Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1961

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HONG KONG 1961

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS BUREAU

General Post Office, Hong Kong,

and from

THE CROWN AGENTS FOR OVERSEA GOVERNMENTS

AND ADMINISTRATIONS

4, Millbank, London, SW1

A list of current publications will be found at Appendix XIV of this Report

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

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The visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Kent to Hong Kong from November 3 to 14 was a triumph in every way, capturing the imagination of the people of the Colony as few events have. This pictuere shoes Her Royal Highness stepping ashore at Queen's Pier with the Guvernor, Sir Robert Bluck, GCMG, OBE

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the year

1961

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706577 0

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1962

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

Reprint: September 1962

URBAN COUNCIL AU VIC LIBRARIES

Acc. No. 58275

Class.

HK 951.25

HKCr

Author HON

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERNMENT PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road. North Point, Hong Kong

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all those organizations and private individuals who have contributed to this Report. Particular acknowledgment is given to Mr G. B. Endacott, MA, BLitt, DipE, of the University of Hong Kong for writing Chapter 24 and to Professor S. G. Davis, PhD, MSc, FGS, also of the University, and to Mr J. M. Braga, for revising Chapters 22 and 27 respectively.

All illustrations in this Report, with the excep- tion of the photograph facing page 320, which is reproduced by courtesy of the Taikoo Dockyard, are the work of official artists and photographers. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustra- tions should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

Chapter

1

CONTENTS

PART I-REVIEW

THE BIG COUNT-CENSUS 1961

2

POPULATION

Urban Population

New Territories.

PART II

Page

3

34

35

33333333

3

EMPLOYMENT

Occupations

39

Wages and Conditions of Employment

41

Labour Administration

43

Industrial Relations

45

Legislation.

48

Safety, Health and Welfare

49

New Territories.

51

4

PUBLIC FINANCES

53

Import and Excise Duties.

56

Rates.

57

Internal Revenue

58

5

CURRENCY AND BANKING

Banking

58

61

63

6

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Industry

Heavy Industry

64

69

70

72

72

75

जैजै

73

vii

Textile Industry .

Cotton Advisory Board

Diversification

Trade.

Trade Developments

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

6 INDUSTRY AND TRADE-Contd

Trade Control

Preventive Service

Overseas Representation

82

84

85

86

Tourism

7

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Agricultural Land in the New Territories.

89

Land Utilization

90

Policy and Administration

92

Agriculture

94

Animal Industries

96

Forestry

97

Fishing

100

Marketing

104

Co-operative Societies

108

Mining

110

8

EDUCATION

112

School Expansion Programme

112

Primary Education

113

Secondary Education

114

Post-Secondary Education

115

Further Education Overseas

119

Adult Education

119

Adult Education and Recreation Centres .

120

Teachers and Teacher Training

121

Examinations

123

Scholarships and Bursaries

124

Expenditure on Education

125

Legislation

125

Board of Education

126

School Administration

126

Voluntary Education and Welfare Work Libraries

127

128

Physical Education

128

Music, Drama and Art in the Schools

129

viii

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

9 HEALTH

Public Health Administration

131

General Health .

132

The Outbreak of Cholera .

134

Other Communicable Diseases

137

Health Services .

144

Hospitals and Clinics

148

Out-Patient Services .

150

Specialist Services

151

Dental Services .

152

Training

Urban Services .

Hygiene Section

New Territories.

153

155

156

161

10

LAND AND HOUSING

Land.

Housing

Resettlement

163

172

175

Rent Controls

181

11

SOCIAL WELFARE

183

12

LEGISLATION

192

13

LAW, ORDER AND RECORDS

The Courts of Justice

198

Police Force

201

Immigration

209

Prisons

210

Records

213

14

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

Public Works

220

Public Utilities

230

Public Road Transport Services

234

ix

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

15 COMMUNICATIONS

239

Marine

239

Civil Aviation

245

Kowloon-Canton Railway .

248

Roads

249

Multi-Storey Car Parks

251

Post Office

251

Telecommunications

254

Royal Observatory

255

The Year's Weather

257

16

PUBLICATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

Press

261

Publishing.

263

Government Information Services

263

Public Enquiry Service

268

Broadcasting and Television

269

Radio Hong Kong

270

Commercial Radio

277

Rediffusion

279

Film Industry

280

17

LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES .

283

18

RESEARCH

University.

287

Government

292

Royal Observatory

19

RELIGION.

20

THE ARTS

Government Collections

292

294

304

306

British Council.

308

21

SPORT AND RECREATION

310

Parks, Playgrounds and other Amenities

313

X

Chapter

22

GEOGRAPHY

CONTENTS

Page

PART III

Geographical Setting .

Topography and Geology .

Vegetation

Population

Economic Conditions

Climate

319

319

319

321

321

322

323

326

23

NATURAL HISTORY

24

HISTORY

Antecedents

335

The Island Colony, 1841-60

339

Extensions to the Colony, 1860-99

341

Development of the Colony up to 1941

342

The Chinese Revolution and Two World Wars. The Post-War Years.

345

346

25

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Constitution

349

Judiciary

350

Administration.

350

New Territories Administration

354

The Public Service

356

26 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

358

27

BIBLIOGRAPHY

359

xi

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

Arrival of HRH Princess Alexandra

The Royal Visit

The textile industry

Fisheries

Education

Health Services

Resettlement

Police patrols-Prison welfare.

Page

frontispiece

between

32-3

between 64 - 5

between

96-7

between 128 - 9

-

between 160 - 1

between 192 - 3

between 216 - 7

Land reclamation and building development

between 224 - 5

Life on the land

Views from the air

Transport and communications

Broadcasting and television

between 232 - 3

between 248 - 9

between 256-7

between 264 - 5

Hong Kong's colourful festivals

between 288-9

The Port

between 320 - 1

Sports and recreation

between 352 - 3

DIAGRAMS

The Census

between 24-5

Imports and exports.

Primary school expansion programme

between

72-3

113

Hong Kong and the New Territories

Hong Kong in the Far East

Victoria and Kowloon

MAPS

front end-paper

back end-paper

xii

facing 388

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Appendix

I

II

EMPLOYMENT

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in main industrial groups-in selected indus- tries in some main industrial groups-Monthly Retail Price Indices Industrial and occupa- tional accidents-Factory registrations and inspections.

PUBLIC FINANCES

Revenue Expenditure - Public Debt-Rev- enue from Duties and Licence Fees-Colonial development and welfare schemes-Statement of Assets and Liabilities

Liabilities Statement of

Approved Projects-Comparative Statement of Recurrent and Capital Income and Expenditure.

AUTHORIZED FOREIGN EXCHANGE BANKS.

III

IV

TRADE

V

VI

VII

Value of Merchandise Trade-Cargo Tonnages -Commodity pattern and sources of imports- Commodity pattern and direction of exports- and re-exports Composition of trade by inter- national trade classifications.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Summary-Livestock Population-Marketing Organization Statistics-Production of Min- erals Co-operative Societies.

EDUCATION

Overseas Examinations-Awards by Govern- ment Students pursuing further studies in UK -Categories of schools-School Enrolments- New Schools built and number of classrooms -Expenditure.

HEALTH

Students in training - Vital statistics Infec- tious Diseases-Tuberculosis-Qualified per- sons registered-Hospital beds.

xiii

Page

391

395

406

407

420

424

428

CONTENTS

Appendix

VIII HOUSING

Sales of Crown land- Housing provided Resettlement estates.

IX

LAW, ORDER AND RECORDS

·

Court cases-Serious crime-Traffic accidents -Registered Vehicles-Population movements.

X COMMUNICATIONS

Page

432

434

438

-

Marine Railway - Vehicles - Air traffic Postal traffic- Telecommunications - Major storms and typhoons.

ΧΙ

SOME LEADING NewspaperS AND MAGAZINES .

441

XII

EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS .

442

XIII

URBAN COUNCIL

446

XIV

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

447

INDEX

451

xiv

Part I

1

Review

THE BIG COUNT - CENSUS 1961

For the past five years the Hong Kong Annual Report has begun with a chapter in which some particular facet of the Colony's life has been brought into focus. The first chapter written to this scheme was sub-entitled 'A Problem of People' and since then inevitably each subject selected for review, 'Building and Develop- ment', 'Industry', 'Refugees' and 'Water', has reflected to a large degree the problems which arise from the rapid increase of popula- tion in an already over-populated territory. In the spring of 1961 Government carried out the first census in thirty years of the population of Hong Kong and so, with this year's review, the first chapter of the Annual Report comes back to the subject with which the series began-people.

At first sight Hong Kong is an easy place in which to take a census. The territory is small and well mapped. The people are civilized and co-operative-but a closer look shows that Hong Kong presents certain not inconsiderable difficulties for the census taker. For example the boat people. Over twenty five thousand small craft frequent the waters of the Colony. The men and women who operate them have generally no homes on dry land, and often no regular 'home port'. A junk that carries cargo or passengers carries them to whatever bay or anchorage the passengers, or the consignors, choose. A trawler brings its catch in to the nearest fish market or to the one where the best price will be offered. Wherever the boat is moored, there for a night is home. How, then, could they be counted accurately? And yet they too are part, and a valued part, of Hong Kong's people, and could not be left out.

Then there are those that live in unnumbered and apparently innumerable squatter huts on hillsides and on rooftops, or in tiny cubicles and bedspaces in the crowded tenements of Sai Ying

REVIEW

    Pun and Mong Kok. To take a census it is necessary to first know roughly how many people there are in each section of the town or country so that the right number of enumerators may be assigned to the job. There was once a time in Hong Kong when this could be done by counting the huts and the cubicles and multiplying by five; but by 1959, when the temporary Census Department was established to start planning for 'the big count', it was already known that many huts and cubicles housed more than one family, and that in some places families were living on the shift system, in and out like Box and Cox . . . . and when the time came the enumerators often found not two but three shifts, three families to whom the same cubicle or bedspace was home for eight hours in every twenty four, turn and turn about.

     Fears were expressed about the refugees. Would they take fright, lest the census should be a device to winkle them out and send them away, and would they as a result try to dodge the enumera- tors? In the last census but one, in 1921, because of a stupid rumour, thousands of children were deliberately hidden: would some ancient superstition be revived to defeat this census also?

*

*

*

A census requires the full, willing and well-informed co-operation of the public. In any community, particularly one unaccustomed to census taking, publicity is essential. Every member of the public must have been persuaded by census day that the census is of value to him.

     This applies to all censuses and all territories, but the techniques required to meet them are bound to vary with the exact circum- stances of each territory. How far could Hong Kong afford to rely on the methods used up to 1931 and how far should she adopt or adapt newer techniques worked out since 1931 in other territories?

     In the thirty years since the last census was taken in Hong Kong, the international technique of census taking has advanced and there is no lack of expert advice on every aspect of a census except those peculiar to a particular place. The United Nations and its special organs are now available to see that no territory is starved of documentary assistance.

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One of the improvements is that national population censuses are now conceived as being part of a global programme of census taking; their times are roughly synchronized and there is some regard for the need of compatible definitions. The 1961 Hong Kong Census was in this sense a part of the 1960-1 World Census Programme and in addition to receiving the United Nations publications Principles and Recommendations for National Popula- tion Censuses(1), Handbook of Population Census Methods(2) and others, the local census administration was able to call for technical advice from the Bangkok headquarters of the Economic Commis- sion for Asia and the Far East. One of its officers studied (before appointment) under a United Nations fellowship for one year at the Demographic Training and Research Centre at Chembur, and another attended as delegate the United Nations Seminar on Evaluation and Utilization of Population Census Data in Asia and the Far East at Bombay, India, from 20th June to 8th July 1960. Each of these facilities made its contribution, much or more, by saving time and expense and preventing waste of resources or effort.

There remained much to be decided locally. Slavishly to follow the methods of other territories could be a mistake of the same order as obstinately to refuse to alter one's own.

*

*

Hong Kong is not a place where census forms can be sent by post to each householder and completed by him. This is self- evident in respect of the boat people and refugees without fixed abode. But even for the settled population a postal census is not practical politics. This is not only because there is still a certain amount of illiteracy, especially among older people and recent arrivals from backward areas. Nor can the inhabitants be called unco-operative, though they are unaccustomed to filling in forms, since life in Hong Kong is singularly free from this habit. The reasons were two in number. Firstly, to conduct a postal census the name and address of each householder and the approximate

(1) ST/STAT/SER.M/27, New York, 1958.

(2) ST/STAT/SER.F/5/Rev.1. New York. Volumes I and II, 1958;

Volume III, 1959.

6

REVIEW

size of his household is needed. In some countries these can be supplied from electoral rolls, parish registers and similar adminis- trative records. In Hong Kong there is no citizens' register, no electoral roll except for the Urban Council, and almost no adminis- trative records survived the Japanese occupation. There is, in short, no source from which a comprehensive list of household heads can be obtained, and to have obtained this preliminary information prior to the census would have been almost as much work as taking the census itself. Secondly, this was to be the first census in thirty years, and there was a host of topics about which the planners badly required information. Even after ruthless pruning the census questions still numbered twenty two, and many of them would elicit intelligible answers only if put by a trained enumerator.

     In some societies people change their addresses rarely, their job seldom, their status never; and so they can maintain systems of registration from which at any moment an almost up-to-date head count with tabulation by status, employment and place of residence can be made. Hong Kong is not such a society. The Colony has a registration system, but it is not a registration of status, merely the provision of identity cards for residents, and few are the occasions when anyone's status is called into question. Changes of address are frequent-in the ten days preceding census day on 7th March, thirteen thousand people moved house! Labour is fluid and adaptable and there are no artificial and few natural obstacles to prevent a man changing his job for one he likes better or one which is better paid.

Countries of the former kind, which includes many predomi- nantly agricultural communities, with an immobile labour force and a static society, find it more useful to record for census pur- poses the status and permanent description of each citizen, his usual abode and occupation, and a census of this kind (known as a de jure census) is held in about one-third of the countries in the world. Countries with a predominantly industrial populatión, a mobile labour force and a fluid society, prefer to record the actual situation at a moment of time. This is known as a de facto census and it was a census of this kind which was held in Hong Kong.

     Thus the Hong Kong census figures include everybody of what- ever nationality, who happened to be within the Colony and its

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7

waters at the census moment, but leave out everybody, even per- manent residents who at that moment were anywhere abroad.

**

*

       One of the difficulties of this kind of census is that it has to be done quickly and therefore requires a large force of enumerators. These have to be enrolled, trained, tested, deployed, controlled and finally paid. Field tests showed that a good enumerator in a resettlement estate-the easiest kind of census work, as the estates are compact and orderly and a good deal was known to start with about each family-could tackle five hundred or so in the time available, about ten days, but in tenement areas where people were harder to find three hundred was nearer the mark, and in sparsely populated rural districts the sheer difficulty of getting about would reduce still further the work of one enumerator. A preliminary estimate made in 1959 was that the population by census day would be about 3.2 million. (This estimate proved to be very accurate). Clearly at least twelve thousand enumerators would be needed, with several hundred chief enumerators and other supervisory staff.

A good census enumerator needs to be a person of tact and ability. He must have a better than average education but no sense of superiority when interviewing people of lesser education than himself. He needs a good knowledge of his subject and must take a lively and sympathetic interest in the lives of the people he visits, so that he can briefly and clearly explain to them what they have to do and why. Where could twelve thousand such people be found?

This was the first problem. It was difficult to find a solution until somebody thought of the schools. If the census was arranged to fall in vacation time, there might be a sufficient number of professors and tutors, masters and mistresses to conduct the census. And if by any chance there were not enough professors to go round, the ranks could be filled by the brightest of their pupils.

This dream, of course, was not fully realized. Professors and tutors are busy even in vacation time, especially when their univer- sity is celebrating its jubilee and even bright students have holiday tasks to perform. In the rural areas schoolmasters did come for- ward in appreciable strength and at every level in the Colony's

8

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     educational system enthusiasm was expressed for the census and many principals gave the strongest encouragement to their teachers, and the boys and girls in their senior classes, to join the census army. The University, the Post-Secondary Colleges and nearly every well-known secondary school contributed a few of their staff and the pick of their students. Even those working for an examination were not reluctant to sign on, knowing that their census experience would give them the answer to at least one question in at least one paper. The Civil Aid Services also co-operated splendidly and adjusted their training programme to release as many members as possible for census work. Units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force found their programme more difficult to adjust, but gave what help they could. The Kaifong Associations in Hong Kong and Kowloon and the rural committees in the New Territories also assisted by recommending suitable people from their localities. There were some civil servants, and at least one 'taipan'. . . . and so by degrees the score was complete, and on the appointed day 13,174 enumerators and 505 chief enumerators swung into action.

They included some specialists. The armed forces provided a sufficient number of enumerators to cover everyone living in service establishments, whether soldier, soldier's family or civilian em- ployee. The prisons, the major hospitals and all police stations and barracks were likewise 'censed' by their own staff. Also the census of the fishing people was assisted by the loan of some enumerators from the fishery co-operatives. An attempt was made to arrange similarly for religious communities, but this failed and convents and monasteries were counted without any difficulty by ordinary enumerators, specially briefed on the rules of the com- munity where this was necessary.

*

*

       And so to the threshold of the census itself. How was the census taken and what did it reveal? The full technical answers to these questions belong naturally to the Census Report and not here. But as the work of numbering and classifying the people took one or more of the 'census army's' peaceful recruits into every Hong Kong home and to the fireside, or even sometimes the bedside, of every member of our community, a description of the whole

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9

     census in general terms from first to last gives an intimate glimpse of local life in the Colony.

      Although this army of census enumerators contained many bright young men and women it could achieve little unless trained. To allow for wastage and failure in the final test nearly forty thousand applicants had to be put through a training course of nine lectures and a film. That this took some organizing may be seen from the fact that at one period over four hundred classes were being held together in different parts of the Colony. The programme of train- ing claimed a very high working priority, and the time-table for it had to be fixed at the same time as that for the census itself. It had to be finalized before even the list of topics to be covered or the tables required to illustrate the topics or the questions required to prime the tables could be settled. Also, at this stage another obstacle had to be surmounted-the Problem of Language.

The official language of Hong Kong is English. The laws are in English. The courts conduct their hearings in English, with inter- preters. Public correspondence is almost all conducted in English. But how many of the public were really conversant with English? It was hard to say.

      Whatever is not in English is, of course, in Chinese. Most small and many large businesses keep their accounts in Chinese. The newspapers with the biggest circulations are in Chinese. Street signs and public notices are in English and Chinese. Shop signs and advertisements are often in Chinese alone. But this is written Chinese, which does not quite correspond to any spoken language. How many of the public were really able to read and write Chinese? It was hard to say.

One thing that was common knowledge was that to get about in Hong Kong and Kowloon the most useful language to speak was Cantonese. But there would certainly be a proportion of the households even in town and may be a large proportion in parts of the New Territories where Cantonese was not understood- where even an enumerator who spoke both Cantonese and English would not get by. And there are many dialects of Cantonese, some very broad. Would an enumerator who spoke city Cantonese be able to put across his questions to the villagers of Yuen Long, who speak Nam Tau dialect, or to the Tanka boat people, and understand their answers?

10

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How many Hakka speakers were required? How many Hoklo? How many Shanghai? How should they be deployed? Should the wording of each question be worked out separately for each language? Could use be made of the 'national language' called Kuoyu, which successive governments of China had been trying to popularize since 1927 and which is taught as a subject in most vernacular schools in the Colony: would it be safe to rely on this as a means of communication with all who did not understand the major languages Cantonese, English, Hakka, Hoklo? All these questions can be easily answered now we have the Census results; but the answers had to be guessed at in 1959, when the plans were made, and some of the guesses were bound to be wrong.

      It was decided to require spoken Cantonese as a basic qualifica- tion for the ordinary enumerators, who must also be familiar with either written Chinese or written English. Spoken English was a requirement for chief enumerators, but for enumerators knowledge of spoken English and other languages was a bonus. In districts where Hakka was known to predominate, the enumerators had to speak Hakka and Cantonese or Hakka and English. Virtually no use was made of Kuoyu, but to cope with linguistic minorities a small flying squad was organized of qualified enumerators able to speak various dialects of China, besides Japanese, Malay, Tagalog and the more likely languages of India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Europe. The services of this flying squad were, in fact, seldom required.

The training manuals were published separately in English and Chinese, and the census schedule was so designed that by folding down the top edge column headings in Chinese became visible instead of those in English. The arm-band worn by each enumerator was in English and Chinese, and so was the census officer's identity card which had to be carried by everyone doing census work.

The final results tended to confirm the appropriateness of these arrangements. Of all persons aged five and over (the language of children under five was not recorded) 79% gave their usual language as Cantonese, but an additional 16% were able to speak Cantonese, making 95% of the whole population aged five and over who either use this language habitually or can use it on occasion.

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11

     Only 9.7% said they knew English; they included the 1.2% for whom English is the usual language.

      The total number of persons aged five and over who knew neither English nor Cantonese was 106,825 of whom two-thirds were women, the largest three categories being 25,227 Hoklo women, 16,593 Hakka women and 13,488 Sze Yap women. Since there is not only a sex correlation but also an age correlation, almost all young boys being now familiar with Cantonese, the chances of finding a household in any part of Hong Kong of which no member can understand either Cantonese or English are now infinitesimal.

      Associated with the training of the staff was the training of the public. Several million simple leaflets were printed in Chinese and distributed throughout the Colony. A smaller number of booklets were issued in each language, showing in rather more detail the objects of the census and asking for public co-operation: these went mainly to colleges, schools, kaifongs, rural committees and associations. The newly established film unit of the Information Services Department produced four three-minute publicity films in Cantonese which were widely shown in second and third run cinemas, and a twenty-minute film (incorporating some of the sequences from the publicity films) for the training of enumerators. Finally, since it appeared that the campaign of publicity was not effectively reaching the English-speaking population, a short feature with English commentary was made from the previous films and shown on Television.

There were also many talks and newspaper articles both in English and Chinese, and as the time of each census operation approached, frequent talks, discussions and announcements from local broadcasting stations ensured that nobody who could hear would have any excuse for not knowing what was expected of him or her to make the Colony's first modern census a success.

Of particular interest was the approach to the boat people, amongst whom, from the absence of fixed habitations, the majority are unschooled and illiterate. The weather forecast for fishermen goes over the air four times a day in Cantonese, and during the ten days before the census of boat people every forecast was accompanied by a short announcement about the census. The response to these announcements by the boat people generally

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afforded ample evidence that these forecasts are regularly listened to.

*

*

*

      The next problem was when to hold the census. It had to be in vacation time. But the only long vacation was in the summer, and in Hong Kong the summer is the rainy season, hot, wet and humid with frequent typhoons. Apart from the extra fatigue and loss of efficiency if enumerators had to tramp up long flights of stairs and slither along hillside paths in the typical summer weather, there was the major consideration that a census date once fixed could not be deferred, only cancelled with great waste of time and money. So the typhoon season had to be avoided; not only the months from June to September when typhoons are frequent, but also May and October when some of the Colony's most destructive storms have occurred. That left only two vacation periods to choose from, both short: Christmas and the western New Year, and Chinese New Year. The latter was chosen for several reasons. The most interesting reason was derived from a third major problem, the Problem of Chinese Ages.

Of all the calculations that follow a census the most important are those derived from the tables of age and sex. From these, if sufficiently accurate and supported by adequate 'flow data' of births, deaths and migration, life tables and ratios for fertility and survival can be calculated which may even lift the adamant curtain of futurity and enable the Colony's planners to tell not only what the population is but what it will be next year and for some years after next. A census is very little use if it does not record age and sex, and record them pretty accurately.

Sex was no trouble, although one member of the public, subsequently diagnosed as female, did claim to be of both sexes. But age was quite a headache. The United Nations publica- tion Principles and Recommendations for National Population Censuses(1) recommended that age be tabulated by completed years at the last birthday before census day, but all previous censuses held in the Colony have encountered the difficulty that this is not the way the Chinese record their ages. A Chinese baby at birth is said to be one year old. A horoscope is usually prepared

(1) ST/STAT/SER.M/27, New York, 1958.

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indicating the exact day and hour of birth, but this is used only for arranging marriages and telling fortunes, and was not expected to be accessible to the census men. (In fact several fishermen did produce the horoscopes for their entire families and suggested that the baffled enumerator should work out the ages from them). From then on the actual birthday ceases to be of importance until old age is reached. Everybody celebrates not his own birth- day but 'everybody's birthday', which falls on the seventh day of the Lunar New Year (the boat people on the fifteenth). So whereas an English child, having a birthday party every year, can easily remember how old it was last birthday, a Chinese child doesn't and can't; while an old Chinese man, who does have birthday parties, may know his true age last birthday but succumbs to the innocent temptation, common among the aged, to add ten or twenty years. For most of the population, the 'age last birthday' has little meaning.

But to record the ages by traditional Chinese reckoning would make nonsense of the tables. For a Chinese baby is not only one year old at birth, he becomes two on the next Chinese New Year's Day (though 'everybody's birthday' is not till six, or fourteen, days later), and three on the next Chinese New Year's Day after that. So he can be 'two years old' within a few hours of his birth. Worse still, unlike the solar year which has 365 and 366 days in regular and predictable sequence, the lunar year has five different lengths-354 or 355 days when it has twelve months, 383, 384 or 385 when it has thirteen-and the sequence is far from regular and can be calculated only by an astronomer. So all those born in the ten days before a 'short' year will be three by Chinese reckoning before they have completed a single full year of life, whereas those born in the first three weeks of a 'long' year will occasionally, for short periods, have the same lunar age as their standard age. The result of all this is that a Chinese who gives his age as 30 in the lunar reckoning may be 27, 28, 29 or 30 years by standard reckoning, and one who is 30 years old by standard reckoning may be 30, 31, 32 or 33 by the lunar calendar, according to the date of his birth and the date when the question is asked. In ordinary administration this is troublesome enough. However, for most everyday purposes an approximate age will do, and when the exact age is important-in medical work, for insurance policies

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or passports-the standard age can always be calculated, if the lunar birth date is known, by consulting the almanac. But this takes more time than a census enumerator can spare, and an almanac is too expensive a volume to supply to thirteen thousand enumerators.

But if the census day is carefully chosen this problem too can be reduced to manageable proportions. A man who is 30 by lunar reckoning can be 27 or 30 only between the earliest and latest dates on which Lunar New Year can fall, that is to say from 21st January to 20th February. Outside those dates he can only be 28 or 29. So if census day is arranged to fall after 20th February or before 21st January the alternative values of any lunar age are only two, which can be found from a single-sheet table.

The date chosen, 7th March, satisfied this condition. It could be made, by the co-operation of school and college authorities, to fall in vacation time. It was early enough for farming work to be at a minimum, and the weather ought to be dry and cool. But it would not do for the boat people, who only concentrate in really large numbers at major festivals, especially Lunar New Year. So their census had to be three weeks earlier, just before Chinese New Year's Eve, and a more complicated age conversion table had to be constructed just for them.

      7th March 1961, was also, by the sheerest coincidence, the precise thirtieth anniversary of the last census, which was taken on 7th March 1931. The lunar date also differed by only two days.

*

      Just as the methods used were partly those used anywhere and partly specially devised local modifications, so the topics covered were mostly those normal for all modern censuses and partly special.

      Sex, age and conjugal status are standard topics. Age, as already explained, was recorded in the standard fashion, in completed years last birthday according to the Gregorian calendar, and all ages given in Chinese reckoning were converted to standard ages by the enumerators. Various checks conducted after the census showed that this conversion was fairly successful, about 88 per cent of all ages being correctly recorded. Of the ages wrongly

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recorded, most were over-stated by one year and small numbers under-stated by one year or over-stated by two years. The age recording shows a marked local difference from censuses in English-speaking countries. There, it is quite common for people to record their age, usually quite sub-consciously, to the nearest 5 or 10 year figure. On the other hand, instead of the preference for 5 and 10 which can be seen in the tables of age in those countries, the Hong Kong people, especially Chinese speakers, prefer 10, 8 and 2 (even numbers) and avoid 7 and 9. The dislike of 9 was previously known (9 is an unlucky number in China) but the unpopularity of 7 is unexplained.

There has been much discussion in Hong Kong recently about Chinese marriage customs. What is a customary marriage? Should men be allowed to take concubines? Should the ancient custom of child betrothal be suppressed or encouraged? Should wives be given the right of divorce? Should concubines be able to sue for maintenance? All these questions were neatly dodged by the census-takers, who recorded as 'married' all conjugal-type partner- ships whether legal, customary or informal. As is usual even in monogamous countries there are more married women than married men. We also have plenty of widows but far less widowers (because women tend to outlive men) and very few divorced persons of either sex (because they usually remarry).

A new departure for Hong Kong was to ask women how many children they had. Naturally this question was not put to single women, and in the only case known where a woman (a discarded concubine living with her parents) said that she had children but was unmarried, the teenage enumerator told her calmly that according to his instructions any relationship resulting in childbirth was marriage and she could have her choice of married, widowed or divorced but not single. She chose, correctly, to go down as divorced. Women could not be asked how many children they had ever had because to put this question in Chinese would involve a supplementary question 'how many of your children have died' which would provoke grief and hostility.

Much thought had to be given to the question of 'race'. This much-abused little word has a way of defying definition. In every- day affairs we speak of 'Chinese' and 'non-Chinese', 'Chinese' and 'foreign', 'Asian' and 'European', 'local' and 'expatriate' but none

HONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIES

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    of these terms is precise enough to lay down an unmistakable line in a society which does not draw such a line. And even if a line could be drawn between any two of these pairs of theoretical asymptotes, there would be little value in hiving off the 'Chinese', 'Asian' or 'local' majority without also sub-dividing it into its main components. Much the same difficulty arose about dividing the population by nationality, since so many of them have two nationalities or none. The solution was to drop the terms 'race' and 'nationality' and use instead scientifically conceived questions defined in terms of linguistics and geography. Everyone was asked his country of birth and his country of ancestral origin. Everyone except children under five and the dumb were asked what language they usually spoke, and whether they (additionally) spoke English, Cantonese, both or neither. From these answers, suitably coded, could be deduced the main linguistic and territorial (and therefore also the ethnic) divisions of the population and also, what was more important, an idea obtained of how far the non-Asian was being assimilated to the Asian and the non-Cantonese to the Cantonese. The results already mentioned show that Hong Kong people, whatever their racial or geographical origin, are being fused quite fast into a composite Cantonese-speaking community.

To enable a study of immigration patterns to be made, those born outside Hong Kong were also asked how many years it was since they settled here.

     The questions on employment and occupation followed standard modern practice, the only departure being to ask all employees how they were paid (by the day, by the month, by the piece, or on commission) and whether their employment was permanent or casual (or seasonal). They were not asked how much they earned, despite rumours to that effect, for which there was never the least foundation, in certain British newspapers. Of course it would have been valuable to know, not so much how much each person earned but the total earnings of each household, but no technique has yet been worked out for obtaining such information accurately in Hong Kong, and it seemed inappropriate and dangerous to preju- dice the success of the census by trying it.

The difficulties which were encountered in this part of the work were just what had been expected. Nearly everybody of working

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age in the Colony has work, but many on the fringe of unemploy- ment take whatever work is going from day to day and would have difficulty in answering such a question as 'what do you do for a living?' On the other hand 'what did you do for a living yesterday?' seemed rather too ephemeral, and it was eventually decided to make the question refer to the period (three weeks) between Chinese New Year's Day and census day, since those in regular employment change jobs, if at all, at New Year. As only one occupation could be recorded, anyone who reported two or more occupations was asked 'which did you spend most time on?' If the times were equal, then 'which brought you in the most pay or profit?' And finally if those were equal too, 'which did you do last?"

      This approach was not thought necessary for the fishermen and other boat people, nor for the farmers. Hong Kong's farmers are usually not hired workers but farm their own or their family's land, and their unit of time is a year or a whole season from seed-time to harvest. The boat people likewise do not lightly abandon their boats. The farmers and fishermen were therefore asked a further set of questions to record their principal and alter- nate crop or means of fishing, and for the farmers the important question of land tenure. By the end of the year the results of this part of the census had not been tabulated, but when they are it will be interesting to see whether they confirm the impression from casual observation that tenant farming is confined to places acces- sible by road and the neighbourhood of towns, and that the rice and pig farmer is typically an owner while the vegetable and poultry farmer is typically a tenant.

     It was, unhappily, not possible to devise a code to record in addition to all this any subsidiary occupation in the farmer's house- hold; unhappily, for it is common knowledge that in the slack farming periods after harvest many farmers' wives and daughters take in industrial out-work, making match boxes for the match factories or sewing buttons onto knitted garments. As the census took place in one of these slack periods several of these side-lines were actually recorded as the main occupation, and the number of farmers recorded as such in the census (43,000) must be cor- respondingly less than the figure that would have been recorded at harvest time.

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      A similar difficulty arose over part-time employment. A school- boy or a housewife who did part-time work averaging less than two hours a day was shown as a schoolboy or housewife 'not otherwise employed.' But if the part-time work averaged two hours or more then it had to be shown as the occupation instead of 'schoolboy' or 'housewife.' It will not be possible to decide how this question should be tackled in a Colony-wide census until it has been studied by sample surveys at different seasons.

      The key topics of education and literacy were handled in the customary way by recording the highest grade reached. One special feature was that all those of either sex who fell within the Colony's standard school ages (from the sixth to the fifteenth birthday) were treated as a separate group and those neither attending school nor in employment were separately classified. In this latter group there were ninety one thousand children, consisting of nearly three girls to every two boys.

Finally for the first time in any local census an inquiry was made into the question of housing, Hong Kong's biggest problem after water supply. To measure the floor space available for each family would be too much for the census men to take on. To ask how much rent each family paid would have invited as much suspicion as to ask for the figure of family earnings, and little faith could have been placed in the replies. The topics selected were first the type of accommodation, making a clear distinction between housing built of permanent materials such as stone, brick and concrete and that built of non-permanent materials such as wood, thatch, sheet iron and asbestos; and second the tenure. A third topic (the length of time the family has lived in the same accommodation) was included in the pilot censuses in the hope of throwing light on the frequency with which Hong Kong residents move house.

      It will be seen that the topics selected confined themselves strictly to fact and avoided matters of notion or opinion. This necessary limitation precluded any closer look at the problem of refugees, for as was clearly demonstrated by the work of Dr Edvard- Hambro in 1954 a refugee can be identified only by his motives and it is well-nigh impossible to frame a set of questions which

(1) The Problem of Chinese Refugees in Hong Kong, Leyden 1955.

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shall at the same time be simple enough to be included in a census questionnaire and searching enough to uncover at least two states of mind that in which the refugee once decided to leave his own country, and that in which he now decides not to go back there.

The same limitation caused the omission of some topics often included in censuses. We have already seen why no direct question was included on race or nationality, and why a woman could not be asked how many children she had ever borne. To explain why no question was asked on religion is not so easy if one starts with the premise, common to many countries, that each individual has an affiliation to some faith or sect which excludes him from all others. To a new arrival from Europe or India it may seem incredible that this premise is not accepted here, but the fact is that many Chinese do not ordinarily accept it, and receive the proposition that one must 'belong' to one religion and one only with the same amused incredulity as a man would who, having stocked his medicine chest with aspirin, cascara and iodine, is told that henceforward he must use one of the three exclusively for all ailments and throw away the other two. There would therefore be a large proportion of the population who would answer 'Yes' to every religion they had heard of and 'Don't know' to the rest, making the answers not only very hard to tabulate but quite useless when tabulated. It was therefore decided, as in the last two censuses, to omit the question and leave it to each religious organization to calculate how many members it possesses.

*

*

*

Having settled the date and the topics, the next matter to be decided was how the results were to be processed. In all previous censuses hand sorting had been used, but even in 1931 (when the population was only 849,751) this method was able to produce only simple lists, with no cross-tabulation except for sex, and consequent waste of a wealth of valuable information. With a population in excess of three million even simple lists could not be satisfactorily made by hand sorting and mechanical sorting with punched cards was used.

      The difficulty would obviously be getting the cards punched. Limited use of punch-card systems was already being made in three departments, but the total 1959 establishment of 15 punch

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operators would be of small assistance in the task of punching and verifying three million eighty-column cards, nor would it be a simple matter to recruit, train and accommodate the necessary number of operators to punch and verify on this scale in a reason- able period after census day. Two hundred skilled operators each with twelve months' experience might have completed the task in six weeks, but it would not have been easy to engage fifty operators with twelve days' experience, to say nothing of twelve months.

     The solution was mark sensing. This is a system of marking cards by a special pencil in such a way that the punching machine can sense the marks (by electrically conductive brushes) translate the marks into a predetermined pattern of punched holes, after which the punched cards are fed into the sorter-counter machines as usual. This system has been used successfully in several countries including Australia and Canada, but it was a new venture for Hong Kong and it was necessary to invent a Cantonese name for the process. The marking was done in the field by enumerators, each enumerator marking the cards not for himself but for a colleague, so that the marking stage could be combined with a complete check by another person of every entry on every schedule. This proved to be the most arduous part of the enumerators' work, but it meant that when the completed schedules arrived at census headquarters, four days after census day, they were accompanied by the marked cards and the machines could start work im- mediately.

*

*

*

     In the films and other publicity material emphasis was laid on two points: the guarantee of secrecy for all personal details, and the use of census material for planning purposes. It was easy enough to put over the obvious fact that the Colony must not only have enough homes, schools and hospitals but it must have them in the right places. If the census is to be of value in such planning it must include everybody.

     A citizen who for some reason objects to participating in a census can usually avoid it if he tries hard enough. The fare to Macau is not high, and if he takes a trip on census eve he is out of the census. He can achieve the same effect still more economi- cally by hiring a sampan to go fishing just outside territorial waters. This sort of evasion does not worry the census-takers so long as

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the scale remains small. To keep it small, it is necessary first to explain the census to the public so clearly that no sane person will wish to dodge it, and then to spread the net with care so that no person is inadvertently left out.

     In a community of three million people there must be some with guilty secrets. How to persuade them that the census officer has no eye for their secrets? How to persuade each of the thirteen thousand census officers themselves that their census duty was to eclipse their ordinary duty as citizens, so that no matter how flagrant the offence accidentally witnessed during their visits, no word of it must be breathed in the ear of authority? This topic was keenly debated at enumerators' training classes and elsewhere. 'What happens' asked one trainee 'if I walk into a house and find the people there are kidnappers, with their captive bound and gagged in the back room?' After discussion it was agreed that the only correct course was to ask the kidnappers politely to un-gag the victim for long enough to enable him to answer the census questions, after which he could be re-gagged! Discussions of this type, no doubt repeated at home and in school, served to spread conviction that the census officers really were to 'observe without seeing', for while it was unlikely that an enumerator would come face to face with a kidnapped person it was highly probable that enumerators would stumble across evidence of smuggled goods, uncustomed liquor, gambling or dope. It was necessary to ensure that they neither would nor could 'peach'.

An essential part of a census is that it is carried out by a sovereign authority under legislative sanction. The statute govern- ing the census of Hong Kong was brought up to date and re- enacted by Ordinance No 2 of 1960 which received the Governor's assent on 21st January 1960. Together with the usual obligations and penalties were included important safeguards for the public. Every census officer was to be sworn to secrecy and forbidden, under heavy pains, to use information obtained in the census for any extraneous purpose; every census officer was to carry proper identification as a guard against imposture; and as a final safeguard against even inadvertent disclosure of personal details every census form had to be destroyed by fire within nine months of census day. The final sequence in the film about the census showed the bundles of forms going into the incinerator, the smoke emerging

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from the chimney, and the counting sorters clacking out their figures as the anonymous punch-cards passed through.

     To spread the net so that no person was left out (the technical term is reticulation) required good maps and recent intelligence of new building. One of the difficulties here is the speed and efficiency of Hong Kong builders. Few are the places in the urban area where the hiss and smack of a pile-driver cannot be heard, or where an old building cannot be seen coming down or a new one going up. Many Government departments maintain nearly up- to-date records, no more than six months old, of new domestic construction, but in six months a row of old houses can be demolished and a sixteen-storey block erected in their place. Good maps were available on a scale of fifty or one-hundred feet to the inch of most of the town, two-hundred feet to the inch of outlying parts of the urban area and four-hundred feet to the inch of the country. These were supplemented by aerial photographs supplied by the Royal Air Force, regular reports of new buildings approved, passed for occupation and occupied, and for the squatter areas close liaison between the census administration and the resettlement authorities. But even this might not be enough. Huts can be built very quickly, and every squatter area began with a single hut. So every district census supervisor was given regular helicopter flights over his district as census day approached, to observe in particular any new paths, new hillside cultivation or other evidence of fresh habitation.

Different methods were required for the boat people. Every boat in harbour, or in any of the bays of the Colony or New Territories, when enumeration began at dawn four days before Lunar New Year, was visited and as soon as the census work was done a lucky red label was stuck conspicuously on the mast, and another on the stern. Boats entering harbour were way-laid by census launches at the entrance and either enumerated and labelled there and then or (if they had fish on board) directed to the wholesale fish market where special squads of enumerators were awaiting them. Any boat found moored with some of the crew on shore was dealt with by summoning the missing people (who in practice seldom go far from their boats) or by retaining the boat licence which could be reclaimed by the master calling at the nearest port census office with the missing people. Finally during the enumeration each bay

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or harbour was photographed, usually from a helicopter, and the number of boats in the photograph compared with the number recorded on the surface.

      Still, people do move house-as already stated about thirteen hundred people move every day. When that happens mistakes may be caused by persons either being counted in two places or omitted in two places. Each one of the 13,233 persons known to have moved house during the ten-day enumeration period had to be traced to his new address, which was successfully done in all but 2,940 cases. And for 2,314 of these full details had already been recorded before they moved house, so that the number 'lost without trace' was only 626.

      There is good reason to believe that very few people were in fact missed. The factor of public co-operation was high. Boats coming into harbour came to the census launches without waiting to be hailed. In rural areas, perhaps from some confusion between the census and the issue of fresh identity cards, people from isolated villages walked miles to the nearest census post to make sure they weren't omitted (this resulted at first in some duplication). And finally on census day itself and for ten days afterward over a thousand telephone calls were made to census headquarters by people who said they had not been visited. Every such report was investigated and, if necessary, the address given revisited. Most proved to have been already included; the details evidently having been supplied by another member of the family. A very small number were hoaxers giving false addresses or the addresses of prominent people. About two hundred omissions were found and rectified, and where known, the reason for the omission recorded for future guidance.

*

*

*

A modern census is usually preceded by a test or pilot census and this course was very necessary in Hong Kong where there had been no census for thirty years. The pilot censuses, which were sample surveys of the whole population, the details of which are too technical for inclusion in this Chapter, helped to train the staff and to make the public aware of what a census really involved. About one boat in forty was concerned in the pilot marine census held at Lunar New Year 1960; and about one household in fifty

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in the pilot land census held in October 1960; so that most people met somebody who had been in the sample. These two pilot censuses enabled an estimate to be prepared of the total population, perhaps the first estimate since the Pacific War compiled entirely from statistically valid data. The estimate announced on 9th January 1961 was that the population on 25th October 1960 had been 3,193,197 +138,670.

      One further sample survey was ordered after the census. This was the post-enumeration check held on 8th and 9th April 1961. This was a very small sample (only 3,637 households or non- household units out of 690,209) but being taken in statistically ideal conditions the results command a high degree of confidence. From the general reader's point of view the most important object of this check was to assess the degree of over-enumeration (i.e. persons enumerated more than once) and under-enumeration (i.e. persons omitted). Census takers are usually happy if they find their figures to command a confidence of 99%. The values found here were two-thirds of one per cent under-enumerated and less than one-tenth of one per cent over-enumerated. It can therefore be said that the total census figures are correct to within twenty thousand, which is better than 99%.

*

*

      Twenty two days after census day the first results were announced in the shape of a total for males and females in each district. This was a 'crude' total, compiled from the returns made by enumerators in the field, but it differed only narrowly from the final figure. A mechanically verified figure was issued on 30th May after each card had passed once through the counting machines, and the final corrected figure was issued on 12th October. It was 1,610,650 males and 1,522,481 females, 3,133,131 in all, including 3,483 persons classified as transients.

     Comparison with previous censuses and estimates showed moderate increases on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon proper and among the boat population, but phenomenal increases in New Kowloon and several parts of the New Territories. This was not a surprise, because it meant only that the people were going where there was more room for them. (See map opposite). Hong Kong Island had just over a million people of whom 674,962,

AGE GROUPS

MALE

FEMALE

AGE GROUPS

85-89

85-89

+961 CENSUS-POPULATION BREAKDOWN BY AGE GROUPS

80-84

80-84

75-79

75-79

70-74

70-74

65-69

65-69

60-64

60-64

55-59

55-59

50-54

50-54

45-49

45-49

40-44

35-39

30-34

25-29

20-24

15-19

10-14

5-9

HONG

40-44

35-39

30-34

#

25-29

20-24

15-19

10-14

5-9

0-4

150,000 100,000 50,000

50,000 100,000 150,000

1961 CENSUS-POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AREAS

6

B

RARIES

BR

(1) HONG KONG 1,005,041, (2) KOWLOON 726,976, (3) NEW KOWLOON 852,849, (4) COLONY WATERS 91,861, (5) TSUEN WAN 84,823, (6) YUEN LONG 133,802, (7) TAI PO 136,962, (8) SAI KUNG 15,389, ISLANDS 38,969, NEW TERRITORIES WATERS 46,459.

3,000,000

2,500,000

2,000,000

Ku

1,500,000

1961 CENSUS-TOTAL POPULATION 3,133,131

FEMALES 15 & OVER

MALES 15 & OVER

FEMALES UNDER 15

MALES UNDER 15

* Breakdown figures for 1941 and 1951

not available. Columns show estimated population only.

共圖

ONG

1,000,000

500,000

PULICA IBRAR

1931

1941

1951

1961

CENSUS

ESTIMATE ESTIMATE CENSUS

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excluding the armed forces, were living in what used to be called the City of Victoria and no less than 269,178 in what is virtually a new city since 1950-North Point from Causeway Bay eastwards to the former small fishing village of Shau Kei Wan, now a flourish- ing industrial area. Aberdeen, the oldest inhabited place on Hong Kong Island, has 16,690 shore dwellers, 27,479 boat people and 8,692 on Ap Lei Chau on the other side of Aberdeen harbour. Kowloon proper has now outstripped Victoria with 726,976 people, and is in its turn surpassed by New Kowloon, which at the last census had 22,634 people and now has 852,849 of whom 748,518 are in the main built-up area.

The New Territories have grown from 98,000 people in 1931 to 409,945 in 1961, and this now includes several sizable towns of which the largest is Tsuen Wan with 61,106. The boat people show the lowest rate of increase, from 70,000 in 1931 to 138,320 in 1961, which no doubt reflects the heavy losses they suffered during the war.

In the whole Colony besides the six centres of population already mentioned there are six other towns of ten thousand or more inhabitants, six with five thousand but under ten, and ten with two thousand but under five. And there are 901 villages of which 624 have less than two hundred inhabitants. There is, of course, a tendency for villages adjoining towns to become swallowed up in the towns, but the more remote villages show considerable vitality and the total village population is greater than in any previous census.

**

*

It is a young population. (See graph opposite). Out of a total of 3,133,131 of all ages, 1,277,088 (40.8%) are under 15 and of those again no less than 500,726 (16.0% of all ages) are under five. But from our young people there is half a generation missing. In the age group from 13 to 27 inclusive, that is those born between 7th March 1934 and 6th March 1948, there are about 177,000 males and 164,000 females less than the other pro- portions of the population require (see 'age-group' diagram facing page 24); and this deficiency is most marked in the ages 15 to 20 inclusive, where the numbers missing exceed the survivors. This is the generation on whom lay most heavily the privations of the years 1938 to 1945, and the scar which marks the amputation of

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half their number is a silent witness to the ghastly irrelevance of warfare.

      The privations of the war and the occupation lay heavily on the aged, too, but as anybody who was 70 on VJ Day would have been 86 by census day this effect was imperceptible. No doubt the culling of the feeble and chronically sick from those ages which were neither young nor old had something to do with the average fitness and health of the survivors. It is a healthy population. The death rate is low and getting lower. The birth rate is moderately high and the rate of infantile mortality is remarkably low. These factors point to a steadily rising rate of annual natural increase, and there are several indications that this rate of increase will steepen sharply in four years' time.

It is becoming a settled population. In former censuses the sex ratio, except in the New Territories, showed a large excess of males, because large numbers of men came here from China without their families and returned to their villages in 'Canton more far' when they had saved enough to retire on. This is no longer the case. What does stand out from the district tables, though, is that there is a distinct pattern of internal migration which may well repay further study. Four districts of the New Territories (Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung North, Cheung Chau and Sai Kung South in that order) have a heavy excess of females caused by temporary migra- tion of young men 'abroad'-which in their idiom includes Hong Kong and Kowloon-for work. Two districts of the New Territories (Tuen Mun and Tsuen Wan) show the opposite characteristic, though the excess of males was reduced in Tsuen Wan at the time of the census by a recent reflux of single-living workers, mostly men, back to Kowloon because of some re-adjustment of working conditions. It appears that a substantial part of the Tsuen Wan labour force consists of men and women who leave their families in Kowloon and find single lodgings in Tsuen Wan. Two districts of the New Territories (San Tin and Tai Po) actually present both features together-many men from these districts have gone 'abroad' but many others have moved in, making the sex ratio almost normal; it is only when division and village figures are examined that the pattern becomes visible.

     The densities of population show perhaps for the first time positive evidence that sane town planning is beginning to win the

REVIEW

27

     battle against overcrowding. True there are still some black spots where high densities appear; but even if so small a unit as the census division is taken (about 10,000 persons) only seven of these units in Hong Kong, six in New Kowloon, and none in Kowloon proper and the New Territories exceed 2,000 persons to the acre. The two highest densities are both on Hong Kong Island-a division measuring 3.84 acres between Graham and Aberdeen Streets and another of 4.48 acres near the Wan Chai Market, each with just over 2,800 to the acre. These maximum densities are no greater than some recorded in 1931, but the great difference now is that slightly lower (but still high) densities are spread over a much larger part of the urban area, densities of 1,800 per acre being found as far afield as Sai Ying Pun and Ngau Tau Kok.

The proportion of households who own their homes is also encouraging. In the New Territories it is not surprising that 60% of householders are owners, because the farmer likes to live in his own cottage, however small. It is no more surprising that 95.4% of the boat people own the boats on which they and their families pass their lives. But even in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon the proportions are 13.2%, 11.9% and 17.5% and of the 687,209 households throughout the Colony no less than 153,805 claimed to own their homes. And though these figures must include a good number (in squatter areas and on rooftops) whose 'ownership' hardly rests on a good title, there can be no doubt that the system of buying, instead of renting, a house or flat is becoming popular-another sign of a settled population.

There is a noteworthy improvement, except among the boat people, in educational standards. Of all aged 10 and upwards in the whole Colony, 75% are literate (91% of the men and 58% of the women). This compares with 51% (74% of men and 19% of women) in 1931. And of the 2,535,000 people of age to have been to school, only 611,000 have had no schooling, of whom 527,000 (including 438,000 women) are already past school age. Clearly there is still a good way to go before it can be said that everyone here except the mentally retarded can read and write. But a good deal has been done. Of the 1,899,000 who have been to school, 346,000 males and 167,000 females have had schooling above the primary level. Whereas in 1931 a literate female was hard to find, now at all ages below 35 literate females exceed

28

REVIEW

illiterate, and most parents will now allow their daughters to go to school. The exception to this improvement is found among the boat people, more than 75% of whom are still illiterate and have never been to school.

      Although at the time of writing the economic tables have not yet been completed, some interesting facts about employment have come to light. Out of 943,764 males aged 15 and over, 852,800 are in the labour force, a male labour participation rate of 90.5%, which is higher than Japan and second in east Asia only to the Philippines(2). However of 908,849 females aged 15 and over, only 337,000 are in the labour force, a lower percentage than any country in the region except Taiwan and Singapore(2), the total number of economically active females being considerably less than the number of housewives (470,763). The number of boys and girls under 15 who are working is small-11,900 boys and about 10,000 girls-of whom virtually none are in registered in- dustrial undertakings, and the majority are probably assisting their parents on the farm, on board a boat or in retail trade. The number of persons reporting themselves as 'unemployed' (i.e. having formerly had work but not now) was 15,905, mostly men, and the number of 'job-seekers' (i.e. seeking their first employment) was 5,131. Considering that the net natural gain to the labour force in the twelve months preceding the census was over 20,000 and that 13,919 men and 7,637 women of working age said they had arrived within twelve months before census day and another 7,522 men and 8,697 women of working age said they had been here for one year, this indicates that the local labour market was then still able to absorb new entrants at a much faster rate than the natural increase.

      Mention of immigration brings up the question which more than any other complicates the task of calculating the true rate of increase of the population. Ever since the huge influx of people in 1949 and 1950 it has been assumed that, careful as were the checks on immigration especially from the mainland of China, a certain number were passing in unobserved. Estimates of this varied from a flood to a trickle. But in the absence of positive

(1) There is an active programme of education for fishermen's children. (2) Source of comparisons: Monthly Statistics of Japan, November 1961; Handbook of Philippine Statistics 1903-1959, Manila 1960; ILO Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1960; UN Demographic Year Book, 1960.

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29

evidence the annual calculations of mid-year population ignored this potential factor and based themselves solely on registered births, registered deaths and the balance of recorded immigration over recorded emigration: hoping that when the census had been taken the difference between the census figure and the estimate would give an idea of the magnitude of unrecorded (or 'illegal') immigration. However the final census figure differed by so little from the estimate that the only possible conclusions are either that there has not been a very great amount of unrecorded im- migration or that it has been offset by other unknown factors; and the pattern of migration deduced from the length of residence table shows that over the last six years the net annual balance of all immigration averaged 60,000. Furthermore so great is the total volume of movement in and out (1,275,500 recorded in and 1,290,700 recorded out during the twelve months ending March 1961) that any net balance of recorded migrants may conceal a much greater net balance of immigrants between certain ages offset by a net balance of emigrants of other ages. Until more is known about these details there will be some uncertainty in any calcula- tions of basic demographic factors such as fertility, mortality and expectation of life. But there are grounds for thinking that the Colony has three years in which to prepare for the explosive in- crease that is certainly coming.

It will be seen that the facts of Hong Kong's population thus far revealed, afford some grounds for re-assurance-not for com- placency. The task of bringing literacy to the boat people could itself write a whole heart-searching chapter; and the Box-and-Cox families show that in the field of housing much ground has still to be made up. But progress has been made there are some plums in the cake. Hong Kong now has not so much a problem of people as a people with problems.

*

**

*

      And what of the future? If as now seems likely the present rate of natural increase and the present rate of immigration both continue without substantial change until 1965, the mid-year population of that year will be approximately 3,790,000, but then the present 14 and 15 year olds will be young parents and a sharp increase in the birth rate is foreseeable, which might give the Colony a population of 3,950,000 in 1966. On the other hand

30

REVIEW

any change either in the rate of migration or the age and sex characteristics of the migrants might totally confuse this forecast.

As for labour, it looks as if until 1964 we shall have an employees' market, and employers will be able to expand their labour force only by accepting older candidates (to a lesser extent) or by attracting more women to take jobs. But from 1965 onwards the labour market may be flooded with new young applicants, resulting either in the forcing out of older or less efficient workers or in a switch to types of employment which at present are un- popular, such as domestic service. When the census tables showing the detailed breakdown of employed persons by age, industry and occupation are completed, they must be carefully studied by all who plan new or the expansion of old ventures.

      In a broadcast talk introducing the 1961 census to the Hong Kong listening public) the Census Commissioner said 'this 1961 census could be a landmark in Hong Kong's history.' It has indeed closed a chapter of guesswork-although sometimes brilliant guess- work. One hundred and twenty years ago Hong Kong was described as rich only in rock and water-and, it might have been added, sand. A handful of people lived here and experts said it would be a miracle if they ever exceeded a handful. Five years ago we took stock and reported that we were short of water and sand, though not yet short of rock, and had so many people that they were a problem. Now we find that our people are a priceless asset, industrious and optimistic, prone to achieve miracles between one full rice-bowl and the next, as though the full rice-bowl were not itself miracle enough.

      'Hong Kong must assimilate its refugees', they said. Hong Kong has assimilated them, or they have assimilated Hong Kong, or a little of each. And so we go forward to bake next year's policy cake, with ingredients this time carefully weighed and sifted, the mixture as never before.

(1) Radio Hong Kong, 7th February 1961.

Part II

THE VISIT OF HRH PRINCESS ALEXANDRA of KENT

Aptly, Princess Alexandra's name was translated into Chinese as 'Elegant Beautiful Coral'. Those people in Hong Kong who cannot speak Chinese soon had another name for her, however-the Sunshine Princess. For her arrival on 3rd November coincided with crisp, cool days and brilliant skies that etched the harbour and the steep slopes of Hong Kong Island in arresting beauty throughout the twelve day visit.

      The Princess, who had flown to Hong Kong by way of Hawaii, was greeted by a 21-gun salute as she crossed the harbour from Kai Tak Airport to Government House accompanied by the Governor, Sir Robert Black, Lady Black, and Miss Barbara Black.

      After her long flight the Princess spent her first week-end in the Colony quietly. On the second day she met the Press and watched a fireworks display at night

on Sunday she attended St John's Cathedral and went on

launch picnic.

a

At her first official engagement, the University Congregation, Princess Alexandra spoke of her first impressions of Hong Kong.

'I had heard much about Hong Kong,' said the Princess, 'about its beauty, about its bustling activity, and above all about its wonderfully friendly people. Let me say at once that my hopes have been exceeded during the most enjoyable days I have already spent here.

'And may I add that I am looking forward to all the chances I am to be given of meeting and talking to representatives of this thriving community, and also of seeing for myself a few of the many remarkable achievements which have been accomplished in Hong Kong since the war.'

The Princess was given a warm and crowded welcome wherever she went. Hong Kong's 38 daily newspapers carried lengthy and well-illustrated reports throughout the visit and on the fifth day of her stay a crowd of half a million people lined the streets to give the Princess a tumultuous reception during a drive through Kowloon. At one point along the route the people rushed forward to surround her car and almost brought it to a stop. There was no doubt about their sentiments. It was a demonstration of spontaneous affection for Princess Elegant Beautiful Coral.

It set the pace for the Princess' subsequent appearances. Wherever she went crowds waited for hours to see her pass. At So Uk Housing Estate it was estimated that there were 40,000 people-more than the total population of the estate-standing on the balconies alone. Thousands more lined the streets.

And so the tour went on.... visits to a nurses' training school, a community centre, to Army establishments in the New Territories, where Her Royal Highness watched Gurkha children dancing to traditional Nepali music; a dinner afloat on the Sea Palace at Aberdeen and a visit to Chinese opera at the Lee Theatre. Hong Kong, it has been said, is a little place with a big heart. It soon became apparent that Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra had captured that heart as no other visitor ever has.

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Princess Alexandra's first official engagement was at Hong Kong University, where she received the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. In her speech, Her Royal Highness stated: 'It is indeed a privilege to be associated in this way with a University which has made for itself, in a comparatively short period of time, a fine and well deserved reputation'.

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The Congregation marked the climax of the University's Golden Jubilee celebrations and the Princess was presented with a set of James Legge's Translation of the Chinese Classics as a token of dutiful allegiance to the Queen. Later she officially opened the new Students' Union and met many of the students informally.

R

On both the weekends she spent in Hong Kong, Princess Alexandra went on a launch picnic and saw many junks on their way to and from the fishing grounds. During a visit to Aberdeen she was able to see one of these craft at close quarters and went aboard to meet a junk family and learn something of their life at sea.

T

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|

Chopsticks posed no problems for the Princess when she encountered them at a dinner given by the Chinese community. She had eaten Chinese food in Britain.

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Aboard the Sea Palace Restau- rant at Aberdeen, Princess Alexandra dined with Unofficial Members of Councils-and, just like

any other visitor, she arrived by sampan.

In the day nursery at the Tsuen Wan Community Centre, the Princess met some of the toddlers who are left there daily while their parents are at work.

These villagers at Pat Heung

in the New

crossroads

Territories

impromptu

put on

an

unicorn dance

for the Princess, who left

her car to watch it.

HON

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During a visit to Stanley Village, Princess Alexandra walked down the main_street-which is little more than 10ft wide-and met many of the shopkeepers and their families. The villagers presented her with a coolie hat. Several times during her stay the Princess met Kaifong officials (below) and showed keen interest in the work of these organizations.

L

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B

One of the most colourful events on the Princess' crowded Hong Kong programme was a Chinese opera at the Lee Theatre. It was a charity performance for the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, and on behalf of the directors Her Royal Highness handed a souvenir to the three leading players of the operatic troupe.

2

Population

THE total population of the Colony at the end of 1961 was estimated to be 3,226,400. This estimate being based on the census of the population taken in February and March of this year can be accepted with confidence.

      The actual census population, after deducting 3,483 transients, was 3,129,648 of whom 1,607,779 were male and 1,521,869 female. Details of the census have already been given in Chapter 1, where the reader will also find an explanation of why a precise division into 'Chinese' and 'non-Chinese' cannot be made. If language be taken as the criterion, we find that of the census population 2,579,207 (1,321,452 male and 1,257,755 female) spoke some kind of Chinese as their usual language, 48,153 (27,855 male and 20,298 female) spoke a non-Chinese language, and 502,288 (500,706 under five years of age and 1,582 dumb) could not be classified by tongue. If ancestral origin be taken as the criterion, 260,505 (127,365 male and 133,140 female) gave Hong Kong as their place of origin, 2,819,396 (1,451,318 male and 1,368,078 female) gave some part of China and 49,747 (29,096 male and 20,651 female) gave other parts of the world. From the cross-classification of these two characters we can be pretty sure that on any workaday definition of the word 'Chinese' not less than 3,074,000 or 98.2% of the population would answer the description.

      The last census in 1931 found the total population to be 849,751. Another census should have been held in 1941, but the unsettled conditions which followed the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the fluctuations in population after the attack on Canton in 1938, and later the Japanese invasion of the Colony, caused the plan to be abandoned. An unofficial count by air-raid wardens in 1941 before the Japanese attack put the population at about 1,600,000. This number was greatly reduced during the occupation and it is estimated that the total amounted to less than 600,000 when the Colony was liberated in August 1945. The population grew rapidly again with peace, and by the end of 1946 it was believed that the

34

POPULATION

immediately pre-war level of 1,600,000 had been regained. An assessment of the population in September 1949 by the then Department of Statistics put the total at 1,857,000.

Estimates for subsequent years have been based mainly on the birth and death registration figures and on the arrival and depar- ture figures modified, where necessary, by any other information available at the time. The calculation is complicated by a signi- ficant quantity of unrecorded immigration, particularly since the number passing both ways across the frontier in any one year can be equal to or greater than the total of the population. But as the series of calculations made from 1949 to 1960 (ignoring this factor) fall short of the census figures by only about 120,000, it seems that the error from this source is not on the average very large, though it may in some years reach or exceed 30,000.

Since the estimate of population at the end of 1961 was based on the census, while that for 1960 was based on different data, the population increase for the year cannot be obtained by a direct comparison of the two figures. The true increase is calculated to have been 98,200 of which 89,988 came from the excess of registered births over registered deaths. The actual number of registered births was 108,726 in 1961 compared with 110,667 in 1960 and of registered deaths 18,738 compared with 19,146. On the mid-year population of 3,177,700 of whom 623,200 were females between the ages of 15 and 44, these figures yield a crude birth rate of 34.22 per mille, a general fertility rate of 0.1745 and a crude death rate of 5.90 per mille.

URBAN POPULATION

The total number (except transients) claiming to originate from Commonwealth countries outside Hong Kong was 33,140 of whom 27,936 resided in the urban area. Those from non-Commonwealth countries, other than China, totalled 16,607 of whom 13,467 resided in the urban area. These are census figures for census day. The census questions did not include nationality, but the figures pro- vided by the Aliens Registration Office for non-Chinese alien residents at the end of the year totalled 2,102 of whom the largest groups were American (760), Japanese (385), Portuguese (156), Filipino (144), Indonesian (88), German (86), Dutch (78), French (74) and Thai (74).

POPULATION

35

About half the urban population is now of Hong Kong birth, but most of these and the greater part of the immigrant population hail from Kwangtung Province. The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are neighbouring Po On and Tung Kwun, Wai Yeung and Mui Yuen (principally Hakka), Chiuchow, Sze Yap or the so-called Four Districts (really five-Hoi Ping, Hok Shan, San Wui, Toi Shan and Yan Ping), Nam Hoi, Pun Yue, Shun Tak and Chung Shan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien community and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

      Cantonese, by which is meant not any dialect of Kwangtung Province but the dialect of Canton City and others sufficiently like it to be intelligible, is the lingua franca of the urban area and is the mother tongue of 806 out of every thousand inhabitants of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon. Another 137 speak other languages of Kwangtung-Hoklo, Sze Yap and Hakka in that order-28 speak Shanghai, 13 English, 10 Kuoyu and six some other language. Among families originating in North China there is a tendency for the children to adopt Cantonese as their first language. Knowledge of English may be increasing, but Kuoyu seems to be on the ebb and its use is now almost confined to the academic world.

      Certain languages are found clustered in particular parts of the town: for instance on Hong Kong Island there is a concentration of Chiuchow speakers in Western District, of Fukien speakers (and a smaller knot of Shanghai speakers) at North Point and of Sze Yap speakers in Wan Chai; across the harbour the Chiuchow concentration is at Wong Tai Sin opposite Kai Tak Airport, the Sze Yap concentration in Mong Kok and Cheung Sha Wan, and the Shanghai concentration in Hung Hom. The only notable numbers of Kuoyu speakers are around Hong Kong University and Rennie's Mill, and the only districts where Portuguese speakers reach three figures are Tsim Sha Tsui (275) and North Point (116).

NEW TERRITORIES

      The indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories consist of four principal groups: Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka. Although these groups show differences in physical appearance,

36

POPULATION

dress, organization and custom, which suggest that they are racially distinct, it is safer to treat them as linguistic rather than racial groups. Up to 1955 there were more Hakka speakers than the other three groups put together.

The Cantonese occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories, and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in various other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long district, have a history of continuous settlement since the late eleventh century, during the Southern Sung dynasty, with whose imperial family the clan was connected by marriage. Villages near Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantau Island, and Mui Wo on the east coast of the same, also date from the Sung dynasty, while the oldest of the Tung Chung villages on the north shore of Lantau Island were perhaps founded in the late thirteenth century. Subsequent migra- tions have brought Cantonese from many districts of Kwangtung, and they are the majority community of the principal islands. The earliest families in Yuen Long district speak a sub-dialect of Cantonese which is related to that of the Tung Kwun district of Kwangtung Province and which is not very easy for city Cantonese to follow, but city Cantonese (Pun Yue dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, and is ex- plained as meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or even before. The Cantonese were the more successful settlers, however, and in the areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are always found upstream, along foothills, and in general on the poorer land. After a period of subservience to the powerful Cantonese families, the balance was restored by heavy immigration and the Hakka are now almost exclusive possessors of the Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung and Hang Hau peninsulas, and of the foothills of Tai Mo Shan. They are the majority community in Tai Po and Sha Tin and on the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan.

      There is a history of strife between Hakka and Cantonese but their relations are now peaceful and inter-marriage is not uncom- mon. Some villages are peacefully shared between the two groups

POPULATION

37

and most Hakka men can speak Cantonese, except in the remotest

areas.

The Hoklo have frequented the area since time unknown. They are traditionally boat dwellers, but in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations. There are influential Hoklo land communities on Cheung Chau and Peng Chau (South). Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. The more primitive types of Hoklo dwelling are distinguishable by the use of thatch and mud bricks, instead of tiles and stone.

The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan' (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan' (water-borne people). They are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. Their entire families live afloat. Like the Hoklo, whom they resemble in many respects, they have been in the area since time unknown. The Tanka speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese, indeed of every thousand of the boat population 930 speak this dialect, 50 speak Hoklo and the rest are splinter groups. At Tai O, on Lantau Island, there is an example of something not often seen away from the rivers of the Canton area-a fairly large group of Tanka living ashore, or rather half-ashore, in huts built on stakes over a muddy inlet.

The linguistic balance of the New Territories has been altered by the coming in recent years of new settlers, who when they first arrived were usually called refugees. The newcomers are mostly from Kwangtung Province (even in Tsuen Wan, which has the highest proportion of northerners, the biggest northern group- Shanghai is only one in ten and is outnumbered three times by immigrants from the Canton area) and where they are not from Kwangtung they usually become assimilated to the Cantonese. As a result, only in Sai Kung district now are the indigenous people still in the majority, and out of each thousand residents anywhere in the New Territories 641 give Cantonese as their usual language, 234 Hakka, 46 Hoklo, 26 Shanghai, 23 Sze Yap, 13 English, nine Kuoyu and nine all other languages. During the census, evidence

38

POPULATION

was found that assimilation is becoming a fact even among groups which were reported in previous years to be resisting it, almost the only exception being some miners from north China who are sufficiently numerous and well-organized to constitute almost a separate town at the foot of Ma On Shan.

      There are also in the New Territories an increasing number of families of all nationalities from the urban area who prefer a country life, commuting to Hong Kong or Kowloon by ferry, train, 'bus or car. The total population of the New Territories, excluding New Kowloon, on census day was 456,404 including 46,459 boat people. The principal centres of population are Tsuen Wan (61,106 plus 3,950 boat dwellers), Yuen Long (33,421), Tai Po (16,957 plus 7,412 boat dwellers), Cheung Chau (15,166 plus 4,105 boat dwellers), Shek Wu Hui (14,286), Castle Peak (including Old Town, New Town and Sam Shing Hui 10,745 plus 7,528 boat dwellers), Luen Wo (8,372) and Tai O (5,516 plus 2,252 boat dwellers). Several of these places are expanding very rapidly, as fast as the necessary amenities can be brought to them, or even faster.

3

Employment

OCCUPATIONS

    EXCEPT for those in the civil service or working in industrial undertakings registered or recorded by the Labour Department, no comprehensive employment statistics are normally collected by Government, but precise information will be available when the final report of the population census is published in 1962. The Census, however, has already shown that in March there were 1,190,937 people engaged in some form of employment. These figures included 788,384 permanent in-workers(1), 137,318 casual or seasonal in-workers, 123,829 who are self-employed and 57,424 employers. The remaining workers are apprentices or trainees, unpaid family helpers, workers on commission or out-workers(2). About 82,000 people are directly engaged in agriculture and fishing and, including dependants, more than 80,000 people rely on fishing for their livelihood, and some 250,000 on agriculture. It is known that 271,729 are employed in industry and approximately 180,000 in building and engineering construction. There are 49,422 em- ployees of the Hong Kong Government.

The recorded increase in the industrial labour force, compared with that in 1960, owes less to actual expansion than to the fact that proprietors of registered and recorded factories, who previ- ously included only manual workers in their returns were asked, for the first time, to state the total number of employees. It is certain, however, that there was considerable expansion in the manual labour force during the year.

The manufacture of textiles continued to absorb the greatest number of workers and its total of 68,825 employees represented

(1) 'in-worker' does not mean one who works indoors, but does mean an employee who works in or at his employer's place, be it shop, factory, building site, farm or boat.

(2) conversely, an 'out-worker' means anyone who can take his work

home or wherever he pleases.

40

EMPLOYMENT

    an increase over the previous year. But the rise was uneven and, at the beginning of 1961, several sections of the industry, especially cotton weaving and the manufacture of garments, stood off sub- stantial numbers of their workers. The plastic flower industry showed similar fluctuations. At the beginning of the year, difficulties over the export of its products to the United States resulted in this industry standing off more than 1,200 of its workers, but it recovered in response to an increased demand to become the third most important industry. In the aggregate, the industrial labour force fell by more than 4,500 in the first three months of the year, but a quick recovery raised the number in industrial employment to a record total by the end of June. With 42,517 workers, the manufacture of wearing apparel remained the second biggest source of employment. Twenty eight thousand and twenty six workers were employed in manufacturing metalware and the manufacture and repair of transport equipment (includ- ing shipbuilding, repairing and breaking) absorbed some 16,015 workers.

     In spite of the difficulty of finding premises, especially those suitable for small industrial concerns, the number of registered or recorded factories increased by 760 to 6,359. Improved adminis- tration by a larger inspectorate would account for a proportion of this expansion but there was undoubtedly a real increase in the number of qualifying factories. Reclaimed land in Kwun Tong provided the greatest number of new industrial sites but Tsuen Wan, in the New Territories, grew in importance as an industrial area, and sites at Yau Tong Bay were found for boat yards and timber mills.

     Tables at Appendix I show development in the main industrial groups and in selected industries.

Unemployment. At the time of the 1961 Census there were some 20,000 people reporting themselves as unemployed or seeking their first employment. (See Chapter 1). The census also confirmed that the number of people between 15 and 25 years of age was dispro- portionately low and provided a reminder that young workers will be hard to recruit for the next five years. Periodic local shortages of labour occurred, especially in industries established in outlying districts where a shortage of housing and schools, and transport difficulties tended to aggravate the problem. Although

EMPLOYMENT

41

most skilled and many unskilled workers have been absorbed in the expanding economy, considerable under-employment is believed to exist among the unskilled.

      Migration for employment. As many countries rigidly control the entry of Chinese, Hong Kong workers seeking employment over- seas are restricted to comparatively few territories. The majority go to North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak where development projects have created a heavy demand for skilled and semi-skilled workers. The British Phosphate Commission continued to recruit for work in Nauru and Ocean Island and invited an officer of the Labour Department to sail with the migrants and gain first-hand knowledge of employment conditions. Fishermen went to Singa- pore and North Borneo and skilled workmen were recruited for the manufacture of enamelware in Indonesia and Nigeria. Tailors found employment in Okinawa and a number of restaurant workers migrated to Australia. The most noticeable trend of the year, however, was the increase in the number of restaurant workers who left for the United Kingdom.

      Except for British subjects leaving for employment in the United Kingdom, all emigrant manual workers are required to enter con- tracts approved by the Labour Department and conforming with the international labour conventions. During 1961, 1,513 of these contracts were approved, compared with 1,584 in 1960.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

      Wages. The wages of workers not engaged on piece rates are calculated on an hourly, daily, or monthly basis and are customarily paid at weekly or fortnightly intervals. Supervisors, technicians, employees of public utility companies, and all Govern- ment servants other than a few casual workers, are normally paid each month. Most semi-skilled and unskilled workers in manu- facturing industries and in the printing trade are on daily rates of pay.

      There is no discrimination against women in rates of pay for piece work, but men engaged on a time basis are generally more highly paid than their female counterparts. Apprentices receive progressively increasing rates of pay throughout a training period

42

EMPLOYMENT

varying between two and five years, rising to a maximum which approximates to that of an unskilled worker.

     The widespread demands for increased wages throughout 1960, following Government's acceptance of the recommendations of the Salaries Commission and the introduction of new rates of pay for civil servants, were generally satisfied by the end of last year and 1961 proved a period of industrial peace. Only two demands for substantial wage increases were raised and both were satisfactorily settled early in the year. A shortage of labour, however, resulted in some wage increases. Normal wages for daily-rated workers ranged between:

Skilled

Semi-skilled

Unskilled

$8

to $21

$7 to $10

$3 to $ 8

     Many employers provide their workers with additional benefits, including free accommodation, subsidized meals or food allow- ances, good attendance bonuses, and paid rest-days, while many employees receive a Chinese New Year bonus of one month's salary.

     Working hours. There are no legal restrictions on the hours of work for men. Most of those in industry work for ten hours a day or less whilst civil servants and those employed in concerns operat- ing on Western lines, work only eight hours a day. Legislation made under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, provides for maximum daily hours, limited overtime, weekly rest days, and rest periods for women and young persons.

Young persons between the ages of 14 and 16 years may work only eight hours, with a break of one hour after five hours' con- tinuous work. Children under the age of 14 years are prohibited from working in industry and no woman or young person is allowed to work at night or underground.

Restrictions on the hours of work for women, introduced on 1st January 1959, have increasingly affected the working hours of men employed in the same concerns. During 1959, 81 cotton spinning, cotton weaving, and silk spinning mills adopted a system of three eight hour shifts. In 1960, the number increased to 97 and, at the end of 1961, 115 factories had introduced this system. It was estimated that by the end of 1961 24,798 men and 18,070 women were working eight hours a day.

EMPLOYMENT

43

      A rest period of one hour a day is customarily given throughout industry but, when working hours exceed eight a day, the rest period may be prolonged to as much as three hours. Except where continuous production demands a rotation of rest days, Sunday is most commonly given. Rest days are usually unpaid. Many male industrial workers do not enjoy a rest day but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

Retail Price Index. The Commerce and Industry Department compiles and publishes a monthly Retail Price Index. It covers a wide range of items found in the normal budget of both industrial and white-collar workers, calculated on the basis of a survey carried out in 1948. A base of 100 for March 1947 is used. Although Government has abandoned the payment of variable cost of living allowances based on this index, except for lower paid grades, some employers still follow the scales of cost of living allowances published monthly by the Labour Department.

      The index remained remarkably steady for the first eight months of the year, varying only between 120 and 123, but typhoons and a seasonal shortage of vegetables and fish resulted in its rising to 126 in August and 128 in September. It fell again rapidly and stood at 120 in December.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

Labour Department. The rapid expansion of local industry in the post-war period has been reflected in a corresponding growth of the Labour Department from a modest establishment of 23 officers in 1947 to its present strength of 163. Together with the Registry of Trade Unions, it is primarily responsible for executing Government's policy in labour matters. The Commissioner of Labour is Government's principal adviser on labour affairs. He is ex officio chairman of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both labour and management are represented. The Commissioner is also chairman of the Technical Education and Vocational Training Standing Committee, and a member of the Kwun Tong Advisory Committee concerned with the provision of industrial sites. He is, concurrently, Commissioner of Mines.

