Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1960

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HONG KO

HONG KONG

1960

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MAP

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Crown Copyright Reserved

.

HONG KONG 1960

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable from

THE PRINTING DEPARTMENT

81-115, Java Road, North Point, and

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS BUREAU General Post Office, Hong Kong,

and from

THE CROWN AGENTS FOR OVERSEA GOVERNMENTS

AND ADMINISTRATIONS

4, Millbank, London, SW1

A list of current publications will be found at Appendix XIII of this Report

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

1+

   The Sai Ying Pun Polyclinic, opened in July 1960, provides specialist consultant services in addition to normal out-patient facilities. Built with a donation of $4,500,000 from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, this ultra-modern clinic serves the population of the Western District of Hong Kong Island, living in their countless tenements, and has equipment worth

$1,300,000 supplied by Government.

HONG

KONG

Hong Kong

Report for the year 1960

HONG KONG

GOVERNMENT PRESS

1961

市政局公共圖書館UCPL

3 3288 03034556 7

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

First published: February 1961

14579

DATE OF ACE. 13.2.62

CLASS NO.

951.25 HKC

AUTHOR NO,

REBOUND

Printed and Published by

THE GOVERnment PRINTER

at the Government Press, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all those organizations and private individuals who have contributed textual matter or photo- graphs to this Report. Particular acknowledgment is given to Professor S. G. Davis, PhD, MSc, FGS, of the University of Hong Kong for writing Chapter 22, to Mr G. B. Endacott, MA, BLitt, DipE, of the University for advising on Chapter 24, and to Mr J. M. Braga for compiling Chapter 27.

All illustrations in this Report, unless other- wise stated, are the work of official artists and photographers. Requests for permission to repro- duce any illustrations should be addressed to the Director of Information Services, Hong Kong.

Chapter

CONTENTS

PART I REVIEW

1 HONG KONG'S WATER SUPPLIES: 1960, A YEAR OF

DECISION

PART II

Page

3

2

POPULATION

Urban Population

New Territories.

www

37

38

39

3

EMPLOYMENT

Occupations

42

Wages and Conditions of Employment

44

Labour Administration

46

Industrial Relations

48

Legislation.

51

Safety, Health and Welfare

51

New Territories.

54

4

PUBLIC FINANCES

56

Import and Excise Duties

58

Rates.

60

Internal Revenue

60

5

CURRENCY AND BANKING

64

Banking

66

6

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Industry

67

Heavy Industry.

70

Textile Industry.

71

Diversification

Trade.

Trade Development

Trade Control

Preventive Service

Overseas Representation Tourism

73

73

76

82

83

85

85

vii

CONTENTS

Chapter

Page

7

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Agricultural Land

87

Land Utilization

88

Policy and Administration

90

Agriculture

92

Animal Industries

94

Forestry

96

Fishing

99

Marketing

Co-operative Societies Mining

102

106

107

8 EDUCATION

109

Primary Education

Secondary Education.

Post-secondary Education .

Higher Education Overseas

109

110

111

113

Adult Education

114

Teachers

115

Examinations

116

Scholarships and Bursaries

118

Finance

118

Legislation

118

Board of Education

119

School Administration

119

Voluntary Education and Welfare Work

120

Libraries

121

Music, Drama and the Arts

121

9 HEALTH

Public Health Administration

123

General Health.

Communicable Diseases

Health Services.

Hospitals

Clinics

Specialist Services

125

127

133

136

138

139

Dental Services.

Training

140

141

Urban Services

143

New Territories.

149

viii

Chapter

CONTENTS

Page

10 LAND AND HOUSING

Land.

Housing

Resettlement

151

160

164

Rent Controls

168

11

SOCIAL WELFARE

170

12

LEGISLATION

183

13

LAW, ORDER AND RECORDS

Courts of Justice

186

Police Force

187

Auxiliary Police Force

197

Prisons

197

Records

199

14

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

Public Works

207

·

Public Utilities

212

Public Road Transport Services

217

15 COMMUNICATIONS

221

Marine

221

Civil Aviation

225

Kowloon-Canton Railway

228

Roads

229

Multi-storey Car Parks

230

Post Office

230

Telecommunications

232

Royal Observatory

234

The Year's Weather

236

16

PUBLICATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

Press .

239

Publishing.

241

Government Information Services

241

Radio Hong Kong

246

Commercial Radio

251

Rediffusion

252

Film Industry

254

17

LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

256

ix

CONTENTS

Page

Chapter

18 RESEARCH

University

Royal Observatory

19

RELIGION

20

THE ARTS

Government Collections

British Council .

260

263

265

274

276

277

21

SPORTS AND RECREATION

Games

279

Parks, Playgrounds and other Amenities

282

PART III

22

GEOGRAPHY

Geographical Setting .

Topography and Geology

Vegetation

24

233 23

Population

Economic Conditions

Climate

NATURAL HISTORY

HISTORY

Antecedents

289

289

289

291

291

292

293

295

303

The Island Colony, 1841-60

307

Extensions, 1860-99 .

310

Internal Development up to 1941

311

Chinese Revolution and World War

314

Since the War

316

·

25

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Constitution

319

Judiciary.

320

Administration

320

New Territories Administration

324

Public Service

326

26 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

2220

27

BIBLIOGRAPHY

329

330

X

CONTENTS

ILLUSTRATIONS

Colour

The New and the Old

Water supplies (and a map)

The spring-tide of life

Production-secondary and modern

-primary and traditional.

Nurses in training

Customs survive

New housing-Night lights-New offices

Creating new communities.

Views from all quarters

Page

frontispiece

between

24 - 5

between 40 - 1

between

80 - 1

between

96-7

between

128 -9

between

144 - 5

between

168-9

between 184 - 5

between 216-7

between 232-3

between 296 - 7

Hong Kong is surrounded by sea

Nature, wild but gentle

!

Black and white

The camera as an artist's tool .

between 160 - 1

Voluntary welfare work.

between 176 - 7

New roads for more vehicles

between 224 - 5

Mass information and entertainment

between 240 - 1

Fire brigade in action

between 320 - 1

Typhoon 'Mary's aftermath

between

336-7

MAPS

Hong Kong in the Far East

Hong Kong and the New Territories.

Urban areas

front end-paper

facing

352

back end-paper

DIAGRAMS

Expenditure on public works and on water.

between 32-3

Imports and exports

between 72-3

     Growth of education. Resettlement of people

between 112-3

between 152-3

xi

Appendix

I EMPLOYMENT

II

CONTENTS

APPENDICES

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in main industrial groups-in selected indus- tries in some main industrial groups-Monthly retail price indices-Factory registrations and inspections Occupational diseases Industrial and occupational accidents.

PUBLIC FINANCES

Revenue Expenditure

Page

355

359

Public debt-Rev-

enue from duties and licence fees-Colonial development and welfare schemes-Assets and liabilities.

III

AUTHORIZED FOREIGN EXCHANGE BANKS .

IV

TRADE

V

VI

Value of merchandise trade-Cargo tonnages -Commodity pattern and sources of imports- Commodity pattern and direction of exports-

 and re-exports - Direction of imports exports and re-exports Composition of trade by international trade classifications.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Summary - Livestock population - Marketing organizations' statistics-Minerals-Co-opera- tive societies.

EDUCATION

Overseas examinations-Awards by Govern- ment Students of higher studies in UK- Categories of schools-Expenditure.

VII

HEALTH

Students in training-Vital statistics-Infectious disease notifications-Tuberculosis-Qualified persons registered-Hospital beds.

366

367

380

384

387

VIII

HOUSING

391

Housing provided-Resettlement estates.

IX

LAW, ORDER AND MIGRATION .

392

X

XI

XII

XIII

INDEX.

Court cases Serious crime-Traffic-Popula- tion movements.

COMMUNICATIONS

Marine statistics Railway Vehicles

traffic-Telecommunications.

SOME LEADING NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

397

Air

399

400

404

407

xii

Part I

1

Review

HONG KONG'S WATER SUPPLIES

1960, A YEAR OF DECISION

     FOR a number of years the Hong Kong Annual Report began with a general review of the problems confronting the Colony in the previous twelve months, of the manner in which they had been tackled, and of the more striking achievements and events of interest not only in the sphere of Government but in the life of the whole community. It was to some extent a summary of the later chapters, but it had to be selective and to give a broad impression rather than a detailed picture. In more recent years there has been a deliberate attempt to narrow the focus of this review, and to concentrate on some particularly striking aspect of the living history of Hong Kong. Thus, in 1956, a chapter entitled 'A Problem of People' introduced the Report, and set out to explain how this problem had grown up in ten years since the end of the Pacific War, what its effects were, and how it was being met. Again, in 1959, the half-way point of World Refugee Year gave an opportunity to assess the aims and achievements of that movement in relation to Hong Kong's problems, particularly the social problems arising from a vast increase in population. This year's opening chapter concentrates on the question of water supplies and, within the compass of a necessarily brief and non- technical account, tries to show what the problem is, why it exists, and what is being done to remove it. This is a particularly oppor- tune time to pause and look back on the history of the Colony's water supplies, and also to look hopefully into the future, for 1960 has been a year of decision.

      What is the water problem? A visitor to Hong Kong will very quickly meet it, if he comes during the dry winter months. Arriving at his hotel, tired and uncomfortable after an air journey half-way round the world, a traveller's first thought will be to turn on the

4

REVIEW

taps, step into a bath and relax in the comfort of deep, warm water. The chances are that he will turn the taps in vain and then discover a notice which is displayed in every hotel bathroom. This warns visitors of the restricted hours of supply, of the penalties incurred by those who waste water, and of the dangers of leaving taps 'on' when there is no water in them. Later in the day, when a supply is available, he may well have a glass knocked out of his hand by the force of the water belching out in intermittent gasps as imprisoned air is expelled from the pipe. Even the con- tents of the glass will at first look strangely like a well-known brand of effervescent fruit salts. These are inconveniences which residents have always lived with and to which they have grown accustomed. For the more fortunate among us who dwell in houses or flats with modern plumbing, they are inconveniences which have, from long association, been put aside in the backs of their minds.

      Nevertheless, plumbing will not always assure a supply in even the most modern flat. The tall new buildings which have become a feature of the Hong Kong scene create their own problems. If water were available all day and the residents of such a block could draw their requirements at any time, there would be no problem. But when every household in a 12-storeyed building is frantically trying to draw off its day's supply inside 3 or 4 hours, it is not surprising if at times the pressure is insufficient to drive the water up to the higher floors. These are minor irritations compared with the difficulties that confront poorer sections of the population. For the great majority, water restrictions are a grievous and constant hardship. In many of the more crowded urban areas, the only source of supply is from public standpipes. There, at almost any time of the day, will be long queues of women and children waiting patiently for the water to be turned on, and then moving slowly forward to the pipe from which to draw their whole household's supply for the next 12 or 24 hours. They will be there in any weather; bitter cold, or steamy heat, even in a downpour of rain. When their turn has come, each one will move off, stooping a little, and with hesitant steps under the weight of two kerosene tins of water suspended from each end of a bamboo pole. Sometimes the organization is better, and the empty tins will be left in orderly rows until near the time when

REVIEW

5

they can be filled. Even less fortunate are those who must go out for their water but have no stand pipes to go to. They seek the stream beds and nullahs, climbing rough and precipitous tracks to reach them; and the daily trek gradually grows longer as autumn passes into winter, and winter gives way to the heat of spring, for the streams diminish to a trickle until they are replenished by the first rains of summer. Such is the effort expended to bring home each day a few gallons of water which must suffice for drinking, cooking, personal cleanliness and the laundering for a large family. It is a tribute to the good humour of the inhabitants, particularly the womenfolk, that they accomplish the daily search for water in a patient and orderly manner. Nor is this only a domestic problem, for industry too needs water, sometimes in large quan- tities. Although it is Government's policy to provide an assured and constant supply for industry wherever possible, this would be quite uneconomical in those urban areas where housing and industry intermingle: it would mean for such districts a duplica- tion of the mains. In many instances, therefore, factory owners have had to provide their own wells or install large storage tanks. This has meant keeping heavy users of water out of some industrial areas where, for the time being, supplies would be insufficient for their needs.

       The shortage of water in urban areas is such that for most of the year the mains are shut off for a large part of the day. Except to hospitals, Hong Kong can offer a 24-hour supply only when all the reservoirs are full to overflowing: during 1960 this happened on only 35 days. In recent years, four or five hours in the morning and the same time in the evening have generally been the most that could be spared even in the summer months, and these have dwindled in the dry season to three or four hours a day, some areas being supplied in the morning and the others in the evening. In the summer of 1956 before the newest and largest reservoir at Tai Lam Chung came into service, there was a reduction in the hours of supply to two and a half every second day.

How did such conditions arise, and what is being done to put them right? The root cause lies in geography and climate. The total land area of the Colony is 398 square miles. In this small territory there are no natural lakes, nor any rivers of a size to provide a sufficient and assured supply of water. There are of

}

6

REVIEW

course many mountain streams and small rivers which during heavy rainfall become roaring torrents, but most of these dwindle to a trickle or dry up completely at other times of the year. There is an average annual rainfall of just under 85 inches, but three quarters of this falls during the summer months of May to September. Each summer it is vital to collect and store enough rainwater to last through the following winter.

      Apart from climate and geography, the other important factor in the attempt to solve the equation of demand and supply has been the population. Once again Hong Kong's problem of people dominates the situation. In 1859, at the time of planning the first reservoir project, the population was about 90,000. On its com- pletion in 1863, it was already too small, for the number of inhabitants had grown to 125,000. This pattern was to repeat itself over and over again. By 1931 the population of the Colony had risen to 500,000 and in the following year the Japanese attack on China began. As the Japanese worked their way south, people crossed the border from Kwangtung province in increasing num- bers until, at the outbreak of the Pacific War, the Colony har- boured no less than 1,600,000. Then came the outbreak of the Pacific War and the occupation of the Colony by the Japanese. During this period wholesale expulsions reduced the population to 600,000, but from the liberation of the Colony onwards the upward trend continued and quickly intensified. By the end of 1946, the pre-war figure of 1,600,000 had been overtaken; by 1956 it had gone up to 2,500,000; today, just 101 years after the first reservoir was planned, the population is thought to be in the region of 3,200,000. The census in March 1961 will tell how accurate this estimate is and will make planning for the future somewhat easier than in the last fifteen years.

       The loss of Government records during the last war has obscured the history of Hong Kong's waterworks. Fortunately some of the past has been pieced together from such records as still exist, and from the memories of those who, in the early years after the war, were still here to recall the details. Some of this history is recorded in a paper read by Mr Leonard Jackson, lately of the Public Works Department, before the Engineering Society of Hong Kong in December 1948. The present review owes a great deal to this source for its information on the pre-war years.

REVIEW

7

Readers will remember that Hong Kong became a Crown Colony in 1841. In the early years the inhabitants depended for their water on wells and hillside streams. The first reservoir at Pok Fu Lam, completed in 1863, was already at that date insufficient to meet requirements. Engineers therefore constructed a new dam further upstream, which is still in use today. Next they tapped streams in the Wong Nai Chung and Tai Hang areas to supply the town as it expanded eastwards, and in the eighties conceived and completed the first stage of the Tai Tam complex. This included the Tai Tam reservoir on the south-east side of the island with a capacity of over 312 million gallons, a tunnel through the hills to the north, and a conduit leading to slow sand filter beds near the Botanical Gardens. This was the first filtered supply. The first Peak supply was installed in 1891, the district having hitherto been dependent on wells, and by 1895 the dis- tribution system in the urban area of the island must have been adequate, for in that year there was a prohibition on the use of wells on grounds of public health. In 1897, fourteen years after its completion, the Tai Tam dam was raised 9 feet. Temporary boards placed across the overflows of Pok Fu Lam and Tai Tam increased their storage capacity, and the year 1899 saw the present Wong Nai Chung reservoir finished and brought into use. Thus by 1899 the total storage capacity of the waterworks, all of which was still on the island of Hong Kong, had increased to over 511 million gallons. In the same year, the boundaries of the Colony were extended by the occupation of the New Territories, acquired on a 99 years' lease by the Convention of Peking of 1898. The Kowloon peninsula had been ceded to Britain in 1860, but offered no scope for extending the storage capacity of the Colony and was still served solely by wells and streams.

      In 1902 a particularly severe water famine occurred, ac- companied by outbreaks of cholera and bubonic plague. At the beginning of May the hours of supply were cut down to one hour a day, and water had to be brought in from the mainland by boat, from which it was pumped into tanks on the praya. On the 5th May the Hongkong Daily Press castigated Government's inertia over bringing in supplies in this way, but fortunately the need for such emergency action did not long continue as the rains broke in the second week of that month. These experiences

8

REVIEW

prompted a number of new measures which included further development in the Tai Tam valley, the first impounding of supplies in the New Territories, and a curious system of distri- bution in the city of Hong Kong-that of rider mains. This system is described by Mr Jackson:

'In order to make best use of the available water by reducing waste it was proposed to introduce universal metering of supplies. The proposal, however, was not well received by the Chinese residents and an amazing compromise solution was reached. Certain streets in the City were to be provided with duplicate mains, one to provide metered supplies and a second, called a rider-main, was unmetered. The reason for the duplication of the mains was that the unmetered (rider main) supply could be shut off during periods when the supply had to be restricted, whereas the metered supplies were not so restricted until the storage position became much more acute'.* The system of rider mains was not abolished until 1932 when universal metering was introduced.

Construction on the island included the Tai Tam Bye-Wash and Intermediate reservoirs, completed in 1904 and 1907 respec- tively, and in 1914 a new supply for the Peak district pumped from the West Point filters to tanks on Victoria Peak. In 1917 the Tai Tam Tuk dam was finished, the largest of the group in this valley, and the installation of new slow sand filter beds in 1919 and 1925 completed the main Tai Tam scheme. In the meantime thoughts had turned towards the resources offered by the New Territories and work began on the original Kowloon reservoir in 1902, to be completed in 1910. A second reservoir, Shek Li Pui, followed in 1922, and these two together provided Kowloon with a storage capacity of over 468 million gallons, which could be increased by the use of sluice boards. Each was accompanied by appropriate filtration capacity and a distribution system. Those in a position to judge the demand for water and the ability to meet it were evidently highly satisfied with Tai Tam Tuk for, when the dam was opened, it was described as one 'to satisfy the Colony for many years to come'. It was not the first

       * The Hong Kong Waterworks, by Leonard Jackson, BEng, MICE, MIWE, published in the Proceedings of the Engineering Society of Hong Kong, Sessions 1948-9.

REVIEW

9

time that such a false prophecy had been made and this renewed optimism was very soon shown to be unfounded. The growing demand for yet more water, despite the addition of the two Kowloon reservoirs, gave rise to the Shing Mun scheme, in a valley in the New Territories behind Tsuen Wan, where work began in 1923 with the aim of adding to the city's supplies by means of a cross-harbour pipeline. As a first step, an intake was installed in the Shing Mun river, linked by a conduit to a re- ception reservoir which was able to augment supplies in Kowloon from 1926. Meanwhile, work was going ahead on the Shing Mun dam and subsidiary works which would later form the Jubilee reservoir, and on the cross-harbour pipeline. These were not ready in time to alleviate another period of severe shortage in 1929.

Early in June that year brick and metal tanks were being erected on the praya, and Government was converting railway wagons into tanks to carry water from Tai Po and elsewhere along the line. By the 7th of the month, five of the six island reservoirs were almost empty and the Governor formed a large committee to advise him on the need for emergency measures. The principal source of relief was the West River near Macau from which unfiltered water was brought in by lighters; some ocean-going ships were used to bring supplies from as far away as Shanghai. By the 19th June Tai Tam Tuk had dried up and on that day a rain making experiment by Royal Air Force aircraft failed. Almost every day during the second half of June the South China Morning Post carried leaders exhorting Govern- ment and the committee to further efforts, for quarrelling and fighting around the tanks were bringing people before the courts almost daily. Although the worst of the crisis was over by the end of June, during the following month only 3 million gallons a day were allowed from the waterworks, boats bringing in an additional one million, a total of 6.6 gallons a head each day. It was with no sense of complacency, therefore, that in 1930 the people of Hong Kong first received water from the Shing Mun river through the cross-harbour pipeline. Indeed, work on the dam had been accelerated and the two Aberdeen reservoirs started. These came into use in 1931, adding 280 million gallons storage, along with the bye-wash dam in Kowloon, and extensive

10

REVIEW

additional catchwaters were also built to augment the resources of the Tai Tam valley. The Jubilee reservoir itself was not finished until 1936, but it doubled the storage capacity for urban supplies. Thus, before the outbreak of the Second World War the Colony had thirteen reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 5,970 million gallons. Even so, restrictions had to be applied in 1937, and even before the outbreak of war there had been preliminary investigations into the possibility of damming the Tai Lam Chung valley to provide additional supplies. The war shelved this project and it was not re-opened until after the liberation of the Colony.

All this says little about the many and complex ancillary works associated with the storage and distribution of the urban supplies. The most remarkable of these is the system of catchwaters which follow the contours of the hills, intercept water from mountain streams and bring it to the reservoirs. Perhaps nowhere in the world have they been developed to quite such an extent as in Hong Kong. Where they pass over difficult and unstable ground they present major problems of design and construction. Probably the most serious difficulty is to determine their economic size. It would obviously be wasteful to design them to impound all the water available at times of torrential rainfall, and the aim is to collect the ordinary rainfall and to arrange for adequate overflows, preventing damage during periods of maximum flood.

      Looking back over the pre-war history of water in Hong Kong, it is clear that there was a constant struggle to keep supply ahead of demand, that a lead was won for short periods only and that for most of the time the urban population was subject to water rationing. Two particularly bad years-1902 and 1929-- stimulated a special effort to improve the situation and yet, by the outbreak of the war, the shadow of another crisis was already looming.

      During the occupation of the Colony, the Japanese paid virtually no attention to the maintenance of the water installations, and their method of controlling consumption was simply to cut off large sections of the community and allow the mains to become derelict. Although little of the plant was removed or suffered direct war damage, a considerable backlog of repairs and rehabi- litation confronted the engineers on the liberation of Hong Kong.

REVIEW

11

Shortage of pipes and other equipment seriously hampered this work and when the programme got under way in 1950 it soon merged with the major improvements of the distribution system required by the planned expansion of storage capacity. During the period 1950 to 1960, the Colony spent approximately $11.75 million on the replacement and extension of mains, apart from the considerable cost of the trunk mains laid as part of major projects to increase urban supplies. Side by side with these developments, work went ahead on modernizing and increasing the capacity of pumping and filtration plants.

       It should be mentioned that Hong Kong has not overlooked the possibility of augmenting urban supplies by the use of under- ́ ground sources. During a visit in 1948 Dr F. Dixey, Geological Adviser to the Secretary of State, was asked to report whether the Tai Lam scheme, which was expected to provide an additional 20 million gallons a day, could be replaced by an underground scheme on the island or on the mainland, or both. He advised that there was no prospect whatever of so large an amount of water being obtained by this means, and he saw no prospect of obtaining water in the quantities then required except by means of a surface scheme such as that at Tai Lam. The question was then dropped for a while, only to be raised again in 1949 when Tai Lam was still some years away and the position was once more becoming increasingly ominous. At the end of that year Government decided to order deep boring equipment in the hope of locating underground supplies which could produce up to 3 million gallons a day: in a critical situation even this quantity might be vital. At that time suitable equipment was hard to find, delivery dates were long, and it was not until 1953 that experi- mental borings began. The project was abandoned without any encouraging results early in 1955. In the following year a fresh approach was made, this time in an attempt to meet the needs of cultivators in the New Territories who might encounter restricted water supplies as a result of the Tai Lam scheme. On this occasion an experienced firm of drillers was engaged. By February 1959 they had sunk fifteen wells to various depths, of which eight were productive, but only to the extent of 400,000 gallons a day. It is unlikely that any further effort will be expended in this way, for in the meantime the Tai Lam supply has come into use, while

12

REVIEW

the Shek Pik and part of the Integrated Schemes are under way. We have found other means to meet the needs of the farmers.

      Before turning to the major projects for conserving urban supplies which have attracted so much public attention in the last ten years, it is worth considering a very recent innovation to save fresh water. A conservative estimate of the amount of water required for flushing is nine gallons a person a day. It is clear that in the conditions prevailing in Hong Kong, this quantity cannot be supplied from the mains; and potable water has never been permitted for flushing unless an alternative supply is demons- trably impossible. The surge of high density development over the last decade has introduced a new problem; there has been a general lowering of the water table and many of the old wells have dried up. Accordingly about two years ago Government started to install salt water mains to provide a supply not only for flushing, but also for fire fighting. It was clearly desirable in the early stages of such a programme to deal with areas where there are large concentrations of people, and resettlement estates were given priority. In addition, the programme included the North Point area in Hong Kong where the Housing Authority's first estate, as well as heavy private development, had increased the density of the population far beyond that for which the installed water capacity was designed, and where the rocky nature of the ground made wells impracticable. The programme, which should reach completion by the end of March 1961, allows for the expenditure of $17 million in six areas, of which two are on the island and four in Kowloon. Further schemes are likely to start in the near future.

*

The firm of Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley had sub- mitted their report on the feasibility of the Tai Lam Chung scheme in December 1940, but there was no further progress until after the war. When peace came, the project was little nearer to fruition. The cost, then estimated at nearly $100 million, was quite beyond the financial resources of the Colony at the time and there was no prospect of raising a loan locally at acceptable rates of interest, nor of obtaining Treasury approval for the issue of a loan in London. Early in 1948 there was even a body of

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     opinion in the Colony (not among the engineers) which doubted the need for a scheme of such magnitude and one senior official committed himself to the assertion that 'the population of Hong Kong cannot go on increasing'. The deadlock was broken in March 1951 when the Director of Public Works proposed a modified version of the original scheme, complete in itself and costing about $40 million. This involved reducing the height and therefore the length of the dam and its designed capacity. A further saving would arise in that the original plan conceived three smaller cut- off dams across depressions in the ridge forming the western boundary of the reservoir; by reducing the height of the main dam, and therefore the depth of water impounded, these cut-off dams would be unnecessary until the time came to enlarge the works to full capacity. A little more forethought would have led to the conclusion that when the demand for water increased to the point where it became essential to implement the full scheme, it would be necessary to lower the level of water in the reservoir still further and to maintain it at that reduced level for two years until the foundations of the cut-off dams were built. This, in fact, was one of the factors which later persuaded Government to carry out the full project.

By August 1951, a representative of Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley had visited the Colony and reported on the practicability of the modified scheme, and in the same month the Governor in Council and Finance Committee gave their approval to meeting the cost from the Development Fund. Work began early in 1952 under the supervision of Brigadier G. B. Gifford Hull, who had " also been in charge of the Shing Mun scheme. He was later to become Chief Resident Engineer at Shek Pik until his retirement in December 1958, by which time he had been intimately associated with three major waterworks projects in the Colony over a period of twenty six years. By October 1953 it was already clear that the additional supply of water which would become available would be quite insufficient to meet even the existing deficit. During the summer of 1954 the daily supply had to be kept down to three or four hours, and only an unusually late typhoon enabled a three hours' supply to be maintained throughout the following winter. Various additions to the 1951 proposals were therefore approved from time to time until by 1955 improvements in the

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Colony's financial position allowed the full scheme to go ahead as a charge to general revenues rather than to the Development Fund. Apart from a few miles of catchwaters, the work is now complete.

      The reservoir has a capacity of approximately 4,500 million gallons and has been formed by a main dam across the Tai Lam valley and three subsidiary dams across adjacent cols. The main dam is in two parts, with a maximum height of 200 feet above foundations and a maximum width of 143 feet at the base; its total length is 2,300 feet. There are about 240,000 cubic yards of concrete in the dam.

      The main dam has an ordinary spillway 452 feet long which allows flood water to flow over the face. The water is drawn from the dam through a valve tower with valves at four different levels. It is then conveyed to a pumping station at Tsuen Wan through a system of tunnels approximately 5 miles long and by about 8,000 feet of 48" diameter steel pipeline. The water travels from the pumping station to a filtration plant capable of dealing with 40 million gallons a day, and from there it is fed into the distribution system through two service reservoirs.

The Tai Lam valley has a direct catchment of approximately 4,000 acres, but catchwaters of various sizes will intercept water from a further 7,000 acres and bring it into the new reservoir. Approximately 23 miles of catchwater channel are required of which about 17 miles have been completed, and the remaining 6 miles are under construction. The complete scheme will have cost about $134 million.

      Forest plantations were sadly neglected during the occupation of the Colony and many were denuded of trees to provide fuel for the population that remained. Some of the scars are still visible in deeply eroded hillsides. Since the war there has been a steady programme of re-afforestation, particularly on the catch- ment areas feeding the main reservoirs, with the purpose of reducing erosion and encouraging the maximum penetration of rainfall, so as to spread the delivery of water into the reservoirs over a longer period. Since 1953, when the Tai Lam scheme was already under way and the forestry programme was accelerated, the Agriculture and Forestry Department has planted about 10,000

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      acres in the main catchment areas with young trees raised from local seed in departmental nurseries.

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       Little has been said so far about the New Territories, if only because until after the Pacific War Government's activities in this sphere had not gone beyond providing a few of the larger townships with piped supplies fed from intakes in the hills with no arrangement for storage or treatment of water. Before the war there were very few factories in the New Territories and even now, apart from a few pioneers who have settled elsewhere, industrial development is largely confined to Tsuen Wan. Water has therefore been required mainly for domestic use and agricul- ture, and up to the war the problem was one of distribution. There is, however, another aspect which is of great social im- portance to the people affected; that is the impact on them of large projects in the territories designed to augment the domestic supplies of the urban population.

       Traditionally New Territories' villages relied on wells and streams for domestic water, wells being the more common source of supply. Communities living in hilly terrain usually found it easier to dam up a stream above their village to make a pool from which to draw water. The use of concrete made these stream intakes more substantial and after the war villagers were not slow to accept grants of cement to reconstruct these works. Since the war Government and the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Associa- tion have made grants of cement for the construction or re- construction of 510 wells, including 17 built under a Colonial Development and Welfare scheme. In 1955 the village of A Ma Wat, in the centre of the mountainous and remote Sha Tau Kok peninsula, became the first to ask for and obtain a grant of pipes and cement with which to construct its own intake and piped water supply. The idea took a little time to spread, but soon many villages near to streams began to ask for materials and there are now nearly two hundred villages with a piped water supply. In A Ma Wat a single public tap was installed, other villages provided stand pipes at convenient spots, and it was not long before more enterprising or wealthy residents laid pipes into their own homes.

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Apart from helping many of the smaller villages in these ways, Government has also carried out since the war a considerable programme of extensions and improvements to the supplies of the larger townships, some of which have been equipped with roughing filters as well. The Yuen Long area, for example, bene- fited in 1952 from the construction of a small impounding reservoir which feeds water to the town through a six-inch main, and in 1958 work began on a fully treated supply from the Tai Lam reservoir. Before 1955 the thriving fishing community on Cheung Chau Island had no supply other than local wells and rain-water collected in roof-top tanks, supplemented by water boats at times of severe shortage, and the rapid increase in population made it essential to augment the island's resources from outside. A small impounding reservoir was therefore constructed on Lantau, the water being delivered across a narrow neck of sea by submarine pipeline. A service reservoir and distribution system were also installed. The supply is still not enough for Cheung Chau's needs, but improvements are being made. No other town in the New Territories was supplied from a reservoir until the completion of the Tai Lam scheme enabled Tsuen Wan and the Castle Peak area to enjoy a filtered supply from that source.

The problem of water distribution in the New Territories is not only one of procuring domestic supplies, but also of providing irrigation for agriculture. Traditionally the countryside has de- pended on rice which is a crop excellently suited to the climate with its heavy summer rainfall. Direct rainfall gives enough water, on the average, over the growing period of the two rice crops. But it does not rain every day, even in the summer, and genera- tions of farmers have therefore installed irrigation systems which rely on diverting the flow from streams into channels running to the fields. The diversion dams were mostly quite small, only three or four feet high and twenty feet or so across. Their function was not to conserve water but to raise the level of the stream high enough to allow the water to flow away along the supply channel. Until a few years ago they were made of rocks and earth, and the channels were dug out of the earth, unlined and protected from damage only by the growth of vegetation along their banks. Con- sidering that they were planned and built by uneducated farmers with no surveying instruments other than a good eye for ground,

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      the design of these works is remarkable, and when the engineers came with their cement and modern equipment to improve the system it was seldom necessary to make any major change in the layout. But these old irrigation systems were inefficient. The dams leaked and much water seeped away underneath; they were liable to be swept away by heavy spates, and silt escaped from the streams and covered the fields. The channels themselves became overgrown and choked with vegetation and silt, and regular annual maintenance was essential.

Great improvements in traditional irrigation are possible with the use of concrete dams which eliminate leaks and greatly reduce the loss by seepage: they are not washed away in heavy rain, and maintenance is reduced to a minimum. Concrete lining of the irrigation channels also means better supplies in drought and less maintenance. Projects of this nature are beyond the means of the villagers to tackle unaided, but after the war Government started to assist them by supplying cement and other materials free of charge. The scheme, known as the Local Public Works scheme, began on modest lines. By 1954 it was found that the Government appropriation, which had varied between $18,000 and $40,000 annually since the war, was insufficient and the Kadoorie Agricul- tural Aid Association decided to expand its work in this field. For five years grants by the Association more than matched those of the Government, although funds from the latter source had increased steadily to $170,000 in 1958-9. In the last two financial years, the Government contribution has been $1 million a year and the Association has felt able to withdraw from these works and concentrate on other schemes of agricultural assistance.

      It was found that some of the most necessary irrigation improve- ments were beyond the capabilities of the villagers, even when assisted with the grant of materials, and Government applied for aid from the Colonial Development and Welfare fund. Between 1953 and 1956 $800,000 from this source was spent on re- constructing 56 diversion dams and 42,000 feet of channelling. Government has subsequently spent about $4 million out of revenue on works of the same kind. Since the war, then, a total of 579 dams and over 220,000 feet of channelling have been re- paired or reconstructed as Local Public Works schemes, with

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assistance from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, or by the Public Works Department out of general revenue.

In some parts of the New Territories farmers can derive great benefit from storage reservoirs which enable them to grow a winter crop of vegetables between successive rice seasons. The first two reservoirs of this kind were completed under the Colonial Develop- ment & Welfare scheme in 1957 at a cost of $1,150,000. Between them they store 50 million gallons, and they are joined by a pipeline so that the best use may be made of available resources by switching water from one to the other.

Plans for four more reservoirs to serve the Pat Heung area were well advanced when they were absorbed into the design and construction of the northern catchwaters for the Tai Lam reservoir. In Pat Heung the villagers had for some years resented the construction of a domestic water intake at Sek Kong to supply the Army camp. On top of this, they learned that Government was proposing to construct catchwaters across every stream that fed their fields and to take the water into the Tai Lam reservoir for urban consumption. It was necessary at one stage to suspend work on the catchwaters for a time until the District Administra- tion could allay their fears and suspicions. The full scheme for the catchwaters included provision for a considerable improvement in the irrigation of the fields below. This sounds odd, and the villagers did not at first believe it. But the truth is that catchwaters, by carrying away surplus summer rainfall to the storage reservoirs, reduce extensive flooding of low-lying agricultural land at times when the rain itself is sufficient for irrigation. On the other hand, during the dry winter months, all the water in the hillside streams can be made available to agriculture through by-pass pipes without any appreciable loss to urban supplies. The Tai Lam catchwater scheme went much further than this. It included the reconstruction in concrete of all irrigation dams and channels connected with any stream crossing the catchwaters. Some 90 dams and 100,000 feet of channelling were reconstructed in this way, and the four new reservoirs which were previously under consideration were eventually included in the plan. The district administration spent much time and effort on explaining to the villagers the benefits from this catchwater and several months elapsed before work could be resumed. But it was time well spent, for much was

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     learned of the technique of water management (and of how to approach the villagers) which is already proving useful in con- nexion with the Shek Pik catchwaters and will be so again as the Integrated Scheme goes forward.

The improvement of urban water supplies not only gives rise to irrigation problems. From time to time it has been necessary to build a reservoir in an inhabited valley and to remove and resettle the inhabitants. Compulsory eviction of this kind, even with the offer of the most generous compensation, is not an easy undertaking anywhere and Chinese rural society has even stronger ties with the home village than most.

The records of earlier evictions are lost, but we know that the construction of Kowloon reservoir between 1902 and 1910 involved moving one village down into the Sha Tin valley. The old paddy terraces are still visible when the water level drops in the reservoir, and the waterworks still employ many of the descendants of the evicted villagers. The biggest move undertaken so far was in 1928 when 855 persons were resettled from eight villages in the upper part of the Shing Mun valley to make way for the construction of the Jubilee reservoir. They farmed 180 acres and had rights in a further 1,200 acres of forest land and 42 acres of pineapples (the names 'Pineapple Pass' and 'Pineapple Dam' still appear on maps of the Colony). This operation cost about $300,000. The Shing Mun villagers selected the sites for their new houses themselves and there was a hint of things to come in the District Officer's report at the time that '. . . . the new village sites are in a more populous neighbourhood than the old'.

When it became clear that the inhabitants of Tai Lam and Kwan Uk Tei in the Tai Lam valley must make way for the construction of the Tai Lam reservoir it was apparent that they too wished to move from their remote valley to a more populous area. Although every effort was made to persuade them that their future would be surer in the country, they were determined to settle in Tsuen Wan which was by this time developing rapidly into an industrial town. Once this was decided, protracted negotia- tions followed on all the details of resettlement. The new houses were specially designed to maintain a communal spirit, the build- ings ranging round three sides of a square with a central courtyard.

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Income from renting shops was to replace income from agriculture. Government bought their forest plantations, cattle and land at market prices, and arranged religious ceremonies for removing the ancestral tablets. This and much more had to be negotiated patiently and with sympathy, for throughout it was the object of Government not only to ensure that the villagers would be financially better off but also that they would believe that this was so. The move cost about $1,688,000.

     No sooner were these people settled than it became necessary to plan to move the villages of Shek Pik and Fan Pui on Lantau, to make way for still newer reservoir which is about to be described. This move was in the end to cost about $3,255,000. These villagers of the western end of Lantau Island were cut off almost entirely from the twentieth century. The nearest town was Tai O, and to get there the villagers had to climb a high mountain range. There were no roads on Lantau until 1957 and a road did not reach Shek Pik until early in 1959, by which time engineering work on the reservoir had started. Few activities of the Govern- ment had penetrated into the valley, and most of the inhabitants had probably never seen a railway train or a motor car, much less travelled in one. It was not surprising that the villagers viewed plans for the reservoir with the utmost suspicion and resentment. Again there were efforts to find land suitable for agriculture and at one time it seemed possible to arrange agricul- tural resettlement within six miles of Shek Pik. In the event only the smaller village of Fan Pui agreed to settle on new agricultural land while Shek Pik village decided on resettlement in Tsuen Wan. At Tai Lam the main dam was well downstream from the village and construction work did not unduly hamper village life. At Shek Pik, Fan Pui lay in the direct line of the main dam, and Shek Pik village lay on land from which earth was to be excavated to build the dam. Fan Pui was the first to be resettled. Again protracted negotiations took place on every detail of the design of new houses, the many forms of compensation and the arrange- ments for the move. Many difficulties beset work on the new village for there was at first no road access and when terracing began for the fields the land was found to contain many large boulders. But once the houses were ready the village of 62 souls

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      moved in, on 5th October 1959. Within a few days of the move all trace of Fan Pui had disappeared under the growing new dam.

The people of Shek Pik, having elected to move to Tsuen Wan, decided that they would prefer more conventional urban tenements. The requirements were for shops with flats over them, to take the place of 105 acres of agricultural land. Development elsewhere in Tsuen Wan was by now up to five storeys and it was decided to build five storey blocks for the villagers and to put the surplus flats up for lease by public auction. Reclamation of the site started in January 1960 and the buildings were ready for occupation in October. Last minute delays, caused by the gods choosing an unexpectedly late lucky day for the move, kept the village on Lantau until November, and 202 persons finally moved on 22nd of that month. The oldest inhabitant was a lady of 86 who had never before left the island of Lantau. Again the contractors were waiting; the earth-moving machinery moved in and rapidly oblit- erated all signs of a village which had stood in the valley for over 600 years.

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       By 1953 it was already clear that the decision to carry through the Tai Lam scheme, even in its entirety, would not bring anything like a final answer to the water problem. The search for still more water began again. In November 1954 Government commissioned Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley to make a preliminary report on the resources of Lantau Island and this was received in February of the following year. The consultants assumed that it would be necessary to ensure an unrestricted supply of 90 to 96 million gallons a day to a population of 3 million people. Taking into account existing supplies and those expected from Tai Lam, this meant a major scheme capable of yielding not less than 30 million gallons a day, and they recommended a detailed investiga- tion of the possibilities of Lantau, envisaging large storage reser- voirs at Shek Pik on the south-western side and Tung Chung on the north-west. Within a month Executive Council and Finance Committee had decided that these investigations should proceed. Subsequent consideration of the human problems which such a project would create showed that in the Tung Chung valley the number of villages to be cleared and the loss of agricultural land

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would be so great as to be unacceptable. The Governor in Council then decided to limit investigations to the Shek Pik site only.

The consultants submitted a report in November 1956 which brought to light a new and alarming problem. Gravel and boulders across the centre of the valley went down to a depth of 40 feet, below which there was decomposed granite to a maximum depth of 97 feet. Ground level was only about 15 feet above sea level for the length of 1,000 feet across the valley on the line of the proposed dam and the site itself was about half a mile from the shore. The problem was to prevent salt water from seeping in, during the excavation and construction of the foundations, and the contents of the reservoir from percolating out under the dam and undermining it. The normal type of concrete dam embedded on solid rock foundations was impracticable, or at least prohibi- tively expensive, and to the layman it seemed at first sight that the project was impossible. The consultants, however, foresaw a likely solution and recommended a recently developed system of foundation stabilization in which a mixture of water, cement and a special type of clay is pumped into the porous strata under considerable pressure. This process is known as 'grouting', and avoids the heavy excavation necessary in conventional dam foundations. They proposed as a first step to put down a 'box' of concrete piles and to grout the enclosed area so as to test the effectiveness of the method and hence the feasibility of building a dam. They would place this 'box' in the ultimate line of the dam so that if the experiment proved successful the work would not be wasted. The consultants went on to report that if this experiment were successful, an impounding reservoir containing 4,125 million gallons could be constructed in the Shek Pik valley with a maintainable yield of 21 million gallons a day. In January 1957 Government approved construction of the Shek Pik reservoir in principle, and in due course negotiated a contract with Soil Mechanics Ltd, in conjunction with the French firm Soletanche who agreed to undertake the specialist grouting test. The test might take a year or eighteen months and Government was anxious not to lose this valuable time. They therefore commis- sioned Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley in May 1957 to begin work on the design of the dam and other essential equipment such as pumping machinery. This bold decision was something

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of a gamble since, if the tests were unsuccessful, about $1,000,000 would have been expended in vain, in addition to about $2.5 million on the experiment itself; this is a measure of the Colony's need at that time. Readers will recall that in spring of 1956, supplies from the mains had been cut down to two and a half hours every second day and although the Tai Lam reservoir came. into use in 1957, both the population and the consumption of water were rising at an alarming rate. The success of the resettlement pro- gramme and other housing projects had improved the overall stand- ard of domestic accommodation in a striking way. Better housing means more taps in the home (often taps where there had been none before) and more taps mean the consumption of more water.

So work went ahead at Shek Pik on construction of offices, a camp for workmen, housing for the engineering staff and a police station. A jeep track opened up new access. This road was sub- sequently surfaced the whole way from Silver Mine Bay to Shek Pik, a distance of ten miles, and has become such a busy thoroughfare that it is now being double tracked. Even while this experiment was still in progress, the Public Works Department was turning its mind towards other possible sources of supply. The Director was convinced that Shek Pik alone would not solve the Colony's water problem and had begun investigating the possibility of converting two inlets of the sea, Plover Cove and Hebe Haven, into fresh water lakes. This startling possibility will be referred to later. Even the distillation of sea water, already considered and rejected on grounds of cost both before and in the early years after the war, was being re-examined.

      It was a great relief to Hong Kong when the Consultants were able to report in May 1958 that the experiment at Shek Pik was a complete success. Government immediately decided to carry on with the grout curtain before taking the formal decision to proceed with the whole Shek Pik project, and to start certain other preliminary works upon which the staff and equipment could be usefully employed.

      The Consulting Engineers' final report and recommendations were received in August 1958, and on 1st October of that year Finance Committee approved the revised estimate of $220 million, of which $148.36 million was for work to be carried out by the Consultants. The original estimate of $150 million had not

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included compensation to villagers and anti-malarial and medical staff, and made no provision for service reservoirs and trunk mains to distribute the water into Hong Kong and Kowloon, nor for the catchwaters. The revised scheme provides for a higher dam, and for storage of some 5,400 million gallons instead of only 4,125. The reservoir will thus be larger than Tai Lam Chung (4,500 million gallons) and will increase the total storage capacity of the Colony's reservoirs by 50%. The project will be capable of delivering a peak supply of 35 million gallons a day and the average yield is expected to be about 26 million gallons. The dam itself will be 2,300 feet long at the crest and will rise to a height of 180 feet above the original ground level. The maximum width at the foot of the dam will be 1,200 feet, tapering to 20 feet at the top. An earth dam of these dimensions requires vast quantities of materials, estimated at 5.3 million cubic yards, all of which will be found on the site. The direct catchment area draining into the reservoir measures three square miles; this will be supplemented by 9.6 square miles of indirect catchments, the water being led round or through the intervening hills by 15.3 miles of concrete catchwaters and 3 miles of tunnel.

       A reservoir of this type, constructed largely of earth, cannot be allowed to overflow, for the water would quickly erode the top and downstream side of the dam. A bellmouth at the maximum permitted level of the reservoir will allow for over topping, and the surplus water will escape to a tunnel blasted through the hillside at one end of the dam, and so out to sea. This tunnel has been designed to cope with a catastrophic intensity of rainfall, being 17 feet in diameter and lined with concrete. Special measures will prevent silting inside the tunnel. A supply tunnel will draw off water from the reservoir to a pumping station, and from there the water will go to a filtration plant on high ground overlooking Silver Mine Bay. The filters will be of the latest rapid gravity type and the water will also be chlorinated and fluoridated. The filtered and treated water will gravitate from a small service reservoir to Hong Kong Island through two 30- inch diameter steel pipes laid in a trench on the sea bed and protected from corrosion by the most up-to-date methods. The sea crossing is about eight miles long and the laying of the pipeline will be one of the most difficult operations in the whole project.

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KO

Lucky children-they turned the taps and out came water. This is usual in many other parts of the world, perhaps, but not in Hong Kong, for despite a continuous programme of reservoir building the Colony still has water rationing for most of the year. In this way consumption is limited to about 60 million gallons a day.

+

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KE

ONG KONG

LIBRAR

The trouble is that in Hong Kong rain only falls during the summer. In August and September every reservoir is full to overflowing, like the one above. By the following May some are almost bone-dry, like the one at right (actually it is the same reservoir photographed from almost the same position summer and winter).

A reservoir can be full in August... ...and bone-dry the following May

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LIC

HONG KONG HAS 14 RESERVOIRS

with a total storage capacity of 10,500 million gallons, and at Shek Pik, on Lantau Island (see left), work is going rapidly ahead on a reservoir that will impound a further 5,350 million gallons. Simultaneously investiga- being carved out at Plover Cove and Hebe Haven in the New Territories, where it is planned to build dams across te mouths of inlets to convert them into huge reservoirs. Under an agreement concluded ong Kong will also purchase up to 5,000 million gallons of water a year from the Chinese

tions are

in November 1960.

reservoir at Sham Chun.

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Villagers move from ancient homes to modern flats .

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5

LIBR

The 600 years' old village of Shek Pik is to be submerged in the new reservoir and villagers have been provided with modern flats at Tsuen Wan. Policemen carried the oldest inhabitant in a sedan chair (left) while villagers moved their belongings on shoulder poles (left). House- hold gods were carried in state to their new homes (above).

RIES

To carry water from the Chinese reservoir at Sham Chun a four foot diameter steel pipeline was laid from the Sino-British border to the Tai Lam Chung catchwater. The pipeline, which is ten miles in length, was completed in just over four months, with work going on round the clock right through the rainy season.

! ! ! ! !

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     The pipes will come ashore about half way across at Chau Kung Island, where they will be interconnected in order to maintain a supply in the event of damage to either of them. A subsidiary submarine main will also be led off to Peng Chau for the benefit of its 7,000 inhabitants. The submarine pipeline will finally emerge at Sandy Bay on the north-west corner of Hong Kong Island; here another pumping station will raise the treated water to two new service reservoirs to be constructed on Mount Davis, one of 30 million gallons capacity (the largest in the Colony), the other of 6 million gallons. The latter will serve the western district of Hong Kong, while water from the former will be available for the central and eastern areas as well as for transfer to Kowloon through the present cross-harbour mains. The Public Works Department is responsible for the design and construction of the catchwaters on Lantau and for all work on the island of Hong Kong. The Agriculture and Forestry Department has a heavy programme of afforestation in the catchment areas. The dam itself, the submarine pipeline, and all other work on Lantau are the responsibility of the Consulting Engineers. The water should begin to flow to Hong Kong towards the end of 1963.

      Because of the magnitude and complexity of the scheme, Government decided to invite 'world' tenders for the dam and the submarine pipeline. The contract for the construction of the dam was let in July 1959 to the French firm, Société Française d'Entreprises de Dragages et de Travaux Publics; the contract for the laying of the pipeline was awarded in August 1960 to the American firm, Healy Tibbetts Construction Co Ltd, in conjunction with J. L. Kier & Co Ltd, of London and Paul Y Construction Co of Hong Kong. Meanwhile, a great deal of less spectacular büt essential work had gone ahead in preparation for the arrival of the main contractors. More bungalows for the engineers, living quarters for the large labour force and two small recreation clubs have been completed. A small hospital with a resident doctor and staff is in operation, serving the adjacent villages as well as workers on the project. Radiotelephone communication links the site with Hong Kong, and two landing grounds for helicopters are already in frequent use.

       People who have not been to Hong Kong sometimes imagine that the Colony is dependent on China for its water supplies. The

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belief is quite erroneous, for apart from a few brief periods of particularly acute shortage when indigenous supplies had to be augmented by water brought in by sea from the West River or from ports on the China coast, it was not until 1960 that arrange- ments were made to pipe water across the border on a regular basis. Even now the quantity obtained in this way will be a small fraction of the total annual consumption. In January 1960 came the first semi-official intimation that the Chinese authorities were prepared to supply water from a reservoir under construction near Sham Chun about two miles beyond the border, and His Excellency the Governor responded to this approach in his budget address to the Legislature Council by saying: 'We are anxious to obtain additional supplies of water as soon as possible, and I very much hope, therefore, that we can come to an arrangement with the Chinese authorities whereby supplies from this source can be made available to Hong Kong'. Afterwards delegations from Hong Kong and from Po On County held a series of meetings to discuss arrangements for a supply and to draw up an agreement, and there were numerous supplementary meetings and consulta- tions on technical aspects between Chinese and British engineers. Under the agreement signed at Sham Chun on 15th November 1960 the Chinese authorities will supply about 5,000 million gallons of water a year, the greater part being drawn during the dry season when it is most needed. The Waterworks division of the Public Works Department has built a pumping station near the border and laid ten miles of 48-inch steel pipeline to a catchwater about a mile from Sek Kong which conveys the water to Tai Lam reservoir. After preliminary survey and engineering work in February and March, work began on laying the pipeline in the last week of May and ended in little over four months- -a con- siderable achievement in the rainy season when the paddy fields were flooded and continual pumping was necessary wherever the trench for the pipes ran more than a few inches below ground level. Work continued 24 hours a day on each of three sections at once. Negotiations for the surrender of village land were suc- cessful, although there were no fewer than 304 landowners; and where possible the alignment of the pipe suited the preference and convenience of the villagers.

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27

       At the border between the Colony and China, Hong Kong will, in due course, lay the pipes under the Sham Chun river to connect with the Chinese pipeline. But in fact water from China, discharged from the reservoir into the Sham Chun stream, is already being pumped into the new pipeline and has been flowing into the Colony since early December 1960. There are now pumps on the river Indus also, about a mile short of the frontier, and from the combined sources 1,204 million gallons of water (353 million being from Sham Chun) went into the Tai Lam reservoir between early October and the end of the year. This is a valuable addition to the Colony's resources and enabled the Waterworks to maintain exceptionally long hours of supply during the closing months of the year. There was some criticism that the Indus had not been tapped earlier, but the fact is that, without the supplies from Sham Chun, it would not have been economically worth while to do so, for the Indus water is normally only available in appreci- able quantities during the rainy season when it is least required. It was fortunate that unusually heavy rain fell in November.

*

On the eastern side of the New Territories two large irregular promontories jut out into Mirs Bay, divided by the long arm of Tolo Channel. Both promontories have an irregular indented coast- line with many islands clustering about and the whole terrain is mountainous and remote. Nevertheless, it attracted the attention of those concerned with the Colony's water supply. On the north shore of Tolo Harbour, there is a large sea loch which is almost land-locked at its eastern end. Again, on the western shore of Port Shelter, a little south of Sai Kung, there is another bay called Hebe Haven with only one narrow entrance. The engineers con- ceived the idea of damming these inlets, pumping out the sea water and filling them with fresh water to add to the Colony's supplies. Before the war this would have remained a pipe dream, for it would have been impossible in these conditions to secure the foundations of a dam on rock and no other method had been developed of making such a structure watertight. Today the science of soil mechanics has radically altered conceptions of dam con- struction, and this science, which has made possible a dam at Shek Pik, has also brought reservoirs at Plover Cove and Hebe

28

REVIEW

Haven into the realms of possibility. In July 1958 Finance Com- mittee approved the appointment of Messrs Binnie, Deacon and Gourley to make a preliminary investigation of Plover Cove and Hebe Haven in collaboration with Scott and Wilson Kirkpatrick & Partners, whose experience and local knowledge obtained from the construction of the Kai Tak runway would be invaluable in dealing with the problems of under-sea dams.

      The investigations proposed by the Consultants were approved in October 1958 and they were asked to give priority to Plover Cove over Hebe Haven as it seemed likely to be a more productive source. They reported on Plover Cove in the following May, the general conclusion being that its use as a fresh water reservoir was indeed possible. They estimated that this source could proba- bly produce a reliable yield of 55 million gallons a day at a very approximate capital cost of $348 million. In addition to this sum the Public Works Department would have to incur expendi- ture of the order of $60 million, principally for service reservoirs and distribution mains. Detailed site investigations would take time and the preparation of a full report would be necessary before Government could decide whether to go ahead with the project. Thereafter, designing and constructing the scheme would absorb from four to six years and a further two to three years would be necessary to pump the salt water out and to refill with fresh. Thus, there would be a time lag of seven to nine years before Plover Cove could be productive. The report showed that it would be premature at that stage to decide how to bring the water into the urban areas before making further extensive investi- gation and survey. The general idea was that a submarine pipeline under Tolo Harbour would bring water from a pump house near the dam to a filtration plant on the opposite shore. Thereafter treated water would flow in pipes alongside the main road and railway to a pumping station beyond Sha Tin. It would then be pumped through Beacon Hill in a tunnel parallel to the existing railway tunnel into service reservoirs overlooking Kow- loon. From these it would merge in the urban distribution system. By the end of July 1959, Government had accepted the report and provided $4 million to enable Messrs Binnie, Deacon & Gourley to proceed with the detailed investigations. At the same time,

REVIEW

29

     Government decided to pursue its inquiries into the practica- bility of distilling sea water by nuclear or other power.

      Meanwhile, the Consulting Engineers had also been working on a separate appreciation of the Hebe Haven project, but the results of their first survey were disappointing. A fairly large area of agricultural land and some villages would be affected and the Consultants considered that, if this prospect were unacceptable, it would be necessary to keep the water level in the reservoir as low as possible to reduce the area of inundation. They reckoned that the yield from the reservoir on this basis would be only about 15 million gallons a day, but it was nevertheless agreed that they should pursue the investigation since even this quantity could be useful; particularly because it need only be brought a short distance to Kwun Tong, the new industrial suburb already growing on the north-eastern shore of the harbour. Government received the Consultants' Feasibility Report on Hebe Haven in May 1959 and decided after discussions with the District Commissioner, New Territories, that it would be acceptable to raise the top water level inside the reservoir some eight feet above that proposed in the report. The effect of this, of course, would be to inundate more land, but it would also increase the capacity and yield of the reservoir. The Consultants therefore agreed to re-examine the problem and Government received their supplementary report in December 1959. The first report presupposed a top water level inside the reservoir of ten feet above low water mark. The supple- mentary report placed the level six feet higher and presented a surprisingly different picture. Apart from raising the storage capa- city and the yield of the reservoir, this change also tended to simplify the engineering difficulties, and so reduce the estimated cost of the dam and flood control works. Moreover, the yield of water would be substantially increased and the unit cost lowered. Hebe Haven is much shallower than Plover Cove and dredging therefore offered advantages, while the channel linking it to Port Shelter has narrow entrance and outlet which offers a choice of two sites for a dam. There is also a wide choice of catchment areas and there remains the question of the optimum top water level. All these variables produced a formidable number of alter- native schemes out of which the Consultants selected four for a preliminary study. They advised that there would be considerable

30

REVIEW

flood water for disposal every year whichever scheme was adopted, and that arrangements would have to be made to prevent the back-flow of sea water through the overflow channels. The Con- sultants recommended the adoption of the scheme which involved building the dam at the outer entrance of Hebe Haven, the employment of two groups of indirect catchment areas as well as the direct one, and a full scheme of dredging. They advised that development on these lines would produce a reliable yield of 20 million gallons a day within five or six years, compared with the seven to nine years forecast for Plover Cove. It was noted that this project would be cheaper to integrate into the Colony's distribution network and that the unit cost of about $1.15 per thousand gallons would be less than that of any other project under consideration, including Shek Pik.

**

*

*

Early in the New Year of 1960, and before any decision was taken on Plover Cove, two new developments occurred which were to affect profoundly all plans for improving the Colony's water supplies. First was the prospect of obtaining water from Sham Chun reservoir. The second, which was perhaps stimulated by the implications of the Sham Chun scheme, was a suggestion from the Consulting Engineers that these three schemes, Sham Chun, Plover Cove and Hebe Haven, might be integrated into one. More- over, the Director of Public Works had prepared a new appre- ciation of the Colony's water supply which presented a gloomy outlook for the coming decade. One of the basic assumptions in previous calculations had been that each year there would be an increase in consumption of 6 million gallons a day. There was, in fact no real basis for this figure because it had rarely been possible to give a 24-hour supply and so determine the real demand: on isolated occasions of full supply in 1958 and 1959, the consumption was 83.9 million gallons and 93.3 million gallons a day respectively. Had ample water been available and the domestic and industrial consumers been accustomed to a full supply, the actual consumption would undoubtedly have been higher. An annual increase of 10 million gallons a day now seemed more realistic, particularly during the next few years while the resettlement programme continued at full stretch and industry

REVIEW

31

too continued to expand. Early in 1960 the waterworks were ca- pable of providing a winter supply of roughly 50 million gallons a day, whereas the demand was probably of the order of 80 million. The next scheme to become productive, Shek Pik, would add 28 million gallons at the end of 1963, making a total of 78; but by this time demand might be expected to reach 104, or more probably 120, million gallons. If the Sham Chun project succeeded, it would supplement supplies by 1961 and, on the more con- servative estimate of the increase in consumption, supply would not be far short of demand from the date when Shek Pik came into production. But taking the more pessimistic view of the growth in consumption, there was no prospect of supply overtaking de- mand until the last of all these schemes, the Plover Cove reservoir, was ready, perhaps at the end of 1967. By 1970, therefore, the familiar restrictions might have to be re-imposed once more. The possibility of easing the situation by distilling sea water had to be ruled out meanwhile, for even in conjunction with the generation of electricity there was still no prospect of producing worthwhile quantities at any but a prohibitive cost, and the time factor was uncertain.

Evidently something more than the schemes already in view must be found. The Consultants and Public Works Department accordingly devised further refinements of the Plover Cove and Hebe Haven schemes which, among other advantages, would raise the yield from a combined 75 million gallons a day to at least 100 million gallons. This would be achieved by integrating the schemes with each other so as to tap additional catchment areas which could not otherwise be used economically. As Hebe Haven lacks the capacity to store all the water from neighbouring catchments, a great deal of the water trained into the reservoir would overflow into the sea for much of the year. This loss could be prevented by diverting the water through pipes under Tolo Channel to Plover Cove where the storage capacity will exceed requirements. A further improvement proposed was to lead the supply route by tunnels round the head of the Tolo Channel inland of Tai Po to Sha Tin, these tunnels being fed with additional water from catchments on the hills above. Yet a third route is possible for the water leaving Hebe Haven: instead of passing southwards through the hills direct to Kwun Tong or northwards under Tolo

32

REVIEW

Harbour to Plover Cove, it could be led westwards past Sha Tin to the site of the main filters. The Integrated Scheme requires an ancillary balancing reservoir in the Shing Mun valley below the Jubilee reservoir, and others at Sha Tin Wai and Three Fathoms Cove on the eastern shore of Tide Cove. Many of the pipelines and tunnels for this integrated scheme would be designed to take water flowing in either direction so that the utmost use could be made of storage capacity, and savings could be made by allowing as much water as possible to flow by gravity rather than by pump. The Scheme also includes the novel concept of indirect catchments tapped in part by tunnels leading inwards to a larger tunnel run- ning through the heart of a mountain. The Consultants proposed and Government agreed that work should start immediately on the section of the scheme between Tai Po and Sha Tin, together with the delivery pipes and tunnel through Beacon Hill and a large service reservoir in Kowloon (estimated to cost in all about $100 million). By this means additional winter supplies of about 20 million gallons a day might become available in 1964, well before the completion of either Plover Cove or Hebe Haven reservoir. Immediate execution of this section of the Integrated Scheme will have further advantages. By this time it seemed probable that water would be flowing from Sham Chun early in 1961. The first plan was to bring it to the Tai Lam catchwaters above Sek Kong in pipes and so to Tai Lam reservoir from where it would reach the urban distribution plant at Tsuen Wan. But the capacity of the Tsuen Wan filters limited the quantity that could be handled in this way to about 15 to 20 million gallons a day. If the Sham Chun waterworks were able to provide more water at a later date, there would have to be some other way of bringing it into town. The proposal was, therefore, to divide the pipeline coming in from the border near Fanling and lead part of the supply round through Tai Po and integrate it into the Plover Cove system. It would not be necessary to wait for the Plover Cove reservoir to be ready since the tunnel system from Tai Po to the new reservoir in the Shing Mun valley would be able to deliver this water also to the new filters at Sha Tin. The Consultants thought that the whole cost of the integrated scheme might be of the order of $641 million, compared with about $541 million for the

600

FORECAST OF NON-RECURRENT EXPENDITURE

ON PUBLIC WORKS 1960-1970

560

520

480

The phenomenal growth of Hong Kong creates its own problems in budgetting for a Public Works programme. This forecast indicates what the bill over the next 10 years would be if all desirable projects (and some people regard them as basic minimum!) were to be carried out. Govern- ment is committed to costly water supply and resettlement and low cost nousing programmes. The building of roads (to link planned new towns to the cities) is also a big item. The forecast takes no account of a harbour tunnel or bridge. A indicates notional expenditure (details not worked out), but readers should remember that few governments in present day economic and social conditions dare to regard any estimate at all for more than three years' ahead as more than guesswork.

440

400

BUILDINGS ETC.

PUBLIC

160

200

200

240

HONG KO

280

320

360

GENERAL ENGINEERING

MILLION DOLLARS

20

120

80

$

WATER WORKS

RARI

RIES

1960/61 1961/62 1962/63 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70

MILLION DOLLARS

200

FORECAST OF EXPENDITURE ON

WATER SUPPLY PROJECTS 1960-1970

180

160

140

The huge cost of providing Hong Kong with an adequate fresh water supply is clearly shown in this long-range forecast. Modifications to existing projects are, of course, possible-particularly in the second half of the decade.

indicates schemes which are not yet finalised and for which expenditure is largely problematic.

100

80

60

40

20

20

SHEK PIK

SHEK PIK

SHAM

CHUN

ΚΟΝ

SHAM

CHUN

IBRARIES

INTEGRATED SCHEME IR

INTEGRATED SCHEME I

GENERAL DEVELOPMENT

HEBE HAVEN

HEBE HAVEN

1960/61 1961/62 1962/63 1963/64 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70

REVIEW

33

      separate reservoir schemes. The figure has since been revised to $642.25 million.

      On 23rd March 1960, Finance Committee approved expenditure for further investigations and for preparation of a detailed report on the integrated scheme together with the other financial com- mitments which this would involve. The year 1960 was indeed a year of decision, for not only has the Colony embarked on the early stages of the most comprehensive and expensive water supply scheme ever contemplated in its history, but has also committed itself for the first time to accepting supplementary supplies from China.

      How has the Colony paid for this vast and complicated network of installations? The answer is that virtually the entire capital cost has been met out of the general revenues of the Colony, while both recurrent costs and the nominal interest and sinking fund instalments on the capital outlay are balanced over the years by the charges levied for the supply of water, fees for various licences and services and (where a supply is given from the water- works) by a proportion of the rates levied on the rateable value of property in the Colony. This proportion is at present 2% out of 17% in the urban areas (11% in the New Territories) for filtered water, with a reduction for unfiltered supplies.

      The statement that virtually the entire capital cost of the Colony's waterworks has come from general revenue needs some qualifications. Between the wars two loans were issued to pay for programmes of construction, and after the Pacific War $5 million out of the Rehabilitation Loan were earmarked for expenditure on the waterworks: in fact, only $24,000 of this sum was charged to loan funds and the balance came out of revenue. There has also been some assistance from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds towards improvement of irrigation in the New Territories. Excluding the Shek Pik scheme and other major projects now under investigation or construction, the Colony has spent about $314 million since the end of the Pacific War on improvements and capital additions to the urban water supplies, over 90% of this total since 1951. Under the vast programme for improving urban supplies still further the first phase of the Sham Chun supply system has been completed which, together with the second phase now being planned in conjunction with the Integrated

34

REVIEW

Scheme, will cost $25.5 million. The estimate for Shek Pik, which is now well advanced, is $220 million. Only a very approximate estimate can be made of the cost of the Integrated Scheme, but it is expected to be about $6424 million. To this must be added an average of some $24 million a year on general development of the distribution system, making a total of over $1,225 million over the next ten years. When this programme is complete, con- ventional sources of supply which can be tapped economically will be practically exhausted and the hope must be that, if further supplies are necessary, the use of nuclear power to distil sea water will by that time have become an economic proposition.

      This is the story of Hong Kong's water, a story of toil and treasure poured out to ensure that the people of the Colony shall, so far as is humanly possible, never again lack adequate supplies of one of the prime necessities of life.

Part II

2

Population

      THE total population of the Colony at the end of 1960 was estimated to be over 3 million people, of whom more than 99% was Chinese.

        Two estimates of the actual numbers are available. The addition of the recorded natural increase and of the recorded net migration to last year's estimate of the civilian population gives a figure of 3,014,000 at the end of 1960. The Census Department, established in 1959, has undertaken two sample surveys of the population (one of the boat people in January 1960 and one of the land population in October) and has made other connected demographic studies; from these it estimates that the overall population in October 1960 was 3,190,000.

       The two estimates are not incompatible and, although the latter may be made on sounder evidence, the method of estimation will remain unchanged until the full population census is held in March 1961. The officially accepted figure for the civilian population at the end of 1960 is therefore 3,014,000, although it may be an underestimate.

The last census in 1931 found the civilian population to be 840,473. Another census should have been held in 1941, but the unsettled conditions which followed the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the fluctuations in population after the attack on Canton in 1938, and later the Japanese invasion of the Colony, caused the plan to be abandoned. The influx of immigrants to which Hong Kong has been subject since the end of the war has been one of the main considerations to make the holding of a census impracticable before now.

       An unofficial count by wardens before the Japanese attack in 1941 put the population at about 1,600,000. This number fell greatly during the occupation and the total probably amounted to less than 600,000 when the Colony was liberated in August 1945. The population grew rapidly again with peace, and by the end

38

POPULATION

of 1946 it was believed that the immediately pre-war level of 1,600,000 had been regained. An assessment of the population in September 1949 by the then Department of Statistics put the total at 1,857,000.

Estimates for subsequent years have been based mainly on the birth and death registration figures and on the arrival and depar- ture figures modified, where necessary, by any other information available at the time.

      The population problem is complicated by illegal immigrants who may have added considerably to the estimate. Again, the number of recorded journeys made both ways across the frontier in any one year can be equal to or greater than the estimated total number of the population.

      The population increased during 1960 by some 95,000 to reach the agreed estimate of 3,014,000. 91,521 of this increase was due to the excess of registered births over registered deaths. The actual number of registered births was 110,667 in 1960 compared with 104,579 in 1959 and of registered deaths 19,146 compared with 20,250. These figures yield a birth rate of 37.1 per mille for 1960 and a death rate of 6.4 per mille, on the mid-year population of 2,981,000.

      The population census of March 1961 will provide not only a sound figure for the total population but also those demographic statistical analyses of which the lack has long been felt in Hong Kong and of which the estimates in the past have been of but limited value.

URBAN POPULATION

British subjects, excluding Service personnel and their depend- ants, numbered some 15 - 16,000 at the end of 1960. The largest of these communities were of United Kingdom, Portuguese and Indian origin. The total of non-Chinese permanent and semi- permanent residents, other than British nationals, was 9,500 and the largest communities were American (2,436), Portuguese (1,750), Japanese (650), Filipino (549), Indonesian (387), Dutch (364) and French (335). The figures for non-Chinese nationals other than British are provided by the Aliens Registration Office with whom all aliens are required to register; passports or other documents are the source of nationality classification.

POPULATION

39

      The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are neigh- bouring Po On and Tungkwun, Waiyeung and Muiyuen (principally Hakka), Chiuchow, the so-called Four Districts (Sunning, Sunwui, Hoiping and Yanping), Namhoi, Punyü, Shuntak and Chungshan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien com- munity and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

The chief linguistic characteristic of the urban area is that, although a wide variety of Chinese languages and dialects are used in daily life, Cantonese is the lingua franca. The other languages or dialects most widely heard are Hakka. Chiuchow, Kuoyü (the national language), the Shanghai dialect and, of course, English, the popularity of which has increased considerably in the last fifteen years. Before the war the movement to popularize Kuoyü in China affected the Colony very little, but the war took many local residents into China, and many came back afterwards with some knowledge of Kuoyü. Though this language is not normally spoken by Cantonese people in Hong Kong, a far greater number understand it now than before the war.

:

NEW TERRITORIES

The indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories consist of four principal groups: Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka. Although these groups show differences in physical appearance, dress, organization and custom, which suggest that they are racially distinct, it is safer to treat them as linguistic rather than racial

groups.

The Cantonese occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories, and own a good deal of the most fertile valley land in various other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long district, have a history of continuous settlement since the late eleventh century, during the Southern Sung dynasty, with whose imperial family the clan was connected by marriage. Villages in the Tung Chung valley, on Lantau Island, date back to the early Yuan dynasty, in the late thirteenth century. Subsequent migrations have brought Cantonese from many districts of Kwangtung, and they

40

POPULATION

     are the majority community of the principal islands. The earliest families in Yuen Long district speak a sub-dialect of Cantonese which is related to that of the Tungkwun district of Kwangtung Province and which is not very easy for city Cantonese to follow, but city Cantonese (Punyü dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

      The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, and is explained as meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or even before. The Cantonese were the more successful settlers, however, and in the areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are always found up- stream, along foothills, and in general on the poorer land. After a period of subservience to the powerful Cantonese families, the balance was restored by heavy immigration and the Hakka are now almost exclusive possessors of the Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung and Hang Hau peninsulas, and of the foothills of Tai Mo Shan. They are the majority community in Tai Po and Sha Tin and on the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan.

      There is a history of strife between Hakka and Cantonese but their relations are now peaceful and inter-marriage is not un- common. Some villages are peacefully shared between the two groups and most Hakka men can speak Cantonese, except in the remotest areas.

The Hoklo have frequented the area since time unknown. They are traditionally boat dwellers, but in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations. There are influential Hoklo land communities on Cheung Chau and Peng Chau (South). Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. The more primitive types of Hoklo dwelling are distinguishable by the use of thatch and mud bricks, instead of tiles and stone.

The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan' (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan' (water-borne people). They are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. Their entire

FOR

Children, children everywhere that is the way it seems to be in Hong Kong, which is not surprising since more than a hundred thousand are born every year. The little girl above lives at Lantau Island, or more precisely with her family on a sampan moored in a backwater near the

beach at Silver Mine Bay.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Like their counterparts everywhere Chinese boys can always find something interesting to do, even if it is nothing more exciting than a game of marbles. These boys live with their families aboard junks and sampans at Aberdeen which accounts, perhaps, for their bare feet-bare not because of poverty but because shoes are out of place on a wet deck.

With almost all schools running two sessions a day, and many accom- modating evening classes besides, children going to classes or returning home are a familiar enough sight in Hong Kong. This picture was taken in the Botanic Gardens and in such a setting who could blame the young- sters for 'creeping like snail unwillingly to school'.

Crisis! A minor one, it is to be hoped, but in best brotherly traditions big brother tries to comfort little sister-if only to stop the noise!

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香港

IV

Clinics such as this one treat many thousands of youngsters each month. In addition they provide BCG, vaccination and inoculation services.

POPULATION

41

      families live afloat. Like the Hoklo, whom they resemble in many respects, they have been in the area since time unknown. The Tanka speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese. At Tai O, on Lantau Island, there is the striking instance of a fairly large group of Tanka living ashore, or rather half-ashore, in huts built on stakes over a muddy inlet.

      Many of the present inhabitants of the New Territories are refugees by any definition. A substantial number are now going through a process of absorption and integration, but others can hardly be so described. Much the largest single body of im- migrants to have arrived in the New Territories since the Chinese revolution consists of the community of Shanghai Chinese who arrived during 1948-51. These, since they form the majority of the Tsuen Wan labour force, cannot be readily absorbed into rural New Territories society. There are also other smaller groups which may be expected to resist assimilation; these include groups origi- nating in the East River area and in the Swatow district as well as some well organized miners from north China.

Apart from the old-established rural inhabitants and the more recent refugee immigrants there are in the New Territories an increasing number of families of all nationalities from the urban areas who prefer a country life. The total population of the New Territories, excluding New Kowloon, is probably in the region of 400,000 but as in the case of the rest of the Colony it is difficult to give an accurate figure. The principal centres of popula- tion on the mainland are the towns of Tsuen Wan (80,000); Yuen Long (20,000); Tai Po (9,000 plus 4,000 boat dwellers); Shek Wu Hui (4,800); Castle Peak (including Old Town, New Town and Sam Shing Hui) (4,400 plus 2,000 boat dwellers) and Sai Kung (3,000 excluding boat dwellers). In the islands the main centres of population are at Cheung Chau (25,000 plus 7,000 boat dwellers); Tai O, Lantau (12,600 plus 2,000 boat dwellers); and Peng Chau (South) (4,500). These population figures, based on an unofficial New Territories census held in 1955, are no longer reliable and are included only as a guide to the relative size of these places.

3

Employment

OCCUPATIONS

     No comprehensive statistics are collected by the Government of the numbers of people in various occupations, except of those in the civil service and those in industrial undertakings which are registered or recorded by the Labour Department. It is not there- fore certain how many people depend on each kind of commercial activity for their livelihood, but about 400,000 are engaged in agriculture and fishing and about 160,000 in building and engi- neering construction; it is known that 230,000 are employed by industry and 46,600 by the Hong Kong Government.

The demand for additional industrial labour was not as great in 1960 as in the previous year, and the increase was only 17,000, compared with 40,000 in 1959. There was a marked drop in employment in the garment industries in the middle of the year. Some workers were absorbed by the cotton industry which com- pleted the process begun in the previous year of changing over to a daily system of three shifts of eight hours.

      62,000 workers are employed in the manufacture of textiles which remains the main source of industrial employment, most being engaged in cotton spinning or weaving. The manufacture of wearing apparel employs 46,000 workers. Together, these two industries use 46% of the total industrial labour force. Other important industries include the manufacture of metalware, with 27,500 workers, and the manufacture and repair of transport equipment (including ship building, repairing, and breaking), which has 15,500 workers. The labour force of the plastic industry continued to grow in 1960.

      In spite of the difficulties which faced industrialists in finding suitable premises the number of registered or recorded industrial undertakings went up by 576 to 5,599. Work continued on the reclamation at Kwun Tong to provide sites for industry, and

EMPLOYMENT

43

by the end of the year 90 factories were in operation in this area and plans for 29 others had been approved.

