial inspection sections.

      The service operates a fleet of nine launches, six of which are still engaged on anti-illegal immigration patrols under overall Police control.

      Preventive Service officers searched 734 ocean-going vessels and 21,177 small craft inside and outside harbour limits. The nine launches patrolled for a total of 16,798 hours during the year. A total of 2,345 aircraft were inspected and 23,300 freight packages examined, of which 1,042 were detained for payment of duty. Land patrol vehicles linked to headquarters by radio telephone increased their activities during the year and more seizures of

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

97

     smuggled tobacco and illicit stills were made. The Preventive Service took action in 63 cases of infringement of the Merchandise Marks Ordinance. Articles seized included proprietary medicines, sunglasses, toothpaste, roofing felt and tinned foodstuffs.

A Preventive Service Ordinance and a new Dutiable Commodi- ties Ordinance were enacted on 16th October. The effect of the former was to regularize the terms of appointment, conditions of service, disciplinary procedure and provide a welfare fund for the service; the latter consolidated various amendments made over the years since the old ordinance was enacted in 1931.

TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

       The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce is the oldest chamber and the only member in the Colony of the International Chamber of Commerce. Founded in 1861, it now has a member- ship of nearly 1,000 representing all branches of commerce and industry. Membership is open to persons of all nationalities who have business connexions in Hong Kong. The chamber is an organi- zing member of the British National Committee of the Inter- national Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Federation of British and Commonwealth Chambers of Commerce. It main- tains a very close liaison with Government departments and works in close co-operation with the Federation of Hong Kong Industries in dealing with both domestic and international matters affecting the Colony's trade.

       Other active chambers and associations include the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce, which takes an active part in local civic affairs, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Hong Kong Exporters' Association and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.

       The Federation of Hong Kong Industries was established by Ordinance in 1960. Unlike most of the other industrial associations which cater mainly for individual trades, the Federation cuts across racial and sectional interests and its membership includes all trades, many nationalities and enterprises of all sizes.

        The establishment of a standards section was one of the most important activities of the Federation during the year. An agree- ment entered into between the Federation and the Retail Trading

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Standards Association of London, permitted use of the latter's standards and specifications for the testing of Hong Kong manu- factured textile products. When the section is functioning fully it plans to certify local products and authorize them to carry the Federation's quality labels. A fully equipped laboratory is to be established to carry out testing, and specially trained staff will be recruited to administer the scheme.

The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Federa- tion of Hong Kong Industries issue certificates of Hong Kong origin and certificates of processing, following closely the pro- cedures laid down by the Commerce and Industry Department.

Established in 1934, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong has a membership of over 1,500 factories. Member firms own factories of all sizes and most sectors of the Colony's industries are represented by the Association. They have played an important role in the industrial development of Hong Kong. The Chinese Manufacturers' Association organized its first exhibi- tion of Hong Kong products in 1934 and, except for the war years, has continued to mount similar exhibitions annually. The 21st exhibition was held in December. During the year under review, the Association has also organized overseas missions to promote the sale of Hong Kong products.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London which is situated at 54 Pall Mall, SW1. The Hong Kong Government Trade Representative in Australia has his office at Kembla Building, Margaret Street, Sydney.

Among Commonwealth countries, India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner, and Britain, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Pakistan and Ceylon (honorary) by Trade Commissioners. Consulates-General are maintained by Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cambodia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Portugal, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Republic, the United States and Uruguay. Consulates are maintained by Laos, Sweden, Venezuela and Vietnam. The con- sular representatives of Finland, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey

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99

are resident in London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Bolivia, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, the Irish Republic, Israel, Nicaragua, and Spain have honorary consular representation in Hong Kong. In addition, Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, the Republic of South Africa and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

7

Primary Production

AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE NEW TERRITORIES

THE New Territories became part of the Colony in July 1899 and work on a full survey of agricultural land started in June of the following year and was completed three years later. In 1900 a number of Land Courts were set up to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of their land. The Land Courts finished their work in 1905 and 354,277 lots, comprising 40,737.95 acres of agricultural land contained in 566 Demarcation Districts were confirmed by Government. Because they were too small and scattered to be given individual titles, these lots were recorded in Block Crown Leases for each Demarcation District and are known as Old Schedule Lots. Crown rents, replacing the old Chinese Imperial land tax, were fixed at the time of the lease, and have progressively declined in value so that in some cases they are now scarcely worth the trouble of collecting.

       On 4th March 1904 all land not claimed at the time of the lease was proclaimed to be Crown land, leases of which could be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories lands acquired in this way are known as New Grant Lots. It has always been recognized, however, that most villages have certain prescriptive rights over the land around them, where they graze their cattle, cut grass, and bury their dead and no Crown land in the New Territories is put up for auction until the nearest villagers are given the opportunity to object. An objection, whether economic or geomantic, is usually accepted if reasonable.

The pattern in 1905, which largely continued until the expansion of development in the New Territories in the 1950's, was of small owners holding about an acre and cultivating their own land. In certain areas, however, such as Yuen Long, much of the best agricultural land was and is still owned by clans established for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep

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101

     of ancestral halls, religious observances, clan welfare and the main- tenance of schools. Such land may not be disposed of without the consent of the clan members (sometimes numbering many hundreds) and the permission of the District Officer.

      Owing to the big increase in population during the 1950's how- ever, a marked change has occurred. According to the 1961 census, only just over 50 per cent of New Territories farmers now farm their own or clan land. These owner-cultivators, the majority still growing rice, are concentrated in the Hakka areas of Sai Kung and Sha Tau Kok. The remaining farmers, often Cantonese or Chiuchow immigrants, rent their land from the original owners and this pattern is particularly marked among vegetable and poultry farmers in the Yuen Long and Fanling (Tai Po) areas. Vegetable holdings are extremely small, usually less than one

acre.

Rents of rice land in the New Territories are customarily reckoned in paddy. An average annual rent for two-crop rice land would be about 1,600 pounds of paddy an acre, or about 40 per cent of the total annual yield from two crops. Rents for vegetable land are usually reckoned in cash. Rent for the very best vegetable land, with water supply and road access, would be about one-sixth of the annual crop value, but heavier costs of labour, fertilizers etc have to be taken into account. Leases for both types of land are generally for a period of 10 to 15 years, but rentals are often reassessed annually. Formal written leases are seldom entered into and the arrangements between landlord and tenant are often merely oral.

Crown land can also be cultivated on a temporary basis by means of a Crown Land Permit and some quite large farms are held on this basis. The permit is normally renewed every year until the land is required for permanent development. If at the end of 10 years it appears that the land will not be required, the permittee may apply to Government for the grant of a lease. In the new towns and areas required for industrial development, much agricultural land is being taken out of production by surrender for roads and public services or in exchange for building land in town centres. In the more rural parts of the New Territories feeder roads and piers are being built and assistance is being given to villagers

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

to construct footpaths in order to open up more marginal land to compensate for the agricultural land lost.

LAND UTILIZATION

The Agriculture and Forestry Department began a land utiliza- tion survey in 1953. The compilation of preliminary data was com- pleted in 1955 and maps were prepared on scales of 16 inches to one mile and 32 inches to one mile. In 1954 Dr T. R. Tregear, senior lecturer in Geography at the University of Hong Kong, made an independent reconnaissance study of land utilization in the Colony. Dr Tregear had full access to the work of the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department and produced a report from this data, Land Use in Hong Kong and the New Territories, published by the University in 1958. This information has been supplemented and brought up to more recent date (1960), in Soils and Agriculture of Hong Kong by Dr C. J. Grant, formerly of the Agriculture and Forestry Department and now at the University of Hong Kong.

The total land area of the Colony and its component parts was recomputed in 1959. Although the areas for the various classes of land had not changed appreciably, some slight modification of the original figures resulted. Using the same classification of land use, the following data was accepted for 1963 :

area

Remarks

Approximate

Class

(square miles)

Percentage of whole

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

22.5

(ii) Steep country

111.0

5.5

28.0

Includes roads and railways Rocky, precipitous hillsides incapable of plant estab- lishment

(iii) Woodlands

22.5

5.7

Natural and established woodlands

(iv) Grass & scrub lands

162.0

40.7

Natural grass and scrub

(v) Eroded lands

20.0

5.0

Stripped of cover. Granite

(vi) Swamp & mangrove

lands

5.5

1.4

(vii) Fish ponds

2.0

0.5

(viii) Arable

52.5

13.2

country. Capable of re- generation

Capable of reclamation

Fresh and brackish water fish farming

Includes orchards and mar-

ket gardens

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103

Natural topography largely decides the use which can be made of land in Hong Kong. From a farmer's viewpoint, all the readily cultivable land is already being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal. Pressure comes on the land from two directions-the continued and steady demand for land for industry and housing, and the need to meet the growing needs of the rural community. It is important to remember that 80.8 per cent of the total area of the territory is marginal land, in differing degrees of sub-grade character. The arable land and fish ponds already exploited com- prise only 13.7 per cent of the total area and the expanding urban areas (the remaining 5.5 per cent) tend to encroach more directly on arable rather than on marginal land. It is necessary to preserve a proper balance between these conflicting needs and, where possible, land is reclaimed from the sea for industry, as at Tsuen Wan. On the other hand market towns such as Yuen Long, Tai Po and Sha Tin must expand and it is unavoidable that fields will be lost to agriculture, or at least that agriculture in such areas will be confined to market gardens. This trend is, however, being offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

        In 1937 it was estimated that the total forest cover was 22 square miles. There were a further 81 square miles of private forest lots, largely kept by villagers for grazing and grass cutting. During the Japanese occupation much of this timber was stripped from the hillsides and catchment areas. The afforestation policy is to replace these lost woodlands, not only to safeguard water catch- ments and ensure soil conservation, but also to take advantage of the opportunities it affords to make best use of the land. There are many limiting factors to the extension of arable land, but they can be overcome in some areas and much more attention is now paid to the principles of multiple land use in order to exploit underdeveloped areas. The establishment of pure forests tends to be restricted to areas incapable of more intensive development.

       The compilation of information and data for the further ex- ploitation of available land resources for agricultural production is a continuing process. The Agriculture and Forestry Department is primarily concerned and has the changing pattern of land use

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

     constantly under review. The department also undertakes investiga- tional and advisory work for the benefit of farmers.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

      The policy of Government is to stimulate the production of food where this is compatible with the best utilization of the resources of land and sea. To achieve this, three departments of Government are concerned with serving farmers and fishermen. The Agriculture and Forestry Department concerns itself chiefly with optimum land utilization and provides technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. The Co-operative Development and Fisheries Depart- ment deals mainly with the fishermen on the waters of the territory and the administrative organization of co-operative societies of all types. The New Territories Administration is responsible for land tenure and certain aspects of land development in the New Territories.

      The Agriculture and Forestry Department aims to increase the production and improve the economic status of individual farmers. It assists in stabilizing the farming industry by encouraging diversi- fied production which helps mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. While stimulating greater production by the use of scientific techniques, the department seeks to achieve its aims without impairing soil fertility. The conservation of soil and water, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catch- ment areas, is important. Afforestation is largely undertaken by Government, and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant.

      Loans are available to farmers through the Kadoorie Agricul- tural Aid Loan Fund, started in 1955 by Government and Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie. The fund is administered by the Agriculture and Forestry Department, whose Director is the chair- man and trustee. Loans are also available through the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and through the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, a philan- thropic organization also founded by the Kadoorie brothers, gives free grants to members of the farming community who cannot find enough capital on their own. The general policy of the association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves, and, although not a Government sponsored organization, it works closely with

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105

the Agriculture and Forestry Department which offers technical assistance and advice. Similar advice and assistance is also given to all welfare organizations concerned with the rural community.

      In rural education emphasis is placed on lectures followed by informal discussion rather than on formal training courses. During the year some 500 farmers attended such discussion groups, led by professional and technical experts from the Agriculture and Forestry Department. A restricted programme of formal training was also carried out and more than 90 farmers and farmers' sons received vocational training in a wide variety of subjects. More than 200 progressive farmers were selected to attend organized farm visits to Government experimental stations and farming projects.

      Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern in Hong Kong. Formerly paddy cultivation was the most important aspect of agriculture in the New Territories. With the increased demand for protective foods such as vegetables, fruit, eggs and poultry meat, and with industrial expansion and immigrant farmers exerting pressure on the land, there has been a steady increase in market gardening, and pig and poultry produc- tion. It is Government's policy to encourage diversification in farm- ing practice and more than 35 per cent of the two-crop paddy land is now used for winter season catch crops. Most of this land formerly remained fallow. The use of artificial fertilizers continues to increase every year. A striking aspect of local farming is the widespread use of knapsack sprayers and modern insecticides. The steady expansion of primary production over the past three years is shown in Appendix V.

AGRICULTURE

      The area of land under permanent vegetable cultivation has steadily increased from 2,254 acres in 1954 to 7,822 acres in 1963. This increase comes mainly from the transition of rice land to vegetable production and the development of marginal land. In addition some 1,200 acres of two-crop paddy land (that is, land which can be irrigated during the driest weather and has good access to markets) is also used for cultivating winter vegetables after the harvest of the second rice crop. Six to eight crops of

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

     vegetables are harvested annually from intensively cultivated land. The main crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, turnip, leaf mustard, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomato, water spinach, string bean, watercress, cucumber and Chinese gourd. Cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce and tomato are produced in great quantity during the cooler months and quality is excellent. This intensive produc- tion of vegetables takes place on both fertile and comparatively infertile land and is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. Nightsoil is used on about half of the area, but is being replaced or supplemented by pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually in addition to organic manures. The wide- spread use of insecticides is an important feature of farming, as is the increasing use of selected crop varieties.

Sweet potatoes are grown both for human consumption (the tubers), and for pigfeed (the vines). Some 2,500 acres are double cropped on drier lands, chiefly for tubers; and a catch crop of sweet potatoes is also grown on 4,000 acres following the second paddy harvest. With an average yield of three tons an acre for each crop, and an average market price of $298 a ton, this repre- sents an annual value of $8 million. About 1,771 acres of other field crops, such as peanut, millet, soybean and sugar-cane, are cultivated mainly for local rural consumption. Fruit production, although not yet substantial, is expanding and includes wampei (wong pei), lung ngan, lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, lychee and pineapple. Accurate statistics are not available, but approximately 43,938 cwts of assorted fruits, valued at over $3 million, were harvested during the year.

Since 1954 the area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,191 to 15,336 acres, the balance being used for permanent vegetable and field crop production. A total of 2,619 acres are used for one-crop paddy in brackish water and 101 acres for one- crop upland paddy. Due to drought there was a fall in paddy production in 1963 and, with a milling average of 68 per cent, the estimated crop was 9,162 metric tons of polished rice; at an average wholesale price of $60 a picul the crop was valued at $8,470,000. In a normal year the average yield of paddy from an acre of two-crop land is about 1.2 metric tons, but with seed of approved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers,

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107

      production may reach 1.8 metric tons on average land, and over two metric tons on better soils.

The most important disease of paddy is blast, caused by the fungus Piricularia Oryzae, and farmers are making more use of blast-resistant varieties recommended by the Agriculture and Forestry Department. The department also selects seed within varieties, but only a limited amount of such improved seed is available. Traditionally the manurial treatment of rice consists of adding only very small dressings of dry animal manure, but the use of balanced artificial fertilizers is becoming increasingly important.

A narrow range of fruit and field crops is prepared for export to overseas Chinese. Although quantities are not large they provide a useful source of income and include water chestnut, Japanese apricot, lemon, taro, bitter cucumber, white cabbage, ginger, radish, lychee, wampei, mushroom, lotus root, olive, turnip, yam and mustard. The value of these crops in 1963 was over $1 million. The water chestnut crop, in particular, has greatly improved in quality in recent years and a larger proportion is now being ex- ported as 'first grade'. Crops exported to the United States and to certain other countries must be accompanied by a Comprehensive Certificate of Origin.

Pond Fish Production. The number of fish ponds in the New Territories continued to increase and the total area is now 1,300 acres, situated mostly along the Deep Bay coastline, near Yuen Long. The most important species reared is grey mullet which requires water with a salinity above 0.1 per cent. Fry are found in local coastal waters, in February and March, and the supply in 1963 was sufficient to meet local requirements, more than 7 million being collected. Fry of four other important species, silver carp, grass carp, big head and mud carp, were obtained from China between May and August, about 7 million being imported. Com- mon carp and edible goldfish are bred locally and, respectively, some 1,600,000 and 100,000 fry were raised to meet trade require- ments. Edible goldfish require fresh water (less than 0.4 per cent salinity), and common carp tolerate up to one per cent salinity. Total pond fish production, for the year, was estimated at 844 tons, valued at some $4 million, which represented about 8.5 per

108

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

cent of the local consumption of pond fish. Fry of various species re-exported during the year totalled 5.5 million.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal food animals reared in the Colony and cattle are mainly used for draught purposes. Production details are given in Appendix V.

The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly the resultant crosses of local animals with exotic stock, and pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common. The Agriculture and Forestry Depart- ment maintains the main herds of pure exotic strains-Berkshire, Mid-White and Large-White-and also herds of two Chinese strains. These animals are used for distribution to improve the Colony's pig stock, as well as for experimental purposes. Pigs are often kept on traditional lines in the villages, but an overall im- provement in management is taking place as a result of extension and advisory services. During the year the pig artificial insemina- tion service was further expanded and over 2,300 sows were inseminated with a total conception rate of 93 per cent and a first service conception rate of 79 per cent. In 1953 only 64,000 pigs of local origin were slaughtered in local abattoirs, compared with some 600,000 in 1963. The 1963 figure represented more than 30 per cent of the total number of pigs slaughtered. The value of pig production during the year amounted to some $67 million.

Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs and this is important in helping to stabilize the poultry industry. In wetter areas ducks and geese are raised for home consumption and for export. The rearing of ducks and geese for the local market has become increasingly important in recent years. Pigeon-keeping is now a thriving industry and prices in 1963 averaged $7 for a pair of squabs. The total value of squabs marketed during the year was estimated at $1,700,000. The most popular types of table birds are the White or Blue King crossed with the Homer.

      Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes and surplus stock is sold for slaughter. The Chinese brown cattle are particularly well suited to the local environment and manage- ment. Some 5,400 surplus local cattle were marketed for slaughter

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at an estimated value of $3 million. The dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in isolation on one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller farm groups on the outskirts of Kowloon and in the New Territories. All dairy animals are regularly tested and must pass the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis. During 1963 there was a decrease in milk production and the estimated total production was about 12 million pounds of milk, valued at $1.10 a pound. This reduction was mainly due to the reduced stocking in consequence of the removal of 14 dairy farms formerly located in New Kowloon; the original sites are now used for resettlement housing.

      The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest. The incidence of foot and mouth disease was not serious, though there were some 140 outbreaks of a mild type in both cattle and pigs. Some 12,300 cattle and pigs were inoculated against foot and mouth disease types 'O' and 'A'. About 46,500 pigs were inoculated against swine fever and some 7,600 cattle were inoculated against rinderpest, with locally produced vaccine. In all 18,475,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 2,013,000 doses of intranasal-drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry.

FORESTRY

      The Agriculture and Forestry Department is responsible for forestry generally, and for the direct afforestation of water catch- ment areas, protection of vegetation on Crown lands, assistance to village forestry and amenity planting in catchment areas. A thick vegetative cover is essential to prevent silting of reservoirs and erosion and to help streams to flow more regularly by inducing as much water as possible to remain in the soil. Well-managed forests are an ideal way to achieve this. Elsewhere forestry can provide timber and fuel for local consumption and help improve rural economy.

      It is only in recent years that any serious attempt has been made to carry out afforestation on a large scale and the landscape is now undergoing a noticeable change as plantations become established. Generally hills are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some places and patches of scrub forest in remoter and less accessible areas. Thickly-wooded areas also occur where the vegetation has been protected against cutting

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and fire, as on Hong Kong Island and around villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about the more or less complete destruction of vegetation, followed by soil erosion, in many parts of the Colony. Villagers often have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the trees, mostly pine, are generally so scattered and badly lopped that they rarely alter the barren aspect of the land.

Government afforestation areas are mostly co-extensive with the water catchment areas, the main ones of Tai Po Kau, Jubilee Reservoir, Tai Lam Chung and Fu Shui extending contiguously across the mountains from Tai Po in the east to Castle Peak in the west. Other afforestation areas are the catchments of the Shek Li Pui and Kowloon reservoirs, the Shek Pik reservoir catchments on Lantau Island and almost the whole of the Shap Long peninsula. These areas, covering 25,000 acres, are divided for purposes of management into compartments of 200-300 acres, intersected by paths and fire barriers cleared of vegetation. So far almost 12,000 acres have been planted. The main species used is pine (Pinus massoniana), followed by Brisbane box (Tristania conferta). Experimental plots have been laid out with a variety of other species, some of which are now being planted more widely. Eucalyptus and American Pinus species (P. taeda and P. elliottii), are among the most promising.

In order to provide seedlings for afforestation the Agriculture and Forestry Department maintains nurseries in the New Terri- tories. Most seedlings are now raised in polythene tubes, instead of in open nursery beds, and constant efforts are being made to improve handling techniques. The early stages of seedling produc- tion are concentrated in the main nursery at Tai Lung, Fanling and later tubed stock is moved out to temporary nurseries adjacent to the planting areas.

     Planting usually starts in the cool, wet spring and continues until June or July. Although planting may be successful in the late summer, trees planted after July usually have too short a period to become well established before the onset of the drier weather in October. Because of the protracted drought experienced in 1963, planting did not start until the last week of June; 71 acres in the Shing Mun catchment and 60 acres in the Shek Pik

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     catchment were planted up before the end of July. In the Tai Lam catchment 38 acres of plantation destroyed by fire in 1962 were cleared and replanted and over 100,000 plants were used to replace previous failures, particularly on the eroded hillsides of the Tai Tam, Tai Lam Chung and Fu Shui areas.

During the dry season from October to March there is a constant threat of fire in the plantations and careful precautions have to be taken. Fire lookouts are placed strategically on hills and are con- nected by field telephone to control points where men, equipment and transport stand by during particularly hazardous periods. The winter of 1962-3 was exceptionally dry and hill fires were of daily occurrence. Forestry staff were wholly occupied with fire control duties and 633 fires were suppressed by fire crews during the 12-month period ending on 30th June 1963. Damage to village forest lots was very extensive and in Government afforestation areas 867 acres of plantation were affected.

FISHING

Administration. Government's aim is to foster the orderly expan- sion and development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish to meet the needs of an expanding population and to improve the economic status of those engaged in the industry. A fisheries division was established in 1952 under the administra- tion of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department and, in the same year, a fisheries research unit was formed by the University of Hong Kong. A fisheries advisory committee, on which both were represented, co-ordinated matters of common interest; the Co-operative Development Department, which was responsible for the supervision of fishermen's co-operative societies and the administration of the Fish Marketing Organization, also took part.

      This divided responsibility gave rise to many disadvantages and Government decided, with the agreement of the University, to set up a single authority to direct fisheries activities. In July 1960, the fisheries division was transferred to the renamed Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department and was joined one month later by the fisheries research unit, now known as the fisheries research station. As fresh water pond fisheries in Hong Kong are closely connected with land utilization, extension work on

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    commercial fish ponds remained the responsibility of the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department, although the basic research work on pond fisheries is the responsibility of the Co-operative Develop- ment and Fisheries Department.

Marine fisheries extension work includes investigations into and demonstrations of fishing methods, craft and fishing gear; the in- troduction of new fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of a mechanization programme; the training of fisher- men for certificates of competency as masters and engineers; the instruction of local fishermen in navigation and certain duties in connexion with the culture of pearls. A modified junk-type mechan- ized fishing vessel, the Yuen Ling, is used for general inshore demonstration work and also to carry out experiments with new fishing equipment. A second departmental vessel, the small steel trawler Alister Hardy, was seconded throughout the year on other duties.

Problems such as over-fishing and the conservation of fish resources receive constant attention. Legislation introduced in 1962 provides the necessary authority for comprehensive protection measures, particularly against the use of explosives and toxic substances.

Some interest was shown during the year in constructing a pair of stern-otter trawlers but in present circumstances it is doubtful if this would be economically worthwhile. The trend toward the modification of traditional junk design to meet modern require- ments is being encouraged. In addition to a number of modified shrimp trawlers, several large modified Kwong Sun type deep-sea trawlers are now operating and their design includes radical depar- tures from the usual junk layout. Some of the latest deep-sea pair- trawlers are so designed that they can be readily converted for single boat stern-otter trawling. Another activity of the fisheries extension division is the provision of evening classes of instruction for workers in the junk-building industry: attention is directed mainly towards 'laying-off' the correct lines of a boat, and a mould loft shed has been built to give the pupils practical experience. The department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund, which is allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant water fleet, for which it has a capital of $5 million, and the Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme

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D 1967, which provides mechanization loans for fishermen. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization, which administers two other fisheries loan funds and investigates applica- tions for loans from all four funds. Together they provide capital of nearly $8,400,000 for the development of the industry. The department also takes part in the activities of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council of FAO.

       The fisheries research station has a position in Hong Kong com- parable with other national and regional institutes studying fisheries resources. Its activities now centre on a biological and ocean- ographical investigation of the continental shelf within a radius of approximately 500 miles of the Colony, extending from Formosa to the Gulf of Tongking. For this work the station operates the research trawler Cape St Mary of 240 tons, a gift from Her Majesty's Government. As the programme develops, the scope of research and exploration will be enlarged to include the whole of the South China Sea. Studies of pearl oysters are also carried out by the research staff of the station, as is taxonomic research and investigations into the economic aspects of the fishing industry.

      Fisheries. Marine fish is one of Hong Kong's main primary products and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Commonwealth. Nearly 10,000 fishing junks of various sizes and designs and 26 Japanese-type trawlers, 14 of which are British registered, are based in the Colony. There is a sea-going fishing population of about 80,000 chiefly Tanka people, and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Castle Peak, Tai Po and the Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Terri- tories. Junks are built locally from imported timber, China fir being the most popular material, but in recent years continued shortages of fir have led to the increased use of teak and yacal. About 95 per cent of the fleet is owner operated, while the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

       Purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony inside the 20 fathom line. The larger junk-type trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung. Some of these deep- sea vessels still depend on sail and their activities are severely

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curtailed during the typhoon season from June to October. The restrictions imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1958, requiring fishermen based on Hong Kong who sail in Chinese inshore waters to land quota of their catch in China, were con- tinued throughout the year. Quotas were varied from time to time and the restrictions were enforced with varying degrees of rigidity.

There was a substantial increase in the mechanized fleet during the year and 567 vessels, the majority newly built, joined the fleet which is now 5,766 strong.

Landings by the local fishing fleet were generally good through- out 1963. The quota system, under which landings in Hong Kong by foreign registered fishing vessels were restricted, was lifted on 1st February 1960, but there has been no significant increase in landings by such vessels.

      Oyster farming. Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters of the Colony for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 279 tons of fresh oyster meat, valued at approximately $1,170,000 were produced from 6,060 acres along the New Territories' shores of the Bay. Some of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas, but the opening-up of this area has greatly stimulated on-the-spot local consumption.

Pearl Culture. Five commercial pearling companies are licensed and operating in the Colony on sites surveyed and licensed by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department. Four of the sites are in the Tolo Harbour and Channel area and there is one in Port Shelter. It is still too early to judge the success of their activity, and it is also probable that the Tolo Harbour farms will require re-siting because of construction work on the Plover Cove water scheme. To assist research into the requirements of this infant industry a small pearl culture research station has been constructed at Kat O in Mirs Bay.

MARKETING

      Fish Marketing Organization. The end of the Pacific War found the few fishermen remaining in the Colony in very poor circum- stances. Many were literally in rags and their vessels and fishing gear had fallen into a state of disrepair. Interest-free loans and

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      grants were made to rehabilitate the fishing fleet and a fish market- ing scheme was introduced and controls imposed on the landing and wholesale marketing of marine fish, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning developed the Fish Marketing Organization, a non- Government trading organization controlled by a civil servant, now the Commissioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries.

      The organization is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenue and pays its expenses from a six per cent commission on all the sales in its wholesale markets. It operates under the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, 1956 which provides among other things for a Fish Marketing Advisory Board composed of unofficials to assist the organization.

      The organization runs five wholesale fish markets, at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon and Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. Six fish- collecting depots have been set up in other fishing centres and the organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The depots also serve as liaison offices for the organization. Construction work started during the year on a new market at Castle Peak, in the New Territories, and on repro- visioning the existing Kowloon market at a new site. The latter is financed jointly by a grant from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund and from the organization's own resources.

      At the wholesale markets, fish is sorted into species and sizes by the staff of the organization, weighed into lots and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly after the sale has taken place or, if asked to do so, the organization will send the money back to the depot which serves their areas. A further service is the transpor- tation of fish to buyers' establishments in the urban areas.

      Fresh fish sales through the Fish Marketing Organization increased by four per cent during the year, while sales of salt and dried fish decreased by three per cent. The average annual whole- sale price for fresh marine fish decreased by three per cent compared with 1962, while the price for salt or dried marine fish decreased by five per cent. The embargo on the importation of salt and dried fish from the Colony imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1950, remained in force throughout the year. Salt fish exporters

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seeking other outlets have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region. During the year 1,819 piculs of salt and dried fish were exported.

The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important services offered by the Fish Marketing Organization to local fisher- men. The Organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made 6,368 loans totalling $15,864,058.95. Of this, some $13,367,732.71 had been repaid at the end of the year. The fund's ceiling was stabilized at $3 million during the year. In 1957 the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE) donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen, which was increased to $92,400 by a further donation from CARE in 1962. This fund is administered by the organization and loans totalling $222,090.00 have been made; repayments total $183,369.74. The organization also carries out investigations and acts as collecting agent for the two Government loan funds adminis- tered by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

      A further important side to the organization's development pro- gramme is the provision of schooling facilities for the children of fishermen up to (in some cases) primary six standard. Adult educa- tion classes have also been opened at Sha Tau Kok and Shau Kei Wan. Eleven schools, one of which was reprovisioned during the year, have been established by the organization; all now come under the Education Department's subsidy code. At the close of the year, approximately 2,420 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools and a further 887 were attending other schools (including secondary) on scholarships provided by the organization. All Fish Marketing Organization schools have advisory committees composed of leaders of the fishing communi- ties served by the schools. In recognition of the importance of vocational training, a secondary modern school is about to be built at Aberdeen. It is intended that at this school fishermen's children will be able to continue their general education beyond the primary level and at the same time receive instruction in vocational subjects geared to the requirements of a modern fishing industry. With the co-operation of Radio Hong Kong a weekly radio programme directed toward the fishing community was continued during the year. The programme, which is mainly educational and informa- tive, has been received enthusiastically by the fishermen.

Fortunately there have been few serious outbreaks of diseases among live- stock in the New Territories. Frequent veterinary inspection is carried out (above) by the Agriculture and Forestry Department. The drought caused a fall in paddy production (below) and the estimated crop was 9,162 metrie tons of polished rice.

Although farms in the New Territories remain 'pocket' size, the area of land under permanent vegetable cultiva- tion has increased to 7,822 acres in 1963 from 2,254 acres in 1954. This is mainly due to the change over from rice production to vegetables and the development of marginal land.

Farming specialists gave lectures to more than 500 farmers during the year.

Brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for working in the fields (below). The intensive production of vegetables, from trellis-growers (right) to root crops, takes place on both fertile and comparatively infertile land.

The Government run their own farms and experimental stations and the results of their research are passed on to farmers.

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D

Formerly, paddy cultivation was the most important aspect of agriculture in the New Territories, but within the past decade diversification has been encouraged. Today, two-crop paddy land is also used for cultivating winter vegetables after the harvest of the second rice crop. More than 35 per cent of two crop paddy land can be used in this way.

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The organization may one day be run by the fishermen them- selves as a co-operative enterprise, but lack of education is a problem that only time can solve. Wherever possible the fisheries extension division makes full use of the organization's close rela- tionship with the fishing communities. The success of the organiza- tion has attracted world-wide interest and many overseas visitors and students come to study its operations.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. The advantages of the fish marketing scheme were obvious almost immediately and a similar scheme was introduced in 1946 for the Colony's other important primary producers, the vegetable farmers. From this developed the Vegetable Marketing Organization. The organization operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952 which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Commissioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries), who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and use the assets of the Organization for the develop- ment and encouragement of vegetable farming. It provides also for a Marketing Advisory Board on the same lines as the Fish Marketing Advisory Board. The controls imposed by the ordin- ance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultivation on Hong Kong Island.

The organization has established depots in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depots, the majority of which are now operated by vegetable marketing co- operative societies, vegetables are collected daily by the organiza- tion's transport fleet and vehicles hired for the purpose and taken to a large central wholesale market at Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon where three sales are held every day. The sales and all money dealings involved are conducted by the organization. Reprovision- ing of the Kowloon wholesale vegetable market on a larger, reclaimed site in Cheung Sha Wan has now started. Like the adjoining reprovisioned wholesale fish market, this will be financed jointly by the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund and the organization. The organization works in many ways like its fish marketing counterpart. There are important differences, however, in the method of sale, which in the case of vegetables is by negotia- tion and not by auction, and in the measure of practical assistance given by the vegetable marketing co-operative societies which now

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     handle 76 per cent of local production. The reason for nego- tiating sales instead of holding auctions is that on a normal day some 20,000 separate lots may be sold to nearly 3,000 buyers. The number of lots rises to nearly 30,000 a day in the main season, making sales by auction impracticable.

Production during the year was affected by the drought. There was an increase of one per cent in the average annual wholesale price, while the quantity marketed decreased by seven per cent. A quantity of imported vegetables also passed through the organiza- tion's market at Yau Ma Tei. Figures are given in Appendix V. The organization is self-supporting, the cost of the services pro- vided being met from a 10 per cent commission charged on sales. Thirty per cent of this commission is refunded to the marketing co-operative societies in recognition of the marketing responsibili- ties they assume in respect of their own produce. The organization is non-profit-making and any financial surpluses are ploughed back into industry in the form of improved services and other benefits. One example is the aid which the organization has given to farmers in overcoming a main problem of recent years-lack of a cheap fertilizer-through a scheme for the maturation and distribution of nightsoil at a low price.

Cheap credit is a further important service of the organization. Farmers may obtain loans, through the Commissioner for Co- operative Development and Fisheries, from the Vegetable Market- ing Organization Loan Fund. Since the establishment of this fund farmers have received 796 loans totalling $3,996,600.00. It is Government's declared policy that the organization should one day be run by the farmers themselves as a co-operative enterprise. As a move toward this end the salesmen of individual vegetable marketing co-operative societies have been authorized under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance as market salesmen.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

      A Registrar of Co-operative Societies was appointed in 1950, and the combined Co-operative and Marketing Department, now part of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department, came into being later in the same year. Since then, the co-operative movement has made rapid progress in Hong Kong and is being

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accepted by a growing number of people, particularly peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improv- ing their lot. While the main effort was directed at first toward the physical formation of societies and toward ensuring that they were sound in organization and economy, existing societies and the general public are now more aware of what such unions afford, and the department is placing more emphasis on the moral and educational side of the movement. An important development during the past seven years has 'been the growth in the number of co-operative building societies, which are at present formed, with one exception, of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and have been established with funds loaned by Government. Another development of interest is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they may make in their way of life by co-operation and the formation of better living societies. Several of these societies have successfully completed water supply and housing schemes, as well as community centres for their members.

A further source of credit to farmers who are members of co- operative societies is the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund. The fund is administered by the commissioner, as Registrar of Co-operative Societies, and since its establishment in 1954 some 9,527 loans total- ling $13,704,083.79 have been issued. In addition a large number of societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which are steadily growing in size and effectiveness and which it is hoped will reduce the dependence of members for short-term credit on official and outside sources. The best examples can be found in fishermen's co-operative societies, 58 of which operate revolving loan funds with a total capital of some $910,000 and a turnover of $660,000 a year. A new source of credit for co-operative societies became available towards the end of the year with the establishment of the World Refugee Year Loan Fund for Co- operative Societies. The fund is designed to provide loans for a wide variety of purposes of social or economic benefit to societies and their members and has a capital of nearly $500,000.

Eight new co-operative societies were registered in 1963, bring- ing the total on the register at the end of December to 385. At present there are 15 different types of societies. A table showing the number of societies in being at 31st December 1963, with

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     details of their membership, share capital, deposits and reserve funds will be found in Appendix V.

MINING

Iron ore, wolframite and graphite are mined underground, and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron ore is ex- ported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, graphite to the United Kingdom, United States, Japan and other countries, and kaolin to Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines. Ceramic and enamel- ware factories consume all locally produced feldspar and quartz, while about one-fourth of the kaolin mined is used in local rubber factories.

      During 1963, iron ore mined at Ma On Shan was treated in a dressing plant near the waterfront with a daily capacity of 800 tons of crude ore. Concentrates were transported by barge to ocean- going ships. A second dressing plant, installed in 1960, treated low-grade ore formerly considered uneconomic, the recovered ore then being processed in the main dressing plant. An access tunnel of about 7,200 feet in length connecting the main dressing plant with the underground workings, was completed in September. An eight-ton trolley locomotive is used to transport ore in the tunnel.

There was little interest in wolframite as the market price re- mained low and only one mine at Needle Hill was in production during the year. Prospectors for iron ore, graphite and kaolin made no discoveries of any economic importance.

      The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance, 1954. The Commissioner of Mines is empowered to issue prospecting and mining licences and the land officer to issue mining leases. Prospecting licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years. Mining licences are valid for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years, but may be extended further with the consent of the Governor. Mining leases are granted for periods up to a maximum of 21 years. Details of leases and licences in operation are published twice a year in the Government Gazette. At the end of 1963, there were two mining leases, 14 mining licences and two prospecting licences valid for different areas throughout the territory. They were mainly controlled by indi- viduals or small mining companies.

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      The Superintendent of Mines grants mine blasting certificates and examines export licences for minerals mined locally. He is responsible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of five per cent of value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. The Mines Depart- ment also inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for licences.

8

Education

     A DAILY occurrence in Hong Kong, which never fails to impress the newcomer, is the regular surge of activity as more than three quarters of a million students stream in or out of their schools. With ground space at a premium, schoolbuildings must be used to capacity and may be occupied continuously in two sessions from eight a.m. until six p.m. In the evening too, the same schools may serve more children in an early evening session, or be used for evening classes or as adult recreation and training centres.

The number of pupils in every type of school continued to rise during 1963, particularly in primary schools where by the end of September the enrolment figure was 572,423. There are 810,632 pupils enrolled at all schools, colleges and education centres. This is 59,930 more than in 1962. Detailed figures are given in Appendix VI.

RE-ORGANIZATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

      A statement of Government's policy on the re-organization of the structure of primary and secondary education was tabled in Legislative Council in January. The proposals for re-organization, previously endorsed by the Board of Education, were adopted. Initial changes affecting primary schools became operative in September but it will be some years before the re-organization is fully implemented. The normal age of entry into government and aided primary schools has been raised from six to seven years, and a new five-year course of primary education will gradually replace the existing six-year course. At least one and, as soon as practicable, two years of secondary education will be made available after the five-year primary course in order that pupils may continue their schooling up to the age of 14, which is the statutory minimum age for industrial employment. During the transitional period, on completion of the present six-year primary course, those pupils who are unable to gain admission

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to a full secondary course, will be provided, so far as accom- modation is available, with a seventh year of education in special form I classes, provided they are under 14 years of age. Entry to government and aided secondary schools will continue to be by selective examination.

The changes relate only to government and aided schools; private schools are free to continue the existing system if they wish. Within the new pattern of education, account is being taken of the need for additional secondary schools and diversified secondary education. A considerable increase in secondary techni- cal education is proposed and, as a means to this end, the con- version of the existing government secondary modern schools to secondary schools began in September.

      An Education Commission appointed by Government and con- sisting of Mr R. M. Marsh, County Education Officer, and Mr J. R. Sampson, County Treasurer, both of the Hampshire County Council, arrived in Hong Kong in February for a two months' visit.

      Their terms of reference were: 'Having regard to the general circumstances, including the economy of Hong Kong; and Govern- ment's policy for the provision of primary and secondary educa- tion, excluding the University and the grant-aided post-secondary colleges; generally to examine and make recommendations on:- (a) the overall needs of the Colony in respect of education and the most economical and practical way of fulfilling these needs; and (b) the system of financing education, including public and private revenue and expenditure, having particular regard to the competing claims on the Colony's limited available funds of the many interests involved in the whole sphere of social service.'

      The Commission's report was forwarded at the end of October and is now under consideration.

INAUGURATION OF THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY

      The Chinese University of Hong Kong was established at an inaugural congregation held at the City Hall on 17th October. The Chinese University Commission appointed in May 1962 under the chairmanship of Mr J. S. Fulton, MA, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex, to advise on the establishment of a new

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     university in which the medium of teaching would be mainly Chinese, forwarded its report in February 1963. Recommendations were made that a federal university should be established in Hong Kong, incorporating as foundation colleges, Chung Chi College, New Asia College and the United College of Hong Kong; and that the date for the establishment of the new University should be not later than 30th September 1963. Government accepted in principle the recommendations of the report of the Fulton Com- mission on 14th June and a provisional council was officially formed on 24th June.

On 3rd November it was announced that, in accordance with the advice of the selection committee appointed to select a Vice- Chancellor, the Governor had appointed Professor Li Choh-ming of the University of California at Berkeley to be the first Vice- Chancellor of the Chinese University.

SCHOOL EXPANSION PROGRAMME

In September 565,246 children were enrolled in primary day and night schools, while the census projection figures for the same date indicated 553,300 children in the primary age group of 6 - 11 years inclusive, and 452,700 in the age group of 7-11 years in- clusive. The latter age group is significant because the scheme for the re-organization of primary education, introduced in September, raised the normal age of entry to government and aided schools

to seven.

From these figures it appears that Hong Kong has more than satisfied the need for a place in a government, aided or private primary school for every child of primary age. But many of the enrolled primary school children are either over-age, or remain in school for a longer period than that prescribed for the primary school course. Thus it is still possible for a child of primary age to experience considerable difficulty in finding a school place or to be without schooling. Another factor which aggravates the problem of providing primary school places is the movement of population caused by the resettlement programme and by schemes for low-cost housing as well as by the growth of new centres of population in the New Territories. This is resulting in marked shifts of population.

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      Nevertheless, the seven-year primary expansion programme which increased the number of school places from 160,000 in September 1954 to 485,000 in September 1961, supplemented by renewed efforts to overtake the primary age population bulge in- dicated by the 1961 census, has virtually succeeded in meeting this challenge, and as a result the rate of primary school expansion is likely to decrease in future years.

      During the year 78 primary school buildings and extensions were built, providing 59,800 additional places.

The success of the primary school expansion programme and the passing of the primary school population bulge into the secondary school age-group have, in their turn, stimulated a demand for an accompanying expansion of secondary school facilities. Enrolment figures in secondary full-time day schools of all kinds have increased from 89,615 in September 1961 to 112,705 in September 1962 and to 134,678 in September 1963.

During the year 12 secondary school buildings and extensions were built, providing 10,720 additional places.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      The majority of primary schools are Chinese schools where the medium of instruction is Cantonese. English is studied as a second language beginning in the third year, although some schools start earlier. At the end of the primary course a secondary school entrance examination is held. Five government primary schools cater for children whose normal language is English.

       Kindergarten Schools. Kindergarten education is not included in the government system of education, but there is an increasing demand for this type of school and many new kindergartens have been opened for children aged from four to seven. These schools are registered with the Education Department and are advised by the inspectorate (kindergarten section). The enrolment increased from 35,663 to 37,711 in September 1963.

      Special Schools. Sixteen special schools cater for the blind, the deaf and the physically handicapped. The special education section of the inspectorate provides training courses for teachers in these fields, and works in co-operation with voluntary bodies and other government departments in developing services and facilities for

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handicapped children. Dr Frisina, Professor of Audiology at Gallaudet College, USA, left Hong Kong in January after a two months visit arranged by UNESCO to advise Government on planning a programme for teaching deaf children.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

Anglo-Chinese Grammar Schools. There are 147 Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, accommodating 81,163 pupils. They offer a five- year course in the normal academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong English school certificate. Instruction is in English and Chinese is taught as a second language. This type of secondary education is in demand because a good knowledge of spoken and written English is desirable, if not essential, for entry to higher education, the professions, government service and commerce. Education continues in the sixth form (two years) for successful school certificate candidates, who enter for the matriculation examination of the University of Hong Kong or the general certificate of education (University of London) at ordinary and advanced levels, or the entrance examination to the new Chinese University of Hong Kong. Pupils who succeed in these examina- tions may go on to universities, teacher training colleges, or other professional institutions. In addition there are 22,090 pupils attend- ing tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

       Chinese Middle Schools. The Colony's 160 Chinese middle schools accommodate 41,079 pupils. They offer a six-year course in the normal academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Chinese school certificate. Instruction is in Chinese and English is taught as a second language. The course has been re-organized and most of the schools have embarked on a new five-year course which will enable their students to take the school certificate examination in five years. Such students will sit the examination for the first time in 1965. For those who pass in the Chinese school certificate examination higher education is now available at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Such students may also be admitted to the teacher training colleges, the special classes centre and the Technical College.

      Technical Schools. These give a five-year course in English with Chinese taught as a second language. Like the Anglo-Chinese

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grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the English school certificate examination and successful candidates usually continue their studies at the Technical College. There are six government and four subsidized secondary technical schools with an enrolment of 3,507 and 17 private technical schools with an enrolment of 2,597 which mainly give trade training.

Secondary Modern Schools. As part of the re-organization of primary and secondary education, the first stage of the conversion of all government secondary modern schools to secondary technical schools began in September. The conversion involves a change in the character of these schools from bi-sessional schools providing a three-year course to full-day schools providing a five-year course. This change is planned to take place gradually over the next three years. In September approximately a quarter of the pupils about to leave the government secondary modern schools were given the opportunity of two further years of secondary technical education, whilst all new pupils entered upon a five-year course. The number of pupils remaining in government secondary modern classes is 2,977. There are also 702 pupils in a subsidized secondary modern school.

      Special Classes Centre. This provides a one-year intensive English course for selected Chinese middle school students who have passed the Hong Kong Chinese school certificate and wish to go on to further study in universities and other post-secondary institutions. Twenty-eight students are enrolled.

POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION

The Technical College opened the 1963-4 session in September with a total enrolment of 9,514 students, comprising 827 full-time, 277 part-time and 8,410 evening students. The college comprises departments of building, commerce, electrical and telecommunica- tions engineering, mechanical and production engineering, textiles, navigation and mathematics and science. The college provides full- time courses leading to its own higher and ordinary diplomas and to the associate membership examinations of many British profes- sional institutions such as the Institutions of Mechanical, Electrical, Production and Structural Engineers, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, the Institute of Builders and the Textile Institute. Students are also prepared for the examinations of the

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Australian Society of Accountants, Pitman's Institute, the London Chamber of Commerce, and the City and Guilds of London Institute. The standard required for entry to full-time classes is the Hong Kong school certificate and applicants outnumber the places available by about six to one. Instruction is in English for the majority of the courses.

      Part-time day and evening courses leading to the college ordinary and higher certificates, and to the City and Guilds of London Institute and other qualifications, provide instruction in me- chanical, production, structural, electrical and telecommunications engineering, architecture, management studies, housing manage- ment, building construction, commercial design, field surveying, textiles spinning and weaving, industrial chemistry, laboratory technician's work, dental mechanics, refrigeration, accountancy, book-keeping and shorthand. A two-year part-time course for training technical teachers is also offered. The productivity centre which forms part of the mechanical and production engineering department of the college continues to provide short courses in such subjects as materials handling, plant layout, work study and quality control, with Cantonese as the language of instruction.

Construction work has begun on the new five-floor workshop block to be built with a donation of US$250,000 (approximately HK$1,400,000) from the American Government. The building should be completed early in 1964. When the workshops are fully equipped, there will be facilities for vocational courses in carpentry and joinery, bricklaying, plastering, decorating, plumbing, welding, machine fitting and electrical installation and repair work. Pre- apprenticeship courses for a number of major trades will also be offered.

Firms in Britain continue to offer student apprenticeships to students in the electrical engineering and mechanical and produc- tion engineering departments. A new development was the selection of two students in the textiles department for training in Britain by a textile firm. The total number of places offered in 1963 for overseas training was 18, including two from an Australian firm.

Post-Secondary Colleges are post-war institutions, the impetus behind their establishment being the influx of students and teachers from universities and colleges in China during the years 1947-50. The present enrolment is 3,147. The Post-Secondary Colleges

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Ordinance (1960) provides for the registration and control of the colleges and for their exemption from the provisions of the Educa- tion Ordinance. The object is to give statutory recognition to those institutions whose status approaches, but does not attain, that of a university.

In July the three grant colleges, now foundation colleges of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, held their joint entry examina- tion in which two private colleges also participated; 1,828 candi- ⚫ dates sat and 927 passed. At the conclusion of the 1962-3 academic year, the joint diploma examination of the three grant colleges was held; 192 candidates sat and 174 passed.

+

The University of Hong Kong was begun with financial help from friends and benefactors and has since received further bene- factions and substantial recurrent and non-recurrent grants from Government. In 1962-3 Government made capital grants totalling $639,738 and recurrent grants of $9,418,633 towards a total re- current expenditure of $16,179,455. Grants of land have been made from time to time and the central university estate now covers an area of about 40 acres, while other adjacent estates cover almost 12 acres.

       There are four faculties: arts, science, medicine, and engineering and architecture. Undergraduate and graduate enrolments in each faculty were 765, 292, 408 and 291 respectively in October. The Institute of Oriental Studies had 52 language students, the educa- tion diploma and certificate courses 123 and the social study courses 25. Of this total of 1,956 students, 211 were part-time, 25 were external and 601 were women. Most of the undergraduates are Chinese, but many other nationalities are represented, particu- larly from south-east Asia.

Pressure for admission continues to grow, and in May 3,388 candidates entered for ordinary and advanced level subjects in the university's matriculation examination, of whom 886 fulfilled minimum requirements for entry. The number of candidates may decrease when the university ceases examining at the ordinary level after 1965.

In 1959 the university embarked on a seven-year expansion plan, which will result in an increase of undergraduate numbers to about 1,845 by 1965-6. The total number of full-time teaching posts is

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at present 245. Some 60 of these are the university's own graduates and 105 are Chinese. There are also 22 full-time tutors attached to the Government language school.

      During 1963 the examinations for the university's degree in mechanical engineering were recognized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers as conferring exemption from the first two parts of the Institution's examinations. Thus all the university's degrees in professional subjects (medicine, architecture, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering) are now on the same profes- sional footing as those of universities in Britain.

FURTHER EDUCATION OVERSEAS

The Students' Branch of the Department of Technical Co- operation and the Hong Kong Students' Office in London are responsible for helping students find places in universities and other educational institutions in Britain. The Hong Kong Students' Office also arranges for students to be met and accommodated on arrival and helps with advice on educational or personal problems. Students who have completed their studies are given advice on future employment in Hong Kong. A selection committee in London, appointed by the Hong Kong Government, interviews applicants for posts in government service. This procedure enables applicants to know whether their applications have been successful before they return to Hong Kong. The British Council gives advice and help to students both before leaving Hong Kong and in Britain.

From 1st October 1962 to 30th September 1963 the Education Department dealt with 536 applications for educational courses and 150 applications for nursing courses in Britain. During the same period 568 students are known to have left Hong Kong for Britain and the Republic of Ireland for further studies and at the end of September Hong Kong students in Britain numbered 1,809. A table in Appendix VI shows the main categories of their courses. The numbers of Hong Kong students known to have left for the USA, Canada and Australia for further studies are 810, 310 and 405 respectively.

Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students. The house

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is controlled by a board of governors responsible to the Govern- ment and accommodates almost 80 students. Table tennis, billiards, a radiogram, television, a photographic dark room and a library are provided. The main lounge has ample room for dances, concerts and general social activities. The address is: Hong Kong House, 74, Lancaster Gate, London, W2. Telephone: AMBassador 3056.

ADULT EDUCATION

      Adult education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute (enrolment 12,902), the Technical College Evening Department (8,410), the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies (427) and 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres (37,512). The Evening Institute offers different types of courses designed to make up education deficiencies and improve employ- ment prospects. There are English classes ranging from elementary level to post-school-certificate standards; teacher's classes for art, music, handwork, woodwork, domestic science and the teaching of English; rural literacy classes with emphasis on learning the '3-Rs'; post-primary extension classes providing an additional three years training with a practical bias for those who do not anticipate further education at the secondary school level; and secondary school classes leading to the two school certificate examinations. In addition, general background education classes provide elemen- tary education with special reference to adult needs and interests; practical background education classes give opportunity for adults to learn woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. The total number of classes is 572 held in 58 locations in the urban and rural areas.

      The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies offers advanced courses in Chinese studies to graduates of Chinese and Anglo- Chinese secondary schools. At present the school provides a three- year course in general arts, leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Classes are held at the university for two hours each evening, five evenings a week. Subjects taught include Chinese literature, philosophy, sociology, English language and literature. Most of the students are teachers in the day time.

        Education and recreation are combined at the 12 Adult Educa- tion and Recreation Centres which provide a wide variety of recreational, cultural and creative activities for developing a civic

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sense and personal fulfilment in communal activities. Apart from regular nightly activities, music appreciation, choral singing, physical education, educational film-shows and group discussions are organized once or twice a week; a social evening or concert is held once a month, the entertainment being provided by mem- bers. Educational visits are arranged periodically. Groups formed to study elementary art, photography, harmonica playing, paper- sculpture, Chinese boxing and dramatics, have met with consider- able success. Civics talks are well attended and always arouse enthusiastic discussion. Training conferences for the supervisory staff and for voluntary helpers are held during the summer vacation.

The Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong has expanded considerably in recent years and now provides a wide variety of studies in its total of 151 courses. The present enrolment is 3,024.

The Technical College Evening Department offers courses in various technical and commercial subjects. Other forms of adult education are provided by private night schools and voluntary organizations.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER-TRAINING

In March there were 22,633 full-time and part-time teachers employed in registered day schools, of whom 6,130 were university graduates and 10,023 trained non-graduates. In addition, 4,843 teachers were engaged in tutorial, evening and special afternoon classes and 114 were in special schools. At the end of the 1962-3 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers in all types of schools was 28:1. School classes are planned to have a maximum of 45 pupils in primary classes and 40 in secondary classes. The required qualifications for teachers are a university degree, a certificate in a special subject, or a teaching certificate. Most teacher-training is done by the Education Department's three colleges-Northcote College, Grantham College and Sir Robert Black College.

The Grantham and Sir Robert Black Training Colleges offer a full-time one-year course for students from secondary schools. Instruction is in Chinese and the course qualifies successful students to teach in primary schools. Northcote Training College offers, in

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      addition to the one-year course, a two-year course in which in- struction is given either in Chinese or in English according to the section selected. It also offers a special one-year course to diploma holders of post-secondary colleges designed principally to train teachers for Chinese middle schools. Successful students from these two courses are qualified to teach in upper primary and lower secondary classes. The two-year course is recognized by the Ministry of Education in Britain for employment under the Burnham Scale. Students who have completed the teacher-training courses are awarded a certificate after two years of satisfactory teaching. Students from the two-year course and special one-year course are given a teacher's certificate; students from the one-year course are given a primary teacher's certificate. The training colleges organize continuation classes for students during their period of probationary teaching.

The colleges also organize in-service training courses for un- qualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, either in Chinese or English, of two years' duration. Successful students are given a certificate granting qualified teacher status in either primary or secondary schools, depending on the particular course followed.

       Teacher-training courses are free and in the full-time courses maintenance grants may be made in cases of need. In September there were 202 students in the two-year course, 50 in the special one-year course, 780 in the one-year courses and 1,526 in the in-service training courses. The department of education of the University of Hong Kong offers a one-year full-time post-graduate course which leads to a teaching qualification. In September 68 graduates were enrolled in the course. The department also offers part-time courses of two years' duration to enable graduates already employed in schools to obtain a professional qualification. The present enrolment is 55 graduates.

EXAMINATIONS

       The Local Examination System. There are four local school examinations, three conducted by the Education Department and one by the University of Hong Kong.

The Secondary School Entrance Examination is a competitive examination to select pupils for places in government and aided

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secondary schools and for aided places in private secondary schools. It is conducted by the Education Department and an examination committee is appointed to advise the Director on general policy. All primary schools are invited to participate. Entrance from each school is limited to 60 per cent of its primary six pupils, but this percentage may be increased up to 100 per cent where justified by previous examination results. Scholarships for a full secondary school course are awarded on the results of the examination.

      The Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination is con- ducted by a syndicate of representatives of participating schools and the Education Department. The report on this examination by Mr A. V. Hardy, Deputy Secretary of the Cambridge Examina- tion Syndicate, has been studied by a working party appointed by the syndicate. The new regulations recommended by the working party have been approved by the syndicate and will come into force in the 1965 examination. The new syllabuses, modified to incorporate suggestions made in the report, will be made available to schools as soon as they have been approved by the syndicate. Candidates enter the examination at the end of a five-year course in Anglo-Chinese schools. Entry is restricted to school candidates. The examination is intended to test general scholastic attainment and a pass is awarded on satisfactory performance in the com- pulsory subject of English and in certain groups of subjects. For the 1965 and subsequent examinations, the syndicate has announced the aim of making the pass with credit level in indi- vidual subjects equivalent to ordinary level standards in the general certificate of education examination. The number of candidates increases rapidly year by year as the certificate is the qualification for proceeding to higher examinations, for admission to teacher- training colleges and for certain types of local employment.