All labour legislation is initiated in the department, which is also responsible for ensuring that Hong Kong's obligations under

44

EMPLOYMENT

international labour conventions are observed. The registration of industrial undertakings and regular inspections safeguard healthy working conditions. The department conciliates in disputes between management and labour and offers advice on the establishment of appropriate machinery for joint consultation. Trade unions are guided in their formation and management classes are organized on the various aspects of their activities. Largely through the investigations of its labour inspectors and health visitors, the department administers legislation governing workmen's compensa- tion and the working conditions of women and young persons employed in industry. An important section provides training in supervisory techniques. Special protection is given to emigrant labour, and redundant workers of military and civil establishments are helped to find alternative employment.

Emphasis is given to providing adequate publicity on any legislation with which the department is concerned. Throughout the year, large numbers of posters illustrating industrial safety were despatched to factories, and articles on all aspects of the department's work appeared regularly in the local press. Although it was decided not to participate, as in the four preceding years, in an exhibition of Hong Kong products organized by the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, plans were under consideration to hold a separate exhibition in 1962, having safety as its theme.

The Registry of Trade Unions is responsible for administering the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance in so far as it affects the registration and internal administration of trade unions. It deals with the registration of new trade unions, and with appli- cations for the registration of alterations to rules and change of name or amalgamation by registered unions, and with dissolutions. The Registrar also has the power to cancel the registration of a union in certain circumstances. Registered trade unions are required by the Ordinance to send annual returns to the Registrar before 1st June each year and also to send their audited accounts within one month of presentation to members.

The year ended with 312 unions on the register as against 315 in December 1960. Seven new organizations were registered (four of workers and three of employers) but 10 were removed from the register, three having ceased to exist and four had their registra- tions cancelled for violation of the provisions of the ordinance and

EMPLOYMENT

45

the registration of three others was cancelled at their own request. The 312 unions consisted of 235 workers' unions with a total declared membership of 216,559, 64 organizations of merchants or employers with a declared membership of 10,429 and 13 mixed organizations with a total membership of 6,670.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

       Trade unions. With few exceptions, all trade unions are affiliated to, or associated with, one of two local federations which bear allegiance to opposing political groups. Divided politically, and further splintered along ethnic and lingual lines, their number has grown beyond practical needs and diverging loyalties have prevented those with common interests from amalgamating into effective organizations. On at least two occasions during the year, a ready settlement of comparatively serious disputes was impeded by this union rivalry. Ignorance of the principles underlying the trade union movement makes it difficult to improve this structure.

The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, the FTU, supports the Chinese People's Republic. Most of the members of its 63 affiliated unions are concentrated in shipyards, textile mills and public utilities, or are seafarers. A further 28 member-unions, nominally independent, align themselves with the FTU and take part in its activities. Little was heard from the Federation through- out the year, except for its strong criticism both of the United States' proposed restrictions on the import of Hong Kong textiles and of an extension of the agreement covering cotton exports to Britain. As in previous years, no attempt was made to confine welfare benefits to members of affiliated unions and relief was offered without discrimination to the victims of a serious fire which devastated a large area of a squatter settlement in January. The foundations were laid of an impressive workers' club at Ma Tau Chung, estimated to cost two million dollars, which has been designed to accommodate a clinic, maternity hospital, library, theatre, canteen, and other welfare and recreational facilities.

       The other union federation, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, sympathizes with the policies of the Taiwan Government. Most of the members of its 66 affiliated unions and of the 55 nominally independent unions, which generally support

46

EMPLOYMENT

the TUC, are employed in the catering and building trades. Although its number of sympathetic unions far exceeds that of the FTU, both the declared and estimated paid up membership figures are very much lower. The TUC is affiliated to the Inter- national Confederation of Free Trade Unions: although it plays no very active part in this organization, representatives of the TUC joined a seminar, held in Japan, to discuss methods of labour education.

Independent unions are few and mostly small in membership. Although several of them seem undecided as to where their interests should lie, others have continued to make encouraging improvements in their internal administration and in the services offered to their members. A substantial increase was recorded in the memberships of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Cattle Trade Workers General Union, the Hong Kong and Kowloon Candle, Paper and Paper-work Workers Union and the western-style Catering Trade Workers Union. Each of these unions has probably attracted additional members by demonstrating the ability to negotiate effectively in a responsible way.

The successful series of classes organized by the Labour Depart- ment for officers of the trade union movement was continued throughout 1961. Classes on trade union administration were held in April, with four simple booklets published by the department serving as textbooks. Forty representatives from 14 unions attended. A five-day course in trade union leadership, held in September, attracted 24 officials and a further series of classes in trade union accounting was organized in co-operation with the Hong Kong Technical College.

Two booklets entitled 'Duties of Members' and 'Voting by Mem- bers of Trade Unions' were issued by the department in English and Chinese, as the last in a series of four. A leaflet in Chinese on methods of making unions effective was printed and distributed to all trade unions and revised editions of two previously published pamphlets were issued.

Labour disputes. Demands for increased wages, which had been made so forcefully the previous year and formed the subject of many disputes, had been largely satisfied by 1961 and there was comparatively little industrial unrest throughout the year. During

EMPLOYMENT

47

the first three months, however, a fall in business, especially in the textile industry, forced the closure of several mills and caused widespread discontent among affected workers. Four strikes and one lockout resulted in the loss of 29,000 man-days but this represented less than a half of the yearly average since the Second World War. Almost three quarters of this total loss resulted from a dispute in a large rubber factory.

      Gratuities customarily payable at Chinese New Year have led to many disputes in the past, but none was heard this year. Dis- cussions were held with worker delegations on the method of calculating cost of living allowances. Objections had been raised when the Retail Price Index was exceptionally low, but when sharp increases were recorded in succeeding months, those com- plaining appeared satisfied. Representations were also made to the Labour Department by workers concerned with relief during unemployment, while others discussed the provision of retirement benefits and welfare facilities. One hundred and ninety six large wage claims and 2,109 minor disputes were dealt with by the Labour Department during the year.

Redundant employees of Government, HM Dockyard and the Armed Services. A further 267 workers were discharged as re- dundant from the War Department and from the office of Naval Works, which assumed administrative control of the civilian employees of HM Dockyard after its closure in November 1959. The Employment Liaison Office continued to help find employ- ment for these and other redundant workers from HMS Tamar and the Royal Air Force. Similar assistance was offered to small groups of employees retrenched under redundancy schemes in the Urban Services Department and the Government Stores Department.

Until suitable alternative employment is found, redundant workers are provided with relief rations by the Social Welfare Department and an attempt is made to find vacancies for their children in Government schools. If any worker is found to be too ill or too old for further employment, similar help is given to his family.

A survey carried out in co-operation with the District Watch Force of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, showed many of those

48

EMPLOYMENT

thought still to be unemployed as having found work. Up to 31st December 1961, 6,439 redundant employees had been registered of whom 6,080 are known to have found new work.

LEGISLATION

     Two important ordinances, the Industrial Employment (Holi- days with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance and the Trade Union Registration Ordinance became law in the last week of the year. It is intended to bring both into effect by proclamation in the early part of 1962.

The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance breaks new ground in the field of labour legislation by prescribing six paid holidays a year and providing for twelve days' sick leave at half pay to all qualified manual workers and many non-manual workers engaged in industrial employment. The Trade Union Registration Ordinance amends and revises the existing law relating to trade unions which was passed in 1948. Government's basic policy towards trade unions remains unchanged but the comprehensive revision, based on experience and bearing in mind changed circumstances, will pro- vide for further healthy development of trade unionism locally. The remaining portions of the existing ordinance relating to arbitration will be re-titled the Trade Disputes Ordinance. (For further details see Chapter 12).

A new Employers and Servants Ordinance became law in October. This repealed and re-enacted in a form more appropriate to modern conditions and practices an ordinance with the same title which has been in force since 1902.

In December a short amendment to the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance was enacted. This covered several separate matters including provisions designed to give effect to requirements of International Labour Convention No 81, known as the Labour Inspection Convention, 1947, regarding the disclosure by public officers of sources of complaint.

Draft legislation relating to boilers and pressure receivers and to the conditions of employment of women and young persons

EMPLOYMENT

49

reached advanced stages of preparation. Progress was also made on amendments to the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

      Industrial health. One section of the Labour Department is particularly concerned with safeguarding the health of industrial workers by offering advice on methods of preventing occupational diseases. The need for adequate first aid equipment in all indus- trial undertakings is emphasized and clinics, with doctors or nurses in attendance, are advocated for the larger concerns. Factory plans are examined to ensure the inclusion of adequate sanitary facili- ties, dormitories and eating accommodation. The section also organizes first aid training classes in industry which are conducted by the St John Ambulance Association.

      Advice is offered on the use of protective clothing and equipment for special trades and particular attention, with periodic examina- tion, is given to lead workers, luminisers, and gas mantle workers. As the last two groups handle radioactive substances, each worker is monitored by a film badge to ensure that radiation absorption does not exceed the internationally recognized safety margin.

Field surveys and factory inspections are also an essential part of the work of the industrial health section since problems of health in industry can only be solved by specific investigation and continuous research. Samples of air in factories are regularly taken to determine the concentration and content of toxic gases, vapours and fumes; the concentration and size of dust particles are measured; temperature and ventilation studies are conducted, and radiation hazards are controlled.

Clinical aspects of industrial health involve the physical exami- nation of workers in special trades, blood and urine examinations, and chest x-ray surveys. Comparatively few types of occupational diseases are known to exist in Hong Kong, but cases are believed to occur which are either unrecognized or undisclosed. Notification is not compulsory and reliance has to be placed on cases being discovered by Government officials or voluntarily reported by private medical practitioners. Contraction of an occupational disease does not entitle the victim to workmen's compensation.

50

EMPLOYMENT

Two field surveys were made among industrial workers to deter- mine the incidence of sickness. Replies to questionnaires indicated a prevalence rate of approximately 2% and revealed an unex- pectedly high proportion of concerns granting sick leave on full pay to regular employees.

      Three Health Visitors conduct case work on those injured in occupational accidents and act in liaison with hospitals, factories, and other officers of the Labour Department who deal with work- men's compensation. Many of these injured require urgent rehabi- litation and the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation accordingly plans to establish a permanent centre in Kwun Tong, with physio- therapy facilities, an occupational therapy unit, and accommoda- tion for 80 residents.

Industrial welfare. An increasing number of industrial manage- ments have come to realize the importance of welfare facilities for their employees, and many have progressed beyond the minimum standards required by the Labour Department. First aid equipment and drinking water must be provided if a factory is to be registered and the department insists on the inclusion of dining and rest rooms in plans for new factories. Clinics are provided in many of the larger concerns and medical attention is sometimes offered free of charge to both employees and their families. Free or subsidized meals are commonly provided by managements and free or cheap accommodation is usually offered to workers in the larger factories. Some firms employ full-time welfare officers whilst others organize cinema and opera shows and provide facilities for football, basketball, and swimming. Adult education is sometimes arranged with free or subsidized tuition for employees' children. There are also voluntary organizations, which provide hostels and playgrounds catering specifically for industrial workers.

Workmen's compensation. The Workmen's Compensation Or- dinance, 1953, stipulates the minimum compensation payable to workmen injured in the course of employment and to the de- pendants of those who are killed. Compensation agreements are witnessed in the Labour Department and help is offered to workers when the amount is disputed and has to be determined in court. $1,840,608.10 was paid during the year to 6,522 injured workmen and a total of $670,177.32 was awarded as compensation to dependants in fatal cases.

EMPLOYMENT

51

Apprenticeship. Government employs apprentices in the work- shops of the Public Works Department, the Stores Department. the Printing Department and the Kowloon-Canton Railway. Those selected are required to sign indentures, and are called upon to attend technical classes. Apprenticeship schemes are also organized by the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co of Hong Kong Ltd, the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co Ltd, the public utilities, and by several other firms. These trainees are encouraged to attend technical classes for which tuition fees are often paid by the employer. Some of the larger spinning and weaving mills operate apprenticeship schemes for mechanics or junior engineers, and arrange classes on their own premises in both technical and general subjects.

The Technical Education and Vocational Standing Committee met twice during the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

Farming and fishing are two of the principal occupations in the New Territories. Rice is the traditional crop, and used to be cultivated to the virtual exclusion of all other farm produce. In recent years, however, there has been a marked trend towards the production of vegetables and other crops, and pigs and poultry are now reared on a large scale. Local seafaring employment is described in Chapter 7.

The pattern of country life in the New Territories has been increasingly altered by the diversification of agriculture, by im- migration and by the growth of industry and commerce. Large numbers of villagers have gone overseas to seek employment, some as seamen, and many as cooks or waiters in Britain and the United States. In 1961 some 1,866 villagers went to Britain from the New Territories. In recent years there have been additional opportunities of employment in North Borneo and elsewhere in south-east Asia for semi-skilled and agricultural workers from the Colony. Thus remittances from overseas have come to form an increasingly im- portant factor in the economy of the New Territories. It is known, for example, that postal and money orders to the value of $9,145,779 were cashed at New Territories Post Offices in 1961, compared with only $1,216,595 three years ago. No figures are available for bank or other forms of remittances but these are

52

EMPLOYMENT

believed to be substantial. Another major source of income is the large and growing number of holiday-makers from the urban areas and tourists from overseas.

      Trade is centred on the markets, some of which are rapidly being transformed into substantial towns, attracting population from the urban areas. The scale of agricultural and industrial development in the New Territories has increased greatly during recent years; a large proportion of the labour force for both public and private development projects is recruited locally, providing employment for numbers of villagers and market town-dwellers. The number of New Territories' residents employed in Govern- ment service has also increased considerably. Certain traditional industries have always been carried on in a small way in the New Territories. Examples are the operation of salt pans; the prepara- tion of salt-fish, fish-paste, beancurd, soya sauce and preserved fruits; the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime; brick manu- facture; boat building and repairing; and stone quarrying. There is an old-established match factory at Peng Chau Island for which villagers on neighbouring islands make match boxes by hand as a sideline occupation.

Major industry did not come to the New Territories to any extent until 1952, but since then it has spread on an increasingly large scale. This is particularly so at Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung which now form one of the largest concentrations of modern industry in the Colony, engaging principally in the manufacture of textiles, foodstuffs, metal ware and plastics. Further along the Castle Peak Road at Sham Tseng is the Colony's brewery and a large textile works. At Castle Peak itself there are textile, plastic and carpet factories. At Sha Tin there is a dyeing and finishing works, while carpets are manufactured at Tai Po. Junk Bay, on the south-east side of the New Territories, is now being developed as the principal centre for the Colony's ship-breaking industry, and also for associated industries such as steel rolling mills. Mining and prospecting provide employment in a number of places, and at Ma On Shan there is a large iron ore mine.

4

Public Finances

ALTHOUGH the approval of the Secretary of State for the Colonies is still required before decisions are made on certain major matters including currency and banking, the Colony in other respects has complete autonomy in financial affairs and the ultimate financial authority is the Legislative Council.

Hong Kong is financially self-supporting apart from the cost of its external defence (to which, however, a substantial contribution is made), and raises its revenue from local sources to meet the cost of all local works and services. The Colony's Legislative Council is the sole taxing and spending authority. Apart from the Housing Authority, which has a certain measure of autonomy, there are no financially independent subordinate bodies like the local government authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories; the Colony's revenue and expenditure figures, therefore, represent all the income and all the public ex- penditure of the Colony excluding 'below the line' operations covering various funds. Comparative figures for the past five years

Financial Year

are:

(1st April to 31st March)

Revenue $ million

Expenditure $ million

Surplus $ million

1956-7

509.7

469.5

40.2

1957-8

584.2

532.7

51.5

1958-9

629.3

589.9

39.4

Deficit

1959-60

664.6

709.9

45.3

Surplus

1960-1

859.2

845.3

13.9

There was a small deficit in the first financial year (1946-7) after the war, caused by the legacy of the world conflict, but in each of the next twelve years substantial surpluses were accumulated. Not until the financial year 1959-60 was a further deficit recorded and this was followed by the small surplus for 1960-1 shown in the table above. The accumulation of these surpluses in the varying

54

PUBLIC FINANCES

economic conditions which the Colony has had to face since the war is a considerable achievement. Equally noteworthy perhaps is the fact that it has been achieved after charging annually against current revenue all capital expenditure (other than a comparatively small amount financed by borrowing). Some indication of how heavy this capital expenditure has been is shown by the figures for the past three years. In 1958-9 capital expenditure totalled $205 million; in 1959-60 $206 million and in 1960-1 $277 million.

     The principal reason for these results, which appear so favour- able, is that the exceptionally rapid increase in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield of taxation substantially without, until recently, any increase in its rates; there was an inevitable time-lag before the Government could develop the services necessary for the increased population. Between the years 1950-1 and 1959-60 revenue increased from $291.7 million to $664.6 million, with no significant increases in tax rates. The rate of increase in revenue has been affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend is unbroken. As the development of public and social services has accelerated, so the margin between recurrent revenue and recurrent expenditure has tended to narrow : for example, the proportion of the latter to the former was 50% in 1952-3 but had risen to 82% by 1959-60. In 1959-60 the surplus of revenue over expenditure could no longer finance all the capital expenditure, and the result for that year was a deficit of $45.3 million. The budget for 1960-1 forecast further increases in ex- penditure, particularly capital expenditure and, in spite of increased duties on petrol and tobacco and higher water charges, a heavy overall deficit. But the outcome was otherwise, due mainly to an exceptional upsurge in revenue arising from the very active trading conditions which prevailed in the Colony during the year and, to a lesser extent, various economy measures which were taken to curb expenditure. The Estimates for the current financial year are notable in that expenditure at $1,075 million exceeds the $1,000 million mark for the first time in the Colony's history. Revenue is expected to total $914 million after allowing for a number of increased duties and charges and a new tax on the first registration of private cars. The current Estimates, therefore, forecast a deficit of $161 million to be met from accumulated reserves, but the

PUBLIC FINANCES

55

accounts completed so far suggest that it will be less, as revenue continues to remain buoyant and expenditure is lower than anticipated.

Appendix II provides a comparative statement of recurrent and capital income and expenditure for the years 1957-8 (actual) to 1961-2 (estimated). It will be seen that recurrent revenue is no longer able to finance all capital expenditure and that, in fact, the estimate deficit of $161 million arises solely from a very heavy programme of non-recurrent Public Works. This capital expendi- ture is on more schools, medical facilities and resettlement housing, as well as on water supplies, roads and land development schemes. It seems that development in these fields may have to be curbed unless money can be raised by borrowing and to this end negotia- tions were opened during the year with the World Bank.

      Also shown in Appendix II are the Colony's Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March 1961, and analyses of the Colony's Revenue and Expenditure in the financial years 1959-60 and 1960-1, together with the Estimates for 1961-2. In 1960-1 the revenue of $859 million was $147 million more than the original estimate. All recurrent heads shared in this excess, but the largest amounts were in Internal Revenue ($51 million, including $36 million on Earnings and Profits Tax), Fees of Court or Office and Post Office (each $13 million), Licences and Franchises ($10 million, including $6 million on Vehicles' and Drivers' Licences) and Duties ($12 million). Expenditure for the year was $845 million against the estimate of $938 million, a saving of $93 million of which $51 million on Public Works Non-Recurrent arose from delay in certain building projects.

       The Statement of Assets and Liabilities shows that at 31st March 1961 net available public assets were $550 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a reserve against future deficits on current account. There was, in addition, a Development Loan Fund of $259 million, used to finance social and economic development projects (see Appendix II) of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low cost housing schemes. At 31st March 1961 outstanding com- mitments from funds allocated exceeded liquid assets of $45 million by $173 million. According to normal Government practice the Statement of Assets and Liabilities excludes the Public Debt

56

PUBLIC FINANCES

of the Colony. The debt at 31st March 1961 was equivalent to approximately $31 per head of population. Indebtedness rose by $3.7 million during the year because of drawings from the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport; this loan is repayable in fifteen annual instal- ments, the first repayment being made on 1st October 1961. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $17 million on 31st March 1961.

Details of Public Debt, Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are also given in Appendix II.

IMPORT AND EXCISE DUTIES

     There is no general tariff, and most goods are free of any duty levied for purposes of protection or revenue. There are, however, five groups of commodities either imported into or manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, upon which duties are levied under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol, the importation and sale of which may only be undertaken by concerns licensed under the Ordinance.

On the 1st March 1961, several amendments were made to the duty rates for hydrocarbon oils in order to increase the revenue and to ensure uniformity of assessment on a gallonage basis. The duty on motor spirit was raised from $1.25 to $1.50 per gallon and that on diesel oil for public omnibuses from $104 a ton to 50 cents per gallon, representing an increase of approximately 10 cents per gallon. The duty on diesel oil for other road vehicles was amended from $104 a ton to $1 per gallon, an increase of approximately 60 cents per gallon. Duties on other diesel oils and furnace oils were amended from $26 and $24 per ton respectively to 10 cents per gallon, an increase of less than 1 cent per gallon. Duty on other heavy oils not elsewhere specified remained at 10 cents per gallon. The remaining amendment was the introduction of a rate for 'other light oils' of 10 cents per gallon covering all light hydrocarbon oils with the exception of motor spirit, so that marine and industrial users would not be penalized.

PUBLIC FINANCES

57

      The opening of the Commerce and Industry Department's branch office in Kowloon made it possible for most duty payments by Kowloon firms to be paid there. A duty collection point was also opened at the Macau Ferry wharf on 1st June 1961, to enable passengers to pay duty upon their arrival.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is levied at between 80% and 87% of the rate for non-Common- wealth liquor. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further prefer- ential margin over Commonwealth beer. Rates of duty on different types of liquor range from $1.30 per gallon on locally brewed beer to $61 per gallon for liqueurs and spirits that are not of Commonwealth origin. The rate on Chinese wine and liquor, depending on origin, is $6 or $7 per gallon, plus 24 or 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by weight exceeds 25%.

      The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $4.90 per pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $9 per pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Commonwealth origin and cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth manufacture.

      Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per gallon, and the duty on methyl alcohol is $7 per gallon plus 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by volume exceeds 25%. The latter duty was only levied as a means of controlling the movement and use of this toxic substance. Methyl alcohol used in the overhaul and testing of aero-engines is exempt from duty.

      Toilet preparations and proprietary medicines containing more than 2% proof spirit are dutiable on the alcohol content at the rate appropriate to liquor. Certain other imports, notably paints, are dutiable by virtue of their hydrocarbon oil content.

      No duties are levied on exports. Drawback is paid, in certain circumstances, on duty-paid commodities used in the local manu- facture or preparation of goods exported from the Colony.

RATES

      Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845 when an Ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands, houses and premises 'for the upholding of the requisite Police Force'.

58

PUBLIC FINANCES

      The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a 'tenement', by which is meant any land or building (or part thereof) held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown. The Valuation List covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and also a part of the New Territories adjacent to the main road from Lai Chi Kok to Castle Peak. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17% per annum of rateable value. In the New Territories (outside New Kowloon) the charge is 11%. The Valuation List is prepared by the Commis- sioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up-to-date. Rates are due quarterly in advance and demand notes are issued by the Accountant General and are payable at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears. The total rating yield has more than doubled in the last five years and the estimate for 1961-2 is $115,620,000.

There are few exemptions. Premises used for educational, charit- able and welfare purposes are rated, but most of the bodies who run this kind of establishment receive back the amount of any rates paid in the form of direct subventions, or contributions towards rates, or refunds of all or part of the amount paid.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Tax on Earnings and Profits. Income was first subjected to direct taxation in Hong Kong in 1940 with the introduction of the War Revenue Ordinance. This Act was a temporary measure 'for the purpose of raising funds by way of tax on income to assist His Majesty's Government in the prosecution of the War'.

      The stated object of the imposition disappeared in 1945 and no attempt was made towards collection after the liberation of the Colony, although the Ordinance was not repealed until 1947.

The calls upon the Colony's finances were such that in 1947 a new source of revenue was essential and it was decided to impose a direct tax on incomes as a permanent measure. The Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947 followed the principle of the old War Revenue Ordinance in charging tax only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits arising outside the Colony whether remitted here or not.

PUBLIC FINANCES

59

The Ordinance aims at simplicity and to this end attempts to charge tax at source rather than on the eventual recipient. By so doing the necessity of ascertaining the total income of each individual is avoided.

Incomes and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which is subject to a separate tax, namely, Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A fifth and aggregate tax known as Personal Assessment is chargeable upon persons who so elect. The effect of election is that the individual's income otherwise chargeable to the four separate taxes is aggregated in a single sum which is reduced by personal allowances and charged on a sliding scale. The privilege of election is not available to non-residents.

      The standard rate of tax has remained unchanged at 121% since 1950. Business profits, interest received from loans and the interest element of purchased annuities are charged to tax at the full standard rate. However where the profits of a non-corporate business are below $7,000 for any year no tax is charged and tax chargeable on such businesses is restricted to one-half of the amount by which the profits exceed $7,000. Property Tax is charged on the net rateable value of any land or building in the Colony with the exception of those situated in the New Territories and those wholly occupied by the owner as his residence. Up to and including the fiscal year 1960-1, Property Tax was charged at half the standard rate. An amendment passed at the end of March 1961 raised this charge to the full standard rate unless the rent is in fact controlled by reference to 1941 rentals when tax is charged at only half the standard rate. Salaries Tax is charged on the total income from employment reduced by allowances which are at present: allowance for taxpayer, $7,000; allowance for taxpayer's wife, $7,000; and allowances for children ranging from $2,000 for each of the first two children down to $200 for the ninth child. Premiums paid for life insurance are allowed to an amount not exceeding one-sixth of the income. Tax is charged on a scale which begins at one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of the nett income and rises by one-fifth of the standard rate on each subsequent $5,000 until, at $45,000, the maximum of twice the standard rate is reached. However the total Salaries Tax payable by the individual is restricted to an amount not exceeding the standard rate on the gross income.

60

PUBLIC FINANCES

      It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits tax during the financial year 1961-2 will be $174,500,000.

Estate Duty. This levy was first introduced in 1931 and generally follows the lines of the United Kingdom procedure. In 1959 the Estate Duty Ordinance was re-modelled to conform to modern practice. Duty is assessed only on that part of an estate which is in Hong Kong no charge being made in respect of estates outside the Colony. The rates of duty range from 2% on estates valued between $50,000 and $100,000 to 40% on estates over $15,000,000. Yield for the year ending on 30th March 1962 is estimated at $12 million.

      Stamp Duty. This duty is also modelled on United Kingdom practice. Fixed duties are charged on various documents at varying rates of which the lowest is 15 cents on Bills of Lading and Receipts and the highest $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty on various other documents ranges from 15 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. A special duty at the rate of 3% is payable on the first conveyance of any parcel of land after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current fiscal year is $40,500,000.

      Entertainments, Dance Halls & Bets and Sweeps Taxes. Sub- stantial revenue accrues from these taxes and it is estimated they will yield $34,000,000 during the current year. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to places of entertain- ment. The rate or charge varies with the amount charged for admission and averages approximately 22%. Certain types of entertainment given for philanthropic, charitable or educational purposes attract tax at a lower rate or may be exempt. Public Dance Halls Tax is a levy of 10% on all Dance Halls charges. Bets and Sweeps Tax imposes 71% (5% to 31st March 1961) on totalizator receipts and 25% on Cash Sweepstake receipts.

      Business Registration. Registration of businesses on payment of a fee was first introduced in 1952 by the Business Regulation Ordinance, which was replaced by the Business Registration Ordinance in 1959. Every business carried on in the Colony is required to register. There are exemptions from fees for small businesses and certain non-commercial undertakings, all others pay a fee which is at present $25 per annum. The yield from this source is estimated at $1,600,000.

5

Currency and Banking

WHEN Hong Kong was founded in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. However the Government kept its accounts in sterling until 1862, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

      A mint was set up in 1866 which produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. The machinery was sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

      An Order of the Queen in Council dated 2nd February 1895 authorized a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and by 1890 they had become established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange, apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks--the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India,

62

CURRENCY AND BANKING

Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank); by then the Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India had been re-organized. In 1911 this re-organized Mercantile Bank of India (now the Mercantile Bank) joined the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

      The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues, in exchange for certificates of indebted- ness. The certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in sterling and operates in a similar manner to traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The Ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender.

       At the same time Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. In 1960 a dollar coin of cupro-nickel and about the same size as a United Kingdom florin was reintroduced, but it is still far from replacing the notes in circulation. The dollar notes and coins are backed by a Note Security Fund which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents and notes of the value of 1 cent.

       Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been main- tained at approximately 1/3d sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

      The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December 1961 was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Government $1 coin issue

Subsidiary coin and 1 cent notes

:

$952,940,645 $ 31,741,487

$ 11,999,700

$ 29,987,148

CURRENCY AND BANKING

63

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

      The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor in Council and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1961 there were eighty five licensed banks, of which forty three were authorized to deal in foreign exchange. A list of the latter is given in Appendix III. Many of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities. Interbank transac- tions are facilitated by a clearing house association with fifty three members. Monthly clearings in 1961 averaged $2,177 million. Total bank deposits at 30th June 1961 were $3,056 million and at 30th September 1961 were $3,271 million; on the same dates total loans and advances to commerce and industry were $2,214 million and $2,260 million respectively.

      Major share issues by the Kowloon Motor Bus Co and Jardine Matheson and Co Ltd during the year imposed some strain on the liquid assets of local banks. In June there was a run on the Liu Chong Hing Bank Ltd which was able to meet its obligations to depositors only after negotiating a loan with the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank. The inherent strength of the Colony's banking institutions was shown by the way in which they were able to take these difficulties in their stride with relative ease.

      The growth of local branch banking in subsidiary centres of commerce and industry accelerated very rapidly during the year. At the end of 1961 there were one hundred and one branch offices, including several in the New Territories, which is some fifty more than at the end of 1960. In May 1961, the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation opened the Colony's first mobile bank, which tours villages in many parts of the New Territories.

6

Industry and Trade

INDUSTRY

In the last twelve years the pattern of Hong Kong's economy has changed, and industry, which before the Second World War was of secondary importance to the entrepôt trade, has assumed a dominant role; three-quarters of the Colony's total exports are now products manufactured or processed locally.

Hong Kong's first industries were in the nature of services allied to the development of the port. The earliest was naturally ship- building and repairing, the first locally built vessel, the 'Celestial' of 80 tons, being launched in 1843. Two sugar refineries were established, the first in 1878, the second in 1882, not so much to satisfy the needs of the then small local population, as the require- ments of ships' victualling officers. In 1885 a rope factory was started, again primarily to cater for the seafaring trade, and a cement factory was transferred to Hong Kong from Macau in 1899. From time to time there were tentative efforts to set up new industries; a spinning mill was started in 1899 but closed down a few years later. Some industries, however, obtained a firm foothold; in 1902 the manufacture of rattanware began and in 1910 the knitting of cotton singlets and vests became established. These, although flourishing, went more or less unnoticed amid the Colony's growing entrepôt activities.

The First World War gave some impetus to the development of industry when the Colony was denied various manufactured goods from European sources, and the immediate post-war years also saw some expansion. A weaving factory, operating 30 hand looms, opened in 1922 and in 1927 the first flashlight factory came into being.

The Ottawa Agreements of 1932, under which Hong Kong products became entitled to Imperial (now Commonwealth) Preference, were the first real encouragement to local industry, enabling manufacturers to seek wider markets for their goods and

ca

The textile industry as a whole remains Hong Kong's biggest single employer, with more than 62,000 workers. Mills operate nearly half a million spindles and produce 150 million pounds of cotton yarn annually. Textile mills built in Hong Kong since the war are among the most up-to-date in the world, with machinery from Britain, Germany and Japan.

In Hong Kong industry never stands still. In recent years there have been marked advances in dyeing techniques (above) and multi-colour printing is now being undertaken for the local and export markets. During sizing (below) the warp is coated with a protective covering for weaving.

2

Highly skilled local technicians service the modern machinery installed in Hong Kong's textile mills (above). The Colony's booming tourist trade, which now brings 200,000 travellers each year, has resulted in a big demand for made-to-measure suits (below). One Kowloon tailor produces 3,000 a month.

IGHE

NO

00

00

00

QU

00

HH

06

$6

Products of the Hong Kong garment industry now find a ready market in many parts of the world. Exports include height-of-fashion cheongsams, shirts, silk and brocade housecoats, and children's clothing such as that shown here. Manufacturers offer a wide variety of products with a common aim the best quality at prices people can afford.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

65

attracting new investment. The merchant houses played a sub- stantial part in this development. The first years of the Second World War provided an additional stimulus, when locally made military and civilian supplies again partially replaced imports from overseas, and it is estimated that by the end of 1940 there were some 800 factories in the Colony.

      Factory rehabilitation, after almost four years of enemy occupa- tion, was rapid, impelled by an acute shortage of consumer goods throughout war-scarred south-east Asia. The year 1948, when the influx of refugees from China reached its peak, was a vital one for local industry: most of the refugees arrived destitute, but many brought capital and technical skills both of which found ready employment in Hong Kong.

When the Korean War and the resultant embargo on trade in strategic commodities with China drastically reduced the volume of Hong Kong's commerce, only industrial expansion could offset the dangers threatening economic stability and provide employment for the greatly swollen and still growing population. Local in- dustrialists reacted quickly to the new situation, and despite diffi- culties in obtaining certain raw materials, an increasing volume and range of Hong Kong products from many new and re- invigorated industries began to flow out to world markets.

Today there are 6,359 registered and recorded factories employ- ing 271,729 persons. Registration figures for 1961 will be found in Appendix I. In addition, a large number of smaller concerns, mostly pursuing traditional Chinese handicraft activities employ over 150,000 people.

Most industrialists are members of the Colony's Chinese com- munity, although there are several important ventures owned and operated by non-Chinese or on a joint basis. Several overseas interests have also entered into licensing arrangements with local firms, authorizing the manufacture of products under internation- ally famous brand names.

      Although no special benefits are available to industry by way of profits tax or import duty concessions, the general facility with which industry may be established and conducted has proved attractive both to local and overseas investors. Apart from a very few revenue-producing duties, the Colony is a free port and Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

66

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The variety of goods produced by local industry is now con- siderable but, in general, while the heavier industries such as ship- building and ship-breaking continue to be important, the Colony has become best noted for the price, quality and range of the products of its light industries. Of importance are cotton piece- goods, cotton yarn, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, cotton and woollen gloves, enamelware, aluminiumware, torches, torch batteries and bulbs, vacuum flasks, plasticware including plastic flowers, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather footwear, and rattanware. Among traditional Chinese goods, brocade piece- goods, embroideries and drawnwork, crocheted gloves, carved articles of wood and ivory, and paper novelties, are the best known.

      Many factors favour industrial development in the Colony, in- cluding low taxation, plentiful productive labour, the advantages of a free port, excellent shipping and commercial facilities and a freedom from trade restrictions. These, in general, more than com- pensate for some important handicaps: an absence of raw materials, a scarcity of water and a shortage of land suitable for industrial purposes. While the first cannot be remedied the latter two are being vigorously tackled. The opening chapter of the 1960 Hong Kong Annual Report described the extensive action which has been, and is being, taken to alleviate the water problem and Chapter 14 of this Report gives details of some of the current developments in this field. To offset the shortage of flat land, Government continues to level hilly ground and use the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. The largest of these schemes at present is at Kwun Tong, an area fronting on Kowloon Bay and adjacent to urban Kowloon. Between 1955 and the end of 1961, 180 acres had been reclaimed for industrial use. The full scheme involves the formation of some 514 acres of useful land, of which 275 acres will be for industrial use and 239 for commercial and residential purposes. At the end of the year there were over one hundred factories operating in the area. Further sites of various sizes are sold frequently, according to a programme of sales. The number of workers in the area exceeds 15,000 and represents roughly 6% of the total working force in registered and recorded factories and industrial undertakings in the Colony. Over 50,000 persons already live in the growing township, and the eventual population is ex- pected to be in the region of 250,000.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

67

Several other schemes to provide much needed industrial land are either planned or under way. The largest involves the filling of Gin Drinker's Bay at Kwai Chung in the New Territories, where a large community development will take place alongside the present industrial centre at Tsuen Wan. The ship-breaking industry and its associated steel-rolling plants will shortly be re-established in an area which has been set aside for them at the head of Junk Bay. In all, plans exist for the provision of about 500 acres of industrial land within the next 10-12 years in some six different

areas.

      The Federation of Hong Kong Industries was established in 1960. Unlike the majority of local industrial associations, which mainly cater for individual trades, it cuts across racial and sectional interests, its membership including all trades, many nationalities, and enterprises of all sizes. From its inception, the Federation has shown great interest in long-term planning for industrial develop- ment, and perhaps the most important of its activities in this field during the year was the engagement of the 'Economist' Intelli- gence Unit to undertake a survey of Hong Kong industry and to recommend lines of development in the best economic interests of the community. A team sent from London conducted a detailed survey, and its findings, together with information supplied by the Unit's network of overseas offices, will form the basis of a com- prehensive report to be presented early in 1962.

      A vital role of the Federation lies in co-ordinating action by local industry. Thus, it concerted moves by plastic flower manu- facturers to overcome difficulties experienced in the United States market through the issue of copyrights on flower types. Other activities of this nature included the formation of a Freight Joint Committee to negotiate on freight rates with the Shipping Con- ferences, and, in conjunction with the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the establishment of a Joint Committee to investigate problems associated with the possible entry of Britain into the European Common Market.

      During the year the Federation began to issue certificates of Hong Kong origin to its members. An inspectorate has been recruited and trained to ensure that the certificates issued are acceptable by international standards. A samples and specifications registry was also established. The registry seals and retains shipment samples

68

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

for comparison in the event of a trade dispute, and thus has advantages for both manufacturers and buyers.

The Federation gave active consideration to many other prob- lems, including the present shortage of industrial premises for the many small industrial units in the Colony. To assist such concerns, which often find it difficult to acquire suitable accommodation, the Federation is planning the construction of flatted factory blocks, multi-storied buildings housing a number of self-contained industrial units.

Training for Managers and Supervisors. The expansion of Hong Kong industry has tended to create forms of organization quite different from the traditional pattern of a small family business. This has produced a corresponding need to develop managerial skills at all levels. To meet this need in the upper levels of manage- ment, the Hong Kong Management Association, which came into being in 1960 under the sponsorship of the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, has inaugurated training courses in management studies, developed to suit the particular circumstances of Hong Kong. The courses cover production, marketing and personnel management and employ such methods of instruction as lecture- discussions, forums and case studies.

     In August, two professors of the Harvard School of Business Administration conducted a second advanced management training programme, under the sponsorship of the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce, the first being held in 1960. The course was residential at St John's College, University of Hong Kong. Over forty representatives of commerce, industry and Government took part.

The Hong Kong Technical College holds evening courses in English in management studies and in industrial administration. These closely follow the syllabus of the British Institute of Management and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers respectively. The Technical College also offers short courses of three or four weeks each on productivity, dealing with such matters as plant layout, the handling of materials, production planning and control, quality control, work study and allied subjects. The courses are intended for persons at middle management level, particularly those engaged in actual production work. The supervisory

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

69

training section of the Labour Department offers training in supervisory techniques free of charge to staff of industrial and commercial concerns and to civil servants. The four basic courses offered are the internationally recognized programme of 'Training Within Industry'. Firms are invited to nominate members of their staff for instruction as trainers at the supervisory training centre, and these then return to their own organizations to run courses themselves for supervisors. The section also offers courses for supervisors of those organizations which do not wish to employ trainers of their own. The scheme is well supported and to date several thousand persons have been trained in the four programmes either on the employers' premises or at the supervisory training centre of the Labour Department.

HEAVY INDUSTRY

Shipbuilding and Repairing is the oldest of Hong Kong's industries. Following naturally from its development as a trading port, the Colony has come to occupy the proud position of being one of the finest building and repair centres in the east. The largest vessel built in 1961 was of 6,500 tons deadweight with a length of 422 feet and capable of 14 knots. Marine diesel engines of up to 5,200 hp are also constructed.

At the other end of the scale, pleasure craft and utility vessels of all kinds, including ocean-going yachts, sloops, cruisers, speed boats of wood and fibre glass, tugs, yawls and steel lighters are regularly produced for local use and for export. The traditional Chinese junk, only slightly modified from the basic design in use for many centuries, has also found acceptance abroad as a com- fortable and stable pleasure craft.

      Ship-breaking and Steel Rolling Mills. The economic factors which caused a contraction of the ship-breaking industry in 1960, namely an increase in the price of ships for breaking and a lessening Japanese demand for scrap, continued to have an effect in 1961. These factors were further compounded by a gradual reduction of beaching sites as a result of reclamation in the harbour area, a situation which will not improve until the new location for this industry, in Junk Bay, is fully developed. The first sites in that area are already under development.

70

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

In spite of this contraction, a substantial number of ships entered Hong Kong breaking yards during 1961, among them the famous liner 'Strathaird', which at 23,944 tons draught displacement was the largest vessel to be brought to Hong Kong for breaking.

      Much of the scrap obtained is used in local rolling mills, which produce an estimated 7,300 tons a month of mild steel reinforcing bars; this represents the major portion of the requirements of the Colony's large building industry. A considerable quantity of rods and bars is shipped abroad, principally to south-east Asian territories.

      Several rolling mills produce stainless steel, brass and aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are used locally for the manu- facture of consumer goods.

Other Heavy Industries. Among other heavy industries in the Colony, one which is increasing in significance is the manufacture of machinery and parts. Built originally for local light industries, Hong Kong made machines are now exported to over 70 countries. Of particular importance are plastic blow moulding and injection moulding machines, presses, seaming and planing machines.

      Aircraft engineering is another important industry. One large establishment provides maintenance and repair facilities for most airlines using Kai Tak Airport as well as for several national air forces. Facilities exist for complete air frame and engine overhaul, and work is received from 26 countries as far afield as Australia and Canada. The Colony also meets much of its requirements of cement through local manufacture: the raw materials are im- ported, apart from some clay and iron ore.

THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

       The textile and garment industry is the Colony's largest, and a dominant feature of Hong Kong's economy. About 114,200 workers, or 42% of the total labour force in registered and recorded factories and industrial undertakings, were employed in the spinning of cotton, silk, rayon and woollen yarns, weaving, knitting, dyeing, printing and finishing of piecegoods, and the manufacture of all types of garments and made-up goods. The

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

71

industry's exports during the year represented 52% of the Colony's exports of domestic products. In all sectors of the textile industry, the manufacture and processing of cotton goods predominates; wool, silk and artificial fibres taking a very secondary place.

      The cotton spinning mills, operating over 614,000 spindles, are amongst the most up-to-date in the world and first-class amenities are generally provided for workers. Cotton yarn counts range from 10s to 60s carded and combed in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1961 was estimated at approximately 200,000,000 lbs, the greater part of which was consumed by local weaving establishments.

In the piecegoods weaving section, which has increased its capacity during the past year to about 18,700 looms, grey cotton drill, canvas, shirtings, striped poplins, ginghams and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. The weaving of cotton corduroy expanded during the year. Production of cotton piecegoods in 1961 was estimated at approximately 550,000,000 square yards, most of which was exported, although, as the quality of locally woven and finished cloth improves, there is an increasing tendency for the Colony's garment manufacturers to use local materials. Other products of the Colony's weaving industry are silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, woollen piecegoods, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, cotton open mesh, carpets and rugs.

      Development in the dyeing, printing and finishing of cotton textiles has been less rapid than in other sections of the industry, but has shown a marked advance during the past few years. Multi- colour printing, pre-shrinking by several processes under licence and polymerizing for the production of 'drip-dry' fabrics are undertaken for use by the local garment industry and for export.

An almost unlimited range and variety of garments are manu- factured in Hong Kong, the most important being shirts. Embroidered blouses, underwear and nightwear, silk and brocade house and evening coats have a world-wide popularity in quality markets. Custom and mail order tailoring, principally of men's suits, has rapidly developed in recent years into an important branch of the industry. Suits of excellent cut and quality are ex- ported all over the world. The Colony's knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, singlets, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits,

72

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and rayon and other fabrics.

The recession suffered by the garment industry in 1960, in large part the result of over expansion during the preceding year, con- tinued into the early part of 1961. Market conditions became firmer as the year went on and the latter half saw a distinct improvement, but several small and some quite large factories closed. As a result the industry is probably more stable than before.

COTTON ADVISORY BOARD

In order to assist consideration of proposals by the Secretary of State for an extension of the voluntary agreement by Hong Kong to restrict textile exports, and to provide advice on other problems facing the textile industry, Government appointed a Cotton Advisory Board in July 1961. The Board has as its terms of reference:

'Arising out of the exceptional issues which the cotton industry in Hong Kong faces, to advise the Government on any matter which directly affects the cotton industry in Hong Kong'. It is under the ex officio chairmanship of the Director of Commerce and Industry and comprises representatives of the spinning, weav- ing, dyeing and finishing, and garment making sections of the industry and of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries and the Chinese Manu- facturers' Association of Hong Kong.

DIVERSIFICATION

     The preceding paragraphs stress the dominant position of the textile industry in the local economy, but they also illustrate the extent of diversification within the industry over recent years. Other well established industries have similarly undergone internal diversification in product range and quality: a striking example is the manufacture of plastics, one of the largest sources of employ- ment which, from simple beginnings, today produces a very wide range of products including the eminently successful plastic flowers. Other industries which have been introduced and which have grown in importance in recent years, include the manufacture of

7,500

VALUE OF HONG KONG'S

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN MILLION DOLLARS)

7,000

Total Imports

Imports from China

6,500

Total Exports

Exports to China -

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0

1950

'51

'52

'53

'54

'55

'56

'57

'58

'59

'60

'61

7,500

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

7,000

Total Imports

Imports from China

6,500

Total Exports

Exports to China

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

1950

itt

'51

'52

55

TH:

'53

'54

'55

'56

'57

'58

'59

'60

'61

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

73

333

air-conditioners, carpets and other furnishings, stainless steel cut- lery, electric fans, transistor radios, clocks, pleasure craft, cameras and binoculars.

TRADE

The value of merchandise imported, exported and re-exported in 1961 amounted to $9,900 million, an increase of one per cent over the total for 1960. Imports and domestic exports rose in value, but a decrease was recorded in the value of re-exports. Cargo tonnages by all means of transport were 8.4 million tons as against a total of 8.2 million tons for 1960.

      The main features of the Colony's trade for the past two years, and a breakdown by countries and by commodities for the years 1959 to 1961, are given in the tables in Appendix IV.

Hong Kong lives by its external trade, as its territory is small and its natural resources negligible. In the past this trade has been that of an entrepôt, but although this is still considerable, the loss of most of its export trade with China has forced Hong Kong to turn for its livelihood to the sale abroad of the products of its rapidly expanding industry, which utilizes the local advantages of plentiful capital and an abundant supply of hard-working and skillful labour. Thus the pattern and direction of its trade is now determined by the openings in overseas markets which exist for its manufactured goods, and by the needs of industry for raw materials and of the ever-increasing population for the necessities of life.

      Imports in 1961 were valued at $5,970 million which was two per cent higher than the previous year. Although agricultural and fish production is not insignificant, the major proportion of the Colony's requirements of foodstuffs have to be imported and food was the principal import commodity item, representing nearly 24% of all imports and being worth $1,406 million, an increase of four per cent over 1960. The chief items of edible imports are rice, swine, fruits and vegetables, fish and fish preparations, sugar and sugar preparations, cattle and eggs. Other imported consumer goods are medicinal and pharmaceutical products, watches, radios, gramo- phones, tape recorders, tobacco and alcoholic beverages. Capital goods, such as machinery, and oil are other important items in the import trade.

74

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Imports of raw materials and semi-finished manufactures for use by the Colony's industries are of considerable importance. The principal items were textile fibres and yarns, base metals and chemicals.

      The sources of imports are determined by proximity, price, speed of delivery and by traditional trade channels. From China, which is the Colony's principal supplier, came 17% by value of all imports and 31% of all the Colony's food imports. Other imports from that country in 1961 included textile yarn, fabrics and made- up articles. The value of goods imported from China fell by 13% compared with 1960. Imports from Japan, the second largest supplier, also showed a decline in value compared with 1960, mainly as a result of a fall in the value of imports of textile goods, although these still represent 34% of all imports of these articles. Other imports from Japan included machinery, base metals, food, wool tops and soyabean oil. Imports from other major suppliers showed an increase and these included Britain and the United States of America. Imports from Britain rose by 14% during the year and consisted mainly of machinery, textiles, transport equip- ment and base metals. From the United States, the principal imports were raw cotton, tobacco, plastic moulding materials, medicinal and pharmaceutical products and machinery. The chief continental area of supply was Asia from which came 47% of all imports by value.

The value of domestic exports reached the record total of $2,939 million in 1961, an increase of two per cent over the previous year and representing nearly 75% of total exports by value. Exports con- centrated heavily on the products of the textile and garment manu- facturing industries which accounted for 52% by value in 1961. Exports of the Hong Kong's second largest industry, the manu- facture of plastic goods, made up a further 11%. The balance consisted of a wide range of light industrial products.

The direction of the export trade is influenced by many factors, among the more important of which are the advantages of Com- monwealth Preference and the acceptability of 'low cost' imports in fully developed countries. The volume depends in many cases upon the extent to which trade promotion activities and negotiation can find new outlets and overcome such barriers as exchange controls, quota restrictions and tariffs.

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75

       In 1961, the United States remained the largest market for the Colony's domestic products taking 23% by value. Purchases by the United States fell by $66 million or nine per cent; this was largely the result of a significant decline in the value of clothing sent to that market. Other important purchasers of Hong Kong goods were Britain, Malaya, Indonesia, Western Germany and Japan, but domestic exports were also sent to practically every country in the world. Commonwealth countries took 45% of domestic exports by value, while North America took 25%.

      An indication of the size of the entrepôt trade may be gained from the value of re-exports which totalled $991 million. This was, however, a decrease of seven per cent compared with 1960. Although re-exports to China remained considerable, being valued at $91 million, this country was only the third largest purchaser of re-exports, the first and second being Malaya and Japan respec- tively. In recent years the entrepôt trade has been generally in the exchange of products of Asian countries. The chief commodities entering the re-export trade were textiles, fruits and vegetables, animal and vegetable crude materials, medicinal and pharmaceu- tical products and machinery.

TRADE DEVELOPMENTS

      Although Hong Kong's domestic exports reached a record level in 1961, expansion was at a much lower rate than in the previous year and was obtained in the face of a growing number of tariff increases and other restrictions abroad and of uncertainty facing not only the textile industry as a result of demands from industries in Europe and America for protection, but also trade in general, as Britain moved towards the European Common Market.

      The Hong Kong Textile and garment industries have gained for themselves a reputation of being among the most efficient and competitive in the world. For this reason, and because a very high proportion of their products are exported, they have, despite the comparatively small size of the spinning and weaving sections (about 614,000 spindles and some 18,700 looms), figured largely in the various discussions held during the year on international trade in cotton textiles. In July the Colony contributed information on its textile industry to the Working Party established by the

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

contracting parties of GATT and the International Labour Office, which was studying problems of market disruption.

      During the same period, the increased exports of Hong Kong textiles and garments to the North American market in 1960 led to growing demands from industries both in Canada and the United States for restriction. At the beginning of March, a party of Canadian officials came to discuss this question, and, following similar exchanges with the United States Government, the Financial Secretary and the Director of Commerce and Industry visited London in May for talks with officials of both Canada and the United States. While these discussions had their origin in problems associated with Hong Kong's textile exports to North America, (although these had in fact fallen by nearly one-third in the first quarter of the year), they also covered the more general subject of international trade in cotton textiles.

On the initiative of the United States, an international con- ference of the principal nations concerned in the cotton textile trade was called under the auspices of the GATT Secretariat at Geneva in July. This resulted in a draft interim one-year agreement in which the principle of expansion of trade was accepted, but which was more immediately concerned with safeguarding the short-term interests of domestic industries in importing countries in the event of a threat of their disruption by low cost imports. The draft provided that such imports could be restricted only to their level in the year ending June 1961. The Financial Secretary and the Director of the Hong Kong Government Office in London, who attended as members of the British delegation, represented Hong Kong at this conference. They gave notice of a number of reservations on the text of the draft.

      Government, which had maintained close consultation with the Cotton Advisory Board, was reluctant to subscribe to the interim agreement until these reservations were fully considered and some indication had been given of the effects of implementation in its principal market, the United States. In these circumstances, Britain refrained from signing and had still not ratified the agreement at the time of the second conference to give preliminary considera- tion to long-term arrangements for world trade in textiles held at Geneva in October. Hong Kong's representatives were the same as at the earlier conference. Although assurances by the United

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77

States on the practical implementation of the short-term agreement so far as they affected United States/Hong Kong trade fell short of meeting Hong Kong's wishes, the Hong Kong Government requested Her Majesty's Government to accept it on the Colony's behalf in November. This acceptance was qualified by the reserva- tions mentioned in the preceding paragraph. Having already been accepted by the other participants at the July Conference, the short-term agreement thereupon came into force for the year ending 30th September 1962.

       The last months of the year were occupied with discussions with the United States authorities in Hong Kong on the implementation of the short-term agreement, insofar as it affected the export of cotton textiles to that country. The reaction of the Colony's textile industry to the arrangements proposed in these discussions was influenced by concern over the effects of a directive sent by the United States President to the Tariff Commission in November, requesting an investigation into the advisability of imposing an equalization fee on all cotton textile imports, to offset the export subsidy granted to American growers to promote export sales of raw cotton. Such a fee, if imposed, was considered locally to be contrary to the spirit of the recently concluded Geneva Agreement. In these circumstances, Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom was requested to transmit on Hong Kong's behalf a strong protest against the proposals to the United States Government. The influence that the President's directive to the Tariff Commis- sion could have on Hong Kong's attitude towards long-term textile arrangements was also brought to the attention of the Sub- Committee at GATT which had commenced the study of such arrangements in Geneva.

      During the earlier discussions in London in May, the British Government also raised the question of a possible extension of the existing voluntary undertaking to limit exports of cotton textiles to Britain for a three-year period ending in January 1962. As the year proceeded, the British textile industry was increasingly in- sistent that such an extension was essential if it was to survive and the British Government's investment in re-equipment was not to be thrown away. The Secretary of State for the Colonies trans- mitted proposals for an extension of the existing agreement but with an increased quota, and these were published in Hong Kong

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     on 30th June. Four members of the Cotton Advisory Board accom- panied the Financial Secretary to London in August for detailed negotiations on certain of the Secretary of State's proposals and at the end of the month the Board advised acceptance of a new undertaking for the period 1st February to 31st December 1962. Its terms provided that the basic quota for the eleven-month period be increased to an annual rate of 185 million square yards from 164 million square yards annual quota under the original agree- ment. Of this amount a minimum of 100 million square yards is for piecegoods and a minimum 65 million square yards for made- up goods (which are subject to separate limitation for the first time). The remaining 20 million square yards are to be allocated at the discretion of the Hong Kong Government. An additional 10 million square yards were added to the quota under the exist- ing agreement for the remainder of 1961. Besides these amounts supplementary quotas may be available quarterly, based on an entitlement of the three principal Commonwealth producers to a fixed percentage share of the British market for retained imported cloth; the arrangement provides for a progressive abatement of the supplementary quota if order books in Britain are less than twenty weeks.

The development of the European Common Market, and in particular the possible association of Britain with it, is a subject of great importance to Hong Kong and one which was kept con- stantly under review during the year. While the reasons prompting the British approach were understood, there were apprehensions over the effects of any decision by Britain to join an association some of whose members tend towards protectionism. Such a deci- sion could seriously affect not only trade with Britain which takes upward of 20% of Hong Kong's domestic exports, but also the structure of Commonwealth Preference; Hong Kong currently sells over a third of her manufactured goods in preference markets.

The general committees of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries had the opportunity of discussing these problems with the Rt Hon F. J. Erroll, Minister of State, now President of the Board of Trade, when he visited Hong Kong in October. Mr Erroll's programme included discussions with Government, visits to three leading factories, and the formal opening of a new electrical engineering

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

79

laboratory at the University of Hong Kong. Discussions on Com- mon Market problems were also held with Sir William Gorell Barnes, KCMG, CB, Deputy Under Secretary of State at the Colonial Office, a member of the United Kingdom delegation to the European Economic Community, who was invited to visit the Colony in December.

       Trade with the six Common Market countries during the year reflected to some extent the levelling up or down of their various tariff structures; trade with Germany showed a slight fall, while that with the other countries showed a moderate increase. France maintained its policy of refusing liberalization to Hong Kong manu- facturers and although quotas were increased, in some cases pro- portionately by a large amount, their total value was still too small to encourage trade development. Trade with countries in the European Free Trade Area was stable, recording only a slight increase both in imports and exports.

      Apart from these major issues, the year was again one in which more barriers were erected against Hong Kong made goods at the request of local industries in overseas countries than were dis- mantled. This was particularly so in the case of Africa where in March the South African Government imposed anti-dumping duties on swimsuits and electric transformers made in the Colony and also increased duties on woven and finished piecegoods, garments, millinery, torches and hardware, at various times of the year; the problems of the South African trade were discussed in March with a visiting official mission from that country. In Central Africa, protracted negotiations with the Government of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland failed to secure adequate compensation for discrimination against Hong Kong in the reconstruction of the Federal tariff in 1955. Two other Commonwealth African terri- tories, Ghana and Nigeria, in order to protect their own industries, increased the duties on certain goods in which Hong Kong had an important trade with them. The first of these countries, Ghana, also took action on the 1st December 1961, to revoke all general licences for both imports and exports, and this had an unsettling effect on the Colony's trade with that country.

      On the positive side, Australia, while giving protection against imports to some industries competing with Hong Kong, such as those making umbrellas and cotton sheeting, reduced the protection

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

granted to producers of artificial flowers and watch bands. In the case of the former, the Tariff Board found that Hong Kong imports had created a demand which otherwise would not have existed, and in consequence the rate of duty was reduced from 45% to 71% ad valorem.

      A difficulty of another sort arose at the end of February when, as a result of the issue of copyright on a wide range of plastic flower designs to the local subsidiary of a firm in the United States, shipments of artificial flowers to the United States were held up by the US Customs. The difficulties were eventually resolved on a procedural basis and the flow of shipments to that market had largely resumed its normal course by April.

The Colony was represented at the Fourth Session of the Com- mittee on Trade of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East at Bangkok in January 1961. It was also represented at the full Commission meeting at New Delhi in March.

Trade Promotion. The Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the members of which are representative of the Colony's various industrial and commercial interests, advises the Director of Com- merce and Industry on matters concerning trade. With the advice of the Board, Government pursued an active policy of trade promo- tion throughout 1961. A major part of the yearly programme was directed towards Australia, as prospects for expanding trade with that country were encouraging in view of her relaxation of import licensing controls in 1960 and the growing importance she attaches to increasing her trade with Asian countries.

      Government sponsored a trade mission of four members, led by the Hon J. D. Clague, CBE, MC, TD, a member of Executive Council, which visited Australia during July. The mission's main aims were to explore the possibilities of expanding two-way trade between Australia and the Colony, and to emphasize the important assistance which Hong Kong could render Australia's economy not only as a source of inexpensive goods and components for her industry, but also as a capital market and a distribution point for Australia's exports to Asia. The mission held extensive discussions in every major city of Australia with both Government officials and representatives of commerce and industry, and reported that, while protectionist sentiment was strong in Australia's secondary industries, there was a growing awareness of the need to accept

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81

increased imports from Asia if the countries of this area were to expand their imports of Australian primary produce, minerals, and manufactured goods.

      The mission found that goodwill towards Hong Kong existed throughout Australia, together with a considerable interest in the Colony's products. The mission was able to direct attention to the second project in the Colony's trade promotion programme, participation in the Sydney International Trade Fair in August. Hong Kong's stand of 2,000 square feet displayed a wide selection of quality products and proved to be one of the most attractive and popular at the Fair. A delegation of six, led by the Hon Dhun Ruttonjee, OBE, JP, a member of Legislative Council, recorded nearly 400 inquiries from prospective purchasers of some 600 differ- ent types of Hong Kong manufactures.

      The newly established Hong Kong Government Trade Repre- sentative's Office in Australia played a major part in the organiza- tion of the activities referred to above, and these activities in turn helped to publicize the services offered by that office. An increasing number of businessmen both in Australia and in the Colony now channel their inquiries through the office.

      During 1961, about 43% of Hong Kong's domestic exports went to the United States of America and Britain. There is general recognition that over-dependence on these two markets is dan- gerous, and that there is a need to diversify the Colony's markets as well as the products which it sells to them. Government has therefore accepted the advice of the Trade and Industry Advisory Board to look more closely at potential markets hitherto little penetrated by Hong Kong goods. Officers of the Commerce and Industry Department undertook exploratory visits to South America and the Middle East with the object of assessing the possibility of promoting exports to these areas. It is intended that these visits be followed by other forms of trade promotion in the same areas in the near future.

      The Trade Development Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for organizing the Colony's official trade promotion activities, answering trade inquiries and arranging for the reception of overseas trade missions and business visitors. During the year, Government-sponsored trade missions from South Africa, Nigeria, Brazil and Egypt visited the Colony, in addition

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

to several unofficial missions and a large number of individual businessmen and foreign government officials.

The Branch also publishes and distributes the annual 'Com- merce, Industry and Finance Directory' and the monthly 'Trade Bulletin'. The Directory is a comprehensive guide to Hong Kong business in its economic and administrative setting; the 1961 edition was published in June. The Trade Bulletin is a general guide to Hong Kong's products in magazine form and each month features different aspects of the commercial and industrial scene. Both these publications are illustrated in colour and are distributed free to overseas businessmen.

Statistics. Every month the Statistical Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department publishes 'commodity by country' statistics of the quantity and value of all goods imported, exported and re-exported; these are classified in accordance with the Hong Kong Imports and Exports Classification List, which is based on the Standard International Trade Classification. 'Country by com- modity' statistics are also tabulated and are available in the depart- ment but not published.

The trade statistics are compiled on punched card machinery from declarations which importers and exporters are required by law to file with the Statistical Branch.

TRADE CONTROL

      Import and Export licensing formalities are kept to a minimum and there were no significant changes in the few existing regulations during the year. Licences are required only for materials of a strategic significance and for a few other items on which it is necessary to retain control for health, foreign exchange and other such reasons. The majority of export licences are required for exchange control purposes. The Commerce and Industry Depart- ment takes pride in the speed with which applications for import and export licences are handled, a licence normally being ready for collection a few hours after application has been made.

      The Hong Kong Government is responsible for the legal and administrative arrangements required to implement the textile in- dustry's temporary undertaking to limit its export shipments to Britain and ensures, by means of a system of export licensing,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

888

83

that they do not exceed the agreed quantities. Quotas allocated to shippers were kept under constant review in order to ensure full utilization of the permitted yardage. Arrangements were made towards the end of the year for the allocation of quotas under the new undertaking which is effective for a period of eleven months from 1st February 1962.

      Documentation of Origin. With the growth in the export of Hong Kong products. The certification of origin of locally manufactured goods has become increasingly important. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Federation of Hong Kong Industries, the Indian Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Manufacturers' Association and the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce issue certificates of Hong Kong origin which are acceptable in varying degrees to overseas authorities. Some of these associations also issue certificates of other than Hong Kong origin in respect of goods entering the entrepôt trade. Most overseas authorities, how- ever, continue to require imports of Hong Kong products to be covered by certificates of origin issued by the Commerce and Industry Department. Since Hong Kong has practically no raw materials, the origin of goods manufactured by local factories is established by the work carried out in processing imported materials or transforming them into entirely new products. During 1961 the Commerce and Industry Department, by a system of factory registration and inspection, continued to ensure that the goods certified were in fact entitled to claim Hong Kong origin.

      Except in the case of exports to Britain, the Department also issues Commonwealth Preference Certificates to enable Hong Kong products to claim preferential rates of duty on entry into those Commonwealth territories which grant preference to Hong Kong. Preference certificates indicate only Commonwealth content in the goods covered and are issued against cost statements pre- pared by public accountants approved for the purpose.

     For exports to Britain claiming preference, it has been the practice for the approved public accountants to issue the certificates based on cost statements submitted direct to HM Customs and Excise. In April 1961, by arrangement with HM Customs and Excise, the Department began to countersign and issue these certificates.

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

The co-operation and liaison established with overseas customs authorities continued on a wider basis during 1961 and proved to be beneficial to both the promotion and control of exports under certificates of origin of all types. During the year exports of goods certified by the Commerce and Industry Department to be of Hong Kong origin were valued at $696.44 million. Exports to Commonwealth territories including Britain, covered by Com- monwealth Preference Certificates, were valued at $577.05 million.

The Foreign Assets Control Regulations of the United States Treasury Department prohibit the importation from Hong Kong of a wide range of goods which are presumed by American law to originate in the Chinese Peoples Republic or in North Korea, unless evidence is produced to the contrary. The Department again introduced a number of new procedures to produce this evidence in 1961. During the year, presumptive goods valued at $449.02 million were exported to the United States and its dependencies under 'Comprehensive' Certificates of Origin, issued solely for this purpose.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

      The Preventive Service is the uniformed and disciplined branch of the Commerce and Industry Department, with duties similar to those normally exercised by a Customs and Excise service for the protection of revenue accruing from dutiable commodities. There are five dutiable commodities in Hong Kong (see Chapter 4).

The Service is also responsible for the enforcement of trade controls and for the inspection of factories and goods in connexion with the export of Hong Kong products under Certificates of Origin and Commonwealth Preference Certificates. In conjunction with the Police, it plays a vital role in the suppression of drug trafficking and the 'ships' guards' system provided by the Preventive Service has played a successful part in improving control over the movement of narcotics into and out of the Colony.

      The Chief Preventive Officer, responsible to the Director of Commerce and Industry, commands a force of four gazetted officers, 212 inspectorate and 334 rank and file, including 19 women officers.

The general organization of the Preventive Service remained unchanged during the year, the duties being divided between eight

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85

sections, Training, Excise, Industry, Marine, Land, New Territories, Special (Anti-Narcotics) and Headquarters. Each section is under the charge of a Senior Revenue Inspector.

The strength of the Service's eight launches increased by one during the year with the addition of a new fast 18-foot water-jet launch. This launch has already proved its worth in combatting smugglers, particularly those working close inshore. Four new launches were ordered to replace older craft, and one of these was delivered during the year.

       Officers of the Service searched 5,445 ocean-going vessels and 17,601 small craft within and without the harbour limits, and the nine launches patrolled for a total of 16,782 hours during the year. Six hundred and ninety nine aircraft were inspected and 22,072 freight packages examined, of which 1,275 were detained for pay- ment of duty. Land patrol vehicles linked to headquarters by radio telephone increased their activities during the year and more seizures of smuggled tobacco and illicit stills were made.

       Seizures of narcotics during the year numbered 50; the largest single seizure amounting to 218 lbs, was found concealed in tins in a water tank on board an ocean-going vessel. Six hundred and fifty six ships were guarded throughout their stay in harbour, having arrived from ports from which narcotics were known to be exported.

       The Preventive Service took action on 61 cases of infringement of the Merchandise Marks Ordinance, and articles seized included shirts, bronze cutlery, watches and watch components, pirated books and other printed matter. In all cases the offending articles were confiscated by the courts.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

       There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London, adminis- tered by a Director, and situated in Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, WC2. The Hong Kong Government Trade Representative in Australia has his office at Kembla Building, Margaret Street, Sydney, NSW.

      Among Commonwealth countries India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner, and Britain, Australia, Canada, New

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Zealand and Pakistan by Trade Commissioners. Consulates- General are maintained by Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Cambodia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Switzerland, Thailand, the United Arab Republic, and the United States. Consulates are maintained by Portugal, Sweden, Venezuela and Vietnam. The consular representatives of Finland, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in London and have juris- diction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, the Irish Republic, Israel, Nicaragua, Peru, and Spain have honorary consular representation in Hong Kong. In addition, Austria, France, Italy and Thailand have resident Trade Commissioners.

TOURISM

The year 1961 saw an increase in the tourist industry of Hong Kong beyond the most optimistic forecasts. The number of in- coming visitors of all nationalities, but excluding overseas Chinese, exceeded 210,000. Of this number approximately 34.5% were of American nationality, 32% of British Commonwealth nationality and 33.5% of other nationalities. About 80% of all visitors arrived by air and the remainder by sea.

      The total number of visitors for the year represents an increase of about 32% over the 1960 figure, and their needs were met by the opening of several new, first class hotels. Private enterprise which invested in this particular sector of the travel industry has already justified its confidence in tourism; during the months of March, April, May, October, November and part of December (the peak seasons for visitors) most hotels were full. Three thousand three hundred and thirty seven hotel rooms composed of 1,191 single rooms, 1,842 double rooms and 304 suites are now avail- able in Hong Kong.

The number of tourists has more than doubled in four years and as there is no reason to suppose that the popularity of Hong Kong as a tourist centre will decline, it is possible that, until other hotels now under construction open for business, the Colony may again experience a shortage of hotel accommodation. By the end of 1963 a further 2,500 new first class and de luxe hotel rooms should be available.

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87

      The Hong Kong Tourist Association was established in 1958. The Association is administered by a Board of Management appointed by the Governor and is financed mainly by a Govern- ment subvention, which during 1961 amounted to $2,000,000. This revenue is supplemented by the fees charged to members. Members and associate members at present total 325. They represent all sectors of the travel industry, and include carriers by air and sea, hotel managements, travel agents, tour operators and, as associate members, a wide variety of businesses and shops.

      Hong Kong is not only a great shopping centre. It offers many attractions; and to those who visit the Colony for the first time the striking contrasts between east and west and between country- side and town, the scenery, and the people themselves are sources of great interest.

      Hong Kong is served by 19 international airlines providing 140 services a week; for sea travellers there are 36 shipping companies and agents representing 76 shipping lines.

      During the year the Tourist Association made arrangements to open offices in New York, Chicago and San Francisco which will help to increase the flow of publicity material and information to promoters of travel throughout the United States. The Association also found it necessary to have more space for its administrative offices, which moved into new premises at Caroline Mansion, 1st Floor, 4, Yun Ping Road. Tourist information offices are still retained at 1 East Wing, Peninsula Hotel, Kowloon, and at the 'Star' Ferry Concourse, Hong Kong Island.

      The Hong Kong Tourist Association co-operates with many international organizations for the promotion of tourism and is a member of the International Union of Official Travel Organizations, the Pacific Area Travel Association, the British Travel & Holidays Association and the American Society of Travel Agents.

      The Chairman of the Hong Kong Tourist Association, the Hon W. C. G. Knowles, was elected President of the Pacific Area Travel Association for 1961. He will complete his term of office at the end of the PATA Conference to be held in Hong Kong in January 1962, the first international travel conference to be held in the Colony.

      During the year the Tourist Association helped to create the Hong Kong Hotels Association, possibly the forerunner of other

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     associations dealing with various aspects of the travel industry. An important feature of the work of this and other associations is the training of staff. Another development is the Tourist Association's assumption of the responsibility for registering qualified guides.

A major portion of the Association's budget is devoted to publicity, and approximately one million items of literature have been distributed to carefully selected agents and centres throughout the world. In spite of such large scale distribution the demand for promotional literature is invariably in excess of the supply. Useful publicity has been obtained for the Hong Kong tourist industry from the distribution of the Association's film 'A Million Lights Shall Glow'. It was shown in the largest cinemas in London, New York and elsewhere, and in November it was granted the top award of the American Society of Travel Agents International Film Festival held in Cannes. Additional valuable publicity was given to Hong Kong by a book of photographs of the same title, the production of which was sponsored by the Association, and by an attractive booklet containing four long-playing gramophone records entitled 'Sounds of Hong Kong'. This album of Hong Kong sounds aroused considerable interest in all the countries to which it was sent. In 1961 the Tourist Association commissioned the well-known New Zealand artist, Mr Peter McIntyre, to paint a series of pictures depicting Hong Kong. This collection has now toured many of the major cities of the United States and Canada, and by the end of 1961 was on exhibition in London. These pictures were well received and during 1962 will be sent to a number of other countries. A series of broadcasts about Hong Kong on the MONITOR programme in America has continued each week to a listening public which now numbers many millions.

7

Primary Production

AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE NEW TERRITORIES

A LAND COURT was set up, shortly after the New Territories became part of the Colony, to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of land. The holdings so established were confirmed by Government and recorded in Block Crown Leases, and are known as Old Schedule Lots. The Land Court completed its work in 1905. All other land was deemed to be unleased Crown land, leases of which could be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories' lands acquired in this way are known as New Grant Lots. It has always been recognized, however, that most villages have certain prescriptive rights over the land around them, where they graze their cattle, cut grass, and bury their dead; and no Crown land in the New Territories is put up for auction without giving the nearest villagers a chance to object. An objection, whether economic or geomantic, is usually accepted if

reasonable.

      Most of the leased land in the New Territories, usually known as 'private land', is classified as either agricultural land or building land. Minor buildings, watchmen's sheds, pigsties, or other build- ings associated with farming, may normally be erected on agricultural land. When a villager who owns land in agricultural status wishes to erect a small house for his own family he is usually given a building licence and allowed to do so, provided that the lot is suitable and the building will not interfere with any rural development or town planning. No premium is payable for such licences if the houses are small.

New Territories' land policy follows the general lines laid down for the urban area, particularly in the towns and in areas required for industrial development. In the more rural parts the New Territories Administration is chiefly concerned with balancing the needs of agricultural production on the one hand and of urban development on the other.

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

      Much of the best land is owned by clans established for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep of ancestral halls, religious observances, clan welfare, and the maintenance of schools. Such land may not be disposed of without the consent of the clan members (sometimes numbering many hundreds) and the permission of the District Officer.

Rents and values of agricultural land in the New Territories are customarily reckoned in paddy; if crops other than rice are grown, the rents are convertible into money at the market rate of a specified crop. Crown rents, however, are collected in cash at a rate fixed when the lease was granted. Most Crown rents have thus progressively declined in relation to the customary value of agricultural land, and in some cases are now hardly worth the trouble of collection.

An average annual rent for two-crop rice land would be about 1,600 lbs of paddy an acre, or about 40% of the total annual yield from two crops. Though much of the land is owned by clans, individual holdings are all small, averaging under two acres. There are very few farmers who cultivate more than five acres. Where land is rented it is usually on annual tenancy, and often the arrangement between landlord and tenant is oral.

LAND UTILIZATION

     The Agriculture and Forestry Department began a land utiliza- tion survey in 1953. The compilation of preliminary data was completed in 1955 and maps were prepared on a scale of 1:20,000. In 1954 Dr T. R. Tregear, Senior Lecturer in Geography at the University of Hong Kong, made an independent reconnaissance study of land utilization in the Colony. Dr Tregear had full access to the work of the Agriculture and Forestry Department and pro- duced a report from this data, Land Use in Hong Kong and the New Territories, published by the University in 1958.

The total land area of the Colony and its component parts was recomputed in 1959. Although the areas for the various classes of land had not changed appreciably, some slight modification of the original figures resulted. Using the same classification of land use, the following data was accepted for 1961:

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

91

Class

Approximate Area

Percentage

Remarks

of whole

(square miles)

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

22.5

(ii) Steep country

111.0

5.5

28.0

Includes roads and railways

Rocky, precipitous hillsides incapable of plant estab- lishment

(iii) Woodlands

20.5

5.2

Natural and established woodlands

(iv) Grass & scrub lands

164.0

41.2

Natural grass and scrub

(v) Eroded lands

20.0

5.0

Stripped of cover. Granite country. Capable of re- generation

(vi) Swamp & mangrove

lands

(vii) Arable

7.5

1.9

Capable of reclamation

52.5

13.2

Includes orchards and mar- ket gardens

      Natural topography largely decides the use which can be made of land in Hong Kong. From a farmer's viewpoint, all the readily cultivable land is already being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal. Pressure comes on the land from two directions, the continued and steady demand for land for industry and the need to meet the growing needs of the rural community. It is important to remember that 81.3% of the total area of the territory is marginal land, in differing degrees of sub-grade character. The arable land already exploited comprises only 13.2% of the total area, and the expand- ing urban areas (the remaining 5.5%) tend to encroach more directly upon arable rather than upon marginal land. It is necessary to preserve a proper balance between these conflicting needs, and, wherever possible, land is reclaimed for industry from the sea, as for instance at Tsuen Wan. On the other hand market towns such as Yuen Long, Tai Po and Sha Tin must expand and it is un- avoidable that fields will be lost to agriculture, or at least that agriculture in such areas will be confined to market gardens. This trend is, however, being offset by more intensive production and by development of marginal land.

In 1937 it was estimated that the total forest cover, both natural and established woodland, was 103 square miles. During the Japanese occupation much of this timber was stripped from the hillsides and catchment areas. The afforestation policy is to replace these lost woodlands, not only to safeguard water catchments and

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     ensure soil conservation, but also to take advantage of the oppor- tunities it affords to make best use of the land. There are many limiting factors to the extension of arable land, but they can be overcome in some areas and much more attention is now paid to the principles of multiple land use in order to exploit under- developed areas. The establishment of pure forests tends to be restricted to areas incapable of more intensive development.

The compilation of information and data for the further exploita- tion of available land resources for agricultural production is a continuing process. The Agriculture and Forestry Department is primarily concerned and it has the changing pattern of land use constantly under review as well as undertaking investigational and advisory work for the benefit of farmers. A report on the soils of Hong Kong has recently been published and is a valuable addition to the information available for the improved utilization of land resources. This report, by Dr C. J. Grant, formerly of the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department and now at the University, is the result of three years' work carried out in association with the Soil Survey Pool attached to the Colonial Office.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The policy of Government is to stimulate the production of food where this is compatible with the best utilization of the resources of land and sea. To achieve this, three departments of Government are concerned with serving the farmers and fishermen. The Agricul- ture and Forestry Department concerns itself chiefly with optimum land utilization and gives technical, extension and advisory services to farmers. The Co-operative Development and Fisheries Depart- ment deals mainly with the fishermen on the waters of the territory and the administrative organization of co-operative societies of all types. The New Territories Administration is also concerned.