      Tables at Appendix I show the development of industry by the main industrial groups and by selected industries within certain groups.

      Unemployment. The lack of complete statistics of the working population debars anything but estimates of unemployment and under-employment made on the broadest basis. Although the expansion of industrial labour during 1960 was not on the large scale recorded in the previous year, many industries, especially the textile industries and those on the outskirts of urban areas, found it hard to recruit the type of worker which they preferred in the earlier part of the year. The position became easier later when the garment industry had grown much smaller.

      The present general shortage of housing and, to a lesser extent, the problems of schooling discourage families from moving out of the districts where they are already established. The fairly high cost of transport in relation to daily earnings also discourages long journeys to work, so it is usual for a large proportion of factory labour to live near-by. Labour is not as mobile as might be imagined in the confined area of this Colony and local shortages of labour do occur as a result. Although most skilled workers and many unskilled workers have been absorbed in the expanding economy, much under-employment is believed to exist among the unskilled. The shortage of skilled labour among the younger workers is likely to continue.

      Migration for employment. Many countries refuse to admit or severely restrict the entry of Chinese. Consequently, few find employment overseas except in a small group of territories which permits the recruitment of Chinese workers from Hong Kong. This group includes North Borneo, Brunei, and Sarawak, which accept large numbers of skilled and semi-skilled workers for development projects, and Nauru and the Ocean Islands for which the British Phosphate Commission has for many years recruited labour especially from the villages in the New Territories. Singapore also permits the recruitment of Hong Kong fishermen. Enamelware manufacturers continued to send their skilled hands to associated factories in the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia and also sent some, for the first time, to Ghana. Negotiations

44

EMPLOYMENT

began to extend the practice to Nigeria. A few workers emigrated to join their relatives in the United States, Canada, Australia, and countries in Europe and South America.

Agricultural workers, recruited by the North Borneo Govern- ment in 1959 under a special scheme, did not settle down well and many were repatriated before the end of the initial two years' period.

      All contracts for emigrant manual workers are approved by the Labour Department and certain procedures are followed which conform with international labour conventions. During 1960, 1,584 contracts for emigrant manual workers were approved, compared with 1,875 in 1959.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

Wages. Wages are calculated on monthly, daily, or hourly bases or on piece rates. It is customary to pay many workers, if not on monthly rates, at weekly or fortnightly intervals. Supervisors, technicians, and employees of public utility companies are normally paid monthly. Most industrial workers engaged in production processes are on piece rates which are identical for both women and men. Some semi-skilled operatives and most unskilled labour are engaged on daily rates.

The tendency at the end of 1959 for wages to rise because of shortages of labour, especially of skilled workmen, became obvious during the earlier months of 1960. For the first time since the unsettled period immediately after the second world war there were widespread and organized activities to seek wage increases. In December 1959 Government announced the acceptance of the recommendations of the 1959 Salaries Commission and the intro- duction of new rates of pay for civil servants. Shortly after Chinese New Year demands for higher wages were first made in industrial and commercial firms, and they continued in increasing volume during the first half of 1960. In some cases the demands were also for improved working hours and other conditions of service. Some employers granted wage increases comparable with those given by Government without negotiation, but in most cases compromise settlements were reached after collective bargaining. In general,

EMPLOYMENT

45

both labour and management made genuine efforts to find accep- table agreements and a major change in the wage structure of the Colony occurred without serious industrial trouble. In only a few rare cases was drastic action taken. The advice and conciliatory services of the Labour Department were asked for in many of the more important discussions and a total of 141 meetings over wage negotiations was held between labour and management in the department during the year. By the end of the year wage levels were roughly 15% higher than twelve months ago. Normal daily wages for daily-rated workers ranged between :

Skilled Semi-skilled

$8 and $21 $4.50 and $9

Unskilled

$3

and $ 7

       Many businesses pay a bonus of one month's wages at Chinese New Year in addition to normal wages. Some firms give free food and accommodation to regular employees. Others run canteens to sell food and other necessities at subsidized rates.

       Working hours. There are no legal restrictions on the hours of work for men, but regulations made under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, provide for maximum daily hours, limited overtime, weekly rest days, and rest periods for women and young persons. Women may not work more than ten hours a day and must have a rest of not less than half an hour after five hours' continuous work. An extra hour of overtime a day may be worked in special circumstances but overtime in any particular industrial undertaking may not exceed an aggregate of 100 hours in a year and six hours in a week, and may not occur in more than 25 weeks in a year. In exceptional circumstances, the Commissioner of Labour may authorize limited relaxations of these restrictions. A weekly rest day must be given.

       Young persons between the ages of 14 and 16 years may work only eight hours, with a break of one hour after five hours' con- tinuous work. Children under the age of 14 years are prohibited from working in industry at all, and women and young persons may not work at night or underground.

Three quarters of the men in industrial employment work for ten hours a day or less. Those in Government service, and employees of commercial and industrial concerns operating on Western lines, work eight hours a day.

46

EMPLOYMENT

       The restriction of hours of work for women, introduced on 1st January 1959, has increasingly affected the hours of work for men employed in the same industrial process. During 1959, 81 cotton spinning, cotton weaving, and silk spinning mills introduced a system of three eight-hour shifts. More factories changed over to this system in 1960 and by the end of the year the total had risen to 97. This included 24 cotton spinning, 57 cotton weaving and 16 other factories. It was estimated that by the end of 1960 19,225 men and 13,111 women were working eight hours a day.

      Rest periods varying between half an hour and three hours a day are often given, especially when hours exceed eight a day, and an average rest period of one hour a day is given throughout industry generally. The weekly rest, when given, is usually Sunday, except where continuous production must be arranged, when a rest day is granted by rotation. Rest days are usually unpaid. Many male industrial workers do not enjoy a rest day but it is customary to grant unpaid leave on request.

      Retail Price Index. The Commerce and Industry Department compiles and publishes a monthly Retail Price Index. It covers a wide range of items found in the normal budget of both industrial and white-collar workers, on the basis of a survey carried out in 1948. A base of 100 for March 1947 is used.

      The index continued to remain remarkably steady as in previous years. Compared with the exceptionally high average monthly figure of 126 for 1959, it fell to a more usual figure of 121 in 1960.

      When introducing new scales of pay in 1960, Government aban- doned the system of variable cost of living allowances based on the index, except in respect of lower-paid grades, and as a result of wage negotiations in various sections of industry and commerce, other organizations also abandoned similar systems. Consequently, although some businesses still follow the scales of cost of living allowances published monthly by the Labour Department, the importance of the index in determining a variable portion of wages has grown considerably less.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

The two main departments which deal with Government's responsibilities in labour matters are the Labour Department and the Registry of Trade Unions.

EMPLOYMENT

47

Labour Department. The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to Government on all matters connected with labour and industrial relations. He is ex officio chairman of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both labour and management are represented, and which is consulted on all legislative matters affecting labour. The Commissioner is also chairman of the Technical Education and Vocational Training Standing Committee, an ex officio member of the Port Committee, and a member of the Kwun Tong Advisory Committee. He is, concurrently, Com- missioner of Mines.

      The Labour Department is responsible for initiating all labour legislation and for keeping under review the local legislative and administrative arrangements which give effect to the Colony's obligations under international labour conventions. It carries out registration and regular inspection of individual undertakings to ensure, in particular, safe and healthy conditions of work. It under- takes conciliation in disputes between labour and management. It gives aid and advice to trade unions on their formation and management, and runs classes on the different sides of trade unionism. It advises on the establishment of suitable machinery for joint consultation. It offers training in supervisory techniques. It protects women and young persons employed in industry and emigrant workers. It administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, chiefly through investigations by its labour inspectors and health visitors. It carries out, from time to time, surveys of wage rates and conditions of employment. The department is responsible for making sure that sufficient publicity is given to the important provisions of any legislation with which it is concerned.

      During the year a large number of posters about industrial safety were again sent to local factories. Articles on different aspects of health, safety, welfare, trade unionism, and allied subjects were prepared by the Labour Department and released for publication in the local press. Through the courtesy of the Chinese Manufacturers' Association space was made available for the fourth successive year at the annual exhibition of Hong Kong products. The display stall and the pamphlet given to visitors aroused much interest and helped to spread knowledge of the

48

EMPLOYMENT

department's work through a representative cross-section of the community.

     The Registry of Trade Unions deals with applications by new trade unions for registration under the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, with applications by registered unions for registration of alterations in rules, of change in name or of amalgamation, and with dissolutions. The Registrar also has the power to cancel the registration of a union in certain circumstances. Registered trade unions are required by the Ordinance to send annual returns to the Registrar before 1st June each year, showing changes in membership figures and the names of the principal officials, and to send him the audited accounts within one month of their presentation to members. The Department prosecuted twenty three workers' unions and one employers' association for late transmission of accounts in 1960, and one workers' union for submitting its annual return late.

Seven new trade unions were registered, including one employers' association, but nine (seven of workers and two of employers) were removed from the register; seven had ceased to exist, one had become a society and the other (an employers' association) had its registration cancelled for violating provisions of the Ordinance. The year ended with 315 unions on the register, this total being made up of 240 workers' unions, 63 organizations of merchants or employers, and 12 mixed organizations of employers and workers.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Trade unions. The number of trade unions of workers is greater than practical needs alone would require. The movement is split by political considerations and splintered for ethnic, lingual, and other reasons. Apart from a small number of independent unions, all are affiliated to or associated with one of two local federations.

     The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, the FTU, supports the policies of the Chinese People's Government. It has 64 affiliated unions, most of whose members work in shipyards, textile mills or public utilities, and as seamen. 29 other unions, nominally independent, align themselves with and take part in the activities of the FTU. In 1960, as in previous years, the FTU continued its policy of providing welfare benefits not only to members of

EMPLOYMENT

49

affiliated unions but also to all workers willing to accept them. Throughout the year the FTU restrained itself in labour matters and tended to avoid open commitment either in negotiations by affiliated unions for wage claims or in other industrial disputes.

The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, the TUC, supports the policies of the Government of Taiwan. It has 69 affiliated unions, including three mixed unions of employers and employees, and 56 nominally independent unions also generally support it. Many members of these unions are employed in Chinese restaurants and tea-houses and in the building trade. The TUC is affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, the ICFTU. Although it does not play a very active part in this organization it sent representatives to the Asia regional conference of the ICFTU which was held during the year in the Philippines.

While the independent unions generally have small memberships, a few are quite large and influential. The Hong Kong Teachers' Association, with over 5,000 members, is an important and pro- gressive organization. The Western-style Catering Trade Workers Union, recently formed, made considerable progress during its first year of existence and built up a strong and efficient organization.

       Trade union education developed considerably during 1960. The Labour Department organized the first course in trade union leadership in May, when 20 trade union officers, including three women, attended for four days. A second course was run in December. Four series of classes on trade union accounting were also arranged by the Labour Department in co-operation with the Hong Kong Technical College, as well as a series of lectures and discussions on simple trade union administration. In the early part of 1960 six talks and discussions on trade unions and Hong Kong industry were broadcast in Cantonese by Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd. These programmes were specially designed for members of both employers' and workers' unions.

       The Labour Department prepared four booklets on trade union topics as text books for the course on trade union administration. These are to be printed and distributed to all trade unions. The first booklet, 'Duties of officers' was issued in the autumn and the second book, 'Conduct of meetings' is being printed now.

50

EMPLOYMENT

     Labour disputes. Much activity was devoted to negotiations over wage increases in 1960, and few of these developed into disputes. At the end of January there was a flurry over Chinese New Year bonuses, chiefly in the cotton industry in Tsuen Wan, and isolated cases involving problems of redundancy broke out during the year. Altogether there were 29 strikes and 5 lockouts causing a loss of 54,062 man-days. This figure was below the yearly average since the war.

The disputes over Chinese New Year bonuses arose from demands for larger bonuses than the usual 30 days' wages. Go-slow action and stoppages of work took place, but by the eve of Chinese New Year all disputes were settled. In only one concern did the employer agree to pay more than the previous standard rate. A loss of 12,330 man-days occurred in a total of 14 mills. During the year 21 collective agreements on wage increases and improved conditions of employment were signed in the presence of officers of the Labour Department. The most important of these affected employees of the Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd and the Dairy Farm Ice and Cold Storage Co Ltd, Cantonese and Chiu Chow tea house workers, rubber workers, and vermicelli and noodle employees. 1,594 minor disputes were dealt with by the Labour Department.

Redundant employees of HM Dockyard and the armed services. HM Dockyard officially closed down in November 1959, and the small number of civilian employees who were retained came under the administrative control of the Office of Naval Works. During the year, 280 were discharged as redundant as the dockyard equipment and stores were either transferred or sold and the buildings were demolished.

The Employment Liaison Office, which is now staffed solely by officers of the Labour Department, continued to assist workers from the dockyard, including those laid off since 1957, and former civilian employees of the War Department and the Royal Air Force. In 1960 572 of these workers were helped to find new employment. The total rundown, excluding those discharged for other causes than redundancy, was 4,339 up to 31st December 1960. Of these 3,966, or 91%, are known to have found new jobs.

Groups of dockyard workers continued to visit the Labour Department periodically to demand new employment. The majority

EMPLOYMENT

51

was either over age or medically unfit. Introductions to employ- ment for members of their families were given in some cases and in others the Social Welfare Department offered relief.

       Locally entered personnel of HMS Tamar, the Royal Navy shore establishment, who had been discharged in the early summer of 1959 as redundant, refused to accept the gratuities offered until the middle of 1960, saying they were inadequate. At the request of representatives, arrangements were eventually made in August for the Naval Authorities to pay out gratuities in the offices of the Labour Department.

LEGISLATION

No labour legislation was enacted during the year but further progress was made in the drafting of bills covering boilers and pressure receivers, certain aspects of industrial employment, amendments to the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, and the registration of trade unions.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

Industrial health. The Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department gives advisory services to industry on problems relating to the health of workers. Its chief concern is to prevent occupational disease and protect workers against hazards to health in their working surroundings.

Great attention is paid to the provision of adequate clinics or first aid rooms in larger factories and of first aid equipment, in accordance with minimum requirements laid down by the Section, in smaller factories. Advice is given on protective clothing and equipment for special trades.

To prevent occupational disease plans for new factories are examined and, where necessary, recommendations made for adequate sanitary installations, ablutions, dining rooms, kitchens, and dormitories. Particular attention is paid to natural or mechani- cal systems of ventilation.

Medical surveillance and periodic examination are carried out on lead workers, luminisers, and gas mantle workers. The last two groups handle radioactive substances and each worker is

52

EMPLOYMENT

monitored by a film badge to ensure that radioactive absorption does not exceed the maximum concentration that is allowed.

      Field surveys and factory inspections are essential parts of the work of the Section because industrial health problems can only be treated by investigation on the spot and continuous research. Samples of air are taken to determine the concentration and content of toxic gases, vapours, and fumes and to analyse the concentration and size of particles of dust. Temperature and ventilation studies are carried out and radiation hazards controlled.

The clinical aspects of industrial health involve the physical examination of workers in special trades, blood and urine exami- nations, and chest x-ray surveys. Comparatively few types of occupational disease are known to exist in Hong Kong but it is believed that cases occur which are either unrecognized or not notified. Early in 1960, metal-fume fever (or brassfounder's ague) was diagnosed among workers in a brass foundry. Neither manage- ment nor workers were aware that the disease existed and had previously regarded it as either influenza or malaria. Notifica- tion of occupational diseases is not compulsory and workers suffering from occupational diseases are not entitled to workmen's compensation.

The Industrial Health Section works closely with the labour inspectorate and joint visits are often arranged to factories, followed by joint discussions with managements. Satisfactory solu- tions to health and safety problems can often be found on the spot. Unhealthy or unsafe working conditions sometimes arise from ignorance and it is often possible during factory visits to explain to management and workers why a particular practice is unhealthy or unsafe.

      Three Health Visitors carry out case work on persons injured in occupational accidents, and maintain liaison with hospitals, doctors, factories, and officers of the Labour Department who deal with workmen's compensation.

      Many cases of industrial injury require urgent rehabilitation. The Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation plans to establish a permanent rehabilitation centre at Kwun Tong, with physiotherapy and occupational therapy units and residential accommodation for 80 injured persons.

EMPLOYMENT

53

       First aid training classes for industry are organized by the Industrial Health Section and conducted by the St John Ambulance Association. Since the scheme was inaugurated in 1956 351 workers from 144 industrial undertakings have obtained first aid certificates.

Industrial welfare. First aid equipment and drinking water must be provided in every registrable workplace. The Labour Depart- ment insists on the inclusion of dining and rest rooms in plans for new industrial premises. More and more managements provide welfare facilities like clinics, canteens, non-profit-making co- operative stores, barbers, laundries, reading rooms, and school rooms. Many larger concerns provide accommodation in the form of flats or dormitories either at subsidized rents or free, and free or subsidized meals are commonly provided by managements.

Some firms employ full-time welfare officers. Others organize picnics or walks in the country, give cinema and opera shows, and make available sports grounds for football and basket ball. Free or subsidized schooling is sometimes arranged for the children of employees, as well as free classes for adult education. Some voluntary organizations also help individual workers by providing hostels and playgrounds.

Workmen's compensation. The provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1953, are now generally well known to both employers and employees. Minimum rates of compensation are prescribed that shall be paid to workmen injured in the course of their employment. In fatal cases, dependants may claim com- pensation in court. $1,419,084.93 were paid as compensation for 6,055 non-fatal cases, and dependants were awarded a total of $580,477.94 by the courts in fatal cases.

Apprenticeship. Craft apprentices are employed in Government service by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, the Printing Department, the Public Works Department in its electrical, mechanical, and waterworks branches, and the Stores Department in its workshops. After selection by examination and interview they are required to sign indentures. Attendance at technical classes is compulsory. The boys are released from workshops on one day every week to attend classes, and they also attend classes on two evenings.

      Apprenticeship training schemes are operated by Taikoo Dock- yard and Engineering Co of Hong Kong Ltd, Hong Kong and

54

EMPLOYMENT

Whampoa Dock Co Ltd, public utility companies, and several other firms. Their apprentices are encouraged to attend technical classes, and financial assistance is often given by paying fees. Some large spinning and weaving mills operate apprentice schemes for mechanics or junior engineers and arrange classes on their own premises in both technical and general educational subjects.

The Technical Education and Vocational Training Standing Committee met three times during the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

Farming and fishing are the two principal occupations in the New Territories. Rice is the traditional crop, and used to be cul- tivated to the virtual exclusion of all other farm produce. In recent years, however, there has been a marked trend towards the pro- duction of vegetables and other crops, and pigs and poultry are now reared on a large scale. Local seafaring employment is de- scribed in Chapter 7.

      The pattern of country life in the New Territories has been increasingly altered by the diversification of agriculture, by im- migration and by the growth of industry and commerce. Large numbers of villagers have gone overseas to seek employment as seamen, cooks or waiters or to settle in other countries, par- ticularly the United Kingdom and the United States. More recently there have been opportunities of employment in North Borneo and elsewhere in south-east Asia for semi-skilled and agricultural workers from the Colony. Thus remittances from overseas have come to form an increasingly important factor in the economy of the New Territories; it is known, for example, that postal and money orders to the value of $5,329,826 were cashed at the six New Territories Post Offices in 1960, compared with $2,582,359 in 1959 and $1,216,595 in 1958. Large numbers of holiday-makers from the urban areas and tourists from overseas have also become a welcome new source of income.

Trade is centred on the markets, some of which are rapidly being transformed into substantial towns, attracting population from the urban areas. The scale of agricultural and industrial development in the New Territories has increased greatly during the last three years; a large proportion of the labour force for both public and

}

EMPLOYMENT

55

private development projects is recruited locally, providing employ- ment for numbers of villagers and market town-dwellers. The number of New Territories' residents employed in Government service has also increased considerably.

       Certain traditional industries have always been carried on in a small way in the New Territories. Examples are the operation of salt pans; the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, beancurd, soya sauce and preserved fruits; the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime; brick manufacture; boat building and repairing; and stone quarrying. There is an old-established match factory at Peng Chau Island for which villagers on neighbouring islands make match boxes by hand as a sideline occupation.

      Major industry did not come to the New Territories to any extent until 1952, but since then it has spread on an increasingly large scale. This is particularly so in the Tsuen Wan area, which has developed from a group of old-fashioned villages into a large industrial town mainly occupied in the manufacture of textiles. The Colony's brewery is situated at Sham Tseng. Large-scale industries have also appeared at Castle Peak, where there are cotton, plastics and carpet mills; Tai Po, where carpets are manu- factured; and Sha Tin, where a dyeing and finishing factory opened in 1959. Mining and prospecting provide employment in a number of places, particularly at Ma On Shan, where there is a large iron mine.

4

Public Finances

IN 1948 the Colony was released from United Kingdom Treasury control and given a large measure of autonomy over its own finances. The control which the Secretary of State then retained was that his approval was required for the annual Estimates, for supplementary provisions exceeding $1 million in the case of capital expenditure and $1 million in the case of recurrent expendi- ture, for the issue of any loan and for any expenditure involving important points of principle. In 1958 these powers were trans- ferred to the Colony's Legislative Council which then became the only authority in such matters, and the previous system of control has been replaced generally by informal consultation between the Financial Secretary and the Finance Branch of the Colonial Office. The approval of the Secretary of State is still required before decisions are taken on certain matters, including currency and banking.

      Hong Kong is financially self-supporting apart from the cost of its external defence (to which, however, a substantial contribution is made), and raises its revenue from local sources to meet the cost of all local works and services. The Colony's Legislative Council is the sole taxing and spending authority. There are no financially independent subordinate bodies like the local govern- ment authorities in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth territories. There was a small deficit in the first financial year after the war (1946-7), caused by the legacy of the world conflict, but substantial surpluses accumulated in each of the twelve years up to 1958-9, even though current revenue covered all capital expendi- ture except for a comparatively small amount financed by borrow- ing. This is a noteworthy achievement, for the capital expenditure has been considerable-for example, the surpluses of 1957-8 and 1958-9 accrued after capital expenditure of $102 million and $163 million respectively had been paid from current revenue, while the deficit for 1959-60 of $45 million is equal to only one-third

PUBLIC FINANCES

57

      of the capital expenditure met from recurrent revenue during that year. Comparative figures are:

Financial Year

(1st April to 31st March)

Revenue $ million

Expenditure $ million

Surplus $ million

1955-6

454.7

402.5

52.2

1956-7

509.7

469.5

40.2

1957-8

584.2

532.7

51.5

1958-9

629.3

589.9

39.4

Deficit

1959-60

664.6

709.9

45.3

The principal reason for these results, which look so favourable, is that the exceptionally rapid increase in population generated internal economic activity which raised the yield of taxation sub- stantially without any increase in its rates; there was an inevitable time-lag before the Government could develop the services neces- sary for the increased population. Between the years 1950-1 and 1959-60 revenue increased from $291.7 million to $664.6 million, with no significant increases in tax rates. The rate of increase in revenue has been affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and inflows of capital, but the upward trend is unbroken. As the development of public and social services has accelerated, so the margin between recurrent revenue and recurrent expenditure has tended to narrow: for example, the proportion of the latter to the former was 50% in 1952-3 but had risen to 78% by 1959-60. In 1959-60 the surplus of recurrent revenue over recurrent expenditure could no longer finance capital expenditure, and the result for the year was a deficit of $45.3 million. The budget for 1960-1 provided for increased duties on petrol and tobacco and for higher water charges, and it is estimated that total revenue for this year will produce $712.2 million, com- pared with the $664.6 million raised in 1959-60; but expenditure is also rising, and, capital and recurrent, is estimated at $938.3 million. The Estimates therefore provide for a deficit of $226.1 million, to be met from accumulated reserves, though the accounts completed so far suggest it will be much lower, as revenue should be higher than the estimate and expenditure lower.

The Colony's Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March 1960, and analyses of the Colony's Revenue and Expenditure in the financial years 1958-9 and 1959-60, together with the Estimates for 1960-1, are at Appendix II. In 1959-60 the revenue of $665

58

PUBLIC FINANCES

million was $64 million more than the original estimate. All recurrent heads shared in this excess but the largest amounts were in Fees of Court or Office ($18 million, including $7 million transferred from unclaimed and other balances and $4 million for loans taken over by the Development Loan Fund), Duties and Post Office (each $10 million), Fines, Forfeitures and Licences ($7 million, including $3 million on Vehicles' and Drivers' Licences) and Rates and Internal Revenue (each $1 million). Expenditure was also over the original estimate by nearly $17 million, the main difference being excesses of $16 million and $9 million respectively on Miscellaneous Services and Public Works Recurrent, and under- expenditure of $10 million on Public Works Non-recurrent.

The statement of Assets and Liabilities shows that at 31st March 1960 net available public assets were $545 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a reserve against future deficits on current account. There was, in addition, a Development Loan Fund of $227 million, used to finance social and economic development projects of a self- liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes. At 31st March 1960 outstanding commitments on approved projects exceeded the unspent balance of $57 million by $126 million. According to normal government practice the Statement of Assets and Liabilities excludes the Public Debt of the Colony from the liabilities. The debt at 31st March 1960 was equivalent to approximately $32 per head of population. Indebted- ness rose by $2 million during the year because of drawings from the United Kingdom's interest-free loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport; this loan will be repayable in fifteen annual instalments, beginning in 1961-2. The Rehabilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $17 million on 31st March 1959. Details of public debt, Colonial Development and Welfare schemes and grants are also given in Appendix II.

IMPORT AND EXCISE DUTIES

     There is no general tariff, and most goods are free of any duty levied for purposes of protection or revenue. There are, however,

PUBLIC FINANCES

59

five groups of commodities either imported into or manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, upon which duties are levied under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, table waters and methyl alcohol, the importation and sale of which may only be undertaken by concerns licensed under the Ordinance.

Amendments of the rates were made on the 24th February 1960, which included the raising of the duty on hydrocarbon light oils from 80 cents to $1.25 per Imperial gallon and the increase of tobacco rates by $2 a pound on cigars and $1.90 a pound on all other categories. A duty collection point opened at Kai Tak Airport on 1st October to make it easy for passengers to pay their duty as soon as they arrive.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Commonwealth origin is levied at between 80% and 87% of the rate for non-Common- wealth liquor. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further pref- erential margin over Commonwealth beer. Rates of duty on different types of liquor range from $1.30 per gallon on locally- brewed beer to $61 per gallon for liqueurs and spirits that are not of Commonwealth origin. The rate on Chinese wine and liquor, depending on origin, is $6 or $7 per gallon, plus 24 or 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by weight exceeds 25%.

      The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $4.90 per pound on Chinese prepared tobacco to $9 per pound on non- Commonwealth cigars. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Commonwealth origin and cigars, cigarettes and pipe tobacco of Commonwealth manufacture.

      Duty on light oils is $1.25 per gallon. Rates on heavy oils are $104 per ton for diesel oil for road vehicles, $26 per ton for other diesel oil, $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per gallon, and the duty payable on methyl alcohol is $7 per gallon plus 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by volume exceeds 25%.

      Duty on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines was abolished in February 1959, but any containing more than 2%

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PUBLIC FINANCES

proof spirit are dutiable on the alcohol content at the rate appro- priate to liquor. There is a small yield from duty on methyl alcohol, but it is only levied as a means of controlling the move- ment and use of this toxic substance. Methyl alcohol used in the overhaul and testing of aero-engines is exempt from duty.

No dues are levied on exports. Drawback is paid, in certain circumstances, on duty-paid commodities used in the local manu- facture or preparation of goods exported from the Colony.

RATES

      Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845 when an Ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands, houses and premises 'for the upholding of the requisite Police Force'.

      The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a 'tenement', by which is meant any land or building (or part thereof) held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown. The Valuation List covers the rating areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and also a part of the New Territories adjacent to the main road from Lai Chi Kok to Castle Peak. In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are charged, with a few exceptions, at 17% per annum of rateable value: in the New Territories (outside New Kowloon) the charge is 11%. The Valuation List is prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation and is frequently revised to bring it up-to-date. Rates are due quarterly in advance and demand notes are issued by the Accountant General and payable at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears. The total rating yield has about doubled in the last five years and the estimate for 1960-1 is $93,500,000.

There are few exemptions, and premises used for education, charitable and welfare purposes are rated; but most of the bodies who run this kind of establishment receive back the amount of any rates paid in the form of direct subventions, or contributions towards rates, or refunds of all or part of the amount paid.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Tax on Earnings and Profits. Direct taxation of incomes was not introduced into Hong Kong until 1940 when the War Revenue

PUBLIC FINANCES

61

     Ordinance was enacted as a temporary war-time measure 'for the purpose of raising funds by way of a tax on incomes to assist His Majesty's Government in the prosecution of the War'. After the liberation of the Colony no attempt was made to collect this tax, although the Ordinance had not been repealed, as by that time the purpose for which the tax had been imposed had dis- appeared. But in 1947 the finances of the Colony were such that it was essential to introduce a new source of revenue. It was decided to reimpose a direct tax on incomes as a permanent measure and the old War Revenue Ordinance was repealed and replaced by the Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947.

In the new Ordinance, as in the old, tax is charged only on income or profits arising in or derived from the Colony. No tax is charged on income or profits which arise or derive from outside the Colony even though they are remitted here. The Ordinance endeavours to charge tax at source rather than on the eventual recipient and so to avoid the necessity of ascertaining the total taxable income of each individual. This is to simplify administra- tion. Incomes and profits are grouped in four categories, each of which suffers a separate tax. These taxes are Property Tax, Salaries Tax, Profits Tax and Interest Tax. A resident of the Colony, but not a non-resident, may elect to be 'personally assessed'. If he does so his income and profits in the four different categories are aggregated into a single sum and a distinct tax charged on this.

The standard rate of tax is 12% and has not been changed since 1950. Profits arising from business, interest received from loans and the interest content of purchased annuities, are charged to tax at the full standard rate. Where the profits are under $7,000, and the business is carried on by an individual or a partnership, no tax is charged. Property Tax is charged at one-half the standard rate on the net rateable value of any land or buildings in the Colony, other than those situated in the New Territories which are exempt from Property Tax. Salaries Tax is charged at a stepped rate which begins with one-fifth of the standard rate (21%) on the first $5,000 and rises by one-fifth of the standard rate (21%) for each subsequent $5,000 until, at $45,000, the maximum rate of twice the standard rate (25%) is reached. These rates are not charged on the total income but on the balance

62

PUBLIC FINANCES

which remains after deducting the following allowances: allowance for taxpayer, $7,000; allowance for taxpayer's wife, $7,000; allow- ances for taxpayer's children, from $2,000 for the first child to $200 for the ninth child; allowance for life insurance premiums, the amount (within certain limits) paid as life insurance premiums. Under no circumstances may any charge for Salaries Tax exceed an amount equal to the standard rate (12%) on the total income before deducting any allowances.

     It is estimated that the revenue from Earnings and Profits Tax during this financial year will be $142,800,000.

      Estate Duty. This tax was first introduced in 1931. It has always been modelled on the Estate Duty of the United Kingdom, and in 1959 the Estate Duty Ordinance was extensively amended to make it conform with the latest practice in the United Kingdom. The tax is charged only in respect of that part of the estate which is in Hong Kong and no charge is made on assets outside the Colony. The rates of duty range from 2% on estates valued at between $50,000 and $100,000 (both figures inclusive) to 40% on estates valued at over $15,000,000. The estimated yield for the financial year ending on 31st March 1961 is $12,500,000.

     Stamp Duty. This tax is also modelled on the United Kingdom Stamp Duty. Fixed duty is charged at various amounts of which the lowest is 10 cents (on proxy forms) and the highest is $20 (on deeds). Ad valorem duty ranges from 10 cents on $500 to $2 on $100. There is a special duty of 3% payable on a conveyance of land if this is the first sale of that land since September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty during the current financial year is $35,000,000.

Entertainment, Dance Halls & Bets and Sweeps Taxes. These three taxes produce substantial amounts of revenue and for the present year it is estimated that they will yield $31,100,000. Entertainments Tax is charged on the price of admission to all places of entertainment. The amount of tax payable varies with the amount charged for admission but it averages approximately 22%. Certain types of entertainment given for philanthropic, chari- table, educational or artistic purposes are exempt from tax or attract a lower rate. The Public Dance Halls tax is a levy of 10% on all dance hall charges and the Bets and Sweeps tax imposes 5% on totalizator receipts and 25% on cash sweepstake receipts.

PUBLIC FINANCES

63

      Business Registration. Registration of businesses on payment of a fee was first introduced in 1952 by the Business Regulation Ordinance, but it is now carried on under the Business Registra- tion Ordinance, 1959. Every business carried on in the Colony, with a few minor exceptions, is required to register and pay a registration fee of $25 annually. It is estimated that the fees collected during the current financial year will be $1,600,000.

5

Currency and Banking

WHEN Hong Kong was founded in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. However the Government kept its accounts in sterling until 1862, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

A mint was set up in 1866 which produced a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar, but the new coin was unpopular and the mint closed down two years later. The machinery was sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

      An Order of the Queen in Council dated 2nd February 1895 authorized a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained both legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation followed suit. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and by 1890 they had become established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange, apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered Bank); by then the Oriental Bank had closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile

CURRENCY AND BANKING

65

      Bank of India had reorganized. In 1911 this reorganized Mercantile Bank of India (now the Mercantile Bank) joined the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

       The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. The Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, set up an exchange fund to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender all silver previously held by them against their note issues, in exchange for certificates of indebted- ness. These certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in sterling and operates in a similar manner to the traditional Colonial Currency Boards. The Ordin- ance also made the banknotes legal tender.

At the same time Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation. On 12th December 1960, a dollar coin was re-introduced; it is of cupro- nickel and about the same size as a United Kingdom florin. The dollar notes are backed by a Note Security Fund which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts; similar arrangements are being made for the backing of the dollar coins. The Government also at present issues subsidiary coins of the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents, and notes of the value of 1 cent.

      The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank both introduced new notes in 1960; they are of the same colour as the old but are smaller and have some modifications of design. The replacement of the old notes by the new was not complete at the end of the year.

       Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been main- tained at approximately 1/3d sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December 1960 was:

66

CURRENCY AND BANKING

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Government $1 coin issue

$913,661,890

36,891,487

7,500,000

Subsidiary notes and coin

25,978,328

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications made necessary by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor in Council and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1960 there were eighty six licensed banks, of which forty four were authorized wholly or partially to deal in foreign exchange. A list of these latter is given in Appendix III. Many of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities to the public. Interbank transactions are facilitated by a clearing house association with fifty three members. Monthly clearings in 1960 averaged $1,925 million. Total bank deposits at 30th June 1960 were 2,389 million, and the total loans and advances to commerce and industry were $1,570 million.

The growth of local branch banking in the subsidiary centres of commerce and industry accelerated very rapidly during the year. At the end of 1959 there were 13 branches of such banks, of which none were in the New Territories. At the end of 1960 there were 27 branch banks, and there are signs of a further expansion in 1961. The first branches of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Cor- poration in the New Territories opened in rented accommodation at Tai Po and Sheung Shui early in the year, and in April a large branch office commenced business at Tsuen Wan. The Chartered Bank also started business in temporary accommodation in Tsuen Wan. Two other banks, the Far East Bank and the Canton Trust and Commercial Bank, opened during the year in Yuen Long.

     The Legislative Council approved a resolution in September to enable banks to pay up to 3% (in place of 21%) interest on savings accounts, without deducting tax at the time of crediting payment; the intention was to encourage small savings.

6

Industry and Trade

INDUSTRY

In the last decade there has been a fundamental change in the pattern of Hong Kong's economy. Industry, which before the Second World War was of minor importance, has now assumed the predominant role. The circumstances which led to this signi- ficant change from a mainly commercial to an industrial economy were the subject of the opening chapter of the Annual Report for 1958.

Today there are 5,599 registered and recorded factories employing 234,533 persons in Hong Kong. Details of these figures will be found in the Appendices to Chapter 3. Chinese residents of the Colony own and operate the great majority of these concerns. In addition, a large number of smaller businesses, mostly pursuing traditional Chinese handicraft activities and in many cases set up by refugees, employ over 150,000 people.

      No special benefits are available to industry by way of profits tax or import duty concessions. Apart from a few revenue- producing duties, the Colony is a free port and Government regu- lation of trade is kept to a minium.

      The variety of goods produced by local industry is now con- siderable, but while the heavier industries such as shipbuilding and shipbreaking continue to be important, the Colony has become best known in general for the price, quality and range of the products of its light industries. Of importance are cotton piece- goods, cotton yarn, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, cotton and woollen gloves, enamelware, aluminiumware, torches, torch batteries and bulbs, vacuum flasks, plasticware including plastic flowers, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather footwear, and rattanware. Among the traditional Chinese goods produced the best known are brocade piecegoods, embroideries and drawn- work, crocheted gloves, carved articles of wood and ivory and

68

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     paper novelties. Scarcity of water and lack of land suitable for industrial purposes hamper industrial development in the Colony. To offset the shortage of flat land, the Government is levelling hilly ground and using the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. The largest of these schemes is at Kwun Tong in Kowloon Bay. Sixty four factories have already been built on the first stage of the scheme and are now operating. A set programme for sales of sites in the second phase has already begun and will continue during the first half of 1961. When the whole scheme is completed the industrial town thus created will sustain nearly a quarter of a million people.

A second large scheme to provide land for light industry has been approved and preliminary work has started. This develop- ment will involve the filling in of Gin Drinker's Bay at Kwai Chung, next to the industrial area of Tsuen Wan in the New Territories. The scheme, which will take approximately five years to complete, will ultimately provide 217 acres of industrial land. A number of smaller schemes are being planned to provide land for general industrial use or for specific industries such as boat- building and repairing and ship-breaking.

The water conservancy schemes described in Chapter 1 are helping to alleviate the chronic shortage of water.

The Federation of Hong Kong Industries. A development of major importance during the year was the establishment by Ordinance of the Federation of Hong Kong Industries. Hitherto industry has in the main been represented by a number of associa- tions, each formed by individual manufacturers of a limited range of products. Sometimes there are two or more rival organizations within the same industry, and the membership of many has in practice been confined to factories whose management came originally from a particular area or province of China. The Federa- tion cuts across all racial and sectional interests, its members including all trades, many nationalities, and enterprises of all sizes. From the outset it has bent its efforts towards long-term planning for the benefit of industry as a whole, recognizing that the problems facing the Colony's industry are no longer purely of a domestic nature. Even before the Federation was incorporated, the chairman of the working party appointed to draft its constitution, Dr the Honourable Sir Sik-nin Chau, CBE, led a delegation from Hong

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

69

      Kong to the Twelfth Congress of Scientific Management at Sydney and Melbourne in February; this visit focused attention on the growing interest in a scientific approach to management problems which is discussed below. The Federation followed this initiative by forming a Hong Kong Management Association which is seek- ing membership of the International Committee for Scientific Management.

       It has from time to time been suggested that the Colony should set up an institute of industrial standards. The majority of those in close touch with Hong Kong's industry have doubted the wisdom or need for this, because almost all local products which are exported abroad are manufactured to the designs and specifica- tions of overseas importers. A more practical view favours the establishment of a registry where manufacturers and exporters may lodge samples of their exports so that, in the event of a dispute, they and their customers may have the assurance that an independent body has in safe custody a sealed sample of the goods actually shipped. The Federation is in process of establishing such a registry.

       Training of Supervisors and Managers. The expansion of Hong Kong industry has tended to create forms of organization quite different from the traditional pattern of a small family business. This has produced a corresponding need to develop managerial skills at all levels, a need which is being, or will be, met by various forms of training.

       The Hong Kong Technical College holds evening courses in English in management studies and in industrial administration. They roughly cover the syllabus of the British Institute of Manage- ment and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers respectively. The supervisory training section of the Labour Department offers training in supervisory techniques to civil servants and to staff of industrial and commercial concerns. So far the section has intro- duced training courses in the giving of clear instructions ("job instructions'), the efficient organization of work ('job methods") and in how to maintain good working relationships ("job relations'). Training in accident prevention (job safety') will be introduced later. These four courses are the internationally recognized pro- gramme of "Training Within Industry'. Firms are invited to nominate members of their staff for instruction as trainers at the

70

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

supervisory training centre, and these men then return to their parent organizations to run courses themselves for supervisors. The section also offers courses for supervisors for the benefit of organizations which do not wish to employ their own trainers. Support for the scheme is good. Within six months of its inaugura- tion over 100 supervisors were attending courses each month either on the employers' premises or at the supervisory training centre of the Labour Department. This rate has also been maintained. The University of Hong Kong and the Labour Department to- gether organized a five days' study course in March on industrial relations, attended by representatives of local management. This experimental course, the second of its kind, was designed to show its participants the problems which exist in management, to suggest ways of dealing with them, and to encourage an exchange of views in the light of individual experiences.

     In August, two professors of the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration conducted an advanced management training programme, under the sponsorship of the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce. The course was residential at the University of Hong Kong, and over ninety applications were received for the sixty places available. The programme was con- sidered successful and will probably be repeated in the following

years.

     A need remains for a co-ordinating body to establish a balanced and integrated programme of training for management at all levels. It is to meet this need that the Federation of Hong Kong Industries has sponsored the formation of a Management Association.

HEAVY INDUSTRY

     Shipbuilding and Repairing is the oldest of Hong Kong's indus- tries. Following naturally from its development as a trading port, the Colony has come to occupy the proud position of one of the finest building and repair centres in the East. The two largest vessels built during 1960 were a 141⁄2 knot 422 foot vessel for local owners and a 15 knot 429 foot vessel for Norwegian owners. (A number of specialized craft has been built and delivered for local use or to the order of various Asian territories. The export trade in yachts, pleasure cruisers and other small craft continues to

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

71

flourish, in face of keen competition from all over the world, because of a high standard of workmanship, reasonable prices and early delivery dates. )

(Ship-breaking and Steel Rolling Mills. The rapid expansion of the ship-breaking industry during the previous two years slackened somewhat in 1960, because of the increased prices of ships for scrapping and the smaller Japanese demand for scrap, but Hong Kong remains one of the world's largest ship-breaking centres.) Much of the scrap is still exported to Japan, but a substantial and increasing proportion is now used in the Colony's own steel rolling mills, which produce about 10,000 tons a month of mild steel reinforcing bars; this is approximately 65% of the requirements of the Colony's building industry.)A fair quantity of rods and bars is shipped abroad, principally to south east Asian territories. The ship-breaking industry has established itself in three main areas of the Colony which are all required for permanent development in the near future. Government is therefore making sites available for the re-establishment of this industry in Junk Bay.

       There are also several rolling mills which produce stainless steel, brass and aluminium sheets and circles, most of which are sold locally for the manufacture of consumer goods.

(Aircraft Engineering. One large establishment in the Colony

provides maintenance and repair facilities for 44 airlines using Kai Tak Airport as well as for several national air forces, Facilities exist for complete airframe and engine overhaul, and work is received from twenty four countries as far afield as Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

Cement. The products of one large establishment meet much of the cement needs of the Colony's constantly expanding building industry. All the raw materials are imported, apart from some clay and iron ore.

:-)

THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

Since 1948 the textile industry has become the Colony's major industry. Spinning of cotton, rayon, silk and woollen yarns, weaving, knitting, dyeing, printing, and finishing, and the manufacture of all types of garments and textile goods are carried on. The spinning

72

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

    mills, operating over 490,000 spindles, are amongst the most up-to- date in the world and first class amenities are generally provided for workers. Cotton yarn counts range from 10s to 60s carded and combed in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1960 was over 156,000,000 lbs, the greater part of which was consumed by local weaving establishments.

     In the weaving section, which has increased its capacity during the past year to over 17,000 looms, cotton grey drill, canvas, shirtings, striped poplins, ginghams, and other bleached and dyed cloth and prints are the main items. Production in 1960 exceeded 428,000,000 square yards, most of which was exported, although there is an increasing tendency, as the quality of locally woven and finished cloth improves, for the Colony's garment manufac- turers to use local materials. Other products of the Colony's weaving industry are silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, tapes, military webbing, lace, mosquito netting, cotton open mesh, carpets, and rugs.

     Dyeing, printing and finishing of textiles rather lagged behind other sections of the industry in speed of development but have shown a marked advance during the past few years. Multi-colour printing, pre-shrinking by several processes under licence and poly- merizing for the production of 'drip-dry' fabrics are undertaken for use by the local garment industry and for export. A new development this year has been the weaving and finishing of corduroy.

     An almost unlimited range and variety of garments is manufac- tured in Hong Kong, the most important being shirts. Silk and brocade house and evening coats, tea gowns, and embroidered blouses, underwear and nightwear have a world-wide popularity in quality markets. The industry suffered a slight recession in the course of 1960, as the rate of orders from the United States, which had been inflated in the previous year, fell off. It has steadied however, and the industry is still of a very substantial nature.

     Bespoke and mail-order tailoring principally of men's suits, has rapidly developed in recent years into an important branch of the industry. Suits of excellent cut and quality are exported all over the world.

7,500

VALUE OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN MILLION DOLLARS)

7,000

Total Imports

Imports from China

6,500

Total Exports

Exports to China

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

50

1949

'50

'51

'52

'53

'54

'55

'56

'57

'58

'59

'60

7,500

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

7,000

Total Imports

Imports from China

6,500

Total Exports

Exports to China

6,000

5,500

4,500

3,000

公共圖

NG KONG PUBLICS

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

IBRARIE

1949

'50

'51

'52

'53

'54

'55

'56

'57

*58

'59

'60

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

73

The Colony's knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, singlets, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and rayon, and other fabrics.

DIVERSIFICATION

The expanded textile industry now accounts for over 50% by value of the Colony's exports. Critics who call for diversification of Hong Kong's industrial economy overlook the fact that the textile industry is itself a considerable feat of diversification, achieved very largely during the last ten years. Nor is it the only field of new endeavour: among the products which have appeared or grown in importance in the last few years are yachts and pleasure craft, steel scrap from the ship-breaking industry, kerosene pressure stoves and lamps, steel furniture, safes and office equip- ment, domestic space heaters, refrigerators and air-conditioners, carpets rubber thong sandals, plastic flowers, and injection mould- ing and extrusion machines for the plastics industry.

New ventures during 1960 include precision engineering, the manufacture of stainless steel cutlery, the emergence into com- mercial production of several factories making or assembling transistor radios, and the construction of a plant which will soon be manufacturing plywood.

       Several large overseas concerns have arrangements with Hong Kong manufacturers to make their branded products under licence. The latest example is the Westinghouse Electric International Company of New York which signed an agreement in October for the production in the Colony of Westinghouse room-type air- conditioners, 'packaged' air-conditioning units and electric fans. The year has been notable for the number of inquiries from indus- trialists overseas, particularly in the United States, Australia and Japan, who are interested in establishing factories here, frequently in co-operation with local capital.

TRADE

The value of the Colony's merchandise trade, imports, exports, and re-exports in 1960 was $9,800 million; an increase of 18% over 1959. Imports, exports and re-exports all rose in value,

74

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

and cargo tonnages by all means of transport increased to 8.2 million tons, compared with 7.6 million tons in 1959.

      Some tables in Appendix IV illustrate the main features of this trade in the last two years, and give a detailed breakdown of trade by country and by commodity.

      The 'commodity pattern' of trade reflects the stage of economic development which the Colony has now reached. In spite of having no raw materials and a very restricted land area, of a decline in the traditional entrepôt trade and in the exchange of China produce for manufactures and chemicals from the west, and of an overwhelming increase in population, Hong Kong has used its labour, capital, indigenous skills and energy, and emerged as an industrial country dependent for its living on the sale of its domestic products in the markets of the world.

      The main export industries-clothing, piecegoods, yarns, arti- ficial flowers, plastic toys and dolls, enamelled hollow-ware, foot- wear, metal scrap, electric torches, furniture-require imported materials, and thus raw materials and semi-fabricated manufactures for these industries represented over half of all imports by value.

Primary production is far from insignificant but it is still too little to feed the growing population, and the great bulk of the Colony's food has to be imported. The chief items of edible imports are rice, fruits and vegetables, swine, milk, cheese, and eggs, and fish and fish preparations, and in 1960 imported food represented 23% of all imports by value.

      Other imports were consumer goods such as medicinal and pharmaceutical products, watches, radios, gramophones, tape re- corders, tobacco, and alcoholic beverages, and capital goods such as machinery and transport equipment, and fuel oils.

      The sources of imports are variously determined by proximity, prices, speed of delivery and by traditional trade channels.

20% by value of all imports came from China, and 39% of all the Colony's food imports. Other imports from China included white unbleached piecegoods, plants and seeds for medicine and perfumery, cement and joss paper. Japan followed with 16% by value of all imports and sent mainly textiles, to the extent of 38% of all imports of textile yarns, fabrics and made-up articles.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

75

      Other imports from Japan included machinery, food, wool tops, soya bean oil, and base metals.

The United States sent mainly raw cotton, machinery, tobacco, and plastics moulding materials, while the United Kingdom exported mainly transport equipment, base metals, machinery and textiles to the Colony. The chief continental area of supply was Asia from which came 49% of all imports by value.

The Colony's domestic exports rose to $2,867 million in 1960, an increase of 28% over 1959, and represented 70% of total exports by value. Domestic exports concentrated heavily in cloth- ing and textiles, these two accounting together for 55% by value. Miscellaneous manufactured goods, especially artificial flowers and toys and dolls, made up a further 14%. The remainder was spread over a wide variety of light industrial products.

       Directions of export trade are influenced by many factors, amongst these the advantages of Commonwealth in many markets and the demands of the highly industrialized nations. Volume may depend in many cases upon the extent to which trade promotion activities and negotiations can find new outlets and overcome the barriers of exchange controls, quota restrictions and tariffs.

The United States, as in 1959, proved to be the most valuable market and in 1960 took $745 million of goods-a rise of 39% compared with the previous year. Clothing was the most important item-53% by value. Since the Colony's imports from the United States totalled $720 million the trade between Hong Kong and USA is approximately in balance. Following the USA were the United Kingdom, Malaya, Western Germany and Japan, and then, in varying small amounts, practically every other country in the world. The British Commonwealth took in all 40% of domestic exports by value, and the whole of the American Continent 30%.

       The main part of the Colony's re-export trade (some 30% of total exports) is now the exchange through Hong Kong of products of one Asian country with another. The products of China, Japan, Malaya, Taiwan, Thailand and Indonesia are exchanged among each other, and in 1960 60% of all re-exports were directed to Asian countries (excluding Malaya). Some re-export took place of Western European goods to countries in Asia and the southern hemisphere, but it was not of a high proportionate value. The

76

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

chief products entering the re-export trade are again textiles, fruits and vegetables, animal and vegetable crude materials, medicinal and pharmaceutical products and machinery.

TRADE DEVELOPMENTS

      The expansion of Hong Kong's export trade in domestic products continued during the year despite significant increases in tariff restrictions and even some open discrimination against the import of the Colony's goods into foreign markets. One encouraging feature has been the consolidation of markets in the more highly industrialized countries of Europe, in particular the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. This interest betokens improvements in the quality of Hong Kong's products, since competitive prices alone would not attract regular orders in these areas.

In terms of value the principal increase lay once again in the export of garments. The trade in rubber footwear held its own, despite extensive tariff protection of domestic industries overseas, but exports of leather footwear fell off sharply. Other declining exports included household enamelware, iron scrap and grey cotton yarn and thread; happily, increases in a wide range of other commodities more than redressed the balance.

The Hong Kong Textiles Negotiating Committee's voluntary agreement to restrict the exports of certain types of cotton manu- factures to the United Kingdom for a period of three years entered its second year on 1st February 1960. The early misgivings of the Colony's textile industrialists, so apparent during the negotiations, in no way abated with the passage of time. During 1960 many big orders were lost, particularly for grey cloth, owing to insuffi- ciency of the Colony's quota and, to its chagrin, the weaving industry saw trade with the United Kingdom which it might other- wise have enjoyed lost not only to India and Pakistan but also to certain non-Commonwealth countries which had previously scarcely entered the United Kingdom market.

Lord Rochdale, chairman of the United Kingdom Cotton Board, visited the Colony in November and renewed contacts with former members of the committee which had negotiated the agreement and met a number of other leading persons in industry and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

77

     commerce. They explaining to him their reluctance to extend restrictions beyond the initial period of three years.

      The approaches which the United States Department of Com- merce had made in 1959 to promote a similar undertaking from Hong Kong's garment manufacturers were carried a stage further. Early in January representatives of the garment industry in the United States rejected the initial offer from a group of local manu- facturers who were willing to stabilize exports of five types of cotton garments for a three years' period at fixed ceilings which allowed for a reasonable annual rate of growth. The American industry suggested lower ceilings and other modifications of the original offer which were not favourably received in Hong Kong. Public opinion and the press grew increasingly vociferous in their opposition to any limitations, and the situation swiftly became one of stalemate. With a fall-off in orders later in the year, the matter rests.

Canadian textile manufacturers, who were concerned at the extent of the penetration of Hong Kong garments into their domestic market, made tentative approaches on similar lines in the autumn, and suggested quotas similar to those which they had arranged with Japan. The initial reaction of the trade was courteous but nevertheless firmly opposed to any such measures.

       Early in the year the United Kingdom Government (on behalf of Hong Kong) and the Republic of Indonesia signed a memoran- dum of understanding to provide for the spinning in Hong Kong of American raw cotton supplied to Indonesia under the United States Public Law 480 programme. The understanding provided for the export to Indonesia of 24,650 bales of cotton yarn valued at about $24 million. Payment was made on the basis of 35% cash and 65% raw cotton in the form of a purchase authorization issued by the United States Government. This was the second occasion on which the Colony's textile industry had the opportunity to process American raw cotton for Indonesia and it brought some very welcome businesss to the spinning mills.

At the end of the year, the United States Government decided to stop countries receiving American aid from spending it in nineteen countries, of which one is Hong Kong. It is flattering to find the Colony grouped with eighteen other 'financially strong countries' which, apart from Australia, Canada, Japan, New

78

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

     Zealand and South Africa, are all in Western Europe. At the time of writing it seems that the ban will not apply to triangular deals of the type mentioned in the last paragraph, but there have been conflicting reports on its effect on purchases in Hong Kong on behalf of Post Exchanges catering for the American armed forces overseas. The decision will affect certain other industries and the Colony's entrepôt trade.

      The effect on Hong Kong's exports of the two trade blocs now in existence in Europe-the European Economic Community and the European Free Trade Association-has been closely watched. Elimination of the internal tariffs of these organizations has not yet proceeded so far as to affect the Colony's trade to any signi- ficant extent. Except to France, exports to Hong Kong's main trading partners in both groups showed a marked improvement. Further negotiations were held with the French authorities and attended by a representative from Hong Kong in an attempt to persuade the French to discontinue their overt discriminatory restrictions against Hong Kong, but little progress was achieved. Indeed, France has since tended to underline its discrimination against the Colony by increasing the range of Hong Kong com- modities denied the benefit of liberalization.

      On the other side of the picture, it was gratifying to learn that Germany had removed quantitative restrictions on imports of rubber shoes from Hong Kong and that the Benelux countries had taken similar action in respect of certain types of gloves.

      Outside Europe and North America, Hong Kong's exports have experienced fluctuating fortunes. The expected rise in exports to Australia, following the relaxation of Australian import controls, did not fully come about, although some improvement was noted. The year was marked by a series of appeals to the Australian Tariff Board by manufacturers seeking protection, and in several instances (notably in footwear, the trade in which has since been very much reduced) the tariffs have been increased without any adequate compensation. Items of interest to Hong Kong under consideration by the board, on which decisions had not been announced by the end of the year, include travel goods, certain cotton piecegoods, toys and dolls, artificial flowers, watchcases, umbrellas, canvas and duck materials and ginger.

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79

Exports to South Africa revived during the year, showing an increase of about fifty per cent over the 1959 total. A notable improvement was exhibited in knitted garments, towels, gunny bags, grey cotton sheeting, locks and padlocks, electrical apparatus and artificial flowers. South Africa changed the definition of origin for printed woven piecegoods; under this spinning, weaving and printing processes must now all be performed in one country if the article is to qualify as originating in that country. This definition supersedes the former requirement of seventy per cent single country content for cotton prints and seventy five per cent for rayon prints, and it should prove a welcome change to Hong Kong's textile industry. Dumping duties were imposed on slippers, industrial gloves and torch bulbs from Hong Kong and a protest against this was lodged through HM Government. A trade agree- ment signed between South Africa and the Central African Federa- tion is not expected to affect Hong Kong's trade with either party adversely.

The effect of new specific duties imposed by the Central African Federation in 1959 proved harmful to Hong Kong's exports. Garments and enamelware, two of the principal export lines, were particularly hard hit and it is difficult to see how the trade will revive without a more liberal import policy in the Federation. On the other hand Hong Kong is now a most important market for the Federation's tobacco exports.

A revision of Tanganyika's tariff structure to bring it into line with the highly protective tariffs in force in Kenya and Uganda had reduced exports to Tanganyika of the goods affected to the same negligible level as to the other two territories. Enamelware has been particularly hard hit by this change, and it is noteworthy that Tanganyika, unlike the other two, has no enamelware industry of its own.

Government representatives attended meetings of the Common- wealth Economic Consultative Council in London during April and September, and a session of a GATT Working Party on disruptive competition, also in September. On these occasions they were attached to the United Kingdom delegation as advisers. Earlier in the year delegates also attended Intra-Regional Trade Promotion Talks and a meeting of the Committee on Trade of the

80

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, these meetings being held in Bangkok.

Trade Promotion. The Director of Commerce and Industry is advised on matters concerning trade by the Trade and Industry Advisory Board, the members of which represent various facets of the Colony's industrial and commercial interests. With the advice of this Board, Government continued to pursue an active policy of trade promotion throughout 1960.

     In January 1960 a Government-sponsored mission led by the Honourable R. C. Lee, OBE, a member of Legislative Council and a prominent businessman, spent a busy and rewarding five weeks in Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea and the then Belgian Congo. The mission corrected some misunderstandings about Hong Kong and her industries in dis- cussions with trade organizations and officials in these countries. While examining the possibility of expanding trade with each. territory visited, the mission learned of the obstacles which had hindered development, and discussed proposals for overcoming them. The findings and recommendations of this mission were published in a comprehensive report, and there are indications from the trade that a discernible improvement has already resulted in commercial transactions since some of its suggestions have been carried out.

     In April Mr H. Owen Hughes, OBE, led a delegation of three local businessmen, a representative of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and two Government officials, to the Ninth Washington State International Trade Fair in Seattle. Hong Kong mounted an attractive exhibit covering about 2,500 square feet at this fair. The stand was built from a locally drawn plan and it displayed a wide selection of the Colony's higher quality prod ucts. The combination of oriental and contemporary western designs among the articles exhibited attracted the interest of the American public, and the display was warmly praised by press, radio and television. So effective was this exhibit and its layout that it was purchased outright by the authorities of the Chicago International Fair for free display there at a later date in the year. Thus a fairly comprehensive selection of Hong Kong products was seen for the first time by buyers and the public in the American Middle West.

་་་་

Durable, washable and indistinguishable from the real thing, plastic flowers made in Hong Kong are now selling well in many parts of the world. They are one product in more than a hundred being exported by the Colony's manufacturers-and to make them an even better buy they may

soon be perfumed, too.

By catering for the world-wide market for cheap wristwatch bands and straps, Hong Kong manufacturers have opened up another valuable export field.- Picture by Eddie Chan.

香港公

Jardine Dyeing and Finishing Company's factory at Sha Tin can handle up to four million yards of material a month.

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81

Hong Kong also took part in the annual St Erik's Trade Fair in Stockholm, which was held in September 1960. The Colony's first venture into the growing Scandinavian markets was well received and the delegation, led by Mr J. D. Clague, CBE, MC, received over 700 inquiries from 328 buyers. The design of the stand was again made locally and was a modification of that for Seattle. During the fair the leader and two other members of the delegation took the opportunity of visiting Helsinki where they had useful discussions with prominent merchants and officials on trade between Finland and Hong Kong. All the inquiries registered at St Erik's and the Washington State Fair were sent back daily by airmail to the Commerce and Industry Department, which relayed them through trade channels to manufacturers and exporters.

In addition to these major items in the 1960 trade promotion programme, officials visited Vancouver, Milan, Palermo and Rome to obtain first hand information about the international trade fairs regularly held in these cities.

The Export Promotion Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department is responsible for organizing the Colony's participation in overseas trade fairs and also publishes and distributes the annual Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory and the monthly Trade Bulletin. The Directory is a comprehensive guide to Hong Kong business in its economic and administrative setting; the 1960 edition was published in May. The Trade Bulletin is a general magazine guide to the Colony's products and each month features different aspects of the commercial and industrial scene. Both these publications are illustrated in colour and are distributed free to overseas businessmen.

      Trade inquiries are always welcome at the Export Promotion Branch and in 1960 they came as usual from all parts of the world. In many instances the Branch was able to assist with advice and introductions to manufacturers and exporters.

       Statistics. Every month the Statistical Office of the Commerce and Industry Department publishes 'commodity by country' statistics of the quantity and value of all goods imported, of the Colony's domestic exports, and of all re-exports; these are classified

82

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

in accordance with the Hong Kong Imports and Exports Classifica- tion List, which is based on the Standard International Trade Classification. 'Country by commodity' statistics are also tabulated and are available in the department but not published.

     The trade statistics are compiled on punched card machinery from declarations which importers and exporters are required by law to file with the Statistical Office.

TRADE CONTROL

     The Hong Kong Government is responsible for the legal and administrative arrangements required to implement the textile industry's temporary undertaking to limit its export shipment to the UK and ensures that they do not exceed the agreed quantities by means of a system of export licensing. Quotas allocated to shippers were kept under constant review in order to ensure full utilization of the permitted yardage. Arrangements were made towards the end of the year for the allocation of quotas for the third and final year of the undertaking which ends on 31st January 1962.

     Government enforces quantitative and end-use controls only over highly strategic commodities, but the majority of import and export licences which are required are for exchange control purposes.

     Documentation of Origin. Hong Kong being traditionally an entrepôt, certification of the origin of the products which it sells has become increasingly a matter of importance in a world of regulated trade. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Manu- facturers' Association and the Indian Chamber of Commerce issue certificates of Hong Kong and other origin which are acceptable in varying degree to overseas authorities. The majority of overseas authorities who demand certificates of Hong Kong origin stipulate those issued by the Commerce and Industry Department. Having almost no raw materials, Hong Kong bases its claim to origin on the work done in processing imported materials, or their transformation into entirely new products. During 1960 the Commerce and Industry Department continued to ensure that goods which it certified as of Hong Kong origin warranted that designation.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

83

Except in the case of exports to the United Kingdom the department also issues Commonwealth Preference Certificates for exports claiming entry at preferential rates into those Common- wealth countries which grant preference to Hong Kong. They certify the proportion of Commonwealth or single country content in the goods they cover and are based on cost statements prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. For exports to the United Kingdom, the accountants themselves issue the certifi- cates and submit cost statements in support direct to HM Customs and Excise.

The certification work of the department continued to expand during 1960 and the administrative practices for the issue of certificates of origin were always under review. The department modified its practices and procedures wherever possible to hasten the issue of certificates and to simplify the handling of an ever larger number of applications. The co-operation and liaison established with overseas customs authorities was beneficial to both the promotion and the control of certified exports. Exports of goods certified by the Commerce and Industry Department to be of Hong Kong origin were valued at $744.3 million. Common- wealth Preference Certificates were also issued to the value of $171.2 million, to cover exports to other Commonwealth countries than the United Kingdom.

An additional complication arises from the need for Hong Kong's trade with the United States to comply with the United States Foreign Assets Control Regulations; these prohibit the import of a range of products which are presumed to originate in the Chinese People's Republic or in North Korea unless evidence is produced to the contrary. The department again devised fresh procedures to produce this evidence in 1960. 'Presumptive' com- modities were exported to the value of over $529.5 million.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

       After an extensive re-organization last year, the Preventive Service, which is the uniformed and disciplined branch of the Commerce and Industry Department, was able to improve the efficacy of its control over the smuggling of dutiable goods and narcotics. Inspections and spot-checks of factories exporting the

84

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

Colony's products under certificates of origin or Commonwealth Preference Certificates formed an important part of the Service's duties, 58,461 inspections being undertaken; this was more than 10,000 over the figures for any previous year. The control over the movement of dangerous agricultural poisons was also main- tained.

     The Service's eight launches, two of which are deep sea patrol vessels, continued their patrols around the long coast-line of the Colony, checking and searching over 20,400 native craft. These launches together average a total of 20,000 steaming hours each

year.

      The Preventive Service is, with the Police, one of Hong Kong's most effective weapons in suppressing drug trafficking. Government increased the strength of the Special (Narcotics) Section of this Service from 24 to 194 during the two years 1959-60 and intro- duced a system of 'ship-guards' to improve control over the move- ment of narcotics. A new and more efficient fast harbour launch was commissioned during the early part of the year to carry ship-guards and search parties to and from vessels in port.

During the year, over 400 ocean-going vessels from suspect areas were guarded throughout their stay in port; this was in addition to routine searches of 4,160 ships on their arrival from black- listed ports. The daily ferry steamships to and from Macau were also searched over 1,500 times. 1,490 aircraft were searched and numerous checks were made on vehicles at Hong Kong Interna- tional Airport.

Seizures of narcotics during the year numbered 39: these included 3,626 lbs of opium, 153 lbs of morphine, 337 lbs of morphine hydrochloride, 5 lbs of heroin and 155 lbs of barbitone. On the last day of November, officers of the Service seized 1,078 lbs of raw opium concealed in hollowed-out bundles of teak wood on board a ship which had just entered port. This was the biggest seizure of opium since the war. Within a fortnight, they made another big seizure of narcotics hidden in another vessel in the same way: on this occasion 768 lbs of raw opium, 16 lbs of prepared opium, 45.5 lbs of morphine and 293.3 lbs of mor- phine hydrochloride were found. The quantity of morphine and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

85

morphine derivatives taken on this occasion is believed to be a world record.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London, adminis- tered by a Director, and situated in Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, WC2. The Hong Kong Section of the British Embassy, Tokyo, was closed and absorbed within the Embassy on 31st March 1960.

      Arrangements were concluded with the Australian Government for the establishment of an office in Sydney, and it was duly opened on 1st December 1960 with the arrival of the first Hong Kong Government Trade Representative in that continent. The office is at Kembla Building, Margaret Street, Sydney.

      Among Commonwealth countries India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner and the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and Pakistan by Trade Commissioners. Consulates-General are maintained by Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Panama, the Philippines, Switzerland, Thailand and the United States. Consulates are main- tained in Hong Kong by Argentine, Portugal, Sweden, Venezuela and Vietnam. The consular representatives of Finland, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey are resident in London and have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, El Salvador, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, the Irish Republic, Israel, Nicaragua and Spain have honorary consular representation in Hong Kong. In addition, France, Italy and Thailand have Trade Commissioners, while Australia has an Honorary Trade Representative, all resident in the Colony.

TOURISM

      Hong Kong is now firmly established as one of the most popular tourist centres in the Far East. During 1960, 163,500 visitors (within the international definition of 'tourists') visited the Colony, an increase of 25,000 over the previous year. The majority were American, but many also came from south-east Asian countries and the Philippines, and cruise liners from Australia and New Zealand made regular calls.

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INDUSTRY AND TRADE

      The Hong Kong Tourist Association, which started to operate in 1958, broaches the Colony's attractions abroad by means of films, brochures and posters, and also issues an official guide book and a monthly news bulletin for distribution both locally and abroad. The Association works through a Board of Manage- ment, which is appointed by the Governor and consists of nine members who represent various branches of the tourist industry and Government. The Government subvention for the current financial year is $1,400,000, an increase of $400,000. The Associa- tion has enrolled some 240 members and associate members to co-ordinate the activities of the tourist industry and protect the interests of tourists. They include airlines, shipping companies, travel and tourist agencies, hotels, shops and restaurants, and each is bound by the Association's rules. The training and registra- tion of guides is also being undertaken.

      The Association has information offices on the Star Ferry con- course in Hong Kong and in the Peninsula Hotel arcade, Kowloon. It co-operates closely with international organizations for the pro- motion of tourism and is a member of the International Union of Official Travel Organizations, the Pacific Area Travel Association, the British Travel and Holidays Association, and the American Society of Travel Agents. During the year the Executive Director attended the Pacific Area Travel Association conference in New Zealand and the American Society of Travel Agents' conference in the United States, visited Australia and Thailand, and made a world tour.

      First class hotel accommodation has been unable to keep pace with the annual increase in the number of tourists and although several new hotels are being built, and others are planned, it will be some time before this deficiency is overcome. At present 3,393 hotel rooms are available for tourists.

7

Primary Production

AGRICULTURAL LAND IN THE NEW TERRITORIES

A LAND Court was set up shortly after the New Territories became part of the Colony, to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of land. The holdings so established were confirmed by the Govern- ment and recorded in Block Crown Leases, and are known as Old Schedule Lots. The Land Court completed its work in 1905. All other land was deemed to be unleased Crown land, leases of which could be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories' lands acquired in this way are known as New Grant Lots. Government has, however, always recognized, whether tacitly or officially, that most villages have certain prescriptive rights over the land around them, where they graze their cattle, cut grass, and bury their dead; and no Crown land in the New Territories is put up for auction without giving the nearest villagers a chance to object. An objection, whether economic or geomantic, is usually accepted if reasonable.

Most of the leased land in the New Territories, usually known as 'private land', is classified as either agricultural land or building land. Minor buildings, watchmen's sheds, pigsties, or other build- ings definitely concerned with farming, may normally be erected on agricultural land. When a villager who owns land in agricultural status wishes to erect a small house for his own family he is usually given a building licence and allowed to do so, provided that the lot is suitable and the building will not interfere with any rural development or town planning requirements. No premium is pay- able for such licences if the houses are small.

New Territories' land policy follows the same general lines as that for the urban area, particularly in the towns and in areas required for industrial development. In the more rural parts the New Territories Administration is chiefly concerned with balancing the needs of agricultural production on the one hand and of urban development on the other.

8888

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

Much of the best land is owned by clans established in the area for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep of ancestral halls, religious observances, clan welfare, and the maintenance of schools. Such land may not be disposed of without the consent of the clan members (sometimes numbering many hundreds) and the permission of the District Officer.

Rents and values of agricultural land in the New Territories are customarily reckoned in paddy; if other crops than rice are grown, the rents are convertible into money at the market rate of a specified crop. Crown rents, however, are collected in cash at a rate fixed when the lease was granted. Most Crown rents have thus pro- gressively declined in relation to the customary value of agricul- tural land, and in some cases are now hardly worth the trouble of collection.

An average annual rent for two-crop rice land would be about 1,600 lbs of paddy an acre, or about 40% of the total annual yield from two crops. Though much of the land is owned by clans, in- dividual holdings are all small, averaging under two acres. There are very few farmers who cultivate more than five acres. Where land is rented it is usually on annual tenancy, and often the arrangement between landlord and tenant is oral.

LAND UTILIZATION

      The Agriculture and Forestry Department began a land utiliza- tion survey in 1953. The compilation of preliminary date was completed in 1955 and maps were prepared on a scale of 1:20,000. In 1954 Dr T. R. Tregear, Senior Lecturer in Geography at the University of Hong Kong, made an independent reconnaissance study of land utilization in the Colony. Dr Tregear had full access to the work of the Agriculture and Forestry Department and produced a report from all these data, Land Use in Hong Kong and the New Territories, published by the University in 1958.

      Since the publication of this report, a review of the cadastral survey of Hong Kong has revised the computation of the area of the territory. Although the areas for the various classes of land have not changed appreciably, some slight modification of the original figures has resulted from the re-computation and the

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89

gradual changing pattern of land use. Using the same classification of land use, the following data are now accepted:

Class

Approximate Area (square miles)

Percentage of whole

Remarks

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

22

5

(ii) Steep country

111

28

Includes roads and railways Rocky, precipitous hillsides incapable of plant establish- ment

(iii) Woodlands

13

3

Natural and established woodlands

(iv) Grass & scrub lands

173

44

(v) Eroded lands

20

#n

Natural grass and scrub

5

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation

(vi) Swamp & mangrove

lands

(vii) Arable

8

2

Capable of reclamation

51

13

Includes orchards and market gardens

      Natural topography largely decides the use which can be made of land in Hong Kong. From a farmer's viewpoint, all the readily cultivable land is already being exploited and what is left, apart from land alienated to industrial and urban use, is marginal. Pressure comes on the land from two directions, the continued and steady demand for land for industry and the need to meet the growing needs of the rural community. It is important to remember that 82% of the total area of the territory is marginal land, in differing degrees of sub-grade character. The arable land already exploited comprises only 13% of the total area and the expanding urban areas, the remaining 5%, tend to encroach more directly upon arable rather than open marginal land. However the New Territories Administration tries to preserve a proper balance between these conflicting needs, and wherever possible land is reclaimed for industry from the sea, as has been done at Tsuen Wan. But market towns such as Yuen Long, Tai Po and Sha Tin must expand and it is unavoidable that fields will be lost to agriculture, or at least that agriculture in such areas will be confined to market gardens.

In 1937 it was estimated that the total forest cover, both natural and established woodland, was 103 square miles. During the Japanese occupation most of this timber was stripped from the hillsides and catchment areas. The afforestation policy is to replace

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PRIMARY PRODUCTION

these lost woodlands, not only so as to safeguard water catchments and ensure soil conservation, but also to take advantage of the opportunities it gives to make best use of the land. There are many limiting factors to the extension of arable land, but they can be overcome in some areas and much more attention is now paid to the principles of multiple land use in order to exploit under- developed areas. The establishment of pure forests tends to be restricted to areas incapable of more intensive development.

The compilation of information and data for the further exploi- tation of available land resources is a continuing process. The divisions of the Agriculture and Forestry Department primarily concerned have the changing pattern of land use constantly under review and undertake investigational and advisory work for the benefit of farmers. During the past three years the expert advice available from the Department has been reinforced by the services of an officer from the Soil Survey Pool attached to the Colonial Office. This officer's report on the soils of Hong Kong is now in the press and will be a valuable addition to the information avail- able on how to improve land utilization.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION

The policy of Government is to stimulate production of food in so far as this is compatible with the best utilization of the resources of land and sea. To achieve this, three departments of Government are concerned with serving the farmers and fishermen. These are the Agriculture and Forestry Department, which chiefly concerns itself with optimum land utilization and gives technical, extension and advisory services to the farmers; the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department, which deals mainly with the fishermen on the waters of the territory and the administrative organization of co-operative societies of all types; and the New Territories Administration.

      Within this framework the Agriculture and Forestry Department aims to increase the production and improve the economic status of individual farmers; it assists in stabilizing the farming industry by encouragement of diversified production which may mitigate the effects of seasonal market 'gluts' and trade recessions. Whilst encouraging greater production by the use of improved scientific

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

91

techniques, the Department seeks to achieve its aims without im- pairing soil fertility; the conservation of soil and water, through afforestation of bare, eroded hillsides and catchment areas, plays an important part in this. By far the greater portion of the affor- estation programme is undertaken directly by Government, and private forestry or afforestation is still a relatively small part of the pattern.

      Loans are available to farmers through the Kadoorie Agricul- tural Aid Loan Fund (this was started in 1955 with equal con- tributions by the Government and two local citizens, Messrs Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie, and is administered by the Agriculture and Forestry Department whose Director is the Chair- man and Trustee) and through the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund mentioned later under the heading of 'Marketing'. Some 250 farmers and farmers' sons attended vocational training courses provided by the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department during 1960. These courses, which covered a wide range of farming, included instruction on up-to-date techniques involved with rice cultivation, pig and poultry keeping, market gardening, tree cropping and pond fish culture.

The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, a philanthropic organization also founded by the generosity of the Kadoorie brothers, gives free grants to members of the farming community who cannot find enough capital on their own. The general philo- sophy of this Association is to help those who are prepared to help themselves, and although this is not a Government sponsored organization it co-operates closely with Government through the Agriculture and Forestry Department which offers technical assist- ance and advice. Advice and assistance is also rendered to all welfare organizations concerned with the rural community, and especially those engaged in the rehabilitation of refugees as farmers.

       Within the last decade there has been a marked change in the farming pattern. Formerly, paddy cultivation was the most impor- tant aspect of agriculture in the New Territories. With the increased demand for food, especially the protective foods, and pressure on the land resulting from industrial expansion and the influx of refugee farmers, there has been a steady move in favour of market gardening and pig and poultry production. At the same time, Government's policy of encouraging diversification in farming

92

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

practice has resulted in more than 35% of the two-crop paddy land now being used for the growing of winter season catch crops of vegetables. Such land used to remain fallow. There has also been more use of artificial fertilizers without any prejudice to the traditional nightsoil. A striking aspect of market gardening in Hong Kong is the widespread use of small knapsack sprayers and the most modern insecticides. The steady expansion of primary production over the past three years is shown vividly in Appendix V.