       The Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination is con- ducted by a similar syndicate. At present candidates enter after completing a six-year course in a Chinese middle school, but, in and after 1965, admission to this examination will be after com- pletion of the new five-year Chinese middle schools course. Only school candidates may enter and the pass requirements compare with those of the English school certificate with the exception that Chinese is the compulsory subject. The number of candidates

* ་

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shows an increase of 438 or 19 per cent and the number of par- ticipating schools has increased to 55, as compared with 47 last year. The status of this certificate is similar to that of the English school certificate.

      Matriculation. The University of Hong Kong Matriculation Examination is conducted by the university at ordinary and advanced levels. The standards are those of the general certificate of education. Passes at advanced and ordinary levels are necessary to secure admission to the university and this certificate may also be used as an entrance qualification to the teacher-training colleges. Candidates are entered for the examination at ordinary level after a one-year course in form six of an Anglo-Chinese grammar school and for the advanced level after a two-year course. Admission to form six depends on the pupil's performance in the Hong Kong school certificate examination. Private candidates are also per- mitted to sit.

       External Examinations. The Education Department provides a local secretary for various examining bodies in Britain and so makes available to students in Hong Kong many overseas examina- tions, the standards of which are comparable with those of the corresponding examinations held in Britain. Of these examinations, the GCE examination is open to both school and private candidates who hold a school certificate of the required standard. London University Degree examinations are also conducted annually in May and June. Appendix VI shows the more important examina- tions held in Hong Kong and the number of candidates entering for them. In addition, arrangements are made for setting the question papers for the Sarawak Chinese Middle School Common Examination and for marking about 12,250 scripts for the Sarawak Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination.

OVERSEAS SCHOLARSHIPS AND BURSARIES

      In addition to the 1,117 government awards listed in Appendix VI, nine scholarships for post-graduate studies and four bursaries for one-year teaching courses, tenable at British educational in- stitutions, were awarded by the British Government to candidates from Hong Kong. These were made under the Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan formulated at the Education

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     Conference held at Oxford in 1959. Two scholarships for post- graduate studies were awarded by the Canadian Government. Hong Kong is contributing towards this plan by awarding annually to graduates from other parts of the Commonwealth two scholar- ships tenable at the University of Hong Kong. Two scholarships offered by the Department of Technical Co-operation at British universities and two departmental scholarships for training in Britain were awarded to officers of the department. Nine British Council scholarships were awarded to enable graduates and post- graduates to study at British institutions. The Federation of British Industries granted one scholarship for a two-year course in practi- cal training in an engineering firm in Britain.

       One award for studies in Australia was made to an officer of the Education Department under the Australian International Award Scheme and another was made to an officer of the same department under the Mutual Aid Programme of the Common- wealth Education Scheme for a three-month course in New Zealand. A scholarship was awarded under the Canadian Aid Programme to an officer of the Hong Kong Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society for an observation tour in Canada. Two American Awards for Colonial Teachers were granted: one to a teacher in a grant-in-aid school and another to an officer of the Education Department. A fellow- ship was awarded by Gallaudet College, Washington DC, USA, to an officer of the Education Department for a course in the teaching of deaf children.

EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION

A brief summary of expenditure by the Education Department from August 1962 to July 1963, is given in the table on finance in Appendix VI. In government and government-aided primary schools, fees are kept as low as possible and 10 per cent of all places are reserved for the free education of poor children. In government and aided secondary schools between 30 per cent and 45 per cent of the places are free.

LEGISLATION

     All government schools are directly controlled by the Director of Education. Other schools, with some exceptions, are subject to

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the provisions of the Education Ordinance. The exceptions include schools for the children of members of HM Forces, while post- secondary colleges and the two universities have their own separate ordinances. Under the Education Ordinance the Director of Educa- tion has general control over education in the Colony, and is required to keep registers of schools, managers of schools, and teachers, and to ensure that school buildings are adequately main- tained and that the general administration, conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers are satisfactory.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance, 1963 came into operation on 17th October 1963.

BOARD OF EDUCATION

The Board of Education was established in 1920 to assist the Director of Education in developing and improving education in the Colony. It is now a statutory body 'with power to advise the Governor upon educational matters'. It meets regularly and Government normally consults it on all matters of educational importance. The chairman is the Director of Education. All other members are unofficial. The board met three times during the year.

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

      Government Schools are built, equipped and operated from government funds. There are 99 primary schools, 18 secondary schools, three teacher-training colleges, a technical college and four evening institutions.

      Grant Schools. These 22 schools mainly give secondary educa- tion and work under the terms of the Grant Code, by which Government pays the difference between approved expenditure and approved income. Approved expenditure includes salaries, leave pay, passages for teachers who are so entitled and other charges. Alternatively, a block grant may be made. Grants of up to 50 per cent may also be made to meet the cost of new building, equip- ment and major repairs. In addition to this aid, interest-free loans may be made for approved new building projects.

      Subsidized Schools are mainly primary schools operating under the Subsidy Code. The subsidy, like that paid under the Grant

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Code, is a deficiency grant which enables schools to keep their fees low and to pay teachers the same salaries as government and grant school teachers of the same grade. The schools are assisted when necessary by free grants of land and building subsidies, and are eligible for interest-free loans for new buildings if their sponsor- ing bodies are incorporated. Although an urban subsidized school is usually bigger than a rural one, more than half such primary schools are in the New Territories, serving small, scattered villages as well as the more thickly populated areas. When a rural school is needed (or an extension to an existing one) the villagers approach the District Officer, who helps them to seek the Director of Education's approval for their plans. A building subsidy and recurrent subsidy are generally given. Usually capital subsidies are 50 per cent of the total cost of the school, but for many small village schools where the local inhabitants are unable to raise the required half a larger percentage subsidy may be given. There are 219 subsidized schools in urban areas and 285 in the New Territories.

Private Schools range from kindergarten through primary and secondary to post-secondary. In most cases private technical and commercial schools aim at short, intensive courses. Fees are generally much higher than those in other schools. Two measures introduced in 1960 assist private, non-profit-making schools. The period of repayment of loans by schools of this kind was extended to 21 years, subject to interest being charged at 34 per cent per annum. Schools already in receipt of interest-free loans repayable over 11 years were given the choice of adopting these new terms for the outstanding balance of their loans. Direct government assistance is also given to selected non-profit-making schools in the form of assistance in the payment of the salary of qualified teachers and an allowance based on the number of classrooms in use. Students in such schools and in certain other private secondary schools, who have been selected for entry on the results of the secondary school entrance examination, have also been assisted by having their fees paid in whole or in part. The assistance payable is equal to the difference between the approved fee of the school and the fee that would be charged in a comparable government school.

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Some 4,627 students now receive awards of this nature. There are 1,477 private schools.

VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AND WELFARE WORK

       Missions of various denominations and Kaifong welfare associa- tions organize grant-in-aid and subsidized schools. Both missions and Kaifongs sponsor boards of management for non-profit-making schools. Kaifongs also provide free education for poor children. The British Red Cross Society organizes hospital schools for crippled children. Schools for the deaf, for the blind and for lepers, orphanages, and homes for maladjusted children are also provided by various welfare associations while the Po Leung Kuk provides free schooling for homeless young women and children in its care.

       Other welfare agencies which help education include the YMCA and YWCA, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association. The Children's Playground Association, the Boy Scout and Girl Guides Association and the Rotary Clubs also give assistance. The Education Department works closely with the Social Welfare Department and voluntary agencies on special schools, and is represented at the meetings of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Clubs, the Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme and the Mental Health Association of Hong Kong. The department associates closely with the Medical and Health Department in health education and with the Hong Kong Teachers' Association in the professional sphere.

LIBRARIES

The City Hall public library, opened in 1962, has established itself as a most valuable addition to Hong Kong's library facilities. Libraries are also maintained by the British Council, the United States Information Service, the Chamber of Commerce, a number of government departments including the Education Department and the University of Hong Kong. Access to the university and some of the official libraries is restricted. Books, pamphlets, journals and visual-aid material are distributed by the Government

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Information Services Department, the British Council, various con- sular authorities and commercial agencies.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

     The value of outdoor pursuits as part of any programme for physical education is receiving increasing recognition in the Colony. The popularity of training courses designed to foster interest in outdoor activities has received fresh impetus with the opening, in conjunction with the Social Welfare Department and the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Organizations, of an outdoor training centre at Tsuen Wan. This centre and a pilot scheme of youth hostels in four subsidized schools in the New Territories have widened the horizon for many urban schoolchildren. The pro- grammes of training include instruction in camping, canoeing and canoe building, mountaineering and mountain rescue work, map reading, sailing, athletics and night hikes. Regular supervision of teachers and physical education in all grades of schools was carried out during the year. Courses for physical education teachers in the New Territories and for in-service teachers in training were held in the summer vacation.

MUSIC, DRAMA AND ART IN THE SCHOOLS

      Music. The Hong Kong Schools' Music Association, which has a membership of 4,232, presented 12 concerts by local and visiting artists to its student-members, including a first performance by the newly formed Hong Kong Youth Orchestra. The 15th Annual Schools Music Festival was held in March and April and attracted a record of 3,936 entries (compared with 3,665 in 1962) to the 278 classes available. The external adjudicators for music were Professor Sidney Harrison and Dr Havelock Nelson from Britain. The syllabus for the 16th Schools Music Festival for 1964 was published in September and with 300 classes the festival is now one of the largest of its kind in the world.

The practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music were held from September to December. The number of entries rose to 3,366 maintaining the Colony's distinc- tion of having the second highest number of candidates through- out the 32 countries of the British Commonwealth served by the

ΤΟ ΤΑΙΡΟ

SITE OF

CHINESE UNIVERSITY

OF HONG KONG

LAND TO BE GRANTED

CHUNG CHI COLLEGE

TO SHA TIN

The major educational event of 1963 was the inauguration (above) of the Chinese Univer- sity of Hong Kong by the Governor, in October. The medium of teaching in the new university is mainly Chinese.

Land will be granted in the New Territories for the Chinese University of Hong Kong, near one of the foundation colleges which it has incorporated.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong incorporates three post-secondary colleges, Chung Chi College (above) near where the new university buildings will be sited, the New Aa College (below) and the United College of Hong Kong (right). The formation of the university is the result of a report prepared by the Fulton Commission, submitted in February, 1963.

CLLL

AN

UNITED COLL

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Pupils at the three post-secondary colleges which now form the new Chinese University can follow a variety of courses. Art and zoology are two examples. Apart from the normal academic subjects, students are given the opportunity to study Chinese culture. Degrees granted by the university will be officially recognized.

ON

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board. There was a total of 1,371 candidates for the theory examinations. The practical and theory examinations of the Trinity College of Music attracted 38 entries. Examinations for the Royal Academy of Dancing were held by visiting examiners from Britain in February. There were 316 candidates for the Grade (children's) examinations and 27 for the Major examinations; candidates who passed numbered 286 and 17 respectively. The annual conference for music teachers was held during the summer.

Drama. Many plays in both English and Cantonese were per- formed as an extra-curricular activity in schools. Students were also able to see a variety of plays performed by local dramatic societies.

Art. A 'Save Water' poster competition in May, following last year's successful poster competition on preventing fires, again attracted a large number of entries from 221 schools and fostered great interest in the campaign. For the children's art exhibition at the City Hall in October over 10,000 entries were received from schools, and the final selection of 650 put on display showed the beneficial effects in schools of the work done in the teacher-training colleges. The Education Department art section's picture loan collection continued to circulate in government schools.

EDUCATION CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION

A three-day conference for history teachers and a four-day geography exhibition and workshop took place at the end of July. Both attracted a large number of participants and visitors. A residential conference on the teaching of English as a second language was held at Chung Chi College in August for the second year in succession. The conference was again organized under the chairmanship of Dr B. Hensman, head of the department of English at the college. Amongst those taking part were Mr J. C. Catford, Director of the School of Applied Linguistics, University of Edinburgh, and Mr R. Hemphill, Co-Director of the Philippine Centre for Language Study, Philippines, through the generosity of the British Council and the Asia Foundation respectively.

      Lectures were given by visiting and local specialists in English language teaching and discussions were held in groups and in open forum. Delegates attended from Brunei, Canada, Macau,

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Philippines, North Borneo, Singapore and Taiwan. An important feature of the conference was a book exhibition, organized with the co-operation of the British Council, the United States Informa- tion Service and local and overseas publishers. A report on the conference has been issued.

9

Health

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

STATUTORY responsibility for administering the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong rests with the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, the Commissioner of Labour and the District Commissioner, New Territories. The Medical and Health Depart- ment provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas, maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. In addition, doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the industrial health section of the Labour Department and the prisons medical service. In the New Territories the District Commissioner is responsible for the licensing of slaughter-houses and offensive trades-other licensing functions previously held by the District Commissioner having been assumed by the Director of Urban Services.

      Finance. The estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department for the financial year 1963-4 was $83,409,800. To this should be added medical subventions totalling $29,295,000 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Grantham Hospital, the Mission to Lepers (Hong Kong Auxiliary), the Pok Oi Hospital and other organizations and for the building of the new Kwong Wah Hospital. The combined estimated ex- penditure of the Medical and Health Department and the medical subventions represents 8.29 per cent of the Colony's total estimated expenditure of $1,360,040,510. Estimated capital expenditure for the Medical and Health Department was $30,348,700.

      Professional Registers. There are five statutory bodies dealing with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists,

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nurses and midwives. The Hong Kong Medical Council is respon- sible for the registration of medical practitioners and has dis- ciplinary responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance, 1957. It is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nurses Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration or enrolment and have disciplinary powers.

GENERAL HEALTH

Generally speaking the health of the population continued to be good against a background of overcrowding, inadequate housing and drastically restricted water supplies. Because of the failure of normal rainfall, strict water rationing had to be imposed to an extent which had not been necessary for many years. Despite this no epidemic of serious proportion occurred during the year although there was a recurrence of cholera and increased incidence of both enteric fever and bacillary dysentery. Notifications of poliomyelitis and associated deaths showed a steep decline, con- sidered to be a direct result of the intensive oral anti-poliomyelitis vaccine campaign which took place in the first half of the year. There was a drop in diphtheria notifications. The number of cases of measles notified again showed an increase over the number reported the previous year.

The toll taken by accidents at work, on the streets and in the home which required treatment in casualty departments and ad- mission to hospital continued to rise. In the older age groups, as would be expected in any ageing population, the diseases of later life such as cancer, heart disease and cerebro-vascular accidents increased again. Tuberculosis remained the most important health problem in the Colony, accounting for more sickness and deaths than all other communicable diseases put together. There was no easing of the pressure on clinic and hospital facilities.

An important event of the year was the opening in September by the Governor of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, a large acute and specialized general hospital situated in Kowloon, a description of which is included later in this chapter. The Tang Shiu-kin X-Ray Survey Centre and Dental Clinic in Hong Kong Island and the Robert Black Health Centre in Kowloon to both of which

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Dr Tang Shiu-kin, CBE, LLD subscribed generously, were opened in May and August. The Jockey Club Clinic at Wong Tau Hom and the Jockey Club Kowloon Medical Rehabilitation Centre, both in Kowloon, were donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and opened in February and August. The latter is situated in the grounds of Kowloon Hospital and provides varied and up-to-date rehabilitation facilities in the form of physiotherapy and occupa- tional therapy, and also serves as a centre for the manufacture and fitting of orthopaedic appliances. The Kam Tin Clinic and Maternity Hospital in the New Territories, to which the residents of Kam Tin and Pat Heung subscribed, was opened in December. Despite these improved facilities, however, there was no easing of the pressure on clinic and hospital services. Admissions during the year again increased by 5.6 per cent but their accommodation was only made possible by the use of camp beds in wards and on verandahs and by shortening as far as possible the time spent in hospital.

       Vital Statistics. In 1963 the total of live births showed a slight increase on the figure for 1962. A total of 115,263 live births were registered as against 111,905 in 1962. The live birth rate dropped slightly from 32.8 to 32.1 per 1,000 of population. The crude death rate remained constant at 5.5 per 1,000 and there was a natural increase of 95,515 persons during the year. A table showing the principal statistics and rates over the period 1953 to 1963 is at Appendix VII.

       The infant mortality rate dropped to 32.9 per 1,000 live births, the neonatal mortality rate was 18.9 per 1,000 live births and the still-birth rate was 13.9 per 1,000 total births. There were only 34 maternal deaths and the maternal mortality rate was 0.29 per 1,000 total births. The perinatal rate, the deaths of infants under one week of age, was 24.3 per 1,000 total births.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Cholera. Following the outbreaks of cholera in 1961 and 1962, and the continuing incidence in nearby countries, special preventive measures were taken throughout the year. These consisted of routine bacteriological investigations for cholera of all specimens sent to the laboratory from cases of gastro-enteritis, and the routine

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     sampling of night-soil and, in special instances, of sea water, well water and foodstuffs liable to be sources of transmission of cholera vibrios. In addition, a mass immunization campaign against cholera was carried out which began in May, as a result of which 1,708,764 persons, representing 48 per cent of the population, had been immunized with doses of standard vaccine of 8,000 million organisms per millilitre when the first case of cholera was confirmed on 29th June. Quarantine restrictions were maintained in respect of the Philippines and Kwangtung Province in South China, and were applied to Indonesia, Malaya, Burma and South Korea when these countries were declared infected.

      The first positive laboratory finding in Hong Kong during 1963 was from a case of suspected cholera admitted to the Sai Ying Pun Hospital on 27th June. This was not an imported case and no contact with individuals coming recently from infected areas could be traced. The whole Colony was declared an infected local area on 29th June when laboratory confirmation was received. Vibrio cholera El Tor was isolated, the strain being in all respects similar to those occurring in the 1961 and 1962 outbreaks. Between 29th June and 21st December there were 115 cases of cholera, all of which were confirmed bacteriologically. Forty per cent of these were not typical, the disease being very mild. There were six deaths, four directly due to the disease and a further two due to intercurrent causes.

Initially the outbreak appeared to be similar to that experienced in the previous two years, except for its earlier onset, its late con- tinuation and the high proportion of mild cases. The first case on 27th June was earlier than expected and a total of 27 cases had been reported by 19th September. There was then a break until 28th September, when, instead of the incidence declining as had been the case in 1961 and 1962, an additional 88 cases were reported during the last quarter of the year-a period which in previous experience had always been almost completely free from the disease. Almost all contacts of the 115 cases were isolated at the Chatham Road Quarantine Centre, and among 2,310 con- tacts accommodated at the centre 119 contact carriers were detected.

      The usual environmental measures were applied, including in- creased chlorination of the public water supply, chlorination of all wells in the urban areas and vigorous inspection of public

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eating places and food premises, markets and hawkers. Particular attention was paid to the collection and disposal of night-soil and to sampling of night-soil for pathological examination. The inocula- tion campaign continued and a total of 3,101,766 doses of vaccine had been given by the end of the year. Detailed epidemiological investigations of each case were conducted and the results remained consistently baffling. Cases occurred sporadically over widespread areas and no relationship could be determined between them nor could any common source or agent be found. No secondary cases from clinical cases or proved carriers occurred. In general, persons aged 43 and over were most affected, 47 per cent of all cases occurring in this group which comprises only 17.4 per cent of the total population. Of the 115 cases reported only 29 had been inoculated, and the disease was mild in the majority of this group.

Routine sampling from tanker vehicles containing communal night-soil was continued nightly throughout the year. These tankers serve approximately 25 per cent of the population of the urban areas, a percentage which is slowly but surely declining as water- borne sewage systems are extended. The first positive specimen was obtained on the night of 1st July, four days after the notifica- tion of the first case. By the end of the outbreak all of the 28 collection routes in Kowloon and 31 of the 34 routes on Hong Kong Island had yielded positive cultures of cholera vibrios, the Kowloon routes being positive for cholera vibrios on 370 occasions and the Hong Kong routes positive on 700 occasions. On certain occasions it was possible to trace the infection back through the hoppers serving the tankers to latrine buckets used in tenements; in some instances it was possible to obtain rectal swabs from the residents served by these buckets and a number were found to be positive although the persons concerned showed no other evidences of the infection.

        The last case of the 1963 outbreak occurred on 21st December and the Colony was subsequently declared free of infection.

Tuberculosis. In spite of continuing satisfactory progress tuber- culosis remained the principal community health problem in the Colony. Many thousands of unselected examinations carried out each year show that just under two per cent of the adult population is in need of treatment for the disease, with a smaller percentage of active tuberculosis occurring below the age of 15.

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There is ample evidence that tuberculosis in infancy and early childhood is now relatively rare by 1961 standards, that the peak prevalence is in middle life and that most of the more intractable clinical problems occur above the age of 45.

      The mortality rate has fallen from 208 per 100,000 in 1951 to 49.05 in 1963, and the change in age distribution has continued. In 1951 more than one-third of the deaths occurred below the age of five. Today the proportion has fallen to one-eighth, while above the age of 45 the proportion has risen from one-fifth to more than half, with a male preponderance of two to one. The mortality pattern today closely resembles that in the United Kingdom but is at a considerably higher level.

      In the field of prevention, improved economic conditions are having some effect but, while health education in the home, contact examinations, and X-ray surveys are proceeding, the principal specific measure aimed at tuberculosis prevention is the BCG vaccination campaign. The main emphasis of the campaign is directed to the vaccination of newborn babies. There are 1,598 beds available in the whole Colony for the treatment of tuber- culosis, of which 1,418 are in Government assisted hospitals managed by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council and the Tung Wah Hospitals Medical Committee. A total of 1,705 patients were admitted for treatment in hospital during the year. Among patients who accept admission for treatment the level of co-operation is excellent, there being only a very small proportion of discharges against medical advice. In addition, a rehabilitation scheme is now in operation. It was started by the Lutheran World Service as a pilot project; this scheme, in view of its success, has become a permanent part of the overall treatment programme.

      During the year, 83.4 per cent of babies born in the Colony re- ceived BCG vaccination within 48 hours of birth. The vaccine is issued free to all midwives, doctors and hospitals. Through the Government tuberculosis service all children under the age of three who are contacts of known adult cases are given prophylactic INAH for a period of 12 months if there is a tuberculin sensitivity reaction not known to have been due to BCG vaccination. Through the school health service, tuberculin testing and BCG vaccination

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where indicated is offered to all school children and a house-to- house campaign has been conducted in an effort to reach children who are of school age but are not attending school. Toddlers attending the maternal and child health centres are also tuberculin tested and vaccinated when necessary.

The tuberculosis control programme is a combined effort and the principal bodies participating are the Government tuberculosis service, which maintains Colony-wide facilities for diagnosis and ambulatory chemotherapy, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association and the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council. Certain other hospital organizations, both charitable and private, also pro- vide treatment facilities.

       The Government tuberculosis service operates full-time and part- time clinics in all areas where the distribution of the population warrants such activities. All diagnosis and treatment is free. There are four full-time chest clinics equipped with radiological facilities and treatment is available at these and at 15 subsidiary centres. Treatment sessions are held in the evening at the four main centres for patients who cannot attend during the day.

Once a diagnosis of active tuberculosis has been made, a system of ambulatory chemotherapy is instituted. The standard treatment is intensive for the first six months, after which each case is reviewed. Those still infectious are admitted to hospital, while those responding satisfactorily are placed on a less intensive régime. In this way large numbers of active cases are rendered sputum negative and can live at home and remain at work without danger to others. All contacts in the family of such cases are investigated and action is taken as may be necessary. Cases in need of hospital treatment for pulmonary or bone and joint tuber- culosis are assessed for priority of admission as beds become available. Almoners attached to the tuberculosis service maintain social histories and operate a tuberculosis assistance fund for those in need of financial or material aid while under treatment. There is a staff of tuberculosis workers who undertake home visiting, health education, clinic duties and contact tracing. They also in- vestigate the circumstances of those defaulting from treatment.

During the year a total of 29,123 patients received continuous anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy on an ambulatory basis at Govern- ment clinics and a total of 1,414,009 attendances were recorded.

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Case finding by means of X-ray surveys is carried out by Govern- ment. There is an annual X-ray survey of all civil servants, while free surveys are carried out, on request, in schools and in industrial or commercial concerns. Certain conditions regarding sick leave and re-employment of proved cases are required of employers who wish to avail themselves of the survey facilities.

      Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association. Most hospital treat- ment for cases referred from the Government tuberculosis service is undertaken in the non-profit-making Grantham Hospital. The hospital has 613 beds, 576 of which are maintained by Government on a daily fee paying basis. Beds are also available in the Govern- ment hospital at Lai Chi Kok for cases requiring medical treatment or special investigation. At the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Convalescent Home, where there is a total of 220 beds, patients are admitted direct and treatment is free. Many beds are maintained by organizations in Hong Kong and patients sponsored for these beds have a certain priority of admission. The hospital is staffed by the St Columban Order of Sisters and the consultant services are supplied by the professorial units of the University of Hong Kong. An annual recurrent subvention is made by Government.

The Anti-Tuberculosis Association also maintains at its head- quarters a BCG clinic, a follow-up clinic and a health education section. The policy of the Association is formulated by a board and the hospitals are managed by the Grantham Hospital and Ruttonjee Sanatorium Management Boards respectively. Both hospitals offer approved training courses leading to the British Tuberculosis Association certificate in tuberculosis nursing.

Haven of Hope Sanatorium. Managed by an executive com- mittee of the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, the Haven of Hope Sanatorium now has accommodation for 230 cases of tuberculosis. There are two units-one for rehabilitation prior to resettlement and the other an observation centre for child contacts who have a positive tuberculin test. Government maintains 80 beds by means of an annual subvention for the treatment of tuberculosis among villagers in the New Territories. The remainder of the beds are sponsored by voluntary and missionary bodies, which pay annual maintenance costs or guarantee the daily cost of maintenance of the patients they sponsor.

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The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals maintains between 350 and 400 beds for the treatment of more chronic forms of tuber- culosis. Other institutions receiving support from Government which admit cases of tuberculosis infection are the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Sandy Bay Crippled Children's Home and the Haven of Hope Leprosarium.

Venereal Disease. Free clinics are maintained in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories for the diagnosis, treatment and surveillance of venereal diseases. Despite strict epidemiological control by contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters and free ante- natal blood tests, the incidence of primary syphilis has continued to rise considerably from the 1961 level. Gonorrhoea has shown a slight rise while chancroid and lymphogranuloma remained at a low level. The upward trend in primary syphilis and gonorrhoea may to some extent be accounted for by a rapidly increasing population many of whom have not yet been able to form stable family patterns. Teenage VD figures are almost negligible while latent, tertiary and congenital syphilis continue at a low level.

Leprosy. Sixteen out-patient sessions are held weekly throughout the Colony, solely for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy. In addition sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with the dermatology and venereal disease clinics. The Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission to Lepers, with Government subvention, maintains 540 beds at the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium to which infectious cases are admitted voluntarily. A small number of patients requiring surgical reconstruction are also accepted. Im- migrants from China, many of whom show severe deformities, make up a large proportion of new cases presenting at clinics for the first time. There is some provision for the fitting of surgical appliances for cases with limb deformities. Prejudices against employment or rehabilitation of cured patients are fast disappear- ing and widespread publicity is leading to a more humane and progressive approach to the problem by the community.

Malaria. Malaria continues to be endemic but is largely restricted to certain parts of the uncontrolled rural areas. The majority of the reported cases came from these uncontrolled areas, although their geographical distribution was markedly uneven. As in the preceding years, Sai Kung district on the eastern shores of the New Territories again accounted for the largest number of the

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cases. The important carriers of malaria are Anopheles minimus found breeding in certain hill streams, seepages and irrigation ditches, and A. Jeyporiensis var. candidiensis which breeds in rice cultivation, fallow rice fields, pools in rice stubble and water flow- ing through grass. Other anopheline species found in the Colony play little or no part in malaria transmission. Plasmodium vivax is the predominant parasite responsible for the infection.

Malaria control in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures consisting of draining and clean-weeding streams, ditch- ing and oiling. Anti-malaria oil continued to be employed as the main larvicide, malathion, diazinon or BHC being also used on a limited scale in areas where the application of oil is not suitable. These anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding afford protection from the infection to over 80 per cent of the 2,500,000 or more persons estimated at mid-year to be living within the urban areas of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon and in certain circumscribed zones in the New Territories. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas during the year could be attributed to breakdown of these control measures. In the re- mainder of the New Territories, the background of which is essentially rural, the adoption of either anti-larval or anti-adult measures is not feasible at present. Therefore chemoprophylaxis remains the main protection against malaria for disciplined groups stationed there.

     Diphtheria. Due to the rapidly increasing number of young children and the poor response to the facilities for immunization, there has been little significant decline in the incidence of diph- theria during recent years. The main foci are in the densely populated tenement areas of the Colony, overall incidence being evenly spread throughout all areas. Over 79.5 per cent of the cases were in children under the age of 10, with more than 58.5 per cent under the age of five. The case fatality rate from diphtheria has not shown a continuing decline during recent years, being 9.9 per cent during 1963 compared with 10.5 per cent in 1956.

As in recent years, the diphtheria immunization campaign was continued throughout 1963, with emphasis on inoculation facilities being made available as near as possible to the home. However, interruptions of the effort, due to the anti-poliomyelitis and the

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cholera inoculation campaigns, caused serious disruption. House- to-house visits were conducted in resettlement estates and other crowded areas and teams of inoculators visited squatters both on hillsides and on rooftops. Continuous use was made of publicity media to stress the dangers of the disease and to inform parents of the facilities available for the protection of their children. Despite this, there are still a great many children under 10 who have, as yet, no protection against the disease.

       Enteric Fever. The trend followed the pattern of the past, with the greatest incidence in the third quarter of the year. The highest monthly peak was in September. Notifications numbered 1,038, being 212 higher than the preceding year. Although no mass anti- typhoid campaign was organized during the year, free inoculation at all Government clinics and vaccination centres continued to be avail- able to the public. The usual control measures were enforced, including supervision of restaurants and eating houses and the education of the public in matters of personal hygiene and general sanitation. Special attention was paid to food handlers.

       Poliomyelitis. A mass anti-poliomyelitis campaign, using Sabin- type vaccine, commenced in January and was repeated in March and May. During this campaign 500,387 children, representing 85 per cent of the estimated child population up to five years of age, received first doses of vaccine and of these 430,358 received two doses. Free oral vaccine continued to be offered at all maternal and child health centres throughout the year to children too young to be included in the mass campaign; a further 46,964 doses were issued by the end of 1963.

       Following this campaign, there was a most marked decline in the incidence of the disease, no case being reported during the period June to August when notifications had previously reached a peak. Total notifications were 53 compared with 363 in 1962, while deaths were four compared with 52.

        The Dysenteries. In recent years there has been a gradual in- crease, associated with the increasing numbers of the population at risk, in both amoebiasis and bacillary dysentery, but the mor- tality remains low.

Measles. This infection is most prevalent during the cooler months and analysis shows, as elsewhere, a regular interval of 24

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months between peaks of incidence. The incidence remained low after the extensive epidemic early in 1961 until the last quarter of 1962 when an appreciable increase was observed; this increase continued into the early part of 1963. The number of deaths, mainly due to broncho-pneumonia, remained high, reflecting the incomplete notification of this disease. Generally speaking, only complicated cases are notified and the majority of milder cases pass unnoticed or are treated by herbal medicines.

HEALTH SERVICES

Prophylactic Inoculations. Facilities for free vaccination against smallpox, cholera, typhoid fever, poliomyelitis and diphtheria were available throughout the year at all Government hospitals, clinics and centres. No specific campaigns against smallpox or enteric fever were organized as the extensive campaigns against cholera militated against such operations, as well as against the anti- diphtheria campaign. However, special attention was given to smallpox vaccination because of the smallpox situation in neigh- bouring countries and some 321,942 vaccinations were performed during the year.

Port Health. The port health service is responsible for enforcing the provisions of the International Sanitary Regulations, as em- bodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance. It is also responsible for the correlation and dissemination of epidemiological information on communicable notifiable diseases. Four inoculation centres are maintained for the issue of interna- tional certificates of vaccination and inoculation to people travel- ling abroad. Advice on medical problems is transmitted by radio to ships at sea.

A regular exchange of epidemiological information is maintain- ed with the World Health Organization in Geneva, the Western Pacific Regional Office in Manila and with ports and airports in other countries. Medical inspections of passengers arriving by land, sea and air are carried out as necessary at the respective quarantine stations at the points of entry and quarantine measures are en- forced against travellers from ports and airports declared infected with quarantinable diseases.

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Sanitary control of the port and airport is also the responsibility of the port health service. These areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti throughout the year. There is regular supervision of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants and water boats and of the airport catering service. Inspection of ships to determine the extent of rat infestation is carried out by members of the port health staff. International deratting certificates were issued to 88 ships after fumigation, while deratting exemption certificates were issued to 191 ships after inspection. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rats destroyed and bacteriological examinations for plague are submitted weekly to the World Health Organization's international quarantine service.

Maternal and Child Health. During the year, as in previous years, the vast majority of confinements took place in recognized institutions. The proportion is usually 95 per cent or more. De- liveries are distributed between the maternity wards of hospitals and maternity homes with a slight preponderance in favour of the latter. Less than five per cent of deliveries are undertaken by domiciliary midwives, either private or Government.

      The Government midwifery service was augmented by two maternity units and now has 28 district centres, of which six are domiciliary. There are in addition 169 registered midwives practis- ing privately from 111 maternity and nursing homes. All registered maternity homes are inspected regularly by the supervisor of mid- wives and her staff to ensure that conditions of registration are followed and that a sufficiently high standard of midwifery is practised by registered midwives not working under the direct supervision of a doctor.

The maternal and child health service offers free maternal and child care at 31 centres, 11 of which are full-time. The staff of the service hold infant welfare and toddler clinics for children up to two years of age and from two years to five years respectively. Ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also held at these centres. Health visitors pay home visits when necessary to babies attending the clinics and also to the homes of new-born babies whose names appear in the monthly birth returns.

       Health education forms a most important part of maternal and child health work and consists of practical demonstrations, health

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talks, film shows and individual advice to mothers. Prophylactic immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and poliomyelitis is offered at all centres. BCG is given to infants under six weeks of age and children with negative tuberculin reactions while prophylactic INAH is offered to children with positive tuberculin reactions not due to BCG. Demonstrations of the techniques of handling and giving BCG are given to midwives in private practice.

School Health Service. The existing school health service is organized in two sections-a general health service for all schools and a medical and dental treatment service for pupils and teachers participating in a fee-paying scheme. The general health service is concerned with the sanitary condition of school premises, the con- trol of communicable disease, and the health education of children, teachers and parents. All building plans are scrutinized before the registration of a school is recommended and there is regular inspec- tion of the sanitary condition of school premises. Free prophylactic immunization against diphtheria, typhoid, cholera and smallpox is offered to all school children and inoculating teams regularly visit all registered schools. Tuberculin testing is also carried out, nega- tive reactors being vaccinated with BCG.

Children participating in the medical treatment scheme undergo periodic inspection in addition to treatment that may be given for any intercurrent disease. Defects are either treated in school clinics or referred to eye, ear, nose and throat, dental or other specialist clinics. Cases referred for hospital treatment are charged main- tenance fees only, while appliances such as spectacles are provided at cost, at a reduced charge or free, depending on an almoner's recommendation. The school dental service undertakes routine dental examination and limited conservative treatment of those school children who participate in the scheme.

Plans for a completely new school medical service were the subject of a working party whose report was accepted in principle by Government during the year, subject to final review of financial and other details, which are being considered by a provisional advisory board under the chairmanship of Dr the Honourable A. M. Rodrigues, OBE, ED, LLD, JP, who was also the chairman of the working party. In brief, it is intended that there will be a school medical service separate from the school health service,

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     the latter continuing to be provided by Government to maintain the control of environmental conditions and infectious diseases. The school medical service will be staffed by private general practi- tioners, chosen by schools participating in the scheme from a panel of private practitioners who have offered their services. The service will provide medical examination and treatment at a per capita fee, shared equally by participants and Government.

Industrial Health. The work of the industrial health section of the Labour Department, which is staffed by members of the Medical and Health Department, is described in chapter 3.

      Mental Health. The Castle Peak Hospital, which by internal re- arrangement has increased its beds from 1,000 to 1,119 is the main treatment centre for mental diseases. One ward of 120 beds has been set aside for the treatment of drug addicts who are pre- pared to enter hospital voluntarily for a period of up to six months. After medical and nursing care during the period of withdrawal from addicting drugs, there is a programme of rehabilitation at the newly opened colony at Shek Ku Chau which is run by the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts, and has facilities for over 500 addicts which are to be further expanded. The programme of rehabilitation is designed to restore confidence and re-establish the individual in the community. Discharged voluntary patients continue group psychotherapy through a club established with the help of staff at the psychiatric centre. Facilities for the treatment of out-patients are available at centres in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories.

       Health Education. Health education covers a wide field and is an integral part of the activities of all branches of the Medical and Health Department. The maternal and child health service is particularly active in this sphere. A special health education unit has been set up in the New Territories under the Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, which in its various activities stresses rural sanitation and hygiene and protection against pre- ventable diseases. The inter-departmental committee on health education, formed in 1959, continued to assist in subjects of public health importance. The health education select committee of the Urban Council organized publicity campaigns on many aspects of environmental hygiene throughout the urban areas, while the in- dustrial health section of the Labour Department and the Social

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Welfare Department were also very active in their respective spheres. Kaifong associations co-operated with Government in immunization campaigns and in education on environmental hygiene. Many of these associations run their own health com- mittees and take a lively and practical interest in the health problems of their respective districts. The associations combined to organize a health education exhibition which was held for one week at the end of July in which major health problems were emphasized.

HOSPITALS

      A total of 11,719 hospital beds (see Appendix VII) are available in Hong Kong for all purposes. This figure includes maternity and nursing homes but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds, 5,077 are in Government hospitals and institutions and 4,709 in Government assisted hospitals, while the remaining 1,933 are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the care of the mentally ill and the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases, there are 8,708 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity. This gives a ratio of 2.45 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed-capacities of the various hospitals, but in many cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used extensively whenever the need arises.

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital is the largest acute general hospital in the British Commonwealth, and provides a welcome addition to the Colony's strained hospital services. Built as a single block, it is in reality two separate 'ward stacks' joined on the lower floors by administrative and central service areas. It accom- modates 1,338 beds with all necessary ancillaries and, in addition, there is a large radiotherapeutic institute donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. The sisters and nurses quarters and the nurses training school are adjacent to the Hospital and were opened in 1960. Additional details may be found in chapter 16. This hospital replaces the Kowloon Hospital as the acute emer- gency hospital for Kowloon and the New Territories and, in addition, will offer facilities for highly specialized investigation and treatment for that area; the phased programme to attain full functioning of the hospital was scheduled to be completed early in 1964.

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The value of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital as a general hospital would, however, be seriously impaired if beds were occupied by traumatic and orthopaedic patients who were over the acute phase and in need of rehabilitation. The Kowloon Hospital, which has been caring in its limited accommodation for the rapidly increasing number of casualties and emergencies on the peninsula in recent years, will therefore be closed in order to undergo conversion into a tuberculosis and convalescent hospital, and will re-open late in 1964. It will be used primarily as a subsidiary to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for patients requiring convalescent nursing care and rehabilitation but 184 beds will be reserved for the care of tuberculosis patients from the mainland portion of the Colony and the hospital will serve as a centre for the thoracic and orthopaedic surgery of tuberculosis in Kowloon.

      On Hong Kong Island Government maintains another large general hospital, the Queen Mary Hospital, which performs the same functions for that area as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital does for Kowloon; in addition, this hospital is the teaching hospital for the medical faculty of the University of Hong Kong. Both hospitals are training schools for nurses.

Other Government hospitals are maintained chiefly for special- ized purposes. These include a mental hospital of 1,119 beds, two infectious disease hospitals (one of which also accommodates con- valescent cases from Queen Elizabeth Hospital), a maternity hospital of 200 beds where the training of midwives and the teach- ing of medical students is carried out and a small hospital for the treatment of skin and venereal diseases in women and children. Two smaller general hospitals are provided. These are the St John Hospital of 100 beds on Cheung Chau Island and the one of 15 beds opened in 1960 on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are also maintained in four of the Colony's prisons and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many Government clinics and dispensaries.

The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals is an entirely Chinese chari- table organization under the management of an annually elected board of directors. Founded some 90 years ago, it operates a group of four hospitals-the Tung Wah Hospital, the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, the Sandy Bay Infirmary and the Kwong Wah

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Hospital. These hospitals, which receive a large Government sub- vention, make a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernized. A new infirmary now under construction at Wong Tai Sin should be completed in 1964. Work is also in progress on the final stages of the new Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon. This modern general hospital, which replaces an old institution on the same site, will contain 1,270 beds. In addition to its medical work, the Tung Wah board of directors is also responsible for extensive educational and relief work for the poor and needy of Hong Kong.

      Near Yuen Long in the New Territories a long-established Chinese charitable organization operates the Pok Oi Hospital of 118 beds with the assistance of a Government subvention. Hospitals maintained by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association are the Ruttonjee Sanatorium, the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home and the Grantham Hospital. The latter is a non-profit-making in- stitution which provides accommodation for fee-paying patients.

A number of general hospitals, varying in size from 70 to 300 beds, are maintained by missionary and other charitable organiza- tions, including five run by the Catholic church and two by the Protestant churches. The Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium maintained by the Mission to Lepers (Hong Kong Auxiliary) provides accommo- dation for 540 leprosy patients. The Haven of Hope Sanatorium is maintained by the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council and has accom- modation for 230 tuberculosis patients. Several of these institutions receive substantial financial assistance from Government while others are supported in varying degrees by fees, voluntary donations and grants from mission funds. In a number of instances, where a proportion of low cost or free beds is maintained, and where any excess of income over expenditure is put toward hospital develop- ment, land is granted without premium and the rates are refunded through a Government subvention.

OUT-PATIENT CLINICS AND SERVICES

      The growth of population and the increasing demand for treat- ment by western medicine has called for a rapid expansion of out- patient facilities, both by Government and by private agencies. Attendances at Government out-patient centres alone have in- creased by 47.9 per cent during the last five years. Government

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maintains 53 out-patient clinics and dispensaries of varying size and scope. In addition out-patient specialist sessions are held at a number of centres in the urban areas, while in the New Territories the large clinics are visited by specialist teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. The remoter areas of the New Territories are served by two mobile dispensaries and two floating clinics. The latter are launches, donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, which visit isolated centres on the eastern and western coasts. To meet the need for medical aid in the more remote inland villages there is a fortnightly service by helicopter; this service is very popular and was extended during the year.

       A road ambulance service is maintained throughout the Colony by the Hong Kong Fire Services Department. Evacuation of cases of serious illness from regions not readily accessible by road is carried out by helicopter, by fast police launch and by floating clinic. In addition to the Government out-patient services many charitable and missionary organizations have taken an active in- terest in medical and health problems. Kaifong, district and clans- men's associations support a total of 65 clinics giving treatment free or at nominal cost. A number of industrial and commercial concerns also operate clinics for their employees and many trade unions provide similar services for their members.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

       In Government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaes- thetics; chest surgery; dentistry, ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases; general medicine; general surgery; neuro-surgery; obstet- rics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialist clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, the latter including derma- tology, leprosy and venereal disease. The malaria bureau, the Government chemist's laboratory and the forensic pathology laboratory also provide specialist services.

       The Government Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. Autopsies at the public mortuaries are carried out by forensic pathologists. There are blood banks at the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth Hospitals and the Hong Kong branch of the British Red Cross Society operates two blood-collecting centres for the voluntary donation

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    of blood. The Institute of Pathology carries out laboratory work for the blood banks. The Government Chemist is responsible for the work of an analytical laboratory which undertakes a wide range of investigations concerned with food, water supplies, narcotics, medico-legal work and dutiable commodities. A considerable amount of investigation into the standard of commodities supplied to Government under contract is also performed.

DENTAL SERVICES

     The Government Dental Service operates in two divisions-a school and a general dental service. The school dental service carries out examinations and treatment for children who participate in the school health scheme. The emphasis is placed on dental health education and the training received by dental nurses in this type of work has proved invaluable.

     The general dental service undertakes complete dental care for all monthly-paid Government officers and their families and a limited treatment programme for in-patients of Government hospi- tals, prisoners and inmates of training centres. The division also provides a limited emergency service for the general public at certain clinics. There are 26 Government dental clinics, including one at Tai O on Lantau Island which is visited by a dental team for one month every half year. A mobile dental unit serves the New Territories.

     Voluntary Agencies. Four years ago the Church World Service was the first of the welfare organizations to put a mobile dental clinic on the roads of the New Territories. This has now been replaced by a more modern air-conditioned clinic, and with a full- time staff serves St Christopher's Home and the Haven of Hope Sanatorium and also operates in various townships of the New Territories. During the year an average of more than 800 patients a month received treatment free of charge or at low cost.

     The Lutheran World Service also operates a modern mobile dental clinic, concentrating particularly on resettlement estates. A full-time dental clinic also operates in modern surroundings in Kowloon and there is a part-time dental clinic at the Lutheran World Service Hospital in Fanling. The Hong Kong Dental Society operates free clinics and provides a part-time dental service in

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Hong Kong and Kowloon as well as volunteer dental surgeons for the Ruttonjee Anti-Tuberculosis Sanatorium and for St John Ambulance Brigade teams visiting the outlying islands.

      The St John Ambulance Brigade maintains a dental clinic at its headquarters, where two dentists provide free treatment for blind and crippled children from orphanages and institutions. Other voluntary bodies and welfare organizations also maintain free or low cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services free of charge. Hong Kong Tramways Ltd operate a full-time dental clinic where employees and families obtain full dental care free of charge.

      Fluoridation of Hong Kong's urban water supplies began in 1961. The first post-fluoridation dental survey was carried out in 1962 and similar surveys are planned to take place every two years. It is expected that the enrichment of the Colony's water by 0.7 parts per million of fluoride ion in the summer months and by 0.9 parts per million during the winter months will bring about a marked reduction in the prevalence of dental caries which is responsible for much ill health and suffering, especially among children.

      Dental health education plays a large part in the preventive measures which have been adopted to combat dental disease in Hong Kong. A dental health exhibit staffed by Government dental officers and auxiliaries was a feature of the agricultural show held at Tung Chung, Lantau Island in January. In July the Kaifong Association again staged a health exhibition, this time in Kowloon, where opportunity was taken to present the facts of dental health and the principles of oral hygiene to thousands of children and adults.

TRAINING

      Doctors. Undergraduate training is carried out at the University of Hong Kong, which confers the degrees of MB, BS; these degrees have been recognized by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain. The Panel on Post- graduate Medical Education, consisting of university and Govern- ment staff members, supervises this training and advises on both

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    general and individual aspects of the programme. It is mainly due to this programme that 54 per cent of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department are now held by locally recruited staff and that there is a progressive increase in the number of medical officers who have been able to obtain higher qualifica- tions in various branches of medical science.

      Dentistry. Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry but a Government dental scholarship scheme enables a number of students from the Colony to study dentistry overseas and ultimately to qualify as dental surgeons.

      Nurses. There are three Government Hospital Schools of Nursing. Two of these are the general nursing training schools in Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary Hospitals. The third is the psychiatric nursing school in the Castle Peak Hospital. In addition to these two schools, where training is carried out in English, there are approved schools of nursing at the Tung Wah Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, in all of which the medium of instruction is Cantonese. The examinations are held by the Hong Kong Nursing Board. There is full reciprocity of registration between the Nursing Board in Hong Kong and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales, and each year a number of qualified general nurses go overseas to gain further experience in different aspects of their profession.

Midwives. The great majority of female nurses on completion of their general nursing training take a midwifery course of one year, which qualifies them for entry to the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at Government hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses a two-year course of training at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, and to a limited extent at the other approved training schools, is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations. Training is in Cantonese. Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given. Full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is therefore not possible in present circumstances.

MASKS

HEATER

Care of the young has a prominent place in the new Queen Elizabeth Hospital. There are 10 children's wards and four children's operating theatres. The wards are equipped with the latest type of incubators (above) for premature or sick babies. In one of the medical wards an elderly patient (below) has her blood pressure checked.

15

T

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, opened in September, 1963, is the newest and largest of Hong Kong's 32 hospitals. Built at a total cost of $71,510,000 it contains a surgical and a medical section with accommodation for 1,338 in-patients, a radiological institute and a specialist clinic (both gifts of Club), a School of Nursing and quarters for the Royal Hong Kong Jockey

nursing

sisters and nurses.

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18hnician uses

In the hospital's laboratory a work on a blood analysis. The 13-storey vertical sections with Part of the first three storeys acting as an wards (left) are in the medical section administrative area. The childre

total of 21 wards.

special apparatus (right) for

,hospital has been designed as two separate

which has

100

Equipment for the new hospital was purchased from specialist manufac- turers in Europe and the United States. One of the many X-ray machines (above) in the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Radiology, The wards (below) are designed to give maximum ventilation and are

heated in the winter.

T

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Health Visitors, School Nurses and Health Inspectors. The Royal Society of Health examination board in Hong Kong con- ducts examinations for the health visitors and school nurses certificate, the public health inspectors diploma and the diploma in tropical hygiene for public health inspectors. A course for health visitors and school nurses is held by the Medical and Health Department, while training for health inspectors and in tropical hygiene is carried out within the Urban Services Department. Examinations for the diploma for inspectors of meat and other foods and other examinations of the Society are not held in Hong Kong. Candidates for these supplementary qualifications normally undergo training in the United Kingdom.

Radiographers are trained by the radiological service of the Medical and Health Department for the examinations leading to membership of the Society of Radiographers, which are held locally.

Other Training. Departmental training leading to study leave abroad for recognized qualifications is given to physicists and medical laboratory technologists. In-service training for depart- mental examinations is available for dispensers and laboratory technicians. A qualified physiotherapy tutor supervises a training centre in physiotherapy based on the curriculum of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists. There is also provision for a limited number of pharmacy scholarships tenable in Australia, under which students are sent to study for the degree of B Pharm. A scheme for training surgical appliance technicians is in progress.

URBAN SERVICES

The Urban Council has statutory obligations in the urban areas of the Colony for environmental sanitation and hygiene; the public health control of food; the enactment, subject to the approval of the Legislative Council, of by-laws relating to public health and hygiene, and for their enforcement; the maintenance of certain places of public recreation, principally parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches; and the operation of multi-storey car parks and the City Hall.

The Council derives its main powers from the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance, 1960, and by-laws enacted thereunder.

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It is responsible, through the Urban Services Department, for the enforcement of this legislation within the urban areas of the Colony. The department has an establishment of 10,176 and is organized for administrative purposes into three main divisions. One deals with cleansing, conservancy, cemeteries and crematoria, one with food and general hygiene, and the other with hawkers, markets, slaughter-houses and public amenities. Most of these divisional responsibilities have been extended to the New Terri- tories, and for the purpose of co-ordinating activities a separate division has been set up under the control of an Assistant Super- intendent of Urban Services. The establishment of the department includes 360 administrative, professional and clerical posts, ex- cluding the health inspectorate and the Hawker Control Force. The inspectorate has an establishment of 304 posts and 258 officers have passed the examination of the Royal Society for the Promo- tion of Health. The Hawker Control Force is a disciplined force under a gazetted officer seconded from the police. It has an approved complement of 337 including inspectors, non-commis- sioned officers and constables.

HYGIENE SECTION

District Health Work. The hygiene division is responsible, through the district health staff under the Assistant Superintendent (Hygiene), for maintaining proper standards of environmental hygiene throughout the urban areas. The division also assists the Medical and Health Department in the control of infectious diseases. Five health officers, seconded by the Medical and Health Department, act as professional advisers on all matters of hygiene and control of infectious diseases including food-poisoning cases.

      The district health organization is under the general supervision of the Assistant Superintendent (Hygiene). The urban area of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon is divided up into 232 health units. In the older residential areas each unit has about 600 floors, but the number varies greatly in other districts. The health units are grouped into 95 districts each in charge of a health inspector, and these districts in turn are combined to form 13 areas under the control of senior health inspectors. Their work is supervised by four chief health inspectors, who are responsible to the assistant

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superintendent. During the year the rapid development of north- east Kowloon made it necessary to form a new district of Kwun Tong as an offshoot from the Kowloon City area and to increase the number of health units in the district.

Standards of domestic hygiene are controlled by a system of house inspection in which all residential floors and huts are inspect- ed at intervals varying from three months to a year, except those in the most spacious residential areas. During these inspections, nuisances can be detected and action taken for their abatement. Another important aspect of the work of the district health staff is the hygienic control of food premises. Restaurants, cooked food stalls, food factories and other places where food is handled are inspected weekly to make sure that they are kept clean and operated hygienically. Night inspections of restaurants are also carried out and, in addition, senior officers carry out weekly sur- prise checks on all premises licensed by the Urban Council. The work of the district health inspectors in infectious disease control includes investigation of cases, tracing of the source of infection and of contacts, hospitalization of patients, disinfection of infected premises and advice on precautionary measures.

Eight food inspectors are employed on food sampling and other food hygiene duties in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Particular atten- tion is paid to food factories, especially frozen confection and milk factories, from which samples are taken regularly and to the pre- vention of the sale of diseased meat. Samples of water from public swimming pools are taken monthly for bacteriological examination. The inspectors are also responsible for the inspection of imported vegetables and fruit, and for inspection of meat and poultry covered by the Imported Meat and Poultry Regulations, which were brought into force on 1st May 1963.

The acute water shortage caused considerable hardship to restaurant and food factory proprietors, who normally rely on adequate supplies of water to keep their premises clean. During the period of shortage health inspectors visited all these premises to make sure that stocks of water were properly protected against contamination. Licensees of premises were advised to make their own arrangements for chlorinating water from doubtful sources. Handbills explaining in simple language how to purify water with bleaching powder were printed and distributed. At the same time

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the chlorination of wells used for domestic purposes was con- tinued, and the general public was reminded of the dangers of unpurified water.

When the first case of cholera occurred the environmental hygiene measures adopted in previous years were again brought into operation. These included day and night raids on sellers of cut fruit and other prohibited foods, and a number of staff were placed on 24-hour duty to assist in the investigation and follow-up of cases.

Health Education. The health education section again conducted publicity campaigns throughout the year and undertook more in- tensive training measures and lectures to special audiences. The most important development in this work during the year was the organization of fortnightly courses in health education for food handlers. As in previous years, a competition designed to raise the standard of hygiene in resettlement estates was held, and a speech- making competition for school children was planned with the help of the Junior Chamber of Commerce. The principal theme of general publicity during the year was food hygiene.

      Slaughter-houses. Food animals slaughtered at the two Govern- ment slaughter-houses, one on Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon, totalled 99,149 cattle, 1,690,096 pigs and 8,486 sheep/ goats, as compared with 101,553, 1,319,169 and 9,880 respectively last year, representing a decrease of 2.4 per cent, an increase of 28.1 per cent and a decrease of 14.1 per cent respectively. The main sup- ply of cattle came from China and Cambodia, while China was again the major pig supplier. Every step is being taken to ensure that the two new abattoirs at Kennedy Town and Cheung Sha Wan are completed as soon as possible. In July 1962, Government accepted a tender for the supply of a great deal of the complicated equipment required for them and the architects are proceeding with the work- ing drawings for their construction. Facilities in the by-products plant at Kennedy Town slaughter-house, which hygienically deals with all diseased meat and unfit foodstuffs from the two slaughter- houses and other sources, were again taxed to capacity throughout the year. During the year 166 tons of meat and bone meal for animal feed and 196 tons of inedible grease for industrial use were produced in addition to the salvaging of small quantities of other animal products.

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Hawkers and Markets. An estimated 100,000 people are engaged in full or part-time hawking in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Most of them are concentrated in about one-tenth of the urban area, often around markets and there are comparatively few hawkers in the main traffic thoroughfares. During the year resiting schemes affecting many hundreds of hawkers were carried out. In some cases the hawkers had to be moved to make way for new bus routes or to provide better access for fire appliances. In other cases they were resited in the interests of public health and street cleans- ing. In every case all possible steps were taken to safeguard the hawkers' livelihood. In recent years wall stalls have sprung up in large numbers throughout the urban area. In many cases these obstruct pavements or scavenging lanes and block or partly block the windows or ventilators of the building against which they are erected.

       Legislation to facilitate the licensing and control of wall stalls has therefore been enacted.

In March the Tang Lung Chau multi-purpose market was opened for business. This was to be the prototype for a new design of market accommodating both retail market stalls and hawkers on several floors, but experience with this market was not entirely satisfactory. Further study will be needed before proceeding with the construction of additional multi-purpose markets.

Hawker Control. A squad of 24 recruit hawker control con- stables was inducted into the training school at Brick Hill in August, bringing the Hawker Control Force up to its establishment of 337. A further three hawker areas, at Chai Wan, Western District and Kowloon City became Hawker Control Force opera- tional areas, bringing to 19 the number of such areas on Hong Kong Island and eight in Kowloon. Further expansion of indi- vidual areas was undertaken throughout the year.

Although a relative innovation, the role and nature of the Hawker Control Force is receiving increasing understanding and acceptance by the hawking community and relations between the two groups are improving. Evidence of this was reflected in the relatively small number of prosecutions against hawkers during the year, arising from the emphasis placed on education and, where appropriate, persuasion by members of the Force in their dealings with hawkers.