     The Agriculture and Forestry Department aims to increase the production and improve the economic status of individual farmers; it assists in stabilizing the farming industry by encouraging diver- sified production which helps mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. While stimulating greater pro- duction, by the use of scientific techniques, the Department seeks to achieve its aims without impairing soil fertility; here the con- servation of soil and water, through afforestation of bare, eroded

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hillsides and catchment areas, plays an important part. Afforesta- tion is largely undertaken direct by Government, and private afforestation is still relatively unimportant.

Loans are available to farmers through the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, started in 1955 with equal contributions by Government and Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie and administered by the Agriculture and Forestry Department whose Director is the Chairman and Trustee. Loans are also available through the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and through the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund mentioned later under the heading of 'Marketing'. Some 265 farmers and farmers' sons attended vocational training courses provided by the Agriculture and Forestry Department during 1961. The courses covered a wide range of farming and included instruction in modern techniques on rice cultivation, pig and poultry keeping, market gardening, tree cropping and pond fish culture.

The Kadoorie Agriculture Aid Association, a philanthropic organization also founded by the generosity of the Kadoorie brothers, gives free grants to members of the farming community who cannot find enough capital on their own. The general policy of the Association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves, and although it is not a Government sponsored or- ganization it co-operates closely with Government through the Agriculture and Forestry Department which offers technical assis- tance and advice. Similar advice and assistance is also given to all welfare organizations concerned with the rural community, and especially those engaged in the rehabilitation of refugees as farmers.

      Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern. Formerly paddy cultivation was the most impor- tant aspect of agriculture in the New Territories. With the increased demand for food, especially the protective foods, such as veget- ables, fruit, eggs and poultry meat, and with industrial expansion and immigrant farmers exerting pressure on the land, there has been a steady move in favour of market gardening and of pig and poultry production. At the same time, Government's policy of encouraging diversification in farming practice has resulted in more than 35% of the two-crop paddy land now being used for the grow- ing of winter season catch crops of vegetables; most of this land formerly remained fallow. There has also been more use of artificial

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fertilizers without any prejudice to the traditional nightsoil. A striking aspect of market gardening in Hong Kong is the wide- spread use of small knapsack sprayers and the most modern in- secticides. The steady expansion of primary production over the past three years is shown in Appendix V, which also indicates that in 1961 livestock production accounted for 48%; crop produc- tion 27% and marine fisheries and associated products the remain- ing 25% of the total.

AGRICULTURE

      Since 1954 the area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,191 to 16,796 acres, the balance being used for permanent vegetable and field crop production. 2,905 acres are also used for one-crop paddy in brackish water and 127 acres for one-crop upland paddy. Taking the average milling percentage to be 68, the estimated crop in 1961 was 20,326 metric tons of rice, and at an average price of $60 per picul, the money value was $20,159,000. In a normal year, the average yield of paddy from an acre of two- crop land is about 1.2 metric tons, but with seed of approved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers, production may reach 1.8 metric tons on average land and over 2 metric tons on better soils.

      The most important disease of paddy is Blast, caused by the fungus Piricularia Oryzae, and farmers are making more use of blast-resistant varieties recommended by the Agriculture and Forestry Department. The Department also selects seed within varieties, but the amount of such improved seed available is limited. Traditionally the manurial treatment of rice is to add only very small dressings of dry animal manure, but the use of balanced artificial fertilizers is becoming increasingly important.

      The area of land under permanent vegetable cultivation has steadily increased from 2,254 acres in 1954 to 6,172 acres in 1961. This increase comes mainly from the transition of 3,395 acres of rice land to vegetable production, and the development of 523 acres of marginal land. In addition some 1,200 acres of two-crop paddy land (that is, land which can be irrigated during the driest weather and has good access to markets) are also used for cultivating winter vegetables after the harvest of the second rice crop.

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      Six to eight crops of vegetables are harvested annually from intensively cultivated land. The main crops are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, turnip, leaf mustard, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomato, water spinach, string bean, watercress and cucumber. Cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce and tomato are produced in great quantity during the cooler months and quality is excellent. This intensive production of vegetables takes place on both fertile and comparatively infertile land and is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. Nightsoil is used on about three-quarters of the area and, in its place or as a supplement, pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost are also applied. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually in addition to organic manures. Plant diseases are less important than insect pests and insecticides are very popular. The Agriculture and Forestry Department devotes increasing attention to seed selection of local vegetables, as well as trials with winter vege- tables grown from imported seed.

Sweet potatoes are grown both for human consumption (the tubers), and for pigfeed (the vines). Some 1,834 acres are planted on drier lands as a main crop, chiefly for tubers, and a catch crop is also grown on 4,600 acres following the second paddy harvest. With an average yield of six tons an acre, and an average market price of $20 per picul, this represents an annual value of $12,762,000.

About 2,713 acres are cultivated in many small plots for other field crops such as peanut, taro, radish, yam and sugarcane. These are grown mainly for local rural consumption.

Fruit production is not yet substantial, but it is expanding, and includes wampei (wong pei), lemon, lungngan, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, lychee and pineapple. Accurate statistics are not available, but approximately 50,000 piculs of assorted fruits, valued at over $4,000,000, were harvested during the year.

     Crops and Fruits for Export. A narrow range of fruits and crops is prepared for export to Chinese living overseas, mainly in the United States. Although the quantities exported are small, they make a useful source of earning for the small farmer. Products include water chestnut, Japanese apricot, lemon, taro, bitter cucumber, white cabbage, ginger, radish, lychee, wong pei,

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mushroom, lotus root, olive, turnip, yam and mustard. The area planted to these crops in 1961 was about 1,000 acres and their value over $3,500,000. The water chestnut crop in particular has grown rapidly in the last two years and now extends over 300 acres. The quality has also improved and a larger proportion is now being exported as 'first grade'. Crops exported to the United States and to certain other foreign countries must be accompanied by Certificate of Origin; this requires individual inspection of the crops in the field by staff of the Agriculture and Forestry Department.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

As there is insufficient land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal food animals reared in the Colony; cattle are mainly used for draught purposes.

The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly the resultant crosses of local animals with exotic stock; pure strains of the Chinese type are becoming less common. The Agriculture and Forestry Depart- ment maintains herds of pure exotic strains, such as Berkshire, Mid-White and Large-White, and also herds of two Chinese strains. These animals are used for experimental purposes, commercial cross-breeding and distribution to improve the Colony's pig stock. Pig-keeping in the villages is often on traditional lines, but a general improvement in management is taking place as a result of advisory services. In 1953 only 64,000 pigs of local origin were slaughtered in local abattoirs, compared with just under 330,000 in 1961; the latter figure represented 29% of the total number of pigs slaughtered in the Colony and the value of pig production during the year amounted to some $45 million.

Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs as a result of the curtailment of imports of both birds and hatching eggs from China. There was also a distinct increase in the collection of hatching eggs from village flocks and the latter development is of great importance in the establishment of a stable poultry industry within the territory. In the wetter areas ducks and geese are raised for home consumption and for export. The rearing of ducks and geese for the local market has become increasingly important in recent years. Pigeon-keeping is now a thriving industry and prices in 1961 averaged $7.50 for a pair of squabs. The total value of squabs marketed during the year was

Hong Kong has always been a fishing port and today 90,000 people are engaged full-time manning the Colony's fishing fleet. Whatever the craft, the crew is likely to include a number of youngsters, for fisherfolk believe in passing on their skills to the younger generation. Ashore, too, children are expected to make themselves useful (above).

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CO

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Pond fisheries are being developed in many parts of the New Territories, such as at Yuen Long (left). The fry are about the size of a paper clip and a very fine

net must be used (above) when the time comes to move them to the fattening ponds. Since the fry abrase easily, they are handled as little as possible. They need a year to reach full growth (below) and can be caught any time simply by casting a net.

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One of the most important functions of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department is helping the fishermen to keep abreast of the times. During 1961, full-time six-month navigation courses were started at Aberdeen (above) for the up-and-coming fishermen of tomorrow. The Fisheries' motor vessel Yuen Ling (below) is used to test new methods and gear.

PUBLI

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estimated at $2,050,000. The most popular types of table birds are the White or Blue King crossed with the Homer.

Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes and surplus stock is sold for slaughter. The Chinese brown cattle are particularly well suited to the local environment and manage- ment. Some 5,600 surplus local cattle were marketed for slaughter at an estimated value of $2,800,000. The dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in isolation on one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller farm groups on the outskirts of Kowloon. All dairy animals are regularly tested and must pass the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis. During 1961 there was a slight decrease in milk production, due to an outbreak of foot and mouth disease, but yields were not greatly affected and the estimated total production was 12,400,000 pounds of milk, valued at $1 a pound.

       The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest, and the incidence of foot and mouth disease, both in local and imported stock, was not serious, there being some 250 outbreaks of a mild type, in both cattle and pigs. Slightly less than 63,200 pigs were inoculated against swine fever, and some 8,200 cattle against rinderpest, with locally produced vaccine. 12,500,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 2,350,000 doses of Intranasal-Drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry. Farmers are making more use of the livestock advisory services of the Agriculture and Forestry Department.

FORESTRY

The Agriculture and Forestry Department is responsible for the direct afforestation of water catchment areas, for the protection of vegetation on Crown lands, for assistance to village forestry, and for amenity planting in catchment areas. A thick cover of vegeta- tion is essential to prevent silting of reservoirs and erosion, and to help streams to flow more regularly by inducing as much water as possible to remain in the soil. Well-managed forests are an ideal way to achieve this. Elsewhere forestry can provide timber and fuel for local consumption and help improve rural economy. In fact, forestry is probably one of the most suitable forms of exten- sive land development possible in the parts of the New Territories which comprise steep hills, woodlands or scrub.

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      It is only in recent years that any serious attempt has been made to carry out afforestation on a large scale, and the landscape is now undergoing a noticeable change as plantations become established. Generally hills are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some places and patches of scrub forest in remoter and less accessible areas. There are also thickly- wooded areas where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as for example on Hong Kong Island and around villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about an almost complete destruction of vegetation, with soil erosion in its train, in many parts of the Colony. Villagers often have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the trees, mostly pine, are generally so scattered and badly lopped that they rarely alter the barren aspect of the land.

Forest reserves are for the most part co-extensive with the water catchment areas, and are divided into compartments of 200 - 300 acres, intersected by paths and fire barriers cleared of vegetation. The main species planted is pine (Pinus Massoniana), followed by Brisbane box (Tristania conferta). Experimental plots have been laid out with a variety of other species and some of these are now being planted more widely. Eucalyptus and American Pinus species are among the most promising.

      Planting usually starts in the cool, wet spring and continues until June or July. Although planting may be successful in the late summer, trees planted after July usually have too short a period to become well established before the onset of the drier weather in October. The wet misty weather in February 1961 allowed early planting which was well under way in April and continued into June. Some 900 acres of new planting were established and previous plantings were supplemented.

      Afforestation continued in the remaining grasslands of the direct catchment of the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir. The Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve was slightly extended, and more than three quarters of the Pat Heung and Fu Shui Forest Reserves previously planted were supplemented to maintain their acreage. These reserves extend continuously across the mountains of the Colony from Castle Peak in the west to Tai Po in the east, and together comprise some 13,000 acres.

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       Planting was also carried out in the Kowloon Hills Forest Reserve and in the Shek Pik catchment on Lantau Island. Work on Lantau Island was mainly done by prisoners from Chi Ma Wan.

      Assistance to village forestry continued and villagers were in- structed in the correct planting and profitable management of their own forestry plantations. Government demonstration plantations show quite clearly the results that can be achieved and these planta- tions have proved most useful in arousing interest. Trees take a long time to grow and it is not always easy to convince villagers that forestry can be profitable. Interest is spreading steadily, if somewhat slowly, and although it will be some years before the work now being carried out will begin to produce noteworthy results, some of the older stands are now being thinned for the first time and this will be the beginning of steady returns for the

owners.

Educating the young in the value of afforestation is important and this year individual schools again organized their own tree- planting days and invited parents and local dignitaries to participate. Some 66 schools planted more than 6,800 trees, supplied by the Agriculture and Forestry Department, which also provided technical advice and assistance.

      The Department maintains a series of nurseries throughout the New Territories to provide seedlings for afforestation. Seedling production is concentrated in the main nursery at Tai Lung and subsequently tubed stock is moved out to the several temporary nurseries adjacent to planting areas. In this way between one and a half and two million seedlings are handled and planted annually. Most seedlings are now raised in polythene tubes, instead of in open nursery beds, and constant effort is made to improve handling and planting techniques.

       During the dry season, from October to March, there is constant threat of fire in the plantations and careful precautions have to be taken. Fire lookouts are strategically placed and are connected by field telephone to control points where men, equipment and trans- port stand by during particularly hazardous periods. During the winter of 1960-1 128 fires, affecting over 2,500 acres, were reported and dealt with; half of these were in afforested areas and the

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remainder on grassland in the vicinity of the forests. Most fires. were due to the carelessness of members of the public.

FISHING

Administration. Government's aim is to foster the orderly expan- sion and development of the fishing industry, to increase supplies of fish to meet the needs of an expanding population and to improve the economic status of those engaged in the industry. A Fisheries Division was established in 1952 under the administration of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department and, in the same year, a Fisheries Research Unit was formed by the University of Hong Kong. A Fisheries Advisory Committee, on which both were represented, co-ordinated matters of common interest; the Co-operative Development Department, which was responsible for the supervision of fishermen's co-operative societies and the administration of the Fish Marketing Organization, also took part.

      There were disadvantages in this divided responsibility and in July 1960 Government decided, with the agreement of the University, to set up a single authority to direct fisheries activities. The Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department was established, and the Fisheries Division was transferred to it; a month later the Fisheries Research Unit, now known as the Fisheries Research Station, was incorporated in the new Depart- ment. As fresh water pond fisheries in Hong Kong are closely connected with land utilization, extension work on commercial fish ponds remained with the Agriculture and Forestry Department, although the basic research work into pond fisheries is the respon- sibility of the new department.

      Marine fisheries extension activities include investigations into, and demonstrations of, fishing methods, craft and fishing gear; the introduction of new fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of a mechanization programme; the training of fisher- men for certificates of competency as masters and engineers; the instruction of local fishermen in navigation; the extension of oyster farming and of an important new industry, the culture of pearls. A modified junk-type mechanized vessel is used as a general purpose inshore demonstration vessel and a small steel trawler, the Alister Hardy, is available for off-shore extension activities.

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Problems of overfishing and of the conservation of fish resources receive attention and legislation is being prepared to provide the necessary authority for comprehensive protection measures, par- ticularly against the use of explosives and toxic substances.

To further the Division's policy of investigating the potential of single boat stern-otter trawling, plans for the construction of a 67-foot wooden trawler of modern design are under consideration. At the same time, the trend towards the modification of a traditional junk design to meet modern requirements, particularly those of mechanization, is being encouraged. In March, the keels were laid for two large modified Kwong Sun type deep-sea trawlers, the design of which includes radical departures from the usual junk lay-out. Although intended for pair trawling in the first instance, these boats are fitted with diesel engines of 240 bhp, the most powerful engines to be fitted into a local fishing junk at that time, and the design is such that the boats may readily be converted for single boat stern-otter trawling at a later date. The construction of these two vessels was completed in September 1961, and the boats have since made a number of very successful fishing trips. Great interest has been shown by other local trawler fishermen and it appears likely that several of them will wish to emulate the example set, and to incorporate further refinements of design. The Fishing Division provides courses of instruction for workers in the fishing junk building industry to instill an understanding of working drawings and an ability to build boats in accordance with plans. Attention is directed mainly towards lofting-out (or laying-off) of the correct lines of a boat and a mould loft shed has been erected to afford the pupils practical experience.

      The Department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund which is allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant waters fleet, and the Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare scheme D 1967, which provides mechanization loans for fishermen. During 1961 the capital available for the Fisheries Development Loan Fund was increased from two million dollars to five million dollars to meet the many demands which are made upon it. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization which administers two other fisheries loan funds and investigates applications for loans from all four funds,

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which provide capital of over $4.6 million for the development of the industry.

      The Department also takes part in the activities of the Indo- Pacific Fisheries Council of FAO and, during the year, the Senior Research Officer of the Fisheries Research Station, accompanied by the Craft Technician (Design) of the Fisheries Division, attended the 9th Session of the Council in Karachi.

      The Fisheries Research Station has a position in Hong Kong comparable with other national and regional institutes studying fisheries resources. Its activities now centre on a biological and oceanographical investigation of the continental shelf within a radius of approximately 500 miles from Hong Kong, extending from Taiwan to the Gulf of Tong King; and for this purpose the Station operates the research trawler, Cape St Mary, of 240 tons, a gift from the British Government. As the programme develops the scope of research and exploration will be enlarged to include the whole of the South China Sea. Studies of the culture of Chinese carp and other pond fish, and of edible and pearl oysters, are also carried out by the research staff of the Station.

      Fisheries. Marine fish is Hong Kong's main primary product and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Commonwealth. Over 10,000 fishing junks of various sizes and designs and 26 Japanese-type trawlers, 12 of which are British registered, are based in the Colony. They are manned by a sea-going population of about 80,000, chiefly Tanka people, and the main fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Castle Peak, Tai Po and the Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Territories.

      Junks are built locally from imported timber, China fir being the most popular material. In recent years continued shortages of fir have led to the increased use of teak and yacal. About 95% of the fleet is owner operated, and the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

       Purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony inside the 20 fathom line. The larger junk-type trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30- 70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung. Many of these deep-sea

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     vessels still depend on sail and their activities are severely curtailed during the typhoon season from June to October.

      The restrictions imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1958, requiring fishermen based on Hong Kong who sail in Chinese inshore waters to land a quota of their catch in China, were continued throughout the year. Quotas were varied from time to time and the restrictions were enforced with varying degrees of rigidity.

      There was a substantial increase in the mechanized fleet during the year; 925 vessels, the majority converted from sail, joined the fleet, which is now 4,254 strong.

      Landings by the local fishing fleet were generally good throughout 1961. Imports of both fresh marine fish and fresh water fish from China decreased considerably, as did quantities of imported salt dried fish. The quota system, under which landings in Hong Kong by foreign registered fishing vessels were restricted, was lifted on 1st February 1960, but there was no significant increase in landings by such vessels.

Oyster farming. Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters around Hong Kong for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 250 tons of fresh oyster meat, valued at approximately $865,000, were produced from 6,060 acres along the New Territories' shores of the Bay. Most of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas. After a poor yield in 1960, production this year was also adversely affected by typhoon damage to the beds.

Pearl Culture. Six commercial pearling companies are licensed and five of these are now operating in the Colony on sites surveyed and licensed by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department. Four of the sites are in the Tolo Harbour and Channel area and there are two in Port Shelter. It is still too early to judge the success of their activity, but shortage of suitable sites is likely to restrict wider expansion. To assist research into the requirements of this infant industry the construction of a small Pearl Culture Research Station at Kat O in Mirs Bay is in progress. Pond Fish Production. The number of fish ponds in the New Territories continued to increase and the total area is now 960 acres, situated mostly along the Deep Bay coastline near Yuen Long. Grey Mullet is the most important species of fish and must

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     have water with a salinity above 0.05%. Fry are found in local coastal waters in February and March. The supply in 1961 was very good and more than eight million were collected.

Fry of the four important species, Silver Carp, Grass Carp, Big Head and Mud Carp, are obtained from China between May and August and adequate supplies, about 14 million, were imported during the year. These four species require water with a salinity of less than 0.4%. Common Carp and Edible Gold fish are bred locally and some 500,000 and 100,000 fry respectively were raised to provide an adequate supply for local dealers. Edible Gold fish require fresh water (less than 0.4% salinity), whereas the Common Carp can tolerate 1% salinity. Eight million fry of various species were re-exported during the year.

      Production for the year was 1,050 tons, valued at $4 million. This was a distinct improvement on previous years, and represented about 10 per cent of the total consumption of pond fish.

MARKETING

      Fish Marketing Organization. At the end of the Pacific War Hong Kong's fishermen were in very poor circumstances; many were literally in rags and their vessels and fishing gear had fallen into disrepair. Interest free loans and grants were made to rehabilitate the fishing fleet and a Fish Marketing Scheme was introduced. Controls were imposed on the landing and wholesale marketing of marine fish, with the long-term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning developed the Fish Marketing Organization, a non-Government trading organization controlled by a civil servant, now the Com- missioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries.

      The Organization is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenue and pays its expenses from a 6% commission on all the sales at its wholesale markets. It operates at present under emergency legislation. The Marketing (Marine Fish) Ordinance was enacted in 1956 to replace this, but has not been brought into force pending the drafting of the necessary subsidiary legislation, which is now in an advanced stage of preparation.

      The Organization runs five wholesale fish markets, at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon,

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and Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. Six fish- collecting posts have been set up in other fishing centres and the Organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The posts also serve as liaison offices for the Organization. The establishment of a further three wholesale fish markets, one in the urban area of Kowloon and two in the New Territories, is under consideration.

       At the wholesale market fish is sorted into species and sizes by the staff of the Organization, weighed into lots and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly after the sale has taken place or, if asked to do so, the Organization will send the money back to the post which serves their areas. Another service is the transportation of fish to buyers' establishments in the urban areas.

      Fresh fish sales through the Marketing Organization increased slightly during the year, whereas sales of salt and dried fish in- creased by almost 80% owing principally to good catches of cheap, low grade inshore fish which was sold mainly to fish sauce manu- facturers. The average annual wholesale prices for fresh and salt or dried fish increased by 13% and 11% compared with 1960.

The embargo on the importation of salt and dried fish from Hong Kong, imposed by the Chinese People's Government in June 1950, remained in force throughout the year. Salt fish exporters seeking other outlets have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region. During the year 7,573 piculs of salt and dried fish were exported, mainly to the USA, Canada, Thailand and Singapore.

       The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important of the services which the Fish Marketing Organization offers to local fishermen. The Organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made 5,870 loans totalling $10,600,000; of this some $8,600,000 had been repaid at the end of the year. The ceiling of this fund was increased to $2,500,000 during the year in order to meet increased demands. In 1957 the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE) donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen. This fund is administered by the Organization and loans totalling $84,840 have been made; repay- ments to this fund total $76,944. The Organization also carries out investigations and acts as collecting agent for the two Government

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loan funds administered by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

      A further important side to the Organization's development programme is the provision of schooling facilities up to Primary IV standard for the children of fishermen. Classes have been extended to Primary VI in three fishing centres, Shau Kei Wan, Tai O and Ap Chau, and adult education classes have been opened at Sha Tau Kok and Shau Kei Wan. Ten schools have been established by the Organization, all of which now come under the Education Department's Subsidy Code. At the end of 1961, approximately 1,800 fishermen's children were receiving education at these schools, and a further 1,000 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the Organization. All Fish Marketing Organization schools have Advisory Committees composed of leaders of the fishing communities served by the schools.

      In recognition of the importance of vocational training in the furtherance of the policy of the Department, plans are now under consideration for the establishment by the Fish Marketing Organ- ization of a secondary modern school at Aberdeen; it is intended that, at this school, fishermen's children will be able to continue their general education beyond the primary level and at the same time receive instruction in vocational subjects related to the require- ments of a modern fishing industry.

Radio Hong Kong directs a weekly radio programme towards the fishing community which has been enthusiastically received. The programme is mainly educative and informative.

The Organization may one day be run by the fishermen them- selves as a co-operative enterprise, but lack of education is a factor that only time can solve. Wherever possible the Fisheries Division makes full use of the Organization's close relationship with the fishing communities in the processing of loan applications and to disseminate information on new or improved gear, techniques and fishing methods.

The success of the Organization has attracted wide interest and a month seldom passes without the arrival of visitors and students from other lands to study its operations with the idea of setting up similar schemes in their own countries.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. The advantages of the Fish Marketing Scheme were obvious almost immediately, and a similar

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scheme was introduced in 1946 for the Colony's other most impor- tant group of primary producers, the vegetable farmers. From this developed the Vegetable Marketing Organization. The Organization now operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordin- ance, 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Commissioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries) who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and use the assets of the Organization for the development and encouragement of vegetable farming. It pro- vides also for a Marketing Advisory Board; the Director is Chair- man and there are four other persons, nominated by the Governor, who have experience and understanding of the difficulties and needs of farmers. The controls imposed by the Ordinance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultivation on Hong Kong Island.

      The Organization has established depôts in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depôts, the majority of which are now operated by Vegetable Marketing Co- operative Societies, vegetables are collected daily by the Organiza- tion's fleet of transport and taken to a large central wholesale market at Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon. Three sales periods are held at the wholesale market every day; these sales and all the money dealings involved are conducted by the Organization. Reprovision- ing of the Kowloon Wholesale Vegetable Market on a larger, reclaimed site in Cheung Sha Wan is being planned.

      The Organization operates in many ways like its Fish Marketing counterpart. Important differences, however, lie in the method of sale which, in the case of vegetables, is by negotiation and not by auction, and in the measure of practical assistance given by the Vegetable Marketing Co-operative Societies, which now handle over 70% of the local production of vegetables. The reasons for negotiating sales, instead of holding auctions, are easy to appreciate; on a normal day some 20,000 separate lots may be sold to nearly 3,000 buyers. The number of lots rises to nearly 30,000 a day in the main season, making sales by auction impracticable.

      Production during the year was satisfactory and sales of vegetables through the Organization were higher than previously recorded. There was a slight increase in the average annual

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wholesale price. A decreased quantity of imported vegetables passed through the Organization's market at Yau Ma Tei, at a slightly increased average annual wholesale price than in 1960. Figures are given in Appendix V.

The Organization is self-supporting and the costs of the services provided are met from a 10% commission charged on sales. Thirty per cent of this commission is refunded to the Marketing Co- operative Societies in recognition of the marketing responsibilities they assume in respect of their own produce. The Organization is non-profit-making and any financial surpluses are ploughed back into the industry in the form of improved services and other bene- fits. One example is the aid which the Organization has given to farmers in overcoming their main problem of recent years, the lack of a cheap fertilizer, through a scheme for the maturation and distribution of nightsoil at a low price.

      Cheap credit is a further important service of the Organization. Farmers may obtain loans through the Commissioner from the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. Since the establish- ment of this Fund farmers have received from it 565 loans totalling $2,437,162.

      It is Government policy that the Organization should eventually be run by the farmers themselves as a co-operative enterprise. The salesmen of individual Vegetable Marketing Co-operative Societies have been authorized under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance as market salesmen, and negotiations with the Federa- tion of Vegetable Marketing Co-operative Societies were begun with a view to the Federation taking over that part of the sales floor occupied by its member Societies.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

      A Registrar of Co-operative Societies was appointed in 1950, and the combined Co-operative and Marketing Department, now part of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department, came into being later in the same year. Since then, the co-operative movement has made rapid progress and is being accepted by a growing number of people, particularly farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. While the main weight of effort was directed at first towards the physical forma- tion of societies and towards ensuring that they were sound in

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     organization and economy, existing societies and the general public are now more aware of what such unions afford, and the Depart- ment is placing more emphasis on the moral and educative side of the movement.

An interesting development during the past five years has been the growth in the number of Co-operative Building Societies; these societies are at present formed exclusively of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and have been established with funds loaned by Government. Another development of importance is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they can make in their way of life by co-operation and by the formation of Better Living Societies. Several of these societies have successfully completed water supply schemes for their members and one such society of fishermen on the island of Ap Chau in Mirs Bay have now resettled themselves ashore in living accom- modation which was constructed during the year with financial assistance from CARE, the Hong Kong Government and other sources including contributions made by themselves. A similar scheme at Sai Kung has just started. At Cheung Chau, the Hong Kong Round Table Association has constructed dwelling-houses for the members of the Better Living Society there, the maintenance of which is the responsibility of the Society. Better Living Societies are also playing an important role in rural sanitation and in several villages in the New Territories they are accepting responsibility for individual village cleansing schemes, meeting part of the cost from Government's village sanitation subsidy.

        Considerable interest in the formation of Credit Unions was aroused during the year when the subject was discussed during a week's seminar conducted by the Jesuit Fathers of the Institute for Social Action in Hong Kong. Another field of co-operative associa- tion in which interest has been shown is in the formation of Building Management Societies for flat dwellers.

       A further source of credit to farmers, who are members of Co- operative Societies, is the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, administered by the Commissioner, as Registrar of Co-operative Societies. Since its establishment in 1954 8,048 loans totalling $10,285,676 have been made. In addition a large number of societies operate their own revolving loan fund schemes which are steadily growing in size and effectiveness. Several Vegetable Marketing Co-operative

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     Societies now possess loan funds adequate to provide virtually all the short-term credit assistance required by their members. Over 45 Fishermen's Co-operative Societies also operate Revolving Loan Funds with a total capital exceeding $440,000 and a turnover of more than $750,000 a year.

      Forty four new co-operative societies were registered in 1961, bringing the total on the register at the end of December to 348. At present there are 15 different types of societies. A table showing the number of societies in being at 31st December 1961, with details of their membership, share capital, deposits and reserve funds will be found in Appendix V.

MINING

      Iron ore, tungsten and graphite are mined underground, and kaolin, feldspar and quartz by opencast methods. Iron and kaolin are exported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, and graphite to the United Kingdom, United States, Japan, and other countries. Ceramic and enamelware factories consume all locally produced quartz and about a fifth of the kaolin mined is used in local rubber factories.

      In 1961, most of the iron ore produced at Ma On Shan was mined underground. It was treated in a dressing plant near the waterfront with a daily capacity of 800 tons of crude ore, con- centrates being transported by barge to ocean-going ships. A second dressing plant, installed in 1960, treated low-grade ore formerly considered uneconomic. The recovered ore was then finally processed in the main dressing plant. Towards the end of 1961, work began on an access tunnel, which will be almost 8,000 feet long, designed to connect the main dressing plant with future underground workings. This tunnel will serve to transport ore by locomotive haulage.

There was little interest in wolframite as the market price remained low, and only the Needle Hill mine was in production during the year. Prospectors for iron ore, graphite, and kaolin made no discovery of economic importance.

The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance, 1954. The Commissioner of Mines is empowered to issue prospecting and mining licences and mining

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leases are controlled by the Land Officer. Prospecting licences and mining leases are issued for periods of six months, but they are renewable for up to five years and may be even further extended with the Governor's consent. Mining leases are granted for periods up to a maximum of 21 years. Details of leases and licences in operation are published in the Government Gazette twice a year. At the end of 1961, there were three mining leases, 19 mining licences, and five prospecting licences valid for different areas throughout the territory. They were mainly controlled by indivi- duals or small mining companies.

The Superintendent of Mines grants mine blasting certificates and examines export licences for minerals mined locally. He is responsible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of 5% of value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. The Mines Department also inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for licences.

8

Education

A COMMON Sight for the Hong Kong motorist is the raised hand of the traffic policeman assisting hundreds of school children to cross busy streets on their way to or from school. As fast as some children leave after the morning session, others swarm in for instruction in the afternoon. In the evening many of the same schools cater for further children in an early evening session, or are used for evening classes or as adult recreation and training

centres.

The number of pupils in every type of school continued to rise during 1961, particularly in primary schools where by the end of September the enrolment figure reached 484,536. Altogether there were 658,618 pupils enrolled at all schools, colleges and education centres-85,812 more than the previous year. Detailed figures are given in Appendix VI.

SCHOOL EXPANSION PROGRAMME

The seven year primary school expansion programme, which began in October 1954, officially ended in 1961 (see graph on next page), but the effort to provide primary education for all children of primary school age will continue. The total increase in primary school places achieved by September 1961, was 313,000 -some 98,000 places more than the target figure of 215,000. During the first nine months of the year 57 new schools were built, some by Government, some with Government assistance and some by private organizations. Fifty one of these were primary schools, making available 631 new classrooms and 51,265 more school places. The increase in the number of classrooms was partially achieved by the building of 10 extensions to existing schools. Details of the increase in the number of classrooms and the corresponding increase in school places are given in Appendix VI.

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       On 30th September 1961, 143 primary, 26 secondary, eight secondary modern and two technical school projects were in train; these are expected to provide another 148,865 primary, 16,400 secondary, 12,080 secondary modern and 1,000 technical places when completed.

500,000

COMPLETION OF 7 YEAR PRIMARY SCHOOL

EXPANSION PROGRAMME 1954-1961

ACTUAL 1961 TOTAL 484,536

(313,000 NEW PLACES)

400,000

---

(7 YEAR PROGRAMME)

YEAR PROGRAMME,

300,000

200,000

171.536

100,000

1954

'55

'56

'57

'58

'59

'60

1961

PRIMARY EDUCATION

      Primary education is of six years' duration and in Chinese schools normally begins at the age of six years, and in English schools at the age of five years. There are still many children in schools who are not within the normal primary school age range either because they were unable to get into the school at the normal age or because they stay on longer than usual to have an extra chance of passing school leaving examinations.

      The majority of primary schools are Chinese schools where the medium of instruction is Cantonese. English is studied as a second language beginning in the third year, although some schools start earlier. At the end of the primary course comes the Joint Primary Six Examination, which was held for the last time in May 1961, and is to be replaced by the new Secondary Schools Entrance Examination.

      Five Government primary schools provide for children whose normal language is English.

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      Kindergarten Schools. Kindergarten education is not included in the Government system of education, but there is an increasing demand for this type of school and many new kindergartens have been opened for children aged from four to six. These schools are registered with the Education Department.

Special Schools. There are 11 special schools catering for the blind, the deaf, the physically handicapped, and the mentally deficient. The recommendations of Dr L. T. Hilliard in his report on mental deficiency have been accepted by Government as a basic guide in dealing with the problem of mental deficiency.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

      Anglo-Chinese Grammar Schools. These schools, of which there are 107 accommodating nearly 53,000 pupils, offer a five year course in the normal academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong English School Certificate. Instruction is given in English, and Chinese is taught as a second language. This type of secondary education is in demand because a good knowledge of spoken and written English is an asset for entry to higher education, the professions, Government service and employment in commercial firms. Education continues in the VI Form (two years) for success- ful School Certificate candidates, who enter for the Matriculation Examination of the University of Hong Kong or the General Certificate of Education (University of London) at ordinary and advanced levels. Pupils who succeed in these examinations may go to the University, teacher training colleges, or other professional institutions. In addition, there are 15,736 pupils attending tutorial or evening classes where instruction in secondary level subjects, mainly English language, is offered.

      Chinese Middle Schools. These schools, of which there are 98 accommodating nearly 31,000 pupils, offer a six year course in the normal academic subjects leading to the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate. Instruction is given in Chinese and English is taught as a second language. The course is being re-organized and many of these schools have embarked on a new five year course which will enable their students to take the School Certificate Examination in five years. Such students will sit the examination for the first time in 1965. For those who are successful in the Chinese School Certificate Examination further education is

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available at Post-Secondary Colleges and at the Special Classes Centre. In addition, 1,126 pupils are attending evening classes.

      Technical Schools. These give a five year course in the medium of English with Chinese taught as a second language. Like the Anglo-Chinese grammar schools, they prepare their pupils for the English School Certificate Examination, and successful candidates usually continue their studies at the Technical College. There are 22 technical schools with 3,779 pupils.

      Secondary Modern Schools. There are at present five schools of this type, two of which started in 1960 and three in 1961. The two which were started in 1960 have recently moved into new buildings specially designed for the purpose. Schools of this type provide three year courses with a practical bias leading to direct entry into employment, or to further technical or vocational training. The total enrolment in these schools is 2,406.

      Special Classes Centre. This provides instruction in English for pupils who, having passed the Hong Kong Chinese School Certi- ficate, wish to enter the University of Hong Kong. Sixty four students are now enrolled.

POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION

      The Technical College opened the 1961-2 session in September 1961, with record enrolment figures of 747 full-time students and 7,321 students in part-time day and evening classes. This was an overall increase of 893 students. This increase can be partially attributed to the Commonwealth Technical Training Week held in Hong Kong during April. The College is divided into Depart- ments of Building, Mechanical and Production Engineering, Com- merce, Textiles, Electrical and Telecommunications Engineering and Navigation (with Marine Engineering). It provides full-time courses leading to its own diplomas and to the associate member- ship examinations of many of the United Kingdom professional institutions, such as the Institutions of Mechanical, Electrical and Structural Engineers, the Institute of Builders, the Textile Institute and the City and Guilds of London Institute. The standard required for entry to full-time classes is the Hong Kong School Certificate and applicants outnumber the places available by about five to one. The medium of instruction is English except in a few evening classes.

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Part-time day and evening courses leading to the College Ordinary and Higher Certificates and City and Guilds of London Institute qualifications provide instruction in mechanical, produc- tion, electrical and telecommunications engineering, naval archi- tecture, navigation, building construction, builders' quantities, structures, field surveying, plumbing, textiles spinning and weaving, industrial chemistry, laboratory technician's work, dental me- chanics, refrigeration, accountancy, book-keeping and shorthand. During the year several new courses were opened, including those leading to the ARICS, IStructE and Associateship of the Australian Society of Accountants qualifications; part-time courses for training technical and shorthand teachers were also started and a pre-sea course for nautical apprentices and cadets was re-opened after being suspended for two years. As part of the Mechanical/ Production Engineering Department of the College, a Productivity Centre was inaugurated in October to provide short courses in such subjects as materials handling, plant layout, work study and quality control.

New laboratories for heat engines, production engineering, metrology, electrical machines and electrical instruments were brought into use. A donation of $100,000 was received from Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd to provide, with a similar amount from Government, a new library building, the drawings for which have already been approved.

      Post-Secondary Colleges are post-war institutions, the impetus behind their establishment being the influx of students and teachers from Universities in China during the years 1947-50. The present enrolment in the colleges is 3,864. The Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance (1960) provides for the registration and control of the Colleges and for their exemption from the provisions of the Education Ordinance. The object is to give statutory recognition to those institutions whose status approaches, but does not attain, that of a university. In December 1960, Mr L. G. Morgan, OBE, former Deputy Director of Education in Hong Kong, was appointed Adviser, Post-Secondary Colleges. In March 1961, three special advisers, Sir James Duff, latterly Vice-Chancellor of Durham University, Dr R. Mellanby, CBE, Head of the Department of Entomology at Rothamsted Experimental Station, and Professor F. Folts, of the Harvard School of Business Administration,

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were invited to Hong Kong to advise three Post-Secondary Colleges, Chung Chi, New Asia, and United College, on the development of their courses and syllabuses. Admission to these colleges is through a Joint Entry Examination. In July, 1,023 candidates sat the examination and 546 passed. During the year, these three Grant Colleges held their Joint Diploma Examination for which 266 entered and 207 passed. The Post-Secondary Grant Colleges Joint Establishment Board advised on establishments and the grading of teachers, and a Chinese University Preparatory Committee was set up in June 1961. It is hoped that a commission will visit Hong Kong in 1962 to investigate the grant colleges and, if a satisfactory report is made on one or more of them, to advise on the establishment of a federal type University.

The University of Hong Kong began its life with financial assistance from generous friends and benefactors and has since received substantial recurrent and non-recurrent grants from Government. Recurrent expenditure for the academic year 1960-1 was about $13,500,000-the Government subvention towards re- current expenditure being $5,800,000 and the budgeted capital sub- vention $3,100,000. Grants of land have been made from time to time; the central University estate now covers an area of about 40 acres, and other estates almost 12 acres.

       There are four faculties: Arts, Science, Medicine, and Engineer- ing and Architecture. Enrolments in each faculty in October 1961, were 631, 230, 353 and 201 respectively. The Institute of Oriental Studies had 74 students, the Education Diploma and Certificate courses 81, and the Social Study courses 20, giving a total of 1,590 undergraduate and post-graduate students, of whom 93 were part- time and 25 were external students. Four hundred and fifty five students (22.3%) were women. Most of the undergraduates are Chinese, but several other nationalities are represented, particularly from south-east Asia. With the increasing numbers qualifying for entrance from the schools, Government and the University have agreed on a programme of expansion which will raise the number of undergraduates to about 1,800 by 1966. The number of full-time teaching staff, including demonstrators, is 289. Over 70 of these are the University's own graduates.

       The University celebrated its Golden Jubilee in 1961. In January the Executive Council of the Association of Universities of the

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British Commonwealth, of which Dr L. T. Ride, the Vice-Chancellor, had been elected Chairman for 1960-1, held its annual session at the University in honour of the occasion. This was followed by a domestic celebration in March for graduates and the local commu- nity, and a general celebration in September attended by delegates from fellow members of the Association of Universities of the British Commonwealth, and other learned and professional societies and foundations. There was a special Congregation in November which was attended by HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent.

The general celebration included a Jubilee Congress attended by almost 300 local participants and about 190 distinguished scholars from overseas. The Congress comprised six separate symposia on muscle-receptors, organized by Professor D. Barker and under the Chairmanship of Professor Ragnar Granit, the Director of the Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology at Stockholm; phytochemistry, organized by Mr H. R. Arthur and presided over by Professor C. W. Schoppee of the University of Sydney; the design of high buildings, organized by Professor S. Mackey and under the Chairmanship of Professor Sir John Baker of Cambridge University; land use and mineral deposits in Hong Kong and South China, organized by Professor S. G. Davis and conducted by Dr L. Dudley Stamp of London University and Professor E. Sherbon Hills of Melbourne University; economic and social problems of the Far East, organized by Dr E. F. Szczepanik with Professor E. S. Kirby in the Chair; and historical, archaeological and linguis- tic studies on Southern China, south-east Asia, and the Hong Kong region, organized by Professor Drake and under the Chairmanship of Professor Wolfram Eberhard of the University of California.

Altogether three Jubilee congregations were held during the year, at which 23 honorary degrees of Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Letters and Doctor of Science were conferred on distinguished persons, including HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent who was admitted to the Honorary degree of Doctor of Laws.

The visit of Her Royal Highness to the University on 6th November marked the climax of the Jubilee celebrations. On the same day Princess Alexandra opened the new Library and Students Union Building which had been completed a few weeks earlier.

During 1961 the University's. electrical engineering courses (on which degrees were awarded for the first time since the Second

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World War) were re-accorded full academic recognition by the Council of the Institute of Electrical Engineers.

FURTHER EDUCATION OVERSEAS

The Students' Branch of the Colonial Office and the Hong Kong Students' Office in London undertake the responsibility of placing students who seek further education in Universities and other institutions in Britain. The adviser to Hong Kong students and his two assistants are also responsible for meeting and arranging accommodation for students on arrival, and for helping them with their educational and personal problems. Advice and help are also given to students by the British Council.

From 1st October 1960 to 30th September 1961, the Education Department dealt with 406 applications for educational courses and 217 applications for nursing courses in Britain. During the same period 434 students are known to have left Hong Kong for Britain and the Republic of Ireland for further study and at the end of September 1961, Hong Kong students in Britain numbered 1,774. A table in Appendix VI shows the main categories of their courses. The numbers of Hong Kong students known to have left for the USA, Canada and Australia for further studies are 1,038, 169 and 977 respectively.

Government maintains Hong Kong House in London as a residential and social centre for Hong Kong students. The House is controlled by a Board of Governors responsible to the Govern- ment and provides hostel accommodation for almost 80 students. Recreational facilities include table tennis, billiards, radio-gramo- phone, television, a photographic dark room and a library. The main lounge provides ample room for dances, concerts and general social activities. The full address of this residential and social centre for Hong Kong men and women studying in the United Kingdom is: Hong Kong House, 74, Lancaster Gate, London, W2. Telephone: AMBASSADOR 3056.

ADULT EDUCATION

Adult Education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute (enrolment of 13,800), the Technical College Evening Department (7,113), the Evening School of Higher Chinese

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EDUCATION

Studies (430) and 12 Adult Education and Recreation Centres (30,809). The Evening Institute offers different types of courses designed to make up education deficiencies and to improve employ- ment prospects. There are English classes ranging from Primary 5 to Lower Form VI standard; teachers' classes for Art, Music, Handwork, Woodwork, Domestic Science and the Teaching of English; rural classes with emphasis on literacy and simple arithmetic; post-primary extension classes providing an additional three years' training with a practical bias for those who do not anticipate further education at the grammar school level; and secondary school classes leading to the two School Certificate Examinations. General background classes provide elementary school education with special reference to adult needs and interests and also enable students to study home-management, housecraft, baby-care, cooking, sewing and knitting. In the woodwork classes, students learn simple carpentry and furniture-making for house- hold needs. The total number of classes is 476. The classes are held in 61 centres in the urban and rural areas. Other forms of adult education are provided by the Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong, private night schools and voluntary organizations.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies provides facilities for graduates of Chinese Senior Middle Schools who wish to proceed to more advanced courses in Chinese studies. At present this School provides a three year course in general arts, leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Candidates for admission are required to have a Chinese School Certificate or to show evidence that they have reached an equivalent standard. With the permission of the Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hong Kong, classes are held at the University for two hours each evening on five evenings per week. Among the subjects taught are Chinese Literature, Philosophy, Sociology, Philology, Chinese Poetry, Novels and Drama. English Language and Literature also occupy an important part of the curriculum. Most of the students are teachers in the day time.

ADULT EDUCATION AND RECREATION CENTRES

The scheme for combining education with recreation started when the first Adult Education and Recreation Centre was opened

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121

in October 1955. The scheme has proved very successful and there are now 12 centres.

      The programmes organized at the centres are divided into four categories: educational, cultural, physical and social. Apart from regular evening activities, music appreciation, choral singing, physical education, educational film-shows, and group discussions are organized once or twice a week; a social evening or concert is held once a month, the entertainment being provided by members. Educational visits are arranged periodically. Groups for elementary art, photography, harmonica, paper-sculpture, Chinese boxing and dramatics, etc, have met with considerable success. Talks on baby- care, housecraft and on general health have also been well attended. A series of talks centred on the topic 'human relations at home and in the community' aroused very enthusiastic discus- sions. A number of Government Departments also provide lectures and demonstrations from time to time at the centres on a variety of topics of general interest to adults. These topics aim at helping people to acquire a better understanding of their place in the com- munity and of the work of different departments. Each centre is controlled by an organizer, who deals with administration, and three supervisors who direct the various activities. The staff is largely recruited from the teaching profession, and is carefully selected on the basis of personal qualities suitable for this type of work. All staff undergo a period of nine months' training at special evening courses, and a short residential conference is held during the summer vacation.

TEACHERS AND TEACHER TRAINING

      Teachers. There are 21,152 teachers employed in registered schools. This number includes both full-time and part-time teachers; 4,589 are university graduates and 6,374 are trained non- graduates. At the end of the 1961 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers was 28.3:1 in all types of schools. School classes are planned to have a maximum of 45 pupils in primary classes and 40 in secondary classes. The required qualifications for teachers are a university degree, or a certificate in a special subject or a teaching certificate.

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EDUCATION

      Teacher Training is mainly carried out by the Education Depart- ment of Government. There are three Training Colleges offering four different courses the Northcote Training College on Hong Kong Island and the Grantham and Sir Robert Black Training Colleges in Kowloon. The Sir Robert Black Training College was opened in September 1960, and until September 1961, was attached to Grantham Training College. It now occupies temporary premises in Lo Fu Ngam Government Primary School.

      The Colleges provide full-time courses lasting one or two years for students from secondary schools. In the two year course instruction is given in English or Chinese, depending on the section selected. Successful students are qualified to teach in upper primary and lower secondary classes. The one year course uses Chinese as the medium of instruction. Successful students are qualified to teach in primary schools. Students from both these courses are awarded a certificate after two years of satisfactory teaching, in the first case a Teacher's Certificate and in the second a Primary Teacher's Certificate. The two year course is recognized by the Ministry of Education in the United Kingdom for employment under the Burnham Scale. A special one year course is also available for graduates of the Post-Secondary Colleges. Students who pass this course are qualified to teach in upper primary classes and in secondary schools, especially Chinese Middle Schools.

In addition the Colleges organize in-service training courses for unqualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses, either in Chinese or English of two years' duration. Successful students are given a certificate granting qualified teacher status either in primary or secondary schools, depending on the particular course followed.

All teacher training courses are free and in certain courses a maintenance grant may be made in case of need.

During the year there were 170 students in the two year course; 45 in the special one year course; 876 students in the one year course and 1,248 in the in-service training courses.

      The Evening Institute also organized classes for 300 teachers undergoing part-time training. These teachers will eventually become qualified primary teachers.

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123

The University of Hong Kong has a Department of Education which gives professional training to graduates. This year 81 students were enrolled.

EXAMINATIONS

The Local Examination System. There are four local school examinations, three conducted by the Education Department and one by the University of Hong Kong.

Joint Primary Six Examination. All pupils in Government schools, and selected pupils in aided and private schools, sat this at the end of their primary schooling. Candidates who reach the required standard are given a certificate. The best candidates were selected for secondary education and scholarships were awarded on merit. The examination was conducted by a Committee of representatives from participating schools and from the Education Department. The examination was held for the last time this year, and will be replaced by the Secondary Schools Entrance Examina- tion in 1962, which will have similar objects.

Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination. This examination is conducted by a syndicate of representatives of participating schools and the Education Department. Candidates enter the examination at the end of a five year course in Anglo- Chinese schools. Entry is restricted to school candidates. The examination tests general scholastic attainment and a pass is awarded on satisfactory performance in certain groups of subjects, with some compulsory subjects. The number of candidates in- creases rapidly year by year, as the Certificate is the qualification for proceeding to higher examinations, for admission to teacher training colleges, and for certain types of local employment. The examination procedure and the organization of subject panels were revised during the year to ensure the setting of suitable examina- tion papers and better co-ordination in marking.

The Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination. This examination is conducted by a similar syndicate. Candidates enter after completing a six year course in a Chinese Middle School. Only school candidates may enter, and the pass requirements are similar to those of the English School Certificate. The number of candidates shows a small increase each year. The status of this

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EDUCATION

certificate is similar to the English School Certificate. The re-organ- ization of this examination based on a five year course, instead of the present six year course, has been approved. Syllabuses of the major subjects have been revised accordingly.

Matriculation. The University of Hong Kong conducts this examination at Ordinary and Advanced levels. The standards are those of the General Certificate of Education. Passes at Advanced and Ordinary levels are necessary to secure admission to the University and this certificate may also be used as an entrance qualification to teacher training colleges. Candidates are entered for the examination at Ordinary level after a one year course in the VI Form of an Anglo-Chinese Grammar School, and for the Advanced level after a two year course. Admission to the VI Form depends on the pupil's performance in the Hong Kong School Certificate Examination. Private candidates are also per- mitted to sit.

       Overseas Examinations. The Overseas General Certificate of Education is open to school children and private candidates; a total of over 3,100 entered during the year. Only those who do well in the Hong Kong School Certificate are allowed to sit. The Education Department provides a local secretary for examining bodies in the United Kingdom and so makes many other overseas examinations available to students in Hong Kong. The standard required in these examinations is comparable with that of the examinations held in Britain. Appendix VI shows the more important examinations and the number of candidates entering for them.

SCHOLARSHIPS AND BURSARIES

In addition to the 385 Government awards listed in Appendix VI, 11 scholarships for post-graduate studies and five bursaries for one year teacher training courses, tenable at British educational institutions, were awarded by the British Government to candidates from Hong Kong. These were made under the Commonwealth Scholarships and Fellowships Plan formulated at the Education Conference held at Oxford in 1959. One Canadian Scholarship for post-graduate studies was awarded by the Canadian Government. Hong Kong is contributing towards this Plan by awarding to students from other parts of the Commonwealth two scholarships

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125

a year tenable at the University of Hong Kong. Eleven departmental scholarships were awarded to officers of the Education Department for training in the United Kingdom, and five British Council scholarships were presented to enable graduates and post-graduates to study at British institutions. The Federation of British Industries granted three scholarships for two year training courses in practical training in engineering firms in the United Kingdom, and there was one American Award for Colonial teachers.

EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION

In Government and Government-aided primary schools, fees are kept as low as possible and 10% of all places are reserved for the free education of poor children. In Government and aided second- ary schools between 30% and 45% of the places are also made available for free education.

A brief summary of expenditure by the Education Department from August 1960 to July 1961, is given in the table on finance in Appendix VI.

LEGISLATION

All Government schools are directly controlled by the Director of Education. Other schools, with some exceptions, are subject to the provisions of the Education Ordinance. The exceptions include schools for the children of members of Her Majesty's Forces, while the Post-Secondary Colleges and the University of Hong Kong have their own separate ordinances. Under the Education Ordinance the Director of Education has general control over education in the Colony, and is required to keep registers of schools, managers of schools, and teachers, and to ensure that school buildings are adequately maintained and that the general administration, con- duct and efficiency of schools and teachers are satisfactory.

     Legislation to provide for retirement benefits for teachers in sub- sidized schools was enacted in September 1961. Unqualified and part-time teachers may join the provident schemes operated for grant schools and subsidized schools if they so wish, and a con- tributor may continue to contribute so long as he is employed in either a grant or subsidized school. Contributors' accounts may be transferred from the grant schools provident fund to the subsidized

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schools provident fund, and vice versa, when teachers are trans- ferred from one kind of school to the other.

BOARD OF EDUCATION

      The Board of Education was established in 1920 'for the purpose of assisting the Director of Education in matters pertaining to the development and improvement of education in the Colony'. Its chairman is the Director of Education. All other members are unofficial. The Board meets regularly and Government normally consults it on all matters of educational importance. The Board met three times during the year.

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

      Government Schools are those built, equipped and operated entirely from Government funds. There are 82 primary schools, 15 secondary schools (including three functioning in temporary premises), five secondary modern schools, three teacher training colleges, a technical college and four evening institutions.

      Grant Schools. These schools, which mainly give secondary education, work under the terms of the Grant Code, by which Government pays the difference between approved expenditure and approved income. Approved expenditure includes salaries, leave pay, passages for teachers who are so entitled, and other charges. Alternatively, a block grant may be made. Grants of up to 50 per cent may also be made to meet the cost of new building, equipment and major repairs. In addition to this aid, interest-free loans may be made for approved new building projects.

      Subsidized Schools are mainly primary schools operating under the Subsidy Code. The subsidy, like that paid under the Grant Code, is a deficiency grant and enables schools to keep their fees low and to pay teachers the same salaries as Government and grant school teachers of the same grade. The schools are assisted by free grants of land and building subsidies, and are eligible for interest-free loans for new buildings. Although an urban subsidized school is usually much bigger than a rural one, more than half such primary schools are in the New Territories, serving small,

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scattered villages. When a rural school is needed (or an extension to an existing one) the villagers usually approach the District Officer, who helps them to seek the Director of Education's approval for their plans. A building grant and recurrent subsidy are generally given. Usually capital grants are made up to a maximum of 50% of the total cost of the school, but for some low cost village schools a larger subsidy may be given.

      Private Schools range from kindergarten through primary and secondary to post-secondary. In most cases private technical and commercial schools aim at short, intensive courses. Fees are generally much higher than those in other schools. Two measures, introduced in 1960, assist private, non-profit-making schools. The period of repayment of loans by schools of this kind was extended to 21 years, subject to interest being charged at 31% per annum; schools already in receipt of interest-free loans repay- able over 11 years were given the choice of adopting these new terms for the outstanding balance of their loans. Direct Govern- ment assistance is also given by paying part of the salaries of qualified teachers in selected non-profit-making secondary schools. Students in such schools who have been selected for entry on the results of the Joint Primary Six Examination have also been assisted by having their fees paid in whole or in part. The assist- ance payable is equal to the difference between the approved fee of the school and the fee that would be charged in a comparable Government school. About 2,500 students receive awards of this nature. Assistance to certain non-profit-making secondary schools on the basis of the number of classrooms occupied has also been in operation since September 1961.

VOLUNTARY EDUCATION AND WELFARE WORK

Missions of various denominations and the Kaifong Welfare Associations organize grant-in-aid and subsidized schools. Both Missions and Kaifongs sponsor boards of management for non- profit-making schools. Kaifongs also provide free education for poor children. The British Red Cross Society organizes hospital schools for crippled children. Schools for the deaf, for the blind and for lepers, orphanages, and homes for maladjusted children are also provided by various welfare associations while the Po Leung Kuk

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provides free schooling for homeless young women and children in its care.

Other welfare agencies which contribute to the educational effort include the YMCA, YWCA, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association. The Children's Play- ground Association, the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Associations, and the Rotary Clubs, also give assistance. The Education Depart- ment works closely with the Social Welfare Department on Special Schools and voluntary agencies, and is represented at the meetings of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and the Mental Health Association of Hong Kong. The Department associates closely with the Medical and Health Department in health educa- tion and with the Hong Kong Teachers Association in the profes- sional sphere.

LIBRARIES

Libraries are maintained by the British Council, the United States Information Service, the local Chambers of Commerce, a number of Government departments including the Education Department, and the University of Hong Kong; access to the University and some of the official libraries is restricted. A Public Library will be opened in the new City Hall early in 1962. Books, pamphlets, journals and visual-aid material are distributed by the Government Information Services Department, the British Council, various consular authorities and commercial agencies.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

During the summer vacation several schools took part in newly organized courses designed to promote interest in healthy outdoor activities such as canoeing and camping. The supply of equipment for this scheme is improving, and plans for developing more courses of this type, which are proving very popular, are being prepared. An encouraging feature is the interest of schools in building their own canoes.

      Regular supervision of teachers and physical education in all grades of schools has been carried out during the year, and courses in in-service training for trained and untrained teachers were held during the summer vacation.

PUBLI

At the end of the year more than 650,000 children were at school in Hong Kong and the emphasis was starting to shift from primary to secondary and technical education. At the Aberdeen Trade School (above) a youngster is shown having a lesson in draughtsmanship-his first step toward becoming a tradesman.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

K

I

The Colony's Commonwealth Technical Training Week, held in March, proved a tremendous success, with all large schools displaying their work at an exhibition at the Star Ferry. More than 35,000 people attended.

A new school of one kind or another is opened every 14 days and multi-storey primary schools such as that above are now a common sight.

women

More schools mean more teachers and the young men and

above are studying at the Grantham Training College to take charge of youngsters, like those below engaged in a school road safety exercise.

further

Many adults seek education, too, and 8,000 attend evening classes at adult educa- tion centres. Subjects range from painting to engineering.

For the young woman in Asia, horizons are broadening every day. In Hong Kong women teachers are in big demand, while in the Colony's textile mills nearly all laboratory testing work is carried out by girls specially trained for the job. Young girls such as the one shown here will be able to take their pick from a dozen jobs.

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       On 8th November 1961, a Youth Festival was held at the Hong Kong Football Club stadium in honour of Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Kent and students from 300 schools attended. Over 3,000 children and young people took part in the display, which included classical Chinese dancing, games and gymnastics.

MUSIC, DRAMA AND ART IN THE SCHOOLS

      These subjects occupy an important place in the school curricu- lum and in extra-curricular activities.

       Music. The Schools' Music Association presented 20 concerts by local and visiting artists to its student members. This compares with nine concerts last year, and is indicative of the larger number of performers visiting Hong Kong during concert tours. Member- ship of the Association rose from 3,782 to over 4,000. The 13th Annual Schools Music Festival was held in March and attracted over 3,200 entries, compared with 2,426 in 1960. Three external examiners instead of one as in previous years, were invited to adjudicate at the Festival. The syllabus for the 14th Schools Music Festival was published early in September. There was a record entry of 2,676 candidates for the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Figures just published by the Board indicate that Hong Kong's entry last year was second only to New Zealand in the 30 Commonwealth countries in which the Board examines. In the Board's examina- tions in Theory there was a total of 1,047 candidates. The Annual Conference for Music Teachers was held during the summer vacation.

Drama. Dramatic activities figure largely in extra-curricular activities in schools, and many plays in both English and Cantonese were performed during the year. Students are also able to see a variety of plays performed by good local drama groups, the most recent being Peter Schaeffer's 'Five Finger Exercise'.

       Art. The chief event of the year was the outstanding success of Hong Kong school children in an international art exhibition held in Rome in connexion with the Olympic Games. Thirty six pictures were sent and the awards gained included one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal. Twenty six diplomas were also awarded. Poster competitions were held for the

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Agricultural Show, on Traffic Safety and for the Commonwealth Technical Training Week. The winner of the latter competition was a member of the recently organized commercial art class of the Technical College Evening Institute, and his poster was widely regarded as of a high professional standard.

9

Health

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

STATUTORY responsibility for administering the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong rests with the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, the Commissioner of Labour and the District Commissioner, New Territories. The Medical and Health Depart- ment provides hospital and clinic facilities throughout both urban and rural areas; maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services; and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. In addition, doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department and the Prisons Medical Service. In the New Territories the District Commissioner is responsible for the licensing of premises used for the preparation and sale of food for human consumption, hawkers, private markets, slaughter- houses and offensive trades.

The policy of Government is to provide, directly or indirectly, low cost or free medical and personal health services to the large section of the community which is unable to seek medical attention from other sources. To this end it maintains general, maternity, mental and infectious disease hospitals, and general and specialized out-patient clinics. Moreover, substantial grants-in-aid from public funds are given to certain voluntary associations and medical missionary bodies maintaining hospitals where treatment is either free or at low cost, such grants normally being calculated to meet the excess of expenditure over income. In some cases, notably for the in-patient treatment of tuberculosis, the cost of maintenance of a fixed number of beds in hospitals run by such bodies is met by a subvention.

At most Government clinics, there is a charge of $1 for each attendance, but free out-patient treatment is available for tuber- culosis, leprosy and venereal disease. Ophthalmic services are free

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to the blind and to children under ten years of age, exclusive of the cost of spectacles, and there is no charge for attendance at maternal and child health centres. Preventive inoculations against certain endemic diseases are similarly available free at Government hospitals, clinics and dispensaries, and BCG vaccine is provided without charge to doctors and midwives throughout the Colony. No charge is made for treatment or accommodation in the general and maternity wards of Government hospitals, although when food is provided there is a nominal maintenance charge. Fees are charged for first class or single ward accommodation and for second class accommodation in wards of two to eight beds. In all cases, however, fees can be waived if necessary.

Finance. The estimated expenditure for the financial year 1961-2 was $64,152,100. To this should be added capital and recurrent subventions totalling $25,247,200 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Grantham Hospital, the Mission to Lepers (Hong Kong Auxiliary), the Pok Oi Hospital and other organizations. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical and Health Department, including medical subven- tions, represents approximately 8.3% of the Colony's total estimated expenditure of $1,074,603,210. Estimated expenditure on capital works for the Medical and Health Department was $14,466,200.

Professional Registers. There are five statutory bodies dealing with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, pharmacists, nurses and midwives. The Hong Kong Medical Council is respon- sible for the registration of medical practitioners and has dis- ciplinary responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance, 1957; it is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nurses Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration or en- rolment and have disciplinary powers.

GENERAL HEALTH

Against the background of a rapidly increasing population within a restricted land area and the resulting legacy of overcrowding, limited water supplies and inadequate housing, the general health of the population remained remarkably good. The outstanding

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event was an outbreak of cholera, the first since 1947 and the first occasion in nine years when Hong Kong was declared an infected area in terms of the International Sanitary Regulations. Fortunately the outbreak was contained relatively quickly and there was sur- prisingly little dislocation of everyday life.

      The incidence of diphtheria continued to decline, but recorded notifications of measles, chickenpox, poliomyelitis, enteric fever and bacillary dysentery all showed minor increases. The result was an overall rise in the number of notifications of infectious diseases. Deaths from these diseases, however, continued to decline, while the number of deaths from the diseases of later life maintained the rise noted in previous years, indicating the gradual ageing of that section of the population which came in as refugees between 1946 and 1950. The increase in morbidity and mortality from accidents of all kinds continues.

      There was no easing of the pressure on general hospital beds or on the clinic facilities provided by Government. However, development plans are now beginning to bear fruit. The Castle Peak Hospital of 1,000 beds for mental patients was opened by His Excellency the Governor in March. There was also an addition of 140 beds at the Kowloon Hospital to meet the increasing com- mitments due to accidents, particularly to children. The Shek Wu Hui Clinic in the New Territories, donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, was opened in June. It provides 23 maternity beds and four casualty beds for accident cases or emergencies await- ing transport to hospital. At the Kennedy Town Jockey Club Clinic five maternity beds have been added. A new general out-patient clinic was also opened in the Wong Tai Sin Resettlement Estate.

       The construction of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon went ahead according to schedule and by the end of the year the concrete superstructure for the whole hospital was virtually com- plete. At the Kwong Wah Hospital the fourth phase of the re- building had been started. Both of these hospitals are due for completion early in 1963.

       In the light of the census figures the Medical and Health Depart- ment's development plan was reviewed in order to make recom- mendations on development priorities. At the end of the year the plan was under consideration by the Medical Advisory Board. This Board, which was first constituted in 1945 to advise on public

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health problems, particularly in connexion with epidemic and com- municable disease, was reconstituted during the year. The Board formerly consisted of doctors only, but membership now includes laymen as well and its terms of reference have been broadened.

      Vital Statistics. Reference has already been made in this Report to the census taken on the 7th March 1961. (See Chapter 1). Out of a total population of 3,133,131 only 5% are over sixty years of age while 40% are below the age of fifteen.

After reaching a peak in 1960 the total of live births showed a slight decline in 1961, although the live birth rate remained relatively constant at 34.2 per 1,000 of population. The crude death rate declined to 5.9 per 1,000 and there was a natural increase of 89,988 persons during the year. A table showing the principal statistics and rates over the ten year period 1952 to 1961 is at Appendix VII.

THE OUTBREAK OF CHOLERA

During the first week of August rumours of an outbreak of a cholera-like disease in the neighbouring Kwangtung Province of China began to circulate in Hong Kong. These rumours were to some extent substantiated by the presentation of anti-epidemic certificates of inoculation against the enteric diseases and cholera by travellers entering Hong Kong at Lo Wu. They were followed by press reports of cholera in Macau and precautionary measures were taken to deal with an outbreak in Hong Kong. These measures included full-scale production of cholera vaccine, designa- tion of inoculation centres, preparation of cholera treatment centres and immunization against cholera of the staff most at risk.

On the 14th August a case of cholera was confirmed in Macau and Hong Kong imposed quarantine restrictions against Macau and Kwangtung Province. At the same time plans were put into effect to open up inoculation centres, to put in readiness the cholera treatment centres, to chlorinate unprotected well water supplies in the urban areas, to intensify food inspections and to prepare a quarantine centre.

      Two days later two cases of suspected cholera were reported in the Colony, one from an isolated village on the western seaboard and the other from the Kowloon Public Mortuary. These cases

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were bacteriologically confirmed on the 17th August as being due to Vibrio comma of the Ogawa group. Hong Kong thereupon declared itself an infected area and put plans to deal with an epidemic into full operation.

      Response to the call for immunization was immediate and almost overwhelming; in fact, the numbers attending inoculation centres far exceeded anything either anticipated or ever experienced before. What had been considered quite adequate stocks of vaccine to meet all demands and sufficient for 1,200,000 persons were almost exhausted by the evening of the 19th August. Supplies of vaccine were then sought from outside the Colony to supplement local production. These supplies began to arrive on the afternoon of the 20th August, so that a reduction in the scale of the immunization campaign was necessary on that day only. Between the 14th and 29th August over two million people, that is about two-thirds of the population, had been immunized; of this number, just over one million were inoculated at Government Centres during the five days from the 17th to 21st August. Sample surveys carried out after the rush was over indicated that an 80% population cover had been achieved.

      This was made possible by mobilizing all staff who could be spared from routine duties, by turning over the whole Maternal and Child Health staff to inoculation duties, and by designating all 28 Maternal and Child Health Clinics, district Health Offices and other established centres as inoculation centres. In addition, mobile inoculation teams toured all areas most exposed to risk on land and sea, particularly on the western seaboard of the territory. Vaccine sufficient for 500,000 inoculations was issued free to private practitioners and to organizations employing large numbers of persons who could be inoculated at their places of work.

Between the 17th August and the end of the year there were 130 bacteriologically confirmed infections of whom 53 were asymp- tomatic carriers detected amongst the contacts of clinical cases. There was a total of 15 deaths, seven of which occurred in persons brought in dead to the public mortuaries. The other eight deaths occurred amongst the 77 patients treated in hospital.

Three hospital centres were designated for the reception and treatment of cholera cases, one on Hong Kong Island, one in

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Kowloon and one on Cheung Chau Island. A fourth centre was equipped at Tai O on the western tip of Lantau Island but was not required. All suspected cases of cholera were sent to the nearest centre where immediate emergency treatment was given. For cases occurring in the New Territories, rehydration was started at the clinic where the provisional diagnosis was made and con- tinued during the journey to the nearest cholera hospital. Once a case was confirmed to be cholera, all immediate contacts were isolated at the Chatham Road camp which had been designated as the Quarantine Centre. The premises from which the case came were then disinfected and a police guard was placed on the property.

       On admission to the Quarantine Centre all contacts were medically examined, and inoculated if necessary, and a rectal swab was taken. They were then passed to a reception centre, where clothing was issued while the garments they were wearing were taken away for disinfection and laundering. Thereafter quarantine was maintained for five days or until three successive negative rectal swabs had been obtained from the bacteriologically con- firmed carriers. Altogether 731 contacts were quarantined between the 17th August and the 30th September.

During the first twelve days of the outbreak a total of 52 clinical cases were admitted to hospital, the greatest number occurring in any one day being eight. From the 28th August onwards there was a gradual decrease in the number of cases, nineteen occurring in the next 12 days and only five between the 10th and 23rd September. On the 12th October Hong Kong was declared free of cholera and quarantine restrictions were lifted. One further isolated infection was picked up in the laboratory on the 8th November from a case of presumed gastro-enteritis which was subcultured routinely for cholera. This was in a man who had not been inoculated and who lived on his own without any im- mediate contacts. He had responded to the routine treatment for gastro-enteritis. In view of the scale of immunization achieved and the other measures of environmental hygiene still being maintained at the time, it was not thought necessary to impose restrictions

once more.

      Strict measures of environmental hygiene were taken throughout the emergency, special attention being paid to unwholesome or

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dangerous food, public eating places, water supplies, fly breeding and sanitation. Large quantities of cut fruit, damaged vegetables and unprotected cooked food were seized.

      The high degree of public co-operation throughout the outbreak was of great help in enforcing preventive measures. This was largely due to the steady flow of news, advice and publicity issued to the public through the Information Services Department. All the leading Kaifong Associations actively participated in the cam- paign by urging members and residents in their districts to come forward for inoculation and to observe strictly the advice given on the rules of hygiene.

      In the New Territories the Rural Committees gave the same invaluable help, while Village Representatives assisted in chlori- nating thousands of wells.

      Epidemiological investigations have proved that this outbreak was due to Vibrio comma of the Ogawa group and an El Tor strain. This is not regarded by the International Sanitary Authori- ties as a quarantinable disease, but for all practical purposes it is cholera, particularly in the local environmental conditions of Hong Kong with its very high population density, restricted water supplies and lack of modern sanitation in large parts of the urban area. The majority of clinical cases encountered had all the classical symptoms of cholera and were gravely ill. Epidemics of El Tor paracholera can result in high mortality rates and can be very widespread if allowed to go unchecked.

OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

Notifications of other communicable diseases showed a slight rise due to increases in the number of cases of measles, chickenpox, poliomyelitis and bacillary dysentery. The mortality rate from such diseases was higher than that of the previous year due mainly to an increase in the number of deaths from measles and to a lesser extent from chickenpox and poliomyelitis. A table showing cases of, and deaths from, communicable diseases in the period 1957-61 is at Appendix VII.

      Tuberculosis. The campaign against tuberculosis is a combined operation in which the Government, the Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis Association and the Haven of Hope Sanatorium at

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Junk Bay in the New Territories are most largely concerned. A number of other voluntary organizations and private hospitals also offer facilities for treatment.

      Tuberculosis is still the major public health problem facing Hong Kong, and it is estimated that two per cent of the adult population suffers from the disease in an active form.

      Because of the over-crowded living conditions, this produced some 10 years ago a very high prevalence and mortality in young children. With the resources available at that time it was impossible to provide, within the foreseeable future, sufficient hospital beds to isolate infectious cases. The policy adopted by Government was therefore to protect as far as possible the youngest age group by BCG vaccination, to establish out-patient clinics for the ambulatory chemotherapy of adults and to use the relatively few hospital beds available for the treatment of cases thought to be curable by medical or surgical treatment. The Government tuberculosis service has concentrated on the BCG vaccination of new-born babies and on the provision of out-patient treatment. The Hong Kong Anti- Tuberculosis Association has developed hospital facilities at the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and the Grantham Hospital. The Associa- tion also maintains the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home, a BCG vaccination centre and a Tuberculosis Insurance Scheme.

      During 1961 79.3 per cent of babies born in the Colony received BCG vaccination within 48 hours of birth. The vaccine is issued free to all midwives, doctors and hospitals. Through the Government tuberculosis service all children under the age of three who are contacts of known adult cases are given prophylactic INAH for a period of 12 months if there is a tuberculin sensitivity reaction not known to have been due to BCG vaccination. Further, through the School Health Service, tuberculin testing and BCG vaccination when necessary is offered to all school children, and a house-to-house campaign has been conducted in an effort to reach children of school age but not attending school. Toddlers attending the MCH Centres are also tuberculin tested and vaccinated when necessary.

      At the Government Chest Clinics no charge is made for attendance and, once a diagnosis of active tuberculosis has been made, a system of ambulatory chemotherapy is instituted. This is continued for a period of two years, using a combination of the

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proved effective drugs. In this way large numbers of active cases are rendered sputum negative and can live at home and remain at work without danger to others. All contacts in the family are investigated and appropriate action taken if there is active disease. Cases in need of hospital treatment for pulmonary or bone and joint tuberculosis are assessed for priority of admission as beds become available. Almoners attached to the tuberculosis service maintain social histories and operate a tuberculosis assistance fund for those in need of financial or material aid while under treat- ment. There is a staff of tuberculosis workers who undertake home visiting, health education, clinic duties, contact tracing and the investigation of the circumstances of those who default from treatment.

       Diagnostic work is carried out at four full-time Chest Clinics equipped with radiological and laboratory facilities. Treatment is available at these Chest Clinics and at twelve subsidiary centres; treatment sessions are held in the evening at the four main centres for patients who cannot attend during the day.

        The total number of individuals who received continuous treat- ment during the year was 28,816 of whom 11,089 were new cases. There was a total of 2,204,058 attendances during the year.

Case finding by means of X-ray surveys is carried out by the Government. There is an annual X-ray survey of all civil servants and surveys are carried out free on request of schools, and of industrial or commercial concerns. Certain conditions regarding sick leave and re-employment of proved cases are required of employers who wish to avail themselves of the survey facilities.

Case finding by Mass Surveys amongst the general population was started in 1960 on an experimental basis, beginning in resettlement areas. The response was disappointing and the whole approach to this development is under review in the light of local conditions.

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association. The major part of the hospital treatment for cases referred from the Government tuberculosis service is undertaken in the non-profit-making Grantham Hospital of 540 beds, where 444 beds are maintained by Government on a daily fee paying basis. Beds are also available in the Queen Mary and Lai Chi Kok Government Hospitals for cases requiring medical treatment or special investigation.

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At the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and Freni Memorial Convalescent Home, where there is a total of 336 beds, patients are admitted direct and treatment is free. A considerable number of beds is maintained by organizations in Hong Kong and patients sponsored for these beds have a certain priority of admission. The hospital is staffed by the St Columban Order of Sisters and the consultant services are supplied by the Professional Units of the University of Hong Kong. An annual recurrent subvention is made by Government.

The Association also maintains at its headquarters a BCG Clinic, a follow-up Clinic and a Health Education Section. The policy of the Association is formulated by the Board of the Association and the hospitals are managed by the Grantham Hospital and Ruttonjee Sanatorium Management Boards res- pectively. Both hospitals offer approved courses of training in tuberculosis nursing leading to the BTA Certificate.

Haven of Hope Sanatorium. Managed by an Executive Commit- tee of the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council, this Sanatorium now has accommodation for 210 cases of tuberculosis. Within this number are two units, one for rehabilitation prior to resettle- ment and the other an observation centre for child contacts who have a positive tuberculin test. Government maintains 60 beds, by means of an annual subvention, for the treatment of tuberculosis amongst villagers in the New Territories. The remainder of the beds are sponsored by voluntary and missionary bodies which pay annual maintenance costs or guarantee the daily cost of main- tenance of the patients they sponsor.

The total number of beds available throughout Hong Kong for tuberculosis patients during the year was 1,825 of which the greatest number are in Government, voluntary or mission hospitals offering free or low cost hospital treatment.

In 1951 the death rate from all forms of tuberculosis was 208 per 100,000. By the end of 1961 this death rate had fallen to 61.3 per 100,000. The average age at which death from tuberculosis occurs is increasing and the greatest number of deaths now lies in the age group 50 to 59. The Government policy of ambulatory chemotherapy has now been in force for ten years and the results of this policy are to be the subject of a fresh and impartial

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assessment early in 1962 by two leading British experts in the epidemiological and therapy fields.

       There has been a great measure of success amongst the child population as a result of BCG vaccination. The death rate from all forms of tuberculosis in the under five age group fell by 84% during 1954-60 and the incidence of active pulmonary or bone and joint disease has been markedly reduced in young children. Details are set out in Appendix VII.

Venereal Diseases. The overall incidence of venereal diseases continued to fall during 1961, and this is also true of primary syphilis which had shown a slight increase in the previous two years.

       Although there was little change in the number of cases of chancroid and of non-gonococcal urethritis, decreases were recorded in the incidence of gonorrhoea and lymphogranuloma

venereum.

      This continued improvement in the overall picture of venereal disease is attributable to expansion of the epidemiological control measures which consist of contact tracing, follow-up of defaulters from treatment and surveillance of patients after completion of treatment. In addition blood tests are freely available to all pregnant women and, as a result, mortality from congenital syphilis has been almost completely eliminated.

       Leprosy. Fourteen out-patient sessions are held weekly through- out the Colony solely for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy; in addition, four sessions are held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. New infectious cases and patients in reaction or in need of surgical rehabilitation are normally admitted to the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium maintained by the Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission to Lepers; in addition, a small number of beds is avail- able in Government hospitals for the orthopaedic treatment of deformities.