AGRICULTURE

Rice. The area of land under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,191 to 18,478 acres since 1954, and the difference is now used for permanent vegetable culture. 2,905 acres are also used for one- crop paddy in brackish water and 177 acres for one-crop upland paddy. Taking the average milling percentage to be 68, the esti- mated crop in 1960 was 19,018 metric tons of rice, at an average price of $58.00 per picul, and the money value was $18,233,344. In a normal year, the average yield of paddy from an acre of two- crop land is about 1.2 metric tons, but with seed of approved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers, production may reach 1.8 metric tons on average land and over 2 metric tons on better soils.

The most important disease of paddy is Blast, caused by the fungus Piricularia Oryzae, and farmers are making more use of blast-resistant varieties recommended by the Agriculture and For- estry Department. The Department also engages in seed selection within varieties, but the amount of improved seed available is limited. The traditional manurial treatment of rice is to add only very small dressings of dry animal manure, but more farmers are now using balanced artificial fertilizers.

Vegetables. The area of land under permanent vegetable cultiva- tion has steadily increased from 2,254 acres in 1954 to 4,430 acres in 1960. This increase comes mainly from the transition of 1,713 acres of rice land to vegetable production, and the development of 450 acres of marginal land, but about 1,109 acres of two-crop paddy land (that is, land which can be irrigated during the driest weather and has good access to markets) are also used for cultiva- ting winter vegetables after the harvest of the second rice crop.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

93

Six to eight crops are harvested annually from the intensively cultivated land which is kept permanently under vegetables. The main varieties are white cabbage, flowering cabbage, turnips, leaf mustard, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomatoes, water spinach, string beans, watercress and cucumbers. Cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes are produced in great quantity during the cool months and their quality is excellent. This intensive produc- tion of vegetables takes place on both fertile and comparatively infertile land and is made possible by heavy dressings of manure. Nightsoil is used on about three-quarters of the area and, in its place or as a supplement, pig and poultry manure, peanut cake, duck feathers, bone meal and compost are also applied. The use of artificial fertilizers is increasing, usually as an addition to the organic manures. Plant diseases are less important than insect pests and insecticides are very popular. Little or no attention was given to the selection of seed of local vegetables in the past, but the Agriculture and Forestry Department is devoting more and more attention to seed selection of local vegetables as well as variety trials with winter vegetables grown from imported seed.

Sweet Potatoes. This crop is grown for both the tubers and the vines which are used for pigfeed. It grows on dry land and about 1,850 acres were planted as a main crop, chiefly for tubers. Two crops are harvested per year with an average yield of 12 tons per acre. At an average market price of $18 per picul, this is an annual value of $6,714,000. A catch crop of sweet potatoes is also grown on 3,700 acres of paddy fallow, after the second paddy harvest. This crop is also used mainly for pigfeed vines.

Other Field Crops. About 1,468 acres are cultivated in many small plots for such field crops as peanuts, taro, radish, yams and sugarcane. These are grown mainly for local consumption.

Fruit. Fruit production is not yet substantial but it is expanding. The main varieties grown include wong pei (Clausena lansium), lemon, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, lychee, pine- apple and orange. There are no accurate statistics available, but roughly 42,272 piculs of assorted fruits were harvested during the year, valued $3,135,930.

       Crops and Fruits for Export. A narrow range of fruits and crops is prepared for export to Chinese living overseas, mainly in the United States of America. Although the quantities exported

94

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

     are small, they make an additional source of earning for the small farmer. Products include water chestnut, Japanese apricot, lemon, taro, bitter cucumber, white cabbage, ginger, radish, lychee, wong pei, mushroom, lotus root, olive, turnip, yam and mustard. The area planted to these crops in 1960 was about 608 acres and their value over $3,000,000. The water chestnut crop in particular has grown rapidly in the last two years from less than 200 acres to over 400 acres. The quality has also improved and a larger pro- portion is now being exported as 'first grade'. Crops exported to the United States of America, and certain other foreign countries, must be accompanied by a Certificate of Origin; this requires individual inspection of the crops in the field by staff of the Agriculture and Forestry Department.

      Pond Fish Production. The number of fish ponds in the New Territories continued to go up and their total area is now 690 acres, mostly along the Deep Bay coastline near Yuen Long. Grey Mullet is the most important species of fish and must have water with a salinity above 0.05%. Fry may be found in local coastal waters in February and March, but in 1960 the supply was poor-only 1 million, although 6 million were wanted. Fry for production of the four important species, Silver Carp, Grass Carp, Big Head and Mud Carp, are obtained from China between May and August and an adequate supply of about 2 million was imported during the year. These four species require water with a salinity of less than 0.4%. Common Carp and Edith Gold fish are bred locally and about 500,000 and 100,000 fry were produced, a supply that was thought adequate. Edith Gold fish requires fresh water (less than 0.4% salinity) and the Common Carp can tolerate 1% salinity. 10 million fish fry of different types were re-exported to other countries.

The June floods caused losses and the production for the year was 540 tons, valued at $1,800,000 which was only about seven per cent of the total consumption of pond fish.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

      As there is too little land for extensive grazing, pigs and poultry are the principal food animals reared in the Colony and cattle are mainly used for draught purposes.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION

95

Pigs. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly either of the Chinese type or the resultant crosses of these local animals with exotic stock. The Agriculture and Forestry Department maintains herds of pure exotic strains, such as Berkshire, Mid White and Large White, and uses them for experimental purposes, cross-breeding and distribution to improve the Colony's pig stock. Pigs are often kept on traditional lines in the villages but an overall improvement in management is taking place as a result of extension work.

In 1960 the number of pigs of local origin admitted to the local abattoirs for slaughter was 260,070. This was 20.5% of all the pigs slaughtered in the Colony for food. The comparative figure for 1953 was 64,000. The value of pigs raised in Hong Kong in 1960 is estimated to have been $36 million.

       Cattle. Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes but surplus stock is sold for slaughter. The Chinese brown cattle are ideally suited to the local environment and management. The return from sales of local cattle for slaughter is estimated at $1,800,000. Over 639 farmers were helped during the year to acquire animals of a better type.

       Poultry. Many of the larger poultry farmers are now producing their own hatching eggs because of the curtailment of imports of birds and hatching eggs from China. There has also been a distinct increase in the collection of eggs for hatching from village flocks. This development is of great importance in the establish- ment of a stable poultry industry in the Colony.

        Ducks and Geese. Ducks are raised in the wetter areas of the Colony for home consumption and export. The rearing of ducks and geese for the local market has become much more common in recent years.

       Pigeons. Pigeon-keeping is now a thriving industry and prices in 1960 averaged $7 a pair for squabs. One of the most popular types of table birds is the White or Blue King crossed with the Homer. The value of squabs sold in 1960 is estimated at $600,000.

        Milk. The dairy cattle in Hong Kong are mainly Friesians and are kept in one large farm on Hong Kong Island and in smaller groups of farms on the mainland. All these animals have passed the single intradermal (comparative) test for tuberculosis.

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     12,700,000 pounds of milk were produced during 1960, valued at $11,430,000.

Farmers are increasingly using the livestock advisory services of the Department. The Colony continued to be free from rabies and rinderpest, and the incidence of foot and mouth disease, both in local and imported stock, was much less; there were 216 outbreaks of a mild type of this disease in cattle and pigs in the New Territories. 40,000 pigs were inoculated against swine fever and 12,000 cattle were inoculated against rinderpest with locally produced vaccine. 11,500,000 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 3,000,000 doses of Intranasal Drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease in poultry.

FORESTRY

      The Agriculture and Forestry Department is responsible for forestry generally and more directly for afforestation of the water catchment areas, protection of vegetation on Crown Lands, assistance to village forestry, and amenity planting. A thick cover of vegetation is essential in the catchment areas to prevent silting of reservoirs and erosion, and to help streams to flow more regularly by inducing as much water as possible to remain in the soil. Well-managed forests are the ideal way to achieve this. Elsewhere forestry can provide timber and fuel for local con- sumption and improve the rural economy. In fact, forestry is probably the most suitable form of extensive land development possible in those three quarters of the New Territories which comprise steep hills, woodlands or scrub.

It is only in recent years that any serious attempt has been made to carry out afforestation in the New Territories on a large scale; and the landscape is now undergoing a noticeable change as plantations become established. The hills are predominantly grass covered, with a thicker cover of shrubs in some areas and patches of scrub forest in remote and inaccessible places. There are also thickly-wooded areas where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as for example on Hong Kong Island and round villages. Villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalent hill fires of the dry season, has brought about the complete destruction of the vegetation in

Marine fish is Hong Kong's main primary product and the Colony's fishing fleet now numbers over 10,400 junks, many of them motorized. The day's catch is brought ashore on a shoulder pole (above) and auctioned almost immediately at the Fish Marketing Organization (below) a non-profit- making Government agency that ensures a fair price for all.

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Pigs are the principal food animals reared in Hong Kong and the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department maintains herds of pure exotic strain such as Berkshires, Mid Whites and Large Whites for the eventual improvement of the Colony's stock. A recent census showed there are about 2,000 water buffaloes in the Colony, kept mainly for work purposes.

K

M

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many parts of the Colony and soil erosion in its train. Villagers have forestry lots on the lower hill slopes, but the pine trees in most are so scattered and badly lopped that they scarcely alter the barren aspect of the land.

Forest reserves are for the most part co-extensive with the water catchment areas. The reserves are divided into compartments of 200-300 acres, intersected by paths and fire barriers cleared of vegetation. The main species planted is pine (Pinus Massoniana), with Brisbane box (Tristania conferta) next in number, but experi- mental plots have been made of a wide variety of other species and some of these are now being planted more widely. Species of Casuarina and Eucalyptus are among the most promising.

      Depending on the weather, planting usually starts in the cool, wet spring and continues until June or July. Although planting has been successful in the late summer, trees planted after July have usually had too short a period to establish themselves before the dry weather in October.

      The rains of 1960 came very fitfully, between unusually long dry spells, and planting progressed more slowly than had been planned. 965 acres were planted in the forest reserves and 114 acres in village forestry lots. 1,262 acres of previous years' plant- ings were also supplemented and replaced.

        In the Tai Lam Forest Reserve, afforestation continued in the remaining grasslands of the direct catchment area; planting gangs were helped by 150 prisoners from the Tai Lam Prison. A small extension was made to the Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve, and over three quarters of the Pat Heung and Fu Shui Forest Reserves were planted up by the year's end. All these reserves extend unbroken across the mountains of the Colony from Castle Peak in the west to Tai Po in the east and together make up about 13,000 acres.

       Planting was also carried out in the Kowloon Hills Forest Reserve and at Shap Long, Lantau Island. The work at Shap Long was done by prisoners from the Chi Ma Wan Prison and, as all available land on this peninsula had now been planted, work began on the Shek Pik catchment area.

Assistance to village forestry continued, the object being to teach the villagers how to plant and manage their forestry lots

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correctly and profitably. Demonstration plantations have shown quite clearly the results that can be achieved; these plantations have been useful in arousing the interest of the villagers. The Agriculture and Forestry Department also offers financial and technical aid towards establishing trial plantations within village lots. Trees take a long time to grow and it is not always easy to convince the villagers that forestry will be profitable. Interest is spreading steadily, if somewhat slowly, but it will be some years before the work now being done will begin to produce results. Some of the older stands now need their first thinning, and this will be the beginning of steady returns for the owners.

Closely connected with the Forestry Lot scheme is the Tree Planting campaign among New Territories' schools. This year individual schools organized their own tree-planting days and invited parents and local dignitaries to join them. The Department supplied trees and technical assistance and the 68 schools taking part planted nearly 6,000 trees.

     In order to provide tree seedlings for afforestation, the Agricul- ture and Forestry Department maintains a series of tree nurseries in the New Territories-a main nursery of twenty three acres at Tai Lung, smaller permanent nurseries in each forest district and temporary nurseries in many of the areas now being planted. There are altogether some thirty nurseries with a total area of about forty acres. These nurseries can produce two to three million tree seedlings annually. Most of the seedlings are now raised in polythene tubes instead of open nursery beds, and constant efforts are being made to improve the techniques of handling and planting them. Trees for amenity planting are also now raised in large polythene bags rather than in the old earthenware pots.

      During the dry season from October to March there is a constant threat of fire in the plantations and careful fire precautions are taken. Fire-lookouts which have been established on strategic hill-tops in the plantation areas are connected by field telephone to fire control points, where men, equipment and transport stand by during particularly dangerous periods. A system of roads, paths and fire-barriers is also maintained to help fire fighting. During the winter 1959-60 a total of 133 fires were reported, affecting over 2,200 acres, half of them in forest reserves or village forestry

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lots. Most of them occurred early in the year under review and, regrettably, most were due to the carelessness of the public.

FISHING

       Administration. Government's aim is to foster the orderly ex- pansion and development of the Fishing Industry, to increase supplies of fish to meet the needs of an expanding population and to enhance the economic status of those engaged in the industry. A Fisheries Division was established in 1952 under the administra- tion of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department and, in the same year, a Fisheries Research Unit was formed by the University of Hong Kong. A Fisheries Advisory Committee, on which both were represented, co-ordinated matters of common interest; the Co-operative Development Department, which was responsible for the supervision of fishermen's co-operative societies and the administration of the Fish Marketing Organization, also took part.

The disadvantages of this divided responsibility were such that Government decided with the agreement of the University to set up a single authority to direct fisheries activities; in July this year the Fisheries Division was transferred to the renamed Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department and was joined one month later by the Fisheries Research Unit, now known as the Fisheries Research Station. As fresh water pond fisheries in Hong Kong are closely connected with land utilization, extension work on commercial fish ponds remained with the Agriculture and Forestry Department, although the basic research work into pond fisheries is the responsibility of the new department.

Marine fisheries extension activities include investigations and demonstrations of fishing methods, craft and fishing gear; the introduction of new fishing techniques; the promotion and sound development of the mechanization programme; the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as masters and engineers; and the extension of oyster farming and of an important new industry, the culture of pearl oysters.

Problems such as overfishing and the conservation of fish re- sources receive attention and the Department also takes part in the activities of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council of FAO. Two

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    modified junk-type mechanized vessels are used as general purpose demonstration vessels and a small steel trawler, the Alister Hardy, is available for off-shore extension activities.

     The Department administers the Fisheries Development Loan Fund of $2 million, allotted specifically for the development of the Colony's middle and distant waters fleet, and Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare Scheme D1967 which provides mechanization loans for fishermen. There is close co-operation with the Fish Marketing Organization which administers two other fisheries loan funds and investigates all applications for loans from these funds, which provide capital of over $4.5 million for the development of the industry.

The Fisheries Research Station has a position in Hong Kong comparable with other national and regional institutes studying fisheries resources elsewhere. Its activities centre on a biological and oceanographical investigation of the continental shelf within a radius of approximately 500 miles of the Colony, extending from Formosa to the Gulf of Tong King. The Station operates the research trawler Cape St Mary of 240 tons, a gift from Her Majesty's Government. Other activities include research into the culture of Chinese carp and other pond fish and studies of edible and pearl oysters.

Fisheries. Marine fish is Hong Kong's first primary product and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Colonies. Over 10,400 fishing junks of various sizes and designs and twenty four Japanese type trawlers, ten of which are British registered, sail from the Colony. They are manned by a sea-going population of about 86,000, chiefly Tanka people, and the fishing centres are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, and Tai Po, Castle Peak, the Tolo Channel area, Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung, Tai O and Cheung Chau in the New Territories.

     Junks are built locally from imported timber, China fir being the most popular material, but in recent years continued shortages of fir have led to the increased use of teak and yacal. About 95% of the fleet is owner operated, and the rest are directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

     Purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and other inshore vessels operate mainly to the south of the Colony inside the

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twenty fathom line. The bigger junk-type trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their operations and now work mainly in 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung. Many of these deep-sea vessels still depend on sail and their activities are severely curtailed during the typhoon season from July to October.

The restrictions imposed by the Chinese People's Government in 1958, requiring fishermen based on Hong Kong who sail in Chinese inshore waters to land a quota of their catch in China, were continued throughout the year. Quotas were varied from time to time and the restrictions were enforced with varying degrees of rigidity.

There was a substantial increase in the mechanized fleet during the year; 669 vessels, the majority converted from sail, joined the fleet, which is now 3,329 strong.

Landings by the local fishing fleet were generally good through- out 1960 in spite of a stormy summer and the almost continuous presence of typhoons for two months. Quantities of both fresh and salt or dried fish continued to be imported from China although generally the quality of the salt and dried fish from this source was poor and much of it was sold as animal feed and fertilizer. The quota system, under which landings by foreign registered fishing vessels were restricted, was lifted on 1st February, but there has been no significant increase in landings by such vessels.

Oyster farming and pearl oyster culture. Edible oysters have been cultivated in the waters of the Colony for some 700 years. The principal area of cultivation is Deep Bay where 600 tons of fresh oyster meat, valued at approximately $1,400,000, were produced from 6,060 acres along the New Territories' shores of the Bay. Most of this was processed into dried meat or oyster juice and exported to markets overseas. Production this year, how- ever, fell far below that of other years because of the severe damage wrought by typhoon Mary in June.

Six commercial pearling companies are now operating in the Colony on sites surveyed and licensed by the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department. It is still too early to judge the success of their activities, but interim investigations have been encouraging and there is growing interest in this young industry.

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     Four of the sites are in the Tolo Harbour and Channel area and there are two in Port Shelter. A shortage of suitable sites threatens to restrict wider expansion.

MARKETING

Fish Marketing Organization. The close of the Pacific War found the few fishermen remaining in the Colony in very poor circumstances; many were literally in rags and their vessels and fishing gear had fallen into a state of disrepair. Interest free loans and grants were made to rehabilitate the fishing fleet and a Fish Marketing Scheme was introduced and controls imposed on the landing and wholesale marketing of marine fish, with the long term object of developing the industry on a sound economic footing. From this beginning developed the Fish Marketing Organization, a non-Government trading organization controlled by a civil servant, now the Commissioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries.

     The Organization is a non-profit-making concern which finds its revenues and pays its expenses from a 6% commission on all the sales at its wholesale markets. It operates at present under emergency legislation. The Marketing (Marine Fish) Ordinance was enacted in 1956 to replace this, but has not been brought into force until the necessary subsidiary legislation has been prepared.

      The Organization runs five wholesale fish markets, at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on Hong Kong Island, Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon, and Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. Six fish- collecting posts have been set up in other fishing centres and the Organization provides sea and land transport from these to the wholesale markets. The posts also serve as liaison offices for the Organization.

      Fish is sorted into species and sizes at the markets by the staff of the Organization, weighed into lots and sold by public auction to licensed retailers. Fishermen may collect the proceeds from their sales directly after the sale has taken place or, if asked to do so, the Organization will send the money back to the post which serves their area. A further service is the transportation of fish to buyers' establishments in the urban areas.

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103

      Fresh fish sales through the Marketing Organization increased very slightly but sales of salt and dried fish went down by almost 45%, underlining the continuing trend on the part of fishermen to market as much of their catch as possible when it is fresh. The average annual wholesale prices for both fresh and salt or dried fish differed only slightly from the levels of 1959.

The embargo on the importation of salt and dried fish from the Colony, imposed by the Chinese People's Government in June 1950, remained in force throughout the year. Salt fish exporters seeking other outlets have met with little success in the face of increasing competition from other countries in the region. During the year 17,448 piculs of salt and dried fish were exported, mainly to the USA, Canada, Thailand and Singapore.

      The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important of the services which the Fish Marketing Organization offers to local fishermen. The Organization's revolving loan fund, established in 1946, has made 5,439 loans totalling $7,673,000; of this some $6,532,000 had been repaid at the end of the year. In 1957 the Co-operative for American Relief Everywhere (CARE) donated $31,000 to form a revolving loan fund for shrimp fishermen. This fund is administered by the Organization and loans totalling $54,000 have been made; repayments to this fund total $46,000. The Organization also carries out investigations and acts as collecting agent for the two Government loan funds administered by the Fisheries Division of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

      A further important side to the Organization's development programme is the provision of schooling facilities up to Primary IV standard for the children of fishermen. Classes have been extended to Primary VI in two fishing centres, Shau Kei Wan and Ap Chau, and adult education classes have been opened at Sha Tau Kok and Shau Kei Wan. Nine schools have been established by the Organization, eight of which now come under the Education Department's Subsidy Code. At the close of the year 1,616 fisher- men's children were receiving education at schools wholly or partly financed by the Organization and 994 were attending other schools on scholarships provided by the Organization. All Fish Marketing Organization schools have Advisory Committees com- posed of leaders of the fishing communities served by the schools.

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The Organization may one day be run by the fishermen themselves as a co-operative enterprise, but lack of education is a factor that only time can solve. Wherever possible the Fisheries Division makes full use of the Organization's close relationship with the fishing communities. The value of this relationship was demon- strated after typhoon Mary, which passed through the Colony during the early hours of the morning of 9th June and caused grievous damage to the fishing community. Many thousands of fishermen and boat-people turned to the Organization for assist- ance apart from the provision of immediate relief within 14 days, 130 rehabilitation grants totalling $193,943 were made through the Organization from the Community Typhoon Relief Fund, which was set up by public subscription immediately after the typhoon. In this same period over $170,000 were loaned to fishermen from the Organization's loan fund.

The success of the Organization has attracted world wide interest and a month seldom passes without the arrival of visitors and students from other lands to study the operations of the Organiza- tion with the idea of setting up similar schemes in their own countries.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. The advantages of the Fish Marketing Scheme were obvious almost immediately, and a similar scheme was introduced in 1946 for the Colony's second most important group of primary producers, the vegetable farmers. From this developed the Vegetable Marketing Organization. The Organization now operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing (the Commissioner for Co-operative Development and Fisheries) who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property and to use the assets of the Organization for the development and encouragement of vegetable farming. It provides also for a Marketing Advisory Board; the Director as Chairman and four other persons, nomi- nated by the Governor, who have experience and understanding of the difficulties and needs of farmers. The controls imposed by the Ordinance, however, apply only to the New Territories and Kowloon area, for there is little vegetable cultivation on the Island.

      The Organization has established depots in the main vegetable cultivation areas of the New Territories. From these depots, the

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majority of which are now operated by Vegetable Marketing Co- operative Societies, vegetables are collected daily by the Organiza- tion's fleet of transport to a large central wholesale market at Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon. Three sales periods are held at the wholesale market every day; these sales and all the money dealings involved are conducted by the Organization.

       The Organization works in many ways like its Fish Marketing counterpart. Important differences, however, lie in the method of sale which in the case of the vegetables is by negotiation and not by auction, and in the measure of practical assistance given by the vegetable marketing co-operative societies which now handle 70% of the local production of vegetables. The reasons for negotiating sales, instead of holding auctions, are easy to see; on a normal day 18,000 separate lots may be sold to 3,000 buyers. The number of lots rises to over 27,000 a day in the main season, making sales by auction impracticable.

       Local vegetable production was adversely affected by severe floods in May and the typhoon of early June. Production during the year was therefore less than expected, and sales of vegetables through the Organization fell a little short of the record quantity marketed during 1959; there was a slight increase in the average annual wholesale price. An increased quantity of imported vege- tables passed through the Organization's market at Yau Ma Tei, at approximately the same average annual wholesale price as 1959. Figures are given in an Appendix to this Chapter.

The Organization is self-supporting and the costs of the services provided are met from a 10% commission charged on sales. 30% of this commission is refunded to the marketing co-operative societies in recognition of the marketing responsibilities they as- sume in respect of their own produce. The Organization is also non-profit-making and any financial surpluses are ploughed back into the industry in the form of improved services and other benefits. One example is the aid which the Organization has given to farmers in overcoming their main problem of recent years, the lack of a cheap fertilizer, through a scheme for the maturation and distribution of nightsoil at a low price.

Cheap credit is a further important service of the Organization. Farmers may obtain loans through the Commissioner for Co-oper- ative Development and Fisheries, who is also the Registrar of

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Co-operative Societies, from two sources: the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. Since the establishment of the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund in 1954, which the Commissioner administers with the general guidance of the Rural Development Committee, farmers have received from it 7,038 loans totalling $8,282,000 and also 475 loans of $1,816,000 from the Vegetable Marketing Organization's Fund.

      The Government has declared the policy that the Organization should one day be run by the farmers themselves as a co-operative enterprise. Considerable progress has been made in this direction.

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

      A Registrar of Co-operative Societies was appointed in 1950, and the combined Co-operative and Marketing Department, now part of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department, came into being later in the same year. Since then, the Co- operative movement has made rapid progress in Hong Kong and is being accepted by a growing number of people, particularly peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic way of improving their lot. While the main weight of effort was directed at first towards the physical formation of societies and towards ensuring that they were sound in organization and economy, existing societies and the general public are now more aware of what such unions afford, and the Department now places more emphasis on the moral and educative side of the movement.

      An interesting development during the past five years has been the growth in the number of Co-operative Building Societies; these societies are at present formed exclusively of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and have been established with funds loaned by the Government. Another development of great im- portance is the increasing appreciation by rural communities of the improvements they may make in their way of life by co- operation and the formation of Better Living societies.

47 new co-operative societies were registered in 1960, bringing the total on register at the end of December to 304. Among the new registrations were a Vegetable Marketing Society, two Pig Raising Societies, one Agricultural Credit Society, three Fisher- men's Thrift and Loan Societies, three Federations of Fishermen's

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Co-operative Societies, two Better Living Societies and twenty three Building Societies. At present there are sixteen different types of society. A table showing the number of societies in being at 31st December 1960, with details of their membership, share capital, deposits and reserve funds will be found in Appendix V.

MINING

      Iron ore, tungsten, and graphite are mined underground, and kaolin, feldspar, and quartz by opencast methods. Iron and kaolin are exported to Japan, wolframite to the United States, and graphite to the United Kingdom, United States, Japan, and other countries. Local ceramic and enamelware factories consume all the quartz and the rubber factories about a fifth of the kaolin that is mined.

       At the end of 1960, there were two mining leases, twenty one mining licences, and six prospecting licences valid for different mainland areas and in islands of the New Territories. These were mainly controlled by individuals or small mining companies.

       In 1960 the production from the iron mine at Ma On Shan came chiefly from underground. The ore was treated in a dressing plant with a daily capacity of 700 tons of crude ore. From this plant, near the waterfront, concentrates were transported by barge to ocean-going ships anchored off-shore. A second dressing plant was installed early in the year to treat low-grade crude ore which had been dumped in past years as uneconomic. This ore was screened, hand-picked, and subjected to dry magnetic separation before being passed to the main dressing plant.

Although the market price of wolfram has improved and re- mained steady during the year, it is still so low as to discourage interest in the mineral, except at a mine at Needle Hill. Prospect- ing continued for iron ore and graphite but no discoveries of economic importance were made.

       The Mines Department is under the control of the Commissioner of Mines, who is also the Commissioner of Labour. The everyday direction of the department is by a Superintendent of Mines, helped by an Assistant Mining Engineer.

The ownership and control of all minerals is invested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance, 1954. This ordinance provides

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for the issue of prospecting and mining licences by the Commis- sioner of Mines and of mining leases by the Land Officer. An amending ordinance became law in August to repair shortcomings shown up in the principal ordinance by some years of experience of administering it. Prospecting and mining licences are issued for periods of six months but are renewable up to two years and five years respectively. Under the amendments, further extensions up to not more than five years and ten years respectively are now allowed with the consent of the Governor. Details are published twice a year in the Government Gazette of the mining leases and licences and prospecting licences in operation on 1st January and 1st July.

The Superintendent of Mines grants mine blasting certificates and examines export licences for minerals mined locally. He is responsible for assessing royalties on mineral sales, at a rate of 5% of the value, and for issuing demand notes for royalties, rents, premia, and fees for licences and leases. His Department also inspects mining areas and surveys land affected by applications for, or grants of, such licences.

8

Education

THE Visitor to Hong Kong is quickly impressed by the crowds of neatly-uniformed school children who seem forever to be going to or from their lessons in schools of every kind. As one stream goes home from the morning session, another often pours in to the same school premises for afternoon instruction.

      The number of pupils in every type of school continued to rise during 1960, particularly in the primary schools. On 30th September 1960, enrolment was as follows, with the previous year's figures in brackets:

Kindergarten

Primary

Enrolment

24,454

(18,764)

414,864

(350,361)

Secondary

88,495

(74,625)

Post-Secondary

13,678

(13,291)

3

Adult Education

17,737

(14,056)

Special Afternoon Classes

12,827

(13,156)

Special Education

751

(733)

572,806

(484,986)

EXPANSION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

      The seven years' programme for expansion of primary schools, which was conceived in 1954 and approved in 1955, passed its target of 215,000 additional places well ahead of schedule during the first quarter of 1960, with 219,000 places. Since the original target was a minimum, based on registered births and deaths and taking no account of immigration, there still remains a need for more places if all children of primary school age are to be admitted. There will be a full review when the results of the census are known.

PRIMARY EDUCATION

       Primary Courses. Children normally enter primary school as soon as they have passed their sixth birthday. The course lasts

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six years and most schools teach in Cantonese. Instruction in English as a second language usually begins in the third year, but English is the medium of instruction for about 9,000 pupils, with Chinese as a second language. At the end of the primary school course comes the Joint Primary Six Examination. Four Government English primary schools provide for children whose normal language is English.

Kindergarten Schools. Kindergarten education is not included in the Government system of education, but there are several private institutions teaching either in Cantonese or English for children aged 4 to 6.

SECONDARY EDUCATION

      Anglo-Chinese Grammar Schools. These schools have a five years' course in the normal academic subjects with instruction given in English, and Chinese taught as a second language. There are 112 of them and 55,510 pupils, studying up to the Hong Kong School Certificate. Education continues in the 6th Form for success- ful School Certificate candidates, who enter for the Matriculation Examination of the University of Hong Kong or the General Certificate of Education (University of London) at ordinary and advanced levels. Pupils who succeed in these examinations may go to the University, Teacher Training Colleges, or other professional institutions.

Chinese Middle Schools give a six years' course in the normal academic subjects with Chinese as the medium of instruction and English taken as a second language. There are 95 such schools with 27,778 pupils who sit at the end of the course for the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate. Further education is available for successful candidates at the Post-Secondary Colleges and the Special Classes Centre.

      Technical Schools provide a five years' course in the English language, and their pupils enter for the Hong Kong School Certi- ficate Examination. There are 21 technical schools with 3,279 pupils, who if successful usually continue their education at the Technical College.

Secondary Modern Schools. Two schools of this type started this year, and will provide three years' courses specially framed

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to meet the practical needs of pupils, leading to direct entry into employment or to further technical or vocational training.

      Special Classes Centre. This provides instruction in English for pupils who have passed the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate and who wish to enter the University of Hong Kong. 74 students are now enrolled.

POST-SECONDARY EDUCATION

       The Technical College provides courses for technicians, tech- nologists and for those entering for professional examinations. There are 55 full-time lecturers and 344 part-time lecturers on the staff, and 774 full-time or part-time 'day-release' students and 6,401 evening students. Departments of the College include Build- ing, Electrical Engineering with Telecommunications, Mechanical and Production Engineering, Textiles, Navigation and Commerce. English is used for instruction and the required standard for admission is a School Certificate. A Diploma is normally awarded at the end of a three years' course. The College also prepares students for various professional examinations.

       There are a large classroom and laboratory block, extensive workshops and an auditorium and students' canteen. Buildings added during the year include the China Light and Power Com- pany's Electrical Machine Laboratory, the Mollers Heat Engines Laboratory, and a pilot dyeing and finishing plant. New courses opened include diploma courses in Mechanical and Production Engineering, technicians' courses in dyeing and finishing for the textile industry, and a course for Dental Mechanics. A three years' Ordinary Certificate course of Commercial Education was started, based on requirements for the London Chamber of Commerce.

The Evening Department offers similar courses, of one, two, three and five years' duration according to their subjects. They are mostly 'grouped' courses, in which students study a number of related subjects; courses in single subjects are exceptional. Three years' preliminary courses are available in general subjects for apprentices and artisans whose general education will not allow their admission to the certificate courses. There are also a few courses taught in Cantonese. Preliminary courses were held this year for the first time in the Tsuen Wan area. Students take the

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    examinations of the Institutions of Mechanical Engineers and of Electrical Engineers, the City and Guilds of London Institute, the Institute of Building and the London Chamber of Commerce.

     Post-Secondary Colleges are post-war institutions, the impetus behind their establishment being the influx of students and university staff from China during the years 1947-50. The present enrolment in the colleges is 3,842. The Post-Secondary Colleges Ordinance, 1960, provided for the registration and control of the Colleges and for their consequent exemption from the Education Ordinance. The object of this new ordinance is to give statutory recognition to those institutions whose status approaches, but does not attain, that of a university. Three of the colleges now receive government grants. Admission is through a Joint Entry Examina- tion; 1,110 candidates sat the examination during the year and 497 passed. The Grant Colleges also administered a Joint Diploma Examination which 169 entered and 138 passed. A Joint Establish- ment Board, which had been formed under the Ordinance, advised them on establishments and the grading of teachers.

     The University of Hong Kong began its life largely with financial assistance from generous friends and benefactors and has since had the substantial support of recurrent and non-recurrent grants from the Government. Recurrent expenditure for the academic year 1959-60 was about $12,000,000, the Government subvention towards recurrent expenditure being $5,800,000 and the budgeted capital subvention $3,000,000. Grants of Crown Land have been made from time to time; the central University estate now covers an area of about forty acres, and other estates almost nine acres.

There are four faculties: Arts, Science, Medicine, and Engineer- ing and Architecture. Enrolments in October 1960 were 573, 184, 311 and 166 respectively. The Institute of Oriental Studies had 31 students, the Education Diploma and Certificate courses 120 and the Social Study course 22, giving a total of 1,407 under- graduate and post-graduate students, of whom 140 were part-time. 371 students (26.4%) were women. Most of the undergraduates are Chinese but several other races are represented, particularly from south-east Asia. About 370 students receive financial aid in the form of scholarships and bursaries. With the increasing numbers qualifying for entrance from the schools, Government and the University have agreed on a programme of expansion

THOUSANDS

700

600

500

400

TEN YEARS' GROWTH IN SCHOOL ENROLMENT

HONG

300

200

100

ENROLMENT

POST-SECONDARY AND ADULT EDUCATION*

SECONDARY

PRIMARY

共圖

ただ

i

1951 1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

*THIS FRACTION INCLUDES THE EVENING INSTITUTE, BUT NOT THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG

TEN YEARS' PROGRESSIVE EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION BY THE GOVERNMENT

140

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS

130

120

110

100

80

60

50

NOTE:

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE

RECURRENT EXPENDITURE

following considerations are ingluded -

I Subventions to the University of Mong Kong

2. Value of the land for the school sites.

3. Interest-free loans by Government to

agencies: the outstanding balance of these is about $18 million.

40

PUB

30

20

20

10

1950-1 1951-2 1952-3

1953-4 1954-5 1955-6 1956-7

1957-8 1958-9 1959-60

EDUCATION

113

which will raise the number of undergraduates to about 1,800 by 1966. The number of full-time teaching staff, including demonstra- tors and above, is 196. Over seventy of these are the University's own graduates.

       The University will celebrate its Golden Jubilee in 1961 with a Domestic Celebration in March for graduates and the local com- munity, and a General Celebration in September to which fellow members of the Association of Universities of the British Com- monwealth and other learned and professional societies and foundations have been invited to send delegates. The General Celebration will include a Jubilee congress holding symposia on muscle-receptors; phytochemistry; the design of high buildings; land use and mineral deposits in south-east Asia; historical, archaeological, and linguistic studies on southern China, south- east Asia, and the Hong Kong region; and economic and social problems of the Far East.

HIGHER EDUCATION OVERSEAS

       The British Universities Selection Committee, appointed by His Excellency the Governor, interviews and recommends students who want to further their education in universities or other institu- tions in the United Kingdom. The Students' Branch of the Colonial Office and the Hong Kong Students' Office in London undertake the responsibility of trying to place these students. During the year under review, the title of 'Director' of Hong Kong Students in the United Kingdom was changed to that of 'Adviser', and an additional male Assistant Adviser was appointed. The Adviser and his two Assistants are also responsible for meeting and arranging accommodation of students on arrival, and for helping them with their educational and personal problems during their time in Great Britain.

From 1st October 1959 to 30th September 1960 the Secretary, British Universities Selection Committee, dealt with 325 applica- tions for educational courses and 240 applications for nursing courses in the United Kingdom. During the same period, 326 students are known to have left Hong Kong for further studies in the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic. 1,846 Hong Kong students are known to be studying in the United Kingdom and the

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EDUCATION

Republic of Ireland at the end of September 1960 as against 1,687 at the same time the year before. A table in Appendix VI shows the main categories of their courses. The numbers of Hong Kong students known to have left for USA, Canada, and Australia for further studies are 1,060, 180 and 711 respectively.

      Government maintains Hong Kong House in London, which is a residential establishment and social centre for Hong Kong students in Britain. The House is controlled by a Board of Governors responsible to the Government and has hostel accom- modation for about 80 students. The British Council also gives advice and help to students both before leaving Hong Kong and in the United Kingdom.

ADULT EDUCATION

Adult Education is provided by the Education Department in the Evening Institute (enrolment of 11,690), the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies (414), the Technical College Evening Department (6,401) and nine Adult Education and Recreation Centres (25,937). The Evening Institute offers varied courses designed to make up educational deficiencies and to improve pros- pects of employment. Classes range from primary to 6th Form standards and it is possible for students to take the School Certificate Examination. General background classes give an ele- mentary education with special reference to adult needs and interests. These classes include practical background education for such subjects as home management, housecraft, cooking, sewing, and so on. Apart from technical classes there are 412 different classes in 47 places in both town and country. Other forms of adult education are provided by the Department of Extra-Mural Studies of the University of Hong Kong, private night schools and voluntary agencies.

The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies is for pupils leaving Chinese senior middle schools who wish to take more advanced courses in Chinese studies. The school gives a three years' course in general arts leading to a diploma issued by the Education Department. Candidates must have a Chinese School Certificate or show that they have reached an equivalent standard before gaining admission. Among the subjects taught are Chinese

EDUCATION

115

Literature, Philosophy, Sociology, Philology, Poetry, and Drama. English language and literature also occupy an important part in the curriculum.

Adult Education and Recreation Centres provide both recreation and education for men and women from the poorer classes. The first centre was opened in 1955. It proved very successful and there are now nine centres. Each is controlled by an organizer, who deals with administration, and three supervisors who direct the various activities. Their programmes may be grouped in four categories: educational, cultural, physical and social. The educa- tional courses provide general background education, and instruc- tion in practical subjects. The general course provides basic education up to Primary 6 standard and practical courses. Mem- bership is open to men and women aged 18 and over and is entirely free. Special instruction is given in art, music, dramatics, photography, folk-dancing and other hobbies, and Government officers give lectures on health, citizenship and similar subjects. The staff for these centres is largely recruited from the teaching profession, and undergoes 9 months' training at special evening courses. A short residential conference is held during the summer vacation which forms part of this training.

TEACHERS

Teachers and Teacher Training. There are 19,802 teachers employed in schools controlled by the Education Department. This number includes both full-time and the equivalent number of part- time teachers. 10,963 have professional qualification. At the end of the 1960 school year the ratio of pupils to teachers was 26.1:1 in all types of schools. School classes are planned to have 45 pupils in primary classes and 40 in secondary classes. The required qualifications of teachers are university degrees, certificates in special subjects (mainly overseas qualifications) and local and overseas teaching certificates.

Teacher Training is mainly carried out by the Government's Education Department which staffs and maintains two training colleges and runs four main types of course.

       A special one year's course is offered to graduates of Post- Secondary Colleges. Those who pass this course are qualified to

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EDUCATION

teach in Chinese middle schools. During the year 38 were enrolled

in this course.

Teaching Certificates are granted to students who have been successful in courses of two years and one year and who have afterwards taught for two years. The two years' course is in English and qualifies a student to teach in upper primary and lower secondary classes. The one year's course is instructed in Chinese and provides qualified primary teachers. Both these courses are full daytime training. The two years' course is re- cognized by the Ministry of Education in the United Kingdom for the purposes of the Burnham scale.

In addition the colleges have In-Service Training Courses for unqualified teachers. These are part-time evening courses and lead to a qualification equivalent to a One-Year Teaching Certificate.

During the year there were 171 students in the Two-Year Course, 723 students in the One-Year Course, and 1,040 in the In-Service Course. The Evening Institute also organized classes for 600 teachers undergoing part-time training. These teachers will even- tually become qualified primary teachers.

The University of Hong Kong has an Education Department with an enrolment of 120, which gives professional training to graduates.

EXAMINATIONS

      The Local Examination System. There are four local school examinations, three conducted by the Education Department, and one conducted by the University of Hong Kong.

Joint Primary Six Examination. Children sit this at the end of their primary schooling. All pupils in government schools, and selected pupils in subsidized and private schools, enter and can- didates who reach a required standard are given a certificate. The best candidates are selected for secondary education and scholar- ships are awarded on merit. The examination is conducted by a committee of representatives from both schools and Education Department.

Hong Kong School Certificate. This examination is conducted by a Syndicate of representatives of participating schools and the

EDUCATION

117

     Education Department. Candidates enter the examination at the end of a five years' course in Anglo-Chinese schools. Entry is restricted to school candidates. The examination tests general scholastic attainment and a pass is awarded on satisfactory per- formance in certain groups of subjects with some compulsory subjects. The number of candidates grows rapidly year by year, as the certificate is the qualification for proceeding to higher examinations, for admission to teacher training colleges, and for local employment.

       Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate. This examination is conducted by a similar Syndicate. Candidates enter after com- pleting a six years' course in a Chinese Middle School. Only school candidates may enter and the pass requirements are like those of the School Certificate. The number of candidates shows a small increase each year. The status of this certificate is similar to the Hong Kong School Certificate.

      Matriculation. The University of Hong Kong conducts the examination at Ordinary and Advanced levels. The standards are those of the General Certificate of Education. Passes at Advanced and Ordinary level are necessary to secure admission to the University and this certificate may also be used as an entrance qualification to teacher training colleges. Candidates are entered for the examination at Ordinary level after a one year's course in a 6th Form of an Anglo-Chinese grammar school, and for the Advanced level after a two years' course in a 6th Form. Admission to 6th Form is controlled by a pupil's performance in the Hong Kong School Certificate. Candidates other than bona fide school candidates are permitted to take the examination.

       Overseas Examinations. (a) The Overseas General Certificate of Education is open to school children and some private candidates; a total of 2,611 entered during the year. Only those who have a good performance in the Hong Kong School Certificate are allowed to sit. (b) Other examinations. The Education Department acts as a local secretary for examining bodies in the United Kingdom and so makes many overseas examinations available to students in Hong Kong. The standard of performance required is identical with that of the examinations held in the United Kingdom. These examinations are mainly in commercial subjects, and Appendix VI

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EDUCATION

shows the more important examinations and the number of candidates entering for them.

SCHOLARSHIPS AND BURSARIES

       In addition to the 314 local Government awards listed in Appendix VI, 8 scholarships and 7 bursaries to British educational institutions were awarded by the United Kingdom Government to candidates from Hong Kong under the Commonwealth Scholar- ships and Fellowships scheme formulated at the Education Con- ference held at Oxford in 1959. Invitations to participate in this scheme were also received from other Commonwealth countries. Hong Kong is also a contributor by awarding 2 scholarships per year tenable at the University of Hong Kong to students of the Commonwealth, and this year two students from Australia received these awards for advanced Chinese studies. 6 places at Northcote Training College have also been awarded to students from North Borneo. 10 departmental scholarships were awarded to officers of the Education Department for training in the United Kingdom. One UNESCO Fellowship, 5 British Council Scholar- ships and 2 fellowships and 5 scholarships from other educational bodies were also awarded for graduate and post-graduate courses in overseas universities.

FINANCE

Appendix VI gives a summary of Government expenditure on education: this amounts to about one sixth of the year's revenue for 1959-60. During the year free places in Government and aided secondary schools were increased from 30% to a maximum of 45%. Fees were also increased by a minimum of $40 to a maximum of $120 per year depending on the level of education. A similar allocation of free places was allowed in the scheme for assisted places in private secondary schools.

LEGISLATION

All government schools are directly controlled by the Director of Education. Other schools, with some exceptions, are subject to the provisions of the Education Ordinance. The exceptions include schools for the children of members of Her Majesty's

EDUCATION

119

Services, while Post-Secondary Colleges and the University of Hong Kong have their own separate ordinances. Under the Educa- tion Ordinance the Director of Education has general control over education in the Colony, and is required to keep registers of schools, managers of schools, and teachers, and to ensure that satisfactory standards are maintained of school buildings, dis- cipline, registers and accounts and payment of fees, and that the conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers shall be good.

THE BOARD OF EDUCATION

The Board of Education was established in 1920 'for the purpose of assisting the Director of Education in matters pertaining to the development and improvement of education in the Colony'. Its chairman is the Director of Education, apart from whom its membership is now entirely unofficial. The Board meets regularly, and Government normally consults it on all matters of educational importance and gives it notice of proposed changes and develop- ments. The Board met four times during the year and considered many aspects of education. It devoted special attention to legisla- tion for post-secondary colleges and the planning of future educational expansion.

SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION

Government Schools are those built, equipped, and operated entirely from Government funds. There are 73 primary schools, eleven secondary schools, two secondary modern schools, two training colleges and a technical college and four evening institu- tions maintained in this fashion.

Grant Schools. These schools, which mainly give secondary education, work under the terms of the Grant Code, by which the Government pays the difference between approved expenditure and approved income. Approved expenditure includes salaries, leave pay, passages for teachers who are so entitled, and other charges. Alternatively, a block grant may be made and grants may also be made up to 50 per cent of the cost of new buildings, equipment and major repairs.

       Subsidized Schools are mainly primary schools operating under the Subsidy Code. The subsidy, like that paid under the Grant

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EDUCATION

     Code, is a deficiency grant and enables schools to keep their fees low and to pay teachers the same salaries as Government and Grant Schools. The schools are assisted by free grants of land and building subsidies, and are eligible for interest-free loans for new buildings. More than half such primary schools are in the New Territories, serving small, scattered villages. When a school is needed (or an extension to an existing one) the villagers usually approach the District Officer, who helps them to seek the Director of Education's approval for their plans. A building grant and recurrent subsidy are generally given: the normal village contribu- tion to the capital cost is 50%.

       Private Schools. Private schools range from Kindergarten through primary and secondary to post-secondary. In most cases the private technical and commercial schools aim at short, in- tensive courses. Fees are generally much higher than those in other schools. Two measures were introduced during 1960 to assist private non-profit-making schools. The period of repayment of loans to schools of this kind was extended to 21 years, subject to interest being charged at 31% per annum; schools already in receipt of interest-free loans repayable over 11 years were given the choice of adopting these new terms for the outstanding balance of their loans. Direct Government assistance is also now lent towards paying the salaries of qualified teachers in selected non- profit-making secondary schools. Assistance has been given in certain private secondary schools towards the fees of students who have been selected for entry on the results of the Joint Primary 6 examination. The assistance payable is equal to the difference between the approved fee of the school and the fee that would be charged in a comparable government school. About 1,200 students receive awards of this nature.

VOLUNTARY EDUCATIOM AND WELFARE WORK

Missions of various denominations and the Kaifong (or Neigh- bourhood) welfare associations organize grant-in-aid and subsidized schools. Both Missions and Kaifongs sponsor boards of manage- ment for non-profit-making schools. Kaifongs also provide free education for poor children. The British Red Cross Society or- ganizes hospital schools for crippled children. Schools for the deaf,

EDUCATION

121

for the blind, and for lepers, orphanages and homes for malad- justed children are also provided by various welfare associations while the Po Leung Kuk provides free schooling for homeless young women and children in its care.

Other welfare agencies which contribute to the educational effort include the YMCA, YWCA, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association. The Children's Play- ground Association, the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Associations, and the Rotary Clubs, also give assistance. The Education Depart- ment works closely with the Social Welfare Department on Special Schools and voluntary agencies, and is represented at the meetings of the Hong Kong Council of Social Services and the Mental Health Association of Hong Kong. The Department associates closely with the Medical and Health Department in health educa- tion and with the Hong Kong Teachers Association in the pro- fessional sphere.

LIBRARIES

Libraries are maintained by the British Council, the United States Information Service, the local Chambers of Commerce, a number of Government departments including the Education Department, and the University of Hong Kong; access to the University and some of the official libraries is restricted. Books, pamphlets, journals and visual-aid material are distributed by the Government Information Services Department, the British Council, various consular authorities and commercial agencies.

MUSIC, DRAMA AND THE ARTS

       These subjects occupy an important place in the school cur- riculum and in extracurricular activities.

Music. The Schools' Music Association presented 9 concerts by local and visiting artists to its student members. Membership increased from 2,986 to 3,782. A fund to be called the Brother Cassian Memorial Award has been created with the aim of helping individual students and furthering the general aims of the Association. The 12th Annual Schools' Music Festival was held in March and attracted 2,426 entries. Dr Leon Forrester adjudi- cated the music classes, Miss Patricia Lawrence the English elocu- tion classes, and Dr T. Y. Liu the Chinese elocution classes. The

122

EDUCATION

last was

          new venture which met with great support, and will be enlarged in the future. There were 2,297 entries for the practical examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal School of Music, making this the third highest entry throughout the 27 Commonwealth countries covered by the Board. In the Board's examinations in theory there were 398 candidates in March, 278 in June, and 1,084 in November. This is the first time that an extra examination has been needed in June to manage all the entries. 335 candidates passed in March and 230 passed in June. This was the first year that candidates were considered for the new annual scholarship awarded by the Board of Hong Kong and India jointly. Hitherto, Hong Kong has been given one scholar- ship every three years.

       Just over 1,000 teachers attended two summer courses in music which consisted of lectures, films, and demonstration lessons.

Drama. A successful inter-school drama competition was held during the year in which schools entered for both English and Cantonese competitions.

Art. An art exhibition was incorporated in an Education Con- ference held in July. The exhibits, which were mostly from secondary schools, showed a high standard and there was also work of exceptional quality from the two teacher training colleges. One of the most interesting developments during the year was the printing by Government of three public posters designed by the winners of competitions for school children. Two of these had traffic as their subject and the third water conservation, and all have been highly praised by critics outside the Colony.

9

Health

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

STATUTORY responsibility for the services which safeguard public health in Hong Kong is divided between the Director of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Director of Urban Services, and the Commissioner of Labour. The Medical and Health Department provides hospital and clinic facilities through- out both urban and rural areas; maintains maternal and child health, school health and port health services; and is responsible for measures to control epidemic and endemic disease. Doctors are seconded to the Urban Services Department, the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department, and the Prisons medical service.

        The Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance, 1960, con- solidated and revised the legislation governing environmental and food hygiene and public amenities. The Urban Council, through the Urban Services Department, continues to be the authority for these matters in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon, but the Ordinance provides for gradual transfer of the corresponding statutory powers and functions in the rural areas from the District Commissioner, New Territories to the Director of Urban Services. This transfer has already begun.

The policy of Government is to provide, directly or indirectly, either free or at low cost, medical and personal health services to that large section of the community which is unable to seek medical attention from other sources. To this end it maintains general, maternity, mental and infectious disease hospitals and general and specialized out-patient clinics. Substantial grants-in-aid are given from public funds to certain voluntary associations and medical missionary bodies who maintain hospitals where treatment is either free or at low cost, such grants normally being calculated to meet the excess of expenditure over income. In some hospitals

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HEALTH

run by such bodies, notably for the in-patient treatment of tuber- culosis, a subvention meets the cost of maintaining a fixed number of beds.

There is a charge of $1 for each attendance at most Government clinics, but out-patient treatment is available free for tuberculosis, leprosy and venereal disease. Ophthalmic services are free to the blind and to children under ten years of age, except for the cost of spectacles, and there is no charge for attendance at maternal and child health centres. Preventive inoculations against certain endemic diseases are available at Government hospitals, clinics and dispensaries, and BCG vaccine is provided without charge to doctors and midwives throughout the Colony. There is no charge for treatment or accommodation in the general and maternity wards of Government hospitals although when food is provided there is a nominal maintenance charge. Fees are payable for first class or single ward accommodation and for second class accom- modation in wards of two to eight beds, but in all cases may be waived if necessary.

      Finance. In addition to the recurrent expenditure on the services maintained by the Medical and Health Department, subventions totalling $21,811,700 were paid during 1960-1 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Associa- tion, the Grantham Hospital (run by the Anti-Tuberculosis Association), the Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission to Lepers, and other like institutions and organizations. The largest subven- tion of $14,970,000 went to the Tung Wah Hospitals and included a fresh capital grant of $5,000,000 towards rebuilding the Kwong Wah Hospital. Total recurrent expenditure including the subven- tions was 9% of the Colony's total estimated expenditure. The estimated capital expenditure on new Government medical projects was $16,793,900.

Professional Registers. There are five statutory bodies which deal with the registration of medical practitioners, dentists, phar- macists, nurses and midwives. The Hong Kong Medical Council is responsible for the registration of medical practitioners and has responsibilities under the Medical Registration Ordinance, 1957; it is not an examining body. The Dental Council, Pharmacy Board, Nurses Board and Midwives Board all maintain registers, regulate training, hold examinations leading to registration or enrolment,

HEALTH

125

and have disciplinary powers. Towards the end of the year the Society of Apothecaries in London held the third and last examination in Hong Kong for the diploma of LMSSA. Of the 82 unregistered doctors admitted, 44 passed in all parts of the examination, bringing to 128 the number of doctors who have obtained the qualification during the past three years as a result of this special arrangement with the Society.

GENERAL HEALTH

Despite the continuing basic problems of overcrowding, a restricted water supply, a rapidly increasing population, and lack of adequate housing, the general health of the Colony remained remarkably good. There was no major epidemic of any disease, and the incidence of both diphtheria and enteric fever, which had caused concern in previous years, fell appreciably. For the eighth year in succession there were no cases of any of the six quarantin- able diseases which are the subject of control under International Sanitary Regulations, and no case of animal or human rabies has been recorded since 1955.

       Significant changes have occurred in the pattern of mortality during the last ten years, changes which reflect the presumed age structure of the population and improvements in medical and health measures. Deaths from infectious diseases, including those from tuberculosis (the Colony's major health problem), have shown a marked decline, because of advances in therapeutic and preven- tive medicine and also, possibly, of a rise in the general standard of health. Mortality from respiratory and gastro-intestinal diseases has declined more slowly, mainly because of the rapidly increasing child population which is particularly vulnerable to bronchopneu- monia and non-specific gastroenteritis. On the other hand, the aging of the comparatively young immigrants who entered, and remained in, the Colony during the years 1946-50 is reflected in the gradual rise in deaths from the diseases of the later years of life, notably cancer and diseases of the heart, blood vessels and brain. The rapid natural increase of population in a limited area has resulted in a rise in the number of every kind of fatal accident.

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HEALTH

Trends in the actual incidence of various diseases are more difficult to evaluate. Expansion of both in-patient and out-patient facilities, scientific advances in diagnosis and treatment, and the ever-widening application of the principles of preventive medicine and environmental hygiene are factors which prevent comparison from year to year of such morbidity statistics as are available. However, there have been clear increases in the diseases of later life, corresponding to the gradual aging of the population, and in accidents both inside and outside the home. The high birth rate, producing approximately 100,000 new susceptible persons each year in an overcrowded environment, militates against any marked decline in the incidence of most infectious diseases, although there are signs that control measures against tuberculosis are beginning to take effect, particularly among children.

Vital Statistics. Accurate details of the size and structure of the population will only be known after the Colony Census has been held in March 1961. However, pilot censuses held during 1960 have supported presumptions from previous surveys that over one-third of the population is below the age of 15, that only 5% are aged 60 or over, and that there is a preponderance of males amongst young adults and those of middle age.

After a slight decline during the previous year, the number of live births registered in 1960 continued the marked upward bent of the last decade, although the rate remained comparatively constant at 37.1 per 1,000 estimated population. The crude death rate declined further to 6.4 per 1,000 estimated population. The resulting natural increase of 91,521 persons is the highest ever recorded in Hong Kong.

Both infant mortality and maternal mortality rates have dropped to half of the rates recorded a decade ago, while neonatal mor- tality has also declined, although by no means to the same extent. The marked fall in these three mortality rates has been achieved in spite of the rapidly increasing number of births and in the case of the child mortality rates can be attributed to a great decrease in deaths from infections and other febrile conditions. The fall in the maternal mortality rate has been brought about by reduc- tions in the incidence of death from toxaemias and haemorrhages of pregnancy, while deaths from septic complications of pregnancy and childbirth have remained satisfactorily low.

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127

A table showing the principal statistics and rates over the decade 1951 to 1960 is to be found in Appendix VII.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

       Following a five-year period of continuous rise in the notifica- tion of communicable diseases, the drop during 1960 was mainly due to decreases in the reported cases of tuberculosis, diphtheria and measles. The actual death rate from these diseases continued to decline. A table showing cases of and deaths from communi- cable disease in the period 1955-60 is in Appendix VII.

        Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is still the major communicable disease in Hong Kong. An estimated 2% of the adult population have the disease in an active form, so that with the present degree of overcrowding the chances of contact with an open case are very high. The limited hospital beds available make it impossible to segregate the active adult cases, estimated to number more than 40,000, and the control programme has had to be organized along unorthodox lines. The approach has been to protect the most vulnerable section of the community, the infants, by vaccination with BCG; to treat as many known cases as possible by ambulatory chemotherapy; and to select for hospital treatment those recover- able cases who are not responding adequately to chemotherapy or whose recovery can be hastened by surgery.

       Vaccination with BCG is offered free throughout the Colony to all new-born children, and during the year almost 72% of children born were given this protection within two or three days of birth. Young children attending MCH centres and school entrants are also examined for tuberculosis and may be given BCG vaccination if they have a negative reaction or a course of isoni- cotinic acid hydrazide if they show a positive one.

        Government operates four large full-time chest clinics in the urban area and nine smaller part-time clinics in outlying areas. These clinics are the main source for finding cases, and all those discovered are given treatment as out-patients as soon as the diagnosis is complete. During the year more than 25,000 cases were receiving continuous therapy, and this meant 1,750,000 visits to the clinics. Facilities are available at a number of strategic points for those receiving daily streptomycin injections, to cut

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HEALTH

down travelling time and expense, and special sessions are held at the main clinics every evening for the convenience of those who are at work in order that they may continue treatment with as little loss of working time as possible. Two more full-time clinics are in the early stages of being planned but are unlikely to open in the next twelve months.

There are 1,879 hospital beds set aside for the medical and surgical treatment of tuberculosis. The majority of these are in Government hospitals or in hospitals maintained by voluntary or missionary bodies who receive regular subventions from Govern- ment. Patients from the Government chest clinics are admitted to Government hospitals and to hospitals maintained by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association. There is the closest co- operation between the Association and Government and 244 of the 444 beds sponsored by Government in the Association's Grantham Hospital are under the clinical supervision of Govern- ment Specialists. In addition to the 182 beds in Government hospitals, subventions are granted from public funds to voluntary agencies for the maintenance, in total or in part, of 1,422 beds.

Since 1951, when the death rate from tuberculosis was 208 per 100,000-the highest figure recorded since the war-the death rate has declined to 69.9 per 100,000 in 1960. The percentage of deaths from tuberculosis occurring below the age of five years has also gone down from 34% in 1951 to 10.6 in 1960. The reductions in the mortality figures, particularly in the younger age groups, as well as an apparent reduction in morbidity in young children, as seen in Appendix VII, are encouraging, and it seems that the demand for treatment, which had been rapidly increasing over the years, has started to decrease. Large scale x-ray surveys of the population are not yet possible, but a pilot project has been started with the object of preparing the way for large scale surveys in the future. X-ray survey work is also carried on among special groups such as school teachers, university students, inmates of orphanages, and in industrial undertakings, subject to specific guarantees of sick leave and re-employment by the employers.

      The Tuberculosis Service has funds at its disposal to help tuberculosis patients who have been advised by medical officers of the service to give up their work in order to undergo treatment. Assistance is given in kind as well as in cash at the discretion

AA

The Queen Elizabeth Hospital School of Nursing has been opened to provide nurses for the 1,300 bed hospital being built in Kowloon. Accom- modation for nurses and student nurses in a twelve storey block (above) is of a very high standard, while teaching standards are up to the highest levels found anywhere in the Commonwealth.

J

It is planned to recruit 120 nurses a year for the next five years to staff the additional hospitals and clinics that are to be built in all parts of the Colony. Each student spends three months in the Preliminary Training School and then must complete a three year course before going out to work as a qualified hospital nurse.

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129

      of the almoner. Welfare services, mainly in kind, are also main- tained by other official and voluntary agencies. A rehabilitation scheme was started during the year by a missionary organization for the benefit of patients whose tuberculosis has come under control by treatment.

        Venereal Diseases. The overall incidence of venereal diseases continued to fall during 1960. There were, however, certain excep- tions and for the second year in succession there was a small increase in the number of cases of primary syphilis. This rise in the incidence of the disease after a period of continuous decline corresponds with the experience of many other cities, where the lowest incidence of syphilis was recorded five to six years after the introduction of general penicillin therapy, an event which occurred in Hong Kong in 1952-3. The number of cases coming to notice in the later stages of the disease continued to decrease.

Although there was little change in the number of cases of chancroid and of non-gonococcal urethritis, decreases were re- corded in the incidence of gonorrhoea and lymphogranuloma

venereum.

This continued improvement in the overall picture of venereal disease is attributable to expanded epidemiological control meas- ures, which consist of tracing contacts, following up defaulters from treatment, and surveillance of patients after completion of treatment. In addition, blood tests are freely available to all pregnant women, and mortality from congenital syphilis has been almost completely eliminated.

Leprosy. Fourteen out-patient sessions are held weekly through- out the Colony solely for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy; four sessions are also held at social hygiene centres in conjunction with dermatology and venereal disease clinics. New infectious cases and patients in reaction or in need of surgical rehabilitation are normally admitted to the Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium (main- tained by the Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission to Lepers); a very limited number of beds is available in Government hospitals for orthopaedic treatment. Dapsone continues to be the drug of choice for routine treatment of the disease, while diphenyl thiourea is available for patients who show intolerance to dapsone. Bi-weekly inunctions of diethyl dithiolisophthalate are also

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administered and, although giving good results, are believed to have caused the appearance of erythema nodosum leprosum in some cases. Epidemiological control is based on investigation of contacts, follow-up of defaulters from treatment, and vaccination of child contacts with BCG. The main difficulty is that many contacts are unwilling to return for examination after a year because they neither see nor feel any sign of disease. Resettlement of cured patients in suitable employment is another problem.

     Malaria. Although the entire population of Hong Kong is potentially at risk of malarial infection, continuous anti-larval operations against anopheline breeding give protection to nearly two-and-a-half million people living within the urban areas of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon and in certain circumscribed zones in the New Territories. In the remainder of the New Territories, where the wet cultivation of rice is practised, control is not yet possible either by anti-larval or by anti-adult measures, and the continuing influx of large numbers of infected persons into these areas as a result of the traffic between China and the New Territories makes surveillance impractical as a quarantine measure.

Unfortunately, a small pilot experiment in control by chemo- prophylaxis, involving weekly distribution of paludrine in two villages in the New Territories, had to be discontinued due to dwindling of the necessary co-operation from the public. Results, however, were encouraging as no case of fresh infection was reported in either of the villages throughout the period of the experiment nor for some time afterwards.

      Malaria is a notifiable disease and over 90% of the 833 cases reported during 1960 were from the unprotected areas, chiefly from the Sai Kung district on the eastern shores of the Colony and from the boat population. None of the few cases appearing in the urban areas could be traced to an infection contracted locally and in all except two there was strong presumptive evi- dence that the infection had in fact been contracted outside the protected zones. Of the parasites identified 95% were P. vivax, 4.5% P. falciparum and 0.5% P. malariae.

      The marked rise in the number of cases of malaria reported during 1960 can be attributed, at least partly, to a survey designed

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to give a more accurate picture of the prevalence and distribution of malaria in the New Territories, in which blood smears are taken from all febrile patients under ten years of age attending rural clinics and dispensaries.

      Diphtheria. Due to the rapidly increasing number of young children and to the poor reception by much of the population of the wide-spread facilities for immunization, there has been a dis- turbing rise in the incidence of diphtheria during recent years. The main concentration of the disease is in the densely-populated tenements of Kowloon and New Kowloon. In previous years, an intensive immunization campaign has been held during the cooler months between September and February. In 1960, the campaign was prolonged throughout the year with particular emphasis on making the inoculation facilities available as near as possible to the individual home. House-to-house visits were conducted for the greater part of the year in resettlement blocks and other crowded districts, and teams of inoculators visited squatters on hillsides and on roof-tops. Continuous use was made of every available propaganda device to stress the dangers of the disease and to tell parents about the facilities available for the protection of their children. This intensive effort has met with some success, for the number of cases of diphtheria reported during 1960 was 637 less than during 1959, but it is thought that about half the children under ten years of age have as yet no protection against the disease. The case fatality rate from diphtheria has shown a con- tinuing decline during recent years, being 6.6% during 1960 as compared with 10.5% in 1956.

       Enteric Fever. With the exception of a sharp upsurge in 1959, the number of cases of enteric fever reported has been com- paratively constant in each of the last five years. This may be ascribed to the gradual extension of a safe water supply and of water-borne sewage, for the disease remains particularly prevalent in squatter areas on the Kowloon Peninsula. The progressive fall in mortality has been effected by the use of chloramphenicol. Owing to the concentration on diphtheria immunization throughout the year no intensive prophylactic drive was possible against enteric fever. However, facilities for inoculation remained freely available for any individuals or organizations who wished to make

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use of them, and the annual campaign in schools was maintained for the reason that over 40% of reported cases of enteric fever are in children between the ages of five and fourteen years.

Poliomyelitis. Both morbidity and mortality from this disease are gradually increasing though the number of cases reported while in the acute stage is still comparatively small. The establish- ment of an enterovirus laboratory has made two surveys possible to determine the actual incidence of the disease in Hong Kong. The first showed that 2% of children under the age of five were excreting live virus. The subsequent serological investigation showed that 90% of persons, aged five years and over, have antibodies against all of the three types of poliomyelitis virus but that 57% of infants between 6 months and one year of age have no antibodies against any of the three types. These results confirm that transmission and sub-clinical infection are widespread amongst children under five years of age, a fact which had been previously indicated by the occurrence within this age group of 90% of all acute poliomyelitis cases reported amongst the Chinese population.

The Dysenteries. In recent years there has been a gradual in- crease, in step with the population of the Colony, in the number of cases reported of both amoebic and bacillary dysentery. Health Officers carry out much health education in the prevention of these infections amongst those connected with the handling, preparation, and sale of food.

Measles. There was a slight decrease in the number of cases of measles notified during the year. However the case fatality rate remained as high as 27%, and the virus now ranks second only to the tuberculosis organism as a cause of death from infectious disease. It is known to be a mild but widespread infection and the high percentage of fatal cases relates to the number of cases notified rather than to its virulence. The deaths are almost entirely due to severe bronchopneumonia which is encountered too late for treatment to be effective.

     Other Communicable Diseases. No marked change occurred in the recorded incidence of other notifiable diseases. Influenza, for which notifications have been made on a voluntary basis since

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the pandemic of 1957, did not give rise to concern during 1960. Only one case of puerperal fever was reported.

HEALTH SERVICES

Port Health. The Port Health Service is responsible for enforcing the provisions of the International Sanitary Regulations, 1951, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance; for correlating and disseminating epidemiological information on communicable notifiable diseases; and for supervising immuniza- tion campaigns against smallpox, enteric fever and diphtheria. The service also gives medical advice by radio to ships at sea, and maintains four vaccination centres for the issue of Interna- tional Certificates of Vaccination to people travelling abroad.

A regular exchange of epidemiological information is maintained with the World Health Organization Epidemiological Intelligence Station in Singapore and with ports and airports in other countries. Medical inspections are carried out of persons arriving by train, sea and air at the respective quarantine stations as circumstances may warrant, and quarantine measures are enforced against passengers from ports and airports infected with smallpox and cholera.

Sanitary control of the seaport and the airport areas is also the responsibility of the Port Health Service. These areas were kept free from Aedes aegypti throughout the year, and regular supervision was continued of the purity of water supplied by dock hydrants and water boats. The Port Health Staff inspects ships to judge the degree of rat infestation; international deratting certificates were issued to 92 ships after fumigation, and deratting exemption certificates to 160 ships after inspection. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and the Epidemiological Intelligence Station in Singapore receives returns of rats destroyed and of bacteriological examina- tions for plague every week.

Maternal and Child Health. Institutional midwifery is predomi- nant because of very overcrowded home conditions. Approximately half the births in the Colony take place in the maternity wards of hospitals; 42% take place in maternity homes maintained by

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    Government and other agencies, and only 6% of all deliveries are undertaken by domiciliary midwives, Government or private.

     To ensure the highest standards in midwifery practice through- out the Colony, the Midwives Ordinance of 1910 was repealed during 1960 and re-enacted with modifications. These modifica- tions include more adequate provisions for registration of midwives, wider disciplinary powers for the Midwives Board, and improved control of the practice of the profession.

     The Government Midwifery Service operates from 24 centres, thirteen of which are in the New Territories, and offers facilities free of charge for maternity home and domiciliary deliveries. In addition, there are 185 midwives in private practice from 117 maternity homes and 5 nursing homes. The Supervisor of Midwives is responsible for maintaining a high standard of midwifery practice in the Colony and for ensuring that private maternity institutions comply with the conditions of their registration.

The Maternal and Child Health Service offers free maternal and child care at 25 centres throughout the Colony, 9 of which are full-time. The staff of the service hold infant welfare and toddler clinics (for children up to 2 years of age and from 2 to 5 years respectively) and ante-natal and post-natal sessions. Health Visitors pay home visits when necessary to babies attending the clinics and also to new-born babies after the monthly birth returns have been received.

Health Education is a most important part of maternal and child health work and takes the form of practical demonstrations, health talks illustrated by various visual aids, individual advice to mothers and the distribution of booklets and pamphlets. The response is very encouraging and there is increasing public appre- ciation of the value of the expert advice and guidance offered.

      Vitamins, iron preparations, and UNICEF skimmed milk powder are distributed widely, and full-cream and half-cream milk powders are available for children who are, in the opinion of Medical Officers or Almoners, in need of such supplements to their diets.

     Prophylactic immunization is offered in all centres against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and over 90% of children attending the infant welfare and toddler sessions receive

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such protection. BCG is given to all children with a negative tuberculin test and INAH to children aged one year or under with a positive tuberculin test not due to BCG. Demonstrations of the technique of handling and giving BCG are also held for midwives in private practice.

       School Health Service. The future pattern of the School Health Service was considered in detail by Government during the year and it is expected that a comprehensive scheme will be finally drawn up early in 1961. The present School Health Service is organized in two sections, a general health service for all schools, and a medical and dental treatment service for pupils and teachers taking part in a fee-paying scheme. The general health service deals with the sanitary condition of school premises, the control of communicable disease, and health education for children, teachers and parents. All building plans are scrutinized before final approval for registration is recommended and there is regular inspection of the sanitary condition of school premises. Free prophylactic immunization is offered to all schoolchildren against diphtheria, typhoid and smallpox and inoculating teams regularly visit all registered schools. Tuberculin testing is also available, children who react negatively being vaccinated with BCG.

       Children within the medical treatment scheme receive periodic medical inspections as well as treatment for any intercurrent disease. Defects are treated in the school clinics or referred to eye, ear, nose and throat, dental or other specialist clinics. Cases sent for hospital treatment pay maintenance fees only, while appli- ances such as spectacles are provided either at cost or without charge depending on an almoner's recommendation. The School Dental Service undertakes routine dental examinations and limited treatment of those school children who take part in the scheme.

       Mental Health. The enactment during 1960 of the Mental Health Ordinance was an important step in the development of the Colony's mental health services. It embodies a number of liberal concepts and simplified procedures in the treatment and care of the mentally ill that are in keeping with the progress made in psychiatry during recent years. The Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation Ordinance, described elsewhere, was another im- portant step in mental health legislation.

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Provision for the treatment of mental illness is keeping step with these advances in legislation. The Castle Peak Hospital, with 1,000 beds, was nearly complete at the end of the year, and includes one block for the voluntary treatment of drug addicts. Planning of a mental day hospital and out-patient department on Hong Kong Island is well advanced.

      A well-known United Kingdom consultant psychiatrist, Dr L. T. Hilliard, visited the Colony at the request of the Government to investigate the extent of mental deficiency in Hong Kong and to advise on how to deal with it. Dr Hilliard's report was being studied in detail at the end of the year.

Health Education. Health education covers a wide field and is an integral part of the work of every branch of the Medical and Health Department, but the Maternal and Child Health Service is particularly active. The inter-departmental committee on Health Education, formed in 1959, continued to concentrate its efforts on assisting the anti-diphtheria campaign. The Health Education Select Committee of the Urban Council organized publicity campaigns throughout the urban areas on many sides of environmental hygiene, while the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department and the Social Welfare Department have also played a very active part. Kaifong Associations have co- operated fully with Government in immunization campaigns and in teaching about environmental hygiene. The Women's Section of these Associations has shown keen interest in this side of public service and organized a three-months' drive on maternal and child health.

HOSPITALS

8,090 hospital beds are available for all purposes in the Colony; this figure includes maternity and nursing homes but not institu- tions of the armed forces. Of these beds, one-third are in Govern- ment hospitals and institutions, one-fifth are provided by private agencies and the rest are in Government-assisted hospitals. Apart from beds assigned to the care of the mentally ill and to the treat- ment of tuberculosis and leprosy, there are 5,291 beds for all general purposes, including maternity. This gives a ratio of 1.77 beds to each thousand of the estimated population. These figures give the normal capacities of the various hospitals, but in many

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cases the actual accommodation is much higher as extra camp beds are widely used wherever the need arises. There is a table in Appendix VII detailing the distribution of hospital beds in the Colony.

       Government maintains two large general hospitals for acute cases and for cases in need of specialized treatment, the Queen Mary Hospital on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon Hospital in the centre of Kowloon; the former is also the Teaching Hospital for the Medical Faculty of the University of Hong Kong. There are eight other Government hospitals: one large hospital for both long-term cases and infectious diseases; two mental hospitals; one maternity hospital; one infectious diseases hospital; one small hospital for venereal diseases; the St John Hospital on Cheung Chau Island with general, maternity and tuberculosis beds; and a small general hospital opened during the year on Lantau Island. Small hospitals are maintained in four of the Colony's prisons, and there are maternity beds for normal midwifery in certain of the Government clinics and dispensaries, mainly in the New Territories.

       The Tung Wah Hospital is an entirely Chinese charitable organization. Founded ninety years ago, it operates a group of four hospitals, consisting of the Tung Wah and Tung Wah Eastern Hospitals and the Sandy Bay Infirmary on Hong Kong Island, and the Kwong Wah Hospital and Infirmary in Kowloon, and it also gives various other services to the poor and needy of Hong Kong. These hospitals are a valuable contribution to the Çolony's medical resources and are gradually being modernized. The Board of Directors is at present carrying out a plan in five stages to replace the existing Kwong Wah Hospital by a modern general hospital of 1,250 beds. By the end of the year, the second stage, a wing of 467 beds, was ready for occupation and work had begun on the third stage.

        The Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association maintains the Ruttonjee Sanatorium, the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home and the Grantham Hospital. The Grantham Hospital is a non- profit-making institution which provides for fee-paying patients. Because of the need for more free tuberculosis beds, Government has assumed responsibility for 444 of the hospital's 530 beds, to

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which patients are admitted for free treatment through the Govern- ment Tuberculosis Service. The Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Ruttonjee Sanatorium and the Freni Memorial Convalescent Home receive substantial annual subventions. Missionary and other chari- table organizations run a number of general hospitals, varying in size from 50 to 280 beds. The Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium accommodates 540 leprosy patients and the Haven of Hope Sanatorium 210 tuberculosis patients. Several of these institutions receive substantial financial help from Government while others are supported to varying degrees by fees, voluntary donations and grants from mission funds. If treatment is given at low cost or free, and any excess of income over expenditure is put towards hospital development, land may be granted without premium and the rates may be refunded through a Government subvention. The Canossa Hospital was opened on 28th April.