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      Public Latrines and Bathhouses. Three public latrines and another three combined public latrines and bathhouses were built during the year in congested parts of Hong Kong and Kowloon. In all there are 141 public latrines and 32 bathhouses in the urban areas. Hot and cold water is provided free of charge for a limited period daily at the bathhouses which were used by 4,144,770 persons during the year, a daily average of 11,356.

       Cleansing and Conservancy. The amount of refuse collected was, by the end of the year, about 1,250 tons a day. The collection and disposal of this substantial quantity of refuse involves some 4,500 workers together with street cleansing services. Household refuse is collected twice daily in congested areas, elsewhere once daily. The service utilizes a transport fleet of 102 vehicles. All refuse collected in Kowloon is transported by road to a reclamation area at Gin Drinker's Bay for disposal by controlled tipping at the foreshore. Refuse collected on Hong Kong Island is transported by sea, using nine barges, to the same dump. Dumping added approximately 97,000 square feet to the reclamation during the year. Streets are swept daily from two to six times depending on locality and congestion. Twenty-one street washing vehicles were employed to wash roads, scavenging lanes, gutters, foot-paths and hawker areas. A conservancy service collected and disposed of night-soil from 31,500 floors with dry latrines, approximately 1,100 workers, mostly female, with 46 tanker vehicles and three tanker barges being employed. The service is free.

       Cemeteries and Crematoria. There are five public cemeteries and two public crematoria under the direct control and manage- ment of the Urban Council. Also one crematorium and a number of cemeteries are under private management. The three new private cemeteries at Cape Collinson area-the Chinese Permanent, the Roman Catholic and the Muslim-have been brought into service. The private Buddhist cemetery in the same area is being developed. The Director of Urban Services acts as local agent for the Com- monwealth War Graves Commission, on whose behalf he is respon- sible for the Sai Wan War Cemetery and the Stanley Military Cemetery.

      Pest Control. The work of the pest control section includes con- trol measures against rodents and miscellaneous insects and regular fly control at the Colony's refuse dumps. The staff of this section

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also give advice to the public, the Armed Services and Government departments on matters concerning the control of rodents, insects and other pests. The work of rodent control is important because it enables a watch to be kept against the possible introduction of plague by infected fleas on rats. During the year 350,243 rats were collected from public rat-bins and other places. About one-third of these are regularly examined for signs of plague. Fleas from rats caught alive are collected and identified. The examination of rats caught near the seaboard was intensified after cases of plague had been reported in and around Saigon in the early summer.

NEW TERRITORIES

The Director of Urban Services is responsible in the New Territories for public cleansing, markets and hawker areas, public latrines and bathhouses, cemeteries, burials, public parks, play- grounds and beaches and since 1963 has become the licensing authority for premises used for the processing and sale of food for human consumption, for hawkers and private markets. The District Commissioner remains the licensing authority for slaughter- houses and offensive trades though in practice he exercises this function on the advice of the Director of Urban Services.

       The Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, is responsible to the Director of Medical and Health Services for most hospital, clinic and other medical facilities in the New Territories. He also advises the Director of Urban Services on New Territories health matters and exercises day-to-day supervision over certain staff of the Urban Services Department. In the remoter areas of the New Territories, where the Urban Services Depart- ment cannot effectively operate, the Principal Medical Officer of Health has executive responsibility for sanitation and hygiene, as well as for the development of health services. Here the emphasis is on health education, advising villagers on elementary sanitation and ensuring that village houses are built to certain minimum health standards.

The Urban Services Department carries out regular street- sweeping and refuse collections in the New Territories townships and, during the year, these were again extended to cover more of the rural areas served by road. Steady progress is being made with the construction of public flush latrines and bathhouses in

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the New Territories townships, and by the end of the year six combined latrine/bathhouses and six latrines were in operation. Hot and cold water is supplied free of charge for a limited period daily in the bathhouses. Modern market buildings and hawker bazaars are also being planned for several townships.

      In rural areas where there is no mains water supply the New Territories Administration builds public aqua privies under its local public works scheme. Fifty one of these are now in opera- tion, of which 18 have been built as part of the rural sanitation scheme administered by the Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories. A sanitary survey at all villages in the New Territories was completed and the problem of water supplies, housing, refuse disposal and disposal of night-soil reviewed in detail.

10

Land and Housing

THE first part of this chapter should be read in conjunction with chapter 1 as land forms the subject of the Review Chapter of the 1963 Report.

LAND

Land Tenure. All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Nowadays, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a reassessed Crown rent. Crown leases for New Territories lands are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from 1st July 1898, and therefore terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

       Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the re- sponsibility of the Director of Public Works, who is also the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. Additionally the director deals with that part of the New Terri- tories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon Hills which is called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown Land grants and all private land transactions are re- corded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Department, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories cover the majority of the built-up parts of New Kowloon, and deeds relating to them are recorded with the Registrar General. The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordinance and the New Territories Ordinance.

Land Policy. The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential

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sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects (de- scribed later in this chapter), for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools, etc, up to the full market value for public utilities.

      This policy has been determined by the scarcity of all types of land. To ensure that land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee undertakes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount he must spend depending on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to this covenant, new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual pay- ment of Crown rent.

      The policy of sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease obtains the right to do so, and that the com- munity receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved in the lease is low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable Government to obtain direct financial gain from any later increase in the value of the land after it has been sold. For this reason the very large increase in land value in recent years has resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

       In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon often included restrictions on the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive develop- ment. It has therefore become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of the district while allowing more intensive development. Modifications of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium.

      In recent years certain groups of 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Government made public statements of its policy on these groups of Crown leases in 1946, 1949 and 1960. Terms and

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conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for re-grant in the future. Premia for the new leases may, subject to certain conditions, be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years. The majority of lessees avail them- selves of the latter method of payment. For this reason the revenue in any one year is relatively small, but since payments continue to be made for upwards of 80 years, the total revenue involved is considerable. The 1960 terms provide for a maximum of 21 annual instalments and interest of 10 per cent. On re-grant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines, etc, and where land is needed for major replanning schemes the leases will not be re-granted. In these latter cases the Govern- ment has announced its intention to pay ex gratia compensation for buildings.

       The existing terms were confirmed during the year in reply to petitions calling for changes in the policy. Government also decided to introduce arrangements to assist owners of undivided shares in a lot for which a new lease was to be granted. These would allow premium for a re-grant in certain circumstances to be apportioned between individual share owners. New terms for the renewal of 75 years renewable leases were also announced during the year. They give the Crown lessee of an undeveloped lot the alternative of renewing either at a Crown rent based on the full rental value of the land without added lease covenants, or, if the lessee is pre- pared to accept a covenant limiting the development on the lot to that existing at the time of renewal, at a lower Crown rent.

       There is a shortage of unleased Crown land in the New Terri- tories suitable for sale by public auction for concentrated develop- ment. Consequently there is much interest among developers in securing permission for the exchange of agricultural land for build- ing land, on payment of a premium. The amount of building land that can be obtained in this way depends upon the location of the site selected. In normal circumstances exchanges for industrial or high density residential purposes are only permitted where the agricultural land is within areas for which layout plans have been approved, and it is necessary for Crown lessees to surrender approximately five feet of agricultural land for every two feet of building land to be re-granted. In each case the premium payable

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is equivalent to the difference in total value of the land surrendered and the land re-granted.

      Following the publication in 1960 of a statement of Govern- ment's land policy in the New Territories, the Heung Yee Kuk submitted a petition in February 1961, asking for extensive changes in this policy. In August the District Commissioner, New Terri- tories replied at length to the Kuk, explaining in detail why Government could not accept this petition. The Heung Yee Kuk has never accepted Government's explanation and continues to campaign for the modification of the policy.

      Government Land Transactions. The system of selling Crown land in the urban area in accordance with programmes announced in advance continued during 1963. Auction sales took place almost weekly with up to ten lots going under the hammer on most sale days. Industrial land continued to sell but competition was not as marked at the beginning of the year as in previous years with the general result that realized prices showed a more even trend with sales at figures not far in excess of upset prices. The main bulk of sites were again at San Po Kong and Kwun Tong but a number of sites were also sold at Cheung Sha Wan, Tai Kok Tsui, Chai Wan and Aberdeen. In Kwun Tong purchasers of industrial lots are permitted to pay for their land by instalments over a period of up to 20 years at five per cent interest and this practice was extended to Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung during the year. Government further announced that in future the purchase price of all industrial lots other than at Kwun Tong or Tsuen Wan would be payable in four equal instalments free of interest spread over two years from the date of sale.

Land was sold for housing purposes in various districts through- out the urban area. It became evident that there was a considerable easing in demand for land for low density development by luxury type flats, to the extent that several sites failed to attract any bids and accordingly had to be withdrawn from sale. This was attribut- able partly to the amount of redevelopment that had recently taken place of already leased land suitable for these purposes and which had temporarily exceeded demand. Sites were offered for mixed commercial and residential use in several commercial districts and the competition for them indicated that there was considerable

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demand for land of this nature which is more difficult to provide in that usually it is in already developed areas.

As in previous years grants were made by private treaty for low- cost housing schemes, non-profit-making schools and other chari- table and welfare purposes. New sites were reserved or allocated for resettlement estates and other Government projects. Modifica- tions of existing leases to allow more intensive development con- tinued but there was a decrease in applications received in the latter part of the year, largely due to the lack of demand for luxury type flat development.

Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1962-3 came to about $163,285,000 for sales by public auction; $10,274,000 for private treaty sales; $21,840,000 for modifications of lease conditions, ex- tensions and exchanges; and $22,831,000 for re-grants of expired 75 years leases; totalling $218,230,000. Revenue from land transac- tions in the New Territories was $16,170,000. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, because either public utilities and other services are not yet available or the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied on a temporary annual permit. The 1962-3 revenue from these permits was $7,113,763 in the urban area and $787,421 in the New Territories. As permanent develop- ment expands, it is necessary to cancel permits and the number of permits in the urban area and in the more developed parts of the New Territories decreases year by year. Revenue amounting to $2,168,064 was derived from short-term lettings of land and buildings.

Surveys. All surveys in Hong Kong are plotted on the Colony grid which is a Cassini plane rectangular one with its origin on Victoria Peak. The grid meridian does not coincide with the true meridian at this point. The main triangulation which is of a secondary standard was re-observed, computed and adjusted by the Crown Lands and Survey Office in 1962-3. Minor triangulation stations and traverse points are now being adjusted to the revised values. The urban area of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon is surveyed at the large scale of 1/600 (50 feet to 1 inch). This is necessary because of the congested and crowded conditions in the built-up areas of the Colony; 183 sheets of Hong Kong

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      Island and 109 of Kowloon and New Kowloon are now available in this series.

      The New Territories remain largely rural, but the pressures of a rising population and an expanding economy have resulted in a striking growth of industry and housing. To meet this activity and to pinpoint individual land holdings a wide coverage of up- to-date survey sheets to a large scale is of first importance. To date, 379 sheets have been completed to a scale of 100 feet to an inch. As conventional ground methods of survey were proving too slow for the rapid pace of development, Messrs Hunting Surveys were engaged to fly and map the whole of the Colony at a large scale. The Crown Lands and Survey Office is providing all ground control and field checks on photo plots. These surveys form the basis for further scale plans which are required for planning, land records and other purposes and which are redrawn from photographic reductions. In addition to supplying survey sheets of the Colony showing the plan position of buildings, the survey division of the Crown Lands and Survey Office is also the responsible authority for establishing differences of level.

The first recorded levelling in the Colony was carried out in 1866 by HM surveying vessel Rifleman. For the purpose of sound- ings taken by this vessel a datum was established roughly at the then mean sea level. To provide a permanent record a copper bolt was driven into the wall of a storehouse in the Royal Naval Dock- yard and its height above the assumed datum measured. Since then this sounding datum later known as ordnance datum, has been taken as 17.833 feet below the level of Rifleman's bolt and is now known as principal datum. As the storehouse is to be demolished the bolt has been removed and re-erected at the new Naval Barracks. All levelling in the Colony is based on this prin- cipal datum which is approximately 3.9 feet below mean sea level.

      Town Planning. Town Planning in Hong Kong includes the planned development of new industrial townships, the redevelop- ment of out-of-date urban localities and the gradual expansion of the urban areas. The basic aim of the planning, therefore, is to provide a framework within which public and private development may progress together; to ensure that adequate provision is made for open spaces, public buildings, communications and other

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      necessary services; and to control the use and to stimulate the development of land.

Planning activities are co-ordinated in the planning division of the Crown Lands and Survey Office and are concerned mainly with the preparation of outline development plans. Plans for the New Territories are prepared at the request of the District Com- missioner, who consults responsible local opinion in areas affected before individual plans are approved. Since 1953 plans have been prepared for 33 planning districts in the urban areas. In addition many large scale layout plans have been drawn up covering small portions of the urban areas and the New Territories. These plans are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the redevelop- ment of private land, but have no statutory effect except where approved in accordance with the Town Planning Ordinance.

       The Town Planning Board consists of six official and three unofficial members and operates under the Town Planning Ordin- ance. The board has, to date, published outline development and layout plans for 14 districts, 12 have been approved by the Governor in Council, one refused and one is awaiting considera- tion. The board has been instructed to prepare plans in respect of Tsim Sha Tsui and Aberdeen, but these have not yet been published. Approved plans cover the following areas: North Point, Chai Wan, Yau Ma Tei, Hung Hom, Ma Tau Kok, Kwun Tong Tsai Wan, Ngau Tau Kok, Cha Kwo Ling, north-east Kowloon, Sha Tin, the Central district of Victoria and Tsuen Wan and district.

The approved plan for the Central district of Victoria provides for expansion of the business and cultural centre of the Colony, and is designed to ensure that vehicular and pedestrian traffic can move easily and safely. Elevated pedestrian ways and traffic cross- ings are proposed with shops at first floor level, the ground and mezzanine floors being used mainly for service deliveries and car parking. This scheme is an ambitious one, in keeping with the times, and one likely to arouse considerable overseas interest on the part of real estate investment companies and developers. Surveys of housing density and industrial employment intensity combined with population distribution forecasts carried out during 1963 helped to provide a firmer basis for planning than had pre- viously existed.

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      Buildings. The capital expenditure on private building works undertaken in the Colony in the calendar year 1963 was approxi- mately $561 million. This record figure exceeds by $269 million the yearly average of expenditure in the previous three years. The noticeable tendency towards the construction of larger and taller buildings continues to be extended to the suburban and rural areas of the Colony. The Building Authority was confronted with a tremendous influx of applications during the middle of the year following the enactment of the Building (Planning) (Amendment) Regulations, 1962. The number of cases dealt with by the Tenancy Tribunal continued to increase and with it, inevitably, the number of submissions to be dealt with by the Building Authority.

      The year followed the usual pattern in that most new buildings were designed for domestic occupancy; 84 per cent of all the new buildings completed were for residential use. As in previous years private developers still made the greatest contribution to the provision of living accommodation, whilst the Housing Authority and the Housing Society continued to make progress in the erec- tion of low-cost housing. The trend towards providing small tenement units in very large composite buildings continued and as units are usually sold on a monthly instalment basis they attracted much attention from the low income groups. Two large hotels in the Central area of Hong Kong and another in Tsim Sha Tsui were completed.

      Factories and workshops still comprised the greater part of non- domestic buildings, although the demand for office buildings continued to be strong. A number of new office blocks were completed and occupied, with several others in various stages of construction. One feature worthy of note was that several multi- storey office buildings were designed to provide large department stores in the basement, ground and first floors, with restaurants, and sometimes staff mess halls, on one or two upper floors of the building. A large expenditure was attracted to building for public entertainment and several cinemas were completed and occupied and one was under construction in the city of Victoria. The development of schools, godowns, churches and chapels followed the steady level of previous years. In an attempt to meet the requirements of tourists travelling on ships to the Colony, a

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temporary ocean terminal building was completed in Tsim Sha Tsui at a cost of approximately $2 million.

The rate of building development is shown in the following figures: plans for 2,885 new buildings were submitted to the Building Authority during 1963 and of these 2,459 were for build- ings primarily intended for domestic occupation. In addition a very large number of other plans dealing with works other than new buildings were submitted for approval. These mainly com- prised alterations and additions to existing buildings, site formation schemes, private streets and access roads, drainage works, demoli- tions and amendments to proposals already approved. During the year 588 permits were issued for occupation of new buildings, 200 being for residential purposes. Among the non-domestic buildings completed and occupied were 31 schools, 47 factories and work- shops, 12 office blocks, three churches and chapels and six cinemas.

Legislation. The amendments to the Building (Planning) Regula- tions which were passed in 1962 will not be fully operative until January 1966. These new regulations will control development from a plot ratio and site coverage aspect rather than the existing concept of volume, which has led to over-development in some cases. Certain of these regulations which deal with open space and light to kitchens became fully effective on 1st July. As mentioned at the outset of this section, these new regulations had a great effect on the work load in the Buildings Ordinance Office.

       The Demolished Buildings (Re-development of Sites) Ordinance, 1963 was enacted in January. It provides for tenants of certain buildings which become so dangerous as to require demolition or which have been demolished by fire or other calamity, to receive compensation for the loss of their tenancies. The owners of the sites of these buildings may be required by order to redevelop the sites within a stipulated period. Fifty redevelopment notices declaring that properties were subject to the Demolished Buildings (Re-development of Sites) Ordinance, 1963 were issued during the year. These cases, in the main, arose because of the large number of properties in an advanced stage of dilapidation together with a further increase in premises under reconstruction. It would appear that many of the older buildings are unable to stand disturbance and in particular, demolition or piling works on adjacent sites may have serious effects on them.

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      Urgent consideration was being given to amendments to existing legislation in order to control more effectively the safety measures and precautions taken to protect adjoining properties before demolition and piling works commence.

HOUSING

       There was severe overcrowding in tenement buildings even before the Pacific War, when the rate of construction failed to match increases in the population brought about by immigration from China. The war and the Japanese occupation of the Colony resulted in considerable damage to residential property and although this was quickly repaired, overcrowding was soon apparent with the rapid return of the population. It intensified greatly during 1949 and 1950 following a fresh influx of immi- grants from China and, despite the intense building activity which has taken place during the past 11 years, new housing has been unable to keep pace with population growth.

Hong Kong's vigorous building programme continued unabated throughout 1963. Considerable progress was made in the Govern- ment's new low-cost housing programme which is designed to provide accommodation for 20,000 people annually who earn less than $400 a month and who are living in insanitary or overcrowded conditions. Rents range from $35 a month for a four-person room to $80 for a 10-person room. At the end of the year one such low-cost housing estate, for 5,687 people in 1,286 flats, was com- plete and four other estates, which will provide 10,908 flats to accommodate 47,514 people, were nearing completion. Occupa- tion of two of the estates nearing completion had already begun. This programme is in addition to the resettlement programme which has already provided accommodation for 604,754 people. Apart from Government's contribution, private enterprise has pro- vided accommodation for about 710,000 people during the past eight years. A large number of these people however, are those who have had to be re-housed as a result of old buildings being demolished. At the end of 1963 rated domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement estates) comprised 109,591 tenement floors, 27,316 small flats, 28,219 low-cost housing units, 12,933 large flats and 995 houses. Domestic accommodation predominates in all new building projects.

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       Since 1950 land has been made available by Government at one- third of its estimated value to encourage non-profit-making housing projects. These may be run by voluntary societies, providing housing for the lower income groups, or by employers for their staff. A summary of all new housing completed during 1963 is given at Appendix VIII.

      Voluntary Organizations. A number of voluntary organizations have built housing for lower and middle income groups during recent years. The largest of these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, a pioneer in the field of low-cost housing in the Colony. The society has now housed some 44,861 people in 7,363 flats on nine estates in different parts of the Colony. The rents of these flats are $37 a month for a small room with communal facilities and an average of $85 a month for a larger room with adjoining kitchen, toilet and balcony. The estates are well laid out and have playgrounds and gardens. Facilities are also extended to various welfare organizations who operate clinics, clubs and other ameni- ties for the benefit of the tenants.

During 1963 the society housed 4,564 people in 732 flats. Five hundred of these flats, of which 305 have communal facilities to produce cheaper rents, are at Aberdeen and the remainder are at Shau Kei Wan. At the close of the year, 4,358 additional flats, to provide accommodation for 26,221 people, were under con- struction and plans were at an advanced stage for an estate, which will comprise 2,015 flats for 13,119 people, at Kennedy Town. The society's programme for the next five years is to provide a further 5,761 flats for 36,833 people. Funds for the society's schemes are normally provided by Government at low interest rates. The society also operates a loan scheme under which firms lend money to cover the cost of constructing flats, and in return are given a lease of accommodation for nominated employees. These loans are interest free and repayable over 20 years.

      Other voluntary organizations providing accommodation include the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation. This corporation manages a number of cottages and, with a Government loan, is proceeding with the construction of eight blocks of multi-storey buildings with 1,800 flats to accommodate 8,000 people at Tai Hang Sai. A number of employers also help to alleviate the housing shortage in the Colony by providing accommodation for their staff.

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     Large industrial concerns have built dormitory-type accommoda- tion for their workers and a number of public utility companies and commercial firms have built flats for employees and their families.

Government Housing. The Government helps its junior local staff by reserving for them 15 per cent of all domestic accom- modation in Government low-cost housing estates. Rent and other conditions of tenancy are the same as those for members of the public.

       In October Government announced the results of its review of the scheme started in 1952 by which local civil servants on the pensionable establishment have been encouraged to form co- operative building societies through which they could receive loans to buy land and build flats. As a result of this scheme, Govern- ment decided to allow 63 groups comprising 1,105 officers, whose applications for loans had already been received when the review was started in May 1962, to continue with their schemes, if they so desired. Apart from these 63 groups, 204 societies with 4,077 members had so far been formed and given permission to proceed with their schemes of which 158 with accommodation for 3,233 officers and their families had already been completed. The Government also announced that it had decided to begin the plan- ning of a new scheme under which the development of sites and construction of multi-storey blocks of flats would be carried out by Government itself, thus ensuring the most economical and practical use of funds available. Funds for the new scheme will become available in April 1966. Ten per cent of these funds will be reserved for building co-operatives organized on existing lines by groups of senior officers. Government also provides accom- modation for its overseas staff and for many of its local staff, including police and fire service officers, nurses and resident staff on Government installations.

The Hong Kong Housing Authority. The Hong Kong Housing Authority is a statutory body created by Ordinance No 18 of 1954, and consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, and certain other members appointed by the Governor. The ordinance gives the Housing Authority wide powers in relation to housing. Its purpose is to provide as much accommodation as possible for residents of the Colony living in overcrowded and

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unsatisfactory conditions. It plans, constructs and manages its own estates, which are designed for those with family incomes ranging from $400 to $900 a month. Under this programme the Authority has housed over 96,000 people in 15,541 flats in seven wholly or partially completed estates. At the end of the year 6,897 flats to house a further 41,510 people were under construction.

       The Authority's present programme, which will provide housing for over 137,000 people in 22,438 flats at a capital cost of nearly $200 million, is to be completed by early 1966. The programme has been financed by Government loans amounting to $180 million, so that almost $20 million has been achieved by self-financing. By the end of 1963 the Authority had spent over $158 million and its rent roll had reached $1.4 million a year. Sites are provided by Government at one-third the estimated market value, and rents are calculated on the basis of estimated working expenses and amortization of capital expenditure on buildings and land at five per cent over 40 years. On this basis the Authority is required to balance its budget.

      In 1962 the Authority adopted a 10-year progressive building programme designed to provide 24,555 flats for 153,000 people between 1964 and 1973. The programme is subject to annual re- view and is dependent on further Government loans and funds available. In 1962, Government expressed its intention to allocate a further $80 million to the Authority in such instalments as are necessary in addition to self-financing to permit the Authority to start a $20 million housing scheme every year, subject to review from time to time in the light of the overall financial position of the Colony. Of this $80 million, $50 million had already been allocated by the end of 1963 for the Authority's proposed large new estate at Pok Fu Lam.

      Housing built by the Authority consists of multi-storey blocks of self-contained flats in large estates with provision for shops, clinics, schools and kindergartens. Playgrounds and other ameni- ties are provided and a high standard of planning and construction is maintained. Rents for the Authority's flats range from $48 a month for a four-person flat to $130 a month for a 12-person flat. Selection of tenants is carried out on the basis of housing need, a points system being operated.

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In 1962 the Authority undertook, at the Government's request, to manage all the properties built under the Government low-cost housing programme. These estates consist of multi-storey blocks of flats each containing a living-room, private balcony, cooking place with a water point and communal toilet facilities. Manage- ment of these properties is carried out on a non-profit basis, the costs being paid by Government and the rents credited to Govern- ment funds. Maintenance and management on the Authority's estates and the Government low-cost housing estates is of a high standard and includes rent collection and supervision by trained housing managers, maintenance officers and assistants. The staff. of the Authority are all Government servants working in the housing division of the Urban Services Department under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. In July an arrange- ment was introduced whereby the Authority reimburses to Govern- ment all staff salaries, plus a percentage calculated to meet indirect staff costs, and is thereafter directly responsible for all administra- tive expenses.

RESETTLEMENT

Hong Kong's resettlement estates have attracted world-wide attention. Few visitors leave the Colony unimpressed by the fact that hundreds of thousands of people are being provided with housing by a low-cost building programme which, for speed and imagination, has few if any parallels. By the end of 1963 the Government of Hong Kong had become, through this programme, the direct landlord of 604,754 people. This figure represents about 17 per cent of the population and there are plans to resettle a further 400,000 people by the end of 1967. New blocks, each capable of accommodating over 2,300 people, are being built at the rate of one every 10 days.

The rapid increase in population since the war has been quite startling and the supply of conventional housing could not keep pace with the phenomenal growth in population. The newcomers therefore had to find homes by unconventional means which they did by building shelters or huts of any materials that could be had cheaply, on any piece of vacant land. These squatter huts rapidly spread over the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. In many places there were colonies of squatters, some of 38,000

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or more, living together in a closely-packed mass, with their own shops and schools, and even factories and workshops. Sanitation was primitive or non-existent, there were frequent fires and a constant threat of epidemic disease. Moreover the presence of the squatters on the land made it impossible to solve the very problems to which their presence had given rise. The houses, schools and hospitals needed for this swollen population could not be put in hand because the land required for their construction was occupied by squatters.

       The first attempt to solve the squatter problem was made in 1948 when persons occupying land in the centre of the city were moved to more outlying areas, which it was then thought would not need to be redeveloped for some time. Later, 'approved re- settlement areas' were established where dwellings were required to be built of stone or other fireproof materials to an approved pattern. These tolerated areas had the disadvantage that they re- produced many of the unsatisfactory features of the squatter areas, while the majority of squatters were too poor to be able to build or purchase the type of cottage required. This difficulty was partly overcome by the construction of cottages by welfare organizations which rented them to approved settlers, either direct or through the Government, or accepted payment for them by instalments. But the fundamental objection remained that this form of resettle- ment was uneconomic in both land and money and could not be used on a scale which would make real impact on the squatter problem as a whole.

       In 1954, after a disastrous squatter fire at Shek Kip Mei in which 53,000 people lost their homes, there was a drastic change in policy. A Resettlement Department was set up, under the general control of the Urban Council, to co-ordinate the duties of squatter control and clearance which had previously been under- taken by several different departments. Government funds were then provided to build multi-storey accommodation blocks into which squatters could be resettled. These blocks, designed and built by the Public Works Department, were kept as simple as possible so that they could be put up quickly and then let at rents which the squatters could afford.

       Basically each new building was in the form of an 'H' with communal washing and latrine facilities on each of the seven floors.

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Individual rooms varied in size from just under 100 square feet to just over 300 square feet with the majority of 120 square feet designed to house a family of four or five adults. Twenty-four square feet for an adult was taken as the minimum requirement for health and comfort. With minor modifications, though with an improved external appearance, multi-storey resettlement accom- modation of this type had, by the end of 1963, been built to house 530,319 persons in 12 estates at a total capital cost of about $290 million.

Rooms were allocated according to the size of the family rather than the rent they could afford to ensure that economical use was made of the available space. Rents were fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimbursement of the capital cost of the building over 40 years (at 31 per cent per annum compound interest) plus an element for management and land costs. The rent of a standard 120 square feet room was fixed at $14 a month. The percentage of rents which had to be written off in the financial year 1962-3 was only 0.019 per cent. No charge was made for the communal water supply but electricity, if it was installed at a tenant's request, was at his own expense; communal lighting was provided by Government.

Not all resettlement accommodation is of the same uniform standard. Some families in squatter areas lived in structures of a much higher standard than the average. To provide these people with better accommodation, self-contained flats with private balconies, kitchens, lavatories and showers were constructed in a number of blocks at a monthly rental of $45 a month for a flat of 240 square feet and $65 a month for one of 360 square feet. More recently the new H-blocks have been modified to provide larger rooms on the ends of each floor with private balconies and their own water supply. These rooms are let at a rent of $45 a month to families cleared from better than average structures.

A new design, which is similar to that of the low-cost housing designed and built by the Public Works Department and adminis- tered by the Hong Kong Housing Authority, is now under construction at Kwai Chung in the New Territories, where the completion of the first six blocks was expected early in 1964. The new blocks, of both eight and 16 storey construction, differ fundamentally from the previous design in that access to the

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Hong Kong's prosperity has brought demands for higher income-bracket homes such as these flats (above) in the Happy Valley area of Hong Kong Island. A considerable proportion of new building is for luxury flats and it has been estimated that during 1964 some 3,000 flats will either be completed or be in an advanced state of construction.

A number of voluntary organizations build homes for lower and middle income groups. Phase 1 of the Ming Wah Estate (above) was built by the Hong Kong Housing Society and accommodates 8,887 people. Local civil servants may obtain loans to purchase their own flats through Co-operative Housing Schemes in estates (below) like Island Gardens.

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Private enterprise building has also been responsible for many of the new structures in the more densely populated areas of Hong Kong like these flats in Wan Chai. In most cases flats are for rental although the trend towards home purchase has become more marked in recent years. Modern building techniques have evoked an almost uniform style of architecture.

An example of land usage at the Chai Wan resettlement estate, at the eastern end of Hong Kong Island. Here land has been cut away for the multi- storey blocks which accommodate 27,780 people. Further developments to this site are planned. To the right are flatted factories for smaller industries moved from squatter areas.

   The largest estate to be built so far by the Hong Kong Housing Authority is at Choi Hung (above). The estate has its own schools, kindergartens, shops and post office and accommodates 43,300 people in flats ranging from $48 a month to $130. Extensive industrial and residential development is now taking place in the New Territories, particularly at Tsuen Wan (below).

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Hong Kong's spectacular housing projects are impressive by any standards. Private homes and blocks of flats are literally perched on the tops and the sides of the steep hills which form the Peak area of Hong Kong Island (above). The colonnaded old-style buildings are rapidly disappearing while on lower land other new buildings are encroaching into the tenement areas.

The Kennedy Town district (above) in the western area, is one of the most densely populated parts of Hong Kong Island. Here again several new buildings are taking shape. One of the biggest private residential schemes in the whole of the Colony is under construction near the Jordan Road ferry terminal (below) at Yau Ma Tei.

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domestic rooms is given from a central corridor on each floor, and not by external balconies from the sides of the building, as hitherto. The new design, for the first time, provides each room in a block with a private balcony. Other advances in living standards which are being incorporated in these blocks include the installation of power and light points in domestic rooms and ground floor shops, and the allocation of private lavatories, one between two rooms, in place of the previous communal latrines and bath-rooms. Although the cost of this accommodation will be greater than that of the earlier design, the new type represents a great advance and will assist in accelerating the rate of resettle- ment. It will also resolve, in part, the difficulties in finding suitable sites in the closely developed urban areas. At the end of the year the rents payable for the domestic accommodation in newly designed eight or 16 storey blocks were under consideration.

       Soon after the resettlement programme began it became neces- sary to provide for other community needs in the estates, which were virtually small townships (the population of Wong Tai Sin estate, for instance, is now 81,000 persons). The ground floor rooms of new blocks were therefore set aside for non-domestic use. Most are now let as shops or workshops to settlers who qualified for them by operating similar businesses in the clearance area. Some are set aside for use by certain Government depart- ments and private welfare organizations and are used as schools, clinics or nurseries. The rooftops of most resettlement blocks are also in active use and are allocated to established voluntary agencies who operate schools or children's clubs under the guid- ance of the Education or Social Welfare Departments. There is now a modern community centre in the Wong Tai Sin estate, which was constructed in 1960 from funds provided by the United States Government, and a new community centre was provided in 1963 by the Methodist Mission in the Chai Wan area, where there are both a cottage area and a resettlement estate.

With effect from February 1962 a new system of rents for ground floor shops was introduced which was more in keeping with the market rental valuation of the shops. Shops of 240 square feet which previously all paid a rent of $100, were divided into four grades and now pay either $200, $150, $115 or a reduced rent of $80 a month according to locality. The new rents include

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rates. It was necessary to form appeal boards composed of mem- bers of the Urban Council and Government departments to hear requests from shop-keepers for reductions on the grounds of individual hardship, but the new pattern has now been generally accepted.

      Flatted Factories. Mention has already been made of the small factories which have always operated in squatter areas. As clear- ance operations advanced they revealed more and more of these 'squatter factories' and, to permit those being resettled to continue this form of livelihood a number of multi-storey factory blocks were built. These have industrial working space in units of 198 square feet in the old blocks, the first of which was completed in 1957, and 256 square feet in the revised design first built in 1962. There are at present 11 resettlement flatted factories mostly situated in or near existing resettlement estates, and one single storey annexe building. They are allocated to owners of squatter factories under a certain size who cannot afford to re-establish themselves elsewhere. Rents are calculated to provide a return on capital within 21 years at five per cent per annum compound interest. They vary from $75 a month for a ground floor unit to $45 a month for one on top floor in the older factories, and from $120 to $65 in the new factories, in each case inclusive of

rates.

       Improvements are now being made in design and amenities of these buildings and new factory blocks due for construction in 1964 will have seven storeys instead of the previous five storeys. The factory tenancies are administered from the department's headquarters with the assistance of the works section who check machinery, and electrical and floor loadings. To secure satisfactory working conditions and safety from fire and other hazards, there is also continuous liaison with the Labour Department and the Fire Services Department.

      Cottage Resettlement Areas. Fourteen cottage resettlement areas still remain in existence, but the number of occupants varies little from year to year since it is uneconomic, at least in the urban areas, to increase their size. In certain districts the sites are being cleared for other development, and their occupants resettled in multi-storey accommodation. A total of 508 structures in four cottage areas were demolished to provide land for more intensive

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development or for road widening, and 4,813 occupants were resettled. Approximately 6.8 acres of land were freed in this way. However, in the remoter cottage areas existing wooden structures are sometimes replaced. In the Chai Wan cottage resettlement area, for instance, the Methodist Church completed the last batch of 72 cottages in Epworth Village to replace old and dilapidated wooden huts. Several of the remaining cottage areas still contain many small factories, shops and workshops; besides schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types, which are largely provided by voluntary agencies who continue to add generously to such facilities year by year.

Rennie's Mill Village. In 1950 a new community came into existence in Junk Bay on the eastern shores of the Kowloon peninsula when a number of ex-Nationalist soldiers, previously accommodated on Hong Kong Island, were moved to a camp under the supervision of the then Social Welfare Office. With the passage of time many of the original soldiers moved away. Other immigrants and their families took their place and the camp developed into a permanent settlement of some 8,000 inhabitants living in stone cottages, many of which were constructed with the assistance of welfare organizations. The Resettlement Department took over the administration of the village as an additional cottage area in 1961, and in July 1963 it was gazetted as a fully constituted cottage resettlement area, to take effect from 1st January 1964. Since 1961 many improvements have been made, including the provision of better drainage and sanitary facilities, the surfacing of the existing approach road from the Clear Water Bay Road, the improvement of public footpaths inside the area, and the installation of a main water supply. A police station, a temporary fire station and resettlement office and staff quarters have also been completed.

Squatter Clearances. During the year, 85,057 persons were cleared from land required for development. All genuine occupants were resettled mostly in the new multi-storey blocks completed and handed over by the Public Works Department in 1963. The intake for the year under review brought the total population in the multi-storey estates to 530,319. In the 1963 clearances, 861.85 acres of land were freed. Owing to the scarcity of land within the urban area, it is becoming increasingly necessary to clear areas

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further afield for sites for new resettlement estates. Such schemes include areas in Yau Tong, Sau Mau Ping, Tsz Wan Shan, Tin Wan, Tai Wo Hau and Kwai Chung.

Reclamation schemes are reducing the number of sheltered anchorages and it has been found necessary to start resettling boat squatters to relieve congestion. During the year 8,037 boat squatters in seriously congested typhoon anchorages were resettled. The main aims are to preserve the maximum available space in typhoon shelters for fishing and other working craft and to reduce the serious health risk which these boats constitute.

Cultivators who lose their land and livelihood through clearance for development are given monetary compensation and during the year $2,085,270.27 was paid to cultivators against the clearance of 61.6045 acres of cultivation.

For squatters awaiting resettlement, who live in wooden huts there was the usual hazard of rainstorm and fire. In all 27 fires occurred in urban squatter areas during the year. In the two comparatively large fires that occurred at Fuk Wah Village in January and at Tung Tau Village in April respectively, a total of 318 huts were destroyed, making 6,331 persons homeless. The total number made homeless by all natural disasters during 1963 was 11,021 and, in accordance with current policy, they were either permitted to rebuild their huts on the old sites or allotted alter- native sites on which to rebuild their huts in areas not immediately required for development. To resettle these persons immediately would have seriously disrupted the programme of clearance and development.

Each year in October a fresh survey of urban squatter areas is carried out. Huts built before 1954 (or 1956 in the case of rooftops) continue to be tolerated. New huts are forbidden. No control is kept at present over the number of occupants of tolerated huts and it is the purpose of the survey to determine how many occupants there are. The 1963 return indicated a total of 534,315 squatters in the urban areas surveyed, including 80,541 on rooftops. Squatters in unsurveyed areas are thought to number some 80,000. New unauthorized huts and unauthorized extensions to existing huts are demolished; during 1963 14,746 such demoli- tions took place; 6,044 rooftop squatters and pavement huts

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     squatters were resited when tenements on or by which they were located were demolished for redevelopment during 1963.

In June Government announced the establishment of a working party to advise whether there should be any changes in the policies and programmes for squatter clearance and resettlement, and low- cost housing. The task of the working party is to review such factors as the pressure of population on domestic accommodation now available and the building sites and finances available for fresh construction. It was also asked to study the provision of resettlement or low-cost housing, the eligibility for these privileges and to advise on the provision of temporary resites for squatting. The New Territories Administration is responsible for the control of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of the Tsuen Wan district where control has been transferred to the Resettlement Department. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into pro- hibited and non-prohibited areas. In the former, such as the margins of roads, layout and development areas, and land exposed to flooding, it is necessary to prevent more squatters from building huts. In the latter, temporary structures may be built with a permit from the District Officer. When existing structures in the New Territories have to be cleared from areas required for develop- ment, the occupants are normally given assistance to rebuild their huts on tolerated sites elsewhere. An exception is Tsuen Wan, where 5,453 persons who had to be cleared during 1963 from areas required for development were resettled direct into standard resettlement blocks in the new Tai Wo Hau estate.

RENT CONTROLS

       The control of rent instituted by the Landlord and Tenant Proclamation of the British Military Administration in 1945, shortly after the end of the Pacific War, was designed to meet the acute shortage of accommodation brought about by extensive war damage to property and by the return in large numbers of former residents. Rent was restricted by reference to the rent pay- able before the war. In 1947 the Proclamation was embodied in the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance which also freed newly con- structed and substantially reinstated buildings from control. Thus, the broad popular distinction between controlled and uncontrolled

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premises lies in whether they are old or new buildings. The 1947 Ordinance allowed percentage increases, in rent beyond standard rent, of 30 per cent in the case of domestic premises and 45 per cent for business premises; the 45 per cent became 100 per cent in 1949 and, through further amending legislation in 1953, the 30 per cent rose to 55 per cent while the 100 per cent advanced in two stages to 150 per cent. These increases, 55 per cent for domestic premises and 150 per cent for business premises, still stand.

      Redevelopment of old buildings is covered by an important provision in the ordinance whereby premises may be excluded from its operation. This power rests with the Governor in Council and, in relation to particular premises, can be exercised only after a recommendation from a tenancy tribunal. These exclusion cases have in the past usually been heard by a tribunal consisting of an appointed president and two members from a panel of unofficial persons who give their services voluntarily. In 1963 an amendment of the ordinance allowed presidents in these cases to sit alone or with one member. In making recommendations, tribunals follow the criterion of public interest and award compensation to tenants in relation to the hardship which dispossession will cause them; such compensation in respect of exclusion orders gazetted during the year was $68,032,257.00. This large sum must be viewed in relation to the enhanced value of the land arising from the acquired freedom to rebuild.

      Since 1953, two tenancy inquiry bureaux have operated within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help the machinery of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance work smoothly. The principal statutory duties placed on these bureaux are to provide tenancy tribunals with factual information whenever application is made by a landlord for exclusion from control, or by a tenant for the reduction of rent. During 1963 the bureaux forwarded to tribunals 8,462 sketch plans with measurements and particulars. In connexion with exclusion cases, the staff of the bureaux interviewed 32,572 tenants personally. As a direct result of their contact with landlords, principal tenants and sub-tenants, the staff of the bureaux were called upon to mediate in a large number of minor but varied tenancy disputes and to answer numerous letters and inquiries from the public. This service has

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     been of great value for the parties are usually reluctant to go to court and still more reluctant to testify in public against their closest neighbours. The staff of the bureaux handled 595 of these disputes during 1963.

      The Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance of 1952 gave limited security of tenure to certain tenants of new buildings who entered into verbal tenancy agreements often involving quite sub- stantial lump sum payments. On 10th May 1963, the three-year security under this ordinance was extended to five years for new tenancies commencing after 1st July 1963.

       Increases in rents in 1961 and in the early part of 1962 resulted in the enactment of the Tenancy (Notice of Termination) Ordin- ance which came into force on 14th April 1962. Because many tenancies are monthly on a word of mouth basis, this ordinance (with certain exceptions) extended the period required for termina- tion of a tenancy to six months' written notice. It drew no distinction between business and domestic tenancies and was designed to curb rising rents. The ordinance was amended in October 1962 so that tenancies affected by it enjoyed security of tenure up to 30th June 1963. At about the same time, Govern- ment's proposals for rent increase control on certain domestic premises were made known. If landlord and tenant do not wish to be tied down by the six months' notice to quit, there is provision under this ordinance whereby short-term agreements may be entered into subject to ratification by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. A total of 740 such agreements was ratified during the year.

        The Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance became law on 30th March 1963. It deals with rent increase con- trol rather than rent control and does not apply to initial lettings. Landlords and tenants are also free to agree to any increase in rent but such agreements require endorsement by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation. No increase in rent is allowed, other than by agreement, in the two years following commencement of a tenancy or in the two years after an increase in rent; and, where rent is increased, security of tenure for two years (subject to ordinary tenancy requirements being met) is assured. The Ordin- ance expires on 30th June 1965, though its effect will be somewhat prolonged in cases of tenancies where rent was increased after

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1st July 1963, depending upon the dates at which the increases took place. The earliest date at which increases could take effect was 1st July 1963, and generally the increases are limited to not more than 10 per cent of the existing rent except in the special circumstances of particular tenancies. Applications for certificates of increase are made to the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation who has wide powers under this ordinance, as well as the right to consult the Rent Increases Advisory Panel. From the com- mencement of the ordinance to the end of the year, the commis- sioner received a total of 7,284 applications of which the main categories were 28.4 per cent in respect of agreed increases, 61.6 per cent for increases in rent of not more than 10 per cent and 3.3 per cent for increases exceeding 10 per cent.

11

Social Welfare

      CONSIDERABLE effort has been devoted in recent years to extending social welfare services beyond the relief of distress and the provi- sion of material assistance; increasingly these services are directed towards assisting those who are not capable, without help and support, of standing on their own feet to become independent members of the community. Measures towards this end have made progress during the past year, notably in the field of services for the handicapped.

       Rehabilitation of Handicapped Persons. Ten years ago, services for the rehabilitation of the handicapped in Hong Kong were on a very limited scale. Rapid urbanization and industrialization have brought about changes in the Chinese family system and have emphasized the need to provide specialized services for disabled persons who are at the greatest disadvantage in a competitive society, and for practical training for those who can be fitted for employment. These services are usually beyond the financial and other resources of the Chinese family and require to be provided through public or voluntary organizations. Their planning therefore depend to a large extent on a proper assessment of the extent and nature of the handicap.

       By the end of the year the number of handicapped persons who had come forward for registration had increased from just over 9,000 at the end of 1962 to 11,031. Increasingly energetic efforts need to be directed towards restoring these larger numbers to social and economic usefulness. Services for the blind are the most advanced. In 1953 a sub-committee on welfare of the blind appointed by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee studied the needs of 400 known blind persons and made recommendations for the development of work for the blind. The most important of these was that a Society for the Blind be set up, as a voluntary organization-devoted mainly to the prevention of blindness and the training and employment of the blind and that the Social

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Welfare Department should register the blind and work for their welfare. By the end of 1963 the number of the blind registered with the Department reached 4,003. Educational provision im- proved gradually, receiving impetus from the setting up in 1960 of the special schools section of the Education Department. As a result of the expansion of the Canossa School for Blind Girls and the Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind there is now a school place for every blind child. With the exception of Singapore, Hong Kong is the only country in Asia which can make this claim.

      The social aspects of rehabilitation require the social worker to co-operate with the handicapped individual in helping him to adjust himself to his situation, compensate himself for his disability and develop a capacity to live satisfactorily with himself and others. To this end the Social Welfare Department operates a casework service and nine clubs in three centres catering for a total of 374 blind persons. Those who can be trained for employ- ment are referred to the Hong Kong Society for the Blind, whose industrial workshop for 200, opened during the year, was con- sidered by Mr J. F. Wilson, Director of the Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind who visited Hong Kong in July, to be a model for Asia.

      Schools for the deaf served only 220 children when a sub- committee on welfare of the deaf was appointed in November 1957 to investigate the problem of deafness in Hong Kong. The number of deaf persons registered has now increased to 1,879 and the enrol- ment in schools for the deaf to 456. The Department runs three clubs for 142 deaf children who are unable to get into school. Further progress is expected when the Government has taken deci- sions on the recommendations of Dr D. R. Frisina, an expert on education for the deaf who recently visited Hong Kong under the auspices of UNESCO.

Rehabilitation of the physically handicapped owes a great deal to the pioneering efforts of voluntary organizations, such as the Mission to Lepers (Hong Kong Auxiliary) and the Society for the Relief of Disabled Children, both of which are concerned in the treatment of disability and started operations in 1951 and 1953 respectively. Registration began in 1958 and there are now 4,094 physically handicapped persons on the register. Recent advances include the establishment by the Hong Kong branch of the British

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Red Cross Society of the Princess Alexandra Children's Home which provides care and special education for 60 crippled children, and by the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, founded in 1959, of a pilot medical rehabilitation centre catering particularly for victims of industrial accidents, with a capacity of 80 in-patients. The Social Welfare Department's new centre at Aberdeen, with a maximum capacity of 600, was expected to be completed by the end of 1963. Its expanded vocational training facilities will operate in conjunction with the new surgical appliance centre of the Medical and Health Department, with the aim of continuing the rehabilitative process from medical treatment through vocational training to final resettlement in employment. With Government and certain industrialists giving a lead, a total of 136 handicapped have been placed in employment so far, of whom 44 are in public service or with the armed forces, the rest being mainly in factory or other undertakings in the private sector.

Provision for mentally defectives has lagged behind those for other handicapped groups. But the recommendations of Dr L. T. Hilliard in his report on the problem of mental deficiency in Hong Kong and the enactment of the Mental Health Ordinance in 1960 have laid foundations for the enlightened treatment of the problem of mental deficiency and mental illness in Hong Kong. Since 1958 a total of 830 mentally retarded persons has been discovered. During the year, a temporary custodial home for 43 severe grade defectives was opened at the Tung Wah Hospital by the Medical and Health Department and a second day centre for the training of 60 medium grade defectives was established by the Social Welfare Department in Kowloon, in addition to the first centre for 40 on Hong Kong Island. In the aftercare of the mentally ill, the Department co-operated with the almoners of the psychiatric service in finding accommodation for homeless patients and in arranging for vocational training and employment; in addition the Lutheran World Service, which has expanded its work for the handicapped, has a small fund for helping the mentally ill. Another group of patients for whom voluntary treatment is encouraged are drug addicts. The Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts opened its island centre at Shek Kwu Chau on 23rd April, taking in cured patients discharged from the Castle Peak Hospital.

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      Although the sense of obligation towards the aged still remains strong in the community, the continuing impact of urban industrial conditions on the family system is bound to result in a greater need in future for accommodation in homes for the aged. It is encourag- ing to record that accommodation for the aged in voluntary homes rose from 1,300 to 1,600 during the year.

The nucleus of essential rehabilitation services for the handi- capped has been established but, for these to flourish, greater com- munity acceptance of handicapped persons and their needs is urgently required. Unless employers are willing to provide wider employment opportunities, these services cannot achieve their aim of restoring the handicapped fully to the community. The human and economic needs of the handicapped are best served when they become self-supporting and can thereby make a contribution as self-reliant members of society.

      While advances in services for the handicapped are particularly encouraging, real progress has also been made in providing voca- tional training courses for others who, because of personal or family difficulties, sickness, poverty or lack of education, are unable to compete effectively in the labour market and need further train- ing and assistance to enable them to realize their full potential. Voluntary agencies have been most active in this field and now provide extensive facilities for training in a variety of skills. These include automobile engineering, refrigeration machinery mainte- nance, electrical trades, diesel engine operation for fishermen, navi- gation for coxwains, tailoring, embroidery, typing and shorthand, laundering and hotel trades. Eligible trainees are generally selected by interview and home visit or on reference from a voluntary organization, with the object of choosing for training those people, especially young people, who most need guidance in finding the occupation for which they are best suited and advice on the oppor- tunities provided in different trades. As examples of work by voluntary agencies in this field, the Hong Kong Christian Welfare and Relief Council, on which are represented 26 Protestant Churches and agencies, operates a Practical Training Centre in the Wong Tai Sin Community Centre and trains over 500 students a year; the Lutheran World Service provided some 700 boys and girls from poor families who could not secure admission to secondary schools with one-year courses in day and evening classes;

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Caritas, Hong Kong, the social welfare bureau of the Roman Catholic Diocese, added a four-storey annex to its Aberdeen Social Centre which doubled its capacity to include a printing training school and a metal workshop for training in lathing, drilling and fittings; and smaller centres are operated at Tsuen Wan and else- where. In addition several institutions for deprived or delinquent children or young people provide useful mechanical or other train- ing; and a good many voluntary agencies help needy people to embark on a trade by financing the initial purchase of tools, equip- ment or stock.

       These measures, which are not inconsiderable in total sum, not only serve the ends of constructive social work but also make some contribution as 'groundwork' towards the acquisition of industrial and other skills, upon which the future of Hong Kong as a manu- facturing centre so greatly depends.

Consultants' Report on Training. The methodical development of social welfare services at an effective standard must rely largely on trained social workers entering the field in sufficient numbers. The dearth of trained personnel in recent years led to the visit of Dr E. L. Younghusband as consultant in 1960 and her subsequent proposals for the provision of more training facilities and the development of existing courses, both at the academic and in- service levels, with the advice and assistance of a team of experts. During the past year the work of two of three social work training consultants, Professor Alan Klein and Mrs Josephine Chaisson, has been directed towards a study of present academic courses in relation to social welfare services and staffing needs, leading to the preparation of a comprehensive report with recommendations for the future programme of social work education at the two universities. This report was published in November. On their recommendation interim changes in the curricula have already been made by the University of Hong Kong and by Chung Chi College, with particular emphasis on the practical field work train- ing component of the courses and with financial support from the Social Work Training Fund. Several voluntary agencies accepted field work units of four or five students, working under a super- visor employed by the university or the college in cases when the agency could not itself provide the supervision required. Govern- ment continued to provide bursaries for social studies at the

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University of Hong Kong. A total of 25 bursaries were shared by 11 students entering for the certificate in social studies and by 14 sitting for the arts degree, to be followed by the post-graduate diploma.

      The social work training unit inaugurated its second year of in- service training courses for the staff of both voluntary welfare organizations and Government departments, under the expert guidance of Miss Martha Moscrop, the consultant on in-service training. A total of 113 workers, representing 25 voluntary agencies and three Government departments, have so far been selected for training, as compared with 137 in the previous year. At the same time, 24 officers from the Social Welfare Department enrolled in extra-mural courses at the University of Hong Kong and 10 others were taking higher training overseas.

      Child Welfare. The opening of new facilities and the expansion of existing accommodation in non-profit-making day nurseries, play centres and creches has enabled more young children to benefit from care and attention while their parents are at work. Places increased during the year from some 4,000 to 5,000. Residential institutions for babies and children, which together provide some 2,800 places, continued to care for orphans or children whose parents had failed, temporarily or permanently, to provide care at home. A new venture in the field of child welfare services was inaugurated on the completion of the children's reception centre, presented by the American Government as a contribution to World Refugee Year. This centre is designed to function as a 'clearing house' where a maximum of 80 children can be placed for initial care and detailed observation and assessment while their future is planned. The number of babies abandoned was 126 compared with 143 in 1962. Adoptions of abandoned children from institu- tions into families in Hong Kong exceeded this number and more children were adopted overseas, through the co-operation of two international welfare agencies, International Social Service and Catholic Relief Services, the increase being partly due to successful efforts to place older and handicapped children in families abroad. School fees, cash grants, clothing and equipment were provided on an increased scale for needy children by a number of voluntary welfare agencies. During the year more than 10,000 children were

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      assisted in this way and there is every indication that this welcome assistance will continue.

A second hostel for street boys, in the eastern part of Hong Kong Island, was opened in October by the British Common- wealth Save the Children Fund.

Probation. Additional to their function of supervising offenders on probation, probation officers are now being more frequently used to make social inquiries and reports to court on offenders prior to sentence. The capacity of juvenile correctional institutions was increased by the addition of the combined probation and remand home for 170 boys at Begonia Road, Kowloon, which is the first probation institution. A similar home for 50 girls was opened at the old remand home at Ma Tau Wei, Kowloon. The capacity of the existing approved school at Castle Peak has been increased to 150 and a second is planned. Useful services on the preventive and positive side were offered by the Juvenile Care Centre and the Society of Boys' Centres for the residential training of those who need to overcome behaviour and other difficulties. The Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society continued its valuable assistance in finding jobs and in the provision of temporary accom- modation and material assistance for discharged prisoners to assist their return to society.

       Women and Girls. In the rehabilitation of young prostitutes, the care of unmarried mothers and girls in moral danger or victims of indecent assault, the Social Welfare Department offers a counselling service while institutional care and training are pro- vided in two voluntary institutions, Pelletier Hall and the Po Leung Kuk. A variety of day training classes are also offered to women and girls at the vocational training centre at Tung Tau resettlement estate where 75 trainees were given a good opportunity to equip themselves for future employment and a new way of life.

Relief. The number of families who were receiving public assistance in the form of cooked meals or dry rations at the end of the year was 3,026 as against 4,284 at the same time last year, a decrease of 29.4 per cent. A number of voluntary agencies, in- cluding CARE, Catholic Relief Services, Church World Service, Lutheran World Service and the Seventh Day Adventist Welfare Service operate supplementary feeding schemes in which surplus American foodstuff in large quantity is converted into noodles

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     or milk. More of this foodstuff was used to provide a hot midday meal for school children. The Colony was fortunate in suffering only one major mishap during the year, a squatter fire at Fuk Wah Village in which over 5,000 people were made homeless; other minor disasters added some 3,000 to the list of victims. In the aftermath of such natural disasters, agencies such as the Kai Fong Welfare Associations, the British Red Cross Society, the Salvation Army and those mentioned above were always ready to give timely assistance to the victims in the form of cash grants, food, clothing and utensils.

Youth Welfare. An important first step was taken in the field of youth work by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, formed nearly two years ago, which opened its first five youth centres in different parts of the Colony. The federation also established three youth hostels in New Territories schools, where 30 young people at a time may spend the night in the course of cycling or hiking expeditions. The extensive coastline of the New Territories with its many islands offers great scope for canoeing and sports which provide many boys with an outlet for energy and high spirits-and with a reason to learn how to build boats.

The Duke of Edinburgh's Award Scheme which was launched in 1962 proved increasingly popular. Almost all who entered in 1963 for the awards did so through a friend who had participated earlier. Interest in the scheme was greatly stimulated when the Governor presented the first 31 bronze and four silver awards to boys aged 14 to 19 in January and to the first gold award winner in Hong Kong in July. The Commander British Forces later made a second presentation to 44 boys. A pilot scheme for 60 girls was also initiated, the intention being to throw open the girls' scheme to all who are interested early next year. The Social Welfare and Education Departments, in collaboration with the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, set up a training and recreation centre at Tsuen Wan where 50 boys and girls at a time can enjoy outdoor pursuits and training.

The Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp run by the Hong Kong Conference of Youth Organizations continued to provide a week's holiday by the sea for some 3,500 children during the year. As an experiment, children from selected primary schools spent a week there with their teachers in school work combined with

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recreation. The special needs of young people were met on an increasing scale by a number of organizations such as the YMCA, YWCA, scouts and guides and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association.