       Dapsone continues to be the drug of choice for routine treat- ment of the disease, while diphenyl thiourea is available for patients showing intolerance to dapsone.

Epidemiological control is based on contact investigation, the follow-up of defaulters from treatment and the vaccination of

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     child contacts with BCG. The main difficulty encountered is the unwillingness of many contacts to return for further examination after a year because they neither see nor feel any indication of the disease. A further problem is the resettlement of cured patients in suitable employment, but some limited progress is now being made in this direction.

      Malaria is a notifiable disease, but the majority of the 812 cases reported during 1961 were from unprotected areas, pre- dominantly from the Sai Kung district on the eastern shores of the New Territories and from the boat population based on that area. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas could be traced to infection contracted locally. The important carriers of malaria are A. minimus found breeding in certain hill streams, seepages and irrigation ditches leading to rice cultivation and A. jeyporiensis var. candidiensis which breeds in rice cultivation, fallow rice fields, pools in rice stubble and water flowing through grass. Other anopheline species found in the Colony play little or no part in malaria transmission. Malaria control in the urban areas is based chiefly on anti-larval measures consisting of training and clean-weeding of streams, ditching and oiling. Anti- malaria oil continues to be employed as the main larvicide, although Gammexane Dispersible Powder and Diazinon are also used on a limited scale in areas where the application of oil is not suitable. These anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding afford protection to over 24 million people living within the urban areas of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon and in certain circumscribed zones in the New Territories. In the remainder of the New Territories, control by anti-larval measures is not at present practicable. The alternative is control by chemoprophylaxis, a measure requiring the co-operation of the population for complete success. An experiment in chemopro- phylaxis carried out in two villages last year was initially promising, but later proved to be only partially successful due to lack of co-operation.

      The endemicity of malaria varies, as was proved by malario- metric indices obtained from a survey carried out during the year in children between 2-9 years of age in 14 villages in the New Territories. Spleen and parasite rates ranged from zero to 40.2% and from zero to 20% respectively. Throughout the year blood

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smears were taken from all children presenting with febrile con- ditions at the Government Clinics in the New Territories and thereafter positive cases are followed up with a view to treatment. It is as yet too early to assess the results of this measure.

Of the parasites identified during the year 95.7% were P. vivax, 3.2% P. falciparum, 0.9% P. malariae and 0.2% mixed infections. Diphtheria. Due to the rapidly increasing number of young children and to the poor response by much of the population to the widespread facilities for immunization, there has been a disturbing rise in the incidence of diphtheria during recent years. The main concentration of the disease is in the densely populated tenement areas of Kowloon and New Kowloon.

In previous years, an intensive immunization campaign was held during the cooler months between September and February. In 1960 and in 1961, however, except for a period of six weeks in 1961 during the cholera outbreak, the campaign was prolonged throughout the year with particular emphasis on inoculation facilities being made available as near as possible to the individual home. House-to-house visits were conducted for the greater part of the year in resettlement, and other crowded, areas, and teams of inoculators visited squatter areas both on hillsides and on rooftops. Continuous use was made of publicity media to stress the dangers of the disease and to inform parents of the facilities available for the protection of their children. This intensive effort met with some success; the infection is now showing a downward trend, but there are still a great many children under ten who have, as yet, no protection against the disease.

The case fatality rate from diphtheria has shown a continuing decline during recent years, being 8.2% during 1961 as compared with 10.5% in 1956.

Enteric Fever. The seasonal rise shown by this disease each year started in May and lasted until October when the infection began to decline. The trend followed the same pattern as in previous years, with most of the cases recorded in the third quarter. There were more cases recorded in 1961 than in 1960, but the case fatality rate, which has shown a progressive fall in recent years, remained low.

Facilities for protective inoculation are available free of charge to any individual or organization wishing to make use of them.

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During 1961 the annual campaign in schools was maintained because the incidence of enteric fever is high in children between the ages of five and fourteen. However, no intensive prophylactic drive against enteric fever was possible because efforts were con- centrated on the diphtheria immunization campaign. This might have contributed to the increase in the number of cases during the year. Special attention to food handlers and food establishments continued and all carriers detected were isolated and treated.

Poliomyelitis. There was a slight increase in the incidence and mortality returns of this disease which, as in previous years, showed an upward trend during the summer months. Over 67% of the cases were in children under three years of age.

The Dysenteries. In recent years there has been a gradual increase, in step with the increase in population, in the number of cases reported of both amoebiasis and bacillary dysentery. In 1961, however, there were fewer cases of amoebiasis than in the preceding year, but notifications of bacillary dysentery showed a slight increase.

       Health Officers continued to instruct those connected with the handling, preparation and sale of food on ways of preventing these infections.

      Measles. There was a marked rise in the incidence of measles, the disease being most prevalent in the first quarter of the year. The case fatality rate continued to be high, as in previous years, again indicating that notifications of this infection are incomplete. Deaths were almost entirely due to severe bronchopneumonia, which was usually encountered too late for treatment to be effective.

      Other Communicable Diseases. Notifications of chickenpox showed a considerable increase, the infection being most prevalent during the first four months of the year.

      Notifications of influenza, which have been made on a voluntary basis since the pandemic of 1957, showed a slight increase in 1961. Only two cases of puerperal fever were reported during the year.

HEALTH SERVICES

      Port Health. The Port Health service is responsible for the enforcement of the provisions of the International Sanitary

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Regulations, 1951, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance; for the correlation and dissemination of epidemiological information on communicable notifiable diseases; and for the supervision of immunization campaigns against cholera, smallpox, enteric fever and diphtheria. Four inoculation centres are maintained for the issue of International Certificates of Vaccination to people travelling abroad. Advice on medical problems is transmitted by radio to ships at sea.

A regular exchange of epidemiological information is main- tained with the World Health Organization Epidemiological Intelligence Station in Singapore and with ports and airports in other countries. Medical inspections of passengers arriving by land, sea and air are carried out as necessary at the respective quarantine stations at the points of entry, and quarantine measures are enforced against travellers from ports and airports infected with smallpox and cholera.

      Sanitary control of the port and of the airport is also the responsibility of the Port Health service. These areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti throughout the year. There is regular supervision of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants, water boats and the Airport Catering Service. Inspection of ships to determine the extent of rat infestation is carried out by members of the Port Health staff; international deratting certificates were issued to 88 ships after fumigation and deratting exemption certificates to 167 ships after inspection. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rats destroyed and of bacteriological examinations for plague are submitted weekly to the Epidemiological Intelligence Station in Singapore.

        Maternal and Child Health. Because of overcrowded home con- ditions over 96.5% of registered births took place in hospitals and similar institutions. Maternity wards of hospitals accounted for 44.5% of the births and a further 52% took place in maternity homes maintained by Government and by other agencies. Only 3.5% of all deliveries were undertaken by domiciliary midwives, both Government and private.

The Government Midwifery service operates from 24 centres, of which six are domiciliary centres. In addition, there are 185 midwives practising privately from 108 maternity homes and five

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nursing homes. All registered maternity homes are inspected regularly by the Supervisor of Midwives and her staff to ensure that the conditions of registration are followed and that there is a high standard of midwifery practice by registered midwives not working under the direct supervision of a doctor.

       The Maternal and Child Health service offers free maternal and child care at 28 centres, nine of which are full time. The staff of the service hold infant welfare and toddler clinics for children up to two years of age and from two years to five years respectively. Ante-natal and post-natal sessions are also held at these centres. Health Visitors pay home visits when necessary to babies attend- ing the clinics and also to the homes of new-born babies whose names appear in the monthly birth returns.

Health education forms a most important part of the maternal and child health work and consists of practical demonstrations, health talks illustrated by various types of visual aids, individual advice to mothers and the distribution of booklets and pamphlets. The response is very encouraging and there is increasing public appreciation of the value of the expert advice and guidance offered.

Vitamins, iron preparations, and UNICEF skimmed milk powder are distributed widely, and full-cream and half-cream milk powders are available for children who, in the opinion of Medical Officers or Almoners, are in need of such dietary supplements.

Prophylactic

           immunization against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus is offered in all centres, and over 92% of children attending the infant welfare and toddler sessions received such protection. BCG is given to all children attending centres who have a negative tuberculin test and INAH is given to children aged one year or under with a positive tuberculin test not due to BCG. Demonstrations of the techniques of handling and giving BCG are also held for midwives in private practice.

      School Health Service. The existing School Health service is organized in two sections, a general health service for all schools and a medical and dental treatment service for pupils and teachers participating in a fee-paying scheme.

      The general health service is concerned with the sanitary con- dition of school premises, the control of communicable disease

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     and the health education of children, teachers and parents. All building plans are scrutinized before registration of a school is recommended and there is regular inspection of the sanitary condition of school premises. Free prophylactic immunization against diphtheria, typhoid, tetanus and smallpox is offered to all school children, and inoculating teams visit regularly all registered schools. Tuberculin testing is also carried out, negative reactors being vaccinated with BCG.

      Children participating in the medical treatment scheme undergo periodic medical inspections in addition to treatment that may be given for any intercurrent disease. Defects are either treated in the school clinics or referred to eye, ear, nose and throat, dental or other specialist clinics. Cases referred for hospital treatment are charged maintenance fees only, while appliances such as spectacles are provided either at cost or at a reduced charge or free depending on an almoner's recommendation. The School Dental Service undertakes routine dental examinations and limited conservative treatment of those school children who participate in the scheme.

        Industrial Health. The work of the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department, which is staffed by members of the Medical and Health Department, is described in Chapter 3.

      Mental Health. The Castle Peak Hospital, containing 1,000 beds, was opened on 27th March 1961 and includes one block of 120 beds for the voluntary treatment of drug addicts. The former Victoria Mental Hospital on Hong Kong Island was con- verted to a psychiatric clinic for the treatment of out-patients and now provides some limited day hospital accommodation.

       The centre in the Castle Peak Hospital for the treatment of drug addicts is designed to make treatment available for addicts who are prepared to surrender their freedom voluntarily for a period of up to six months. After medical and nursing care during the period of withdrawal from the addicting drug a programme of rehabilitation aims to restore confidence and re-establish the individual in the community. By the end of the year a number of these voluntary patients had been discharged and group psycho-therapy was continuing through the medium of a club which they had established with the help of the staff of the treatment centre.

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       Health Education. Health education covers a wide field and is an integral part of the activities of all branches of the Medical and Health Department, the Maternal and Child Health service being particularly active in this sphere.

      The Inter-departmental Committee on Health Education, formed in 1959, continued to concentrate its efforts on assisting the anti- diphtheria campaign mentioned previously. The Health Educa- tion Select Committee of the Urban Council organized publicity campaigns in many aspects of environmental hygiene throughout the urban areas, while the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department and the Social Welfare Department were also very active in their respective spheres.

Kaifong Associations co-operated with Government in immuni- zation campaigns and in education on environmental hygiene. Many of these Associations run their own health committees, and take a lively and practical interest in the health problems of their respective districts.

HOSPITALS AND CLINICS

9,944 hospital beds (as listed in Appendix VII) are available for all purposes; this figure includes maternity and nursing homes but not institutions maintained by the Armed Forces. Of these beds, 36.2% are in Government hospitals and institutions and 44.9% in Government-assisted hospitals, while the remaining 18.9% are provided by private agencies. Apart from beds assigned to the care of the mentally ill and to the treatment of tuberculosis and infectious diseases, there are 6,044 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity. This gives a ratio of 1.9 beds per thousand of the population. The figures quoted are based on the normal bed-capacities of the various hospitals, but in many cases the actual occupancy is much higher as camp beds are used extensively whenever the need arises.

      Government maintains two large general hospitals for casualties and emergency cases and for cases in need of specialized investiga- tion and treatment. These are the Queen Mary Hospital of 601 beds on Hong Kong Island and the Kowloon Hospital of 526 beds situated in the centre of Kowloon; the former is also the Teaching Hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of

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Hong Kong. Both hospitals are training schools for nurses. Other Government hospitals are maintained chiefly for specialized purposes; these include the new mental hospital of 1,000 beds, two infectious disease hospitals one of which also accommodates convalescent cases from Kowloon Hospital, a maternity hospital of 200 beds where the training of midwives and the teaching of medical students is carried out and a small hospital for the treatment of skin and venereal diseases in women and children. Two smaller general hospitals are provided, the St John Hospital of 100 beds on Cheung Chau Island and one of 17 beds opened in 1960 in connexion with the Shek Pik Water Scheme on Lantau Island. In addition, small hospitals are maintained in four of the Colony's prisons, and maternity beds for normal midwifery are provided in many of the Government clinics and dispensaries, mainly in the New Territories.

The Tung Wah Hospital Board is an entirely Chinese charitable organization. Founded ninety years ago, it operates a group of four hospitals, comprising the Tung Wah Hospital, the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital and the Sandy Bay Infirmary on Hong Kong Island, and the Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon. The Board of Directors also undertakes responsibility for educational and relief services to the poor and needy of Hong Kong. These hospitals, which receive a large Government subvention make a valuable contribution to the Colony's medical facilities and are gradually being modernized. The Board of Directors is at present carrying out a plan to replace in five stages the existing Kwong Wah Hospital by a modern general hospital of 1,230 beds. The third stage which provides for the reconstruction of the North West wing is nearly completed and work has begun on the fourth stage which includes the construction of medical officers' quarters and the completion of the nurses quarters.

Near Yuen Long in the New Territories a long-established Chinese charitable organization operates the Pok Oi Hospital of 118 beds with the assistance of a Government subvention.

      Hospitals maintained by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association are the Ruttonjee Sanatorium, the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home and the Grantham Hospital. The latter is a non-profit-making institution which provides accommodation for fee-paying patients. Owing to the need for more free tuberculosis

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beds, Government has assumed responsibility for 444 of the hospital's 540 beds, to which patients are admitted for treatment through the Government Tuberculosis Service. The Anti-Tuber- culosis Association, the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home receive substantial annual sub-

ventions.

A number of general hospitals, varying in size from 50 to 280 beds, are maintained by missionary and other charitable organiza- tions. In addition, the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium maintained by the Mission to Lepers (Hong Kong Auxiliary) provides accom- modation for 540 leprosy patients; the Haven of Hope Sanatorium is maintained by the Junk Bay Medical Relief Council and has accommodation for 210 tuberculosis patients. Several of these institutions receive substantial financial assistance from Govern- ment while others are supported in varying degrees by fees, voluntary donations and grants from mission funds. In a number of instances where a proportion of low cost or free beds are maintained and any excess of income over expenditure is put towards hospital development, land is granted without premium and the rates are refunded through a Government subvention.

OUT-PATIENT SERVICES

     The growth of population and the increasing demand for treat- ment by Western medicine has called for a rapid expansion of out-patient facilities, both by Government and by other agencies. Attendances at Government out-patient centres alone have in- creased by 83% during the last five years.

      Government maintains 47 out-patient clinics and dispensaries of varying size and scope, two of which were opened during 1961; one was the gift of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club and the other was built by Government.

     In addition, out-patient specialist sessions are held at a number of centres in the urban areas, while in the New Territories the larger clinics are visited by specialist teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. The remote areas of the New Territories are served by two mobile dispensaries and two 'floating clinics'; the latter are launches, donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, which visit isolated centres on the eastern and western coasts. To meet

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a need for medical aid in the remoter inland villages a fortnightly service by helicopter was started during the year, which proved very popular.

A road ambulance service is maintained throughout the Colony by the Hong Kong Fire Services Department. Evacuation of cases of serious illness from regions not readily accessible by road is carried out by helicopter, by fast police launch and by floating clinic.

In addition to the Government out-patient services many char- itable and missionary organizations take an active interest in medical and health problems. Kaifong District, and Clansmen's Associations together support a total of thirty six clinics giving treatment free or at nominal cost. A number of industrial and commercial concerns also operate clinics for their employees and many trade unions provide similar services for their members.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

      In Government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaes- thetics; chest surgery; dentistry; ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases; general medicine; general surgery; neuro-surgery; obstet- rics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialist clinics for tuberculosis and social hygiene, the latter including derma- tology, leprosy and venereal diseases. The Malaria Bureau, the Government Chemist's Laboratory and the Forensic Pathology Laboratory also provide specialist services.

The Government Institute of Pathology maintains clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. Autopsies at the public mortuaries are carried out by forensic pathologists.

      There are blood banks at the Queen Mary and Kowloon Hospitals and the Hong Kong Branch of the British Red Cross Society operates a blood collecting centre on Hong Kong Island for the voluntary donation of blood. The Institute of Pathology carries out laboratory work for the Blood Banks.

The Government Chemist is responsible for the work of an analytical laboratory which undertakes a wide range of investiga- tions on food hygiene, water supplies, narcotics, medico-legal work

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and dutiable commodities. A considerable amount of investigation into the standard of commodities supplied to Government under contract is also performed.

DENTAL SERVICES

A dental survey undertaken in 1960 revealed that 90% of children have already experienced dental decay by the time they begin primary school at six years old. To combat this, the fluorida- tion of the Colony's urban water supplies began in March and it is confidently anticipated that future generations will show a marked reduction in the incidence of dental caries.

      The Government dental service is organized in two sections, a general service and a school service. The general service under- takes the treatment of monthly-paid Government employees and their dependants, of in-patients in Government hospitals and of prisoners. It also provides an emergency service for the public at certain clinics, for the relief of pain and for extractions. The School Dental Service carries out routine examinations and treat- ment for the School Health Service.

At the end of the year there were 25 Government dental clinics in operation and in addition a Government mobile dental unit serves those parts of the New Territories which are directly accessible by road.

A number of welfare organizations maintain free or low cost dental clinics, many dentists giving their services voluntarily for this purpose. The Hong Kong Dental Society also operates free evening clinics at welfare centres in Hong Kong and Kowloon. The St John Ambulance Brigade, as well as maintaining Sunday visits by medical teams, which include dentists, to remote areas of the New Territories, operates a dental clinic at its headquarters where civilian and military dentists treat under-privileged children free of charge.

Two mobile dental clinics operated by the Church World Service since 1959 and by the Lutheran World Service since 1960 also provide free or low cost dental treatment for poor people in the New Territories, in resettlement areas and in orphanages and mis- sionary hospitals. In addition, the Lutheran World Service operates a dental clinic in its Fanling Hospital.

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      In September, with the full support of Government, the Hong Kong Dental Society sponsored the Colony's first Dental Health Week. Lectures, films and puppet shows were attended by children and adults throughout the Colony. These, together with special radio and television features, were designed to give the population a better appreciation of the importance of dental health and oral hygiene.

TRAINING

Facilities are available in the Colony for the training of most categories of medical and medical auxiliary personnel. Heavy demands are made on these facilities owing to the great expansion of curative and preventive services which has already occurred and which will continue over the next few years.

      Doctors. Undergraduate training is carried out at the University of Hong Kong which confers the degrees of MB, BS, which have been recognized by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911.

Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for higher qualifications awarded by most of the examining bodies in Great Britain. The Panel on Post-graduate Medical Education, consisting of University and Government staff members, supervises this training and advises on both general and individual aspects of the programme. It is mainly due to this programme that 72% of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health are now held by locally-recruited staff and that there is a progressive in- crease in the number of medical officers who have been able to obtain higher qualifications in various branches of medical science. Dentistry. Hong Kong has no local facilities for training in dentistry and although the proposal to establish a Faculty of Dental Science at the University has been approved in principle it has not yet been possible to allocate high priority to it. In the mean- time, a Government Dental Scholarship Scheme each year enables a number of students from Hong Kong to study dentistry overseas and ultimately to qualify as dental surgeons.

      Nurses. The opening of the Government School of Nursing in 1960 on a site adjacent to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon doubled the facilities for the training of general medical

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and surgical nurses. A further step forward in 1961 was the opening of the School of Psychiatric Nursing at the new Castle Peak Hospital.

In addition to Government hospitals, where training is carried out in English, there are approved nurses training schools at the Tung Wah Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, in all of which the medium of instruction is Cantonese.

There is full reciprocity of registration between the Nursing Board in Hong Kong and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales, and each year a number of qualified general nurses and midwives go overseas to gain further experience in different aspects of their profession.

Midwives. The great majority of female nurses on completion of the general nursing training take a midwifery course of one year which qualifies them for entry to the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at Government hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses a two-year course of training in Cantonese at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations.

Due to the limited scope of domiciliary midwifery, adequate practical training in this aspect cannot be given. Full reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is therefore not possible under present circumstances.

      Health Visitors and Health Inspectors. The Examination Board in Hong Kong of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Health Visitor's Certificate, the Public Health Inspector's Certificate and the Tropical Hygiene Certificate of the Society.

      A course for the Health Visitor's Certificate is conducted by the Medical and Health Department, while training for the Public Health Inspector's Certificate and the Tropical Hygiene Certificate is carried out within the Urban Services Department. Examinations for the Meat and Other Foods Certificate and the Advanced Sanitation Certificate of the Society are not held in Hong Kong

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and candidates for these additional qualifications normally undergo training in the United Kingdom.

Radiographers. Radiographers are trained by the Radiological Service of the Medical and Health Department for the examina- tions leading to the Membership of the Society of Radiographers, which are also held locally.

Other Training. Departmental training preparatory to study leave abroad for recognized qualifications is given to Physicists and Medical Laboratory Technologists. In-service training for depart- mental examinations is available for Dispensers and for Laboratory Technicians. A qualified Physiotherapy Tutor supervises a training centre in Physiotherapy based on the curriculum of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists.

URBAN SERVICES

      The Urban Council has statutory obligations in the urban areas of the Colony for environmental sanitation and hygiene; for the public health control of food; for the enactment, subject to the approval of the Legislative Council, of by-laws relating to public health and hygiene, and for their enforcement; for the maintenance of certain places of public recreation, principally bathing beaches, parks and playgrounds, and for the operation of multi-storey car parks.

The Council derives its main powers from the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance, 1960, and from by-laws enacted under that Ordinance. It is responsible, through the Urban Services Department, for the enforcement of this legislation within the urban areas of the Colony. The Department has a staff of 9,666 persons and is organized for administrative purposes into three main divi- sions; the first dealing with cleansing, conservancy, cemeteries and crematoria; the second with food and general hygiene; and the third with hawkers, markets, slaughterhouses and public amenities. Since April 1960, most of these divisional responsibilities have been extended to the New Territories and, for the purpose of co- ordinating activities, a separate organization was set up under the control of an Assistant Superintendent of Urban Services. On the establishment of the department there are 337 administrative, professional, executive and clerical officer posts, excluding the

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     Health Inspectorate, which consists of 378 officers, of whom 223 have passed the examination of the Royal Society for the Promo- tion of Health. In addition there is a disciplined Hawker Control Force, under a gazetted officer seconded from the Police, which has an approved complement of 320 including Inspectors, NCO's and Constables.

HYGIENE SECTION

District Health Work. For administrative purposes the urban districts are divided into four main health areas, two on the Island of Hong Kong and two in Kowloon. These areas are further sub- divided into health units, each responsible for approximately 600 domestic floors in tenements and similar buildings. At the end of the year there were 114 of these units on the Island and 113 in Kowloon. Each health area is controlled by a Chief Health Inspector with three Senior Health Inspectors on his staff, each supervising the duties of seven or eight District Health Inspectors. With continual building development and a shortage of qualified staff, it has been necessary to keep the number of health units per District Health Inspector under constant review. The current ratio is one officer to four units. Four Health Officers, on secondment from the Medical and Health Department, act as professional advisers in the main health areas. Members of the new grade of Assistant Health Inspector while under training assist District Health Inspectors in house inspection.

      Routine house inspection by blocks continued during the year. To improve conditions in slum areas and as a follow-up to the inspection of premises, tanks with kerosene emulsion were provided at convenient points for residents to cleanse their furniture and other household effects. Residents are given six days notice in writing that house inspection will take place and on the day of inspection the Health Inspector (responsible for a block of approxi- mately 30 floors) visits the premises and, assisted by three labourers, supervises the removal of refuse from ledges, shades, sign-boards and compounds. Any licensed premises in the block, particularly those dealing in food, are thoroughly cleansed. Sanitary nuisances are either abated by direct action or by serving statutory notices on the persons responsible. Special attention is paid to complaints received on the spot, and residents are given advice on health matters both verbally and through the medium of illustrated

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handbills. House inspection by blocks is carried out on five mornings a week and public co-operation has been good.

As a special campaign against indiscriminate spitting in public places, two anti-spitting patrol units on each side of the harbour, each composed of one Health Inspector in uniform and another in plain clothes, carried out operations in allotted areas twice a week.

The major work of the District Health Inspectors is the super- vision of premises or trades licensed by the Urban Council, par- ticularly those dealing in the sale of food for human consumption. Regular inspections were made by these officers for the purpose of maintaining a proper standard of hygiene.

In order to improve control over the hygienic condition of stalls selling cooked food, supervision was transferred during the year from the Hawkers Section to Health Districts.

Regular sampling and inspection of food was undertaken by three Food Inspectors in Hong Kong and three in Kowloon. Close watch was kept on ice-cream factories, milk factories, milk shops and similar establishments to ensure that standards were main- tained.

With a view to streamlining departmental procedure and impro- ving efficiency, the Health Districts also took over anti-mosquito work from the Pest Control Section. Consequently, at the beginning of August, the field staff which was formerly a component of the Pest Control Section became the responsibility of the District Health Inspectors.

      All District Health Staff were immediately mobilized to assist in controlling the outbreak of cholera which occurred in mid-August. Wells and other private supplies of drinking water were chlo- rinated, swimming pools were checked and anti-fly measures were undertaken.

Further efforts were made to encourage health consciousness through the medium of 'Miss Ping On' campaigns. Four campaigns, each lasting three months, were held, and the themes were 'Keep Your Food Pure', "Typhoid and Other Intestinal Diseases', 'Take Care of Yourself', and 'Respiratory Diseases'. 'Miss Ping On' denotes a female figure, derived from the Chinese characters for 'Safety', and is depicted on all health posters.

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The 'Keep Your City Clean' campaign, which first started during 1959, in selected districts in Hong Kong and Kowloon, was ex- tended during 1961 to the Bay View and Shau Kei Wan Districts of Hong Kong and the Mong Kok, Hung Hom and To Kwa Wan Districts of Kowloon. As part of the campaign, many meetings were attended by office bearers of Kaifong Welfare Associations at which the aims of the campaign were explained and a series of films shown.

A separate 'Miss Ping On' competition sponsored by the Health Education Select Committee of the Urban Council to improve the cleanliness of resettlement estates opened on 2nd October in the multi-storey resettlement estates at Shek Kip Mei, Lei Cheng Uk, Tai Hang Tung, Hung Hom, Lo Fu Ngam, Wong Tai Sin, Jordan Valley, Kwun Tong, Chai Wan and Tung Tau.

      An oratorical contest on the dangers of spitting was sponsored by the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce for all primary and secondary school children and was carried out by the joint efforts of the Chamber, the Education Department, the Information Services Department and the Urban Council.

      In all these campaigns the Kaifong Associations and other voluntary organizations played a valuable part.

Slaughterhouses. There are two slaughterhouses under the control of the Urban Services Department, one at Kennedy Town and one at Ma Tau Kok. Previously these slaughterhouses were dependent mainly on China for their supply of livestock, but in 1961 supplies from this source dropped considerably with the result that the majority of animals for slaughter came from other countries in the Far East, principally Thailand and Cambodia. During the year 915,263 pigs, 84,746 cattle, 6,933 sheep and goats were slaughtered. Sketch plans for new abattoirs at Kennedy Town and Cheung Sha Wan were completed.

The By-Product Plant at Kennedy Town continued to convert slaughterhouse-waste into fertilizer and animal foodstuffs, both of which are in demand by local farmers. One hundred and forty five tons of meat and bone meal were produced during 1961, together with small quantities of other products such as hoof and horn meal. Hawkers and Markets. Further progress was made during the year in the programme to reconstruct or alter a number of the 42

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public markets in the urban areas. Re-building of the Tang Lung Chau Market was well advanced, alterations to Wan Chai Market were nearing completion and plans were drawn up for a new market at Kowloon City and for extensive alterations to Sai Ying Pun Market.

      In areas of rapid development such as resettlement estates, marketing needs have been met by hawker bazaars and fresh provi- sions shops and eight such bazaars are in use at various resettle- ment estates. In the bazaars at Wong Tai Sin and the Tai Hang Tung Village Resettlement Estate in Kowloon, the layout of pitches was adjusted for the purpose of making the bazaars more attractive to hawkers. Towards the end of 1961 the temporary market at Tung Tau Village was demolished, the needs of the inhabitants being met by fresh provisions shops and hawker bazaars in a new resettlement estate.

Hawker Control. By the end of 1961, the Hawker Control Force had almost reached its approved strength of 320 men of all ranks. The recruitment and training of constables at the training school at Brick Hill was accelerated to meet the growing commitments and expansion of the Force, and the length of the training course was increased from 12 to 14 weeks to improve the general standard of the recruits.

      Control operations were extended to the Wan Chai and Central districts of Hong Kong and parts of the Yau Ma Tei district of Kowloon. As more transport and accommodation become available the aim of the Force is to extend its activities to cover all major hawker concentrations in urban areas of the Colony. Most of the supervisory staff in the Force are at present seconded from the Police.

Public Latrines and Bathhouses. Five new combined public latrines and bathhouses were built during the year in densely populated areas, making a total of 128 in the urban districts. One additional latrine was opened. Twenty nine bathhouses, at which hot and cold water is provided free of charge, were used by 3,123,000 people during the year, a daily average of 8,556 patrons.

Cleansing and Conservancy. By the end of the year about 4,000 persons were employed in the daily collection and disposal of refuse, and on street cleansing.

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The amount of refuse collected was slightly below 1,000 tons a day. Eighty seven refuse collection vehicles were used. Refuse collected in the Kowloon Peninsula is transported by road to the reclamation area at Gin Drinker's Bay for disposal by controlled wet tipping at the foreshore. Refuse collected on Hong Kong Island is transported to the same dump by sea, the number of barges in daily use being eight. Dumping added approximately 9,900 square feet to the reclamation during the year.

Sixteen street-washing vehicles were employed to wash roads, scavenging lanes, gutters, footpaths, markets and hawker areas. Occasionally these vehicles were used to lay dust around building sites. Some street washing operations were carried out at night.

About 27 per cent of the buildings in the urban areas are without water-borne sanitation and a conservancy service collected and disposed of nightsoil from 36,000 floors with dry latrines. 1,200 workers, mostly female, with the aid of 46 tanker vehicles and three tanker barges, were employed nightly on this service. A total of 68,200 cubic yards of nightsoil was collected during the year. Most of this was delivered to the Maturation Station at Tsuen Wan and after being rendered safe for agricultural use, re-distrib- uted to New Territories' farmers as fertilizer.

Cemeteries and Crematoria. There are three main public cemeteries under the direct control and management of the Urban Council, and a number of private cemeteries. A modern crema- torium under construction at Cape Collinson at the eastern end of Hong Kong Island will be completed early in 1962. A Muslim Mosque and Cemetery are also under construction in the same

area.

The Director of Urban Services acts as local agent for the Com- monwealth War Graves Commission, on whose behalf he is respon- sible for the Sai Wan Bay War Cemetery and the Stanley Military Cemetery. A number of visits of inspection to the cemeteries were made by the Commission during the year.

       Pest Control. Much of the routine work of the Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department consists of the control of rats, mice, fleas, cockroaches, bed-bugs, and biting midges. The section also carried out regular fly control measures at the refuse dump at Gin Drinker's Bay. A particularly important part of the

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Protecting the teeth of children is an important aspect of the Hong Kong School Health Service. Dentists visit schools regularly and carry out examinations and treatment (above). More than 110,000 babies are born in Hong Kong each year-over 90 per cent of them in hospitals or

maternity homes (below).

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Like everything else in Hong Kong, the Medical Services are expanding rapidly to keep pace with the increasing population. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club Clinic at Aberdeen (right), used mainly by fishing families, includes a dental department and a maternity ward. The Castle Peak Hospital for the mentally sick (below) has 1,000 beds.

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A flying doctor service now rein- forces the Medical and Health Department's mobile and floating clinics to remote communities. Twice a month, in a helicopter of the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, the doctor goes to isolated villages on the Sai Kung peninsula, accompanied by two nurses. He is shown coming in for a landing at Sai Wan (above), with some of the village's 65 people waving a welcome (left). For many of them, like the little lad (below), the doctor's visit saves a long walk over the mountains.

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Section's work is rodent control, and during the year 315,796 rodents (including those placed by the public in rat-bins) were collected.

NEW TERRITORIES

      Responsibility for public health in the New Territories is shared between the Director of Urban Services, the District Commissioner and the Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories. The Director of Urban Services is responsible for public cleansing, markets and hawker areas, public latrines and bathhouses, and also for cemeteries, public parks, playgrounds and beaches. The District Commissioner is the licensing authority for premises used for the processing and sale of food for human consumption, hawkers, private markets, slaughterhouses and offensive trades. He exercises these functions on the advice of the Director of Urban Services.

      The Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, acts as adviser to the Director of Urban Services on health matters affecting the New Territories, and exercises day-to-day supervision over certain staff of the Urban Services Department. He is also responsible to the Director of Medical and Health Services for most hospital, clinic and other medical facilities in the New Territories.

      The Urban Services Department carries out regular street- sweeping and refuse collections in the New Territories townships, and during the year these were again extended to cover more of the rural areas served by road. All bulk refuse collected by vehicle is disposed of by controlled tipping, either at the main dump at Gin Drinker's Bay, or at one of two smaller dumps at Au Tau near Yuen Long and Shuen Wan near Tai Po. Where vehicles cannot be used the refuse is burned on the spot. Public latrines and bathhouses are limited to a few townships, but temporary latrine units have been provided for a number of villages. Steady progress is being made with the construction of public latrines, bathhouses, markets and hawker bazaars in all the larger centres of population.

In addition to his other responsibilities the Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, is charged with developing health services on the islands and in other rural areas away from the main roads where the Urban Services Department cannot

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    effectively operate. Here the emphasis is on health education, advising villagers on elementary sanitation, ensuring that village houses are built to certain minimum health standards, and on self-help. A number of villages are now being encouraged to run their own rural sanitation schemes, the villagers first combining to form a Better Living Society and the Government not only constructing aqua privies, incinerators and refuse pits, but also paying part of the recurrent cost of sanitation staff engaged by the societies.

10

Land and Housing

LAND

Land Tenure. All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Nowadays, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re- assessed Crown rent. Crown Leases for New Territories lands are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from 1st July 1898, and therefore terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is both Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon hills which is called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Depart- ment, and for the New Territories (with the exception of certain inland lots) in the District Offices. The inland lots in the New Territories cover the majority of the built-up parts of New Kowloon, and deeds relating to them are recorded with the Registrar General.

The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordin- ance and the New Territories Ordinance.

Land Policy. The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land for special housing projects (described later in this Chapter), for public utilities, schools, clinics and approved charitable purposes is usually granted

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     by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools, etc, up to the full market value for public utilities.

This policy has been determined by the scarcity of all types of land. To ensure that land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee undertakes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount he must spend depending on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to this covenant, new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

The policy of sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease obtains the right to do so, and that the com- munity receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved is low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable Government to obtain direct financial gain from any later increase in the value of the land after it has been sold. For this reason the very large increases in land values in recent years have resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon often included restrictions on the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive development. It has therefore become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of the district while allowing more intensive development. Modifications of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium.

      In recent years certain groups of 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Government made public statements of its policy on these groups of Crown Leases in 1946, 1949 and 1960. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for regrant in rapidly increasing numbers. Premia for the new leases may be

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paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years. The majority of lessees avail themselves of the latter method of payment. For this reason the revenue in any one year is relatively small, but since payments will continue to be made for upwards of 80 years, the total revenue involved is considerable. The 1960 terms provide for a maximum of 20 annual instalments and interest of 10%. On regrant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines, etc, and where land is needed for major replanning schemes the leases will not be regranted. In these latter cases the Government has announced its intention to pay ex gratia compensation for buildings.

      There is a shortage of Crown land in the New Territories suitable for sale by public auction for concentrated development. Consequently there is much interest among developers in securing permission for the conversion of agricultural land to building status, on payment of a premium. The amount of building land that can be obtained in this way depends upon the location of the site selected. In normal circumstances conversions for industrial or high density residential purposes are only permitted in areas for which layout plans have been approved, and it is necessary for landowners to surrender approximately five feet of agricultural land for every two feet of building land to be regranted. In each case the premium payable is equivalent to the difference in value of the land surrendered and the land regranted.

Following the publication in 1960 of a statement of Govern- ment's land policy in the New Territories, the Heung Yee Kuk submitted a petition in February 1961, asking for extensive changes in this policy. In August the District Commissioner, New Territories, replied at length to the Kuk, explaining in detail why Government could not accept this petition.

      Government Land Transactions. 1961 was the first full year of operation of a new system for selling Crown land in the urban area by which most auction sales were made in accordance with programmes announced up to eight months in advance.

The great demand for land for industry continued into 1961 and was met in the main by increased sales of factory sites in Kwun Tong, which is rapidly taking shape as a new industrial town, and at San Po Kong (formerly part of Kai Tak Airport). The prices ruling at the end of 1960-about $50 per square foot at both

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places were maintained for the first half of the year after which they began to fall. The fall coincided with news of proposed increased restrictions in some of the Colony's principal export markets and the British Government's proposal to negotiate for entry to the European Common Market. By the end of the year there was a partial recovery. In previous years the purchasers of factory sites had been largely established manufacturers. In 1961 the emphasis changed and most factory sites sold by Government were purchased by real estate investment companies.

      There was again an increase in the sale of land for housing and, unlike industrial land, the demand for all types was brisk and the upward trend of prices continued. Sales of sites in the vicinity of the recently completed extension of Tin Hau Temple Road, North Point, were started and the price realized for the first site- $2,030,000 exceeded the cost of the road extension works.

Several sites were sold for mixed commercial and residential use including the sites of two blocks of old Government quarters at Yee Wo Street and Wong Nai Chung Road which together realized $11,161,000.

      The acreage of land disposed of by private treaty for low-cost housing schemes, non-profit-making schools and other institutional purposes was similar to that disposed of in previous years. The increase in un-alienated land used for resettlement estates and other Government projects was roughly proportional to the in- crease in the vote for the building section of the Public Works Non-Recurrent Vote.

In addition to a greater rate of sale of new lots for residential purposes, there was a further increase in the modification of leases of the kind already described in this Chapter.

The War Department handed over Murray Barracks in Central Victoria. Pending its permanent development a large part of the land was opened as a temporary public car park.

In the New Territories, public interest in the disposal of land has been maintained. Due to the scarcity of Crown land, however, development has proceeded more by the surrender of privately held agricultural land in exchange for building land than by public auction. Land values have continued to rise and applications for sites, particularly since the publication of development plans, show

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a good prospect for development of all kinds. In Junk Bay, land has been set aside for the ship-breaking industry and the first site realized $530,000.

Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1960-1 came to $56,397,560 for sales by public auction; $4,805,660 for private treaty sales; $7,581,140 for modification of lease conditions, ex- tensions and exchanges; and $1,872,695 for regrants of expired 75-year leases.

Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or because the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied on a temporary annual permit. The 1960-1 revenue from these permits was $8,208,662 in the urban area and $436,047 in the New Territories. As permanent development has expanded, it has become necessary to cancel some of these permits, and the number of permits in the urban area and in the more developed parts of the New Territories is likely to continue to decrease as time goes on.

     During the same period, land transactions in the New Territories brought in premia of $1,729,525 for sales by public auction and private treaty; $2,228,828 for land exchanges (this figure represents cash paid to Government and excludes the value of land sur- rendered for public purposes) and $530,111 for modifications of lease conditions. Details of premia received on sales of Crown land between the years 1851 and 1960-1 are given in Appendix VIII.

Surveys. All surveys in Hong Kong are plotted on the Colony Grid which is a Cassini Plane Rectangular one with its origin on Victoria Peak. The grid meridian does not coincide with the true meridian at this point.

      The main triangulation, which is of a secondary standard, was observed in the 1920's, and was adjusted by the War Office in 1928-30. Minor triangulation stations have been established over the years during the course of surveys in specific areas, and the horizontal control further extended by traversing.

The urban area of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon is surveyed at the large scale of 1/600 (50 feet to 1 inch). This is necessary because of the congested and crowded conditions

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in the built-up areas of the Colony. One hundred and thirty five sheets in Hong Kong Island and 83 in Kowloon and New Kowloon are now available in this series.

The New Territories remain largely rural, but the pressure of a rising population and an expanding economy have resulted in a striking growth of industry and housing. To meet this activity and to pinpoint individual land holdings a wide coverage of up-to-date survey sheets to a large scale is of first importance. To date, 281 sheets have been completed to a scale of 100 feet to an inch.

These surveys form the basis for further scale plans which are required for planning, land records, and other purposes and which are redrawn from photographic reductions.

In addition to supplying survey sheets of the Colony showing the plan position of buildings, the Survey Office is also the respon- sible authority for establishing differences of level.

The first recorded levelling in the Colony was carried out by HM Surveying Vessel Rifleman in 1866 when a copper bolt was driven into the wall of a store house in the Royal Naval Dockyard and its height determined as 17.833 feet above principal datum. All levelling in the Colony is based on this principal datum which is approximately 3.9 feet below mean sea level.

Town Planning. Town planning in Hong Kong includes the planned development of new industrial townships, the gradual redevelopment of out-of-date urban localities and the gradual ex- pansion of the urban areas. The basic aim of the planning, there- fore, is to provide a framework within which public and private development may progress together; to ensure that adequate provi- sion is made for open spaces, public buildings, communications and other necessary services; and to control the use and to stimulate the development of land.

Development densities in the present urban centres are as high as anywhere in the world and, with a possible increase in popula- tion from 3 to 4 million in the next 10 years, considerable new expansion must take place if these densities are not to rise even higher.

Planning activities are co-ordinated in the Planning Division of the Crown Lands and Survey Office of the Public Works Depart- ment and are concerned mainly with the preparation of outline

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     development plans. Plans for the New Territories are prepared at the request of the District Commissioner, who consults respon- sible local opinion in areas affected before individual plans are finally approved. Since 1953 plans have been prepared for 33 planning districts in the urban areas. In addition many large scale layout plans have been prepared covering small portions of the urban areas and the New Territories. These plans are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the redevelopment of private land, but have no statutory effect except where approved in accordance with the Town Planning Ordinance.

The Town Planning Board consists of six official and three unofficial members and operates under the Town Planning Ordin- ance. The Board has, to date, published layouts and outline development plans for 14 districts: 10 have been approved by the Governor in Council, one refused and three are awaiting considera- tion. Approved plans cover the following areas: North Point, Chai Wan, Yau Ma Tei, Hung Hom, Ma Tau Kok, Kwun Tong Tsai Wan, Ngau Tau Kok, Cha Kwo Ling and north-east Kowloon. This last locality for which the development plan was approved in December 1960 covers an area of some two square miles centred on Diamond Hill.

      The three plans at present under consideration cover the Sha Tin Valley, Tsuen Wan and district, and the Central District of Hong Kong Island. That for Sha Tin, covering an area of some 20 square miles and providing for an eventual population of 360,000 people, was published in the first half of 1961. The scheme for Tsuen Wan and district, which involves the establishment of a self-contained industrial township of 650,000 people within the next 15 to 20 years, was exhibited in September.

The Board's proposals for the redevelopment of the Central District of Hong Kong Island, published in August, aroused con- siderable interest. The Board tackled the problems comprehen- sively and their scheme is designed to provide space for expansion of the business and cultural centre of the Colony while at the same time improving facilities for both pedestrians and motor vehicles. The Board is at present charged with the preparation of one further scheme covering the Tsim Sha Tsui locality of Kowloon. Urban Buildings. The volume of expenditure on new private buildings in 1961, excluding the New Territories, amounted to

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$267,829,584. Additional expenditure in the New Territories (not previously recorded) amounted to $2,978,308, giving an overall total for the Colony of $270,807,892.

The year followed the usual pattern, and most of the new buildings were designed for domestic occupation. Some 80% of all new buildings were for residential purposes. As in previous years the greater part of this accommodation was erected by private developers, although the Housing Authority, the Hong Kong Housing Society and the Local Government Officers' Co- operatives all made substantial contributions in this sphere.

New factories and workshops still comprised the greater part of new non-domestic buildings, while development of commercial buildings, schools and hospitals followed the steady high level of previous years.

The increase in sales of Crown land, particularly in the Kwun Tong and San Po Kong areas, during the latter part of 1960 partly contributed to the continued rising trend in private capital expendi- ture on building works. There are grounds for supposing that increase in expenditure will continue in view of large sales in both Hong Kong and Kowloon during the year. A further contribut- ing factor is the tremendous increase in the number of cases dealt with by the Tenancy Tribunals in connexion with re-development schemes. This fact clearly demonstrates that capital continues to be attracted to the redevelopment of old lots, particularly in the main business and shopping areas of the Colony, notwithstanding the high compensation which has to be paid by owners to sitting tenants for vacant possession. With few exceptions these sites are redeveloped with taller buildings, replacing over-crowded, old and dilapidated tenements.

Construction. The steady rise in cost of land, particularly noticeable in the central areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon, has understandably resulted in taller buildings, the design of which immediately gives rise to expensive structural considerations not encountered in lower buildings. Labour is abundant and cheap by world standards, but the continued boom in private building, together with the extensive building operations carried out by Government, has led to a shortage of skilled building labour, which in turn has caused wages for skilled workmen to rise by an estimated 60% in the past two years.

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Building Design. Housing in the urban areas falls into two clearly defined types-Chinese and European. Chinese type tene- ments consist of a large living space with kitchen and lavatory. The large space is then subdivided by wooden partitions about 6' 6" high: it may contain one family, or several, living in sepa- rate cubicles, and using the kitchen and lavatory in common. A large block may contain two or three hundred tenements on anything up to 16 floors: lifts are normally provided where there are seven storeys or more. New European type housing, with few exceptions, is usually built in large blocks of flats provided with lifts. Public Buildings, offices and factories follow western practice in planning with comparatively minor local variations.

Legislation. New legislation to extend the operation of the re- vised Buildings Ordinance, 1955, to the New Territories came into force at the beginning of the year. This measure was essential in view of the development of the New Territories.

The full effect of the increase in fees for balconies projecting over streets was felt this year, and a total of $7,500,920 was collected. The corresponding amount in 1959 (1960 must be ignored as it was a year of transition) was $157,180. The imposi- tion of these higher fees does not appear to have reduced the number of applications for permits.

New Building Works. The activity of the building industry can perhaps best be summarized by the fact that during the year the Building Authority received a total of 2,707 applications for approval of plans of building works.

In an attempt to meet the requirements of the many tourists to the Colony, developers have been directing their attention to building modern hotels and during 1961 another new hotel was completed and a further six were under construction.

      New Territories' Buildings. The revised Buildings Ordinance, 1955, which now applies to the New Territories, made special pro- vision for the exemption from the need to submit to the Building Authority plans of small village buildings. Plans for these buildings continued to be handled by District Officers.

Modern shops and tenement buildings in Tsuen Wan, Tai Po, Yuen Long, Shek Wu Hui and the other market towns differed little from those in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Well-designed

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houses and bungalows are appearing in increasing numbers along the main roads to Fanling, Castle Peak and Clear Water Bay, as well as on Cheung Chau Island and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantau. Large scale industrial development has been concentrated at Tsuen Wan and Kwai Chung.

Squatter clearances in the built-up areas of the Colony, together with the growth of industry and the spread of intensive vegetable cultivation, have led to a considerable increase in the number of wooden houses on both Crown and private land in the New Terri- tories. In those places where temporary structures are unlikely to hinder planned development for some time to come, the occupiers are encouraged to apply for temporary structure permits.

HOUSING

      There was severe overcrowding in tenement buildings even before 1941, as the rate of construction failed to match the sud- den increase in population in the years immediately preceding the Pacific War. The war and the period of Japanese occupation resulted in much damage to residential property, and although this was quickly repaired, with the rapid return of the population overcrowding was soon apparent again. It intensified greatly during 1949 and 1950 with a fresh influx of refugees from China. Despite the intense building activity which has taken place, particularly during the past seven years, new housing has been unable to overtake the tremendous increase in population.

Hong Kong's post-war building boom continues unabated and about 65% of all rated buildings in the urban areas of the Colony are the result of this development. Apart from Government's pro- gramme of resettlement, which has already provided permanent homes for about 439,000 former squatters, private enterprise has provided accommodation for approximately 500,000 people during the past six years alone, and more and more new buildings are being constructed every year. At the end of 1961 rated domestic accommodation in the urban areas (excluding resettlement estates which are not subject to rates) comprised 111,590 tenement floors, 21,835 small flats, 16,827 low-cost housing units, 9,092 large flats and 775 houses. Domestic accommodation predominates in all new building projects.

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Since 1950 land has been made available by Government at one- third of its estimated market value to encourage non-profit-making housing projects. These may be run by voluntary societies, pro- viding housing for the lower income groups, or by employers for their staff.

      A summary of all new housing completed during 1961 is given at Appendix VIII.

      Voluntary Organizations. Taking advantage of these terms a number of voluntary organizations have built housing for the lower and middle income groups. Prominent among these is the Hong Kong Housing Society, which was formed in 1948 by a group of public spirited men and women of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service. This Society has now housed over 30,000 people in nearly 5,000 flats in eight estates in different parts of Hong Kong. The rents of these flats range from $35 a month for a room at Kai Ming House, where communal facilities are provided, to $117 a month at Healthy Village, North Point, for the larger self-contained flats. These estates are well laid out and have playgrounds and gardens. Some also have welfare facilities such as boys' and girls' clubs, day nurseries, clinics and vocational classes.

      During 1961 the Society's Tanner Hill Estate at North Point was completed. It contains 590 flats, which are extremely popular with people working in the city. A further block of 430 rooms with communal facilities is being completed at Wong Tai Sin and the tenants will move in early in 1962.

      The Society is also building estates at Shau Kei Wan and Aberdeen and these will contain 2,135 units of accommodation, housing approximately 12,930 people. Site formation and building construction is in hand for other new estates and extensions to provide an additional 2,734 flats. Land has been reserved for further estates at Tsuen Wan, Kwun Tong, Ma Tau Chung and Hau Pui Loong.

      The Society has a loan scheme under which firms lend money to cover the cost of constructing flats, and in return are given a lease of accommodation for their nominees corresponding to the size of the loan. These loans are interest free and repayable in 20 years. During 1961, $272,000 was received from private firms. Government is also participating in this scheme by providing

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accommodation for numbers of its junior staff in the estates at Shau Kei Wan and Aberdeen.

      Funds for the Society's programme are normally provided from Government loans.

      Another voluntary organization is the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Ltd which, with a Government loan, is build- ing eight blocks of multi-storied buildings with 1,800 units to accommodate 8,000 people. This estate will also have a restaurant and 33 shops.

Employers Housing. A number of employers provide accom- modation for their staff. During 1961 the Hong Kong & Yaumati Ferry Co Ltd built two six-storied blocks of quarters at Tai Kok Tsui. These comprise 354 separate self-contained units which are rented to the company's employees at rents ranging from $51.70 to $103.70 per month. In the latter part of the year these units accommodated 2,077 persons.

The Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd completed a new building at Fortress Hill Road, North Point which now accommodates 31 families. The company first undertook to provide housing for its local staff in 1957 and since then has built 191 quarters.

The Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co Ltd has provided 770 new self-contained flats for its employees. In 1961 the construction of another three blocks, comprising 596 self-contained flats, was started. These should be ready for occupation in late 1962.

Government Co-operatives. As an employer, Government has helped its staff by fostering the formation of co-operative building societies among local civil servants on the pensionable establish- ment and giving them loans to buy land and build flats. By the end of 1961 188 societies had been formed with 3,703 members. So far 2,454 flats have been build under the scheme, 581 of them during 1961. Government provides accommodation for its overseas staff and also for many of its local staff.

The Housing Authority. The Hong Kong Housing Authority is a statutory body created by Ordinance No. 18 of 1954, and consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, and certain other members appointed by the Governor. Its policy is to house the section of the population whose income ranges from $400 to $900 a month, but some of its estates have accommodated

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     a number of families having higher incomes. It is now concentra- ting largely on families earning from $400 to $700 a month. Housing built by the Authority consists of multi-storey self- contained flats in large estates with provision for shops, clinics, schools and kindergartens. Playgrounds and other amenities are provided and a high standard of planning and construction is maintained. By the end of 1961 the Authority had housed approxi- mately 38,500 people in 6,130 flats in its first three estates, with rents ranging from $48 to $169 a month, 8,149 flats were under construction designed to house 46,300 people. A schedule of the Authority's programme is shown in Appendix VIII.

      The Authority is financed by Government through a revolving fund which now amounts to $156 million. It pays interest on the first $45 million at 31% per annum and on the remainder at 5% per annum. Up to the end of 1961 it had spent over $100 million and its rent roll had reached $8 million a year. Sites are provided by Government at one-third of the estimated market value, and rents are calculated on the basis of amortization of capital expenditure on buildings and land at 5% over 40 years. On this basis the Authority is required to balance its budget. Selection of tenants is carried out on the basis of housing need and a points system is operated. Management is of a high standard and regular maintenance is carried out.

      Administration, and the carrying out of the Authority's deci- sions, are the duty of the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department, under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The salaries of the staff, who are all civil servants, are reimbursed to Government by the Authority, with a 30% surcharge to cover overheads.

      Both the Housing Authority and the Housing Society work on the basis of 35 square feet per person of living space in each unit of accommodation, excluding kitchen, toilet and bathroom. This is regarded as a basic minimum for good permanent housing.

RESETTLEMENT

Hong Kong's resettlement programme has attracted world-wide attention. Few visitors depart from Hong Kong unimpressed by what they have seen of the housing of hundreds of thousands of

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people within a few years in a low-cost building programme which, for speed and imagination, has few parallels in the modern world. By the end of 1961 the Government of Hong Kong had become, through this programme, the direct landlord of about 439,000 persons. This figure represents about one-seventh of the population and there are plans to resettle a further 500,000 people during the next five years. New blocks, each capable of accommodating over 2,200 persons, come into being at the rate of one every 10 days.

The rapid increase in population since the war led to the satura- tion of conventional housing, this meant that for many the only means of shelter was to put up a hut, of any materials that could be had cheaply, on any piece of vacant land. These squatter huts rapidly spread over the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. In many places there were colonies of squatters, some of 50,000 or more living together in a closely-packed mass, with their own shops and schools, and even factories and workshops. Sanitation was primitive or non-existent, and in these crowded colonies there were frequent fires and the constant threat of epidemic disease. Moreover, the presence of the squatters on the land made im- possible the solution of the very problems to which their presence had given rise. The houses, schools and hospitals needed for this swollen population could not be put in hand because the land required for their construction was occupied by squatters.

      As early as 1948 squatters had been moved from central districts to 'tolerated areas' on the outskirts of the town, where they were allowed to rebuild their huts. Later 'approved resettlement areas' were established where dwellings were required to be built of stone or other fireproof materials to an approved pattern. The tolerated areas had the disadvantage that they reproduced many of the unsatisfactory features of the squatter areas, while the majority of squatters were too poor to be able to build or purchase the type of cottage required. This difficulty was overcome by the construction of cottages by welfare organizations which rented them to approved settlers, either direct or through Government, or accepted payment for them by instalments. But the fundamental objection remained that this form of resettlement was uneconomic, in both land and money, and could not be used on a scale which would make real impact on the squatter problem as a whole.

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      In 1954, after a disastrous squatter fire at Shek Kip Mei in which 53,000 people lost their homes, there was a drastic change in policy. A Resettlement Department was set up, under the general control of the Urban Council, to co-ordinate the duties of squatter control and clearance which had previously been undertaken by several different departments; Government funds were provided to build multi-storey blocks into which squatters could be resettled. The construction of these blocks, designed and built by the Public Works Department, was as simple as possible, in order that they should be put up as quickly as possible and then let at rents which the squatters could afford.

      Basically each new building was in the form of an 'H' with communal washing and latrine facilities on each of the seven floors. Individual rooms varied in size from just under 100 square feet to just over 300 square feet with the majority of 120 square feet designed to house a family of four or five adults. Twenty four square feet per adult was taken as the absolute minimum for health and comfort. With only minor modifications, this design had been perpetuated in nearly 200 multi-storey blocks by the end of 1961.

       Rooms were allocated according to the size of the family rather than the rent they could afford. Rents were fixed at the lowest possible level to cover reimbursement of the capital cost of the building over 40 years (at 34% per annum compound interest) plus an element for management and land costs. The rent of a standard 120 square feet room was fixed at $14 per month. No charge was made for the communal water supply but electricity, if it was installed at the settler's request, was at his own expense; communal lighting was provided by Government.

       From 1954 to the end of 1961 multi-storey resettlement accom- modation of this type had been built to house about 360,000 persons in 11 estates at a total capital cost of $183.5 million.

      It soon became necessary to provide for other community needs in these estates, which were virtually small townships. The ground floor rooms of new blocks were therefore set aside for non- domestic use. Many are now let to settlers as shops or workshops. Some are set aside for private welfare organizations and are used as schools, clinics or nurseries. Even the rooftops of the blocks are not left idle, but are allocated to voluntary agencies who operate

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schools or children's clubs under the guidance of the Education or Social Welfare Department.

Early operations to clear thousands of squatters from their varied accommodation on the hillsides produced an unexpected category of persons, who, though technically squatters, were living in premises of a considerably higher standard than the average. To provide them with better accommodation, the basic design of one wing of a normal H-block was adapted, giving a number of small self-contained flats with private balconies, kitchens, lava- tories and showers. The rent of this better class low-cost accom- modation was set somewhat higher and now stands at $45 a month for a flat of 240 square feet and $65 a month for one of 360 square feet. In due course, when the overall housing situation permits, the standard multi-storey accommodation can also be converted with- out undue difficulty or cost into additional apartments of this type. Flatted Factories. Mention has been made of the small factories which operate in squatter areas. As clearances advanced they re- vealed more and more of these 'squatter factories' and, to permit those being resettled to continue this form of livelihood, it was decided to construct several multi-storey factory blocks. These have industrial working space in units of 198 square feet and are allocated to owners of squatter factories under a certain size who cannot afford to re-establish themselves elsewhere. Rents are cal- culated to provide a return on capital within 21 years at 5% per annum compound interest. They vary from $75 a month for a ground floor unit to $45 a month for one on a top floor, inclusive of rates. These rents are below market levels and in most areas the accommodation has proved attractive to small manufacturers.

      The older cottage areas. Fourteen cottage resettlement areas still remain in existence, but the number of occupants varies little from year to year, since it is uneconomic, at least in the urban areas, to increase their size. In certain districts the sites are being cleared for other development, and their occupants resettled in multi- storey accommodation.

      Several of the remaining cottage areas still contain many small factories, shops and workshops, together with schools, clinics and welfare centres of various types; these are largely provided by voluntary agencies who continue to add generously to such facili- ties year by year. For example, during 1961 a noodle factory was

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built in one area by the Church World Service and a hostel for tuberculosis and cancer out-patients was constructed in another by the National Catholic Welfare Conference.

One new cottage area was built during the year near the grow- ing market town of Yuen Long in the New Territories with money donated by the people of Belgium as a contribution towards the World Refugee Year programme. This new area, called Shui Ngau Ling, accommodates 993 rural squatters from Tai Pei Tau whose huts had been regularly flooded in the wet season. At the Chai Wan cottage area on Hong Kong Island, an additional 180 cottages were provided by the Methodist Church to replace earlier unsatis- factory structures. During 1961 development plans led to the clearance in five cottage areas of some 1,577 cottages and huts, and the resettlement into estates of 11,196 persons.

      Rennie's Mill Village. In 1950 a new community came into existence in Junk Bay on the eastern shores of the Kowloon Peninsula when a number of ex-Nationalist soldiers, previously accommodated on Hong Kong Island, were moved to a camp under the supervision of the then Social Welfare Office. With the passage of time many of the original soldiers moved away. Other refugees and their families took their place and the camp de- veloped into a permanent settlement of some 8,000 inhabitants living in stone cottages, many of which were constructed with the assistance of welfare organizations.

       During 1961 the Resettlement Department took over the admin- istration of the village as an additional cottage area and began to remedy deficiencies in sanitation and other services. In the latter half of the year physical surveys of the area and its popula- tion were carried out as necessary preliminaries to the formal administration of the area and the provision of suitable new public amenities.

      Squatter clearances. During the year 70,941 persons were cleared from land required for development. All genuine occupants were resettled, mostly in the 42 new multi-storey blocks completed and handed over by the Public Works Department in 1961. This year's intake brought the total population of the multi-storey estates to 359,755. A small number went into new cottages and the cottage areas now contain 79,239 people. In all, these 1961 clearances freed 274.53 acres of land. The largest single squatter clearance in

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1961 took place at Kai Tak New Village, which was demolished to allow an extension to a nearby resettlement estate. The clear- ance entailed the resettlement of over 13,000 persons from 14 acres of land. Virtually all had been living in single-storey wooden shacks.

      For squatters still awaiting resettlement there were the usual hazards of rain-storm and fire. Typhoon 'Olga', which missed the Colony by some 30 miles, did rather less damage than was ex- pected, and the usual summer rains caused only a few small landslides. Twenty five fires occurred in urban squatter areas during the year, the largest being in January at Valley Road, Kowloon, when 10,456 squatters were made homeless overnight. The total number made homeless by all natural disasters during 1961 was 22,044 and, in accordance with current policy, they were permitted to rebuild their huts either on the old sites or on new ones as close as possible to them. To resettle these persons immediately would have seriously disrupted the general pro- gramme of clearance and development.

      Each year in October a fresh survey of urban squatter areas is carried out. Huts built before 1954 (or 1956 in the case of rooftops) continue to be tolerated. New huts are forbidden. No control is kept at present over the number of occupants of tolerated huts and it is the purpose of the survey to determine how many occupants there are. The 1961 return indicated a total of 520,547 squatters in the urban areas surveyed, including 76,826 on roof- tops. Squatters in unsurveyed areas are thought to number some 70,000. New unauthorized huts and unauthorized extensions to existing huts are demolished; during 1961, 10,845 such demolitions took place.

      The New Territories Administration is responsible for the con- trol of squatters in the New Territories, with the exception of the Tsuen Wan district where control was transferred to the Resettle- ment Department on 1st July 1961. The more accessible parts of the New Territories are regularly patrolled and are divided into prohibited and non-prohibited areas. In the former, such as the margins of roads, layout and development areas, and land exposed to flooding, it is necessary to prevent more squatters from building huts. In the latter, temporary structures may be built with a permit from the District Officer. When existing structures

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in the New Territories have to be cleared from areas required for development, the occupants are normally given assistance to re- build their huts on tolerated sites elsewhere. An exception is Tsuen Wan, where 12,692 persons who had to be cleared during 1961 from areas required for development were resettled direct into standard resettlement blocks in the new Tai Wo Hau Estate,

      The squatter population is continually augmented by natural increase as well as by infiltration of new families into tolerated huts. If these sections of the population are to be totally rehoused within a reasonably short period of time, the current rate of clearance must be increased. To meet this, it is proposed to step up the construction rate of resettlement blocks to provide an average of 100,000 places a year over the next five years. Currently on the drawing boards of the Public Works Department is a newly- designed resettlement block to replace the H-type. The new design is fundamentally different in plan from the earlier versions in that it is served by a central corridor, thus making it possible to provide a private balcony for each room. In other respects the facilities provided are similar to those in the original blocks.

RENT CONTROLS

       In 1947 the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance replaced certain temporary proclamations made shortly after the end of the Pacific War. Its object was to protect tenants of pre-war premises and it limited the increases in rent (30% for domestic premises and 45% for business premises over the standard 1941 rents) which any landlord could charge. Essentially the same controls exist today, although increases of 55% of standard rent for domestic premises and 150% for business premises were allowed in 1954, after an increase for business premises of up to 100% in 1949. It is now possible for a landlord who wishes to redevelop controlled property to get permission to do so through a Tenancy Tribunal on con- ditions which include the payment of compensation to tenants for the loss of their tenancies.

      Since 1953 two Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux have been set up within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help the machinery of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance work smoothly. The principal statutory duties placed on these bureaux

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are to provide Tenancy Tribunals with factual information when- ever an application is made by a landlord for exclusion from control or by a tenant for the reduction of rent. During 1961 the bureaux forwarded to the tribunals 4,977 sketch plans with measurements and particulars. In connexion with exemption cases the staff of the bureaux interviewed 20,149 tenants personally. As a direct result of their contact with landlords, principal tenants and sub-tenants, the officers of these bureaux find themselves mediating in a large number of minor but varied tenancy disputes. This service has been of great value, for the parties are usually reluctant to go to court, and still more reluctant to testify in public against their closest neighbours. The staff of the bureaux handled 795 of these cases during 1961.

11

Social Welfare

THE people of Hong Kong, in all walks of life, have earned a reputation for industry and self-sufficiency. Nowhere are these qualities more strikingly demonstrated than among the less fortunate members of the community who face adversity with cheerful optimism. But in spite of this proud and independent spirit there remains a great need for social work in a variety of forms, and this is being met in this small and overcrowded Colony by an energetic and concentrated programme of relief and rehabilitation. In the field of social welfare, Government and many voluntary organizations are working closely together and making determined efforts, not merely to provide direct material aid to the needy, but also to further the development of con- structive social services such as community activities and youth work. The achievements in many fields over the past year have been considerable, but much more remains to be done.

      Although World Refugee Year closed officially during mid- 1960, the impetus it created is still felt and much of the progress made during 1961 can be traced directly to the large sums of money which the international appeal made available. Over $12,000,000 reached Government for use both by voluntary agencies and on Government projects, and large additional sums were contributed to voluntary organizations direct. This magnificent gesture of international generosity had the effect of accelerating, by several years in some cases, the pace of develop- ment. Many voluntary agencies were able to embark on fresh ventures and the Social Welfare Department was able to press ahead with a programme of community development in resettle- ment estates and elsewhere. Following on the opening of the com- munity centre at Wong Tai Sin in 1960, a second centre was opened at Tsuen Wan in June of 1961. Both these centres demonstrate the very close co-operation which exists between the Department and the voluntary organizations, many of which are playing a prominent part in providing the services which are so greatly needed.

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      In all branches of social work there were vigorous efforts to meet increasing needs. There is evidence that improved social welfare services, the gradual increase in salaries and wages and the slowly spreading knowledge of family planning contributed towards the small but encouraging reduction in the number of babies abandoned (from 145 in 1960 the number fell to 128 in 1961). In the past, with the help of voluntary agencies, all these children were admitted to residential institutions. This same co- operation now makes it possible for nearly all children recently abandoned or orphaned to be adopted into families in Hong Kong and abroad.

      Probation work during the year continued to expand rapidly; foodstuffs, clothing and other material assistance coming in from overseas and distributed by voluntary agencies did much to relieve distress; the education and rehabilitation of handicapped people to enable them to take their place as normal working citizens made significant strides forward; and there was general expansion in the services being provided for young people and in child and family welfare.

Following the adoption of the report of Dr Eileen Young- husband, who visited Hong Kong in 1960, arrangements were put in hand for three consultants on training for social work to be engaged to assist in the implementation of the report. 1961 saw the selection of two of these consultants. Another step towards the provision of more adequate training facilities for social work was the enactment of legislation to establish a Social Work Training Fund. The value of Government bursaries awarded for the social studies courses at the University of Hong Kong was more than doubled. As for overseas training, a senior caseworker in a voluntary agency was awarded the Creech Jones Scholarship, open to candidates throughout the Commonwealth, for the course in social work and administration at the University College of Swansea; while twelve officers from the Social Welfare Depart- ment-more than in any previous year were sent abroad for specialized training and seminars. The Department, in co-operation with voluntary agencies, conducted a record number of seven courses on various aspects of welfare work, in addition to providing expanded facilities for practical training for University and post-secondary college students. Despite these encouraging

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     moves the fact remains that the provision of an adequate number of trained social workers will for some time remain one of the main problems facing those responsible for the planning and expansion of social welfare services.

       The need of voluntary agencies for better trained personnel, for example for caseworkers in many fields, for instructors in practical training and in child care and for institutional staff, is growing and is likely to grow even more rapidly. Further demand for more social workers arises from the community centre programme, the steadily mounting number of applications for adoption of children by Order of Court, the increase in the number of offenders entrusted by magistrates to the supervision of probation officers, and the pressing need for social investigations, surveys and practical research.

      The importance of planning for the future was not overlooked. This will be greatly facilitated by the appointment, which was made in 1961, of a professional Assistant Director of Social Welfare. During the year the Department began consultations with other Government departments and with voluntary welfare agencies on the needs and pattern of social work over the next five years. If there is to be orderly development, geared to providing constructive services with steadily improving standards, such forward planning is essential. There is need for a careful assessment of the scale and rate of growth of the various services and of relative priorities, if the most effective use is to be made of scarce resources, without duplication or waste.

The 1961 Census (see Chapter 1) confirmed that a large and growing proportion of the population is made up of young people. Over 50% of the total population are under 25 years of age and 41% are under 15. A wide range of services and facilities is needed to ensure the physical and mental development of the young, facilities ranging from day nurseries and playgrounds to youth clubs and recreation centres, from libraries and schools to holiday camps and moral guidance.

       Many existing facilities fall short of needs. For example, in spite of a substantial part of Hong Kong's resources being devoted to primary education, resulting in nearly half-a-million children attending such schools, there are still many young children who cannot find places. This is largely because of the

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substantial number of over-age children attending primary schools. When home for many of these children is likely to be only a room or a bedspace or perhaps a corner of a gloomy staircase, the lure of the streets is very strong. The streets are at the best of times a poor training ground for citizenship, but in Hong Kong, where the dangers from triads or 'protection' racketeers, drug pedlars and motor traffic are especially great, street life is that much more undesirable. To get some of the younger children off the streets and to provide them with proper recreation and informal education, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association and its affiliated organizations run over 200 clubs for nearly 13,000 children. A donation from the Norwegian Refugee Council made possible the opening of a hostel and club for homeless street boys by the British Commonwealth Save the Children Fund. The YMCA, YWCA, the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides provide con- structive outlets for a few more thousands, but there are still many more who need help.

      In the past Hong Kong has been less seriously affected than some countries by juvenile delinquency and teenage violence; but there is no room for complacency. The young people of Hong Kong, like the youth of many other countries, are growing up in a world of changing standards. Traditional values are rapidly disappearing and there is now the painful process of groping for new ones. During this period of re-adjustment youth must be helped, guided and befriended, and a need arises for youth counselling, group work and organized activities. At the same time, scope and outlet must be found, within the cramped Hong Kong environment, for the adventurous energies and the competitive and enterprising spirit of young people, if they are to develop in sympathy with the community, and not as rebels. Young people must be encouraged to formulate ideas and this means more schools, libraries and discussion groups.

Welfare services for young people between the ages of 15 and 24 are at present very limited. It is estimated that about five per cent only of the 360,000 people between these ages are touched by any form of group activity.

      There are 40 libraries operated by voluntary agencies and by the Social Welfare Department, but these can cater for a capacity readership of only about 11,000, many of them young children.

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Properly to assess the interests and requirements of this segment of the population, upon whom the future progress of Hong Kong so much depends, there is a pressing need for social research among this age group. That there are already some signs of the development of anti-social tendencies among this age group in Hong Kong, is indicated by an increase from less than 300 at the end of 1960 to about 500 at the end of 1961 in the number of juveniles on probation. The number of social inquiries affecting juveniles, made at the request of Court, also increased from 600 during 1960 to nearly 1,000 during 1961. A further pointer is the rise in the number of cases of indecent assault, especially those involving youngsters in their early teens. More young people are being enticed into dubious cabarets and dance halls, either as employees or customers. The extent to which the lack of con- structive outlets, the influence of cheap literature, undesirable films and other factors have contributed to these tendencies, needs to be determined by properly conducted surveys so that corrective measures can be taken.

A number of Government departments have in the course of the year shown increasing interest in the development of youth services. This interest needs to be translated into practical measures. Certainly the experience of other Asian territories has shown that, where the energy and enthusiasm of youth are mis- directed or not given constructive outlets, they will find expression in teenage violence and other anti-social behaviour.

       The foregoing indicates the magnitude of some of the social problems facing Hong Kong and underlines the urgent need for more trained social workers. Although these problems may at first sight appear when considered together with the limited resources and the special circumstances of Hong Kong-to be of daunting proportions, a review of the progress made during the past year towards meeting these multifarious needs does not suggest ground for despair. In many spheres the advance has been steady and sustained.

An encouraging development has been the greater public awareness of the importance of social work and of the opportuni- ties it offers for a satisfying career. This is partly attributable to the more intensive efforts made during the year, through a variety of publicity media, to encourage in the public mind an

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understanding of the aims and value of social work. This public awareness cannot be recorded in precise statistical terms, but is nevertheless reflected in the increased number of applicants for social study bursaries at the University of Hong Kong and the response to the various ad hoc courses run by the Social Welfare Department and the voluntary agencies; it is also reflected in the higher levels of contribution to many voluntary funds and appeals. Publicity efforts were augmented at the professional level by the issue of a quarterly bulletin containing articles on social work in the Chinese language by the Chinese Literature Committee of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service.

In the field of infant and child welfare, recognition is given to the importance of the home and the family in the psychological and emotional development of children. Social workers strive to preserve the family unit and prevent its disintegration under stress and strain. When these efforts fail, steps are taken to provide children deprived of the normal family environment with the best available substitute. There are signs that fewer children are falling out of family care and becoming a charge on voluntary agencies or the public purse and, as already stated, there were decreases both in the number of babies abandoned and in the number of children in residential institutions during 1961. There were 181 applications for legal adoption in Hong Kong during the year; in arranging adoptions abroad, the international voluntary agencies concerned have been particularly active, so much so that the number of prospective overseas adopters on the waiting list now exceeds the number of children available for adoption.

The Family Welfare Society opened a new centre at Kwun Tong during the year, the eighth of the centres which it operates to assist families in economic and other difficulties. Meanwhile, other voluntary welfare agencies devoted much effort to supporting poor children in local homes by providing money, clothes, school materials and similar aid.

Some progress has also been made towards meeting the acute shortage of day care services for young children. Five day nurseries were opened, but in spite of these additions the total number of non-profit-making day nurseries is still only 19 with a joint capacity of under 2,500. The number of children between the ages of two and five in need of some form of day care is estimated to be in the

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region of 200,000. Since housing conditions and lack of leisure usually make it impossible for neighbours to care for the children of working mothers, the need for day nurseries is likely to increase as more and more women turn to factory work.

      Progress was made in the provision of camping facilities for children and young people. The Scouts completed the first stage of the development of their 40-acre camp site at Tate's Pass while the Hong Kong Conference of Youth Organizations considered sites on Lantau Island for the construction of a new holiday camp for which the United Kingdom Committee for World Refugee Year had provided a donation of $320,000. The two existing holiday camps at Junk Bay and Silver Mine Bay maintained their popu- larity. About 4,500 children from poor families spent a week or ten days at these two seaside camps during the year.

      Much greater use was made of the probation service by the Courts, indicating a growing confidence in this constructive method of rehabilitation of offenders. (By the close of the year there were 833 current probation cases compared with 572 at the end of 1960). There were corresponding increases in the number of inquiries and reports to the Courts, the number of offenders com- mitted to institutions run by the Probation Section and the number of after-care cases. The pressure for admission to the Castle Peak Boys' Home and the Remand Home was so great that both institu- tions had frequently to exceed their approved capacities. Recruit- ment of staff has lagged behind the demand, so that probation officers have been obliged to devote less attention to the supervision of each individual offender. This may well have been the main cause for the marked drop, from 80% in 1959 to 71% in 1960 and to 65% in 1961, in the proportion of probationers who have responded well to supervision. This situation underlines once more the importance of developing training facilities so that the output of trained workers can keep pace with growing social needs.

      There were two important developments in welfare work with the physically handicapped. Firstly, there was greater willingness on the part of handicapped persons to come forward for registra- tion by the department. The numbers registered rose from 5,431 at the end of 1960 to 6,335 at the end of 1961. Secondly, the emphasis on providing shelter and relief gave way increasingly to

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rehabilitation and the restoration of the handicapped as far as possible to social and economic usefulness; voluntary organizations continued to play an important role in the latter development. Greater attention is being devoted meanwhile to the co-ordination of services for the training and employment of the various classes of handicapped. The Ebenezer School and Home for the Blind and the Canossa School for Blind Girls nearly doubled their schooling facilities, while the Hong Kong Society for the Blind increased from three to nine the number of vocational training and sheltered employment centres which it runs with some assist- ance from the Social Welfare Department. The Department also opened a seventh club for blind adults, at Tsuen Wan. The Victoria Park School for the Deaf expanded its schooling facilities by open- ing an extra class, while the Department started a third club for deaf children. The acceptance in principle of the Hilliard Report on the care of the mentally sub-normal in Hong Kong focused attention on the needs of mental defectives. There are at present some 200 mentally defective children in institutions where no special provision yet exists for them. As a preliminary step the Department inaugurated a day training centre for about 20 mental defectives at the Tsan Yuk Social Centre. For the aged, two new Homes were opened, one by the Little Sisters of the Poor at Aberdeen, eventually to house 400, and the other by the West China Evangelistic Band at Sha Tin with accommodation for 40.

      The provision of material relief continued to be a basic activity of many welfare agencies, as well as of the Social Welfare Depart- ment, so much so that starvation in Hong Kong might be regarded as a condition of the past. The Department's free feeding pro- gramme catered for a daily average of 11,000 people, an increase of 1,000 over the 1960 figure. Large quantities of American sur- plus foodstuffs, distributed primarily through international volun- tary agencies, augmented the diet of many poor families. Towards the end of the year, bulgar wheat was introduced as one of the items of surplus foodstuff, by way of experiment.