CLINICS

     The growth of population and the increasing demand for treat- ment by Western medicine have called for a rapid expansion by Government and other agencies of out-patient facilities throughout the Colony. Attendances at Government out-patient centres alone have increased by 86% during the last five years. Government maintains 45 out-patient clinics and dispensaries of varying size and purpose, of which four were opened during 1960; three of these were built with grants from the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, the most remarkable a nine-storey polyclinic at Sai Ying Pun. Out-patient specialist sessions are held at a number of centres in the urban areas, and in the New Territories the larger clinics are visited by specialist teams from Hong Kong and Kowloon. The more remote areas of the New Territories are served by two mobile dispensaries and two 'floating clinics'; the latter are launches, donated by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, which visit isolated parts of the eastern and western coasts and nearby islands.

A road ambulance service is maintained throughout the Colony by the Hong Kong Fire Brigade. Evacuation of cases of serious illness is carried out from places not easily reached by road in helicopters, fast police launches and the floating clinics.

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       The out-patient services of Government are considerably aug- mented by Chinese voluntary and charitable organizations which take a most active interest in medical and health problems. The only other services which attract equivalent interest amongst these organizations are education and the provision of death benefits. The Tung Wah Group maintains large free out-patient services at their three hospitals and two other long established Chinese chari- table associations, the Chung Sing Benevolent Society and the Lok Sin Tong, also run medical clinics. Kaifong Associations and District Associations whose members claim a common ancestral home in the mainland of China, support a number of clinics, which give treatment free or at nominal cost. Clansmen's Associations, whose members have the same surname but are not necessarily related, have arranged for doctors amongst their members to provide low cost treatment for their fellow members. Low cost clinics are also provided by a number of Christian, Buddhist and other religious organizations.

This may perhaps be an appropriate place to record that the Colony's wedding present to HRH Princess Margaret was a pair of lavender jade horses; because the balance of the sum of $50 thousand was devoted to the perpetual endowment of a bed at Sandy Bay children's hospital; the endowment for two years of two beds at Ruttonjee TB Sanatorium; and to the World Refugee Year Committee's funds.

SPECIALIST SERVICES

      In Government hospitals there are clinical specialists in anaes- thetics; chest surgery; dentistry; ear, nose and throat diseases; eye diseases; general medicine; general surgery; neuro-surgery; obstetrics and gynaecology; orthopaedic surgery; psychiatry; pathology; radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy. There are also specialist posts in tuberculosis, and in social hygiene, a term which in practice includes dermatology, leprosy and venereal diseases. Malaria control and Forensic Pathology are under the charge of officers of senior rank. The Government Institute of Pathology provides clinical pathology and public health laboratory services. Autopsies are carried out at the public mortuaries by forensic pathologists. Blood banks are maintained at the Queen Mary and Kowloon Hospitals, and the Hong Kong Branch of the

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British Red Cross Society operates a blood collecting centre on Hong Kong Island for the voluntary donation of blood. The Institute of Pathology does the laboratory work for the Blood Banks.

The Government Chemist is responsible for the work of the analytical laboratory and undertakes investigations into food hygiene, water supplies, narcotics control, medico-legal work and import and export control, including dutiable commodities. A considerable amount of investigation is also performed into standards of commodities included in Government contracts.

DENTAL SERVICES

      The dental health of the population of Hong Kong is poor; a survey in 1960 showed that 90% of children already have some dental decay by the time they begin primary school at six years of age. Plans for the fluoridation of the Colony's urban water supplies to combat this were far advanced by the end of the year and it is confidently expected that future generations will show a marked reduction in the incidence of dental caries.

The Government Dental Service is organized in two sections, a general service and a school service. The General Dental Service undertakes the treatment of monthly-paid government employees and their dependants, of in-patients in Government hospitals and of prisoners. It also provides an emergency service for the general public at certain clinics, mainly for the relief of pain and for extractions. The School Dental Service carries out routine examina- tions and treatment for the School Health Service. At the end of the year there were 22 Government dental clinics and a mobile dental unit which serves those parts of the New Territories to which roads give direct access.

A number of welfare organizations run free or low cost dental clinics and many dentists give their services to them free of charge. The Hong Kong Dental Society also operates free evening clinics at welfare centres in Hong Kong and Kowloon. The St John Ambulance Brigade, as well as maintaining Sunday visits to re- mote areas of the New Territories by medical teams which include dentists, opened a dental clinic in its Hong Kong Headquarters' building where civilian and military dentists treat under-privileged

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children without charge. A mobile dental clinic of the Lutheran World Service joined the other which had been operated by Church World Service since 1959. These give free or inexpensive dental treatment to poor people in the New Territories and re- settlement areas, and visit orphanages and refugee hospitals. The Lutheran World Service also has a dental clinic in its new Fanling Hospital which was opened in April.

TRAINING

There are facilities in the Colony to train most professional and medical auxiliary personnel, and heavy demands are made on them to meet the great expansion of curative and preventive services which will continue for the next few years.

        Doctors. Undergraduate training at the University of Hong Kong leads to the degrees of MB, BS, which have been recognized by the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom since 1911. Post-graduate clinical training is available in the Colony for the higher qualifications of most of the examining bodies in Great Britain. The Panel on Post-graduate Medical Education, consisting of University and Government staff members, supervises this training and advises on both general and individual aspects of the programme. This programme is the main reason why locally- recruited personnel now hold 65% of the specialist appointments in the Medical and Health Department and why there is a pro- gressive increase in the number of medical officers who have been able to obtain higher qualifications in various branches of medical science.

        Dentistry. Hong Kong has no facilities for training in dentistry as yet, although the proposal to establish a Faculty of Dental Science at the University has now been approved in principle. In the meantime, the Government Dental Scholarship Scheme enables a number of suitable students from Hong Kong to enter universities overseas and in due time to qualify as dental surgeons.

       Nurses. One of the important events of the year was the opening by the Governor of the Sisters' and Nurses' Quarters and the Nurses' Training School for the Queen Elizabeth Hospital now being built in Kowloon. Government facilities for the training of nurses have now been doubled, there being a second school at

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Queen Mary Hospital. A qualified tutor carries out training in mental nursing at the Castle Peak Hospital.

       In addition to the Government hospitals, where training is done in English, there are approved nursing training schools at the Tung Wah Hospitals, the Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital and the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, in all of which teaching is in Cantonese. The Nurses' school at the new Kwong Wah Hospital was opened in January.`

       There is full reciprocity of registration between the Nursing Board in Hong Kong and the General Nursing Council of England and Wales, and qualified nursing staff go overseas every year to seek wider experience in this profession.

      Midwives. The great majority of female nurses takes a midwifery course of one year at the end of the general training and this qualifies them to enter the examinations held by the Hong Kong Midwives Board. The course is conducted in English at Govern- ment hospitals and in Cantonese at the other approved schools. For student midwives who are not registered nurses a two-year course of training in Cantonese at the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital is accepted by the Midwives Board for entry to the examinations.

       Because domiciliary midwifery is practised to such a limited extent in Hong Kong, satisfactory training cannot be given in it, and reciprocity of registration with the Central Midwives Board of England and Wales is not yet possible for this reason.

       Health Visitors and Health Inspectors. The Examination Board in Hong Kong of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health conducts examinations for the Health Visitor's Certificate, the Public Health Inspector's Certificate and the Tropical Hygiene Certificate of the Society. A course is conducted by the Medical and Health Department for the Health Visitor's Certificate, and the Urban Services Department trains for the Public Health Inspector's Certificate and the Tropical Hygiene Certificate. Examinations for the Meat and Other Foods and the Advanced Sanitation Certificates of the Society are not held in Hong Kong and candidates for these additional qualifications normally undergo training in the United Kingdom.

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       Radiographers. Radiographers are trained by the Radiological Service of the Medical and Health Department for the examina- tions leading to the Membership of the Society of Radiographers; these are also held locally.

       Other Training. Departmental training is carried out in preparation for study leave abroad so that Physicists and Medical Laboratory Technologists may sit for recognized qualifications, and in-service training for departmental examinations is availa- ble to Dispensers and Laboratory Technicians. During the year, a qualified Physiotherapy Tutor started a training course in Physio- therapy.

URBAN SERVICES

The Urban Council has statutory responsibility for the inspection and health control of domestic premises and food establishments, food hygiene, slaughter-houses, markets, hawkers, the collection and disposal of refuse and nightsoil, pest control, public latrines, bathhouses, cemeteries, crematoria and all urban amenities such as parks, playgrounds, bathing beaches and swimming pools.

The Council takes its main powers from the Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance and with the approval of the Legislative Council has made extensive subsidiary by-laws which follow the pattern of present day health legislation in the United Kingdom. The Urban Services Department has four main divisions, the first dealing with cleansing, the second with food and general hygiene, the third with hawkers, markets, slaughterhouses and urban amenities, and the fourth with New Territories cleansing, hygiene, hawkers and markets. Three hundred and eighty administrative, professional and technical officers together with other staff make a total of 9,731 persons employed in the department, including the new disciplined Hawker Control Force under a gazetted officer seconded from the Police. The Health Inspectorate consists of 307 officers, of whom 225 have passed the examination of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health.

Hygiene Section

District Health Work. The urban area is divided for administra- tive purposes into four main health areas-two for the Island and two for Kowloon. Each is controlled by one chief health inspector

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under whom are three senior health inspectors, who in turn respectively supervise seven to eight district health inspectors. There are 113 health units in the Island of Hong Kong and 113 in Kowloon. Building development in certain areas has made it necessary to revise the number of health units under one health inspector and each is now in charge of one to three units. Five health officers, 4 health visitors and 30 public inoculators are seconded from the Medical and Health Department for duties with the Urban Services Department. Since the introduction of a new grade of Assistant Health Inspector, the district health inspectors have lost many of their routine duties, and the shortage of experienced staff has become less severe.

      Inspection of houses by blocks was first introduced in 1958, but was modified in September 1960 by a pilot scheme for making tanks of kerosene emulsion solution available to the public for cleansing purposes. 48 hours' warning is given to the residents of each block of houses by postcards, and on the day of inspection the district inspector, helped by a gang of 3 sanitary workers, supervises the removal of refuse from ledges, stair-landings and compounds. During the house-to-house inspection at about 10 a.m, the district inspector is further assisted by a team of 5-7 inspectors (each of whom inspects 30 floors) in one district, working on five mornings in a week. The public has shown much appreciation of this modified scheme of house inspection. Co-operation has been ready and easy access gained to premises. The inspecting officers either deal with the abatement of sanitary nuisances by direct action or by serving Statutory Notices, listen to complaints from the public and whenever necessary give advice and educa- tional talks to the residents on health matters. Licensed premises, particularly those dealing in food, are thoroughly cleansed by previous arrangement under the supervision of the district inspector on the day of house inspection.

      A major part of the duties of the District Health Inspectors is still to supervise food establishments opening under licences issued by the Urban Council. Periodical inspections were made of 10,260 premises mostly used to prepare food for human con- sumption, so as to ensure a high standard of cleanliness and observance of the by-laws and conditions of licensing.

Traditional Chinese opera is a favourite form of entertainment in Hong Kong, the age-old stories maintaining their hold on audiences despite competition from cinema 'epics' and television Westerns. Much of the attraction lies in the brilliant-hued, sequined costumes that are used and these account for most of the production costs.

輪明月相

K

In April each year the birthday of Lui Cho, the God of Medicine, is celebrated at Buddhist temples throughout the Colony (the picture above was taken at Sha Tin). People who are seeking a medical cure or who have already been cured-gather together to pay homage. Some, no doubt. also invoke Lui Cho's second reputation as a fortune teller.

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Once a fortnight senior officers make formal inspections of licensed premises, with 'spot checks' once a week, in addition to the visits by District Senior Health Inspectors in the evening after normal office hours. This new system of supervision has been successful and a large number of irregularities have been dis- covered and put right.

Six Food Inspectors-three in Hong Kong and three in Kowloon -carry out food sampling and other duties in connexion with food hygiene. Close attention was paid to ice-cream factories, milk shops and other food establishments, and samples were taken regularly to ensure that the required standards are maintained.

        During the summer season when the sale of prohibited food or drinks was common, raiding teams were organized day and night to suppress this illegal trading altogether. 5,551 lbs of food- stuff and 189 gallons of drinks were seized and disposed of during the hot season of the year.

        In an effort to encourage health consciousness among the com- munity, four 'Miss Ping On' campaigns, each of three months, were held with the themes 'Your Food and You', 'Home Safety', 'Correct Disposal of Refuse', and 'Destruction of Insects and Vermin'.

        The 'Keep Your City Clean' campaign, which opened with a pilot scheme in August 1959 in the Western District of Hong Kong and the Sham Shui Po District of Kowloon, was extended in December of that year to the Eastern District of Hong Kong and the Yau Ma Tei District of Kowloon. It was again extended in October 1960 to the Bay View and Shau Kei Wan Districts of Hong Kong and the Mong Kok, Hung Hom and To Kwa Wan Districts of Kowloon. As part of the campaign, two meetings were attended by office bearers of all Kaifong Welfare Associations at which the aims of the campaign were explained and a series of films shown.

        The 'Miss Ping On' competition, 1960, sponsored by the Health Education Select Committee of the Urban Council, opened on 1st October in the nine multi-storey resettlement estates at Shek Kip Mei, Lei Cheng Uk, Tai Hang Tung, Hung Hom, Lo Fu Ngam, Wong Tai Sin, Jordan Valley, Kwun Tong and Chai Wan. It was held as part of the Council's health education campaign

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to improve hygienic standards and general cleanliness in these

estates.

An oratorical contest, the subject of which was 'Cleanliness in the Home-What a Child can Do to Help', was sponsored for all primary and secondary school children by the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce and carried out by them together with the Urban Council, the Education Department and the Information Services Department.

A series of illustrated lectures about food-handling techniques, was given at a number of food premises during the year to educate workers in restaurants and cafes in the hygienic preparation of food.

In all these campaigns, Chinese voluntary organizations, such as the Kaifong Associations, have played a useful part.

      Slaughterhouses. Food animals for the urban areas are slaugh- tered at the two public slaughterhouses in Kennedy Town and Ma Tau Kok. Despite the unsatisfactory features of these anti- quated establishments, the volume of output remained high. 1,135,976 pigs, 121,771 cattle and 12,065 sheep and goats were slaughtered during the year. Although the staff grew in proportion with the work, the congestion in the inadequate buildings made improvements virtually impossible. Plans for the new abattoirs at Kennedy Town and Cheung Sha Wan made slow but steady progress. An important change made in the layout was to add more accommodation in the pig lairages. In the original scheme this had been planned as a future development, but statistics from the existing slaughterhouses showed that the expansion would be needed earlier.

      The by-products plant in Kennedy Town Slaughterhouse had another year of booming business with a total production of 143.5 tons of meat and bone meals, 155.7 tons of animal grease, and a small quantity of hoof and horn products.

Hawkers and Markets. As the population grows, demand increases for extended and up-to-date markets. Plans are under way to provide for these needs (and to clear hawkers from the streets), by altering or rebuilding many of the 42 old-fashioned retail markets and by including accommodation for hawkers in the new or altered markets. In areas where development is rapid such as resettlement estates, marketing needs are met by hawker

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bazaars and fresh provision shops. Seven hawker bazaars, including one with a roof, were erected and put into use at various Resettle- ment Estates. One similar bazaar was opened in December in the compound behind Kwung Chung Market to take in hawkers trading near the market, and like provision was made for the markets in Kowloon City and Cheung Sha Wan.

       At the beginning of the year, an experiment was made under the sponsorship of Police and Kaifong Associations to confine pedlar hawking to some side streets, but unfortunately it was unsuccessful. Further strict control over hawkers in general was therefore limited to checking conditions in some areas to prevent further deterioration.

Hawker Control. Draft legislation covering the discipline and powers of a Hawker Control Force was prepared during January after discussion with the Legal Department, and the final draft was submitted to Executive Council in May. The Hawker Control Force Ordinance, No. 31 of 1960, came into force in November. Recruitment to fill the 70 new posts of constables in the Hawker Control Force had already opened, and the first 46 recruits entered their Training School at Brick Hill, Aberdeen, in June. After an extensive course of lectures in law, evidence, drill, self-defence, etc, these recruits commenced their duties in public on 15th November when the Force took over control of all hawkers in Bay View, North Point and Shau Kei Wan.

The policy was to begin by asking for the co-operation of hawkers in tidying their sites and in reducing or removing obstruc- tions. Continual appeals were made to offenders and prosecutions were only undertaken in cases of persistent refusal to comply with the by-laws after several warnings were given. The powers of entry without warrant granted to the Force were not used and the fears expressed by press and public of their possible abuse were allayed. Public Latrines and Bathhouses. New public bathhouses and latrines are built by a long-term programme to meet the needs of residents of densely-populated areas where flush sanitation is scarce or does not exist. Five new combined public latrines and bathhouses were finished, making a total of 123 in the urban districts, and three new public latrines were erected. Twenty eight bathhouses offering free hot and cold showers were used by 2,958,586 people during the year, a daily average of 8,084 patrons.

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Cleansing and Conservancy. About 4,500 persons were employed on the daily collection and disposal of refuse and on street cleansing. They use 86 specialized refuse-collecting vehicles, 14 street-washing vehicles, 2 combined cesspit-emptiers and washing vehicles, and 22 dumb barges specially constructed for the trans- port of bulk refuse. A day and night street-washing service cleaned roads, lanes, side channels, footpaths, market and hawker areas, flushed street gully traps and laid dust round building sites and reclamation.

The daily average amount of refuse collected rose from approxi- mately 2,400 cubic yards in 1959 to about 3,040 cubic yards in 1960, i.e. roughly 900 tons a day. The bulk came from Kowloon which has a larger population than Hong Kong Island. Disposal is by controlled tipping on the area of foreshore which is being reclaimed at Gin Drinker's Bay in the New Territories, five miles west of the urban area of Kowloon. The area of land reclaimed during the year was approximately 131,000 square feet.

Only about one quarter of the buildings in the urban area have water-borne sanitation, and the conservancy section collects and disposes of nightsoil from over 40,600 floors with dry latrines. This section employs a staff of about 1,400 male and female workers, working at night with six specially designed dumb barges, and 36 special motor vehicles. More than 6,900 cubic yards of nightsoil were collected. Most was delivered by barge to the Tsuen Wan Maturation Station from where, once it is safe, the Vegetable Marketing Organization takes it to New Territories farmers as fertilizer.

Cemeteries and Crematoria. There are three main public cemeteries under the direct control and management of the Urban Council, as well as over a dozen private cemeteries managed by private bodies. There is also a Government crematorium at Diamond Hill in Kowloon. Plans have been prepared for a new modern crematorium at Cape Collinson, on the eastern end of Hong Kong Island, to reduce pressure on the dwindling amount of burial space available. A similar crematorium will also be built in Kowloon to replace Diamond Hill.

The Director of Urban Services manages the Sai Wan Bay War Cemetery and the Stanley Military Cemetery as local agent for the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

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Pest Control. The Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department is responsible for the control of rats, mice, mosqui- toes, fleas, cockroaches, bed-bugs, lice, midges, and other pests. This section also carried out regular control measures against flies at the Gin Drinker's Bay refuse dump. One important part of the Section's duties is control of rodents, and 324,149 rodents (including those placed by the public in rat-bins) were collected during the year. Another important part is mosquito control. 14,182 breeding places were found and dealt with. The control of infestations of Cat Fleas, which live on both cats and dogs, called for continuous attention; 133 premises were disinfested by the Section during the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

By the end of 1960 the Director of Urban Services had assumed his new responsibility for all cleansing services and for some other aspects of environmental sanitation, while the District Commis- sioner remained the licensing authority for premises in which food is handled. The Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, is in charge of the services, including the personal health services, of the Medical and Health Department in the New Territories; he also advises the Director of Urban Services on the health aspects of his department's services. Some of the staff of Health Inspectors posted by the Urban Services Department to the New Territories carry out their duties under his supervision.

       The Urban Services Department provides a daily domestic refuse collection by vehicle in the townships and built-up areas, and also carries out daily beat-sweeping in the townships and larger villages which are accessible by road. All refuse collected by vehicles is disposed of by controlled tipping, either at the main refuse dump at Gin Drinker's Bay or at two subsidiary smaller dumps in the east and west of the New Territories mainland. In some villages where beat-sweeping is done, the refuse is incinerated on the spot. Public latrines, bathhouses and markets also come under the Director of Urban Services. He also controls hawkers, private markets and slaughterhouses, though the District Com- missioner, New Territories is still their licensing authority.

       The Principal Medical Officer of Health, New Territories, assisted by four Health Officers, also carries health services into

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the more rural areas although the emphasis is mainly on health education and self-help. They give advice on problems of environ- mental sanitation, and standard plans of simple and economic sanitary structures. Such services are linked, as far as possible, with fixed or mobile clinics, to encourage co-ordination between preventive and curative services.

       As well as the Government medical facilities and the Lutheran Hospital at Fanling, already mentioned, there is the Pok Oi Hospital, a long-established Chinese charitable institution at Yuen Long; an extension was built during the year, and brought the total capacity of this hospital to 124 beds.

10

Land and Housing

LAND

Land Tenure. All land in Hong Kong is owned by the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. Nowadays, except in the New Territories, they are granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re- assessed Crown rent. Crown Leases for New Territories lands are now normally granted for a period of 99 years, less three days, from 1st July 1898, and therefore terminate three days before the expiry of the period of the lease from China.

Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is both Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with that part of the New Territories between Boundary Street and the Kowloon hills which is called New Kowloon. The District Commissioner is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. All Crown land grants and all private land transactions are recorded for Hong Kong and Kowloon in the Registrar General's Depart- ment, and for the New Territories, with the exception of certain Inland Lots, in the District Offices. The Inland Lots in the New Territories cover the majority of the built-up parts of New Kowloon, and deeds relating to them are recorded with the Registrar General.

       The principal laws on the development and use of land are contained in the Buildings Ordinance, the Town Planning Ordin- ance and the New Territories Ordinance.

        Land Policy. The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction: all land available to the general public for commercial and industrial purposes and for residential sites is sold in this way. Land required for special housing projects (described later in this Chapter), for public utilities, schools, clinics and other charitable purposes is usually

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granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit-making schools, etc, up to the full market value for public utilities.

      This policy has been determined by the scarcity of all types of land. To ensure that land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee under- takes to develop up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount he must spend depending on the location and the type of development allowed. In addition to this covenant, new leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, to accord with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

      The policy of sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land in accordance with the terms of the lease obtains the right to do so, and that the com- munity receives the maximum return in cash. As the rent reserved is so low, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable Govern- ment to obtain direct financial gain from any later increase in the value of the land after it has been sold. For this reason the very large increases in land values in recent years have resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since most of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long leases.

      In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts often included restrictions on the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive development. It has therefore become the practice for these conditions to be modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which preserve the amenities of the district while allowing more intensive development. Modifications of this sort are subject to the payment of a premium..

      In recent years certain groups of 75 year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early days, chiefly of land in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Government made public statements of its policy on these groups of Crown Leases in 1946, 1949 and 1960. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for regrant in rapidly increasing numbers. Premia for the new leases may be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over

60,000

CHANGING TRENDS IN RESETTLEMENT BUILDING BETWEEN 1955 AND 1960

$5,000

50,000

Number of Cottages in Resettlement Number of Rooms in Resettlement Areas

45,000

40,000

35,000

30,000

25,000

HONG

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

IN

JUN 55 DEC 55 JUN 56 DEC 56 JUN 57 DEC 57 JUN 58 DEC 58 JUN 59 DEC 59 JUN 60 DEC 60

400,000

350,000

NUMBER OF PERSONS RESETTLED 1955-60

+++

300,000

250,000

150,000

بارا

100,poo

ON

公共圖

55

DEC 55 JUN 56 DEC 56 JUN 57 DEC 57 JUN 58 DEC 58 JUN 59.

JUN 60 DEC 60

ONG

PUBLIC LIB

LAND AND HOUSING

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an agreed number of years. The majority of lessees avail them- selves of the latter method of payment. For this reason the revenue in any one year is relatively small, but since payments will con- tinue to be made for upwards of 80 years, the total revenue involved is considerable. The 1960 terms provide for a maximum of 20 annual instalments and interest of 10%. On regrant, the boundaries of these lots are adjusted to conform with street im- provement lines, etc, and where land is needed for major replan- ning schemes the leases will not be regranted. In these latter cases the Government has announced its intention to pay ex gratia compensation for buildings.

There is a shortage of Crown land in the New Territories suitable for sale by public auction for concentrated development. Consequently there is much interest among developers in securing permission for the conversion of agricultural land to building status on payment of a premium. The amount of building land that can be obtained in this way depends upon the location of the site selected. In normal circumstances conversions for industrial or high density residential purposes are only permitted in areas for which layout plans have been approved, and it is necessary for landowners to surrender approximately five feet of agricultural land for every two feet of building land to be regranted. In each case the premium payable is equivalent to the difference in value of the land surrendered and the land regranted.

In June 1960 an explanation was circulated to Rural Committees and the Heung Yee Kuk, setting out the principles governing the conversion of agricultural land to building status by means of the surrender and regrant process, or the issue of building licences for village-type houses on agricultural land.

Government Land Transactions. There was a great demand for Crown land for industry in 1960 and the amount available for sale was larger than before. There was a marked speeding up in the development of factory sites which had been sold at Kwun Tong in 1957 and 1958, and this, coupled with the housing and other developments in the area, has increased confidence in the new town venture and has raised land values from levels between $7 and $23 per square foot two years ago to between $30 and $50 today. The premium on factory sites bought at Kwun Tong can be paid by instalments over 20 years with interest at 5%. At San

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Po Kong (formerly part of Kai Tak Airport) where industrial sites were offered for sale for the first time in 1960, lots were sold for industrial purpose at prices ranging from $46 to $53 a square foot although the premium is payable in a lump sum. Industrial land which had sold for $8 per square foot at Tsuen Wan in February rose to $23 per square foot in October.

There was more land available for sale at public auction for housing than for many years past and although most of it was some distance away from established housing areas the demand was brisk and prices were higher than before. The few commercial, or mixed commercial and residential, sites offered during the year sold well, the highest premium paid being $141 million for 39,000 square feet of the former Murray Parade Ground. Several large sites were granted by private treaty for low cost housing schemes, non-profit-making schools and other institutional purposes; re- settlement estates and other Government projects were constructed on unalienated Crown land.

Revenue from land transactions in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon during the financial year 1959-60 came to $7,089,000 for sales by public auction; $4,247,000 for private treaty sales; $5,732,000 for modification of lease conditions, extensions and exchanges; and $5,782,000 from 'regrants' of expired 75 year leases. During the same period land transactions in the New Territories brought in premia of $1,205,600 for sales by public auction and private treaty; $2,796,600 for land exchanges and conversions; and $172,500 for modifications of lease conditions.

      Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, either because public utilities and other services are not yet available or because the site has been set aside for some future purpose, the land is rarely left vacant but may be occupied on a temporary annual permit. The 1959-60 revenue from these permits was $2,500,800 in the urban area and $52,740 in the New Territories. As permanent development expanded, it became necessary to cancel some of these permits, and the number of permits is likely to decrease as time goes on, both in the urban area and in the more accessible parts of the New Territories.

Legislation to revise the scale of fees for temporary occupation of Crown land in the urban area only, entitled the Summary Offences (Licences and Fees) Regulations, 1959, took effect from

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1st September 1959. The new scale of fees is more realistic, con- sidering the high land values in the urban area, and revenue between 1st April 1960 and the end of September 1960 was $2,861,200. In late December 1960 the scale of fees for the tem- porary occupation of Crown land in the New Territories was revised and new fees will be effective from 1st January 1961.

The Admiralty handed the Kowloon Naval Yard over to the Hong Kong Government in 1959, and until permanent development can be planned it has been let on short leases for storage purposes. This is helping to ease the present shortage of storage space in the Colony and is producing revenue at the rate of $1,062,000 per annum. By arrangement with the Naval authorities parts of the Hong Kong Yard were taken over for construction of a new main road and for other temporary uses pending completion of develop- ment plans.

      Survey. All surveys in Hong Kong are plotted on the Cassini Plane Rectangular Colony Grid, with its origin on Victoria Peak. The grid meridian does not coincide with the True Meridian at this point. The main triangulation, which is of a secondary order of accuracy, was observed in the nineteen twenties, and was adjusted by the War Office in 1928-30. Minor triangulation stations have been established over the years during the course of surveys in specific areas, and the Horizontal Control has been further broken down by traversing. During the year 43 triangulation stations were established and 109 miles of main traverses run.

The urban area of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon is surveyed at the large scale of 1/600 (50′1′′). This is essential in the congested and crowded conditions of the built-up areas. An unusual feature of this survey is that detailed objects such as lamp posts and fire hydrants are shown for the convenience of the Public Works Department, Police, and utility companies. The New Territories are surveyed at a scale of 1/1,200 (100′:1′′). A large scale is again necessary because of the intricate fragmenta- tion of land holdings in the area.

Town Planning. Town Planning in Hong Kong embraces the planned development of new industrial townships, the gradual redevelopment of out-of-date urban localities and the gradual expansion of the urban areas. The basic aim of the planning, therefore, is to provide a framework within which public and

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private development may progress together; to ensure that adequate provision is made for schools, open spaces, medical facilities, communications and other necessary services; and to control the use and to stimulate the development of land.

Development densities in the present urban centres are as high as anywhere in the world and, with a possible increase in popula- tion from 3 to 4 million in the next 20 years, considerable new expansion must take place if these densities are not to rise even higher.

Planning activities are co-ordinated in the Planning Division of the Crown Lands and Surveys Office of the Public Works Depart- ment and are concerned mainly with the preparation of outline development plans. Plans for the New Territories are prepared at the request of the District Commissioner, who consults responsible local opinion in areas affected before individual plans are finally approved. Since 1953 plans have been prepared for thirty three planning districts in the urban areas. In addition many large scale layout plans have been prepared covering small portions of the urban areas and the New Territories. These plans are used as a guide in the sale of Crown land and the redevelopment of private land, but have no statutory effect except where approved in accordance with the Town Planning Ordinance.

The Town Planning Board consists of five official and three unofficial members, and is set up in accordance with the Town Planning Ordinance. The Board has, to date, published layouts and outline development plans for eleven districts: ten have been approved by the Governor in Council, and one refused. Approved plans cover the following localities: North Point, Chai Wan, Yau Ma Tei, Hung Hom, Ma Tau Kok, Kwun Tong Tsai Wan, Ngau Tau Kok, Cha Kwo Ling and North East Kowloon. This last locality, for which the development plan was approved in December 1960, covers an area of some 2 square miles centred on Diamond Hill. Large scale high density residential development is already under way in this area and the plan provides land for housing over 650,000 people. 70 acres are set aside for industry and a new commercial centre will be established. A three dimen- sional plan providing for cinemas, commercial and government buildings, and laying down development conditions, was approved

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for this centre and sales of land have recently taken place in accordance with the plan.

The Board is at present charged with the preparation of draft plans for the Sha Tin Valley, the Tsim Sha Tsui locality, the new Kwai Chung - Tsuen Wan industrial township and the central district of Hong Kong Island. The Tsuen Wan Kwai Chung scheme envisages the development of an area covering almost 5 square miles for a population of some 600,000 people.

-

Urban Buildings. Private expenditure on building amounted to $273,545,397 an increase over the preceding year of 11.8%. The value of new non-residential building construction in relation to the total rose from one-fifth in 1959 to two-fifths in 1960: this was due in part to the completion of several large office blocks in Victoria (including the 19-storey headquarters of one of the principal banks), three large hotels in Tsim Sha Tsui, and a generating station for the Island's electricity undertaking.

Construction. The traditional reinforced concrete frame, with floors and roofs cast on site, continues to be the basis of almost every building of consequence in the Colony. A few tall buildings use structural steel frames; load bearing masonry is now very uncommon. Buildings are put up with great rapidity and costs are not high by world standards: so long as this remains true, modern structural techniques such as prestressing or precasting are unlikely to be adopted in Hong Kong. New materials, however, are in- creasingly used in higher-class buildings, especially for finishes.

:

Planning. Housing in the urban areas falls into two clearly defined types-Chinese and European. Chinese type tenements consist of a large living space with kitchen and lavatory. The large space is then subdivided by wooden partitions about 6′ 6′′ high it may contain one family, or several, living in separate cubicles, and using the kitchen and lavatory in common. A large block may contain two or three hundred tenements on anything up to 16 floors: lifts are normally provided where there are seven storeys or more. New European type housing, with few exceptions, is usually built in large blocks of flats provided with lifts.

Public buildings, offices and factories follow western practice in planning with comparatively minor local variations. As an example of the fast rate of building, the plans of a 5-storey 42

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classroom school in Prince Edward Road were approved on 27th May 1960. The school was built and equipped in just over 3 months and was opened by the Director of Education on 9th September in time for the beginning of the Autumn term.

Legislation. A revision of the Buildings Ordinance of 1955 came into force in 1960. It provided for closer control of natural lighting and ventilation and introduced new regulations for sanitation, refuse chutes, lifts and escalators, all of which are becoming in- creasingly complicated with the growth in the height of buildings. A Code of Practice published at the same time laid down fire escape standards for buildings.

New Building Work. Plans for 1,202 new buildings were sub- mitted to the Building Authority during 1960, of which 868 were for houses, flats or apartment blocks, housing schemes and Chinese-type tenements. Several thousand other plans dealt with works other than new buildings such as reconstruction, alteration or enlargement of existing buildings, site formation schemes, drainage works, demolitions and amendments to plans previously approved. 497 permits were issued allowing the occupation of completed buildings.

      New Territories' Buildings. Legislation was enacted during the year by which the provisions of the Buildings Ordinance will apply to the New Territories with effect from 1st January 1961. This new legislation provides for the exemption from the need to submit to the Building Authority plans of all domestic buildings of any type of construction with an area of 700 square feet and a height of 15 feet or less. The same exemption will apply to domestic buildings of the same area and of a maximum height of 25 feet, provided that no structural reinforced concrete is used.

      During the year a procedure was in force whereby plans of all buildings, other than of small houses of traditional design which the District Officer approved at his own discretion, were for- warded to the Building Authority for his advice and scrutiny before formal approval was given by the District Officer. This arrangement ensured that, in effect, the provisions of the Buildings Ordinance were followed in large or more complicated buildings.

      Occupation certificates were issued for 126 new domestic build- ings and 44 industrial and other buildings in the New Territories

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during the year. Modern shop and tenement buildings in Tsuen Wan, Tai Po, Yuen Long, Shek Wu Hui and the other market towns differ little from those in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Modern and well-designed houses and bungalows are appearing in increas- ing numbers along the main roads to Fanling, Castle Peak and Clear Water Bay, as well as on Cheung Chau Island and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantau. Industrial development has been mainly concentrated at Tsuen Wan.

Squatter clearance in the urban area, together with the growth of industry and the spread of intensive vegetable cultivation, have resulted in a considerable increase in the number of wooden huts on both Crown and private land in the New Territories. A new policy was adopted during the year to encourage occupiers of temporary structures to apply for permits, which can be issued. without difficulty except in places where planning or other special considerations apply. Additional land and permit staff were re- cruited for this work, as well as to clear up the existing backlog of permit applications. During the year 3,571 permits were issued for temporary structures on Crown land, bringing the total in force throughout the New Territories to 10,692. In addition 3,472 modifications of tenancy permits were issued, authorizing tem- porary structures on private land.

Mention must here be made of two special housing schemes in the New Territories. The first, involving the construction by a Better Living co-operative society of twenty four two-storeyed houses for forty eight families of fishermen on the tiny island of Ap Chau, in Mirs Bay, was made possible by the generosity of the American people, who donated a sum of over $200,000 through the CARE Mission. The Hong Kong Government met the costs of site formation. The second project was undertaken at Tsuen Wan for the housing of fifty two families removed from the site of the Shek Pik Reservoir, Lantau Island. The removal operation has already been described in Chapter 1 and illustrated by colour plates. The accommodation which the villagers have occupied at Tsuen Wan has 47 shops and 86 flats in six five- storey housing blocks built at a cost of $2.9 million. Four flats and a shop are reserved for a village school, temple and village affairs hall. These blocks contain 106 flats over and above those

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     needed by the villagers, and the Government will shortly dispose of them by public auction.

HOUSING

      There was severe overcrowding in tenement buildings even before 1941, as the rate of construction failed to match the sudden increase in population in the years immediately preceding the Pacific War. The war and the period of Japanese occupation resulted in much damage to residential property, and although this was quickly repaired, with the rapid return of the population overcrowding was soon apparent again. It intensified greatly during 1949 and 1950 with a fresh influx of refugees from China. Despite the intense building activity which has taken place, particularly during the past six years, new housing has been unable to over- take the tremendous increase in population, estimated at well over 1 million since 1948.

      A summary of all new housing during the year 1960, is in Appendix VIII. Apart from the resettlement of squatters, new private building has housed approximately 432,000 people in the past five years. At the end of 1960 it is estimated that rated domestic accommodation in the urban areas consisted of 782 houses, 8,267 large flats, 19,298 small flats, 105,909 tenement floors and 11,443 low cost housing units. Almost 60% of this is of post-war construction. The building boom still continues but much new accommodation is possible only by demolition of the old, and much of the work of private enterprise has been to redevelop such sites with large buildings of many storeys.

Voluntary Housing Organizations. During the past ten years a number of voluntary organizations have concerned themselves with public housing directed towards the lower and middle income groups. The main contribution has been from the Hong Kong Housing Society, which was formed in 1948 as an off shoot of the Hong Kong Council for Social Service. It now has over 4,500 tenants on its eight estates at Ma Tau Chung, Sheung Li Uk, Hung Hom, Healthy Village, Tsuen Wan, Kwun Tong, Wong Tai Sin and Tanner Hill, which house over 28,000 persons. Some of these estates have welfare facilities such as boys' and girls' clubs, day nurseries, clinics and vocational classes.

17

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

With cameras at free port prices it is not surprising that photography is just about the most popular hobby in Hong Kong. Camera clubs number their total membership at many thousands and at week-ends it is quite common to see a hundred or more enthusiastic photographers working on an attractive 'subject' such as that shown here.

!

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Competition between camera clubs-and among individual members-is very keen and, while group outings are good fun, the best results are often obtained by photographers working alone. Pictures such as those shown on this page, vividly capturing two of the many facets that go to make up Hong Kong, have won praise and prizes in many parts of the world.

'KONG

IB

1.

LAND AND HOUSING

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       During 1960 the Society completed a Garden Estate at Kwun Tong, which includes 1,081 dwellings, 8 shops and a clinic, and houses nearly 7,000 people in self-contained flats of different sizes, as well as having some dormitory accommodation for single factory workers. A second estate completed during the year at Wong Tai Sin comprises an experimental block of tenement rooms with communal cooking and sanitary facilities, which let at rents of from $32 to $68 a month, including rates. This was built in an effort to reach people whose income is less than $350 a month, and it has been very popular. The great demand for accommoda- tion at cheap rents was amply demonstrated by the large number of applications for this estate; one more block of tenement rooms is planned for this estate and another for a new estate at Aberdeen.

       The Society's estate at Tanner Hill, North Point, is nearly com- plete and its 590 flats will soon be let. Three local firms have taken up 74 of these flats under the Society's Loan Scheme where- by money to cover the capital cost of construction is lent to the Society, free of interest but repayable in 20 years, in return for the privilege of nominating employees as tenants. Rents range from $65 to $110.

       The Shau Kei Wan Estate, which will eventually contain 2,900 flats, is being developed in two stages. 1,000 of the flats will house junior Government employees and their families, under the loan scheme just mentioned, and should be completed by the end of 1961. Site formation work is already in hand for an estate at Aberdeen tentatively planned for about 1,000 flats, of which 500 will be built at first. The Society is considering a small scheme for families of fishermen at Aberdeen which will include storage space for nets and other fishing gear.

Other voluntary societies made less progress during the year. The Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation had to demolish 312 of its 772 cottages, which accommodated over 3,600 people, in order to make way for other development schemes.

Employers' Housing. Many employers provide accommodation for their staff. The biggest scheme of this nature during the year was that of the Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co Ltd. The Company recently completed 770 flats in 7 blocks at Sai Wan Ho and Quarry Bay for workers and their families. The Hong Kong Electric Co now has over 300 flats, housing nearly 1,500 people;

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the China Motor Bus Co Ltd has 232 units for nearly 1,000 people; the Hong Kong & Kowloon Wharf & Godown Co Ltd houses over 2,000 persons; and the Hong Kong Tramway Co Ltd nearly 2,000.

     Government Housing. As a large employer, Government has for several years fostered the formation of co-operative building societies amongst groups of local civil servants on the permanent establishment, by providing loans to enable them to buy land and build blocks of flats. By the end of 1960 164 co-operatives had been formed with 3,245 members, and projects involving loans of $92 million had been completed or approved. 1,486 flats have so far been built and occupied under this scheme, 390 of them during 1960. Many more flats are under construction and further schemes are being examined. Government also provides housing for many of its local, as well as for all overseas staff. A total of 27 thousand people live in Government quarters.

     The Housing Authority. The Hong Kong Housing Authority is a statutory public body, created by Ordinance No 18 of 1954, and is charged with the duty of providing accommodation for people living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions. It consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, and certain other members appointed by the Governor. It functions as a business enterprise, and although rents are kept as low as possible, they must be sufficient to cover expenditure. Land is allocated at one-third of the estimated market price. Government loans are granted at favourable rates of 31% and 5% interest per annum repayable over 40 years. Loans already authorized total $156 million, of which over $72 million have so far been spent. The administration and execution of the decisions of the Authority are the duty of a Housing Division of the Urban Services Depart- ment, under the direction of the Commissioner for Housing. The salaries of the staff, who are all civil servants, are reimbursed to Government by the Authority, with a 30% surcharge to cover overheads.

      In order to make the best use of sites the Authority has so far confined its building activities to multi-storey blocks of self- contained flats. By the end of 1959 two estates of 2,593 flats had been completed, providing housing for 16,600 people, at rents ranging from $75 to $169 a month. These estates also include an

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     18 classroom school, two clinics, a post office, two estate offices, 72 shops and an Assembly Hall (at North Point) to seat 500 people. The total cost of these two estates was roughly $40 million.

      The Authority's present building programme consists of three estates at So Uk, Ma Tau Wai and Choi Hung, all in different districts of Kowloon. 15,010 flats will be built on these estates, to house approximately 88,300 people, in blocks ranging from 8 to 20 storeys and with flats suitable for families of 4 to 10 persons. The total cost of these projects will be around $122 million. The So Uk Estate is nearest to completion and 2,249 flats to house some 14,300 people have already been finished, together with two 24 classroom schools and 38 shops. The first tenants in this estate moved in during October 1960. The estate will eventually contain 5,300 flats and a population of nearly 33,000 people by the end of 1962. It also contains an estate office, kerosene service store, post office, day nursery and a community hall. Rents range from $48 to $138 a month.

       Piling has been completed and construction started on an estate at Ma Tau Wai of 2,114 flats for 12,600 people. This estate has been designed by the Housing Authority's own architectural staff. The Choi Hung Estate will be the Authority's largest and its 7,586 flats will house 43,700 people in blocks of 7 and 20 storeys. It will also contain two secondary and three primary schools, a post office and about 50 shops. Site works and piling are now in hand and the whole estate should be completed by the middle of 1954. It will house families ranging from 4 to 10 persons.

       Three more schemes are now being planned, one at Kwun Tong, one at Tsuen Wan, and a third at Sai Wan, near the Kennedy Town estate. It is hoped to start work on at least one of these estates during 1961.

      The two estates already completed together with the three now under construction will eventually provide modern housing for 105,000 people in 17,600 flats for a capital outlay of $165 million. Even so, this large programme, spread over six years, will provide housing for but one year's natural increase in Hong Kong's population. The average rent per person in the North Point Estate is about $22 a month, but by careful attention to construction costs it is expected that rents per person on the Ma Tau Wai estate will

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be approximately $12.50. The Authority has more than enough applicants on its Housing Register to fill all the flats at the So Uk Estate, and the register has therefore been closed for the time being. Applications will not be accepted for the Choi Hung and Ma Tau Wai Estates until construction of these estates is much nearer completion.

RESETTLEMENT

      The rapid increase in population since the war, which led to the saturation of conventional housing, meant that for many the only means of shelter was to put up a hut, of any materials that could be had cheaply, on any piece of vacant land. These squatter huts rapidly spread over the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. In many areas there were colonies of squatters, some with 50,000 or more people living together in a closely-packed mass, with their own shops and schools, and even factories and workshops. Sanita- tion was primitive or non-existent and in these crowded colonies there were frequent fires and the constant threat of epidemic disease. Moreover, the presence of the squatters on the land made impossible the solution of the very problems to which their presence had given rise. The construction of the housing, schools and hospitals needed for the swollen population could not be put in hand because the land required for their development was occupied by squatters.

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As early as 1948 squatters had been moved from the central areas to 'tolerated areas' on the outskirts of the town, where they were allowed to rebuild their huts. Later 'approved resettlement areas' were established where dwellings were required to be built of stone or other fireproof materials to an approved pattern. The tolerated areas had the disadvantage that they reproduced many of the unsatisfactory features of the squatter areas, while the majority of squatters were too poor to be able to build or to purchase the stone cottages required in the approved areas. This difficulty was overcome by the construction of cottages by welfare organizations which rented them to approved settlers, either direct or through Government, or accepted payment for them by instalments. But the fundamental objection remained that this form of resettlement was uneconomic, in both land and money, and could not be used on a scale which would make any impact on the squatter problem as a whole.

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      In 1954, after a disastrous squatter fire at Shek Kip Mei in which 53,000 people lost their homes, there was a drastic change in policy. A Resettlement Department was set up, under the general control of the Urban Council, to co-ordinate the duties of squatter control and clearance which had previously been under- taken by several different departments; Government funds were provided to build multi-storey blocks into which squatters could be resettled. The construction of these blocks, designed and built by the Public Works Department, was as simple as possible, so that rents would not be beyond the means of squatters and so that they could be built easily and quickly. They are of a standard design, seven stories in height and of reinforced concrete con- struction. Each block is divided into rooms, which vary in size from 86 to 240 square feet, providing for families ranging from three to ten adults--a child under ten counting as half an adult. The most common size is of 120 square feet for a family of four or five adults. Each family to be resettled is allotted a room, the size depending on the size of the family and not on the rent that it can afford. There are communal latrines, washing spaces and bathing cubicles on each floor. Lighting is provided in the public areas; most settlers have electric lighting in their rooms, for which they pay the electricity companies direct. Rents range from $10 to $28 a month, the rent of the standard 120 square feet room being $14 a month. Since 1954 multi-storey resettlement accom- modation has been built for 270,000 people in nine estates, at a total capital cost of $138 million.

       As the resettlement estates developed it became clear that it was not enough to provide only domestic accommodation, and that in these virtual townships, with populations of 30,000 or more, there was a need for the normal amenities required by communities of this size. To meet this need ground floor rooms have been reserved for non-domestic use. They are allocated to settlers for use as shops or workshops for light industry; to welfare organizations for use as schools, clinics, nurseries, and other similar welfare purposes; or they are used by Government depart- ments. The roof-tops of the blocks are given over to schools and boys' and girls' clubs. The table in Appendix VIII to this Chapter gives an idea of the scale on which these welfare facilities

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have been provided, the majority being operated by voluntary welfare organizations.

       Three estates have blocks of self-contained flats for families who were squatters, but who were nevertheless living in squatter accommodation of a better standard than that of the ordinary resettlement rooms. These flats each have a private balcony, a kitchen, a lavatory and a shower. Rents are $45 a month for a flat of 240 square feet and $65 a month for one of 360 square feet. These blocks are of the same basic design as the ordinary resettlement blocks and the ordinary resettlement rooms are designed to be convertible into flats of this type.

Factory blocks in or near the estates provide for the resettle- ment of squatter industries that use power driven machinery, if they cannot be accommodated in the estate shops. These blocks are in units of 200 square feet, each industry cleared from a squatter site being allocated the same amount of working space, to the nearest unit, as it formerly occupied. The rent of a unit, which is calculated to recover the capital cost, including the full price of the land, in twenty one years with interest at 5%, varies from $75 a month on the ground floor to $45 a month on the top floor, inclusive of rates.

      In the fourteen cottage resettlement areas, there is the same diversity and, apart from purely domestic buildings, there are factories, workshops, shops, and of course schools, clinics, and welfare projects of various kinds provided by voluntary agencies. A new community centre was built during the year at Tai Wo Hau cottage area by the Methodist Board of Missions, and a combined welfare centre and noodle factory was built by the National Catholic Welfare Conference at Chuk Yuen cottage area. In the urban areas 452 new cottages were built during the year; but there will be no further cottage development in these areas as more and more of the land they occupy is required for permanent development. Three cottage areas were partially cleared for this purpose in 1959; settlers in two more areas have been given notice of clearance and further clearances will be necessary in the near future. A new cottage area is at present being developed for squatters from Tai Pei Tau at Shui Ngau Ling, near Yuen Long in the New Territories, and 185 cottages, the gift of the Govern- ment and people of Belgium, are under construction.

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      During 1960, 41,328 persons in all, both squatters and settlers, were moved from land required for development and resettled. Almost all these people were accommodated in the 31 multi- storey blocks completed by the Public Works Department during the year, bringing the total population in the multi-storey estates to 271,770. The remainder went to the new cottages, and the cottage areas now hold 85,570 people. These clearances freed a total of 203.6 acres of land, which included a site of 37 acres for the Housing Authority's Choi Hung Estate, sites for schools, for other housing projects, and for new roads, reservoirs and other public engineering works.

      For the remaining squatters there were the usual hazards of floods and fires. Typhoon 'Mary' did less damage in the squatter areas than might have been expected and there were compara- tively few landslides caused by the seasonal summer rains. In September 4,500 squatters were made homeless by a fire that broke out at Kowloon Tsai; there were 26 other squatter fires, less severe, during the year. 16,029 squatters were made homeless in all these disasters. In accordance with the usual policy they were not resettled but were allowed to rebuild their huts on their old sites or on other sites close by. 2,000 squatter families were given cash grants from a relief fund organized after typhoon 'Mary' by four leading newspapers.

      In October a fresh survey of squatter areas showed that there were still around 530,000 squatters living in the areas surveyed, including 75,000 on the roof-tops of tenements. Squatters living in unsurveyed areas are now thought to number about 75,000. All these people were living in 'tolerated' huts, that is, huts that were first built before 1954 (or before 1956 in the case of roof-top huts). No new squatter structures have been permitted since those dates and any that are detected by the squatter patrols are demolished. During the year 11,613 new structures, or new additions to existing tolerated huts, were demolished in this way. But although squatter huts are controlled it is not possible to control the number of people who live in them and the squatter population continually grows both by natural increase and by the infiltration of new families into tolerated huts. It is clear therefore that if this population is to be effectively reduced the present rate of clearance of squatters must increase and the intention is to step up the rate

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      of construction of resettlement blocks so as to clear 100,000 persons a year. Three new estates are under construction which will provide for a combined population of 157,000, and plans already approved for construction over the next four or five years will provide for an additional 300,000 persons.

The New Territories Administration is responsible for squatter control in the New Territories. Teams now regularly patrol the more readily accessible parts of the New Territories, which are zoned; the 'non-prohibited' zones are those where the erection of temporary structures may be allowed if the District Officer grants a permit, and the 'prohibited' areas are such as the margins of roads, layout and development areas, and land exposed to flooding, where it is necessary to prevent still more squatters from building huts. When existing structures have to be cleared from areas required for development, the occupants usually receive assistance to rebuild their huts on approved sites elsewhere.

RENT CONTROLS

In 1947 the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance replaced certain temporary proclamations made shortly after the end of the Pacific war. Its object was to protect tenants of pre-war premises, and limited the increases in rent (30% for domestic premises and 45% for business premises over the standard 1941 rents) which any landlord could charge. Essentially the same controls exist today, although increases of 55% of standard rent for domestic premises and 150% for business premises were allowed in 1954, after an increase for business premises of up to 100% in 1949. It is now possible for a landlord who wishes to redevelop controlled property to get permission to do so through a Tenancy Tribunal on conditions which include the payment of compensation to tenants for the loss of their tenancies.

Since 1953 two Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux have been set up within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to help the machinery of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance to work smoothly. The principal statutory duties placed on these Bureaux are to provide Tenancy Tribunals with factual informa- tion whenever an application is made by a landlord for exclusion from control or by a tenant for the reduction of rent. As a direct

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At So Uk, Kowloon, the Hong Kong Housing Authority is building 5,300 flats to accommodate 32,000 people. The estate consists of 16 blocks ranging from eight to 16 storeys in height and rents will go from $48 a month for a four-person flat to $138 a month for a flat capable of accommodating a family of 11.

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This is Kowloon by night, a memorable view that is lent a touch of drama by the landing lights of an aircraft coming in to Kai Tak. To get the effect of aircraft lights on the runway, too, a double exposure was made. Between times, photographer Paul Tay was forced to seek shelter from torrential rain.

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The twelve storey High Block of the new Hong Kong City Hall (above) will contain English and Chinese-language libraries, lecture rooms and a museum and art gallery. A little further along the waterfront the new Union House and its pre-war neighbour (below) illustrate another change in the face of Hong Kong.

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     result of their contact with landlords, principal tenants and sub- tenants, the officers of these Bureaux find themselves mediating in a large number of minor but varied tenancy disputes. This service has been of great value, for the parties are usually reluctant to go to a court, and still more reluctant to testify in public against their closest neighbours. The staff of the Bureaux handled 855 cases during 1960.

11

Social Welfare

WHILE the need for relief and public assistance remains, there are also determined efforts, simultaneous and on a mounting scale, to expand the constructive social services of community develop- ment, youth work, the care and training of the handicapped and the welfare of women and children. The rapid development of these sides of social work, both by the voluntary organizations and by Government, demands more highly trained and skilled workers, if full use is to be made of all other resources; this situation has underlined the inadequacy of the existing facilities for training.

Dr Eileen Younghusband, the eminent authority on social work training, visited Hong Kong in August and made recommendations for the revision of the University and Post-Secondary College courses, with integrated practical training, and for the introduction of systematic in-service courses; the general objects being to extend the opportunities for a career in social work and to raise standards of achievement. Her report has been published and Government and others directly concerned are now studying it. Contributions from the United Kingdom World Refugee Year Committee and the Colony of Bermuda have created a fund of $21 million, the interest from which is to be used to promote social work training. This fund will be valuable for carrying out Dr Younghusband's recommendations in whatever form they may be accepted.

During the year the Social Welfare Department, in co-operation with the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, to which some eighty of the voluntary agencies in Hong Kong are affiliated, began a six months' introductory training course in social work for young people from secondary schools and for workers in voluntary agencies; this included a period of residence at the first Community Centre in a resettlement estate. 40 students attended a six months' course in child care, half of them already nursery

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     Service is to build and administer yet another Community Centre from funds raised locally by the Council.

A large number of voluntary agencies are given accommodation in the new resettlement estates, both in the community centres and elsewhere, to undertake welfare and community activities; their contribution to the welfare of the people is of leading im- portance. Services include a loans association run by the Council of Social Service, nurseries run by the Maryknoll Sisters, Save the Children Fund, and Salvation Army, children's milk bars operated by Church World Service, and many other activities. The Friends' Service Committee has recently started a nursery and clubs for young people and mothers in one estate.

      The Child and The Family. The full development of any child as a person is normally best achieved in the environment of the family and the home; social workers therefore strive first to support the family unit and to prevent its disintegration under psycho- logical or economic stress and, failing that, to provide the child who is deprived of the affection of its own parents with the best substitute available.

Various agencies contribute to the support of families in Hong Kong: the Society for Protection of Children guides mothers in the proper care of infants up to 18 months old and takes in under-nourished babies for a few months of special feeding; it has recently opened a sixth centre and crêche, and over 30,000 babies benefited from its work during the year. The Family Welfare Society seeks to relieve economic and other stresses and to set families on their feet as units that can make their own way; the Society's trained caseworkers assisted twelve thousand families during the year. Foster Parents' Plan helped to maintain and educate 1,335 children in very poor families.

Many thousands of mothers have to go out to work every day to earn for the family, leaving small children uncared-for in very cramped living conditions or on the streets. This results in a widespread need for day nurseries, which can provide space for healthy play and sleep, good food and proper care for a small fee; some 2,200 children are now able to find a place in nurseries and play centres, about a thousand more than a year ago; a number of religious bodies, and also the three Women's Welfare

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Clubs, have opened or planned nurseries for day care; there is need for many more.

Where children are not being properly cared-for by their families, the Director of Social Welfare has a special responsibility for their protection under the Law and may make them his wards or apply to a Court to do so; 25 juveniles in need of care were the Director's wards at the end of the year. When the parents are temporarily incapable, through illness, unemployment, imprison- ment or dispute, the children may be placed in an institution for a time; if the parents decide that they cannot maintain a child for poverty or any other reason, and all efforts fail to dissuade them or to support the family and keep it intact, then the best course is adoption into another family. Girls adopted by Chinese custom thereby become wards of the Director; about 1,650 girls and 1,400 boys were on the register at the end of the year. Since 1956 it has been possible to apply for an Adoption Order by the Supreme Court under procedure similar to that in the United Kingdom; the practice is growing and there were 127 orders made in 1960 as against 97 in 1959. At the end of the year there were nearly 8,000 children in all, including those in institutions, whose welfare was the concern of the Department; many were being visited frequently in their Homes.

       145 babies were found abandoned during the year, nearly all of them girls; sheer poverty was probably the chief cause, especially if the child was crippled and so likely to be a drag on the family. All these children were first admitted to one of the nineteen babies' or children's homes which voluntary bodies run, often with support from public funds. Several of these are financed entirely within Hong Kong and controlled by Buddhist foundations or by boards of prominent citizens; the largest of these, the Po Leung Kuk, has sheltered needy children for some eighty years, and now accommodates about 350; Christian missionary organizations run and staff other homes; all these institutions together care for over 2,500 children. There is a growing tendency to group the children in these homes under house parents with some approach to a family atmosphere.

Most of these children have very little prospect of being adopted in Hong Kong; and many remain in care until they are old enough to earn a living or marry. But increasing numbers of homeless or

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unwanted children in Hong Kong have been adopted legally by families abroad through the good offices of two international organizations, International Social Service and Catholic Relief Services; some 228 children joined a family overseas last year.

Group Work with Young People. Living conditions severely restrict the development of children, both physically and otherwise. About one-fifth of the city dwellers still live in squatter shacks on hillsides or roof-tops and a much larger proportion live in unbelievably congested slum tenements; even when a squatter family is resettled there is little scope for recreation. Playgrounds are inevitably scarce and few schools have time or space for organized games.

A great effort has been made in this situation to develop clubs, especially on the roof-tops of resettlement blocks, which are ideal for the purpose. There are now 200 clubs with a membership of over twelve thousand boys and girls, nearly all aged eight to fourteen; about half of them are members of the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association and the rest of affiliated bodies, including the Youth Welfare Section of the Department which has over 400 children in 15 clubs. The children receive some informal education and do handwork, play games and compete in groups; take part in country picnics, visits to exhibitions and ships in port, sports meetings and so on; the object is their fuller development in an atmosphere both more free and more ordered than their homes can usually offer. At two country holiday camps by the sea about 5,000 poor children, some seeing the country for the first time, were able to enjoy a week or ten days in the open air with plenty of good food and exercise; funds to establish a third camp have been given by the United Kingdom World Refugee Year Committee.

     The YMCA and the YWCA each provide recreation centres where several thousand young people can follow their bent in handicrafts, hobbies and vocational training in great variety. The Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Associations, with a total of nearly ten thousand members between them, also make a valuable con- tribution in this field.

     Children's libraries are extremely popular, especially with the many who can neither afford books nor get into school; two of the oldest established are used regularly by over 600 children.

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The Junior Chamber of Commerce has equipped and stocked 19 libraries for children since 1951 and it is intended that every urban playground should eventually have its library. The Depart- ment's mobile library van visited sixteen districts in the New Territories regularly and had 2,500 readers a month, mostly children. Apart from difficulties of accommodation, staff and money, there is a lack of good children's books in Chinese which suit the Hong Kong setting and are free of political undertones. The Department has started two experimental recreation centres in resettlement estates to cater for children in the bi-sessional schools which cannot give recreation for the free half of the day; there are signs that the great strides made in providing primary education may lead to a change of emphasis in this direction. A need is also emerging for more open clubs and other group facilities for young people who are increasingly open, in Hong Kong as elsewhere, to anti-social influences.

       Youth work in Hong Kong is co-ordinated by the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations, on which sit representatives of the main voluntary organizations and interested departments of Government; the Standing Conference runs one holiday camp and will be entrusted with establishing the new camp which the United Kingdom donation will pay for.

Probation and Delinquency. Probation is a way of dealing with offenders outside an institution which can play a part in the prevention of delinquency as well as in its cure. Hong Kong recognized its value as long ago as 1932 when probation officers were first appointed under the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance; in 1951 a Principal Probation Officer with United Kingdom training was first recruited, and five years later the Probation of Offenders Ordinance gave the Courts authority to make probation orders in the case of adults as well as those under 21. The Probation Section of the Social Welfare Department works closely with in- stitutions which help potential juvenile delinquents, provides a service in the Court and is responsible for two institutions for juvenile offenders; it has also begun to assist in prison welfare and after-care and keeps in close touch with the Discharged Prisoners Aid Society.

In the Courts this method of treating offenders is now used for a wide variety of offences ranging from larceny, which is by far

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the most common, to street gambling, narcotics offences, robbery and membership of an unlawful society. The Juvenile Courts also make supervision orders up to three years in 'care and protection' cases; while the Courts may call on probation officers to supervise selected adult cases during payment of fines and sometimes to conciliate in matrimonial disputes.

      With the opening of two new Magistracies later in the year, the Probation Service now serves five Courts, including the New Territories' Courts at Ping Shan and Tai Po; and boys discharged on licence from Castle Peak Approved School under a new provi- sion of the law now come under the supervision of the probation staff during the rest of their sentence.

Over the past two years the number of persons placed on proba- tion has nearly doubled and it continues to increase. At the end of the year the total number on probation was 572 compared with 316 the year before. The District Courts made more use of probation and a number of children alleged to be beyond the control of their parents came under voluntary supervision. Ten officers, three of them women, shared this burden of cases.

      There are two Probation Committees, consisting of all the Magistrates and three Justices of the Peace appointed by the Governor. Quarterly summaries of all cases under supervision are submitted to them and there are half-yearly meetings when selected cases are discussed; members also visit the probation offices to see individual case records.

The Juvenile Courts continued to use the Remand Home, which takes juveniles on arrest or remand and boys committed for resi- dential training up to a period of six months, almost to its full capacity of 54. There were 2,913 admissions, of whom 239 were girls. An increasing number of juveniles are now being remanded for at least a week so that probation officers may make inquiries.

      The Castle Peak Boys' Home, which is run as an Approved School and can accommodate about a hundred delinquent boys, was for the first time not quite full. This was largely the result of discharging a number of boys on licence who had been under training for about 21 years. Under the amended law a boy com- mitted there must stay for at least two years but he may be detained for a maximum of five years or until he reaches the

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More than eighty voluntary agencies are now operating in Hong Kong, providing invaluable welfare facilities for the Colony's underprivileged people. Each year they distribute hundreds of tons of clothing, much of it to children. The garments are sent from many parts of the world and some agencies employ refugee tailors to remodel them before distribution.

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Each year, too, the agencies distribute more than 50 million pounds of foodstuffs. Much of it goes to the aged who can no longer support themselves and whose sons and daughters often have nothing to spare for them. Tinned pork is a favourite with many recipients, for it goes well with rice and will keep until needed.

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age of 18. Another factor in keeping the number of committals down is the more selective admission procedure which an amend- ment to the Industrial and Reformatory Schools Ordinance in- troduced in 1959. During the year 40 boys were admitted and 50 discharged (23 of them on licence).

Among a number of voluntary institutions, three in particular provide valuable facilities for the training of boys who might otherwise get into trouble; in some cases these have been used to take the place of a Probation Home and Probation Hostels. The Hong Kong Sea School at Stanley gives boys a four years' training for a career at sea, as seamen, deckhands or stewards; there was a welcome increase in capacity from 300 to 350 during the year. The Juvenile Care Centre in the congested Central district of Victoria, besides providing some formal education for a large number of day pupils, takes about 60 boarders, some of them probationers who are orphans or who come from homes which would give probation a very poor chance of success. Finally, the Children's Centre in Kowloon which serves as a day club for 100 underprivileged boys, about 40 of whom live in, has always had the closest connexion with the Department. 30% of the boys are probationers and the training provided by the Centre is planned with a particular eye to boys with 'behaviour problems', generally the result of an unfavourable environment during early life.

Moral Welfare. No large city is free from prostitution, but in Hong Kong the problem is made worse by the conditions of a major seaport. The predominant cause is economic, that is, the great difficulty which many have in earning a reasonable livelihood.

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The law provides extensive sanctions against the exploitation of women, especially young girls; the Police have the chief re- sponsibility for enforcing these provisions, and the Women's and Girls' Section of the Social Welfare Department for rescuing the victims of exploitation, and seeing that they are equipped to earn an honest living and to find a place in society. Efforts are directed particularly towards the younger girls who are discovered in raids on brothels or referred by the Social Hygiene Clinics of the Medical and Health Department, or who themselves seek the advice of the Department while they are still prepared to welcome training for a normal life.

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       At the end of the year a vocational training centre for girls in the care of the Department was set up in a resettlement estate. The object is to give training for employment, for instance in textile, weaving or knitting factories, to prostitutes and to young girls employed in dance halls or bars who appear likely to fall victims to the lure of an apparently glamorous and easy life and so drift into prostitution.

      The Sisters of the Good Shepherd, who are specially trained for the rehabilitation of young prostitutes, give a two years' resi- dential course at Pelletier Hall. The girls, normally under 18 on entry, are educated and taught to earn living and run a home of their own. 77 were admitted and 66 discharged during the year; most of them secured employment in high-speed machine-knitting factories. A reception-transit block for 30 was completed in September, where girls receive special observation and medical care when they first enter the Home and are helped to readjust themselves to the outside world before they leave. The capacity of the Home is now 150.

      The Department also advises and helps unmarried mothers and their children; a refuge is provided for those who cannot afford fees in the Po Leung Kuk, and in another small maternity home. Nearly 100 unmarried mothers asked the Department for help, of whom about 20 were placed in these two institutions.

      Counsel is also given to victims of indecent assault, in family cases involving incompatibility or some moral difficulty, and to adolescent girls who are in need of care and protection or are not amenable to parental control. Efforts are particularly directed to finding some stable form of work in such cases.

      Care of the Physically and Mentally Handicapped. Increased attention is being given by Government and voluntary organiza- tions to the rehabilitation of handicapped persons; a special schools section was set up in the Education Department in April. The Special Welfare Services Section of the Social Welfare Depart- ment is responsible for the registration of the physically handi- capped, the blind and the deaf, and co-operates closely with voluntary organizations and other departments in taking practical steps for training and rehabilitation; the aim is to fit as many of the handicapped as possible to lead a normal life and to find employment in competition with others.

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The Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation has been granted land at Kwun Tong for pilot centre which will at first cater for victims of industrial accidents who can be restored to factory work in a matter of months; specially trained staff are being recruited for this centre from overseas. The Social Welfare Depart- ment provides vocational training and sheltered employment, for instance in tapestry work, sock-knitting and printing, for about 120 physically handicapped adults, including some cured leprosy patients from the leprosarium at Hei Ling Chau; this happens at the Department's North Point Relief Camp and at a new day centre run together with the Society. The Red Cross runs five classes for the instruction of crippled children in hospitals.

       The number of blind persons registered has now reached 2,600, 1,000 more than a year ago. A survey in the New Territories, made by a mobile team from the Medical and Health Department in co-operation with the Rural Committees, the Hong Kong Society for the Blind and the Social Welfare Department, found over 250 blind people hitherto unregistered. Expansion of two schools should ensure that in about two years' time there will be a school place for every blind child. Two hostels for homeless blind children leaving school were opened at the end of the year. The Department runs five clubs for the blind where simple braille and handicrafts are taught, as a first adjustment to blindness; those who are em- ployable pass on to three centres for vocational training and sheltered employment which the Society for the Blind runs with some assistance from the Department. Trainees have so far been engaged in simple crafts such as brush-making and have now started assembling plastic flowers on contract. A factory for 200 is about to be constructed, with a hostel and training wing.

       Of the 500 or more deaf children on the register, the number still without access to any form of training has gone down to about 160, with the opening during the year of the Victoria Park School for the Deaf, a branch school of the Hong Kong School for the Deaf, and of two clubs for deaf children run by the Social Welfare Department. The school uses the oral method of instruc- tion, whereas the Chinese Overseas School for the Deaf and Dumb normally employs manual signs. The Department distributed hearing aids to 38 needy deaf persons during the year. Some deaf

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      adults have been placed in open industry, mostly in textile weaving and spinning mills.

A Working Party was appointed by the Director of Social Welfare in May 1960 to examine the co-ordination of plans for the training and employment of persons with different forms of handicap; it is hoped for instance that the factory to be built by the Society for the Blind will also be able to train people with other disabilities who can perform operations for which sight is required; some centres already train both the blind and the physically handicapped.

The report by Dr L. T. Hilliard, a consultant psychiatrist of international reputation who came to Hong Kong early in the year to advise on the problem of mental deficiency, is mentioned in Chapter 9. There are now nearly 200 mentally deficient children in institutions such as North Point Camp, the Po Leung Kuk and the three hospitals of the Tung Wah Group, but no special provi- sion yet exists for them. The Mental Health Association has been very active in seeking to improve the social climate for the mentally handicapped through public lectures and a seminar.

        Residential care of some 1,000 old folks is taken in seven homes for the aged, and four of these have plans for expansion.

Emergency Relief. The climate, the instability of old and over- crowded city tenement buildings, the precarious and congested siting of squatter huts on eroded slopes overhung by massive boulders and the high proportion of the population which lives and works on the sea are some of the factors which combine to make Hong Kong specially prone to natural disasters. The Colony was struck by a typhoon in June, the first direct hit since 1937. 32 people were killed, most of them fishermen drowned trying to ride out the storm in their boats. 224 fishing boats were sunk and 1,088 squatter huts destroyed; many other boats and dwellings were damaged. The Social Welfare Department formed emergency teams to register the homeless in many areas, to arrange for free feeding and temporary accommodation where necessary, and to issue clothing and food supplies in co-operation with the voluntary relief agencies, the Resettlement Department, the Police and the New Territories Administration. Over 30,000 people were regis- tered and provided with two hot meals a day for periods up to a

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      month. In the early stages a general breakdown in communica- tions greatly impeded the work; but in many areas those on the spot, whether local organizations of fishermen, kaifongs, rural committees or religious bodies, organized effective relief measures. A special appeal, launched by the four leading newspaper groups for funds to help the victims, met with a notably generous response from the Hong Kong public and from other parts of the world. A collection of over $1,370,000 was raised and placed in a Com- munity Typhoon Relief Fund. Grants in cash were paid to the dependents of those killed and to the injured. Those whose huts, houses or boats were destroyed were assisted to replace their dwellings. The sponsors agreed that the balance of this fund, amounting to nearly half a million dollars, should be used for the relief of those who may suffer from future less widespread disasters caused by fire, storm or flood, occurrences which are only too frequent, and for the individual no less catastrophic.

20,000 people were registered and given assistance in a series of smaller misfortunes throughout the year. Amongst these were 6,000 victims of floods in the low-lying Yuen Long area, who were rescued, fed and housed in co-operation with the District Officers, the Army and voluntary agencies. In September a fire swept through a large settlement of squatter huts at Tai Hang Sai; within a few hours 5,000 people were homeless. Hot meals were issued on the spot, together with cooking and eating utensils, clothing and blankets, and a few days later sites had been re-allocated and cash grants paid to each family to help them to rebuild on the ashes of their old homes.

Public Assistance. Although there is widespread poverty in Hong Kong, there is virtually no starvation, nor need anyone live at starvation level. This is largely due to the relief measures taken by the Government and to the massive assistance provided by the large number of voluntary agencies. Genuine beggars have ceased to be a problem of any size in Hong Kong, but it is significant of prevailing conditions that the Social Welfare Department provides cooked meals and dry foodstuffs through its six welfare centres and kitchens for some 10,000 people regularly, day in and day out. In the New Territories the District Officers are responsible for day-to-day relief in co-operation with the Department and voluntary agencies. Amongst the voluntary agencies, CARE,

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Church World Service, Catholic Relief Services and the Lutheran World Federation were the major distributors of supplementary foodstuffs, which came to about 15,000 tons of rice, as well as flour, milk powder and other supplies, mostly surplus foodstuffs from the United States; these supplies benefited 10% or more of the population. The British Red Cross Society provided large quantities of clothing and blankets. The traditional Chinese Clan, District and Trade Associations do valuable relief work for their members and the Kaifong Associations help to raise funds and give relief in emergencies. The Tung Wah Groups of Hospitals, referred to in other chapters of this Report, has a long history as a source of charity for the assistance of destitutes.

      This heavy dependence upon public and private assistance comes at a time when the economy is buoyant and industry expanding, and wage levels have improved. Any serious recession would raise relief problems of very great proportions. The Family Planning Association, which works in 26 existing clinics and in other centres, has lately opened a second large centre of its own in Kowloon, and relieves at least in a small degree the menacing pressure of population upon the economy. It is to be hoped that planned parenthood will be generally accepted before the expected population explosion of the nineteen seventies swamps the social services.

12

Legislation

      FIFTY eight Ordinances were enacted during the year together with a large amount of subsidiary legislation. As in past years, most of these Ordinances amend existing legislation. Short notes on the more important of them appear below-

Drug Addicts Treatment and Rehabilitation Ordinance. This Ordinance authorizes the establishment of Addiction Treatment Centres for the voluntary treatment of drug addicts. An applicant for treatment in a centre must sign an undertaking that he will remain and may be detained in the centre for up to six months, and may be retaken if during that period he escapes. This is essential to ensure successful treatment because an addict under treatment may pass through a stage when his craving for further supplies of the drug over-rides his desire to be cured, but a patient may appeal to an Addiction Treatment Centre Appeal Board against continued detention in a centre. Addicts who volunteer for treatment are protected from legal action being taken against them to the extent that no statements made by them for the purpose of being admitted to a centre are to be admissible as evidence against them in a prosecution under the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. There is power to recover the cost of the maintenance and treatment of a patient if the patient has the means to pay. This ordinance received a warm welcome in Hong Kong and will come into operation as soon as the first voluntary treatment centre, now being organized, is fully ready. Dangerous Drugs (Amendment) Ordinance. Before the com- mencement of this Ordinance it was an offence to smoke opium or heroin. The amendments make it an offence to smoke any dangerous drug whatever and also to consume, ingest or inject any dangerous drug unless under medical supervision. The maximum penalties for the contravention of the provisions of the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance and Regulations are increased from a fine of

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$50,000 and imprisonment for 10 years to a fine of $100,000 and imprisonment for 15 years.

Lifts and Escalators (Safety) Ordinance. This Ordinance is designed to ensure, as far as possible, that lifts and escalators are maintained in safe working order. It had long been felt that the legislation that had existed before the enactment of this Ordinance was inadequate and the vast increase in the number of lifts in use in the Colony emphasized the need for more comprehensive provisions. The requirements of this Ordinance with regard to the maintenance, examinations and testing of lifts demand no more of lift-owners than responsible owners were already under- taking, and it was therefore prepared to conform as closely as possible to the practice already adopted by such lift-owners. It provides for the keeping of registers of lift and escalator engineers; for the examination of new lifts and escalators; for testing safety equipment provided for them; for periodic maintenance and examination and for the issuing of certificates by registered engineers.

       Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance. This Ordinance, the most complex of all those enacted during the year, is designed to bring up-to-date the existing legislation concerned with public health, which was formerly contained in seven separate Ordinances. Many of its provisions have been modelled on United Kingdom legislation. Broadly, they are concerned with public health and the maintenance of a proper standard of sanitation and cleanliness, offensive trades, food and drugs, markets and hawkers, over- crowding in tenements, ventilation of buildings such as cinemas, theatres, restaurants, public dance halls and dancing schools, and cemeteries, and with advertisements so far as they may affect the safety of sea or air navigation, or constitute a fire hazard.

Mental Health Ordinance. This Ordinance replaced the Mental Health Ordinance, Chapter 136, with a comprehensive Ordinance dealing with all aspects of the detention, custody, care and treatment of mentally disordered persons and the management of their property. It also provides for a new class of patient, the "temporary patient', and the definition of 'voluntary patient' is extended to include persons under the age of 16 years. This is in conformity with modern mental health practice which requires that a patient should be certified only if no other method of

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Hong Kong's first community centre was opened at Wong Tai Sin Resettle- ment Estate, Kowloon, in July 1960. Built with a World Refugee Year donation of $1,180,000 from the United States Government, the centre contains a wide range of social and welfare facilities and has been designed to promote a community sense among the estate's 57,000 people.