      Community and Social Centres. The development of community facilities made further progress with the opening of the Sheung Shui Social Centre in the north of the New Territories which provides library and group activities. The third community centre at Kwun Tong was completed at the end of the year and plans are in hand to establish a fourth at Tai Hang Tung resettlement estate. Although community organization is a comparatively new field of social work in Hong Kong, members of the various groups operating in the two community centres at Wong Tai Sin and Tsuen Wan, and in the social centre at the former Tsan Yuk Hospital building, are beginning to show a community spirit and a growing awareness that each individual, as a citizen of Hong Kong, has duties and responsibilities. The library in each of the centres caters for some 4,000 readers a day with extension services for children.

       Hong Kong is fortunate in having so many local and inter- national welfare and religious organizations which contribute generously in work and resources to many forms of social service. To prevent duplication, to co-ordinate services, to plan for future needs and to interpret these needs to the public, various co- ordinating bodies have been set up. The Hong Kong Conference of Youth Organizations bring together organizations with concern in the field of youth services; and the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, with over 60 affiliated organizations acts in a general co-ordinating role, undertaking information and publicity work well beyond the confines of Hong Kong.

12

Legislation

     DURING the year 35 ordinances and a considerable volume of subsidiary legislation, mostly concerned with amending existing legislation, were enacted. The following short notes are intended only to draw attention to items of particular general or topical interest selected from a wide range of subjects.

       Landlords and Tenants. The Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, Chapter 255 (1953 Reprint) gives a measure of protection to tenants against, inter alia, termination of tenancies of certain premises in pre-1945 buildings, by limiting the grounds upon which landlords may recover possession; but if buildings become danger- ous tenants can nevertheless lose possession by reason of demoli- tion of the buildings; similarly, where buildings are destroyed by fire or other calamity. In these cases the landlords recover posses- sion of the vacant site which, but for the demolition, they could not have done. The Demolished Buildings (Re-development of Sites) Ordinance was enacted in January to enable such protected tenants, dispossessed in this way, to obtain compensation from the owners, and, in addition, power was taken to require owners by order under this Ordinance to replace the building with a new, sound and substantial structure of no less volume than that demolished, failing which the Crown may re-enter upon the property.

      Also of concern to landlords and tenants, the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance was enacted with the object of limiting, until the 30th June 1965, the amount of rent increases on certain domestic premises (which are not subject to the provisions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance) to such amount, generally not more than 10 per cent of the existing rent, as is fair and reasonable in the circumstances of each particular tenancy. The Ordinance prohibits, except by agreement between the parties, any increase within two years of an earlier increase or of the commencement of the tenancy. To achieve the necessary

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control, tenants are given a measure of security of tenure for the two years duration of the Ordinance, subject to prompt payment of rent. This Ordinance, however, does not apply to tenancies to which the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance, 1952, applies. To offset this, the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) (Amendment) Ordinance was enacted in May, to increase from three to five years the security of tenure given under the Tenancy (Prolonged Duration) Ordinance, 1952, in respect of tenancies commencing after the 1st July 1963, that date being the earliest date on which rent increases could take effect under the Rent Increases (Domestic Premises) Control Ordinance.

      Companies. February saw the enactment of the Companies (Amendment) Ordinance, which replaced, by more comprehensive provisions modelled on the corresponding sections of the Com- panies Act, 1948 of England, those provisions in the Companies Ordinance, Chapter 32, which deal with the investigation of the affairs of companies. The Financial Secretary may now, without any application for an investigation, appoint an inspector to in- vestigate the affairs of a company where it appears to the Financial Secretary that there are circumstances suggesting fraud, misfeas- ance or other misconduct; and the powers of the inspectors have been extended to include the investigation of the affairs of sub- sidiary and other related companies under the same appointment. Furthermore, the Financial Secretary is himself empowered to petition the Court for the winding up of a company.

Homicide. The Homicide Ordinance, enacted in May and based on the Homicide Act, 1957, of England has made four substantial changes in the law of homicide. Murder is unlawful killing with malice aforethought. An intention to cause death or grievous bodily harm or even knowledge that death or grievous bodily harm will probably be caused constitutes malice aforethought. In addition, an intent merely to commit a felony involving the use or threat of force, such as robbery and even knowingly to oppose by force an officer of justice or to resist a lawful arrest or to effect an escape or rescue from lawful custody, may also constitute malice aforethought. This is known as constructive malice since there may well be no actual intention to cause death or grievous bodily harm or any knowledge that death or such harm would probably be the result. The Homicide Ordinance abolishes constructive malice. The

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second change in the law brought about by that Ordinance is the introduction of the defence commonly known as 'diminished responsibility' which, if successful, reduces the crime from murder to manslaughter. The defence is available to a person who, although not insane in the legal sense, was nevertheless suffering from such abnormality of mind as substantially impaired his mental responsibility for his acts or omissions in causing or being party to the killing. The third change enables juries to take into account words spoken, as opposed to only acts done, when con- sidering whether an accused person was sufficiently provoked to reduce a crime from murder to one of manslaughter. Hitherto, words alone, save in most extreme and exceptional circumstances, could not amount to sufficient provocation for this purpose. The fourth change reduces from murder to manslaughter the killing of one person by another in pursuance of a suicide pact.

      Factories and Industrial Undertakings. The Factories and In- dustrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955 was amended in June by the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance, 1963 which, in addition to prescribing more detailed provisions respecting registration of workplaces confers powers designed to prevent the use of dangerous machinery or methods of working in them, by enabling magistrates to order the sealing of machinery which is shown to be dangerous in use to workers, or other persons engaged in the workplace. This Ordinance, for administrative reasons, is designed to come into operation on a date to be proclaimed.

Arbitration. The Arbitration Ordinance was enacted in July to replace, by substantive up-to-date legislation, the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure dealing with arbitration which were based on an old and out-of-date statute of England. In addition oppor- tunity was taken to include those provisions of the Arbitration Act, 1950, of England, which relate to foreign arbitration to enable the 1923 Protocol on Arbitration clauses and the 1927 Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitral Awards to be extended to Hong Kong.

       Medical Clinics. The Medical Clinics Ordinance was enacted to provide for the control of medical clinics by means of a system of registration effected by the Director of Medical and Health Services. Registration may be refused where the applicant or any

LEGISLATION

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person employed by him at the clinic is not a fit person, where the premises in question are not suitable for use as a clinic, where the income derived from the clinic is not used towards the promo- tion of the objects of the clinic, or where the clinic will not be under the continuous personal supervision of a registered medical practitioner. The Director, however, is empowered to exempt, up until the 31st December 1966, any clinic in existence on the enact- ment of the Ordinance from the requirement that it should be under the supervision of a registered medical practitioner. The Ordinance enables inspection of clinics and the making of regula- tions to govern the duties and responsibilities of persons operating clinics and the standards to be maintained in clinics. Clinics are defined in this Ordinance in wide terms but some nine classes are exempted, including doctors' and dentists' consulting rooms, licensed physiotherapy clinics and registered dispensaries; in addi- tion, six forms of treatment are excluded from the meaning of 'medical treatment'.

Higher Education. Following the Report of the Fulton Commis- sion, 1963, the Chinese University of Hong Kong Ordinance was enacted to establish and incorporate in Hong Kong a federal- type Chinese University in which the principal language of instruc- tion is Chinese, and of which, as Foundation Colleges, the three post-secondary colleges-Chung Chi College, New Asia College and the United College of Hong Kong-form part. The government of the University is achieved through the medium of a Council which is the governing and executive body of the University, a Senate which, subject to review by the Council, is responsible for instruction, education and research and the conferring of degrees and other academic distinctions, and a Convocation, consisting mainly of graduates, which is advisory, being empowered to make representations to the Council or Senate as to matters touching the interests of the University. The University is authorized to confer the degrees of Bachelor, Master and Doctor in the Faculties of Arts, Science, Commerce and Social Science, and in such other faculties as it may prescribe.

13

Law, Order and Records

THE COURTS OF JUSTICE

THE Courts in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrate's Court and the Tenancy Tribunal. The Marine Court, which had functioned in Hong Kong for some 50 years, was brought to a close on 1st October, and the jurisdiction it hitherto exercised will be exercised by the magistrates.

       Since the war many changes in the social and economic structure of the Colony, including the growth of new and heavily populated industrial centres and a greatly increased population generally, have necessitated the creation of additional Courts. In 1963, the Judiciary consisted of the Chief Justice and four puisne judges, six district judges, 23 magistrates and the Tenancy Tribunal. District judges sit in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Terri- tories; and magistrates sit at the Central Magistracy, Causeway Bay, South Kowloon, North Kowloon and in the New Territories. In addition to the regular Magistrates' Courts on Hong Kong Island, there is a Justice of the Peace Court composed of two justices of the peace sitting together four afternoons a week. One of the justices is usually a solicitor.

      The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance which provides for a measure of control over domestic and business premises erected before 17th August 1945. The tribunal also is responsible for inquiring into, and making recommendations on, applications for exemption from the provisions of the Ordinance when it is considered to be in the public interest that land should be developed after appropriate compensation is paid to existing tenants. The changes in the nature of the work done by this tribunal over the last 10 years are re- flected in the figures for 1953-4 when 2,549 ordinary cases and 56 exemption cases were filed and in 1962-3 when 802 ordinary

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cases and 6,261 exemption cases were filed. The number of exemp- tion cases filed has trebled since 1960. The tribunal's recommenda- tions have generally been accepted and this has cleared the way for the considerable amount of new building in Hong Kong in recent years.

The magistrates may exercise criminal jurisdiction over a wide range of indictable offences as well as summary offences; but in the case of indictable offences their powers of punishment are restricted generally to a maximum penalty of two years imprison- ment or $2,000 fine for any one offence unless the law in regard to any particular offence prescribes that they may award some higher penalty. When trying two or three offences together, cumu- lative sentences of imprisonment imposed by them may not exceed three years. During the year under review there was a substantial increase in the number of cases dealt with by the magistrates, partly due to a considerable increase in the number of traffic offences.

      The magistrates hold preliminary inquiries to decide whether persons accused of the most serious offences should be committed for trial at the criminal sessions of the Supreme Court. They also transfer various cases of a serious nature to the District Court on the application of the Attorney General. The civil jurisdiction of these courts is not extensive; but they exercise a limited jurisdiction in domestic matters chiefly under the Infants Custody Ordinance and Separation and Maintenance Orders Ordinance; and they per- form important functions under a number of other Ordinances, including the Magistrates (Coroners Powers) Ordinance.

When the District Court was established in 1953 it took over the summary jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme Court, giving to the public a simpler and shorter method of bringing to trial civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter was under $5,000. There was a big increase in the volume of work undertaken by this court. The largest increase took place in Kowloon, reflecting the Colony's industrial growth and the expansion of its population. Trial in both civil and criminal pro- ceedings in the District Court is by judge alone and there is a general limitation of five years on a District Judge's power to award a sentence of imprisonment. The District Court has also

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an appellate jurisdiction in stamp appeals, rating appeals and appeals from the Tenancy Tribunal.

The Supreme Court's civil jurisdiction is similar to that of the King's Bench and Chancery Division of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in probate, divorce, admiralty, lunacy, bankruptcy and company winding-up matters. The most serious criminal offences are tried by a judge of the Supreme Court sitting with a jury of seven. (A summary of cases heard and dealt with in the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Tenancy Tribunals and the Magistracies for the years 1958-63 will be found in Appendix IX).

The highest court in Hong Kong is the Full Court. It sits as occasion requires and is constituted of two or more judges of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice directs. The Chief Justice usually presides over this court which hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction cor- responding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal and the Divisional Court of the Queen's Bench Division.

Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London.

THE HONG KONG POLICE FORCE

     Although the responsibility for the protection of life and prop- erty and the prevention and detection of crime rests equally on all police officers, the role played by the Criminal Investigation Department in dealing with the modern criminal is of vital im- portance, especially in a city like Hong Kong. Its dense population and complex society, coupled with its unique position as a centre of industry, trade and tourism are all factors which tend to attract the international crook, well-skilled in the art of commercial fraud and malpractice and who is becoming an increasingly more fre- quent visitor to the Colony.

     About 10 per cent of the Hong Kong Police Force establishment is now allocated to the CID whose specialized sections are staffed by trained men equipped with up-to-date laboratories and other modern aids. The department is directed by an assistant commis- sioner. The principal divisions of CID headquarters are adminis- tration, technical aids (including forensic laboratory, ballistics,

The over-populated residential and industrial areas of Hong Kong presents serious fire hazards. This danger has been increased by water supply difficulties. On continual alert for even the smallest outbreak is the Colony's Fire Services Department. In one year they rescued 623 people, a figure well in excess of that achieved by the combined resources of Britain's fire brigades.

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Twenty five people were rescued by the Fire Services Department when a building collapsed in the Central district of Hong Kong in October, 1963. This particular incident brought about a dramatic rescue operation. Firemen had to cut their way through iron bars to reach the injured. One boy was killed and two people were detained in hospital.

An injured man, his face covered, is carefully lowered (left) from the wreckage of the collapsed building in the Central district. The man was immediately given oxygen (below) and rushed to hospital. The surrounding area was cordoned off and traffic diverted during the rescue operations. Firemen continued to work throughout the night with the aid of searchlights.

In Hong Kong's more congested areas rescue work becomes a prime role of the Fire Services Department. Their equipment is among the most modern in south-east Asia and many of the appliances are purchased from Britain. In the Central district collapse, effective use was made of a 100 foot turn-table ladder.

The Prisons Department has two training centres for young offenders of which the most recent is at Cape Collinson (above). The value of these two centres is reflected by a joint average success rate of 74.76 per cent. Among the total of eight institutions administered by the department is the minimum security prison at Chi Ma Wan (below) on Lantau Island.

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All married officers in the Police Force are eligible for departmental accommodation. The rent is less than a seventh of their pay. So far 2,806 quarters have been built and typical of the flats provided are these (above) at Tin Kwong Road, Kowloon. The size of accommodation is graded so ap officer's family requirements.

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identification bureau and criminal records), anti-corruption branch, triad societies bureau, narcotics bureau, commercial crime office and the general investigation section. The units deployed in police districts come within the general control of the respective assistant commissioner in charge.

In recent years well over 100,000 reports of proven offences, of which some 13,000 14,000 were of serious crime, have been received by the police annually. They follow the pattern usually found in any modern community, ranging from murder and serious bodily harm to cases of petty assault, from serious armed robbery or intricate fraud to cases of petty theft. In addition to these crimes, Hong Kong is faced with the more unconventional crimes of drug addiction, corruption, threats of violence and intimidation by triad societies. However, despite the attraction of Hong Kong to all types of criminals, the detection rate remains high, which is in large measure due to the co-operation of the general public. (Criminal statistics are shown at Appendix IX). It is significant that the increase in population during the past few years has not resulted in a corresponding increase in crime.

The CID gives particular attention to the prevention of crime and the rehabilitation of offenders against whom police supervision orders have been issued by the magistrates. A new section estab- lished in January deals exclusively with the guidance of juvenile offenders; its main object is to seek improved parental control rather than following the more drastic step of instituting criminal proceedings. In this task the police are assisted by the Discharged Prisoners Aid Society and other voluntary agencies. The successes of the forensic laboratory, the ballistics office and the identification bureau are in part attributable to the modern and advanced equip- ment provided for their use. In many instances the first tangible lead in the investigation of criminal offences originates in the research and checks made in one or more of these branches and, in some instances, the whole basis of a case rests on evidence secured by scientific and technical examination.

One of Hong Kong's greatest problems is narcotics. Heroin, which can be consumed simply and in small quantities is the most prevalent drug used by local addicts, the great majority of whom are adult males. There is increased evidence that large quantities of heroin are being smuggled into the Colony as well as the raw

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morphine base, without which heroin cannot be manufactured locally. The suppression of drug peddling and consumption is an important target of both the CID and the uniformed branch. The narcotics bureau is concerned with the wider aspects of preventing narcotics traffic and maintains close liaison with other Govern- ments and international organizations. The uniformed branch is mainly concerned with the arrest of local pedlars and addicts.

Other Government departments play their part in the campaign against trafficking and addiction such as the Preventive Service, the Prisons Department with its prison at Tai Lam for convicted drug addicts, the Medical and Health Department and the Infor- mation Services Department with its anti-narcotics publicity. Co- ordination of the general policy of these activities continues to be the responsibility of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs who is assisted by the Narcotics Advisory Committee. During the year, the Society for the Aid and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts opened a new centre for voluntary patients on the island of Shek Kwu Chau. Another serious threat to society is the potential growth of triad societies whose members are always watching for the opportunity to control places of prostitution, gambling and vice. The triad societies bureau deals exclusively with the suppression of these illegal organizations, and whilst it has not been possible to elimi- nate them completely, they have been rendered comparatively impotent by the curtailing of leadership and growth. However, the threat remains and requires constant observation.

As elsewhere, the CID would make little headway without the co-operation of the public. At formal ceremonies at Police Head- quarters during 1963, letters of appreciation and monetary rewards were presented to 51 members of the public in recognition of their valuable contribution to law and order in the prevention of crime or apprehension of criminal offenders, sometimes at considerable risk of personal danger. In addition to the CID other branches of the force, briefly described below, contribute to the maintenance of law and order.

Uniformed Branch. The largest section of the force is the uniformed branch which has an establishment of 4,955 officers and men, supported by 460 senior civilian, clerical and minor grade staff. The branch is deployed in the three territorial districts of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories. The three

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assistant commissioners in charge of these districts exercise their command through police divisions which are divided into sub- divisions and post areas. The two main day-to-day functions of the uniformed branch are the maintenance of beats and other patrols and the manning of report rooms which are located in all police stations where a duty officer and small staff are available 24 hours a day to take appropriate action on all reports and complaints received from the public or from officers on beat patrol. This action includes the maintenance of detailed police records, the planning and conducting of raids and the charging and initial custody of offenders.

The uniformed branch also provides the emergency units, one in each district, which are available at immediate notice to deal with any incident requiring more manpower than beat constables in the area can provide. The emergency units also carry out mobile patrols in radio-equipped cars and are directed to locations in response to '999' calls. These calls are made to the police district control rooms in Hong Kong and Kowloon, also manned by the uniformed branch.

One of the most exacting tasks of the uniformed branch during the year was the control of queues at water distribution points. In all districts which were provided with stand-pipes, uniformed police were on duty to ensure that queueing was controlled and disturbances avoided. In the urban districts the uniformed branch assisted at fires and house collapses and in the New Territories they provided the extra patrolling necessary in the frontier area to keep down illegal immigration.

      The Special Branch is responsible for preventing and detecting subversive activities and for supplying the intelligence necessary for the maintenance of internal security.

The Anti-illegal Immigration Branch has remained on a super- numerary establishment except for personnel of the marine division which was transferred from the New Territories district in 1962. The future of this branch depends on the adoption of recommenda- tions made by a Government Working Party which has been con- sidering the future control of territorial waters.

       Illegal Immigration. Information indicates that the number of persons who succeeded in entering Hong Kong illegally or en- deavoured to do so steadily declined during the year. This decline

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is attributed partly to the measures imposed by the Chinese authorities and the Macau Government on would-be emigrants and partly to the regular patrolling of Hong Kong territorial waters by units of the anti-illegal immigration branch. Some 19 seaward patrol vessels were regularly on service, supported by a number of smaller craft. When circumstances permitted, Royal Navy vessels gave assistance in patrol and search duties against illegal immigration. Units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force also co-operated with the branch on a number of occasions.

       The main routes of illegal entry into Hong Kong were again Macau by sea and from other small ports nearby on the mainland. Many illegal immigrants attempted to cross to Hong Kong on their own rather than use 'travel agencies', a number of which, estab- lished earlier in Macau, had to close down. Some pressure to enter illegally occurred from time to time at certain sections of the land frontier with China, and it was necessary to continue regular and careful patrolling on land as well as at sea. A number of arrests were made by village penetration patrols on islands and in the remoter parts of the New Territories, and at road blocks in the New Territories.

      Traffic Branch. The number of motor and other vehicles registered and in use increased by 9,912 to a total of 72,968 on 31st December 1963. This brings the number of motor vehicles to every mile of road. to 135.6. An average of 200 additional vehicles are registered every week and the number is now more than double that of six years ago. There has been a corresponding increase in the number of drivers. (These and other traffic figures are contained in Appen- dix IX).

       The need to impose strict control on traffic has continued not only because of the number of vehicles but because of the intensive rate of building development which has shown no sign of abating. The Public Works Department approved 1,328 plans for new buildings in 1962 or about three times as many as in 1960. In 1963 more than 2,578 were approved. As a result road works for drainage, water, gas, electricity and other services have interrupted traffic flow more acutely than ever before. The volume of vehicle and foot traffic is now too heavy for many of the Colony's roads and pavements and the introduction of one-way streets, pedestrian traffic lights and other similar aids are only temporary palliatives.

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More pedestrian subways and bridges, fly-overs and other modern systems will be built or are under consideration for introduction into the urban areas to ensure good traffic flow and minimum inconvenience to drivers and pedestrians.

      Orderly parking also contributes to traffic flow and the con- venience of the pedestrian. The programme of installing parking meters in the central urban areas continued and at the end of the year the number of metered spaces was approximately 3,300; the capacity of Government car-parks was 2,249.

      A new 'intermediate' driving test was introduced in June for applicants for private car driving licences. This test of basic control eliminates candidates who are not ready to take the full test and has reduced much of the previous obstruction caused by learner drivers. The number of licensed drivers increased by 14,155 to 144,667.

       Road Safety. The traffic branch was greatly assisted by the interest and co-operation of several civic organizations in making road safety better known to members of the public. They included the Kaifong associations, the chambers of commerce, rotary clubs, the Road Safety Association, the Hong Kong Automobile Associa- tion and the Hong Kong Institute of Advanced Motorists. In addition to co-ordinating the efforts and suggestions of these groups, the traffic branch paid particular attention to schools and with the co-operation of the Education Department and teachers, visits were made by special traffic education teams to as many schools as possible with the object of making children aware of the dangers on the roads and to explain what they should do to avoid them.

The Communications and Transport Branch is responsible for the planning, installation and maintenance of the force telephone, teleprinter and radio systems. It also controls police transport and the training of drivers. The branch has an establishment of 53 civilian radio and radar technicians who man a central workshop and other installations in the districts.

       The police transport fleet now exceeds 400 vehicles and includes motor scooters and buses. Driving instruction is carried out at the Police Driving School in the New Territories.

Women Police. Recruitment for women police has improved and women recruits continue to train alongside the men. The new

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dormitory buildings at the Police Training School, Aberdeen have made it possible for women recruits to be in residence and so take a full part in the life of the school. Women police have the same training as men recruits and can undertake all police duties but they are especially useful in dealing with women and children.

A team of women NCO's and constables is attached to the traffic branch to control meter parking spaces in the central areas and for point duty at busy junctions and thoroughfares at peak periods. Women officers also took part in other work such as anti- narcotics and in the juvenile liaison section, and they worked alongside the men controlling queues at water stand-pipes.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force supports and reinforces the regular police in emergencies of all kinds. Its establishment of 2,277 men is made up of 28 gazetted officers, 164 junior officers and 2,085 non-commissioned officers and police constables. It is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, assisted by the Commandant, who is an auxiliary assistant commissioner. It was created in 1957 by a merger of the Hong Kong Police Reserve and the Special Constabulary. In August 1961 compulsory service was abandoned in Hong Kong. The strength of the unit initially dropped to 1,301 but efforts to recruit new auxiliaries since then have raised the strength to 1,651 on 31st December 1963.

      When mobilized the auxiliaries are completely integrated with the regular force and each of the nine auxiliary land divisions operates as part of its parent regular division. Auxiliary emergency units operate in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon districts in support of their regular colleagues, and marine auxiliaries assist in manning craft of the regular marine division. The duties of the force are varied. The helicopter observer squadron, a sub-unit of marine division, has no regular counterpart and the duties and training of this unit are carried out by auxiliary police personnel themselves, with the assistance of the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. The auxiliaries also supply additional staff officers and communications personnel at Colony, district and divisional head- quarters in emergencies. Emergency escort units are also provided by them in the two urban districts.

The recruit auxiliary police constable starts off with basic part- time training in law, drill and weapons at auxiliary headquarters. He is then posted to the division or unit of his choice. Thereafter

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he is required to undergo 14 days annual training and a minimum of 60 hours instruction.

Establishment and Strength. The establishment of the regular force is 104 gazetted officers, 745 junior officers and 7,891 non- commissioned officers and constables. These figures include the women police consisting of one gazetted officer, 14 junior officers and 377 non-commissioned officers and constables, but do not include the auxiliaries.

The pay increases awarded during 1962 and a more intensive and improved method of advertising have resulted in better recruit- ment. At the end of 1962 the difference between strength and establishment of other ranks was 714. By the end of 1963 it had been reduced to a deficit of 268 and the trend of recruiting indicated that it would be further lessened by the end of the financial year. Owing to good recruitment, there were only 34 vacancies in the ranks of chief inspector, senior inspector and inspector at the end of the year. To replace vacancies in the gazetted ranks 10 senior inspectors were promoted on trial to assistant superintendents during the year.

Recruitment and Training. Overseas probationary inspectors are recruited in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth; other probationary inspectors and constables are recruited locally. On enlistment, all ranks are given a six-month course of initial training in the Police Training School at Aberdeen. The curriculum in- cludes lectures on public relations, civics, the principles of law and legal procedures, court procedure, police and Government regulations, drill, musketry, physical training, riot drill, life saving and first aid. The course is designed not only to train the men in police duties but also to broaden their general outlook and fit them for responsibility. Recruits for the marine division undergo additional training in seamanship, signals and port regulations. Probationary overseas inspectors attend a course of instruction in Cantonese at the Government Language School.

At the end of their initial training all ranks are posted to units where they carry out duties under supervision, and for the re- mainder of their probationary service inspectors attend the Police Training School one day a month for lectures, and constables attend smaller district training centres two days a month for the same purpose. Inspectors and constables return to the Police

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Training School for continuation training courses for two weeks in their second and third years of service and refresher courses are held for those in the sixth to tenth years of service. The sixth annual study course on the social and psychological background of crime was held at the University of Hong Kong in December. The theme of the course was The Future Role of the Police in Hong Kong. The students included senior police, army and prison officers and a number of social welfare workers.

      Each year a number of officers go to the United Kingdom on courses of instruction at the police colleges at Bramshill and Tulliallan Castle, at the Metropolitan Training School, Hendon, or at other training centres. Thirteen overseas officers and six local officers attended one or other of these courses in 1963. Special courses of various kinds are organized locally from time to time.

PRISONS

There are eight institutions under the control of the Commis- sioner of Prisons. They are Stanley Prison, Victoria Prison, Lai Chi Kok Prison for women, Chi Ma Wan Prison, Tai Lam Prison for convicted drug addicts, Stanley Training Centre, Cape Collinson Training Centre and the Staff Training School. The first three are security prisons and the remainder open institutions.

All institutions have been encouraged to adopt a 'do it yourself' policy and as a result, prison labour is being used on a wide variety of construction and maintenance work. New married and single quarters for warders at Chi Ma Wan Prison have been completed. Pavilions for the Prisons Department sports association have been built entirely by prison labour at Stanley, Chi Ma Wan and Tai Lam Prisons. The water supply scheme and the approach road to the new Tong Fuk Prison on Lantau Island have been completed by contract, and the main building work is expected to start in the summer of 1964. The building of the Staff Training School, which is used for basic training for all officers and warders and for annual refresher courses for all uniformed staff, is now an approved project.

      Some 5,696 prisoners have passed through the rehabilitation programme for convicted drug addicts at Tai Lam Prison and 57 per cent have not been reconvicted for any offence. The two

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training centres, with a joint average success rate of 74.76 per cent are a source of pride to the department. The great majority of boys are found a job before leaving and the high success rate proves the value of the training system.

       The staff of the Prisons Department includes 22 gazetted officers, 839 other ranks, and 192 executive officers, interpreter-translators, clerks, school-masters, social welfare officers, trade instructors, mechanics, storekeepers, telephone operators, messengers and labourers.

FIRE SERVICES

       Hazards to life and property by fire are created by a variety of factors, most of which are present in Hong Kong. Through over- population many residential, commercial and industrial buildings of a highly combustible nature have densities of as much as 300 per cent in excess of their designed capacities. An example of the extent of overcrowding in Hong Kong is seen in the figure of 623 people rescued by the Hong Kong Fire Services in one year com- pared with 447 rescued by the combined resources of 135 fire brigades in the same period in the United Kingdom.

       Water supply difficulties and the existence of many thousands of squatters who live in flimsy, inflammable structures on hillsides and rooftops are big problems connected with fire defence in Hong Kong. The extraordinary rate of new building development, in- cluding additional places of public entertainment, schools, restau- rants, eating houses, dance halls, clubs, etc has made necessary the establishment of a Fire Prevention Bureau to specialize in planning and enforcing standards of public safety.

Organized fire protection services have existed in Hong Kong for nearly 100 years. These were re-organized immediately after the second world war, and in 1960 Government embarked on a 10-year development plan to provide a minimum of a six-minute attend- ance by fire service units to all fires in built-up areas in the Colony. Some 26 fire stations are already in existence, and the development plan provides for an increase at the rate of between four to six stations a year until 1970. The service comprises 184 professional officers and 1,621 professional other ranks, augmented by 62 officers and 925 auxiliaries.

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      Ambulance Services. The Fire Services Department provides a public ambulance service, which is augmented by the St John Ambulance Brigade and ambulances belonging to private hospitals.

      Special Rescue Service. Heavy concentrations of population in cities usually result in large numbers of incidents where members of the public find themselves in a position of peril. Hong Kong is no exception. The department provides a round-the-clock service of rescue squads whose work includes the extricating of trapped persons from house collapses, the rescue of people from the harbour, attendance at suicidal attempts, gas poisonings, releasing trapped children from nullahs and a whole variety of similar incidents which require specialized knowledge.

      The Special Rescue Service also provides trained skin divers who are stationed on Hong Kong Island and at the airport fire station, the latter being one of the best equipped in the Far East.

      Fire Boats Division. The department operates four fire boats which provide protection for more than 66,000 vessels which use the harbour every year. They also assist and supply salt water for fighting fires on land. The fire boats range in size from the Alexander Grantham of 350 gross tons to 18 knot high-speed launches.

Organization. The Fire Services Department is organized in five main groups under a director. They are the headquarters staff and planning unit, the fire prevention bureau and three operational fire districts each under a district fire commander. Each group is sub- divided into a number of divisions.

      The separation of the Colony by the harbour involving a journey of 20 minutes by vehicular ferry, presents unusual problems in mobilizing fire and ambulance service resources. To meet these problems each district operates separate fire and ambulance con- trols, whose operations are co-ordinated through a headquarters command post. In Hong Kong, control of resources must be sufficiently flexible to deal with the average daily total of 250 calls and capable of immediate expansion to deal with up to 50 calls an hour in times of disasters such as typhoons and flooding, house collapses and civil disturbances. The most modern fire fighting equipment available is used and this is supplemented by an effective VHF radio system and private wire service.

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Auxiliary Fire Service. The Auxiliary Fire Service (see chap- ter 20) is integrated with the professional fire services under district commands for operational purposes. It has an efficient brass band which not only supplies the needs of the service but gives regular outdoor concerts which are well attended and appreciated by members of the public.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

Through its special section the Preventive Service of the Com- merce and Industry Department is responsible for suppressing the illicit import and export of narcotics by land, sea or air.

Preventive Service officers board all vessels arriving at the im- migration anchorage from ports from which drugs are suspected of being smuggled. They remain on board while the vessel is in Colony waters to prevent drugs being smuggled ashore. Officers frequently search these and other ships.

In 1963 a total of 495 ships were guarded throughout their stay in harbour, 734 were searched, and 53 seizures were made of narcotics on ships. At the airport, the Preventive Service searches incoming aircraft, goods and baggage, particularly those arriving from or which have passed in transit through known sources of narcotics. Acting on information, land patrols carry out searches for narcotics on land in consultation with the Narcotics Bureau of the Police with whom close liaison is maintained.

RECORDS

The Registrar General's Department comprises the Land Office, the Registries of Births and Deaths, Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents, the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bank- ruptcy and Companies Winding-up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy.

Land Office. The Land Office is a public office for the registra- tion of deeds and other instruments affecting land. The system of registration is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and also that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide

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     leases at rack rents for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it. Deeds affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon, portions of New Kowloon, and a few lots in the New Territories are registered in the Land Office, Victoria; deeds affecting land in the rest of New Kowloon and all other lots in the New Terri- tories are registered at the District Land Offices of the New Territories Administration (land tenure is described in chapter 10). The Land Office, besides being a deeds registry, advises the Government on, and does the Government conveyancing in, all matters relating to land, including the sale, grant and exchange of Crown land, both in the urban areas and in the New Territories.

      The building boom of recent years continued in 1963 although the demand for the higher grade and more expensive type of flat has now been satisfied. The sale by Government of eight to twelve plots of land by public auction was a regular weekly feature at which bidding was usually keen. Developers and brokers were likewise very active in buying up old properties for redevelopment. In view of the extremely high price of land in all areas it has become necessary for economic reasons to build upwards, and in almost all parts of the urban areas large new blocks of flats were erected. Most of the schemes were undertaken by limited companies specially incorporated for the purpose-there were no fewer than 415 land investment and development companies in- corporated during the year. These companies sell off to individual purchasers the flats, shops, floors or other units in the building erected or being erected, each purchaser getting an undivided share in the land and building coupled with the right of exclusive posses- sion of a particular unit. The trend towards larger buildings was accentuated during the year. Assignments registered in the Land Office revealed significant increases in the number of new sub- divided buildings having between 50 and 99 flats and between 100 and 199 flats; on the other hand there was a significant dimi- nution in the number of new sub-divided buildings having between five and nine flats only.

       In certain cases where the conditions under which the land was held gave the necessary power, the sale of flats in uncompleted

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buildings was controlled by (inter alia) requiring moneys paid in advance for units in the building to be used for that building only. These measures no doubt had a salutary effect in checking over- speculation. The adoption by some banks of a tighter lending policy had the same effect, but even so there is obviously still a great deal of money available to finance attractive projects.

Land Office statistics for the year reflect prevailing boom condi- tions. The number of instruments registered reached the record total of 35,880 as against last year's total of 28,089. The total of consider- ations recorded was $2,716,797,635.00 including $534,076,897.00 passing on sales of flats and $1,089,608,929.00 advanced on mort- gages of land at an average rate of about 12 per cent per annum. At the end of the year the Land Office card index of property owners included the names of over 75,077 people, some owning several properties, others being merely co-owners of a small flat. A record number of 717 conditions of sale, extension, exchange, grant and re-grant of Crown land in the urban areas were put through during the year.

The Land Office maintains an elaborate card index showing the lot or section of a lot on which every building having a street number stands. The information contained in the index as at 31st March 1961 has been published in the 27th edition of The Street Index which consists of two large volumes, one for Hong Kong and one for Kowloon and New Kowloon.

Companies. The Companies Registry keeps records of all com- panies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign cor- porations which have established a place of business in the Colony. Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act, 1929, of Great Britain. On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. Whereas in the past joint enterprises by Chinese businessmen were undertaken mainly in the form of Chinese partnerships of the traditional type, Chinese businessmen have of recent years become 'company minded', and the numbers of registrations of companies owned by Chinese have been increasing greatly. Nowadays, most new enterprises of any magnitude are launched as limited companies. This is especially true of the building industry where it has become virtually the standard practice to form a new company for each

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     new building venture. Because of the continued building boom and generally active business conditions there was a very sharp rise in the number of company registrations to the new record total of 1,249 during the year. This was 179 more than in 1962. The nominal capitals of the new companies registered during 1963 totalled $812,489,258.00 an increase of 3.8 per cent over the cor- responding figure for the previous year. Of the new companies, 22 had a nominal share capital of $5 million or over. At the end of the year there were 7,064 local companies on the register com- pared with 5,925 in 1962.

Companies incorporated outside the Colony are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month of establishing a place of business in Hong Kong. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During the year 54 foreign companies registered, and 20 ceased to operate. By the end of the year there were 511 foreign companies registered as com- pared with 477 in 1962. Usually for tax reasons, many foreign companies incorporate subsidiaries in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

A Companies Law Revision Committee has been appointed by the Governor with the following terms of reference: "To consider and make recommendations as to the revision of the company legislation of Hong Kong, and in particular to recommend as soon as possible whether legislation for prevention of fraud in relation to investments is required and, if so, the form which it should take.' The committee has received representations from various bodies and members of the public and is in course of studying the matters referred to it.

      Local and foreign insurance companies which wish to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance and Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Ordinances respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies unless the company qualifies for exemption by complying with the Insurance Com- panies Act, 1958, in Great Britain, or-in the case of fire and marine insurance-by maintaining similar deposits elsewhere in the Commonwealth. Arising out of the Colony's great commercial, shipping and industrial interests, an immense amount of insurance

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227

      business is transacted annually and altogether there are seven companies engaged in it. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insur- ance business.

The Registrar of Companies keeps a list of all persons and firms authorized for appointment as auditors of locally incorporated companies. The list is in two parts: part one contains the names of auditors authorized to audit accounts kept in English, and part two those of auditors authorized to audit accounts kept in Chinese. On 31st December 1963 there were 177 names (including 39 firms) in part one and 145 names (including 32 firms) in part two. The companies registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, 1958, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partnerships, and money-lenders.

Trade Marks and Patents Registries. Trade marks are registered under the Trade Marks Ordinance, 1954, which is based on the Trade Marks Act, 1938, of the United Kingdom. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, 1954, and the prescribed forms may be obtained free of charge from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department.

During the year 2,166 applications for registration were received and 1,223 (including many made in previous years) were accepted and allowed to proceed to advertisement. A total of 1,230 marks were registered, the principal countries of origin being: Hong Kong 404, United States of America 218, United Kingdom 201, Japan 95, Germany 70, Switzerland 52, and France 20. The total number of marks on the register on 31st December 1963 was 19,283.

      Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of pat- ents, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registrable under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance (Chapter 42). This provides that the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of its issue, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong. Registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong; 163 patents were registered during the year as compared with 161 in 1962.

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      Bankruptcies and Liquidations. During the year the court made nine receiving orders, two orders for the administration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors and nine orders for the compulsory winding up of companies. These cases, how- ever, represent only a small fraction of the number of business failures because few Chinese businessmen care to submit debtors' petitions. At the same time creditors' petitions are kept down partly because creditors are disinclined to incur the high legal costs incidental to a petition, and partly because the court has power to dismiss a petition where it is not satisfied that the assets are sufficient to pay a 15 per cent dividend to unsecured creditors. A company's business failure is usually followed by a voluntary liquidation, or the company is simply left to be struck off the register. Fifty-six companies were dissolved by voluntary liquida- tion and 54 by being struck off the register during 1963.

      Marriages. All marriages, except non-Christian customary mar- riages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the registrar at least 15 clear days before the date of the marriage. The registrar is empowered to reduce this period in special circumstances, and the Governor may grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether. Special licences are, however, granted only in the most exceptional circumstances. Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at a marriage registry. Ninety-six places of public worship have been licensed for this purpose, and there are four full-time marriage registries in the urban areas and seven sub-registries in outlying districts and the New Territories operating full-time or one day a fortnight. All marriage records are maintained at the principal marriage registry at the City Hall. During the year 10,424 marriages were performed in marriage registries and sub-registries, and 1,374 at licensed places of worship. The total was 365 more than in 1962.

      The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian customary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not require to be registered. Consequently no statistics of such marriages are available, but it is thought that despite the growing popularity of registry marriages, there are still as many unregistered marriages

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as there are registered ones. The position regarding unregistered marriages is far from satisfactory. The great majority are of doubtful validity, since they are contracted not in accordance with the full traditional forms prescribed by Chinese custom but in supposed conformity with the pre-war civil code of China. This unsatisfactory situation and the best means of remedying it are under consideration by Government.

Births and Deaths. The registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance. The General Register Office, at which all records of births and deaths are kept, is at Li Po Chun Chambers, Connaught Road Central. Facilities for registration are also provided at 16 district registries. Eight of these are on Hong Kong Island, five in Kowloon, and three in the New Territories. In the outlying areas and islands, births are registered at the local rural committee offices by district registrars during regular visits, and deaths are registered at local police stations.

The ordinance provides for the post-registration of births which have not been registered within one year after the date of birth. Most of these post-registration cases concern adults and older children in the New Territories, where facilities for registration were not available until 1932. Since a birth certificate is essential for such purposes as school enrolment or obtaining a passport to go overseas for employment, there has been a continuous flow of some 500 applications each month for the post-registration of births, mostly from people in the New Territories. To deal with these, three post-registration teams are in operation based in the larger centres of population in the New Territories.

The Births and Deaths Registry compiles the Colony's vital statistics. These include birth and death rates and statistics of causes of death. For the latter the Hollerith system is used, 16 items of information about each death being recorded on a punched card.

During the year, 115,263 births (59,432 male and 55,831 female) and 19,748 deaths (10,973 male, 8,761 female and 14 unknown sex) were registered as compared with 111,905 births and 20,324 deaths in 1962. The birth rate per mille was 32.1 and death rate per mille 5.5. Only 39 illegitimate children were registered without the name of the father in the birth entry. This small

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number is due to the fact that the ordinance provides that for its purposes every child of every Chinese male shall be deemed to be a legitimate child, and such Chinese male shall be deemed to be the father of such child. The births registered included those of 70 foundlings. Under the Adoption Ordinance, 1956, an adopted children register is maintained at the general register office. During the year 145 adoptions were registered as against 177 in 1962.

14

Immigration

IN August the Immigration Department celebrated its second year as a completely independent organization. They have been two years of progress and expansion involving considerable improve- ment in facilities made available to the public for the issue of travel documents, visas and immigration clearance on arrival or departure. A staff training programme has been carried out to ensure that members of the department have a comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of Hong Kong immigration regulations and those of other Commonwealth territories for which the Director of Immigration is the agent.

      The demand for travel facilities increases each year as a result of the rise in population and consequently there was a big increase of work in the Chinese section of the department.

Illegal immigration continues and the campaign against this is described in chapter 13. The exceptionally large influx of illegal immigrants in 1962 (estimated at 142,000) included many persons with near relatives who had to remain in China. Now that these people have been absorbed as residents of Hong Kong, many are in a position to ask for their wives and children and aged parents to join them and this is putting an abnormal strain on the Chinese section.

       The United States Government continues to accept Chinese from Hong Kong under its parole programme, but the Canadian Government's scheme finished in December. Increases were also registered in applications by Chinese residents who are not British subjects, to travel abroad for holidays or for business purposes and, in the case of younger people, to go to America, Australia and Britain to further their education. To cope with the general increase in business and to release the pressure on headquarters, another sub-office in the crowded North Point area was opened.

        In the British section there was a decline in the number of passports issued to Chinese wishing to go to Britain to work. This

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followed the enactment of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act on 1st July 1962 which makes it mandatory for Commonwealth citizens to obtain work permits before arrival in Britain. Further details on emigration for employment will be found in chapter 3. Chinese residents wanting to visit Britain for other purposes than employment must have entry certificates issued by the department which totalled 1,857 in 1963. Applications for naturalization as British subjects continued to be received and an improved pro- cessing system has considerably shortened the period of waiting.

The Aliens section recorded an increase in the number of aliens now resident in Hong Kong, the majority of whom are associated with the many foreign business houses established in the Colony. The larger groups consist of 2,593 United States citizens, 418 Dutch, 973 Japanese and the minority-mainly from European countries-number 1,570.

The Director of Immigration continues to act on behalf of a number of Commonwealth countries which are not represented in Hong Kong. These include, apart from colonial territories, many of the newly independent countries such as Ghana, Nigeria and Tanganyika. The number of visa applications for these overseas territories increased during the year.

      The Harbour section worked at full capacity. The Macau traffic created some problems because of a big increase at week-ends and public holidays, and the fact that two ferries now arrive on Saturday afternoon and three depart at the same time, leaving less than 11⁄2 hours to process the disembarkation and embarkation of an average 2,000 persons. The terminal has been redesigned inside to improve the flow of passengers and this was first tested with some success during the Macau Grand Prix, when 8,373 passengers left and 8,632 passengers returned between 15th and 18th November.

      The airport is now operative for 24 hours daily and the large numbers of passengers arriving and departing clearly demonstrate that Kai Tak is in every sense an international airport. A survey of the time taken to clear passengers was made in July and re- vealed the high standard of efficiency and co-operation of the departments employed on passenger handling at the airport. As in former years the majority of tourists came from America.

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233

      A Statistical section equipped with punch card machines is to be set up and will entail a new type of disembarkation and embarkation card for passengers to complete. These cards will be used as the basic records in the department. The full value of the system will not be felt for some time but the gradual compilation of data and the re-collating of present records will eventually provide more detailed and up-to-date statistics of visitors to the Colony.

      Children from China and Macau were permitted during the Chinese New Year and summer holidays to visit their parents, grand-parents, and in the case of orphans, elder brothers and sisters. A special permit system was introduced for the summer holidays and permits were issued at a reduced rate of $1. Most of the applications for children to enter from China were made by parents who entered the Colony illegally in 1962.

       The total recorded movement during the year was 2,594,964 comprising 1,298,243 arrivals and 1,296,721 departures. This com- pares with a total of 2,708,303 in 1962. The main lines of move- ment are between Hong Kong and China, and Hong Kong and Macau.

Comparative figures for the past five years of movement in and out of the Colony, and the issue of passports, visas, certificates of identity and re-entry permits are:

1959

1960

1961

1962

1963

Movement in and out of the Colony

Number of passports issued

4,350

2,224,503 2,479,019 2,449,953

7,330

2,708,303 2,594,964

5,662

7,582

6,473

Number of visas issued

37,627

38,169 41,940

42,331

39,673

Number of certificates of identity issued

14,223

16,628

15,765

17,462

23,596

Number of re-entry permits issued

337,202

371,079

348,828

356,834

374,622

15

Tourism

     UNTIL recent years, tourism was the privilege of the few. Today, however, it is a popular pursuit of people of all lands and as a result the tourist industry on an international basis has become the leading foreign currency earning factor in a world-wide economy. The greater portion of this trade is claimed by the United Kingdom and European countries whereas the Pacific area and south-east Asia only share approximately 14 per cent of the total market. Nevertheless, this small percentage is showing steady and encouraging growth and accounts for the movement of many hundreds of thousands of international travellers.

      Hong Kong's visitor intake within the great area of the Pacific and the Far East (excluding Hawaii) ranks second only to Japan and visitors to Japan and Hong Kong in 1962 totalled more than the aggregate of all other countries in the area.

      Although Hong Kong has been an attraction to travellers for a number of years, the decision to develop the tourist industry was only made in 1958. There were approximately 43,500 visitors to the Colony in 1957; thereafter the figures rose as follows:-1958 (103,058), 1959 (138,561), 1960 (163,661), 1961 (220,884), 1962 (253,016), and 1963 (315,665). This increase is attributable to a number of reasons, all of which play an important part in the development of an industry which is now a vital factor in the economic life of Hong Kong.

      The main reasons are threefold. First, there has been rapid and imaginative development in the matter of receiving incoming visitors, by air and by sea. The airport handles all types of modern aircraft on a 24-hour basis and the processing of passengers is fast and efficient. Similarly passengers arriving by sea can disem- bark with a minimum of delay through the new sea terminal which, although a temporary building, nevertheless offers facilities, space and comfort of a very high order. Work has already started on a new ocean terminal which, when completed, will be a magnificent

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contribution to the travel industry in the Colony. This is one example of the second reason for the success of Hong Kong's tourist industry, namely, co-operation between Government and private industry. The third main reason is the remarkably quick perception and initiative shown by private enterprise and indi- viduals to adapt and develop an industry which, although still in its early stages, offers great opportunities. The building, modifica- tion and extension of hotels in Hong Kong in the past six years is the best example of the initiative of private enterprise and the increase in hotel accommodation and the improvement in its quality has done much towards attracting visitors. In 1957 there were approximately 1,300 rooms suitable for international tourists. In 1962 this figure had risen to 3,250 rooms and by the end of 1963 there were about 6,000 rooms. The actual construction pro- gramme in 1963 showed an increase of 2,957 rooms, but the total net figure is slightly lower due to some smaller hotels deciding to convert their buildings to other uses. Another example of good co-operation is at the arrivals concourses at the airport where hotels and travel agents have combined to provide an excellent service for travellers who have arrived in the Colony without making prior hotel accommodation arrangements.

Transportation. There was an overall improvement during the year in all types of transportation, public and private. Innovations such as comfortable air-conditioned coaches and hire cars have proved popular and resulted in a noticeable increase in business. Never-ending road construction programmes and improvements have contributed to the expansion of tours and sightseeing facilities.

       Entertainment. Hong Kong has much to offer visitors from over- seas in the way of entertainment. There is racing in the season (October - May), golf and tennis, safe beaches for swimming and arrangements can be made for skin diving and water skiing. Boats may be hired for beach picnics and cruises to beaches which are inaccessible by car and also to nearby islands. There has been an improvement in the quality of tours available to visitors. A drive around the New Territories provides a remarkable contrast to the busy congested life of Victoria and Kowloon and is a popular feature of most tour itineraries. The water tours around Hong Kong and through the typhoon shelters also give the visitor a close look at the fascinating life of the boat people. The more

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     adventurous visitor and those who have time to spare obtain con- siderable enjoyment in the ferry trips to the islands of Lantau and Cheung Chau and to some of the more remote fishing villages in the New Territories.

Hong Kong's new City Hall, where a variety of entertainment is generally available either in the concert hall or the theatre, is another attraction. Famous international artists appeared there during the year and their performances were enjoyed by many visitors. Chinese opera is always a popular spectacle. Very few tourists miss the chance of experiencing the great variety of Chinese food, served and eaten in appropriate surroundings.

Shopping however, is still the most popular part of the visitors' leisure hours. Prices appear to be rising all over the world and in some countries the increase has been rapid. Although there has been a tendency for prices of popular commodities to rise in Hong Kong, nevertheless the bargains that can be found in the Colony are still much sought after. The Hong Kong Tourist Association conducts oral and written examinations for guides and those who qualify are entitled to a badge and identity card.

      Research and Survey. In the field of promotion and publicity, research is essential. This work requires as much information as possible about the people of each country to which the advertising is directed. To achieve the most satisfactory results, the style of advertising must be adjusted to the character of the people. Regular surveys of the effect of advertising are also important.

During 1963 the Hong Kong Tourist Association compiled two reports based on research of the visitor to Hong Kong. The reports provide useful information to the many organizations connected with travel and tourism. The Association also commissioned an organization in the United Kingdom to study and submit a report on the existing and potential travel market of the United Kingdom and Europe which is a vast and rich market for travel promotion. The report has been submitted and will be used for planning future operations.

      Promotion and Publicity. The Hong Kong Tourist Association came into active existence in the early part of 1958. The Associa- tion is mainly financed by a subvention made by Government, which is supplemented by small fees charged to its members. The objects of the Association are to increase the number of visitors,

NGKONG HIL

Within 1963 hotel accommoda- tion almost doubled. There are now approximately 6,000 rooms available for tourists and many of the larger hotels are suitable for international conferences or conventions. The year saw the opening of several new hotels, among them the Hong Kong Hilton (above, left), the largest in the Colony, the Mandarin Hotel (above) and the President Hotel (left).

For visitors and local residents alike the beaches (below) provide the most popular recreation. Many of the beaches have a Riviera quality and are among the most beautiful in the world. There are 30 public bathing beaches throughout the Colony where attendants from the Urban Services Department are on duty.

It is said Hong Kong is

combination of East and West, a mixture of old and new. Perhaps more than anything, the fishing junkĮ making its way across the harbour against a background of modern buildings adds truth to this statement. Certainly to the tourist, the fishing junk has become the symbol of Hong Kong.

JAI PAK

го

By night and day Hong Kong is both spectacular and fascinating. Among the principal attractions are the famous floating restaurants (above) at Aberdeen and the view of the harbour area from the Peak (below). The funicular tram service takes passengers to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and at its steepest part the track has a gradient of one in two.

་་་

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237

to promote the development of the Colony as a holiday resort and the improvement of facilities for visitors, to secure overseas publicity, to co-ordinate the activities of those engaged in the tourist trade, and to make appropriate recommendations to the Governor.

       To attract visitors to Hong Kong, a consistent, planned and strong promotional programme is kept in continuous operation. This is done by a regulated supply of brochures, guide books, posters, display material and up-to-date information directed to leading travel agents, carriers and promoters of travel in all the main areas of the world where international travel is generated. At the end of 1963, the Tourist Association mailing list consisted of approximately 6,750 channels of distribution in 86 countries. All printed material used by the Tourist Association is produced in the Colony.

During 1963 more than one million pieces of promotional material were sent overseas. This effort was supported by an advertising programme in newspapers, periodicals and trade publications. Up to the present time, the main focus of advertising has been on the North American continent, Australia and to a lesser degree the United Kingdom and Europe. Every effort was made to obtain the maximum impact in the best market with the limited resources available.

Films also played an important part in overseas promotion. During the past two years 270,478 people in all the states of the USA saw the Association's promotional film A Million Lights Shall Glow. This was achieved through the use of 50 prints of the film distributed by a New York film lending library. The Tourist Association also participates in selected trade and travel fairs and exhibitions, usually in co-operation with the Department of Commerce and Industry and other Government departments.

       In 1963, exhibitions were held in Melbourne, Sydney, Frankfurt and Boston.

The public relations campaign in the United States achieved satis- factory results. Hong Kong was made better known there through the publication of two books featuring the Colony and through numerous articles in American magazines and newspapers. It is estimated that six million television viewers saw an American

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Broadcasting Company half-hour production about Hong Kong. Travel writers and sales executives of air and sea carrier com- panies were informed of Hong Kong's tourist attractions through the second edition of the Hong Kong Fact Book and the Colony was represented at the 33rd Annual Travel Congress of the American Society of Travel Agents in Mexico City.

Public relations activities by the Association in Hong Kong included assisting visiting travel writers and photographers, film units, radio commentators, travel agents and tour operators and many other professional promoters. To keep those interested in travel informed about current events in Hong Kong, the Tourist Association's Travel Bulletin and the news letter News Views were mailed to overseas and local contacts at a rate of 11,000 and 600 copies a month respectively. The Association received more than 7,500 letters during 1963 requesting information on the Colony's travel and tourist amenities.

Instructional Courses. The rapid increase in the number of hotels in the Colony has brought about a demand for trained staff and personnel to carry out the variety of duties involved in the hotel and catering industry. To meet the immediate needs of many hotels, the Hong Kong Hotels Association assisted by Government and the International Rescue Committee, which made a generous financial contribution, set up a training school to teach prospective staff some of the aspects of hotel work. A number of students have already qualified and are now employed in hotels in the Colony.

       Under the joint sponsorship of the Tourist Association and the Rotary Club of Hong Kong Island West, the University of Hong Kong initiated an extra mural course consisting of a series of lectures dealing with the many aspects of the tourist industry. As an industry which offers good opportunity for future employment, the large number of enrolments for the course is encouraging.

International and Regional Organizations. In order to fulfil its role in the realm of international travel and tourism, Hong Kong is a member of the International Union of Official Travel Organiza- tions, the Pacific Area Travel Association, the British Travel and Holiday Association and the American Society of Travel Agents. IUOTO, with headquarters in Geneva, is officially recognized by the United Nations Organization. In August and September,

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239

the United Nations convened through UNESCO, the first Inter- national Travel Conference, which was held in Rome. The conference was instigated by IUOTO and was attended by representatives of 87 different countries and 25 international organizations. A representative from Hong Kong attended the conference as part of the United Kingdom delegation.

The Pacific Area Travel Association was created to promote travel to and within the area of the Pacific and south-east Asia. The work and influence of this organization is expanding rapidly each year. The 12th annual conference was held in Djakarta in March and was attended by 442 delegates and observers from 28 different countries. There are 66 members of PATA in Hong Kong. The British Travel and Holiday Association through its head office in London and through 20 sub-offices and representatives in 14 countries abroad, assists Hong Kong by providing informa- tion about the Colony and by carrying a stock of promotional material which is made available to enquirers.

The American Society of Travel Agents is the largest single organization of international standing for travel agents, carriers, government travel organizations and many other people in the travel industry. At the yearly convention held in October in Mexico, a formal invitation was extended to ASTA to hold its 1965 convention in Hong Kong. This convention was attended by 11 representatives of the Hong Kong travel industry.

       Overseas Offices and Representation. So that quick and efficient factual service can be given to travellers and potential travellers, the Hong Kong Tourist Association now has representation in New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Boston and Dallas as well as in Minneapolis, Chicago and Los Angeles through the Association's public relations consultants. The Tourist Association also has an office and representative in Sydney and plans are being made to have representation early in 1964 in London for coverage of the United Kingdom and Europe.

16

Public Works and Utilities

THE WATER EMERGENCY MAY-DECEMBER 1963

THE year under review witnessed the remarkable spectacle of the great modern city of Hong Kong engaged in a desperate struggle reminiscent of earlier times and of more primitive societies--a struggle for water.

       In fact, this was no new or isolated phenomenon. Geography has dictated that the Colony should be dependent on the rains which fall on its small land area; throughout the years this yield has been impounded in a system of reservoirs, whose capacity has expanded continually. Although the rainfall is seasonal, this natu- ral supply is nevertheless sufficient to afford a reasonable-albeit rarely a generous-provision in average years. Rainfall, however, is all-important, and in 'below-average' years the situation has inevitably deteriorated, in very dry periods to the level of an emergency. Thus on three occasions during the last 100 years the Colony has had to meet its minimum needs by transporting water by sea. In this present instance the expansion and development of Hong Kong exaggerated earlier difficulties and intensified the ordeal.