Hong Kong, although often subject to fires, typhoons, floods and other natural disasters, passed the year with only one major mishap. This was the January fire at Valley Hill, Hung Hom, the worst fire of its kind since 1953, which destroyed about 1,200 squatter huts and rendered more than 11,000 homeless. The 28

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Kaifong Associations and a number of voluntary agencies co- operated with the Social Welfare Department in providing relief and assistance for the victims. Some 67 other minor misfortunes added another 9,700 people for varying periods to the relief register. A total of $417,000 was paid out of the Community Relief Fund to assist victims of natural disasters.

The programme to provide community and social centres also made significant strides. Early in the year the Department con- verted the whole of the old Tsan Yuk Hospital building in the congested western part of the city into a social centre-in reality a community centre on a smaller scale and this was followed in May by the opening of the community centre at Tsuen Wan. This new centre, built with a United Kingdom World Refugee Year donation of $1,250,000, was named the Princess Alexandra Com- munity Centre, Tsuen Wan, when Her Royal Highness visited it on 8th November. The growing chain of social and community centres not only brings a host of welfare services, both govern- mental and voluntary, to densely populated areas, but is also designed to stimulate the development of a community spirit and a 'sense of belonging', particularly among people in newly built urban areas; for instance, an estimated 25,000 people out of 60,000 residents of the estate participated in an 18-day 'good-neighbours' campaign at the Wong Tai Sin Community Centre; this helped to draw the inhabitants of this resettlement estate closer together through competitions, social gatherings, sports, sing-songs and film shows. Further World Refugee Year donations from the United Kingdom are earmarked for the establishment of two more centres in the next few years. Meanwhile, the Hong Kong Council of Social Service has been allocated land at Chai Wan, the only resettlement estate on Hong Kong Island, to build another centre. More than a million dollars was raised by the Council for this purpose the bulk of it locally-and by the close of the year plans for the centre were well advanced.

All these developments demonstrate the willingness of the com- munity to accept a large measure of responsibility for those in need. The progress being made in such spheres as planning and training augurs well for the future and should provide a solid foundation on which to build and expand welfare services in Hong Kong.

12

Legislation

      THERE was a small increase in the number of Ordinances enacted in 1961 over the previous year, namely, 57 in 1961 as against 52 in 1960. In addition 152 items, some of considerable substance, of subsidiary legislation were also enacted. As is, of course, usually the case, the majority of the enactments were concerned with amending existing legislation. Space prohibits a review in detail and the following comments are intended only to draw attention to items of particular general or topical interest picked from a wide range of subjects which occupied the draftsman.

      City Hall. With the construction of the new City Hall in prog- ress during the year, the question of its management arose. It was decided that the details of management should be vested in the Urban Council and that, in order to ensure the necessary powers of control, legislation would be necessary. The City Hall Ordinance, 1961, was enacted in March, followed later in the year by a set of appropriate regulations. The legislation has been framed broadly with a view to allowing as great a degree of flexibility in the management of the City Hall as possible.

       Marine Insurance. Early in June, the Marine Insurance Ordin- ance, 1961, was enacted. Prior to the introduction of this measure the law applicable to marine insurance in the Colony was common law, but those concerned with marine insurance have for many years adopted as a matter of practice the provisions of the United Kingdom Marine Insurance Act of 1906, and the need for a statutory codification of the law has been recognized for some time. The Ordinance in the main follows the United Kingdom provisions and has the effect of removing any doubt that may have existed as to the provisions which apply to a policy of marine insurance now effected in Hong Kong.

Compulsory Service. During the year, it was decided to terminate the manning of the auxiliary forces by compulsory service and to rely upon voluntary service in the true sense. A short Ordinance entitled the Compulsory Service (Amendment)

The Hong Kong Government's resettlement programme, which provides new homes for squatters, began in 1954. Since then, more than 430,000 people have been provided with low-rent flats or cottages. Of these, more than 350,000 are living in multi-storey buildings in resettlement estates. Now the building programme is being accelerated.

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The flats now being built in resettlement estates (above) are an improved design of the original blocks. The new buildings having a cleaner outline that makes them aesthetically more pleasing than the H-shaped ones built earlier. The move to a resettlement estate means a new life for parents and children (left) in a home of their own.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Resettlement estates are self-contained townships with their own clinics, clubs, schools and shops (above left). Despite scarcity of land, the bigger estates all have open spaces and playgrounds (above right). All the estates are served by frequent bus services. Wong Tai Sin estate (below) now has a population of nearly 60,000.

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Ordinance, 1961, was enacted to amend the principal Ordinance of 1951, in such a manner as to enable the Governor in Council to suspend it by Proclamation. This was done with an eye to the future so that the Compulsory Service Ordinance, 1951, remains on the statute book in abeyance in case it should be required again.

Road Traffic. The month of June also saw the enactment of an item of legislation of considerable concern to motorists, namely, the Motor Vehicles (First Registration Tax) Ordinance, 1961. It is designed to reduce the number of new registrations of motor vehicles, whether new or used, by rendering payable upon the first registration in the Colony of all motor vehicles, other than goods vehicles, taxis and other public service vehicles, a tax equal to 10 per cent of the market value of the vehicle at the time of its registration. The provisions made in the Ordinance have had effect since the 15th March 1961, by virtue of an Order made under the Public Revenue Protection Ordinance, (Chapter 120).

In the sphere of subsidiary legislation relating to road traffic, the year saw, with the enactment of the Road Traffic (Public Omnibus and Public Car) Regulations, 1961, and the Road Traffic (General) Regulations, 1961, the completion of 11 sets of sub- sidiary legislation relating to road traffic, which have exercised draftsmen over the past five years.

       Medical and Health Services. The Nurses Registration Ordin- ance, 1961, and its accompanying set of regulations repealed and revoked the existing Nurses Registration Ordinance and Regula- tions and re-enacted them in a more comprehensive and detailed form. The previous legislation had over the years become so far out of date and in many ways inappropriate to the modern nursing service as to require complete re-drafting.

In this field also, no less than 19 sets of subsidiary legisla- tion were enacted under powers conferred by the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance, 1960. This constituted a major effort, and it can be stated with some satisfaction that it resulted in completion of the revision of the regulations applicable to the whole Colony and of all the principal sets of by-laws applicable to the urban areas. There remains now the task of revising the regulations applicable solely to the New Territories, and time was found during the year to start this work.

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       Immigration. Two Ordinances relating to immigration control, the Immigration Service Ordinance, 1961, and the Immigration (Control and Offences) (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961, were enacted in August.

Over recent years, the volume of work relating to immigration and its specialized nature had become such that it was considered advisable to constitute a separate service to deal with the matter. The former Ordinance established the new Immigration Service while the latter Ordinance, together with revised regulations, con- siderably strengthened the law relating to the control of immigrants.

       Defamation and Libel. This subject has always been com- plicated, but of great concern to persons concerned with literature and publishing. The Defamation Act, 1952 of the United Kingdom considerably extended the protection accorded to persons engaged as a matter of business in the production of newspapers, periodicals and the like, in the event of unintentional defamation. The Colony's legislation had lagged behind the United Kingdom in this respect and the Law Reform Committee recommended that the law should be brought into line. The Defamation and Libel (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961, was enacted in August to that end and adopted the provisions of the United Kingdom Act to the Colony.

       Social Welfare. The Social Work Training Fund Ordinance, 1961, was enacted for the purpose of establishing a trust fund which is to be known as the Social Work Training Fund and applied in the provision of training facilities for social workers and for persons wishing to become social workers. This measure was necessary for the administration of a donation of $2,200,000 made by the United Kingdom Committee for World Refugee Year. The Ordinance makes the Director of Social Welfare Incorporated the trustee of the Fund and provides for its detailed management by a committee constituted under provisions of the Ordinance. A second Ordinance relating to welfare and the training of persons in fields of activity of social value was enacted in November and is intituled the Sir Robert Black Trust Fund Ordinance, 1961. This establishes a trust fund in the sum of $1,000,000 donated by Mr Tang Siu-kin for the purposes referred to. The Ordinance prescribes the objects of the trust and establishes a committee under chairmanship of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, for the management of the Fund.

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       Industry. December saw the introduction of three important enactments in this field, the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961, the Industrial Employment (Holi- days with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance, 1961, and the Trade Union Registration Ordinance, 1961.

       The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Ordin- ance, 1961, was a short but important piece of legislation designed to facilitate enforcement of the provisions of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, relating to the employ- ment of women, young persons and children. It provides that a woman, young person or child found working in an industrial undertaking shall be deemed to be employed in the undertaking. Before this amendment was introduced difficulty had been experi- enced in proving employment in prosecutions under the principal Ordinance. A further amendment introduced by the same Ordin- ance is designed to encourage the submission of complaints by providing that the identity of the complainant shall not be dis- closed. This measure was introduced to protect complainants against possible victimization.

       The Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness Allowance) Ordinance, 1961, is designed further to improve the conditions of workers in the Colony. The Ordinance applies, subject to certain specified exceptions, to all workers engaged under contracts of service or apprenticeship in industrial under- takings. It provides for the grant of certain holidays to workers which shall be with pay in the case of workers who have served their employers for not less than 180 days during the year preceding the holiday, including not less than 20 days during the period of 28 days immediately preceding the holiday. A worker who is entitled to a holiday with pay, but who does not take the holiday, will nevertheless be entitled to the holiday pay, which will be in addition to his ordinary wages. Similarly, workers who are qualified will be entitled to sick pay at the rate of half their daily earnings up to a maximum of 12 days in a calendar year. The qualifications for sick pay are the same as those for holiday pay.

       Work on the drafting of the Trade Union Registration Ordin- ance, 1961 was begun as long ago as 1955, and, although now enacted it has yet to be brought into operation by Proclamation.

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At present, all the law relating to trade unions and trade disputes is to be found in the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, Chapter 64. When the Trade Union Registration Ordinance, 1961 comes into operation, the existing Ordinance will be renamed the Trade Disputes Ordinance and will therefore only contain provi- sions relating to arbitration. The new Ordinance deals with all matters relating to the registration of trade unions and the control of their internal administration. Legal status was first conferred upon trade unions in Hong Kong in 1948 by a system of com- pulsory registration prescribed by the existing Ordinance, which gave trade unions a measure of exemption from actions in tort and from liability for criminal prosecution for conspiracy. It also imposed upon trade unions certain obligations. These were imposed because it was necessary and reasonable to expect from trade unions, duly registered, a proper sense of responsibility and a measure of administrative regularity. But that Ordinance was enacted prior to the enormous industrial development and con- sequent growth in the working population of the Colony which has taken place since 1948. In consequence, experience has revealed certain defects not only in the trade union organization, administra- tion and practice, but in the Ordinance itself.

The Trade Union Registration Ordinance, 1961, is designed to remedy those defects in order that the trade union movement may be provided with greater opportunity for healthy development. The effect of the basic provisions of the existing Ordinance will remain substantially unchanged, but greater powers are given to the Registrar of Trade Unions to ensure that the law is complied with and to encourage the proper control and administration of their funds. There is one feature of particular interest, perhaps primarily to lawyers, and that is the statutory incorporation of trade unions upon their registration. This is a departure from accepted trade union legislation and is designed to facilitate the holding of property by unions. Under the existing Ordinance, trade unions are not corporate bodies and are only able to hold property as beneficiaries under trusts. This has led to a variety of complicated arrangements in trusts, mostly implied. To get over the difficulty, it was thought desirable to grant corporate status for all purposes to registered trade unions. In other respects, the Ordinance is a comprehensive revision of the existing law.

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Finally, it has been said that 'the only good Act is a repealing Act', and in 1961 it was possible to enact two such measures, namely, the Expulsion of Undesirables (Repeal) Ordinance, 1961, and the Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961, which repealed the Administration of Justice (Summary Offences) Ordinance, 1955. The latter Ordinance was in any event a temporary Ordinance subject to renewal each year by resolution of the Legislative Council.

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THE COURTS OF JUSTICE

THE Courts in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates' Court, the Tenancy Tribunal and the Marine Court.

The Full Court, consisting of at least two Judges, hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal and the Court of Criminal Appeal in England. Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London. The Supreme Court tries criminal cases with a jury and has jurisdiction similar to that of the Queen's Bench and Chancery Divisions of the English High Court. It also exercises jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty, Lunacy, Bankruptcy and Company Winding Up. It has an appellate jurisdiction in which it hears appeals from the Magistrates and from the Marine Court. Towards the end of the year, legislation was passed whereby the civil jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the District Court was extended to the New Territories.

The District Court has a criminal jurisdiction limited to the imposition of penalties up to five years' imprisonment and civil jurisdiction in cases in which the subject matter involved does not exceed $5,000; but it also has an appellate jurisdiction in Stamp Appeals, Rating Appeals and Appeals from the Tenancy Tribunal. Trial in both criminal and civil proceedings in the District Court is by judge alone.

       The Magistrates' Courts exercise a criminal jurisdiction similar to that of Magistrates in England. They also have a limited juris- diction in domestic matters.

Since the war many changes in the social and economic structure of the Colony, including the growth of new and heavily populated industrial centres and a greatly increased population generally,

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have necessitated the creation of a number of additional courts to deal with the increased volume of business. The Chief Justice is head of the judiciary, and he and four Puisne Judges deal with all business in the Full Court, and in the Supreme Court in all its various jurisdictions. In the District Court there are five District Judges, two of whom sit in Kowloon.

      In the past the Magistrate's Court at Tai Po was situated in the District Office building, but during the year a new Magistracy was opened at Fanling Cross Roads to serve the New Territories. It accommodates two court-rooms and is a modern building of impressive design, occupying a prominent position near the main road.

       Two other new magistracies at Causeway Bay and North Kowloon are now in full operation. These are also fine buildings of up-to-date design with four court-rooms in the former and five in the latter including, in each case, a Juvenile Court.

The opening of all these new buildings has made possible a better distribution of court work, and there is now a Magistrate's Court reasonably near to the homes of most defendants, witnesses and others concerned. Three magistrates sit at the Central Court, three at Causeway Bay, three at South Kowloon, four at North Kowloon and one at Fanling.

With the rapid expansion of Tsuen Wan as an industrial centre it may be necessary to establish another magistracy to serve that district, and tentative plans are under discussion.

Figures for criminal cases before the courts indicated some reduction in numbers during the year, largely due to a decrease in minor summonses for hawking offences in Kowloon. It did not, however, produce a corresponding fall in the demands on judicial time. Most defendants in hawking offences plead guilty and their cases are generally brief. They bear little comparison with the more serious offences like drug trafficking. Such cases are tending to increase owing to the special efforts of the Police and the Preventive Service to stamp out the traffic in drugs, and the trials are usually lengthy. The overall figures for serious crime which caused most work for the courts are given in Appendix IX.

        When the District Court was established in 1953, it took over the Summary Jurisdiction previously exercised by the Supreme

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Court, giving the public a simpler and abbreviated method of bringing to trial civil disputes in which the value of the subject matter was small. The use which is being made of the District Court may be judged from the increase in the number of actions instituted. In 1953, the Court's first year of operation, there were 2,259 such actions. This figure increased to 5,253 in 1960 and to 6,921 in 1961.

       The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, which provides for a measure of control over domestic and business premises erected before 17th August 1945. This Tribunal is responsible for inquiring into, and making recommendations on, applications for exemption from the provisions of the Ordinance where it is considered desirable that land should be developed. In recent years the Tribunal's recommendations in this regard have generally been accepted; and this has made possible the vast rebuilding programme which Hong Kong has witnessed since 1945. As each old structure is demolished, it has been replaced, in most cases, by multi-storey apartments or tenement flats. Each separate unit is disposed of in many cases even before the buildings are completed and there is now a new type of landowner in Hong Kong, namely the owner of a flat. The number of 'exemption' cases which came before the Tenancy Tribunal in 1959 was 106. The corresponding figure in 1960 was 226, and in 1961 561.

       The Legal Profession. Legal practitioners in Hong Kong are admitted and enrolled under the provisions of the Legal Practi- tioners Ordinance either as barristers or as solicitors. Consequently the profession is separated as in England.

       A barrister has a general right of audience before all courts in the Colony, but a solicitor has no right of audience before the Full Court and his right of audience before the Supreme Court is confined to appeals from magistrates and bankruptcy petitions heard before a single judge. Control over members of both branches of the profession is exercised by the Supreme Court. Each branch of the profession is separately organized into a Bar Association and a Law Society, and there are now 28 barristers and 113 solicitors practising in Hong Kong.

       The Crown is represented in the profession by the Law Officers, namely the Attorney General and the Solicitor General, who must

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be barristers, and Crown Counsel and Legal Officers who may be barristers or solicitors and who have a statutory right of audience on behalf of the Crown before any court or tribunal in the Colony.

       The Attorney General and the Solicitor General are entitled in the courts of the Colony to the same rights as are enjoyed by the Attorney General and the Solicitor General in England.

The Attorney General is the titular head of the local Bar.

THE HONG KONG POLICE FORCE

The Hong Kong Police are faced with problems common to all large cities and sea-ports. Whereas each territory has its peculiar problems, those with which the Police in Hong Kong are principally concerned are narcotics, bribery and corruption, illegal immigra- tion and traffic.

Although each of these has its own specific causes, the geographical position of the Colony, the pressure of population within a small area, the busy flow of trade and the temptation of high profits regardless of moral considerations are contributing factors common to them all. The most pernicious problem is trafficking in narcotics, for local conditions have made Hong Kong an advantageous centre for this activity. For a number of years one of the major tasks of the Police Force has been the pursuit, in close co-operation with the Preventive Service of the Commerce and Industry Department, of those who take advantage of these conditions. Many of these criminals are members of efficient organizations with world-wide connexions who seek to exploit Hong Kong as a drug manufacturing and distributing centre.

Opium and its derivatives morphine and heroin are the principal drugs. Hong Kong does not itself produce opium, but supplies are imported illegally. Morphine is also smuggled into the Colony and then taken to illicit 'factories' operated by skilled chemists where it is converted to heroin. These 'factories' are often cunningly concealed in houses in good residential areas where the manufac- turers spare no pains to hide their supplies and equipment. Detec- tion is always difficult.

In its efforts to eradicate the evil of drug-addiction, the Govern- ment is advised by a Standing Committee composed of the

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      Unofficial Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as Chairman. This committee co-ordinates all measures in the campaign, while the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, the Medical and the Prisons Departments, the Preventive Service and the Police provide specialist services to combat traffic, to apprehend offenders and to cure addicts. Police action against addiction and trafficking is co-ordinated by a Force Narcotics Committee which was appointed in 1960. The Narcotics Bureau of the Police is responsible for the preven- tion and detection of major narcotics offences, and the collation and application of narcotics intelligence. The Bureau regularly exchanges information with other Police Forces and international organizations specially concerned with the suppression of the drug traffic.

Measures against clandestine factories, divans and distribution organizations continued unabated. All members of the Police are frequently reminded of their special responsibilities to combat the narcotics menace. In April, the Special Narcotics Squad attached to Criminal Investigation Department Headquarters was enlarged and divided into two separate sections which were placed under the operational control of the Assistant Commissioners in charge of the Hong Kong and Kowloon districts. These two sections worked with the established Divisional Narcotics Squads and their joint activities produced better results than had hitherto been possible; during 1961, 16,663 offences against the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance were detected.

In February, amendments to the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance increased the maximum penalties for the manufacture of drugs from a $50,000 fine and 10 years' imprisonment to a $100,000 fine and life imprisonment. But despite increased efforts to solve the drug problem, it remains a serious challenge to the Government and to the well-being of the community. One effect of the traffic in drugs was the increased incidence of miscellaneous crime com- mitted by addicts. Successful anti-narcotics measures at times raised the illicit market price of drugs to such an extent that addicts, desperate to maintain their supplies, resorted to theft and other offences against property to obtain the means of buying drugs.

        The arrest and conviction of addicts are not in themselves effective solutions to the problem without medical treatment to

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cure addiction. In this respect the rehabilitation centre run by the Prisons Department at Tai Lam Chung and the section for voluntary patients in the Government Hospital at Castle Peak played an important role.

Public co-operation with the Police, not only against the drug traffic but in many other spheres of police work, continued to improve. The Kaifong Welfare Advancement Associations helped by explaining the role of the Police to members of the public, many of whom by tradition endeavour to avoid personal contact with the forces of law and order. The presentation of the Policeman as a public servant was emphasized in posters, in various broadcast talks and lectures and at a public exhibition. Also, as part of the continuing efforts to help police public relations, the layout of counters and furniture in Police Station report rooms was im- proved, and in January the name 'Charge Room' was changed throughout the Force to 'Report Room'. The Chinese translation for 'Charge Room' is literally 'Arrest Room' and this had an unpleasant undertone even for the model citizen who may have had cause to go to a Police Station for assistance. This change was welcomed by the public.

Many members of the Force were on duty during the visit of HRH Princess Alexandra to Hong Kong in November and the special arrangements for the visit worked smoothly. Public co- operation with the Police throughout the visit was excellent.

Establishment and Organization. The Force has an establish- ment of 92 Gazetted Officers, 674 Inspectors and 7,567 Non- Commissioned Officers and Police Constables. These figures in- clude the Women Police consisting of one Gazetted Officer, eight Inspectors and 233 Non-Commissioned Officers and Constables. The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, aided by a Deputy Commissioner. An Assistant Commissioner is Chief Staff Officer in charge of Colony Headquarters, assisted by a number of Staff Officers who are responsible for administration, planning, finance, personnel and welfare matters. The civilian staff of the Force, whose number exceeds 1,400, come under the general control of an Administrative Secretary, a senior Administrative Officer seconded to the Force with the status of an Assistant Commissioner.

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New conditions of service for senior and junior officers were introduced on 1st January. These provided for a revised rank structure and salary scale. The rank of Sub-Inspector was abolished, and all newly recruited officers now join as Probationary Inspectors. A new rank of Senior Inspector was introduced. Qualifications and promotion systems for Gazetted Officers and members of the Inspectorate were revised.

       The Colony is divided into three Police Districts each under the command of an Assistant Commissioner; they are Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and the New Territories and Marine. These Districts contain a number of Divisions which are divided into Sub-Divisions and Posts. At the end of 1961 there were 11 Divisional Stations, 25 Sub-Divisional Stations and 28 Posts. These three District organizations provide the day-to-day policing of the Colony with regular beats and patrols; the means of dealing effectively with reports and complaints from the public; and, when required, the control of routine or emergency situations where large crowds assemble.

      The Criminal Investigation Department and Special Branch are also under the command of Assistant Commissioners. Senior Superintendents command the Anti-Corruption Branch, the Traffic Branch, the Communications and Transport Branch, the Police Training School and the Police Training Contingent.

The Special Branch is responsible for preventing and detecting subversive activities in the Colony and for supplying the intel- ligence necessary for the maintenance of internal security. It also operates the Registry of Approved Societies.

       The CID investigates crime and shares the responsibility for its prevention with other branches of the Force. At Colony Head- quarters, there are specialized units dealing with Triad activities, Criminal Records, Forensic Science, Ballistics, Identification and the Prevention of Crime. There are detective units in each of the three Districts. The Anti-Corruption Branch, Narcotics Bureau and Commercial Crime Section are also included in the CID.

The Marine Division of the New Territories and Marine District is responsible for policing the 728 square miles of territorial waters and the numerous small islands within them. It also shares in the responsibility for the enforcement of shipping regulations in Hong Kong's busy harbour. At the end of the year this division had 27

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craft, consisting of 10 cruising launches, 10 harbour launches and seven motor launches including three, fast, light, locally-built jet- boats which were acquired during the year to help in policing inshore waters. All Police cruising launches are fitted with radio communications and cruising launches also have radar equipment.

Each of the three Districts has an Emergency Unit on patrol and in radio contact with the District Control. These units are usually the first at the scenes of fires, accidents or other incidents. The Police Training Contingent at Fanling in the New Territories provides courses of intensive training in internal security work for all ranks. It is also an emergency formation of 350 men which can be called upon immediately to deal with disturbances. In an emergency, each District can form its own District Emergency Force, made up from a number of Police Riot Companies each roughly the equivalent in strength of an army infantry company. It can give administrative support to the Emergency Force and provide escorts to protect essential services and mobile and foot patrols to maintain law and order on the streets.

The Force is thus a Metropolitan Force in the urban areas, a rural constabulary in the New Territories and a Marine Police Force in the surrounding territorial waters, but at very short notice it can change its organization to one specifically designed to deal with civil disorder.

Crime. Crime in the Colony remained at a comparatively low level although there was an increase in some minor offences. Apart from an increasing population, there are many factors contributing to this rise in petty crime. One is the increased price of drugs which is forcing a greater number of addicts to resort to miscel- laneous crime in an attempt to obtain money. Another is the difficulty of deporting convicted or undesirable aliens. A third is the continued prosperity of Hong Kong which provides the criminal with wealthy victims.

Juvenile crime also increased slightly, due possibly to the rise in the teenage population and the continued growth of densely populated areas.

        There was a reduction in the number of crimes associated with Triad activities. Triad Societies no longer wield the same influence as they did in the past.

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To combat the criminals in Hong Kong the CID has built up comprehensive records of criminal offenders. These include records showing the methods used by criminals in their trades (the 'Modus Operandi' index), the personal peculiarities of known criminals and fingerprint records. The Department is experimenting with a method of identifying criminals by composite photographs (Ident-i- kit) which is used by British Police Forces.

The statistics of serious crime are at Appendix IX.

Recruitment and Training. Overseas probationary inspectors are recruited in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, and other probationary inspectors and constables are recruited locally. Upon enlistment, all ranks are given a six-month course of initial training in the Police Training School at Aberdeen. The curriculum includes lectures on public relations, civics, the principles of law and legal procedures, Court procedure, police and Government regulations, drill, musketry, physical training, riot drill, life saving and first aid. The course is designed not only to train the men in police duties but also to broaden their general outlook and fit them for responsibility. Overseas officers are taught the first stages of Cantonese and locally recruited men and women are taught English. Recruits from the Marine Division undergo additional training in seamanship, signals and Port Regulations.

At the end of their initial six months' training all ranks are posted to units where they carry out duties under supervision, and for the remainder of their probationary service inspectors attend the Police Training School on one day a month for lectures, and constables attend small District training centres on two days a month for the same purpose. Inspectors and constables return to the Police Training School for continuation training courses for two weeks in their second and third years of service and refresher courses are held for those in the sixth to tenth year of service.

The fourth annual study course on the Social and Psychological Background of Crime was held at the University of Hong Kong in December. Government was represented at the course, which is now an established feature of training, by 23 police officers and several members of the Prisons and Social Welfare Departments. Each year a number of officers go to the United Kingdom on courses of instruction at the Police Colleges at Bramshill and

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Tulliallan Castle, at the Metropolitan Training School, Hendon, or at other training centres. In 1961 one overseas officer and seven local officers attended one of these courses. Specialist courses of various kinds are organized locally from time to time and this year, these included a course for civilian employees in the Force who work as interpreter/translators and report room clerks.

      Communications and Transport. Motor transport, radio and tele- phone communications, and the training and supply of police drivers are the responsibility of the Communications and Transport Branch, which is controlled from Colony Headquarters.

       The communications network consists of radio stations linking the Colony Headquarters with districts, divisions, stations, launches and patrol vehicles. Police telephone exchanges are installed in each district and a teleprinter system operated from Headquarters transmits messages to 20 receiver stations in all parts of the Colony. The installation, maintenance and servicing of radio equipment is undertaken by qualified radio technicians employed in the Police Radio Workshops. The majority of these technicians obtained their qualifications at the Hong Kong Technical College.

There were 423 motor vehicles ranging from armoured cars to motor cycles on the Police transport establishment. A permanent driving school is maintained where selected, fully trained, con- stables are given an initial three months concentrated course of driving instruction on light vehicles before undertaking driving duties. As they gain experience they receive further instruction on all types of vehicles used by the Force.

Traffic. The number of motor vehicles registered and in use in the Colony increased by 6,936 to a total of 55,826 at the end of 1961. On 1st March the Motor Vehicle First Registration Tax was introduced and imposed on private cars, motor cycles and dual purpose vehicles. After the introduction of this tax 3,292 private cars were registered and licensed compared with 3,898 during the same period in 1960.

The Traffic Branch worked closely with the Traffic Engineering Section of the Public Works Department and good progress was made in the planning and introduction of road safety measures. These included the installation of push button operated traffic

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light signals, the construction of pedestrian refuges and central dividing strips, improved carriage-way markings and designation of kerbside parking areas. All these measures contributed to the better movement of traffic and the control and safety of pedestrians. Road Safety. Efforts continued throughout the year to educate both motorists and pedestrians in road safety. Two unofficial voluntary organizations were formed by civic-minded citizens in- terested in promoting road safety. These were the Road Safety Association and the Institute of Advanced Motorists. The Informa- tion Services Department produced six films which were shown at 60 cinemas. Five posters were also given wide distribution and a booklet on road safety, first published some years ago, was redesigned and reprinted for an estimated distribution of 100,000 copies. A four-colour booklet for the guidance of school teachers was prepared for distribution by the Education Department.

For the first time two schools carried out a road safety campaign for a period of one week for the benefit of their pupils. Other road safety campaigns were conducted by the Wan Chai Kaifong Association and by the Social Welfare Department Community Centres. A very successful road safety quiz was conducted among eight leading schools early in the year.

      Traffic Flow and Parking. The ever increasing demand for park- ing space in the main thoroughfares of the city, combined with illegal and inconsiderate parking, continued to impede the flow of traffic. A programme of additional multi-storey car parks, the provision of more metered parking spaces, the extension of one way traffic systems, and the installation of progressively linked traffic light signals are all aimed to ease the movement of traffic. But, bearing in mind the high annual increase in vehicles, the expense of constructing car parks and the shortage of land, par- ticularly in the central districts where parking space is most in demand, the problem will remain for many years.

      Visits. Twenty four Hong Kong Police Officers visited Police Forces in the United Kingdom, the Philippines, Denmark, Burma, Malaya, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam during the year and studied the organization and methods of police forces in these countries. Singapore, Egypt, West Pakistan, Japan, the Lebanon and South Vietnam sent eight officers to Hong Kong to study

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various aspects of police work in the Colony. The Senior Super- intendent of the Traffic Branch visited Manila in August to attend a United Nations Road Safety Conference.

IMMIGRATION

On 4th August 1961 a new Immigration Service came into being, and responsibility for the control of immigration, previously vested in the Commissioner of Police, passed to the Director of Immigra- tion. For some time past the need for re-organization in this complex and highly important field was apparent, and it was felt that the degree of specialization required could best be achieved by the creation of a separate service, working under the full-time direction of its own departmental head.

The new Immigration Department settled down quickly. By the end of the year most of the staff had been recruited, and the majority of the Police officers who had been engaged on immigra- tion duties when the change-over took place were able to return to the Police Force.

The total recorded movement in and out of the Colony during 1961 was 2,449,953, a decrease of 29,466 from the figure for 1960. Air passenger traffic involved a total of 458,428 movements for the year (excluding passengers in direct transit) showing an increase of 60.71% since 1958. The majority of tourists still come from the United States. Close contact is maintained with the Hong Kong Tourist Association for the accurate co-ordination of statistical information on tourist traffic and trends.

The main lines of movement are between Hong Kong and China and between Hong Kong and Macau. It had been apparent for some time that the unrestricted entry of persons in possession of Macau identity cards was enabling a small but steady flow of fresh immigrants to reach the Colony. About the middle of the year a Permit Office was opened in the British Consulate in Macau, which, in August, began to issue travel permits restricted to bona fide residents of Macau not in possession of normal travel documents. By the end of the year these measures had reduced entirely the overt balance of immigration from Macau, but there were indications that pressure of entry by clandestine routes had increased con- siderably and close attention was being given to organizations attempting to arrange entry by illegal means.

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      During the cholera epidemic in August, September and part of October, the Department maintained close touch with the medical authorities and other organizations engaged in measures against the epidemic, and paid special attention to coastal sea traffic.

      Comparative figures for the past five years of movement in and out of the Colony, and the issue of visas, passports, certificates of identity and re-entry permits, may be seen in Appendix IX.

       The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force. 1961 was a memorable year for the Auxiliaries because, after a period of ten years, service once again became entirely voluntary. The Auxiliary Force, with a strength of 1,976 men, is commanded by the Commissioner of Police assisted by the Commandant who is an Auxiliary Assistant Commissioner. The purpose of the unit is to assist the regular Police to maintain or restore law and order in times of emergency or at other times when they are fully deployed. When mobilized the Auxiliaries are completely integrated with the regular Force.

The Auxiliaries come from all walks of life. As in previous years they received part-time training and attended annual camps at the Police Training School, Aberdeen. Twice a year they are mobilized with the Police Force, and they also take part from time to time in joint Police/Military Security Exercises.

PRISONS

      The aim of the Prison authorities in the Colony is to put all prisoners serving sentences of under two years into open prisons with adequate open-air work for all. The local prison where con- victed men pass months in idleness is all too common in many countries and even where open prisons exist it is often very difficult for men serving short sentences to be accommodated in them. In Hong Kong all short-term prisoners are considered suitable for open treatment, unless the contrary is proved, and it is the policy gradually to extend open treatment to wider catego- ries of people under detention.

There are seven corrective institutions under the control of the Commissioner of Prisons, including three security prisons, two for men at Stanley and Victoria and one for women at Lai Chi Kok, and two open prisons, one at Chi Ma Wan on Lantau Island and one for drug addicts at Tai Lam in the New Territories.

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     There are also two open training centres for boys, one at Stanley and one at Cape Collinson. The staff of the Department includes, besides 16 Gazetted Officers and 847 other ranks, 190 staff com- prising schoolmasters, school welfare officers, trade instructors, clerks and mechanics. There is a Staff Training School at Stanley.

       Stanley Prison is the main industrial centre. The standard of instruction is high and every trade party is under a qualified instructor who has passed the standard of the Technical College. Victoria Prison, centrally placed and close to the Courts, is the reception and classification centre. Lai Chi Kok Prison for women is on the mainland in what was once pleasant countryside but is now a busy industrial area. Chi Ma Wan Prison was the testing ground for the practice of sending all short-sentence prisoners to open prisons. It has been completely successful; escapes are few and far between and an immense amount of work has been done on forestry and other projects.

Tai Lam Prison takes convicted prisoners who are drug addicts, regardless of their offence, age or state of health. Often their health on admission is appalling, as the result of some physical disease, such as TB, in addition to drug addiction. The programme of rehabilitation is vigorous and comprehensive and ends with the prisoner going as far as twenty miles to work every day, physically fit and with increased moral resistance to drugs. A team of after-care officers follow up cases to prevent discharged prisoners slipping back into the drug habit.

During the year four bungalows were built by prison labour in the Siu Lam Valley, a small wooded area in the Castle Peak district not far from the Prison, to accommodate cured drug addicts after their release. The bungalows form part of a pilot rehabilitation settlement for cured drug addicts sponsored by the Christian Welfare and Relief Council. The settlement will even- tually accommodate 20 cured persons and their families, who will be given food, clothing and farm tools, as well as pigs and poultry. Particular interest was shown during the year in the drug addicts' rehabilitation programme at Tai Lam. Dr A. G. Hess, an Assistant Director of the United States National Council on Crime and Delinquency, was given a grant by the Ford Foundation specifically to study the methods at Tai Lam, a considerable honour for an institution only three years old. A survey of all

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convicted addicts released from Tai Lam between 1st April 1960 and 31st March 1961 showed that 80% had not been reconvicted for any offence. While this does not prove the same rate of cure, it is nevertheless a most encouraging figure, because the uncured drug addict is usually soon found in possession of drugs and re- arrested.

The morale at the Training Centres continued to be very high and the reconviction rate is one of the lowest in the world. The two Centres cater for boys between the ages of 14 and 21, and the régime in these open institutions is based on strict discipline com- bined with a constructive approach to training. The Massed Corps of Drums from both the Stanley and Cape Collinson Centres per- formed at a Youth Rally in honour of HRH Princess Alexandra in November.

       Planning for more 'open institutions' and for the development of existing facilities went ahead during 1961. A new open prison at Tong Fuk is now at the drawing-board stage and will eventually take another 1,000 short-term prisoners out to Lantau Island, where their main task will be to afforest the catchment area of the new Shek Pik reservoir, and the whole south-eastern end of Lantau.

       Since the war, new prison institutions have been accommodated in adapted buildings and Tong Fuk will be the first Hong Kong prison since 1935 to be housed in new buildings. Adaptation of existing buildings has been expensive, but the total was only a fraction of what new institutions would have cost. Chi Ma Wan Prison, the first of the open prisons, was formerly a home for disabled people; Stanley Training Centre, the pioneer open centre for boys, was a group of food storage huts; Tai Lam Prison occupies the contractors' lines for the building of Tai Lam Chung dam, and Cape Collinson Training Centre occupies the site of a former army coastal battery. It so happens that all these are in exceptionally beautiful surroundings and were easily adaptable for prison purposes. The possibility of making more such 'take-over bids' has come to an end, at least for the time being; hence the decision to build an entirely new open prison at Tong Fuk.

      An open prison for women at Tai Lam is scheduled to replace the present women's prison at Lai Chi Kok, and this project was given a priority which enabled planning to proceed.

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        To meet the needs of criminal lunatics and other offenders requiring psychiatric treatment, a Prisons Department mental hospital is also being planned.

       No prison service can function efficiently without a contented and properly housed staff and during the year emphasis was placed on staff welfare. Building projects under construction included new staff quarters, classrooms and workshops at Cape Collinson Training Centre; a new mess, kitchen and recreation hall for warders at Stanley Prison; new quarters for warders and improved quarters for officers at Chi Ma Wan; and new quarters for warders at Tai Lam.

RECORDS

The Registrar General's Department comprises the Land Office, the Registries of Births and Deaths, Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents, the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Company Winding Up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee, and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy.

Land Office. The Land Office is a public office for the registra- tion of deeds and other instruments affecting land. The system of registration is broadly similar to that in the Yorkshire Deeds Registries in England. The Land Registration Ordinance provides that all deeds and instruments registered under it shall have priority according to their respective dates of registration, and also that deeds and instruments not registered (other than bona fide leases at rack rents for any term not exceeding three years) shall be absolutely null and void as against any subsequent bona fide purchaser or mortgagee for valuable consideration. Registration is therefore essential to the protection of title, but does not guarantee it. Deeds affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon, portions of New Kowloon, and a few lots in the New Territories are registered in the Land Office, Victoria; deeds affecting land in the rest of New Kowloon and all other lots in the New Territories are registered at the District Land Offices of the New Territories Administration. (Land tenure is described in Chapters 7 and 10).

       The Land Office, besides being a Deeds Registry, advises the Government on, and does the Government conveyancing in, all matters relating to land, including the sale, grant and exchange of Crown land.

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Over the past few years the sale of flats and floors for residen- tial or industrial use has become very popular in Hong Kong and large blocks of flats are rapidly replacing the old, traditional three and four storeyed buildings with which most of the urban areas were developed. This building boom has been due to several factors, first the tremendous demand for residential accommodation stem- ming from an increasing population and increasing prosperity; secondly, the need for more factory space for expanding industries and for factories formerly operating in sub-standard premises; thirdly, the extreme shortage and very high cost of building land which make it an economic necessity to build high; fourthly, the fear of tenants that if they remain in rented accommodation their rents will be increased as the price of land rises; and fifthly, the desire of developers to get a quick return on their investment, and to re-invest their capital and profits in yet another lucrative scheme. So flatted redevelopment proceeds apace, and it is estimated that, quite apart from resettlement estates and other Government build- ings, there are now some 4,000 new multi-storey blocks comprising over 80,000 flats, shops and offices of various sizes, which have been constructed by private enterprise.

An important and serious aspect of this development is that, once a developer has sold all the units in a new building, he has no further interest in them, and the management of the building and its general maintenance are left to the individual flat-owners, who frequently do not have properly-organized committees with suitable powers to run the building. Although normally the flat- owners enter at the time of purchase into a deed of mutual covenants, this does not provide a satisfactory solution because the enforcement of a covenant is not easy and flat-owners are reluctant to incur the costs of litigation over small breaches. Many problems have therefore arisen especially regarding the main- tenance of the fabric of the building and the common parts and services. A Working Party appointed by Government has been investigating all these problems and at the end of the year was about to make recommendations on the steps required to provide for the proper management of large blocks of flats.

      With the building boom at its peak and the process of frag- mentation of lots and buildings in full swing, it was inevitable that the number of land transactions and the amounts involved

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therein should advance to new record figures in 1961. The number of instruments registered in the Land Office rose by 12.9% over the 1960 total to 26,735, and the grand total of the considerations which passed on sales of land soared to $1,113,215,000, as against $642,723,805 recorded in the previous year. The total amount advanced on mortgages of land also constituted a new record, $684,502,000 being advanced at an average rate of interest of around 11% per annum. Over 60,000 names now appear in the Land Office Index of Property Owners, some owning many properties, others being merely co-owners of a small flat.

      Companies. The Companies Registry keeps records of all com- panies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign cor- porations which have established a place of business in the Colony.

      Local companies are incorporated under the Companies Ordinance, which is based on the (now superseded) Companies Act, 1929, of Great Britain. Whereas in the past joint enterprises by Chinese businessmen were undertaken mainly in the form of Chinese partnerships of the traditional type, Chinese businessmen have of recent years become 'Company minded', and the numbers of registrations of companies owned by Chinese have been in- creasing greatly. Nowadays, most new enterprises of any magnitude are launched as limited companies. This is especially true of the building industry where it has become virtually the standard practice to form a new company for each new building venture. Because of the continued building boom and generally active business conditions there was a very sharp rise in the number of company registrations to the new record total of 861 during the year. This was 219 more than in 1960.

The nominal capital of the new companies registered during 1961 totalled $647,843,030, an increase of 25% over the previous year. Twenty five of the companies had a nominal share capital of $5,000,000 or over. On incorporation a company pays a registration fee of $100 plus $2 for every $1,000 of nominal capital. At the end of the year there were 4,976 local companies on the register compared with 4,181 on 31st December 1960.

      Companies incorporated outside the Colony are required to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month after the establishment of a place of business in Hong Kong. Only small filing fees are payable in such cases. During

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the year 41 foreign companies established places of business in the Colony and registered the documents required under the Ordinance, while 24 foreign companies ceased operation. By the end of the year there were 441 foreign companies registered as compared with 424 in 1960. Many foreign companies incorporate subsidiaries in Hong Kong in preference to operating a branch office.

       Insurance companies, local and foreign, which desire to transact life, or fire and marine insurance business in Hong Kong must comply with the provisions of the Life Insurance and Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Ordinances respectively. In addition to the filing of annual accounts, these Ordinances require deposits to be made with the Registrar of Companies unless the company qualifies for exemption by reason of its complying with the Insurance Companies Act, 1958, in Great Britain or, in the case of fire and marine insurance, maintaining similar deposits else- where in the Commonwealth. Arising out of the Colony's great commercial, shipping and industrial interests an immense amount of insurance business is transacted annually, and there are alto- gether 187 companies engaged in the various classes of business. mentioned above. The approval of the Governor in Council must be obtained for transacting motor vehicle third party insurance business.

      The Registrar of Companies keeps a list of all persons and firms authorized for appointment as auditors of locally incorporated companies. The list is in two parts, Part I containing auditors authorized to audit accounts kept in English, and Part II those authorized to audit accounts kept in Chinese. On 31st December 1961 there were 144 names (including 31 firms) in Part I and 113 names (including 24 firms) in Part II.

      The Companies Registry also deals with the incorporation of trustees under the Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, 1958, and with the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partnerships, and money-lenders.

Trade Marks and Patents. Registration of Trade Marks is regu- lated by the Trade Marks Ordinance, 1954, which is based on the United Kingdom Trade Marks Act, 1938. The procedure is laid down in the Trade Marks Rules, 1954, and the prescribed forms can be obtained without charge from the Registrar of Trade Marks, Registrar General's Department. Registrations are valid for seven

HOP WOO CURIOS

CHINESE ANTI

Women Police have become a familiar sight in Hong Kong during the past few years and, whether directing traffic or helping to settle domestic squabbles, have earned themselves a high reputation both inside and outside the Force. The Police dogs, too, are being increasingly used by patrols and have shown they can play a vital part in crime prevention and detection.

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A number of former convicted drug addicts have been given cottages and land at Castle Peak to help them support and rehabilitate themselves. The first four cottages, built by the prisoners themselves, were opened in May by Mrs C. J. Norman, wife of the Commissioner of Prisons (above). The ex-prisoners also receive pigs, poultry and farm tools to assist them.

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years (14 if registered prior to 1st January 1955), but may be renewed indefinitely for further periods of 14 years.

      In view of Hong Kong's importance both as a market and as a manufacturing centre, traders and manufacturers are very much alive to the advantages of having their trade marks registered, and during the year 1,790 applications for registration were received by the department, 1,184 applications (including many made in previous years) were allowed to proceed to advertisement, and 1,076 new marks were registered. The principal countries of origin of the registered marks (with the numbers registered in brackets) were Hong Kong (408), United States of America (168), United Kingdom (162), Japan (102), West Germany (80), Switzer- land (35) and China (8). The total number of trade marks on the Register on 31st December 1961 was 18,261.

       There is no provision in the Laws of Hong Kong for the original grant of patents, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registrable under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. This provides that the grantee of a United Kingdom patent may, within five years from the date of issue of the patent, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong, and registration confers the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the United Kingdom with an extension to Hong Kong. The number of patents registered during the year was 166, as compared with 102 in 1960.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations. During the year the Court made six Receiving Orders, two Orders for the administration in bankruptcy of the estates of deceased debtors, and three Orders for the compulsory winding up of companies. These cases, of course, represent only a small fraction of the number of business failures. As Chinese are in general reluctant to become involved with the authorities, few Chinese businessmen care to submit Debtors' Petitions, while Creditors' Petitions are kept down partly because creditors are disinclined to incur the fairly high legal costs incidental to a petition, and partly because the Court has power to dismiss a petition where it is not satisfied that the assets are sufficient to pay a 15% dividend to unsecured creditors. As for companies, business failures are usually followed by voluntary liquidations or the company is simply left to be struck off the register. During 1961 35 companies were dissolved in the former manner, and 31 in the latter.

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Marriages. All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance. Under this, notice of an intended marriage must be given to the Registrar at least fifteen clear days before the date of the marriage. The Registrar has discretion to reduce this period in special circum- stances, and the Governor may grant a special licence dispensing with notice altogether. Special licences are, however, granted only in the most exceptional circumstances. Marriages may take place either at places of public worship licensed for the celebration of marriages or at a Marriage Registry. Eighty five places of public worship have been licensed for this purpose and there are three full-time Marriage Registries (two with two marriage rooms) in the urban areas, and six Sub-Registries in outlying districts and the New Territories operating one day a week or fortnight. During the period preceding Chinese New Year, which is the most popular time to be married, special arrangements, including extensions of the normal office hours, are made to deal with the large numbers of marriages which have to be celebrated. During the year 10,969 marriages were performed in the Marriage Registries and Sub- Registries, and 1,286 at licensed places of worship. The total was 2,200 more than in 1960.

      The Marriage Ordinance does not apply to non-Christian customary marriages duly celebrated according to the personal law and religion of the parties, and such marriages do not require to be registered. No statistics of such marriages are therefore avail- able, but it is thought that there are, despite the rapidly growing popularity of Registry marriages, still as many unregistered mar- riages as there are registered marriages. The position with respect to these other marriages is far from satisfactory, the great majority being of doubtful validity, since they are contracted not in accord- ance with the full traditional forms prescribed by Chinese custom, but in supposed conformity with the pre-war Civil Code of China. This unsatisfactory position has long been a matter of concern to the Government, and in March a report by the Attorney General and the Secretary for Chinese Affairs was published, seeking the comments and advice of interested associations and the general public. In the light of this Report and the public comments upon it, it is hoped eventually to produce concrete proposals for remedy- ing the situation.

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      Births and Deaths. The registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance. Facilities for registration are provided at the General Register Office and ten District Registries on the Island, four in Kowloon and one at Tsuen Wan. In the outlying areas and islands, births are registered at Rural Committee Offices by District Registrars during regular visits, and deaths are registered at police stations.

During 1961 108,726 births (56,245 male and 52,481 female) were registered as compared with 110,667 (57,048 male and 53,619 female) in 1960. The birth rate per mille for the year was 34.2 as against 37.1 in 1960 and 36.6 in 1959.

      In the New Territories facilities for the registration of births were not available until 1932, and those then provided were not fully used until recent years. The result is that many adults and older children in the New Territories do not possess birth certifi- cates. Since these are essential for many purposes including entry into schools and obtaining passports, there have been thousands of applications for the post-registration of births in the New Territories. To deal with these, three mobile post-registration teams have been operating in the New Territories throughout the year, and 4,013 births there were post-registered. In addition 845 births in the urban areas were post-registered during the year.

      The number of deaths registered totalled 18,738 (10,294 male, 8,443 female, one unknown sex), as compared with 19,146 during the previous year. The death rate per mille for the year was 5.9 as against 6.4 in 1960 and 7.1 in 1959.

      The Births and Deaths Registry compiles the vital statistics of the Colony. The Hollerith system is used for statistics of mortality, the information being recorded by means of punched cards.

Adoptions. An Adopted Children Register is maintained in which are registered adoption orders made by the Court under the Adoption Ordinance, 1956. One hundred and eighty four adop- tions were registered in 1961, 57 more than in 1960.

14

Public Works and Utilities

PUBLIC WORKS

Waterworks. Intensive efforts are being made to solve the water supply problem and 1961 was a year of action which followed on naturally from the major decisions taken in the previous year. These decisions to construct the first stage of the Integrated Scheme and to accept water from China-bring nearer a time when the whole population may get water from the taps 24 hours a day every day and will thus eliminate the problem of water shortage which has affected the Colony for a century, when crisis after crisis occurred as demand outstripped supply.

      During the year work went ahead on the Shek Pik Reservoir on Lantau Island, which will, by 1964, add 5,400 million gallons to Hong Kong storage resources. The indirect catchment area of the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir was further extended, a large filtration plant was completed at Aberdeen and work was started on another plant at Yuen Long.

      Stage one of the Scheme to accept water from China was com- pleted in January. An irrigation reservoir and four dams were constructed in the New Territories to bring further assistance to farmers. The urban area and Tsuen Wan water supply was fluoridated with the object of improving the dental health of future generations of Hong Kong citizens.

      The first stage of the Integrated Scheme includes the tapping of the stream courses round the head of Tolo Harbour between Tai Po and Sha Tin. In some cases, these streams will drop down shafts more than 300 feet deep to the main collecting tunnel which will bring the water to Sha Tin for storage and treatment. The treated water will be pumped to flow by tunnel to service reservoirs on the south side of the Kowloon hills.

Ultimately, with the completion of stage two of this Scheme, the summer surplus yields of these streams will be stored at Plover

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     Cove in a reservoir constructed by the damming of an almost land-locked bay to form a fresh water lagoon. Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley and Messrs Scott & Wilson, Kirkpatrick & Partners, Consulting Engineers for the Integrated Scheme, were asked, while continuing with their investigations into the practi- cability of the Scheme as a whole, to prepare designs and draw up contracts for the tunnels, treatment works at Sha Tin and other associated works in stage one. Several of these contracts have now been let. A bold gamble is being taken to construct the tunnels to such a size as to take the Plover Cove yield, though it is not known for certain whether the construction of the Plover Cove dam is in fact a practical proposition. This action is a measure of the Colony's urgent need for additional water resources.

When completed the Shek Pik Reservoir will bring the Colony's total storage resources to 15,900 million gallons. The dam itself is almost at sea level and now stands an average of 50 feet above the valley floor and is becoming a landscape feature. From what will be the largest of the Colony's reservoirs, the raw or untreated water will flow through supply tunnels by gravity to a pumping station at Pui O, which will lift the water at an average rate of 27 million gallons a day to the treatment works overlooking the bathing beach of Silver Mine Bay.

The treated water will descend below sea level carried by either or both of two 30" diameter submarine pipelines. The steel pipes are made by Hume Pipe Industries Ltd of Singapore. They are protectively lined inside and out, and further protected on the outside by concrete which also serves as ballast so that the pipes sink even when empty. The welding of the pipes into one con- tinuous length and the outer protection of wrapped fibre-glass and concrete is being done in Hong Kong. The 27 foot lengths are made up into pipes 81 feet long which are successively jointed on a 'lay barge' to form a continuous pipeline. As the 'lay barge' is pulled from under the latest 81-foot length to be connected up, that section of pipe follows those already laid to the bottom of a sea- bed trench later to be covered with sand. The only pipes that will be seen are the short lengths contained in a water-tight concrete box off the northern shore of Chau Kung or Sunshine Island where the two 30" pipes will be cross-connected and a small branch sub- marine pipeline laid to serve the island of Peng Chau. The pipes

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will finally emerge at Sandy Bay on Hong Kong Island. From here, the new supply goes through the Sandy Bay Pumping Station to the Mount Davis Service Reservoir which, when completed, will provide storage for 30 million gallons of water fit for drinking and will be the largest service reservoir in the Colony. At this height water will flow by gravity to North Point, and across the harbour to Kowloon, for Shek Pik will provide more water than the Island can now consume.

The Tai Lam Chung Reservoir was opened on 7th May 1957. That date marked the completion of the storage reservoir, tunnels and pipelines, to bring the water into the urban areas, and the construction of the filters. Since then the indirect catchment area has been extended by the construction of open, concrete-lined channels and tunnels. Without this extra yield the reservoir would not fill during an average summer rainfall. An additional 1,321 acres of catchment area were added during 1961.

The new filtration plant at Aberdeen on Hong Kong Island can provide six million gallons a day and meets the need for filtered water which population expansion demands. The new plant at Yuen Long on the western seaboard of the New Territories will supply two million gallons a day.

       Distribution of treated water for domestic and industrial use involves a system of trunk mains to smaller service reservoirs sited at suitable levels. A trunk main of 48′′ diameter steel is being laid along Hong Kong's waterfront. New service reservoirs are situated at North Point on the Island and King's Park on the mainland, others are being constructed at Magazine Gap Road, Chung Hom Kok, Mount Davis, Kennedy Town and Conduit Road on the Island, Fung Wong, Lion Rock and Ngau Tau Kok High Level in Kowloon, and Yuen Long. From the service reservoirs, the water is piped to the houses and factories through a network of mains of varying sizes from large cast iron mains of 18" diameter to small 2" pipes of galvanized iron. The extension and enlarge- ment of this system is a continuous process which must keep pace with development and re-development of existing property in the urban areas, in the new industrial town of Tsuen Wan, and in the rural townships of the New Territories.

The quality of the treated water is high and it may be drunk with safety from the taps.

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To encourage economy, almost all fresh water supplies are metered, and the consumer is charged $1.00 per thousand gallons. Continuous overhaul and maintenance of the 85,000 meters in service forms a large proportion of the work of the Waterworks workshops. In addition, all castings made by local firms for the Waterworks are tested and machined by the workshops staff.

      Most properties in Hong Kong have to rely on well or stream course sources for flushing supplies. For crowded areas such as large resettlement blocks, with a population density of 2,500 persons to the acre, any well is inadequate and increasing use is being made of sea water for flushing. At a rate of 10 gallons per day per person (with a total population of over 3,000,000) this has effected a real saving of treated water. Sea water is pumped to service reservoirs such as those at North Point, Chai Wan, Piper's Hill and Kowloon Tsai for this type of distribution. During the year further flushing reservoirs were added to the system at Tai Wo Ping, Wong Tai Sin, Ma Lau Tong and Jordan Valley.

      The Water Authority also works to improve and extend the traditional irrigation systems on which the New Territories farmers depend for their water and, thus, their livelihood. Since the war, Government has given extensive help to farmers by building water- tight diversion dams and by lining earth irrigation channels, to ensure that the best possible use is made of the water in stream courses for flooding paddy fields and for watering the steadily increasing acreage of vegetable cultivation. Further assistance has been given by the construction of storage reservoirs which can be filled during the rainy season. These not only serve as an insurance against delay in spring planting, if the rains are late, but also may be used by the farmers during the dry weather to irrigate an additional crop of vegetables in fields which would otherwise have to be left hard and fallow. During 1961 in the Pat Heung area the irrigation reservoir at Ho Pui, with a storage capacity of 110 million gallons was completed. So were two dams at Tsing Tam behind which 32 million gallons of irrigation water can be stored. The Water Authority also constructed two dams at Wong Nai Tun and Kwu Tung, together with 48,000 feet of irrigation channels and 56 diversion dams.

The official hours of water supply throughout the year averaged 11.8 hours per day and varied generally for the Colony as a whole

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between 10 and 12 hours per day, with occasional periods of full supply over public holidays.

      Cool or wet weather caused a considerable drop in the daily demand for water, with the result that on various occasions the official supply hours were extended to the limit of the filtration capacity, thereby resulting in an overall increase of 31% of supply time as compared with the previous year. Consumption reached an all-time record of 104.18 million gallons on 11th September 1961.

      Buildings. The demand for public buildings-schools, clinics, hospitals, police stations, fire stations, Government administrative offices, housing and playgrounds increases annually.

      Forty three projects were completed and occupied during the year including the 1,000-bed Mental Hospital and staff accom- modation at Castle Peak, two new wards at Kowloon Hospital and the Magistracy building and staff quarters at Fanling in the New Territories. Five 30-classroom primary schools, a secondary modern school at Fuk Wah Street, the Clementi Middle School, three fire stations, two police stations and a large block of flats for Government officers were also completed.

New projects under construction at the end of the year numbered 36, of which the largest and most important were the 1,320-bed Queen Elizabeth Hospital, the City Hall with its concert hall, theatre, banqueting hall, library and museum and the Kai Tak Airport Terminal Building which is the last stage in the re- development of Kai Tak Airport. With the assistance of private architects and the use of standard plans good progress was made with the schools programme and 10 projects were under construc- tion including a new building for the Northcote Teachers' Train- ing College, a further five 30-classroom primary schools, two secondary schools and one technical school. A large number of Government quarters were being constructed including 100 quarters at North Point for the Fire Services, 716 for the Police at Tin Kwong Road, 90 for the Preventive Service at Hung Hom, 82 flats for senior staff at Mount Nicholson and 60 flats for the Admiralty at Wong Nai Chung Road. Work commenced on a multi-storey car park for 700 cars on the Murray Parade Ground site, and the building will include accommodation for a new telephone exchange. The remaining projects included clinics,

+

    Each year private investors put hundreds of millions of dollars into building projects in Hong Kong. The money comes from many countries and is a striking testimony to the Colony's stability and prospects. At the junction of Garden Road and Queen's Road, in central Victoria, excavations and piling were carried out during 1961 for a 25-storey hotel.

The Hong Kong Government is investing millions in develop- ment and in reclaiming land from the sea. One of the most spectacular examples of this is to be seen at Isuen Wan (above). Since the war, Tsuen Wan has grown from a group of scattered villages into an portant manufacturing centre.

To meet the demand for land. Government is reclaiming the foreshore and a 400-acre bay a cost of $96 million. Spoil

for reclamation (left) is taken Rom nearby hills. A community centre and a Government primary school (right) are among

buildings already completed.

the many new public

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In August, 1961 the Town Planning Board published long-term redevelopment proposals for the central district of Victoria, to include a two-level city centre. A model of the city as it may appear in the future was put on exhibition (above) and drew large crowds. The new City Hall and Star Ferry concourse (below) figure prominently in the layout.

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markets, latrines and bath-houses, parks and playgrounds and small office buildings and police stations.

      Ninety eight Government buildings of various types were being designed; among these were seven primary schools, four secondary schools, six clinics, two fire stations and eight police stations. A large programme of works for housing Government officers was also in hand with two blocks of flats and one block of service flats providing an additional 194 quarters for senior officers, four sites providing a total of 1,000 quarters for the police rank and file and one block of 100 quarters for firemen.

Two important office blocks were being designed, both 20 storeys high, one in Kowloon providing general accommodation for the expanding Government departments in that area and the other at the Police Headquarters, Hong Kong, which will enable the police to centralize their accommodation at present scattered in various private offices in the city.

       Plans for a multi-storey car park for 1,300 cars were completed. This car park, to be built at the foot of the Kowloon Peninsula, will serve Kowloon residents travelling by ferry to Hong Kong. Planned with eight storeys of ramped car parking, one storey of shops below and, as with the Murray Parade Ground car park, a telephone exchange above, it will help to solve the car parking problem in the ferry area and provide valuable information on the maximum reasonable capacity of car parks of this kind.

       The building of resettlement blocks increased and 41 new blocks, each capable of accommodating over 2,000 people were con- structed. This represented a further 3,700,000 square feet of habitable floor area including space for shops, schools and welfare facilities. Shortage of land and length of time often required to clear sites of squatters and carry out site formation (and the fact that by settling perhaps 100,000 persons in an area, long-term problems arise in the provision of public services such as water supply), made it necessary to keep the programme of provision of future sites constantly under review. Sites which have been provi- sionally considered and reserved for development in the next five years will be adequate for about a half million persons.

       The Government Low Cost Housing programme got under way with commencement of construction of the first estate at Kwun Tong. Planning was well advanced on many other sites and this

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will enable the target of housing 20,000 persons per year to be reached within the next two years.

      Drainage. Nearly all built-up areas, including a few of the larger towns in the New Territories, have water-borne sewage systems. However, as large new blocks of flats take the place of very old and much smaller buildings, the flow to the sewers is steadily increasing and many of the older sewers are becoming laden beyond their designed capacity. This has meant continual replace- ment of existing systems by larger mains. The nuisance from seawall sewer outfalls has grown and extensive plans to build intercepting sewers in the place of the many seawall sewer outfalls will soon bring the sewage to selected sites where it will be treated and discharged into deep water through submarine outfalls. Pump houses have been installed in many cases to raise the sewage in the intercepting sewers where the fall is not sufficient for gravity flow. Of the five schemes for the Kowloon Peninsula, the Yau Ma Tei scheme is in complete operation and work was begun on the remaining four. Work on three of the five schemes on the Island was started and one of these, the Wan Chai scheme, is in partial operation.

      Surface water draining down from the hills through built-up areas, used to be led to the sea through large open-trained channels, known locally as 'nullahs'. These nullahs were frequently 10 feet wide or more, and were normally located in the centre of the road. With the tremendous increase in both vehicular and foot traffic, such obstructions had to be removed, and during the last nine years many nullahs have been decked or culverted. Extensive systems of culverts have been constructed at the resettlement estates at Wong Tai Sin, Wang Tau Hom, Kwun Tong, Jordan Valley and Chai Wan, and in new towns such as Tsuen Wan and Shek Wu Hui, to divert stream-courses and facilitate drainage.

      Investigations into the cause of the disastrous floods at Yuen Long in May 1960, have resulted in a plan to reduce the risk of future flooding. It provides for the construction of new culverts and the realignment of existing stream courses over a period of five years. Work on the initial stage of the plan started towards the end of the year. Similar plans for flood control in other vulnerable areas of the New Territories are also being prepared.

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       Port Works. A further stage of the Central Reclamation Scheme -the long-term plan for providing more land along the Victoria waterfront was started. Dredging, in preparation for a 700-foot seawall to the west of the Star Ferry Piers, is now in progress. Work also started on the construction of a large pier to cater for the many small craft that require berths in this area.

       At North Point and Ma Tau Kok, work began on the construc- tion of new vehicular ferry piers which will give a much needed service for vehicles between North Point and Kowloon City. A small reclamation was formed at the North Point site to give a larger concourse area. Nearby, work was started on a new passenger ferry pier for services to Kowloon City.

Prestressed concrete was used for the first time on a large project in Hong Kong in the building of piers at Sha Tau Kok and Kwun Tong. The pier at Sha Tau Kok is over 1,000 feet long. Both piers were built mainly of precast units which were manufactured in a well-equipped prestressing yard established by the contractor.

New public piers built at Lai Chi Chong and Sham Chung in Tolo Harbour will improve communications with a remote area of the Colony which hitherto could only be reached with difficulty from the sea or on foot. Small piers were also built on Lam Tong Island for the Department of Civil Aviation Radio Station and at Shek Kwu Chau Island, together with a seawall, as the first stage in the construction of the Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilita- tion Centre.

Work started on an additional 2,000 feet of seawall at Kwun Tong to permit a further 60 acres of reclamation to be carried out. Similar work undertaken at Silver Mine Bay has provided six acres of reclamation which will be used as a ferry and vehicular con- course for south and east Lantau Island.

The Hydraulics Research Station at Wallingford, Berkshire, continued tests on the scale model of Hong Kong Harbour to discover the effect of reclamation and piers on the tidal currents and reports were produced on the effect of the piers of a possible cross harbour bridge. The Research Station also made a model of part of the Aberdeen Channel and investigated the effect of waves on breakwaters placed across it to determine the best position for them.

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      To supplement the existing automatic tide gauges at Chi Ma Wan and North Point, a third gauge was installed at Tai Po. Recordings from these gauges are forwarded to the Hydrographical Office in Liverpool to assist in the compilation of tide tables. The information gained from these records has also been used in investigations for the Plover Cove Water Supply Scheme and for other local purposes.

Three new jetties were completed at the eastern boundary of Kowloon Docks by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co Ltd. They are of reinforced concrete construction, with sprung wood fenders. The jetties can accommodate vessels up to 500 feet in length, and provide a depth of water of 31 feet at zero tide. Cranes have not yet been installed, but it is intended to bridge the jetty heads and to instal travelling cranes, together with the usual electric power and welding supplies, and salt water fire mains.

The Materials Testing Laboratory, under the direction of the Port Works Office, made about 21,000 tests on building materials for both Government and private firms. This figure was 16% greater than that for the previous year and reflects the growing activity of the building industry and the general desire to attain a higher standard of workmanship.

Land Development. There remain few areas which can be built on without a great deal of preliminary site formation. Besides the individual sites being formed both by Government and by private agencies, the continuing demand for new building land is being met by large scale site formation and reclamation schemes. Two new towns are being formed in this way; Kwun Tong in New Kowloon and Tsuen Wan (including Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi) in the New Territories. Work in Kwun Tong started in 1955 and is planned to be completed in 1968. So far, one-half of the planned area of 514 acres has been formed, including 150 acres of reclamation, and the average rate of production is about an acre a week. The population of the new town is 50,000 and 70 factories have been established. At Tsuen Wan, the second of the new towns, many sites are being formed by the grantees, and the present rate of production of new building land by Government is about half an acre a week. This rate will shortly rise sharply, as

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the pilot contract for Kwai Chung Development scheme has been let and the main contract will be let early in 1962. This will pro- vide 500 acres of new land, including both hill sites and reclama- tion, in five years. The formation work (excluding services), which is being carried out by consulting engineers, is expected to cost about $85,000,000.

      Other major site formation schemes in hand include the Military Hospital, low cost housing at Valley Road and high class housing at Waterloo Road Hill, totalling about 65 acres. In addition, pro- posals have been submitted for development by private enterprise, to a plan prepared by Government, of 183 acres of land opened up by the new Lung Cheung Road on the south side of the Kowloon foothills.

Local Public Works in the New Territories. The New Territories Administration runs a scheme to supply building materials and so encourage villagers to use their own labour on minor village works which are too small for the Government's public works pro- gramme. Where, for exceptional reasons, villages cannot supply or hire labour from their own resources, District Officers may let contracts for the entire work. For larger or more complex jobs. the work may be handled by the New Territories Engineering Unit which is under the supervision of an engineer seconded from the Public Works Department. This self-help scheme has grown considerably in recent years and $1.5 million was provided for it in the financial year 1961-2.

      During 1961 villagers completed many jobs such as pathways, van tracks, drainage channelling, bunds, kerbs, irrigation channel- ling, dams, wells, bridges, playgrounds and piers. One of the most popular schemes is the installation of piped water supplies from intakes or small dams or wells in the nearby hills and fields and piping is regularly supplied for this purpose.

      In addition, the New Territories Engineering Unit placed 16 contracts to a total value of some $280,000 during 1961. Six of these were for footbridges, two for aqua-privy latrines, four for river training and flood control works, one for a village water supply, and three for footpaths. Two of these footpaths, each one and a half miles long, have provided the first all-weather land

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link between groups of isolated villages at the eastern extremity of the Sai Kung peninsula.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Electricity. The generation and distribution of electricity supplies on the Island is done by The Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, from their North Point 'A' and 'B' Power Stations.

The total steam raising capacity is 1,981 klbs/hr and the total generating capacity is 170 MW. No new generating plant was commissioned during 1961.

The primary and secondary transmission voltages are 22 kV, 11 kV and 6.6 kV, with 33 kV transmission to be established within the next two years. Bulk supplies are given at 6.6 kV, with industrial and domestic supplies at 346 volts 3 phase 4 wire and 200 volts single phase respectively.

      New primary substations at Wong Nai Chung Gap and Hospital Road East were completed during the year and the Hospital Road West substation is being rebuilt. Four more primary substations are soon to be developed or re-developed. Thirty five secondary substations were among the many distribution department projects completed in 1961.

       The 1961 maximum demand on the generating plant increased by 10.4% to 114 MW and the greatest output by the stations in any one day increased by 5.1% to 1,778,570 kilowatt hours.

       The amount of electricity generated in 1961 was 530,149,740 kilowatt hours, an increase of 13.7% over the previous year, and the number of consumers at the end of the year was 106,171 an increase of 7.5%. The total sales of electricity for 1961 were as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Sulk Power

126,560,922 kWh

4,128,471

85,227,926

"

Domestic & Commercial Power

244,933,437

""

460,850,756 kWh

       Charges for electricity range from 28 cents to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents a unit for power. These

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      rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which, at the end of the year was 7%. Special rates are quoted for bulk consumers of industrial power.

China Light & Power Co Ltd, supply electricity to Kowloon and the New Territories including Lantau and many smaller outlying islands. During the year demands for more power came from many sources and the Company met them by expanding its services.

       The Generating Station at Hok Yuen, facing Kowloon Bay, has a capacity of 182.5 MW which is to be increased by 60 MW early in 1962 and by a like amount later in the year. Civil works for the installation of a further two 60 MW turbo-alternators are already well advanced and will increase the capacity at Hok Yuen to 422.5 MW during the next few years.

Progress was made during 1961 in connecting more consumers in the New Territories to the supply system and a scheme was started, progressively to include all villages (however small and 'uneconomic'), which resulted in 70 being connected by the end of the year. A supply was made available to the Muk Wo Pumping Station on the Sino-British border immediately the need was made known.

Electricity is supplied at 50 cycles AC, 200 volts for domestic and 200/340 volts for industrial consumers. Transmission is at 33 kV and primary distribution at 6.6 kV but equipment is now being installed to augment the former by a 66 kV system and to uprate the latter to 11 kV working. On the 30th September 1961, the length of the main system was: 33,000 volts, 199 miles, 6,600 volts, 274 miles. There were 346 substations and 839 transformers installed having a total capacity of 706,830 KVA. The trend for Kowloon is apparent from the figures for the financial year 1960-1:

Increase over previous year

Consumers 179,815

Units generated 962,907,500

825,761,241 units were sold made up as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Power ...

Bulk Supply

16.92%

20.69%

155,126,937

4,566,843

287,643,979

378,423,482

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Charges per unit during the year were:

Lighting

Power

Domestic Cooking

29 cents

14 cents

13 cents

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge, at present 7 per cent. Discounts are granted for large consumption and special rates quoted for bulk supply.

      The only part of the New Territories to have an independent source of electric light is Cheung Chau, where there has been an electric power station since 1913. Originally a community project, it was later sold to commercial interests and has since changed hands several times. The present owners, the Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, have their offices in Victoria. The basic rate was reduced several times during the past few years. The present rate is 68 cents per unit for lighting and 30 cents per unit for domestic and commercial power. Special reductions are given to large

consumers.

      Gas. The Hong Kong & China Gas Co Ltd, supplies gas to consumers in the Colony. All gas is made at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon, and the Island is supplied by mains which run under the harbour. Gas is supplied along the whole of the north side of the Island from Queen Mary Hospital in the west to Quarry Bay in the east, as well as in the Happy Valley and Peak areas. On the mainland there is a supply to the whole of the Kowloon Peninsula and up to a line running roughly from Lai Chi Kok in the west along the hills to the Kai Tak RAF Station in the east. Further extensions are planned to other areas.

      Appliances and gas equipment can be obtained from or through the Company by purchase, hire purchase, or on a simple rental basis. Technical advice on the commercial and industrial uses of gas is given without charge. Gas is sold in units of 100 cubic feet. Charges are in two parts, namely, Standing Charges and Regular Charges. 'Standing Charges' include the cost of the first 7 units of gas and are chargeable whether these 7 units are con- sumed or not. They are as follows:

For meters having a rated capacity of less

than 1,000 cubic feet per hour ...

For meters having a rated capacity of

$11.10 per month

more than 1,000 cubic feet per hour... $24.60 per month

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In the rural New Territories a family's wealth is apt to be measured by the number of buffaloes it owns and this useful beast is always seen where men get their living from the land. Apart from any other consideration. it is possible for the farmer's family to strike up a close friendship with their buffalo that they would find hard to achieve with a tractor.

AKIES

RAK

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the

Goats are a comparatively rare aspect of the pastoral scene in the New Territories. While the number of pigs owned by farmers totals nearly 200,000 the goat population is only a few hundred. The effect of goats on freshly-planted rice such as that below is not difficult to imagine, but fortunately this young goatherd (above) knows how to control his charges.

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233

Under 'Regular Charges' gas consumed in excess of 7 units per month is charged for at the following rates:

8- 20 Units @ $1.30 per Unit 21 100 Units @ $1.28 per Unit 101- 250 Units @ $1.25 per Unit 251 - 500 Units @ $1.20 per Unit 501-1,000 Units @ $1.15 per Unit 1,001-2,000 Units @ $1.10 per Unit

Over-2,000 Units @ $1.05 per Unit

The Company considers applications for special bulk supply rates on an individual basis for consumers using over 5,000 Units per month.

The total quantity of gas sold in 1961 was 845,227,300 cubic feet compared with 772,372,200 cubic feet in 1960. The number of consumers rose from 13,840 to 15,446.

       Ferries. The 'Star' Ferry Company Ltd runs a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of Victoria Harbour, about one mile from the commercial centre of the city to Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. There are eight vessels in operation, giving a daily service of 19 hours. During the busy times of the day a ferry leaves from each side once every three minutes on the seven-minute journey, and an unbroken service continues until 1.30 a.m. During 1961 there were 152,107 crossings and a grand total of nearly 42 million passengers, the highest daily total being 172,735. The vessels steamed 121,685 miles.

The Hongkong & Yaumati Ferry Co Ltd began to operate on 1st January 1924 with an authorized capital of $400,000 with 11 small wooden steam-vessels and three cross-harbour ferry services as well as services to outlying districts in the New Territories.

        The routes inside the harbour are between Wilmer Street, Jubilee Street, Stewart Road and Tonnochy Road on the Island, and Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok, Jordan Road and Kowloon City on Kowloon Peninsula. The Company also operates a combined vehicular and passenger ferry service across the harbour between Jubilee Street and Jordan Road. This service is supplemented by a temporary ferry service for vehicles only between Rumsey Street and Jordan Road, pending the completion of new vehicular ferry piers at North Point and Kowloon City in 1962.

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      During 1961 a record number of 102 million passengers and 1,997,000 vehicles were carried, an increase of 4 million passengers and 290,000 vehicles over the previous year. Traffic carried on the ferry services to outlying districts continued to show an increase. During the summer months large numbers of holiday- makers travelled to the beaches at Cheung Chau and Silver Mine Bay. The Tai O service was well supported by pilgrims for the monasteries and nunneries on Lantau Island. During the year, large numbers of hikers left Hong Kong by ferry for Tai O to climb to the Ngong Ping Plateau where the 'Precious Lotus Monastery' is situated and then descend to Silver Mine Bay to return by ferry to Hong Kong. The Tolo Harbour Ferry service was again operated at a loss for the benefit of isolated villages in the district. The ferry service between Hong Kong and Tsuen Wan via Tsing Yi Island carried over 1.2 million passengers.

      The Company ran an extremely popular round Hong Kong Island excursion trip leaving twice weekly from Jubilee Street Ferry Pier. Tourists in particular were able to benefit from this service.

      New construction during the year consisted of four new vehicular ferry vessels of 42′ breadth × 170′ length capable of carrying 25 lorries or 45 cars. These vehicular ferries were built by the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co Ltd and are equipped with Voith Schneider propulsion. This is the first time that this type of propulsion has been used in Hong Kong. Throughout the year the three slipways at the Company's depôt in Tai Kok Tsui were fully engaged in servicing the fleet.

      In early 1961 the Company's workmen's quarters consisting of 354 individual units were completed, housing a total of 2,074 persons.

PUBLIC ROAD TRANSPORT SERVICES

      Government continued to implement its intentions of improving bus services, controlling more effectively public cars and hire cars and introducing a New Territories' taxi service, and this resulted in a much improved public transport service. The number of buses in use by the two major bus companies has increased. Additional routes were introduced and services on existing routes were stepped up.

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235

       The introduction and licensing of hire cars, public cars and New Territories' taxis resulted in a substantial and much needed increase in transport facilities throughout the Colony and did much to eliminate the use of illegal forms of public transport. However, a number of vehicles are still being used illegally. In October, an Advisory Committee on Public Transport was appointed to advise Government on public transport services in general.

Bus Services. The China Motor Bus Co Ltd maintains bus services on Hong Kong Island. It operates a fleet of 307 vehicles- 298 buses, seven public cars and two sightseeing coaches. Twenty new buses were on order at the end of the year including four double deckers for experimental operation on low level routes.

      The number of persons travelling by bus continued to increase. During 1961, the Company's fleet covered 12 million miles and carried 120 million passengers. Two new routes were introduced on the Peak to provide a link between the Peak Tram and nearby residential areas, and a new feeder service was inaugurated between Stanley Village and Stanley Fort for the convenience of military personnel and their families. Two routes were extended to areas not previously served by buses, and the frequency of other services was increased.

      The Company operates a welfare centre and provides free medical treatment for all its staff. It also provides low cost housing for some 250 employees and their families and is planning addi- tional housing units at its new King's Road Depôt.

The Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Limited runs services in Kowloon and the New Territories.