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Among the centre's many facilities is a nursery and playcentre where working mothers can leave their children during the day. In addition to being cared for the youngsters receive a nourishing midday meal. In the evenings youth clubs take part in sing-songs, hold film shows and organize many other social activities.

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The Hong Kong Christian Welfare and Relief Council provides trade and language training for 240 day students and 100 evening students. The trades taught are marine and vehicle diesel engineering, basic electrical trades, repair and maintenance of cooling plant, and spray painting. Full- time students are provided with a free midday meal.

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The centre also contains a library run by the Social Welfare Department, which fulfils a long-felt need among adults and children alike. It contains more than 8,000 volumes and is to be enlarged. The Department also runs a vocational training and social club for the deaf, where boys and girls are given simple lessons and taught to do handwork.

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treatment is appropriate and that, wherever possible, a patient should receive treatment without certification. This Ordinance will come into operation on a date to be proclaimed by the Governor.

13

Law, Order and Records

THE COURTS OF JUSTICE

     THE Courts in Hong Kong are the Full Court, the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates' Court, the Tenancy Tribunal and the Marine Court.

      The Full Court hears appeals from the Supreme Court and the District Court and has jurisdiction corresponding roughly to that of the Court of Appeal and the Court of Criminal Appeal in England. Final appeals from Hong Kong go to the Judical Com- mittee of the Privy Council in London.

The Supreme Court tries criminal cases with a jury and deals with civil matters in an Original Jurisdiction (being as it were a local combination of the King's Bench and Chancery Divisions of the English High Court) and also in its Probate, Divorce, Admiralty, Lunacy, Bankruptcy and Company Winding Up Juris- dictions. It also has an appellate jurisdiction in which it hears appeals from the Magistrates' Court and Marine Court, and exercises control over the members of both branches of the legal profession.

       The District Court has a restricted criminal and civil jurisdiction but also has an appellate jurisdiction in Stamp Appeals, Rating Appeals and Appeals from the Tenancy Tribunal. Trial in both criminal and civil proceedings in the District Court is by judge alone. There is no trial by jury.

      The Magistrates' Court corresponds broadly to the Magistrates' Court in England and exercises a similar criminal jurisdiction. It also has a limited jurisdiction in domestic matters. The year 1960 saw continued expansion of the work of the Magistrates' Court in company with continued expansion of the population. The number of magistrates (who, with the exception of the JPS' Court, are barristers or solicitors sitting as full time stipendiaries) increased, and 6 additional courts in 2 new Magistracies were

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brought into use during the year. Two further new Magistracies are expected to be completed within the next 18 months.

       The Tenancy Tribunal deals with matters arising under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance which provides (with some excep- tions) control over domestic and business premises erected before the 17th August 1945. This Ordinance also provides a procedure by which premises may be exempted from control if it is in the public interest that they should be. It is no exaggeration to say that this provision has directly brought about the major portion of the vast amount of rebuilding which has taken place since 1945, and the Tenancy Tribunal has played an important part in hearing applications for exemption from control. Each of the 2 Tribunals sits with a full time president, who is a barrister or solicitor, and in exemption proceedings the president sits with 2 laymen who are selected in rotation from a panel of members who are appointed by the Chief Justice.

During 1960, two additional courts with adjoining chambers were constructed on the ground floor of the Supreme Court build- ing for the use of the District Court and Tenancy Tribunal. The space for these two new courts became available as a result of the Registrar General's Department moving out of the Supreme Court in 1959.

      'White gloves' were presented at a Criminal Sessions in August for the first time since 1932.

THE HONG KONG POLICE FORCE

       Ninety nine per cent of the population is Chinese. While a law- abiding people by nature, there is a tradition among the Chinese of keeping themselves to themselves and of avoiding contact with officialdom and particularly with the Police. This attitude is changing, and the public is becoming more co-operative in com- bating crime and helping to maintain law and order. The increas- ing number of people who now call at Police Stations for guidance and assistance on non-criminal matters is one example. Another important development has been the improved liaison with the Kaifong (District Welfare) Associations through monthly meetings of senior police officers with Kaifong committees. Kaifong Associa- tions helped greatly during the year in such matters as hawker

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control, the campaign against narcotics, the prevention of night noises and pavement and street obstructions, and have suggested many other matters for Police consideration.

The importance of good relations with the public is drilled into every recruit as soon as he arrives in the Police Training School. When he has completed his initial training he is constantly reminded of his personal responsibility for improving these rela- tions. It is unendingly stressed that his smartness, efficiency, tact and impartiality in dealing with ordinary people are of the utmost importance, and he is also encouraged to take part in sporting activities between the Police and the Public. The Police Band helps to promote goodwill by playing at official functions and in the scattered villages of the New Territories as well as in the urban parks. Police patrols which transport and escort mobile teams with medical and other social services to the more distant of the New Territories villages also play their part. Other methods used to build up friendship with the public are traffic and general police exhibitions, talks on the radio, lectures to schools and organizations, and public ceremonies when monetary awards and letters of appreciation are presented to members of the public for outstanding services to the community.

      During the year experimental changes in certain police methods and procedures were introduced for the benefit of the general public. One of these involved the reorganization of charge rooms in a number of police stations so that criminal matters, charge cases and all other types of reports made by the public are dealt with by separate officers. This allows a citizen's business to be handled more speedily and has stopped one source of public dissatisfaction. The lowering of some charge room benches to the level of the desks was another psychological improvement. As a result of the liaison with Kaifong Associations, new methods of controlling hawkers proved successful in many areas and removed the need for large scale arrests for minor infringements of the law. The former hostility between hawkers and police has largely dis- appeared and hawkers are now co-operating by conducting their business in a more orderly manner.

The twin towns of Victoria and Kowloon contain in their 12 square miles 80% of the population of the Colony, and a popula- tion density of 4,000 to the acre is not uncommon. Between them

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they constitute the fourth largest city in the Commonwealth. There are 499 miles of roads in the Colony. Half of these are in urban areas and there are 48,890 registered vehicles. It reflects credit on both public and police that law and order are maintained and that traffic congestion is not worse.

        In contrast with Victoria and Kowloon, the New Territories have a widely dispersed population. This, and the fact that there is a land frontier with China, impose special considerations not found in the urban areas. Police stationed in the New Territories have to associate themselves intimately with local community life and problems. Much has been achieved by the use of the village penetration patrols which spend a number of days in each area, living in the villages and giving advice and assistance where they can. It would be wrong, however, to consider the New Territories purely as a rural backcloth to the teeming urban areas, for as villages and quiet market towns have grown in the past ten years, urban-type policing has become necessary in some of the larger townships and industrial centres which they have become.

       A population of this size is bound to reflect the political ideo- logies of surrounding territories. Incidents may flare up without warning and on slight pretext. This means that the Force has always to be ready to mobilize its emergency structure at short notice. The Triad Societies are a constant threat to law and order. First formed as secret patriotic societies in China some three centuries ago, they have degenerated into 'strong arm' gangs engaged in 'protection' and extortion rackets and other forms of crime. During the past year intense police activity continued against these groups and has largely suppressed the threat. There is still much to be done, however, before this menace is completely exterminated.

       Bribery, corruption and narcotics continue to be major problems and exercise considerable influence over criminal activity in the Colony. The drive to suppress them was intensified. A Force Narcotics Committee was appointed under the Chairmanship of the Deputy Commissioner of Police to co-ordinate all Police action against drug addiction and trafficking. Considerable publicity about the evil of drugs was directed to all ranks in the Force. Apart from lectures, each officer received a personal memorandum from the

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Commissioner of Police, in which he stressed the special respon- sibility of Police, both collectively and individually, for eradicating the narcotic menace. Police action against corruption is, of course, part of a wider campaign which the Government is conducting, and in this connexion the Governor reconstituted the existing Standing Advisory Committee during the course of the year, en- larging its membership to include unofficial members of Legislative Council, with the Attorney General as Chairman (later to be succeeded by an unofficial member of Executive Council). The Deputy Commissioner of Police is a member of this Committee. Illegal immigration continues to be a serious problem. With a coastline of about 400 miles and 235 small islands, a very large expansion of the Marine Police Fleet would be necessary to achieve success in the prevention of illegal entry. Nevertheless, the existing fleet, with the limited number of patrol vessels which can put to sea at any one time, had some success against boats carrying illegal immigrants.

The year showed no decline in the pace of building development, and in the growth of new residential, commercial, industrial and resettlement buildings requiring the re-deployment of police man- power. The Force has a Seven Year Expansion Plan phased, as far as possible, to meet the needs of new urban areas; but it is not always possible to complete and staff new stations at the time of the opening, for instance, of a resettlement estate of 60,000 people.

This is some of the background against which the Hong Kong Police Force works: a background which is stimulating and vital and demands a ceaseless review of organization and methods in order to meet the increasing calls made upon the Force.

Establishment and Organization. The Force has an establish- ment of 88 Gazetted Officers, 693 Inspectors and 7,352 Non- Commissioned Officers and Police Constables. These include an establishment of Women Police consisting of 1 Gazetted Officer, 8 Inspectors and 205 Non-Commissioned Officers and Police Con- stables. The Force is commanded by the Commissioner of Police, assisted by a Deputy Commissioner. An Assistant Commissioner, who acts as Chief Staff Officer, is in charge of Colony Head- quarters. He is helped by a number of Staff Officers who are responsible for central administration, planning, finance, personnel and welfare matters. The civilian staff of the Force, whose number

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exceeds 1,400, come under the general control of the Administrative Secretary, a senior administrative officer seconded to the Force with status of an Assistant Commissioner.

       The Colony is divided into three Police Districts, each com- manded by an Assistant Commissioner: Hong Kong Island; Kowloon; and the New Territories and Marine. These districts contain a number of divisions, sub-divisional stations and posts. At the end of the year there were 11 divisional stations, 26 sub- divisional stations and 28 posts.

      The Criminal Investigation Department and the Special Branch are also under the command of Assistant Commissioners. Senior Superintendents are in charge of the Police Training School, the Police Training Contingent, the Immigration Office and the Traffic Branch.

      The Special Branch is responsible for preventing and detecting subversion within the Colony and for supplying the intelligence necessary for the maintenance of internal security. It also controls and operates the Registry of Aliens and the Registry of approved Societies.

       The CID is charged with the investigation of crime and shares in the responsibility for its prevention. At Colony Headquarters there are specialized units such as the Triad Society Bureau, Commercial Crime Section, Forensic Laboratory, Ballistics Office, Identification Bureau, Criminal Records Office and Prevention of Crime Section. There are also detective units dispersed throughout the three territorial districts. The Anti-Corruption Branch and Narcotics Bureau, with a Senior Superintendent of Police in charge, are also included in the CID organization.

The Marine Police Division is responsible for the Policing of 728 square miles of territorial waters and the numerous islands therein, as well as the enforcement of shipping regulations in the waters of the Port of Victoria, one of the world's busiest harbours. At the end of the year this division had a fleet of 25 craft, includ- ing ten cruising launches. All the vessels are fitted with either radio telephone or wireless telephone and equipment for air-to- launch communications. The cruising launches are also fitted with radar.

Each of the three districts has an Emergency Unit which, in addition to day-to-day police mobile patrol duties, provides a

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tactical reserve ready at all times for special operations or to deal speedily with any local disorder or disaster. The Police Training Contingent is the Force Training Centre for intensive training of inspectors, non-commissioned officers and constables in internal security. It also provides an emergency formation which can be called upon to deal with internal disorders. The present establish- ment of the Police Training Contingent is the equivalent of two military infantry companies.

The Commissioner of Police is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force is therefore trained in two distinct roles as a civil force and also, should the necessity arise, as a para-military body. In its civil capacity the Force polices the territory with beat officers and radio car patrols in the urban areas, launch patrols in the territorial waters and village penetra- tion patrols in those parts of the New Territories which are in- accessible by road. Under emergency organization each territorial district forms from its own strength a District Emergency Force which consists of a number of Police Riot Companies each roughly equivalent in strength to an infantry company. In addition to the District Emergency Forces, the Districts also give administrative support to the District Emergency Force, escort units to protect essential services, and mobile and foot patrols to maintain watch and ward on the streets. In general, therefore, it will be seen that the Force works as a metropolitan force in the cities of Victoria and Kowloon, as a rural constabulary in the land areas of the New Territories, as a maritime police in the waters of the Colony, and that it can change its organization at short notice to one particularly suited for dealing with civil disorders.

       Crime. The trend towards reduction in serious crimes known to the Police continued during 1960. Reasons can be suggested for decreases in specific types of crime, but no single cause or com- bination of causes would adequately explain the general decrease. It is, perhaps, partly that the Chinese are naturally law-abiding and that the large number of immigrants which have entered the Colony since 1949 have now become more closely integrated with the local community. There has also been fuller employment. Preventive action by the Police has been successful and voluntary associations, notably the Discharged Prisoners Aid Society, have done much to help to rehabilitate discharged prisoners. The general

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lessening of crime is particularly impressive in face of the steady growth of the population and the knowledge that the crime rate in urban areas throughout the world is tending to increase. It is also remarkable because, since 1956, it has not often been practi- cable to deport convicted criminals. The present difficulty over deportation has, however, been offset by a continuous and inten- sive drive against triad societies and increased supervision of habitual criminals. As in other large cities the criminal classes are becoming more ingenious and the Police have increasingly to investigate cases of clever frauds and other sophisticated forms of crime.

        The amount of business conducted between the International Police Organization, more commonly known as Interpol, and the Hong Kong Police has grown over the years, and a sub-bureau of Interpol was established in Hong Kong during the year. The Narcotics Bureau co-operates closely with the Preventive Service of Hong Kong, narcotic suppression agencies and Police Forces all over the world, with results of mutual benefit in their collective efforts to suppress both international and internal drug trafficking.

As part of the general publicity campaign, the Police undertook an effective drive against narcotics. It also organized a special Narcotics Exhibition at the Police Training School from June to July to enable leading members of the public to become better informed. A team of police officers produced an anti-narcotics play in June which was broadcast on two occasions. As a further part of the drive a special Narcotics Squad was formed at the CID Headquarters, and proved its value by making several large seizures and detecting clandestine drug distributors and factories.

The statistics of serious crime for 1960 are in Appendix IX.

       Early in 1960 a number of officers were seconded to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to assist in the investigation of cases of illegal immigration into Canada from Hong Kong.

       Recruitment and Training. Overseas probationary sub-inspectors are recruited in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, and other sub-inspectors and constables are recruited locally. Upon enlistment all ranks are given six months' course of instruction at the Police Training School. The curriculum includes public relations, civics, law and legal principles, court procedure, police

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regulations and duties, drill, musketry, physical training, riot drill, life saving, first aid, local and general knowledge. Overseas officers are also taught Cantonese and recruit constables are taught some English. Recruits for the Marine Police are given special instruc- tion in seamanship, signalling and Port regulations. Training for inspectors, non-commissioned officers and constables was re- organized during the year, and is now co-ordinated by Colony Headquarters. In the course of their probationary period of service inspectors attend the Police Training School one day each month for lectures, as well as for two weeks' continuation training in the second and third years of their service. Constables with less than 4 years' service attend for two days each month at a small training centre in the Districts. Two weeks' continuation training at the Police Training School takes place at about the 18th month and 30th month of their service. Refresher courses, also of two weeks' duration, are held for men in the 6th to 10th year service group.

A number of courses were held during the year for Instructors, Court Inspectors, non-commissioned officers, Traffic Branch per- sonnel, civilian clerks and CID personnel. For some years Cadet Courses have been an avenue of promotion for non-commissioned officers and constables to the rank of sub-inspector. Officers who are selected for these courses after severe preliminary tests must have reached the same general educational standard as that re- quired by inspectors who enter direct. Seventy officers have already won promotion from these courses.

The Third Course on the Social and Psychological Background of Crime was held at the University of Hong Kong in December. It was attended by twenty five police officers and some prison and probation officers. This course has now become an established feature of training. Attachments to the Police Training Contingent for internal security training are regarded as complementary to Police Training School courses. A probationary sub-inspector normally goes to the Police Training Contingent in his 13th month and a constable in his 30th month. Ten gazetted officers and inspectors attended courses of instruction in the United Kingdom, including one local gazetted officer who is spending an academic year at Cambridge University.

      English is the official language of the Hong Kong Government Service. For this reason, and because of the increasing number of

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tourists who are visiting the Colony, it is desirable that non- commissioned officers and constables have at least an elementary knowledge of it. The Education Department provides teachers for the Police Force English Classes which have been successful; 3,500 non-commissioned officers and constables now speak at least some English.

Communications and Transport. All motor vehicles and all forms of communication are the responsibility of the Communica- tions and Transport Branch, which is controlled from Colony Headquarters. The Force has a network of 590 radio stations linking Colony Headquarters with the territorial district head- quarters, districts with divisions, and divisions with stations and posts. There are also direct links with mobile units, marine craft, foot patrols equipped with pack sets, and helicopters.

The extensive re-organization of the Force communications system was completed when the '999' telephone system was de- centralized. Each district now has its own 'nerve' centre for day- to-day operations as well as for emergency functions, and controls radio cars which patrol districts throughout the day and night. These cars are available to answer any calls received over the '999' telephone system. A teleprinter system is operated from a central transmitter at Colony Headquarters with 20 receiver stations in the main police stations. The Force now has an establishment of 397 motor vehicles and cycles, ranging from armoured cars to mobile canteens.

Traffic. 7,592 new vehicles were registered during the year bringing the total number of registered vehicles to 48,890, a figure almost double that of six years ago. As most vehicles use the 275 miles of road in the urban areas the density of traffic poses ever increasing problems of control over movement and parking, prob- lems which the Colony shares with many other big cities in the world.

In order to keep a free and uninterrupted flow of traffic at all times, parking on streets, particularly the main arteries, has had to be eliminated or considerably reduced over the years. As a result, the central district of Victoria, for example, has parking space for some 1,000 cars only. There are plans to build a third multi-storey car park to house 700 cars by the end of 1961 and similar building may follow in subsequent years. But bearing in

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mind the high annual rate of increase in new vehicles, the expense of constructing car parks and the shortage of land, particularly in the central districts where parking facilities are most needed, the problem will remain for many years.

The Police have to see that obstructions are reduced as far as possible in order to prevent accidents and to keep traffic flowing, task which more than any other has impaired relations with the public. The congestion in Hong Kong, both vehicular and pedes- trian, aggravates the problem and there can be little doubt of the need for Police action against indiscriminate and inconsiderate parking.

Very many of the population are comparative newcomers to city life. It is not surprising that ignorance and a general lack of road sense, particularly on the part of pedestrians and cyclists, are often the primary cause of accidents. Road safety education is, therefore, important in Hong Kong and during the year there was a con- tinuous programme which included a Traffic Exhibition, attended by some 200,000 people, lectures to schools and radio broadcasts and quiz programmes for children on road safety. The very close co-operation and assistance given by the Kaifong Associations was particularly helpful.

Comparative figures for the past six years for accidents, licensed vehicles, drivers and driving tests are contained in Appendix IX. Immigration. The control and operation of the Immigration Department is the responsibility of the Commissioner of Police. The total recorded movement in and out of the Colony during the year was 2,479,019, an increase of 254,516 over the 1959 figure. The tourist trade played a large part in this increase. Air passenger traffic has increased by almost 100% since 1956, reaching the record figure of 371,968 for the year. The majority of tourists come from the United States of America and immigration requirements have now been relaxed so that visas are valid for one year and within that period may be used for any number of visits to the Colony. Comparative figures for the past five years of movement in and out of the Colony and the issue of visas, passports, certifi- cates of identity and re-entry permits may be seen at Appendix IX.

Visits. A number of Hong Kong Police Officers visited Police Forces in the United Kingdom, Japan and Thailand during the

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year to study the organization and methods of police forces in those countries. In return, 35 officers from Police Forces in Malaya, Somalia, Vietnam, Burma, North Borneo, Thailand, Egypt, Cambodia, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and Macau were given the opportunity to study various aspects of police work in Hong Kong.

THE HONG KONG AUXILIARY POLICE FORCE

The Commissioner of Police commands the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police and is assisted by a Commandant who is the senior Auxiliary Police Officer. The Force has an establishment of 35 Gazetted Officers, 124 Inspectors and 1,817 Non-Commissioned Officers and Police Constables. The purpose of this formation is to assist the regular Police to maintain or restore peace and order should a civil disturbance break out or threaten. When mobilized the Auxiliary Police Force is fully integrated with the regular Police Force and its members have attained a high standard of efficiency.

       Nine training camps, each of eleven days, were held at the Police Training School for a total of 1,467 Auxiliary Police Officers. These camps are the most important part of Auxiliary Police training, but there were also two annual mobilizations, each of 16 hours duration, comprising joint exercises with the military forces.

PRISONS

The staff of the Prisons Department includes, besides 16 gazetted officers and 740 other ranks, 164 others, such as school-masters, social welfare officers, trade instructors, clerks and mechanics.

For the last seven years the Department has had a steady policy of decentralization from the overcrowded maximum-security prison at Stanley. Ultimately all prisoners serving sentences of two years or less will be in open prisons, and of a total population of 5,867, 1,625 are already in open conditions. This is, so far as is known, a unique experiment and a bold attempt to solve the universal problem of short-term imprisonment. A new prison, for which the preliminary plans were drawn up this year, will take another 1,000 prisoners out to Lantau Island, where their main task will be to

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afforest the catchment area of the new Shek Pik reservoir, and eventually the whole south-eastern end of Lantau.

      This new prison at Tong Fuk will be the first to be built in Hong Kong for twenty five years. Institutions, even of the open kind, are expensive to build, and the other new ventures since the war have been accommodated in existing buildings. Considerable sums had to be spent on adaptation, but the total was only a fraction of what new institutions would have cost. Chi Ma Wan Prison, the first of the open prisons, was formerly a home for disabled people; Stanley Training Centre, the pioneer open Centre for boys, was a group of food storage huts; Tai Lam Prison occupies the contractors' lines for the building of Tai Lam Chung dam, and Cape Collinson Training Centre occupies a former army coastal battery site. It so happens that all these are in exceptionally beautiful surroundings and were easily adaptable for prison pur- poses. The possibility of making more such 'take-over bids' has come to an end, at least for the time being; hence the decision to build an entirely new open prison at Tong Fuk.

The present institutions, administered from a central Head- quarters, are Stanley Prison, Victoria Prison, Lai Chi Kok Prison, Chi Ma Wan Prison, Tai Lam Prison, Stanley Training Centre and Cape Collinson Training Centre. The first three are maximum security; the others are all open. There is also a Staff Training School.

Stanley Prison is the main industrial centre. The value of goods produced for Government has gone up from a once negligible sum to about two million dollars a year. The standard of instruction is high; every trade party has a qualified instructor who must pass the standard of the Technical College. Stanley is very fine architec- turally, and so good was the basic design that apart from the addition of a dining and concert hall, an extension to the work- shops built during the year is the only structural alteration that has had to be made in twenty three years.

      Victoria Prison, centrally placed and close to the Courts, is the reception and classification centre.

Lai Chi Kok Prison for women is on the mainland in what was once pleasant countryside but is now a busy industrial area. The majority of the women do not need maximum security and

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the new prison which is planned for them will be on minimum security lines.

Chi Ma Wan Prison was the testing ground for the practice of sending all short-sentence prisoners to open prisons. It has been completely successful; escapes are few and far between and an immense amount of work has been done on forestry and other projects.

Tai Lam Prison has shown the most interesting development of the year. It takes convicted prisoners who are drug addicts, regardless of their offence, age or state of health. Often their health on admission is appalling, as the result of some physical disease such as TB in addition to drug addiction. The programme of rehabilitation is vigorous and comprehensive and ends with the prisoner going off as much as twenty miles to work every day, physically fit and with increased moral resistance to drugs. One typical job during the year was the rebuilding of the retaining walls of a river bed some five miles away which collapsed during disastrous floods in May. The prisoners' work saved valuable paddy land from flood and silt.

A team of after-care officers is now at work and it is hoped that by following up cases selected on the basis of greatest need it will be possible to prevent many slipping back into the drug habit.

The Training Centres have maintained their exceptionally high rate of boys discharged and not reconvicted. Their regime is based on strict discipline combined with a constructive approach to training, and the educational standard is high; all entrants for the Education Department's Joint Primary Six examination passed during the year. The products of vocational training classes again won many prizes at the Colony's annual Agricultural Show.

RECORDS

The Registrar General's Department was established on the 1st April 1949 and contains the Land Office, the Registries of Births and Deaths, Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents, the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding Up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy. The Department is unusual for an

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overseas British territory, as it combines the functions of Land Officer with the other more usual general functions. It is staffed professionally by solicitors, which makes the combination of duties effective and efficient.

      Land Office. The Land Officer combines two principal functions. He is the Land Registrar and the Government Conveyancer for grants of Crown land.

      The Land Office is a public office for the registration of all instruments affecting land. Failure to register makes the instrument void against any subsequent purchaser or mortgagee of the land for valuable consideration. Registration is effected by delivering a memorial containing particulars of the instrument to the Land Office, the procedure being similar to that of the Deeds Registries set up in Yorkshire in the United Kingdom. The Land Officer maintains one index of the names of the parties to the instruments, and a second identifying the parcels affected by the instrument with a reference to the number of the memorial. In the New Territories registration is not done in the Land Office itself, but in one or other of the five District Offices. The index of parcels has been kept in the form of a register from which the entries to any particular lot or portion of a lot may quickly be ascertained. Because of this method of maintaining the register comprising the index of parcels, the Land Office system has become in fact although not in law a system of registration of title. As a result, if it were ever decided to introduce a system of formal registration of title, the conversion process would be a relatively simple task. Land tenure is described in Chapters 7 and 10.

As Government Conveyancer for grants of land by the Crown, the Land Officer acts as Government Solicitor in all matters re- lating to the sale, grant and exchange of Crown land. All Crown leases including mining leases are drafted and issued by the Land Officer, and also any deeds or documents varying the terms of such leases. As a result of his professional and practical experi- ence, the Land Officer acts as one of the Government's advisers on land matters in general.

One of the methods for financing development, particularly residential development, which building owners use is neither to sell a whole building nor to retain it and let it in separate por- tions, but to sell individual self-contained units within the building.

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      There are now over 3,000 buildings comprising six or more units which have been alienated in this way on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon and New Kowloon. At present the majority of such buildings have six units, but the scarcity of land for building purposes encourages a tendency to build much larger structures. Since the premium charged on a lease of Crown land is based upon a computation which assumes full development of land, the economics of building naturally accentuate this trend. This development has created a large number of problems, such as responsibility for maintenance of the fabric of the structure and of common parts and services and the problem is expected to become more acute. Government has appointed a Working Party to examine the difficulties which have arisen or are expected to arise, with directions to make recommendations for a solution, and at the end of the year their deliberations were far advanced. One result has been to realize how extremely small is the area of individual units into which some large buildings have been frag- mented. Some are as small as 520 square feet.

       Another feature of development during the year has been the increase in the number of 'flatted' factories. This is of great con- venience to the smaller type of industry which would not need a complete building for its own machinery and equipment.

       The number of land transactions recorded during the year increased by 21% to the new record figure of 23,678. This increase is attributed mainly to the type of development which has just been described. The money which passed on sales of land aggre- gated $642,723,805, an increase of more than $200 million over the previous year's record total. $409,416,000 were advanced on mortgages of land, an increase of $77 million over the previous year. The average rate of interest charged on mortgaged land was 11% per annum.

      Companies. The Companies Registry keeps records of all com- panies incorporated in Hong Kong and also of all foreign corpora- tions which have established a place of business in the Colony. Incorporation of companies in Hong Kong is effected under the Companies Ordinance (Chapter 32) which is based on the Com- panies Act, 1929, of Great Britain (now replaced by the Companies Act, 1948). Companies incorporated outside the Colony are required

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to register certain documents with the Companies Registry within one month after the establishment of a place of business in Hong Kong.

1960 saw the registration of more new companies than ever before. Registrations at 642 exceed the peak recorded in 1959 by 196, and at the year's end there were 4,181 local companies on the register, compared with 3,625 the year before. The sharp rise in registrations at the end of 1959, apparently inspired by optimism about business prospects, continued steadily into 1960 and to the end of the year. There are no discernible signs yet of any reversal of this upward curve in company formations, and it is likely that the coming year may even see a steepening of the curve as the tempo of corporate activities quickens in time with the increase in business confidence.

      During the year 36 foreign companies established places of business in the Colony and registered the documents required under the Ordinance, bringing the total of these companies to 424 at the close of the year. The figures for the preceding year were 42 and 404 respectively.

      Insurance companies, local and foreign, who wish to transact life, fire or marine insurance business in Hong Kong must make security deposits with the Registrar of Companies. This require- ment also applies to motor vehicle third party insurance business, but the authority with whom the deposits are maintained is the Accountant General. The desirability is now being considered of replacing the present insurance legislation by a modern law that imposes tests of solvency.

      At the end of 1960, there were 21 companies transacting life insurance business, 24 companies in fire insurance and 21 in marine insurance; 110 companies engaged in both fire and marine insurance business, and 4 companies engaged in all three classes.

      The other functions of the Companies Registry include the registration of limited partnerships, Chinese partnerships and money lenders. At the year's end there were 6 limited partnerships, 23 Chinese partnerships and 13 money lenders on their respective registers.

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The Registrar of Companies keeps a list of all persons and firms authorized for appointment as auditors of locally incorpo- rated companies. The list is divided into two parts. Part I has the names of persons or firms who are authorized to audit accounts kept in English and Part II the names of persons or firms authorized to audit accounts in Chinese. At the end of 1960 there were 123 names in Part I of the list and 97 names in Part II.

       Trade Marks and Patents Registries. The Hong Kong Trade Marks Registry is responsible for the original registration of Trade Marks in Hong Kong, with the same functions in this respect as the Patent Office in the UK. It is an entirely independent Registry and there is no automatic registration in this Colony of Trade Marks registered in the UK or other countries. Every Trade Mark registration in Hong Kong is an original registration, and the mark must satisfy all the requirements of the Hong Kong Trade Marks Ordinance, (No 47 of 1954).

Although a trade mark registered in the UK or any other country is not by that registration alone protected in the Colony, section 23 of the Ordinance provides that registration of any trade mark may be refused if it is proved to the satisfaction of the Registrar that such mark is identical with, or confusingly resembles, a trade mark which is already registered for the same goods in a country or place from which they originate, unless the person applying for registration can prove that his mark has been used continuously in Hong Kong since before the registration of the conflicting Trade Mark in its country of origin. A trade mark may also be removed from the register under such circumstances if application is made to the Court within seven years of its registration.

The importance of the registration of trade marks in the protec- tion of commercial rights is being more widely recognized as the rapid development of the Colony's manufacturing industries con- tinues. This is evident from the sustained increase in the number of applications: during 1960 1,761 applications for registration were filed, as against 1,749 in 1959, and 1,633 in 1958.

During the year 1,153 marks were registered, bringing the total number of marks on the register on 31st December 1960 to 17,350. The number of marks registered is rather less than one would expect from the number of applications filed. The reason is that

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     a more thorough scrutiny of applications has resulted in more rejections.

There is no original registration of patents in Hong Kong, but patents granted in the UK may be registered under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance (Chapter 42). This provides that the grantee of a patent in the UK may apply within five years from the date of the patent to have it registered in Hong Kong, and that such registration shall confer the same rights as though the patent had been issued in the UK with an extension to Hong Kong. During the year 102 such registrations were made.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations. 9 bankruptcy petitions were filed and receiving orders were made in 7 cases, one of which was rescinded subsequently by the Court. The Official Receiver was appointed Trustee in each case where a receiving order was made.

There were 3 petitions for compulsory winding-up of com- panies, one of which was subsequently withdrawn. The Official Receiver was appointed Liquidator in each of the cases where a winding-up order was made. One of the companies which was ordered to be wound up by the Court was a building development company which had commenced to build a large block of flats on eight floors with shops on the ground floor. This case showed the type of difficulty which may often arise in large building schemes. The development was virtually being carried out by moneys already paid to the Company by about 300 prospective purchasers of flats. The Company stopped work over a year before the winding-up order and the Liquidator inherited a literal skeleton of a building-four walls and a roof. Energetic action by the Official Receiver as Liquidator enabled him to devise a scheme, which was duly approved by the Court, for the clothing of the skeleton. With the assistance of a special manager on the technical building side the Official Receiver arranged to complete the build- ing, adding two extra floors in the process. He also arranged for the provision of the necessary temporary finance and has now collected from the flat purchasers nearly three quarters of the extra $1,000,000 required to finish the project. At the end of the year building work was again well under way and there appears to be every chance that it will be completed by April 1961. The completion of the structure will enable these 300 families of the

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      lower income groups to obtain their homes. In addition to solving the building and financial problems the Official Receiver had to resolve forty disputes about the areas of individual flats. The flats had been sold by the Company by reference to a plan which had not been approved by the Building Authority. The plans subsequently had to be altered to comply with the requirements of the Building Authority and these purchasers were unlucky enough to receive a smaller flat than that which they had con- tracted to buy. In one or two cases the flat, due to alterations in the plans, no longer existed.

       Marriages. All marriages, except non-Christian customary mar- riages, are governed by the Marriage Ordinance (Chapter 181). By its provisions notice of an intended marriage must be exhibited at the registry for fifteen clear days. An Ordinance enacted during the year gave the Registrar of Marriages a discretion to reduce this period in special circumstances. Under the Ordinance the Governor may grant a special licence authorizing a marriage with- out notice at all, but the grant of such a licence is extremely rare. The Registrar exercised his discretion in 27 cases and the Governor granted 3 special licences.

       There are at present 81 churches licensed for the celebration of marriages, three full time Marriage Registries in the urban areas and six part time sub-registries in outlying districts and the New Territories. These sub-registries were opened during the year to make the facilities of a registry marriage more readily available to the public and to popularize registered marriages amongst the Chinese community. Some are in the premises of Kaifong associa- tions. 3,907 marriages were performed during the year at the main Marriage Registry in Hong Kong, 4,750 at the main Kowloon Marriage Registry, 308 in sub-registries and 1,090 at licensed places of worship. The total was 707 more than in 1959.

       The validity of Chinese customary marriages is not affected by the Marriage Ordinance, and such marriages do not require to be registered. Marriages under the Ordinance have, however, become popular with all classes of the Chinese population, as the advan- tages of having an official certificate of marriage are now more widely appreciated. There has, therefore, for many years been a steady increase in the yearly total of registered marriages. In order to accelerate and assist this changing trend in public opinion plans

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have been made to set up other marriage registries in the next few years both in the urban areas and in the New Territories.

      Births and Deaths. The registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance (Chapter 174). The General Register Office is situated in the centre of Victoria, and district registries are found wherever they are most needed throughout the Colony. In the outlying rural and island areas births are registered by district registrars calling regularly at the District Rural Committee Offices, and deaths are reported to the local police stations.

      After a slight decline in 1959 (for the first time since the war), the total number of births registered has regained its upward trend. During the year 110,667 births were registered as compared with 104,579 in 1959 and 106,624 in 1958. In addition, there were 4,115 births registered more than one year after their occurrence. Of these, 2,906 were births in the New Territories where no facili- ties for registration were available until 1932, and the facilities then provided were by no means fully used before the war.

      The possession of a birth certificate has become so essential for many purposes that there has been a constant flow of applica- tions for post-registration. In the New Territories where there is a backlog of applications awaiting to be cleared, three special mobile teams are in full operation to deal with these applications. 131,160 birth certificates were issued as against 125,395 in 1959. A ceremony to mark the issue of the millionth birth certificate since World War II was held on the 1st April 1960, when the birth certificate, together with a peach-shaped gold pendant in- scribed with the character 'SAU' (meaning longevity), was pre- sented to the baby by the Registrar General.

      The number of deaths registered continued its downward trend, the year's total of 19,146 being 1,104 less than that of 1959.

      Adoptions. An Adopted Children Register is maintained at the General Register Office under the Adoption Ordinance, 1956. During the year 127 adoptions were registered as against ninety seven in 1959. From the time the first entry was made on 22nd July 1957, a total number of 339 adoptions has been registered.

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Public Works and Utilities

PUBLIC WORKS

Buildings. The number of schemes for Government building continued to increase and during the year about 150 were being designed or were already under construction. These projects covered almost every variety of departmental need.

The Sisters' and Nurses' quarters were completed at the site for the new Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Kowloon and the basement structure of the main hospital building was also finished by the end of the year. Work is due to start in 1961 on the superstructure of this hospital, with its various specialist departments. At Castle Peak in the New Territories, steady work went on upon the 1,000 bed Mental Hospital buildings and medical staff quarters, and was near to completion. Some of the buildings were ready to be occupied before the end of the year. A new operating theatre and building was completed at the Kowloon General Hospital, with a new central kitchen block and a staff recreation centre. Other medical buildings which were completed during the year included the large Sai Ying Pun Clinic, Sha Tau Kok Dispensary, Tong Fuk Hospital on South Lantau and an isolation unit at Lai Chi Kok Hospital.

Large scale additions were made to the Technical College Laboratories and Workshops and the Lo Fu Ngam Primary School was finished. Blake Gardens, Chai Wan and Tsuen Wan Primary Schools, each accommodating 1,080 children, and Clementi Middle School were under construction, and working drawings were being prepared for a new Teachers' Training College, four secondary schools and eight primary schools.

       The construction of the City Hall continued throughout the year and, though much yet remained to be done, it was beginning to take shape as a new feature of Hong Kong's waterfront. The principal unit in this building will be the concert hall which will take a full orchestra and choir, with over 1,500 persons in the

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auditorium. Other important parts of the building will include a small theatre, a ballroom, a banqueting hall, a library, and a small museum and art gallery. His Excellency the Governor ceremonially laid the City Hall's foundation stone on 25th February 1960.

Alterations at the Supreme Court Building produced two new court rooms. The large Causeway Bay Magistracy Building and the North Kowloon Magistracy were completed; these buildings also provide accommodation in their upper floors for Government offices. A third Magistracy was being built at Fanling in the New Territories.

The Police occupied completed buildings at Cheung Sha Wan comprising over 800 rank and file married quarters, a clinic and a 24 classroom school. Site formation for another like scheme began at Tin Kwong Road, and designs are in preparation for yet more. After approval of the designs for the new Police Training School at Aberdeen, which will provide barrack accommodation for 800 recruits with messing facilities, a laundry and a canteen, architects began the working drawings for the first stage. Police Inspectorate married quarters were completed at Green Lane, and extra barrack quarters at two police stations in the New Territories; a Police Post at Rennie's Mill and other police stations, quarters, and office were at various stages of design or construction.

Work began on two fire stations, one at Aberdeen where the crowded knots of sampans make the risk of fire ever-threatening, and the other at Lai Chi Kok. Drawings were nearly ready for a third station to serve the industrial satellite of Kwun Tong. Con- struction of 100 married quarters for the Fire Brigade at North Point was delayed because squatters were on the site; sketch plans had been prepared for a similar scheme in Kowloon and additional barrack quarters extended the Shek Wu Hui Fire Station in the New Territories.

      The rebuilding of the old Victoria Prison Officers' quarters, and workshop extensions at Stanley Prison, were finished and a scheme prepared for warders' barrack quarters. Working drawings for a young offenders' training centre at Cape Collinson, and designs for additional warders' quarters at Chi Ma Wan on Lantau Island, disposed of work for the Prisons Department.

After delays through loose boulders at the Buxey Lodge site, the scheme for 60 non-departmental quarters for Government

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servants at last came into being, and working drawings were finished for redeveloping the Mount Nicholson Bungalows site with 80 quarters in four separate but related buildings.

        Sketch plans were finally approved for the extension and fresh workshops and offices of the Electrical and Mechanical Depot at Caroline Hill. This scheme will also include new headquarters for the Civil Aid Services. Other approved sketch plans were for the Electrical and Mechanical Workshops in Kowloon; a multi- storey car park for about 750 cars on part of the former Murray Parade Ground; and a composite building for regular and civilian services clubs and a police post at the nearby Beaconsfield Arcade site.

        Work on public amenities included site formation for Fa Hui Park, and Fortress Hill Playground; the building of six public latrines and bathhouses; a children's library at Argyle Street Playground and a similar library together with a model boat pond and other buildings at Victoria Park; and hawker bazaars and cooked food stalls in various districts.

        The last phase in the redevelopment of Kai Tak Airport opened when work began on the new Terminal Building and the Aircraft Maintenance Depot.

        In the New Territories a combined Government building to serve as a Fire Station, Post Office and Sanitation Store was under construction at Peng Chau Island and sketch plans for similar buildings at Tai O, North Lantau and Sha Tau Kok were passed.

        Drainage. There are water-borne sewage systems in nearly all built-up areas, including the larger towns in the New Territories. As large new blocks of flats take the place of very old buildings, the flow to the sewers is steadily increasing, with the unfortunate but inevitable result that many of the older sewers are becoming loaded beyond their designed capacity and the nuisance from seawall sewer outfalls has grown; but there is a steady programme to replace them with larger mains. Approval of large schemes to build intercepting sewers in the place of the many seawall sewer outfalls will soon bring the sewage to selected sites where it will be treated and discharged into deep water through submarine outfalls. Pump houses have been installed in many cases to raise the sewage in the intercepting sewers when gravity flow has been impossible. Of the five schemes for the Kowloon Peninsula, the

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Yau Ma Tei scheme is in complete operation and work has begun on the remaining four. Work on two of the five schemes on the Island has already started and the Wan Chai scheme is in partial operation.

Surface water, draining down from the hills through built-up areas, used to be led to the sea through large open-trained chan- nels, known locally as 'nullahs', which passed down the middle of the roads, with bridges at the crossings. These nullahs were frequently ten feet wide or more, and almost square in section. With the tremendous increase in both wheeled and foot traffic, such obstructions had to be removed. During the last eight years this work has proceeded steadily and many nullahs have been decked or culverted, greatly relieving the congestion on some main traffic routes. Extensive systems of culverts have been constructed at the resettlement estates at Wong Tai Sin, Kwun Tong, Jordan Valley and Chai Wan, and in new towns such as Tsuen Wan and Shek Wu Hui, to divert stream-courses and so allow clearance of the sites.

After the May floods in Yuen Long, a special investigation of the drainage problems of this low-lying town showed what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of flooding in any future heavy rains.

      Port Works. Work started in August on a 726 foot extension of the Hung Hom seawall to allow five more acres of this reclama- tion to be completed. Another thousand feet of seawall were con- structed in front of the Arsenal Street Police Headquarters to retain the three-and-a-half acres of reclamation under the sea front by-pass which joins Connaught and Gloucester Roads.

A ferry pier and seawall were opened for use at Cheung Chau in the New Territories, and two piers were constructed at Tung Chung and Ma Wan for the convenience of the public and ferry company. Until then ferries had to disembark their passengers by sampan at these places.

Work at Tsuen Wan included the main seawall, landing facilities for junks discharging their loads, and an area of reclamation for the resettlement blocks to house villagers who had been displaced by the Shek Pik dam. A fire among squatter huts intruding on the shelter area in Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Anchorage allowed dredging to be carried out which gave more room for vessels. Work began

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during November on public piers at Sha Tau Kok and Kwun Tong and on a reclamation and seawall at Silver Mine Bay.

Typhoon 'Mary' made much repair work necessary to damaged piers, breakwaters and seawalls.

The Materials Testing Laboratory, under the direction of the Port Works Office, made about 18,000 tests on building materials for both Government and private firms. This figure was 80% greater than last year's total and reflects the growing activity of the building industry.

Land Development. Site formation and reclamation work con- tinued throughout the year at Kwun Tong. So far 133 acres of new land in all have been reclaimed from the sea for industrial and commercial use and 66 acres of barren rocks and eroded hills have become useful sites for housing and community life. Another site of four acres was formed for a divisional police station at the entrance to a low-lying valley and in March the seawall was extended by 1,300 feet. Sales during the year brought the total area of land sold up to 60 acres.

At King's Park in Kowloon formation of a site for a new Military Hospital made satisfactory progress in association with the work of extending Nairn Road with a dual carriageway up to a round- about at the junction of Gascoigne Road and Chatham Road.

In the New Territories a small arms range was constructed for police training at Smugglers' Ridge, and a rifle classification range at Lo Wu to replace the former Army range at Kai Tak.

After subsoil investigations at Ngok Yue Shan in Kwun Tong, Ho Man Tin in Kowloon, and the O Pui Shan area between New Kowloon and the New Territories, draft layout plans were prepared for the development of these areas. In October preliminary in- vestigations began in other areas at Kwun Tong and at Develop- ment Area No 1, south of Kowloon Foothills Road. A report was issued on the practicability of developing Waterloo Road Hill, a 19 acres tract in the heart of Kowloon, into high quality residential sites.

Local Public Works in the New Territories. The New Territories Administration runs a scheme which supplies building materials and so encourages villagers to use their own labour on minor village works which are too small for the Government's public

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works programme. Where for exceptional reasons villages cannot supply or hire labour from their own resources, District Officers may let contracts for the entire work. For larger or more complex jobs the entire work may be handled by the New Territories Engineering Unit which is under the supervision of an engineer seconded from the Public Works Department. This self-help scheme started in a small way after the war. For the first ten years or so the Government spent about $40,000 a year, whilst the main brunt of the work was borne by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association. In 1958 the Government assumed responsibility for the majority of local public works, with funds which were increased to $420,000 in 1958-9, and to $1 million in each financial year since.

      During 1960 villagers completed many such jobs as pathways, van tracks, drainage channelling, bunds, kerbs, irrigation channel- ling, dams, wells, bridges, playgrounds and piers. One of the most popular scheme is the installation of piped water supplies from intakes or small dams or wells in the nearby hills and fields and piping is regularly supplied for this.

The New Territories Engineering Unit is still recruiting its staff and gathering its transport and equipment. Nevertheless a start was made during the year with six contracts, including a footpath on Cheung Chau, three bridges in the Yuen Long District, and two aqua-privies as part of a programme of improving village sanitation.

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Electricity. In December 1959 Government received the report of a Commission which had been appointed under the chairman- ship of Mr John Mould, OBE, AMIEE, to inquire into the question of control of the electricity undertakings. Their report recom- mended that because of the difficulty of reconciling the conflicting interests of shareholder and consumer a form of public ownership should be introduced. The two companies asked that Government should take no action until they had prepared and submitted alternative proposals of their own, and this was agreed. These proposals, received at the end of October, suggested, among other things, that dividends and profits retained for investment should

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be limited to a fixed sum per unit sold. The whole question was under consideration at the end of the year.

       Generation and distribution of electricity on the Island is carried out by the Hong Kong Electric Co Ltd. The main and secondary transmission voltages are 22 kV and 6.6 kV phase 50 cycles, alternating current, but there are plans to raise these voltages to 33 kV and 11 kV. Bulk supply consumers are supplied at 6.6 kV, industrial consumers at 346 volts 3 phase and domestic consumers at 200 volts single phase.

The amount of electricity generated in 1950 was 466,138,390 kilowatt hours, an increase of 12.1% over the previous year, and the number of consumers at the end of the year was 98,753, an increase of 7.4%. The total sales of electricity for 1960 were as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Bulk Power

Domestic & Commercial Power

113,475,686 kWh

3,813,540

76,515,222

99

"

208,895,238

29

402,699,686 kWh

During the year the maximum demand on the generating station increased by 21.5% to 103.3 MW, whilst the maximum units sent out by the station in one day increased by 28.1% to 1,692,250 units. The steam-raising capacity is now 1,981 klbs/hr and the generating capacity 170 MW, these increased capacities being the result of commissioning additional plant in 'B' Station.

       The annual maximum load on the system now occurs during the early afternoon in summer instead of the late afternoon in winter. This has been brought about by the heavy air-conditioning load which has developed in the city and suburban areas during the past few years.

A new major substation was established in 1960 at Wong Nai Chung Gap with an initial capacity of 15 MVA (ultimately to rise to 80 MVA). Constructional work on Hospital Road 'B' Substation has begun, and plans have been made for three additional major substations to be built and commissioned within three years. 24 smaller substations and 5 transformer kiosks were also commis- sioned in 1960.

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Charges for electricity range from 28 cents to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents a unit for power. These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which, at the end of the year, was 7%. Special rates are quoted for bulk consumers of industrial power.

In Kowloon and the New Territories electricity is supplied by China Light & Power Co Ltd whose services extend to Lantau and several other outlying islands. In 1960 this Company's network expanded again. New consumer connexions caused a greatly in- creased load which was, however, met at all times, and planning continued for a considerable strengthening and extension of the system together with construction work for the installation of plant to generate an additional 120 MW.

The normal electricity supply is at 346/200 volts, 50 cycle AC, with transmission at 33 kV and primary distribution at 6.6 kV. To meet the continued demand economically, equipment was ordered for the introduction of higher transmission and distribution pressures at 66 kV and 11 kV. On 30th September 1960, the length of the main system was: 33,000 volts, 190 miles; 6,600 volts, 248 miles; and there were 240 substations and 713 transformers total- ling 589,400 KVA. The Generating Station is situated facing Kowloon Bay at Hok Yuen and has a capacity of 182.5 MW. The two 60 MW turbines now being erected, together with associated 555,000 lbs per hour boilers, will consume steam at a pressure of 900 lbs per square inch and a temperature of 900°F, while the recent 30 MW turbines operate at 600 lbs per square inch and 850°F and the earlier sets at 400 lbs per square inch and 695°F. All boilers are fired exclusively by fuel oil. About 797,816,600 units of electricity were generated during the financial year 1959-60 of which 679,498,691 were sold as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Power ...

Bulk Supply..

134,370,478

3,784,538

242,245,793

299,097,882

679,498,691

At the beginning of the year the Company had 132,015 con- sumers. By the end of the year this had risen to 153,796, and 883

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new factories were connected to the Company's supply during the year. Charges for electricity (per unit) during the year were:

Lighting

Power

Domestic Cooking

29 cents

14 cents

13 cents

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge, at present 7 per cent. Discounts are granted for large consumption and special rates quoted for bulk supply.

      The only part of the New Territories to have an independent source of electric light is Cheung Chau, where there has been an electric power station since 1913. Originally a community project, it was later sold to commercial interests and has since changed hands several times. The present owners, the Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, have their offices in Victoria. The basic rate was reduced during 1960, and from 1st January 1961 the rate will be further reduced from 72 cents to 68 cents a unit for lighting and from 32 cents to 30 cents a unit for domestic and commercial power. Special reductions are given to large consumers.

      Gas. The Hong Kong and China Gas Co Ltd supplies gas to domestic, commercial and industrial consumers on both sides of the Harbour. All gas is made at Ma Tau Kok and the Island is supplied entirely by means of underwater mains across the Harbour. Gas is available along the whole of the North side of the Island from Queen Mary Hospital in the West to Quarry Bay in the East, as well as in the Happy Valley and Peak areas. On the mainland a gas supply is available over the whole of the Kowloon Peninsula and up to a line running roughly from Lai Chi Kok in West along the hills to the Kai Tak RAF Station in the East. Further exten- sions are planned to other areas.

Appliances and gas equipment can be obtained from or through the Company by purchase, hire purchase, or on a simple rental basis. Technical advice on the commercial and industrial uses of gas is freely available. New charges were introduced in 1960 to the benefit of larger consumers. Gas is sold in units of 100 cubic feet, and charges are in two parts, namely, Standing Charges and Regular Charges. 'Standing Charges' include the cost of the first 7

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units of gas and are chargeable whether these 7 units are consumed or not. They are as follows:

For meters having a rated capacity of less

than 1,000 cubic feet per hour ...

...

For meters having a rated capacity of

more than 1,000 cubic feet per hour

$11.10 per month

$24.60 per month

Under 'Regular Charges' gas consumed in excess of 7 units per month is charged for at the following rates:

8-

21-

101-

251-

20 Units @ $1.30 per Unit 100 Units @ $1.28 per Unit 250 Units @ $1.25 per Unit

500 Units @ $1.20 per Unit 501-1,000 Units @ $1.15 per Unit 1,001-2,000 Units @ $1.10 per Unit

Over 2,000 Units @ $1.05 per Unit

      The Company is prepared to consider the application of special bulk supply rates on an individual basis for Consumers using over 5,000 Units per month.

The total quantity of gas sold in 1960 was 772,372,200 cubic feet, compared with 734,794,000 cubic feet in 1959. The number of consumers rose from 12,495 to 13,840.

      Ferries. The 'Star' Ferry Company Ltd runs a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of Victoria Harbour, about one mile from the commercial centre of the city to Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern tip of the Kowloon Peninsula. There are eight vessels in operation, giving a daily service of 194 hours. During the busy times of the day a ferry leaves from each side once every three minutes on the seven minute journey, and an unbroken service continues until 1.30 a.m. During 1960 there were 152,021 crossings and a grand total of nearly 39.5 million passengers, the highest daily total being 147,763. The vessels steamed 121,600 miles.

      The Hongkong & Yaumati Ferry Co Ltd began to operate on 1st January 1924 with an authorized capital of $400,000 with eleven small wooden steam-vessels and three cross-harbour routes. Today, the Company has an authorized capital of $30,000,000 and a fleet of fifty two diesel-engined vessels and maintains six cross-harbour ferry services as well as services to outlying districts in the New Territories.

       The routes inside the Harbour are between Wilmer Street, Jubilee Street, Stewart Road and Tonnochy Road on the Island,

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KO

LOOKING EAST: Building development is now going ahead so rapidly on Hong Kong Island that this picture will be out of date by the end of 1961. A new City Hall is nearing completion in the central district of Victoria, while work has started on one skyscraper hotel and sites are being cleared for two others.

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LOOKING NORTH: Across the harbour, too, Kowloon grows upwards and outwards, contained only by the ramparts of its hills. Despite the narrowness of the neck of water separating them, each of the twin cities has its own character. More than a hundred thousand people commute between them every day.

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BRA

LOOKING WEST: From any angle the Peak is impressive and for a century has been portrayed from every angle. But from Causeway Bay typhoon shelter it shows a new facet. In distance the sampans and the skyscrapers are less than one mile apart; in every other way they are

worlds apart.

(LOOKING SOUTH: The dust jacket of this Report gives a striking impression of the administrative and commercial heart of Victoria. From

the air the jungle of concrete and steel seems less dense).

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

217

and Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok, Jordan Road and Kowloon City on Kowloon Peninsula. The Company also operates the only com- bined vehicular and passenger ferry service across the Harbour between Jubilee Street and Jordan Road, and by the end of 1961 will be operating a second service for vehicles only, between North Point and Kowloon City. On 15th January 1960 a temporary vehicular ferry service opened between Rumsey Street and Jordan Road. This service began within less than nine weeks of its con- ception and gives a supplementary service until the new vehicular ferry piers are ready.

During 1960, a record number of 98,876,000 passengers and 1,706,000 vehicles were carried, an increase of 4,271,000 passengers and 214,000 vehicles over the previous year.

       Ferry services to outlying districts were well supported during the year. During the religious festival at Cheung Chau in May over 19,000 passengers were carried to and from the Island in one day. Silver Mine Bay and Peng Chau ferries also carried large numbers of holidaymakers and villagers during the year. The Tai O service carried large numbers of pilgrims and hikers to the monasteries and nunneries of Lantau Island. The Tolo Harbour ferry service again operated at a loss for the benefit of isolated villages in the district and the service to Tsing Yi - Tsuen Wan continued to be popular, carrying over 1,189,000 passengers during the year.

       New construction during the year consisted of the double-ended ferry vessel the Man Tim, with a passenger carrying capacity of 800, and the launching in October of the first of four new vehicular ferries for the eastern vehicular ferry service, which is expected to join the fleet in January 1961. The completion of these vehicular ferries has been delayed by several months because of late delivery of Voith Schneider propellers ordered from Scotland. Throughout the year the three slipways at the Company's depot at Tai Kok Tsui were fully engaged in servicing the fleet.

PUBLIC ROAD TRANSPORT SERVICES

       The question of the operation in the Colony of large numbers of illegal taxis, known in the vernacular as 'pak pai che' (literally

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PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

'white licence cars'), has long occupied the attention of Govern- ment. These cars can best be described as small buses hired either by a party for an agreed rate for a journey or by a number of single individuals by the seat. Passengers are not covered by third party insurance policy if the vehicle is being used for a purpose for which it is not licensed. In a speech in the Legislative Council on 24th March the Colonial Secretary announced that steps were being taken to remedy this unsatisfactory state of affairs, through the improvement of bus services, the licensing of public cars and hire cars, and the introduction for the first time of a New Territories' taxi service. The enactment of the two Ordinances referred to in the next paragraph provided the legal framework for the licensing as public cars of buses for the use of workers, school children, airlines and hotels. Later in the year came the expansions of public omnibus services mentioned below, and already there has been a noticeable reduction in the numbers of 'pak pai che' on certain bus routes. Further extensions of schedules and new routes are planned. The Road Traffic (Taxis and Hire Cars) Regulations, 1960, which came into force on 1st June 1960, provided for the licensing of hire cars and also for New Territories' taxis. The first taxis to be licensed under these Regulations appeared on the New Territories' roads towards the end of the

year.

Bus Services. The Public Transport Services (Hong Kong Island) and the Public Transport Services (Kowloon and New Territories) Ordinances, which came into force on 15th February 1960, gave the Colony's bus services a new legal footing. These laws make detailed provision for the operation of public omnibuses and public cars, and for the payment of royalty by the two companies to which exclusive rights are granted.

      Services on Hong Kong Island are maintained by the China Motor Bus Company Ltd, which had previously operated under a licence issued by the Governor in Council. The Company's fleet of 300 vehicles covered some 11 million miles during 1960 and carried over 100 million passengers, both figures being markedly greater than in the year before. Two prototype double-decker buses were on order at the end of the year for operation along the lower levels of the Island, together with ten more single-deckers for the expansion of suburban services. Two new services were

PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

219

introduced, between the city of Victoria and the Peak, and be- tween Shau Kei Wan and Stanley by way of Tai Tam reservoir.

The Kowloon Motor Bus Company (1933) Ltd maintains services in Kowloon and the New Territories. This company had also previously operated under a licence issued by the Governor in Council. During 1960 the Company ran 31 bus routes in Kowloon and 12 routes in the New Territories, and in April 1960 in- augurated a service on Lantau Island. Two new routes were added in Kowloon and plans were completed to add 7 new routes and extend 6 routes by March 1961, and to improve the frequencies of the New Territories' service. Towards the end of the year double- deck buses entered service on the Kowloon - Tsuen Wan run, the first time that double-deck buses have operated in the New Territories.

The Company's fleet already operates 296 double-deck and 267 single-deck buses. In March, eight 14-seater tour coaches were acquired and let to tourist agencies for sight-seeing tours. Orders were placed for 100 Albion Victor single-deck buses and 40 Daimler double-deck buses.

375 million passengers were carried compared with 295 million in 1959, and the mileage covered was 29.8 as against 24.3 million.

       Tramways. An electric tramway service is operated on Hong Kong Island by Hong Kong Tramways Limited. The track, the gauge of which is 34 feet, is about 191⁄2 miles in length if single tracks are measured. It goes from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan, with a branch line round the Race Course in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the City of Victoria. The tramcars are four-wheeled double-deckers, with single staircases, and are designed for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The operating voltage is 500 volts direct current.

The average daily service of cars run in 1960 was 142. This gave a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, which is in the centre of the system, the minimum frequency of service was a car every 34 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried during the year was 175.8 million, while the total mileage run was 7.6 million.

Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route of 20 cents (3d) 1st class, and 10 cents (14d) 3rd class; the

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PUBLIC WORKS AND UTILITIES

     maximum distance is 63 miles. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, students and Services personnel.

The Company has taken a leading place in the Colony in providing welfare facilities for its employees. These include free medical and dental services and low rent housing.

15

Communications

HONG KONG Owes its very existence to its position on the China Coast, where it forms a focus of most of the communication routes in eastern Asia. Although in the course of years its old entrepôt and other commercial activities have been joined by new industries, the Colony is still closely dependent on efficient organization and control of its shipping, aircraft, rail and road transport, posts and telecommunications, and weather services.

MARINE

The Port of Victoria is a natural harbour to which has been added every facility required by the modern shipowner. Ships are built, maintained and repaired. Skilful operation of up-to-date cargo handling equipment ensures the rapid turn round vital to the economic operation of ships, while adequate berths allow a continual flow of shipping to pass through the Port unhindered by delays. Crews are available for every shipboard department and they have a justifiable reputation for ability and hard work. Hong Kong is also the last port of call for many ships which have reached the end of their useful life and are sent here for demolition. These many services are co-ordinated by the Director of Marine, who is responsible for administration, and by his Marine Depart- ment staff who co-operate closely with local commercial interests through various Port Committees.

The approaches to the harbour are provided with a compre- hensive system of navigational aids. First contact with the port may be made by using the radio beacon at Waglan Island where there is also a 21 mile light and diaphone fog signal. The more immediate approaches are covered by lights, fog signals and radar reflectors which enable ships to make port easily and safely in any weather conditions.

Depths of water at the Eastern Entrance of 36 feet and at the Western Entrance of 28 feet at Mean Low Water Springs mean

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     that the Port is always open. The harbour is well lit and singularly free from submerged dangers. Pilotage is not compulsory but is advisable because of the large scale reclamation and harbour works in progress.

Quarantine, immigration and customs formalities take place at the Eastern or Western Quarantine anchorages, the former being served by Port Health launches from 7 a.m. until midnight and the latter from 7 a.m. until 6 p.m. In certain cases radio pratique may be granted. This arrangement, apart from reducing the number of movements within the busy part of the harbour, is popular with passengers and consignees for it means that disembarkation and cargo work may begin immediately the ship is berthed.

      Three signal stations, manned continuously, maintain ship-shore communications in the harbour and approaches. Waglan lighthouse also operates a signal station which enables first information of vessels sighted in the eastern approaches to be passed to the Port Authorities, owners and agents. Navigational warnings and distress or weather messages are passed through the Marine Radio system. Marine Officers are available at all times to deal with queries or in- cidents within the waters of the Colony and the China Sea area. Radiotelephones are installed in Marine, Port Health, Police, Fire Brigade and Preventive Service launches, and sets may be hired commercially with a direct connexion to the public telephone service.

      The internal security of the harbour and Colony waters is in the hands of the Marine Division of the Hong Kong Police which mans and operates a fleet of 28 launches.

The Port possesses one of the largest fire floats in the world, the Alexander Grantham, which is kept in constant readiness by the Hong Kong Fire Brigade. In addition other, smaller, fire floats are maintained for duties inside the main harbour and the smaller ports of the Colony. The new fire fighting craft which came into service last year has already proved itself on a number of occasions.

Hong Kong's geographical location and its reputation for speed and efficiency were responsible for the continued high level of port activity, more than ten thousand ocean going vessels entering and clearing during the year. Transhipment cargo now accounts for ap- proximately one-third of the cargo handled at Hong Kong and the Port still fulfils an important role as the warehouse of the Far

COMMUNICATIONS

223

       East. The growing demands of local industry for raw materials and the need to despatch its finished products throughout the world were well served by the many lines using the Port. Dutch Lines opened another service this year, bringing the number of companies providing regular sailings to Europe to twenty. P&O Orient Lines Pacific Service was established in its present form in July, with a planned increase of services in the future. Many tourists take ad- vantage of the fact that Hong Kong is a meeting point for ships of this service to make a shortened tour of the Orient from Australia. Twenty other lines run to the North American continent and there are regular sailings to Australia and New Zealand, Africa, South America and all Asian ports.

        Vessels with draughts of up to 36 feet may berth at one of the 52 Government buoys whatever the state of the tide. Marine De- partment staff these moorings, of which twenty five are situated to provide safe moorings for ships during typhoon conditions. Com- mercial wharves can accommodate vessels 750 feet in length with draughts up to 32 feet. Preparations were made this year to extend one of the wharves of the Hong Kong & Kowloon Godown Com- pany, which will allow the larger ships now using the Port to be berthed more easily. Considerable anchorage space is available with good holding ground.

        A completely mechanized five storey godown was completed in July, bringing the permanent storage space of the principal wharf company up to 760,000 tons, and the Colony total is now well over one million tons; further space will be added next year on the completion of another new godown for the same company. Addi- tional temporary storage space was made available this year while the future use of the Kowloon Naval Yard purchased by Govern- ment was being planned. There is storage space in the Port for all types of refrigerated, dangerous and ordinary goods and the experienced stevedoring companies handle all these commodities, heavy lifts, and goods requiring special stowage, at a rate com- parable to any in the world.

       Most cargo handled in Hong Kong is at one stage transported by lighter, and there are now about 1,800 lighters and junks used for this purpose, of which one hundred are mechanically propelled. The mechanized fleet is expected to grow larger in the next few years as this form of transport is particularly suited to the rapid

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COMMUNICATIONS

     delivery of the small parcels which make up a considerable propor- tion of the cargoes handled in the Port.

      Three of the major oil companies have depots in the Colony and all provide first class bunkering services either at their own wharves or by lighter to any berth in the Port. Fresh water, the supply of which may be limited during the winter months, and coal are also supplied at the ship.

      Officers of the Mercantile Marine Office supervised the engage- ment and discharge of over fifty nine thousand seamen during the year ending March 1960. The Examination Centre at Hong Kong gives full facilities for examinations for all Certificates of Com- petency of Commonwealth validity, and for Certificates in Radar Maintenance and as Radar Observer. The majority of candidates receive instruction at the Hong Kong Technical College which runs comprehensive courses in all these subjects.

A Port Welfare Committee serves the needs of crews of visiting ships, allocating money provided by private donation and Govern- ment grant to organizations devoted to this work.

Two closely linked port activities, shipbuilding and shiprepair- ing, had a satisfactory year. Over one hundred and fifty vessels were built for local and overseas owners, reflecting the reputa- tion enjoyed by these firms at a time when the world ship- building industry is showing a definite recession. Economy of cost and time are two features of shiprepairing in Hong Kong, factors which encourage an increasing number of shipowners to send their ships to the Port for repairs, alterations, surveys and general main- tenance. One major oil company has a programme for the con- version here of some of its tankers into Far East traders. Many other types of ships arrive each month for docking and repairs.

The volume of new construction and repair work and the needs of the thousands of ships calling at the Port have kept the Govern- ment surveyors and the resident representatives of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, Norske Veritas, and the American Bureau of Shipping fully employed. The Ship Surveys staff of the Marine Department, apart from ensuring the observance of the International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea and Load Lines, were fully occupied during 1960 in tonnage computations and in checking standards of crew accommodation for the new

L

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K

PUBLIC

S&

With nearly 50,000 vehicles on the roads in Hong Kong a ten-fold increase over the figure thirteen years ago-roads in both urban and rural areas must have constant attention if they are to remain capable of carrying an ever-increasing volume of traffic. In Kowloon, Nathan Road is being re-surfaced.

I

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The Castle Peak Road (above) already carries an exceptionally heavy flow of traffic and this will increase with the development of Tsuen Wan and the completion of the Lung Cheung Road. Waterloo Road (below) one of many roads in Kowloon being strengthened and widened to accommodate the vehicles that will come into use in the years ahead.

I

PUBL

BLAC

COMMUNICATIONS

225

      ships built and the ships applying for registration under the British flag' at Hong Kong. Half a million tons of shipping are included in the Hong Kong Register of Ships, one hundred and twenty four of these being foreign-going vessels of over 500 gross tons.

J

The enormous amount of small craft traffic within the harbour, frequent ferry services, small tugs for lighter towage, fishing vessels, cargo boats, pleasure craft and the multitude of commercial motor boats create special problems both in the day-to-day running of the Port and for the safety of these craft during the typhoon season. Over 26,000 native-type craft and small vessels operate in the Colony waters, of which about 4,000 are mechanized, and a sub-department of the Marine Department is devoted to the needs and problems of this community which plays such an important part in the economy of Hong Kong. Examinations are conducted for the Local Certificates of Competency for Master and Engineer of the mechanized craft, and these go a long way to ensure a good standard of handling and safety precautions and so reduce the number of accidents which might otherwise occur. Typhoon shelters are provided and berthing in these is regulated to ensure that the maximum number of craft obtain shelter while at the same time possible dangers such as fire are reduced to a minimum. During the year these vessels transported 864,000 tons inward and 162,000 tons outward in the internal trade, whilst in external trade with China and Macau they carried 1,057,000 tons of food- stuffs and other commodities inwards and 127,000 tons of cargo outwards.

       All types of ships were brought to the Colony for demolition this year, tankers, liners, coasters and aircraft carriers. Thousands of tons of scrap metal were produced of which a large proportion was exported and the remainder used in local industries. The Hong Kong firm of International Salvage (Association) Ltd was announced as having received a contract in September from the Indonesian government to salvage 104 ships sunk in the Second World War.

CIVIL AVIATION

       The broad promontory of Hong Kong Airport, projecting over a mile into Kowloon Bay, is already a familiar sight to visitors to the Colony, and is symbolic both of the progress made in

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COMMUNICATIONS

aviation in the years since the war, and of the Colony's determina- tion to maintain its position as the focal point of trade and air routes in the western Pacific. It is thirty six years since flying began from a small grass airfield situated at the northern extremity of Kowloon Bay. This first aerodrome was extended by reclamation in 1927, but it was not until some three years later that civil air services to the Colony first opened, and the Air Services Depart- ment was formed. From that time until the outbreak of war the emphasis was mainly on the expansion of flying boat facilities.

       During the Japanese occupation, the airfield was extended by additional reclamation and by the demolition of buildings and hills, and two concrete runways were constructed. After the war, civil air services resumed, and it soon became apparent that with the arrival of more modern types of aircraft, the existing facilities were quite inadequate. A search for an alternative site was fruitless, and a plan was therefore made for the development and modern- ization of the existing Airport by extensive reclamation. Work on this scheme involved the creation of a promontory 7,800 feet long and 800 feet wide, to be reclaimed entirely from the waters of Kowloon Bay. It began in 1956 and the new runway, 8,350 feet long and stressed to take aircraft weighing up to 400,000 lbs, came into use in September 1958. This allowed the use of the Airport by the most modern jet and prop-jet aircraft now flying on the Pacific routes. The Airport is suitable for both land and sea operations, although at the moment there is no operational need for a base where civil flying boats can alight. An instrument landing system, and other radio and radar navigation and approach aids, have contributed greatly to the safety and regularity of air services to the Colony, and modern airport and approach lighting systems, designed to international standards, have made safe night operations possible in spite of the surrounding hills. Hours of operation are at present limited to eighteen per day, but will be extended to twenty four when the necessary skilled staff can be recruited.

       The new terminal apron area can accommodate eleven large aircraft, and has a hydrant refuelling system controlled from a centralized fuel farm. Intensive planning continued during 1960 to ensure that the new terminal building, which is now scheduled for completion in early 1962, will be capable of speedy handling

COMMUNICATIONS

227

of the large number of passengers and quantities of baggage and freight carried by modern aircraft. In the meantime a converted freight building serves as a temporary terminal.

The cost of constructing the new airport, which is estimated to be at least $140,000,000 (£8,750,000), is being borne by local funds assisted by an interest-free loan of £3,000,000 from the United Kingdom Government. The Consulting Engineers, Messrs Scott & Wilson, Kirkpatrick & Partners, working under the general direction of the Director of Public Works, supervise all the con- structional planning and work at the airport, and the Director of Civil Aviation co-ordinates operational requirements. An Airport Progress Committee under the Chairmanship of the Deputy Economic Secretary reviews the overall planning and expenditure. The Director of Civil Aviation and a small number of specialist officers, who supervise all aspects of civil aviation and co-ordinate plans for its development in the Colony, are responsible for the administration and operation of the Airport. With a total staff of 374 officers, of whom 349 are locally recruited, the Department provides full operational services including air traffic control, telecommunications, air-sea rescue, an Airport Fire Service, aero- nautical information, aircraft registration and certification of airworthiness and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, an aeronautical meteorological information service.

Comprehensive facilities are available at the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd's depot at the airport for the maintenance, repair and overhaul of aircraft and engines, including the most modern types, and primary flying instruction and training in aeronautical engineering and electronics are provided by the Far East Flying Training School.

All air services to Hong Kong Airport are on international routes. Sixteen airlines operate air services at present, connecting Hong Kong with the principal world air routes at a frequency of some 220 flights to and from Hong Kong each week. One of these is a locally based airline, Cathay Pacific Airways, which began operations in 1946 with Douglas DC-3 aircraft, and now operates a fleet of Douglas DC-3, DC-4, DC-6, DCB and Lockheed Electras on a wide network of routes extending to India, Japan, the Philippines and Australia. A number of airlines now operate pure jet aircraft to Hong Kong, and the Comet IV, Boeing 707,

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     and Douglas DC-8, in various liveries, are all familiar sights on the terminal apron. During 1960, the number of charter operations to the Colony continued to increase, and there were 368 such flights.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

      The British section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway runs from the southern end of the Kowloon Peninsula to the Chinese frontier at Sham Chun where it joins the Chinese railway system. The northern bank of the Sham Chun river forms part of the inter- national boundary. Since 1949 passengers travelling to and fro have had to change trains at the border between the Colony and China, and to walk the 300 yards between the two termini. Mail and goods traffic in wagon loads however travel through without trans-shipment.

      There are twelve daily passenger trains each way on the British section at present, and also an average of about one goods train. Passenger traffic is normally heavy at week-ends and on public holidays, especially in winter time. Special trains are often run between Kowloon terminus and Sha Tin Station-a picnic resort. The running time, including stops, between the terminal station in Kowloon at Tsim Sha Tsui and the border station at Lo Wu is about an hour.

The greatest number of passengers ever carried on single day was 77,098, on 5th April this year (the Ching Ming Festival) when many passengers went to visit their ancestors' graves in Wo Hop Shek Cemetery at Fanling and Sandy Ridge at Lo Wu.

The fares are very reasonable. Third class from Kowloon to Sha Tin, a distance of 7.14 miles, is only fifty cents; children under 12 years of age pay half; the second class fare is 50% more than the third and the first class is double. Quarterly and monthly tickets at cheap rates are available at all stations. For a quarterly ticket, the fare is only the sum of 75 ordinary single fares and for a monthly ticket, 30 ordinary single fares. The holders may use their tickets on any train and as many times as they like on any day.

      Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 5,891,040 or 86.1% of the total. Passengers to and from the frontier station of Lo Wu numbered 952,639, and the

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majority of these travelled between Hong Kong and China. In the British section there are 5 diesel electric and 3 steam locomotives, 1 rail-bus, 49 passenger coaches and 210 wagons. All trains are operated by the diesel electric locomotives unless an engine break- down occurs.

ROADS

      The continually increasing number of vehicles forces the urban road system of Hong Kong to carry a traffic density as high as or even higher than most cities in the world. Many junctions are overloaded at peak periods and the growing demand for parking space poses one of the Colony's major problems. The crowds using the city streets cause such congestion that some streets have been turned into pedestrian ways and parking of cars has been prohibited in many others. A 30 miles per hour speed limit was introduced in October to the built-up areas, which also became 'silent zones' by the same legislation.

A programme of minor and major road improvements is in train to the fullest extent that finance and manpower permit. Several new major roads are under construction outside the urban areas and more are planned to assist further development through- out the Colony. Communications in undeveloped areas are being improved by the construction of feeder roads and the widening of existing roads.

In the city of Victoria, a new road which will vastly improve the traffic pattern is now under construction. This dual carriage- way, approximately 1,000 yards long, will pass through the site of the former Royal Naval Dockyard on a line parallel with Queen's Road East but nearer the waterfront. This will form another link between the Central District and the Eastern and densely populated part of the city. At present the dockyard divides these parts of the city from each other and the only communication between them of any value is behind the Dockyard through Queen's Road East which is therefore a very serious bottleneck.

One mile was added to Kowloon's road system, and five to the New Territories'. There are now 190 miles of officially maintained roads on the island, 130 in Kowloon and 185 in the New Territories, 505 in all. Most of the roads, including roads in rural areas, are surfaced with concrete, bitumen macadam or asphalt.

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This is necessary because unsealed roads are vulnerable to severe damage from the tropical rainstorms of the summer and also because of the heavy traffic attracted even to new roads in remote parts of the Colony. Exceptionally heavy rainstorms in May and typhoon 'Mary' in June caused widespread damage. Tin Hau Temple Road, recently completed and giving access to many building sites overlooking the eastern harbour, was entirely washed away at one point; there was a serious landslide in the Peak residential district at Plantation Road, and a bridge on the Kam Tin Road in the New Territories also suffered badly. These are only a few examples, and many other landslides and washouts, large and small, occurred. Even traffic signs were damaged. Although roads were quickly re-opened to traffic, complete repair of the damage requires many more months; in some cases work will last almost up to next rainy season.