Rainfall in 1963 was exceptionally low. From November 1962 until December 1963 the yield for each month was well below normal, the total rainfall for the 14 month period being only 36.80 inches, against an average of 87.44 inches. By the end of April, Government regarded the supply position as being poten- tially serious, although at that time it was reasonable to expect that the impending rainy season would bring relief. However, no improvement had taken place by the middle of May, and Govern- ment accordingly took steps to meet the deteriorating situation. The first step was to reconstitute the Water Supplies Emergency Committee, which had last functioned in 1955 and which now became responsible to Executive Council for all aspects of the emergency. Under the chairmanship of the Colonial Secretary this

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241

body, which was to meet on 40 occasions during the year, quickly set to work. The most obvious and immediate need was to reduce consumption. On 16th May therefore, the Colony was placed on a four-hour supply every other day. With the failure of the May rains further restrictions were necessary, and on 1st June the supply was cut to a four-hour period (three hours in low density areas) every fourth day. In the meantime a large number of stand-pipes had been brought into use, in particular to meet the needs of the poorer members of the community who were not in a position to store water, and these provided an alternate day supply. These measures brought consumption down to an acceptable level. From 1st June until the end of the year, for all the requirements of an industrial community of more than three million people, the average consumption amounted to little more than 33 million gallons a day.

Inevitably, these restrictions bore heavily upon every person and undertaking in the Colony, from the individual housewife busied with her family cares to the large industrial units geared to their production schedules. The position of industry, on which the economy and employment of the Colony largely depends, was to some extent at issue. With this in mind the emergency committee set up a sub-committee to consider applications for additional supplies for special industrial users. From its appointment in the middle of May until the end of the year this sub-committee approved 169 applications for such extra supply, involving approxi- mately 2 million gallons a day of water.

But Government was not concerned only with reducing con- sumption. Before the end of May an expert committee, with Mr C. H. W. Robertson, JP, as its chairman, was studying the most effective method of importing water by sea. In preliminary contacts the Chinese authorities were helpful, and the Governor of Kwangtung Province offered to provide water from Canton, on the understanding that the Hong Kong Government would be responsible for its transport. At technical discussions which took place at Canton in the first week of June, the Chinese authorities agreed to provide facilities for tankers to collect water from the Pearl River. Thereafter Government approved the operation of a fleet of tankers sufficient to lift approximately 10 million gallons of water a day.

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      This decision was rapidly put into effect. Mr A. T. Trenerry, TD, F.I.C.S. was appointed as Government's general agent for chartering a fleet of tankers and ancillary vessels, while a further ad hoc body, the Tanker Chartering Committee, was set up to assist him in this task. Working through a pool of leading ship brokers, suitable vessels were quickly secured, and the first tanker sailed for the Pearl River on 26th June. The fleet was thereafter built up to 10 vessels and was maintained at between eight and eleven throughout the remainder of the year. In negotiating the original charters in May and June, the chartering committee regarded the period May - September as representing the likely duration of the emergency, with the possibility that heavy rains would bring the crisis to an earlier end. They therefore sought to obtain short charter periods, with renewable options (which could be exercised if the rains should be delayed) to afford a measure of flexibility. In the event the rains were wholly inade- quate, with the result that in October the committee was obliged to re-enter the market to negotiate new charters to continue the lift throughout the winter. Unfortunately, the impact of the United States - Russian grain deal had caused the market to harden sig- nificantly, with the result that the necessary vessels were obtained only at a greatly increased rate of hire.

      The actual operation of the fleet, even with the full co-operation of the Chinese authorities in the river, and the assistance of local shipowners and agencies in Hong Kong, posed a variety of practical problems. In principle, the modus operandi was simple in the extreme. The vessels would steam up the Pearl River to the three anchorages which the Chinese had reserved for their use. They would then fill their tanks by opening their sea cocks and would re- turn to Hong Kong for discharge. In Hong Kong, the owners of the Caltex and Gulf Oil installations had offered the use of two dis- charging berths free of charge, while the Hong Kong Brewery had similarly made available its pier at Sham Tseng. Major engineering works however, still remained to be undertaken. Berths for five vessels, including the construction of four reinforced concrete dolphins, designed to withstand the impact from 25,000 ton tankers, had to be improvised at Sham Tseng, the area off the Caltex and Gulf Oil wharves had to be dredged, while to deliver supplies to the mains system involved laying a total of 12,800

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feet of welded steel pipe, varying from 21 to 31 inches in diameter and including 1,325 feet laid on concrete piles extending seawards to the tanker berths. The dolphins were the responsibility of the Port Works Office of the Public Works Department while the Water Authority undertook the laying of the pipelines. By devoted and unremitting work this massive programme was completed within approximately 6 weeks. With customary and helpful efficiency, the Royal Navy contributed special discharging hoses for the tanker terminals, and made available the tug Encore.

Berthing and discharge at Hong Kong however, were not the only difficulties which were encountered. Tidal conditions, the presence of bars in the Pearl River and the restricted number of berths both in the river and in Hong Kong made well-planned scheduling essential. How successfully the Director of Marine and his staff met this requirement is demonstrated by the following statistics relating to the tanker shuttle service for the period June - December:

Tanker round trips Total lift

603

1,855.9 million gallons (8,283,944 long tons)

Towards the end of the year the existing difficulties were accentuated by the increasing winter salinity in the Pearl River. By November this natural trend had greatly curtailed the usefulness of the two downstream anchorages in the river. As the periods of maximum salinity were likely to occur in the opening months of 1964 when the water could be too saline to be used unless mixed with supplies from the reservoirs, an additional pipeline, 3,000 feet in length and equipped with pumping gear capable of handling between three and 25 million gallons of water a day, was laid towards the end of the year, connecting the Sham Tseng terminal with the reservoir at Tai Lam Chung. Bearing in mind that this expedient could be inadequate when the salinity reached its highest and when it might be necessary to divert a portion of the fleet to some alternative source of supply, plans to meet this eventuality were in hand at the time of writing.

Additional supplies of potable water were brought to the Colony in the deep tanks of normal merchantmen in the course of their regular trading voyages. Shipowners co-operated in these arrange- ments, at some inconvenience to themselves, by carrying the water

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freight free, Government being responsible for refunding the pur- chase price and for taking delivery. Finally, units of the Royal Navy and of the United States Navy generously added their quota, at a heavy expenditure, by using their distillation equipment. This assistance realized the useful total for the year of 14 million gallons, which was the more welcome for the spirit in which it was offered.

Sea-borne deliveries apart, vigorous attempts were made to in- crease the yield from the few natural sources which remained available. The most rewarding results were achieved from the River Indus which, although dry throughout the winter months, yields considerable quantities of water during and immediately after rain. To make use of this flow, various installations were stripped of their stand-by pumps, which were used to provide a combined pumping capacity of 24 million gallons a day. The yield was pumped directly into the 48 inch main which was laid in 1959 to carry water from China to Tai Lam Chung. The rate of extraction was dependent on the weather, but nevertheless a total of 1645.4 million gallons was obtained for the year.

Another expedient was the sinking of three wells in the Muk Wu area. These contributed the useful total of 59 million gallons during the same period. Unfortunately, the geophysical structure of the Colony militated against any widespread well-sinking pro- gramme as a possible means of alleviating the emergency. At the end of the year, however, Government was arranging to construct a number of well depots in the urban areas, from which the smaller industrialists might be able to collect non-potable water for in- dustrial use.

The beneficial effect of these local developments was to a large extent negatived by the reduction which the Chinese authorities found it necessary to make in the 1963-4 deliveries from their reservoir at Shum Chun, in the adjacent Province of Kwangtung. By an agreement signed in 1960, the competent authorities in the Po On county had contracted to supply Hong Kong with 5,000 million gallons of water a year. But this agreement operates only in years when the rainfall is not less than 1,600 mm (63 inches) and was therefore inoperative in the 1963 drought. The level of water in the Shum Chun reservoir remained exceptionally low, and

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it was with difficulty that the local authorities were able to release a supply of 1,400 million gallons for Hong Kong's use.

The restriction of the mains supply to one four-hour period every fourth day presented many distribution problems. For example, it proved quite impossible to supply the whole Colony with an equitable four-day ration in the short period of four hours. In the event, zoning was introduced, certain zones being supplied at one time and others at another, with stand-pipe deliveries on alternate days. This requirement, coupled with the need to reduce the number of supply periods to the minimum, in order to avoid charging the mains unnecessarily, involved much careful planning and imposed a heavy and continuing strain on the Water Authority staff. As might have been expected, some defects were disclosed in these distribution arrangements and complaints, particularly in the early stages, were not infrequent. These were dealt with by two improvised control centres one on each side of the harbour- and each operating a number of subordinate stations from which the complaints were investigated and, in the majority of cases, dealt with with surprisingly small delay.

The cost, in money, of these emergency measures was naturally heavy. By the end of the year it was calculated that no less than $29.9 million had been disbursed. Of this amount, $25.9 million had been expended on the operation of the tanker fleet: a further $2.8 million had been spent on capital works, including the con- struction of the berths at Sham Tseng, dredging operations, laying special pipelines and sinking wells. The balance was absorbed by miscellaneous expenditure.

In the context of the water emergency therefore, the year was not a satisfactory one for Hong Kong. Nevertheless, the unpleasant ordeal was not without its reassuring features. Government acted promptly and vigorously, the departments concerned (notably the Marine Department, the Public Works Department and the Government Chemist) worked unremittingly to improve the posi- tion, while all sections of the general public responded magnifi- cently and faced many difficulties and inconveniences with a resolution which merits the highest praise.

       It is fitting to conclude this brief account of the emergency by an acknowledgement of the Colony's indebtedness to the masters

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and crews of the tanker fleet, whose skill and seamanship determined the successful outcome of this unique achievement.

Waterworks. The measures taken and the work which had to be carried out in connexion with the water emergency have been described in the preceding section of this chapter.

The summer provided a frustrating series of tropical storms which bypassed the Colony. Due to the severe restrictions which limited the average daily consumption to between 33 to 35 million gallons, and the assistance of the tanker fleet, the storage position slowly improved from the end of June, so that the total resources at the end of September were 4,746 million gallons compared with a total storage capacity of 15,983 million gallons. The lowest figure reached was 1,641 million gallons on 30th June.

The basic demand for water continued to rise as in previous years. The winter consumption on a five-hours supply was only about five per cent less than that for 1962 during an eight-hours supply and these figures together with the extended supplies pro- vided over the European and Chinese New Years indicate that the true demand has now approached 120 million gallons a day in summer.

      Good progress was made on major projects to provide additional supplies and, but for the unprecedented dry conditions significant improvement to the supply would undoubtedly have been possible. The final stages of construction of catchwaters for the Tai Lam Chung scheme were completed, increasing the catchment area from 9,427 acres at the end of 1962 to the designed figure of 11,196

acres.

      The Shek Pik scheme on Lantau Island was finally completed and opened by the Governor on 28th November although water was de- livered to service for the first time on 7th November. Due to lack of normal summer rains however, the quantity of water impounded at the end of the wet season was less than one-eighth of the reservoir capacity. The scheme is an involved feat of engineering costing in excess of $200 million. It was first investigated in 1954 and the contract for the dam was awarded in 1959. The scheme com- prises a storage reservoir of 5,390 million gallons capacity, with a natural catchment of 1,917 acres, artificially increased to 8,017 acres by concrete lined channels and tunnels to tap other valleys far removed from the direct catchment. The water is impounded

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behind an earth dam, and gravitates via a tunnel to a pumping station at Pui O from where it is delivered to treatment works overlooking Silver Mine Bay, having a filtration capacity of 35 million gallons a day. The water then passes through eight miles of twin 30 inch submarine pipeline to Sandy Bay at the western end of Hong Kong Island from where it is re-pumped to the 30 million gallon Mount Davis reception reservoir. From there it gravitates to service reservoirs. To provide the feed to these service reservoirs, approximately 16,000 feet of welded steel main varying in size from 24 inches to 48 inches were laid.

The capacity table for the reservoir, giving the quantity in store for each foot of depth, was compiled by aerial survey supplemented by computer calculations and illustrates the advances made in this field of surveying in recent years. Good progress was made on the construction of the 30 million gallon reception reservoir at Mount Davis and the pumping station at Sandy Bay and although neither of these works were ready by the end of the year it was possible to receive water when available by using temporary pumps to the existing Elliot Service reservoir.

      Good progress was made on the Plover Cove scheme which basically provides for the conversion of the sea inlet of Plover Cove to a fresh water lake with a useable fresh water storage of 30,000 million gallons. This will be done by the construction of a 1 mile long main dam together with two subsidiary dams. The vast reservoir so formed will be largely filled by the run-off of the stream yields from the hills between Sha Tin and Tai Po. Water in these streams will drop down shafts of up to 300 feet deep to the main collecting tunnel. This main tunnel is being constructed so that the water will gravitate through to Plover Cove for storage. The same tunnels will be used to draw-off from the reservoir by pumping when the streams are yielding less than that required to meet the demand. The supply to the 80 million gallons a day Sha Tin treatment works will be balanced by a 1,000 million gallon reservoir being constructed below the Jubilee dam of Shing Mun reservoir which will also be used to conserve the overflow from the latter. From the treatment works the water will be pumped by 48 inch mains laid under the carriageway of the road tunnel below Lion Rock to service reservoirs on the southern slopes of the Kowloon Hills, and thence to supply.

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The contract was let for the Plover Cove dams, as well as the tunnel between Plover Cove and Tai Po Tau while the Tai Po Tau pump house was 85 per cent completed and the tunnel between Tai Po Tau and the lower Shing Mun dam was 'holed through' all but for about 4,000 feet. The lower Shing Mun dam at the end of the year stood 75 feet above the valley floor; the tunnel to the treatment works was completed. The treatment works were 80 per cent complete, the Lion Rock tunnel was 'holed through' and 50 per cent of the lining completed. The Lion Rock service reservoirs were 95 per cent complete and 22,000 feet of trunk mains varying from 21 inches to 48 inches in diameter were laid.

      The feasibility of pumping the flood water from the River Indus was proved, though limitations are placed on this source by the storage capacity of Tai Lam Chung reservoir. With the added storage of Plover Cove, the potentialities of this scheme are much improved. Orders were placed for pumps with a capacity of 160 million gallons a day though approval was given for this pumping potential to be extended to 200 million gallons a day to coincide with the completion of Plover Cove. The lines of the two 54 inch mains for the delivery of the pumped water to Tai Po Tau were surveyed and orders placed for the pipes.

      As a result of the drought conditions experienced, urgent new proposals for increasing the Colony's water resources were advanced which included preliminary investigations to be carried out into the construction of a shallow reservoir of some 6,000 million gallons capacity to receive the pumped flood water from the Yuen Long valley and the pumping of additional stream courses on Lantau to augment the planned catchment areas of Shek Pik. Consultants were also appointed to examine and report on the possibility of desalination of sea water. Notwithstanding the pressure imposed by the severe drought conditions, two service reservoirs at Magazine Gap and Yuen Long with a combined storage of three million gallons were completed, while good progress was maintained on the construction of a further eight service reservoirs of a combined storage of 100 million gallons.

Some 360,000 feet of distribution mains varying from two inches to 18 inches diameter were laid to enable fresh and salt water flushing supplies to be provided to new housing and indus- trial developments as well as to meet the increased consumptions

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attendant on the higher population densities of existing develop- ments. The importance of the use of salt water for flushing was emphasized by the drying up of many of the traditional wells and the many gallons of salt water used for fire fighting. These commitments, met from the sea, constituted a direct saving of the slender fresh water reserves. Included in the expansion of the salt water systems were the construction of three storage reservoirs with a combined capacity of 14 million gallons and attendant pumping station on which satisfactory progress was maintained.

       The quality of the water supplied was maintained at the same high standard as in previous years and the few sub-standard samples were traced to violations of the Waterworks Ordinance or to the carelessness of consumers. Though cholera was again present in the Colony, no case could be attributed to the disease being borne by the water supplied. Fluoridation of the urban area supplies continued satisfactorily and the coagulation of the sodium silica fluoride attendant on operating the equipment in a hot and humid tropical atmosphere was solved.

       Another facet of the Hong Kong Waterworks is the improve- ment work on the traditional irrigation systems of the New Terri- tories as well as the construction of new works to improve the supplies especially during the dry winter months. During the year 44,000 feet of irrigation channels were lined with concrete to reduce seepage and 800 feet of new channel and 56 diversion dams were constructed.

       Buildings. The building boom in the Colony continued through- out the year and a large number of public buildings of all sizes and descriptions were completed and at the end of the year con- struction was in progress on many others. As in previous years, the programme was helped forward by the work of private architects and private quantity surveyors. Because of the excep- tionally low rainfall, contractors experienced some difficulty in procuring adequate water supplies for their building operations and, in many cases, water became another building material delivered to the site in lorries. Another feature of the year was a general rise in building costs, attributable mainly to increased labour rates.

Among the more important buildings completed, pride of place goes to the new Queen Elizabeth Hospital, a 13-storey general

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PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

hospital of 1,338 beds with 31 surgical wards and seven operating theatre suites, and with 21 medical wards including 10 for children with an operating suite. Facilities include a most up-to-date radio- logical institute and a specialist clinic, both generously donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, together with other specialist departments for physiotherapy and pathology, a central sterile supply, and a casualty reception unit. The total cost in- cluding equipment and medical staff quarters amounted to a little over $71 million. The group of buildings occupies a site in the centre of the Kowloon peninsula, commanding fine views of Hong Kong Island and the harbour to the south and the Kowloon Hills to the north. In addition to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the Robert Black Clinic and a medical stores building at Pok Fu Lam were also completed and occupied.

A police station and two police posts were built in the Deep Bay area; 700 married quarters for police rank and file were finished at Tin Kwong Road and 100 more at Tsuen Wan, while additional barrack accommodation was completed at the Aberdeen Police Training School. Three 30-classroom Government primary schools were finished, a smaller number than the recent average for one year. The first stage of Kowloon Tsai Park was finished and includes an open air swimming pool, while a number of other public playgrounds and rest gardens were formed and equipped. Nine public latrines and bath houses were completed in various localities. The first beach building was finished at Deep Water Bay and provides a refreshment kiosk, changing and toilet accom- modation, a first-aid post and some storage space. Other completed buildings include electrical and mechanical workshops in Kowloon; a probation and remand home for boys; quarantine kennels; offices at Beaconsfield Arcade; a multi-storey car park for 740 cars on the former Murray Parade Ground; 140 quarters for senior Government officers; various alterations and extensions, and a number of smaller projects.

New building projects under construction at the end of the year included three secondary schools; the Belilios Public School and the Ellis Kadoorie School, the latter with an adjoining primary school; also extensions to King George V School, and to the Hong Kong Technical College. Wong Tai Sin police station was nearing completion while construction was proceeding on two other police

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

251

stations and a group of 669 married quarters for police rank and file at North Point. Other buildings at various stages of construc- tion were four clinical buildings; separate health offices and a beach building at Stanley; an Urban Services Department depot at Sai Yee Street and a market at Kam Tin; a multi-storey car park for 912 cars at Tsim Sha Tsui; the Western Magistracy; Aberdeen Rehabilitation Centre; a children's reception centre and the Kwun Tong Community Centre; a number of quarters for Government servants and a variety of other smaller projects. Con- struction was also starting on a large 19-storey building on Nathan Road to provide a Kowloon Central Post Office with Government offices on the upper floors.

      Designs and details of 70 Government buildings of all types were in course of preparation which, in addition to schools, clinics and health centres, police stations and fire stations, quarters build- ings, markets, office buildings and depots, and latrines and bath houses, included major extensions to Queen Mary Hospital; pre- liminary investigation for a further large hospital at Lai Chi Kok; alterations to the old Kowloon Hospital; two large new abattoirs by consultants, one on Hong Kong Island and the other in Kowloon; Fire Services Training School and a depot for the Police Training Contingent; Tong Fuk Short Term Prison; extensions to buildings at Kai Tak airport; and preliminary plans for a large Hong Kong General Post Office and Government offices.

      The programme of resettlement and low-cost housing progressed vigorously, and during the year 33 Mark II domestic blocks of resettlement housing were completed, providing 16,500 domestic rooms for about 82,500 people. Shops, social welfare centres, estate offices and schools were provided in the ground floor rooms of these buildings. Two flatted factories at San Po Kong were also finished. At the end of the year, construction was in progress on a total of 138 Mark III type blocks at the following estates: Kwai Chung Central; Tsz Wan Shan, Yau Tong Bay, Sau Mau Ping, Tai Wo Hau III, Chai Wan III and Tin Wan at Aberdeen. These eight-storey buildings provide living accommodation on either side of central corridors and when completed will house about 155,000 people. Construction was also in progress at Chai Wan on three 16-storey Mark IV resettlement blocks and on three more at Tung Tau and Tsz Wan Shan, to provide accommodation for about

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39,000 people. In the low-cost housing programme a total of 15 blocks were completed during the year at Cheung Sha Wan and Wong Tai Sin, providing homes for about 13,100 people, while 36 more blocks were in course of construction at these and two other estates. Construction had also started on the first 20-storey building at a site east of the Wong Tai Sin Monastery.

Drainage. Nearly all built-up areas, including the larger towns in the New Territories, have water-borne sewerage systems. How- ever, as large new blocks of flats take the place of very old and much smaller buildings, the flow to the sewers is steadily in- creasing and many of the older sewers are becoming laden beyond their designed capacity. An accelerated programme to replace them with larger mains is vital to cope with this rapid rate of redevelop- ment of the urban areas accompanied with high population density and a special team of engineers is now engaged on this work. The nuisance from seawall sewer outfalls has grown and extensive plans to build intercepting sewers in the place of the many seawall sewer outfalls will soon bring the sewage to selected sites where it will be treated and discharged into deep water through sub- marine outfalls. Pump houses have been installed in many cases to raise the sewage in the intercepting sewers where the fall is not sufficient for gravity flow. Of the five schemes for the Kowloon peninsula, the Yau Ma Tei scheme is in complete operation and the remaining four are in an advanced stage. Work on three of the five schemes on the Island was started and two of these, the Wan Chai and North Point schemes are in partial operation. Construction of intercepting sewers for Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung is continuing.

Surface water draining down from the hills through built-up areas used to be led to the sea through large open-trained channels, known locally as nullahs. These nullahs were frequently 10 feet wide or more and were normally located in the centre of the road. With the tremendous increase in both vehicular and foot traffic, such obstructions had to be removed, and during the last 10 years many nullahs have been decked or culverted. Extensive systems of culverts have been constructed at the resettlement estates at Wong Tai Sin, Wang Tau Hom, Kwun Tong, Tsz Wan Shan, Jordan Valley, Tai Wo Hau, Chai Wan and Aberdeen, and in

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new towns such as Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Shek Wu Hui, to divert stream-courses and facilitate drainage.

      The plan to reduce the risk of future flooding in Yuen Long is being implemented. Construction of new culverts and the realign- ment of existing stream-courses are being carried out for three of the six stages. Similar plans for flood control in other vulnerable areas of the New Territories, in particular the River Indus basin, are also being prepared. Improvements to the drainage and sewer- age systems of small communities in outlying areas like Sai Kung, Peng Chau, Cheung Chau and Sha Tau Kok were undertaken during the year. The sanitary condition in these places will be much improved once the works are completed.

      Port Works. On Hong Kong Island work continued on the central reclamation scheme, which will eventually link the reclama- tion already carried out for the Star Ferry piers with the completed section of reclamation at Rumsey Street. To replace Blake Pier, work was well advanced on a large new public pier which will be approximately 585 feet long. West of the present vehicle ferry pier, a temporary vehicle ferry berth was constructed, so that there are now three berths in action in the vicinity, and construction was also well advanced on a new pier for inside harbour ferry services to replace the present berths at Jubilee Street, which will be enclosed by the reclamation. Filling continued on both sections of the reclamation; about four acres have now been reclaimed and 870 feet of seawall constructed. At North Point a new passenger ferry pier was completed and brought into use for services to Kowloon City and Hung Hom. Work on new vehicle ferry piers at North Point and Ma Tau Kok continued.

      The first stage of the large development scheme for Aberdeen continued at the western end of Aberdeen harbour with the re- claiming of about five acres, the commencing of a seawall and the construction of foundations for a breakwater to provide pro- tection against westerly gales. After the breakwater has been com- pleted a reclamation is planned to connect Hong Kong and Ap Lei Chau Island and so provide much needed land for develop- ment. Breakwaters are also planned for the southern channel into Aberdeen to form a further typhoon shelter on the eastern side of the town.

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       In Kowloon an additional 200 feet of seawall was constructed at Kwun Tong; a further length of seawall is under construction which is designed to fit in with the first stage of a possible future reclamation of the whole of Kowloon Bay which is now being investigated. At To Kwa Wan about half of a 1,800-foot long seawall was completed for a reclamation of 17 acres, which will enclose Hoi Sam Island and its temple. At Hung Hom 800 feet of seawall were built and 10 acres were reclaimed by filling. With the completion of a further 2,000 feet of seawall and 20 acres of reclamation, it is planned to site a new railway station and mar- shalling yard there to replace the present facilities at Tsim Sha Tsui. At Jordan Road a reclamation of 5 acres was finished for building development and for an additional vehicle ferry berth and concourse. At Cheung Sha Wan work started on the founda- tions of private boatyards needed to replace those which will be enclosed by the remaining 90 acres of reclamation.

New public piers were constructed at Ping Chau, Mirs Bay and Yung Shue Wan on Lamma Island, while at Silver Mine Bay an additional 500 feet of seawall and a small reclamation were com- pleted, providing better berthing facilities for passenger and vehicle ferries and other vessels. Eight light beacons were constructed for the Marine Department, mostly in isolated parts of the Colony to guide tankers carrying water from the Pearl River.

The Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Ltd, completed a deep-water wharf at the eastern boundary of Kowloon Docks in order to provide travelling cranes and other facilities for vessels up to 750 feet long. The Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Company Ltd demolished their No 1 pier at Tsim Sha Tsui and began construction of a new 1,200-foot long pier for a new terminal for liners.

The materials testing laboratory, which is operated by the Port Works Office, carried out nearly 30,000 tests on building materials for Government departments and private firms. The figure was 19 per cent above that for the previous year and one quarter of the tests were for private firms, who paid over $60,000 in fees. New apparatus is being installed to cope with the increasing demands and to conform to revised British standards.

Land Development. Site formation and reclamation work to provide the land for two new towns-Kwun Tong in New Kowloon

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255

      and Tsuen Wan in the New Territories continued throughout the year. The Kwun Tong scheme is now nearing completion, a total of 529 acres, including 253 acres of reclamation, having been formed out of a planned figure of 588 acres. The present popula- tion of the area is 110,000 and 142 factories have been established. To meet the continuing demand for industrial land in this locality a further reclamation involving about 546 acres of Kowloon Bay is being investigated. It is expected that this scheme which will take about eight years to complete, will provide some 350 acres for light industrial and open storage purposes. At Tsuen Wan the main contract to provide 255 acres of hillside terraces and reclama- tion at a cost of about $60 million was put in hand by consulting engineers. This contract and others being carried out by the Public Works Department produced a total of 72 acres during the year.

        A total of 80 acres have so far been formed of the 96 acres planned in Kowloon for a military hospital at King's Park, for low-cost housing at Valley Road and high class housing and schools at Ho Man Tin and Waterloo Road Hill. Other major site formation schemes are in hand or planned to produce 200 acres of land for residential, institutional, Government and com- munity use along the Lung Cheung Road.

        Local Public Works in the New Territories. The New Territories Administration supplies building materials and encourages villagers to use their own labour on village works which are too small for the Government's public works programme. Where villages cannot supply or hire labour from their own resources, District Officers may let contracts for the entire work. The New Territories engi- neering unit, under the supervision of an engineer seconded from the Public Works Department, handles works up to $50,000 and also gives advice to District Officers on smaller works. This self- help scheme has grown considerably in recent years and $2 million was provided for it in the financial year 1963-4.

       During 1963 villagers completed many projects such as foot- paths, van tracks, drainage channels, river bunds and dams, wells, bridges and playgrounds. In recent years nearly every village where it was feasible has been supplied with piped domestic water from unpolluted hill streams, and during the past five years 179 miles of water piping have been supplied for this purpose. Top priority is now being given to sanitation works. During the financial year

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     1963-4 the New Territories engineering unit placed 20 contracts to a total value of $400,000. Fifteen of these were for aqua privy latrines, six for footpaths, two for footbridges, two for the repair of seawalls, one for the construction of a water scheme supplying several villages, one for a van track and one for a village hawker ground. Most of the works were for the benefit of remote com- munities.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Electricity. The Hongkong Electric Company Ltd supplies elec- tricity to the islands of Hong Kong and Lamma from its power station at North Point. The generating capacity of the power station was increased during 1963 to 225 MW by the commission- ing of two 30 MW turbo-alternators. The maximum demand on the station increased in the year by 14.6 per cent to 150 MW. The company's development programme included the placing of orders for two 60 MW turbo-alternators and associated boilers for commissioning in 1966.

The changeover of the company's transmission voltage from 22-kV to 33-kV is nearing completion and plans are well advanced for the introduction of a primary transmission voltage of 66-kV in the near future. Distribution voltages are at 11-kV and 6.6-kV with industrial supply being at 346 volts three-phase and domestic supply at 200 volts single phase; 46 new sub-stations were com- pleted bringing the number of sub-stations to 342.

The amount of electricity generated during 1963 was 663,873,780 kWh, an increase of 11.3 per cent over 1962. The number of consumers increased by six per cent to 118,061 and sales of electricity amounted to 577,882,821 kWh, made up as follows:

Lighting

Public lighting

Bulk power

...

Domestic and commercial power

149,093,101 kWh

5,071,445

99

109,203,451

314,514,824

"

577,882,821 kWh

Charges for electricity range from 28 cents to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents a unit for power. These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which at the end of the year was four per cent. Special rates are quoted for the bulk supply of industrial power.

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The China Light and Power Company Ltd supplies current to Kowloon and the New Territories, including Lantau and a number of other outlying islands. Demand for electricity continued to grow rapidly, the peak load being 247 MW or 19.9 per cent more than in 1962. The generating station at Hok Yuen facing Kowloon Bay has a present capacity of 302.5 MW, but it is scheduled to be in- creased to 482.5 MW by the installation of three 60 MW boilers and turbo-alternators already on order. Further additions now being planned will raise the capacity to 662.5 MW. Main transmission over long distances is at present effected mainly at 33-kV. A system at 66-kV is due to be inaugurated in the near future, and at 132-kV at a later stage. In the company's primary sub-stations, the supply is transformed to the distribution voltages of 11,000 or 6,600, these values being stabilized automatically. Ordinary consumers receive alternating current (50 cycles) at 200 volts single phase or at 346 volts three-phase. Special attention is being devoted to the rural electrification scheme and another 130 villages in the New Territories were connected, many in relatively remote areas. The main transmission and distribution system at 30th September 1963 comprised 2.1 miles at 132-kV, 34.1 miles at 66-kV, 233.5 miles at 33-kV and 387.7 miles at 11/6.6-kV. There were 27 primary and 519 ordinary sub-stations and 1,293 trans- formers with a total capacity of 1,185.7 MVA. The number of consumers was 241,001, or 17.8 per cent more than a year pre- viously. To cope with the rapidly increasing number of accounts, a National Cash 315 computer has been installed which is the first unit of its size in the Colony.

       At 30th September, 1,342.3 million kWh were generated, an increase of 16.8 per cent over the previous twelve months; 1,159.6 million kWh were sold (increase 18.2 per cent), made up of 207.3 m.kWh lighting, 6.3 m.kWh public lighting, 420.6 m.kWh ordinary power and 525.4 m.kWh bulk supply. Electricity charges a kWh are: Lighting 29 cents; ordinary power 14 cents; domestic cooking 13 cents. These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which is at present four per cent. Discounts are granted for large con- sumption, and special rates quoted for bulk supply.

The Cheung Chau Electric Company Ltd is an independent company and supplies electricity to the island of Cheung Chau

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which contains some small industries and a population of fisher- folk who originally founded the company as a community project in 1913. Having since been taken over by commercial interests, the company now operates an electricity supply on a 50 cycle, three-phase, four-wire system of 200/346 volts for domestic, com- mercial and industrial purposes.

     Since the company began operation on a commercial basis, the charges for electricity have been gradually lowered by means of modernizing and increasing the efficiency of the generating plant. Present rates are 65 cents a unit for lighting and 28 cents a unit for power, but a reduction of about eight per cent on these charges will be made early in 1964. Special rates may also be given to bulk consumers.

     Gas. The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Ltd supplies gas to domestic, commercial and industrial consumers in all urban areas. Supply is also available for the whole of the Peak area on the Island and in the industrial community of Tsuen Wan. A wide range of cooking, water-heating and heavy duty gas appliances is available from the company. Most requirements can be met from stock and hire-purchase or rental terms may be arranged for domestic appliances. The company's workshops make special equipment while expert advice is freely available.

      Gas is sold in therms (1 therm-100,000 British thermal units). The gas itself has a heating value of 455 British thermal units a cubic foot in the urban areas and 650 British thermal units a cubic foot in Tsuen Wan. There is a monthly minimum 'standing charge' of $10.60 ($24.10 for meters of a rated capacity over 1,000 cubic feet an hour) which covers the cost of the first three therms used.

Gas used in excess of three therms is charged at the following scale :

next 7 therms (up to

next 40 therms (up to

next 75 therms (up to

next 125 therms (up to

next 250 therms (up to

10 therms) $2.86 a therm 50 therms) $2.81 a therm 125 therms) $2.74 a therm 250 therms) $2.62 a therm 500 therms) $2.51 a therm

next 500 therms (up to 1,000 therms) $2.40 a therm Consumption over 1,000 therms

$2.30 a therm.

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Special bulk supply rates can be considered for hotels, industrial users, etc who may use 2,500 therms or more in any meter-reading month through one meter.

The company offers liquified petroleum gas (bottled gas) to consumers who are, for one reason or another, unable to or do not wish to avail themselves of normal town gas supplied through the company's pipes. The charge for bottled gas ranges from 65 cents a pound for domestic consumers to 50 cents a pound for bulk supply in connexion with large industrial undertakings.

17

Communications

HONG KONG Owes its existence to its position on the China Coast, where it is a focus for most of the communications routes of eastern Asia. Although since the second world war the economy has become less general to the traditional entrepôt trade and a vastly greater part is played by industry, need for efficient com- munications services of all kinds is as great if not greater than ever.

MARINE

      The Port of Victoria is a fine natural harbour, to which have been added all facilities required by modern ship operators. Berths at Government buoys or at private wharves and piers allow a continual flow of ocean and coastal shipping to pass through the port without delay, while modern cargo handling equipment ensures the rapid turn round vital to shipping economy. Chinese crews have an excellent reputation for hard work and ability, and may be engaged for an entire ship, or for individual shipboard departments. All the ancillary services essential to the efficient day-to-day running of a ship can be provided at short notice by ship contractors, repairers and chandlers specializing in main- tenance and painting, victualling, watering and refuelling.

The Director of Marine is responsible for the administration of the port. The Marine Department co-operates closely with shipping and commercial interests through the Port Committee and the Port Executive Committee to ensure that port facilities and services keep pace with the ever-changing needs of Hong Kong and of the shipping companies.

     A comprehensive system of navigational aids covers the harbour and approaches, which allow entry to the port by day or by night in all weathers. The depths in the eastern approaches are 36 feet through Lei Yue Mun and in the west 28 feet through Sulphur Channel or south of Stonecutters Island. Although pilotage is not

JONGKONG HILTON

Apart from multi-storey car parks and kerbside meters, parking facilities are available on some land awaiting development (above). There are more than 1,300 meters in Hong Kong and Kowloon. The tramways service on Hong Kong Island (below) operates on 191⁄2 miles of track and in the city area of Victoria has a frequency of a car every 34 seconds.

EDCOO

A " NESCAFE

..

Hong Kong has five major transport companies and at the Jordan Road ferry terminal in Kowloon (above) an impression can be gained of their variety. Seen here are the vehicular and passenger ferries, double-deck and single-deck buses, taxi cars and taxi vans. Apart from serving points in the city areas the passenger ferries also operate to the outlying islands.

The Star Ferry passenger service is across the narrowest part of the harbour between the tip of the Kowloon peninsula (above) and the commercial centre of Victoria. The daily frequency of passenger trains in the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway has been increased to 17. Passenger trains run from Kowloon (below) to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun.

5 7

印花

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compulsory, it is recommended owing to the density of traffic and the constant reclamation and harbour works.

Quarantine and immigration formalities take place at the eastern or western quarantine anchorages. Port Health and Immigration Department launches are on duty from 7 a.m. to midnight in the eastern anchorage and from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in the western anchorage. Radio pratique may also be granted in certain cases, and this arrangement, apart from reducing the number of move- ments within the busy part of the harbour, is popular with passengers and consignees for it means that disembarkation and cargo work can begin immediately a ship is berthed.

The signal station on Waglan Island covering the eastern approaches and the other signal stations in the harbour are manned continuously, reporting all movements to the port control office, the staff of which is available at all times to deal with emergencies and queries. Radio telephones connect these signal stations with the port control and port health launches, while Police, Immigration and Commerce and Industry Department launches have their own individual circuits. Vessels at buoys and wharves may hire radio telephones commercially to link up with the public telephone services. The Alexander Grantham, one of the largest and most up-to-date fire floats in the world, manned by the Fire Services Department is maintained as an insurance against ship or waterfront fires becoming widespread; other smaller fire floats are stationed at constant readiness both in the main harbour and in the smaller ports of the Colony.

Port activity again showed an increased movement of shipping. Modern methods of cargo handling, an absence of restrictions to trade and commerce and an adequacy of transhipment and storage facilities enabled the port to meet these increased demands. Tran- shipment cargo accounts for an appreciable proportion of cargo handled in the port. Details of vessels entered and cleared during the year, together with figures of cargo loaded and discharged, are in Appendix X, which also shows the number of passengers, including emigrants, who landed and embarked during the year. The Colony continues to develop its industries, which depend wholly on imported raw materials; shipping takes away the finished products to all parts of the world. Many well-known and old-established shipping lines maintain regular and frequent

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services to and from Hong Kong, some 20 companies providing regular sailings to Europe and a like number to the North American continent. There are regular services to Australia, New Zealand, South American and South African and Asian ports. Hong Kong continues to be a popular tourist attraction and large luxury liners on round-the-world or trans-Pacific cruises call frequently. The Marine Department maintains 52 moorings for ocean-going vessels. Of these, 30 are classified as suitable for the use of vessels up to 600 feet in length in typhoon conditions, and 22 for vessels up to 450 feet in length. Commercial wharves are able to accommodate vessels up to 750 feet in length with a draught up to 32 feet. Construction of a new ocean terminal has started; the temporary passenger terminal at Navy Street continues successfully to bridge the gap. It is estimated that the wharf and godown companies have a total storage space of well over 1,000,000 tons, catering for the storage and transhipment of all types of refrigerated, dangerous and ordinary goods. The year again saw the completion of more new godowns of modern design.

      Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at some stage or another transported by lighter and there are over 1,000 lighters and junks used for this purpose, of which more than 300 are mechanically propelled. This mechanized fleet continues to grow larger, as it is the form of transport particularly suited to the handling and delivery of the small parcels which make up a considerable proportion of cargoes handled in the port. First class bunkering services are provided either at the four oil depot wharves or by lighter. Fresh water is also available although the supply may be limited in the dry season, and in 1963 was limited throughout the summer and autumn due to the prolonged drought.

      Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervise the engage- ment and discharge of seamen serving in British ships and also the crews of those ships whose countries have no consular representation in Hong Kong. Some 26,000 Hong Kong seamen are now regularly engaged in a sea-going capacity in ships under many different national flags. A Seamen's Recruitment Committee was appointed by the Governor in March to inquire into the present systems under which Chinese seamen obtain employment at sea. The committee's interim report at the end of May recom- mended that a central organization be set up by Government, to

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provide for improvements in the system and conditions of recruit- ment. A Port Welfare Committee ministers to needs of crews of visiting ships, co-operating with religious and other organizations devoted to this work. This committee administers a recreational club in Kowloon which is very popular with ships' crews, partic- ularly the facilities provided for football matches. In 1963 $209,000 partly donated privately and partly by a Government subvention, was made available for port welfare purposes.

       New ship construction, repair work, conversions and the thou- sand and one needs of vessels calling at the port during the year kept the dockyards busy and the services of Government marine surveyors and the surveyor representatives of Lloyds' Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas and the American Bureau of Shipping were in constant demand. The Hong Kong Registry of Shipping lists over 512 vessels under the British flag totalling some 844,556 gross register tons, of which 159 ships are of over 500 tons gross.

       The vast numbers of small craft which operate in the harbour create a special problem in density of water-borne traffic. There are 22,351 vessels of this category, of which over 6,000 are mechanized. Examinations are compulsory for local certificates of competency as master or engineer of all mechanized fishing vessels, launches or any other powered craft. These examinations, the standard of which is being continually raised, are an important factor in ensuring a continued high standard of handling and safety precautions in small vessels. As a result, there have been fewer accidents than might be expected considering the number of craft moving in the harbour and surrounding waters.

Locally moved cargoes are transported mainly by towed lighters or junks and a flourishing trade with Macau and adjacent Chinese ports exists. The principal imports from these places consisted of building materials, vegetables and fruits, sea products and food- stuffs while the chief exports were fertilizer and foodstuffs. Details of external trade cargo tonnage may be found in Appendix X. Internal trade in the Colony waters takes place between the harbour area and outlying districts. Sand for building purposes is the chief commodity carried inwards, while outward movement of bulk cargoes are mainly building materials, cotton bales, dangerous goods and foodstuffs to the outlying towns and villages.

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      The shipbreaking industry in Hong Kong was stable during the year and an average of 30 ships were in the process of demolition each month. A total of 65 ships were broken up during the year, totalling 451,195 gross tons.

      An expansion scheme for the western harbour was approved in August. The scheme includes the resiting and renumbering of present mooring buoys and the supply and laying of new ones. The various quarantine and dangerous goods anchorages will be moved and eventually a total of 35 moorings in the western harbour for vessels up to 450 feet and 41 moorings for vessels over 450 feet will be available. Of these, 33 will be classed as typhoon moorings. Earlier in the year, as a preliminary step in the above scheme, the western harbour limits were extended and a further two square miles are now included in the harbour area.

CIVIL AVIATION

      The development of civil aviation in Hong Kong has kept pace with that elsewhere in the world. Travelling time from Europe and the Americas has been reduced to a matter of hours and has made a significant contribution to the Colony's life and economy.

      The first flight by an aircraft in Hong Kong took place in 1911, but it was not until some 20 years later that aviation began to show the first real signs of the growth that was to follow. The small grass airfield on the north shore of Kowloon Bay, which had been the scene of many earlier historic flights, was consider- ably extended by reclamation during the early 1930's, and in 1936 a weekly mail and passenger service between Hong Kong and Penang, connecting with the London-Singapore-Australia service, was inaugurated by Imperial Airways. Later that year services to Canton and Shanghai were introduced and in 1937 Pan American Airways opened up the trans-Pacific route to Manila and San Francisco. By the time the Pacific war broke out in 1941 five companies were operating regular scheduled flights to and from the Colony.

      After the war, civil air transport developed rapidly and it be- came apparent that existing airport facilities would soon become inadequate. The mountainous nature of the terrain made a site for a new airport difficult to find and a decision was made to develop

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the existing site by extensive reclamation. Work on the project started in 1956 and in a truly remarkable feat of engineering, a promontory 7,800 feet long and 800 feet wide was reclaimed from the waters of Kowloon Bay. Direct approaches to the runway from the south-east can be made through a gap in the hills, while the extensive removal of hills has provided a safe, gently curving approach from the opposite direction.

      The new runway, 8,340 feet long and stressed to take aircraft weighing up to 400,000 pounds, was opened in 1958. It is suitable for use by the most modern types of aircraft now flying or currently envisaged. The latest navigational and approach aids have been installed and an instrument landing system, surveillance radar, precision approach radar and VHF omni-range contribute greatly to the safety and regularity of air services to the Colony. Modern airport and approach lighting have made safe night opera- tions possible in spite of the surrounding hills.

      A new terminal building, one of the most advanced in the Far East, came into use in November 1962. Operating on a 'two level' system, with arrivals on the ground floor and departures mainly on the first floor, the building has been planned to eliminate those irritating delays to which air travellers are sometimes subjected. Modern shops, bars and a restaurant cater to the needs of passengers and visitors and a spacious waving bay offers a clear view of arriving and departing aircraft. Immediately in front of the terminal is an extensive aircraft parking apron, with room for 11 large aircraft. It has a hydrant refuelling system controlled from a centralized fuel farm. Extensive alterations were made to the temporary terminal building to reconvert it to its original design which was for the storage of air cargo and freight. This building came into use in July and marked the completion of phase I of the Hong Kong Airport Development programme.

      Responsibility for the supervision of all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony and the co-ordination of plans for its development rests with the Director of Civil Aviation. Full operational services are provided, including air traffic control, telecommunications, air/ sea rescue, airport fire service, aeronautical information service, aircraft registration and certification of airworthiness, personnel licensing and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological service.

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      Opportunities for private flying are somewhat restricted because of the size of the Colony and by the obvious difficulties of operating from a busy international airport. Light aircraft are available at the Far East Flying Training School, established in 1934, which has done much to foster a spirit of air-mindedness in the Colony. The school also offers full-time courses of training in aeronautical engineering and electronics.

      The Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited pro- vides maintenance, overhaul and repair facilities at the airport for a wide range of aircraft, including the latest jet airliners. Their two hangars can accommodate the largest aircraft likely to operate into Hong Kong within the next decade.

      Two locally based airlines operate aircraft registered in the Colony. Cathay Pacific Airways operate a wide network of routes extending to India, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia, using Convair 880 and Lockheed Electra aircraft. Macau Air Transport Company Limited has flights by Piaggio P 136 amphib- ious aircraft to nearby Macau. Some 170 scheduled services arrive each week at Hong Kong airport, operated by 20 international airlines, in addition to numerous charter and non-scheduled flights. The majority of scheduled services are now operated by the most modern types of jet aircraft including the Comet IV, Boeing 707, Douglas DC8 and Convair 880 and 990.

       The volume of air traffic continued to increase steadily during the year and passenger, freight and mail figures showed increases of some 9.1 per cent, 18 per cent and 18.6 per cent, respectively over the preceding year.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

       The British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun where it joins the Chinese railway system, the northern bank of the Sham Chun River forming the international boundary at this point. Since 1949 passengers have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China and walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

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The timetable for passenger services was revised as from 1st January and the daily passenger trains each way on the British section was increased from 12 to 17. There is also an average of two goods trains each day. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and on public holidays, especially in the winter time. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim. Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu is about one hour.

The number of passenger journeys a year now exceeds 74 million and the greatest number of passengers carried in a single day during the year, was 89,489. This was on 5th April (the Ching Ming Festival) when many passengers went to visit their ancestors' graves in Wo Hop Shek cemetery at Fanling and Sandy Ridge at Lo Wu. Fares for third class travel are slightly higher than bus fares except between Kowloon and Sha Tin. Third class from Kowloon to Sha Tin, a distance of 7.14 miles, is 50 cents. Children under 12 years of age pay half fare. The second class fare is 50 per cent more than the third, and first class is double. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available for all stations. For a quarterly ticket, the fare is the sum of 75 ordinary single fares; for a monthly ticket, 30 ordinary single fares. Holders may use their tickets on any train and as many times as they like on any day.

Rolling stock in the British section comprises eight diesel- electric locomotives, one rail-bus, 71 passenger coaches and 204 goods wagons.

ROADS

The volume of traffic using the Colony's roads continued to increase. In 1962 additional vehicles registered totalled 7,234 which represented an increase of 14.5 per cent. Observations taken at selected locations in the urban areas indicated that the increase of vehicular traffic on the roads was in general at a similar rate. Building construction and the development of large areas of land also continued unabated. These two factors make the construction of new roads and the reconstruction, or resurfacing of existing roads essential and as a result, major projects carried out during

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the year cost over $28 million and the maintenance and improve- ment of existing roads $14 million.

      Roads in the Colony maintained by Government now total 538 miles; of this total 193.5 miles are on Hong Kong Island and 344.5 miles in Kowloon and the New Territories.

On Hong Kong Island at the western end of the city, Victoria Road, which winds its way round the coast towards Aberdeen, has now been realigned for nearly a mile of its length and a two-lane carriageway constructed. To reduce the rush hour traffic density on Garden Road-the main route from the city to the mid and upper levels of the Peak-the construction of a new link road was started. This involves the building of a 'flyover' and when com- pleted will serve mainly the areas to the west of the Botanic Gardens.

Another stage was reached in the widening of Pokfulam Road to provide a better road link from the City of Victoria to Aberdeen where extensive development is in progress. Other major works in hand include the reconstruction of the western section of Connaught Road which runs along the waterfront, the construction of a link road between Robinson and Lyttelton Roads (previously only connected by a footpath), and the reconstruction of Chung Hom Kok Road in the south of the Island to open up the area for development.

In Kowloon, a dual carriageway road was constructed from a roundabout built at Kowloon City, across the old airport and along the reclamation to the new town of Kwun Tong. A dual carriage- way was completed in Nairn Road.

The third stage of the reconstruction of Nathan Road was com- pleted and further sections planned. To relieve traffic, an additional carriageway is being built at Castle Peak Road near Lai Chi Kok Hospital, whilst good progress was maintained on works at Lai Chi Kok Gap. The latter is the last link in the provision of a dual carriageway from Lai Chi Kok to Tsuen Wan. Additional road works were completed and were in hand in the industrial towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan whilst farther afield in the New Territories dual carriageway and widening schemes for both main and feeder roads were being carried out.

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The increased traffic volume has led to a considerable expansion of the activities of the traffic engineering section of the Roads Office which is responsible for the planning and design of new roads and improvements to the existing traffic network. Due to the unusually high intensity of development in the urban areas and resulting high land values, it is most important that maximum capacity from the road system within the limited land space avail- able should be secured and, to this end, the application of first- class traffic engineering techniques is necessary. Many schemes for improvements such as one-way street systems, signal installations, improved carriageway markings and other safety devices were considered and implemented.

Preliminary planning and design for two major schemes on the Island was completed. They are the new Waterfront Road linking the Central district with the North Point area and the Garden Road improvements scheme, and a grade-separation scheme for the heavily congested Waterloo Road/Argyle Street/Nairn Road intersection in Kowloon.

The improvement and extension of the public street lighting system continued with the installation of 1,613 new lamps (Island 597, Kowloon 742 and New Territories 274). This included the replacement of 70 gas lamps on the Island and marked the end of their use for illumination on major traffic routes.

The Roads Office operates two quarries producing high quality aggregate for use mostly in road making materials such as con- crete, rolled asphalt and bituminous macadam. The existing quarry on the Mainland has reached the end of its useful life and various sites are being investigated for its possible reprovisioning. The quarry section of the Roads Office continued to deal with dangerous boulders and to advise on private quarries and super- vise quarries let as Roads Office contracts.

CAR PARKS AND METERED ZONES

The two car parks holding 629 vehicles and managed by the Urban Council were increased during the year to six with a capacity for 2,249 vehicles. On the Island the existing multi-storey car parks at the Star Ferry and the City Hall were augmented by

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a new one at Garden Road. This is the largest so far and accom- modates 746 vehicles on seven floors, with an eighth floor for the new Central district telephone exchange. Construction of the first multi-storey car park in Kowloon is well under way. It is situated at Middle Road and will accommodate 912 vehicles on eight floors.

      During the year the charges for multi-storey car parks were increased to give a more economic return on the high cost of providing this service to the motorist. Hourly charges went up by an average of about 50 per cent and now range from $1 for 24 hours to $7.20 for 24 hours. The cost of a monthly parking pass rose from $40 to $60.

      As a further measure to relieve congestion and regulate parking in the urban areas of both Hong Kong and Kowloon, metered parking zones were extended by the introduction of a further 1,300 meters, bringing the total installations to date in excess of 3,300.

      Besides multi-storey car parks and kerbside meters, motorists have been able to park free of charge on a number of open areas of land awaiting development. Following the enactment of the Road Traffic (Temporary Car Parks) Regulations, 1963, three of these areas, holding altogether 874 vehicles, were designed as fee- paying temporary car parks and placed under the management of the Urban Council. For motorists not holding monthly passes, the charges for these temporary car parks are $1 for the morning or afternoon and $2 for the whole day.

      Except for one of the temporary car parks, the parking facilities under the Urban Council's management were heavily patronized during the year, often to capacity. During December they were used by an average of 2,666 cars each day.

INTERNAL PUBLIC TRANSPORT

      Public transport in Hong Kong, with the single exception of the railway, is operated by private enterprise, but the Government retains powers designed to ensure efficient operation. There are five major public transport companies which operate under ordin- ances granting monopoly rights but requiring the provision of adequate services. During the year a total of 1,019 million passen- gers were carried.

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On Hong Kong Island two public transport companies are given exclusive franchises to operate bus and tram services. In Kowloon and the New Territories another company has the exclusive franchise to run a public bus service. The railway services are described earlier in this chapter. Taxis operate on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon, while New Territories taxis-most of which are nine-seater vans hired jointly by groups of people- operate between Kowloon and the New Territories. They also operate to a smaller extent between New Territories towns. Tourists make almost exclusive use of public cars, which are available with or without drivers, and sightseeing services provided by hotels and travel agencies in tour coaches. There are ample goods vehicles of all sizes available for casual hire. Dual purpose vehicles, which have accommodation for passengers as well as goods, cater for those who wish to accompany small consignments of goods.

      Two large ferry companies have monopolies to operate services on specified routes across the harbour. Other minor cross harbour services operate under licence.

Of the 1,019 million passengers carried by the five major public transport companies 514.2 million passengers or 50.5 per cent of the total were moved by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Ltd. Next, in their order of magnitude, came the Hong Kong Tramways, Ltd which carried 191 million, or 18.7 per cent. The remainder was split between the China Motor Bus Company which carried 143 million or 14 per cent, the Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Ltd which carried 121.6 million or 12 per cent, and the Star Ferry Company Ltd which carried 49.2 million or 4.8 per cent.

       In October 1961 the Governor appointed an Advisory Com- mittee on Public Transport to keep under continuing review the routes, frequency, capacity and fares of public services. The com- mittee consists of a chairman, who is not a civil servant, five heads of Government departments concerned with public transport and five unofficial members. The operators are not represented on the committee. The committee has dealt with numerous complaints and considered longer term questions on public transport. It has recommended an overall public transport survey which is still in the planning stage.

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Bus Services. Bus services in Kowloon and the New Territories are operated by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Ltd. At the end of the year, the company's fleet totalled 866 vehicles comprising 433 single-deck buses, 425 double-deck buses and eight tour coaches. The total passenger carrying capacity of these buses was 54,367. During the year further orders were placed for 80 double-deck 110-passenger buses.

The largest bus so far seen in the Colony was introduced by the company in January when the first of an order of 30 double- deck buses licensed to carry 110 passengers was put on the road. As an experiment a modification was made to two of these buses to carry more standing passengers down-stairs, bringing the total capacity to 120 passengers.

      During the year 514.2 million passengers were carried and 39.6 million miles were covered by the company's buses, an increase of 31.7 million passengers (6.57 per cent) and one million miles (2.6 per cent) over the previous year. At the end of the year, the company was operating a total of 62 routes (36 in Kowloon and 25 in the New Territories and one on Lantau Island). This was an increase of three routes over the previous year.

Bus services on Hong Kong Island are run by the China Motor Bus Company Ltd. At the end of the year, the company maintained a fleet of 360 vehicles comprising 327 single-deck, 31 double-deck buses and two coaches. The total passenger carrying capacity of buses was 19,768. These buses carried 143 million passengers and covered 14.2 million miles, an increase of nine million passengers (6.7 per cent) and 0.6 million miles (4.2 per cent) over the previous year. The first double-deck bus was introduced on the Island on 22nd January and at the end of the year there were 31 double-deck buses in operation on most major routes. An order for a further 20 double-deckers was placed, delivery of which has already commenced. A new depot was com- pleted during the year at North Point and a site for a new garage with an area of 33,400 square feet was purchased at Chai Wan. The company was operating a total of 28 routes at the end of the year including two holiday services and a special service on race days. Total route mileage was 269 miles.

      Within the urban areas both bus companies charge two fares. The lower fare is 10 cents and the length of this stage is roughly

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      one mile. Travel exceeding this distance within the urban area costs 20 cents for any distance. Monthly tickets and school children's tickets at concessionary rates are issued on urban routes. Servicemen in uniform and children under 12 years of age travel at half-fare. Routes to the mid-levels and suburban districts of Hong Kong Island in the south and to the New Territories have higher fares for longer distances. Half-fare passes are also issued for school children on suburban services.

Tram Service. An electric tramway service is operated on Hong Kong Island by Hong Kong Tramways Ltd. The track, the gauge of which is 3 feet, is about 19 miles in length if single tracks are measured. It runs between Kennedy Town and Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the race course in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. The tramcars are four- wheeled double-deckers, with single staircases, and are designed for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The operating current is 500 volts direct.

The average daily service of cars run in 1963 was 147. This gave a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, which is in the centre of the system, the minimum frequency of service was a car every 34 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried was just short of 191 million, an increase of nearly two million or one per cent over 1962. The number of miles run was 7.6 million, a decrease of nearly 100,000 miles or 1.2 per cent.

Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route and are 20 cents first class and 10 cents third class; the maximum length of a route is 63 miles. The company also issues monthly tickets, and concessionary fares are given to children, students and Services personnel. Postmen and policemen on duty and in uniform are carried free of charge.

The Peak Tram Service. The Peak Tramways Company Ltd runs a funicular railway service up the Peak, which rises steeply behind the central district of Victoria. The present haulage system is the same as that of the mining type and has been in use since 1925. The tramcars are drawn along the track by nearly two miles of steel cable and carried 2.1 million passengers during the year. The tramway climbs up to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in

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two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

Taxis and Hire Cars. The Road Traffic (Taxis and Hire Cars) Regulations, 1960, provide for the registration and licensing of taxis for use specifically on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and the New Territories. The conditions under which they may be used, and the fares charged, vary with each area. On Hong Kong Island taxis carry three, four or five passengers. Fares vary from $1 to $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents to 25 cents for every part of a mile thereafter, depending on the seating capacity of the taxi and the type of taximeter in use. The number of taxis at the end of the year was 683, an increase of 52 (eight per cent).

In Kowloon there are small and large taxis for either four or five passengers. The fare charged by all taxis is $1 for the first mile and 20 cents for every quarter mile thereafter. At the end of the year 670 taxis were registered for Kowloon, an increase of 58 (nine per cent) during the year.

      There are 546 taxis licensed to operate in the New Territories, an increase of 22 (four per cent) over 1962. They may operate anywhere in the New Territories and may transport passengers to any place in Kowloon. They may pick up passengers in Kowloon at special taxi stands for destinations in the New Territories. They may not operate internally in Kowloon. Fares for New Territories taxis carrying up to four passengers are 80 cents for the first mile and 20 cents for every quarter mile thereafter. For taxis carrying five to nine passengers the fare is $1 for the first mile and 25 cents for every quarter mile thereafter.

      Hire cars may be driven by the hirer, or the licensee may provide a driver. No scale of fees is laid down by law for the hire of these cars and amounts charged vary in accordance with the type of car, period of hire and whether or not a driver is provided. At the end of the year 131 hire cars were licensed. They are used mainly by tourists.

      Public Omnibuses and Public Cars. Public omnibuses and public cars are licensed under the provisions of the Road Traffic (Public Omnibus and Public Car) Regulations, 1961. Public omnibuses are operated in accordance with a franchise granted by the Governor or the Commissioner of Police, to whom authority has been delegated by the Governor, and are used for transport services

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excluded from the monopolies of the major bus companies. At the end of the year there were 43 public omnibuses licensed. They are used mainly by tourists on sightseeing tours, by hotel manage- ments who provide transport for their guests, for the carriage of passengers and employees between the airport and hotels, airline offices and ferry termini, and more recently the carriage of school children to and from schools licensed to operate such a service on behalf of their students. Public cars operate under franchise in the same manner and differ from public omnibuses only in that they seat a maximum of nine passengers. At the end of the year there were 120 public cars licensed.

Ferry Services. The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Ltd operates a fleet of 62 diesel-engined ferries. During the year four cross-harbour services were added bringing to 11 the total number. These new services are the Wan Chai/Hung Hom, North Point/Hung Hom, North Point/Kowloon City and North Point/ Kwun Tong services. A Jubilee Street/Hung Hom service was operated by the company before the war but it was not until September 1963 when a seawall was built that the company re- sumed operations from Hung Hom. The North Point/Hung Hom passenger service commenced on 1st September. The North Point/ Kwun Tong service commenced on 1st November and is tem- porarily operating from the same berth as the North Point/ Kowloon City service on the Hong Kong side. The routes inside the harbour are now between Wilmer Street, Rumsey Street, Jubilee Street, Stewart Road, Tonnochy Road and North Point on Hong Kong Island and Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok, Jordan Road, Hung Hom and Kowloon City and Kwun Tong on Kowloon peninsula. The company also operates a combined vehicle and passenger service across the harbour between Jubilee Street and Jordan Road from 6.20 a.m. to 2 a.m. This service is supplemented by extra sailings for the carriage of vehicles only during rush hours by ferries operating from new berths completed later in the year. In addition, a temporary ferry service for vehicles between Rumsey Street and Jordan Road is maintained. The company has a depot with three slipways and a building berth for the servicing and construction of ferries.

During 1963 121.6 million passengers and 3,015,300 vehicles were carried, an increase of nine million (8.03 per cent) and 546,500

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     (22.1 per cent) respectively over the previous year. Services to outlying districts call at Ma Wan, Castle Peak, Tung Chung, Sha Lo Wan and Tai O; Peng Chau, Silver Mine Bay, Chi Ma Wan and Cheung Chau, Tsing Yi Island and Tsuen Wan and Lamma Island. There is also a service from Tai Po Kau to Tap Mun in Tolo Harbour. During the year the company ran a popular ex- cursion trip round Hong Kong Island leaving four times weekly from Jubilee Street ferry pier. The journey takes approximately two and a half hours and the fare is $2.50 (equivalent to 3s 2d sterling or 45 cents US).

      Seven new single-ended ferry vessels entered service in 1963. The Man Loong and Man Kit are sister ships with length overall of 84 feet 9 inches, breadth of 21 feet 6 inches and passenger capacity of 381. The Man Yuet, constructed to carry out the dual role of a cruise ship and ferry vessel, is 141 feet in length overall and 27 feet in breadth and has a carrying capacity of 620 passengers. The other four are identical single-ended passenger ferries. They have a length of 114 feet and a breadth of 25 feet 6 inches and each is capable of carrying 628 passengers. In addi- tion, there are three ferries under construction for the company. They are a sister ship to the Man Yuet and two 130 feet double- ended passenger ferries.

      The Star Ferry Company Ltd is authorized by Ordinance to run a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour between the commercial centres of Victoria City on Hong Kong Island and the southern tip of the Kowloon peninsula. There are nine vessels in operation with one under construction at the end of the year. There is a daily service of 21 hours and during peak periods a ferry leaves from each side of the harbour every two-and-a-half minutes on the seven minute journey. The service continues until 3 a.m. During 1963 there were 181,529 crossings and 49.2 million passengers were carried, an increase of 2.6 million (5.5 per cent) over 1962. The highest daily total was 171,469. The company's vessels steamed 145,223 miles.

POST OFFICE

      Six new post offices were opened in the Colony in 1963, bringing the total to 35; there was also a welcome increase of new offices to serve the urban areas. On the Island, Kennedy Town Post

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Office was opened in a converted shop space to serve the western district until a permanent office is ready in a Government building. The other new office on the Island is at Beaconsfield House, a Government building in the Central district. This post office handles to a large extent, the postal business of the head offices of the Colony's main banking-houses and a new hotel.

       On the Mainland, new offices opened were at Wong Tai Sin, Gillies Avenue and Choi Hung Chuen. The first is sited on the ground floor of a multi-storey block in one of the biggest resettle- ment estates. Its business derives exclusively from residents in the estate who have welcomed the new service. Gillies Avenue Post Office is in rented premises and serves part of the Hung Hom district. Choi Hung Chuen Post Office is in the Housing Authority estate of the same name on the eastern side of New Kowloon. The only rural office opened was at Mui Wo (Silver Mine Bay) on Lantau Island. This is also a temporary office to serve the area until a permanent office in a proposed Government building is ready.

      Parcel delivery to private households was introduced on the Island in 1962. The whole of Kowloon and New Kowloon is now included in the scheme.

Normal post office counter business such as the sale of stamps, handling of foreign parcels, registration of mail, sale of money orders, postal orders and wireless licences is done at most of the offices in the Colony. There are also a number of special postal services used mainly by business houses, such as business reply, cash on delivery, private boxes, private bags and prepaid postage services, including postage franking machines. Mail delivery is carried out twice a day (excluding Sundays) in all but the most remote rural areas. In the more isolated parts, including most of the islands, mail is distributed by an authorized agent who is paid a monthly fee by the department.

       Direct communication is maintained with as many foreign post offices as possible so that when there is sufficient correspondence, direct overseas despatches can be made, thus excluding inter- mediate offices and speeding up the transmission of letters or parcels. The thousands of mail bags handled daily by the Post Office are conveyed to and from ships and across the harbour in launches provided and staffed by the Marine Department. Six

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Government craft are engaged on postal business. The train service between Kowloon and Lo Wu remains the main link for mails to and from the People's Republic of China. The number of bags carried is given in Appendix X.

      For stamp collectors it was another important year with two special issues. In June the $1.30 Freedom from Hunger stamp was put on sale and quickly sold out. In September two stamps (10¢ and $1.30) were issued to commemorate the centenary of the Inter- national Red Cross. Special first day covers were designed and put on sale for both these issues.

      Following last year's experiment of introducing night duties at two sorting offices, a similar service was begun at the airport sorting office to tie in with the 24-hour service which is now given by the airport itself. This will probably become a permanent facility. Another change which is still in the planning stage, is the introduction of a postal district numbering system. If it is intro- duced it will probably be confined to the Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

        In addition to routine work the telecommunications division of the Post Office continued to advise and assist other Government departments with their telecommunications requirements, covering telephone systems, VHF radio telephone systems, telemetering systems and radar.

The revised Telecommunication Ordinance came into force on 1st January 1963. Figures for licences in force are shown at Appendix X.

During 1963 Cable and Wireless Limited advanced even further with plans for the introduction of a new era of telecommunications in south-east Asia. The world's biggest telephone cable project- COMPAC-linking Britain with Australia, New Zealand and Canada was completed on 10th October, and was put in public service early in December. Following this achievement, Cable and Wireless Limited are now pressing ahead with the laying of SEACOM the south-east Asia Commonwealth cable. When this is completed in 1965, Hong Kong will be linked with COMPAC, thus giving direct all cable links with Europe and the United States as well as countries in south-east Asia. SEACOM will provide 80

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high quality circuits which will not be subject to the fading and atmospheric conditions affecting existing radio links. It will bring a marked improvement in the telegraph, telephone and Telex services between Hong Kong and these countries.

      Ship/Shore VHF Radiotelephone Service. This maritime VHF Hague Plan Service, already widely used in Europe, is now availa- ble in Hong Kong to any ship equipped with VHF radio. It was introduced on 1st August. The normal working range is about 50 miles but tests have proved that excellent contacts can be established with ships at a distance of 120 miles. The service is intended to supplement the ordinary short wave radiotelephone service with ships and the ocean radiotelephone service, both of which have been in operation for many years. The facilities for speech communications with ships outside Hong Kong have thus been considerably improved.

      Telex Service. This subscriber-to-subscriber telegraph service is enjoying a rapidly growing popularity. During the year, the number of local subscribers increased by 30 per cent; new services were opened with Lebanon, Malta, Bangkok, the Republic of Sudan, Greece, Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika, Haiti and South Korea; a direct telex circuit was established with Seoul with international calls relayed by Hong Kong; and the number of working channels were increased and the working schedules lengthened to meet increasing demands.

      Harbourphone. As a result of the establishment of additional exchanges in 1962 and the increase of subscriber's units for hire, the number of harbourphone calls rose rapidly by 600 per cent in 1963. Vessels in Hong Kong harbour equipped with a sub- scriber's unit are now automatically connected to the local tele- phone system and each given a telephone number. To put through a call in either direction, it is merely necessary to dial the number required. The use of this service was very much stimulated by the improved facility with which a call can be made.

       Other Services. The telecommunication services maintained by Cable and Wireless Limited in Hong Kong were in general used more by the public in 1963 than the preceding year. In step with the growth of trade, the services also promote trade. All principal traffic figures showed improvements. The radiotelephone long distance schedules with the United States and with Singapore were

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increased. Relay services were opened via Hong Kong for Macau/ Alaska, Seoul/New Zealand, Thailand/Australia, Thailand/ Colombo and Taiwan/New Zealand. A new service was established with Kotabaru, West Irian and more channels were put into service where demands were apparent.

More telegraph circuits have been leased to the public for com- mercial correspondence. Forty such circuits are now on lease.

Roughly 43,000 printergrams were handled each month. These are telegrams delivered to the addressees by teleprinter instead of by messenger, and those filed by teleprinter instead of being handed in at post offices. The local delay was very much reduced.

On a busy day, about 240 outgoing telegrams were accepted by telephone for transmission, and 100 incoming telegrams tele- phoned to the addressees before the copies were delivered. This phonogram service is also growing in popularity. It contributes to the reduction of local delay and affords a special public facility especially after office hours and on holidays. International tele- grams, inland telegrams, radiotelegrams, phototelegrams, deskfax, press broadcast, meteorological broadcast and the technical main- tenance of the Government department VHF telephone com- munication system were operated satisfactorily and with normal efficiency.

Telephones. Telephone service in the Colony is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited, a public company operating under a franchise from Government. In addition to the internal service the company, in conjunction with Cable and Wireless Limited, provides services to most countries and to ships in the harbour and at sea. The Telephone Company's system, which is fully automatic, comprises some 170,000 stations served from nine major exchanges and a number of satellite exchanges. Rentals are charged on a flat rate basis.

In order to meet the demand for telephone service, one new major exchange unit was completed during the year, while three further major units are scheduled to be brought into service in 1964 with a further major unit scheduled for completion late in 1965. In addition, the central exchange will be replaced during 1964 by one of an ultimate capacity more than double that of the existing exchange.

18

Royal Observatory

THE Royal Observatory was established in 1883 to make meteor- ological and magnetic observations and to provide a time service for the Colony and for shipping. Today the Observatory is engaged in a much wider range of geophysical activities, although magnetic observations were discontinued in 1939.

       Meteorological Services. The Royal Observatory is the sole source of meteorological information in the Colony and also forms part of a world-wide network of meteorological stations. The central forecast office provides weather forecasts and information for the public, Government departments, shipping, aviation and the armed forces. Routine surface observations of the meteoro- logical elements are made throughout the 24 hours at the Royal Observatory, the airport, Waglan Island and Cheung Chau. The last three stations are primarily concerned with the needs of avia- tion. Upper air soundings of the atmosphere are made at the radiosonde station at King's Park. Balloons carrying special re- flectors are released every six hours and tracked by wind-finding radar. One balloon each day carries a radiosonde transmitter which transmits back the pressure, temperature and humidity at all levels through which the balloon ascends. Numerous rain-gauges are operated throughout the Colony by Government employees and private individuals on behalf of the observatory. Rainfall maps and the observations from the Royal Observatory and King's Park are published and the results from the other stations are recorded on punched cards to facilitate rapid analysis.

       At the aviation forecast office in the terminal building at Kai Tak, the pilots of all aircraft leaving Hong Kong are briefed and issued with documents depicting meteorological conditions relevant to their flights. Information is also sent to other weather centres and to aircraft in flight either by direct radio communication or by special aviation broadcasts.

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      Weather bulletins for shipping and for local fishermen are broadcast over Radio Hong Kong and over special channels for shipping. Liaison officers visit merchant and Royal Navy ships in port to check their barometers and other meteorological instru- ments, to supply daily weather charts and to assist in other ways. The Hong Kong fleet of weather observing ships totals about 60 ships, which is comparable in size with the fleets recruited by large countries. The observations made by these ships are par- ticularly valuable to the Royal Observatory. They are re-broadcast to other centres and also punched on Hollerith cards for climato- logical purposes.

       One of the most important functions of the central forecast office is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depression, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by the latitudes 10° and 30° north and the longitudes 105° and 125° east, six-hourly and often three-hourly bulletins are issued.

       These include information on the storm's intensity and expected development, the position and movement of its centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and storm reconnaissance aircraft help to locate storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion. While gale signals are hoisted, statements are issued and broadcast at intervals of 30 minutes.

      Time Service and Seismology. Time signals originating at the observatory are sent out over Radio Hong Kong for the public, and in special broadcasts for aviation and shipping. A visual time signal is flashed from the observatory's signal mast from 8.55 p.m. until 9 p.m. daily and various signals are provided for time marking seismograms and other purposes.

For some years the Royal Observatory has been operating six seismometers, and six more were brought into operation during 1963 as part of the new world-wide network of standardized seis- mometers. A weekly report giving arrival times of significant earth- quake waves is prepared and detailed analyses are later published and sent to other scientific institutions. The observatory also parti- cipates in the Pacific Tidal Wave Warning Service.

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      Hong Kong lies some distance away from the circum-Pacific seismic belt and serious earthquakes are almost unknown. How- ever in most years there are a few tremors that can just be felt by people in favourable locations. During 1963 there were three such

tremors.

       Radioactivity. The Royal Observatory monitors the general level of radioactivity in the Colony by making routine measurements of the beta-activity of fallout, airborne particles near the ground, rainfall and ordinary tap water.

      Other Activities. The observatory acts in an advisory capacity in the planning of a great many projects that may be affected by meteorological conditions. The effect of winds on structures, the design of drains and catchments, the recovery of drifting ships, the effect of smoke pollution, evaporation from reservoirs, airline schedules and insurance claims are typical examples. The observa- tory also issues a yearly booklet of astronomical tables for use in the Colony. (Details of research undertaken by the Royal Observa- tory are given in chapter 21).

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

Weather records are broken quite frequently but it is very seldom that they have such a dramatic effect on the life of the entire community; the drought and accompanying water crisis (described at length in chapter 16) was front page news almost continuously throughout the year. There was sub-normal rainfall every single month since the dry weather began in October 1962.

      At the beginning of the year the weather was monotonously fine and sunny. There was some frost in the New Territories during January and a record number of hours of sunshine was recorded. The relative humidity stayed well below normal and rainfall was negligible in February and March. April and May broke all pre- vious records for the lowest rainfall, and May was also the hottest and sunniest May since observations began. The maximum tem- peratures of 95.9°F on 31st May and 96.1°F on 1st June were the highest ever recorded in these two months.

      May is normally a wet month in Hong Kong, and the wettest month on record occurred in May 1889 when there were 48.84 inches of rainfall. May 1963 produced the phenomenally low

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rainfall of 0.24 of an inch, only about two per cent of the normal

amount.

The June rainfall of 8.06 inches was only half the normal amount, but even that appeared plentiful in contrast with the pre- vious seven months when the total rainfall amounted to only 2.91 inches. The average relative humidity was the lowest ever recorded in June. On 25th June tropical storm Trix developed in the Pacific and moved north-westward into the China Sea. It crossed the China coast near Swatow on 1st July. In Hong Kong the No 3 local storm signal was hoisted on 29th June and there were strong winds in exposed places but only a trace of rain.

       In July the weather was almost normal. The rainfall of 12.74 inches was only slightly below normal and was the highest in the year. On 21st July typhoon Agnes passed about 150 miles south of Hong Kong on a westerly track. No 3 local storm signal was hoisted and strong winds occurred in most parts of the Colony.

During August the weather was again warmer, drier and sunnier than normal. No 3 local storm signal was hoisted on 15th August as typhoon Carmen moved westward across the China Sea. Carmen passed about 230 miles south of Hong Kong causing strong winds but no gales in the Colony. September was an exceptionally hot month with less than one-third of the normal rainfall. The maximum temperature of 95.4°F reached on 5th September and also the monthly mean temperature were both the highest recorded in any September in Hong Kong since 1884.

Typhoon Faye developed over the Pacific on 2nd September. At first it moved west-northwest towards Hong Kong but on 4th September, when it was centred near Basco, it changed direction and moved westward across the China Sea. In Hong Kong the No 1 local storm signal was hoisted at 11 a.m. on 5th September when the centre was about 380 miles away. On 6th September, the No 3 signal was hoisted at 5 a.m. and the No 7 signal followed at 12.15 p.m. The centre passed about 120 miles south of Hong Kong at 9 p.m. travelling due west at 11 knots. Tides in the harbour rose about two feet above predicted levels and there were 17 hours of gales at Waglan Island. A maximum gust of 91 knots was recorded at Kai Tak. One ferry boat capsized in Tolo Harbour but there were no casualties and very little damage was reported.

By May this was an all too common sight in the Colony's reservoirs. This is one of the Tai Tam group of reservoirs where the water had dropped to an unprecedented low level. Because of the severity of the drought the fresh water residential ration was cut to a limited supply every fourth day from the beginning of June.

TERBEL

Among the first measures taken to provide an adequate distribution of the Colony's rapidly dwindling water supplies was the installation of multiple standpipes. These now serve areas where there are no in- dividual fresh water mains supplies.

In many areas boring for water (right) was successful. This was often found in sufficient quantities to be used for flushing and non- potable purposes. Operating a water turncock restriction valve (below).

GER

The patience and tolerance of those who had to queue for fresh water (above) won the admiration of every- one in Hong Kong. Despite their hardships there were few incidents at

the standpipes.

In areas where there were no indivi- dual fresh water pipes (right) increased supplies were given for a limited period every alternate day. Control of the queues was maintained by the Kaifong Associations and the Police.

kis

As an immediate measure to supplement the Colony's water supplies the Government chartered a fleet of 10 tankers to draw water from the Pearl River. The first tanker began operations at the end of June returning with 3.700,000 gallons of fresh water. In the Autumn of 1963, the Government announced their intention to maintain the fleet during the water crisis. To accommodate the tanker fleet pipelines were laid and berths provided at the oil companies' installations at Tsuen Wan and the brewery at Sham Tseng (above) where five tankers are seen at anchor. Flexible hoses (right) from the floating berths to the shore pipeline at Sham Tseng east berth and (left) connecting up a tanker prior to discharge.

PETRA DAN

*

L

The completion of the Colony's largest reservoir, as part of the Shek Pik Water Scheme, was announced in November, 1963. Here, up to 5,400 million gallons of water can be conserved behind a 178 feet high dam wall blocking the Shek Pik Valley on Lantau Island. Treated water from Lantau is carried by a submarine pipeline to a supply reservoir on Hong Kong Island.

The treatment works at Silver Mine Bay (above) on Lantau Island has a capacity of 35 million gallons of treated water a day. Operations at the pumping station, two and a half miles away, can be remotely controlled from the treatment works. A section of the diversion tunnel (below) which connects with the bellmouth spillway in the Shek Pik dam.

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285

       In each of the last three months of 1963, as in every other month in the year, the rainfall was sub-normal. Temperatures were persistently above average and in particular the mean tem- perature during November was the highest on record for that month. The strong monsoon signal, the black ball, was hoisted once on 8th December to warn strong easterly winds in the harbour.

The rainfall for the whole year at the Royal Observatory amounted to only 35.48 inches, which is by far the lowest figure ever recorded and represents less than 42 per cent of the normal 85.39 inches. For comparison, the next two driest years since records began in 1884 have been 1895 with 45.84 inches and 1954 with 53.82 inches. There was even less rain in some parts of the Colony and on Waglan Island only 16.93 inches of rain were recorded in the whole year.

The year was remarkable in several other ways as on average it was the hottest, sunniest and least humid year since records began. Also the mean pressure for the year was the second highest ever recorded.

19

Publications, Broadcasting and Films

PRESS

THROUGHOUT 1963 newspapers in Hong Kong continued to increase in vigour and variety. The Colony now supports no less than 47 daily newspapers covering almost every shade of political opinion. Another 27 are published once or twice a week. There are three English-language daily newspapers, the South China Morning Post and its afternoon companion the China Mail, and the Hong Kong Tiger Standard. The South China Morning Post, Ltd, also publishes the weekly Sunday Post-Herald. The over- whelming majority of the Colony's newspapers are published in the Chinese language. Some of the leading Chinese and English publications, including the magazine press, are listed at Appen- dix XI.

A new development during the year has been the appearance of a number of bilingual newspapers. Until now the only news- paper maintaining this style of presentation has been the Daily Commodity Quotations which caters, as its name implies, for the special interests of the trading community. Within the year three newspapers, two weekly and one daily, appeared carrying Chinese and English versions of news items side-by-side. One of the week- lies subsequently ceased publication. While the impetus for this new form of presentation comes in the first place from an eagerness to learn English, the use of up-to-date news as a vehicle suggests that the bilingual style may become a permanent feature of the local press. Already some of these bilingual newspapers have established substantial circulations.

But it is not only in numbers that this steady development has been maintained in the Chinese newspaper business. Among new printing plant installed in newspaper offices during the year were modern high-speed colour presses for one of the leading colour newspapers. One or two major newspaper groups have recently made, or are contemplating making moves to new premises and

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the installation of more modern printing plant. It is indicative of the progressive outlook of Hong Kong newspapers that, despite circulations that might seem small by European or American standards, there is an eagerness to make use of all the newest technical advances available to the industry. This is particularly noticeable in photographic processes. A recent development has been the introduction of a radio-photo service by one of the inter- national agencies.

       Among new daily newspapers published during the year the largest has been the Fai Po (Express) printed by Sing Po Amalgamated, the group which also publishes the Hong Kong Tiger Standard in English and the Sing Tao morning and after- noon papers. The same group also took part in another unusual development when they undertook the printing in Hong Kong of an edition of the Fookien Times, a Manila Chinese daily. Another newspaper, which in a way symbolizes the rapid growth of the Colony, is the Chinese-language Kowloon Evening News, whose name is itself a recognition of the status of the city which now houses one-and-a-half times as many people as the Island of Hong Kong. The small numerical increase in the total number of daily newspapers compared with the previous year does not however, tell the whole story. One or two small papers have ceased publica- tion and slightly more have taken their place. It is this steady rather than spectacular increase in the number of newspapers that is one of the healthy signs of the Hong Kong newspaper industry, especially when compared with other countries which bewail a progressive contraction of the press. The explanation lies essen- tially in the economics of newspaper publication in Hong Kong. One or two journalists together can make a living, between circula- tion and advertising, from the publication of a small one-sheet newspaper with a circulation of only two or three thousand. There is no need to invest in expensive plant at that stage since there are many printing houses able to undertake the printing of two or three such newspapers at a time. The requirements of registra- tion under the law are simple. All newspapers published in the Colony must be registered with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. The fee is $100 a year. In addition, the applicant must deposit $10,000 as a surety or provide two acceptable guarantors in this sum. Thus, many journalists are able to satisfy their ambitions to

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publish their own papers and although some fail, it is this constant change and development which creates the lively and varied atmosphere of the Hong Kong press as a whole.

The major newspapers maintain high standards in their presenta- tion of affairs and world news is extensively covered by a very wide use of international news agencies. Generally recognized as the leading Chinese-language daily newspapers are the Sing Tao (Island Star), the Wah Kiu Yat Po (Overseas Chinese Daily News) and the Kung Sheung Yat Po (Industrial and Commercial Daily) all three of which also publish afternoon editions. These three papers, like the popular Sing Pao which has no afternoon edition, are generally non-partisan in politics. Orthodox Chinese communist policies are voiced in the Ta Kung Pao, the Wen Wei Pao and the New Evening Post while the Hong Kong Times speaks for the Nationalist regime in Taiwan. The overall circulation of the Chinese-language press is in excess of 600,000 but precise figures are hard to come by. However, a growing number of papers are publishing audited circulation figures and these indicate an availa- bility of newspapers at the rate of about 17 copies for every hundred people. Figures quoted recently by an official of the International Press Institute were 40 papers for every hundred people in Japan and about one per hundred throughout the rest of Asia, excluding Mainland China. The figure for Great Britain is 51 per hundred.

      The Newspaper Society of Hong Kong continues to represent some of the common interests of 18 of the Colony's leading newspapers despite the fact that the very diversity of Hong Kong newspapers would appear to militate against any great degree of co-operation on their day-to-day problems. Hong Kong is still re- garded as a good base of Far East operations by leading inter- national news agencies. Important newspapers and magazines from all parts of the world also consider Hong Kong a logical centre in which to base staff correspondents for Far East news coverage. While the events of the year kept many of these correspondents out of the Colony covering stories in other parts of the region, their permanent establishment in Hong Kong does ensure regular and well-informed attention to the Colony's affairs in news- papers, magazines and on cinema and television screens all over the world. Most of these journalists are members of the Foreign

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289

Correspondents' Club which moved in July into premises in the Hilton Hotel. The move was marked by an inaugural lunch at which the Governor gave an address.

The Colony's important place in the world of journalism was further recognized by the International Press Institute which held its Eighth Asian Seminar in Hong Kong in November when leading journalists from south-east Asia discussed the problems of producing Chinese-language newspapers and the latest advances in newspaper technology.

PUBLISHING

       Hong Kong has a large and flourishing printing industry capable of supplying not only local needs but also, to a considerable extent, those of south-east Asia. The recent introduction of attractive rotary offset printing has considerably improved local production. All books printed in Hong Kong are required by law to be regis- tered with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. Books registered during the year totalled 572 and the vast majority were in Chinese; the rest were mostly in English, including 110 by the English publishers, Messrs Longmans, Green and Company Ltd. The other English publications included those of the University of Hong Kong Press and a number of business guides, directories and textbooks. Of the Chinese books registered, one-third consisted of general literature such as fiction and poetry; another third con- sisted of textbooks for use in Hong Kong and south-east Asia; and the remainder dealt with scientific, religious, social and political subjects.

SOUND BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION

There are three broadcasting systems in the Colony. Radio Hong Kong, the Government-owned and operated sound broadcasting organization, has been on the air since 1928. It broadcasts two separate services, one in English, the other in Chinese, for 17 hours daily on medium wave, shortwave and FM.

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd began operations in 1949. It distributes one English and two Chinese sound services by wire for 17 hours daily, and English and Chinese television services by wire for approximately six to seven hours daily. It is financed by revenue from subscribers and from commercial advertisements.

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The Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company Ltd came on the air in 1959. It broadcasts one English and two Chinese commercial sound services for 17 hours daily on medium wave. It is financed entirely from commercial advertisements.

At the end of the year, there were 144,922 sound broadcast receiving licences in force, although the number of radio receivers in use was estimated to be between 400,000 and 500,000. The disparity between receivers in use and licences in force gives rise for concern and consideration is being given to the introduction of new licence enforcement measures. At the end of the year, there were 33,934 subscribers to the Rediffusion sound service and 25,037 to the television service.

       Government announced in May that it was prepared to consider the introduction of wireless television on the general basis that this new service should be operated commercially by private enter- prise, with proper safeguards for the public interest. Work was put in hand on the preparation of legislation to provide a legal framework for the new service. After enaction of this legislation it will be possible to call for tenders for the operation of the

service.

RADIO HONG KONG

Radio Hong Kong is organized in four divisions-Chinese and English-programme services, and administrative and engineering divisions. The total staff employed is 117. For the past 13 years, the studio centre has been in Mercury House, the Far Eastern headquarters of Cable and Wireless Ltd. Expansion of services has necessitated an expansion of accommodation, and during the year work began on plans to convert the main building of the former naval base, HMS Tamar, into a new temporary studio centre. Construction work is scheduled to be completed by the end of 1964.

       Both programme services are broadcast on medium wave and FM transmissions and the Chinese service is also broadcast on shortwave. The medium and shortwave transmitters are sited in Kowloon at Hung Hom, but as the site is required for redevelop- ment, a new site is being sought. The FM transmitters are at Mount Gough on Hong Kong Island. The number of radio receivers in use in the Colony has increased considerably during

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the past few years, as have also the number of programme services available from both Radio Hong Kong and commercial stations. The diversity of services available has provided Radio Hong Kong with an opportunity to place greater emphasis on information, education and the arts in general, and audience research carried out during the year, and comments made in listeners' letters, which now average 300,000 annually, indicate that there is a demand for more serious programmes.

Internationally, Hong Kong was represented by the Director of Broadcasting and the broadcasting engineer at the 5th Asian Broadcasters' Conference held at Seoul in October. The conference decided to form an Asian Broadcasting Union, of which Radio Hong Kong will be eligible for associate membership.

The Chinese Service. Broadcasting on 640 kc/s, 3940 kc/s and 94 mc/s FM, the service is on the air from 7 a.m. to midnight daily. The programme organizer has a staff of 11 producers and seven announcers, with some 1,000 outside contributors and artists employed in writing, preparing and taking part in a wide range of programmes. Cantonese is the principal language used, but some programmes, particularly news bulletins, are broadcast in Kuoyu, Chiuchow and Hakka. The range of programmes offered is wide, including frequent news bulletins, news magazines, opera, storytelling, drama, variety shows, religious services, music from many parts of China, sports and magazine programmes, outside broadcasts, modern western and Chinese music, children's and women's programmes, market reports, programmes for specialized groups such as farmers, fishermen and industrial workers and educational programmes for adults and children. Two special educational series were produced during the year, one consisting of 20 programmes designed to help improve the standard of spoken English among Form I and Form II students, the other of 20 programmes designed to assist students of the same grades in Chinese literature. Towards the end of the year, the service in- augurated two daily one and a half-hour periods devoted exclu- sively to educational broadcasts.

The service maintains close links with its audiences by means of extensive outside broadcasts and recordings, both in the Colony and overseas. Men, women and children in all walks of life regularly appear at the microphone in features and magazine

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programmes; students, nurses and others in Britain are kept in touch with their families through messages recorded in London and broadcast in Hong Kong and similar links are maintained with Hong Kong people in Canada and Australia. News bulletins and programmes in Cantonese and Kuoyu are relayed from the BBC and the service provides recorded Cantonese programmes for use by other Chinese radio services in south-east Asia. It also con- tributed an hour-long programme of Chinese folk music to the 2nd Asian Broadcast Music Festival organized by NHK of Japan. Assistance was given in the recruitment of staff for the newly established Cantonese service of Radio Australia, and arrange- ments were made with the Australian Broadcasting Commission whereby the 1964 Olympic Games will be covered by two Radio Hong Kong Chinese commentators in Tokyo, making daily reports to Hong Kong and Melbourne.

The English Service. The English service is broadcast on 860 kc/s and 91 mc/s from 7 a.m. to midnight daily. The programme organizer has a staff of six producers and five announcers, with some 200 outside contributors and artists. The service, designed to appeal to both European and Chinese listeners, includes news bulletins and magazines, a high proportion of western classical music, light music, drama, talks, variety, sports, children's pro- grammes, magazines, outside broadcasts, discussions and docu- mentaries, and religious services and talks programmes. The adult education programmes are broadcast daily and there was increased emphasis during the year on direct teaching of Cantonese. These programmes and others devoted to the teaching of English and French became very popular. The BBC Transcription Service pro- vides much valuable material, but the greatest possible use is made of Hong Kong talent.

       News bulletins and magazines were strengthened during the year, more material, particularly concerning Asian affairs, being prepared in Hong Kong, and greater use being made of world news magazines and commentaries supplied by the BBC, Central Office of Information in London, United Nations Radio and UNESCO. Government activities were covered in a wide range of broadcasts made by both English and Chinese services. These included a second series of talks by heads of departments in The Government and the People series, talks by the Governor and the

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      Colonial Secretary on the water crisis, and talks, features, magazine items and announcements connected with the anti-narcotics, cholera inoculation, traffic safety and water economy campaigns. The service provided a series of talks on the Colony's fishing and agricultural life for the Australian Broadcasting Commission, and talks on various aspects of life in Hong Kong for the BBC, NHK of Japan, Sender Freies Berlin and stations in America.

A radio repertory company was formed during the year by the staff drama producer and resulted in a marked increase in quantity and improvement in quality of broadcast plays. The City Hall proved its value to Radio Hong Kong on many occasions; both concert hall and theatre were used for the production of concerts, recitals, poetry programmes, school quiz competitions and variety shows. Most of the international artists visiting Hong Kong gave broadcast performances, either from the City Hall or from the studios, and Hong Kong musicians and singers appeared regularly in studio recitals. As in previous years, the final concerts of the Schools Music Festival were broadcast, and more locally prepared talks and magazines on many aspects of western classical music were broadcast.

Engineering Services. These are operated by Cable and Wireless Ltd and the broadcasting engineer, with a staff of 38, was heavily committed during the year in the design and planning of the new Broadcasting House, in addition to normal operations. The present studio centre has nine studios, with a central control room, record- ing rooms and workshop; three outside broadcast vehicles are equipped with multi-channel amplifier mixers, recording equipment and VHF link transmitters. Overseas relays are provided by the Mount Butler receiving station of Cable and Wireless Ltd. The design of the new Broadcasting House involved considerable research into acoustic and building problems and, in addition to offices, will provide record libraries, engineering control rooms, outside broadcast assembly areas, maintenance workshops, 12 studios, a central recording room, a transmitter link room, a 'dead' room for acoustic tests and ample facilities for artists.

COMMERCIAL RADIO

       The most important development by Commercial Radio was the establishment of a third service in June. This service, in

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Chinese, is complementary to the first Chinese service. Most of its programming is also in Cantonese, but the minorities are catered for by the broadcast of Chiuchow, Hakka, Shanghai and Northern music and operas. It is hoped that with this additional facility, educational broadcasts may be substantially increased. This new service broadcasts on a frequency of 1232 kc/s through a triplexed mast radiator which was designed and built by local personnel. It is the second installation of its kind in south-east Asia.

English Programme Department. Under an acting director of English programmes, the department is staffed by seven permanent programme assistants and two part-time announcers. Library and office staff, in addition to six balance and control operators, brings to 25 the total number of people employed by the department. In addition to the bulk of the programming, which is handled by the programme assistants, features such as plays and book reviews, talks and short story readings are contributed by members of the local European community.

Outside broadcasts continued throughout the year, and when- ever possible, coverage was given to local events of listener interest. Instances were the opening of the annual Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, the drawings of Government Lotteries and the Queen's Birthday Parade. A unique series of sportscasts was run for a period on Saturday afternoons, when as many as five com- mentary points were established on both sides of the harbour, and linked through the studios for 'live' broadcast reports on the various activities taking place, such as football, rugby, cricket matches and horse racing. Also in the realm of sport a direct relay was arranged and broadcast on the second fight between Liston and Patterson for the world heavyweight title. A direct broadcast relay also covered the blast-off and return to earth of the American astronaut, Gordon Cooper. One programme assistant went to Japan to collect material on radio preparations for the 1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo. In conjunction with several sponsors, Commercial Radio promoted and broadcast the Colony's largest amateur talent contest. There were 600 original entrants and six finalists.

       Visiting international artists who were heard over the English programme included Chubby Checker, Patti Page and Tony Brent.

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Their performances were broadcast 'live'. Special feature pro- grammes also introduced such well-known entertainers as Acker Bilk, Louis Armstrong, Sammy Davis, Jr, Rusty Draper, Vera Lynn, Morrie Paramor and Adam Faith. Two concerts given by the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra in the City Hall were broadcast in their entirety, and as in the past, the finalists of the Hong Kong Schools Music Festival were recorded and later broad- cast. The performance of the visiting Polish Symphony Orchestra was also broadcast 'live'.

The approximate weekly breakdown of programmes remained relatively unchanged although news, (including sports reports) as well as the spoken word, showed a slight increase. The breakdown is as follows: Classical music 10 per cent; spoken word 7 per cent; news 10 per cent; music other than classical 72 per cent. Public service broadcasts included all-night broadcasting during the approach of typhoons, Government and public announcements and appeals for funds by leading citizens on behalf of some of the Colony's charitable institutions.

Chinese Programme Department. The Chinese programme department is headed by a programme director with six pro- gramme assistants, and 136 full-time staff members/artists. Drama continues to be the backbone of the Chinese service. During the year, 425 plays were produced and, in addition to contributors, the services of six full-time writers were acquired. The year also marked the introduction of full-length recorded Cantonese operas, with stars of the Cantonese opera singing the leading roles in some of the productions. The policy of helping school children by a series of pre-examination lectures was continued, and a total of 951 half-hour talks were broadcast. Over 200 outside broadcasts were made.

      Transcriptions were again supplied to Radio Malaysia, and the film rights of many studio productions were sold for adaptation to Cantonese films.

REDIFFUSION

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd, which provides a sound and television wired broadcasting service to the community, broke new ground in September by introducing a second television network devoted entirely to Chinese entertainment.

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      Sound Relay. The Rediffusion sound service extends to prac- tically all the urban areas and to many outlying villages on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. The system has more than 1,000 miles of main trunk network and about 2,500 miles of installation cabling. Distribution is via sub-stations, kiosks and feeders to more than 50,000 loudspeakers. The parent company first operated 35 years ago in the United Kingdom and now operates in many parts of the Commonwealth; the Hong Kong company, locally controlled, is part of this world-wide organization.

Today Rediffusion operates with facilities which rank among the most modern in the Far East. These include seven air- conditioned sound studios, from which two simultaneous Chinese sound programmes go out daily for 17 hours each on the Silver and Gold Networks. A third sound network-the Blue-broadcasts in English from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. daily with a late night session of uninterrupted music.

       Just less than a quarter of Rediffusion programmes are com- mercially sponsored. The Chinese networks offer music, news, drama, talks, sports, commentaries, women's features, children's shows, comedy, story-telling and theatre relays in Cantonese, Kuoyu, Swatow, Hakka, Shanghai and other dialects. The English service gives continuous daily broadcasts of musical entertainment, plays, studio shows, news, BBC and other relays, sports events, stock- market news and features for women and children.

      Special charity broadcasts have helped to raise millions of dollars for needy families. Rediffusion employs 710 local staff of whom 99 per cent are Chinese, in addition to a great many musicians, soloists, story-tellers and dramatic artistes. Rental for a loudspeaker is $10 a month, and subscribers have a choice of three programmes which, together, involve the origination of 46 hours of sound programmes each day. Additional loudspeakers in the same residence cost $5 a month.

Television. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd opened the first televi- sion station in any British Colony in May 1957 and it has been growing ever since. With the introduction of the Chinese television network in September, the original network was reorganized to carry evening programming entirely in English. Rediffusion House now embraces two fully-equipped television stations serving the English and Chinese networks. There are two main studios each

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of about 2,000 square feet, one of 900 square feet and one other of 200 square feet. The station has 13 camera chains, modern tele-cine-camera chains with double channels for both 16 mm and 35 mm films on each network and a full array of studio and outside broadcasting equipment.

      Programmes, produced in air-conditioned studios, include many 'live' presentations, particularly on the Chinese channel. Education and quiz programmes form an important part of the station's activities but Cantonese opera, popular music programmes, variety shows, children's features and topical interviews are also included in the schedule. Popular filmed television shows and outstanding cultural and documentary features are imported from the United Kingdom and America. Rediffusion television programmes give about 75 hours of entertainment weekly on the two channels and a number of the shows are commercially sponsored. During that part of the day when the television service is not transmitting, one sound channel provides subscribers with a direct running report from the floor of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. A special musical programme for members of the Colony's large Indian community is also broadcast on this sound channel every Sunday morning.

      More than 97 per cent of the television staff are locally-trained Chinese. The rental fee is $55 a month, including receiving unit and all maintenance. For subscribers who have their own television sets the monthly rental is $25 which covers the programme fee, licence and full maintenance. A special Hotelevision service is also provided for the Colony's many hotels and the television network is now being extended to Tsuen Wan and Sha Tin in the New Territories.

FILM INDUSTRY

      It is estimated that Hong Kong is now the second largest film producing territory in the world. During 1963 the Colony's 120 film companies produced 261 feature films in Chinese for both local and overseas distribution. Many of these films were made on a low budget but the six major studios, using wide screen and colour techniques, make more lavish productions which won honours throughout south-east Asia. The high standards achieved by the larger studios is reflected by the fact that Shaw Brothers won awards for technical excellence at the 10th Asian Film Festival

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held in Tokyo. It was at this Festival that Shaw Brothers won a total of five awards. They also won nine awards at the Taipei Golden Horse Festival and their film, Empress Wu was exhibited at the Cannes Festival. Another major Shaw success was Madame White Snake which attracted record audiences in Hong Kong for a Chinese film. The Motion Picture and General Investment Com- pany Ltd, won a Taipei award for the best dramatic film with their Father Takes a Bride. Dong Cheng received the best actor award and the same studio won the best film script award.

      The acceptance by western audiences of Chinese films has now encouraged Hong Kong studios to look upon Europe as a possible market for some of their products.

The use of Hong Kong as a suitable locale for shooting both full-length feature films, television documentaries and promotional films was again demonstrated during the year when film production units visited the Colony in large numbers. The 1963 visitors in- cluded film-makers from America, Australia, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy and Japan. One major production involving leading international actors, was the shooting by Columbia Films of Joseph Conrad's well-known novel of the Far East, Lord Jim.

Cinema-going is an extremely popular pastime in Hong Kong and there are now 79 cinemas with 84,461 seats. Hong Kong Island has 28 cinemas (30,840 seats), Kowloon 34 (40,850) and the New Territories 17 (12,771). The majority of the cinemas have air- conditioning and wide screens.

It is one of the tasks of the Information Services Department to carry out those provisions of the Colony's Places of Public Entertainment Ordinance which require that all films must be viewed by a Panel of Film Censors before public exhibition. The film censorship section operates two theatres, one for 16 mm and one for 35 mm films, within the department and inspected 2,392 films during the year.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

       The Government Information Services are concerned with every one of the forms of communication dealt with in this chapter. The department's closest links are with the press and many of the

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developments which have taken place during the year have re- flected the growing needs of the local press for speedy and extensive information on public affairs. The press division, staffed by information officers with working experience in local journalism, is the department's largest single unit. They provide a bulletin of information on more than a dozen topics every day, ranging from major policy decisions to routine statistics. These bulletins are prepared in Chinese and English and are distributed through press boxes to more than 100 newspapers, magazines and agencies. The daily bulletin is supplemented by the division's teleprinter service which now has 23 subscribers. The many evening newspapers found the teleprinter link particularly useful. The service is not confined to official announcements but is increasingly used to alert newspapers editors to fires and other incidents.

Information officers of the press division are in constant touch with newspapers by telephone, answering press inquiries over the whole range of Government activity. The purpose of this section is to provide a channel of communication between Government departments and journalists. Particular attention has been paid to improving the supply of information on police matters through more direct access to a greater range of police news for transmis- sion to the press, through press visits to police establishments and through press conferences. A number of press conferences were held and dealt with such subjects as traffic and narcotics. On several occasions the Commissioner of Police made himself avail- able to answer general questions about the Force.

The value of press conferences where journalists can meet senior Government officers responsible for matters of public interest, has been recognized by many Government departments and the arrangement of personal interviews and the organization of general press conferences have become a regular feature of the division's work.

       The press division also provides news bulletins in both Chinese and English for the Colony's broadcasting stations. The main sources of news for these bulletins are the two international wire services to which the department subscribes. Although the radio news section relies upon the press division for the supply of news about Government activities, it works as an independent unit, geared to the requirements of the stations it serves. In an effort

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to satisfy the demand for fuller coverage of local affairs a special daily 'Asian and Hong Kong' bulletin was started during the year in addition to the regular bulletins of world news.

      In support of the press division's duty to supply journalists night and day with reliable and up-to-date information on public affairs, special attention has been paid to the library of cuttings and reference material. The purpose is to provide information officers of the division with adequate references and to place at the disposal of journalists useful background material. The expansion of the library has not been confined solely to official or even Hong Kong publications. It is intended to provide information on developments abroad which are of interest in the Colony.

The press division is also concerned, so far as the Government is responsible, or can assist, with the conditions under which journalists are able to carry on their work. At organized Govern- ment functions the Information Services Department undertakes the arrangement of proper facilities for the press. On these and any other occasions when journalists require special facilities, officers of the press division are present to make arrangements for them. During the year the press division took part in a number of arrangements to improve press facilities at various points. These ranged from small matters like providing access to a convenient telephone at a magistrate's court to the complete re-organization of press arrangements at the newly-opened airport terminal build- ing. The press division also serves as a point of contact with the Government for about 50 resident correspondents of overseas newspapers, news agencies, magazines and broadcasting companies, as well as the many hundreds of foreign correspondents who visit the Colony each year.

       This dual responsibility, local and overseas, is also reflected in the work of the department's publicity division, which on the one hand meets the publicity requirements of Government departments among the people of the Colony and on the other hand seeks to obtain a wide appreciation of Hong Kong's aims and achievements abroad. A new post of Chief Publicity Officer has been approved and this officer, when appointed, will take administrative control of the sections which produce publicity material in films, posters, photographs and publications of every size and kind.

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The publicity division works in close concert with the press division on major publicity exercises. A typical example of this sort of operation was the water crisis. There was little enough need to generate interest in the water situation and the press division was busy night and day supplying factual information about the storage situation, the distribution arrangements and the measures which were being taken by the Government to produce additional supplies. Throughout the year water has been front page daily news in the Colony's newspapers. Subsequent appeals for water saving were largely successful because they were made to a public already well informed on the general situation. These appeals were made through the newspapers themselves, on radio and television stations and by posters. The department produced special publicity material for hotels to explain the water situation to their guests. It also co-operated with other private or voluntary organizations in the Colony taking part in the community effort. One of these operations, which made philatelic history, was the competition sponsored by the Kaifongs, who offered prizes for water saving ideas. The department arranged for entries in envelopes with no other address but the two Chinese characters for 'Save Water' to be collected specially by the Post Office and delivered to the com- petition headquarters. In October, when it was obvious that water saving efforts could not be relaxed throughout the winter, a further impetus was given to the campaign by short, sharp, film appeals shown on both Chinese and English television services and in all cinemas throughout the Colony.

The cholera inoculation campaign, mounted on a full scale for the third successive year, was another example of a direct publicity campaign closely linked with a steady service of factual informa- tion about the course of the disease and measures taken to prevent it.

The department's overseas publicity during the year was associ- ated to a larger extent than before with the efforts being made by industry and the Government on behalf of Hong Kong's export trade. The department's normal output of films, feature material, photographs and publications is designed to create a broad general understanding of the life of the Colony. An event like the opening of the new Chinese University was taken as an opportunity to demonstrate the kind of progress which Hong Kong is making

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in the development of its cultural life. In addition to the immediate overseas press coverage arranged by the press division it was made the subject of a special illustrated feature and a newsreel. In 1963, more than ever before, the department found itself additionally involved in publicity work directly associated with specific trade promotion. The previous year's experiment in sending an officer from the department to act as a press officer on the spot at the Nigerian Trade Fair in Lagos was followed up at the Daily Mail Ideal Homes Exhibition in London in March. This time three officers from the department undertook duty in connexion with the exhibition. The department's senior assistant press officer undertook, in addition to his normal press duties at the Hong Kong stand, to look after the welfare of the craftsmen who were the main feature of the show. Two other officers from the depart- ment, at that time in Britain on special courses, were retained for duties at the exhibition and a fourth officer due to go on leave was sent early to London for the same purpose. On this and other European publicity matters during the year the department worked closely with the information officer at the Hong Kong Government Office in London.

      But the publicity division's heaviest duty in connexion with the Ideal Homes and subsequent exhibitions and trade fairs during the year has been on the design of stands and the provision of photo- graphic and other display material. These have included, in addition to the Ideal Homes Exhibition, the displays at Frankfurt and Berlin, and at the Hong Kong Government London Office. Work began in the autumn on the design of the Hong Kong display at the forthcoming Milan Trade Fair. For these trade exhibitions, the publicity division also prepared appropriate language versions of the department's booklets, designed for businessmen, as well as special leaflets associated with each show. Perhaps the most successful of these publications was the series. of six products booklets, illustrated in full colour and each carrying captions in five languages.

      The Hong Kong film unit continued to play a valuable part in giving world-wide publicity to the affairs of the Colony. Newsreels covering every aspect of life have had regular showings on inter- national television and newsreel circuits. These have included such

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diverse subjects as the opening of the Queen Elizabeth hospital and the Shek Pik reservoir, a children's dance competition and the city's building boom. The unit also completed the shooting of a 20-minute colour feature on the resettlement programme. Nearer home, the unit took part in many of the publicity exercises on behalf of Government departments. The first of a series of short crime prevention films was completed early in the year for showing on television and in cinemas. Films were also prepared as part of health campaigns, including polio and cholera vaccina- tion drives. Another short colour film for general showing dealt with the causes and dangers of hill fires during the dry season.

For the first time the department approached its full establish- ment; the press division is now wholly staffed by locally recruited officers with experience in local journalism. During the year two more local officers were sent to Britain on training courses, one organized by the Central Office of Information. The other officer, a photographer, spent three months with a national newspaper thus gaining valuable experience in the techniques of press photo- graphy and in the photographic requirements of the British press. Close working arrangements were maintained throughout the year with the information officer at the Hong Kong Government Office in London who distributed a full range of publicity media, produced in the Colony, through the United Kingdom press and other channels. This material included feature articles, photographs and press releases. The degree of usage by the magazine and daily press was most encouraging.

Although in its everyday work the department is primarily concerned with publicizing the affairs of Hong Kong, everything possible is done to promote knowledge of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, and maximum use is made of material supplied by the Central Office of Information, London, for this purpose. The department's film loan library of 16 mm colour and black-and-white films now numbers 500, mostly supplied by the Central Office of Information although more than 30 were pro- duced in Hong Kong. During the year about 3,000 films were issued for exhibition by clubs, schools and other institutions and approximately 300 films, comprising a regular weekly news

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magazine from Britain and documentaries, were supplied to Rediffusion's television circuit for local showing.

PUBLIC ENQUIRY SERVICE

      The Public Enquiry Service is one of the numerous organizations of Government for maintaining a close link with the people. Its primary business is to give the man in the street quick and clear guidance and explanation of the various services and functions performed by Government departments, and to help the public understand the many Government rules and procedures. It is also responsible for answering all non-technical inquiries about local storm warning signals. Once the local storm signal No 3 is hoisted, the public can telephone an enquiry centre at any hour to find out the latest weather position.

Every month the Public Enquiry Service deals with more than 12,000 people at two centres, one in Hong Kong and the other in Kowloon. In its work and organization the Public Enquiry Service is somewhat similar to citizens' advice bureaux in other parts of the world and the emphasis in its function is to give a sympathetic hearing, coupled with helpful advice and practical assistance. Both centres have a specially trained staff, each mem- ber of which speaks English, Cantonese and a number of other Chinese dialects. Results show that the Service is a valuable instru- ment for improving Government's relations with the public. To meet ever increasing demands, plans are being drawn up for open- ing a third enquiry centre on an experimental basis.

20

Local Forces and Civil Defence Services

THE Colony's auxiliary defence services consist of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police and the Essential Services Corps. The Auxiliary Police, created during 1957 by a merger of the Hong Kong Police Reserve and the Special Constabulary, is dealt with in chapter 13. The Essential Services Corps, although legally an entity, is split for administrative and practical purposes into four autonomous services: the units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Service, and the Auxiliary Fire Service.

      All these services are paid for almost entirely from funds voted each year by the Legislative Council. Except for small administra- tive and training staffs they are manned entirely by volunteers, residents of Hong Kong, who attend training classes and exercises in the evenings or at the week-ends and, in the case of certain services, attend more extended training at annual camps which last up to 15 days. Service in the auxiliary defence units is a considerable commitment not only for the individuals concerned but also for their employers, the majority of whom have been most co-operative in releasing members of their staff for these duties, even at considerable inconvenience.

      Training obligations vary from service to service. The maximum is in those units whose members must every year attend at least 60 hours of instructional parades, six full-days' training and a training period at camp. The commitment is scaled down else- where to the needs of the particular unit. An allowance to cover out-of-pocket expenses is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full-day's training and for attending camp, officers and members receive a higher daily rate of pay and, where meals cannot be provided, a ration allowance.

      The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. The principal units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) and

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the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. Each major unit is fully independent and corresponds direct with Government and with its regular parent Service.

The Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve mans and operates two inshore minesweepers. These vessels, each of 150 tons, are on loan from the Admiralty, but are operated and maintained at Govern- ment expense. The Royal Naval Reserve comprises some 40 officers and 160 men whose function is to supplement the Royal Navy in minesweeping and the defence of the Colony. Apart from their normal training they have provided invaluable assistance in the combined Police and Services operations to counter illegal im- migration.

The Hong Kong Regiment is a reconnaissance regiment com- prising a regimental headquarters, two Land Rover reconnaissance squadrons, one 'Ferret' armoured car reconnaissance squadron, a mobile infantry company, a home guard company and an intelli- gence platoon. The Regiment is now over 700 strong and is trained in its reconnaissance role with the Regular Army units in the Colony. This year is the first year in which the Regiment has been fully integrated in internal security exercises held by the Police and the Regular Army.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force is equipped with four Auster aircraft and two Westland Widgeon helicopters. During the year intensive training was carried out in the internal security role with the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force. The helicopters again were kept busy being used extensively by nearly every Government department as well as maintaining regular flying doctor, dental and child health flights to the remote districts of the New Territories, and flying a number of casualty evacuation trips, mainly from Lantau. Considerable success was also achieved with aerial broad- casts for the anti-cholera campaign in the New Territories.

      There are also two women's services: the Hong Kong Women's Royal Naval Reserve and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps.

Volunteer service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May 1854, of the Hong Kong Volunteers. In 1878 they were renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was again changed to the

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Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps. The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December 1941 and fought with the regular forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December 1941. In 1956 their action was vividly recalled when part of the old Colours of the Corps, which had been buried in December 1941, to avoid capture by the Japanese, was discovered by work- men excavating a building site on Garden Road. The officers who had hidden the Colours had died in captivity, leaving no record of where the Colours might be found. The remnants of the old Colours were paraded on the Annual Review of the Defence Force in March 1958, and were afterwards laid up in St John's Cathedral. Decorations were conferred upon 15 members of the Corps for their gallantry in battle and for later escapes from Japanese prison camps in Hong Kong, while 18 were mentioned in despatches.

After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March 1949, as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later, His late Majesty King George VI granted the title 'Royal' in recognition of the part played by the Force's forerunner, the Volunteer Defence Corps, in 1941. In March 1957, Her Majesty the Queen awarded the Battle Honour 'Hong Kong' to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, and this Honour is now emblazoned on the Regimental Colour.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, communications, etc. Each unit is principally staffed by persons already employed in the service but is reinforced as necessary by others. Since in an emergency most members would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert, the Corps requires little extra training. The Corps is normally under the general direction of a leading member of the business community who is assisted by a small staff of full- time Government servants in carrying out administration, planning and liaison with units.