      At the end of 1961 the Company was operating 55 bus routes (33 in Kowloon, 21 in the New Territories and one on Lantau Island) an increase of 12 bus routes during the year. Frequencies of many of the services were stepped up and double deck buses introduced on several Kowloon routes and the route to Tsuen Wan which formerly used single deckers.

       Land at Kwun Tong with a total area of approximately 200,000 square feet was purchased and it is the intention of the Company to construct two multi-storey depôts on these sites.

      The Company's fleet totalled 721 vehicles comprising 345 double deck buses 368 single deck buses and eight tour coaches. An order

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PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

      for 70 double deck buses was placed during the year of which 20 have been delivered and put into service.

      During 1961, 436 million passengers were carried compared with 375 million in 1960, and the total mileage covered by the Company's buses in 1961 was 35 million miles compared with 29.8 million in 1960.

      Tramways. An electric tramway service is operated on Hong Kong Island by Hong Kong Tramways Limited. The track, the gauge of which is 34 feet, is about 194 miles in length if single tracks are measured. It goes from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the Race Course in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the City of Victoria. The tramcars are four-wheeled double-deckers, with single staircases, and are designed for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The operating current is a 500 volts direct current.

      The average daily service of cars run in 1961 was 143. This gave a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, which is in the centre of the system, the minimum frequency of service was a car every 34 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried during the year was 187 million, and the total mileage run was 7.9 million.

       Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route of 20 cents 1st class, and 10 cents 3rd class; the maximum distance is 63 miles. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and con- cession fares are given to children, students and Services personnel.

      The Company has taken a leading place in the Colony in provid- ing welfare facilities for its employees. These include free medical and dental services, entertainment, rest rooms, sport and low rent housing.

       The Peak Tram. The Peak Tramways Co Ltd, runs a funicular railway service up the Peak, which rises steeply behind the Central district of Victoria. The Company was formed in 1888 to provide transportation for residents of the old Peak Hotel which no longer exists. The original haulage equipment was steam driven, but in 1925 the tramway was modernized and the machinery was changed to a system of haulage of the mining type which, with modification, is still used.

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237

      The modern lightweight locally built aluminium cars, drawn along tracks by nearly two miles of steel cable, carry about 1,750,000 people up the mountain each year. The cars seat 72 passengers and two of these cars can carry 850 people up and down the Peak in an hour. The tramway takes passengers up to an altitude of 1,305 feet above sea level, and the steepest part of the track has a gradient of one in two. It is reputed to be the steepest funicular railway in the world using a steel wire rope as its sole means of haulage.

       Taxis and Hire Cars. The Road Traffic (Taxis and Hire Cars) Regulations, 1960 provide for the registration and licensing of taxis for use specifically on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and in the New Territories. The conditions under which they may be used and the fares charged, vary with each area. On Hong Kong Island taxis carry four passengers only and fares charged are $1.50 for the first mile and 20 cents for every 1/5 mile thereafter or 25 cents for every 1/4 mile thereafter depending on the type of taximeter in use. A Taxi service limited to journeys to and from the Peak on Hong Kong Island carries three passengers at a rate of $1.00 per mile and 20 cents for each 1/4 mile thereafter.

There are 496 taxis licensed for use on the Island. In Kowloon there are both small and large taxis for the carriage of three or four passengers respectively. The fare charged for all taxis in Kowloon is $1.00 for the first mile and 20 cents for every 1/4 mile thereafter. There are 350 taxis licensed to operate in the New Territories. These taxis may operate anywhere in the New Territories and may transport passengers to any place in Kowloon. They may pick up passengers in Kowloon for destinations in the New Territories but only at taxi stands reserved for their use in Kowloon. They may not operate internally in Kowloon. Fares for New Territories taxis carrying up to 4 passengers are 80 cents for the first mile and 20 cents for every 1/4 mile thereafter. For taxis carrying 5 to 9 passengers the fare is $1.00 for the first mile and 25 cents for every 1/4 mile thereafter.

      Hire cars are also licensed under the provisions of the Road Traffic (Taxis and Hire Cars) Regulations, 1960. These vehicles can be hired by individual members of the public for carriage of persons or goods. They may be driven by the hirer provided he or she holds a valid driving licence to drive a private car, or the

238

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

licensee may provide a properly qualified driver. No scale of fees is laid down by law for the hire of these cars and amounts charged vary in accordance with the type of car, period of hire and whether or not a driver is provided. At the end of the year 69 Hire Cars were licensed. They have been used mainly by tourists.

Another new category of vehicle introduced on 1st April 1961 by the Road Transport (Public Omnibus and Public Car) Regula- tions, 1961 is the 'Public Car'. These vehicles are operated in accordance with a franchise granted by the Governor and are used for transport services excluded from the monopolies of the major bus companies. At the end of the year there were 31 licensed Public Cars. They are used mainly by tourists on sight-seeing tours, by hotel managements who provide transport for their guests and for the carriage of air passengers and air-line employees between the Airport and hotels, air-line offices and ferry termini.

15

Communications

HONG KONG Owes its very existence to its position on the China Coast, where it forms a focus of most of the communication routes in eastern Asia. Although in the course of years its old entrepôt and other commercial activities have been joined by new industries, the Colony is still closely dependent on efficient organization and control of its shipping, aircraft, rail and road transport, posts and telecommunications, and weather services.

MARINE

The Port of Victoria is a natural harbour to which has been added all the facilities required by the modern ship owner. Ships up to 500 feet in length are built and ships of all sizes and types repaired. Adequate berths at Government buoys or at private wharves and piers allow a continual flow of ocean and coastal shipping to pass through the Port unhindered by delays. Adequate lighterage and up-to-date cargo handling equipment ashore ensure the rapid turn round of modern vessels which is vital to their economic operation. Chinese crews with a justifiable reputation for ability and hard work may be engaged for an entire ship or for a particular shipboard department and all forms of ships' stores and provisions are readily obtainable.

The Director of Marine supported by the staff of the Marine Department and with the advice of shipping and commercial interests represented on various advisory committees, is responsible for ensuring that the facilities and services available in the Port of Victoria keep pace with the needs of Hong Kong and of the shipping companies whose services are vital to the well-being of the Colony.

      The approaches to the harbour are provided with a compre- hensive system of navigational aids and first contact with the Port can be made by using the radio beacon or the 21 mile light which together with a diaphone fog signal is maintained by the Marine

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Department on Waglan Island. The nearer approaches to the harbour are well covered by shore lights, fog signals and light buoys fitted with radar reflectors, and entry may be made to the Port in all weathers and at any time of the day or night. Vessels enter the harbour, which is well lit and singularly free from sub- merged dangers, by Lei Yue Mun in the east with drafts of up to 36 feet, by Sulphur Channel in the west with drafts of 28 feet or south of Stonecutters Island, again with drafts of 28 feet. Pilotage is not compulsory, but is advisable due to the density of harbour traffic.

      Unhappily, at the beginning of the year, on 18th April 1961, the Hong Kong registered ship 'China Fir' outward-bound at night for Japan with a cargo of iron ore from Marmagao, went aground on a rocky islet on the eastern side of the Tathong Channel and was eventually declared a constructive total loss. Salvage attempts to remove the wreck and the cargo continued throughout the year and achieved partial success when a detached section comprising two-thirds of the wreck was refloated in October.

On the 17th November 1961, seven months after the stranding of the 'China Fir' the Panamanian registered vessel 'Dennis l' also outward-bound at night but in ballast, ran aground between the shore on the eastern side of the Tathong Channel and the islet on which lay the 'China Fir'. The operations of a local salvage company were successful in refloating the 'Dennis I' within three weeks of her stranding.

       Quarantine and immigration formalities take place at the Eastern or Western Quarantine anchorages. Port Health and Immigration Department launches are on duty in the Eastern anchorage from 7 a.m. to midnight and in the Western anchorage from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. Radio pratique may be granted to vessels arriving from non-infected ports. This arrangement, apart from reducing the number of movements within the busy part of the harbour, is popular with passengers and consignees for it means that disembarkation and cargo work may begin immediately the ship is berthed.

      A Marine Department signal station at Waglan Island enables first sighting reports of vessels in the Eastern approaches to be passed to Port Control, owners or agents in the harbour area.

COMMUNICATIONS

241

Three other signal stations run by the department keep a 24-hour watch, report all shipping movements to the Port Control Office, and are available for ship-shore visual signals communications at any time. Marine Officers attached to the Port Control Office can be contacted at any time out of office hours through the Marine Department Signal Tower. Navigation warnings, synoptic weather charts and information of value to shipping in the China Sea area are readily available to all vessels at the time of clearance.

       Radio telephones on a common circuit are installed in the Marine Signal Tower, Port Control Office and Marine and Port Health launches, and all Police, Immigration Department and Commerce and Industry Department launches are equipped with radio telephones on their own departmental circuits. Vessels at buoys or wharves may hire radio telephones commercially which link up with the public telephone service.

       The Port has, in the 'Alexander Grantham', one of the largest and most up-to-date firefloats in the world. This vessel together with other smaller firefloats is kept in a state of constant readiness by the Hong Kong Fire Services Department to combat ship fires anywhere in the Colony waters and is capable, if necessary, of proceeding beyond Colony limits. In addition, the Marine Depart- ment has established, at key points around the harbour, portable banks of carbon dioxide filled cylinders. Each of these banks can smother a fire in the largest hold of any ship visiting the Port.

      The geographical location of Hong Kong, its reputation for speed and efficiency in cargo handling, the absence of unnecessary obstructions to trade and commerce and the adequacy of tranship- ment facilities combined during the year to ensure a continued high level of Port activity and there were again more than 10,000 movements of ocean-going ships in and out of the harbour. Transhipment cargo accounted for an appreciable proportion of the cargo handled in the Port. Details of the 8,165,962 deadweight tons of cargo imported or exported during the year are given at Appendix X.

      The continued development of the Colony as a centre of light industry is well supported by the shipping companies who both bring in the raw materials to the Colony and take away the finished products to destinations all over the world. Some twenty

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companies provide regular sailings to Europe and another twenty services are run to the North American continent. Sailings to Australia and New Zealand, South Africa and South America and to all Asian Ports are both regular and frequent. Passenger ship companies maintain scheduled services from Hong Kong at frequent intervals to ports all over the world, and the luxury liners belonging to companies operating round-the-world or trans-Pacific cruises call regularly at Hong Kong.

The Government maintains through the Marine Department a total of 52 moorings for ocean-going vessels. All these moorings were designed by members of the Department and 25 are classified as suitable for the use of vessels up to 600 feet in length in typhoon conditions. Additional moorings are being planned. Commercial wharves can accommodate vessels up to 750 feet in length with drafts up to 32 feet. The provision of berthing facilities to take larger vessels likely to call at Hong Kong is under discussion, and improved passenger facilities are being provided. There is also, both within and beyond the harbour limits, considerable anchorage space with good holding ground of varying depths.

      The principal wharf and godown company has permanent storage space for 760,000 tons and the total available in the Colony is well over 1,000,000 tons. Additional space will be available in 1962 when various schemes on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula and at Tsuen Wan for the erection of new large godowns are completed. The storage and transhipment space in the Port caters for all types of refrigerated, dangerous and ordinary goods. Hong Kong stevedoring companies and wharf companies handle these, and other cargoes requiring special stowage or heavy lift techniques, at a rate which compares favourably with any other port.

      Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at one stage transported by lighter, and there are now over 2,000 lighters and junks used for this purpose, of which more than 200 are mechanically propelled. This mechanized fleet, consisting mainly of family operated units, is expected to grow even larger since this form of transport is particularly suited to the rapid handling and delivery of the small parcels of cargo which make up a considerable proportion of the tonnage handled in the Port.

COMMUNICATIONS

243

Three of the major oil companies have depôts in the Colony and provide first class bunkering services either at their own wharves or by lighter to any berth in the Port. Fresh water, the supply of which may in dry seasons be limited, and bunker coal, are also available at wharves or by lighter.

       Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervised the engage- ment and discharge of over 67,000 seamen during the year, and it is estimated that some 28,500 Hong Kong seamen are regularly engaged in a sea-going capacity in ships under many different national flags. The Office works closely with the Port Welfare Committee in ministering to the needs of crews of visiting ships through organizations devoted to this work. Nearly $180,000 pro- vided partly by private donations and partly by a Government subvention was made available during the year for this work.

Shipbuilding and ship-repairing have continued at a satisfactory level during the year and local shipbuilders have continued to con- solidate the Colony's position as the chief centre in the Far East for the construction of yachts of superior quality and workman- ship, and also the construction of specialized vessels for service in such places as Ceylon, Pakistan, Malaya, Burma and New Zealand. Ship repairs and conversions have continued to yield a steady source of employment; repairs can be carried out with such skill and speed that Hong Kong has been able to obtain its fair share of this type of work in competition with similar ports in the Far East. Among the work undertaken during the year was the conversion of two passenger liners, one to a pilgrim and tourist- cruise ship and the other to an unberthed passenger vessel.

The volume of new construction and repair work and the needs of the thousands of vessels calling at the Port during the normal course of a voyage kept the Government marine surveyors, the surveyor representatives of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas and the American Bureau of Shipping fully employed. The ship surveys staff of the Marine Department, apart from ensuring the observance of the International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea and on Load Lines and conducting examinations for Certificates of Competency as Master, Mate or Engineer of British Foreign-going Merchant Ships, was increasingly occupied during the year with tonnage computations and in checking standards of crew accommodation for the new ships built and for others whose

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owners were applying for registration of their vessels under the British flag.

      The Hong Kong Registry of Shipping now lists over 500 vessels under the British flag totalling some 600,000 gross register tons, of which 146 vessels are of over 500 gross tons. The Colony is fast becoming one of the leading centres in the world for tramp- shipowning and a good deal of chartering business, previously the preserve of New York or London, is finding its way to Hong Kong. The Colony is now one of the four main shipping centres of the world and its importance both in respect of shipowning and ship chartering continues to increase steadily.

       The Port of Victoria has a water-borne traffic density higher than most great ports. The 11 cross harbour ferry services which all operate at very frequent intervals, the lighters, both self- propelled and towed, together with hundreds of motor launches, fishing vessels and pleasure craft, combine to create special problems in the day-to-day running of the Port. Some 26,000 native type craft and other small vessels operate in the Colony waters, of which over 4,500 are mechanized, and one office of the Marine Department is devoted to the control, needs and problems of this community which plays so important a part in the economic structure of the Port, and of the Colony as a whole. Examinations are compulsory for Local Certificates of Competency as Master or Engineer of all mechanized fishing vessels, launches or any other engine driven craft. These examinations, the standard of which is being gradually raised, have been an important factor in ensuring a continued high standard of handling and safety pre- cautions in small vessels. As a result, there have been far fewer accidents than might be expected considering the number of craft moving in the harbour or elsewhere both by day and by night. The major part of the water transportation of locally moving cargoes is by towed lighters or by junks, and in the external trade with Macau and adjacent Chinese ports a quarter of a million tons of foodstuffs and building materials were imported during the year, and some 133,000 tons exported. In Colony waters, a similar movement of bulk commodities took place between the harbour area and outlying places, some 944,000 tons being transported inwards, of which the greater part was sand for the building trade, and 142,000 tons outwards.

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      The two large typhoon shelters built in the past by Government for the protection in bad weather of lighters, fishing vessels and other ancillary craft serving the Port, were fully occupied during the year. Strict control of all craft was necessary to obtain full use of anchorage or mooring space while at the same time maintaining open lanes for the free movement of craft, and, in particular, for Fire Services launches in the event of fire. There was considerable over-crowding in both harbour shelters during typhoon 'Alice' on 19th May 1961, when some 7,500 craft sought shelter, and some damage was done to Government launches, commercial lighters and junks.

      The shipbreaking industry in Hong Kong, one of the biggest in the world, maintained a high level of activity during 1961, break- ing up 71 old ships totalling over 450,000 gross tons. Approxi- mately half the scrap metal provided by this industry was used by local rolling mills and the remainder was exported. In July the 31 year old P&O passenger liner 'Strathaird' (22,508 gross tons)- the largest ship ever to be purchased by local breakers-arrived in the harbour at the end of her last voyage. It will take a year to dismantle the ship completely.

In view of the imminent reclamation of some of the foreshore sites at present in use as breakers yards, consideration was given during the year to the provision of alternative safe berths outside harbour limits for vessels being broken up.

CIVIL AVIATION

      The broad promontory of the Hong Kong Airport runway, projecting over a mile into Kowloon Bay, is a familiar sight to visitors. The development of civil aviation in the Colony has kept pace with that elsewhere in the world and has, by reducing the time spent in travelling from Europe and the Americas to a matter of hours, had an immense impact on life in the Colony.

      The first flight by an aircraft in Hong Kong took place in 1911, but it was not until some twenty years later that aviation began to show the first real signs of the growth that was to follow in the years to come. The small grass airfield on the north shore of Kowloon Bay, which had been the scene of many earlier historic flights, was considerably extended by reclamation during the early

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      1930's, and in 1936 a weekly mail and passenger service by Imperial Airways, between Hong Kong and Penang, connecting with the London-Singapore-Australia service, was inaugurated. Later that year services to Canton and Shanghai were introduced, and in 1937 Pan American Airways opened up the trans-Pacific route to Manila and San Francisco. The growth continued, and at the time of the outbreak of war in the Pacific which brought a temporary halt to civil air operations, five companies were operat- ing regular scheduled flights to and from the Colony.

      After the war, civil air transport re-started at an increased tempo, and it soon became apparent that the advent of more modern types of aircraft had made existing facilities quite inade- quate. The generally mountainous terrain made a site for a new Airport difficult to find, and the decision was made to modernize and develop the existing Airport by very extensive reclamation. Work commenced on this project in 1956, and in a truly remark- able feat of engineering a promontory 7,800 ft. long and 800 ft. wide was reclaimed entirely from the waters of Kowloon Bay. To the south-east, a gap in the surrounding hills at Lei Yue Mun Pass makes possible direct approaches to the seaward end of the runway, and the extensive removal of hills, has provided a safe, gently curving approach from the north-west.

      The new runway, 8,350 ft. long and stressed to take aircraft weighing up to 400,000 lbs, was opened in 1958. It is suitable for use by the most modern types of aircraft now flying or currently envisaged. An extensive landing area is available alongside the promontory for flying-boats. The latest navigational and approach aids have been installed, and an instrument landing system, surveillance radar, and precision approach radar contribute greatly to the safety and regularity of air services to the Colony. Modern airport and approach lighting have made safe night operations possible in spite of the surrounding hills.

      The terminal apron area can accommodate eleven large aircraft, and has a hydrant refuelling system controlled from a centralized fuel farm. A converted freight building still serves as a temporary terminal, but construction of a new and modern terminal building, which is expected to come into use in July 1962, is now well advanced.

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      Responsibility for the supervision of all aspects of civil aviation in the Colony and the co-ordination of plans for its development rests with the Director of Civil Aviation. Full operational services are provided, including Air Traffic Control, Telecommunications, Air-Sea Rescue, Airport Fire Service, Aeronautical Information Service, Aircraft Registration and Certification of Airworthiness, Personnel Licensing and, in conjunction with the Royal Observa- tory, an Aeronautical Meteorological Service.

      Opportunities for private flying are somewhat restricted by the small size and geographical location of this Colony, and by the obvious difficulties involved in carrying out ab initio training at a busy international airport. Light aircraft are, however, available at the Far East Flying Training School which was established in 1934, and since then has done much to foster a spirit of air- mindedness in Hong Kong. The School also offers full-time courses of training in aeronautical engineering and electronics.

Comprehensive facilities for the maintenance, repair and over- haul of aircraft and engines are available at the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company's modern depôt at the Airport.

Two locally based airlines operate aircraft registered in the Colony. The first, Cathay Pacific Airways, began in 1946 as the private enterprise of two wartime pilots, and developed in a typically energetic Hong Kong fashion. From one DC-3 when operations began, the company's fleet has now grown to one DC-4, one DC-6, one DC-6B and two Lockheed Electras, operating on a wide network of routes extending to India, Japan, the Philippines and Australia. A Convair 880 jet airliner has recently been ordered. The other local airline, Macau Air Transport Company Ltd, has recently commenced a service of four flights daily to nearby Macau, using a Piaggio P 136 amphibious aircraft.

       Some 140 scheduled services operated by 19 international airlines arrive each week at Hong Kong Airport. There are, in addition, numerous charter and other non-scheduled flights. A feature of the year was the continued increase in the number of services operated by the most modern types of pure jet aircraft, which now account for more than half of the Airport's scheduled movements. New arrivals included the Boeing 720 and Convair 880, which joined the now familiar Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8 and Comet IV as regular visitors.

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The volume of air traffic continued to increase steadily, and passenger and freight figures showed increases of some 25.6% and 14.9% respectively over the preceding year.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

The British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon Peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun where it joins the Chinese railway system. The northern bank of the Sham Chun River forms part of the inter- national boundary. Since 1949 passengers travelling to and fro have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China, and to walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads, however, travel through without transhipment.

      At present, there are twelve daily passenger trains and a daily average of one goods train each way on the British section. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and on public holidays, especially in winter time. Special trains are often run between the Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin station which is a popular picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon and the border station at Lo Wu is about an hour.

      The greatest number of passengers ever carried in a single day during the year was 76,650. This occurred on 5th April (the Ching Ming Festival) when many passengers went to visit their ancestors' graves in Wo Hop Shek Cemetery at Fanling and Sandy Ridge at Lo Wu.

      The fares are very reasonable. Third class from Kowloon to Sha Tin, a distance of 7.14 miles, is only fifty cents; children under 12 years of age pay half; the second class fare is 50% more than the third and the first class is double. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available at all stations. For a quarterly ticket, the fare is the sum of 75 ordinary single fares and for a monthly ticket, 30 ordinary single fares. The holders may use their tickets on any train and as many times as they like on any day.

      Passengers carried within the Colony during 1961 were 5,966,183 or 87.30% of the total. Passengers to and from the frontier station of Lo Wu numbered 868,298, and the majority of these travelled

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The ubiquitous sampan serves many purposes in Hong Kong. At Aberdeen, on Hong Kong Island, hundreds of sampans are moored, looking from the air rather like a collection of coloured clogs. In such places the waters are almost as crowded as Hong Kong's streets and the craft must be 'parked in rows, leaving room to get in and out.

Hong Kong is a place of contrasts and these are never more marked than when seen from the air. Kowloon (above) has in recent years become a cosmopolitan city of skyscrapers and crowded streets, while only a few miles away in the New Territories (below) life goes on much as it always has among the walled villages and rice fields.

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between Hong Kong and China. Three new diesel electric locomo- tives were delivered during the year, and the British section now has eight of these. The section also maintains one steam locomo- tive which is kept in reserve, a rail-bus, 49 passenger coaches and 210 wagons. Twenty three new coaches are on order for delivery in 1962. All trains are pulled by the diesel electric locomotives.

ROADS

      To keep pace with the ever increasing flow of traffic in the Colony nearly eight million dollars was spent during the year on the improvement and reconstruction of existing roads and on building new roads.

More main roads are needed to serve projected housing and industrial areas and additional feeder roads are required in the agricultural sections of the New Territories. The demands upon the financial resources of the Colony for road works are therefore considerable, particularly as all roads must be surfaced in con- crete or bituminous materials to withstand tropical rainfall. Moreover, improvements which necessitate the purchase of adjoin- ing land are frequently extremely expensive. To keep abreast of the rapid development in the new towns of Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan, which have been built largely on land reclaimed from the sea, considerable lengths of new roads were constructed. These included a section of the Kwun Tong Road dual carriageway through Ngau Tau Kok and the final stage of the Texaco Road widening, also designed to provide a dual carriageway.

      Three major projects, which were completed in 1961, have greatly improved traffic conditions. The first was Lung Cheung Road, which runs along the lower slopes of the Kowloon foothills linking Kai Tak in the east to Tai Po Road in the west. The road provides some fine views and is popular with visitors and tourists. The second project was the improvement to Castle Peak Road, between Kowloon and Tsuen Wan, which was widened to a dual carriageway over most of its length. The road serves the growing industrial centre of Tsuen Wan which, with Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi, is being planned to accommodate an eventual population of some 650,000 people. It is also the main route to the western part of the New Territories and is now carrying more than 10,000 vehicles per day. The third major project completed during the year was

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the dual carriageway through the site of the former Naval Dock- yard connecting Connaught Road and Gloucester Road.

      Another major improvement to the Colony's road system will be a mile long tunnel through the Kowloon Hills. This tunnel was started in June 1961 as part of a new water supply scheme. It will be some years before the tunnel will be used as a road link but when this materializes, it will provide an alternative route from Tsim Sha Tsui via Nairn Road to Sha Tin: safer and shorter than the existing route along Nathan Road and Tai Po Road. The new route is expected to satisfy the demands of traffic for the next 15 years.

       In the Pat Heung Valley, the first two miles of the new Kam Sheung Road were completed. Eventually this road will give motor transport access to the many scattered farming communities in the area, as well as linking up with the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir Road to the south. Work was well advanced on the extension of the Deep Bay Road to the coast at Lau Fau Shan. Widening of the South Lantau Road between Silver Mine Bay and Cheung Sha was also nearing completion.

      In the New Territories, five bridges were completely recon- structed and the decks of seven others were strengthened. Route TWSK, the former military road between Tsuen Wan and Sek Kong, became the complete responsibility of Government on 1st May, and is now carrying a new express bus service to Yuen Long, as well as providing an additional route for private cars to and from the western New Territories.

      The total length of all roads in the Colony which are main- tained at public expense by Government is now 516 miles, an increase of 11 miles over the figure for 1960. The total is made up of 191 miles of road on Hong Kong Island, 137 miles in Kowloon and 188 miles in the New Territories.

The Roads Office operates two quarries, producing high quality aggregate for concrete and road-making materials, as well as bituminous mixes for road surfacings. Experiments, including trials using rubber additives, continue, in order to improve the mixes. One of the Government quarries at Hok Yuen is nearing the end of its useful life and plans for its replacement at Yau Tong are well advanced. The quarry section dealt with some 100 applications

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for Dangerous Goods (blasting) licences, and gave advice in con- nexion with landslides and the removal of dangerous boulders.

MULTI-STOREY CAR PARKS

There are two multi-storey public car parks-the Star Ferry Car Park and the City Hall Car Park-conveniently located in the central business and shopping district of Victoria. These car parks, which are under the control of the Urban Council, can accom- modate 631 vehicles.

The ordinary charge is 50 cents for 24 hours parking, rising to $5 for a 24 hour period. Special cheap rates are in force for parking during the evenings, at week-ends and on public holidays. There is also a monthly pass which costs $40 and allows the holder to park at any time without extra charge.

     Free parking space in the Central District of Victoria is being gradually reduced with the progress of fairly rapid redevelopment in the area. This has led to an increase in the pressure on paid parking space for the cars of city workers, with the result that the car parks are usually filled to capacity during normal office hours. An average of 25,012 cars used the two parks each month during 1961.

Work started on the construction of a third car park of eight storeys at the southern end of the former Murray Parade Ground. This park will provide space for about 700 vehicles and should be completed in the autumn of 1962. It will help considerably in easing parking difficulties in the commercial centre of Victoria.

POST OFFICE

The big increase in Hong Kong's post-war population coupled with the industrial, housing and educational development which has already taken place or is planned, is making ever increasing demands on the Colony's postal services. To meet these demands, the Post Office is working in close co-operation with Government planning sections, especially over the provision of postal services for the new satellite towns.

Two new Post Offices were opened during 1961 bringing the number of offices in the Colony to 26, of which 10 are on Hong Kong Island, eight in Kowloon and eight in the New Territories and

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outlying islands. Most of these offices handle both normal counter business and delivery services. One of the two new Offices was opened on Peng Chau Island in a composite building which also accommodates the local Fire Station and the Urban Services staff. It serves a community of about 4,500 people whose occupations include fishing, farming and match making. Peng Chau is the second of the islands to have its own Post Office and a third on Lantau Island was under construction at the end of the year. Although these outlying island offices are small and usually staffed by only one clerk and one or two postmen, they are able to bring a full range of post office counter facilities to a rural community which had previously been restricted to buying stamps from an authorized agent.

      The second office to be opened was at Sai Kung in the eastern part of the New Territories, where the Post Office staff are sharing a field office with the New Territories Administration, until a permanent Post Office is built.

       In addition, the main Kowloon Post Office at Tsim Sha Tsui was expanded during the year when the Army and Royal Air Force Movement Control Offices moved out of part of the accom- modation in Salisbury Road which they had previously shared with Government. The new accommodation, which was available as the result of this move, was converted into a parcel delivery office, an extension to the letter sorting office and a van parking

area.

      Normal Post Office counter business such as the sale of stamps, handling foreign parcels, registration of mail, sale of money orders, postal orders and wireless licences is done at most of the offices in the Colony. There are also a number of special postal services used mainly by business houses, such as business replies, COD collections, provision of private boxes, private bags and pre- paid postage services, including postage franking machines. Mail delivery is carried out twice a day (excluding Sundays) in all but the more remote rural areas. In these more isolated parts and most of the islands, mail is distributed by an authorized agent who is paid a monthly fee by the Department. At all centres parcels are delivered over the counter.

       Direct communication is maintained with as many foreign Post Offices as possible so that when there is sufficient correspondence,

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direct overseas despatches can be made, thus excluding inter- mediate offices and speeding up the transmission of letters or parcels. The thousands of mail bags which are handled daily by the Post Office are conveyed to and from ships and across the harbour in launches which are provided and staffed by the Marine Department. A new 70-foot launch was added to the fleet during the year bringing the total number of Government craft engaged on postal business to six.

During the year, there was a marked increase in the despatch of postal packets to China. This first became evident in January and reached a peak in May 1961 when 43,000 bags containing about 1 million packets were sent into China by train alone. Extra staff was taken on by the Post Office to accept and sort these packets and junks were also used to carry the mail up the Pearl River to Canton.

      In September, to commemorate the Hong Kong University Golden Jubilee celebrations, the Post Office issued a special multi- colour stamp depicting the University Court and also opened a temporary Post Office at the University to cater for visitors.

Wireless Division. As a result of the appointment in 1960 of Wireless Engineer, to the Wireless Division of the Post Office, it has been possible to enlarge and diversify the whole aspect and scope of the section's work. The engineer is technical adviser to all other Government departments on matters affecting telecommu- nications.

        Interference with essential radio communication services was successfully investigated on several occasions during the year. The number of factories using high frequency welding techniques in the manufacture of plastic goods is rapidly increasing, and the division issued 246 licences to permit the operation of this equip-

ment.

      Figures for all forms of licences, including wireless licences, continued to rise. (See Appendix X).

       The wireless division is also responsible for holding examina- tions for the Postmaster General's Certificates of Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy and also for the Ministry of Transport's Certificate of Radar Maintenance. During 1961 73 candidates sat these examinations.

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      Close liaison was maintained between the Division and the Hong Kong Communications Board in all matters affecting the internal and external telecommunications of the Colony.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

      Telegraph and Radio Services. The rapid growth of the telex service, which provides a fast means of direct, two-way, subscriber- to-subscriber communication in printed messages, was one of the major achievements of the Hong Kong Branch of Cable and Wireless, Limited. Among their other developments during 1961 were the conversion of the telegraph circuits to 5-unit working, which improved the speed of handling both inward and outward traffic, and the introduction of various automatic correction devices, which improved the accuracy of transmission. By the end of the year plans were well advanced for the construction of an additional transmitting station.

Cable and Wireless activities in the field of telecommunication include world-wide telegraph, telex and radio-telephone services; radiotelegraph and radio-telephone services with ships; photo- telegram service with certain countries; VHF harbourphone service with ships in Hong Kong Harbour; meteorological broadcasts; news broadcasts; internal telegram service throughout the Colony; printergram service for telex or teleprinter subscribers; and deskfax facsimile service for use principally by local hotels.

        Wireless circuits are leased to airlines and other commercial concerns. Cable and Wireless are also responsible for the technical maintenance of Government broadcasting, aeradio and meteoro- logical radio services and of the VHF communications of a number of Government departments where the maintenance is not undertaken by the Post Office wireless division.

A direct telex circuit was opened with Taipei and through Hong Kong, Taiwan is now linked with other parts of the world. Com- munication with the Dominican Republic was also added to this world-wide telex link.

Radiotelephone service was extended to Kuching in Sarawak and to Suva in Fiji.

Telephones. The telephone service in the Colony is provided by Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited, a public company

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      operating under a franchise from the Hong Kong Government. In addition to the internal service the Telephone Company, in conjunction with Cable and Wireless Limited, provides service to the majority or countries in the world as well as to ships moored in the harbour and ships at sea.

The Telephone Company's system, which is fully automatic, comprises some 126,000 stations served from eight major ex- changes and a number of satellite exchanges.

Four additional major units are planned for the immediate future, two on Hong Kong Island and two in Kowloon, to provide an initial increase of 40,000 lines. Expansion of satellite exchanges in the rural areas is also under way.

In addition to the provision of new major units, two existing exchanges are being replaced by new exchanges of considerably increased capacity. One, to replace the existing Waterloo Road Exchange, is already under construction. The other will replace the existing Central Exchange and will be housed in the new multi-storey car park building at Murray Parade Ground, due for completion in 1962.

       The cost of a telephone service to subscribers in Hong Kong is probably the lowest in the world. Rentals are charged on a 'flat rate' basis at $300 per annum and $225 per annum for business and residential lines respectively. No charge is made for individual calls except from and to the New Territories.

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

      The Royal Observatory was established in 1883 to make mete- orological and magnetic observations and to provide a time service for the Colony and shipping. Today the Observatory is engaged in a much wider range of geophysical activities, although magnetic observations were discontinued in 1939.

       Meteorological Services. The Observatory is the source of all meteorological information in the Colony, and a Central Forecast Office provides weather forecasts and information for the public, Government departments, shipping, aviation and the Armed Forces. Routine surface observations of the meteorological elements are made throughout the twenty four hours at the Royal Observatory, the airport, and at Waglan and Cheung Chau Islands, the last

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three stations being primarily concerned with the needs of aviation. Upper-air soundings of wind, temperature and humidity are carried out from King's Park, and numerous rain gauges are operated in the Colony by Government employees and private individuals on the Observatory's behalf. The results of the observations made at the Observatory and at King's Park are published annually and those from the other stations are recorded on punched cards to facilitate rapid analysis.

      Throughout the day and night a forecast service is provided at the airport where aircrews are briefed and given documents depict- ing the meteorological conditions relevant to their flights. Informa- tion is also sent to other weather centres and to aircraft in flight, either by direct radio communication or by special aviation broadcasts.

      Weather bulletins for shipping and local fishermen are broadcast over Radio Hong Kong and over special channels for shipping. Liaison Officers visit merchant and Royal Navy ships in port to check their barometers and other meteorological instruments, to supply daily weather charts and to assist in other ways. The Hong Kong fleet of weather observing ships totals 68; and during a year voluntary observers on board make over 24,000 valuable observa- tions for the Observatory.

One of the most important functions of the Central Forecast Office is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depression, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by the latitudes 10° and 30° North and the longitudes 105° and 125° East, six-hourly and often three-hourly bulletins are issued. These include information on the storm's intensity and expected development, the position and movement of its centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and storm reconnaissance aircraft help to locate storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion. While gale signals are hoisted, statements are issued and broadcast at intervals of 30 minutes.

Time Service and Seismology. Time signals originating at the Observatory are sent out over Radio Hong Kong for the public, and in special broadcasts for aviation and shipping. A visual time

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The quickest way to reach many towns on the east coast of the New Territories is by rail and each year nearly six million people travel on local trains run by the British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. During the year three 1,800-horsepower diesel locomotives, such as the one being unloaded below, were bought to replace the last steam engines in service.

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With 54,000 vehicles on the roads Hong Kon has by far the highest traffic density in the world-more than 100 vehicles per road milpared with 30 per mile in the United Kingdom and 20 per mile in the United StateT help keep the traffic moving many roads are being widened and strengthened, while in sor - places new roads are being built. The longest new road is the Lung Cheung Road, which links Kai Tak with the New Territories and joins the Tai Po Road at this spectacular flyer above the So Uk Housing Estate. In the city areas such as Queen's Road (left) trafic flow is maintained by strict Police control, but parking (right) is becoming an increasingly difficult problem despite the constant attention given to it

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The intensified search by Hong Kong businessmen for new markets abroad has strongly influenced the development of overseas postal services in recent years and direct letter mails are now sent to 68 countries, while parcel mails go to no less than 80. As in most other parts of the world the

Christmas rush-shown in this picture-greatly adds to the volume.

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signal is flashed from the Observatory's signal mast and various signals are provided for time marking seismograms and other

purposes.

       The Observatory operates six seismometers, three of which are on loan from the Lamont Geological Observatory. A weekly report giving arrival times of significant earthquake waves is air mailed to the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and detailed analyses are made later and are published and sent to other scientific institutions. The results are included in the two inter- national bulletins, the International Seismological Summary and the bulletin of the International Union of Geology and Geophysics. The Observatory also participates in the Pacific Tidal Warning Service by sending telegrams to Honolulu Magnetic Observatory whenever intense earthquakes are recorded in Hong Kong. Normally one or two slight earthquake shocks are felt locally each year, and on 4th March this year many residents experienced shocks from an earthquake whose epicentre was about 80 miles north-north-east of the Colony.

Other Activities. Astronomical tables for use in the Colony are issued each year in the form of a booklet.

       Details of research undertaken at the Observatory are given in Chapter 18.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

The weather during 1961 was warmer and sunnier than usual. Although the rainfall during the first half of the year was less than two-thirds of the average amount, downpours associated with tropical storms in July and September compensated for this early deficiency, so that the total rainfall for the year was close to the normal value.

      Gales due to tropical storms are unusual in Hong Kong before the end of June. Nevertheless, for the second consecutive year the Colony was harassed by an early typhoon. On 19th May 1961, typhoon 'Alice' became the first May storm to cause general gales over the Colony. Fortunately the winds were neither as persistent nor as strong as in typhoon 'Mary' of 9th June 1960. Four people lost their lives and twenty people were injured during the passage of 'Alice' but damage to crops, property and the fishing fleet was not great. Wind speeds during the major post-war storms and the

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typhoons of 1936 and 1937 are shown in Appendix X for comparison.

      A dry and sunny January brought only one-eighth of the normal rainfall. In contrast, February was wet and dull and had eighteen rainy days. A warm and sunny March had less rainfall than usual. During this month there were six days with fog in the harbour or approaches, and for seventeen days the mean relative humidity was 90% or greater. In April, the weather was changeable and unsettled as usual, with periods of thunderstorms and fog. Particularly severe thunderstorms occurred during the last ten days of the month, and short lived flooding occurred in parts of Tsuen Wan and elsewhere in the New Territories.

      On 16th May a depression formed over the south-east part of the China Sea. It reached a position about 220 miles south of Hong Kong on 18th May and there attained typhoon intensity and was named 'Alice'. The storm then moved north towards the Colony at ten knots. Local storm signal No 1 was hoisted at 4 p.m. on the 18th and was followed by No 3 at 6.40 p.m. Winds increased steadily during the early hours of the 19th May and No 7 signal was hoisted at 5.50 a.m. and changed to No 9 at 8.35 a.m. By 9 a.m. winds had reached gale force at the Observatory and gusts up to 69 knots were being recorded. Radar and other observations indicated that the eye of the typhoon would cross the harbour area at about 1 p.m., so No 10 signal was hoisted at 10.30 a.m. At the Royal Observatory the easterly winds reached their peak of 43 knots--with gusts to 89 knots-at midday; the wind then decreased and became calm at four minutes past one. The calm persisted for sixteen minutes during which occasional shafts of sunshine emerged through breaks in the thin cloud.

      At 1 p.m. No 6 signal replaced No 10 to give warning that south-westerly gales would set in as the eye passed northward between Cheung Chau and Hong Kong Island. By 3 p.m. the south-westerlies had increased to gale force in the harbour area and they rose to 42 knots by 4 p.m. with gusts of 74 knots. Thereafter the wind decreased steadily and No 6 signal was replaced by No 3 at 7.30 p.m. and all signals were lowered at 2 a.m. on 20th May. 3.59 inches of rain were recorded at the Observatory during the 34 hours that local signals were hoisted. The peak gust of 89 knots and the minimum pressure of 981.6 millibars are both records for

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the month of May, and it is only the second occasion on which the eye of a typhoon has passed over the Observatory.

      On balance, the weather during May was exceptionally fine and dry, the total rainfall being 2.84 inches less than normal notwith- standing the contribution due to 'Alice'. The fine weather persisted through June which was the warmest and driest for 23 years. The maximum temperature of 92.8°F recorded on 30th June is the third highest June temperature on record.

      Three tropical storms affected the Colony in July and there was more rain than usual. Local storm signals No 1 and No 3 were hoisted to give warning of strong winds associated with tropical storm 'Doris' on 1st July, and with tropical storm 'Flossie' on 19th July. No 1 signal was hoisted again on 12th July to give warning of tropical storm 'Elsie' but no strong winds were caused locally by this storm. The three storms contributed 12.45 inches of rain to the monthly total of 19.37 inches.

       The weather during August was typical of the time of year. Two heavy falls of rain were experienced, the first on 17th August brought 3.94 inches of rain in twelve hours and caused flooding in the Yuen Long district. The second fall occurred during a severe thunderstorm on 31st August when 3.79 inches of rain fell in the last four hours of the month; this downpour caused flooding and landslides in the urban areas, and resulted in the loss of three lives. A total of 18.19 inches of rain was recorded during the month against the normal amount of 14.30 inches.

      September was exceptionally wet and dull with one and a half times the average rainfall and less than two-thirds of the normal hours of sunshine. No 1 local storm warning signal was hoisted at 12.45 p.m. on 8th September, to give warning of a storm centred 190 miles south-east of Hong Kong. No 3 signal followed at 5.15 p.m. On the 9th September the storm intensified to a severe tropical storm named 'Olga' and moved towards the Colony, and at 5.45 p.m. No 5 signal replaced No 3. The storm crossed the coast about 30 miles north-east of the harbour in the early hours of 10th September. No 6 signal was hoisted at 2.35 a.m. to give warning of south-westerly gales, and was replaced by No 3 at 8.10 a.m. and all signals were lowered at 1.10 p.m. Gale force winds with gusts of hurricane force were experienced all over the Colony, but the only serious wind damage was the sinking, in the harbour, of the

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300 ton trawler 'Han Su'. Torrential rain associated with the storm caused many landslides which were responsible for seven deaths and left 1,171 people homeless. A total of 9.19 inches of rain was recorded during this storm.

On the morning of 28th September, typhoon 'Sally' approached the Colony from South Taiwan at the exceptionally high speed of 20 knots. No 1 signal was hoisted at 4.30 p.m. followed by No 3 at 11.30 p.m. The typhoon-greatly weakened-passed close to the north of the Colony at 1 p.m. on 29th September. All signals were lowered at 6.30 a.m. next day. 3.26 inches of rain were recorded during the two days 29th and 30th September and no serious damage or casualties were reported.

October-the warmest since 1915-was brilliantly fine and dry with only one quarter of the normal rainfall.

November and December were also much warmer than usual, the mean temperature for November-72.1°F-being the highest ever recorded in that month. There was a little more rain than normal during November, but in other respects the weather during both November and December was close to the normal pattern.

16

Publications, Broadcasting and Films

PRESS

HONG KONG has a large and active press and by the end of 1961 a total of 192 periodicals and publications of all kinds were listed by the Registrar of Newspapers. Of these 42 appear daily and 20 once or twice a week. The remainder are mainly magazines in Chinese, catering for readers with special interests.

There are three daily and four weekly English-language news- papers and these are listed, together with some of the other leading Chinese and English publications at Appendix XI.

Unofficial estimates put the total circulation of Chinese-language morning and afternoon papers at over 600,000 but since there are no audited figures of circulations or certified net sales, these estimates must be taken with reserve. Many papers undoubtedly have small circulations, but their influence should not be under- estimated on this account. They have a steady following among different sections of the community and become an invaluable forum for public opinion when occasion arises.

      The Newspaper Society of Hong Kong has 18 members and their journals may be regarded as the Colony's principal news- papers. Recognized leaders among the Chinese morning papers are the Wah Kiu Yat Po (Overseas Chinese Daily News), Sing Tao Jih Pao (Island Star) and Kung Sheung Yat Po (Industrial and Commercial Daily), all of which maintain a good balance between foreign and local news and are, generally speaking, non-partisan in politics. All three publish afternoon editions, while another popular non-political daily, the Sing Pao, has no afternoon edition.

Orthodox Chinese communist policies are voiced in the Ta Kung Pao, Wen Wei Pao and New Evening Post, whilst the Hong Kong Times speaks for the Nationalist Régime in Taiwan. Other Chinese newspapers which are members of the Newspaper Society are the

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New Life Evening Post and Hung Look Daily News, and the bilingual Daily Commodity Quotations.

Only two morning newspapers are published in the English- language the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong Tiger Standard (the latter is owned by Sing Poh Amalgamated Ltd publishers of Sing Tao Jih Pao and Sing Tao Man Pao). The South China Morning Post, Ltd also publishes the afternoon news- paper China Mail (the oldest daily newspaper in the Colony) and the weekly Sunday Post-Herald.

As with daily newspapers, the leading publications in the magazine field are mainly Chinese. Despite educational develop- ments and a steady increase in the number of Chinese who are completely literate in both English and Chinese, it would seem that the majority of the people of Hong Kong prefer to read in their own language.

However, one new non-partisan weekly journal in the 'English language, the Asia Magazine, with editorial and administrative headquarters in Hong Kong, began publication in October. This illustrated journal reports on cultural, economic and political prog- ress in Asia. It is distributed as a Sunday supplement in fifteen leading Asian newspapers, including the Hong Kong Tiger Standard, to over 700,000 families in thirteen different countries. Of other major magazines in the English language, only the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review and the bi-monthly Hong Kong and Far East Builder-both of which are specialist in their appeal and command circulations outside the Colony-have survived for any number of years.

      Four international news agencies maintain full-scale bureaux in Hong Kong, and it is indicative of the attention which the local press pays to world news that the majority of leading newspapers subscribe to at least three, if not all four, of the services provided. The agencies are the Agence France Presse, Associated Press of America, Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press) and United Press International. Hong Kong also houses the head office of the independent Pan-Asia Newspapers Alliance, and sub-offices of the New China News Agency (official agency of the Chinese People's Government), the Central News Agency of the

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Taiwan administration, the Antara News Agency of Indonesia, and the Japanese agencies, Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service.

PUBLISHING

       Hong Kong has a big and flourishing printing industry capable of supplying local needs as well as those of south-east Asia.

       All books printed in Hong Kong are required by law to be registered with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. One thousand three hundred and eighty three books were registered during the year-an increase of 40% over 1960. The vast majority of these books were in the Chinese language, the most notable exceptions being the English publications of the University Press and a number of business guides, directories and textbooks. Of the Chinese books registered, 48% were general literature, such as fiction and poetry; 25.6% textbooks for use in Chinese schools in Hong Kong and south-east Asia; 5% science; and the remainder dealt with religious, social and political subjects.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

Basically the task of the Information Services Department is to keep both the people of Hong Kong and people overseas accurately informed of Government's achievements and aims. This apparently simple formula covers a wide range of activities from the prepara- tion of broadcast news bulletins, news items for the domestic press, and illustrated feature articles for overseas publication to mass publicity campaigns about subjects such as fire prevention and public health. To meet these commitments the Department is divided into two main working divisions. The Press Division is responsible for a round-the-clock minute-to-minute dissemination of news to newspapers and broadcasting organizations both in Hong Kong and overseas. The Publicity Division is geared to the production of films, newsreels, photo-features, photographs, books, leaflets, posters, cinema-slides, and is responsible for the adminis- tration and placing of all Government advertising.

In addition to this day-to-day work, constant demands are made upon the advice and services of the Department's senior personnel by visiting journalists, radio commentators and television person- alities who come to Hong Kong. During the year 1961, 401 such

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visitors called on the Department. Besides the briefings and tours to different parts of the Colony, the Department also provided all press inquirers with factual written material, pictures, maps and illustrations of every kind. Cuttings which were subsequently received showed that the majority of those who had received such assistance had been favourably impressed by the way Hong Kong is tackling her problems, and had so reported to readers and audiences adding up to many millions of people.

      The Department's activities reached their peak during the visit to Hong Kong of HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent in November, the Department being responsible for all official press arrangements during the 12-day visit, including the provision of special facilities for film-makers, photographers, reporters and broadcasters. It was the biggest operation of its kind ever undertaken by the Govern- ment Information Services and the facilities made available to the Press included not only special stands and towers for reporters and photographers at key-points, but the provision of film lighting equipment-including in one case a heavy duty floating generator -so that both still photographers and film-makers, including a visiting Pathé newsreel team who were filming in colour, could obtain adequate coverage of all main activities. Frequently, local press representatives, visiting correspondents and resident foreign correspondents combined to form a press entourage of nearly 100 people, and at ceremonies held indoors and other places where space was limited, the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong and the Department co-operated in providing photographic 'pool' arrange- ments to ensure that photographs were freely available to all news- papers and agencies. In every medium-press, broadcasting, tele- vision and films-in Hong Kong, Great Britain and elsewhere the visit received the widest publicity. Press material and photographs produced by the Department received prominent space in both local and overseas publications. Newsreels made by the Department's Film Unit and distributed through Central Office of Information, London, were used by the BBC, Independent Television and major distributors in Britain and other countries as soon as received, and a composite 20-minute black and white film record of the entire visit subsequently produced by the Unit was released at the begin- ning of December for distribution commercially throughout south- east Asian countries with English, Mandarin and Cantonese

1

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Broadcasting plays an important part in the entertainment and cultural life of the people of Hong Kong. Radio Hong Kong, Commercial Radio and Rediffusion all broadcast 17 hours a day, both in English and various Chinese dialects. Most interview programmes are pre-taped and among others are special programmes for farmers, fishermen and children (above).

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contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Television is becoming increasingly popular in Hong Kong and the wired network operated by Rediffusion was serving more than 9,500 sets by the end of 1961. Chinese and English programmes are carried on the same network and news bulletins and announcements are read in both languages -the camera screening the announcers in turn.

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soundtracks. It was shown at 41 cinemas in Hong Kong alone to audiences estimated at nearly one million.

Other notable departmental activities during 1961 included the successful conclusion of the mass information programme initiated in 1960 to explain the importance of the Census (see Chapter 1), and a 'crash' publicity campaign undertaken at literally a few hours notice in August when an outbreak of cholera threatened the Colony (see Chapter 9).

Although in its everyday work the Department is primarily con- cerned with publicizing the affairs of Hong Kong, everything possible is done to promote knowledge of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, and maximum use is made of material supplied by the Central Office of Information, London, for this purpose. The Department's film library for example, which is largely stocked by the Central Office of Information, issued nearly 3,000 films during the year for exhibition by clubs, schools and other institutions, including a weekly news magazine for Rediffusion's Hong Kong television circuit.

In the Department's Press Division, English and Chinese-speaking officers are on duty call at any hour of the day or night-a service primarily designed to assist newspapermen who require information when the majority of other Government departments have closed. The Division, through its Radio News Room, is responsible also for providing eleven daily news bulletins in English and eight in Chinese for transmission by the Colony's three radio stations, the first bulletin being broadcast in the early morning at 7.15 a.m. and the last just before midnight.

The teleprinter network, installed in 1960, which enables news to be transmitted immediately and simultaneously to major press and broadcasting outlets continued to expand during the year. The addition of a direct teleprinter link with the Royal Observatory in the spring of 1961 proved of particular value especially during the typhoon season since weather news for broadcasting and press can now be transmitted direct and without loss of time through the Department's news distribution network.

       The Publicity Division has both local and overseas commitments. In Hong Kong it is responsible for handling publicity campaigns for all Government departments and for the production of posters,

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leaflets, films and other visual aids to promote a better under- standing between the public and Government. For overseas dis- tribution the division concentrates largely upon the production of newsreels, feature articles and photo-features.

      The short film has proved an invaluable medium for reaching large sections of Hong Kong's population, and an excellent vehicle for projecting Hong Kong overseas. For this reason the Film Unit of the Department concentrated upon the production of newsreel shorts during 1961. The distribution of these newsreels through the Central Office of Information, London, met with considerable success. In most cases this Department's productions were accepted by six or more major newsreel and television distributors, such as Pathé, Movietone and MGM, distributing to cinemas, and the British Commonwealth International Newsfilm Agency, UPI Television and the US Telenews distributing to television circuits in many countries. This wide acceptance of newsreel films by commercial agencies, coupled with full use of the material in officially sponsored reels such as 'British News' and 'British Television News' meant that millions of cinema and television audiences throughout the world had the opportunity to view regularly film stories depicting many aspects of Hong Kong's problems and development. Subjects dealt with include dam build- ing, agricultural development, various aspects of Hong Kong's medical and social welfare services and, towards the end of the year, a number of items covering the visit of HRH Princess Alexandra to the Colony.

In addition to newsreel production, six short black and white comedy films were made in connexion with a Road Safety cam- paign and six colour films were made for the Fire Services, which pointed up dramatically simple but important fire prevention pre- cautions. These, with the co-operation of distributors and cinema managers, were released in Hong Kong for commercial showing over a period of six months. Productions for local release either through cinemas or through the Department's own 16mm library, also included a 15-minute film on anti-Tuberculosis measures and two 5-minute Cantonese films, one on the Tsuen Wan community centre and another on ship-breaking. By the end of the year a 15-minute Eastmancolour film on Hong Kong's colourful sea festivals, planned for overseas release, was nearing completion.

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The earlier Eastmancolour production 'This is Hong Kong' which was made for the department by a local documentary pro- duction company while the Department's own unit was being set up, was exhibited at the 8th Asian Film Festival in Manila in March and won the Golden Harvest Award for the best docu- mentary. The commercial distribution of the film in Britain through cinemas of the Associated-British circuit started on 11th December and arrangements for similar distribution in other countries were well in hand at the end of the year.

       Possibly the most solid and satisfying job undertaken in the publications field during the year was the completion of a com- pletely new edition of the Department's basic booklet on Hong Kong. Largely re-written and re-illustrated (about one-third of the photographs being in colour), the production of this booklet, which had a print-order of a quarter of a million copies, represents a distinct achievement for the Hong Kong printing industry. Other publications covered a wide range of subjects including two Road Safety instructional pamphlets, a Police Recruiting booklet, a Storm Warning Card for the Royal Observatory, a brochure for Commonwealth Technical Training Week and a host of other items of an equally varied nature, including this Annual Report.

       In addition, many thousands of copies of new posters were designed, printed and distributed over a wide area throughout the Colony. Particular emphasis was given to Road Safety and Fire Prevention.

      The programme for the production and distribution of magazine and newspaper feature articles overseas was continued by the division's features section through the year. These articles vary in length from 500 to 3,000 words and are usually accompanied by at least a dozen 10" x 8" glossy photographs. Colour trans- parencies are also included whenever possible. The articles explain Hong Kong's problems and achievements in terms of everyday life in the Colony, touching upon facets not normally encountered in other forms of Government publicity. They are distributed by British government agencies and commercial agents in all major countries and, because they must compete for space in the highly competitive and lucrative magazine and newspaper feature fields, the emphasis at all times is on quality rather than quantity. The number of articles published overseas is now increasing very

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     rapidly and, through syndication, many appear a dozen or more times in a single country.

The photographic section is one of the technical services which is shared by all units within the Department. Apart from supplying photographs for many publications, posters and photo-features, the section concentrated upon the production of quality press photo- graphs to enable the distribution of picture sets overseas to be started on a regular basis. Each set deals with a different subject and normally contains between one and two dozen 10′′ × 8" glossy prints. Each picture has a comprehensive caption of between 100 and 200 words, enabling them to be used either singly or as a 'spread'. These picture sets are proving of value to overseas publications both for immediate use, and for picture libraries for use with future stories about Hong Kong.

       The development of the Colony's public relations overseas took a major step forward with the appointment, in the latter half of 1960, of an Information Officer to the Hong Kong Government Office in London (see Chapter 6). This new information service came into full operation at the beginning of 1961. The office works in close liaison with the Information Services Department in Hong Kong and handles, adapts and distributes the full range of official publicity media produced in the Colony in addition to producing original material in London. Distribution to the United Kingdom press of photographs, feature articles and press releases has met with notable success. The London Office also maintains close contact with Radio Hong Kong and recorded interviews are arranged for broadcasting in the Colony.

PUBLIC ENQUIRY SERVICE

      To assist the individual member of the public in his dealings with Government a new office, known as the Public Enquiry Service, was established in July, and met with immediate success. The service, headed by a Controller, comes under the general direction of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. It provides a place where the man-in-the-street can go for advice on, or explanations of, the services and functions performed by the various departments of the Hong Kong Government and constitutes an additional instru- ment not only for measuring the impact of Government upon

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the public but also for improving the Government's public rela- tions. The organization of the Public Enquiry Service is somewhat akin to Citizens Advice Bureaux in other parts of the world, and the public enquiry desk is staffed by a group of officers who are fluent in English, Cantonese and other Chinese dialects.

The first enquiry desk was set up on the ground floor of the West Wing of the Central Government Offices, and during the first ten weeks of its existence dealt with personal calls from over 16,000 people. The success of the venture has been so striking that it has been decided to open an additional public enquiry centre in Kowloon in 1962.

BROADCASTING AND TELEVISION

There are three separate organizations providing public broad- casting services in Hong Kong. The Government station, Radio Hong Kong, is non-commercial and provides English and Chinese language services which are both on the air for seventeen hours a day. Commercial Radio, which derives all its revenue from the sale of broadcasting time for advertising, also maintains two daily seventeen-hour programmes, one in English and one in Cantonese. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd operate a wired broadcasting service throughout the Colony and run three programmes, one in English and two in Chinese, for the same daily period as the other two stations. They also operate a wired television service which was established in May 1957-the first such service in any British colonial territory.

       The number of wireless receiving licences issued during the year was 132,594, an increase of nearly 50,000 in a little over two years -a rate of increase never before experienced in Hong Kong broad- casting. The number of receivers in use is believed to be higher than the number licensed, despite determined efforts by the Wireless Division of the Post Office to detect unlicensed sets. The majority of receivers now sold are transistors, and an estimate by radio dealers puts the total number of sets in use at about 300,000, representing a total listening public of over 2,000,000, if one assumes that there are eight listeners per set, which was the estimated figure reached following an audience research survey carried out with the co-operation of the University a few years ago.

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       The wired broadcasting services of Rediffusion reach over 50,000 loudspeaker outlets, and the television service has about 11,000 subscribers.

RADIO HONG KONG

Radio Hong Kong, the Government broadcasting organization, uses Cantonese as its main language in its Chinese Service, but also includes programmes in Kuoyu, Chiuchow and Hakka. The English Service is entirely in English, except for a weekly pro- gramme for Portuguese listeners and a fortnightly programme in French.

       Both Services are broadcast on medium wave, and on VHF/FM, the Chinese using 640 Kc/s and 94 Mc/s, and the English Service using 860 Kc/s and 91 Mc/s. The Chinese Service is also broadcast on 3940 Kc/s, principally for the benefit of the Colony's fishing fleet in the waters of the South China Sea.

       The studio centre is in Mercury House, the Far Eastern Head- quarters of Cable and Wireless Ltd, who are responsible for all Radio Hong Kong's technical operations. The medium and short- wave transmitters are at Hung Hom on the mainland and the VHF/FM transmitters at Mount Gough on Hong Kong Island.

The Director of Broadcasting is in charge of the Department, which is divided into four divisions, English Service, Chinese Service, Administration and Engineering, the work of the four divisions being co-ordinated by the Assistant Director. Each pro- gramme service has a staff of permanent producers and announcers, but each employs a large number of non-staff producers, writers, actors, musicians, singers and speakers. During 1961 there were over seven hundred non-staff contributors employed by the Department.

       Between 1957 and 1960, Radio Hong Kong underwent a con- siderable expansion of its activities; the two programme services increased their daily hours of broadcasting from an average of ten to seventeen; new producers and announcers were recruited and trained, both in the Colony and with the BBC in London. Reception of Services was improved by the introduction of FM transmissions; studios and offices were rebuilt to provide better facilities and widen the range of programmes that could be produced.

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       The bulk of Hong Kong's people now have access to sound radio, and are listening to a much greater extent than they were

five years ago.

        English Programme Service. The Head of the English Pro- gramme Service has a staff of six producers and five announcers, with clerical and record library staff. Two hundred contributors were employed during the year.

The English Service aims at providing the widest possible range of news, talks, documentaries, drama, music, comedy and coverage of Hong Kong affairs to all sections of its audience; this audience includes not only native English speakers, but a very large number of English-speaking Chinese, as well as listeners from many countries of Europe and Asia.

        The Service increased its hours of broadcasting to seventeen a day in June 1960 and by the end of 1961 had eighteen months of all day broadcasting behind it. Another major change towards the end of 1960 was the replacement of part-time non-staff announcers by newly recruited staff announcers. This improved presentation of programmes, and with increased transmission hours gave the English Service in 1961 the opportunity to expand its range of programme production and to put into practice some long cherished ideas. In particular, the range of spoken word pro- grammes was greatly increased, the year starting with a series of six documentary programmes entitled 'Professional Portrait'. These programmes were part of an overall plan to use broadcasting to build bridges between Government and the people by ex- plaining and demonstrating the work of various Government Departments. Each 'Professional Portrait' took a single Govern- ment officer and outlined his work and his life in relation to the people he served. This series was followed by twenty one talks called 'The Government and the People'. The Colonial Secretary began the series with a talk on the organization of Government, and he was followed by Heads of Departments who described the work their Departments were doing. Continuing throughout the year, coverage was given in talks and interviews in the daily news programme 'Today' to topical Government activities; the census, the cholera outbreak, the construction of the City Hall, the fore- casting of typhoons, to name but a few, were dealt with in this

manner.

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       'Old Hong Kong' was a series of five-minute talks in which some of the old by-ways of the Colony were explored by a number of speakers, and from this series emerged fascinating tales of the flight in Kowloon of the last Emperor of the Sung Dynasty, of pirates on Lantau Island, and of the Reverend James Legge's translations of the Chinese Classics in Hong Kong in the mid- nineteenth century.

A regular series of debates on subjects both lighthearted and serious began in November, as did a weekly 'Brains Trust' in which three eminent speakers discussed questions submitted by senior students in middle schools.

In response to many requests from listeners who wished to learn Cantonese, a new daily series of 'Cantonese by Radio' lessons began in November, the effectiveness of the lessons being greatly helped by the South China Morning Post which devoted consider- able space each day to publication of the new words introduced in the broadcasts.

      A Hong Kong University Science Department lecturer was responsible for the production of a series of popular science talks. New music magazine programmes were produced, as were lively book and poetry programmes, and from November onwards early morning listeners were exhorted to keep fit by a 'daily dozen to music' at 7.30 a.m.

      The Golden Jubilee of the University of Hong Kong was marked for radio listeners by eight documentary programmes on the life and work of the University and by a number of programmes in which distinguished visitors to the University Jubilee Congress took part.

      An interesting serial drama written and produced in Hong Kong dealt with aspects of the problem of drug addiction under the title 'Brotherhood of Fear', and among a number of other docu- mentaries a particularly imaginative and evocative programme was 'Unhappy Chapter', a montage of anonymous voices recalling Hong Kong's years of wartime occupation, broadcast on the 16th Anniversary of the Liberation.

      Sporting events in Britain were amply covered by relays from the BBC, whilst the Colony's sporting activities were the subject of a weekly sports magazine programme. Extensive outside

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broadcast coverage was given to important events such as the Walkathon, the Cross Harbour Race and the Macau Grand Prix. Outside broadcast units also covered all the major events in the Colony, including the Queen's Birthday Parade and the Agri- cultural Show, but by far the most extensive outside broadcast operation ever attempted was that undertaken during the visit of HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent. The English service produced eleven live outside broadcasts in as many days from all the major centres of the tour. Ten other events were covered by reporters and interviewers for a daily Royal Visit edition of 'Today'. The BBC requested the Director of Broadcasting to provide reports on the visit of Her Royal Highness, and nine such broadcasts were made for use on Radio Newsreel, 'The Eyewitness', 'Today' and Midland and Scottish region programmes. BBC Television was also provided with material by Radio Hong Kong.

Many prominent visitors to Hong Kong broadcast in talks pro- grammes, or gave recitals. Among them were Walter Hautzig, Sir Charles Moses, Kim Borg, Professor Sydney Harrison, Princess Petulengro of the Gypsies, Professor Dudley Stamp, Beryl Grey, Andre Kostelanetz, Nat King Cole, Sir Steuart Wilson, Michael Wilding, the Juillard String Quartet, Jorg Demus and Paul Badura Skoda. An ever increasing number of people prominent in all walks of life pass through Hong Kong and this short list illustrates the range of personalities whose voices or talents were presented to listeners in the Colony.

A wide variety of both classical and popular music was broad- cast; much of it was in recorded form, but broadcasts were made by as many Hong Kong artists as possible.

Although it is possible to produce many talks, discussions, docu- mentaries and news programmes using Hong Kong speakers, the limited range of talent available in the fields of music, drama and comedy make it necessary to rely on commercial recordings and transcriptions for these programmes. The BBC Transcription Service provides the bulk of this material, and practically every programme issued by this Service is used. In addition, UNESCO, United Nations Radio, Radio Canada, Radio Australia, Radio Nederland and the Voice of America provide valuable material which enables the English Services of Radio Hong Kong to broad- cast a selection of international entertainment.

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A 'stereo week', a 'listener week' and the broadcasting of alter- native programmes on medium wave and FM channels were three experiments conducted during the year. Stereophonic transmissions were carried out late in the evening in May 1961 and, evoked great interest among enthusiasts. One side of the broadcast was carried on the FM transmission, the other on the medium wave transmission, and although there is naturally some difference between both the frequency and dynamic ranges of the two trans- missions, the results were very satisfactory.

      In the 'listener week' a competition was held and prizes given for essays submitted by listeners giving their critical comments on the week's programmes. The letters sent in provided useful listener research information and made it possible to plan the introduction of regular listener panels which it is hoped to establish early next year.

The decision to increase the number of occasions on which medium and FM services broadcast alternative programmes was made with some hesitation, as the primary reason for introducing FM transmissions was to provide a reliable signal in those areas of the Colony poorly served by the medium wave transmitters. Nevertheless, throughout the Test Matches FM was used to broad- cast ball-by-ball commentaries, while medium wave transmissions continued with normal programmes, and regularly once a week a long operatic work was broadcast on FM only while the medium wave transmitter carried light entertainment. The experiment has proved that alternative services could be offered but additional transmission channels would be required if all listeners are to be within range of both Services.

       Chinese Programme Service. The Head of the Chinese Service has a staff of ten producers and seven announcers, with clerical and record library staff. Five hundred and fifty contributors were employed during the year. The Chinese Service is designed mainly for the Cantonese speaking majority of the population, but a considerable number of programmes in Kuoyu are broadcast and smaller numbers in Chiuchow and Hakka. Like the English Service, the Chinese Service aims to provide the widest range of news, talks, documentaries, music, drama, comedy and coverage of Hong Kong affairs. It is not possible to give Kuoyu, Chiuchow and Hakka speaking listeners as wide a range of programmes as those in

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Cantonese. Kuoyu programmes include news, plays, music, talks, and programmes relayed from the BBC Chiuchow programmes include news, plays and music, while Hakka broadcasts are limited to a daily news bulletin and a weekly programme for farmers.

The most significant difference between the English and Chinese Services is that, whereas the English Service has to rely con- siderably on recorded programme material, the Chinese Service has practically no recorded material available to it. It does, however, have a wealth of talent and the bulk of its programmes are produced in Hong Kong.

The increase in spoken word programmes on the English Service was matched by a similar increase on the Chinese Service. The series 'The Government and the People' was broadcast in Cantonese, and a wide range of Government activities was covered every week in the news magazine programme 'Topical Events'.

Drama production in Cantonese increased from an average of twenty to an average of thirty plays a week. The greatest problem facing the drama producer in Hong Kong is the search for good script material; consumption is high and the Chinese Services of Radio Hong Kong, Commercial Radio and Rediffusion between them broadcast about one hundred and thirty plays weekly. Because the number of good dramatic works expressly written for sound radio is disappointingly small, Radio Hong Kong's efforts to improve the quality of its drama output in Chinese have perforce included the dramatization of classical Chinese novels, the adapta- tion of novels by contemporary writers in Hong Kong and the translation of works by western authors. Although it might be thought that the west would be able to offer unlimited material for use in Chinese, in practice this is not so, since many stories, plays and novels are set in social surroundings and societies which are so alien to the experience of the majority of listeners that the material loses all its dramatic impact. However, in the field of light entertainment two notable successes have been scored this year, with the production in Cantonese of the well-known science fiction serial 'Journey into Space', and the detective serial 'Inspector Scott Investigates', both originally BBC Light Pro- gramme productions.

      For some years past a weekly 'Farmers' Magazine' has been broadcast for New Territories farmers with the co-operation of the

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Agriculture and Forestry Department, and this year the Colony's fishermen responded enthusiastically to a new weekly programme, 'Fishermen's Half Hour', produced in conjunction with the Co- operative Development and Fisheries Department. Both these pro- grammes contain talks on improved agricultural and fishing techniques, answers to letters, social news and music requests.

      Greater attention was given to programmes for women and children. Women listeners were provided with the daily and lively adventures of a 'General Cook', who was continually faced with the problem of supplying new and imaginative menus for her gourmet husband. The children reacted most enthusiastically to two new programmes for them; one of these, 'The Little Garden', to which selected children are invited each week for games, songs, and competitions, drew over two thousand applicants in the first week. 'Drawing on the Air' was the title given to a children's drawing contest, an idea which hardly seems to suit a blind medium such as sound radio. Children were given the outline of a picture by a noted cartoonist and asked to submit their drawings; to the producer's surprise, nearly four hundred entries were received for the first of the programmes, and the series was still continuing at the end of the year.

      'Science and You' was the title of a new series of popular science broadcasts. A series of debates was broadcast for the first time in the history of Chinese broadcasting in Hong Kong. From the eight Adult Education and Recreation Centres in Hong Kong and Kowloon came a summer series of 'What's My Line?', and the popular magazine 'We are Living Below the Victoria Peak' returned to the air after an absence of several years.

Music, both Chinese and western, occupied a considerable amount of time and the opera, the sound tracks of films, and story- telling remained the main strands in the pattern of entertainment.

During the year outside broadcasts covered all major events and sporting activities, as well as providing basic material for six weekly magazine programmes. The visit of HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent provided the opportunity for the most ex- tensive outside broadcast in the history of the Service with the result that the output in Chinese during the visit equalled that in English.

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      To strengthen the ties between Hong Kong students in Britain and the Colony, a 'Students' Favourites' programme began in December, in which messages recorded in Hong Kong House by students for their families here were combined with music.

The Chinese Service also held a 'listener week' on the same lines as that of the English Service and it is hoped that listener panels will be established early next year.

      The Engineering Division. Additional recording equipment was installed during the year; a small designs unit successfully com- pleted a stereophonic control console, a 'white noise' electronic effects generator (which produces a broadband high frequency oscillation from which the component sounds can be isolated), and a power amplifier for use with a VHF link transmitter. These transmitters have enabled broadcast coverage to be given to events where landlines are not available and were used extensively throughout the Colony during the year.

COMMERCIAL RADIO

Commercial Radio, which opened in August 1959, operates one station which broadcasts in English on 1530 Kc/s, and one station in Cantonese on 1050 Kc/s. Each station broadcasts 17 hours daily from 7 a.m. to midnight. Both are powered by 1 KW transmitters and their signals are radiated through a common antenna. The studios, transmitters and antenna are located at Lai Chi Kok, Kowloon.

        The station's whole revenue comes from advertisements. Com- mercial airtime is sold by the hour, half-hour, or quarter-hour or by 'spot' announcements lasting from 10 seconds to 60 seconds. Airtime rates for the Chinese transmission vary from $962.50 per hour during peak listening periods to $80.00 for one 10-second 'spot' announcement. For the English transmission, the rates run between $275.00 per hour in the evenings and $10.00 for a 10-second 'spot' announcement.

English Programme Department. 1961 was a year of expansion both from the point of view of business and of programmes. In addition to the usual nightclub relays and sports commentaries, several local singers and musical groups broadcast from the studios. The Birthday Parade of Her Majesty the Queen was covered from

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three separate points by commentators and the arrival of HRH Princess Alexandra was covered from two points.

      A new family interview programme was introduced in the winter on Sunday mornings and a panel proved a popular weekly feature in the Ladies' Programme on Saturday afternoons. The evening news service is now a most comprehensive one with bulletins or headlines every hour from 5 o'clock to midnight. To commemorate Battle of Britain Day the station produced its first large scale docu- mentary programme which required over twenty different voices. A literary programme was introduced which included book and play reviews.

      The programme has an English director who is assisted by six assistants, two of whom are American, three English and one Australian. There is one English Programme Assistant under training. The Senior Programme Assistant spent ten weeks with the Macquarie Network--the largest in Australia-on a training course. Two artists are under exclusive contract to the station.

       Transcribed shows have been obtained from Australia, America and Canada. A new approach to serious music in peak listening hours has been adopted with regular concerts being broadcast at 9.30 p.m. from Monday to Friday. The percentage of airtime devoted to serious music is approximately 13%. The bulk of pro- gramming is on record and handled by staff members with members of the European community being employed as contributors for special programmes and also as announcers.

       Female announcers are used from 10.00 a.m. to midday and from 2.00 p.m. to 3.00 p.m. and 5.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. on Mondays to Saturdays, and male announcers from 6.00 p.m. until midnight and all day Sunday.

      Chinese Programme Department. The Chinese Programme Department is headed by a Programme Director with six pro- gramme assistants, and 108 full-time staff members. 1961 has been a year of expansion for this Department too. The basic program- ming structure has been strengthened and enlarged, so that, in all, 185 dramatized radio plays and 21 Chinese operas were produced in its studios. Two hundred and sixty announcements were made on behalf of local charity organizations. Two months before the final examination for the secondary and primary schools an in- tensive series of educational programmes aimed at helping school

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children in their school examination was introduced with a most gratifying response from the audience. Over 70 outside broadcasts were made, the highlight of which were the commentaries given on the arrival and departure of HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent.

An average of 30,000 letters and cards were received by the station each month, and following one half-hour listener participa- tion programme over 13,000 letters arrived.

The service continued to supply programmes to Radio Singapore and, in addition, is now providing programmes for Radio Malaya.

REDIFFUSION

Sound Relay. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd provides a popular wired broadcast service throughout the Colony, extending to practi- cally all the urban areas and to many villages on the Island and in the New Territories. At present the system has more than 1,000 miles of main trunk network and about 2,500 miles of installation cabling. Distribution is via sub-stations, kiosks and feeders to more than 50,000 loudspeakers. The parent company first operated 33 years ago in the United Kingdom and now operates in many parts of the Commonwealth; the Hong Kong company, locally controlled, is part of the world-wide organization.

Rediffusion has a modern studio building on Hong Kong Island. It contains seven sound studios, all air-conditioned, from which three simultaneous sound programmes go out daily from 7.00 a.m. to midnight, two networks ('Gold' and 'Silver') being in Chinese and one ("Blue') in English.

Sixteen per cent of Rediffusion programmes are commercially sponsored. The Chinese programmes offer music, news, drama, talks, sports, commentaries, women's features, children's shows, comedy, story-telling and theatre relays in Cantonese, Kuoyu, Swatow, Hakka, Shanghai and other dialects. The English service includes continuous daily broadcasts of musical entertainment, plays, studio shows, news, BBC and other relays, sports events, stock-market news, and features for women and children. During 1961 Rediffusion charity broadcasts raised nearly half-a-million dollars for needy families. Rediffusion employs 532 local staff of whom 98% are Chinese, in addition to a great many musicians, soloists, story-tellers and dramatic artists.

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Rental for a loudspeaker is $10.00 per month, and subscribers have a constant choice of the three programmes which, together, involve the origination of 51 hours of programmes each day. Additional loudspeakers in the same residence cost $5.00 per month.

Television. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd opened its television service in May 1957, and the service has been expanding ever since. At the end of 1961 there were almost 11,000 subscribers.

Rediffusion House has two well equipped, air-conditioned, studios for this closed-circuit television network, each of about 2,000 square feet, and one other of 200 square feet, while the equipment includes nine vidicon camera chains. Three of these are of the latest Marconi studio types and one is fitted with the modern Taylor-Hobson vidicon zoom lens. The station uses the latest telecine-camera chains with double channels for both 16 mm and 35 mm films and has a full array of studio and control equipment. Most Chinese films carry English captions and vice versa.

Programmes include many 'live' presentations. Education and quiz programmes form an important part of this side of the station's activities, but Cantonese opera, popular music pro- grammes, variety acts, children's features and interviews are also included in the schedule. Popular filmed television shows are imported from Britain and America. Rediffusion television pro- grammes give about fifty hours of entertainment weekly, some of them commercially sponsored. During that part of the day when the television service is not transmitting the sound channel covers the activities of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. This is an on- the-spot report from the floor of the Stock Exchange. A special programme service for members of the Colony's Indian community is broadcast on this sound channel every Sunday morning.

       More than 97% of the television staff are locally-trained Chinese. The rental fee is $55.00 per month, including receiving unit and all maintenance. For subscribers who have their own television sets the monthly rental is $25.00 which covers the programme fee and full maintenance.

FILM INDUSTRY

Hong Kong is one of the largest film producing territories in the world. During 1961 the Colony's six major studios and many

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     independent producers maintained their high output and produced just over 300 feature films in Chinese for distribution locally and overseas. Local and resident cameramen working for various newsreel and television companies continued during the year to supply film items about Hong Kong to their overseas distributors. Film and television production units also continued to visit the Colony in ever increasing numbers and the 1961 visitors included film-makers from America, Australia, West Germany and Japan. Ruggles and Whelan Enterprises from America spent two months in the Colony making a full length feature film 'Out of the Tiger's Mouth' for Pathé (USA).