      Government operates two quarries which produce crushed stones for all branches of the Public Works Department and asphalts and bitumen-coated macadams for use on the roads. Experiments continue to find the road surfacing materials best suited to local conditions; a modern mixing plant installed at Hok Yuen Quarry has been very successful, and a new machine for laying the material so produced has given a higher standard of carriageway surface finish. The improvement and extension of street lighting was continued and 940 new street lights were installed.

MULTI-STOREY CAR PARKS

       There are two multi-storey car parks in the centre of Victoria, controlled by the Urban Council; they are capable of holding 622 cars. The ordinary charge for parking is 50 cents for 24 hours, but there are special cheap rates in the evenings and at week-ends, and monthly passes may be bought for $40.

       The construction of the new City Hall on the Central Reclama- tion and of a large hotel on the northern part of Murray Parade Ground has greatly reduced the number of free motor parking spaces in the Central District, and this has been reflected in the increased use of the City Hall and Star Ferry Car Parks which are normally full early in the day. An average of 27,047 cars

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park in these two parks every month and 588 monthly passes are issued.

POST OFFICE

Postal Services. The intensified search by Hong Kong business enterprise for new and expanded markets abroad strongly influenced the development of overseas postal services during the year, and direct letter and parcel services were introduced to many places which formerly could only be served satisfactorily by using the transit facilities of intermediate countries. Direct letter mails are now sent to 68 countries and parcel mails to no less than 80. There was an increase of about 20% in foreign mails sent to Hong Kong for re-forwarding, especially between China and countries overseas, and mails originating in Hong Kong for des- tinations in China multiplied more than three-fold to a total of 127,000 bags. Airmail traffic reached a volume which justified the introduction of many extra parcel and insured mail facilities and there is now nearly worldwide coverage by these services. 352 tons of mail originating in Hong Kong were passed to airlines for carriage, slightly less than the 358 tons of transit mail also handed over.

      The progressive development of internal services has had con- stant attention. After the Air Mail Centre opened at Kai Tak space became available for more postal call boxes at the main GPO, and all the many applicants for this service were satisfied for the first time since the war. Extra boxes were also installed at Kowloon Central Post Office, and the number available at all offices is more than 10,000. It was also possible to extend the main counter at GPO and reorganize the parcel section.

New Post Offices were opened in So Uk Housing Estate and Man Yee Arcade, bringing the total number in the Colony to twenty three. The small office in Chung On Street closed down and re-opened in more spacious and suitable accommodation in the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Building at Tsuen Wan.

        The first Mobile Post Office went to work in March and has since paid regular daily visits to several important rural centres in the New Territories, where the people have shown warm appreciation of the service. More vehicles were put into use for deliveries in other New Territories' districts, and a considerable improvement resulted in the extent and quality of service.

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      Two new postage stamps were placed on sale in June 1960, at values of 65c and $1.30, being the first weight step for Zone 2 second class and first class air mail respectively. Sales during the first few months showed that the public were not generally aware of the new stamps but with co-operation from the English and Chinese language newspapers in making the new issues better known, a rise in sales was recorded towards the end of the year. The newspapers are invariably and generously co-operative in giving publicity to postal services and were particularly so in their ready adoption of a new style of daily press notice which is much easier to consult.

      A one-way Express service was introduced to the United Kingdom from Hong Kong which should ensure delivery in London on the day following the date of posting and give accel- erated delivery in certain provincial centres. Total revenue for the financial year 1959-60 was $46,423,737.95, $10,174,729.35 more than in the previous year and an increase of approximately 230% over 1951. Against this Post Office Departmental expenditure was $22,822,518.99 giving an excess of revenue over expenditure of $23,601,218.96. Remittance business of the Money Order and Postal Order services exceeded the previous year by $4,250,000 and reached a record figure of $15,625,930.

       Radio Licensing. The Wireless Division of the Post Office under- took an extensive review of the telecommunications installations in the Colony and made an intensive drive against persons using radio sets without the proper licence. The 119,000 Broadcast Receiving Licences in force at the end of 1960, compared with 95,900 at the end of 1959, bear witness to the success of the drive.

The Wireless Division holds examinations for the Postmaster General's certificate of proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy and for the Ministry of Transport's certificate in Radar Maintenance; over 110 candidates were examined for these certificates during the year. Close liaison is maintained between the Wireless Division and the Hong Kong Communications Board on everything which affects the internal and external telecommunications of the Colony.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Telegraph and Radio Services. Cable and Wireless Limited is responsible for all the telegraph, Telex, radiotelephone and

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The shipbuilding and repairing industry in Hong Kong is mainly centred on two large establishments, which together have an annual new building capacity of 80,000 gross tons. Attracted by competitive prices and first- class workmanship, shipowners often send vessels from as far away as Australia for repair or refitting.--Taikoo Dockyard picture.

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Great passenger liners tie up along-

side the Kowloon wharves, while cargo ships normally anchor in the harbour. In all,

all, more than 5,000 ocean-going vessels enter and clear the port each year.

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More than 24,000 native-type craft operate in Hong Kong waters, play- ing a big part in the economy of the Colony as the 'fetchers and carriers' of passengers and cargo.-Picture by Robert Fournier.

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Look out to sea in any direction--and there will be the junks. Stolidly built, their sails often seemingly in danger of falling in tatters upon the deck, they are nonetheless capable of moving at a fair clip when the wind is right. Whether fishing junks or cargo junks, they normally represent the home and investment of an entire family.

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      phototelegraph services between Hong Kong and countries abroad, for the radiotelegraph and radiotelephone services with ships at sea, and for a VHF Harborfone service with ships in Hong Kong Harbour. They also run a service for internal telegrams on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, and are responsible for the technical maintenance of the Colony's aeradio and meteoro- logical radio services, the Government broadcasting service, and the VHF communications of some Government departments.

The despatch, reception and relaying of telegrams is the Com- pany's principal business. The number of telegrams handled, including those in transit, is more than 3,000,000 a year. The telegraphic communications of the Colony are served by several deep sea cables linked to the Company's worldwide network of 142,500 miles of submarine cables, and by 20 direct high speed wireless telegraph circuits working to other centres in the Far East and beyond. During the year a new radiotelegraph circuit was opened to Rangoon in Burma.

The overseas radiotelephone services, worked in collaboration with the Hong Kong Telephone Company, continued to expand during the year. Services were established to Burma, Cambodia, Ceylon, Ghana, Nigeria, Sahara and Tobago, and new relay services were also opened through Hong Kong between Bangkok and Seoul, Taipei and London, Taipei and Karachi, and Australia and Seoul. Working schedules were extended with some other places.

       The Company's Harborfone service continued to be much used. Any ship within the harbour limits can be fitted with a VHF installation on hire, giving direct communication between ship and ship, or between ship and any subscriber on the Hong Kong telephone exchange.

Telex has taken great strides since its opening in May 1959. The service has been rapidly extended and now includes com- munication with Argentine, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Denmark, Eire, Finland, France, Germany (East and West), Ghana, Honolulu, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Lagos, Luxembourg, Malaya, Manila, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rhodesia, Singapore, St Croix, St Thomas, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States and Venezuela.

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      The Printergram service, which is the teleprinter service for acceptance and delivery of telegrams, continued to expand. The number of teleprinter subscribers rose to nearly a hundred in 1960. An automatic system has been installed, and the handling of telegrams is now very much quicker. The Deskfax facsimile service is used mainly by local hotels but is also maintained for the accep- tance of telegrams.

      Telephones. Internal telephone service is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Limited, a public company operating under a franchise from the Hong Kong Government. The system is fully automatic and service is provided from seven major ex- changes and a number of satellite exchanges. A further major exchange will be brought into service during 1961 and a replace- ment exchange for the existing Waterloo Road Exchange is now being considered.

      The Company's system has some 110,000 stations and is con- tinually expanding to meet the popular demand for a telephone service. Rentals are charged at a 'flat rate' of $300 a year for a business line and $225 for a residential line; these rates have not been increased since 1955 despite the increasing costs of main-

tenance.

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

In 1882, when the Secretary of State for the Colonies approved the establishment of the Observatory, the programme of operations comprised meteorological observations, a time service and magnetic observations. Today the work of the Royal Observatory covers a far wider field, although magnetic observations ended in 1939.

Meteorological Services. Routine surface observations of the meteorological elements are made at the Royal Observatory, the airport, and Waglan and Cheung Chau Islands; the last three stations being primarily concerned with the needs of aviation. Upper air soundings of wind, temperature and humidity are carried out from King's Park and numerous raingauges are operated by government employees and private individuals on the Observa- tory's behalf.

The Central Forecast Office at the Observatory provides weather forecasts for the general public, shipping and the Armed Forces and gives information to the Aviation Forecast Office at the airport.

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There aircrews are briefed and weather information is issued to aircraft in flight and other weather centres.

In addition to providing weather bulletins for shipping and fishermen a close liaison is kept with merchant shipping by making visits to ships, checking barometers and supplying daily weather charts and reports. The Hong Kong voluntary observing fleet normally totals sixty to seventy ships and their reports are par- ticularly valuable.

One of the most important functions of the Observatory is to issue warnings of tropical cyclones. Whenever a tropical depres- sion, tropical storm or typhoon is located within the region bounded by the latitudes 10° and 30° North and the longitudes 105° and 125° East, six-hourly and often three-hourly bulletins are issued. These include information on the storm's intensity and expected development, the position and movement of its centre and the forecast position for 24 hours ahead. Reliable reports from ships and storm reconnaissance aircraft help to locate storms ac- curately. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and warnings are widely distrib- uted by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion. Time Service and Seismology. Time signals originating at the Observatory are broadcast over Radio Hong Kong for the public, the VPS broadcast for shipping and the Hong Kong VOLMET broadcast to aircraft. A visual time signal is flashed from the Obser- vatory's signal mast and various signals are provided for time marking seismograms and other purposes.

The Observatory operates six seismometers, three of which are on loan from the Lamont Geological Observatory. A weekly air- letter giving arrival times of significant earthquake waves is sent to the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and detailed analyses made later are published and sent to other scientific institutions. The results are included in the two international bulletins, the International Seismological Summary and the bulletin of the Inter- national Union of Geology and Geophysics. Normally one or two slight earthquake shocks are felt each year in Hong Kong, and on 10th July 1960 an earthquake whose epicentre was about 80 miles north-northeast of the Colony was felt by several local residents. The extremely violent and destructive Chilean earthquake in May gave rise to tsunami waves which reached Hong Kong on the

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      24th May and were recorded in the harbour. It is thought to be the first time that these sea waves originating from an earthquake have been observed in the Colony.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

1960 was an exceptionally warm year. December was the only month with a mean temperature below normal and the annual mean temperature was the highest ever recorded. The mean maximum temperature was also a record. The total rainfall for the year was above normal but not exceptionally so, in spite of the downpours during the typhoons of June and August. The year will probably be remembered by most for the devastation caused by typhoon 'Mary' in June; but the farmers, and the rice growers in particular, were also seriously affected by the drought in the early part of the year.

       The rainfall for each of the first five months of the year was below normal. A dry and sunny January was followed by an exceptional February. Only a trace of rainfall was recorded and it was the least cloudy and most sunny February on record. The high temperatures recorded during the day time were still experi- enced in early March, the warmest since records began in 1884. During this first quarter the Strong Monsoon signal was hoisted six times to warn small craft of strong winter monsoon winds over the local waters.

       The abnormally dry weather continued through April, with the result that only 35% of the normal April planting out of rice seedlings was performed. Relief came from the drought on 6th May, when violent thunderstorms and heavy rainfall centred over the northern part of the New Territories gave rise to serious flooding. Fifteen lives were lost and nearly 7,000 flood victims were registered for emergency feeding. Most of the heavy rain fell in about three hours. At one station, rain fell at the mean rate of 104.1 millimetres (4.1 inches) an hour for 3 hours 20 minutes. Although some 5,300 acres of paddy were affected by the floods, there was little damage and the rain permitted some late planting out of the first rice crop seedlings. On 14th May there was another outbreak of violent thunderstorms and although no widespread flooding or serious damage resulted, the rainfall over Hong Kong Island was actually greater than on 6th May.

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        On 1st June conditions became favourable for the formation of a tropical cyclone over the China Sea. On 3rd June a tropical depression named 'Mary' had developed and was centred about 400 miles south-southeast of the Colony. No 1 local storm signal was hoisted on the afternoon of the next day and was followed by No 3 in the evening. Further intensification took place and by 5th June 'Mary' was a severe tropical storm centred and almost stationary over the Paracel Islands. The next evening, as 'Mary' moved closer to Hong Kong on a northerly track, No 7 signal was hoisted. Winds became generally strong over the Colony on 7th June. No 8 signal was hoisted on the next morning and by the afternoon gales became persistent in the harbour area. The gales veered into the southeast quadrant that evening as 'Mary' con- tinued to move closer to the Colony and was intensifying. No 9 signal was hoisted at 1.07 a.m. on 9th June and No 10 signal at 3.30 a.m. The wind speed reached 103 knots in one gust at the Royal Observatory and 105 knots at Waglan Island. The typhoon centre passed very close to Cheung Chau around 4 a.m. and the winds there veered to southwest. The boat anchorages at Cheung Chau Bay are exposed to this direction and there were heavy casualties and many boats sunk. As the eye moved north- northeast across the northwest of the New Territories, the winds in Victoria Harbour also veered to southwest and then began to moderate. It was not until 11.20 p.m. on 9th June that the local storm signals were finally lowered.

The fishing community suffered heavily both in casualties and in loss of boats. Vegetable growers' losses were estimated at about $2,000,000 but the rice growers suffered comparatively little. Com- munications were disrupted and five ocean going ships broke away from their mooring buoys. One ship went aground on the airport promontory. Since 1884 there have been only two other storms which gave rise to persistent gales in the harbour during June, and 'Mary' came earlier and was more intense than either of these.

Local storm signals were hoisted again at the end of June to warn of typhoon 'Olive' but no serious damage or casualties resulted. The rain from this storm brought the total for June to 676.6 millimetres (26.64 inches) which was the fifth highest total for June on record. July was unusually hot, sunny and dry, with a record mean temperature of 84°F and a record mean maximum

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     of 90°F. No local storm signals were hoisted during the month. In August a record total of eleven tropical cyclones formed and developed over the northwest Pacific and the China Sea. Four of these came close enough to the Colony to warrant the hoisting of local storm signals. No serious threat arose, but the proximity of the storms resulted in rainfall which brought the month's total well above normal.

      In September and October there were no significant departures from the normal weather patterns. Three tropical cyclones caused local signals to be hoisted but only typhoon 'Kit' produced any strong winds locally. November was the most humid on record with a mean relative humidity of 81 per cent, a figure more appro- priate to the spring. The rainfall was more than three times the normal amount. There was nothing abnormal during December.

16

Publications, Broadcasting and Films

PRESS

HONG KONG's rapidly increasing population and rising rate of literacy mean that the already large and active press must still grow. At the end of the year the Registrar of Newspapers listed 191 periodicals and publications of all kinds. Of these, 38 appear daily and 26 once or twice a week. The remainder are mainly magazines in Chinese, catering for readers with special interests. There are four daily and three weekly English-language news- papers. A list of some of the leading publications is at Appendix XI.

Unofficial estimates put the total circulation of Chinese-language morning and afternoon papers at about half a million, but since there are no audited figures of circulations or certified net sales, these estimates must be taken with reserve. Many papers un- doubtedly have small circulations, but their influence should not be underestimated on this account. They have a steady following among different sections of the community and become an invalu- able forum for public opinion when occasion arises.

The Newspaper Society of Hong Kong has 18 members and their journals may be regarded as the Colony's principal news- papers. Recognized leaders among the Chinese morning papers are the Wah Kiu Yat Po (Overseas Chinese Daily News), Sing Tao Jih Pao, and Kung Sheung Yat Po (Industrial and Commercial Daily), all of which maintain a good balance between foreign and local news and are, generally speaking, non-partisan in politics. All three also publish afternoon editions, while another popular non-political daily, the Sing Pao, has no afternoon edition.

Orthodox Chinese communist policies are voiced in the Ta Kung Pao, Wen Wei Pao and New Evening Post, whilst the Hong Kong Times speaks for the Nationalist régime in Taiwan. Other Chinese newspapers which are members of the Newspaper Society are the

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New Life Evening Post and Hung Look Daily News, and the bilingual Daily Commodity Quotations.

      Only two morning newspapers are published in the English language the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong Tiger Standard (the latter is owned by Sing Poh Amalgamated Ltd, publishers of Sing Tao Jih Pao and Sing Tao Man Po). The South China Morning Post Ltd also publishes the afternoon newspaper China Mail (the oldest daily newspaper in the Colony) and the weekly Sunday Post-Herald.

The Hong Kong press has been very stable during recent years; there have been few failures and equally few new ventures, but a new morning daily, the Tin Tin, the first paper in Hong Kong to print news pictures in full colour, began publication in November.

      As with daily newspapers, the leading publications in the magazine field are all Chinese. Despite educational developments and a steady increase in the number of Chinese who are completely literate in both English and Chinese, it would seem that the majority of the people of Hong Kong prefer to read in their own language. There have been several attempts to start new English- language magazines since 1946, but the majority of these failed to secure a circulation wide enough to warrant their continued publication. Of major magazines in the English language, only the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review and the bi-monthly Hong Kong and Far East Builder-both of which are specialist in their appeal and command circulations outside the Colony- have survived for any number of years.

Four international news agencies maintain full-scale bureaux in Hong Kong, and it is indicative of the attention which the local press pays to world news that the majority of leading newspapers subscribe to at least three, if not all four, of the services provided. The agencies are the Agence France Presse, Associated Press of America, Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press) and United Press International. Hong Kong also houses offices of the independent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency (official agency of the Chinese People's Government), the Central News Agency of the Taiwan administra- tion, the Antara News Agency of Indonesia, and the Japanese agencies, Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service. There are also a

*

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Hong Kong is being featured more and more frequently on the world's cinema and television screens. Simultaneously the Government Information Services Film Unit (above) is now in full production, making short films. The Australian Broadcasting Commission's visiting television unit (below) made a thirty minutes' documentary on the Colony.

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To bring interference-free listening to Radio Hong Kong's fast growing Chinese and English language audiences, VHF/FM transmissions were started on 1st June 1960. The 135 foot transmitting tower (above) is situated on Mt Gough. The mobile unit (below) is also fitted with_VHF/FM equipment to relay sports and other outside broadcasts back to the studio.

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241

number of small local agencies serving the vernacular newspapers and two or three correspondents (either staff or part-time repre- sentatives) for other overseas agencies in the Colony. Broadcasting and television systems-particularly those of the North American continent are also well represented. The Time and Life magazine organization, the New York Times and Newsweek magazine also maintain bureaux in Hong Kong.

The number of editors, correspondents, broadcasters and televi- sion units visiting the Colony continues to increase year by year.

PUBLISHING

       Hong Kong has a flourishing printing industry. Despite keen foreign competition, particularly from Japan, it has captured and retained valuable contracts with many major publishers, and supplies local needs as well as those of south-east Asia.

       All books printed in Hong Kong are required by law to be registered with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. The number of books registered in the year showed an increase of 20% over that in 1959. The vast majority of them was in the Chinese language, the most notable exceptions being the English publications of the University Press and a number of business guides and directories. Of the Chinese books registered, the largest single category (about 36%) consisted of text-books for use in Chinese schools in Hong Kong and south-east Asia. 32% might be classified as fiction, and the rest were a miscellany of a generally popular and transitóry

nature.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

       The implementation of Government's policy decision, announced in mid-1959, to expand the scope and range of official publicity, both locally and overseas, was the main pre-occupation of the Information Services Department during 1960. Although provision had been made for realistic increases in both operational budget and manpower, the recruitment of suitable trained personnel to fill the new posts proved disappointingly slow and by the end of the year the staff of the Department was 74 as against the establish- ment of 97 provided for in the estimates. The shortage was particularly acute in the Press Division, but the lack of certain 'key' officers, several of them in senior grades, militated against

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     the smooth working of the whole Department. Nevertheless, despite these growing pains, 1960 was a year of solid achievement for the Government Information Services.

In the Press Division duty officers, both English and Chinese- speaking, are now on call at any hour-a service primarily designed to assist newspapermen who seek information after the majority of other Government departments have closed. Round-the-clock working has also helped to expand the service of news bulletins broadcast by the Colony's three radio stations, since the Division's Radio News Section can produce bulletins, more or less on request, at any time from start of transmission at 7 a.m. until close-down at midnight. Locally originated evening news bulletins now for the first time regularly supplement those relayed from the BBC.

      As an aid to efficient working and to speed the transmission of information, teleprinter links have been established between the Press Division News Room, the three radio stations and a number of leading newspapers and newsagencies. By means of this tele- printer network, news of importance and urgent announcements can be transmitted simultaneously and automatically to the principal outlets within a matter of minutes-with consequent saving of time in making individual telephone calls.

      At the end of the year an inward teleprinter link was being installed from the Royal Observatory, and from the spring of 1961 all weather news for broadcasting and newspaper use will be carried on the Information Services network. This service should save Observatory staff from having to answer 40 to 50 telephone inquiries (each of 5 to 10 minutes' duration) from newspapers and radio stations during the course of the average day-and from two to three times that volume during emergency.

In the Publicity Division, the most interesting development was undoubtedly the start made, however belatedly; in the use of films as an information medium. Staff was recruited during the spring and summer months for a small and compact but efficient film unit, and the team got into its stride in the autumn. By the end of the year the unit had completed four short films explaining the aims of the 1961 Census to the community at large (these were shown in some 40 cinemas throughout the Colony), and a 20 minutes' educational film to assist in the training of the 18,000 enumerators to be employed in census-taking; it was half-way

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through the production of a 15 minutes' film on anti-TB measures for the Medical and Health Department, and had also produced a number of successful newsreel sequences for overseas distribution in either commercial cinema or television reels. Since there is no doubt that the short film is both an invaluable medium for reaching large sections of Hong Kong's population and an excellent vehicle for 'projecting' Hong Kong overseas, the unit has a full programme for 1961.

While the Department's own film unit was being organized, a local documentary production company, Cathay Film Services (Hong Kong) Ltd, had been invited to make a half-hour East- mancolor documentary on the Colony, essentially for overseas distribution. A check print of this film, entitled 'This is Hong Kong', with a commentary spoken by Bernard Braden (well-known to British television viewers), was delivered to Information Services towards the end of November and was approved, subject to certain minor modifications. These were being arranged and the possi- bilities of widest distribution overseas were being examined at the year's end.

       Quite apart from Government's official film programme there were films of one kind and another being produced by units from other countries. These ranged from Paramount's expensive, spec- tacular, and certainly controversial, feature film, 'The World of Suzie Wong' to 'run-of-the-mill' television 'shorts'. All possible help was given to such production units-from loan of equipment to advice.

On the publications side, although leaflets stressing the evils of narcotics addiction or pointing up the Urban Council's Miss Ping On (Healthy Home) theme were produced in their tens of thou- sands, and others, devoted to explaining the mysteries of census- taking, in hundreds of thousands, the most solidly satisfying job undertaken by the Publicity Division during the year was probably the production of a completely new edition of the Hong Kong booklet, originally produced in 1954 by the Department (then known as the Public Relations Office). Largely re-written and re- illustrated (about one-third of the photographs being in colour), the production of this booklet, which has a print-order of a quarter of a million copies, represents a distinct achievement for the Hong Kong printing industry. Six years ago such a publication could

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not have been undertaken in the Colony. (The original edition of 190,000 was produced, monochrome in two runs, in the United Kingdom).

The appointment in August of an Information Officer to the Hong Kong Government Office in London was a new departure in developing the Colony's public relations overseas. The officer concerned, who is an experienced London newspaperman with an interest in Hong Kong and its affairs of many years' standing, visited the Colony shortly after his appointment and spent two months familiarizing himself with almost every aspect of local activity.

Less spectacular than the developments outlined above, but of equal importance in the Department's overall programme, has been the steady stepping up of the output of news, feature articles and photographs, paralleled by greater demands than ever upon the Department's senior personnel by visiting journalists, broad- casters and television personalities. Nearly 100 such visitors to the Colony were briefed with background information and provided with facilities in the first four months of the year alone. There was some slight falling off in numbers during the later months of the year, probably attributable (since most such visitors come from the USA) to domestic interest in the Presidential elections. The results again showed that such work is among the most valuable carried out by the Information Services. As far as can be judged from cuttings received in Hong Kong almost all those who were briefed reported favourably on the Colony to audiences that must add up to hundreds of millions.

      The Press Division's Daily Bulletins of Government and official news continue to grow in scope. Well over 3,000 items are issued in the course of a year and the Bulletin is distributed in English and Chinese editions to all local newspapers and to foreign news agencies and correspondents. In addition to providing written material, the staff of the Press Division deals each year with many hundreds of individual inquiries from newspapermen working in the Colony. Such inquiries have greatly increased in number during recent months, with many journalists taking advantage of the 24-hour service provided by the Division.

Press photographs taken locally or supplied from London by the Central Office of Information are also distributed by the

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Division, and simplified plans and sketch maps suitable for press reproduction accompany news releases wherever necessary. Public relations officers of the Armed Forces and the British Council Representative make wide use of the Division's channels of dis- tribution.

       The Publicity Division handles the local publicity campaigns of many other Government departments and the production of posters, leaflets and other visual aids to better public understanding continued throughout the year. A number of travelling photo- graphic exhibitions were also organized and dispatched to various parts of the world.

       The Division's library of photographs has now been completely re-organized. Several thousand pictures-including colour trans- parencies are on file and extra copies of the more important ones are always kept in hand. This means that a picture, together with a caption of about 150 words, can usually be made available within a few minutes of a request being received.

        Distribution of magazine and newspaper feature articles overseas began during the year for the first time on a regular basis. These articles vary in length from 500 to 3,000 words and are usually accompanied by at least a dozen 10 x 8 inch glossy photographs. Colour transparencies are also included whenever possible. The articles explain Hong Kong's problems and achievements in terms of everyday life in the Colony, touching upon facets not normally encountered in other forms of Government publicity. They are distributed by British government agencies and commercial agents in all major countries and, because they must compete for space in the highly competitive, and lucrative, magazine and newspaper feature fields, the emphasis at all times is on quality rather than quantity. The number of articles published overseas is now in- creasing very rapidly and, through syndication, many appear a dozen or more times in a single country.

        The distribution of sets of photographs for overseas use was also begun on a regular basis during the year. Each set deals. with a different subject and normally contains between one and two dozen 10 x 8 inch glossy prints. Each picture has a com- prehensive caption of between 100 and 200 words, enabling them to be used either singly or combined as a 'spread'. These picture sets are proving very popular with overseas publications, both

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for immediate use and for filing for use with stories about Hong Kong in the future.

In all, over 10,000 pictures were distributed overseas and locally during the year, an increase of more than 9,000 over the 1959 figure.

Although the Information Services are primarily concerned with publicizing the affairs of Hong Kong, everything possible is done to promote knowledge of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, and maximum use is made of material supplied by the Central Office of Information, London, for this purpose. The Department's film library, for example, which is stocked by the COI, lent over 2,000 films during the year for commercial showings by clubs, schools and other institutions, and provided Rediffusion Television with a weekly 'Commonwealth Television News' feature.

RADIO HONG KONG

Without doubt the most important development of the year for Radio Hong Kong was the installation of the new Very High Frequency/Frequency Modulation networks for both the English and Chinese Services. At a ceremony held on 1st June 1960, the Colonial Secretary inaugurated the new transmissions which have resulted in markedly improved reception conditions throughout the difficult terrain which has to be covered.

A special transmitter centre has been built at Mount Gough on Hong Kong Island to house the four 5 KW Marconi type BD 321 B FM transmitters, and the aerials are mounted on a 135 foot self-supporting steel lattice tower capable of withstanding winds of up to 200 miles per hour.

At the same time as the introduction of FM transmissions the hours of the English Service were extended from 8 to 17 hours a day, bringing the English and Chinese Services into line. Both now broadcast from 0700 hours to 2400 hours daily, the English Service on 860 kc/s in the Medium Wave Band and on 91 mc/s FM, and Chinese transmissions on 640 kc/s and 94.0 mc/s FM. There is also a shortwave service of the Chinese programmes on 3940 kc/s (76.14 metres) which is widely used by the fishing fleets. Radio Hong Kong is a Government broadcasting station. The studio centre is in Mercury House, the Far Eastern headquarters

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      of Cable and Wireless Limited, who are responsible for the station's technical operations. The Department is directed by the Controller of Broadcasting, aided by an Assistant Controller; the latter post was created in 1960. In charge of each programme service is a Senior Programme Assistant, and there are respectively 10 Chinese and 6 English staff Programme Assistants responsible for the compilation and production of the bulk of the programmes. Both Services have staff announcers. To fill the number of hours of broadcasting, to ensure variety and to make the best use of all available talent, Radio Hong Kong uses a large number of writers, singers, musicians, producers, actors or speakers as contributors.

The effect of this year's significant technical developments can be gauged to some extent by the increase in radio licences. At the close of 1960, there were 120,151 licences, an increase of 25,251 over the 1959 figure. This compared favourably with what was considered to be a remarkable increase of 23,269 in 1959.

The increased hours of the English Service presented a challenge to introduce many programmes which the previous limitations would not permit. By separating the VHF and MW transmissions, it has also been possible to broadcast longer classical works in full on the VHF network, whilst at the same time maintaining more general programmes on the medium wave service. So far, this practice has been limited to one night a week.

The English Service aims at providing a balanced programme of information, education and entertainment not only to the small English and American population in the Colony but also to the very large number of Chinese listeners who turn to the Service as a source of information and Western culture.

Increased broadcasting hours and the recruitment of a specialist Programme Assistant have made possible many more new pro- grammes. One such programme introduced during the year is 'Behind the Headlines' in which foreign correspondents in Hong Kong meet each week to discuss the week's news.

Feature and documentary programmes included an inquiry into the problem of narcotics, a series on the work of various Govern- ment servants, 'The Making of a Poet' (the life of Edmund Blunden) and 'A Dollar a Shilling', an investigation into the book trade in

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Hong Kong. Extensive use is made of the high quality programmes provided by the British Broadcasting Corporation's Transcription Service. Radio Canada, Radio Australia, the Voice of America and the United Nations Radio also supplied valuable material.

In the English schedules serious music, talks and plays occupy much time. Light music productions also increased in number during the year and many of Hong Kong's well-known dance bands were broadcast either in studio productions or direct from night- clubs.

The daily news magazine 'Today' has included many famous names-usually, of course, as visitors to Hong Kong. There have been interviews with Ben Shahn, the distinguished American painter, Art Linkletter, the television writer, Colin Jackson of the BBC, the late Dr Thomas Dooley, known for his medical work in Laos, Alfred Hitchcock, Ngaio Marsh, and Sir Harrie Massey, to name but a few. Many new variety and magazine programmes were introduced during the year, including the twice weekly 'Woman's World', and children's programmes have been extended. In addition to the regular relays of the BBC General Overseas Services bulle- tins, an extra news broadcast is now carried from Radio Australia each evening. Bulletins of world and Hong Kong news, compiled locally by the Information Services Department are broadcast twice a day.

        There has been a noticeable increase in the number of outside broadcasts during 1960, and all major sporting events have been covered by live commentaries. The most outstanding outside broad- cast of the year was undoubtedly the Macau Grand Prix. Radio Hong Kong's team consisted of no less than nineteen broadcasters and technicians. In addition there has been coverage of the Colony's principal ceremonies.

      Prominent men and women who broadcast or gave recitals for Radio Hong Kong during the year included Nikita Magaloff, Alfredo Campoli, Ruggiero Ricci, Lord Kindersley, Lady Gammans, Ricky Nelson, Bernard Newman, Frank Sinatra, Art Buchwald, Richard Quine, Nancy Kwan, Mervin Le Roy, Ed Murrow, Jack Paar, George Montgomery, Lord Tedder, the Rt Hon Keith Holyoake, Prince Peter of Greece, Sir Evelyn Wrench,

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Tab Hunter, Pierre Balmain, Arthur Godfrey, Basil Rathbone, David Rose and Eileen Joyce.

The Chinese Service is designed mainly as a Cantonese service, but running through the main design are programmes in the minority languages, Kuoyü, Chiuchow and Hakka. All forms of broadcasting are included and, like the English Service, the aim is to provide a balanced informative, educational and entertaining service.

Radio plays are particularly popular amongst the Chinese lis- teners and an average of 20 of these is produced every week. In addition to regular weekly features on Chinese culture, a new series of talks was produced on Chinese verse and old proverbs and another on Chinese Classics, contributed by the Hok Hoi Library. All tastes in music are provided for, but special attention was given to developing a new form of Chinese music which is now becoming popular. This is the harmonization of Chinese instrumental music which was introduced at the 1959 Festival of the Arts.

Many new programmes were introduced during the year and one worthy of particular mention, 'Love Thy Neighbour', which was produced in collaboration with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, reflected the work done by the local clansmen, Kaifongs, District and other welfare organizations.

Regular programmes of Western music were maintained includ- ing explanatory programmes which attempt to bring out a fuller understanding of the classics. A series of magazine programmes of the music from twelve European countries was introduced in the middle of the year, but perhaps the unique programme is one in which an English staff producer, speaking in Chinese, introduced Western 'hit' songs.

All sporting events were well covered. A highlight of the year was the Olympic Games which a Chinese staff producer, on his return from a course at the BBC, stopped over in Rome to cover. In collaboration with the BBC, daily commentaries were broadcast in Cantonese and Kuoyü and recorded commentaries giving fuller details were airmailed back to Hong Kong.

Three new programmes for women were introduced, and the daily programme for children remained a regular and popular feature.

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To assist the Government's campaign against narcotics the Chinese Service not only broadcast plays and features with themes stressing the disastrous effects of drug addiction, but also organized in May a special anti-narcotics concert by a troupe of famous local artists, including Messrs Ho Fei-fan and Leong Sing-por and Miss Ng Kwan-lai. This was broadcast on 1st June, and was such a success that two well-known Chinese organizations, the Siulamese Association and the Shun Tak Fraternal Association, were each inspired to produce an anti-narcotics play which was broadcast over Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion.

     Transcriptions of various Radio Hong Kong programmes in Chinese were supplied to Radio Malaya, Radio Sarawak and Radio Singapore.

Both the Chinese and the English Services broadcast Protestant and Roman Catholic church services each Sunday, and broadcast appeals and special concerts for charities raised considerable sums of money.

In 1959 Radio Hong Kong became for the first time a principal contributor to the Festival of Arts. This year the Chinese Service contributed no less than 18 programmes. These included plays selected from entries to a short story competition, features on the great painters and calligraphers of ancient China, a Chinese literary quiz, and two concerts. A concert of Chinese instrumental music, which proved so popular last year, was also broadcast on a larger scale. Bernard Shaw's 'Pygmalion' was broadcast as a contribution from the English Service.

      Technical facilities generally were further improved during the year. Electronic reverberation equipment has replaced the original echo chamber. With this new equipment an echo delay of one to five seconds, giving an effect of a small hall on the shorter echo to one of a large empty cathedral on the larger echo, can be achieved by remote control. Full-track tape recorders have now been introduced for higher quality reproduction and twin-track tape recorders-reproducers will be used for experimenting with stereo broadcasting. Both the Chinese and English continuity control rooms have been provided with automatic 'sequential' monitoring for the immediate detection of faults in either the MW or FM transmissions.

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      Two more studios have also been completed recently in the Central Government Offices which can be used either as talks studios or for the origination of news bulletins.

COMMERCIAL RADIO

       Commercial Radio, in its short history of sixteen months, has been sending out programmes over its English and Chinese trans- missions (1530 K/cs and 1050 K/cs on the medium wave band respectively) for seventeen hours daily. The Station transmits through two 1 kW transmitters with a 175 foot vertical antenna by the use of a diplexer. There are 91 members of its full-time staff.

        The station's whole revenue comes from advertisements. Com- mercial time on the air is sold by the hour, half-hour, or quarter- hour; and 'spot' announcements are also sold lasting from 10 seconds to 60 seconds. Airtime rates for the Chinese transmission vary from $962.50 per hour for 'A' time, to $80.00 for one 10 second 'spot' announcement. For the English transmission, the rates run between $275.00 per hour, for 'A' time, and $10.00 for a 10 second 'spot'. There are 233 sponsors who sell 377 products, from toothpaste to refrigerators.

English Programme Department: The English Programme has a male English director with five assistants. There are thirty other full-time staff, and the programme has two artists contracted ex- clusively to the Station. Part-time duty announcers are employed and members of the western community are employed as con- tributors. Early in the year the Station started its first daily news and interview programme. A highlight was a complete re-broadcast of Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery's press conference before his visit to the mainland. Visiting celebrities, businessmen and tourists were interviewed on this programme as well as people of local interest. Football and boxing commentaries were given and there is a weekly sporting feature.

Transcribed plays come from Australia, America and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Most of the programmes are recorded and they are mainly arranged by members of the staff. Classical music is popular in Hong Kong and more than 10% of the day's programmes is devoted to it. A local orchestra of 25

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     recorded a concert of music specially composed and conducted by the Programme Director for the Sixth Festival of the Arts. The principal work was the 'Hong Kong Suite'. A visiting concert pianist broadcast a recital and musicians and singers from the Forces were heard in the weekly Services Programme. Relays came from night clubs and from m.v. Asia. Special features were pro- duced locally for Commonwealth Day, the Battle of Britain and for the birthday of Her Majesty the Queen. The programmes are designed to appeal to as many different sections of the community as possible. The station took part early in the year in the joint broadcast of the 'Fat Choy' Drive, headed by the Standard-Singtao Papers, to raise funds for distribution to the needy in Hong Kong. Appeals from charity organizations were also broadcast, as well as special Government announcements.

      Chinese Programme Department: The Chinese Programme is headed by a Programme Director with six programme assistants, one contract artist, 30 full-time staff members and more than 80 contributors.

      During the year there were 90 radio plays, 65 Chinese operas, 7 operas relayed from the theatre stage, 36 football commentaries, 110 interviews, 66 stories told by individual story-tellers, and 143 serial dramatized plays. 249 announcements of appeals were made on behalf of local charity organizations, as well as 997 'spot' announcements for the Government. One charity broadcast was made from the studios on behalf of the Wah Kiu Yat Po to raise money for helping underprivileged students. There were also 10 new series of educational programmes. The Sports Editor went to Rome in August to cover the Olympic Games, and recorded pro- grammes were broadcast of the events. Transcribed programmes were sold to Radio Singapore and a radio station in the United States, and many of the radio plays were turned into movies by local film companies.

REDIFFUSION

      Sound Relay. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd provides a popular wired broadcast service throughout the Colony, extending to prac- tically all the urban areas and to many outlying villages on the Island and in the New Territories. At present the system has more than 1,400,000 yards of main trunk network and about 3,500,000

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yards of installation cabling. Distribution is from thirteen sub- stations to 26 kiosks, from which 175 feeders radiate to approxi- mately 53,000 loudspeakers. The parent company first operated thirty two years ago in the United Kingdom and now operates in many parts of the Commonwealth; the Hong Kong company, locally controlled, is part of this world-wide organization.

Rediffusion operates from the most modern studios in the Far East. They contain five sound studios, all air-conditioned, from which three simultaneous sound programmes go out daily from 7 a.m. to midnight, two networks ("Gold' & 'Silver') being in Chinese and one ('Blue') in English.

       16% of Rediffusion programmes are commercially sponsored. The Chinese programmes offer music, news, drama, talks, sports, commentaries, women's features, children's shows, comedy, story- telling and theatre relays in Cantonese, Kuoyü, Swatow, Hakka, Shanghai and other dialects. The English service gives continuous daily broadcasts of musical entertainment, plays, studio shows, news, BBC and other relays, sports events, stock-market news, features for women and children, and much else. During 1960 Rediffusion charity broadcasts raised nearly half-a-million dollars for needy families. Rediffusion employs 510 local staff of whom 98% are Chinese, in addition to a great many musicians, soloists, story-tellers and dramatic artists.

Rental for a loudspeaker is $10 per month, and subscribers have a constant choice of the three programmes which, together, involve the origination of 51 hours of programmes each day.

Television. Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd opened the first televi- sion service in any British Colony in May 1957, and the service has been growing ever since. At the end of 1960 there were almost 7,000 subscribers.

Rediffusion House has two well equipped studios for this closed- circuit network, each of about 2,000 square feet, and one other of 200 square feet, while the equipment includes 9 vidicon camera chains. Three of these are of the latest Marconi studio types and one is fitted with the modern Taylor-Hobson vidicon zoom lens. The station uses the latest telecine-camera chains with double channels for both 16 mm and 35 mm films and has a full array of studio and control equipment. All Chinese films carry English captions and vice versa.

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      Programmes are produced in air-conditioned studios and include many 'live' presentations such as Cantonese operas, dance orchestras, night-club acts, children's features, and interviews. Popular filmed television shows are imported from the United Kingdom and America, and six full-length feature films are tele- vised each week. Rediffusion television programmes give about forty hours of entertainment weekly, some of them commercially sponsored. During that part of the day when the television service is not transmitting the sound channel covers the activities of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. This is an on-the-spot report from the floor of the Exchange.

More than 97% of the television staff are locally-trained Chinese. The rental fee is $55 per month, including receiving unit and all maintenance. For subscribers who have their own television sets the monthly rental is $25 which covers the programme fee and full maintenance.

FILM INDUSTRY

      The Colony's eight major studios and many independent pro- ducers again maintained a high output, submitting 273 feature films in Chinese to the Panel of Film Censors for local exhibition. Of these, 198 had sound-tracks in Cantonese, 60 in Mandarin, and 15 were in other dialects. Hong Kong companies also supplied finance, stars and technicians for films made in Taiwan, Japan and south-east Asian countries.

Production costs are governed by the limited market available. China does not import Hong Kong films and the total audience in Taiwan and among the overseas Chinese living in the Philippines and south-east Asia amounts to only about 25 million. Producers must therefore concentrate on quantity rather than quality in order to show a profit. However, several of the larger studios turn out at least one major production costing up to $1 million each year, and at the Seventh Asian Film Festival held in Tokyo in April, Hong Kong won top honours for the third consecutive year. The Golden Harvest award for the best picture was won by the Shaw Brothers' production 'Back Door', while Lucilla Yu Ming was voted the best actress for the second consecutive year for her role in the Motion Picture and General Investment Company's

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production 'All in the Family'. Hong Kong also gained awards for the best director, best screenplay, and best supporting actress.

Partly as a result of World Refugee Year, Hong Kong became a centre of interest for documentary film-makers of many nation- alities. At one period in February three television teams from Canada, the United States and Australia were at work in the Colony simultaneously. British, French, Dutch, German and Italian documentary producers also filmed aspects of Hong Kong's problems and achievements, while the United Nations and other agencies commissioned film sequences on the Colony for inclusion in major productions covering the refugee problem on a worldwide basis. Paramount Pictures completed shooting 'The World of Suzie Wong' starring William Holden and Nancy Kwan, whose home is in Hong Kong. Two other Hollywood companies shot con- siderable 'location' footage for use in television feature films.

       Cinemagoing is undoubtedly the most popular pastime in Hong Kong and there are now 66 cinemas with 69,938 seats. Hong Kong Island has 26 cinemas (29,225 seats), Kowloon 28 (32,701) and the New Territories 12 (8,012). English-language pictures, which usually carry Chinese sub-titles, are shown in 14 cinemas, with 18,208 seats. A number of cinemas have recently been extensively renovated to compete with the newer buildings, and most now have air-conditioning and wide screens.

       During the year the Panel of Film Censors considered 408 feature films, including 165 from America, 59 from Britain, and 184 from all other countries including France, Germany, Italy, India, Japan, the Philippines, Korea, South America, Taiwan, Russia and China.

17

Local Forces and Civil Defence Services

THE Colony's Auxiliary Defence Services consist of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Auxiliary Police Force and the Essential Services Corps. The Auxiliary Police, created during 1957 by a merger of the Hong Kong Police Reserve and the Special Constabulary, is dealt with in Chapter 13. The Essential Services Corps, although legally an entity, is split for adminis- trative and practical purposes into four autonomous Services: the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Civil Aid Services, the Auxiliary Fire Service and the Auxiliary Medical Service.

      All these services are paid for from funds voted each year by the Legislative Council and are made up from volunteers and from persons enrolled since the introduction in 1951 of compulsory service for locally resident citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies. Service in the auxiliary defence units is a considerable commitment not only to the individual concerned but also to his employer, and it is fortunate that on the whole employers are most co-operative in releasing members of their staff for these duties, even at considerable inconvenience.

Except for small administrative and training staffs, the Auxiliary Services are manned entirely by residents of the Colony who lead or attend training classes and exercises in the evenings or at the week-ends and, in the case of certain services, attend more extended training at annual camps which last up to fifteen days.

Training obligations vary from service to service. The greatest burden is in those units whose members must every year attend at least sixty instructional parades of one hour's duration, six full days' training and fifteen days' training at camp. The com- mitment is scaled down elsewhere to the needs of the particular unit. An allowance to cover out-of-pocket expenses is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full day's training and for attending camp, officers and members receive a higher

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       daily rate of pay and, where meals cannot be provided, a ration allowance.

        The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. The main units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Regiment and the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. The Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, which like its United Kingdom counterpart dropped the word 'Volunteer' from its title on 1st January 1959, mans and operates two Inshore Minesweepers. These vessels are on loan from the Admiralty but are operated and maintained at Government expense.

        In addition to the Hong Kong Regiment, which has the power and equipment of an infantry battalion but a lower establishment, the land element of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force has a number of Force Headquarters Units, including a Light Troop (4.2 inch mortars), a Reconnaissance Unit, a Home Guard and other specialized formations.

        The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force is equipped with Auster aircraft and two Westland Widgeon helicopters.

        There are also three Women's Services: the Hong Kong Women's Naval Reserve, the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

        The officers of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are found from amongst its own members, but there is also a small permanent staff of regular officers and non-commissioned officers who are attached to oversee the training.

        Volunteer Service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May 1854 of the Hong Kong Volunteers. In 1878 they were renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was again changed, to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps. The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December 1941 and fought with the regular forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December 1941. In 1956 their action was vividly recalled when part of the old Colours of the Corps, which had been buried in December 1941 to avoid capture by the Japanese, was discovered by workmen excavating a building site on Garden

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      Road. The officers who had hidden the Colours had died in captivity, leaving no record of where the Colours might be found. The remnants of the old Colours were paraded on the Annual Review of the Defence Force in March 1958 and were afterwards laid up in St John's Cathedral. Decorations were conferred upon fifteen members of the Corps for their gallantry in battle and for later escapes from Japanese prison-camps in Hong Kong, and eighteen were mentioned in despatches.

      After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March 1949 as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later, His late Majesty King George VI granted the title 'Royal', and in March 1957, Her Majesty the Queen awarded the Battle Honour 'Hong Kong' to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. This Honour is now emblazoned on the Regimental Colour and with the new title recognizes the part played by the Force's forerunner, the Volunteer Defence Corps, in 1941.

      The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, communications, etc. Each unit is principally staffed by persons already employed in the service but is reinforced as necessary by others. Since in an emergency most members would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert, the Corps requires less training than the Defence Force. It is now several thousands strong and training during the year included driving instruction, revolver practice and exercises in the berthing and manoeuvring of various types of marine craft.

The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide first aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in an emergency. It is built around the Medical and Health Depart- ment, the St John Ambulance Brigade and other members of the medical and nursing professions, but many people with no previous training in nursing and first aid have also been enrolled and trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first aid workers in the field.

Teams take part in regional exercises with the Civil Aid Services from time to time and demonstrations of First Aid were held during 1960 in several public places in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Practical training has been given in the wards of general

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hospitals and valuable experience has been obtained by many members who attend week-end training in the casualty ward at Queen Mary Hospital.

       The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all the civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services. They include three Command Units, Warden Service with posts throughout the urban area, a Rescue Service, a Despatch Service equipped with motor scooters, an Accommodation Unit, and several administrative units. The membership is 5,500 men and women, of whom almost all are volunteers.

Most members train on one or two evenings a week, and take part in live exercises with the Auxiliary Medical Service. In keeping with their name, the Civil Aid Services stand ready to aid the community during and after fires, floods and other disasters. Members turned out voluntarily to assist on many such occasions during the year, and over 1,000 were on duty when Typhoon Mary struck the Colony.

The highlight of the year was the Seventh Annual Field Day when His Excellency the Governor inspected 3,800 members at the Hong Kong Stadium. This is believed to have been the largest parade of its kind in Hong Kong.

The Auxiliary Fire Service, an autonomous unit of the Essential Services Corps, is designed to assist the regular Fire Brigade in peace-time and in an emergency. Members of the Service total over 670 men and women, out of an approved strength of 832. They man their own appliances during weekly platoon training under the supervision of regular Fire Brigade officers, and work on water relays, week-end station duty, full day and half day exercises, a pump operators' course, driving instruction and control and watch room operating. The AFS is also called out to help the Brigade to fight serious fires and at 'Special Service' incidents such as land slides and collapses of buildings during rain storms and typhoons.

18

Research

UNIVERSITY

     THE University of Hong Kong continued its programmes of research in 1960.

Present projects in the Department of History include work on the history of Hong Kong and the New Territories; problems of communication between the English East India Company and Chinese officials at Canton in the early nineteenth century; British policy in China, 1894-1902; the history of Chinese relations with Yunnan during the T'ang period and the ethnic problems connected with the state of Nanchao; and the history of south- east Asia since 1870.

In the Department of Education, efforts are continuing to establish educational research on a regional basis under a directive organization with a co-ordinated programme and funds of its own. Meanwhile the variety of projects going forward includes a two- year study of the development of Chinese personality, sponsored by the New York Society of Human Ecology; a study of generality of meaning systems connected with a cross-cultural project con- ducted by the Institute of Communications Research, University of Illinois; inquiries in the field of comparative education; and analyses of educational development in mainland China. A study of American financial educational programmes in the Colony is provoking considerations of major policy, some of which have been published.

Research in the Department of Economics and Political Science has been concentrated in four fields: (1) HONG KONG. An Economic Survey of Hong Kong's Fishing Industry was published by FAO. Other articles published or presented at conferences include studies. of Hong Kong's national income 1947-60; the economics of cross- harbour transportation; trade between Italy and Hong Kong, and the USA and Hong Kong; private enterprise and public owner- ship; Government in-service training; population growth; and

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wage policy problems. (2) CHINA. Studies have been made of the food problem in mainland China, urban communes, trends in economic policy, social accounting, capital formation, the 'rightist' movement, conflict in Tibet, and army-party relations; these and a study of the educational developments in Taiwan have all been prepared for Volume IV of Contemporary China, an annual departmental publication. A study of rural Taiwan (1952-8) was completed in collaboration with the National Taiwan University and the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction. Other research has been made into the balance of payments, steel industry, and rice exports of mainland China; the organization of political power; and the shaping of a nation-state in China under Communism. (3) far east. A symposium on Central Banking in South and East Asia was published by the Hong Kong University Press; an economic survey of the fishing industry in Thana District, Bombay State, was edited for publication by FAO; and a study of the planning of economic development of fisheries in the ECAFE region was prepared at the invitation of FAO. Members of the department participated in various international conferences, and preparatory work has been undertaken for the symposium on Economic and Social Problems of the Far East to be held in September 1961 as part of the University's Golden Jubilee Congress. (4) ACCOUNTING THEORY. Studies have begun in this field and some results have been published in various journals.

Work continues in the Department of Modern Languages on contact vernaculars of south-east Asia, with special reference to the Portuguese dialects of Hong Kong and Macau, and a number of papers have been published on this subject.

In the Department of Philosophy research goes on into the psychological problems created by bilingualism and experiments on the perception of complex forms in young Chinese children are in progress. Investigation is still being made of the intellectual and physical capabilities of the male undergraduate, in collabora- tion with the University Health Officer, the Department of Anatomy, and the Director of Physical Education.

       Research in the Department of Mathematics has been mainly on asymptotic approximation, projectively flat spaces with re- current curvature, construction of metrisable Lie algebras from a given anti-symmetic tensor of the third order, and an algebraic

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approach to exact categories. The Statistics Unit, newly established in October 1960, has carried on the research already begun by the Department in applied statistics. A series of unit value and quantum index numbers for Hong Kong imports was published early in the year and work has continued on the corresponding export series together with terms of trade. The econometric study of demand elasticities for rice is due for completion early in 1961. Apart from these studies the Unit has given consultative services both within and without the University.

In the Department of Chemistry new discoveries continue to be made both in Hong Kong plant product chemistry and about the mechanisms of chemical reactions, and results from these fields of research have been published in learned British journals of chemistry. Research in plant product continues to be helped financially from outside sources.

Research has been pursued by the Department of Zoology in neurology, entomology, genetics, morphology, and fisheries; the neurological programme is financially supported by the US Public Health Service. The results of a number of fisheries investigations appeared in the third issue of the Hong Kong University Fisheries Journal, April 1960; the results of other research have been published in various international journals during the year.

Members of the Department of Anatomy have continued work on various aspects of gross and microscopical anatomy, particularly in the fields of physical anthropology, comparative anatomy, and endocrincology. The results of completed work have been pub- lished in various scientific journals.

The Department of Physiology has investigated the metabolic effects of cold in relation to thyroid activity; the metabolic role of vitamin E; the glyoxalic acid metabolism in thiamine deficiency; narcotic problems in Hong Kong; and the study of urinary bladder function in pregnancy.

In the Department of Pathology, research has included a survey of blood constituents of healthy Chinese and studies of intestinal parasites with special reference to trace elements; ovarian tumours, their histogenesis, and experimental production in rats; and studies of the pathology of the upper respiratory tract with special reference to the nasopharynx. Work is in progress on malignant tumours and 'hamartomas' of the liver and on abnormalities of

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pregnancy, particularly hydatidiform mole and chorionepithelioma. A study is being undertaken, in collaboration with Professor Kreyberg of Oslo, on the grading of lung cancers. In bacteriology a survey has been made of the distribution of chromogenic mycobacteria and also a survey of anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens, with special reference to the anaerobic non-spore- forming bacteria. At the same time work has continued on improvement of laboratory techniques in diagnostic bacteriology. During the year students and staff of the Department of Architecture examined the problems of cross-harbour transporta- tion, with special reference to a bridge across Lei Yue Mun, and its relationship to the Kai Tak flight path and the shipping channel. The staff were also concerned with a study for the new town at Tsuen Wan.

      The Department of Engineering has developed a new simplified method of wind-stress analysis of tall buildings. A multi-storey building model is being made in the structures laboratory for study of the torsional effect of unsymmetrical building structures under wind load. Two FM (frequency modulation) antennas, Yagi and Zig-Zag, have been designed to meet the needs of the newly- constructed FM broadcasting station operated by Radio Hong Kong. Antennas have also been designed with the optimum efficiency at 92.5 mc/s, which is the average value of two transmit- ting frequencies used.

      Research in the Department of Geography & Geology has been pursued in the investigation of mineral resources of Hong Kong, geological mapping, land-use surveys and on the industrial and economic geography. With the arrival of new staff future research will include development of communications in mainland China, the petrology of igneous rocks of the Hong Kong area and structural relationships in Hong Kong rocks.

Research is also being done on the Rare Books in the Fung Ping Shan Chinese Section of the Library. An annotated catalogue of these Rare Books is now in preparation.

ROYAL OBSERVATORY

Research and Applied Meteorology. There was a heavy demand for specialized investigations in the field of Applied Meteorology in 1960, which left little time for theoretical investigations.

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An analysis was made of runway wind components and asso- ciated temperatures at the airport and some of the results were published in Royal Observatory Technical Notes No 20.

      An investigation is being carried out into the frequency of occurrence of various rainfall amounts in specified intervals to assist in design of reservoir catchments.

      The meteorological and seismological factors which would affect the design of a harbour bridge or tunnel are being studied together with the effects of strong winds on buildings.

      An evaluation has been made of the energy exchange between the earth's surface and the atmosphere on a synoptic scale.

A report on the climatological aspects of the location and opera- tion of a nuclear reactor for water distillation and power genera- tion is in preparation. Although this project has been discontinued it is expected that some of the findings can be applied to solve problems such as smoke nuisance.

      The problem of forecasting the movement of typhoons is very important and an investigation has started into the significance of a method involving the pressure distribution at about the 10,000 feet level.

A note on checking the performance of electrodynamic seismo- meters was published in a leading American seismological journal.

19

Religion

      THE Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau, covers sixteen parish churches and six mission chapels. Three of these worship in English and the others in Chinese. St John's Cathedral, founded in 1842, was established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850.

       There have been important changes in the leadership of Chinese- speaking and English-speaking Churches during the year. The Chinese Church has seen the death of Canon Paul Ts'o, for 32 years Vicar of St Paul's Church, the retirement of Archdeacon Lee Kau-yan from All Saints, and the resignation of Canon Edward Lee from Holy Trinity in order to resume his work as Canon Missioner. They have been succeeded in their parishes by younger men. The Cathedral has welcomed as its new Dean the Very Rev Barry Till, who left his work as Dean of Jesus College, Cambridge, in order to serve in Hong Kong. The Rev R. W. Howard, Assistant Priest at Great St Mary's in Cambridge, has come to Christ Church.

       The English-speaking Free Churches on the Island are the Union Church, the Methodists and the Baptists; and in Kowloon there are the second Union Church, Emmanuel, the Alliance Church, and the Baptist Chapel. The London Missionary Society, whose chief representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the cession of the Colony to Great Britain, plays a prominent part in education and medicine, and runs the Nethersole Hospital, one of the Colony's foremost medical institutions.

       The growth in size and vigour of the Chinese-speaking Churches has continued and their work is spreading further into the resettle- ment areas, the new townships and the New Territories. The Church of Christ in China (within which union the London Missionary Society now works) opened and dedicated its Morrison Memorial Centre in Prince Edward Road, Kowloon, Dr S. C. Leung officiating at the ceremony. Later the Heep Woh School

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and the Cheung-Lo Church (both adjacent to the Centre) were dedicated. The CCC has new churches at Yuen Long and Mui Wo (Silver Mine Bay) and new schools at Castle Peak, Cheung Chau and in the historic one hundredth seven-storey block of Wong Tai Sin resettlement estate. The Lutherans, who work chiefly amongst Mandarin-speaking Chinese, have dedicated a new church in Castle Peak and acquired a larger building for their Fanling church: their educational work also continues to expand, and site-formation has started for the Union Lutheran Church and School in Waterloo Road. But it is impossible to record all the developments in every denomination in detail.

Co-operation among the Protestant Churches continued during the year in the Chinese Churches' Union and in the Hong Kong Christian Council. The latter body keeps in touch with the World Council of Churches through the East Asia Christian Conference; in the autumn it also sponsored a Conference on Sunday School Materials (in the Chinese Language) with Chinese delegates from half a dozen countries. The Annual Day of Prayer for Church Unity is becoming an important occasion, and further co-operation is shown in Chung Chi College, where the new President, Dr C. T. Yung, and vice-President, Dr L. G. Kilborn, were installed, and in the Study Centre on Chinese Religion, the Council on Christian Literature for Overseas Chinese, the Audio-Visual Evangelism Committee, and the Student Christian Centre.

      The Protestant Churches in Hong Kong are recognized for their work in welfare and rehabilitation where there is a growing spirit of mutual co-operation, both in the raising of funds on an inter- denominational basis overseas and in developing pilot projects of work in union here where the need is so great. The Christian Welfare and Relief Council, with a membership of twenty four leading churches and Christian agencies working in the Colony, has sponsored world-wide appeals for funds through the World Council of Churches, and well over $3,000,000 have been received and disbursed during 1960; while the Council itself developed three rehabilitation projects on the Churches' behalf, which touch urgent needs among the refugees in the Colony. One is for resettle- ment of Swatow-speaking refugee farmers on small-holdings on the island of Chek Lap Kok, to the north of Lantau island. Another is for the rehabilitation of cured drug addicts by settlement

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with their families on small-holdings, work that is carried out in close co-operation with the Prisons Department. The third is vocational training for more than 300 students in four trades, together with basic education in English and elementary Mathe- matics for all, which is carried out in the community centre at Wong Tai Sin.

Other work done by the churches jointly includes the Haven of Hope Sanatorium; the Self-Help Projects Committee's work in setting needy families on their feet with the means to earn their own livelihood; the College Student Work Project, which supports students through College in return for regular hours of service to social welfare projects; and co-ordinated relief for flood, typhoon, and fire victims.

The Salvation Army and Lutheran World Service also devote inspiring work to a wide variety of projects in these fields, but nearly all the churches are at work in service to the under- privileged; and their variety and vigour present a fascinating picture from St James' Settlement in crowded Wan Chai to the second Wesley Village on a hill-top near Tsuen Wan, from day nurseries and girls' homes to roof-top activities, with feeding and medical centres in many different places.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong is as old as the Colony itself. One hundred and twenty years ago, on 22nd April 1841, Pope Gregory XVI officially established the Roman Catholic Prefecture Apostolic of Hong Kong by a papal decree with Msgr Theodore Joset as Prefect. Some years earlier missionaries from China and Macau had come to the island, to serve the spiritual needs of the many Roman Catholics among the soldiers stationed here, but the Church was still a 'seedling' when Msgr Joset arrived and erected Hong Kong's first Catholic Church, a matshed, on a site which is now the intersection of Wellington and Pottinger Streets. By the end of the year a much larger church and other facilities were needed. The matshed was replaced in 1842 by a more permanent building and the first Catholic School in Hong Kong and a seminary for the education of Chinese priests were simultaneously erected next to it. Before the new church and school were completed, Msgr Joset was dead. He was only 38, but many died young in the early years of Hong Kong.

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In 1848, following close in the footprints of the Priests, the Sisters of the St Paul de Chartres arrived in Hong Kong. At the corner of what is now Gresson Street in Wan Chai they opened a convent with the first Catholic school for girls and a hospital, forerunner of their comprehensive institution in Causeway Bay.

Msgr Aloysius Ambrosi, Prefect Apostolic in 1855, was a pioneer in what is now called juvenile care. Prominent among his diverse works was the founding of the 'West Point Reforma- tory for Boys'. Despite a forbidding name, it was a highly successful institution. Conducted on principles of sympathy and understanding, it provided a practical training programme. An- other outstanding institution founded by Msgr Ambrosi was St Saviour's College, the first Catholic Secondary School, which had developed into a flourishing institution when the La Salle Brothers took it over 15 years later.

Then in 1860 the Canossian Sisters arrived and began their great work for the education of girls and in the care of the sick, of which they celebrated their centenary during the last year.

In 1867 the Holy See entrusted the Prefecture Apostolic of Hong Kong to the Pontifical Foreign Mission Institute, whose first missionaries had arrived in the Colony in 1858, and seven years later Pope Pius IX raised the status of the Prefecture Apostolic to that of a Vicariate. Msgr Timoleon Raimondi, until then Prefect, was consecrated a bishop and appointed the first Vicar Apostolic of Hong Kong.

There were 3 Roman Catholic churches when Bishop Raimondi took charge: the Cathedral in Wellington Street, the Church of St Francis Xavier in Wan Chai and Rosary Church in Kowloon. He added St Joseph's Church in Garden Road and extended the work of the Church in the New Territories and in South China proper as far as Waichow. In 1877 he established the first Catholic newspaper and in 1888 built the present Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Caine Road. Bishop Raimondi died in 1894.

Early in the 20th century, following the Boxer Rising and the rise in Hong Kong's population, institutions were built in all parts of the Colony under the care of new religious orders and con- gregations. Ricci Hall, the Catholic Hostel at the University of

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Hong Kong, was opened. The Chinese Catholic weekly 'Kung Kao Po' was started in 1928 and in 1933 the Catholic Truth Society was established for the publication of Catholic literature.

       During the Second World War bombs struck the Cathedral and St Joseph's Church, Canossa Hospital and St Paul's Chinese School was destroyed and a church in Kowloon City was levelled. A rapid reorganization began immediately after the liberation, with the establishment, in 1945, of the Catholic Centre. The publication of the Sunday Examiner, an English Weekly was begun, a Public Relations Office was opened and the publication of an annual Catholic Directory was initiated. Among the many new institutions opened was the Biblical Institute for the study and translation of the Bible.

       Then the Vicariate of Hong Kong was raised to the status of a Diocese by Pope Pius XII, on 11th April 1946, and Bishop Henry Valtorta, the 4th Vicar Apostolic, became the first Diocesan Bishop of Hong Kong.

       The Roman Catholic Diocese, like the other denominations, has helped the Colony's social and refugee problems. The Organization of Catholic Charities and the Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare Conference were established and the office of Catholic Relief Services and the Catholic Resettlement Bureau were opened. A second Technical and Trade School was started. The Church has taken a leading part in the establishment of new schools, youth work, welfare centres, and homes for the aged, in the care of the crippled and blind and in vocational training, and has assisted with feeding programmes and house building. Lay associations, such as the Society of St Vincent de Paul, the Catholic Women's League, the Chinese Catholic Club, the Guilds of Catholic Doctors and Nurses have also taken an active part in this work.

Since 1951, Bishop Lawrence Bianchi has been head of the Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong. There are at present 66 Roman Catholic churches and public chapels and 156 schools with an enrolment of 85,000 pupils. Among the welfare institutions of the Church are four hospitals with 613 beds, 18 free clinics and dispensaries which treated last year 527,390 patients, three crêches, five orphanages, two homes for the aged, one home and school for the blind, and a 'Good Shepherd' home. There are 55

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charity centres, and 14 food conversion centres. The work for the care of children includes feeding programmes. A mobile clinic and a mobile canteen regularly visit schools and the Boys' and Girls' Clubs. Three handicraft centres, day nurseries and play centres are in operation.

      Roman Catholic priests in Hong Kong number 308 and there are 628 Religious Sisters and 102 Religious Brothers. Catholics in Hong Kong were 158,419 according to the census of 30th June 1960.

      The Catholic Centre and Catholic Club, opened last year by His Excellency the Governor, Sir Robert Black, in new premises at 15-18 Connaught Road Central, is available for information on all Catholic activities in Hong Kong.

      Buddhism maintains a strong hold amongst the older Chinese and is far from dying out among the younger people. Religious studies are conducted in large number of monasteries and nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Because of the accessibility of Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan, hermitages in these places are popular with people living in the urban areas. The better known monasteries are, however, situated in more remote and scenically pleasing parts of the Terri- tories. Thus the Po Lin monastery at Ngong Ping, Lantau, is reputed to have the best view of the sunrise and is well patronized at week-ends and holidays. Other monasteries which attract both devotees and sightseers include those known as Castle Peak, Ling Wan, Tung Po To, Sai Lam and Fung Ying Sin Kwun, all in the New Territories. At To Fung Shan, a hill in Sha Tin, there is the famous Christian Mission to Buddhists which aims to cultivate the Christian and the Buddhist faiths together. To meet the demand of the urban population, Buddhist Ching She (places for spiritual cultivation) and Fat Tong (Buddha Halls) have been opened in flats in residential areas. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist associations in the urban

area.

      Sarira, relics left after the cremation of renowned high priests, or living Buddhas, are treasured by Buddhists and as a result are distributed to the close followers of the priest. They are usually

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kept in specially built pagodas within the compound of a monas- tery. It is also a common practice among Buddhists to have the cremated remains of their relatives preserved in such pagodas, but the fees charged are rather high and not within the means of all. The Hong Kong Buddhist Association has applied to Government for the grant of land for a crematorium and pagodas, and will charge low fees for the preservation of cremated remains there.

       In 1958 the Tung Wah Hospitals revived the ancient and solemn ceremony of Autumn Sacrifice at the Man Mo Temple in Hollywood Road and in the same year the Hong Kong Buddhist Association for the first time held a Memorial Service for the dead at the Tung Lin Kok Yuen on Remembrance Day. These ceremonies are now held annually and the Government is officially represented.

Chinese temples fill an important part of the life of many of the people of Hong Kong. Temples are usually named in honour of one particular deity though in many temples several deities are worshipped. Statues of Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, may thus be found standing next to the shrines of local Taoist dignitaries such as Wong Tai Sin and Tam Kung. As Confucian ancestral tablets will often be found in another part of the building, the three religions of China are frequently all accommodated under the one roof. As most residents of Hong Kong in the old days were fishermen, a number of old temples are dedicated to Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven and the guardian deity of seafarers and fishermen, and to Kwun Yam, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy. Perhaps the oldest, and certainly one of the most popular, of the Hong Kong temples is that dedicated to Tin Hau, at Causeway Bay. Other Tin Hau temples are found near the entrances to most fishing harbours. The Man Mo Temple in Hollywood Road, which is dedicated to the Gods of Literacy and Martial Valour, is equally famous and is under the control of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. In recent years by far the most popular Taoist temples have been the Wong Tai Sin Temple in New Kowloon and the Che Kung Temple in Sha Tin. All Chinese temples in Hong Kong, apart from those which are specifically exempted, must be registered with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and come under the general control of the statutory

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     Chinese Temples Committee. All revenue obtained from these temples is administered by this Committee whose first obligation is to ensure that the temples are kept in a proper state of repair and to pay for the due observance of religious ceremonies and celebrations. Any surplus is transferred to the General Chinese Charities Fund, which distributes it to charitable organizations in accordance with their needs.

In the New Territories, where a traditional clan organization has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, many villages have an ancestral hall where the ancestral tablets of the clan are kept and venerated. In such villages the inhabitants often all belong to the same clan and the hall is the centre of both the religious and the secular organization of the village.

The Chinese as a whole observe five major festivals of the Chinese Calendar. The first on the Calendar and the most important is the Lunar New Year which is welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of fire- crackers, for the free discharge of which general permission is granted for two days. It is a common belief among the Chinese that the mass discharge of firecrackers on this occasion will dispel evil spirits and bad luck and usher in a happy new year. The customary exchanges of gifts and visits to relatives and friends are also widely observed. The Ching Ming Festival falls in the Spring when visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors. The Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated on the fifth day of the fifth moon when dragon-boat races are held at different places throughout the Colony. It has now become a tradition for the Governor to attend the races held at Kennedy Town, which are organized by the Chung Sing Benevolent Society. The races at Tai Po also attract many spectators from Hong Kong and Kowloon to see teams drawn mainly from Government officers who work in the New Territories. The Mid-Autumn Festival falls on the fifteenth day of the eighth moon when gifts of moon-cakes are exchanged among relatives and friends. The ninth day of the ninth moon is Chung Yeung, when large crowds climb Victoria Peak and other hills in imitation of a Chinese family of old who escaped death and misfortune by fleeing to the top of a high mountain. Certain other festivals are celebrated by particular

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sections of the community. Fisherfolk pay special and colourful attention to the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau, at her temple. The Chiu Chow community celebrates the Yu Lan Tsit, or Festival of the Dead, in the seventh moon, with elaborate Buddhist ceremonies and theatrical performances.

There is a small Russian Orthodox congregation, divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former have their own Church, founded in 1934. The latter, who have inter-communion with the Anglican Church, hold their services in St Andrew's Church Hall, Kow- loon, and are known as the Orthodox Church.

There are comparatively small groups of Chinese Muslims and non-Chinese Muslims, mostly Pakistanis and Indians. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915. A second mosque was built in 1896 in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Parsees were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer- house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874 they established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, of whom there is a small community in the Colony, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong, where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street-Staunton Street area of the central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The first Hindu temple in Hong Kong was built in 1953 and is situated in Happy Valley. There has been since 1902 a Sikh temple in Queen's Road East which has served the needs not only of the Sikh community, but of many of those Hindus from Sind and the Punjab who have been to some extent influenced by Guru Nanak's teachings.

20

The Arts

THE Sixth Hong Kong Festival of the Arts was the most ambitious yet. It lasted for a calendar month, and centred on an exhibition and theatre designed at the Star Ferry Pier by Mr J. A. Prescott of the University architectural department. Local societies and individuals displayed paintings, etchings, ceramics, sculpture, Ikebana, and photographs. Many thought the schools' exhibition of children's paintings and drawings to be the most rewarding feature of the whole festival. There was a special show of Han Dynasty ceramics and a collection of Italian prints from the Oriental Institute in Rome. Ivoryware, jade, beadware and masks were on show and visitors could see porcelain being painted and pottery being made. The arena stage supported a successful Garrison Players' production of Maxwell Anderson's 'The Bad Seed', some Peking operas and Cantonese playlets; highly popular demonstrations by Gurkhas of their own and Scottish dancing; and many programmes of Chinese shadow-boxing and lion-dancing which were as acceptable to tourists as to the local people. Nightly talks were given in the lecture hall on many aspects of art, in English, Cantonese and Mandarin, with some most successful puppet shows-Chinese and English. Cantonese puppetry was a dying skill, which perhaps this festival has rescued. In all this there was greater variety than in earlier festivals, but the general lesson to be drawn from attendances and audience reaction is that the new City Hall theatre, concert hall and art gallery are badly needed, so that people may become used to looking at art regularly and acquire the ability to discriminate.

      Elsewhere, as part of the festival, performances were given by the Hong Kong Choral Group of Vivaldi's Gloria and Mozart's 'Schauspieldirektor'; by the Jazz Club of its various streams of art; by blind youngsters of their own songs and music, taught by the Hong Kong Music Training Centre for the Blind; by the Chinese Drama Group of the Sino-British Club of Dr Liu Tsun-yin's

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'Maid with a Red Fly-whip'; by the Stage Club of 'The Taming of the Shrew'; by Radio Hong Kong of 'Pygmalion', of a Western classical concert by local artists, and of some contemporary Chinese music; by Rediffusion of a Cantonese serial play; and much else. Nearly 80,000 people of all ages visited the Festival Centre, Theatre and Lecture Hall while they were open.

Western amateur theatrical bodies continued on the whole to produce plays with more regard for their own enjoyment or the cultural challenge than for popular taste or the ability of the actors to carry it off. At present one ambitious, well produced and well acted 'classic' a season seems to be as much as the public will digest, if it is available. The nearest to filling this prescription in 1960 was the Garrison Players' version of Ibsen's 'Peer Gynt', although the Hong Kong Stage Club's production of 'The Strong are Lonely' by Fritz Hochwälder impressed some. The under- graduate Masquers made a brave and colourful, occasionally moving and wholly admirable presentation of Webster's 'The Duchess of Malfi'. That the operas of Gilbert and Sullivan can still evoke the traditional response was proved by the lively, well- sung and immensely popular production by the Hong Kong Singers of 'HMS Pinafore'.

The Hong Kong Philharmonic Society gave two chamber con- certs, three orchestral concerts and two concerts of Chinese music. Amateurs of leading recording soloists were able to compare their discs with performances alive by such pianists as Eileen Joyce, Bela Siki, Nikita Magaloff and Rudolph Serkin and violinists like Alfredo Campoli and Ruggiero Ricci. Michael Head gave a very pleasing performance of songs and lieder at the piano. Hong Kong is beginning to show that in executive accomplishment the Chinese musicians who are now startling Europe and America have not sprung in loneliness from arid soil. About 10,000 students took part in the twelfth Hong Kong Schools Music Association Festival. Some of the most successful concert soloists of 1960 included Hong Kong's own Ma Sik-hon, the violinist with his wife Miss Tung Kwong-kwong to accompany him, and Miss Mimi Chow, the pianist.

A catalogue of all the many other artistic activities and small bands of enthusiasts not already mentioned, particularly Chinese, would prove that the vitality of the Colony's artistic life is not to be

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judged by normal standards. It is irrelevant that a film of 'Porgy and Bess' played to nearly empty cinemas or that '(Nights of) Cabiria' was shown for one night only. One should rather consider the promise of a nine year old Chinese boy who can play a concerto, acceptable by critical standards, in public and with an orchestra; the thousands of young people who enter eagerly for the 157 different classes of the Schools Music Festival; the count- less amateur calligraphers, carvers and painters in community centre clubs and other organizations; and the cameras sold in as great quantity to the permanent residents as to the transients; and the revival under the Governor's patronage in January of the Hong Kong branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

The Government owns a large collection of pictures, prints and photographs which illustrate the growth and development of Hong Kong and life in Hong Kong, Macau and the China Coast area during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. After the comple- tion of the City Hall these will be available for display in the Art Gallery. An unofficial committee advises the Government on the purchase of modern paintings with local interest, and eleven such paintings have been acquired on the committee's advice since 1958. Next year the Urban Council will assume responsibility for the purchase of pictures in preparation for their management of the City Hall. A quarterly inspection by qualified experts was introduced to ensure that the Government collections remain in good condition.

A preliminary catalogue of all the books now in Government collections but to be kept in the City Hall Library was coming near to completion by the end of 1960. These include the collection bequeathed to the Government by the late Sir Robert Kotewall, consisting of some 18,000 Chinese books and 4,200 Western books.

      The Colonial Secretariat Library houses 12,000 volumes. These include many Government publications; books written especially about Hong Kong, including publications by local authors; reference books on such subjects as Public Administration, Soci- ology, Economics and Political Science; and standard works on the history of the Commonwealth and of the countries of south-east

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Asia. Accessions occur almost weekly. Apart from being a depart- mental reference library, it is a useful source for research workers in matters concerning Hong Kong and is available for consultation by members of the public.