The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide first aid, reinforce Government and private medical establishments, and provide an augmented ambulance service in an emergency. It is built around the Medical and Health Department, the St John Ambulance Brigade and other members of the medical and nursing

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professions, but many people with no previous training in nursing and first aid have also been enrolled and trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first aid workers in the field. The service has approximately 5,000 members.

Members assisted the Medical and Health Services Department in anti-poliomyelitis and anti-cholera campaigns. On the outbreak of cholera in June, the Director of Medical and Health Services again found it necessary to institute an isolation centre for cholera 'contacts' in order to minimize the risk of spreading the disease. The task of running this isolation centre fell largely on the Auxiliary Medical Service and the response to the emergency was again excellent, whilst employers co-operated by releasing members from their usual employment.

      The Civil Aid Service is responsible for all the civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services. The service includes three command units, control and communications units, a warden service with a total of 275 posts throughout urban areas, a rescue service, a despatch service equipped with motor scooters, an accommodation unit and the necessary administrative units. Volunteers are always available and membership remains con- sistently in excess of 5,000, most of whom train part-time, although a full-time training system is maintained for instructors and specialists. The annual field day, which was open to the public, was attended by over 4,000 members who took part in competi- tions designed to test individuals' and units' skills and organiza- tions.

      At all times members voluntarily turn out to assist the com- munity when the need arises and provide uniformed members to help local Kaifong and welfare associations when requested.

       The Auxiliary Fire Service has a membership of 700. They man their own appliances at the week-ends as well as doing two hours a week training with regular appliances and equipment. Combined exercises are held with the regular service once a month. In addi- tion to assisting the regular fire service at major fires and other emergencies, such as landslides and collapses of buildings during storms or typhoons, the Auxiliary Fire Service provides special relay units and supplies, on demand, salt water from the harbour, either from fire floats or from heavy pumping appliances and hose- laying lorries, to fires ashore. The service also supplies, both in

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normal times and in emergencies, trained operators to the district fire controls.

Apart from training to meet emergencies and assisting at major natural disasters, there are many instances every year of members of all the auxiliary services giving help and first aid, in an in- dividual capacity, at all kinds of accidents and incidents.

21

Research

UNIVERSITY

A VARIETY of research programmes was conducted by the University of Hong Kong during the year. In the Faculty of Arts, the Department of Economics and Political Science continued research work in the following fields: the application of modern methods and techniques of economic and business forecasting in Asian countries; current economic development problems in these countries; further work on the economic history of Japan; and a special study of the steel industry of mainland China; political thought and public administration in east and south-east Asia; social changes and the commune system in China. Some of the resultant material is published annually in Contemporary China (Hong Kong University Press and Oxford University Press), and others in various other journals and books. The Institute of Modern Asian Studies of the University of Hong Kong was established, and it is hoped that these research activities will be further consolidated.

Research in education was conducted by two groups-the Hong Kong Council for Educational Research and the University Depart- ment of Education. The former body has completed projects assess- ing the intelligence and academic achievement of primary school pupils, and surveying the medical, psychological, social, and educa- tion conditions associated with failure and backwardness in schools. Current research includes appraisals of pupils' difficulties in learn- ing English, and work on improving the teaching of Chinese. A follow-up study in guidance and counselling has been launched, and will follow students over a number of years from their secondary school courses to the university to find the predictive value of certain guidance tests and interviews, and the effect of counselling over a period. A number of other studies, including a comparative study of educational development and planning in

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various Asian areas, with particular reference to Hong Kong, are being sponsored by the Council.

      The Department of Geography and Geology conducted research into the industrial development and patterns of Tsuen Wan and Kwun Tong in particular and the whole Colony in general. Further studies in rural settlement and land-use patterns particularly in the Tung Chung and Tai O regions of Lantau were undertaken. The investigation of the structural relationships of the Lion Rock tunnel was the subject of special study. Work was also carried out on the nature of the rich soils of south-east Asia and field work was done in Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, India and Pakistan. In the realm of pure geology, work began on the detailed re-mapping of certain areas between Tai Lam Chung and Castle Peak with a view to elucidating the nature of certain abnormal occurrences of metamorphic rocks within the area formerly thought to consist solely of Hong Kong granite.

       Projects in the Department of History included work in the fields of Chinese, Japanese and south-east Asian history. The main sub- jects of research were the history of Chinese relations with Yunnan during the T'ang period and the ethnic problems connected with the State of Nanchao; Chinese and Indian influences on early south-east Asia government systems; relations between Ch'ing officials and western entrepreneurs in the first half of the nineteenth century; British policy in Borneo in the late nineteenth century; documentary sources illustrating China's external relations in the late Ch'ing period; activities of Chinese revolutionaries in Hong Kong between 1895 and 1911; British policy in China between 1894 and 1902; the role of the dominions in Anglo-Japanese relations; the early history of the Communist movement in China; modern Sino-Japanese relations and aspects of south-east Asian history since 1870.

      The Department of Modern Languages carried out research and published books and articles in two main fields: dialectology and 'creolization' in Asia; and the modern French novel, with special reference to novels with an Asian setting. In the Department of Philosophy research was continued into the psychological problem of bilingualism and reading habits; and theoretical study of the foundations of the social science was also pursued. A monograph on the historiography of science was published and a study of

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personality types in cancer patients has been completed. Studies in epistemology and in personality theory are in progress, the latter in conjunction with the Student Health Service. Several new research programmes, as well as old projects, were conducted in the Faculty of Science.

      Research work in the Department of Botany continued satisfac- torily and expanded to include new aspects. Investigations in mycology included studies of the ecology of soil fungi in Hong Kong and the collection of specimens for the mycological herba- rium. In addition a continuous survey of the air spora in relation to climatic conditions was initiated together with a study of mycotic infections of plants, man and animals. In the near future, the Department expects to initiate research concerned with different aspects of soil fertility and also with the relationship between enzyme activity and nitrogen metabolism in plants.

      The Department of Chemistry pursued research in the fields of mechanisms of chemical reactions; chemistry of plant products; electro-chemistry and inorganic reactions at elevated temperatures; studies of molecular structure by means of X-ray diffraction and reaction kinetics. Research in the Department of Mathematics was carried out in differential geometry, trigonometric series, low- temperature physics and many-body problems; while in statistics, work was done in sample design and planning and direction of a survey for rent change for domestic accommodation on the Island of Hong Kong.

      The Department of Zoology conducted research along several lines. A small team of workers recently commenced research into various aspects of form and function in the adrenal gland of vertebrates. Other investigations have been made with the collabo- ration of members of St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School, London, involving long-term study of the breeding cycles of snakes and mammals obtainable in Hong Kong. A programme of research into the parasites of local mammals was conducted in collaboration with the Bishop Museum of Honolulu and a survey of the mam- mals of Hong Kong was also carried out. These projects are still in progress as is work on a study of the development of teeth, jaws and associated structures in shrews. Extensive entomological studies were carried out during the year.

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      In the Faculty of Medicine research programmes included the following in the Department of Biochemistry: the effects of morphine and other drugs on the hormonal control of metabolism; the medical application of locally-found plant alkaloids and the cellular mechanisms involved; comparative aspects of metabolism in relation to biochemical evolution; and biochemical ceiteria of the aging process.

      The major research interests of the Department of Medicine were in the field of diseases of the blood, liver, spleen and heart. In the field of cardiology a therapeutic trial on the different forms of drug treatment for acute rheumatic heart disease has been finished and an assessment of the late results of mitral valvulotomy is being carried out. In association with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology a survey of the incidence and types of anaemia encountered in pregnancy has been completed and the results indicate a high incidence of thalassaemia in Hong Kong Chinese. Research projects in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology included studies of the morphology of the Chinese female pelvis, anaemia in pregnancy, neonatal jaundice in the Chinese, and bladder tone in pregnancy.

      In the Department of Pathology investigations on the histological typing of lung cancers occurring in Hong Kong, a study of gall- stones in recurrent pyogenic cholangeitis and a chemical study of the liver fluke clonorchis sinensis have been completed. Observa- tions on nasopharyngeal and liver carcinomas, chorion-epithelioma, serology of Clostridium welchii food poisoning and trace elements in urine are in progress. In the Department of Physiology re- searches were carried out on the adaptation to changes in environ- mental temperature, metabolic changes in thiamine deficiency, toxic action of fish poison, metabolic effect of pregnancy and heroin addiction.

      In the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture research activi- ties in the Department of Civil Engineering during the year in- cluded experimental studies of composite steel and concrete structures, the further development of a rapid method of designing multi-storey buildings and investigations into the engineering behaviour of local soils. The Department of Electrical Engineering started a new research project on the analysis of electrical circuits involving non-linear elements such as metrosil. The analysis could

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     be applied to many practical problems. In addition, an AC Net- work Analyzer, using transistor instrumentation, has been designed and constructed in the electrical laboratories and it is expected to function in 1964.

The Department of Mechanical Engineering completed hydraulic tests on a scale model of the bellmouth spillway, discharge tunnel and stilling basin of the Lower Shing Mun dam, which is under construction as part of the Plover Cove water scheme. The tests have given the discharge coefficient of the spillway and have pro- posed modifications to the stilling basin to provide a well-behaved flow down the river basin to prevent flooding of arable land under abnormal flood conditions.

GOVERNMENT

      Medical and Health Department. The main emphasis continued to be on poliomyelitis and cholera. Research was done on the former in the Government virus unit in connexion with the mass oral poliomyelitis vaccination campaigns of January and March. Sera were tested amongst groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated children to assess the former's response to the vaccine and the degree of spread of the vaccine virus to the latter. General surveys for entero virus excretion rates during the months of April, June and August and studies of generic characters of polio-virus types isolated from clinical cases were carried out. In the case of cholera, research continued into various aspects of the carrier state in- cluding the dissemination and prevalence of cholera vibrios in nightsoil.

      Fisheries Research is the responsibility of the fisheries research station which is part of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department. This work is dealt with in detail in chapter 7.

Research and Applied Meteorology. Because of the abnormally dry weather the emphasis at the Royal Observatory in the year was on climatology. Revised climatological tables were prepared and new 70-year period 'normals' were introduced. Rainfall maps for the Colony based on the past 11 years are being prepared and work continues on a climatological summary for aeronautical pur- poses. An extremely dense network of autographic rain-gauges has been set up to study the distribution of rainfall intensity in

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individual rainstorms. A large number of pluviograms has already been collected for this project. The comparison of various objective methods of forecasting typhoon movement in the China Sea area was continued. These objective methods are now being used opera- tionally as an aid to the forecaster.

Plans were prepared for participation in the International Year of the Quiet Sun when additional radiation measurements and upper air soundings to specially high levels will be required. It is hoped that balloons will reach 100,000 feet on internationally selected days. The calibration and methods of correction of radio- activity measurements were investigated and different radioactive isotopes were tested as standards. Publications were prepared on the following subjects during the year: Hong Kong Meteorological Records for the 72 years 1884-1939, 1947-1962; Comparison of the theoretical performance of various radars; Rainfall measurement with a monthly rain-gauge; and Vector mean winds over Hong Kong 1957-61.

22

Religion

     THE total Christian community of Hong Kong now numbers more than 400,000, with Protestants and Roman Catholics in about equal proportions; the fast rate of growth in the number of converts over the last few years was equally maintained in 1963. Statistics for the Protestant churches show an increase of 13 per cent a year.

      The estimated population growth in relation to this steady development of the Christian community poses many problems which must be resolved if the Church is to hold its proportionate place in Hong Kong in the years ahead. The magnitude of the task must be viewed side by side with the more obvious problems of environment and the limitations of building sites for new places of worship. The spiritual needs of men and women, uprooted from their accustomed social patterns and thrown together in vast new urban agglomerations, must be met-but few new church buildings go up each year by comparison with the numbers of new offices, apartments, hotels, schools, etc. Moreover, such new church build- ings as are being erected are not generally on the most convenient sites. Among those more recently opened and dedicated in Kowloon are the Anglican Church at Lei Cheng Uk and the Truth Lutheran Church in Waterloo Road and the Methodist Church at Cheong Hong Street, North Point, Hong Kong.

      Many congregations make use of rented accommodation, school halls, and roof-tops in the resettlement estates. But the purchase of land in Hong Kong today for the erection of their own church building is an intimidating task for any congregation, even with the help of related Church bodies overseas, which is frequently offered.

The Anglican and Methodist Churches and the London Mission- ary Society have played a notable part in the religious history of the Colony. The Anglican Church now has about 30 churches and mission chapels in the Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau. St John's Cathedral was founded in 1842 and established

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as a Cathedral by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. The London Missionary Society, whose representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the cession of the Colony to Britain, now works within the framework of the United Church, known as the Church of Christ in China. Some excellent schools and the well-known Nethersole Hospital owe their origin and development to this Society.

There are a small number of Russian Orthodox believers in the Colony. They are divided between those who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and those who do not. The former have their own church, founded in 1934, while the latter have inter-com- munion with the Anglicans and meet at St Andrew's Church, Kowloon. During the past decade there have been very few periods when there were not some European refugees of Russian origin in transit in Hong Kong on their way to new homes in various parts of the world, under arrangements made through the World Council of Churches, Service to Refugees, working closely with the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the Inter-Governmental Committee for European Migration.

Some ten churches in the Colony hold their services in English, but the great majority of congregations are Chinese-speaking. Although several Chinese dialects are used, there has latterly been a marked trend towards a general use of Cantonese. The major world denominations are well represented by Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Lutherans, Methodists, Pentecostals, etc, with Presby- terians and others within the Church of Christ in China. In addition, there are over 60 locally-organized undenominational churches, many of whom are in contact with the main body of the Church through the Chinese Churches' Union. This old- established body provides both a forum for discussion and also a means of joint action on matters of local importance. Two Chinese Christian cemeteries are under its control, and it has an expanding work in caring for the aged. The basic understanding and com- munity of interest fostered in this way is an important factor in the religious life of Hong Kong.

The Protestant Churches meet together on a denominational basis in the Hong Kong Christian Council, together with missionary societies, the Salvation Army, the YMCA and the YWCA. The Hong Kong Christian Council is linked with the World Council

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     of Churches, and thus keeps its members in touch with the thought and development of oecumenical Christianity, as well as with the welfare activities of the World Church through Inter-Church Aid. An important Consultation on Asian Inter-Church Aid was held at To Fung Shan, Sha Tin, in October, under the auspices of the East Asia Christian Conference. The Hong Kong Christian Council also sponsors many inter-church committees on such subjects as Christian citizenship, education, industry, family life, Christian literature and Church planning. It is now working, in particular, on two major projects, a Christian centre in Kowloon and a united Protestant Hospital.

      There are some Church groups that prefer to maintain their independence from this link with the World Council of Churches. The majority of the Baptist Churches, which represent one of the most rapidly-growing of the major world-wide communions, are a case in point. In Hong Kong they run a number of excellent schools, at both primary and secondary levels, together with the post-secondary Baptist College. Recently they have opened the much-appreciated Baptist Hospital at the north end of Waterloo Road. The Adventist Mission also operates several schools, and does some medical work in addition to its Church work. The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons) have come to Hong Kong from the United States during the last few years and are conducting mission work in the Colony. There is a Christian Science Church on Hong Kong Island.

Most of the Christian Churches are involved in programmes of relief and welfare work in the Colony. (Details of some of the activi- ties of both the Protestant Churches and of the Roman Catholic Church in this field will be found in chapters 9 and 11).

The Roman Catholic Church has been established in the Colony for the last 122 years. From the outset its growth as an ecclesias- tical institution has been paralleled by its development of educa- tional and social services, undertaken to raise human standards- moral, intellectual, social and physical. Together with the rest of the community, it has faced and tried to resolve the many challenging forces and problems that still beset and shape the life of the Colony. On 22nd April 1841, the Prefecture of Hong Kong was established by Pope Gregory XVI with Msgr Theodore Joset as the first Prefect. Within 14 years a new church had been built to

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replace the original mat shed mission and a seminary opened for the education of Chinese priests, thus laying the foundation for the education and welfare programme that has always been an integral part of the Catholic Church in Hong Kong. Religious sisters of the congregation of St Paul de Chartres came from France to open Hong Kong's first Catholic hospital, a Catholic school and an orphanage that trained girls in home-making skills. The Colony's first trade school, called the West Point Reformatory for Homeless Boys, was also established by the Catholics.

In 1867 the Prefecture Apostolic of Hong Kong was entrusted by the Holy See to the Pontifical Institute of Foreign Missions (PIME), which had sent missioners to Hong Kong nine years earlier, and in 1874 the Prefecture was raised to a Vicariate with Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, PIME, as Vicar Apostolic of Hong Kong. At the turn of the century Bishop Raimondi extended the work of the Catholic Church in the New Territories and St Joseph's Church and the Immaculate Conception Cathedral were built on Hong Kong Island. As the Colony developed the Catholics expanded their health services, offered institutional care to the orphaned and aged poor, and provided more trade, technical and general education.

       The cultural life of the Church began to develop in 1928 with the starting of Kung Kao Po, a Chinese Catholic weekly news- paper. The Catholic Centre, opened after the second world war to serve the liberation forces, now houses Kung Kao Po, the Sunday Examiner, the Catholic Truth Society, a book and liturgical dis- tribution centre, a chapel, a library, and many other social, reli- gious and cultural facilities. The Vicariate was raised to a Diocese on 11th April 1946, and under the administration of Bishop Lawrence Bianchi, PIME, the Catholic community of Hong Kong has risen from 43,000 in 1952 to some 206,000 today.

The increase in schools has been on an even greater propor- tionate scale. Just after the war they numbered 12 with under 9,000 students. Today there are 116,518 boys and girls-most of them non-Catholics-enrolled in 191 Catholic primary, secondary and technical schools. There are 73 churches and chapels in the diocese of Hong Kong. Chinese and non-Chinese engaged in parochial, educational and charitable work include 319 priests, 127 brothers and 688 sisters representing 34 religious congregations.

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      Hong Kong's Jewish community worship at the synagogue in Robinson Road which was constructed in 1901 on land given by Mr Joseph Sassoon and his family. Mr Sassoon built the synagogue in memory of his mother Leah and it is therefore known as the Synagogue 'Ohel Leah'. The Jewish Recreation Club and the resident rabbi's apartments are on the same site.

      There are about 300 people in the congregation and they belong to families who originally came from the United Kingdom, China, India, Eastern and Western Europe, the United States as well as people born in Hong Kong. Reform services are held every Friday and Orthodox services on Friday evenings and Saturday mornings. With the exception of the summer months, Sunday school takes place on Sunday mornings. The first confirmation was held in 1963.

     For many years the congregation was led by a resident teacher and for the past two years by ordained rabbis. Affiliated activities include a Jewish Benevolent Society.

The great majority of the populace in Hong Kong, however, still adhere to traditional Chinese beliefs and there has been a notable revival of Buddhism and Taoism in recent years, mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China. Of these two ways of life, Buddhism appears to have more followers in Hong Kong, but they both maintain a strong hold among the older Chinese and are far from dying out amongst the younger people. Outwardly, there is little difference in their religious ceremonies. Buddhists pay homage to Buddha, whilst Taoists venerate deities who were either mortals or legendary figures deified. Taoists also practise divine writing in sand. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association is the main Buddhist organization. A similar Taoist Association has recently been formed.

Religious studies in both ways of life are conducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of their accessibi- lity, hermitages at Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan are popular with people living in the urban areas. However, the better known monasteries are situated in the more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the New Territories. Thus the Po Lin monastery (Buddhist) at Ngong Ping, Lantau, is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is much visited at week-ends and holidays.

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Other Buddhist and Taoist monasteries which attract both de- votees and sight-seers include those known as Castle Peak, Tung Po Tor, Yuen Yuen Hok Yuen and Sai Lam, all in the New Territories. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is a Christian Study Centre on Chinese religion and culture which engages in study and discussions of issues and problems in the Chinese religious world and where the work of the Christian Mission to Buddhists has been carried on for many years. There is also a unique organization, the Hong Kong Red Swastika Society, which seeks to cultivate together under one roof Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Mohammedanism and Confucianism. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation), Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) and To Yuen (places for Taoist worship) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist institutions in the urban areas.

Sarira (relics left after the cremation of renowned high priests or living Buddhas) are treasured by Buddhists and are distributed to the close followers of the deceased. The relics are usually kept in specially built pagodas within the compounds of monasteries. It is also common practice among Buddhists to preserve the cremated remains of their relatives in such pagodas, but the fees are high and not within the means of all. Work has started on the development of a private Buddhist cemetery at Cape Collinson, near the new Muslim cemetery and the public crematorium.

As places of public worship, the temples play an important part in Chinese religious life; it is estimated that worshippers of one major deity (Tin Hau) number no less than 250,000. The temples generally house and are named after one major deity, but other subsidiary deities may sometimes be found in the same temple. The subsidiary deities of one temple may, however, be the major ones of another. Almost all of the deities are sea gods and goddesses, reflecting Hong Kong's origin as a fishing port. It is difficult to classify these deities according to religions or ways of life. Except for Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, the majority of them are deified mortals who, as a result of their performance of true or mythical feats, have been traditionally worshipped. The better known ones are Tin Hau (Goddess of Heaven and protectress of seafarers), Kwan Tai (God of War

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and the source of righteousness), Hung Shing (God of the South Seas and a weather prophet), Pak Tai (Lord of the North and local patron of the island of Cheung Chau), and Lo Ban Sin Shi (patron of masons and building contractors).

Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of the Hong Kong temples is the one dedicated to Tin Hau at Causeway Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most fishing harbours, and the best known of these is the one at Fat Tong Mun, Joss House Bay. Many of these Tin Hau temples are now some distance inland, as a result of reclama- tions made since they were originally established close to the shore.

      Dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, the Man Mo temple in Hollywood Road is equally famous; it is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. In recent years, by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Sik Sik Yuen at Wong Tai Sin in New Kowloon and the Che Kung temple in Sha Tin. In the New Territories, where traditional clan organiza- tion has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages, the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular life of the village. Animism, in the form of shrines dedicated at the foot of certain rocks and trees where spirits are believed to dwell, is also to be found in the New Territories, particularly amongst Hakka villagers.

The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year, welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of firecrackers. It is a common belief that the mass discharge of firecrackers on this occasion will dispel evil spirits and bad luck and usher in a happy new year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are also widely observed. During the Ching Ming Festival, which falls in the Spring, visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon of the lunar calendar and dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The

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     ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. Graves are also refurbished.

       Certain other festivals are celebrated by particular sections of the community. Fishermen pay special and colourful attention to the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau, at her temples. The Chiuchow community celebrate the Yu Lan Tsit, or Festival of the Dead, in the seventh moon, with elaborate Buddhist ceremonies and theatrical performances.

      There are about 5,000 followers of the Islamic faith in Hong Kong. Most of them are Chinese who have emigrated to the Colony from China, particularly during the past ten years. The other members of the Muslim community are mainly Pakistanis, Malaysians, Persians and people from neighbouring regions. They gather together every Friday to say prayers (Juma Nemaz) at the Shelley Street Mosque on Hong Kong Island and at the mosque in Nathan Road in Kowloon.

      The Shelley Street Mosque was the first to be built in the Colony and dates back to the early days of the introduction of the Islamic faith in Hong Kong in the 1880's. It has been rebuilt once. The mosque in Kowloon was originally built for the use of Moslem troops in the former Indian Army, some units of which were stationed in Hong Kong before the war. The mosque is situated on land within Whitfield Barracks.

      Two places have been set aside by the Government as burial grounds for the Muslim community. One is at Happy Valley and the other, opened in August 1963, is at the new Cape Collinson Cemetery, Chai Wan. The latter contains a beautifully designed mosque built by Government. A board of trustees, comprising representatives of the various groups within the Muslim com- munity, is the co-ordinating body of all religious affairs and is also responsible for looking after the mosques and the cemeteries. Much charitable work among the Muslim community is being done by a welfare committee set up in recent years by a group of public- spirited women.

       The Hindu community in Hong Kong numbers more than 3,000. Their religious and social activities centre around the Hindu

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     Temple which is situated in Happy Valley on Hong Kong Island. The community has been associated with the Colony since its earliest times. The temple itself is considered to be one of the finest in the Far East and is used regularly by the local Hindu com- munity for services which are held each Monday from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. and conducted by a resident priest who lives in the premises. In addition to visits by Saints, Swamis and learned men who give spiritual lectures, a number of festivals are observed, the more important being the Holy Festival, the Birth of Lord Krishna, Shivaratri, Dessahara and Deewali (Deepmala).

      The Hindu Association of Hong Kong is responsible for the upkeep of the temple and the running of the guest rooms. Apart from the regular services, the temple is also used for meditation periods, for yoga classes and the teaching of Hindi by a part-time teacher.

23

The Arts

     THE year saw the consolidation of the City Hall as the cultural centre of Hong Kong, full use being made of the facilities offered by this fine group of modern buildings. The buildings within the City Hall precincts house a 1,500-seat concert hall adaptable for stage production when required, a 470-seat theatre/cinema, a banqueting hall (at present let out on contract as a restaurant), a ballroom, an art gallery and museum, a library, exhibition halls and two lecture rooms each of which has facilities for the showing of films and slides, and two committee rooms.

      Through the favourable comments of visiting musicians the City Hall has established a reputation for having two of the finest auditoria in the Far East, both for full orchestral concerts and solo recitals. A taste for concert and theatre-going is one which the people of Hong Kong have had, in the past, little chance to develop, but that there is growing interest in 'live' performances of music and drama is indicated by the increasing attendance at performances, not only those of overseas artists but of local artists as well, and by the growing number and improvement in quality of these performances. In the music heard during the year, the most notable feature has been the great increase in both its range and variety over that presented in past years, and considering that some of the items were fairly esoteric, with which some years ago it might have been difficult to draw an audience in Hong Kong, the attendance at concerts was, in general, extremely good and frequently enthusiastic.

      The only overseas symphony orchestra to play in Hong Kong in 1963 was the Polish Symphony Orchestra. Under two con- ductors, Jan Krenz and Jersy Katlewicz, they gave three successful concerts to highly appreciative audiences. Their soloist was the pianist Barbara Hesse-Bukawska. Two local orchestras, the Hong Kong Philharmonic and the South China Philharmonic, were also heard in concerts. Both these orchestras are made up largely of

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amateurs and, considering the difficulties of arranging adequate rehearsal time, both acquitted themselves most creditably in per- formance. One of the most significant events in local music and one that holds much promise for the future was the formation of the Hong Kong Youth Orchestra which gave its first concerts in conjunction with the Schools Music Association winter series of concerts. Its first truly public concerts will be presented in 1964. The Schools Music Festival held at the City Hall in March attracted a record number of nearly 4,000 entries, with some 20,000 students participating, and ended with four successful prize- winners' concerts.

       A series of popular band concerts was given by the bands of the Hong Kong Police, The Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment, the Durham Light Infantry, the Auxiliary Police, the Auxiliary Fire Services, the United States aircraft carrier Coral Sea and HMS Ark Royal. These concerts were generally held either in the early evening or on the afternoon of public holidays. The year also saw a public performance of Chinese orchestral music by the Chinese Folk Orchestra of the South China Film Industry Workers' Union. The orchestra consists of about 40 members, who play 13 tradi- tional Chinese instruments including strings, woodwind and per- cussion groups, and the repertoire includes both traditional pieces and modern compositions notably the Liang Shan Pa and Cho Ying Tai Concerto. Though full orchestral concerts were few, there was no lack in the number and variety of concerts by chamber music ensembles. Among those which gave performances at the City Hall during the year were, the Munich Nonett, the German Bach Soloists, the Detmold Wind Group, the Benthien Quartet, the Philippines Music Ensemble and the Vienna Philharmonic String Quartet. Concerts were also given by the Chamber Group of the Hong Kong Philharmonic Society and the South China Sinfonietta.

As in previous years, pianists dominated among the solo recitals and the year saw the return of Julius Katchen, Witold Malcuzynski and Halina Czerny-Stafanska. Other pianists included Lili Kraus, Louise Thai Thi Lang, Julian van Karoyli, Hilde Somer, Lya de Barberiis, Hans Richter-Haaser, Peter Coraggio, Gary Gaffman, Jorg Demus, Fred King and Paul Badura-Skoda. Recitals were given by violinists Jacob Krackmalnick, Peter Poole, Willard

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Tressel and Hong Kong's own Renee Fung. Other instrumentalists included Julian Bream on guitar and lute, Harold Chaney playing the harpsichord, virtuoso xylophonist Yoichi Hiraoka from Japan, the Engel Family and Ludwig Hoelscher on the 'cello accompanied by the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra.

Choral works were in the main confined to presentations by local choirs, the highlights being the performances of The Creation by the Hong Kong Oratorio Society and The Messiah by the Com- bined Christian Choir. Other local choirs giving concerts at the City Hall included the Robin Boyle Singers (a newly formed group specializing in unaccompanied works), the Harmonia Chorus, the Choral Group, the South China Choir, and the Melba Girls' Choir. Of the two visiting choirs the Little Singers of the Wooden Cross came from Macau, whilst the Innsbrucker Kammerchor came from Austria. In a lighter vein the Hong Kong Singers staged the Gilbert and Sullivan comic opera Iolanthe. Solo vocal recitals were given at the City Hall by the following Hong Kong artists: Nancy Zee, Ho Kwan Ching, Ella Kiang, Susanna Chow, Karen Leach and Ellie Mao whilst joint recitals were presented by Tien Ming En and Tien Joy, Ma Kuo Lin and Karen Sun, and Julia Wong and Sandra Foong. Overseas singers to present concerts here included German soprano Carla Henius and mezzo-soprano Kerstin Meyer from the Berlin Opera.

      Ballet was presented professionally by the Theatre d'Art du Ballet and Jose Limon and his Dance Company. Local productions were presented by the Patricia Denholm School of Ballet (Dancing Shoes), the Jenny School of Ballet, Mr Alfred Lie (Sea Fever), the Chinese Reform Association and the Hok Yau Dancing Club. In a category of its own must go the delightful performances of Daniel Llord's puppets which introduced a medium of entertainment rare to Hong Kong. Popular overseas entertainers who played at the City Hall included Victor Borge, Eartha Kitt, Joyce Grenfell, Patti Page, Acker Bilk and his Paramount Jazz Band, Louis Armstrong, Sammy Davis, Jr, and Kenny Ball and his Jazzmen. Local enter- tainers were featured in matinee shows put on for the young people of Hong Kong by various commercial concerns.

       In the field of European spoken drama, little professional work was presented with the notable exception of a recital by Mme Françoise Delille of the Comédie Française and M. Jacques

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Torrens, but both the concert hall and the theatre were frequently used by the many amateur dramatic societies and groups. Those which gave public performances of plays in English included The Masquers (Othello), Garrison Players (One Way Pendulum, The Hostage, White Sheep of the Family and The Crucible), the Hong Kong Stage Club (A Man for all Seasons, Murder Mistaken and The Sleeping Prince), and Radio Hong Kong (Under Milkwood and poetry readings).

      Plays in Mandarin and Cantonese, either original or as in the case of La Dame aux Camelias translations of European classics into modern Chinese settings, were presented by various Chinese drama groups among them the Dragon Dialogue Drama Group (Goddess of Love), Tungman Artists Limited (La Dame aux Camelias), Chinese Bankers Recreation Club (Sunrise), Chinese Drama Group of the Sino-British Club Hong Kong (From Bad to Worse, The Image of Our Love, and That Enchanting Smile), The Chinese YMCA (Dark Waves), The Southern Drama Group (Hsiang Fei, The Prodigal Son and Begonia), Ling Tung Drama Society (Boil the Sea), and the Alpha Dramatic Society.

      Performances of opera in almost every major Chinese dialect including Mandarin, Cantonese, Fukienese, Chiuchow and Shao Hsing dialects were given by various amateur and professional groups at the City Hall, whilst a dazzling professional production of Mandarin opera was presented by the Peking Opera Troupe at the City Hall after they had completed a successful run in a local commercial theatre.

The City Hall theatre was utilized frequently as a cinema, most often by Studio One, The Film Society of Hong Kong. Among their offerings to members during the year have been Fellini's I Vitteloni, Czinner's Don Giovanni, Buster Keaton's The General, Orson Welles' Citizen Kane, Bresson's Diary of a Country Priest, Bardem's Death of a Cyclist, Ophuis' Madame de, Jean Renoir's Le Caporal Epingle and Louis Malle's Les Amants. A film of The Bolshoi Ballet was presented commercially. Indian films were shown by various private distributors usually for one performance on a Sunday. The theatre was also used for a public lecture by Sir Kenneth Clark on Turner and the Liberation of Colour as a prelude to an exhibition of Turner's watercolours in the museum

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and art gallery, an occasion which attracted considerable public interest.

       In the field of fine art Hong Kong residents and visitors had the opportunity of seeing continuous displays of Hong Kong work and also exhibitions of various kinds from overseas. Museum and art gallery presentations included Children's Art From Britain, Chinese New Year Wood Block Prints, Etchings of Otto Eglau, Japanese Prints 1740-1840, Hong Kong 1850-1910-an exhibition of photographs, Paintings by Douglas Bland, British Prints from the 3rd Tokyo Bienniel, and When Children Paint-an exhibition of pictures by young people of Hong Kong. Attendance figures at these various exhibitions increase with each fresh presentation as the Hong Kong public becomes attuned to gallery viewing. The average number of visitors in 1963 was 1,500 a day. Apart from the displays in the museum and art gallery there were also con- tinuous exhibitions of varying quality in both Chinese and Western styles by local groups, societies, artists, photographers, and private collectors in the exhibition halls which are available for hire. Most of these exhibitions lasted from three to ten days and were well attended.

A particularly attractive exhibition with a local flavour resulted from a find in May of 300 copper coins of the T'ang and Sung dynasties by a farmer who was digging for water in a dry stream bed near Sheung Shui in the New Territories. Covering over 25 reign titles in the three centuries of the Sung period (960-1280), and three in the Tang Dynasty for reign periods in the seventh and eighth centuries, the coins were cleaned and put on show in the City Hall and aroused much interest.

       The four lecture rooms and committee rooms in the City Hall have become the meeting place and in some ways the homes of many cultural bodies which do not have permanent accommoda- tion of their own. The various activities there included weekly sketching classes, daily extra-mural courses by the University of Hong Kong, weekly lectures on Chinese literature, as well as fre- quent film shows and slide talks organized by various societies.

       The main cultural activities which took place outside the City Hall included the previously mentioned performances of Peking opera by the Peking Opera Troupe, a number of exhibitions in

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the newly opened Chatham Gallery, and various concerts given in the New Territories by the Music Society of Hong Kong who also presented private recitals in the homes of its members and a number of sessions of experimental theatre conducted by the Garrison Players.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

The Government Collections of pictorial material consist of the Ho Tung Collection, the Chater Collection, and the Law and Sayer Collections. They contain more than 700 items including paintings, prints, engravings and photographs. They illustrate the growth and development of Hong Kong, and life in the Colony, Macau and the China Coast area during the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- turies. On the opening of the City Hall an exhibition which included many of the paintings in the collections was arranged, and an exhibition of old photographs of Hong Kong was shown later.

      Arrangements were made to transfer the Government's Henry Yeung Collection of Chinese Ceramics from the University, where it had been on display for some years pending the completion of the City Hall. The collection comprises 166 pieces, and consists of some fine grave pottery of the Han Dynasty, a series of early bronze mirrors, and outstanding pieces of Ming porcelain. Through- out the year the collection of Chinese antiquities consisting of ceramics, sculpture, painting, textiles and bronze continued to grow. A number of paintings and sculptures were also added to the collection of works by local artists.

      The Maglioni Collection of books and archaeological material was donated to the Government by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Hong Kong in 1954. Both the books and the archaeological collection are on loan to the University where they are available to scholars and research students.

      The City Hall library now possesses a collection of approxi- mately 125,000 items, including the Kotewall Collection, also a gift to the Government, consisting of 14,825 volumes mainly in Chinese, and the Hok Hoi Library of 34,415 volumes of Chinese classical literature which is on permanent loan to Government. The lending department has almost 40,000 books available for home reading. These consist of roughly equal numbers of Chinese

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and English books, and one quarter of them are for children. The reference department houses almost 10,000 volumes, together with the nuclei of map and picture collections. Again, about half the books are in Chinese. There are another 65,000 Chinese volumes, mostly traditional books from the Kotewall and Hok Hoi Collec- tions, not yet fully catalogued, but available on special request. The library also possesses the complete National Library of Peking on 8,000 rolls of microfilm.

      The Colonial Secretariat library houses 9,553 volumes. These include many Government publications; books written especially about Hong Kong, including publications by local authors, refer- ence books on such subjects as public administration, sociology, economics and political science; and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of south-east Asia. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public.

BRITISH COUNCIL

The British Council continued to make a valuable contribution to the cultural life of Hong Kong. Several exhibitions were mounted, one of which consisted of facsimiles of the Shakespeare First Folio and Quartos, giving the Colony a foretaste of the coming Quatercentenary celebrations. Other exhibitions included Recent British Prints, Coventry Cathedral and Kew Gardens.

       A visit to Hong Kong in October by Sir Kenneth Clark, the former Director of the National Gallery, was made possible through the Council's good offices. Sir Kenneth's lecture on J. M. W. Turner was a prelude to the British Museum exhibition of Turner's watercolours in the art gallery of the City Hall. General assistance was given to touring British musicians, most notable of whom was the guitarist, Julian Bream.

       In the reverse direction, a three-month visit to Britain was arranged for the assistant manager of the City Hall for him to study the administration of cultural centres in Britain and in a number of European cities. Of the nine scholarships awarded locally, one went to an art teacher to enable him to study sculpture at the Ravensbourne College of Art and Design. Through the

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distribution of professional publications and personal contacts the Council maintains close relations with most of the Colony's cultural groups, the University of Hong Kong, the New Chinese University and Government departments, many of whose officers have joined the Council's specialist courses in the United Kingdom. Local cultural bodies received assistance of various kinds from the Council, notably the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Hong Kong Stage Club, the Hong Kong Singers and the Music Society.

www.

BLIC LIBRAR

The Social Welfare Department have two vocational training centres where girls are taught various forms of handicraft. After training, many of the girls become sufficiently skilled to earn their living in outside industry. At the vocational centre in the Tung Tau resettlement estate (above) a young girl attends one of the department's many courses.

Among the many organizations in the Colony caring for young people is the Hong Kong Sea School. The school trains under-privileged boys for a career in the merchant navy and is actively supported by several of the shipping lines using Hong Kong. It derives its funds from voluntary contributions and an annual Government subvention.

   Education in Hong Kong has many facets and a recent innovation has been the introduction of an outdoor training course. At a camp in the New Territories pupils are taught map reading (above), nature study and local creeds and customs. Object of the course is to give young people self-reliance and help them explore the more remote areas of the Colony.

24

Sport and Recreation

      WORLD-WIDE recognition came to Hong Kong in 1963 through one of the Colony's least-practised activities-motor racing, when Albert Poon beat a powerful field of crack Asian and British drivers to carry off the Malaysia Grand Prix and the M$3,000 'Esso' trophy. Driving a new Lotus 23 which he saw for the first time when it was taken off the ship in Singapore, he covered the 180-miles Malaysia course in 2 hours 37 minutes 46 seconds, beating the previous best time by 11 minutes 38.4 seconds, with an average speed of 72 mph. Shortly afterwards, three other local racing drivers---Don Bennett, Dr Henry Lee and Arthur Pateman ---competed in the inaugural meeting of the Japanese Grand Prix and carried off some minor honours. Poon later completed an excellent double by winning the Johore Grand Prix in the same car. Experts consider him to be the finest Asian racing driver in the area.

       Go Kart racing was introduced in Hong Kong with much success and two Interports were held, one in Hong Kong and the other in Manila; on each occasion the home team triumphed.

Interest in the Far Eastern golf circuit continues to gain mo- mentum and the 1963 Hong Kong Open attracted another star field of golfers from as far away as South Africa and the United States. But it was a golfer from the Far East who carried off the top money awards. Hsieh Yung-yo, a 28-year old professional from Taiwan, showing brilliant form on the green, returned 272 for the 72-hole tournament-14 under par. Asian golfers in fact occupied four of the first five places. Tomoo Ishii of Japan was second with 275; Chen Ching of Taiwan and Peter Thomson of Australia tied for third place with totals of 276 and Hsieh Min- nam, a brilliant young amateur from Taiwan, captured fifth place with 277.

It was an important year for Colony football. Leading soccer officials made resolute efforts to raise the status of the game to

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the position of prestige it used to enjoy in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Football Association formed what came to be known as a Policy and Planning Committee-a body comprising the President and three Vice Presidents which formulated the idea of an Open League, to include amateur players, non-amateur players as defined by FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) and fully fledged professionals. A public opinion poll on the subject was held and the results showed good support for the scheme. The proposition then went before the Hong Kong Football Association Council which endorsed it.

      In international matches, Hong Kong teams held their own and only once lost a complete series. This was to a strong Swedish side which beat All Hong Kong 7-0, Hong Kong Selection 6-1 and the Combined Chinese 2-0. A combined West Berlin side played three matches in the Colony losing 3-2 and 4-2 to All Hong Kong and the Combined Chinese respectively. They beat Hong Kong Selection 2 - 0.

      Karlsruhe, also from West Germany, lost to All Hong Kong by 4-3, drew with Hong Kong Selection 2-2 and then defeated Com- bined Chinese 3-0. Hong Kong later beat the Japanese National team by 5-3 and a Hong Kong Selection won against Selangor, the Malayan Inter-State champions, by 7-2. A Hong Kong XI drew 3-3 with the very fit American Los Angeles Kickers, and Hong Kong Selection held the Korean National side to a 1 - 1 draw.

      Rugby enthusiasts had the opportunity of seeing something of the might of the famous New Zealand 'All Blacks' when they passed through the Colony en route to Europe in October. Although they were unable to play a match in Hong Kong because of a prior agreement with clubs on their European tour, they demonstrated their prowess during a training session at the Hong Kong Football Club ground which was enjoyed by a large crowd. The Club continues to dominate the rugby scene in the Colony but stronger opposition by the Police and the Army was anti- cipated during the 1963-4 season. The Army side looked particu- larly encouraging with reinforcements by men serving with the South Wales Borderers.

      The Army won the two major Hong Kong cricket champion- ships in the 1962-3 season. The First Division team, under the captaincy of Frank Fenner, were given an extremely close fight by

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Craigengower Cricket Club who finished second with the Hong Kong Cricket Club 'Scorpions' third. The Combined India, Pakistan, Malaya and Ceylon team captured the International Championship and the Civilians beat the Services in the annual representative match. One of the highlights of the season was the visit to the Colony of the Australian Sportsmen's XI which in- cluded the Australian Test wicket-keeper Wally Grout. But this team was not particularly strong and they were beaten in all their matches. Some first-class cricket was seen in November when the Interport side from Malaya was beaten by seven wickets. Hong Kong's victory was the first against Malaya for 30 years and was richly deserved.

       Ip Koon-hung continued to dominate the Colony tennis scene. He won his 14th grass court singles championship by beating Ng Man-cheung in straight sets. At an age when most men have retired from competitive sport, Ip proved that stroke-play and court craft is more than a match for sheer speed and stamina. Several of the players he eliminated en route to the final were half his age. Ip completed a highly successful campaign by also retaining his men's doubles crown in partnership with Ng Man-cheung. In the absence of Miss Tsui Yuen-yuen, the defending champion who is studying in Australia, Miss Ann Gladstone won the ladies' title after staging a fine recovery to beat Mrs Mary Chow.

       The 1962-3 racing season at Happy Valley was one of the most eventful in the history of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. The totalizator record was broken, several track records were lowered and the battle for the jockey championship was an extremely close affair between leading Chinese jockey Kenny Kwok and Australian jockey George Williams. Kwok retained his title with a win in the last race of the season. The 'tote' board record was broken by 'Mahtab' which rewarded its backers with $852.80 for a $5 win ticket.

More and more young players are taking up lawn bowls. The Indian Recreation Club-fielding one of its youngest teams- carried off the 1963 First Division championship after a keen struggle with Craigengower Cricket Club. The championship was decided in the last game of the league season when the Indian Club won 4 - 1 on their own greens. Indian Recreation Club bowlers also carried off the Third Division championship. The Second

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Division crown was won by the Hong Kong Football Club. E. M. Remedios of the Filipino Club won the Men's Open Singles title and Miss Helen Kwong of Craigengower Cricket Club won the Ladies Singles championship for the fourth time.

The Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club, with a view to taking part in the 1964 Olympic Games, sent team to the Far Eastern Yacht Racing Federation Regatta in Tokyo in October. Hong Kong's representatives were D. A. C. T. Hancock, Mrs Betty Hancock and Lieutenant Commander K. G. R. Hallam who sailed in the International Dragon Class events and Alan Stevens in the Finn Class.

The Hong Kong representatives performed creditably and the experience should stand the Colony team in good stead when the Games are held in October 1964.

Robert Loh, a student of King George V School dominated Colony swimming in 1963 and after a string of successes in the Colony championships, capped a fine season by winning the annual cross-harbour race. Miss Joan Liu Kin-wah, runner-up to Miss Juliet Sheldon in 1962, won the ladies' section of the race in which 349 swimmers competed.

     The Indonesian national hockey team visited Hong Kong in October and gave several fine displays. They opened their tour with a 5-0 win over Kowloon Cricket Club. They then defeated a combined Recreio and Macaenses team 3-0 before being held to a goalless draw by Hong Kong. In their final match, they were beaten 5-4 by Nav Bharat.

PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS AND OTHER AMENITIES

The management of parks and other public amenities in the urban areas is one of the responsibilities of the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. In the New Territories these functions are the responsibility of the Urban Services Department working in consultation with the District Commissioner.

The shortage of land in the Colony's built-up areas means that the development of parks and playgrounds can only take place in keen competition with other forms of development. Before the

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war, playgrounds were few; after the war, possible sites were dusty, uneven pieces of land which soon became occupied by squatters. Despite these difficulties old playgrounds have been improved and new ones laid out and, in addition to the large parks and formal playgrounds, a great deal has been done to improve the appearance of the city by tidying up small derelict roadside areas and, where possible, turfing and planting them with shrubs and trees. The Urban Services Department looks after parks, playgrounds and rest gardens with a total area of 434.66 acres, two swimming pools and 30 public bathing beaches.

In the urban areas there are now 103 parks and playgrounds and 28 amenity plots, totalling 263.51 acres. Besides Victoria Park, the Botanic Gardens and several other parks, these areas provide a variety of recreational facilities, including 13 pitches for soccer, hockey and rugby football, 30 mini-soccer pitches, 86 courts for basketball/volleyball and badminton, 14 tennis courts, two squash courts, two running tracks, 50 children's playgrounds, five children's libraries, model-boat pools, a roller-skating rink and bandstands.

Many new amenity projects were completed in the urban area in 1963. At Kowloon Tsai Park, which is still under construction, a new swimming pool was completed to Olympic standards. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club donated $2 million towards the cost of the pool. It will be opened for public use in 1964 when the water supply situation permits. At Kai Tak West a new play- ground of five acres was completed. This contains a floodlit mini- soccer pitch, five small games courts, changing facilities and a children's playground and library. Five playgrounds containing 13 small games courts and four children's play-areas were completed at Kwun Tong resettlement estate. New playgrounds were also completed at Oxford Road, Sung Wong Toi and Kent Road, while at Boundary Street Sports Ground a new spectator stand and changing facilities were built. At Victoria Park a new floodlit exhibition tennis court was officially opened.

      A number of projects are still under construction, of which Kowloon Tsai Park is the largest. When completed this park will cover an area of almost 40 acres and will include a running track and athletic field, two full size soccer pitches and four smaller soccer pitches, courts for badminton, basketball, volleyball, 10 hard tennis courts, separate children's play-area and a library.

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During the year the United States Government donated $760,000 towards the cost of this park. At Mount Austin a start was made on the building of a pavilion in a new children's playground and at Tin Kwong Road four hard tennis courts are under construction. The twelve bathing beaches in the urban area continued to be very popular. This year, in addition to the regular force of 80 departmental lifeguards, volunteers were supplied by the Hong Kong Life Guard Club at week-ends and public holidays. A Swimming Safety Campaign was held during the summer and there was a marked decrease in the number of swimming accidents and drownings. The first of a new type of beach pavilion, con- taining a cafe with changing rooms, first aid rooms, office and store, was built at Deep Water Bay. Construction of similar facili- ties was started at Stanley main beach.

In the New Territories the Urban Services Department now looks after 14 parks and playgrounds totalling 171.15 acres. During the year the playground at Shek Wu Hui was completed; it has two football pitches, changing facilities and a children's play- ground. Also completed was a rest garden at Tai Po Kau. A natural park of more than 150 acres at Clear Water Bay was opened. Three scenic look-out pavilions, built in traditional Chinese style, were erected at vantage points overlooking Sha Tin Valley, Kam Tin Valley and at Clear Water Bay. The first recreation ground for Tsuen Wan is being built; it will have football pitches and tennis courts. At Lok Ma Chau another scenic look-out pavilion in a garden setting is under construction. Work was completed on the restoration of Silverstrand Beach including the reconstruction of the promenade following the severe damage caused by typhoon Wanda in 1962.

During the year a special effort was made to increase the numbers of trees and shrubs planted in the urban area. Despite the drought conditions 7,644 trees and 18,101 shrubs were planted. Several new tree nurseries were established and the existing nurseries were extended in order to maintain the increasing plant- ing programme.

      At the larger parks 58 free band concerts were given by bands of the police, military regiments and visiting naval vessels. The Government Stadium at So Kon Po was used on 97 occasions for football matches, parades and charity shows. A total of 5,511

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games were played on the sports grounds at Happy Valley, Boundary Street, King's Park and Victoria Park. The Chinese New Year fairs were held at Victoria Park, Maple Street Playground and King George V Memorial Park, Kowloon.

Part III

25

Geography

THIS chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present a background picture against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report may be viewed.

GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China, adjoining the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, being less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon on the mainland stand on either side of the harbour, and are about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony to within little more than 24 hours of Britain, while the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles. The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles, made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island, including a number of small adjacent

islets: 29 square miles

(b) Kowloon and Stonecutters Island: 33 square miles

(c) The New Territories, which consist of a substantial section of the mainland and over 230 islands: 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

       Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded domes of granitic rocks which cover south-east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and mountain building of the Jurasside, Laramide and Alpine revolu- tions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of some importance. Galena, silver, wol- framite, molybdenite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold,

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sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, beryl, felspar and kaolinite have all been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging monocline which strikes north-east to south-west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The general appearance is that of an upland terrain which the sea has invaded. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. As a result decay to a laterised rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet.

      The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have revealed submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine-grained crystalline rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse-grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet. The age of this granite has recently been determined by the Rubidium- Strontium method as approximately 134 million years. Thus it belongs to the Upper Jurrassic (Portlandian) period.

Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area has any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility, needing the addition of lime, potash and super- phosphates. The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage and this makes it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall régime of the area alone accounts for many of the water

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shortages. In 1938, for instance, the total rainfall was only 55 inches, compared with the yearly average of 85 inches. In order to husband and conserve water reserves to meet the demands both of an ever increasing population and of agriculture and industry, it has been necessary to apply restrictions during dry seasons for some part of every year since 1934. A vast building scheme to construct more reservoirs over the next few years (see chapter 16) is in hand to provide a constant water supply in the face of the rapidly increasing population and the expansion of industry.

VEGETATION

Hong Kong lies in the frost-free double cropping rice zone of east Asia. While rice remains the major crop of the New Territories by area, its production and value otherwise are surpassed by market garden cropping. Where there is adequate water two crops of rice are grown each year. The first crop is sown into the nurseries in early March, transplanted in April and harvested in June and July. Second crop seedlings are nursed in June for planting out by the end of July and the crop is harvested during October and early November.

Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important. Vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. Production is very intensive and in certain areas as many as eight crops a year are grown. The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilization of these areas is principally through afforestation, which has been vigorously pursued since 1945.

POPULATION

More than 98 per cent of the population is Chinese. The census taken in 1931 showed the population to be 849,751. In 1941 a count of heads for air raid precaution purposes put the figure at about 1,600,000. On the re-occupation of the Colony in 1945 the Japanese-sponsored Hong Kong News estimated the population at 650,000. The most recent census, taken in March 1961, showed the

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total population to be 3,133,131, of whom 1,610,650 were male and 1,522,481 female.

The bulk of the population comes from the neighbouring Chinese province of Kwangtung. It consists of Cantonese, more than twelve times the size of the next largest group, followed by Hoklo, Hakka, Sze Yap and Tanka. From 1949 to 1951 a certain number came from the central coastal provinces of China. Not all of Hong Kong's phenomenal increase is due to immigrant popula- tion; the natural annual increase of births over deaths is close to 100,000. The greatest concentration of people (a little over 70 per cent) live around the coastal fringes of the harbour, where the population pressure strikes the visitor most forcibly. The crude birth rate in Hong Kong is about 33 per mille, which is very low for Asia.

CLIMATE

The climate of Hong Kong is governed by the monsoons, and although the Colony lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north or north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails from October until mid- March, but can persist until May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year, when the weather is generally dry and sunny with mean daily temperatures about 70°F to 75°F; this is the most popular time of the year with tourists. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; fre- quently the days are overcast and dull with chilly winds. Coastal fogs occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

       The summer monsoon blows from the south or south-west and although it can occur from mid-April until September it is not as persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. During this part of the year the weather is almost continuously hot and humid, and is often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms. Summer is the rainy season. The annual rainfall, as measured at the Royal Observatory, has varied between 46 inches and 120 inches, but the normal value is 85 inches. On average the five dry months from November to March yield only nine inches as com- pared with 76 inches spread over the other seven months. There

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is also considerable variation in rainfall over different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountain regions, particularly around Tai Mo Shan and on Lantau Island.

The mean daily temperature ranges from about 58°F in February to over 82°F in July and the average for the year is 72°F. During the hottest month, July, the mean maximum temperature is 87°F, but the summer temperature often exceeds 90°F. February is the coldest month with a mean minimum temperature of 56°F, but the temperature can be expected to fall to 45°F in most years. Temperatures above 95°F or below 40°F are rarely recorded at the Observatory although greater extremes occur in the New Territories. Ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon tem- peratures are usually 8°F to 9°F higher than those during the coldest part of the night. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid-February until early September. November is the least humid month with a mean relative humidity of 69 per cent, but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from three hours in March to over seven hours in mid-July and late October.

      Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November, but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force when damage and loss of life may occur. The last occasion when such winds were experienced was in September 1962 when the centre of typhoon Wanda passed over the southern part of the Colony.

26

Natural History

BECAUSE of Hong Kong's small area, the nature lover need never be far from the countryside. On Hong Kong Island, a drive of 30 minutes or less is sufficient to reach the Tai Tam Reservoir catch- ment area where there are many miles of interesting walks, or the hills above Shek O all of which command a sweeping view. In the New Territories and less than one hour's drive from Kowloon, there are many areas which contain varieties of tropical flora and tropical or sub-tropical fauna. Most of the islands can be reached by ferry and these too contain much of interest to the naturalist, while the waters which surround the islands abound in marine life.

Mammals. Due to the rapid post-war development and expan- sion of the population of Hong Kong, several species of the Colony's wild mammals are, unfortunately, decreasing in numbers. Among the rare mammals are the South China Tiger, Leopard, Dhole or Indian Wild Dog, South China Red Fox, Crab-eating Mongoose and Large Chinese Civet. It is probable that most of these animals have now disappeared from the Colony. The last confirmed visit of a large feline to Hong Kong from south China was in 1957, when a leopard killed a number of domestic animals in the New Territories. Others, which must now be regarded as rare, are the small Chinese Leopard Cat and the primitive Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Ant-eater. It is unfortunate that several species of civets, wild cats, deer, pangolins and porcupines are locally valued as food or for medicinal purposes.

      Monkeys are found in small numbers in the Tai Tam area of Hong Kong Island and in the woods near Kowloon Reservoir. They may be descendants of released or escaped specimens and it is possible that those in the Tai Tam area are survivors of the indigenous Rhesus Monkeys which less than a hundred years ago inhabited most of the small islands about Hong Kong. Another indigenous mammal is the small Chinese Ferret-Badger, seldom seen on account of its shy nocturnal habits, which lives in the Peak

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district on Hong Kong Island and in other wooded localities. The Eastern Chinese Otter has been seen rarely recently. Two species of civets still found in the Colony are the Rasse or Small Indian Civet and the Masked Palm Civet; both are shy nocturnal creatures and good climbers, feeding on small animals and fruit.

      The Barking Deer, known also as Reeves' Muntjac, inhabits various hilly wooded localities on Hong Kong Island. Being largely nocturnal it is seldom seen, although its characteristic bark is familiar to many residents of the Peak. It is a small deer, about the size of a large dog; the males have simple antlers, and their canines are developed as short curved tusks. In the New Territories, where it has been hunted, this animal has now become scarce. The Wild Boar, which is also hunted, now occurs only in very small numbers in the New Territories.

      Rodents deserving special mention are the Chinese or Crestless Himalayan Porcupine, found both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, the Smaller Bandicoot Rat, and a pretty little animal called the Eastern Spiny-haired Rat which is bright yellowish-brown above and pure white on the belly. All three are entirely 'wild' (non-domestic) species. Among the Colony's other small mammals are the House Shrew, and several species of insect and fruit-eating bats.