      Studio production costs are governed by the limited market available. China does not import Hong Kong films and the total audience in Taiwan and among overseas Chinese living in the Philippines and south-east Asia amounts to only about 25 million. Producers must therefore concentrate on quantity rather than quality in order to show a profit. However, several of the larger studios turn out at least one major production costing up to $1 million each year, and at the Eighth Asian Film Festival, held in Manila in March 1961, Hong Kong won top honours for the fourth consecutive year. The Golden Harvest Award for the best actress went to Lin Dai for her performance in the Shaw Brothers film 'Les Belles', which also won the awards for best art direction, music, sound recording and editing. Another Shaw Brothers pro- duction 'The Deformed' won the award for the best black and white photography, and the same film also received the award for the best screen-play.

      Cinema-going is undoubtedly the most popular pastime in Hong Kong and there are now 72 cinemas with 76,972 seats. Hong Kong Island has 27 cinemas (30,316 seats), Kowloon 31 (36,305) and the New Territories 14 (10,351). English-language pictures, which usually carry Chinese sub-titles, are shown in 16 cinemas, with 20,279 seats. A number of cinemas have recently been extensively renovated to compete with the newer buildings, and the majority now have air-conditioning and wide screens.

      It is one of the tasks of the Information Services Department to carry out those provisions of the Colony's Places of Public Enter- tainment Ordinance which require that all films must be viewed by a Panel of Film Censors prior to public exhibition, and the

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film censorship section operates two theatres within the Department, one for 16 mm and one for 35 mm films. Films inspected during the year totalled 2,932. Apart from a large increase in the number of Cantonese films and television feature films viewed, the figures were similar to those for the previous year.

17

Local Forces and Civil Defence Services

THE Colony's Auxiliary Defence Services consist of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Auxiliary Police Force and the Essential Services Corps. The Auxiliary Police, created during 1957 by a merger of the Hong Kong Police Reserve and the Special Constabulary, is dealt with in Chapter 13. The Essential Services Corps, although legally an entity, is split for adminis- trative and practical purposes into four autonomous Services: the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the Civil Aid Services, and the Auxiliary Fire Service.

       All these services are paid for from funds voted each year by the Legislative Council and are now made up entirely of volunteers. In 1951 compulsory service for locally-resident citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies was introduced and remained in force until abandoned in August 1961. Service in the auxiliary defence units is a considerable commitment not only to the individual concerned but also to his employer, and it is fortunate that on the whole employers have been, and still are under the voluntary system, most co-operative in releasing members of their staff for these duties, even at substantial inconvenience.

        In March the Governor announced the decision to abandon compulsory service. By the end of June all persons who wished to leave any of the services had been allowed to take their dis- charge. Thus ended a system of recruitment that had been in force for nine years. There had always been more volunteers than conscripts in the auxiliary defence services, although many had originally been enlisted as conscripts owing to the system then current. These volunteers have maintained the strengths of most of the services.

      Except for small administrative and training staffs, the auxiliary services are manned entirely by residents of the Colony, who lead or attend training classes and exercises in the evenings or at the

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week-ends and, in the case of certain services, attend more extended training at annual camps which last up to fifteen days.

Training obligations vary from service to service. The greatest burden is in those units whose members must every year attend at least sixty instructional parades of one hour's duration, six full- days' training and a training period at camp. The commitment is scaled down elsewhere to the needs of the particular unit. An allowance to cover out-of-pocket expenses is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full-day's training and for attending camp, officers and members receive a higher daily rate of pay and, where meals cannot be provided, a ration allowance. The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. The main units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. The Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve mans and operates two inshore minesweepers. These vessels are on loan from the Admiralty, but are operated and maintained at Government expense.

      The Hong Kong Regiment was re-organized in January to form a reconnaissance regiment with a headquarters, three squadrons and a support company. In addition the regiment took over responsibility for the Home Guard, the Intelligence Platoon and other units which had previously been administered by Force Headquarters. Numbers fell after the abandonment of compulsory service, but not as much as had been expected.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force is equipped with Auster aircraft and two Westland Widgeon helicopters. These helicopters had a busy year, being extensively used by Government officers, particularly during the cholera epidemic, and on a number of individual rescue operations.

There are also three women's services: the Hong Kong Women's Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

       The officers of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are found from amongst its own members, but there is also a small permanent staff of regular officers and non-commissioned officers who are attached to supervise the training.

Volunteer service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May 1854 of the Hong Kong Volunteers. In 1878 they were

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renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was again changed to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps. The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December 1941 and fought with the regular forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December 1941. In 1956 their action was vividly recalled when part of the old Colours of the Corps, which had been buried in December 1941 to avoid capture by the Japanese, was discovered by workmen excavating a building site on Garden Road. The officers who had hidden the colours had died in captivity, leaving no record of where the Colours might be found. The remnants of the old Colours were paraded on the Annual Review of the Defence Force in March 1958 and were afterwards laid up in St John's Cathedral. Decorations were conferred upon fifteen members of the Corps for their gallantry in battle and for later escapes from Japanese prison-camps in Hong Kong, and eighteen were mentioned in despatches.

      After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March 1949 as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later, His late Majesty King George VI granted the title 'Royal', and in March 1957, Her Majesty the Queen awarded the Battle Honour 'Hong Kong' to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. This Honour is now emblazoned on the Regimental Colour and with the new title recognizes the part played by the Force's forerunner, the Volunteer Defence Corps, in 1941.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, communications, etc. Each unit is principally staffed by persons already employed in the service but is reinforced as necessary by others. Since in an emergency most members would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert, the Corps requires little extra training. Membership dropped after the abandonment of compul- sory service and further recruitment is required.

      The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide first aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in an emergency. It is built around the Medical and Health Depart- ment, the St John Ambulance Brigade and other members of

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the medical and nursing professions, but many people with no previous training in nursing and first aid have also been enrolled and trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first aid workers in the field.

In August the cholera epidemic reached such proportions that the Director of Medical and Health Services found it necessary to institute an isolation centre for cholera 'contacts' to cope with the flood of people whose isolation was essential in order to minimize the risk of spreading the disease. The task of running this isolation centre fell on the Auxiliary Medical Service. The response to the emergency was excellent. There was not a single instance of reluctance on the part of a member to undertake duty in the isolation centre, nor of any employer refusing to release an Auxiliary Medical Service member from his usual employment. The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all the civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services. They include three Command Units, a Warden Service with posts throughout the urban area, a Rescue Service, a Despatch Service equipped with motor scooters, an Accommodation Unit, and several administrative units. The membership is 5,500 men and women, all of whom are volunteers. All strength lost during the year has been made up by voluntary recruitment.

      Most members train on one or two evenings a week, and take part in live exercises with the Auxiliary Medical Service. In keeping with their name, the Civil Aid Services stand ready to aid the community during and after fires, floods and other disasters. Members turned out voluntarily on many occasions during the year.

      The Auxiliary Fire Service, an autonomous unit of the Essential Services Corps, is designed to assist the regular Fire Services in peace-time and in an emergency. Members of the Auxiliary Service total over 660 men and women, out of an approved strength of 832. They man their own appliances during weekly platoon training under the supervision of regular Fire Services Department officers, and work on water relays, week-end station duty, full-day and half-day exercises, a pump operators' course, driving instruction, and control and watch-room operating. The AFS is also called out to help the Fire Services to fight serious fires and at 'special service' incidents such as landslides and collapses of buildings during rain storms and typhoons.

18

Research

UNIVERSITY

INVESTIGATION into a wide variety of problems, including such diverse subjects as drug addiction and wind stresses in buildings, was carried out in 1961 as part of the continuing research pro- gramme of the University of Hong Kong. Altogether 26 teaching departments, four of which were newly formed during the year, are concerned with various projects in the programme and number of major developments have taken place.

One of these new developments is the work which the University Department of Education is now undertaking in connexion with the Hong Kong Council for Educational Research, a body established initially for two years, with the help of a grant from the Asia Foundation. Membership of the Council includes repre- sentatives of the Director of Education, the Post-Secondary Colleges, the Mencius Educational Foundation and the University; the Professor of Education is Chairman. Following the appointment of a full-time Executive Secretary and a clerk, the Council chose convenors to set up research committees in fields which include the teaching of English, the teaching of Chinese, the improvement of selection procedures, the education of handicapped children, the structure of secondary education and the economics and priorities of educational development. These committees, which include a cross-section of senior teachers throughout the Colony, have the dual function of disseminating knowledge of educational research already carried out elsewhere, as well as conducting original inquiries of their own. In addition to their work with the Council, the staff of the University's Education Department continued their inquiries throughout the year in comparative education and child guidance, and published several papers in these fields.

       In the Department of Economics and Political Science research was again primarily devoted to the current economic and social problems of Hong Kong, China and the Far East. Numerous

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papers were published by the Department in learned journals in various parts of the world.

Members of the Department of Modern Languages continued their research into problems of 'pidginization' and 'creolization' in Asia. Papers were published on the Portuguese dialects of Hong Kong and Macau and on the exotic vocabulary of China Coast Pidgin.

Present projects in the Department of History include work on the history of Hong Kong and the New Territories; problems of communication between the English East India Company and Chinese officials at Canton in the early nineteenth century; British policy in China, 1894-1902; the history of Chinese relations with Yunnan during the T'ang period and the ethnic problems connected with the state of Nanchao; and the history of south-east Asia since 1870.

      The mineral resources of Hong Kong continued to be the subject of research by the Department of Geography and Geology. Special attention was given to magnetite, wolframite and clay, and to geological mapping and the petrography of granites, porphyries and volcanics. Industrial and agricultural land-use surveys were conducted in Tsuen Wan, Sha Tin, Tai Po and the eastern extremities of the New Territories.

The Department of Mathematics is carrying out research in Pure Mathematics, Applied Mathematics and Statistics. In the Statistics Unit the computation of a trade index number series was completed for the planned period, and the unit value of quantum indices for imports and exports, together with a terms of trade series, were published for the period 1953-9. Consultative services continued to be provided by the Unit, of which two major examples are the Census Pilot Study of October 1960 and the Tourist Survey which is in preparation.

      In the Department of Botany research continues on the life history and cytology of local seaweeds, and a paper was presented on certain aspects of this work at the 10th Pacific Science Congress. Work continues on the carbohydrate metabolism of Narcissus leaves. During the year research was initiated in various branches of mycology. These include a study of the Phycomycetous flora of the soils of Hong Kong; ecological studies of the activity of soil fungi and a long-term survey of the fungal flora of Hong Kong,

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Hong Kong is rich in traditional festivals and hardly a month goes by without some event being celebrated. One of the least known of these noisy and decorative events is the Seven Sisters Festival, during which unmarried girls pray for happy marriages and housewifely skills. As an offering to the gods they burn large paper trays, like the one above.

The Bun Festival on Cheung Chau is a popular annual event. Towers of buns 60 ft high are offered to the spirits of the islanders' ancestors.

I

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Each year, usually in May, Hong Kong's fisherfolk cele- brate the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven, at Joss House Bay (above).

The fisherfolk anchor their gaily-decorated junks for cele- brations that include solemn offerings in the temple (left) and lion dances to drive away evil spirits (right).

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Hong Kong's dragon boat races are held to commemorate the death of an upright statesman who over 2,000 years ago drowned himself in the hope of shaming a tyrannical emperor into more modest authority. The day's entertainment includes hotly-contested rowing' events (above), each boat carrying on its prow a fierce dragon's head (below).

KONG

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involving the collection of specimens for a mycological herbarium. An investigation of the biology of certain parasitic flowering plants is also in progress. The Department is now in a position to carry out research on the cytology and genetics of flowering plants, fungi and bacteria and work has begun on the cytogenetics of Collinsia, a member of the family Scrophulariaceae.

There was further expansion of research in the Department of Chemistry. Investigations are being made into the mechanisms of chemical reactions and the chemistry of plant products; also in progress are studies of molecular structure by means of X-ray diffraction, and studies in the fields of electrochemistry, and high temperature inorganic reactions. Research on plant products is assisted financially by outside sources.

The Department of Zoology pursued its studies in the fields of neuro-anatomy, entomology, cytology and vertebrate zoology (specifically on birds and cyclostomes); the results were published in various international journals during the year. The neuro- anatomical research receives financially support from the US Public Health Service. The results of this research were revealed at a Symposium on Muscle Receptors held as part of the University's Golden Jubilee Congress in September. This Symposium, organized by Professor D. Barker and held under the chairmanship of Professor Ragnar Granit, For Mem RS of the Nobel Institute for Neurophysiology, Stockholm, attracted delegates from America, Australia, Europe, India, Japan, New Zealand and Britain.

      Various research programmes were carried out during the year in the Department of Anatomy, and four papers were published or accepted for publication by leading anatomical and other journals. One of the major investigations was on the pattern of growth and development of Southern Chinese children and young people, and in June 1961 the Department received a grant from the National Institute of Health, USA, for this research.

      In the new Department of Biochemistry the major research interests are concerned with problems of drug addiction, nutrition and biochemical evolution. Investigations included a preliminary study of the effects of opium alkaloids and other drugs on the hormonal control of metabolism; studies to elucidate the metabolic role of vitamin E, and comparative studies of metabolic pathways in relation to their evolution. Members of the Department attended

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     and contributed original papers to the International Symposium on Phytochemistry held in Hong Kong and the 5th International Congress of Biochemistry held in Moscow.

      Another of the newly formed departments, Orthopaedic Surgery, continued the research which it had previously undertaken as a sub-unit of the University's Surgery Department. Tuberculosis of bones and joints is still one of the most frequent conditions which is treated in this section of the University, and a great part of the research activity is related to this field. An analysis of 300 cases of tuberculosis of the spine treated with anterior spinal fusion between 1955-60 was completed, and showed the very satisfactory results obtained with this type of treatment.

On the experimental side, the Department contributed to the knowledge of the spread of tuberculosis to the spine, and of the histo-pathology of the disease at different stages. Progress was made in the study of the vascularization of the human spine during growth. Another research project has been stimulated by the observation that some orthopaedic conditions, such as osteochon- dritis of the hip, are found among Western children but are unknown among Chinese children, and the project aims to find out if there is any vascular difference between the Western and the Chinese hip.

A survey was also made of the surgery of the hand and the foot in the treatment of leprosy. The results concerning the surgery of the foot were presented at a meeting of the British Orthopaedic Association, and those of the hand will be published as soon as they are complete.

       In the Department of Pathology research included studies of ovarian tumours and abnormalities of pregnancy. Work is in prog- ress on tumours of the liver and, in collaboration with Professor Kreyberg of Oslo, on the grading of lung tumours. Investigations continued into the improvement of laboratory techniques in diagnostic bacteriology, and surveys are being made of polio- myelitis community rates and carrier rates, as well as studies of other enteric viruses in Hong Kong.

The Department of Physiology continued its investigations of the metabolic effects of temperature, toxicology of biological poisons, metabolic changes in vitamin deficiency and physiology of pregnancy.

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The Department of Civil Engineering completed the development of a simplified method for analysis of wind stresses in tall build- ings, and is undertaking a programme of model testing to examine the theoretical findings. The first stage in the experimental study of the properties of steel portals when encased in concrete and prestressed with high tensile steel wire was concluded and the second stage of the programme was begun. Full scale testing on the behaviour of composite construction using steel beams and concrete slabs was extended from bridge deck structures to the more general cases of grid structures. The testing programme completed during the year on prestressed concrete space frames gave rise to a more detailed programme of testing on plastic hinges in prestressed concrete. The engineering classification and strength studies of local soils from a foundation and stability viewpoint was brought nearer completion. Investigation continued on the bearing capacity of piles in Hong Kong soils but for financial reasons these were terminated during the year. Tests were also carried out on existing multi-storey factories to determine the extent of structural vibrations set-up by reciprocating machinery and the means whereby these could be reduced.

      Separate teaching departments for Electrical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering were established during the year, and both carried out active research programmes.

The Department of Mechanical Engineering made an investiga- tion of the boundary layer flow over water turbine blading in an attempt to clarify the scale effect in water turbines. The results of the investigations were published. Studies have also been made of some aspects of the vorticity induced by non uniform flow through cascades. A wind tunnel was constructed and a programme of investigation of the behaviour of water turbine blading at low Reynolds Numbers is progressing. Theoretical research was pursued on the estimation of natural circulation in boilers and the thermodynamics of the regenerative reheat cycle of a power plant.

A series of investigations on the performance of motors under abnormal conditions was undertaken by the Department of Electrical Engineering, but the project will take some years to complete.

The policy of the Department of Architecture is to examine local problems, under staff supervision as part of the projects set

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to students in the course. This continued during 1961 and attention was given to the possibility of finding methods of housing alter- native to the current multi-storey developments. Thesis subjects included the design of a cotton mill on a steeply sloping site, the development of Stonecutters Island as a holiday centre and housing for the fishing community.

      In the University Library research continues on the rare books in the Fung Ping Shan Chinese Section, and work on an annotated catalogue is nearly complete.

GOVERNMENT

      Fisheries Research is the responsibility of the Fisheries Research Station which is part of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department. This work is dealt with in detail in Chapter 7.

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

Research and Applied Meteorology. In recent years the Royal Observatory has undertaken extensive investigations in the field of Applied Meteorology to obtain information for the engineering design of major development projects in the Colony. In the year under review these demands lessened and it was possible to carry out more research in pure meteorology and geophysics.

      The Observatory completed an investigation into the frequency of occurrence of various rainfall amounts in specified intervals to assist in the design of reservoir catchments. The scope of this work is being increased by obtaining data on the variation of the intensity of rainfall with distance from the centre of individual rainstorms.

A study of the diurnal variation of rainfall over south-east Asia and countries in the south-west Pacific Ocean was begun, and made some progress.

      It is important to develop reliable methods of forecasting the movement of typhoons, and two investigations in this field made good progress during the year. A method of predicting typhoon movement using the pressure distribution at 10,000 feet was developed; this was tried operationally on storms and worked well. The method is now being applied to a large number of past storms to obtain a better assessment of its reliability. In another study,

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several methods of forecasting typhoon movements have been applied to the most recent storms and a comparative assessment of their value as operational tools is being made.

       A new type of photo-electric remote recorder for use with seis- mometer galvanometers was designed and made in the Observatory workshop. Although primarily designed to help forecasters to observe microseisms associated with tropical cyclones, it has also enabled the Observatory to fulfil its obligations under the new international scheme for giving warning of dangerous ocean waves caused by earthquakes.

An investigation into the application to weather analysis of cloud photographs from artificial earth satellites was begun; this was made possible by the successful American launching of TIROS III in July 1961.

A number of papers have been presented at international meetings and published in various journals during the year. They include The Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Tide Heights at Hong Kong; Surface Winds in Hong Kong Typhoons; The Energy Exchange between the Sea and Atmosphere in a Typhoon; The Estimation of Surface Winds in Typhoons; and The Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere over Hong Kong.

19

Religion

      THERE are 16 recognized parish churches and six mission chapels in the Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau. In three of these worship is conducted in English and in the remainder in Chinese. St John's Cathedral, founded in 1842, was established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850.

       The foundation stones of two new parish churches and three schools were laid during the year, and the membership of every church in the Diocese was reported to be showing a marked increase.

After many years of outstanding service as a layman, priest and headmaster, the Rev Canon George She retired and was succeeded at the Diocesan Boys' School by Mr S. J. Lowcock.

In addition to the Anglican Church the English-speaking Protestant Churches on the Island include the Union Church, the Methodist and the Baptist Churches. In Kowloon there are the second Union Church, Emmanuel, the Alliance Church and the Baptist Church. The London Missionary Society, whose chief representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the cession of the Colony to Great Britain, plays a prominent part in education and medicine, and runs the Nethersole Hospital, one of the Colony's foremost medical institutions.

There is a small Russian Orthodox congregation, divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former have their own Church, founded in 1934. The latter, who have inter-communion with the Anglican Church, hold their services in St Andrew's Church Hall, Kowloon, and are known as the Orthodox Church.

The Chinese-speaking Churches continued to display a remark- able vigour during 1961, and new Church buildings and enlarged congregations were visible in all parts of the Colony. Nor is it a tale of material advance only, for efforts are being made to train

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     members in the understanding and practice of their faith, as well as in Christian giving and service. For example, the Church of Christ in China, which continues to build new Churches, schools and other centres, set aside the year 1961 as a year of personal evangelism, commemorating the centenary of the death of the first Protestant martyr in China. The expansion of the Chinese churches into the Resettlement areas, into the new satellite-towns, and into the New Territories as far as the island of Tap Mun-has continued.

       The two co-operative bodies amongst the Protestant Churches are developing their work. They are the Chinese Churches' Union, whose membership is on a congregational basis, and the Hong Kong Christian Council, which includes denominations, mission bodies, and other Christian organizations amongst its membership. The latter maintains contact with the wider Church through its affiliation with the International Missionary Council, and towards the end of the year representatives were sent to the World Council of Churches' Meeting at New Delhi. Chung Chi College, the result of inter-Church endeavour, celebrated its tenth anniversary in October 1961, when special services and celebrations were held on the College campus at Ma Liu Shui in the New Territories. Other forms of co-operation may be seen in the Council on Christian Literature, the Audio-Visual Evangelism Committee, and the Student Christian Centre.

The practice of mutual consultation amongst the Protestant Churches shows itself nowhere more clearly than in their work in welfare and rehabilitation: funds are raised overseas on an inter- denominational basis such as Inter-Church Aids, and there are several pilot projects in co-operation. The Christian Welfare and Relief Council, with a membership of twenty four leading Churches and Christian agencies working in the Colony, sponsored world- wide appeals for funds through the World Council of Churches, and about $2,750,000 was received and disbursed during 1961. The Council itself developed three rehabilitation projects on the Churches' behalf, one for resettlement of Swatow-speaking refugee farmers on small-holdings on the island of Chek Lap Kok, to the north of Lantau Island. Another, which is carried out with the co-operation of the Prisons Department, provides for the rehabilita- tion of cured drug addicts by settling them with their families

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on small-holdings, or by giving help to enable them to re-establish themselves in their former occupations. The third project is for the vocational training of more than 400 students in four trades, dealing with electricity, diesel engines, painting and refrigeration, together with a basic education in English and elementary mathe- matics, which is carried out in the community centre at Wong Tai Sin, in new premises in Bridges Street, Hong Kong, and in a special floating classroom for fishermen which is moved from harbour to harbour.

      Other welfare work done by the churches jointly includes the Haven of Hope Tuberculosis Sanitorium; the Self-Help Projects Committee's work in setting needy families on their feet to earn their own livelihood; the College Student Work Project, which supports students through College in return for regular hours of service to social welfare projects; and co-ordinated relief for flood, typhoon and fire victims.

All churches and missions contribute to this great work in the social welfare field. The Salvation Army, the Lutheran Church Service and the United Presbyterian Case Work Centre and Industrial Project are but a few of the many organizations par- ticipating. The scope of their activities is both fascinating and revealing. It shows the immensity of the problems facing the welfare worker, ranging from work among poor people in crowded urban tenements to the provision of voluntary services to rooftop dwellers, hillside squatters and boat people.

The Roman Catholic Church has been established in Hong Kong since the beginning of British rule 120 years ago. Its history has been one of steady development which, during the past decade, has taken on impressive dimensions as the Church made intensive efforts, often improvised, to meet the social, educational and spir- itual needs of the heavy influx of refugees from mainland China. On 22nd April 1841, Pope Gregory XVI established the Prefecture of Hong Kong by papal decree, with Msgr Theodore Joset as Prefect. At that time there was one Catholic Church on the island, a matshed which was used by missionaries who had come to Hong Kong several years earlier to serve the spiritual needs of the Roman Catholics among British soldiers. Foundations for the future were laid when Msgr Joset erected a new church, a seminary for the education of Chinese priests, and the first

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Catholic school in Hong Kong. In 1848, the first religious Sisters of the Congregation of St Paul de Chartres arrived from France. They opened the first Catholic school for girls and a hospital.

The second Prefect Apostolic of Hong Kong, Msgr Aloysius Ambrosi, took his office in 1855. He was a pioneer in what is now called 'Juvenile Care' and he founded the West Point Reformatory for Boys. Its purpose was to rehabilitate homeless boys and train them in useful trades. Later, he established St Saviour's College, the first Catholic secondary school, which had become a flourishing institution by the time it was taken over by the La Salle Brothers 15 years later.

The Canossian Sisters arrived from Italy in 1867 to start their work, which today includes a comprehensive programme covering education for girls, vocational training, rehabilitative care of the blind, and nursing.

In 1867 the Prefecture Apostolic of Hong Kong was entrusted by the Holy See to the Pontifical Institute of Foreign Missions (PIME), whose first missionaries came here in 1858. Pope Pius IX raised the Prefecture to a Vicariate in 1874. Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, PIME, the Prefect, was consecrated a Bishop and appointed the first Vicar Apostolic of Hong Kong.

Under the efficient administration and fruitful ministry of Bishop Raimondi, the work of the Church was extended in the New Territories and in South China proper as far as Waichow. He built St Joseph's Church in Garden Road, the present Cathedral in Caine Road, and started the first Catholic newspaper.

Roman Catholic activities kept pace with the steady growth of the Colony during the early part of the 20th century, helping to meet emerging needs in the fields of education, health services, and institutional care for the orphaned and aged poor. In 1928, 'Kung Kao Po', the Chinese Catholic weekly was started. Ricci Hall, the Catholic hostel of the University of Hong Kong, was opened in 1929. The Catholic Truth Society, which is devoted to the publication of Catholic literature, was established in 1933. In 1935, the Aberdeen Trade School was opened.

After the Second World War, much rebuilding of Church premises was necessary and new activities were started. Among the latter was the Catholic Centre which was established with the

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     immediate purpose of providing a recreation and information centre for the liberation forces and old residents returning to the Colony.

      On 11th April 1946, the Vicariate of Hong Kong was raised to the status of a Diocese by Pope Pius XII. Bishop Henry Valtorta, PIME, 4th Vicar Apostolic, became the first Diocesan Bishop of Hong Kong. This energetic man is still gratefully re- membered by many in Hong Kong who, in the days of Japanese occupation, came to know his charity and pastoral devotion.

In 1951, he was succeeded by Bishop Lawrence Bianchi, PIME. Bishop Bianchi was then a prisoner in China and he did not take up his duties until a year later, after his expulsion from the mainland.

In the 10 years under Bishop Bianchi's administration, the Catholic population has risen from 43,000 to 174,000. Chinese and non-Chinese active in educational, cultural, and welfare work in Hong Kong today, include 362 Priests, 108 Religious Brothers and 634 Religious Sisters. Thirty seven Orders and Congregations are represented.

       One of the major contributions of the Catholic Church to the common good of Hong Kong has been the extension of its school system, especially in densely populated areas. During the past year, 12 schools have been added, making a total of 98 Catholic primary and secondary schools opened since 1951. With careful planning and the co-operation of Government, the Roman Catholic Church has helped to protect and foster the right to an education. There are now 96,695 children attending 168 Catholic schools.

The Roman Catholic Church, taking its place among voluntary groups, has made a notable contribution to the solution of the Colony's social and health problems, through feeding programmes and clinics and other activities organized under the Catholic Social Welfare Bureau (Caritas-Hong Hong), which was set up in 1958 to meet the need for a central directing and planning body.

       International assistance, as well as help from the Hong Kong Government, has augmented the large sums expended by the Roman Catholic Church here for the well-being of the poor with- out regard to faith. A special commission has been formed by

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Bishop Bianchi to act as a link between Hong Kong and inter- national charity agencies in Germany, the United States, Britain, Scandinavia and other countries which have given generously. The Vatican, taking part in the World Refugee Year, donated a sum of US$50,000 for the relief of Chinese refugees in Hong Kong.

During 1961, the Roman Catholic Church launched a number of new welfare projects including a 300-bed hospital for the poor at So Uk Tsuen which provides 200 general beds, an out-patient department and a tuberculosis wing. Another new project, a cancer hostel, the OXFAM Convalescent Home, provides residence for poor cancer patients undergoing radio-therapy treatment. Caritas House, a 4-storey welfare centre providing medical, rehabilitation and educational facilities and free meals, was also opened in 1961 in the fast-growing fishing town of Aberdeen. Construction also began on another multi-purpose centre in the industrial town of Tsuen Wan which will include a hostel for young workers. The Little Sisters of the Poor completed a new Home for the Aged, with places for 380, at Aberdeen. The Maryknoll Sisters opened Our Lady of Maryknoll Hospital with 61 beds and a large out- patients department at Wong Tai Sin, Kowloon.

Sharing actively in the Church's welfare work are voluntary associations such as the Society of St Vincent de Paul, the Chinese Catholic Club, the Catholic Women's League, the Guilds of Catholic Doctors and Nurses, the Apostolate of the Sea, the Young Christian Workers, and other divisions of the Diocesan Council for the Lay Apostolate.

       The welfare institutions of the Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong today include 5 hospitals and 30 free clinics and dispensaries and many child care centres, orphanages, creches and other institu- tions for those in need of special care. 18 food conversion centres, and 34 Caritas parish units providing relief services and youth activities are also operated.

       The Catholic Centre, as the diocesan central organization for religious, cultural and social activities, is available for information on all Catholic activities in Hong Kong.

       There has been a notable revival of Buddhism in Hong Kong in recent years, mainly due to the immigration of Buddhists from China, among them some famous and respected monks. It main- tains a strong hold amongst the older Chinese and is far from

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dying out among the younger people. Religious studies are con- ducted in a large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of the accessibility of Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan, hermitages in these places are popular with people living in the urban areas. The better known monasteries are, however, situated in more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the Territories. Thus the Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping, Lantau, is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is well patronized at week-ends and holidays. Other monasteries which attract both devotees and sight- seers include those known as Castle Peak, Tung Po To, Sai Lam and Fung Ying Sin Kwun, all in the New Territories. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is the famous Christian Mission to Buddhists which aims to cultivate the Christian and the Buddhist faiths together. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation) and Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist associations in the urban area.

Sarira, relics left after the cremation of renowned high priests or living Buddhas, are treasured by Buddhists and as a result are distributed to the close followers of the priest. They are usually kept in specially built pagodas within the compound of a monastery. It is also a common practice among Buddhists to have the cremated remains of their relatives preserved in such pagodas, but the fees charged are high and not within the means of all. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association has applied to Government for the grant of land for a crematorium and pagodas, with a view to charging lower fees for the preservation of cremated remains there.

Taoism also has many followers although it is not as widespread as Buddhism.

Buddhist and Taoist temples fill an important part of the life of many Chinese in Hong Kong. Temples are usually named in honour of one particular deity, though in many temples several deities are worshipped. Statues of Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, may thus be found standing next to the shrines of local Taoist dignitaries, such as Wong Tai Sin and Tam Kung.

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As Confucian ancestral tablets will often be found in another part of the building, the three religions of China are frequently all accommodated under one roof. Most of the earlier residents of Hong Kong were fishermen, and a number of old temples are dedicated to Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven and the guardian deity of seafarers and fishermen, and to Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy. Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of the Hong Kong temples is that dedicated to Tin Hau, at Causeway Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most fishing harbours. The Man Mo Temple in Hollywood Road, which is dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, is equally famous and is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Wong Tai Sin Temple in New Kowloon and the Che Kung Temple in Sha Tin. All Chinese temples in Hong Kong, apart from those which are specifically exempted, must be registered with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and come under the general control of the statutory Chinese Temples Committee. All revenue obtained from these temples is administered by this Committee, whose first obligation is to ensure that the temples are kept in a proper state of repair and to pay for the due observance of religious ceremonies and celebrations. Any surplus is transferred to the General Chinese Charities Fund, which distributes it to charitable organizations in accordance with their needs.

In the New Territories, where a traditional clan organization has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular organization of the village.

The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese Calendar. The first and the most important is the Lunar New Year, welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of firecrackers, for the free discharge of which general permission is granted for two days. It is a common belief that the mass discharge of firecrackers on this occasion will dispel evil spirits and bad luck and usher in a happy new year.

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The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are also widely observed. The Ching Ming Festival falls in the Spring when visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon when dragon boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the eighth moon, when gifts of mooncakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. It is also a festival on which graves are refurbished. Certain other festivals are celebrated by particular sections of the community. Fishermen pay special and colourful attention to the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau, at her temple. The Chiu Chow community celebrates the Yu Lan Tsit, or Festival of the Dead, in the seventh moon, with elaborate Buddhist ceremonies and theatrical performances.

,

      There are comparatively small groups of Chinese Muslims and non-Chinese Muslims, mostly Pakistanis and Indians. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the site of the present mosque in Shelley Street constructed in 1915. A second mosque was built in 1896 in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Parsees were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer- house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong in Happy Valley. In 1874 they established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, of whom there is a small community in the Colony, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong, where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street-Staunton Street area of the central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

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The first Hindu temple in Hong Kong was built in 1953 and is situated in Happy Valley. Since 1902 there has been a Sikh temple in Queen's Road East which has served the needs not only of the Sikh community, but of many of those Hindus from Sind and the Punjab who have been to some extent influenced by Guru Nanak's teachings.

20

The Arts

THE Loke Yew Hall, the scene of many musical and dramatic performances in the past, was much in use during the year in connexion with the University's Golden Jubilee celebrations. This accentuated the need for other suitable and conveniently sited premises for the presentation of concerts, plays and exhibitions.' The new City Hall, to be ready early in 1962, will meet this need and its opening is now eagerly awaited by all interested in the development of the arts in Hong Kong. During 1961 there were few ventures into new fields of artistic endeavour. Activities continued in the pattern established over past years, and generally it was a period of consolidation rather than of experiment.

      Among the distinguished artists who performed during the year were the pianists Paul Badura-Skoda, Malcuzynski, Joseph Bloch, Abbey Simon, Mindru Katz, Shura Cherkassky, Joerg Demus and Andrew Heath, the cellist Ludwig Hoelscher, the violinist Gilopez Kabayao, the bass-baritone Kim Borg, the harpist Mildred Dilling, and two outstanding chamber music groups, the Julliard String Quartet from New York and the Italian Quintetto Chigiano. The Harvard Glee Club spent a week in Hong Kong in July and gave three enjoyable concerts. In two of them, the Harvard singers were joined by pupils from several local schools. A large number of artists now visit Hong Kong in the course of their concert tours, and there was a marked increase in the number of concerts given during 1961.

A troupe of Indonesian dancers came in February, and the Royal Ballet, starring Miss Beryl Grey, gave three performances in May. An evening of Indian dancing was held in October to celebrate the centenary of the great Indian poet Tagore.

The Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra gave four concerts during the year. The Philharmonic Society's chamber music group presented some successful concerts of instrumental music and songs. There were several other concerts by local musicians and choirs and a number of concerts of Chinese music, both classical

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and modern, some of which were given in connexion with the celebration of the University's Golden Jubilee. The Hong Kong Dramatic Club, in addition to staging Chinese classical plays both in Mandarin and Cantonese, sponsored a concert of Chinese folk songs.

The end of 1961 saw the revival of the Country Concert series of the Music Society of Hong Kong, in which local artists per- formed short, simple programmes of Western and Chinese music at schools and community centres in the outlying towns of the New Territories.

       A well-established feature of musical life in Hong Kong is the Music Festival organized by the Schools Music Association. The number of entries, over 3,200, was larger than ever and some performances reached a high standard. The Festival also included a Speech section for poetry, prose reading and dramatic recitation. In September three examiners from the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music came to examine a record number of over 3,600 candidates. They remarked that it was extremely encouraging that so many young people were inspired to study music for its own sake and expressed the hope that interest in a great variety of instruments would develop.

         The various Western dramatic societies continued with their established pattern of regular presentations in the autumn and winter months. Among the most successful and well received were 'Breath of Spring' by the Hong Kong Stage Club and 'Look Back in Anger' by the Garrison Players. There was increased activity by Chinese amateurs and several Chinese plays presented during the year were original works by Hong Kong's own playwrights who have exploited the abundant historical themes, such as, 'Chin Shih Huang Ti' by Yao Hsing-nung, as well as topics concerning Chinese life in Hong Kong, for example, 'Second Sight and Second Thoughts' by S. I. Hsiung.

       Shakespeare's 'Romeo and Juliet' was presented in English by the Hong Kong University Students' dramatic group, 'The Masquers', with a predominantly Chinese cast. This was a notable experiment in interpretation by Chinese actors in a traditionally English field.

        On the other hand, the Wah Yan College students continued to make Chinese drama intelligible to Europeans through the

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presentation of Chinese historical plays in English. The production 'A Lizard is no Dragon' received the usual enthusiastic support from Europeans and Chinese alike. A further step is being contemplated by the Hong Kong Dramatic Club which is now preparing for the production of a traditional Chinese play, in English, with European actors. Special classes have been organized to give their tuition in the standard conventions, movements and gestures of the classical Chinese theatre.

      In the field of visual art, the past year saw an increasing number of exhibitions, particularly by Chinese painters, several of whom held one-man shows for the first time in 1961. There appears to be an even distribution of interest in the Western and traditional Chinese styles among these younger artists.

Four school children won medals against world competition in an art exhibition held in Rome in connexion with the Olympic Games. Excellent response was received to poster competitions sponsored by the Education Department, and 1961 also saw the opening of a commercial art class in the Technical College Evening Institute.

      In Hong Kong, where one can obtain the world's best cameras at very reasonable prices, interest in photography seems continually to increase. Many vernacular newspapers now include full-page weekly magazine sections for photography; they also sponsor popular outings for amateur photographers, with participants often numbering thousands. It is therefore not surprising that Hong Kong should have won even greater world fame in this field of art. Over 100 Hong Kong photographers sent their works abroad for exhibition in about 150 salons during the past year, winning numerous acceptances and prizes. In the London Salon, one-fifth of the exhibited works was by Hong Kong photographers. In the latest edition of Who's Who in Pictorial Photography, published by the Photographic Society of America, Hong Kong photographers occupy the top five places.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

       The Government Picture Collections will be available for exhibi- tion in the Art Gallery of the new City Hall after its opening in March 1962.

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      The Collections consist of the Ho Tung Collection, the Chater Collection, the Law and Sayer Collection and a Miscellaneous Collection, with a total of more than 700 items. They include paintings, prints, engravings and photographs illustrating the growth and development of Hong Kong, and the life in Hong Kong, Macau and the China Coast area, during the 18th and 19th Centuries.

       A collection of antique Chinese ceramics, purchased by Govern- ment from Mr Henry Yeung in 1949 and now at the Fung Ping Shan Library of the University of Hong Kong, will also be dis- played in the Museum of the new City Hall. The collection consists of 166 pieces of some very fine grave pottery of the Han Dynasty, a series of early bronze mirrors, some of which are in almost perfect condition, and outstanding pieces of Ming porcelain.

The responsibility for the acquisition of additional pictures in February 1961, was transferred to the Urban Council, who are advised by an Advisory Panel consisting of local residents with specialized knowledge. A recent acquisition is a series of 125 old photographs of Hong Kong, mostly about 1890-5.

       The Maglioni Collection of books, donated to the Government by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Hong Kong in 1954, consists of some 600 western books and journals and 500 Chinese volumes, mainly on the archaeology and anthropology of the Far East.

The Kotewall Collection, also a gift to the Government, consists of some 14,000 volumes of Chinese works and 4,200 other books. A preliminary catalogue of the Chinese section has been completed.

       Both the Maglioni and the Kotewall Collections will be available to the public in the City Hall Library after the work of cataloguing has been completed.

The Colonial Secretariat Library houses 12,500 volumes. These include many Government publications; books written especially about Hong Kong, including publications by local authors; reference books on such subjects as Public Administration, Sociology, Economics and Political Science; and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of south-east Asia. Accessions occur almost weekly. Apart from being a departmental reference library, it is a useful source for research

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workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available to members of the public.

BRITISH COUNCIL

      The British Council continues to make a lively and varied contribution to the cultural life of Hong Kong. With its assistance, the Royal Ballet was able to perform here for the first time. Negotiations were in train for the visit of the London Philharmonic Orchestra early in 1962, with Sir Malcolm Sargent as Conductor. The Council assists local cultural bodies such as the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, the Music Society, the Stage Club, the Library Association, and many other organizations which meet on its premises and are able to make use of its materials and services. In addition to its own displays, which have included such diverse subjects as Blind Welfare in Britain, Poster and Book Jacket Designs, and the paintings of J. M. W. Turner, the Council mounted exhibitions of the works of three local artists. Exhibitions were also lent to the University, the Post-Secondary Colleges, and the teacher training colleges.

Assistance and information of all kinds was given to Radio Hong Kong, and members of the Council's staff have broadcast frequently. A regular weekly programme entitled 'Speaking Generally' was produced for most of the year.

The libraries and reading rooms of the British Council, both in Kowloon and Hong Kong, have continued to be extremely popular with all sections of the community. The two libraries now contain 16,500 volumes and have a total membership of 6,000, the majority of whom are Chinese. More than 85,000 books were issued from the libraries during the year. The wide selection of British newspapers and periodicals available in the Council's air-conditioned reading rooms were read by thousands of students and adults of all nationalities. A varied programme of lectures and film shows was provided throughout the 1960-1 season, those dealing with the Commonwealth and Dominion countries being especially popular. The Council's stock of audio-visual material, films, slides, photosets, music and speech records and tapes, was loaned to schools, training colleges, the University, and many organizations and societies.

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The Council maintains close relations with the University of Hong Kong, and with most cultural and higher educational institu- tions in the Colony. Presentations of British books and periodicals were made to the Hong Kong Teachers' Association and to the three grant-aided Post-Secondary Colleges. In commemoration of the University's Golden Jubilee, the Council presented to the University Library a complete microfilm of the Official Index to "The Times' for the fifty years 1906-56.

       The British Council deals every year with many inquiries about higher education in Britain and other parts of the Commonwealth. Senior officers assist in the recommendation and selection of scholars to be sent to Britain under the auspices of the Sino- British Fellowship Trust, the Federation of British Industries, the Commonwealth Scholarship Commission as well as the Council's own Scholarship Scheme. Three Registrars from the grant-aided Post-Secondary Colleges were sent to Britain to study the British system of university administration. The Council also contributed to the exchange of information and to the making of personal contacts among specialists by arranging for a number of eminent visitors from Britain to visit and lecture to educational and pro- fessional bodies in Hong Kong. Conversely, soon after his appoint- ment, the Manager of the new City Hall was able, with the assistance of the Council, to tour civic and cultural centres in several of the major cities of Britain.

21

Sport and Recreation

BECAUSE of the shortage of land in Hong Kong space for playing fields is difficult to obtain. Although many schools have their own basket-ball courts, games such as football, which require more open ground are, in most cases, restricted to central stadia or parks. In spite of this limitation, Hong Kong is a remarkably active centre for a wide variety of sporting activities.

      Most field sports take place during the winter months when the weather is comparatively cool and dry, while in the summer the emphasis is on aquatic pastimes such as swimming, water skiing and boating.

      Association football, the Colony's most popular sport, is suffering from a number of problems, not the least of which is the decline in attendances at the main stadia. There is little doubt that the activities of illegal bookmakers are having an effect on the game and this, in turn, is discouraging spectators. There is believed to be much unlawful betting on the scores and results of matches and some players have been suspected of not giving of their best in order to oblige the bookmakers. The Hong Kong Football Association assisted by the Police is doing all in its power to stamp out this unpleasant business.

      In spite of these difficulties, association football has still more followers than any other sport and the ability of local players remains high. During the year, Hong Kong teams played matches against teams on tour from England, Switzerland, Sweden, Peru and Yugoslavia and apart from a sound trouncing at the hands of the reigning Olympic champions, Yugoslavia, all these matches were closely fought.

      Rugby football enjoyed one of its best seasons for some years, largely because of the influx of talented players from Britain. The Hong Kong Rugby Football Union went on a highly successful tour of Saigon and Bangkok in November winning three out of five matches and retaining the Jobez cup.

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       Horse racing is more popular than ever. The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club's new public stand was completed by the start of the 1961 season but there is still insufficient room to accommodate all those who wish to attend the meetings at Happy Valley. The latest major cash sweep run in conjunction with the Kwangtung Handicap set a new record when well over three million tickets were sold and the first prize amounted to over $14 million. HRH Princess Alexandra watched this local classic and after the race presented the Kwangtung Handicap cup to the winning owner.

The highlight of the 1961 cricket season was the Hong Kong XI's tour of Singapore and Malaya which took place in May. Although the Hong Kong players had been out of action for several weeks before the tour, they acquitted themselves well, losing only one of the four matches, the Interport versus Malaya. In Hong Kong, competition in the cricket league was keener than ever and the overall standard of play compared favourably with previous seasons.

Public squash rackets courts are maintained at Victoria Park. The Hong Kong Squash Rackets Association was established in the course of the year to encourage this sport, and there is now a thriving squash rackets league comprising service and civilian teams. Chinese sportsmen are being attracted to the game and when they have gained more experience they should make their mark in local squash circles.

Golf is extremely popular; there are long waiting lists to join local clubs and complaints of overcrowding especially at the week-ends-are now as familiar in Hong Kong as they are on the courses around London. The Hong Kong Open Championship in February was won by the then reigning British Open Champion, Kel Nagle of Australia. Apart from a large Australian contingent, lead- ing professionals from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines also competed. The Far East Golf Circuit has now been completed by the inclusion of Japan and Malaya and players from England, America, Canada and South Africa are expected to take part in 1962. At Kuala Lumpur the Hong Kong team won the South East Asia Amateur Golf Team Championship.

Tennis does not appear to be making much progress, despite the fact that conditions favour the game and ample facilities are available. All the major Colony competitions were again won by a

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small band of veterans and there appear to be no promising young players on the horizon. Badminton on the other hand is gaining in popularity and the Hong Kong Badminton Association has started a training scheme which should do much to improve the standard of the sport in Hong Kong. During December, Wong Peng-soon, the former world professional badminton champion from Singapore gave a series of exhibition matches for charity which drew capacity crowds.

      Hockey, softball, basketball, fencing, boxing and table tennis are all popular. Archery, which was introduced to the Colony last year, has made good progress under the direction of the newly formed Archery Association.

      Lawn bowls still provides the opportunity for keen competition during the summer months, and the prospect of a trip to Australia for the Empire Games next November will stimulate even greater interest during the 1962 season.

      Cycling is fast becoming popular and many local riders, as well as riders from Korea and Japan, participated in the Cycling Association's tour of Hong Kong cycle race.

      The Motor Sports Club of Hong Kong had another busy season of rallies, hill climbs, sprints and slaloms. A number of club drivers competed successfully in the 1961 Macau Grand Prix.

Athletics are still below Olympic standards, but as a result of regular meetings held throughout the year by the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association, the position is steadily improving. Competitors and spectators responded with the same enthusiasm as in previous years to the fifth round-the-island walkathon. Local competitors took most of the leading places against strong com- petition from a number of foreign entrants.

      The standard of competition swimming in Hong Kong is also below that shown in leading countries, but it is hoped that this gap may be gradually closed by regular coaching and practice. The annual cross-harbour swimming race attracted the usual strong entry of local swimmers.

Yachting and rowing occupy a prominent place in the sporting calendar. The Colony's yachtsmen competed against their counter- parts in Macau and Manila and together with the oarsmen took part in the Far Eastern Regatta at Singapore. It is noteworthy

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that more and more people are availing themselves of the splendid facilities in Hong Kong for yachting, rowing, cruising and water skiing.

PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS AND OTHER AMENITIES

      The management of parks and other public amenities in the urban areas is one of the responsibilities of the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. These include all the beaches on Hong Kong Island and one at Lai Chi Kok on the mainland, as well as a number of walks and look-outs on the hills above the harbour. Apart from developing these natural attrac- tions, the Urban Council devotes much attention to creating additional playgrounds and gardens and to improving city amenities in general.

       The bathing beaches were very popular during most of the summer months. For the safety of the public, 77 full-time life- guards were on duty at 12 public beaches in the urban areas from April to October. Staff of the Department also cleaned the beaches and supervised facilities provided on a contractual basis, such as changing tents and refreshment stalls. At certain beaches, a limited number of new sites for huts were leased to private individuals for five years, and existing huts were let by ballot for the normal period of one year.

       A surfaced parking area for some 300 cars was provided at Shek O beach, and a new car park was completed at Deep Water Bay beach.

The Department also looks after 22 beaches in the New Terri- tories. At seven of these contractors provided tents, changing-rooms and other facilities. The usual ballot took place for the right to use the 59 beach huts on a yearly basis. A total of 50 fully-trained life-guards were on duty on the New Territories beaches during the summer.

       The shortage of land in the built-up areas means that the development of parks and playgrounds can only take place in keen competition with other forms of development. Before the war play- grounds were few; after the war these were, at best, dusty and uneven pieces of land or, at worst soon occupied by squatters. Despite these difficulties, old playgrounds have been improved and new ones laid out, and apart from the large parks and formal

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playgrounds a great deal has been done to improve the appearance of the city by tidying up small derelict roadside areas and, where possible, planting them with grass. During the year, 35 new areas were developed, covering over 28.14 acres.

       There are now altogether 215 acres of parks, public playgrounds and rest gardens (including the Botanic Gardens and Victoria Park), providing 10 association football, six miniature football, two hockey, one rugby football and three cricket pitches, all grass covered, and 13 all-weather tennis courts, 40 basketball, nine volleyball and 19 miniature football grounds. Of the 108 public playgrounds and rest gardens, 29 have provision for ball games.

The Botanic Gardens attract large numbers of visitors, par- ticularly during the Chinese Festivals and at week-ends and public holidays. They are often used as locations by film producers, and for botanical studies by students. More equipment was installed in the children's playground section of the Botanic Gardens, and the aviary and the mammal collection were augmented by pur- chases and by presentations.

Hong Kong's first colour fountain at the Star Ferry Pier con- course in Kowloon was completed during the year. Oval-shaped and about 50 feet in diameter, the fountain is illuminated at night by multi-coloured lights playing on five jets of water which rise to a height of about eight feet. The water in the base of the fountain is also illuminated.

The development and administration of parks and of the first public playground in the New Territories are also a responsibility of the Urban Services Department and four new projects were completed during the year.

The playground which is at Tung Lo Wan in the Sha Tin district was opened on 27th April 1961 by the Chairman of the Children's Playground Association and handed over to the Director of Urban Services. The playground is fully equipped and includes a basketball court.

Floodlights were installed during the year at the MacPherson Playground, Lei Cheng Uk public playground and the children's pool in the Victoria Park swimming pool. Normal lighting was provided at Blake Gardens, King George V Memorial Park (Hong Kong), Argyle Street Playground, Lo Fu Ngam Resettlement

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     Estate playground, Wong Tai Sin Resettlement Estate rest garden and Tong Mei Road playground.

      The Hong Kong Stadium, operated by the Hong Kong Football Association, was used during the year for football matches, athletic meetings, rallies, rehearsals, training sessions, and parades by the Police and the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. The Boundary Street Sports Ground was frequently used by schools for athletic training and meetings. On other Council-controlled playgrounds Kaifong Associations organized performances of Chinese opera in aid of charities. At Chinese New Year the annual fair was held on the hard-surfaced games area in the Victoria Park.

      By arrangement with the bands of the Police Force, the Regiments stationed in Hong Kong, the St John Ambulance Brigade and other local organizations, regular concerts were held in public parks and playgrounds in the urban areas. The model boating pool in Victoria Park is very popular and a pool is now planned for the Fa Hui park in Kowloon. Modern equipment was installed in a number of playgrounds and by the end of the year construction had started on a children's library in Lei Cheng Uk public playground.

      The Victoria Park swimming pool, which is built to Olympic standards, is a favourite rendezvous for swimmers, especially for children. Admission fees are very reasonable and special arrange- ments can be made for groups of school children and children sponsored by welfare agencies. The total number of persons who used the pool in 1961 was 252,202 (126,745 children and 125,457 adults).

      Work on a large public swimming pool at Kowloon Tsai is nearing completion. Construction of the pool which will be to Olympic standards has been made possible by a donation of $2,000,000 from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. It will have separate areas for competition swimming, diving, and general bathing and two sections for children. A park which will extend over 35 acres and contain playing fields, and other amenities is also planned for the same area.

The Department is also responsible for the development and maintenance of gardens and places of public recreation; for the tending of trees and ornamental gardens in public places in the urban areas, and for the clearance of undergrowth at road junctions

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to improve traffic visibility and elsewhere to provide vantage points from which the scenery can be enjoyed.

       The botanical branch of the Gardens Section of the Department continued to take care of, and to add to, the collection in the Government Herbarium which was started 120 years ago. It also kept in touch with institutions abroad and dealt with phyto- sanitary control of live plants and plant produce leaving the Colony.

The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in 1955, is also looked after by the Department. The tomb is believed to belong to either the Later Han period (AD 25-200) or the Six Dynasties period (AD 200-589). It is open to the public, together with a small museum which contains the funereal objects found in the tomb.

Part III

22

Geography

     THIS Chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present the background picture against which the reader may view the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the Report.

GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

       The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south-east coast of China and adjoins the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, being less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon on the mainland stand on either side of the harbour which is about 90 miles south-east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony barely 24 hours away from Britain: the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

       The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles, made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island, including a number of small adjacent

islets: 29 square miles

(b) Kowloon and Stonecutters Island: 33 square miles

(c) The New Territories, which consist of a substantial section of the mainland and 235 islands: 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

       Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded domes of granitic rocks which cover south-east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and mountain building of the Jurasside, Laramide and Alpine revolu- tions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of some importance. Galena, silver,

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wolframite, molybdenite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold, sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, beryl, felspar and kaolinite have all been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging monocline which strikes north-east to south- west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The general appearance is that of an upland terrain which the sea has invaded. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. As a result decay to a laterised rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet. The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have discovered submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine grained crystal- line rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet.

Only the soil of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area have any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility. They need the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates.

The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage. This has made it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface water for water supplies. The highly variable and erratic rainfall régime of the area alone accounts for many of the water shortages. In 1938 the total rainfall was only 55 inches (compared with the

าง

    Hong Kong's shipbuilding and repairing industry-the oldest industry in the Colony has a reputation second to none in the Far East. This picture was taken at the Taikoo Dockyard during the refit of a large passenger liner. In addition to ocean-going vessels, Colony shipyards each year produce numbers of specialized craft for use in all parts of Asia.

In this modern age the traditional Chinese junk still plays an important part in fisheries and transportation in Hong Kong. In sheltered bays around the coasts there are many yards where these craft are built and repaired (below). In recent years many junk-owners have gone over from sail to power. Because inshore waters are badly over-fished many junks are now starting to go much further out to sea to make their catch. To cope with new problems of navigation, junk owners can send their sons to a special school run by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

More than 5,000 ocean-going vessels call at Hong Kong each year, many of them dropping anchor in the harbour where they are loaded or unloaded by Chinese junks (above). The Colony's Preventive Service is functioning more efficiently than ever before and in addition to checking ocean-going vessels searches more than 20,000 junks each year.

   Many ships drop anchor in Hong Kong for the last time, being broken up and their metal melted down for re-rolling (above). For whatever reason they come, vessels must be protected against fire and Hong Kong possesses one of the largest fire floats in the world-the Alexander Grantham (below)--which is kept in constant readiness by the Colony's Fire Services.

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yearly average of 85 inches). In order to husband and conserve water reserves to meet the demands both of an ever increasing population and of agriculture and industry, it has been necessary to apply restrictions during dry seasons for some part of every year since 1934.

VEGETATION

      Hong Kong lies in the frost-free Double Cropping Rice Zone of East Asia. While rice remains the major crop of the New Territories, by area, its production and value otherwise are sur- passed by market garden cropping. Where there is adequate water two crops of rice are grown each year. The first crop is sown into the nurseries in early March, transplanted in April and harvested in June and July. Second crop seedlings are nursed in June for planting out by the end of July and the crop is harvested during October and early November.

Market garden cropping, including the cultivation of cut-flowers for the urban and suburban markets, is becoming increasingly important; vegetables are grown throughout the year, but most particularly during the cooler months which form the main vegetable season. Production is very intensive and in certain areas as many as eight crops a year are grown.

The upland areas, which are predominantly grass covered and in several places severely eroded, tend to have highly leached acid soils. Land utilization of these areas is principally through afforestation, which has been vigorously pursued since 1945.

In favourable locations on upland areas fruit production is developing and orchards of wampei, longan, lemon, orange, tangerine, Japanese apricot, litchi and guava are increasing in number and size. Pineapple planting has recently assumed increased importance, particularly in certain off-shore islands. On marginal land, between valley bottoms and upland, bananas can grow well. There is only one tea plantation of any note, situated on a plateau at approximately 1,800 feet on Lantau Island. Chapter 7 tells much more about fruit production in the Colony.

POPULATION

More than ninety eight per cent of the entire population is Chinese. The census taken in 1931 showed the population to be

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849,751. In 1941 a count of heads for Air Raid Precautions put the figure at about 1,600,000. On the re-occupation of the Colony in 1945 the Japanese sponsored Hong Kong News estimated the population at 650,000. The most recent census was taken in March 1961 and is described in detail in Chapter 1. The total population was 3,133,131 of which 1,610,650 were male and 1,522,481 were female.

      The bulk of the population comes from the neighbouring Chinese province of Kwangtung. It consists of Cantonese, easily the largest group, followed by Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka. Since 1949 many have come from other parts of China, especially the coastal provinces. Not all of Hong Kong's phenomenal increase is due to immigrant population. The natural annual increase of officially registered births over deaths is close to 100,000. The greatest concentration of people (a little over 70 per cent) lives around the coastal fringes of the harbour, where the abundance of human beings strikes the visitor most forcibly.

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

      The parts played by agriculture and fishing in the economy of Hong Kong tend to be overshadowed by trade and industry. Measured in terms of cash, however, agriculture makes a sub- stantial contribution to the Colony's wealth, for the annual value of production is thought to be well over $200,000,000, although only 50 square miles of the land area can be used for cultivation profitably. Fishing supports one of the largest single sea-fishing communities in the world. More than 138,000 people live on boats and about 80,000 depend on the industry. Altogether more than 150,000 people rely on fishing either directly or indirectly as a means of livelihood. The annual value of production is about $60,000,000. Mining is also remarkably well developed and varied for such a small area. The principal minerals exploited are iron, tungsten, graphite and clay. The iron mine at Ma On Shan produces about 10,000 tons a month. Again, Chapter 7 gives more detail.

      Industrial expansion in Hong Kong since the Second World War has been prodigious and is still continuing. An official Labour Administration Report of 1939 stated that 948 factories of all types had been registered: in 1955 there were 2,925 and in 1961 well over 6,000. These figures do not give the total number of

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     factories actually producing because there are many that are small and not recorded or registered. Textiles, clothing, rubber footwear, light metal products, electrical apparatus and plastics are the most important light industries, shipbuilding and shipbreaking among heavy industries. With very few exceptions the Colony is dependent on outside sources for its raw materials. Principal among these are fuel oil, iron, steel, cotton, plastics, rubber and wood. The location of industry has been influenced by accessibility to the sea-board. A broad pattern is that of dockyards and heavy bulk- type industries such as oil storage depôts and iron foundries along the coasts, while the lighter industries, including textiles, have settled on cheaper land further inland or on the post-war reclaimed lands. The growth of industry and the accompanying building boom has created a steady demand for skilled workers.

      A basic factor in the growth of Hong Kong as a trading and manufacturing centre has been the development and maintenance of an efficient system of transportation and communications. Shipping facilities have kept abreast of all requirements whether for ocean, coastal or cross-harbour purposes, and there are large fleets of motor vehicles of all types to provide carriage on land.

Communications are the subject of Chapter 15.

      The economy of Hong Kong is still expanding rapidly and the post-war change in emphasis from entrepôt trade to industrial development is now also influenced by tourism which yearly provides an increasingly important source of income.

CLIMATE

The climate of Hong Kong is governed by the monsoons, and although the Colony lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual for tropical countries. The winter monsoon blows from the north-east and normally begins during September. It prevails until mid-March but can occur as late as May. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny with mean daily temperatures about 70°F to 75°F; this is the most popular time of the year with tourists. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; frequently the days are overcast and dull with chilly winds. Coastal

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     fogs occur from time to time in early spring-during breaks in the monsoon-when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

      From mid-April until September the south-west monsoon prevails, but it is not as persistent as the winter monsoon. During this part of the year the weather is almost continuously hot and humid, and is often cloudy and showery with occasional thunder- storms. Summer is the rainy season.

       The annual rainfall, as measured at the Royal Observatory, has varied between 46 inches and 120 inches, but the normal value is 85 inches. On average the five dry months from November to March yield only 9 inches as compared with 76 inches spread over the other seven months.

There is also considerable variation in rainfall over different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountain regions, particularly around Tai Mo Shan and on Lantau Island. Least rainfall occurs on the offshore islands which usually receive little more than half the rainfall of the wettest areas.

The mean daily temperature ranges from about 58°F in February to over 82°F in July and the average for the year is 72°F. During the hottest month, July, the mean maximum temperature is 86.9°F but the summer temperature often exceeds 90°F. February is the coldest month with a mean minimum temperature of 55.6°F but the temperature can be expected to fall to 45°F in most years. Temperatures above 95°F or below 40°F are rarely recorded at the Observatory although greater extremes occur in the New Territories. Ice occasionally forms on high ground. Afternoon temperatures are usually 8°F to 9°F hotter than the coldest part of the night.

The mean relative humidity exceeds 80 per cent from mid- February until early September. November is the least humid month with 69 per cent relative humidity but the lowest reading of 10 per cent was recorded in January. The average daily duration of bright sunshine ranges from 3 hours in March to over 7 hours in mid-July and in late October.

Gales caused by tropical cyclones may be expected in any of the months from May to November, but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of these cyclones several

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times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Gales are experienced once a year on average, and less frequently the centre of a mature typhoon passes sufficiently close to the Colony to produce winds of hurricane force when damage and loss of life may occur. The last occasion when such winds were experienced was in June 1960 when the centre of typhoon Mary passed over the western part of the Colony.

23

Natural History

THERE are many attractions in Hong Kong for the nature lover. Although the territory is small, it contains a wide variety of tropical flora and tropical and sub-tropical fauna. There are beautiful country walks within easy reach of the urban areas, both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, and for the naturalist these excursions on foot can be most rewarding.

       Mammals. Unfortunately the numbers of several species of the Colony's wild mammals are continually decreasing. This is partly due to the post-war development of Hong Kong and the rapid expansion of the human population.

Among the mammals which have long been extremely rare or have been only occasional visitors from southern China are the South China Tiger, Leopard, Dhole or Indian Wild Dog, South China Red Fox, Crab-eating Mongoose, and Large Chinese Civet. It is probable that most, if not all, of these animals have now finally disappeared from the Colony. The last undoubted visit of a large feline in Hong Kong was recorded in 1957, when a Leopard which had been seen in the New Territories killed a number of domestic animals. Others, which from lack of recent records must now be regarded as rare, are the small Chinese Leopard Cat and the primitive Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Ant-eater. It is unfortunate that several species (e.g., certain civets, wild cats, deer, pangolins and porcupines) are locally valued as food or for medicinal

purposes.

       Monkeys may still be found in small numbers, with very localized distribution, on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. Although all of these may be descendants of released or escaped specimens, it is possible that those in the Tai Tam area of Hong Kong Island are survivors of the indigenous Rhesus Monkeys, a species which less than a hundred years ago inhabited most of the small islands about Hong Kong. Another indigenous mammal is the little Chinese Ferret-Badger, seldom seen on account

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of its shy and nocturnal habits, which occurs in the Peak district and other suitable localities. There are also occasional records of the Eastern Chinese Otter. Two species of civets still to be found in the Colony are the Rasse or Small Indian Civet and the Masked Palm Civet; both are shy nocturnal creatures, being good climbers and feeding on small animals and fruit.

       The attractive little Barking Deer, known also as Reeves' Muntjac, inhabits various hilly wooded localities on Hong Kong Island. Being largely nocturnal it is seldom seen, although its characteristic bark is familiar to many residents of the Peak. It is a small deer, about the size of a large dog; males have simple antlers, and their canines are developed as short curved tusks. In the New Territories, where it has been hunted, this animal has now become very scarce. The Wild Boar, which has also been hunted for many years, now occurs only in very small numbers in certain parts of the New Territories.

      Rodents deserving special mention are the Chinese or Crestless Himalayan Porcupine, found both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, the Smaller Bandicoot Rat, and a pretty little animal called the Eastern Spiny-haired Rat which is bright yellowish-brown above and pure white on the belly. All three are entirely 'wild' (non-domestic) species. Others among the Colony's small mammals are the House Shrew, and several species of insectivorous and frugivorous bats.

      Cetaceans so far recorded from within or near Hong Kong waters are the Common Dolphin, the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale (a single record of the latter during 1955). The name Black Finless Porpoise is mis- leading; these animals are a steel-grey colour in life, becoming entirely black only after death.

      Birds. A wide variety of birds, represented by well over three hundred species, have been identified in Hong Kong. Consequently, there is much to interest ornithologists and bird watchers, and opportunity exists for a great deal more work on subjects such as breeding and feeding habits, various other aspects of ecology, and on migration. The avifauna of Hong Kong includes both palaearctic and oriental species, some of the families represented being those containing the crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, munias,

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     finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, eagles, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks and grebes.

      A bird recorded in the Colony for the first time in 1961 is Swinhoe's Fork-tailed Petrel. Other very rare birds seen during 1961 include the Great Frigate-bird, the Black Vulture and the White-cheeked Laughing-thrush. A useful guide, written by two members of the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society and published . in 1960 by the South China Morning Post, Ltd, is 'An Annotated Check-list of the Birds of Hong Kong'. In this publication are listed 333 species recorded in the Colony between 1860 and the end of April 1960.

      Reptiles and Amphibians. Snakes, lizards, and frogs are all well represented in Hong Kong. There are also various species of terrapins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad and the Chinese Newt. There is a strong Indian element in this section of the local fauna, but several species are so far known only in Hong Kong. Most of the commonly encountered snakes are harmless, and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Apart from certain rear-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Macclel- land's Coral Snake, the Indian or Chinese Cobra, the Hamadryad (King Cobra) and the White-lipped Pit Viper (commonly called 'Bamboo Snake'). The four species of sea snakes found in the waters around Hong Kong are all venomous, but fortunately it is not the nature of these reptiles to attack bathers. As a result of over ten years' study by one of its members, the Hong Kong Natural History Society published during the year an 'Annotated Checklist With Keys to the Snakes of Hong Kong', listing a total of thirty eight species known in the Colony.

       Insect Life. The most attractive and widely appreciated insects are the butterflies, of which almost two hundred species, belonging to nine families, have been found in Hong Kong. The beautiful and predominantly tropical butterflies, popularly known as 'swallow- tails', are conspicuous during country walks. Of the innumerable moths, two deserve special mention on account of their large size and attractive colour. One, the magnificent Atlas Moth, has a wing-span of from seven to nine inches, and is the largest moth in the world. The other is the Moon Moth, soft silvery green in

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colour, with a wing-span of from four to six inches and swallow- tailed wings.

       Particularly characteristic of Hong Kong in spring and summer are the several species of cicadas, well-known in their brief adult stage for the incessant song of the males. In their immature nymphal stage very little is known about these remarkable insects, which spend years below the surface of the ground. A spectacularly large insect living in ponds is the Giant Water Bug, over three inches in length, which feeds on small fish, frogs and other aquatic creatures. In the summer they fly readily from one piece of water to another, and in the course of such migrations are sometimes seen after alighting on or falling to the ground.

       Marine Fauna. The fish of Hong Kong are of extraordinary diversity and hundreds of different species pass through the markets.

Situated just south of the Tropic of Cancer, and flanked to the west by the Pearl River, which brings down enormous quantities of food and nutrients from China, the waters of the Colony support a great variety of both tropical and temperate water fishes, many of which appear seasonally on their breeding or feeding migrations and give rise to major fisheries. In the summer months of recent years large sharks and manta rays have been particularly abundant and have on occasion been the cause of both welcome and un- welcome excitement among fishermen, swimmers and yachtsmen. Infrequent incursions of oceanic water from the south bring with them during the summer such comparative varieties as flying fish and the beautiful but deadly Portuguese Man O' War, with its striking purple and red float and long stinging tentacles.

The invertebrate fauna of the Colony are as diverse in form and colour as the fish. Hidden from sight to all except divers is a profusion of corals, sea-fans, sea-lilies and many other beautiful marine animals.

Flora. It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of the neighbouring southern parts of Kwangtung Province. The principal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor, to which a large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casurina, eucalyptus and Flamboyant. The traditional Chinese belief ("fung-shui") that the

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disposition of buildings, graves, trees, water and mountains may affect a person's fortune and destiny, has done much to preserve fine groves of trees, mostly camphor, banyans and clumps of bamboo, around many farms and villages. Some of the mountain slopes, from a distance, seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation it can be seen that the water courses are marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

      The principal locally-grown fruits include, lychee, lungngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced the papaya, the pineapple, the custard apple and the guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine is native of South China and was introduced to the west in the seventeenth century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

      The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not completely, described in G. B. Bentham's Flora Hongkongensis, published in 1861, and in Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series, The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong by A. H. Crook; Plants of Lan Tau Island by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; Familiar Wild Flowers of Hongkong, illustrated with photo- graphs by V. H. C. Jarrett, published in 1937; and many papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war three official publications have appeared in the series 'Food and Flowers', con- taining amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

      The flora of the Colony is tropical, but this is about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants.to lie dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year; the consequence is that a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in other equatorial countries.

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Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected, the months of spring and early summer are when most of the species come into flower. Some are easy to place in their correct families; for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like, and is related to, the camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers and star-shape fruits, and a Tutcheria with large camellia-like flowers, white tinged with gold bearing masses of tangerine orange stamens. This latter is a tall tree with glossy foliage, described as a distinct genus in 1908 in honour of W. J. Tutcher, former Superintendent of the Botanical and Forestry Department. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of the Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony; of these the red one is extremely abundant; another with large pale pink flowers, is so rare that it is only known to exist on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers borne on the leafless branches in profusion.

       The Bauhinia blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered in 1908 by the Fathers of the French Foreign Missions at Pok Fu Lam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world. Its origin is unknown; it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia gluaca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation as a covering for trellises and porches.

      There are several species of Camellia growing wild on the island and the mainland. All but one, have white flowers; the one with red flowers is only known from Hong Kong Island and grows in the Peak district. It is Camellia hongkongensis, a small tree up to 40 feet in height which comes into flower in November and continues until the middle of March. A new and distinct

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     Camellia was discovered in 1955 and named Camellia grantham- iana in honour of the Governor, at the time, Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee Reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers 5 inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful fruits in striking colours. The Ardisia, the Chloranthus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries; the large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of the Gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound on the hillsides, one of which is the Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries; one of these is the Mussaenda, the Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy cuticle, but probably the only true blue is that of the Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis (the so-called Hong Kong Hawthorn), the wild jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable star-like fruit of the Sterculia turns crimson in late summer and split open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance these open fruits look like large red flowers.

      There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public: two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruits resembling small oranges; one species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits, unmistakable because of their large size and horn-like shape; and one species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. The latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers, each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid gelsemidine, which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as twelve grams of leaf constitute a fatal dose, and that death follows within a few hours. It is sometimes used by country people to commit suicide. Wild edible fruits include a wild jack-fruit (Artocarpus), the fruit of the rose-myrtle, wild bananas and raspberries. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

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     There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of English hedgerows, has five close relatives in Hong Kong. There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. The English honey-suckle has five relatives whose Cantonese name is 'kam ngan fa' (gold and silver flower) because of their change in colour from white to yellow.

      More than seventy species of native orchids are recorded in the flora. Most of the epiphytic species possess small flowers which are not of particular interest to the horticulturist. Some of the ground orchids are very beautiful and have long been cultivated in other countries. Probably the best known of the local species is the Nun orchid, bearing flowers four inches across with white petals and a purple lip. Other note-worthy species are the white Susan orchid, the yellow Buttercup orchid, the pink Bamboo orchid, and the purple Lady's Slipper orchid.

       There is a fine wild iris, Iris speculatrix, further south than any other true iris. Its violet flower, from 2 to 3 inches in diameter, is tinged with bright orange, and blooms from the middle of March to the end of April. A wild lily, Lilium brownii, appears in June with its trumpet flowers up to seven inches in length, white, sometimes purple-streaked. A wild Crinum with long sword- like leaves and bunches of white flowers is found by the sea and also the Belamcanda, one of the iris family, with red-dotted orange- yellow flowers. Platycodon, the Chinese Bell-flower, is very widely distributed in Eastern Asia, being abundant as far north as Manchuria and as far south as Hong Kong. This lovely violet giant harebell is common on grassy slopes on the south side of Hong Kong Island. It is a perennial plant with a thick fleshy root stock valued for its medicinal uses and was introduced into cultivation in England as far back as the seventeenth century.

       In damp ravines may be found the Chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, tree-ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides, English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong Bracken, a Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea.

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      Other species recorded in recent years are Stuartia villosa, Ormosia indurata and Eryngium foetidum, found on Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong Island and Lantau Island respectively.

Botanical Collections. The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since that book was produced. At present over 29,000 specimens are preserved, and members of the public who wish to find out the names of native plants are encouraged to consult the Herbarium, which is in the 'Parks and Playgrounds' section of the Urban Services Department.

Societies. In addition to the Colonial Herbarium, interest in flora and horticultural work in Hong Kong is fostered by the Hong Kong Natural History Society and the Hong Kong Horticultural Society.

The Hong Kong Natural History Society was founded in 1949 as the Hong Kong Biological Circle, and aims to '. . . . facilitate and encourage the study of natural history, particularly in respect of the Colony of Hong Kong.'

      The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society was founded in 1957 for the study of local bird life. The Society was very active during 1961, and has published a further report on its many activities.

In the animal enclosures and aviaries of the Botanic Gardens may be seen a few of the Colony's native mammals and birds, besides certain others not indigenous to Hong Kong.

       Protection of Fauna and Flora. The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance, 1954, provides for the conserva- tion of all wild birds and several of the rarer mammals, except for vermin. It also prohibits the trapping or poisoning of vermin (excluding rodents). In the case of game birds, these may be shot only in season. There are eight wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. By regulations made under the Forestry Ordinance, protection is also given to certain plants, as for example the camellias, magnolias, orchids and azaleas.

24

History

Hong Kong a barren island with hardly a house upon it'

Lord Palmerston 1841

ANTECEDENTS

ARCHAEOLOGICAL investigation has shown that Hong Kong was inhabited from primitive times, but it has also failed to reveal evidence of the existence of any previous centre of population. All that it would be safe to conclude is that in the early migration of peoples along the Pacific coast, an island with a plentiful water supply and some cultivable land would naturally attract permanent or temporary settlement. Up to the nineteenth century it remained sparsely populated. Small villages maintained a livelihood by fishing, by cultivation of the scanty soil available, and by casual preying on coastal shipping. Shau Kei Wan and Shek Pai Wan (Aberdeen) were traditionally noted as being the haunt of pirates from the time of the Mongol Dynasty.

The Kwangtung area of what is now the Chinese mainland was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but even after its conquest by the Han Emperor Wu Ti in 111 BC, it remained for some centuries a frontier area. The Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which was discovered in Kowloon in 1955, probably dates from before the T'ang Dynasty (620-907) and is evidence of Chinese penetration, although Chinese migration on a large scale did not come until the Sung Dynasty (960-1279). The oldest villages in the New Territories, those belonging to the Tang Clan, have a continuous history dating back to the eleventh century, and other villages date from the Yuan Dynasty (1280-1368). Hakka and Cantonese, the two main Chinese groups, probably settled in the area over the same period.

      In 1278, Ti Ping, the Sung Emperor was driven by the invading Mongols to Kowloon and died there. A small hill crowned with a

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prominent boulder bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi* (Sung Emperor Stone) was held sacred to his memory until the hill was demolished in 1943, during the Japanese occupation, to make room for an expansion of the airport. His brother, the last Sung Emperor, met with final defeat in an attempted stand in the New Territories, and he and his ministers fled to Ngai Shan further south, but some of his followers found refuge in Lantau where their descendants are still to be found.

       The maritime relations between China and the West were at first dominated by Arab and Near Eastern traders who formed a considerable community at Canton from the seventh century onwards, but Chinese traders also penetrated to the Indian Ocean from the eleventh century.

The Portuguese formed the spear-head of European maritime contacts with China. Jorge Alvarez reached China by sea in 1513, the first European to do so; the earliest Portuguese traders followed in 1517 and forty years later, in 1557, they established themselves at Macau, partly in return for assistance in the suppression of piracy. For nearly three hundred years, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of Chinese official opinion which was not interested in commercial or cultural contacts, Macau provided the one reliable point of contact between China and the West.

The first Englishman to attempt to trade with China was John Weddell in 1637; he found Portuguese influence against him and tried to force his way up to Canton and not surprisingly his venture ended in complete failure. Later attempts were similarly unsuccessful, the first English ship to trade peaceably with the Chinese being the Macclesfield in 1699 under the East India Company. The Company sent ships to Canton each year thereafter, and in 1715 decided to establish permanent commercial relations and set up a 'factory', as it was known, outside the town. Attempts to extend the trade to Amoy, Ningpo and Tamsui failed and in 1757 trade with the West was confined to Canton by Imperial edict, and placed under the direct control of an Imperial office called the Hoppo. In addition, a guild of Chinese merchants called the Hong Merchants or Co-hong was given a monopoly of western trade by a similar edict in 1755. Many other European nations sent

        * The stone bearing these characters has now been erected in a small public park adjoining the original site.

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      traders to Canton, but in the second half of the eighteenth century the British gradually secured a dominant share of the trade mainly as a result of growing control in India, and the lead in Sino- western relations therefore naturally fell to Britain.

       The trade was lucrative, and yet there were grievances. Residence at Canton was confined to the trading season, and hedged with personal restrictions which confined the traders to the factory area, denied them access to the city and placed them in the hands of the Co-hong in their dealings with the officials in fixing prices and over port charges and supplies. The westerners were regarded as barbarian, yet there was mutual trust which enabled written commercial contracts to be dispensed with.