BRITISH COUNCIL

The British Council continues to play a major role in the cultural life of the Colony, and its staff and libraries are a source of information about Great Britain, its people and its institutions. The Reading Rooms of the two Centres, one on the Island and the other in Kowloon, contain a wide selection of British news- papers and periodicals, and are extremely popular and well used by students and adults of all nationalities. The Council's two Libraries now contain over 15,000 volumes and have a total membership of 6,000, the majority of whom are Chinese. More than 82,000 books were issued from the Council's libraries during the year. Films, photo-sets, colour slides, language and musical records and tapes were borrowed freely by schools and cultural organizations.

Two travelling exhibitions were displayed, the largest and most important of which was an exhibition of 'British Technical Achievement'. The United Kingdom Trade Commissioner and local representatives of British firms co-operated in setting up this exhibition which was opened by the Governor and attracted great public interest.

The Council held a full programme of lectures, film shows, discussions and rehearsed play-readings in its two Centres, and many outside organizations such as the Royal Asiatic Society, the Library Association, and the University Department of Extra- Mural Studies have used its premises. Two local artists held exhibi- tions of their work. Members of the staff played an active part in Radio Hong Kong, over which a regular weekly British Council programme was started in January. The Council supports local cultural societies, and again helped greatly in organizing the Festival of the Arts.

The British Council deals every year with hundreds of inquiries about higher education in British and other parts of the Common- wealth. Senior officers assist in the recommendation and selection

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     of scholars to be sent to Britain, and a four days' 'Introduction to Britain' course was held in June for the main group of students then about to depart for further studies and training in the United Kingdom. Radio Hong Kong afterwards broadcast shortened versions of some of the lectures. Two British Council post-graduate scholarships were awarded in Refrigeration Engineering and Librarianship, and assistance was given to the Hong Kong Girl Guides Association and to the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association to enable these bodies to send officers to Britain for short training visits.

      With the co-operation of the Education Department the Presidents of the three grant-aided Post-Secondary Colleges were sent to Britain to make a tour of British universities and to study the British system of university administration. The Council also contributed to the exchange of information and personal contacts among specialists by arranging for a number of eminent visitors from the United Kingdom to visit and lecture to educational and professional bodies in Hong Kong. Among these were two surgeons of international reputation, the Professor of Biochemistry of Cambridge University, and the Dean of the Institute of Education at London University.

21

Sport and Recreation

GAMES

ASSOCIATION football has received much adverse publicity recently in almost all the leading soccer playing countries and Hong Kong has not escaped. At the present time the Council of the Hong Kong Football Association is investigating allegations of malprac- tices, but there has been a marked decline in attendances during the last two seasons, and the standard of play also appears to have suffered. Individual ability, however, remains high, and the past season saw victories against two leading South American teams which visited the Colony, the Peruvians and the Costa Ricans. Again, a promising young Chinese player named Cheung Chi-doy was invited to join the famous English First Division Lancashire club of Blackpool as a full-time professional in September, after a trial period as an amateur. So there are signs that the sport, which has a following second only to horse-racing, may soon regain its former status.

There was no slackening of interest in the affairs of the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club, and despite a palatial new public stand there is still not enough space at Happy Valley to accommodate all those who are drawn to the sport of horse-racing. There was evidence of its ever increasing following in November when the Kwangtung Handicap-the first of three major events of the season -was run. The Jockey Club organizes cash sweeps on these three events, and this year's Kwangtung saw previous records broken when over three million tickets were sold and there was a first prize of $1,476,014.

A sport formerly enjoyed by a minority was placed within wider reach in April with the opening of the first two indoor public squash courts in Victoria Park. This is a Government-sponsored project under the Urban Services Department, but it is too early to judge its progress or the reactions of the Chinese members of

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the community. The courts are built to international standards and have seats for 104 spectators.

      Golf enjoyed one of its most successful seasons and is con- tinually attracting new players, but as in so many other countries where the game is played there are not enough facilities to satisfy everybody, and long waiting lists to join clubs are inevitable! There is little doubt that visits by some of the world's leading players have given a great fillip to the game, and the Hong Kong Open Championship, which was sponsored by the South China Morning Post Ltd as recently as 1959, is now well and truly on the golfing map. In 1960 it was won by the Australian professional, Peter Thomson, who holds the distinction of having won the British Open Championship on four occasions. Thomson delighted a vast gallery with a fine round of 63 on the New Course, breaking the previous record by five strokes. Runner-up was another Australian, Kel Nagle, who, later in the year, was to win the Centenary British Open Championship at St Andrew's. Apart from several other leading Australian professionals, the field included golfers from Spain, the Philippines, Taiwan and Korea. Even larger tournaments are hoped for in the future, particularly now that a Far East Golf Circuit has been established, embracing Singapore, Manila and Hong Kong, with the possible future addi- tion of Kuala Lumpur.

      Sporting activities during the summer were somewhat over- shadowed by the Olympic Games in Rome, but it was disappoint- ing that athletic standards in the Colony did not warrant sending any track or field representatives to take part in that great sporting event. The Hong Kong contingent was a small one consisting of one swimmer and three marksmen.

Yachting and rowing both have a prominent place in the sporting calendar, and like water-skiing and underwater swimming are more popular than ever.

      The main support for boxing still comes from the Services and many excellent tournaments took place during the year. The Hong Kong Amateur Boxing Association is trying to encourage civilian participation by running events from time to time for novices.

      Lawn bowls remains by far the most widely played summer game, and there is great rivalry between all divisions of the Hong

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     Kong Lawn Bowls Association league. The high standard of the Colony's bowlers in being maintained.

       Two annual events which attract a great deal of attention are the cross-harbour swimming race, organized by the Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association, and the round-the-Island 'Walka- thon' sponsored by the Standard - Sing Tao group of newspapers, and they both proved immensely successful again in 1960. Un- happily one swimmer was lost in this year's cross-harbour race. Walking has gained in popularity in recent years, and it is sur- prising how many young Chinese are being attracted to the sport.

       Badminton and tennis are well served but the leading tennis players have held the limelight for a considerable number of years and it is time that some younger players made their mark. The Hong Kong Lawn Tennis Association is making efforts to stimulate interest in the game by bringing leading players to the Colony, and one of the most successful of these ventures was a series of exhibition matches between Alex Olmedo, Ashley Cooper, Pancho Segura and Andres Gimeno of the famous Jack Kramer troupe.

      The winter season of sport includes cup and league tournaments in hockey, and the efforts of the rugby authorities were rewarded and enthusiasts saw some excellent games. A notable feature of the season was the appearance of the first all-Portuguese rugby team in the Colony, and it made a good start with victories against some of the stronger teams.

      Cricket enjoyed one of its most exciting seasons, and the league championship was not decided until the very last day, when the Hong Kong Cricket Club 'Optimists' won by the narrowest of margins to score their first success since the formation of the team.

      The Motor Sports Club of Hong Kong had another full season of rallies, hill climbs, sprints and slaloms, which drew record entries. More interest also seems now to be taken in cycling, despite the absence of suitable venues.

Softball, basketball, fencing, judo, miniball and table tennis are all played, but one of the most interesting features of the season was the advance made by a comparatively new sport to the Colony -archery. Archers are drawn from all walks of life, and many new Service teams have joined the ranks of civilians to form a

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thriving archery league. There is some riding and a little coarse fishing, but shooting is poor. Sporting interest of an indirect kind was affected on 1st June, when on a free vote (the official members abstaining) the unofficials in Legislative Council defeated a bill to legalize Football Pool Betting on its second reading.

PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS AND OTHER AMENITIES

      The management of parks, playgrounds and similar public amenities is one of the responsibilities of the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. These include the fine beaches on the south side of the Island as well as the walks and look-outs on the hills above the Harbour. Apart from developing these natural attractions, the Urban Council devotes much attention to creating playgrounds and gardens and to other small improvements to the city.

Thousands of city-dwellers flock to the bathing beaches from the beginning of April to the end of October, when 73 fully-trained life-guards of the Urban Services Department are on patrol. Urban Services staff also clean and control the beaches, at two of which a contractor hires out changing-tents. On some other beaches private persons may rent new sites for huts for five years, or may ballot for the privilege of renting huts already built, but only for one year at a time. The provision of refreshments is normally put out to tender and there are cafes or hotels of various standards at the larger beaches. Two new bathing beaches were developed and brought into use during the year, and there are now eleven recognized public beaches in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

Trained staff of the Urban Services Department man First Aid and Resuscitation Posts at all the public beaches, some of them continuously, while the St John Ambulance Brigade also gives a voluntary week-end and public holiday service at a number of the larger beaches. Other special safety measures include areas where pleasure boats are not allowed to enter, and lifelines, rocket guns and special resuscitation equipment are available at certain beaches where there are strong currents or other hazards. Staff training and demonstrations in the Expired Air method of resus- citation have been carried out with a special hygienic rubber mouthpiece.

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The Urban Services Department took over the administration of 20 beaches in the New Territories early in the year and later developed two more. Contractors provide tents, changing-rooms and other facilities on eight of these beaches. Every year there is a ballot for the right to use the 72 beach huts in the New Territories. 50 fully-trained life-guards were on duty at these beaches during the summer.

The shortage of land in the built-up areas means that the de- velopment of parks and playgrounds can only take place in keen competition with other forms of development. Before the war playgrounds were few; after the war these were, at best, dusty and uneven pieces of land or, at worst, soon covered by the ubiquitous squatters. Despite these difficulties, old playgrounds have been improved and new ones laid out, varying in size from Victoria Park, covering fifty three acres of land reclaimed from a former typhoon shelter, to small playgrounds for children. Development goes on, and apart from the large parks and formal playgrounds a great deal has been done to improve the appearance of the city by tidying up or laying out small derelict roadside areas. During the year thirty eight new areas were opened up or laid out, cover- ing 274 acres.

The former Royal Navy sports ground at Tin Kwong Road, Kowloon, was handed over by Government to the Army in early July in exchange for their Boundary Street recreation grounds. These were open for public use by September, eleven acres in all including two association football pitches, a miniature football pitch, and a running track with field athletic facilities. It is the largest public recreation ground in Kowloon.

There are now 1901 acres of parks, public playgrounds and rest gardens (including the Botanic Gardens and Victoria Park), carrying four tennis courts; ten association football, six miniature football, two hockey, one rugby football, and three cricket pitches, all grass covered; and nine all-weather tennis courts, thirty two basketball, four volleyball and 19 miniature football grounds, on hard surfaces. Of the 90 public playgrounds and rest gardens, 25 have provision for ball games.

Floodlights were installed in the Southorn Playground where a stand was opened for 2,000 spectators, with changing-rooms, lavatories and showers beneath.

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The Hong Kong Stadium, operated by the Hong Kong Football Association, was used on many occasions during the year for football matches, athletic meetings, rallies, training sessions, re- hearsals, the Walkathon and the Annual Parades of the Police and the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. Kaifong Associations used other playgrounds for Chinese opera performances in aid of charities.

     By arrangement with the Police, the armed forces, St John Ambulance Brigade and other local bands, regular concerts were held in public gardens and playgrounds in the urban areas. All these concerts were popular, particularly when the programme included marching and counter-marching.

      To promote children's recreation and enjoyment, a model boat pool in Victoria Park and two children's libraries (one in Victoria Park and the other in Argyle Street Playground) were completed at the end of the year. New equipment, such as plane swings, 'ocean waves', non-bumper seesaws, rocking boats and joy wheels, was installed in many playgrounds.

The Victoria Park Swimming Pool was built to Olympic standards in 1957 from funds given by the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. The main purpose of the pool is to give pleasure to poorer people, especially their children, and the admission fees are low, (30 cents for children, and 50 cents for adults). There are also special reduced rates for organized groups of school-children (5 cents for children over 14 years and 3 cents under 14). Large numbers of children sponsored by welfare and other agencies are also admitted free. 177,215 children and 168,967 adults used the pool during the year and many galas and competitions were held.

Kowloon has previously had cause to envy Hong Kong Island its Victoria Park Swimming Pool, but work is shortly to start on an equally attractive park and swimming pool at Kowloon Tsai. This big scheme, towards which the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club has generously donated $2,000,000 for a swimming pool, will extend over 35 acres and will include playing fields, tennis courts, bowling greens and a children's playground and a library. The swimming pool is to have separate areas for com- petitive swimmers, diving, a general bathing area, and two sections for children only.

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The Parks and Playgrounds Section of the Urban Services Department carries out or supervises all gardening development and maintenance in public recreation areas, the grounds of most Government schools, hospitals, offices and quarters, and the grassed areas at the Airport, covering in all some 537 acres. Five nurseries grow ornamental trees, shrubs and other plants, and can produce several thousand potted plants for decoration at official occasions.

The Section is also responsible for the care and maintenance of roadside trees in the urban areas. Undergrowth was cleared at important road points to improve traffic visibility and along coastal roads and vantage grounds for scenic purposes.

        The Section contains a botanical branch which takes care of, and adds to, a collection of over 29,000 specimens in an air- conditioned Herbarium. As well as maintaining this collection, started by Richard Brinsley Hinds in 1841, the branch also keeps in touch with institutions abroad and deals with phyto-sanitary control of live plants and plants produce leaving the Colony.

The Parks and Playgrounds Section is also in charge of the Lei Cheng Uk Tomb, which is believed to belong to either the Later Han (AD 25-200) or the Six Dynasties (200-589) period. This tomb was discovered in 1955 by workmen levelling a low mound on a building site in Kowloon. The funereal objects found in the Tomb are now in a small museum nearby.

       Two inscribed stone tablets were erected at Sung Wong Toi Garden to record in English and Chinese the flight of the last Emperor of the Sung Dynasty from the Mongols, and his tem- porary encampment in Kowloon.

Part III

22

Geography

      THIS Chapter, and those which follow on the history of the Colony and its system of government, present the background picture against which the detailed descriptions in other chapters of the report can best be viewed. Some repetition is inevitable, but the reader who knows Hong Kong well will no doubt excuse this in the interest of others who are not so fortunate.

GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The Colony of Hong Kong is on the south east coast of China, next to the province of Kwangtung. It is just inside the tropics, being less than 100 miles south of the tropic of Cancer, and lies between latitudes 22°9′ and 22°37′N and longitudes 113°52′ and 114°30′E. The twin cities of Victoria on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon on the mainland lie on either side of the harbour which is about 90 miles south east of Canton and 40 miles east of Portuguese Macau. The jet age has brought the Colony barely 24 hours away from Britain: the shortest air route across Eurasia between London and Hong Kong is 5,965 miles.

       The total land area of the Colony is 3981 square miles, made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island, including a number of small adjacent

islets: 29 square miles.

(b) Kowloon and Stonecutters Island: 33 square miles.

(c) The New Territories, which consist of a substantial section

of the mainland and 235 islands: 365 square miles.

TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY

Hong Kong is part of a series of intruded domes of granitic rocks which covers south east China. There are only small areas of sedimentary rocks in the Colony. The age relationships of the major groups of rocks are associated with the intrusions and

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mountain building of the Jurasside, Laramide and Alpine revolu- tions. These intrusions made the conditions favourable for the formation of minerals of economic importance. Galena, silver, wolframite, molybdenite, pyrite, magnetite, hematite, cassiterite, gold, sphalerite, graphite, fluorspar, quartz, felspar and kaolinite have all been found. The general structure of the region is that of a plunging monocline which strikes north east to south west and is parallel in trend with the China coast. Its axis passes almost exactly through the centre of Hong Kong and is marked by a depression which is the Tolo Channel. The area consists of many rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. The overall picture is that of an upland terrain which has been invaded by the sea. The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations. Weathering is almost entirely caused by chemical action, helped by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. As a result decay to a laterised rock mantle is common, often to depths of more than 100 feet. The highest peaks and the most prominent ranges of hills are composed of either porphyries or volcanics. These are in contrast to the granite hills which generally occur at lower elevations but have well etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The plains are all recent alluvial deposits. Erosion benches can be found marking former sea levels up to 400 feet or more, which demonstrate the rise and fall of the whole region within recent geological times. Borings in the harbour have discovered submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat deposits. The highest peaks, such as Lantau, Sunset and Tai Mo Shan, are all about 3,000 feet high and are composed of resistant, fine grained crystalline rocks. By contrast the Kowloon Hills are composed of coarse grained granite and have lower elevations, varying from 800 to 1,200 feet.

Only the soils of the flat agricultural alluvial districts around Yuen Long in the Deep Bay area have any depth. Elsewhere in the Colony the soil cover is usually thin, sometimes no more than two or three inches. In general the natural residual soils are acid and of low fertility. They need the addition of lime, potash and superphosphates.

The predominating crystalline character of the rock formations makes them unsuitable as aquifers for underground storage. This has made it necessary to concentrate on the collection of surface

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water for supplies as described in detail in Chapter 1. The highly variable and erratic rainfall régime of the area alone accounts for many of the water shortages. In 1938 the total rainfall was only 55 inches. In order to husband and conserve water reserves to meet the demands both of an ever increasing population and of agriculture and industry, it has been necessary to apply rationing restrictions during dry seasons, and they have been applied for some part of every year since 1934.

VEGETATION

Hong Kong lies in the frost-free Double Cropping Rice Zone of East Asia. Rice is the main crop of the New Territories and where enough water is available two crops are grown each year. The first sowing, in early March, is harvested about the end of June. The second crop of rice seedlings is grown ready to be planted out about the end of July and harvested about the end of October.

Market gardening for the city market is also very important. A fair range of vegetables is grown, particularly during the cooler months. Production is very intensive and some lands raise as many as eight crops of vegetables a year. Sweet potatoes, ground- nuts and sugar cane are grown on a smaller scale.

The upland areas with their severely eroded surfaces and highly leached soils only have value if they are repastured and afforested. Afforestation has been vigorously pursued since 1945, largely with local pine and eucalyptus. The target is 1,000 acres or more every year. However, droughts, floods, winds, hill fires and illicit cutting are serious hazards that retard progress. Fruit production is developing. In favourable locations there are plantations of pineapples, oranges, bananas, lychees, papayas, figs, pomeloes, apricots and peaches. Tea plantations are increasing their output especially on Lantau Island. Chapter 7 tells much more about food production in the Colony.

POPULATION

Less than one per cent of the entire population is non-Chinese. The last detailed census was carried out in 1931 when the popula- tion was found to be 840,473. In 1941 a count of heads for Air

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Raid Precautions put the figure at about 1,600,000. On the re- occupation of the Colony in 1945 the Japanese sponsored Hong Kong News estimated the population at 650,000. Today many unofficial estimates are much higher than three million, but an accurate figure will be available after the census of March 1961. The bulk of the population comes from the neighbouring Chinese province of Kwangtung. It consists of Cantonese, easily the largest group, followed by Hakka, Hoklo and Tankas. Since 1949 many have come from other parts of China, especially Shanghai. Not all of Hong Kong's phenomenal increase is due to immigrant population. The natural annual increase of officially registered births over deaths is close to 100,000. By far the largest number of people (possibly 80 per cent or more) lives around the coastal fringes of the harbour, where the abundance of human beings strikes the visitor most forcibly. The population of Hong Kong is described in Chapter 2 in greater detail.

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

      The parts played by agriculture and fishing in the economy of Hong Kong are nowadays usually obscured or overshadowed by trade and industry. Measured in terms of cash, however, agri- culture makes a substantial contribution to the Colony's wealth, for the annual value of production is thought to be well over $200,000,000, although only 50 square miles of the land area can be used for cultivation profitably. Fishing supports one of the largest single sea-fishing communities in the world. More than 60,000 people live on boats and are engaged in the industry and more than 150,000 depend on the industry in various other ways. The annual value of production is about $60,000,000. Mining is also remarkably well developed and varied for such a small area. The principal minerals exploited are iron, lead, tungsten, graphite and clay. The iron mine at Ma On Shan produces about 10,000 tons a month. Again Chapter 7 gives more detail.

      Industrial expansion in Hong Kong since the Second World War has been tremendous and is still continuing. An official Labour Administration Report of 1939 stated that 948 factories of all types had been registered: in 1955 there were 2,925 and in 1960 well over 5,000. These figures do not give the total number of

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factories actually producing because there are many that are small and not registered. Shipbuilding, textiles, clothing, rubber goods, light metal products, electrical apparatus and plastics are the most important industries. With very few exceptions the Colony is dependent on outside sources for its raw materials. Principal among these are oil fuel, iron, steel, cotton, plastics, rubber and wood. The location of industry has been influenced by accessibility to the seaboard. A broad pattern is that of dockyards and heavy bulk-type industries such as oil storage depots, sugar refineries and iron works along the coasts, while the lighter industries, in- cluding textiles, have settled on cheaper land further inland or on the post-war reclaimed lands. The growth of industry and the accompanying building boom has created a steady demand for skilled workers, but many unskilled labourers are under-employed. Chapters 3 and 6 discuss labour and industry fully.

A basic factor in the growth of Hong Kong as a trading and manufacturing centre has been the development and maintenance of an efficient system of transportation and communications. Ship- ping facilities have kept abreast of all requirements whether for ocean, coastal or cross-harbour purposes, and there are large fleets of motor vehicles of all types to provide carriage on land.

Communications are the subject of Chapter 15.

The economy of Hong Kong is still expanding rapidly and the post-war change in emphasis from entrepôt trade to industrial development is now also influenced by tourism which yearly pro- vides an increasingly important source of income. Although the refugee problem continues to be serious, the economic prospects for the Colony as a whole are good.

CLIMATE

Although the Colony lies within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual for tropical countries. This is largely because of the monsoonal type of climate. The winter monsoon normally begins during September and lasts until about mid-March. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year when the weather is generally dry and sunny and is the most popular time for tourists. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight and dull

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overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. Coastal fogs happen from time to time during breaks in the early spring monsoon when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

Summer is the rainy season. However, the monsoon winds are not as persistent as those blowing in winter. The weather during summer is almost continuously hot and humid night and day, and is often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms. It is usually at its most unpleasant from early June to early August.

The annual rainfall as measured at the Royal Observatory can be highly erratic. It has ranged from 46 inches to 119 inches, but the normal value is 85 inches. There is also considerable variation in the rainfall in different parts of the Colony. The wettest areas are the mountain regions, particularly around Tai Mo Shan and Tai Yue Shan. In a normal year the five dry months from November to March only yield about 9 inches as compared with 76 inches spread over the other seven months.

      The mean daily temperature ranges from about 58°F in February to over 82°F in July. During the hottest month, July, the mean maximum temperature is 86.9°F but the summer tem- perature often greatly exceeds 90°F. February is the coldest month when in most years temperatures can be expected to fall below 45°F. Freezing was officially reported at the Royal Observatory in January 1893, when 32°F was recorded. Ice forms quite fre- quently on the high land above 1,500 feet.

The mean relative humidity is generally over 80 per cent from early March until the end of August. An exceptionally low figure of 10 per cent has been recorded in January.

      Hong Kong experiences gales caused by tropical storms in any of the months from May to November, but they are most likely from July to September. The passage of typhoons several times a year at varying distances from Hong Kong often brings spells of bad weather with strong winds and heavy rain. Occasionally the centre of the typhoon passes sufficiently close to produce winds of hurricane force when much damage and loss of life may occur.

23

Natural History

THOUGH Hong Kong is small it abounds in tropical and sub- tropical fauna and has many attractions for the lover of nature.

Mammals. Wild mammals are seldom seen, although the species on record are both varied and interesting. Some of these have unfortunately become very scarce, largely because of the immense expansion of the human population in recent times; and any in- crease in their numbers is very unlikely, partly because several of them (such as civets, wild cats, porcupines and deer) are of con- siderable value locally as food.

       Of the cat family, both the South China Tiger and the Leopard have entered the Colony from Chinese territory from time to time. Such visits are now extremely rare and although there was a story in January of 1959 that two young Chinese women gathering firewood near Tai Po had come upon a tiger asleep, the report was not confirmed. A leopard was seen in the New Territories as recently as 1957. The one other member of the cat family to be recorded is the Chinese Leopard Cat, spotted and about the size of a domestic cat, which is still found in small numbers in certain less populous areas.

       The Dhole, or Indian Wild Dog, and the South China Red Fox are still officially included in the Colony's fauna, but the present standing of each is doubtful and neither is known to have been seen for some years. Monkeys still appear on the Island and in the New Territories, but in small numbers and in very limited areas. Although they may all be the descendants of captives which once escaped or were set free, those on Hong Kong Island might possibly be indigenous Rhesus Monkeys. Less than a hundred years ago this species lived on most of the small islands about Hong Kong. Another interesting mammal, whose secretive and nocturnal habits make it a stranger to man, is the primitive Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Ant-eater. Other native mammals are the Chinese Ferret-Badger, which certainly occurs in the Peak district, and

id

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probably in other such places, and the rarely seen Eastern Chinese Otter. There are three distinct civets, the Large Chinese Civet, the Rasse or Small Indian Civet, and the Masked Palm Civet. A close relative of theirs in the Crab-eating Mongoose, but there appears to be only one on record in the Colony and that was some years ago.

Reeves' Muntjac (Barking Deer) inhabits various hilly and wooded localities. On Hong Kong Island, on account of its shyness and nocturnal ways, this attractive little deer may seem to be much less common than it is, as some keen gardeners who have reason to dislike its feeding habits can testify. In the New Territories, on the other hand, where it is hunted, it has now become very scarce. The Wild Boar, which is hunted both for sport and to prevent destruction to crops, is now rare and may possibly no longer penetrate to many parts of the country where it used to range.

The Chinese Porcupine, the Colony's largest rodent, lives in parts of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. Lesser mammals include the House Shrew, several species of bats, and among the rodents the Smaller Bandicoot Rat. In spite of its name this is the largest rat to be found in the Colony; it is entirely wild in habits, keeping apart from man's dwellings, and sometimes causing considerable damage to crops. Very little is known of the bats, but there are both insectivorous and frugivorous species.

      Cetaceans which may come into or near Hong Kong territorial waters include the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale (only once recorded, during 1955), the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Com- mon Dolphin.

Birds. There is much to interest ornithologists and bird watchers in Hong Kong. Well over three hundred species of birds have been identified in both published and unpublished records, and new records are being added each year. Much more work is needed, however, particularly on their breeding and feeding habits, various other aspects of ecology, and migration. The avifauna of Hong Kong includes both palaearctic and oriental species. Some of the families are those containing the crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, wea- vers, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, eagles, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons,

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The turbid seas around Hong Kong offer sustenance and concealment to a vast array of marine life. Much of it is inedible and useless, and a great nuisance to fishermen, but very beautiful. At a depth of ten fathoms soft- corals and sea-fans abound, their colours varying from white to rich yellows and reds.-Picture by J. D. Bromhall.

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The magnificent Whitebellied Sea Eagle, Haliaetus leucogaster, can some- times be seen patrolling the coastline high above the buzzards and kites, on the lookout for the unwary fish or sea-snake. Three eyries are known in the Colony. Two eggs are laid, but the younger and weaker of the chicks usually succumbs.-Picture by J. D. Bromhall.

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      ducks and grebes, and this is only a list of the families represented by several species.

       The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, which was founded in 1957, published in 1960 a further report of its many activities during the previous year. It also gave authority for publication of 'An Annotated Check List of the Birds of Hong Kong'. Written by two of the members of the Society from its records, this lists 345 races of 333 species recorded in the Colony between 1860 and the end of April 1960. During 1960 the number of species and races recorded from the Colony was 246, including eight birds new to the Colony list. These were the Lesser Crested Tern, Bar-tailed Cuckoo-Dove, Grey-headed Flycatcher, Yellow- breasted Willow-Warbler, Green-headed Flycatcher-Warbler, Brown Thrush, Red-headed Tit, and Ruddy Sparrow. The total number of species believed to have bred in the Colony is 64 but typhoon 'Mary' did much damage to breeding birds and destroyed count- less nests. The results of the White-bellied Sea Eagle's breeding, reported last year, may be seen in one of this volume's coloured illustrations.

       Reptiles and Amphibians. There are many snakes, lizards and frogs in Hong Kong. Other reptiles or amphibians include various terrapins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad, and the Chinese Newt. The most commonly encountered among the Colony's snakes are harmless, and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Apart from certain rear-fanged species, not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Macclelland's Coral Snake, the Indian or Chinese Cobra, the Hamadryad or King Cobra, and the White-lipped Pit Viper or Bamboo Snake. All of the sea snakes which live in or near the Colony's waters are venomous, but fortunately they have never been known to attack bathers.

       Butterflies and Moths. One hundred and seventy nine species of butterflies, belonging to nine families, have been recorded in a Colony check list published in 1953. Several species of the attractive and predominantly tropical butterflies popularly known as 'swallow-tails' are particularly conspicuous. The number of moths is far greater but no comprehensive list of local species has ever been published. The magnificent Atlas Moth, with a wing- span from about seven to nine inches, is fairly common. Another

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very fine insect, also fairly common, is the Moon Moth which has a wing-span of about four to six inches, has swallow-tailed wings, and is usually a soft silvery green in colour.

      Local Societies and Exhibitions. Besides the Hong Kong Bird Watching Society, there is another prominent local society, the Hong Kong Natural History Society, whose objects are to facilitate and encourage the study of natural history, particularly in Hong Kong itself. The animal enclosures and aviaries in the Botanic Gardens contain some of the species of the Colony's fauna, besides certain other non-indigenous species.

Protection of Fauna. The Wild Birds and Wild Mammals Protection Ordinance, 1954, gives legal protection to all wild birds except for game birds, for which there are close seasons, and except for vermin. It also protects three of the rarer mammals and provides a close season for deer. There are seven wild life sanctuaries, one of which is the whole of Hong Kong Island. Honorary game wardens help to enforce the Ordinance, which also provides for the appointment of paid game wardens on the staff of the Director of Agriculture and Forestry, who is the licensing authority for the issue of game licences. The greatest threat to the wild life of Hong Kong probably lies in the continued prevalence of trapping and netting, particularly of birds, and in the destruction of the habitats of birds and mammals by building development and public works schemes.

Marine Fauna. The fish of Hong Kong are of extraordinary diversity. Situated just within the tropics and flanked to the West by the Pearl River, which brings down enormous quantities of food and nutrients from China, the waters of the Colony support a great variety of both warm and temperate fishes, many of which appear seasonally on their breeding or feeding migrations and give rise to major fisheries. In the summer months of recent years large sharks and manta rays have been particularly abundant, and this summer a 10 foot shark weighing 450 lbs was hooked and landed after a four hour fight by a party of skin divers who had first met the shark underwater.

      Hidden from sight to all except divers is the profusion of corals, sea-fans, sea-lilies and many other beautifully formed and colourful marine animals which thrive in Hong Kong waters. Another coloured plate gives some idea of submarine life.

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       Flora. It is not possible to make any distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of the neighbouring southern parts of Kwangtung Province. The principal trees in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor, to which a large number of others have been added since the area came under British administration, the most common being casuarina, eucalyptus and Flamboyant. Many farms and villages are surrounded by fine old fung-shui groves, mostly banyans and camphors. There may also be clumps of thorny bamboos. From a distance, some of the mountain slopes seem bare of any plant covering except grass, but on closer observation the water courses are seen to be marked by narrow bands of low shrubby growth and scattered trees.

The principal locally-grown fruits include lychee, lungngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. The Portuguese originally introduced papaya, pineapple, custard apple and guava from South America some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine is native to South China and was introduced to the West in its turn in the seventeenth century when the Portuguese transplanted it to Tangier, which was then under their control.

       The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not completely, described in G. B. Bentham's Flora Hongkongensis, published in 1861, and in Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series, The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong by A. H. Crook; Plants of Lan Tau Island by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; Familiar Wild Flowers of Hongkong, illustrated with photo- graphs by V. H. C. Jarrett, published in 1937; and many papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war three official publications have appeared in the series 'Food and flowers', giving amongst other information articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

       The flora of the Colony is tropical, but this is about the northern limit of tropical flora. Alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters causes tropical plants to lie

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dormant during winter and encourages the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year; the consequence is that a genus tends to produce a greater wealth of flowers of large size in Hong Kong than it does in equatorial countries.

Hong Kong is famous for its great variety of flowering plants, many of which are exceptional for the beauty or fragrance of their blossoms. As might be expected, the spring and early summer are the months in which most of the species come into flower. Some are easy to place in their correct families; for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like and is related to camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium with cherry pink flowers, and a Tutcheria with large camellia-like flowers, white tinged with gold and with masses of tangerine orange stamens. A local Styrax with fragrant flowers is reminiscent of Halesia, the American snowdrop tree. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony; of these the red one is extremely abundant, while another is so rare that it is only known to exist on one shoulder of Victoria Peak. The heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers. Bauhinia blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered by the Fathers of the Missions Etrangères at Pok Fu Lam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus any- where in the world. Its origin is unknown; it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed. Another related species is Bauhinia glauca, climbing by means of tendrils, with bunches of pink flowers of sufficient beauty to merit cultivation of the plant as a covering for trellises and porches.

In addition to the six wild species of camellia, a new and distinct one was discovered in 1955 and named Camellia granthamiana in honour of Sir Alexander Grantham. Only one tree has so far been found, on the edge of a wooded ravine near the Jubilee Reservoir, bearing handsome white flowers 5 inches across, with a dense cluster of golden stamens in the centre.

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301

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful and striking fruits, in all the colours of the rainbow. Ardisia, Chloran- thus and several wild hollies have brilliant red berries. The large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, the wild kamquat and the winged fruits of Gardenia are orange in colour. Numerous yellow fruits with elusive names abound on the hillsides, one of which is Maesa. There are many inconspicuous green fruits and berries; one of these is Mussaenda, the Buddha's Lamp. Many berries are black with a bluish waxy deposit, but probably the only true blue is that of Dichroa, a well-known medicinal plant. Several species of Callicarpa and Dianella bear purplish fruits, while those of the Raphiolepis (the so-called Hong Kong Hawthorn), the wild jasmine and the wild persimmon are black. The remarkable fruits of Sterculia, resembling a starfish, turn crimson in late summer and split open to disclose jet black seeds. At a distance these open fruits look like large red flowers.

There are several very poisonous plants which should be better known to the general public. They include two species of Strychnos which have very brightly coloured fruit resembling small oranges; one species of Strophanthus which has conspicuous fruits, un- mistakable because of their large size and horn-like shape; and one species of Gelsemium which is the most poisonous of local plants. This latter is a climber with dense terminal clusters of yellow flowers, each about half an inch in diameter, blooming towards the end of the year. All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid gelsemidine which is a spinal poison. It is said that as little as twelve grams of leaf are a fatal dose and that death follows within a few hours. It is sometimes used by country people who wish to commit suicide. Wild edible fruit includes a wild jack-fruit (Artocarpus), rose-myrtle fruits, wild bananas and raspberries. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

      There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common Clematis of the English hedgerow, has five close relatives, There are four wild violets but they are scentless, like the English dog violet. English honey suckle has five relatives whose Cantonese name is 'kam ngan fa' (gold and silver flower), given because of their change in colour with age from white to yellow.

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      There are 75 species of native orchids recorded in the flora. They grow in shady wet places, on the foot of large trees, under cliffs and near the rims of streams and waterfalls. The noteworthy ones are the Nun orchid, the Bamboo orchid, the Lady's Slipper orchid, the Rattlesnake orchid, the Susan orchid and the Buttercup orchid.

There is a fine wild iris, further south than any other true iris, and a wild lily grows on some hillsides, whose individual flowers are sometimes seven inches long. A wild Crinum is found by the sea, and also Belamcanda, one of the iris family.

      In damp ravines may be found Chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, giant aroids, treeferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hill-sides English bracken, a cosmo- politan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong Bracken, Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea.

      Other species recorded in recent years are Stuartia Villosa, Ormosia indurata and Eryngium foetidum, found on Tai Mo Shan, Hong Kong Island and Lantau Island respectively.

The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's 'Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong', has been added to considerably since that book was produced. At present over 29,000 specimens are preserved, and members of the public who wish to find out the names of native plants are encouraged to consult the Herbarium.

Interest in flora and horticultural work in Hong Kong is also fostered by the Hong Kong Natural History Society as well as by the Hong Kong Horticultural Society.

24

History

ANTECEDENTS

THE earliest traces of human settlement in the region are at Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantau Island, and on the beach known as Hung Shing Ye, on the west coast of Lamma Island. From the rock carvings, pottery and implements discovered there, it is clear that in prehistoric times the islands were occupied, at least seasonally, by people whose trade connexions stretched from the Yangtse basin as far south as Indonesia. Little is known of the region before it adopted Chinese culture. Chinese histories refer to the early inhabitants as Maan, implying barbarian, and provide few details about them.

      Kwangtung was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 BC, but it was many hundreds of years before there was any degree of Chinese migration into the province.* Remote and dangerous, its islands providing ideal hiding places for sea-robbers and bandits, this particular region was no place for civilized settlement.

      Southward Chinese migration on a large scale began to affect Kwangtung during the Sung dynasty (960-1279). Little is known of the early relations between Chinese and Maan which must have resulted from this movement, but it is clear that by this time the Maan had already adopted Chinese culture and names. Chinese settlement in the New Territories is continuous from the beginning of the thirteenth century.

For a few months during 1278, Ti Ping, the last emperor of the Southern Sung, made his capital at Kowloon whilst in flight from the invading Mongols, and a small hill crowned with

* The tomb at Lei Cheng Uk, the discovery of which was described in the 1955 Annual Report, is the most striking surviving example of early Chinese settlement in the area; it probably dates from before the T'ang dynasty.

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prominent boulders was held sacred to his memory, until 1943, when the Japanese demolished it as a safety measure for the airport.* The last battle between the Sung and the Mongols was probably fought in the New Territories in 1279, not far from Tsuen Wan; and after the Sung defeat large numbers of the Court and nobility are said to have escaped across to Lantau Island, where some of them settled, their descendants surviving to this day.

In the earliest maritime connexions between China and the West the shipping was principally Arab, the traders including Indians, Persians and Jews, all of whom, from the seventh century onwards, formed a considerable foreign community in Canton. When, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese discovered the sea route from Europe to India, they quickly put an end to Arab trade with the Far East. In 1513 Jorge Alvares, the first European ever to command a sea voyage to China, reached the Pearl River in a chartered Burmese junk; and in 1517 the first Portuguese ships arrived, with the aim of opening regular trade with China.

      Their first attempts were unsuccessful, and it was not until 1557, after having given the Chinese some help in the local suppression of piracy, that the Portuguese established themselves at Macau.

      From then onwards, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of authoritative Chinese opinion, which was not interested in foreign trade, Macau provided the only reliable point of contact between China and the West. English contacts with Macau date from about 1600, the first English ship actually calling there in 1635 under charter to the Portuguese. Between 1601 and 1627 the Dutch made attempts to capture Macau, but without success.

      Regular seasonal British trade with China dates from 1700, and, although Amoy and other ports farther up the coast were visited from time to time, the bulk of the trade was with Canton, the ships weighing for dues and clearing at Taipa, just south of

* A memorial stone bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi, which formerly surmounted the hill, has now been erected in a small public park adjoining its original site.

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305

      Macau, but being allowed up-river as far as Whampoa, 12 miles from the city of Canton, for discharging and loading. A strictly limited number of Europeans connected with the trade were allowed, under security paid by their Chinese business associates, to reside in Canton during the trade season only, being obliged by the Chinese authorities to leave the country as soon as they had completed the year's business. Only certain Chinese merchants, the Hong merchants, were given a monopoly of Western trade; and while they operated individually and not as a guild, they were able to fix prices arbitrarily for a time until they lost their monopoly to outside Chinese merchants known as the 'shopmen'.

       As, throughout the eighteenth century, the volume of trade between China and the West continued to grow, until it reached large proportions, the various restrictions imposed on it by the Chinese Government became, in European eyes, steadily less realistic and less endurable. Although the French, Dutch, Spaniards, Danes and Swedes also traded with Canton, the volume of British trade by 1763 was more than double that of all the others together. It was the British who, having the largest stake in the trade, were the most critical of the Chinese restrictions.

       In 1793 Lord Macartney was sent as Ambassador to Peking in an attempt either to improve trading conditions at Canton and Macau, or else to acquire from the Chinese Government some small island or minor port where Europeans would be able to reside permanently, trade with whatever Chinese merchants wished to deal with them, and be subject to their own laws while residing at the port.

These requests were refused unconditionally. A second embassy, sent in 1816, was even more of a failure, the Ambassador, Lord Amherst, being ordered to leave Peking without being presented to the Emperor.

       Hitherto British merchants operating privately in the China trade had been under restraints imposed on them by the East India Company, which, from Calcutta, licensed private British shipping on the China route and, at Canton, saw to it that all British subjects obeyed the Chinese regulations. In 1813, the Company's monopoly of trade with India was abolished; it continued to hold its monopoly of trade with China, but also

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licensed private traders, the 'Country traders' to China. These foiled the Company's efforts to prevent them from residing in Canton and Macau by acting as the representatives of foreign states. The number of British traders increased, with little or no restraint on their activities. Finally, in 1833 the Company's China. monopoly was abolished.

      To replace the Company, the British Government in 1834 appointed Lord Napier as Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China. His instructions were to negotiate with the Viceroy at Canton in order to obtain permission for Europeans to reside there permanently and to remove restrictions on trade. Napier having entered Canton without the required permit from the Chinese authorities, the Viceroy refused to have anything to do with him. After a few weeks of impasse, during which Napier became seriously ill, he retreated to Macau, under Chinese escort, and died there ten days later.

      Meanwhile, informed Chinese opinion was becoming seriously concerned about the activities of British and American traders, in particular about their trade in opium, the popularity of which as a narcotic was rising rapidly amongst smokers in China. In response to a number of petitions from senior members of the Chinese civil service, the Emperor Tao Kuang in 1838 appointed Lin Tse-hsü as Imperial High Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade.

      Having surrounded the European buildings at Canton with troops and armed junks, and cut off supplies of food and water, Lin demanded the surrender, for destruction, of all the opium in the European warehouses, after which every trader must sign a bond promising on pain of death never to bring any more to China. Americans and others surrendered their opium and signed the bonds.

      By this time Captain Charles Elliot, RN, was the Superin- tendent of British Trade. In response to Lin's demand, Elliot ordered his countrymen to surrender their opium, and received their grudging obedience; but he refused to allow anyone to sign a bond. He finally won his point with Lin, and at the end of a siege lasting more than six weeks the British were allowed to leave unmolested for Macau.

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       Interest in the China trade had been steadily growing in Great Britain, and news of the siege at Canton, when it eventually reached London, aroused public opinion to demand that the Government take measures to safeguard British lives and property in China. Relations between Elliot and Lin deteriorated, the Commissioner reiterating his demand for the signature of bonds. After the Portuguese Governor of Macau had warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for the safety of any British family remaining there, the entire British community led by Elliot removed. The Chinese, who were erecting fortifications on Kowloon peninsula, attempted to prevent local supplies of food from reaching their shipping assembled in the surrounding harbour. Finally, after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters and the breakdown of all negotiations between Elliot and Lin, hostilities broke out in November 1839.

The arrival, in June 1840, of a powerful British expeditionary force, without engaging in any operations of military significance, reopened the door to discussion. Elliot, as plenipotentiary, de- manded, according to his instructions, either the cession of an island to the British Crown or a treaty allowing British traders the rights normally enjoyed by foreigners in civilized countries. Elliot demanded the cession of the island of Hong Kong, and Ke-shen, the Manchu negotiator, to the anger and shame of his own countrymen, had to agree. On 20th January 1841 the preliminaries of a Sino-British treaty, the Convention of Chuenpi, were announced, and without more ado, on the 26th, the island was formally occupied without any resistance on the part of the few Chinese inhabitants, who were in any case by now familiar with British ships anchoring in their waters.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

Elliot also suffered the contempt of his countrymen; his acquisition for the Crown of a barren island rock was ridiculed not only by British merchants in China but also in London. He was dismissed for his ineptitude in dealing with the Chinese, and was replaced by Sir Henry Pottinger, who reached the coast in August 1841.

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In the face of public hostility, particularly in Canton, to Ke- shen's proposal to cede Hong Kong to the British, the Emperor declined further negotiation, and war was resumed. But Pottinger had not been on the China coast for more than a few months before he realized that, whatever the London view might be, Elliot's decision to accept the cession of Hong Kong was a wise one: and when, in August 1842, British troops were on the point of assaulting Nanking and the Emperor at last sued for peace, Pottinger made it an article of the Treaty which was then promptly concluded that Hong Kong should be ceded to the British Crown 'to be governed by such laws as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain etc. may see fit to direct'. In June 1843 the new Colony was officially named Hong Kong, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement growing up on the northern side of the island.

Like Singapore before it, Hong Kong was from the start declared a free port; and its subsequent growth and greatness as a commercial city have been due to this fundamental policy, which welcomes anyone who comes in peace, obeys the laws, and pays a few moderate taxes.

       The history of Hong Kong is in some ways no more than a chronicle of rising and falling trends of trade and population, fluctuating chiefly because of events taking place outside Hong Kong itself, particularly in China. Internally, the history is one of gradual material and social improvement, the expansion of the city by cutting into rock and by reclamation of land from the sea, the building of more reservoirs to provide for an expanding population, and the provision of schools, hospitals and other forms of public service.

Hong Kong's first years as a Colony were almost chaotic. In 1841 alone the new Chinese market quarter was burnt down twice, and nearly every roof on the island came off twice in typhoons. A mysterious disease, known as the Hong Kong fever but now believed to be malaria, decimated the population; and in 1843 the health situation was so bad that the Governor and everyone who could afford to do so took temporary refuge in Macau.

Confidence in the Colony's future prosperity took some time to show itself. At the first census the population of the island did not exceed 3,650 villagers and fishermen, living in some

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309

      twenty villages and hamlets, with about 2,000 fishermen living afloat. Chinese labourers, encouraged by prospects of work, began to come to the Colony, and by April 1844 the population reached

19,000.

       From 1845 the first monthly mail service between Hong Kong and Europe was started. The increased security obtained for traders of all nationalities by the Treaty of Nanking, and, in particular, the comparative ease of acquiring land for offices, warehouses and homes in Hong Kong and the treaty ports, attracted a greater number of European traders than ever before to the Far East. This expansion was felt principally in Shanghai, which was commercially better situated than Hong Kong. Com- pared with Shanghai's astonishing development as a western city, Hong Kong's early growth was unspectacular.

Shortly after its foundation, a great wave of emigration of Chinese took place, mainly to the Straits Settlements, Thailand and Java; the bulk of the emigrants travelling in European and American ships. Hong Kong was the chief port of emigration. Later, when news went round of the opening up of goldfields in California, there was a rush of Chinese to 'Kam Shan' (the Golden Mountains), which has even since remained the vernacular name of San Francisco. When gold was discovered in Australia, not long afterwards, thousands more rushed to 'San Kam Shan' (New Golden Mountains), which has become the vernacular name for Sydney. In the year 1852 alone over 30,000 Chinese emigrants passed through Hong Kong. The problems of housing such vast numbers, and preventing abuses arising in connexion with migra- tion, presented severe problems to the Government of the day.

In 1850 the series of revolts known generally as the Taiping Rebellion broke out in Kwangsi Province, and gradually spread throughout Southern China. This was the first instance where unsettled conditions on the mainland have brought to Hong Kong thousands of Chinese refugees of every social class and occupation. By 1855 the population was estimated at 72,000 and by 1861, with the Taipings still not defeated, it had risen to 120,000. The constantly recurring situation in which the Colony, almost without warning, has had to provide accommodation, food, water and other facilities for thousands of new arrivals-people with no local attachments and whose period of stay may be no more

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than a few years, perhaps even months-has presented successive Governors of Hong Kong with problems that are unique and of exceptional difficulty. The word 'squatter' can be found in Government correspondence from the first year of the Colony's existence.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

       The Convention of Peking, 1860, ended the hostilities which had arisen from the sending of a British Minister to Peking after the second Anglo-Chinese War. Under it Kowloon peninsula up to present-day Boundary Street was ceded to the Crown and became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters Island.

       Permanent quarters were established in Kowloon for part of the garrison. This development was followed by the construction of new docks, more extensive than could be attempted on the Victoria waterfront, and which were the beginning of Kowloon's development as the Colony's second city. The pioneers in residen- tial development in Kowloon were the Portuguese, followed by the Parsees, from about 1870 onwards.

       By the Convention of Peking, 1898, as a result of the rivalry of the Western powers over concessions in China, the Colony was again extended, acquiring under a 99-year lease a substantial stretch of mainland north of Kowloon, and a group of islands in the immediate vicinity of Hong Kong. This leased area became known as the New Territories.

       The initial British occupation, which took place in 1899, met with some ill-organized armed opposition in the Tai Po and Yuen Long areas, but the confidence of the people was quickly established. Sir Henry Blake (Governor 1898-1903) personally identified himself with every aspect of the life of the Colony's new rural population, obtaining improved seed and types of livestock for them; and the relations between the Government and the people of the New Territories have ever since been distinguished by the closest confidence and goodwill. Malaria was widespread, and plague of frequent occurrence. Extensive health measures were introduced to combat these diseases, the success of the measures being reflected in a subsequent steady rise in population.

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311

       In the first decade of this century rail connexion was established between Kowloon and Canton, involving the construction of a long tunnel under the Kowloon hills, and providing Tai Po and other New Territories villages with easy access to Hong Kong. A circular road was constructed linking the chief areas of popu- lation in the mainland part of the New Territories.

INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY UP TO 1941

       Until Chinese in large numbers started taking western education, there was little Chinese participation in government, western firms or banks, or in any western institutions. European and Chinese commerce pursued their own courses, largely independent of each other, only linked by the precarious medium of pidgin English.

The special needs of the Chinese population received early consideration. In 1845 a Board of Education was established, and the Registrar General was made responsible to the Colonial Secretary for all questions relating to the Chinese. Throughout the century this aspect of his duties grew in importance, until in 1913 a separate department had to be created-the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

       Missionary schools, Roman Catholic and Protestant, were the earliest educational foundations, soon followed by government schools. Most of them were conducted, as far as was practicable, on western lines. As soon as Chinese students started graduating from these schools, their rise to influence, in what had hitherto been a European-dominated community, was assured.

       Western education led to the adoption of a considerable amount of western business method. The scale of Chinese business enlarged, until by the end of the century there were Chinese shipping lines, banks, insurance companies, department stores, theatres, wharves, warehouses and factories. As the trend continued, Chinese citizens were drawn more and more into consultation with the Government on a wide range of matters. There have been Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880, and of the Executive Council since 1926.

       A demand for higher education naturally developed, and in 1887 the Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded, the prime movers in this enterprise being Dr Patrick Manson and Dr

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James Cantlie with the assistance of the London Missionary Society. One of the first students to graduate from the College, in 1892, was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

       In 1911 the College expanded into the University of Hong Kong. This development was made possible by the munificence of a Parsee citizen, Sir Hormusjee Mody, who presented the entire cost of the new University's main buildings. With Govern- ment support, and the aid of subsequent benefactors, the University has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking University in surroundings over- whelmingly Chinese. Its academic standards have remained high, particularly in medicine, and it has, from its earliest years, attracted students of many nationalities from south and south- east Asia as well as from Hong Kong.

       The area available on Hong Kong Island for urban building was originally no more than a narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore. The original waterfront of Victoria ran, with a moderate foreshore, approximately along the line of Queen's Road. Hillside construction began in Stanley Street and Wellington Street, once a fashionable neighbourhood. As the nineteenth century proceeded, the tiers of houses rose gradually up the sides of the rock, fashion rising as well.

       Reclamation of land from the sea began in the Colony's earliest days. By 1851 the waterfront had reached what is today Des Voeux Road Central, and was thereafter extended, in the face of much opposition from the principal commercial houses with foreshore sites, till it reached Connaught Road Central in 1904. This expansion, however, failed to keep pace with the increasing population. By 1870 the central part of Victoria, chiefly occupied by Chinese, was seriously overcrowded and insanitary. This was one of the factors that led the European community to climb even higher and develop the summits of the Peak as a residential area, a movement hastened from 1888 onwards, when Peak and city were linked by funicular railway.

       A sanitary engineer, Osbert Chadwick, was sent out by the home government in 1882 to inquire into health conditions in Hong Kong, and as a result of his report a Sanitary Board was set up. Its measures to improve the noisome state of the city

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was

       were, however, at first ineffective. The administration labouring on one side with financial difficulties, and on the other with the negative attitude adopted by the leaders of the Chinese community and the deep-seated distrust shown by members of the public towards any measures which might be taken as inter- fering with their homes and ways of living. In 1894 Hong Kong was stricken by plague, which became endemic for the next thirty years. Thanks to a Japanese research worker in Hong Kong, this was finally recognized to be carried by rats. After this discovery, regular house-cleansing was carried out by sanitary squads (against considerable public opposition) and measures were effectively taken to restrict the spread of plague. Outbreaks, however, con- tinued on a diminishing scale until about 1927, when, for reasons unknown, occurrences of this particular disease lessened signi- ficantly in all parts of the world.

The Sanitary Board continued in existence until 1936 when its functions were broadened and entrusted to an Urban Council, with official, appointed and elected members.

Reclamation meanwhile continued steadily. For example, between 1921-9 ninety acres were reclaimed north of Johnston Road, allowing for a large planned extension of the Chinese quarter of Wan Chai, now one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world.

The principle that, in a place with such totally inadequate natural water supply as Hong Kong, it was a Government responsibility to provide reservoirs was first laid down by Sir Hercules Robinson (Governor 1859-65). What followed may be described as a century-long race between water capacity and population. The story is told in Chapter 1.

The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies, as indeed are a number at the present time. The first Government hospital was the Civil Hospital, founded in 1859. Part of its large old-fashioned buildings is still in use, and on the remainder of the original site there stands today the spacious and modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, opened in 1955. The Kowloon Hospital was opened in 1925, and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. The provision of adequate medical and health facilities at times of refugee influx has been one of Hong Kong's major problems, surmounted

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      only by the combined efforts of the Government and unofficial organizations.

       The need to safeguard fishing junks and other small craft from destruction by typhoons was met by the construction of large typhoon shelters on both sides of the harbour. One of the main functions of the Royal Observatory, founded in Kowloon in 1883, was to give reliable forecasts of the approach of typhoons, a function which increased in importance with the development of air transport, which in Hong Kong may be said to date from the laying-out of Kai Tak Airport in 1932.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND WORLD WAR

In 1911 the Manchu dynasty fell, and was replaced by a Republic, guided by Sun Yat-sen, whose political thinking had been deeply influenced by his contacts with British institutions and ways of thought while a student in Hong Kong. During the events leading to the overthrow of the dynasty many refugees sought sanctuary in Hong Kong, using the Colony's Chinese newspapers as a vehicle for conveying their ideas into China.

       Following the establishment of the Republic came a long period of unrest in China. Once again large numbers of refugees, mainly from the southern provinces, made their way to the Colony. Their arrival coinciding with a commercial boom which occurred during the First World War, many of them made their permanent home in Hong Kong, and identified themselves with local affairs. Among the refugees were a number of Buddhists who, from this time onwards, began to develop the lonely upper hills of Lantau Island with their monastic retreats.

       The anti-foreign movement which marked the rise of the Kuomintang to power in China in 1922 was reflected in Hong Kong by marked social unrest. A seamen's strike occurred in that year, and in 1925-6 there was a serious general strike, plainly engineered from Canton. Sir Cecil Clementi (Governor 1925-30), by negotiation with the Canton authorities, not only settled the dispute, but laid the foundations of a good neighbour policy with Canton, which from then on brought considerable benefit on both sides of the frontier. At the same time, the leaders of all com- munities resident in Hong Kong became increasingly aware of

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315

their social responsibilities towards less privileged sections of the population. From this awareness developed the strong interest in social welfare which has become one of the most marked features of the Colony's life.

Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when Japan presented her Twenty-One Demands to China in 1915. These were followed by intense economic expansion. In 1931 Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 began a general invasion of China. As the Japanese armies pressed southwards towards Canton, which was taken in 1938, Hong Kong experienced the greatest influx of refugees it had yet seen. It is estimated that about 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938, and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the total population to about 1,600,000. At the height of the influx there were thought to be over half-a-million people sleeping in the streets.

In the earliest days of the Sino-Japanese War it was possible for valuable supplies to reach China through the Colony, but, after the fall of Canton, movement of such supplies was severely restricted. When war broke out in Europe, in September 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious. On 8th December 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, powerful units of the Japanese Army supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton invaded the Colony from the mainland. The first attempt to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of 15th - 16th December, but a second attempt, on the 18th-19th night, could not be held. After several days of severe fighting, in which many thousands of Commonwealth troops lost their lives, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

All members of the fighting services, which included the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, were interned as prisoners-of-war. Many were subsequently sent to Japan to work in mines and docks. The majority of British-born civilians were interned in a civilian camp at Stanley. Those who remained free experienced throughout the Japanese occupation a steady deterioration of conditions. Trade was at a standstill, currency steadily losing value, and in neighbouring Kwangtung a food shortage culminated in 1944-5 in famine conditions. Large numbers of civilians moved over to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its

316

HISTORY

doors to them. Toward the latter part of the occupation the Japanese, unable to obtain food for the existing population, organized mass deportations from Hong Kong.

In the face of increasing oppression the fundamental loyalty of the population to the Allied cause was not in doubt. Parts of the New Territories remained in the hands of Chinese guerrillas throughout the war in spite of vigorous punitive measures taken against them. Allied personnel escaping or evading capture were assured of assistance from the rural population.

      As soon as news of the Japanese surrender was received, a provisional government was established under the Colonial Secretary, Mr, now Sir, Franklin Gimson, assisted by civil servants released from prison camps and by leading citizens of all races. These officers maintained the essential form of Government until 30th August 1945, when powerful units of the British Pacific Fleet reached the Colony.

SINCE THE WAR

A brief period of military administration was followed by the formal re-establishment of civil government in May 1946. From the moment of liberation Hong Kong made an astonishing recovery. In August 1945 it was estimated that the population had been reduced to about 600,000. Eighteen months later at least 1,000,000 people had returned, and the population was still rising. At the close of 1947, so far as it is possible to estimate, Hong Kong held about 1,800,000 people, with once again an acute housing problem and water shortage.

As, during 1948-9, the forces of the National Government of China began to retreat and disintegrate, a refugee influx surpassing all others took place, the refugees being in many cases well-to-do merchants and their families from Shanghai and other commercial centres. The highest point was reached in April 1950, when it was estimated that the Colony held about 2,360,000.

The Central People's Government was installed on 1st October 1949 and during the latter part of 1950, with the promise of more settled conditions in China, and with the departure of many of the wealthier refugees to Taiwan, South America and other distant places of refuge, the Colony's population fell for the first

HISTORY

317

      time since the war until by the end of 1950 it was thought to be around 2,060,000. Since then, however, due partly to the arrival of more refugees from China but principally to a high rate of natural increase, there has been another steady rise, bringing the population to the estimated figure of 3,014,000 at the end of 1960.

Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied this growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has begun to play, directly or indirectly, in the provision of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. New low-cost housing schemes, of the conventional type or by way of multi-storied resettlement estates, have called for a heavy investment of public funds. New schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided as quickly as physical resources and the training of staff will permit-on a scale unprecedented in the Colony's history. Yet, despite the substantial progress already made and the many new projects already being contemplated, the demand continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modernized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts of the New Territories. Particularly in Kowloon and Tsuen Wan, industrialists have opened large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export throughout the world. To meet the demand for more land for industry and housing, the Government has continued to carry out many new reclamations principally in the central district, Causeway Bay and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour, whilst the investigation of the potentialities of new areas for development is constantly in hand. Reservoir capacity also has been doubled and is being further enlarged.

       The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops and the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques have been accompanied by ever higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with trade promotion, and technical and vocational training.

       The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network. More rigorous traffic controls have

318

HISTORY

been introduced in face of enlarged public transport services and the increase in number, and in size, of private cars in daily use. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. A new airport capable of meeting the needs of modern aircraft has been very largely completed and is in full operation. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sightseeing and shopping facilities, and night-time entertainment.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Broadcasting, wired and wireless, has developed as a principal part of the Colony's entertainment, and wired television is for the wealthier a supplement to the many modern cinemas patronized by the majority. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

      Despite this response to the challenge of over-population and the refugee influx, the Colony's ordinary life could not have run so smoothly had it not been for the constant vigilance and efficiency of the security forces. The Kowloon riots of 1956, which constituted the most serious of the few outbreaks of violence in the post-war years, were quickly ended; and the lessons learnt on that occasion put to good use in plans for the further expansion and modernization of the Police Force and the other agencies concerned with the preservation of law and order.

      An increased, and ever increasing, tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life, but it is the growth of local industry which came into being to replace the traditional entrepôt trade of the Colony, which has been the most significant feature, after population growth, in the Colony's history in the post-war years.

25

Constitution and Administration

CONSTITUTION

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supple- mented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

       The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex officio and seven nominated members. The ex officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary, and there is one nominated official member. The six unofficials at present include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding which questions should come before the Council, and for taking action afterwards, rests with the Governor who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power under numerous ordinances to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The same five ex officio members of the Executive Council also serve on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is also the President. In addition to them there are four other official members and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor who at present include five Chinese members and one Indian member.

320

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legislative Council is based on that of the House of Commons. The Minister of State for Colonial Affairs, the Rt Hon Earl of Perth, PC, announced at the end of his visit to Hong Kong in October 1960 that no radical or major change was contemplated in the present constitutional position.

      The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XII.

JUDICIARY

The principles of Common Law and Equity and the statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April 1843, except where they are inapplicable to local circumstances, are the foundations of Hong Kong's legal system. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain later enactments of the United Kingdom Parliament and by the Ordinances of Hong Kong. The last consolidated and revised edition of the Laws of Hong Kong, correct to 1950, was published in 1951. The courts of the Colony are described in Chapter 13.

ADMINISTRATION

      Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of the Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix II.

      The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments, and makes, or transmits from the Governor, Governor in Council, or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of four divisions dealing with general administration, finance, defence and establishment matters. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces described in Chapter 17, and acts as the main channel of communication between the Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

With hundreds of thousands of people living in overcrowded tenements and squatter areas, fire is an ever-present hazard in Hong Kong. The dramatic picture above was taken when a five-storey tenement building caught fire in Queen's Road West on Hong Kong Island. Fourteen occupants were rescued by means of jumping sheets, escapes and turntable ladders.

١٣

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NG KONG

The Fire Brigade operates sixty mobile appliances and can normally reach any part of the urban area in a matter of minutes, so that despite the seriousness of many fires there has been little loss of life. The fire in Queen's Road West (another dramatic moment is shown above) was brought under control in 25 minutes.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

321

The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney General, who is the head of the Legal Department and is also responsible for drafting legislation and for instituting and conducting public prosecutions. The staff of the department includes the Solicitor General, three Principal Crown Counsel, four Senior Crown Counsel and nine Crown Counsel.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. He is also specifically charged with the responsibility of main- taining direct channels of communication between the Government and all levels of Chinese society in urban Hong Kong. In addition, with the assistance of his department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, he discharges a number of statutory duties including the Chairmanship of certain Boards and Committees (which are for the most part Chinese in composition), administration of the District Watch Force and Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, and a variety of licensing and registration duties. Other traditional responsibili- ties include those of arbitration in domestic or tenancy disputes, and the provision of his good offices should there be any major misunderstanding between another department and some section of the Chinese public on other than purely professional or technical matters. He also has the important duty of providing direct liaison with villagers in semi-rural areas on Hong Kong Island and in New Kowloon. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is responsible for the co-ordination of the policy by which the executive depart- ments (the Police Force, the Preventive Service, etc) work in their war against drug trafficking and drug addiction and in the rehabilitation of addicts.

The Social Welfare Department has six sections responsible for Child Welfare (including care and protection of children, guardianship, adoption and liaison with institutions); Youth Welfare (group work for young people) and Community Develop- ment; the Welfare of Women and Girls (moral welfare); Special Welfare Services (for the physically and mentally handicapped); Relief and Public Assistance; and Probation (including institutions for delinquents). The Department maintains close co-operation with the Council of Social Service and with the many voluntary agencies which undertake welfare work in Hong Kong.

322

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Under the Financial Secretary, the accounting operations of the Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. The audit of all public accounts and of certain Special Funds is carried out by the Director of Audit under the general supervision of the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service. Reports on the accounts are presented annually by the Director of Audit and the Director General to the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State. The Rating and Valuation Department, under a Commis- sioner, is concerned with assessments for rates and other matters connected with the rent and value of real property, including negotiations for accommodation for Government departments. The Inland Revenue Department, headed by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, administers the collection of the internal revenue of the Colony; this includes Earnings and Profits Tax, Stamp Duties, Estate Duty, Entertainment Tax, Dance Halls Tax, Bets and Sweeps Tax, and Business Registration Fees. The Commerce and Industry Department, under a Director, is responsible for industrial and trade development, the collection of revenue from import and excise duties, the activities of the Preventive Service, certificates of origin, trade licensing, Government bulk purchases of firewood and certain foodstuffs, control over stocks of reserve commodities, and the production of trade statistics and any other statistics required by other departments of the Government. The department also administers the London and Sydney offices of the Hong Kong Government. (The work of these departments has been described in Chapters 4 and 6).

The Public Works Department, under a Director, has nine sub- departments, dealing with waterworks; Crown lands and surveys; the administration of the Buildings Ordinance; electrical and mechanical works (including Government motor transport); archi- tecture (Government buildings); development; port works; drain- age; and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsible for town planning. (See also Chapters 10, 14 and 15).

The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of five ex officio members, namely the Chairman (who is at the same time the Director of the Urban Services Department), the Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services (Vice-Chairman), the Director of Public Works, the

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

323

Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Director of Social Welfare; and sixteen ordinary members, of whom eight are elected and eight appointed by the Governor. The Commissioner for Resettle- ment sits as a temporary additional ex officio member. The term of office of ordinary members is four years. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by eighteen select committees, which meet at frequent intervals.

       The Council carries out its responsibilities through the Urban Services and Resettlement Departments. The Urban Services Department, whose work is also described in Chapters 9 and 21, operates the basic sanitary services in both the urban areas and the New Territories behind Kowloon, with a variety of other duties in the field of public health, such as the supervision of food premises and hawkers, the operation of the city's slaughter- houses, and pest control measures. In addition, the department controls and staffs the parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches. The management of the multi-storey car parks in the centre of the city is also a responsibility of the Council, as will be the new City Hall now being built.

      The Resettlement Department is responsible for the clearance and resettlement of squatters, the administration of the resettle- ment estates and areas, and the prevention of new squatting either on vacant land or on the rooftops of buildings. The com- position of the Housing Authority and the work of the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department which is responsible, under the immediate charge of a Commissioner, for routine administration and execution of the Authority's decisions, are described in Chapter 10.

      The Commissioner of Police, who is concurrently the Immigra- tion Officer, is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force and the Prisons Department, also under a Commissioner, are described in Chapter 13. The Medical and Health Department is outlined in Chapter 9; the Education Department in Chapter 8; and the Labour Department, under a Commissioner who is concurrently Commissioner of Mines, in Chapter 3.

      Reference to the Registrar General's Department is made in Chapter 13, and to the Marine, Railway and Civil Aviation

324

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

Departments, the Post Office and the Royal Observatory in Chapter 15. The Information Services Department and Radio Hong Kong are described in Chapter 16. Chapter 7 describes the work of the Agriculture and Forestry Department, and of the Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department.

The Fire Brigade, which is under the control of a Chief Officer, provides fire protection throughout the urban areas, for the main districts of the New Territories, and for shipping in the harbour. Additional fire stations are now under construction to increase fire cover for the Colony as part of a scheme of planned develop- ment for the ten years to 1970. The Brigade has 1,176 officers and other ranks, with 62 mobile fire appliances, 3 fire boats and 26 ambulances.

The Stores Department, under a Controller, buys and distributes Government stores, manufactures and repairs all furniture for offices and quarters, and administers the Government monopoly of sand. The Printing Department, under the Government Printer, is responsible for all Government publications, most of which are produced entirely in the department itself; this Report is itself a typical example. The Quartering Authority deals with accom- modation for civil servants.

NEW TERRITORIES ADMINISTRATION

The New Territories are divided into five administrative districts: Yuen Long in the north-west; Tai Po in the north-east; Tsuen Wan, which includes the industrial town of Tsuen Wan, the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan and part of north-east Lantau; Islands, which include the rest of Lantau and all the islands in territorial waters south and west of Hong Kong Island; and Sai Kung, which covers the southern part of the Sai Kung Peninsula and the Clear Water Bay Peninsula as well as the adjacent islands. Each of the five districts is administered by a District Officer. The District Office for Yuen Long is at Ping Shan and that for Tai Po is at Tai Po Market. The Tsuen Wan District Office is in Tsuen Wan itself, whilst the Islands and Sai Kung District Offices, which were established on 1st September 1960 in place of the former Southern District Office, share offices in Kowloon. The District Commissioner, with an office in Kowloon

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

325

and headquarters staff under a Deputy District Commissioner, co-ordinates the overall administration of the New Territories. There is also a Resident Magistrate, who is a judicial officer and who holds Courts at Tai Po and Ping Shan.

The District Officer is concerned with every aspect of govern- ment activity in his district and acts as the principal link between the Government and the local inhabitants. His responsibilities include the holding of land and small debt courts, and arbitration in all kinds of village and personal disputes, including family and matrimonial cases. He controls the utilization and sale of Crown land; he administers the grant of temporary structure permits and the control of squatters; he registers documents and deeds relating to private land; and all building plans will still require to be passed by him until the new legislation is brought into force which was enacted during the year, applying the Buildings Ordinance, 1955, to the New Territories. He assesses and collects stamp duty, and issues licences for various types of licensed premises. He has an allocation of funds from the New Territories local public works vote; this pays for materials to help villagers in the improvement of irrigation and water supplies, to build paths and small bridges and to carry out many other minor works which better the amenities of the villages.

District Officers have the assistance of Rural Committees, elected by and from village representatives, and exercising various advisory functions. There are now twenty seven of these com- mittees, covering the entire New Territories, and during 1960 they received for the first time a small monthly subvention from the Government to cover routine expenses. Within its own area each Rural Committee acts as the spokesman for local public opinion, arbitrates in clan and family disputes, and generally provides a bridge between the Administration and the people.

The Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of the 27 Rural Committees, together with the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace and 21 elected Special Councillors, form the Full Council of the Heung Yee Kuk, whose title may be translated into English as Rural Consultative Council. The Kuk serves as a forum where leaders of New Territories opinion have gathered since it was first constituted in 1926, and from which (except during the period from August 1958 to December 1959 when official recognition

326

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      of the representative status of the Kuk was withdrawn because of internal dissension) the Government has sought advice on New Territories affairs. Under its new constitution which was established by the Heung Yee Kuk Ordinance, 1959, the Kuk, apart from its Full Council, also includes an Executive Committee which meets monthly and consists of the Chairmen of Rural Committees, the unofficial New Territories Justices of the Peace, and 15 Ordinary Members elected by the Full Council. The Full Council also elects the Chairman and two Vice-Chairmen of the Kuk, through whom close and constant contact is maintained with the District Commissioner. During 1960 the first elections under the new constitution were held to fill all the elective vacancies in the Kuk.

       The Rural Development Committee also deserves attention; this was first appointed by the Governor in June 1954. The Committee has both official and unofficial Members, with the District Commissioner as Chairman, and advises Government on matters relating to New Territories' development in general, and the extension of agricultural credit in particular.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

Appointments and promotions to the majority of pensionable posts in the Public Service are made on the advice of the Public Services Commission, a statutory non-Government body established in 1950 with the object of improving the standard of efficiency of Government servants generally and of putting into effect the Government's policy of giving preference in appointment to well-qualified local candidates.

       Monthly paid offices in the Public Service are divided into five classes. Classes I and II include those offices normally held by administrative or professional officers, or officers of a similar status; Class III offices are held by more junior officers with an initial salary of more than $360 p.m. for men and $275 p.m. for women. Class IV is for disciplined staff below the rank of Police Sub-Inspector (or equivalent ranks in other departments), and Class V includes non-pensionable offices with initial salaries of $360 p.m. or less for men and $275 p.m. for women.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

327

       On 1st April 1960, the total establishment of the Public Service was 50,433, almost three times as large as on 1st April 1949 when it was 17,554. The estimated expenditure on salaries for the financial year 1960-1 is $325.4 million which represents 34.7% of the total estimated expenditure for the year (excluding expenditure from the Development Fund) of $938.3 million.

      Official policy is to give priority in appointment to local candidates. In 1950 there were 54 local officers and 448 overseas officers holding Class I and II offices, whereas on 1st January 1960, there were 501 local officers in these classes and 796 overseas officers. Thus, in a matter of ten years, the proportion of local officers in the two senior classes grew from 10.75% to 38.63%. On the 1st January 1960, there were also 965 overseas and 11,624 local officers in Class III offices. There are thus 12,125 local and 1,491 overseas officers holding Class I-III offices. The increase in the number of overseas officers has been due principally to the need to keep pace with the very rapid development of Hong Kong and the impossibility of delaying recruitment until local training schemes in the University and other establishments are able to produce enough graduates to meet all the demands of both the Public Service and private enterprise.

Training. The 'Report on Training of Government Servants 1952-8' which was published in March 1959, showed what Government had already done to train its personnel, both in Hong Kong and overseas. The 1959 Salaries Commission nevertheless thought that the Government should increase its training facilities. Government has accepted this recommendation and plans to set up an organization for the systematic training of staff and the co-ordination of departmental training and examinations with a view to improving efficiency generally and fitting exceptional officers for promotion to posts of higher responsibility.

       During 1960, 82 local officers were sent overseas on courses of instruction to obtain various qualifications. During the same year 61 overseas officers attended shorter courses, while on vacation leave, to familiarize themselves with the latest developments in their professions or to acquire further specialized experience which would be of use in Hong Kong. The total expenditure on overseas training in 1960 was about $1,430,000.

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CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

      Salary Structure. Broadly speaking, the post-war structure of the Public Service, including its salary scales and general conditions of service, has been based upon the Report of the 1947 Salaries Commission.

      During 1959 a new Commission, under the Chairmanship of Mr J. W. Platt, was appointed to consider and submit recom- mendations for the revision of the salaries and other emoluments of all public officers in Hong Kong. As a result of this Commis- sion's Report the cost of living allowance, calculated at 'married with children' rate, has been incorporated into basic salary for all officers except minor staff. Expatriation pay as such has also been abolished though incremental credit is granted by way of an inducement allowance to overseas officers with a monthly salary of less than about $2,740 (the exact figure depends on the particular scale). Above this point there is no differentiation in the emoluments of local and overseas officers, for an amount equivalent to the old expatriation pay has been incorporated into all salaries. The Commission also considered the question of equal pay for women; and the Government has accepted its recom- mendation that although men and unmarried women medical officers on the permanent establishment should be remunerated on equal terms after their first few years of service, the remunera- tion of other women officers, after consolidation of the cost of living allowance, should be fixed at, as nearly as possible, 75% of the remuneration of their male colleagues.

26

Weights and Measures

     THE weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and also the Chinese weights and measures given with their British and Metric equivalents in the table below:

UNIT

Domestic

EQUIVALENTS

British

Metric

Length*

1 fan

0.146 in

3.715 mm

1 ts'un or tsun (Chinese inch)

10 fan

1.463 in

3.715 cm

1 ch'ek or check (Chinese foot)

10 ts'un

14.625 in

37.15 cm

1 cheung

10 ch'ek

4.063 yd

3.715 m

1 lei (Chinese mile)

706-745 yd

646-681 m

Area

1 dau chung

1 mow

Weight

1 fan or candareen

1 ts'in or tsun or mace

806.7 sq yd

6.745 a

1,008

sq yd

8.431 a

0.013 oz

3.78 dg

10 fan

0.133 oz

3.78 g

1 tael or tahil or leung

10 ts'in

1.333 oz

37.8

go

..

1 catty or kan

16 tael

1.333 lb

604.8

1 picul or tam

100 catty

133.333 lb

60.48 kg

* Values vary in practice. The statutory equivalent of the ch'ek (foot) is 14 in but the ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14 in to 11 in, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 in.

27

Bibliography

      MUCH has been published about Hong Kong since the eighteen forties, but most of the literature is out of print and difficult to find outside the libraries of the British Museum, the University of Hong Kong, the Toyo Bunko, Tokyo, the School of Oriental and African Studies of London University, and the Colonial Office. The last extensive reading list was printed in the Hong Kong Annual Report 1954. The present chapter is longer but even so is not comprehensive, and serious students of detail should consult the indices of such libraries of learning.