       Cetaceans so far recorded in or near Hong Kong waters are the Common Dolphin, the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale of which there was a single record during 1955. Another newly recorded cetacean is the Pigmy Sperm- whale caught on the shore of Pak Sha Wan in May 1963.

       Birds. Over 300 species of birds have been identified in Hong Kong. Consequently, there is much to interest ornithologists and bird watchers, and opportunity exists for a great deal more work on their ecology and migration. They include both palaearctic and oriental species, some of the families represented being those con- taining the crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, munias, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, eagles, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks and grebes. Birds rarely seen in the Colony include Swinhoe's Forked-tailed Petrel, the Chinese Pitta, the Large Chinese Cuckoo-shrike, the Crimson Legged Crake, the Malay Brown Hawk-Owl, the Siberian Thrush,

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the Orange-headed Ground Thrush, the Black Stork and the Imperial Eagle.

Reptiles and Amphibians. Snakes, lizards and frogs are all well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terra- pins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad, and the Hong Kong Newt. There is a strong Indian element in this section of the local fauna, of which several species are so far known only in Hong Kong. Most of the common snakes are harmless and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Apart from certain rear-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Maccleland's Coral Snake, the Chinese Cobra, the Hamadryad (King Cobra), and the White- lipped Pit Viper (commonly called 'Bamboo Snake'). The four species of sea snakes found in the waters around Hong Kong are all venomous, but fortunately these do not attack bathers. A juvenile Common Water-monitor, one of the world's largest species of lizard, was caught in the harbour off Stonecutters Island in January 1963 in addition to three specimens recorded since 1961.

       Invertebrates. The most attractive insects are the butterflies, of which almost 200 species belonging to nine families, have been found in Hong Kong. The beautiful and predominantly tropical butterflies, popularly known as 'swallow-tails', are often seen on country walks. Of the many moths, two deserve special mention on account of their large size and attractive colouring. One, the magnificent Atlas Moth, has a wing-span of from seven to ten inches, and is one of the largest moths in the world. The other is the Moon Moth, soft silvery green in colour, with a wing-span of from four to six inches and swallow-tailed wings.

Several species of cicadas are well-known during spring and summer for the incessant song of the males in their brief adult stage. Very little is known about the immature nymphal stage of these remarkable insects, which spend years below the surface of the ground. A spectacular large insect living in ponds is the Giant Water Bug, over three inches in length, which feeds on small fish, frogs and other aquatic creatures. An interesting crustacean is the giant Coconut or Robber Crab, several specimens of which were found in 1963. It has a body one foot in length, and is a relative of the Hermit Crab. Of the terrestrial molluscs, the Giant African Snail is a familiar crop pest commonly found among vegetation.

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       Marine Fauna. The fish of Hong Kong are of extraordinary diversity and hundreds of different species pass through the markets. Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer and flanked to the west by the Pearl River, which brings down enormous quantities of food and nutrients from China, the waters of the Colony support a great variety of both tropical and temperate water fishes, many of which give rise to major fisheries on their seasonal breeding or feeding migrations. In the summer months during recent years large sharks and manta rays have been particu- larly abundant and have on occasion caused both welcome and unwelcome excitement among fishermen, swimmers and yachtsmen. Infrequent incursions of oceanic water from the south bring with them during the summer such varieties as flying fish and the beautiful but deadly Portuguese Man O' War, with its striking purple and red float and long stinging tentacles. The invertebrate fauna of the Colony are as diverse in form and colour as the fish. Hidden from sight to all except divers is a profusion of corals, sea-fans, sea-lilies and many other beautiful marine animals.

Flora. It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of neighbouring southern China. The principal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor. A large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casuarina, eucalyptus and Flamboyant. The traditional Chinese belief (fung shui) that the disposition of buildings, graves, trees, water and mountains may affect a person's fortune and destiny, has done much to preserve fine groves of trees, mostly camphor, banyans and clumps of bamboo, around many farms and villages in the New Territories. Some of the mountain slopes, from a distance, seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation it can be seen that the water courses are marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

       The principal locally-grown fruits include lychee, lung ngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced the papaya, the pineapple, the custard apple and the guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine is a native of South China

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NATURAL HISTORY

and was introduced to the west in the seventeenth century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control. The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not com- pletely, described in G. B. Bentham's Flora Hongkongensis, published in 1861, and in Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series, The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong by A. H. Crook; Plants of Lan Tau Island by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; Familiar Wild Flowers of Hongkong illustrated with photo- graphs by V. H. C. Jarrett, published in 1937; and many papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war three official publications have appeared in the series Food and Flowers containing, amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony. A comprehensive list of all the known wild plants of Hong Kong has recently been compiled and is available from the Colonial Herbarium.

The flora of the Colony is tropical, although at about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants to lie dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. As a result of this, a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in other equatorial countries.

Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected most species flower during spring and early summer. Some are easy to place in their correct families -for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose- madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camellia-like flowers, white tinged with gold bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. This latter is a tall tree with glossy foliage, described as a distinct genus in 1908 in honour

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353

of W. J. Tutcher, former Superintendent of the then Botanical and Forestry Department. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is re- miniscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony. Of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another with large pale pink flowers is so rare that it is known to exist only on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne in profusion on leafless branches.

       The Bauhinia blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world. Its origin is unknown and it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

There are several species of Camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one have white flowers; the one with red flowers is known only on Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct Camellia was dis- covered in 1955 and named Camellia granthamiana in honour of the then Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee Reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers 51⁄2 inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre. From this solitary tree numerous seeds and grafts have been distributed to many botanical and horticultural institutions abroad. One such plant recently flowered for the first time at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, England.

       Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. The large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of the Gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous

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NATURAL HISTORY

yellow fruits with elusive names abound the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries, one of which is the Mussaenda or Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy cuticle, but probably the only true blue is that of the Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis (the so-called Hong Kong Hawthorn), the wild jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and splits open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance, these open fruits look like large red flowers.

There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public. These include two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruits resembling small oranges, a species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits unmis- takable because of their large size and horn-like shape, and a species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. The latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid gelsemidine, which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as 12 grams of leaf constitute a fatal dose and that death follows within a few hours. It is sometimes used by country people to commit suicide. Wild edible fruits include a wild jack-fruit (Artocarpus), the fruit of the rose-myrtle, wild bananas and raspberries. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

     There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of English hedgerows, has five close relatives in Hong Kong. There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. The English honey-suckle has five relatives whose Cantonese name is 'kam ngan fa' (gold and silver flower) because of their change in colour from white to yellow.

       More than 70 species of native orchids are recorded in the flora. Most of the epiphytic species possess small flowers which are not of particular interest to the horticulturist. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun

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355

orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other noteworthy species are the white Susanna orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

      There is a fine wild iris, Iris speculatrix, further south than any other true iris. Its violet flower, from two and a half to three inches in diameter, is tinged with bright orange, and blooms from the middle of March to the end of April. A wild lily, Lilium brownii, appears in June with its trumpet flowers up to seven inches in length, white and sometimes purple-streaked. A wild Crinum with long sword-like leaves and bunches of white flowers is found by the sea, and also the Belamcanda, one of the iris family, with red-dotted orange-yellow flowers. Platycodon, the Chinese Bell-flower, is very widely distributed in eastern Asia, being abundant as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Hong Kong. This lovely violet giant harebell is common on grassy slopes on the south side of Hong Kong Island. It is a perennial plant with thick fleshy root stock valued for medicinal purposes and was introduced into cultivation in England as far back as the seventeenth century.

      In damp ravines may be found the Chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, tree-ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides, English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong Bracken, a Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea. Other species recorded in recent years are Stuartia villosa, Ormosia indurata and Eryngium foetidum, found on Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong Island and Lantau Island respectively.

Botanical Collections. The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since that book was produced. At present over 29,000 specimens are preserved, and members of the public who wish to find out the names of native plants are encouraged to consult the herbarium, which is in the 'Parks and Playgrounds' section of the Urban Services Department.

Societies. In addition to the Colonial Herbarium, interest in flora and horticulture in Hong Kong is fostered by the Hong Kong

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     Horticultural Society and by the Hong Kong Natural History Society which was founded in 1949 as the Hong Kong Biological Circle to facilitate and encourage the study of natural history in the Colony. In 1963, the Society published a memoir with a special account of termites of Hong Kong. Another society is the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, founded in 1957 for the study of local bird life.

Protection of Fauna and Flora. The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance, 1954, provides for the conserva- tion of all wild birds and several of the rarer mammals, except vermin. It also prohibits the trapping or poisoning of vermin (excluding rodents). Game birds may be shot only in season. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. By regulations made under the Forestry Ordinance, protection is also given to certain plants, including camellias, magnolias, orchids and azaleas.

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The Central district of Hong Kong with St John's Cathedral in the fore- ground, as it was in 1875 (above). The cathedral is among the few buildings still virtually unchanged today (below) in the same area. The historical photographs on these pages are taken from the exhibition, 'Hong Kong 1850-1910', held in the City Hall in 1963.

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In 1880, Nathan Road (above) in Kowloon presented a pastoral scene. On the left of the road near the lamp post is the entrance to Whitfield Barracks. Nathan Road today (below) is one of Kowloon's busiest thoroughfares with its luxury hotels, shopping arcades and dual carriageway traffic. Yet trees still line some sections of the road.

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Flags decorated Queen's Road on Hong Kong Island in 1897 (above) for Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. Shown here are the clock tower at the top of Pedder Street and the colonnaded shop and office buildings. Now, Queen's Road (below) is overshadowed by some of the tallest buildings in Hong Kong. Construction work on other new buildings continues.

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TAILORS

**

The former Government offices in Lower Albert Road on Hong Kong Island (above) as they were in 1869. On the left is the Murray Battery. The United States Consulate building now occupies the site of the house on the right of the picture. The main wing of the Central Government Offices (below) as they are today.

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27

History

Hong Kong-a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

ANTECEDENTS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the nineteenth century Hong Kong remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained themselves by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. The fishing ports of Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were noted as the haunts of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the T'ang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have continuous history dating back to the eleventh century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

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HISTORY

In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor, was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung boy Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

The maritime relations between China and the West were at first dominated by Arab and Near Eastern traders who formed a con- siderable community at Canton from the seventh century onwards, but Chinese traders also penetrated to the Indian Ocean from the eleventh century. The Portuguese formed the spear-head of European maritime contacts with China. Jorge Alvarez reached China by sea in 1513, the first European to do so; the earliest Portuguese traders followed in 1517 and 40 years later, in 1557, they established themselves at Macau, partly in return for assistance in the suppression of piracy. For nearly 300 years, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of Chinese official opinion which was not interested in commercial or cultural contacts, Macau provided the one reliable point of contact between China and the West.

      The first Englishman to attempt to trade with China was John Weddell in 1637. He found Portuguese influence against him and tried to force his way up to Canton and not surprisingly his venture ended in complete failure. Later attempts were similarly unsuccessful, the first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese being the East India Company ship Macclesfield in 1699. The company sent ships to Canton each year thereafter, and in 1715 decided to establish permanent commercial relations and set up a 'factory', as it was known, outside the town. Attempts to extend the trade to Amoy, Ningpo and Tamsui failed and in 1757 trade with the West was confined to Canton by Imperial edict, and placed under the direct control of an Imperial official called the Hoppo. In addition, a guild of Chinese merchants called the

* The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small

public park near the original site.

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Hong Merchants or Co-hong was given a monopoly of western trade by a similar edict in 1755. Many other European nations sent traders to Canton, but in the second half of the eighteenth century the British gradually secured a dominant share of the trade mainly as a result of growing control in India, and the lead in Sino-western relations therefore naturally fell to Britain.

The trade was lucrative and yet there were grievances. Residence at Canton was confined to the trading season and hedged with personal restrictions which confined the traders to the factory area, denied them access to the city and placed them in the hands of the Co-hong in their dealings with officials for the fixing of prices and the levying of port dues. The westerners were regarded as barbarian, yet there was mutual trust which enabled written com- mercial contracts to be dispensed with.

The British made unavailing efforts to improve conditions at Canton by diplomatic means after appeals to the provincial officials there had failed. In 1793 Lord Macartney, fresh from his successful mission to Russia, was sent to Peking as ambassador, ostensibly to congratulate the Emperor, but chiefly to secure commercial concessions at Canton or else to acquire an island where the British could reside under their own law and government. He was hospitably received in Peking and created a favourable impression, but all his requests were refused. In 1816 a second embassy under Lord Amherst failed even more completely, Amherst being ordered to leave Peking without even seeing the Emperor.

The East India Company held a monopoly of British trade with China, but in the late eighteenth century the company began to concentrate on the valuable tea trade. At the same time licensed private traders engaged in what was termed the 'country trade' between India and China. By acting as representatives of foreign states these private traders overcame the reluctance of the company to allow them to reside in Canton and Macau. Thus an enlarged British community developed, strongly favouring the new free trade ideas then being discussed in England and clamouring for the abolition of the East India Company's now nominal monopoly. Abolition was, in fact, effected by Parliamentary action in 1833.

      To replace the company's control, Lord Napier was sent out in 1834 as Chief Superintendent of Trade, with strict instructions to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Chinese. But his position

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was weak, because he had no power to negotiate and no means of controlling his compatriots. He went to Canton without seeking the required permit and tried to deal with the Canton officials direct, thus disobeying the rule that required all com- munications with the officials to be made through the Co-hong. After a few weeks of impasse Napier retired to Macau, a sick man, and died there 10 days later. Meanwhile official Chinese opinion was becoming alarmed over the financial and moral consequences of the increased popularity of opium smoking, which had led to opium becoming the staple of the trade with India despite a Chinese prohibition on its importation. After much debate among the Mandarin officials the Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsu as Special Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. Lin took strong action and within a week of his arrival at Canton, in March 1839, he had surrounded the foreign factories with an armed force. He allowed no Europeans to leave, stopped supplies of food and water, and demanded the surrender of all opium for destruction. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents. But Elliot refused to allow anyone to sign the bond and, much to Lin's annoyance, all British trade was stopped until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by commer- cial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a settlement in relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which would put commercial relations

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on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used. An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by enforcing measures against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and Keshen, a Manchu commissioner who had replaced Lin after his exile in disgrace, resulted in agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty--the Convention of Chuenpi-on 20th January 1841. By it, Hong Kong was to be ceded. The island was formally occupied by a naval party on the 26th January 1841, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a commercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships ', and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

Pottinger visited Hong Kong Island during the winter of 1841-2 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's Road'. Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supple- mentary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843 the Chinese were

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allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed, British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

      The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, probably malaria, decimated the Europeans and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, while build- ings in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000, with a further 2,000 living afloat. The first report on population in June 1845 gave the total as 23,817, of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

At first the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium, as had been predicted, trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parlia- mentary Committee of Enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts that Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

Shortly after Hong Kong's foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to south-east Asia and the countries bordering the Pacific. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco. In 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration of labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses connected with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing reasonable standards of food, space and medical atten- tion. This tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports, but Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

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      The T'ai P'ing Rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting in thousands seeking refuge in the Colony. By 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated and is significant among the factors which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

The Treaties of Tientsin at the conclusion of the Second Anglo- Chinese War of 1856-8, gave Britain and France the privilege of diplomatic representation at Peking. However, the first British envoy, Sir Frederick Bruce, who had served as Colonial Secretary in Hong Kong in 1844-5, was met by armed Chinese opposition at Taku Bar on his way to the Chinese capital. In the ensuing hostilities, Kowloon peninsula was occupied and used as a camp for the British forces and Sir Harry Parkes at Canton secured from the Viceroy there the perpetual lease of the peninsula as far as Boundary Street, including Stonecutters Island. The Con- vention of Peking, 1860, converted the lease into an outright cession.

      The naval and military authorities claimed the whole of the newly acquired area and it was only after some four years of strenuous advocacy of the Colony's interests that the Governor, Sir Hercules Robinson, was able to confine the Services to specified areas, subject to their right to occupy additional areas in case of military emergency. Under these circumstances the development of Kowloon as a residential area and commercial port was seriously hindered. Land values remained low and the necessary reclama- tions proceeded slowly because incentive was lacking. The develop- ment of Kowloon had to wait until population pressures of the twentieth century forced the pace.

      By the Convention of Peking of 1898, negotiated with China because of rivalry between the western powers over concessions in China and because of fear of French and Russian ambitions in the Far East following the alliance of these two powers in 1893, Hong Kong's boundaries were again extended by a 99-year lease of the mainland north of Kowloon, together with some 235 islands in the vicinity. This extension soon acquired the name New Territories. The British take-over in April 1899 met with some

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initial ill-organized armed opposition, but Sir Henry Blake based the administration on the maintenance of Chinese law and custom, in co-operation with village committees and headmen, and by extensive visits to the villages to explain his policy in person he was able to build up confidence. Steps were taken to improve economic conditions and check widespread malaria, so that the population has gradually increased from about 100,000 to nearly half a million as shown by the 1961 Census.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion in trade and population, and of consequent material and social improve- ments. The old traditional practice of European and Chinese com- munities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. Each pursued his own way of life largely independent of the other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education there could be little Chinese participation in government, western commerce or the professions. There have been, however, Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by missionary bodies, who have received grants or subsidies since 1873 and have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai, with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of its first graduates was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

      Undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding in 1911 of the University of Hong Kong, which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis of its faculties of medicine and engineering. The University was made possible by the enthusiasm of Sir Frederick Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who met the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of

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subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the University has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking University in a Chinese environ- ment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and south- east Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community. The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials, but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle, and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected.' The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body representative of responsible Chinese opinion. The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies, the first government medical officer being appointed in 1847 to treat prisoners in the gaol and the police. He opened a small makeshift hospital the following year which served until 1859 when a Government Civil Hospital was opened. This was destroyed by the 1874 typhoon and adjoining buildings had to be requisitioned. On this site now stand the modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Sai Ying Pun Jockey Club Clinic. The Kowloon Govern- ment Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. Both these Government hospitals have been eclipsed in size by the new Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon, opened in September.

       The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building and Queen's Road approxi- mately follows the line of the original settlement. Expansion could only take place on the slopes of the Peak-as for example Stanley

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Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area or by reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously over-crowded and insanitary. It was this which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

As a result of complaints from the military about the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, Osbert Chadwick, a sanitary engineer, was sent out by the home government. A Sanitary Board was set up in 1883 to which nominated unofficials were added in 1886 and two elected representatives of the ratepayers in 1887. It could bring about little improvement because of Chinese opposition to western ideas of sanitation and to any interference with their way of life. There was also opposition to the cost of sanitary improve- ments on the part of the community, already burdened by a costly programme of public works and by defence expenditure at a time when the dollar was falling in value. The result of this neglect was an outbreak of the plague in 1894. Two Japanese doctors who came to investigate, Professor Vitasato and Dr Aoyama, claimed to be the first to isolate the plague bacillus and to demonstrate that it was carried by rats. Even then there was considerable opposition to house-cleansing and measures against rat-infestation, and annual visitations of the plague continued until about 1927. The Sanitary Board continued until 1935, when its functions were broadened and taken over by an Urban Council.

      The earliest reclamation was the filling of a small creek in 1851, to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land. The most important reclamation was that in the Central district, begun in 1890 and completed in 1904, which added Chater Road, Connaught Road and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclama- tions were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanization led also to the problem of water, and the start of a century-long race between water supply and popula- tion demand. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugu- rated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung

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(1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

       The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first world war was followed by strong nationalist and anti-foreign sentiment, inspired both by disappointment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti-foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position.

       Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first world war to present her 'twenty one demands' to China early in 1915. In 1931 Japan occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938, resulting in a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000. It was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to extend her ambitions over the whole of east and south-east Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On 8th December 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland,

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and subsequently the British were forced to retire from the New Territories and Kowloon to Hong Kong Island. The Japanese crossed the harbour at Lei Yue Mun on the night of the 18th- 19th December and after a week of stubborn resistance on the island the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

      British civilians were interned at Stanley while the Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating con- ditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organizing mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Terri- tories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

      Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a tem- porary military government. Civil government was formally re- stored on 1st May 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his inter- rupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 a month and the population, which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000, rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the Communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million, mainly from Kwangtung province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950. By the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since

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then it has continued to rise. A census taken in 1961 showed a population figure of 3,133,131.

      Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied the growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has played, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. Low-cost housing schemes and multi-storied resettlement estates have called for a heavy investment of public funds; schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided on a scale unprecedented in the Colony's history. Despite the substantial progress made, however, the demand continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. In Kowloon and Tsuen Wan particularly, in- dustrialists have opened many large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export to all parts of the world. To meet the demand for land for industry and housing the Govern- ment has continued to carry out many new reclamation schemes, principally in the Central district, Causeway Bay and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour. The investigation of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Impressive schemes to improve the water supply were completed at Tai Lam Chung in 1957, and at Shek Pik in 1963; a start has been made with the Plover Cove scheme which will treble the amount of water available.

      The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops, coupled with the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques, have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with trade promotion, and technical and vocational training.

      The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network; more rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in the face of enlarged public transport services and the big increase in the number of private cars. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. A new airport

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capable of meeting the needs of the biggest aircraft in service has been completed and is in full operation, a new $16 million terminal having been opened in November 1962. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sight-seeing and shopping facilities, and night-time entertainment.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Broadcasting, wired and wireless, has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment, and wired televi- sion supplements the many modern cinemas. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

      An increased, and ever increasing, tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life. But it is the growth of local industry, which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, which has been the most significant feature- after population growth-in the Colony's history in the post-war years.

28

Constitution and Administration

CONSTITUTION

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supple- mented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

      The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and seven nominated members. The ex officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary, and there is one nominated official member. The six unofficials at present include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding which questions should come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The same five ex officio members of the Executive Council also serve on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is also the President. In addition, there are four other official members and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor who at present include five Chinese members and one Indian member.

      The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls

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finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legislative Council is based on that of the House of Commons.

      The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XII.

JUDICIARY

      Under powers conferred on the Governor by the Letters Patent, the Chief Justice, Senior Puisne Judge and Puisne Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by Letters Patent on instructions from the Sovereign given through, and on the recommendation of, the Secretary of State. District judges and magistrates are appointed by the Governor by warrant or other instrument under the Public Seal. The qualifications of judges and district judges are prescribed by the Supreme Court and District Court Ordinances.

The function of the judiciary is to try all public and private prosecutions and to determine civil disputes either between indi- viduals or between individuals and the Government. The principle of English Constitutional Law that in the performance of all judicial acts the judiciary are completely independent of the Executive and Legislative organs of Government, is followed in Hong Kong. They take no part in the formulation of policy or in the enactment of the laws. Their function is to follow and apply the law, but in the interpretation of statutes and in applying decided cases, they make new case law.

The principles of English Common Law and Equity and the Statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, are the foundation of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the Ordinances and other enactments of the Hong Kong Legislature. The Statute Laws of the Colony are consolidated and revised periodically. The current edition was published in 1951.

ADMINISTRATION

      Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of the Government are discharged by

.

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373

some 30 departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix II.

       The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative con- trol of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments and makes, or transmits from the Governor, the Governor in Council, or the Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of six divisions dealing with general administration, lands, Councils, finance, defence and establishment matters. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces (described in chap- ter 20) and acts as the main channel of communication between Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser seconded from the Foreign Office.

      The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney General, who is the head of the Legal Department and is also responsible for drafting legislation and for instituting and con- ducting public prosecutions. The Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor General, Principal Crown Counsel and Crown Counsel.

       The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. He is also specifically charged with the responsibility of maintaining direct channels of communication between Government and all levels of Chinese society in urban Hong Kong. In addition, with the assistance of his department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, he discharges a number of statutory duties including the chairman- ship of certain boards and committees (which are for the most part Chinese in composition), administration of the District Watch Force and Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, and a variety of licensing and registration duties. Other traditional responsibilities include those of arbitration in domestic or tenancy disputes, and the provi- sion of his good offices should there be any major misunderstand- ing between another department and some section of the Chinese public on other than purely professional or technical matters. He also has the important duty of providing direct liaison with villagers in semi-rural areas on Hong Kong Island and in New Kowloon. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is responsible for the

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     co-ordination of the policy by which the executive departments (the Police Force, the Preventive Service, etc) work in their war against drug trafficking and drug addiction, and in the rehabilita- tion of addicts.

      The Social Welfare Department has six sections responsible for child welfare (including care and protection of children, guardian- ship, adoption and liaison with institutions); youth welfare (group work for young people and the operation of community and social centres); the welfare of women and girls (moral welfare); special welfare services (for the physically and mentally handicapped); relief and public assistance (including emergency relief in disasters); and probation (including institutions for delinquents). A training unit, established in 1962, provides in-service training for social welfare staff of voluntary organizations and Government depart- ments. The department co-operates closely with the Council of Social Service and with the many voluntary agencies which under- take welfare work in Hong Kong (see chapter 11).

      Under the Financial Secretary, the accounting operations of Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. The audit of all public accounts and of certain special funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Reports on the accounts are presented annually by the Director of Audit and the Director General to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State. The Rating and Valuation Department, under a commissioner, is con- cerned with assessments for rates, certain rent increase control and other matters connected with the rent and value of real property, including negotiations for accommodation for Government depart- ments. The Inland Revenue Department, headed by the Commis- sioner of Inland Revenue, administers the collection of the internal revenue of the Colony. This includes earnings and profits tax, stamp duties, estate duty, entertainment tax, dance halls tax, bets and sweeps tax, and business registration fees. The Commerce and Industry Department under a director, is responsible for industrial and trade development, the collection of revenue from import and excise duties, the activities of the Preventive Service, certificates of origin, trade licensing, control over stocks of reserve com- modities, and the production of trade statistics and any other

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     statistics required by other departments of Government. The department also administers the London and Sydney offices of the Hong Kong Government. (The work of these departments has been described in chapters 4 and 6).

      The Public Works Department, under a director, has nine sub- departments, dealing with waterworks; Crown lands and surveys; the administration of the Buildings Ordinance; electrical and mechanical works (including Government motor transport); archi- tecture (Government buildings); development; port works; drain- age, and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsible for town planning. (See also chapters 10, 16 and 17).

The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordin- ance, consists of five ex officio members, namely the chairman (who is at the same time Director of the Urban Services Depart- ment), the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services (vice- chairman), the Director of Public Works, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Director of Social Welfare; and 16 ordinary members, of whom eight are elected and eight appointed by the Governor. The Commissioner for Resettlement sits as a temporary additional ex officio member. The term of office of ordinary members is four years. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by 15 select committees and three sub-committees, which meet at frequent intervals.

The membership of the Urban Council is given at Appendix XIII.

      The Council carries out its responsibilities through the Urban Services Department and the Resettlement Department. The Urban Services Department (whose work is also described in chapters 9 and 24), operates the basic sanitary services in both the urban areas and the New Territories behind Kowloon, with a variety of other duties in the field of public health such as the supervision of food premises and hawkers, the operation of the city's slaughter- houses, and pest control measures. In addition, the department controls and staffs the parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches. The management of the multi-storey car parks in the centre of the city as well as the open-air car parks in Hong Kong and Kowloon is also a responsibility of the Council, as is the City Hall.

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The Resettlement Department is responsible for the planned re- moval and resettlement of squatters, the administration of the resettlement estates and areas, and the prevention of new squatting either on vacant land or on the rooftops of buildings. The com- position of the Housing Authority and the work of the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department which is responsible, under the immediate charge of a commissioner, for routine administration and execution of the Authority's decisions, are described in chapter 10.

The Commissioner of Police is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force and the Prisons Depart- ment are described in chapter 13. The Immigration Department deals with the immigration clearance of all persons arriving by land, sea and air. Additionally it is responsible for the issue of British passports and other travel documents and visas to residents who do not qualify for British passports, and for the issue of visas to aliens who wish to come to Hong Kong to work or to establish business (see chapter 14). The Medical and Health Department is outlined in chapter 9, the Education Department in chapter 8, the Labour Department (under a commissioner who is concurrently Commissioner of Mines) and the Registry of Trade Unions in chapter 3.

      Reference to the Registrar General's Department is made in chapter 13, and to the Marine, Railway, Civil Aviation Depart- ments and the Post Office in chapter 17. The Royal Observatory is dealt with in chapter 18. The Information Services Department, Radio Hong Kong and the Public Enquiry Service are described in chapter 19. Chapter 7 describes the work of the Agriculture and Forestry Department, and of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

      The Fire Services Department provides fire protection through- out the urban areas and in the main districts of the New Terri- tories, and for shipping in the harbour.

       The Stores Department, under a controller, buys and distributes Government stores, maintains all furniture for offices and quarters, and administers the Government monopoly of sand. The Printing Department, under the Government Printer, is responsible for the

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printing of most Government publications. The Quartering Office deals with accommodation for civil servants.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The New Territories are divided into four administrative districts, each under a District Officer who has a staff of between 101 and 180, depending on the size of the district. The largest district is Tai Po, which covers the north-east of the New Terri- tories and has its District Office at Tai Po Market. The second biggest district is Yuen Long which covers the largest flat agri- cultural area in the north-west, with its District Office at Ping Shan. The third district is Tsuen Wan, which includes the rapidly growing industrial complex of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, as well as Ma Wan Island and the northern tip of Lantau Island. Its District Office is in Tsuen Wan itself. The Sai Kung area east of Kai Tak airport and the major islands of Lantau, Cheung Chau and all the other islands to the west and south of Hong Kong are administered from an office in Gascoigne Road, Kowloon.

A District Commissioner co-ordinates the overall administration of the New Territories from an office in North Kowloon. He is assisted by a Deputy District Commissioner and a headquarters staff which, including the Cadastral Survey staff, totals 105.

      The District Officers are concerned with every aspect of Govern- ment activity in their districts and act as the principal links between Government and the local inhabitants. Their responsibilities include arbitration in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including family and matrimonial cases. They control the utilization and sale of Crown land, and administer the grant of temporary struc- ture permits. They also control squatters, except in the case of Tsuen Wan where the Commissioner for Resettlement is respon- sible. They register documents and deeds relating to private land, and assess and collect stamp and estate duty. They approve plans for small domestic and agricultural buildings exempted from certain requirements of the Buildings Ordinance, 1955. District Officers have an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote, which pays for materials to help villagers improve irrigation and water supplies, build paths and small

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     bridges and carry out a wide variety of other minor works to improve the amenities of the villages.

      For local representation each of the 625 villages in the New Territories has one or more village representatives making a total of about 900. Villages are in turn grouped under Rural Com- mittees, of which there are now 27 covering the entire New Terri- tories. Each Rural Committee has an executive committee which is usually elected by secret ballot every two years by and from village representatives. The Rural Committees receive a small monthly subvention from Government to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion, arbitrates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the administration and the people.

The chairmen and vice-chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace, and 21 Special Councillors elected every two years, form the Full Council of the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as 'Rural Consultative Council'. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was constituted in 1926, and from which (except during the period from August 1958 to December 1959 when official recognition of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) Government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under its new constitution which was established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, 1959, the Kuk, apart from its Full Council, also has an Executive Com- mittee which meets monthly and consists of the chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace, and 15 ordinary members elected every two years by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the chairman and two vice- chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner. The next election to the Heung Yee Kuk will be held during April 1964 under the supervision of the District Commissioner as returning officer.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

On 1st April 1963, the establishment of the Public Service was 60,286, an increase of 3,376 over the previous year. The estimated expenditure on salaries for the financial year 1963-4 is about $393

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

379

     million, which accounts for approximately 50 per cent of the estimated recurrent Government expenditure or 29 per cent of the total estimated expenditure for the year. The Service has expanded very rapidly since 1949 (before the influx of immigrants from China started), when the total establishment was about 17,500. The Establishment Committee (a sub-committee of Finance Committee) continued to examine all departmental requests for extra staff, to ensure that expansion in the Public Service is limited to the provi- sion of essential, as opposed to simply desirable, activities.

      This growth has been accompanied by a determined effort to fill as many posts as possible with local candidates, particularly in more senior grades which have in the past been staffed largely by overseas officers. Between 1962 and 1963 the percentage of administrative and professional posts filled by local officers in- creased from 43.5 per cent to 56 per cent; over the Service as a whole, the percentage of overseas officers is 3.1 per cent. The nucleus of a training unit was established in the Colonial Secretariat in 1961 and has since expanded; it organizes various central train- ing courses and helps departments to plan their specialist training programmes. It ran a total of 30 central courses in 1963. Overseas training is also required, however, and 120 local officers went overseas during the year to obtain professional qualifications, many of them post-graduate. About $1,800,000 was spent on overseas training in 1963.

The Public Services Commission continued to play a valuable part in maintaining standards in the Public Service, by advising on the qualifications to be prescribed for various posts and on the selection of candidates for appointment. The Commission also takes an active part in ensuring a high standard of efficiency by advising on the passage of the efficiency bars which occur at various points in the salary scales of all officers serving on time scales who come within the purview of the Commission. Since 1961 these have not included the more junior posts, appointments to which are no longer referred to the Commission. In 1962 authority to appoint and promote staff to posts with an initial monthly salary of less than $930 ($690 for women) was delegated to departments, subject to certain reservations. This, in addition to being in accord- ance with the policy of giving more discretion to departments in dealing with junior staff, has facilitated recruitment to these posts.

380

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

In 1962 a selection board was set up in London to enable persons of Hong Kong origin studying in the United Kingdom to apply for posts in the Hong Kong Public Service. This is regarded as a practical way of ensuring that everything possible is done to fill vacancies with men and women whose roots are in Hong Kong and who have had the benefit of overseas education or training. Encouraging results are now being achieved by the London Selec- tion Board, and free passages are provided for successful candi- dates to return to Hong Kong to take up appointment. Where overseas staff has to be recruited, Government's normal policy is to appoint them on contract terms; and pensionable terms are offered only if suitable local candidates are unlikely to become available in the foreseeable future. There is a shortage of applicants for certain grades of the Public Service, for example in the legal and medical professions, which makes it necessary to recruit over- seas officers to posts in these grades to ensure that essential public services are maintained at the necessary level.

In conjunction with heads of departments and their representa- tives, the Establishment Branch undertook detailed reviews of the staff and salary structures of several departments during the year and produced revised structures and conditions of service designed to fit the staff structure more closely to the duties to be carried out. This is a continuing task. A Report on Government Wages and Salaries was published in April, pending the introduction in 1964 of a new consumer price index. This report sought to assess the extent to which the real value of wages and salaries have changed since the 1959 revision of Government salaries, and to make comparisons with the levels of wages and salaries obtaining outside the Public Service.

      Wage increases were granted to unskilled, semi-skilled and artisan grades as from 1st April 1963. These increases (which stemmed from the findings of the Report on Government Wages and Salaries) were designed to ensure that the wages of Govern- ment employees in these grades did not lag too far behind outside rates. Throughout the year the Establishment Branch consulted the three main civil service staff associations on a wide variety of subjects affecting the Public Service, and in particular on a substantial revision of Government General Orders.

29

Weights and Measures

THE weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

UNIT

EQUIVALENTS

Domestic

British

Metric

Length*

1 fan

0.146 in

3.715 mm

1 ts'un or tsun (Chinese inch)... 10 fan

1.463 in

3.715 cm

1 ch'ek or check (Chinese foot) 10 ts'un

14.625 in

37.15 cm

1 cheung

10 ch'ek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

1 lei (Chinese mile)

706-745 yd

646-681 m

Area

1 đau chung

1 mow

...

Weight

:

:

806.7 sq yd

6.745 a

1,008

sq yd

8.431 a

1 fan or candareen

0.013 oz

3.78 dg

1 ts'in or tsun or mace

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78 g

1 tael or tahil or leung

10 ts'in

1.333 oz

37.8

g

1 catty or kan ...

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8 g

1 picul or tam

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48 kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the ch'ek (foot) is 14§ in but the ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14ğ in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

30

Bibliography

     MUCH has been published about Hong Kong since the eighteen forties, but most of the literature is out of print and difficult to find outside the libraries of the British Museum, the University of Hong Kong, the Toyo Bunko, Tokyo, the School of Oriental and African Studies of London University, and the Colonial Office. This bibliography contains much detail, but even so is not fully comprehensive, and serious students should consult the indices of the libraries mentioned.

Books marked with an asterisk should be easy to find at present; those with a dagger are administrative or other official reports and publications; and those with a double obelus are works of fiction with a local background. Not all, as will be clear from some titles, deal solely with the Colony, but their contents may be found to be valuable. Some of the more important are set in larger type. No references are made to modern command papers or other periodic publications of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, nor to articles in journals or magazines or to commercial directories. Inclusion of a book in this list is by no means to be taken as assurance that the Hong Kong Government agrees with any expression of opinion or statement of fact found in it.

(nd): no date of publication (np): no publisher's imprint

*ABEND (H. E.)-Treaty Ports-New York, Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1944.

**ABERCROMBIE (Professor Sir Patrick)-Hong Kong: Preliminary Planning Report-London,

Crown Agents, 1949.

ABRAHAM (J. J.)-The surgeon's log; being impressions of the Far East-London, Chapman

and Hall, 1912.

AINSWORTH (W. F.)-All round the world; an illustrated record of voyages, travels and adventures

          in all parts of the globe-London, Collins, Sons & Co, 1866 (2 volumes). ALABASTER (C. G.)-Report of the Reconstituted War Revenue Committee-Hong Kong, 1941. *ALLEN (G. C.) and DONNITHORNE (A. G.)-Western Enterprise in Far Eastern

       Economic Development-London, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd, 1954. ALLOM (T.) and WRIGHT (G. N.)-China in a Series of Views-London, Fisher, Son & Co, 1843. ALVES (J. A. S.)-Practical Hints on Poultry Keeping in Hong Kong and the New Territories-

Hong Kong, 1932.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

383

ANDERSON (Capt G. C.)-The Situation in the Far East-Hong Kong, Guedes & Co, 1900. ANDERSON (J. N. D.), Editor-Changing law in developing countries-London, George Allen

& Unwin, Ltd, 1963.

ANDREW (Kenneth)-Hong Kong Detective-London, John Long, 1962.

ANGIER (A. Gorton)-The Far East Revisited-London, Witherby & Co, 1908.

ANGUS (H. A.), Chairman-Report of the Advisory Committee on the proposed Federation of

Industries-Hong Kong, 1959.

ANSTEY (T. C.)-Crime and Government at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1859.

-Another Treaty with China, but not another war-Hong Kong (nd).

ARMSTRONG'S (COMMODORE) War in China, 1856 and 1857-Hong Kong, Printed by

J. M. da Silva, 1858.

ARNOLD (John)-Picturesque Hong Kong: A handbook for travellers-Hong Kong, Privately

printed, 1911.

ARNOLD (Julean)-Commercial Handbook of China-Washington, 1919 & 1920 (2 volumes). ASILE de la SAINTE ENFANCE-French Convent of the Sisters of Saint Paul of Chartres-Hong

Kong, 1910.

BAINS (J. W.)-Interport Cricket. A Record of Matches between Hong Kong, Singapore & Shang-

hai, 1866-1908-Shanghai, Shanghai Times, 1908.

BALFOUR (S. F.)-Hong Kong before the British. (Reprinted from T'ien Hsia

Monthly)-Shanghai, 1941.

BALL (J. D.)-The Cantonese Made Easy-Hong Kong, 'China Mail' Office, 1924.

BARNETT (K. M. A.)-Report on the 1961 Census-Hong Kong (nd) 1962.

-The Census and You-Hong Kong, Government Printer (nd) (1962).

BEACH (REV W. R.)-Visit of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh-Hong Kong, Noronha

& Co, 1869.

†BEALE (Sir Louis)-Report on Economic & Commercial Conditions in China. With an appendix by G. Clinton Pelham-Economic Conditions in Hong Kong-London, 1938.

BELCHER (Sir Edward)-Narrative of a Voyage round the World

London, Henry Colburn, 1843.

in HMS 'Sulphur'-

BELL (Sir Henry H. J.)-Foreign Colonial Administration in the Far East-London, 1928. BENHAM (Maura)-An introduction to the birds of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, South China Morning

Post, Ltd, 1963.

BENSON (Stella)-The Little World-a book of travel essays-London, Macmillan, 1925.

-Mundos-London, 1935.

BENTHAM (George B.)-Flora Hongkongensis-London, Lovell, Reeve, 1861.

BERESFORD (Lord Charles) The Break-up of China-London, Harper & Bros,

1899.

BERGHOLZ (Professor Paul)-The Hurricanes of the Far East-Bremen, Max Nossler, 1899. BERNARD (W. D.)-Narrative of the Voyages and Services of the NEMESIS, from 1840-43-with

Notes of Commander Hall-London, Henry Colburn, 1844 (2 volumes).

BERRY-HILL (H. & S.)-George Chinnery, 1774-1852: Artist of the China coast-Leigh-on-Sea,

F. Lewis Publishers, Ltd, 1963.

'BETTY'-Intercepted Letters. A Mild Satire on Hong Kong Society-Hong Kong, Kelly &

Walsh, 1905.

BHARGAVA (K. D.) and SASTRI (K. N. V.)-Campaigns in South-east Asia: Hong Kong, Malaya and Sarawak & Borneo, 1941-42 (Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War, 1939-45)-(np) Combined Inter-services Historical Section, India & Pakistan, 1960.

384

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLE, BOOK, AND TRACT DEPOT, Hong Kong-Report of the Committee, with reports of the British and Foreign Bible Society's and Religious Tract Society's Committee-Hong Kong, 'China Mail' Office, 1902.

BINGHAM (Comdr J. Elliot)-Narrative of the Expedition to China-London, Henry Colburn,

1842 (2 volumes).

BISHOP (C. T.); MORTON (G. S.); SAYERS (W.)-Hong Kong, Treaty Ports and Postmarks, London,

1934.

BIT OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE (Hong Kong)-Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh, Ltd, (nd) (1904 ?). BLACKIE (W. J.)-Agriculture and animal husbandry ventures-Hong Kong, Cathay Press, 1954. -Report on agriculture in Hong Kong with policy recommendations-Hong Kong, Government

Printer, 1955.

BLAIR-KERR (W. A.)-Report of a Commission appointed to enquire into allegations made by

Chan Kin-kin-Hong Kong, Government Printer (nd) 1963.

BLAKE (C.)-Charles Elliot, 1801-85-London, Cleaver-Hume Press Ltd, 1961.

BLAKE, Lady-The position of women in China-Article in 'Nineteenth Century,' LXXII. †BLAKE (Sir Henry Arthur)-Bubonic Plague in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1903.

-China-London, A. & C. Black, 1909.

BLOCKADE of the Port & Harbour of Hong Kong by the Hoppo-London, Kent & Co, 1874. BLUNDEN (Edmund)-A Hong Kong House-London, Collins, 1962.

'BOK'-Corsairs of the China Seas-London, Herbert Jenkins, Ltd, 1936.

BONDFIELD (Rev. G. H.) and BALL (J. Dyer)-A History of the Union Church, Hong Kong-Hong

Kong, 'China Mail' Office, 1903.

BORGET (Auguste)-Sketches of China and the Chinese-London, Tilt & Bogue, 1842. BOURNE (F. S. A.)-Report on the trade of central and southern China-Washington, 1898. BOWEN (Sir George Ferguson)-Thirty Years of Colonial Government-Lon-

don, Longmans & Green, 1880 (2 volumes).

BOWRING (Sir John)-Autobiographical Recollections of Sir John Bowring. With a Brief Memoir by L. B. Bowring-London, H. S. King & Co, 1877. -The Flowery Scroll-London, Wm H. Allen & Co, 1868.

BOXER (Baruch)-Ocean Shipping in Evolution of Hong Kong-Chicago, University of Chicago,

1961.

**BOYCE (Sir Leslie)-Report of the United Kingdom Trade Mission to China, 1946-London, HM

Stationery Office, 1948.

*BRAGA (J. M.) Noticias de Macau. Special Supplement dedicated to Hong Kong & Anglo-

Portuguese Amity-Macau, 1951.

* -(Editor)-Hong Kong Business Symposium (with many authoritative

articles) Hong Kong, 1957.

-Hong Kong and Macau: A Record of Good Fellowship-Hong Kong, 1960.

BRAGA (J. P.)-The Rights of Aliens in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1895.

--Sir C. P. Chater: The Grand Old Man of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1926.

-Portuguese Pioneering: 100 years of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1941.

-The Portuguese in Hong Kong and Macau Macau, 1944.

† BREEN (M. J.)--Hong Kong Trade Commission Inquiry--Sessional Paper No 3 of 1935.

      *BRISTOL (Horace)-Hong Kong-Hong Kong, East-West Publishers, 1954. *BRITISH DEPENDENCIES in the Far East, 1945-49-London, HM Sta-

tionery Office, 1949.

BRITISH ECONOMIC MISSION to the Far East, 1930-31 (Report)-London, HM Stationery

Office, 1931.

BRITISH EMPIRE SERIES-India, Ceylon, Straits Settlements, British North Borneo, Hong

Kong London, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co, 1906.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BROCKWAY (Alice P.)-A Trip to the Orient-Philadelphia, 1915.

385

BROOKE-POPHAM (Sir Robert)-Despatch by Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham on operations in the Far East from 17th October 1940 to 27th December 1941-(Supplement to the London Gazette of 20.1.48, No 38183).

BROOMHALL (M.)--The Jubilee Story of the China Inland Mission-London, Morgan and Scott,

Ltd, 1915.

+BROWN (Robert E.)-The Hong Kong Typhoon and the Jesuit Observatories-London, 1906.

BROWN (Wenzell)-Hong Kong Aftermath-New York, Smith & Durrell, 1943.

BROWN (W. T.)-Notes of Travel-London, 1882.

†BROWNE (F.)-Report on Opium, its nature, composition, preparations and methods of consump-

tion-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1908.

-Samshu-(np) (London), (nd) (1898).

BRUCE (M.)-Hong Kong illustrated in a Series of Views-London, Maclure, Macdonald &

Macgregor Ltd, 1846.

BUNSBURY (Rev G. A.)-Notes on Wild Life in Hong Kong and South China-Hong Kong, St

Paul's College Press, 1909.

BURFORD (R.)---Description of a View of the Island and Bay of Hong Kong-London, J. Mitchell

& Co, 1844.

BURGESS (Claude B.)-Statement on Hong Kong's population problems-Hong Kong, Government

Printer, 1962.

-Hong Kong's image-Hong Kong, Government Printer, 1962.

*BURKHARDT, (Col. V. R.)-Chinese Creeds and Customs-Hong Kong, South

China Morning Post Ltd, 1954 (and subsequent volumes).

*BURNEY (E.)-Report on Education in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1933.

BURNSIDE (W. M.)-How did the Japs Treat You?-1942 (np).

Buss (C. A.)-The Far East-London, 1955.

*BUTTERFLIES OF HONG KONG-The Shell Co of Hong Kong Limited-Hong Kong, 1960.

†BUTTERS (H. R.)-Report on Labour and Labour Conditions in Hong Kong-Sessional Paper

No 3 of 1939.

Cable (B.)-A hundred year history of the P. & O.-1837-1938, London, 1940.

†CAINE (S.)-Water Finances. Memorandum by Financial Secretary-Hong Kong, 1938.

-Report of the Committee on Rentals for Government Quarters-Hong Kong, 1938.

CALAMITOUS TYPHOON (The) at Hong Kong, 18th September 1906, being a full Account of the

Disaster, with 20 illustrations---Hong Kong, Hong Kong Daily Press, 1906.

CALDWELL (D. R.)-A Vindication of the Character of the Undersigned-Hong Kong, Noronha's

Office, 1860.

CALTHORP (H. G.) and GOMPERTZ (H. H. J.)-The Hong Kong Law Reports-Hong Kong, 1905-8

(3 volumes).

*CAMERON (N.)-To the East a Phoenix-London, Hutchinson, 1960.

CAMPBELL (N.)-Libraries in Hong Kong-Article in the 'Library World', Vol 44, pp 12-13,

January 1942.

CANTLIE (Dr James)-Hong Kong-Contribution to 'British Empire Series',

Vol I, pp 498-531.

† Leprosy in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh, Ltd, 1890.

CANTLIE (N.) and SEAVER (G.) Sir James Cantlie-London, John Murray, 1939.

†CANTON-KOWLOON Railway Agreement-Hong Kong, 1907.

*Carew (T.)-The Fall of Hong Kong-London, Anthony Blond, 1960.

386

BIBLIOGRAPHY

†CARRIE (W. J.)-Report of the Census of the Colony of Hong Kong, taken on the night of March

7, 1931-Hong Kong, 1931.

-Report of the Committee to consider the formation of a Travel Association and to make recom-

mendations for the development of the Tourist Traffic-Hong Kong, 1935.

-Report of the Shanghai Refugees Committee-Hong Kong, 1938.

CARRINGTON (C. E.) The British Overseas-Cambridge University Press,

1950.

CASSERLY (Cap G.)-The Land of the Boxers: or China under the Allies-London, Longmans,

Green & Co, 1903.

*Catholic Hong Kong: A hundred years of Missionary activity-Hong Kong, Catholic Press Bureau

(nd) 1958.

CENTRAL SCHOOL, can it justify its raison d'etre?-Hong Kong, Noronha & Sons, 1877. CHADWICK (O.)-Report on the Water Supply of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1902.

-Report on the sanitation of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1902.

CHAISSON (Josephine D.), KLEIN (Alan F.) and MOSCROP (M. E.)-A Training Programme for

Social Work in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Government Printer, 1963 (2 volumes). CHALMERS (J.)-An English and Cantonese Dictionary-Hong Kong, Printed at the London

Missionary Society's Press, 1859.

-Historical Sketch of the Alice Memorial Hospital-Hong Kong, 'China Mail' Office, 1887. CHAN (Peter P. F.)--A Report on the European Common Market-Hong Kong, Dah Chung Co,

1961.

CHAN YEUNG-KWONG-Cantonese for beginners-Hong Kong, Man Sang Printers, 1946.

-Everybody's Cantonese: combined progressive and beginner's course-Hong Kong, Man Sang

Printers, 1947.

CHANG CHIA-CHU-China Tung Oil and its future-Hong Kong (nd) 1940.

CHASE (James Hadley)-A coffin from Hong Kong-London, Robert Hale, Ltd, 1962. †CHATER (Paul Catchick)-The Praya Reclamation Scheme-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1888.

CHEN (Francis J.)-The Jaycee Movement in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1954.

CHEONG-LEEN (Hilton)-Hong Kong Tomorrow: A collection of speeches and articles-Hong

Kong, Local Property & Printing Co, Ltd (nd) 1962.

CHILDERS (J. S.)-Through Oriental gates: the adventures of an unwise man in the East-New

York & London, D. Appleton, 1930.

†CHIN (P. C.)-Tropical Cyclones in the Western Pacific and China Sea Area from 1884 to 1953-

Hong Kong, 1958,

CHINESE UNION-Report regarding the Chinese Union at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Printed

at the 'Hong Kong Register' Office, 1851.

CHURCH OF ENGLAND Anglo-Chinese School, Report of-Hong Kong, 1850.

CLAGUE (J. D.), Chairman-Report of the Hong Kong Trade Mission to Australia, 1961-Hong

Kong, 1961.

*CLARK (R. S.)--An End to Tears-Sydney, Peter Huston, 1946.

†CLAXTON (T. F.)-The Winds of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1921.

-The Climate of Hong Kong, 1884-1919 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations) Hong Kong

Royal Observatory-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1931.

-Isotyphs showing Prevalence of Typhoons-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1932.

CLEMENTI (Sir Cecil)-The Future of Hong Kong-London, Royal Empire

Society, 1936.

-Calculation of the percentage of opium smokers in China, Szechuan and Hong Kong-Hong

Kong, Noronha & Co, 1908.

-Summary of geographical observations taken during a journey from Kashgar to Kowloon-

Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1911.

CLIFT (Winifred Lechmere)-Looking on in Hong Kong-London, 1927.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*COATES (Austin)-Invitation to an Eastern Feast-London, Hutchinson, 1953.

* ---Personal and Oriental-London, Hutchinson, 1957.

387

*COLLINS (Sir Charles)-Public Administration in Hong Kong-London, Royal

Institute of International Affairs, 1952.

COLLINS (G.)-Far Eastern Jaunts-London, Methuen, 1924.

COLLINGWOOD (C.)-A Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas-London, 1868 (Hong Kong,

chapters I-II and XIX).

*COLLIS (Maurice)-Foreign Mud-London, Faber and Faber Ltd, 1946.

COLQUHOUN (A. R.)-China in Transformation-London, Harper & Bros, 1898.

Commercial Traveller's Guide to the Far East (Trade Promotion Service, Washington, No 29)-

Washington, Department of Commerce, 1926.

†Conference of Directors of Far Eastern Weather Services, Hong Kong, 1930: Report of proceedings,

with appendices and list of delegates-Hong Kong, Royal Observatory, 1930.

Connaught, the Duke and Duchess of, A Brief Account of the visit of their Royal Highnesses, to

Hong Kong in April, 1890-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1890.

Cook's Far Eastern Handbook-Hong Kong, Thos. Cook & Son, 1914.

†COOPER (F. A.)-Report on the Water Supply of the City of Victoria--Hong Kong, Noronha &

Co, 1896.

Cooper (S.)-Hong Kong: Isle of Beauty-Guide and Historical Survey-Hong Kong, 1928. COSTIN (W. C.)-Great Britain and China, 1833-60-London, Clarendon

Press, 1937.

COUSINS (G.)-A Life for China. Being a brief Memorial Sketch of the late Rev George Chalmers

of Hong Kong-London, 1900.

Cowles (R. T.)-A pocket dictionary of Cantonese-Cantonese-English with English-Cantonese

index-Hong Kong, South China Peniel Press (nd) (1926?).

COWPERTHWAITE (J. J.), Chairman-Report of the Inter-departmental Working Party on the

Proposed Cross-Harbour Tunnel-Hong Kong, Government Printer, 1956.

-Report of the Working Committee on Tourism-Hong Kong, Government Printer, 1956.

CRADDOCK (Lieut C.)-Sporting Notes in the Far East-London (nd).

*CROCOMBE (L.)-Slow Ship to Hong Kong-London, Edward, Stanford Ltd, 1952.

CROOK (A. G.), Chairman-Hong Kong Stamp Centenary Exhibition, 1862-1962-Hong Kong

(nd) (1962).

CROOK (A. H.)-The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong: Ranunculaceae to Meliaccae-Hong Kong,

1930.

CROW (C.)-The Travellers' Handbook for China, including Hong Kong-Shanghai, Kelly & Walsh

Ltd, 1915.

CUNNINGHAM (A.)-Guide to Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 'South China Morning Post' Office, 1907.

CUNNINGHAM (Alfred)-The Chinese soldier and other sketches-Hong Kong, 'Daily Press' Office,

1901.

CUNNYNGHAME (Capt A.)-An Aide-de-Camp's Recollections of Service in China-London,

Saunders and Otley, 1844 (2 volumes).

‡Dalziel (J.)-Chronicles of a Crown Colony: Short Stories--Hong Kong, 'South China Morning

Post' Office 1907.

*Davies (S. G.)-Central banking in South and East Asia-Hong Kong, Hong Kong University

Press, 1960.

DAVIS (Sir John Francis)-China, during the War and since the Peace-London, Longmans, 1852.

388

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*DAVIS (Sydney G.)-Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting-London, Collins,

*

1949.

-The Geology of Hong Kong: from the basic work of R. W. Brock, S. G. Davis and others-

Hong Kong, Government Printer, 1952.

-Tungsten Mineralization in Hong Kong and the New Territories-1958.

-Population Growth and Pressure in South China and Hong Kong-Tokyo, 1959.

-Mineralogy of the Ma On Shan Iron Mine, Hong Kong-1961.

-The rural-urban migration in Hong Kong and its New Territories-London, Clowes, 1962.

-The geology and structure of the Lion Rock Tunnel, Hong Kong-Hong Kong, The Engineer-

ing Society of Hong Kong, 1963.

DAVIS (S. G.) and SNELGROVE (A. K.)-Geology of the Lin Ma Hang Lead Mine, New Territories

-London, 1956.

DAVIS (S. G.) and TREGEAR (Mary)-Man Kok Tsui, Archaeological Site 30, Lantau Island, Hong

Kong-Hong Kong, Hong Kong University Press, 1961.

DENNYS (N. B.)--China and her apologist-Hong Kong, Printed at the 'China Mail' Office, 1876. DE ROME (F. J.) and EVANS (Rev N.) and THOMAS (E. C.)-Notes on the New Territories of Hong

Kong Hong Kong, Ye Olde Printerie, 1929.

DE ROME (F. J.) and EVANS (Rev N.)-Notes on the Harbour of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1932. †DES VOEUX (Sir G. W.)-Report on the Condition and Prospects of Hong Kong

and on Recent Events in the Colony-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1889. -My Colonial Service in British Guiana, etc . . . . and Hong Kong-Lon-

don, John Murray, 1903 (2 volumes).

DEVAN (Rev T. T.)-The beginner's first book in the Chinese language (Canton vernacular)-Hong

Kong, Printed at the 'China Mail' Office, 1847.

DEW (Gwen)-Prisoner of the Japs-New York, A. A. Knopf, 1943.

*DEWEY (T. E.)-Journey to the Far Pacific-London, Odham's Press, Ltd, 1952.

DILKE (Sir Charles)-Greater Britain, with Additional Chapters on Hong Kong-London, Macmil-

Jan & Co, 1885.

DOBERCK (W.)-The law of storms in the Eastern seas-Hong Kong, Reprinted from 'Hong Kong

Telegraph', September 1886.

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397

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