The British made unavailing efforts to improve conditions at Canton by diplomatic means, after appeals to the provincial officials there had failed. In 1793 Lord Macartney, fresh from his successful mission to Russia, was sent to Peking as ambassador, ostensibly to congratulate the Emperor, but chiefly to secure commercial concessions at Canton or else to acquire an island where the British could reside under their own law and government. He was hospitably received in Peking and created a favourable impression, but all his requests were refused. In 1816 a second embassy under Lord Amherst failed even more completely, Amherst being ordered to leave Peking without even seeing the Emperor.

The East India Company held a monopoly of British trade with China, but in the late eighteenth century the company began to concentrate on the valuable tea trade and licensed private traders engaged in what was termed the 'country' trade between India and China. By acting as representatives of foreign states the private traders overcame the reluctance of the company to allow them to reside in Canton and Macau. Thus an enlarged British community developed, strongly favouring the new free trade ideas then being discussed in England and clamouring for the abolition of the Company's now nominal monopoly, which came about by parlia- mentary action in 1833.

To replace the Company's control, Lord Napier was sent out in 1834 as Chief Superintendent of Trade, with strict instructions to pursue a conciliatory policy towards the Chinese. But his position was weak because he was given no power to negotiate

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and no means of control over his compatriots. He went to Canton without seeking the required permit, tried to deal with the Canton officials direct, disobeying the rule that required all communica- tions with the officials to be made through the Co-hong, and after a few weeks of impasse, Napier retired to Macau, a sick man, and died there ten days later.

Meanwhile, official Chinese opinion was becoming alarmed over the financial and moral consequences of the increasing popularity of opium smoking, which led to opium becoming the staple of the trade with India, despite the Chinese prohibition of its importation. After much debate among the Mandarin officials the Emperor appointed Lin Tse-hsü as Special Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade. He took strong action and within a week of his arrival at Canton, in March 1839, he had surrounded the factories with an armed force, allowed no European to leave, stopped supplies of food and water, and demanded the surrender of all opium for destruction. All opium dealers and masters of ships arriving at the port were called on to sign a bond against the import of opium on pain of death.

      Captain Charles Elliot, RN, who had become Superintendent of Trade in 1836, ordered his countrymen to surrender the opium, despite the fact that much of it was owned by firms in India for whom the local merchants were agents; but he refused to allow anyone to sign the bond, and much to Lin's annoyance, he stopped all British trade until the British Government could decide its policy. After a siege of six weeks the British community were allowed to leave for Macau. Lin threatened to drive them from the coast and, when the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for their safety, the whole British community took temporary refuge in the harbour at Hong Kong. The Chinese then attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the ships, and after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters the relations between Lin and Elliot broke down completely.

      Lord Palmerston, the Foreign Secretary, supported by the com- mercial interests in Parliament, decided that the time had come for a settlement of the relations between Britain and China. He demanded either a commercial treaty which should put commercial relations on a satisfactory footing, or the cession of a small island

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where the British community could live free from the pressure Lin had used.

       An expeditionary force arrived in June 1840 with orders to support these demands by the enforcement of measures directed against China's economy. Negotiations between Elliot, the British plenipotentiary, and the Keshen, the Manchu commissioner who replaced Lin after the latter had been exiled in disgrace, resulted in an agreement over the preliminaries of a treaty, the Convention of Chuenpi, on January 20, 1841. By it Hong Kong was to be ceded, and on the 26th January the island was formally occupied by a naval party, and a few days later Elliot proclaimed it a British Colony.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

       Neither side accepted the Chuenpi terms. The cession of an island aroused shame and anger among the Cantonese, and the strength of the war party at Court forced the Emperor to continue hostilities. The unfortunate Keshen was arrested and sent to Peking in chains. Palmerston was equally annoyed and recalled Elliot for accepting terms which were more lenient than he had been told to demand. Palmerston was in any case dissatisfied with Hong Kong, which he contemptuously described as a 'barren island with hardly a house upon it', and refused to accept it as the island station which was to be demanded as an alternative to a com- mercial treaty. Elliot's successor, Sir Henry Pottinger, who arrived at Macau in August 1841, renewed hostilities with resolution and by the following August, when British troops were threatening to assault Nanking, brought the war to a close by the Treaty of Nanking. Under it Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown, 'it being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships...., and four additional ports on the mainland were opened to trade.

       Pottinger had visited the island during the winter of 1841-42 and found so much evidence of progress since its occupation that he determined to retain it in spite of Palmerston's strictures. In June 1843, after the Treaty had been ratified by both countries, Hong Kong was declared a British Colony, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement; the main thoroughfare on the

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Northern side of the island facing the harbour was named 'Queen's Road'.

Hong Kong was declared a free port and by the Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue in October 1843, the Chinese were allowed free access to the island for purposes of trade. Indeed British policy of welcoming all-comers to the Colony and of not seeking any exclusive commercial privileges accorded with the Colony's economic interests.

The early years of the infant Colony were marked by a series of misfortunes. In 1841 it was struck by two typhoons, and the Chinese market area was burnt down twice. Virulent fever, probably malaria, decimated the Europeans, and at one point troops were withdrawn to the safety of ships in the harbour, and building in Happy Valley had to be abandoned. An early estimate put the local Chinese population at some 4,000 with a further 2,000 living afloat; the first report on population in June 1845 gave the total population as 23,817 of whom 595 were Europeans and 362 Indians.

At first, the Colony did not fulfil the sanguine hopes that had been formed and instead of becoming a great emporium as had been predicted trade developed between Britain and the new Treaty Ports direct, particularly Shanghai, which was commercially more advantageously situated than Hong Kong. In 1847 a Parliamentary Committee of Enquiry into the China trade went so far as to express doubts if Hong Kong would ever develop into an important commercial centre and recommended economies in its administration.

Shortly after its foundation a great wave of Chinese emigration took place, mainly to near south-east Asia and beyond, and to countries bordering the Pacific, travelling chiefly on British and American ships. In 1849, when gold was discovered in California, there was a rush of Chinese to Kam Shan (Golden Mountains) which has remained the vernacular name for San Francisco, and in 1851 there was a similar rush to Australia and San Kam Shan (New Golden Mountains) has remained the Chinese name for Sydney. In addition there was emigration and labour under contract to the sugar plantations of Central and Southern America. To check the many abuses in connexion with this migration the British Government passed the Chinese Passengers Act of 1852, prescribing

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     reasonable standards of food, space and medical attention, which tended to drive the coolie trade to other ports. But Hong Kong prospered as the centre of an important passenger traffic.

      The Taiping rebellion, which began in 1850 and spread over South China, created unsettled conditions on the mainland resulting in thousands seeking refuge in the safety of the Colony, until by 1861 the population had risen to 119,321, of whom 116,335 were Chinese. This pattern was to be repeated, and is significant of some of the forces which have made Hong Kong a predominantly Chinese community.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

       The 1860 Convention of Peking ended the hostilities which had arisen from the sending of a British Minister to Peking after the second Anglo-Chinese War. Under it Kowloon Peninsula up to present-day Boundary Street was ceded to the Crown and became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters Island.

       Permanent quarters were established in Kowloon for part of the garrison. This development was followed by the construction of new docks, more extensive than could be attempted on the Victoria waterfront, and which were the beginning of Kowloon's develop- ment as the Colony's second city. The pioneers in residential development in Kowloon were the Portuguese, followed by the Parsees, from about 1870 onwards.

      By the Convention of Peking 1898, as a result of the rivalry of the Western powers over concessions in China, the Colony was again extended, acquiring under a 99-year lease a substantial stretch of mainland north of Kowloon and a group of islands in the immediate vicinity of Hong Kong. This leased area became known as the New Territories.

The initial British occupation, which took place in 1899, met with some ill-organized armed opposition in the Tai Po and Yuen Long areas, but the confidence of the people was quickly established. Sir Henry Blake (Governor 1898-1903) personally identified himself with every aspect of the life of the Colony's new rural population, obtaining improved seed and types of livestock for them; and the relations between the Government and the people of the New Territories have ever since been

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distinguished by the closest confidence and goodwill. Malaria was widespread, and plague of frequent occurrence. Extensive health measures were introduced to combat these diseases, the success of the measures being reflected in a subsequent steady rise in population.

      In the first decade of this century rail connexion was established between Kowloon and Canton, involving the construction of a long tunnel under the Kowloon hills, and providing Tai Po and other New Territories villages with easy access to Hong Kong. A circular road was constructed linking the chief areas of population in the mainland part of the New Territories.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

      The history of Hong Kong is one of steady expansion of trade and population, and of consequent material and social improve- ments. The old traditional practice of Chinese and European communities living apart continued in Hong Kong and was accepted. European and Chinese each pursued his own way of life largely independent of each other. Until the Chinese had more opportunities for western education, there could be little Chinese participation in government, western commerce or the professions. There have been Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880 (when Ng Choy, who was the first Chinese to be called to the English bar, was appointed) and of the Executive Council since 1926.

In education, the first grants from public funds were those given to the Chinese vernacular schools in 1847 and administered by an education committee. The earliest schools were founded by the missionary bodies who have received grants or subsidies since 1873, and who have conducted their schools mainly on western lines. A demand for higher education and professional training followed and in 1887 the College of Medicine for the Chinese was founded by Dr Patrick Manson, Dr James Cantlie and Dr Ho Kai with the assistance of the London Missionary Society, one of its first graduates being Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

But undoubtedly the main educational advance was the founding of the University in 1911 which took over the work of the Hong Kong College of Medicine and the Technical Institute as the basis

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of its faculties of Medicine and Engineering. The University was made possible by the enthusiasm of Lugard, the Governor, and the generosity of Sir Hormusjee Mody who presented the entire cost of the main building. With the aid of subsequent benefactors and increasing government support the University has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English- speaking University in a Chinese environment. It soon attracted students from the mainland and south-east Asia, and won for itself the loyalty of the local community.

The special needs of the Chinese population received early consideration. Originally it was intended to let them live under their own law administered by Chinese officials but this idea was found to be impracticable and was abandoned. Instead, the ideal of equality for all races under the law became the guiding principle, and the revised Governor's Instructions of 1865 forbade him to agree to any ordinance 'whereby persons of African or Asiatic birth may be subjected to any disabilities or restrictions to which persons of European birth or descent are not also subjected'. The protection of Chinese interests was the duty of the Registrar- General, a post created in 1845. His responsibilities grew, com- mensurate with the influence of the Chinese community until, in 1913, his post was re-named Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The Tung Wah, a charitable Chinese institution founded in 1870 to run hospitals and generally care for the indigent Chinese, also became an important body, and representative of Chinese responsible opinion.

The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies. The first government medical officer was appointed in 1847 to treat prisoners in the gaol and the police. He opened a small makeshift hospital the following year which served until 1859 when a Government Civil Hospital was opened. This was destroyed by the 1874 typhoon and adjoining buildings had to be requisi- tioned. On this site now stand the modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Sai Ying Pun Polyclinic. The Kowloon Govern- ment Hospital was opened in 1925, and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. Both these Government Hospitals will shortly be eclipsed in size by the new 1,320-bed Queen Elizabeth Hospital being built in Kowloon.

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      The entry of the Chinese into Hong Kong in such large numbers was unforeseen and naturally little provision was made for it. A narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore was at first the only available land for building, and Queen's Road approximately follows the line of the original settlement. The expansion could only be up the hill, as for example Stanley Street, Wellington Street and Caine Road, once a very fashionable area. The alternative was reclamation from the sea. By 1880 the city, particularly its Chinese quarters in Tai Ping Shan, Sai Ying Pun and Wan Chai, had become seriously overcrowded and insanitary, a circumstance which led to the development of the Peak as a residential area, particularly after 1888 when the Peak Tramway was built.

      As a result of complaints from the military about the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, Osbert Chadwick, a sanitary engineer, was sent out by the home government to inquire into the sanitary condition of Hong Kong, and a Sanitary Board was set up in 1883 to which nominated unofficials were added in 1886 and two elected representatives of the ratepayers in 1887. It could bring about little improvement because of Chinese opposition to western ideas of sanitation and to any interference with their way of life. There was also opposition to the cost of sanitary improvements on the part of the community, already burdened by a costly programme of public works and by defence expenditure, at a time when the dollar was falling in value. The result of this neglect was an outbreak of the plague in 1894. Two Japanese, Professor Vitasato and Dr Aoyama who came to assist, claimed to be the first to isolate the plague bacillus and to demonstrate that it was carried by rats. Even then there was considerable opposition to house-cleansing and measures against rat-infestation. Annual visitations of the plague continued until about 1927. The Sanitary Board continued until 1935 when its functions were broadened and taken over by an Urban Council.

      Overcrowding was also relieved by reclamation from the sea. The earliest was the filling of a small creek in 1851 to make what is now Bonham Strand. Bowrington (1859) and Kennedy Town (1877) were built partly on reclaimed land, but the most important was the reclamation in the central district begun in 1890 and completed in 1904 which added Chater Road, Connaught Road

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      and Des Voeux Road to the city. Large reclamations were made in the Wan Chai area in the years 1921-9.

Increasing urbanization led also to the problem of water supply, and the start of a century long race between water capacity and population. Prior to 1941 successive water schemes were inaugurated at Pok Fu Lam (1864), Tai Tam (1889), Wong Nai Chung (1899), Tai Tam Tuk (1917) and the Jubilee reservoir in the Shing Mun Valley in 1935.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND TWO WORLD WARS

The Chinese Revolution of 1911 overthrew the Manchu Dynasty. There followed a long period of unrest in China and again large numbers of refugees found shelter in the Colony. One of its leaders, Sun Yat-sen, who headed the Kuomintang republican group centred in Canton, had been deeply influenced by the British institutions he had seen while a student in Hong Kong. Chinese participation in the first World War was followed by strong nationalist and anti-foreign sentiment inspired both by disappoint- ment over their failure at the Versailles peace conference to regain the German concessions in Shantung and by the post-war radicalism of the Kuomintang. The Chinese wanted to abolish all foreign treaty privileges in China. Foreign goods were boycotted and the unrest spread to Hong Kong where a seamen's strike in 1922 was followed by a serious general strike in 1925-6 under pressure from Canton. This petered out, but not before considerable disruption of the life of the Colony. Britain, as the holder of the largest foreign stake in China, was the main target of this anti- foreign sentiment, but Japan soon replaced her in this position. Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when she seized the opportunity of the first World War to present her Twenty One Demands to China early in 1915. In 1931 she occupied Manchuria and her attempt to detach China's northern provinces led to open war in 1937. Canton fell to the Japanese in 1938 and was followed by a mass flight of refugees to Hong Kong. It was estimated that some 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938 and 150,000 in 1939 bringing the population at the outbreak of war to an estimated 1,600,000, and it was thought that at the height of the influx about half a million were sleeping in the streets.

346

HISTORY

      The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 gave Japan the advantage of being able to expand her ambitions over the whole of east and south-east Asia, and the position of the Colony became precarious. On 8th December 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, the Japanese attacked from the mainland, and the British were forced to retire to the Island. The Japanese crossed at Lei Yue Mun on the night of the 18th - 19th December and after a week of stubborn resistance the defenders, who included the local Volunteer Corps, were overwhelmed and the Colony surrendered on Christmas Day. The Japanese occupation lasted three years and seven months.

British civilians were interned at Stanley. The Chinese population and neutrals had to suffer steadily deteriorating conditions. Trade virtually disappeared, the currency lost its value, food supply was disrupted and government services and public utilities were seriously impaired. Many moved to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Towards the later part of the occupation the Japanese sought to ease the food problem by organizing mass deportations. In the face of increasing oppression the bulk of the community remained loyal to the allied cause; Chinese guerillas operated in the New Territories and allied personnel escaping were assisted by the rural population.

      Soon after the news of the Japanese surrender was received a provisional government was set up by the Colonial Secretary, Mr (later Sir) F. Gimson, until Rear Admiral Sir Cecil Harcourt arrived with units of the British Pacific Fleet to establish a temporary military government. Civil government was formally restored on 1st May 1946, when Sir Mark Young resumed his interrupted governorship.

THE POST-WAR YEARS

      From the moment of liberation Hong Kong began a spectacular recovery. The Chinese returned at a rate approaching 100,000 per month and the population which by August 1945 had been reduced to about 600,000 rose by the end of 1947 to an estimated 1,800,000. Then in the period 1948-9, as the forces of the Chinese Nationalist government began to face defeat in civil war at the hands of the Communists, the Colony received an influx of people unparalleled in its history. About three quarters of a million mainly from

HISTORY

347

      Kwangtung Province, Shanghai and other commercial centres, entered the Colony during 1949 and the spring of 1950 and by the end of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Since then, it has continued to rise largely owing to a high rate of natural increase until the figure of 3,133,131 was recorded at the census of 1961.

      Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied this growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has begun to play, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. New low-cost housing schemes, of the conventional type or by way of multi-storied resettlement estates, have called for a heavy investment of public funds. New schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided as quickly as physical resources and the training of staff would permit-on a scale unprecedented in the Colony's history. Yet, despite the substantial progress already made and the many new projects already being contemplated, the demand continues and is still far from being satisfied.

       Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. Particularly in Kowloon and Tsuen Wan industrialists have opened large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export throughout the world. To meet the demand for more land for industry and housing the Government has continued to carry out many new reclamations principally in the central district, Causeway Bay and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, while the investigation of the potentialities of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Reservoir capacity has also been doubled and is being further enlarged.

The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops and the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques have been accompanied by higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with trade promotion, and technical and vocational training.

       The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network. More rigorous traffic controls have

348

HISTORY

     been introduced in face of enlarged public transport services and the increase in number, and in size, of private cars in daily use. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. A new airport capable of meeting the needs of modern aircraft has been very largely completed and is in full operation. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facilities, and night-time entertainment.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Broadcasting, wired and wireless, has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment, and wired television is for an expanding audience a supplement to the many modern cinemas patronized by the majority. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

      An increased, and ever increasing, tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life, but it is the growth of local industry which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, which has been the most significant feature, after population growth, in the Colony's history in the post-war years.

25

Constitution and Administration

CONSTITUTION

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supple- mented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and seven nominated members. The ex officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary, and there is one nominated official member. The six unofficials at present include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding which questions should come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The same five ex officio members of the Executive Council also serve on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is also the President. In addition, there are four other official members and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor who at present include five Chinese members and one Indian member.

350

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legislative Council is based on that of the House of Commons.

The Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, the Rt Hon Earl of Perth, PC, during a visit to Hong Kong in 1960, announced that no radical or major change was contemplated in the present constitutional position.

      The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XII.

JUDICIARY

The principles of Common Law and Equity and the statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, are the foundations of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the Ordinances of Hong Kong. The last consolidated and revised edition of the Laws of Hong Kong, correct to 1950, was published in 1951. The courts of the Colony are described in Chapter 13.

ADMINISTRATION

      Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of the Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix II.

      The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments, and makes, or transmits from the Governor, Governor in Council, or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of six divisions dealing with general administration, lands, Councils, finance, defence and establishment matters. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces described in Chapter 17, and acts as the main channel of communication between the Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

351

     stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office.

      The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney General, who is the head of the Legal Department and is also responsible for drafting legislation and for instituting and conducting public prosecutions. The Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor General, Principal Crown Counsel and Crown Counsel.

      The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. He is also specifically charged with the responsibility of main- taining direct channels of communication between the Government and all levels of Chinese society in urban Hong Kong. In addition, with the assistance of his department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, he discharges a number of statutory duties including the Chairmanship of certain Boards and Committees (which are for the most part Chinese in composition), administration of the District Watch Force and Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, and a variety of licensing and registration duties. Other traditional responsibili- ties include those of arbitration in domestic or tenancy disputes, and the provision of his good offices should there be any major misunderstanding between another department and some section of the Chinese public on other than purely professional or technical matters. He also has the important duty of providing direct liaison with villagers in semi-rural areas on Hong Kong Island and in New Kowloon. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is responsible for the co-ordination of the policy by which the executive depart- ments (the Police Force, the Preventive Service, etc) work in their war against drug trafficking and drug addiction and in the rehabilitation of addicts.

       The Social Welfare Department has six sections responsible for Child Welfare (including care and protection of children, guardianship, adoption and liaison with institutions); Youth Welfare (group work for young people) and Community Develop- ment; the Welfare of Women and Girls (moral welfare); Special Welfare Services (for the physically and mentally handicapped); Relief and Public Assistance; and Probation (including institutions for delinquents). The Department maintains close co-operation

352

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

with the Council of Social Service and with the many voluntary agencies which undertake welfare work in Hong Kong.

      Under the Financial Secretary, the accounting operations of the Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. The audit of all public accounts and of certain Special Funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Reports on the accounts are presented annually by the Director of Audit and the Director General to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State. The Rating and Valuation Department, under a Commis- sioner, is concerned with assessments for rates and other matters connected with the rent and value of real property, including negotiations for accommodation for Government departments. The Inland Revenue Department, headed by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, administers the collection of the internal Revenue of the Colony; this includes Earnings and Profits Tax, Stamp Duties, Estate Duty, Entertainment Tax, Dance Halls Tax, Bets and Sweeps Tax, and Business Registration Fees. The Commerce and Industry Department, under a Director, is responsible for industrial and trade development, the collection of revenue from import and excise duties, the activities of the Preventive Service, certificates of origin, trade licensing, Government bulk purchases of firewood and certain foodstuffs, control over stocks of reserve commodities, and the production of trade statistics and any other statistics required by other departments of the Government. The Department also administers the London and Sydney offices of the Hong Kong Government. (The work of these Departments has been described in Chapters 4 and 6).

      The Public Works Department, under a Director, has nine sub- departments, dealing with waterworks; Crown lands and surveys; the administration of the Buildings Ordinance; electrical and mechanical works (including Government motor transport); archi- tecture (Government buildings); development; port works; drain- age, and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsible for town planning. (See also Chapters 10, 14 and 15).

The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of five ex officio members, namely the Chairman (who is at the same time Director of the Urban

RACE

DIVIDENDS

9

RACE

WIN

PLACE

TIME

201

1

17

19

:0

PLACE

TOTAL 29620 7824 11 1792

0

2

12

13

2041 14

5

2891 IS

0 6

5869 16

0

7

5161 17

O

18

4042 19

20

SWEEP

LASH RACE WP

TREET S

17 19

SWEEP

BL

T

    Racing is one of the Colony's most popular spectator sports and every meeting at Happy Valley draws a capacity crowd. Apart from providing entertainment the sport also brings widespread benefits to many poor people, for the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club is a non-profit-making organization. In the past 15 years it has donated $60 million to charity.

$2

CASH RACE

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Victoria Park at Causeway Bay (above) is the Colony's largest and most popular recreation area. Covering 13 acres of land reclaimed from a former typhoon shelter, it has facilities for a wide variety of sports and its swimming pool is built to Olympic standards. More than 346,000 people over half of them childre-use the pool every year and a similar one is to be built in Kowloon. Football (right), the Colony's most popular sport, seems to gain

followers each season and competition between Colony teams ecomes keener. Each year a number of overseas teams visit Hong Kong play against local sides. Basketball (left) has also become popular since the war and most public parks have courts which are usually heavily booked.

ever more

This image is unavailable for access

the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PUB

   One of the most widespread-and certainly one of the noisiest-pastimes in Hong Kong is mahjong. Really keen players, of whom there are thousands, will sit down to a game anywhere, at any time of the day or night, and indeed some play right through the night. The game above was photographed aboard a junk on its way to a festival at Joss House Bay.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

353

     Services Department), the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services (Vice-Chairman), the Director of Public Works, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Director of Social Welfare; and sixteen ordinary members, of whom eight are elected and eight appointed by the Governor. The Commissioner for Resettle- ment sits as a temporary additional ex officio member. The term of office of ordinary members is four years. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by eighteen select committees, which meet at frequent intervals.

The membership of the Urban Council is given at Appendix XIII. The Council carries out its responsibilities through the Urban Services and Resettlement Departments. The Urban Services Department, whose work is also described in Chapters 9 and 21, operates the basic sanitary services in both the urban areas and the New Territories behind Kowloon, with a variety of other duties in the field of public health, such as the supervision of food premises and hawkers, the operation of the city's slaughter- houses, and pest control measures. In addition, the Department controls and staffs the parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches. The management of the multi-storey car parks in the centre of the city is also a responsibility of the Council, as is the new City Hall due for completion early in 1962.

The Resettlement Department is responsible for the planned removal and resettlement of squatters, the administration of the resettlement estates and areas, and the prevention of new squatting either on vacant land or on the rooftops of buildings. The com- position of the Housing Authority and the work of the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department which is responsible, under the immediate charge of a Commissioner, for routine administration and execution of the Authority's decisions, are described in Chapter 10.

3

The Commissioner of Police is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force, the Prisons Department, and the Immigration Department are described in Chapter 13. The Medical and Health Department is outlined in Chapter 9; the Education Department in Chapter 8, the Labour Department (under a Commissioner who is concurrently Commissioner of Mines) and the Registry of Trade Unions in Chapter 3.

354

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Reference to the Registrar General's Department is made in Chapter 13, and to the Marine, Railway and Civil Aviation Departments, the Post Office and the Royal Observatory in Chapter 15. The Information Services Department, Radio Hong Kong and the new Public Enquiry Service are described in Chapter 16. Chapter 7 describes the work of the Agriculture and Forestry Department, and of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

       The Fire Services Department, which is under the control of a Director, provides fire protection throughout the urban areas, for the main districts of the New Territories, and for shipping in the harbour. Additional fire stations are now under construction to increase fire cover for the Colony as part of a scheme of planned development for the ten years to 1970. The Fire Service has an establishment of over 1,200 officers and other ranks, with 71 mobile fire appliances, 4 fire boats and 26 ambulances.

       The Stores Department, under a Controller, buys and distributes Government stores, maintains all furniture for offices and quarters, and administers the Government monopoly of sand. The Printing Department, under the Government Printer, is responsible for the printing of most Government publications. The Quartering Office deals with accommodation for civil servants.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

        The New Territories are divided into five administrative districts, each under a District Officer who has a staff ranging between 80 and 160, depending on the size of the district. The largest and most populous district is Tai Po which covers the north-east of the New Territories and has its District Office at Tai Po Market. The second largest and most populous district is Yuen Long in the north-west, with its District Office at Ping Shan. The third district is Tsuen Wan which covers the rapidly growing industrial complex of Tsuen Wan, Kwai Chung and Tsing Yi Island, as well as Ma Wan Island and the northern tip of Lantau Island. Its District Office is in Tsuen Wan itself. The fourth and fifth districts are Sai Kung and Islands, both of which have District Offices in Gascoigne Road, Kowloon. The Sai Kung District covers the southern part of the Sai Kung peninsula, the Clear Water Bay peninsula and the adjoining islands. The Islands District covers

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

355

      practically all of Lantau, Cheung Chau and all the other islands to the west and south of Hong Kong. The District Commissioner co-ordinates the overall administration of the New Territories from an office in north Kowloon. He is assisted by the Deputy District Commissioner and a headquarters staff which, including the Cadastral Survey staff, totals 110.

The District Officers continued to hold land and small debt courts until 8th September when the New Territories (Amendment) Ordinance, 1961, was brought into force. This legislation trans- ferred the District Officers' jurisdiction to the District Courts, including a new District Court which was set up in the Fanling Magistracy to deal primarily with cases arising in the northern New Territories. In the same month the New Territories Magistrate transferred his courts from Tai Po and Ping Shan to the new Fanling Magistracy, which was opened by the Chief Justice on 2nd September 1961. In July the new Territories Magistrate started holding an additional court in temporary accommodation at Tsuen Wan: this was the first time a court had been held there.

       The District Officer is concerned with every aspect of govern- ment activity in his district and acts as the principal link between the Government and the local inhabitants. His responsibilities include arbitration in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including family and matrimonial cases. He controls the utilization and sale of Crown land and administers the grant of temporary structure permits. He also controls squatters, except in the case of Tsuen Wan where the Commissioner for Resettlement took over responsibility during the year. He registers documents and deeds relating to private land; and approves plans for small domestic and agricultural buildings exempted from certain require- ments of the Buildings Ordinance, 1955. He assesses and collects stamp duty, and issues licences for various types of licensed premises. He has an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote; this pays for materials to help villagers in the improvement of irrigation and water supplies, to build paths and small bridges, and to carry out a wide variety of other minor works to improve the amenities of the villages.

        District Officers have the assistance of Rural Committees, elected by and from village representatives, and exercising various advisory functions. There are now twenty seven of these

356

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

committees covering the entire New Territories and each month they receive a small subvention from the Government to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion, arbitrates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the Administration and the people.

        The Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 elected Special Councillors, form the Full Council of the Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as Rural Consultative Council. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was first constituted in 1926, and from which (except during the period from August 1958 to December 1959 when official recognition of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) the Government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under its new constitution which was established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, 1959, the Kuk, apart from its Full Council, also includes an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the Chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace, and 15 Ordinary Members elected by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the Chairman and two Vice-Chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

       On the 1st April 1961, the establishment of the Public Service totalled 53,267. The increase of 2,836 over the previous year was lower than in preceding years. The estimated expenditure on salaries for the financial year 1961-2 is almost $350 million which accounts for 32.6% of the total estimated expenditure for the year. The Service has expanded very rapidly since 1949 (before the influx of refugees started), when the total establishment was about 17,500.

This growth has been accompanied by a determined effort to fill as many posts as possible with local candidates. Much effort, particularly in more recent years, has been directed towards fitting local candidates to fill posts of great responsibility. The percentage

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

357

of local officers in administrative and professional grades increased from 38.7% in 1960 to 40.3% in 1961; over the Service as a whole, the percentage of oversea officers is 3.39%. Much, however, remains to be done not only to ensure opportunities for promotion but also to ensure that Government staff are trained to execute their present duties efficiently. The nucleus of a Training Unit has now been established in the Colonial Secretariat; it has reviewed departmental training programmes and will play a major part in maintaining enthusiasm for improved training arrange- ments. Overseas training is also required, however, and 92 local officers went overseas during the year to obtain professional qualifications, many of them post-graduate. About $1,550,000 was spent on overseas training in 1961.

As in past years, the Public Services Commission continued to play a prominent part in the selection of candidates for appoint- ment. Steps were taken during the year to implement a 1959 Salaries Commission suggestion that as criteria for selection became well established so the Commission should be relieved of some of its duties; the Commission is now no longer required to advise on appointments, promotions, probation bars and efficiency bars in the junior ranks of the Service.

Recruitment policy was reviewed during the year, with a view to reducing as far as possible the employment of overseas officers, and as a result more use is likely to be made of contract rather than pensionable terms of employment where there is a possibility of a suitably qualified local candidate becoming available in the foreseeable future.

      The rapid growth of departments over the past 10 years has made it necessary to examine critically the organization and staff deployment of some of the bigger departments. As a first step to this end the services of a United Kingdom firm of management consultants were obtained for a thorough review of the Public Works Department, and to advise on the future organization of Government's new Organization and Methods Unit.

26

Weights and Measures

THE weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

UNIT

Domestic

EQUIVALENTS

British

Metric

Length*

1 fan

0.146 in

3.715 mm

1 ts'un or tsun (Chinese inch)

10 fan

1 ch'ek or check (Chinese foot)

10 ts'un

1.463 in

14.625 in

3.715 cm

37.15 cm

1 cheung

10 ch'ek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

1 lei (Chinese mile)

706-745 yd

646-681 m

Area

806.7 sq yd

6.745 a

1,008

sq yd

8.431 a

1 dau chung

1 mow

Weight

1 fan or candareen

0.013 oz

3.78 dg

1 ts'in or tsun or mace

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78 g

1 tael or tahil or leung

10 ts'in

1.333 oz

37.8

g

1 catty or kan

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8 g

1 picul or tam

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48 kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the ch'ek (foot) is 14 in but the ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14 in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

27

Bibliography

     MUCH has been published about Hong Kong since the eighteen forties, but most of the literature is out of print and difficult to find outside the libraries of the British Museum, the University of Hong Kong, the Toyo Bunko, Tokyo, the School of Oriental and African Studies of London University, and the Colonial Office. This bibliography contains much detail, but even so is not fully comprehensive, and serious students should consult the indices of these libraries.

Books marked with an asterisk should be easy to find at present; those with a dagger are administrative or other official reports and publications; and those with a double obelus are works of fiction with a local background. Not all, as will be clear from some titles, deal solely with the Colony, but their contents may be found to be valuable. Some of the more important are set in larger type. No references are made to modern command papers or other periodic publications of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, nor to articles in journals or magazines or to commercial directories. Inclusion of a book in this list is by no means to be taken as assurance that the Hong Kong Government agrees with any expression of opinion or statement of fact found in it.

(nd): no date of publication

(np): no publisher's imprint

*ABEND (H. E.)-Treaty Ports-New York, Doubleday, Doran & Co, 1944. **ABERCROMBIE (Professor Sir Patrick)-Hong Kong: Preliminary Planning

Report Crown Agents, London, 1949.

ABRAHAM (J. J.-The surgeon's log; being impressions of the Far East-

London, Chapman and Hall, 1912.

AINSWORTH (W. F.)-All round the world; an illustrated record of voyages, travels and adventures in all parts of the globe-London, Collins, Sons & Co, 1866 (2 volumes).

ALABASTER (C. G.)-Report of the Reconstituted War Revenue Committee-

Hong Kong, 1941.

*ALLEN (G. C.) and DONNTTHORNE (A. G.)-Western Enterprise in Pos

Far Eastern Economic Development-London, 1954.

2.

R

234

360

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ALLOM (T.) and WRIGHT (G. N.)-China in a Series of Views-London, 1843. ALVES (J. A. S.)-Practical Hints on Poultry Keeping in Hong Kong and the

New Territories-Hong Kong, 1932.

ANDERSON (Capt G. C.)-The Situation in the Far East-Hong Kong, Guedes

& Co, 1900.

ANGIER (A..Gorton)-The Far East Revisited-Witherby & Co, London, 1908. ANSTEY (T. C.)-Crime and Government at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1859.

-Another Treaty with China, but not another war-Hong Kong (nd). ARMSTRONG'S (COMMODORE) war in China, 1856 and 1857-Hong Kong,

Printed by J. M. da Silva, 1858.

ARNOLD (John)-Picturesque Hong Kong: A handbook for travellers-Hong

Kong, Privately printed, 1911.

ARNOLD (Julean)-Commercial Handbook of China-Washington, 1919 & 1920

(2 volumes).

ASILE de la SAINTE ENFANCE-French Convent of the Sisters of Saint Paul

of Chartres-Hong Kong, 1910.

BAINS (J. W.)-Interport Cricket. A Record of Matches between Hong Kong, Singapore & Shanghai, 1866-1908-Shanghai, Shanghai Times, 1908.

\ BALFOUR (S. F.)-Hong Kong before the British. (Reprinted from

T'ien Hsia Monthly)--Shanghai, 1941.

BALL (J. D.)-The Cantonese Made Easy-Hong Kong, 'China Mail' Office,

1924.

BEACH (Rev W. R.)Visit of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh-

Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1869.

† BEALE (Sir Louis)-Report on Economic & Commercial Conditions in China. With an appendix by G. Clinton Pelham-Economic Conditions in Hong Kong-London, 1938.

BELCHER (Sir Edward)-Narrative of a Voyage round the World. in HMS

'Sulphur-London, Henry Colbourn, 1843.

BELL (Sir Henry H. J.)-Foreign Colonial Administration in the Far East-

London, 1928.

BENSON (Stella)--The Little World-a book of travel essays-London,

Macmillan, 1925.

Mundos-London, 1935.

BENTHAM (George B.)-Flora Hongkongensis-London, Lovell, Reeve, 1861. BERESFORD (Lord Charles) The Break-up of China-London,

Harper & Bros, 1899.

BERGHOLZ (Professor Paul)-The Hurricanes of the Far East-Bremen, Max

Nossler, 1899.

BERNARD (W. D.)-Narrative of the Voyages and Services of the NEMESIS, from 1840-43--with Notes of Commander Hall-London, Henry Colbourn,

1844 (2 volumes).

'BETTY'-Intercepted Letters. A Mild Satire on Hong Kong Society-Hong

Kong, Kelly & Walsh, 1905.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

361

BIBLE, BOOK, AND TRACT DEPOT, Hong Kong-Report of the Committee, with reports of the British and Foreign Bible Society's and Religious Tract Society's Committee-Hong Kong, 'China Mail' Office, 1902.

BINGHAM (Comdr J. Elliot)-Narrative of the Expedition to China-London,

1842 (2 volumes).

bit of the British EMPIRE [Hong Kong]-Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh,

Ltd, (nd) (1904?).

BLACKIE (W. J.)-Agriculture and animal husbandry ventures-Hong Kong,

Cathay Press, 1954.

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HOLCOMBE (C. J. H.)-The Mystic Flowery Land (2 volumes)-London, 1890. HODGSON LIDDELL (T.)-China; its marvel and mystery-London, George .!

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sh-

    Report from the Select Committee of the Commons on Commercial Relations with China-London, 1847.

Correspondence between the Foreign Office and the Commercial Association of Manchester, 1846-48-London, 1857.

Correspondence between the Foreign Office and the East India and China Association of Liverpool 1846-48-London, 1857.

Papers Relating to the Opium Trade in China, 1842-56-London, 1857. Papers respecting the right of British subjects to have free entrance into Canton (1849-?)-London, 1857.

Correspondence relating to Entrance into Canton (1850-55)-London, 1857. Report on Hong Kong: Report on Chusan and

the British Position

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Correspondence relative to the reconstruction of the Legislative Council -Hong Kong, 1857.

    Papers relating to the Proceedings of HM Naval Forces at Canton- London, 1857.

Further Papers on the same Subject-London, 1857.

Papers connected with the confinement of Chinese Prisoners at Hong Kong and with the trial of a baker and others on the Charge of Poisoning -London, 1857.

Correspondence respecting the Registration of Colonial Vessels at Hong Kong-London, 1857.

Correspondence between the Colonial Department and the Governor of Hong Kong on Emigration from Hong Kong, &c to the West Indies, &c -London, 1858.

Commission of Enquiry into charges against D. R. Caldwell, Registrar General Hong Kong, 1858.

Papers relating to the sale of Prepared Opium in Hong Kong-London, 1860.

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and Corre-

372

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7

Correspondence upon the subject of the Currency of the Colony-London,

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Memorial of Lt Col Wm Caine respecting his services at Hong Kong- Hong Kong, 1864. Correspondence, &c

which HM Government proposes to levy on Property at Hong Kong, towards defray- ing the Expense of maintaining the Garrison-London, 1865.

on the subject of the Tax . .

Letter signed by Mr Peel to Sir Edward Lugard, relative to the Garrison of Hong Kong-London, 1866.

Report on the Sanitary Condition of Hong Kong and Kowloon for 1863

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Correspondence respecting Gambling Licences-London, 1869.

Further Correspondence, &c ..

relating to the Gambling House Licence

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Correspondence

of the Mercantile Community against certain

Revenue Cruizers-London, 1875.

Further Correspondence .. of the Mercantile Community against Revenue Cruizers-London, 1876.

Public Meeting: Insecure Condition of Life and Property at Hong Kong -London, 1879.

   Correspondence and other Documents concerning the Blockade of the Port of Hong Kong, 1868-80-Hong Kong, 1880.

Contagious Dieases, Report of the Commission to inquire into the working of the Contagious Diseases Ordinance, 1867-London, 1880.

Correspondence relating to the working of the Contagious Diseases Ordin- ances of the Colony of Hong Kong-London, 1881.

...

Chinese Restrictions. Despatches .. in 1877 and 1881 respecting restric- tions upon Chinese Merchants with a view of reserving the Central Portion of Victoria for English and Foreign Firms

and the compulsory Registration of Chinese Partners-London, 1881.

Sanitary Condition. Further Correspondence regarding the Sanitary Con- dition and alleged Restrictions upon the Chinese-London, 1882.

Further Correspondence on the Sanitary Condition of Hong Kong- London, 1882.

Alleged Chinese Slavery in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1882.

   Report of the Commissioners to enquire into Smuggling from Hong Kong into China-Hong Kong, 1883.

Proceedings on Bribery in the Police Force-Hong Kong, 1886.

Papers on the subject of Beri-Beri in Hong Kong, 1889.

Report of the Commissioners to enquire into the working of the Hong Kong Observatory-Hong Kong, 1890.

Fifty Years of Progress. The Jubilee of Hong Kong as a British Crown Colony, being an Historical Sketch-Hong Kong, 1891.

Report of the Commissioners to investigate into the working of the Treasury Department-Hong Kong, 1893.

Special Committee on Po-Leung-Kuk, or Society for Protection of Women and Girls-Hong Kong, 1893.

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373

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Hong Kong, 1894.

Report on the Medical Department-Hong Kong, 1895.

Report of the Committee to enquire into the condition of British Trade in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1896.

Bubonic Plague-London, 1896.

Report of the Commission to enquire into the working of the Tung Wah Hospital-Hong Kong, 1896.

Papers on a Petition addressed to the House of Commons praying for an amendment of the Constitution-Hong Kong, 1896.

Report of the Committee to report on the Condition of Government Offices-Hong Kong, 1896.

Report of the Committee to enquire into Flogging in Victoria Gaol- Hong Kong, 1896.

Military Reserve Lands of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1898.

Military Reserve Lands at Kowloon-Hong Kong, 1898.

Report of the Commission to inquire into the existence of Insanitary Properties in the Colony-Hong Kong, 1898.

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Papers relating to Extension of the Colony of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1899.

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Correspondence on Sanitary Conditions-Hong Kong, 1901. Sanitary Conditions and Memorandum-Hong Kong, 1901.

Further Correspondence respecting the Disturbances in China-London, 1901.

Report of Commission to enquire into the Public Works Department-- Hong Kong, 1902.

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Precautions against Plague, Malaria and Cholera-Hong Kong, 1904. Report on Insanitary Property Resumptions in the years 1894-1905-- Hong Kong, 1905.

Report of Committee appointed to enquire whether earlier warning of the Typhoon of September 18th, 1906 could have been given to shipping -Hong Kong, 1907.

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Minute by Colonial Secretary on the existence of Corruption in the Sanitary Department, etc-Hong Kong, 1907.

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Correspondence relating to the proposed appointment of a Chinese Consul at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1908,

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Correspondence relating to Opium in Hong Kong, 1844-1908-Hong Kong,

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Memorandum regarding the restriction of Opium in Hong Kong Hong Kong, 1909.

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Communiqués and Statements in Connection with the Conference for Settlement of Chinese-British Disputes in the Liang-Kuang Provinces- Hong Kong, 1926.

Traffic in Women and Children. Annual Report from the Hong Kong Government-Geneva, 1926.

Correspondence in connection with a Speech reported in the Man Kwok Yat Po to have been made by Mr Sun Fo-Hong Kong, 1926.

Financial and other Statistics showing the Development of Hong Kong during 1897-1926-London, 1927.

Report of the 'Sunning' Piracy Commission-Hong Kong, 1927.

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Report of the Salaries Commission-Hong Kong, 1929.

Memorandum on the use of ●pium in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1929. Report of Analysis of 16 soils from Hong Kong-1929.

Correspondence relating to the Salaries Commission-Hong Kong, 1930. Report of the Committee of Enquiry to investigate the Currency Problem -Hong Kong, 1930.

Report by Governor of Hong Kong on the Mui Tsai Question-Hong Kong, 1930.

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375

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---

་་

Report of the Committee on Practical Technical Education-Hong Kong, 1931.

Report on the Census taken on March 7th, 1931-Hong Kong, 1931.

Report of the Retrenchment Commission and Government's Commentary thereon-Hong Kong, 1932.

Report of the Government of Hong Kong on the Traffic in Opium and Dangerous Drugs, 1930-32-Hong Kong, 1932.

General Conditions of Sale of Crown Lands in the New Territories, Hong Kong-London, 1934.

Report of the Housing Commission--Hong Kong, 1935.

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Anomalies Committee Report (Hong Kong)-London, 1938.

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F

382

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Se... it

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7

386

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no7

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

WAKEFIELD (C. C.)-Future trade in the Far East-London, 1896.

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G

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Hong Kong, 1934.

WHITEHEAD (T. H.)-British Interests in China-Hong Kong, 1897.

-Letter to a Friend in England-Hong Kong, 1897.

-The Expansion of Trade in China-London, 1901.

-The critical position of British trade with Oriental countries Reprinted

from the 'Proceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute' 1895.

†WHYATT (John)-Street Index of the city of Victoria-Hong Kong, Noronha

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Kong in the year 1896-Hong Kong, 1897.

WILKINSON (C. D.)-A History of and Treatise on the Law in Hong Kong

relating to Trade Marks-Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh, 1907.

WILSON (A.)-England's policy in China-Hong Kong, 1860.

WILSON (J.)-Medical Notes on China-London, John Churchill, 1846.

Wingfield (L.)--Wanderings of a globe trotter in the Far East-London, 1889.

WINGROVE COOKE (G.)-China: being 'The Times' Special Correspondence from China in the years 1857-58-London, G. Routledge & Co, 1858.

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vol.

388

BIBLIOGRAPHY

†WOOD (A. E.)-Report of the Committee regarding Marketing of New Territories Produce in Hong Kong and Kowloon-Sessional Paper No 1 of 1934.

†WOOD (J. R.)-Report of the 'SUI AN' Piracy Commission-Hong Kong, 1923. *WOOD (Winifred A.)-A Brief History of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, South

China Morning Post Ltd, 1940.

WOODS (Sir W. W.)-Evidence, Memoranda on Mui Tsai in Hong Kong and

Malaya-London, 1937.

†WOODWARD (A. R.)-Report on the Water Supply of Hong Kong-Sessional

Paper No 3 of 1937.

WOOLF (Bella Sidney)-Chips of China-Hong Kong, 1930.

WRIGHT (A.) & CARTWRIGHT (H.)-Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China- London, Lloyd's Publishing Co Ltd, 1908.

WRIGHT (S. F.)-Hong Kong and the Chinese Customs-Shanghai, 1930.

YUAN YING-TSAI-A guide to Cantonese self-taught-Hong Kong, 1954. ZEN I-TU-Chinese railways and British interests, 1898-1911-New York, 1954.

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Appendices

APPENDICES

Appendix I

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in main industrial groups

391

United Nations standard industrial

classification

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons

employed

numbers

1960 1961

1960

1961

12

Metal mining

3

2

723

668

14

Clay pits and quarrying

66

71

1,447

1,579

19

Non-metallic mining

12

11

76

79

2 2 2 2 2

20

Food manufacture

388

408

7,482

8,378

21

Beverages

27

25

952

1,405

22

Tobacco manufacture

5

5

1,258

1,359

23

Manufacture of textiles

826

876

62,076

68,825

24

Footwear and wearing apparel

815

840

46,109

45,389

25

Manufacture of wood and cork

186

199

3,028

3,208

26

Manufacture of furniture

134

160

2,881

2,780

27

Paper

71

101

1,085

1,778

28

Printing and publishing

644

708

8,854

11,079

29

Leather and leather products

12

19

19

267

235

30

Rubber products

118

132

7,963

7,453

31

Chemicals and chemical products

117

123

3,156

3,625

32

Products of petroleum and coal

4

4

23

34

33

Non-metallic mineral products

84

88

2,171

2,173

w w w w

34

Basic metal industries

76

84

2,575

2,819

35

Metal products

613

679

27,414

28,026

36

Manufacture of machinery

320

341

4,628

5,086

37

Electrical apparatus

103

135

3,930

6,480

38

Transport equipment

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..

ན༔

97

101

15,693

16,015

699

959

22,855

32,741

40

Construction

3

3

19

16

51

Electricity and gas

6

7

1,345

2,633

61

Wholesale and retail trade

6

6

646

933

71

Transport

16

72

Storage and warehousing

24

220

233

8,622

24

1,826

3,803

73

Telephones

1

1

1,224

1,510

84

Motion picture industry

7

8

402

647

85

Laundry and dry cleaning

109

219

2,192

2,351

Totals

5,599

6,359

234,533

271,729

392

APPENDICES

Appendix I-

d

Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

United Nations standard

industrial

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons

employed

classification

numbers

1960

1961

1960

1961

23

Manufacture of textiles

Cotton spinning

26

35

18,299

20,759

Wool spinning

2

2

754

1,065

24

Cotton weaving

Finishing

Knitting

Cordage, rope and twine

Footwear and wearing apparel

256

259

25,027

27,276

123

140

3,949

4,195

290

299

10,028

11,092

32

31

387

548

Footwear except rubber footwear

62

67

1,077

1,103

Wearing apparel except footwear Made-up textile goods except wearing

709

730

42,585

42,517

apparel

44

++

133

43

2,447

1,769

31

Chemicals and chemical products

Medicines

Cosmetics

Paints and lacquers

34

35

35

Matches

Basic metal industries

Rolling mills

Metal products

Tin cans Enamelware

Vacuum flasks

Electro-plating

Needles

25HI

32

34

11

*531

684

803

231

235

642

851

286

286

16

20

1,461

1,601

40

46

955

1,046

20

20

4,923

4,491

8

9

1,205

1,241

80

80

1,334

1,291

7

6

766

746

Hurricane lamps

3

2

278

292

Hand torch cases

39

42

6,189

6,394

Pressure stoves and lanterns

21

23

1,621

1,969

Wrist watch bands

60

61

2,079

1,927

37

Electrical apparatus

Hand torch bulbs

Torch batteries

1290

40

12

20

50

1,391

1,873

12

1,226

1,931

38

Transport equipment

Shipbuilding and repairing

28

Shipbreaking

26

Aircraft repair

828

222

29

8,819 10,716

23

2,040

1,945

1,118

1,587

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Artificial pearls

12

Buttons

30

Bakelite ware

21

71

Transport

Plastic ware

Plastic flowers

Fountain pens

Tramways

Motor buses

368

500

176

263

22283

570

1,646

906

935

649

637

10,196

13,488

7,935

12,566

9

7

223

263

- 2

1

1

1,529

1,628

3

1,218

6,751

January.

February

March

April

May

June

July

APPENDICES

Appendix I-Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Monthly Retail Price Indices, 1961

August

September

October ..

November

December

:

393

121

122

122

122

121

123

120

122

126

128

120

120

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1961

Persons involved

Deaths

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

Deaths in registrable workplaces

Total accidents reported and investigated (1960 total 6,732)

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers (1960 rate 15.4)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers (1960 rate 0.149)

:

7,908

102

4,693

44

7,908*

17.27

0.162

* An accident involving two or more persons is now recorded as a separate accident for

each person involved,

394

APPENDICES

Appendix I-Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Factory registrations and inspections, 1961

Applications received for registration ..

Registration certificates issued

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

Applications withdrawn ..

Factories closed down (premises unsuitable)

Registration certificates surrendered (other reasons)

794

657

I

125

763

317

Places of employment registered at 31st December

3,590

Places of employment in course of registration at 31st December

833

*Factories 'recorded' at 31st December

2,769

Routine visits by labour inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health

and welfare provisions

37,404

Inspections in connexion with industrial or occupational accidents and

workmen's compensation

1,130

Visits for wage inquiries

253

Visits about employment of women and young persons

19,021

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

8,230

* Undertakings which cannot be registered, but kept under observation because 15-19 workers employed, or women and young persons, or for industrial health and safety

reasons.

APPENDICES

Appendix II

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Revenue

395

1959-60

1960-1

1961-2

HEAD OF revenuE

Actual

$

Estimated

Actual

$

$

Estimated

$

1. Duties

2.

Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5.

Fines and Forfeitures

120,871,557 154,700,000 166,993,904 175,600,000

85,345,492 93,500,000 100,716,312 115,620,000

193,494,025 186,400,000 237,150,260 271,350,000

21,243,087

40,664,500 50,835,951 46,456,400

5,730,970 3,646,500 9,686,991 4,250,000

6. Fees of Court or Office

7. Water Revenue

91,537,708 56,768,900 70,195,450 70,154,900

16,274,959 18,863,000 20,476,163 23,710,000

8. Post Office

44,137,639 50,167,000 63,327,049 62,695,300

9. Kowloon-Canton Railway

8,084,466 7,215,000 9,266,412 9,029,000

10.

Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc

51,452,690 56,671,400 61,808,246 59,112,400

638,172,593 668,596,300 790,456,738 837,978,000

11.

Land Sales

22,331,958 35,525,000 62,537,355 68,501,000

12.

Colonial Development and Welfare

Grants

778,068

45,000

35,555

425,500

13. Loans from United Kingdom

Government

2,728,749

4,224,000 4,224,000

14.

World Refugee Year Grants

623,633

3,770,600

1,980,483 6,825,700

Total Revenue

664,635,001 712,160,900 859,234,131 913,730,200

396

APPENDICES

Appendix II-Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Expenditure

1959-60

1960-1

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

Actual

Estimated

Actual

1961-2 Estimated

$

$

$

$

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

426,063

582,800

596,319

511,900

22.

Agriculture and Forestry

Department

5,162,967

6,305,900

5,394,592

6,488,700

23.

Audit Department

951,233

1,052,700

1,039,127

1,140,600

24. Census Department

287,606

3,371,300

3,295,791

1,102,900

25.

Civil Aviation Department

5,103,769

7,474,700 7,260,946

8,758,100

26.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

4,166,218

5,059,900

4,738,220 5,346,600

27.

Commerce and Industry

Department

6,232,614

8,303,500

7,588,646 9,158,500

28. Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department

651,738

828,400

1,390,294 2,512,400

29. Defence: RHKDF Headquarters

and HK Regiment

2,036,414

2,294,900

1,914,581 2,277,500

30.

Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

1,337,407

1,048,900

1,036,458 1,064,300

31.

Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

853,584

535,200

428,197

499,600

32. Defence: Essential Services

Corps and

143,220

192,400

167,975

179,500

Directorate of Manpower ..

33. Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

263,872

358,900

287,285

463,900

34.

Defence: Service

Auxiliary Medical

919,452

1,142,600

1,025,689

1,106,100

35. Defence:

Civil Aid Services

1,731,537

2,152,700

1,890,119

2,067,200

36.

Defence:

Office

Registration of Persons

37. Defence:

38. Education Department

Miscellaneous Measures

39.

40.

      Fire Services Department Information Services Department

41. Inland Revenue Department

996.946

27,816,337

33,512,136

5,565,281

1,127,229 2,283,700

3,733,316 4,223,800

1,191,800

1,372,804 1,498,800

26,498,000

45,849,600 42,405,553 51,586,300

9,835,500 7,362,265 12,743,200

24,625,620 26,561,000

1,528,439 2,290,500

4,109,308 4,438,100

42. Judiciary

43.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

3,483,940 4,578,300

4,462,700 5,668,000

4,150,606

4,895,300

5,153,659

13,314,500

44.

Labour Department:

Labour

Division

1,621,573

2,198,500

1,983,779

2,330,000

45. Labour Department:

Mines

Division

114,500

46.

Legal Department

1,409,900

47. Marine Department

48. Medical and Health Department

49.

Miscellaneous Services

50. New Territories Administration

51. Pensions

97,609

113,500

114,646

1,013,975 1,307,800 1,210,361

12,145,592 12,789,800 11,083,238 17,958,600

45,925,081 63,381,300 56,573,091 64,152,100

31,567,019 18,211,000 23,670,457 19,969,000

5,661,774 6,941,100 6,050,512 8,013,500

18,332,000 23,071,667 23,161,000

16,423,189

APPENDICES

Appendix II-Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Expenditure

397

1959-60

1960-1

1961-2

HEAD OF expendITURE

Actual

Estimated

Actual

52. Police Force: Hong Kong Police

53. Police Force:

Auxiliary Police

$

53,659,279

1,332,178

$

$

Estimated

$

68,816,500

61,091,017 68,096,800

1,483,300

1,275,482 1,474,700

54. Police Force:

Immigration

Department

2,010,900

55. Post Office

56. Printing Department

57. Prisons Department

22,822,519

27,228,900

26,540,502 30,251,500

3,204,549

3,430,500

3,215,053

3,832,600

9,125,220

10,899,600

10,357,947

11,887,000

58.

Public Debt

59. Public Enquiry Service

3,024,702

2,731,310

2,729,670

5,922,310

13,901

164,800

60. Public Services Commission

41,602

54,500

56,131

58,800

61. Public Works Department

33,702,502

44,156,600

40,396,978

45,492,700

62. Public Works Recurrent

63. Public Works Non-Recurrent

64. Radio Hong Kong

39,922,440 35,713,000

34,036,228 41,025,000

171,429,329

290,291,000

239,066,044

353,360,900

2,503,489

3,278,500

3,067,552 3,380,700

..

65.

Rating and Valuation Department

825,184

1,122,800

1,082,366

1,423,900

66.

Registrar General's Department

1,376,996

1,771,900

1,728,644

2,111,000

67. Registry of Trade Unions

231,491

275,000

239,299

249,200

68.

Resettlement Department

7,909,393

11,226,400

9,605,904

12,064,400

69.

Royal Observatory

1,959,360

2,300,700

2,152,329 2,385,600

70. Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

1,124,947

1,434,600

1,347,105

1,553,500

District Watch Force

71.

Social Welfare Department

72. Stores Department

73. Subventions:

74. Subventions:

Social Welfare

Medical

75. Subventions: Education

76. Subventions:

Miscellaneous

4,658,829 6,293,200 6,460,094 7,393,400 8,619,220 10,185,100 11,163,517 11,129,700 3,062,603 3,804,800 3,432,337 4,108,800

18,988,424 21,811,700 21,910,889 25,247,200

54,473,357 72,436,500 65,255,638

2,116,804 2,845,900 2,317,715

85,968,800

3,213,400

77. Treasury

2,444,549

2,924,400 2,787,603

3,040,100

78.

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

28,129,218

35,762,900 30,534,618 38,669,200

79.

Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

771,636

1,477,700 1,128,464

1,660,500

80. Urban Services Department:

New Territories Division

1,910,400

Quartering Office

4,908,496

4,670,800

1,941,844 2,827,700

5,813,485

707,789,707

934,447,010

843,268,600 1,067,119,210

81.

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

1,540,656

82.

World Refugee Year Schemes

623,633

60,000

3,770,600

48,546

1,980,483

658,300

6,825,700

Total Expenditure

709,953,996 938,277,610 845,297,629 1,074,603,210

398

APPENDICES

Appendix II- Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Public Debt of Colony at 31st March 1961

$

31% Dollar Loan 1940

31% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8

2,359,000

46,666,000

Kai Tak Airport Development Loan

48,000,000

Colonial Development and Welfare Fund Loan

509,600

97,534,600

1. Tobacco

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees

1958-9 Actual

Revenue $

1959-60 Actual Revenue $

1960-1 Actual Revenue $

1961-2 Estimate

$

46,670,892 54,568,614 79,097,971 78,000,000

2. Hydrocarbon Oil

28,621,221 32,018,548 44,210,236 53,000,000

3. Liquor

27,972,324

31,143,111 40,083,829 40,900,000

4.

Table Waters

2,768,696

3,132,008 3,590,862 3,700,000

5. Methyl Alcohol

10,111

9,277

11,006

6. Toilet Preparations and Proprietary

Medicines

5,535,062

3,738

982

111,378,306

120,875,296 166,994,886 175,600,000

Licence fees under Dutiable

Commodities Ordinance

1,678,772

1,827,158 1,764,577 1,541,000

APPENDICES

Appendix II- Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Colonial Development and Welfare

399

         Details of the locally administered Schemes in progress during 1961 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

         Scheme Number

Title

Estimated Expenditure

up to 31st December 1961

Maximum

grant available

£

£

Development Schemes

D 2487

Construction of Pathology

Building

Hong Kong University (administered

by University)

78,622

80,781

D 2539

Development

Schemes in the New

Territories

257,885(1)

263,500

D 2990

Site development for low-cost housing,

So Uk

86,250(2)

88,875

D 3271

Construction

of new Library and

Students' Union, Hong Kong University

(administered by University)

190,000(3)

200,000

D 4115

Aeronautical Telecommunications

21,200(4)

21,200

D 4745

Construction of New Pre-Clinical

Building, Hong Kong

University

(administered by University)

15,000(5)

78,125

£648,957

£732,481

Notes: (1) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share of estimated expenditure: this

varies with the items comprising the scheme as follows:

Roads on South Lantau

Six feeder roads

Piers in the New Territories

Irrigation schemes

£

£

42% of 137,386 = 57,702

45% of 158,954 = 71,529

85% of 26,840 = 22,814

85% of 119,960 = 101,966

Survey party

85% of 4,557 = 3,874

£257,885

(2) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (75%) of estimated expenditure.

(3) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (78%) of estimated expenditure.

(4) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (63%) of estimated expenditure.

(5) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (28%) of estimated expenditure.

400

APPENDICES

APPENDICES

401

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Statement of Assets and

II- Contd

Finances)

Liabilities as at 31st March 1961

LIABILITIES

ASSETS

DEPOSITS:

Contributions towards Building Projects

Control of Publications

Government Servants

Miscellaneous

$ #

8,813,630.53

$

CASH:

In Hand: Treasury

$ 2,731,009.76

760,000.00

Other Government

Departments

3,152,297.83

Crown Agents (£768.16.10)

293,506.94

12,301.47

3,036,818.17

24,122,784.81

At Bank: Treasury

61,425,778.63

Motor Vehicles Insurance Third Party

200,000.00

Other Government

Public Works Department-Private Works Account

1,840,984.68

Departments

Joint Consolidated Fund (£384,000.0.0)

2,740,132.87

64,165,911.50

Water Deposits

9,918,993.96

6,144,000.00

73,346,729.67

48,808,691.81

FIXED DEPOSITS

26,300,000.00

99,646,729.67

Other Administrations

45,965.35

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

71,480.61

48,926, 137.77

IMPRESTS

288,424.64

SUSPENSE--Kowloon-Canton Railway

SPECIAL FUND-Social Training Trust Fund

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

31,261.62

2,343,254.41

INVESTMENTS:

On account of Special Funds:

Social Training Trust Fund

On account of Surplus Balances:

138,024,760.94

Federation of Malaya 44% Stock 1964-74

(M$4,512,500.00)

..

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965-75

(M$5,699,000.00)

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan 1940

Sterling Investments (£28,750,737.18.8)

·

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE:

Balance 1st April 1960

406,679,644.73

Add Surplus from 1st April 1960 to 31st March 1961

13,936,502.05

420,616,146.78

ADVANCES:

Less Depreciation on Investments

8,259,084.85

412,357,061.93

Personal

Notes:

Total

$601,682,476.67

Miscellaneous

Other Administrations

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

Development Loan Fund

2,290,132.20

8,423,333.34

10,638,133.33

962,812.50

460,011,806.93

480,036,086.10

$5,307,534.14

3,687,905.52

8,995,439.66

454,225.04

16,156.36

9,955,283.00

19,421,104.06

Total

$601,682,476.67

Government holds 16,290 shares at

a nominal 168 shares at a nominal value of $10 per share at a nominal value of 500 YEN per share in There is a contingent liability of $2,055,995.06 in

value of $100 per share in Associated Properties Limited,

in South China Building Materials Limited, and 980 shares Helm Brothers Limited (Yokohama). respect of the $1 Note Security Fund.

402

APPENDICES

I-Housing Loans

1.

Housing Authority*

2.

DETAILS

LOAN PROJECTS

Hong Kong Housing Society: (a) Sheung Li Uk Scheme

(b) Hung Hom Scheme

(c) Healthy Village Scheme

(d) Sheung Li Uk Scheme Extension

(e) Tsuen Wan Scheme I

(f

Kwun Tong Scheme

(g) Tanner Hill Scheme

(h) Kai Tak Scheme I

(i) Shau Kei Wan Scheme

(j)

Aberdeen Scheme

(k) Kai Tak Scheme II

(1) Healthy Village Scheme Extension

(m) Kwun Tong Scheme Extension

(n) Tsuen Wan Scheme II

(0) Tsuen Wan Scheme III

3.

Local Government Officers

4.

Shek Wu Hui Building Loans

5.

Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation, Ltd

APPENDICES

403

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Development Statement of

II- Contd

-

Finances)

Loan Fund

Approved Projects

Allocation of

Total Expenditure to 31.3.61

$

Total Repayments to 31.3.61

$

Balances at 31.3.61

$

II-Educational Loans

III-Medical Loans

1. The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association

2.

The Mother Superior of the Daughters of Charity of the Canossian Institute

IV-Miscellaneous Loans

1. Hong Kong Football Club

2.

South China Athletic Association

3.

Chinese Civil Servants' Association

4.

(a) First Loan

Kowloon-Canton Railway Athletic and Social Club:

(b) Second Loan

5.

Good Shepherd Sisters

VI-Fisheries Loans

Loan Projects Total

OTHER PROJECTS

Kwun Tong Reclamation Stages I and II

V-Reclamations

1.

:::

:

:::

:

::

:::

Grand Total

Note: The loans to the Housing Authority constitute a revolving fund

Funds $

156,000,000

75,668,157.29

75,668,157.29

2,136.851

2,136,851.25

8,000,000

8,000,000.00

234,311.28 234,780.58

1,902,539.97 7,765,219.42

6,000,000

6,000,000.00

95.446.16

5,904,553.84

535,000

535,000.00

13,961.88

521,038.12

2,730,000

2,730,000.00

5,600,000

5,600,000.00

48,597.10 19,315.70

2,681,402.90

5,580,684.30

5,250,000

3,250.000.00

3,250,000.00

1,800,000

1,800.000.00

7,450.32

1,792,549.68

11,500,000

2,500,000.00

2,500,000.00

8,000,000

6,500,000

1,000,000.00

1.000,000.00

2,000,000

9,000,000

7,500,000

5,000,000

7,500,000

125,000,000

71,007,223.48

630,000 10,000,000

200,000.00

1,759,948.48 21,072.38

69,247,275.00 178,927.62

380,681,851

40,000,000

180,427,232.02

23,653,850.00

2,434,883.88

3.034,837.50

177,992,348.14

20,619,012.50

3,750,000 2,000,000

5,750,000

3,750,000.00 2,000,000.00

5,750,000.00

138,890.00 82,314.00

3,611,110.00 1,917,686.00

221,204.00

5,528,796.00

550,000

550,000.00

221,965.87

600,000

600,000.00

153.796.58

328,034.13 446,203.42

150,000

150,000.00

13,698.90

136,301.10

11.092

11,092.00

3,438

121,844

1,436,374

3,437.50 121,843.15

1,436,372.65

4,248.00 1,125.00 40,000.00

434,834.35

6,844.00 2,312.50

81,843.15

1,001,538.30

2,000,000

429,868,225

249,000.00

249,000.00

211,516.454.67

6,125,759.73

205,390,694,94

8,313,000

438,181,225

8,264,895.06

219,781.349.73

8,264,895.06

6,125,759.73

213,655,590.00

and are therefore now shown net after the deduction of repayments.

404

APPENDICES

APPENDICES

405

Appendix (Chapter 4: Public

Comparative Statement of Recurrent

II - Contd

Finances)

and Capital Income and Expenditure

Recurrent

Actual 1957-8 $

Actual 1958-9 $

Actual 1959-60 $

Actual 1960-1 $

Estimate 1961-2 $

Actual 1957-8 $

Actual 1958-9 $

Actual 1959-60 $

Actual 1960-1 $

Estimate

1961-2

$

Recurrent Revenue

517,955,988

567,305,785 616,194,125

771,412,163 819,330,900

Personal Emoluments

Pensions

170,770,296

15,399,376

326,735,400 189,538,481 247,722,213 285,661,843

15,173,952 16,423,189 23,071,667 23,161,000

Departmental Recurrent

Expenditure (Excluding Unallocated Stores)

71,513,264

Recurrent Subventions

43,817,298

Public Works Recurrent

30,562,815

81,437,957 92,219,545 107,634,594 117,978,500

49,424,785 68,783,335 80,509,254 95,909,000

29,092,211 39,922,440 34,036,228 41,025,000

Miscellaneous Recurrent

Expenditure

29,908,845

Unallocated Stores Accounts

30,492,540 40,139,493 38,002,642 49,211,310

19,371,799 Cr. 10,628,468 Cr. 1,662,529 Cr. 247,963 Cr. 990,000

381,343,693 384,531,458 503,547,686 568,668,265 653,030,210

Transfer to Capital Revenue

Surplus

517,955,988

567,305,785 616,194,125 771,412,163 819,330,900

85,106,324

51,505,971

517,955,988

143,396,032 112,646,439 188,807,396 166,300,690

39,378,295

13,936,502

567,305.785 616,194,125 771,412,163 819,330,900

Capital

Estate Duty

16,553,943

14,394,473 11,559,372 11,658,702 12,500,000

Departmental Special

Expenditure

Excess Stamp Duty (3% on

Assignments)

..

..

4,607,078

3,174,660 2,991,018 5,742,513 4,000,000

Capital Subventions

Private Contributions towards

Government Schemes

Public Works Non-Recurrent

16.379,999

7,265,366

117,717,594

18,603,808 15,876,517 10,526,177 34,857,900

10,641,434 9,857,853 12,407,325 22,629,200

142,701,934 171,429,329 239,066,044 353,360,900

Loan Repayments

Land Sales

3,308,118

1,402,482

26,244,377

3,146,771 2,933,515 1,563,360

80,000 878,882 4,494,564

22,331,958 30,920,067

62,537,355

2,067,100

80,000

68,501,000

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

2,635,068

2,457,768 1,540,657

48,545

658,300

Miscellaneous Capital

Expenditure

7,137,497

2,621,965

Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

1,313,202

1,193,893

778,068

35,555

425,500

Loans from United Kingdom

Government

12,800,000

8,322,131 2,728,749 4,224,000

World Refugee Year Schemes

Transfers to Development Loan

Fund, etc

2,048,321 12,590,790 3,231,000

623,633 1,980,483 6,825,700

200,000

28,400,000 5,030,000

10,000

10,000

World Refugee Year Grants

-

66,229,200

623,633 1,980,483 6,825,700

62,030,877 48,440,877 87,821,968 94,399,300

Contribution from Recurrent

Revenue

Deficit

151,335,524

85,106,324 143,396,032 112,646,439 188,807,396 166,300,690

45,318,994

160,873,010

205,426,909 206,406,310 276,629,364 421,573,000

151,335,524

205,426,909 206,406,310 276,629,364 421,573,000

406

APPENDICES

Appendix III

(Chapter 5: Currency and Banking)

Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

American Express Company, Inc

Bangkok Bank, Ltd

Bank of America

Bank of Canton, Ltd

Bank of China

Bank of Communications

Bank of East Asia, Ltd

Bank of India Ltd

Bank of Korea

Bank of Tokyo, Ltd

Banque Belge pour l'Etranger (Extrême-Orient) SA Banque de l'Indochine

Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie Chartered Bank

Chekiang First Bank of Commerce (Hongkong) Ltd China & South Sea Bank, Ltd

China State Bank, Ltd

Chiyu Banking Corporation, Ltd

Chung Khiaw Bank, Ltd

Thos Cook & Son (Continental and Overseas) Ltd

Deutsch-Asiatische Bank

First National City Bank of New York

Hongkong Chinese Bank, Ltd

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

Hongkong & Swatow Commercial Bank, Ltd

Indian Overseas Bank, Ltd

Kincheng Banking Corporation

Kwong On Bank, Ltd

Mercantile Bank, Ltd

Nanyang Commercial Bank, Ltd

National Bank of Pakistan

National Commercial Bank, Ltd

Nationale Handelsbank, NV

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij, NV (Netherlands Trading Society)

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation, Ltd

Overseas Trust Bank, Ltd

Overseas Union Bank, Ltd

Shanghai Commercial Bank, Ltd

Sin Hua Trust, Savings & Commercial Bank, Ltd

Sze Hai Tong Bank, Ltd

United Chinese Bank, Ltd

United Commercial Bank Ltd

Wing On Bank Ltd

APPENDICES

Appendix IV

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

(To nearest ten million $)

407

Imports Exports Re-exports Total trade

1961 1960

1961

$ million

1960

$ million

% increase or decrease

5,970

2,940

5,860 2,870

+

2%

+ 2%

990 9.900

1,070

-

7%

9,800

+

1%

Cargo Tonnages

Imports: Commodity Pattern

1961 total value $5,970 million

8.4 million tons 8.2 million tons

% of total imports in

1961

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material Food

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

Machinery and transport equipment

30%

24%

12%

10%

Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

9%

8%

% increase

1961

1960

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Base metals ..

1,771

1,932

8%

867

1,044

17%

272

302

10%

Silver, platinum, gems and jewellery

255

212

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

138

134

Food

1,406

1,353

Cereals and cereal preparations

360

317

++++

+ 20%

3%

4%

+ 14%

Fruits and vegetables

264

264

Live animals, chiefly for food

214

248

Dairy products

135

128

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

723

687

Textile fibres

432

337

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

124

155

Wood, lumber and cork

64

87

Machinery and transport equipment

623

599

Non-electric machinery

271

269

Electric machinery

208

176

Transport equipment

144

154

Chemicals

532

466

      Explosives and miscellaneous chemical products Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

209

177

110

109

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

464

427

1 + + + + + +1

+ + + +

14%

5%

+ 5%

+ 28%

20%

26%

4%

1%

+ 18% 6%

+ 14%

+ 18%

1%

9%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

193

176

+ 10%

408

China

By Country

APPENDICES

Appendix IV-Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Imports: Principal Sources

1961 total value $5,970 million

% of total imports in 1961

By British Commonwealth and Continent

British Commonwealth

17%

Japan

14%

Asia

UK

13%

America

USA

12%

Europe

Thailand

4%

% of total

imports in

1961

25%

47%

14%

14%

1961

1960

% increase or decrease

$ million

$ million

China

1,028

1,186

13%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

273

287

5%

Cereals and cereal preparations

88

65

+ 35%

Fruits and vegetables

84

125

33%

Live animals, chiefly for food

71

157

-

- 55%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

63

85

26%

Fish and fish preparations

45

65

31%

Japan

864

942

8%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

295

388

-

24%

Electric machinery

73

60

+ 22%

Non-electric machinery

55

84

35%

Base metals

49

46

+ 7%

United Kingdom

Electric machinery

Non-electric machinery

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Transport equipment

Base metals

USA

Textile fibres

757

664

+ 14%

94

78

+ 21%

ཆཚ⌘

89

53

+ 68%

94

81

+16%

84

88

5%

83

79

729

720

+:

+

5%

1

159

152

+

1%

5%

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

Explosives and miscellaneous chemical products

Fruits and vegetables

Medical and pharmaceutical products

Non-electric machinery

88888

66

57

+16%

59

50

+ 18%

53

50

+ 6%

50

58

14%

50

54

7%

Thailand

256

208

+ 23%

Cereals and cereal preparations

143

119

+ 20%

Live animals, chiefly for food

50

36

+ 39%

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Domestic Exports: Commodity Pattern

1961 total value $2,939 million

409

% of all exports in

1961

Clothing

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

29%

23%

Footwear

         Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere specified Manufactures of metals

Ores and metal scrap

15%

4%

4%

3%

% increase

1961

1960

or decrease

$ million

$ million

Clothing

862

1,010

15%

Shirts, other than knitted

159

179

11%

Slacks, shorts, jeans, trousers, overalls and pinafores,

other than knitted

159

178

-

11%

Jackets, jumpers, sweaters, cardigans and pullovers,

knit or made of knitted fabrics

78

Underwear and nightwear, other than knitted

65

Underwear and nightwear, knit or made of knitted

fabrics

58

Shirts, knit or made of knitted fabrics

44

125

85

45

+ 73%

72

-

10%

62

www.

6%

49

10%

Blouses and jumpers, other than knitted, not em-

broidered, women's wear

35

78

55%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

669

554

+ 21%

Cotton piecegoods dyed in the piece

110

70

+ 57%

Cotton grey sheeting

95

119

Cotton grey drills

68

53

-

20%

+ 28%

Cotton grey yarn over 10s to 20s

50

48

+ 4%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere

specified

446

393

+ 13%

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit

172

149

+ 15%

Plastic toys and dolls

114

100

+ 14%

Manufactures of metals

121

118

+

3%

Household utensils of iron and steel, enamelled

63

63

Household utensils of aluminium

10

12

I

17%

Footwear

104

115

-

10%

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

53

58

9%

Rubber footwear

17

23

26%

Ores and metal scrap

95

101

6%

Steel scrap

56

61

www

8%

Brass and bronze scrap

19

18

+

6%

Other

Electric torches

48

45

Imitation jewellery other than watch bands

30

14

Iron and steel bars and rounds ..

26

Rattan furniture (including plastics coated)

25

Refined sugar

18

20

N

28

28

1 1 + +

29

7%

+114%

7%

11%

38%

410

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- - Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Domestic Exports: Principal Markets

1961 total value $2,939 million

By Country

% of all exports in 1961

By British Commonwealth and Continent

% of all exports in

1961

USA

23%

British Commonwealth

45%

UK

20%

America

25%

Malaya

9%

Asia

17%

Indonesia

6%

Europe

8%

German Federal Republic

4%

Africa

2%

Japan

4%

1961

1960

% increase or decrease

$ million

$ million

USA

Clothing

679

745

9%

253

376

33%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere

specified

207

165

+ 25%

..

+

-

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

97

85

+ 14%

Furniture and fixtures

223

26

26

15%

Silver, platinum, gems and jewellery

14

12

+ 17%

United Kingdom

589

585

+ 1%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

199

196

+

Clothing

195

209

2%

7%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere

specified

Footwear

Malaya ..

267

Clothing

2468

74

76

3%

45

52

1

13%

243

+ 10%

63

56

+ 12%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere

specified

49

..

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

35

Sugar and sugar preparations

15

Manufactures of metals

14

Indonesia

173

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

157

2 2 2 2 ~ A

43

+ 14%

22

26

13

79

+ 59%

42%

+ 8%

+119%

76

+107%

German Federal Republic

106

107

Clothing

79

84

1%

6%

..

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere

specified

6

6

|

7

5

+ 40%

Japan

107

101

+ 6%

Ores and metal scrap

86

888

2%

APPENDICES

Appendix IV Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Re-exports: Commodity Pattern

1961 total value $991 million

411