Books marked with an asterisk should be easy to find at present; those with a dagger are administrative or other official reports and publications; and those with a double obelus are works of fiction with a local background. Not all, as will be clear from some titles, deal solely with the Colony, but their contents may be found to be valuable. Some of the more important are set in larger type. No references are made to modern command papers or other periodic publications of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, nor to articles in journals or magazines or to commercial directories. Inclusion of book in this list is by no means to be taken as assurance that the Hong Kong Government agrees with any expression of opinion or statement of fact found in it.

(nd): no date of publication (np): no publisher's imprint

**ABERCROMBIE (Professor Sir Patrick)-Hong Kong: Preliminary Planning

Report-Crown Agents, London, 1949.

ALABASTER (C. G.)-Report of the Reconstituted War Revenue Committee-

Hong Kong, 1941.

*ALLEN (G. C.) and DONNTTHORNE (A. G.)-Western Enterprise in

Far Eastern Economic Development-London, 1954.

ALLOM (T.) and WRIGHT (G. N.)-China in a Series of Views-London, 1843.

Alves (J. A. S.)--Practical Hints on Poultry Keeping in Hong Kong and the

New Territories-Hong Kong, 1932.

ANDERSON (Capt G. C.)-The Situation in the Far East-Hong Kong, Guedes

& Co, 1900.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

331

ANGIER (A. Gorton)-The Far East Revisited-Witherby & Co, London, 1908.

Anstey (T. C.)-Crime and Government at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1859.

-Another Treaty with China, but not another war-Hong Kong (nd). ARNOLD (Julean)-Commercial Handbook of China-Washington, 1919 & 1920

(2 volumes).

ASILE de la SAINTE ENFANCE-French Convent of the Sisters of Saint Paul

of Chartres-Hong Kong, 1910.

BAINS (J. W.)-Interport Cricket. A Record of Matches between Hong Kong, Singapore & Shanghai, 1866-1908-Shanghai, Shanghai Times, 1908. BALFOUR (S. F.)-Hong Kong before the British. (Reprinted from

T'ien Hsia Monthly)-Shanghai, 1941.

BEACH (Rev W. R.)-Visit of His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh-

Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1869.

†BEALE (Sir Louis)-Report on Economic & Commercial Conditions in China. With an appendix by G. Clinton Pelham-Economic Conditions in Hong Kong-London, 1938.

BELCHER (Sir Edward)-Narrative of a Voyage round the World .

'Sulphur'-London, Henry Colbourn, 1843.

in HMS

BENSON (Stella) The Little World-a book of travel essays-London,

Macmillan, 1925.

Mundos--London, 1935.

BENTHAM (George B.)-Flora Hongkongensis-London, Lovell, Reeve, 1861. BERESFORD (Lord Charles)-The Break-up of China-London,

Harper & Bros, 1899.

BERGHOLZ (Professor Paul)-The Hurricanes of the Far East-Bremen, Max

Nossler, 1899.

BERNARD (W. D.)-Narrative of the Voyages and Services of the NEMESIS, from 1840-1843-with Notes of Commander Hall-London, Henry Colbourn, 1844 (2 volumes).

'BETTY' Intercepted Letters. A Mild Satire on Hong Kong Society-Hong

Kong, Kelly & Walsh, 1905.

BINGHAM (Comdr J. Elliot)-Narrative of the Expedition to China-London,

1842 (2 volumes).

†BLAKE (Sir Henry Arthur)---Bubonic Plague in Hong Kong-Hong Kong,

Noronha & Co, 1903.

-China-London, A. & C. Black, 1909.

BLOCKADE of the Port & Harbour of Hong Kong by the Hoppo-London,

Kent & Co, 1874.

BONDFIELD (Rev G. H.) and BALL (J. Dyer)-A History of the Union Church,

Hong Kong Hong Kong, China Mail Office, 1903.

BOWEN (Sir George Ferguson)-Thirty Years of Colonial Govern-

ment-London, Longman & Green, 1880 (2 volumes).

BOWRING (Sir John)-Autobiographical Recollections of Sir John Bowring. With a Brief Memoir by L. B. Bowring-London, H.S. King & Co, 1877.

332

BIBLIOGRAPHY

**BOYCE (Sir Leslie)-Report of the United Kingdom Trade Mission to China,

1946-London, HM Stationery Office, 1948.

*BRAGA (J. M.)-Noticias de Macau. Special Supplement dedicated to Hong

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DEW (Gwen)-Prisoner of the Japs-New York, A. A. Knopf, 1943.

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DYSON (Verne)-A Hong Kong Governor and his Famous Hymns (and other

Essays Macau, 1931.

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Kong, 1950-Hong Kong, 1951.

FORSTER (L.)-Echoes of Hong Kong and Beyond-Hong Kong, Ye Olde

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*‡GARDNER (Mona (Mrs Simmons))-Hong Kong-New York, 1958.

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**

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China Seas and Japan-Congress, Washington, DC, 1856.

I

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Terror and destruction of another kind was visited on Hong Kong in the early hours of 9th June 1960, when typhoon 'Mary' swept over the Colony leaving forty-five dead and thousands homeless. In Hennessy Road, on Hong Kong Island, scaffolding crashed down, crushing cars. For many hours torrential rain fell. South China Morning Post pictures.

UBLIC

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Between 4 a.m. and 6 a.m. the storm centre passed very close to Cheung Chau, killing fourteen and creating havoc. More than fifty fishing vessels capsized and sank, while scores of sampans were swept ashore into the main street. At the height of the storm the foundations of a new fire station were swept away and a floating crane driven ashore.

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*

*

HEANLEY (C. M.)-and SHELLSHEAR (J. L.)-A Contribution to the Prehistory

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3

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HERTON (E.)-Correspondence relating to the Inland Transit Pass System

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HEWETT (E. A.)-A Brief History of the Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce-Hong Kong, 1911.

†HEYWOOD (G. S. P.)-The Upper Winds of Hong Kong, from Observations made with Pilot Balloons, 1921-1932-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1933. +* -Upper Temperatures and the Properties of Air Masses over Hong Kong

-Hong Kong, 1940.

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*

*

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HILL (S. C.)-Episodes of Piracy in the Eastern Seas-Bombay, 1920.

HINTON (W. J.)-Hong Kong's Place in the British Empire-London, Colonial

Office, 1941.

HITCHCOCK (F. H.)-Our Trade with Japan, China, and Hong Kong-

Washington, Government Printing Office, 1910.

Ho (S. Dzu-fang)--A Hundred Years of Hong Kong-Ann Arbor, Michigan,

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HO KAI and WEI A-YUK-Reform in China. A Letter addressed to Rear- Admiral Lord Charles Beresford-Hong Kong, China Mail Office, 1899. HOLCOMBE (C. J. H.)-The Mystic Flowery Land (2 volumes)-London, 1890. †HONG KONG (Administrative reports, official papers &c);

     Report from the Select Committee of the Commons on Commercial Relations with China-London, 1847.

Correspondence between the Foreign Office and the Commercial Association of Manchester, 1846-8-London, 1857.

338

BIBLIOGRAPHY

†HONG KONG (Administrative reports, official papers &c):-Contd

Correspondence between the Foreign Office and the East India and China Association of Liverpool 1846-8-London, 1857.

Papers Relating to the Opium Trade in China, 1842-56-London, 1857. Papers respecting the right of British subjects to have free entrance into Canton (1849-?)-London, 1857.

Correspondence relating to Entrance into Canton (1850-5)---London, 1857. Report on Hong Kong: Report on Chusan and . . . . the British Position and Prospects in China: Governor Davis' Despatch and others on the same subject-London, 1857.

Correspondence relative to the reconstruction of the Legislative Council -Hong Kong, 1857.

Papers relating to the Proceedings of HM Naval Forces at Canton- London, 1857.

Further Papers on the same Subject-London, 1857.

Papers connected with the confinement of Chinese Prisoners at Hong Kong and with the trial of a baker and others on the Charge of Poisoning -London, 1857.

Correspondence respecting the Registration of Colonial Vessels at Hong Kong-London, 1857.

Correspondence between the Colonial Department and the Governor of Hong Kong on Emigration from Hong Kong, &c to the West Indies, &c -London, 1858.

Commission of Enquiry into charges against D. R. Caldwell, Registrar General-Hong Kong, 1858.

Papers relating to the sale of Prepared Opium in Hong Kong-London, 1860.

Papers relating to Hong Kong-London, 1860.

Papers relating to Hong Kong-London, 1862.

   Despatch transmitting Inquiry into Civil Service Abuses and Cor- respondence with Mr C. Anstey-London, 1862.

Correspondence upon the subject of the Currency of the Colony--London,

1863.

Memorial of Lt Col Wm Caine respecting his services at Hong Kong- Hong Kong, 1864.

Correspondence, &c

·

• •

on the subject of the Tax

                                          which HM Government proposes to levy on Property at Hong Kong, towards defray- ing the Expense of maintaining the Garrison-London, 1865.

Letter signed by Mr Peel to Sir Edward Lugard, relative to the Garrison of Hong Kong-London, 1866.

Report on the Sanitary Condition of Hong Kong and Kowloon for 1863 ...

.-London, 1866.

Correspondence respecting Gambling Licences-London, 1869.

Further Correspondence, &c .

relating to the Gambling House Licence

System in Hong Kong-London, 1871.

Correspondence

of the Mercantile Community against certain

Revenue Cruizers-London, 1875. Further Correspondence . Revenue Cruizers-London, 1876.

of the Mercantile Community against

Public Meeting: Insecure Condition of Life and Property at Hong Kong -London, 1879.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

†HONG KONG (Administrative reports, official papers &c):-Contd

339

    Correspondence and other Documents concerning the Blockade of the Port of Hong Kong, 1868-1880-Hong Kong, 1880. Contagious Diseases, Report of the Commission to inquire into the working of the Contagious Diseases Ordinance, 1867-London, 1880. Correspondence relating to the working of the Contagious Diseases Ordin- ances of the Colony of Hong Kong-London, 1881.

Chinese Restrictions. Despatches

                         in 1877 and 1881 respecting restric- tions upon Chinese Merchants with a view of reserving the Central Portion of Victoria for English and Foreign Firms and the compulsory Registration of Chinese Partners London, 1881.

Sanitary Condition. Further Correspondence regarding the Sanitary Con- dition and alleged Restrictions upon the Chinese-London, 1882.

     Further Correspondence on the Sanitary Condition of Hong Kong- London, 1882.

Alleged Chinese Slavery in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1882.

Report of the Commissioners to enquire into Smuggling from Hong Kong into China-Hong Kong, 1883.

Proceedings on Bribery in the Police Force-Hong Kong, 1886.

Papers on the subject of Beri-Beri in Hong Kong, 1889.

Report of the Commissioners to enquire into the working of the Hong Kong Observatory-Hong Kong, 1890.

Fifty Years of Progress. The Jubilee of Hong Kong as a British Crown Colony, being an Historical Sketch-Hong Kong, 1891.

     Report of the Commissioners to investigate into the working of the Treasury Department-Hong Kong, 1893.

     Special Committee on Po-Leung-Kuk, or Society for Protection of Women and Girls-Hong Kong, 1893.

Correspondence relative to

1894.

Bubonic Plague at Hongkong-London,

Report of the Committee to enquire into the Expenditure of the Colony- Hong Kong, 1894.

Report on the Medical Department-Hong Kong, 1895.

     Report of the Committee to enquire into the condition of British Trade in Hong KongHong Kong, 1896.

Bubonic Plague-London, 1896.

     Report of the Commission to enquire into the working of the Tung Wah Hospital-Hong Kong, 1896.

Papers on a Petition addressed to the House of Commons praying for an amendment of the Constitution--Hong Kong, 1896.

     Report of the Committee to report on the Condition of Government Offices-Hong Kong, 1896.

Report of the Committee to enquire into Flogging in Victoria Gaol- Hong Kong, 1896.

Military Reserve Lands of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1898.

Military Reserve Lands at Kowloon-Hong Kong, 1898.

     Report of the Commission to inquire into the existence of Insanitary Properties in the Colony-Hong Kong, 1898.

     Report of the Commissioners to enquire into Smuggling from Hong Kong into China of Opium and other goods-Hong Kong, 1898.

Papers relating to Extension of the Colony of Hong Kong--Hong Kong, 1899.

340

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Ordinances, Proclamation, &c on Extension-Hong Kong, 1899. Despatches and other Papers relating to Extension-Hong Kong, 1899. Report of the Food Supply Commission-Hong Kong, 1900. Registration of Chinese Partners--Hong Kong, 1901.

Correspondence on Sanitary Conditions-Hong Kong, 1901. Sanitary Conditions and Memorandum--Hong Kong, 1901.

Further Correspondence respecting the Disturbances in China-London, 1901.

Report of Commission to enquire into the Public Works Department- Hong Kong, 1902.

Instructions for the use of the Colonial Secretary's office-London, 1903. Draft Legislation to Replace the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance -Hong Kong, 1903.

Precautions against Plague, Malaria and Cholera-Hong Kong, 1904. Report on Insanitary Property Resumptions in the years 1894-1905- Hong Kong, 1905.

   Report of Committee appointed to enquire whether earlier warning of the Typhoon of September 18th, 1906 could have been given to shipping -Hong Kong, 1907.

Historical and Statistical Abstract of the Colony of Hong Kong-Hong Kong, Noronha & Co, 1906 (Reprinted revised in 1911, 1922 and 1932). Report of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance Commission--Hong Kong, 1907.

Minute by Colonial Secretary on the existence of Corruption in the Sanitary Department, etc-Hong Kong, 1907.

Correspondence relating to Subsidiary Coin-Hong Kong, 1908. Correspondence relating to the proposed appointment of a Chinese Consul at Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1908.

Memorandum on the Opium Divans in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1908. Correspondence relating to Opium in Hong Kong, 1844-1908-Hong Kong,

1909.

Memorandum regarding the restriction of Opium in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1909.

Handbook as to Climatic, Cost of Living and General Conditions of Living in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1911 (also 1921, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1933). The Grant Code-Hong Kong, 1914.

Report of the Commission on the Emoluments of the Public Service- -London, 1919.

Hong Kong Economic Resources Committee: Factory, and Home, and Cottage Industries Sub-Committee Report-Hong Kong, J. P. Braga, 1920. Hong Kong Economic Resources Committee-Report, Proceedings and Appendices-Hong Kong, 1920.

Report on the Census of the Colony for 1921-Hong Kong, 1921. Report of the Commission: Conditions of the Industrial Employment of Children-London, 1921.

Report of the Committee appointed by HE the Governor to consider the Colony's Position with regard to the Obligations incurred under the International Opium Convention, 1912-Hong Kong, 1924.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

†HONG KONG (Administrative reports, official papers &c):-Contd

341

Communiqués and Statements in Connection with the Conference for Settlement of Chinese-British Disputes in the Liang-Kuang Provinces- Hong Kong, 1926.

Traffic in Women and Children. Annual Report from the Hong Kong Government-Geneva, 1926.

Correspondence in connection with a Speech reported in the Man Kwok Yat Po to have been made by Mr Sun Fo-Hong Kong, 1926.

Financial and other Statistics showing the Development of Hong Kong during 1897-1926-London, 1927.

Report of the 'Sunning' Piracy Commission-Hong Kong, 1927.

Bias Bay Piracies. Endeavours to obtain co-operation of Canton Govern- ment in its suppression-Hong Kong, 1927.

     Reports on investigations to augment the Water Supply of the Colony, by R. M. Henderson, E. Newhouse and H. T. Jackman-Hong Kong, 1928. Report of the River Steamers Commission--Hong Kong, 1929. Correspondence relating to the Mui-Tsai Question-Hong Kong, 1929. Papers relative to the Mui-Tsai Question-November, 1929-London, 1929. Report of Stamp Duties Committee-Hong Kong, 1929.

Report of the Salaries Commission--Hong Kong, 1929.

     Memorandum on the use of Opium in Hong Kong-Hong Kong, 1929. Report of Analysis of 16 soils from Hong Kong-1929.

     Correspondence relating to the Salaries Commission-Hong Kong, 1930. Report of the Committee of Enquiry to investigate the Currency Problem -Hong Kong, 1930.

     Report by Governor of Hong Kong on the Mui Tsai Question-Hong Kong, 1930.

Information collected ... re charges made for water and the steps to check wastage of water-1930.

Report on the Measures required for the Institution of Juvenile Courts in Hong Kong Hong Kong, 1931.

     Report on the Hong Kong Currency. Report of a Commission appointed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies-London, HM Stationery Office, 1931.

Report of the Committee on Practical Technical Education-Hong Kong, 1931.

Report on the Census taken on March 7th, 1931-Hong Kong, 1931. Report of the Retrenchment Commission and Government's Commentary thereon-Hong Kong, 1932.

     Report of the Government of Hong Kong on the Traffic in Opium and Dangerous Drugs, 1930-2-Hong Kong, 1932.

General Conditions of Sale of Crown Lands in the New Territories, Hong Kong-London, 1934.

Report of the Housing Commission-Hong Kong, 1935.

Report of the Economic Commission

                             to enquire into the causes and effects of the present Trade Depression in Hong Kong and make recommendations for the amelioration of the existing position for the improvement of the Trade of the Colony-Hong Kong, 1935.

Memorandum by the Hong Kong Travel Association-Hong Kong, 1935. Report of the Committee appointed by His Excellency the Governor, Sir William Peel-London, 1936.

342

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†HONG KONG (Administrative reports, official papers &c):-Contd

Report of the Commission on Mui Tsai in Hong Kong and Malaya- London, 1937.

    Report of the Committee appointed to consider the recent increase in the number of Prisoners in the Colony and to make Recommendations in respect of such increase-Hong Kong, 1937.

Report of the University (1937) Committee-Hong Kong, 1937.

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Anomalies Committee Report (Hong Kong)-London, 1938.

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East Lamma Channel

nic Bay

KWUN TONG

Lei

Mun

TIU KENG

WAN

Junk Bay

Sai Won

JUNK

Fot

Réservoirs

Tai Tam

Bay

STANLEY

Big Wave

Boy

COLF CLUB

SHEK O

10

A

Clear Water Boy

Hun

STEEP I.

TUNG LUNG

OR

LAMTONG ISLAND

Tathong Change!

CAPE D'AGUILAR

Sheung Sa Mun

SHEK KWU CHAU

SOKO ISLANDS

+

+

113°30'

Drawn by Crown Lands & Survey Office 1960

11400

114-10

CHAU

NINEPIN GROUP

MILE

WAG

LAND

SCALE OF MILES 2 I Heights in Feet REFERENCE

3

4

HLET

2000-OVER

1000-2000

PO TOI ISLAND

Railways

Roads, Footpaths Villages

Built up Areas

Rivers & Streams, Reservoirs Ferry Services

MALL

LIBRARY

200-1000|

0-200

-2P-10

Crown Copyright Reserved

Appendices

APPENDICES

Appendix I

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed

in main industrial groups

355

United Nations standard

industrial

classification

Industry

Industrial undertakings

Persons

employed

1959

1960

1959

1960

numbers

14

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

28

31

33

242 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 m = 2 * *

12

Metal mining

3

3

744

723

Clay pits and quarrying

62

66

1,549

1,447

Non-metallic mining

1

12

41

76

Food manufacture

362

388

6,983

7,482

Beverages

29

27

899

952

Tobacco manufacture

7

5

1,244

1,258

Manufacture of textiles

691

826

52,936

62,076

Footwear and wearing apparel

740

815

47,926

46,109

Manufacture of wood and cork

177

186

2,782

3,028

26

Manufacture of furniture

131

134

3,067

2,881

27

Paper

53

71

829

1,085

Printing and publishing

624

644

8,614

8.854

29

Leather and leather products

16

19

270

267

30

Rubber products

108

118

7,923

7,963

Chemicals and chemical products

113

117

3,140

3,156

32

Products of petroleum and coal

3

4

13

23

Non-metallic mineral products

88

84

2,214

2,171

34

Basic metal industries

72

76

2,350

2,575

35

Metal products

578

613

26,473

27,414

36

Manufacture of machinery

282

320

4,305

4,628

37

Electrical apparatus

84

103

3,147

3,930

38

Transport and transport equipment

66

39

97

12,906

15.693

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries..

465

699

17,705

22,855

40

Construction

7

3

73

19

51

Electricity and gas

7

6

1,466

1,345

61

Wholesale and retail trade

8

6

638

646

71

Transport (baling and packing)

13

16

190

233

72

Storage and warehousing

24

24

2,973

1,826

73

Cable and wireless and telephones

1

1

1,099

1,224

84

Motion picture industry

9

7

437

402

85

Laundry and dry cleaning

199

109

2,431

2,192

Totals

5,023

5,599

217,367 234,533

356

APPENDICES

Appendix I-Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Industrial undertakings and persons employed in selected industries in some main industrial groups

United Nations standard

industrial

classification

numbers

Industry

23

Manufacture of textiles

Cotton spinning

Wool spinning

Cotton weaving

Finishing

Knitting

Cordage, rope and twine

24

Footwear and wearing apparel

31

34

Footwear except rubber footwear

Wearing apparel except footwear

Made-up textile goods except wearing

apparel

Chemicals and chemical products

Medicines

Cosmetics

Paints and lacquers

Matches

..

Basic metal industries

Rolling mills

35

Metal products

Tin cans

Enamelware

Vacuum flasks

Electro-plating

Needles

:

:

Industrial undertakings

Persons employed

1959

1960

1959

1960

198

267

248762

26

14,932

18,299

2

353

754

256

21,359

25,027

77

123

2,674

3,949

290

9,467

10,028

29

32

465

387

66

638

709

36

887

62

1,468

1,077

44,606

42,585

44

1,852

2,447

30

32

683

684

10

79-

5

226

231

11

595

642

1

1

265

286

16

16

1,360

1,461

41

40

989

955

21

20

4,497

4,923

6

1,039

1,205

80

80

1,359

1,334

6

7

809

766

Hurricane lamps

3

3

293

278

Hand torch cases

37

39

6,234

6,189

Pressure stoves and lanterns

21

21

1,742

1,621

Wrist watch bands

57

60

2,182

2,079

37

Electrical apparatus

Hand torch bulbs

34

40

Torch batteries

10

020

984

1,391

12

1,003

1,226

38

Transport and transport equipment

Shipbuilding and repairing

30

Shipbreaking

Tramways

Motor buses

Aircraft repair

28-22

1-22

8,180

8,819

26

2,040

1

1,507

1,529

1,125

1,218

1,031

1,118

39

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries

Artificial pearls

7

12

409

570

Buttons

28

30

1,047

906

Bakelite ware

16

21

568

649

Plastic ware

290

368

9,206

10,196

Plastic flowers

Fountain pens

43

176

2,460

7,935

9

9

351

223

January

February

March

APPENDICES

Appendix I-Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Monthly Retail Price Indices, 1960

April

May

June

July

August

September

October ..

November

December

Factory registrations and inspections, 1960

357

123

125

122

122

120

122

121

117

121

121

118

118

Applications received for registration

Registration certificates issued

Applications refused (premises unsuitable)

Applications withdrawn

611

418

11

114

Factories closed down (premises unsuitable)

334

Registration certificates surrendered (other reasons)

192

Places of employment registered at 31st December

3,219

Places of employment in course of registration at 31st December

852

*Factories 'recorded' at 31st December

2,380

Routine visits by labour inspectorate for enforcement of safety, health

and welfare provisions

29,375

Inspections in connexion with industrial or occupational accidents and

workmen's compensation

1,511

Visits for wage inquiries

276

Visits about employment of women and young persons

15,524

Night visits to enforce regulations on employing women and young

persons at prohibited hours

6,183

* Undertakings which cannot be registered, but kept under observation because 15-19 workers employed, or women and young persons, or for industrial health and safety

reasons.

358

APPENDICES

Appendix I-Contd

(Chapter 3: Employment)

Occupational diseases recorded

Dermatitis

Silicosis

Insecticide poisoning

Lead poisoning..

Manganese poisoning

Total ..

Industrial and occupational accidents, 1960

Persons involved

Deaths

17

2

3

1

20

29

6,831

125

Persons injured in registrable workplaces

3,624

Deaths in registrable workplaces

35

Total accidents reported and investigated

6,732

(1959 total

5,940)

Accident rate per 1,000 industrial workers

15.4

(1959 rate

14.5)

Fatality rate per 1,000 industrial workers

0.149

(1959 rate

0.12)

APPENDICES

Appendix II

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Revenue

359

1958-9

1959-60

1960-1

head of revenuE

Actual

$

Estimated

Actual

$

$

Estimated

$

1.

Duties

2.

Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences and Franchises

5. Fines and Forfeitures

111,378,306 110,400,000 120,871,557 154,700,000

74,604,110 79,010,000 85,345,492 93,500,000

194,780,904 187,200,000 193,494,025 186,400,000

38,705,559 16,248,900 21,243,087 40,664,500

4,330,791

4.009.600

5,730,970

3,646,500

6.

Fees of Court or Office

59,219,488 73,705,800 91,537,708 56,768,900

7.

Water Revenue

14,215,894 14,863,000 16,274,959 18,863,000

8.

Post Office

...

34,629,035 34,350,000 44,137,639 50,167,000

7,320,987 6,535,000 8,084,466 7,215,000

9. Kowloon-Canton Railway

10. Revenue from Lands, Interest,

Rents, etc..

49,715,497 50,103,900 51,452,690 56,671,400

588,900,571 576,426,200 638,172,593 668,596,300

11. Land Sales

30,920,067 17,525,000 22,331,958 35,525,000

12.

Colonial Development and Welfare

Grants

1,193,893

857,300

778,068

45,000

13.

Loans from United Kingdom

Government

14. World Refugee Year Grants

Total Revenue

8,322,131 5,824,000 2,728,749 4,224,000

623,633 3,770,600

629,336,662 600,632,500 664,635,001 712,160,900

360

APPENDICES

Appendix II-Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Expenditure

1958-9

1959-60

1960-1

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

Actual

Estimated Actual

Estimated

$

$

$

21.

HE the Governor's Establishment

22. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Department

441,929

524,900

426,063

582,800

4,084,072

5,333,700

5,162,967

6,305,900

23.

Audit Department

760,988

856,200

951,233

1,052,700

24. Census Department

287,606

3,371,300

25.

Civil Aviation Department

3,959,754

4,645,200

5,103,769

7,474,700

26.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

3,195,307

4,004,900

4,166,218 5,059,900

27. Commerce and Industry

Department

5,522,265

6,705,300 6,232,614 8,303,500

28.

Co-operative Development

Department

557,118

598,900

651,738

828,400

29. Defence: RHKDF Headquarters

and Hong Kong Regiment

2,010,647

2,122,700

2,036,414

2,294,900

30. Defence: Hong Kong Royal

Naval Reserve

822,418

873,000

1,337,407

1,048,900

31.

Defence: Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

1,104,654

1,029,800

853,584

535,200

32. Defence: Essential Services Corps

81,037

96,100

77,178

107,700

33.

Defence: Auxiliary Fire Service

236,024

295,300

263,872

358,900

34. Defence:

Auxiliary Medical

Service

..

1,027,706

854,800

919,452

1,142,600

35. Defence:

36. Defence:

Civil Aid Services

1,543,614

1,927,000

1,731,537

2,152,700

Registration of Persons

Office

436,807

470,500

996,946

1,191,800

37.

Defence: Directorate of

Manpower

61,502

66,900

66,042

84,700

38. Defence: Miscellaneous Measures

19,080,592

26,025,000

27,816,337

26,498,000

39.

Education Department

26,707,457

33,922,700

33,512,136

45,849,600

40. Fire Brigade

4,508,974

6,343,900

5,565,281

9,835,500

41. Information Services Department

708,699

733,600

1,127,229

2,283,700

42. Inland Revenue Department

3,511,139

44.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

..

43. Judiciary

45. Labour Department: Labour

Division

46. Labour Department: Mines

Division

47. Legal Department

48. Marine Department

49. Medical and Health Department..

50. Miscellaneous Services

51. New Territories Administration

52. Pensions

3,644,000

2,946,973 3,429,700 3,483,940

4,215,340 4.442,100

3,733,316

4,223,800

4,578,300

4,462,700

5,668,000

1,231,582

1,655,600

1,621,573

2,198,500

100,600

89,708

97,609

869,500 1,017,900 1,013,975 1,307,800

11,916,368 12,191,400 12,145,592 12,789,800

39,792,228 47,806,000 45,925,081

39,185,324 15,233,600 31,567,019

2,372,428 5,074,700 5,661,774

113,500

63,381,300

18,211,000

6,941,100

15,173,952 15,783,000 16,423,189

18,332,000

APPENDICES

Appendix II- Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Expenditure

1958-9

361

1959-60

HEAD OF expendITURE

Actual

Estimated Actagi

1960-1

Estimated

$

$

$

53.

Police Force: Hong Kong Police

54. Police Force:

Auxiliary Police ..

55. Post Office

56. Printing Department

57. Prisons Department

48,584,483 58,118,200

1,369,237 1,411,700

20,172,258 21,101,000

2,778,790 3,242,900

7,926,302 9,122,100

53,659,279 68,816,500

1,332,178 1,483,300

22,822,519 27,228,900

3,204,549 3,430,500

9,125,220 10,899,600

58.

Public Debt

3,248,590

3,025,610

3,024,702

2,731,310

59. Public Services Commission

37,101

60. Public Works Department

26,886,396

37,700

34,458,800

41,602

54,500

33,702,502

44,156,600

61.

Public Works Recurrent

62. Public Works Non-Recurrent

29,092,211 30,970,000 39,922,440 35,713,000

142,701,934 181,822,300 171,429,329 290,291,000

63. Quartering Office

64. Radio Hong Kong

2,224,458

3,716,154 3,138,600 4,908,496 4,670,800

2,662,700

2,503,489

3,278,500

65. Rating and Valuation Department

690,824

774,400

825,184

1,122,800

66. Registrar General's Department

1,276,806

1,366,500

1,376,996

1,771,900

67. Registry of Trade Unions

179,182

233,500

231,491

275,000

68.

Resettlement Department

6,284,266

8,482,400

7,909,393

11,226,400

69. Royal Observatory

1,829,541

2,028,500

1,959,360

2,300,700

70. Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

District Watch Force

685,932

846,100

804,157

299,949

301,500

320,790 S

1,434,600

71. Social Welfare Department

3,604,786

4,324,100

4,658,829

6,293,200

72.

Stores Department

Cr. 469,135

3,694,100

8,619,220

10,185,100

73. Subventions: Social Welfare

2,396,818 3,012,700 3,062,603

3,804,800

74. Subventions: Medical

75. Subventions: Education

76. Subventions:

Miscellaneous

77. Treasury

..

14,178,093 19,324,200 18,988,424

42,302,859 55,812,000 54,473,357 72,436,500

1,188,448 1,995,900 2,116,804

2,845,900

2,289,731 2,311,700 2,444,549 2,924,400

21,811,700

78.

Urban Services Department and

Urban Council

23,316,117 28,610,500 28,129,218 35,762,900

79.

Urban Services Department:

Housing Division

80. Urban Services Department:

New Territories Division

552,362

1,159,800

771,636

1,477,700

1,910,400

587,500,599 691,198,510 707,789,707 934,447,010

81.

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

2,457,768

1,844,700

82.

World Refugee Year Schemes

1,540,656

623,633

60,000

3,770,600

Total Expenditure

589,958,367

693,043,210 709,953,996 938,277,610

362

APPENDICES

Appendix II - Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Public Debt of Colony at 31st March 1960

$

34% Dollar Loan 1940

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8

2,830,000

46,666,000

Kai Tak Airport Loan

43,776,000

Colonial Development and Welfare Fund Loans

589,600

93,861,600

1. Tobacco

Revenue from Duties and Licence Fees

1957-8 Actual

Revenue $

1958-9 Actual Revenue $

1959-60 Actual Revenue $

1960-1

Estimate

$

45,163,230 46,670,892 54,568,614 80,000,000

2.

Hydrocarbon Oil

26,145,514 28,621,221

32,018,548 40,000,000

3. Liquor

26,566,105 27,972,324

31,143,111 31,700,000

4.

Table Waters

2,653,268 2,768,696 3,132,008

3,000,000

6,427

10,111

9,277

5. Methyl Alcohol

6. Toilet Preparations and Proprietary

Medicines

Licence fees under Dutiable Commodities Ordinance

5,188,186 5,335,062

3,738

105,722,730 111,378,306 120,875,296 154,700,000

1,602,447

1,678,772 1,827,158

2,062,000

APPENDICES

Appendix II- Contd

(Chapter 4: Public Finances)

Colonial Development and Welfare

363

         Details of the locally administered Schemes in progress during 1960 towards which grants are made by the United Kingdom Government.

Scheme Number

Title

Estimated Expenditure up to 31st December 1960

Maximum

grant available

Research Scheme

R 943

Research on the Toxemia of Pregnancy (administered by Hong Kong University)

5,524

5,700

Development Schemes

D 2487

Construction of Pathology Institute, Hong

Kong University

(administered

by

University) ..

78,857

80,781

D 2539

Development

Schemes in the New

Territories

257,422(1)

263,500

D 2990

Site development for low-cost housing,

So Uk

88,875(2)

88,875

D 3271

Construction

of New Library and

Students' Union, Hong Kong University

(administered by University)

75,000(3)

200,000

D 3713

Passages for Dr A. H. G. Murley on secondment to Hong Kong University (administered by University)

475

475

£506,153

£639,331

Notes: (1) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share of estimated expenditure: this

varies with the items comprising the scheme as follows:

Item 1. Road on South Lantau

2. Six feeder roads

=

£

£

42% of 137,386

57,702

45% of 157,925 =

71,066

3. Piers in the New Territories

4. Irrigation schemes

5. Survey party

85% of 26,840 = 22,814

85% of 119,960 = 101,966

85% of 4,557 = 3,874

£257,422

(2) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (75%) of estimated expenditure.

(3) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (78%) of estimated expenditure.

364

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES

APPENDICES

365

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Statement of Assets and

$

$

II-Contd

Finances)

Liabilities as at 31st March 1960

ASSETS

DEPOSITS:

CASH:

Contributions towards Building Projects

5,173,602.50

In Hand: Treasury

$2,215,994.14

Control of Publications

780,000.00

Other Government

Departments

199,242.49

Development Loan Fund

3,168,281,48

Crown Agents (£586.17.5)

9,389.93

2,424,626.56

Government Servants

Miscellaneous

1,926,324.77

At Bank: Treasury

6,280,569.24

21,225,225.69

Other Government

Departments

1,155,627.01

7,436,196.25

Motor Vehicles Insurance Third Party

200,000.00

Public Works Department-Private Works Account

1,403,217.64

Joint Consolidated Fund (£1,060,000.0.0)

16,960,000.00

26,820,822.81

Water Deposits

8,944,783.85

42,821,435.93

FIXED DEPOSITS

60,000,000.00

86,820,822.81

Other Administrations

126,693.58

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

IMPRESTS

152,558.32

43,100,687.83

264,000.00

SUSPENSE-Kowloon-Canton Railway

31,261.62

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

138,014,760.94

SURPLUS BALANCES:

Investment:

Federation of Malaya 44% Stock 1964-74

(M$4,675,000.00)

8,726,666.67

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE:

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965-75

(M$5,785,875.00)

10,800,300.00

Balance 1st April 1959

461,011,096.93

Less Deficit from 1st April 1959 to 31st March 1960

45,318,994.21

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan 1940

Sterling Investments (£29,658,434.9.2)

1,182,550.00

474,534,951.33

495,244,468.00

415,692,102.72

Less Depreciation on Investments

9,012,457.99

406,679,644.73

ADVANCES:

Total

Personal

Miscellaneous

$4,264,011.33

741,505.65

5,005,516.98

Other Administrations

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

$587,826,355.12

Total

Notes:

nominal

Government holds 16,290 shares at a 168 shares at a nominal value of $10 per share at a nominal value of 500 YEN per share in There is a contingent liability of $2,244,991.38 in

value of $100 per share in Associated Properties Limited,

in South China Building Materials Limited, and 980 shares Helm Brothers Limited (Yokohama).

respect of the $1 Note Security Fund.

454,534.91

37,012.42

5,497,064.31

$587,826,355.12

366

APPENDICES

Appendix III

(Chapter 5: Currency and Banking)

Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

Chartered Bank

Mercantile Bank Ltd

Thos Cook & Son Ltd

First National City Bank of New York

American Express Co Inc

Banque de l'Indo-Chine

Banque Belge pour l'Etranger (Extrême-Orient)

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij NV (Netherlands Trading Society)

Nationale Handelsbank NV

Bank of East Asia Ltd

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Ltd

Bank of Communications

Bank of China Ltd

Bank of Canton Ltd

Shanghai Commercial Bank Ltd

China and South Sea Bank Ltd

Kincheng Banking Corporation Bank of Tokyo Ltd

United Commercial Bank Ltd

Bank of Korea

Indian Overseas Bank Ltd

Sze Hai Tong Bank Ltd

China State Bank Ltd

Hongkong & Swatow Commercial Bank Ltd

Sin Hua Trust, Savings & Commercial Bank Ltd

National Commercial Bank Ltd

Nanyang Commercial Bank Ltd

Bangkok Bank Ltd

United Chinese Bank Ltd

Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie Chekiang First Bank of Commerce (Hong Kong) Ltd Deutsch-Asiatische Bank

Wing On Bank Ltd

Kwangtung Provincial Bank Ltd (partially authorized) Hong Kong Chinese Bank Ltd

Overseas Trust Bank, Ltd

Bank of America

Chung Khiaw Bank, Ltd

Chiyu Banking Corporation, Ltd

Kwong On Bank, Ltd

Overseas Union Bank, Ltd

Bank of India

National Bank of Pakistan

APPENDICES

Appendix IV

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Trade

Value of Hong Kong's Merchandise Trade

(To nearest hundred million $)

Imports

Exports

Re-exports

Total trade

:

367

% increase

1960

1959

over 1959

$ million $ million

5,900

4,900

+ 20%

2,900

2,300

+ 26%

1,100

1,000

+ 10%

9,800

8,300

+ 18%

1960 1959

Cargo Tonnages

1960 Imports $5,864 million Commodity Pattern

8.2 million tons

7.6 million tons

Manufactured goods

Food

Crude inedible materials

Machinery

Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

33%

23%

12%

10%

8%

7%

1960

$ million

1959 $ million

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

Base metals

1,932

1,604

+ 20%

1,044

892

+ 17%

302

205

+ 47%

Silver, platinum, gems and jewellery

212

164

+ 29%

Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

134

114

+ 18%

Food

1,353

1,238

+ 9%

Cereals

317

316

Nil

Fruits and vegetables

264

248

+ 6%

Live animals

248

224

+ 11%

Dairy products

128

109

+ 17%

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

687

556

+ 24%

Textile fibres

337

267

+ 26%

Animal and vegetable crude materials

155

121

+ 28%

Wood lumber and cork

87

76

+ 14%

Machinery and transport equipment

599

426

+ 41%

Non-electric machinery

269

177

+ 52%

Electric machinery

176

152

+ 16%

Transport equipment

154

98

+ 57%

Chemicals

466

392

+ 19%

Miscellaneous chemical products

177

141

+ 26%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

109

90

+ 21%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

427

356

+ 20%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

176

138

+ 28%

368

APPENDICES

Appendix IV. -Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

1960 Imports $5,864 million

Sources

By Country

By British Commonwealth and Continent

China

20%

British Commonwealth ..

25%

Japan

16%

Asia

49%

USA

12%

America

13%

UK

11%

Europe

12%

Thailand

4%

1960

1959

$ million

$ million

China

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Live animals

Fruits and vegetables

1,186

1,034

+ 15%

287

217

+ 32%

157

141

+ 11%

125

122

+ 2%

Animal and vegetable crude materials

85

62

+ 37%

Fish and fish preparations

65

Cereals

65

2√35

62

+ 5%

54

+ 20%

Japan

942

770

+ 22%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

388

336

+ 15%

Non-electric machinery

84

39

+115%

Electric machinery

60

Base metals ..

ནིཨྰཿ

47

+ 28%

46

28

+ 64%

United States

720

517

+ 39%

Textile fibres

152

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

135555

85

+ 79%

57

49

+ 16%

Non-electric machinery

54

30

+ 80%

Fruits and vegetables

50

36

+ 39%

Miscellaneous chemical products

50

32

+ 56%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

58

41

+ 41%

United Kingdom

664

574

+16%

Transport equipment

88

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

81

Base metals

79

Electric machinery

78

2 9 9 3

53

+ 66%

67

+ 21%

67

+ 18%

76

+ 3%

Non-electric machinery

53

54

1

2%

APPENDICES

Appendix IV - Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

1960 Exports $2,867 million

Commodity Pattern

369

Clothing

36%

Textiles

19%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Footwear

Metal manufactures

Ores and metal scrap

14%

4%

4%

4%

1960

1959

$ million

$ million

Clothing

Shirts not knitted

1,010

793

+ 27%

179

126

+ 42%

Slacks, shorts, jeans other than knitted

178

136

+ 31%

Blouses and jumpers, women's and girls' not knitted,

not embroidered

Nightwear, not knitted, not embroidered

Cotton underwear, knit

Shirts, knit

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

554

2 6 5 95

74

+

5%

67

55

+ 22%

40

+ 27%

49

39

+ 26%

414

+ 34%

Cotton grey sheeting

119

100

+ 19%

Cotton piece goods dyed in the piece

70

42

+ 67%

Cotton grey drills ..

53

41

+ 29%

Cotton grey yarn over 10s to 20s

48

32

+ 50%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

393

263

+ 49%

-

Artificial flowers, foliage or fruit

149

61

+144%

Plastic toys and dolls

100

75

+ 33%

Footwear

115

109

+ 6%

Footwear of textile materials with rubber soles

58

51

+ 14%

Rubber footwear

23

18

+ 28%

Manufactures of metal

118

120

2%

Household utensils of iron and steel enamelled

63

70

10%

Household utensils of aluminium

12

10

+ 20%

Ores and metal scrap

101

87

+ 16%

Steel scrap

61

45

+ 36%

Brass and bronze scrap

18

18

Nil

Other

Electric torches

Rattan furniture (including plastics coated)

Refined sugar

Iron and steel bars and rounds

48280

45

29

X 28

39

+ 15%

27

+ 4%

25

+ 16%

13

+115%

370

APPENDICES

Appendix IV-Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

1960 Exports $2,867 million Direction of Exports

By British Commonwealth and Continent

By Country

USA

26%

British Commonwealth

UK

20%

America

Malaya

8%

Asia

German Federal Republic

4%

Europe

Japan

4%

Africa

46%

28%

15%

8%

2%

1960

1959

$ million

$ million

USA

745

564

+ 32%

Clothing

376

320

+ 17%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

165

93

+ 77%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

85

43

+ 98%

Furniture and fixtures

26

24

+ 8%

Footwear

United Kingdom

Clothing

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Footwear

Malaya

Clothing

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Sugar and sugar preparations

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

13

13

Nil

585

439

+ 33%

209

143

+ 46%

196

165

:

+ 19%

716

76

47

+ 62%

52

47

+ 11%

243

213

+ 14%

56

46

+ 22%

43

35

+ 23%

26

23

+ 13%

22

22

14

+ 57%

Manufactures of metals

13

14

7%

German Federal Republic

107

72

+ 49%

Clothing

84

51

+ 65%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

6

8

T

25%

Japan

101

93

+ 9%

Ores and metal scrap

888

81

+

9%

APPENDICES

Appendix IV - Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

1960 Re-exports $1,070 million Commodity Pattern

Manufactured goods

Food

Crude materials inedible, except fuels

Chemicals

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Machinery and transport equipment

36%

17%

16%

12%

10%

6%

371

1960

1959

$ million

$ million

Manufactured goods

380

315

+ 21%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

210

164

+ 28%

Base metals

Silver, platinum, gems and jewellery

69

49

+ 41%

55

36

+ 53%

Food

181

191

Fruits and vegetables

88

101

Fish and fish preparations

22

21

1

+

5%

13%

5%

Crude materials, inedible except fuels

172

177

3%

Animal and vegetable crude materials

104

93

+ 12%

Textile fibres

19

43

56%

Oil seeds and oil nuts

19

18

+

6%

Chemicals

130

138

6%

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

59

54

+

9%

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

27

35

I

23%

Explosives and miscellaneous chemical products

25

23

+ 9%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

106

81

+ 31%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods, watches and clocks

52

27

+ 93%

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

35

Clothing

14

25

32

+

9%

17

18%

Machinery and transport equipment

Non-electric machinery

Electric machinery

Transport equipment

823 22

66

60

+ 10%

25

28

11%

20

19

+ 5%

21

14

+ 50%

372

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

1960 Re-exports $1,070 million

Direction of Re-exports

By British Commonwealth and Continent

By Country

Malaya

18%

Asia

60%

Japan

12%

British Commonwealth .. 30%

China

10%

Europe

4%

Indonesia..

7%

America

3%

Formosa

6%

Africa

2%

Thailand

6%

1960 $ million

1959

$ million

Malaya

Fruits and vegetables

196

168

+ 17%

33

32

+ 3%

Animal and vegetable crude materials

28

19

+ 47%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

20

15

+ 33%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods; watches and clocks

18

7

+157%

Japan

130

138

6%

Fruits and vegetables

33

47

30%

Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

14

15

7%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

13

11

+ 18%

China

107

105

+ 2%

1

Base metals

44

24

+ 83%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

13

14

7%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

9

15

40%

Formosa

62

49

+ 27%

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible

11

8

+ 37%

Scientific and controlling instruments, photographic

and optical goods; watches and clocks

11

4

+175%

Indonesia

75

28

+168%

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

72

23

+213%

Thailand

59

Textile yarn, fabrics, and made-up articles

Medical and pharmaceutical products

19

623

67

12%

29

34%

8

7

+ 14%

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Trade Figures

Direction of Trade -- Imports

373

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three years:

1959

$

1960

$

1958

$

1,396,915,730 1,034,166,001 1,185,904,539

China

Japan

596,992,986

769,602,101

941,551,789

USA

439,559,587

516,676,963

720,044,545

United Kingdom

530,889,629

573,717,667

664,040,528

Thailand

160,287,706

196,883,422

207,975,937

German Federal Republic (Western)

135,154,017

136,437,360

182,937,458

Switzerland

130,973,836

112,001,184 143,852,431

Malaya

102,837,009

Australia

Pakistan

Taiwan

Canada

Netherlands

123,057,025 138,989,901

112,769,089 133,166,470 138,970,311

33,396,776 145,759,340 136,873,564

49,839,100 102,326,156 124,260,041

42,958,937 64,580,176 118,560,203

75,952,407 106,074,597 113,904,791

Indonesia

94,681,076

102,839,356

92,321,091

Belgium....

60,082,472

73,938,268

85,098,515

East Africa: Tanganyika

34,316,661

45,972,952

Uganda

18,363,370

12,367,747

65,653,228

Kenya

16,557,329

10,307,410

Zanzibar

3,044,712

3.171,390

Cambodia

50,037,272

59,310,994

67,607,776

South Africa

48,248,033

59,119,397

67,469,915

Italy

55,314,549

58,208,886

65,909,885

South Vietnam ›

5,255,812

33,452,413

47,494,198

Macau

39,897,978

43,790,903

46,831,366

France

29,066,978

30,065,987

45,325,309

Israel

29,332,794

42,985,285

Other Countries

336,969,425 372,582,410 412,964,972

Total

4,593,733,632 4,949,371,942 5,863,693,849

374

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade- Total Exports

        The principal markets for the Colony's total exports during the past three years were as follows:

1958

$

1959

$

1960

$

USA

United Kingdom

Malaya

326,353,470

/ 393,241,465

382,233,325

591,005,090

763,373,464

462,186,094

607,814,217

380,114,394 439,515,219

Japan

120,159,870

231,106,445

230,998,965

Indonesia

210,753,637

75,167,189

153,458,100

Thailand

217,009,924

146,820,400

141,757,315

China

155,763,132

114,331,403

120,243,273

Australia

75,940,565

85,273,697

119,911,890

German Federal Republic (Western)

64,647,825

83,548,637

114,030,363

Canada

51,161,926

73,631,746

89,134,428

Taiwan

61,715,594

58,478,634

75,968,020

Macau

57,805,218

64,893,369

65,991,169

Cambodia

25,482,242

37,119,180

53,046,947

Nigeria

42,349,111

45,373,425

46,143,235

Philippines

55,727,750

49,134,674

44,591,444

South Africa

30,012,804

25,339,388

42,821,894

New Zealand

19,914,904

18,065,542

35,656,301

Sweden

17,546,646

25,659,112

34,766,090

US Oceania

31,238,008

31,936,265

34,701,634

South Korea

52,807,645

44,100,047

33,669,427

Burma

29,971,613

36,512,209

33,250,242

Ceylon

18,815,203

30,039,741

29,434,802

North Borneo

45,322,588

22,541,020

28,135,083

Sarawak

23,970,413

26,327,978

East Africa: Kenya

18,942,973

17,366,885

Tanganyika

5,302,751

4,297,618

27,277,421

Uganda

1,794,375

1,884,921

Zanzibar

907,242

1,132,013

Italy

Netherlands

Belgium

Other Countries

9,982,749

18,801,321

24,277;059

23,170,833

22,733,334

23,578,930

20,282,255

422,113,989 430,363,828 477,353,214

22,347,514

23,073,156

Total

2,988,801,712 3,277,541,452 3,937,705,296

APPENDICES

Appendix IV- Contd

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade-Exports and Re-exports

375

The principal markets for the Colony's exports and re-exports during 1959 and 1960 were as follows:

EXPORTS

RE-EXPORTS

1959

$

1960 $

1959

1960

$

$

USA

563,838,188

745,245,641 Malaya

167,541,997

196,445,978

United Kingdom

Malaya

439,410,755 585,236,895 212,572,397 243,069,241

Japan

137,606,843

130,267,149

German Federal

Republic

China

105,464,638 107,264,269

(Western)

72,027,247

107,029,982

Japan

Australia

Thailand

Indonesia

93,499,602 100,731,816 60,310,969 86,362,904 79,666,548 83,036,999 Taiwan 46,972,779 78,793,244

Indonesia

28,194,410 74,664,856

48,943,641

61,587,940

Canada

60,534,032 76,591,350

Thailand

67,153,852 58,720,316

Nigeria

44,306,485

South Africa

Sweden

New Zealand

45,179,873

$ 21,834,118 39,435,198 Macau

23,445,569 33,699,395

52,412,949 53,887,208

14,530,985 31,899,230 Cambodia

21,661,306 36,429,203

East Africa,

British

Ceylon

26,512,803 24,110,920 Australia

26,907,056 23,017,106

24,962,728

33,548,986

Ghana

US Oceania

Philippines

North Borneo

Italy

Burma

Cambodia

15,867,285 21,913,572 South Korea 18,808,777 20,880,877 28,916,908 20,756,728

15,844,483 20,491,052 16,079,396 20,406,702

25,095,569 19,595,685 15,457,874 16,617,744

40,906,760 31,777,954

Philippines

20,217,766 23,834,716

22,775,339 United Kingdom.

22,577,322

USA

27,166,902

18,127,823

Persian Gulf Sheikdoms

13,992,441 16,570,963 Belgium

16,199,845 15,813,018

Panama

15,804,273 16,377,109

Norway

11,615,026 16,192,386 US Oceania

13,127,488

13,820,757

Netherlands

14,443,529 16,151,896

Venezuela

17,648,956 16,103,579

Burma

11,416,640

13,654,557

Taiwan

9,534,993 14,380,080

Sarawak.

13,433,265 13,463,903

Trinidad and

Tobago

China

Sarawak

11,082,493 13,481,438 8,866,765 12,979,004

10,537,148 12,864,075

Canada

13,097,714

12,543,078

West Indies,

not elsewhere

specified

Macau

Sierra Leone

Other Countries..

Total

10,093,462 12,681,717

12,480,420 12,103,961 8,141,749 12,007,148 215,446,662 251,253,332

2,282,127,742 2,867,248,842

Portuguese East

Africa

South Vietnam..

12,439,488 10,379,115

Other Countries..

140,982,920 130,766,745

Total

995,413,710 1,070,456,454

9,707,219 10,881,561

376

APPENDICES

APPENDICES

377

Appendix

(Chapter 6: Industry

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections

IV - Contd

and Trade)

Trade Classification :

and Divisions of the Standard International 1958, 1959 and 1960

1958 $

IMPORTS 1959 $

TOTAL EXPORTS

EXPORTS

RE-EXPORTS

1960 $

1958

$

1959 $

1960 $

1959 $

1960 $

Food

Live animals, chiefly for food

Meat and meat preparations

Dairy products, eggs and honey

Fish and fish preparations

Cereals and cereal preparations

Fruits and vegetables

Sugar and sugar preparations

Coffee, tea, cocoa, spices and manufactures thereof

231,806,608

223,615,018

247,912,186

2,140,417

55,639,786

84,353,293

86,219,337

7,444,394

102,404,994

109,159,353

128,153,624

18,181,976

42,160 2,706,792 410,308

6,000 1,636,892 290,665

4,911,723

4,789,680

3,789,920

2,598,514

10,724,707

10,595,370

115,908,959

101,479,445

113,311,390

45,286,384

12,309,081

10,637,973

21,487,736

21,586,431

335,297,592

315,568,718

317,190,931

79,036,810

19,397,607

20,810,723

14,729,996

15,822,513

235,152,804

248,370,044

263,904,716

123,274,839

33,266,223

38,042,494

100,611,084

88,177,863

89,829,128

58,620,219

79,032,374

45,483,001

26,931,670

31,813,475

7,218,524

7,655,222

49,105,236

47,625,492

56,682,243

20,393,339

Feeding stuffs for animals (not including unmilled cereals) Miscellaneous food preparations

6,126,739

10,716,765

19,172,152

2,742,363

33,809,387

38,522,035

41,653,542

30,329,811

1,587,046 519,521 22,411,235

1,869,441

15,493,452

17,672,468

1,255,081,233 1,238,030,382

1,353,232,495

374,313,334

119,581,643

539,260 24,312,471

129,959,394

2,275,012

2,072,313

9,787,347

9,556,270

191,029,501

180,526,644

Beverages and tobacco

Beverages

Tobacco and tobacco manufactures

27,402,005

28,039,497

30,321,112

8,759,151

74,392,170

79,965,051

85,002,486

13,387,551

1,673,191 12,281,571

1,775,512

6,623,231

5,969,625

11,712,582

6,029,704

6,356,613

101,794,175

108,004,548

115,323,598

22,146,702

13,954,762

13,488,094

12,652,935

12,326,238

Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

1 Hides, skins and fur skins, undressed

7 Oil-seeds, oil nuts and oil kernels

5,481,223

5,397,534

4,518,177

5,267,532

2,129,156

2,721,961

3,007,939

2,930,091

29,773,397

37(403,429

36,749,928

10,419,233

42,552

18,229,954

19,075,343

3

Crude rubber, including synthetic and reclaimed

18,609,974

22,624,562

33,175,984

1,798,439

15,984

17,085

1,895,151

6,332,147

Wood, lumber and cork

60,950,643

75,758,643

87,262,048

10,871,503

4,610,333

6,350,880

7,053,813

7,399,694

Pulp and waste paper

1,679,211

2,136,158

1,832,848

1,135,321

1,078,599

1,335,002

835,254

1,138,336

t

Textile fibres and waste

251,798,528

267,480,493

337,367,140

30,562,920

6,455,096

7,149,470

43,356,153

18,766,235

Crude fertilizers and crude minerals, excluding coal, petro-

leum and precious stones

9,947,119

11,733,313

18,476,219

5,876,845

1,177,308

2,130,573

5,108,465

10,576,746

Metalliferous ores and metal scrap

8,386,368

13,268,470

13,092,171

41,378,764

87,022,750

100,742,346

4,521,010

2,030,156

Y

Animal and vegetable crude materials, inedible, not elsewhere

specified

151,951,303

120,664,681

154,987,305

116,284,525

13,391,610

17,463,739

92,596,083

103,550,004

538,577,766

556,467,283

687,461,820

223,595,082

115,923,388

137,911,056

176,603,822

171,798,752

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

194,212,416

193,053,902

197,570,573

4,845,269

14,665

5,870

6,037,168

5,758,831

194,212,416

193,053,902

197,570,573

4,845,269

14,665

5,870

6,037,168

5,758,831

Animal and vegetable oils and fats

Animal and vegetable oils (not essential oils), fats, greases

and derivatives

54,729,647

60,379,312

64,889,216

23,822,199

2,278,754

54,729,647

60,379,312

64,889,216

23,822,199

2,278,754

3,599,954

3,599,954

13,827,447

13,827,447

16,560,632

16,560,632

Chemicals

Chemical elements and compounds

53,032,918

57,835,793

66,847,120

19,135,023

2,744,775

3,792,141

13,575,341

9,854,802

?Mineral tar and crude chemicals from coal, petroleum and

natural gas

628,214

611,865

1,745,777

3

Dyeing, tanning and colouring materials

48,727,234

60,316,970

64,560,658

16,282 47,554,751

1,876 16,528,962

ها

Medicinal and pharmaceutical products

96,727,877

89,800,529

108,811,889

85,087,934

13,278,318

387 18,726,540 15,695,701

17,229 34,964,087 54,044,059

391,056 27,487,087

58,602,141

Essential oils and perfume materials; toilet, polishing and

cleansing preparations

40,004,855

34,637,244

44,491,631

16,207,433

5,298,830

6,121,740

6,856,037

8,845,932

Fertilizers, manufactured

35,896,911

8,082,921

2,770,782

34,232,937

5,929,991

Explosives and miscellaneous chemical materials and products

80,867,019

140,512,588

176,675,520

31,086,348

5,041,353

355,885,028

391,797,910

465,903,377

233,320,708

42,894,114

6,755,795

51,092,304

22,937,590

339,815 24,525,251

138,324,334

130,046,084

378

APPENDICES

APPENDICES

Appendix

(Chapter 6: Industry,

Composition of Trade Classified by Sections Trade Classification:

IV-Contd

and Trade)

and Divisions of the Standard International 1958, 1959 and 1960

379

IMPORTS

1958 $

1959

$

Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

TOTAL EXPORTS

EXPORTS

RE-EXPORTS

1960 $

1958 $

1959 $

1960 $

1959 $

1960 $

/ Leather, leather manufactures, not elsewhere specified, and

dressed furs

22,312,757

31,454,082

27,141,687

2,849,855

1,431,675

1,328,761

2,778,790

2,910,172

Rubber manufactures, not elsewhere specified

Wood and cork manufactures (excluding furniture) 4Paper, paperboard and manufactures thereof

Textile yarn, fabrics, made-up articles and related products (Non-metallic mineral manufactures, not elsewhere specified

7 Silver, platinum, gems and jewellery

Base metals

13,100,963

13,901,965

15,129,513

5,221,877

893,762

1,099,688

3,903,918

1,257,823

109,193,759

17,245,445 108,319,489 114,121,140 732,807,939 891,762,591 93,371,351 98,337,599 164,478,372

25,954,193

19,763,095

7,481,087

3,663,087

4,423,263

13,452,759

1,906,317

133,685,401

37,823,112

6,319,227

7,806,181

22,029,169

20,710,370

1,044,207,848

666,417,506

413,908,577

554,180,059

164,154,578

210,351,631

107,515,317

36,459,891

16,229.676

14,900,341

9,856,411

9,868,266

211,973,981

38,021,949

24,944,927

34,374,080

35,649,259

55,010,844

199,936,622

205,190,956

301,868,708

62,619,766

15,352,099

33,680,461

48,641,861

68,554,529

î

Manufactures of metals

63,054,257

59,192,275

70,764,854

130,012,252

120,134,029

117,752,817

14,175,189

9,918,658

1,359,342,582

1,604,393,173

1,932,050,404

986,907,295 602,877,059

769,545,651

314,641,934

380,488,610

Machinery and transport equipment

Machinery other than electric

170,812,935

Electric machinery, apparatus and appliances

Transport equipment

177,038,050 105,657,427 151,710,247

77,755,757

269,037,709

39,380,736

8,482,808

12,236,502

27,525,424

24,627,367

175,879,350

46,593,250

35,173,284

47,343,945

18,801,891

20,020,919

97,748,389

153,921,324

39,839,307

30,140,728

17,219,449

14,010,380

21,502,385

354,226,119

426,496,686

598,838,383

125,813,293

73,796,820

76,799,896

60,337,695

66,150,671

Miscellaneous manufactured articles

Prefabricated buildings; sanitary, plumbing, heating and

lighting fixtures and fittings

12,562,467

12,331,201

14,889,727

53,802,629

60,909,296

69,962,710

1,779,204

1,530,108

Furniture and fixtures

5,915,634

7,071,853

8,312,720

34,926,511

43,035,531

49,200,104

1,191,385

930,843

Travel goods, handbags and similar articles

3,338,908

3,212,702

3,239,548

16,371,795

15,804,975

20,162,736

614,697

571,370

Clothing

65,115,889

66,211,750

70,988,558

525,114,151

793,320,747

1,010,397,662

16,852,067

13,599,491

Footwear

11,870,135

11,408,481

13,700,752

100,144,773

109,037,695 114,535,317

2,270,855

2,422,946

Professional, scientific and controlling instruments; photo-

graphic and optical goods; watches and clocks Miscellaneous manufactured articles, not elsewhere specified

160,178,348

100,949,507 117,416,071

359,930,888 355,865,934

138,213,876

176,220,292

41,572,824

140,008,189

427,359,786

208,206,488

980,139,171

14,382,663 262,887,463

1,299,378,370 1,672,760,548

15,807,229

26,567,186

51,807,978

392,694,790

31,889,176

81,164,570

34,842,243

105,704,979

Miscellaneous transactions and commodities, not elsewhere

specified

Postal packages

Live animals, not for food

TOTAL MERCHANDISE

Gold and monetary items

GRAND TOTAL

19,157,156 796,622

19,953,778

13,767,495

1,115,317

14,882,812

19,966,881 1,097,316

21,064,197

12,693,031 1,205,628

13,898,659

11,153,412 274,755

11,428,167

12,083,915

2,160

12,086,075

794,304

794,304

1,095,013

1,095,013

4,593,733,632 4,949,371,942

5,863,693,849

257,874,824 302,161,811

292,759,287

2,988,801,712 2,282,127,742

262,020,504

2,867,248,842

1,190,000

202,400

995,413,710 1,070,456,454

316,310,265 316,821,908

4,851,608,456 5,251,533,753

6,156,453,136

3,250,822,216 2,283,317,742

2,867,451,242

1,311,723,975

1,387,278,362

380

APPENDICES

Appendix V

(Chapter 7: Primary Production)

Summary of Primary Production

(to nearest $1,000)

Paddy

Vegetable

Fruit

Value

Value

Value

Item

1957-8

1958-9

1959-60

$

18,239,000

$

$

22,271,000 18,548,000

25,004,000 32,634,000 36,989,000

1,496,000 2,000,000 3,136,000

6,344,000

Sweet Potato Export Crops

6,425,000 6,400,000 2,736,000 2,041,000

2,811,000

Rice Straw

3,090,000

3,090,000

2,371,000

Poultry

4,000,000

19,489,000

38,400,000

Eggs

200,000

Ducks

2,505,000

2,583,000 4,353,000 6,072,000 7,100,000

Duck Eggs

566,000

445,000

Pigeons

875,000

336,000

826,000

Quail

19,000

7,000

9,000

Quail Eggs

67,000

Geese

160,000

795,000

81,000 910,000

Goose Eggs

69,000

Pigs

26,666,000

40,886,000

146,000 36,303,000

Cattle

1,869,000 2,376,000

Fresh Milk

10,900,000

1,558,000

10,822,000 12,450,000

Miscellaneous Animal

Products

Marine Fisheries

64,930,000

7,401,000 58,369,000

22,846,000 69,446,000

Fresh Frozen Shrimp

4,603,000 7,538,000

785,000

Remarks

1959-60

First crop $31 per picul Second crop $41 per picul. Records of Marketing Organizations plus value of produce consumed by 50,000 New Territories families, estimated at $3,699,000. Increasing production. Price relatively stable.

Exported under Certificate of Origin.

$4 to $6 per picul.

Estimated on census figures at $8 per bird.

Export figures plus local consumption at $7 each, on census figures.

Estimated on census figures at $7 per pair of squabs. At $1 per bird.

Eggs at 804 per dozen. On census figures at $10 each.

At $200 per picul and 65 catties average weight.

At $4.80 per catty, average weight 260 catties.

Pond Fish

1,700,000

Oyster & Oyster Sauce

1,750,000

1,450,000

1,500,000 2,465,000

2,400,000

Fresh Shrimp

48,000

61,000

82,000

Silver Shrimp

87,000

38,000

81,000

Spotted Fish

153,000

107,000

36,000

Fan Mussel

112,000

92,000

160,000

Seaweed

17,000

Forest Products

41,000

423,000

41,000

Total

177,608,000 229,483,000 271,139,000

Market figures + 10% eaten by fishermen + 15% landed in China.

The American authorities prohibited all imports of prawns and shrimps with effect from June 1959. Improved production and higher prices.

Increased production and higher prices for fresh oyster meat.

Exported in the form of slices and noodles.

Exported as paste and sauce. Poor year.

Higher prices, very slight increase in production.

Exported to Bangkok.

Sale of decayed and over- mature camphor trees and fire-wood.

       Dairy Cattle Yellow Cattle Water Buffaloes

Pigs

Sheep.

Goats

Rabbits

Chickens

Geese ..

Ducks

Turkeys

Quails

APPENDICES

Appendix V- Contd

(Chapter 7: Primary Production)

Livestock Population

(November 1960)

381

3,000

16,000

2,000

154,000

(14,000 breeding stock)

15

400

450

2,680,000

(110,000 breeding stock)

40,000 (20,000 breeding stock)

250,000

(14,000 breeding stock)

780 15,000

(10,000 breeding stock)

Pigeons

100,000 (30,000 breeding stock)

Marketing Organization Statistics

Fresh Marine Fish

1960

Golden Thread

Conger Pike

Lizard Fish ..

Horse Head

Big Eyes

Red Snapper

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

Piculs

Tons

Average annual wholesale price

per catty

149,603

8,905

$0.94

41,525

2,472

0.62

39,433

2,347

0.39

23,586

1,404

1.08

23,475

1,397

0.38

22,945

1,366

0.67

Fisheries' products sold through Wholesale Markets

Quantities & Values

1956 .

1957 1958 1959

1960

Piculs

Tons

Value $

679,187

40,428

43,267,461

783,033

46,609

51,041,714

754,421

44,906

47,439,259

838,197

49,893

57,142,637

793,450

47,229

53,904,468

Average Annual Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

::

::

::

Fresh Fish

Salt/dried Fish

66

49

65

47

57

37

70

45

69

47

382

APPENDICES

Appendix V- Contd

(Chapter 7: Primary Production)

Vegetables

1960

Piculs

Tons

Average annual wholesale price

per catty

Locally-produced

White Cabbage

313,503

18,661

$0.19

Flowering Cabbage

185,502

11,042

0.30

Leaf Mustard Cabbage

108,411

6,453

0.18

Chinese Kale

103,171

6,141

0.25

Water Spinach

75,029

4,466

0.16

Imported

Chinese Melon

11,723

698

0.17

Irish Potatoes

11,352

676

0.14

Round Cabbage

8,849

527

0.09

Tientsin Cabbage

7,991

476

0.22

Flowering Cabbage

7,711

459

0.11

Vegetables sold through Marketing Organization

Locally-produced

Piculs

Tons

Value $

1956

1,293,354

76,985

21,589,103

1957

1,193,662

71,051

21,719,517

1958

1,387,797

82,607

26,562,534

1959

1,507,869

89,754

33,808,230

1960

1,498,199

89,178

37,081,053

Imported

1956

122,363

7,284

1,685,920

1957

134,098

7,982

1,925,268

1958

118,374

7,046

1,584,748

1959

108,185

6,440

1,714,988

1960

132,028

7,859

2,085,664

Production of Minerals

Production in

Value in

Mineral

long tons

$

Feldspar

2,511.01

87,885

Graphite 80% fixed carbon

2,623.75

385,691

Graphite 50% fixed carbon

1,175.25

42,309

Iron ore

117,042.57

5,272,770

Kaolin clay

6,662.75

791,300

Quartz

3,811.96

66,179

Wolframite

31.21

246,246

Lead ore

0.0

APPENDICES

Appendix V-Contd

(Chapter 7: Primary Production)

Co-operative Societies

383

Type of Society

Member-

Paid-up

Loans

Loans *

Reserve

No

ship

share capital

granted

repaid

Deposits

Fund

$

$

$

$

$

Federations.. 6

84

8,600

5,000

1,000

24,230

Vegetable

Marketing.. 22

7,571 72,908 1,650,075

1,468,722

34,707 343,106

Fishermen's

Credit and

Housing

20

70

355 66,740

28,233

11,906 2,011

Fishermen's

Credit and

Marketing..

1

10 10,000

8,658

422

Fishermen's

Thrift and

Loan

43

1,130 10,725 1,126,145

899,181

536,588 31,868

Fishermen's

Thrift

1

17

170

Pig Raising ..

42

1,601

69,885 719,993

576,175

4,235

4,333 20,670

205

Agricultural

Credit

7

279

8,020 112,652

75,955

15

1,572

Salaried

Workers'

Thrift and

Loan

4

868

4,016

225,582

211,438

100,134 5,823

Building

162

3,334 333,400 | 18,035,704†

917,262

49,922

Irrigation

2

111

1,200

2,000

2,400

Fish Pond

1

117

585

1,670

Credit and

Consumers...

7

1,493 11,295 35,575

9,455

6,209

12,118

Better Living.

4

387 3,930

1,000

1,632

Total

304

17,072 | 535,089 |21,982,136

4,198,479

698,549 493,157

* Including repayment of loans issued during previous year. † Direct Government loans.

384

APPENDICES

Appendix VI

(Chapter 8: Education)

Education Statistics

Overseas Examinations 1960

Examinations

Number of entries

1958

1959

1960

      London Chamber of Commerce Examination (Spring) London Chamber of Commerce Examination (Summer)

601

610

836

224

298

350

London Chamber of Commerce Examination (Autumn) Pitman's Shorthand Examination (June)

207

342

603

196

264

288

Pitman's Shorthand Examination (July)

97

131

113

General Certificate of Education Examination

1,745

2,176

2,611

London University Degree Examinations

17

26

30

Chartered Shipbrokers Examination

2

3

Chartered Institute of Secretaries Examination (June)

23

23

24

24

29

Chartered Institute of Secretaries Examination

(December)

22

Institute of Book-keepers Examination (June)

Institute of Book-keepers Examination (December)

uw

35

55

Association of International Accountants Examination

(June)

30

A W NX

28

23

33

2290

29

52

40

46

30

Association of International Accountants Examination

(December)

55

51

30

Association of Certified & Corporate Accountants

Examination (June)

T

I

10

Association of Certified & Corporate Accountants

Examination (December)

43

50

43

Certificate of Proficiency in English (Cambridge

University)

3

a

British Institute of Management Examination

1

2

1

Institute of Fire Engineers Examination

11

8

British Federation of Master Printers

1

1

Awards made by the Government 1960

Award

Tenable at

Government Scholarship

Teaching Bursaries

Social Studies Bursaries

       Government Scholarships Teaching Bursaries

Maintenance Grants

Maintenance Grants

Grantham Scholarships

Number

Total

awarded

value

$

University of Hong Kong

24

55,100

University of Hong Kong

50

125,300

University of Hong Kong

6

15,000

Post-Secondary Colleges

14

21,800

Post-Secondary Colleges

42

69,300

Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools

129

10,530

Special Classes Centre

36

Secondary Schools

13

4,700

385

APPENDICES

Appendix VI- Contd

(Chapter 8: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Higher Studies in the United Kingdom in September 1960

Course

Arts

Students

32

69

33

282

16

22

6

126

216

83

69

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

.

:

:

:

.

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

11

14

6

2

34

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

Architecture (a)

Education

Engineering (b)

Economics

Chartered Accountancy

Dental

Medicine ..

GCE

Law

Science

Textiles

Secretarial

Social Science

Meteorology

Music

Nursing (c)

Other Courses (d)

:

:

:

:

:

662

163

1,846

(a) Includes Civic Design, Building Surveying, Building and Town Planning.

(b) Includes Soil Mechanics, Ship Navigation, Naval Architecture, Shipbuilding Engineering,

Structural Engineering.

(c) Includes Mental Nursing, Physiotherapy, Radiography and Radiotherapy.

(d) Includes Art, Interior Decorating, Interior Design, Beauty Culture, Agriculture. Estate Management, Dress Design, Domestic Science, Printing, Pharmacy and Dispensing Optician.

386

APPENDICES

Appendix VI- Contd

(Chapter 8: Education)

Different categories of schools

Number of Teachers (at March 1960)

2,940

Number of Schools (at September 1960)

Total Enrolment (at September 1960)

Government

93

84,182

(14.7 )

Grant

25

20,496

( 3.58)

925

Subsidized

416

155,086

(27.07)

4,323

Private

1,154

299,464

(52.28)

Special Afternoon

Classes

12,827

(2.24)

11,614

Special Education

9

751

(0.13)

Total

1,697

572,806

(100%)

19,802

Finance

Summary of Expenditure

1st August 1959-31st July 1960

(A) Recurrent Expenditure:

(1) Personal emoluments

(2) Other charges

(3) Maintenance and repairs of school buildings

(Public Works Department)

(B) Capital Expenditure:

(1) Furniture and equipment for Government

Schools

(2) New school buildings, including furniture and equipment (Public Works Department)

(C) Grants and Subsidies:

(1) Recurrent

(2) Capital

(D) Grants to Hong Kong University

(E) Expenditure by Other Departments

Total

$

$30,633,925 5,728,314

885,105

37,247,344

$ 348,513

6,954,919 7,303,432

$49,424,025

4,671,554

54,095,579

6,004,157

$104,650,512

(1) Medical and Health Department

$

964,000

(2) Kowloon-Canton Railway

149.965

(3) Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department

60,529

$ 1,174,494

APPENDICES

Appendix VII

(Chapter 9: Health)

Health Statistics

Students in Training

at 31st December 1960

387

Length 1st

of

2nd

3rd

4th

Number who successfully

year

year

year

year

completed

Course

training

during year

3

Student Assistant Radiographer

8

2

Student Assistant Physiotherapist

7

Student Dispenser

1

1

Student Laboratory Assistant

Student Medical Laboratory Technician

12

Student Male Nurse

27

Student Nurse

110

Student Male Nurse (Psychiatric)

22

Student Nurse (Psychiatric)

3

Student Midwives (Registered Nurses)

54

Student Midwives

2

22

Student Health Visitor

1

10

998 ISU

10

6

5

1

2

16

10

14

80

72

36

4

17

Tuberculosis Visitor

Almoner

11

∞ ∞ = ||Buell w

1

5

10

85

43

10

6

Vital Statistics

1951-1960

Infant Neonatal

Maternal

Estimated

Year

Mid-year Popula- tion

Registered Live Births

Crude

Mortality Mortality | Mortality

Live Birth Registered|

Rate

Death

Rate

Rate

Rate

Deaths

Rate

(per 1,000

(per 1,000 (per 1,000

live births)

live

total

births)

births)

1951

2,013,000 68,500

34.0

20,580

10.2

91.8

31.3

1.59

1952

2,250,000 71,976

32.0

19,459

8.6

77.1

26.3

1.15

1953

2,250,000 75,544

33.6

18,300

8.1

73.6

25.8

0.98

1954

2,277,000 83,317

36.6

19,283

8.5

72.4

24.6

1.24

1955

2,340,000 90,511

38.7

19,080

8.2

66.4

23.1

1.17

1956

2,440,000 96,746

39.7

19,295

7.9

60.9

24.2

0.90

1957

2,583,000 97,834

37.9

19,365

7.5

55.6

23.8

1.06

1958

2,748,000 106,624 38.8

20,554

7.5

54.3

23.4

0.85

1959

2,857,000 104.579

36.6

20.250

7.1

48.3

21.3

0.73

1960

2,981,000 110,667

37.1

19,146

6.4

41.5

20.9

0.49

388

APPENDICES

Appendix VII-Contd

(Chapter 9: Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths 1956-1960

1956

1957

Diseases

1958 Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths

1959 Cases Deaths

1960 Cases Deaths

Amoebic

dysentery

182

217

8

262

12

239

18

334

9

Bacillary

dysentery

(Including

unspecified

dysentery) ..

560

4

550

9

424

25

663

26

678

10

Cerebro-spinal

:

meningitis ..

21

9

21

9

28

17

25

17

30

21

Chickenpox

273

2

280

2

278

3

278

3

304

1

Diphtheria

714

75

1,239

129

1,555

134

2,087

116

1,450

95

Enteric fever

(Typhoid &

Para-typhoid)

789

48

728

33

816

34

997

32

773

30

39

Malaria

496

4

447

659

1

442

1

833

. Measles

709

86

875

93

786

191

743

176

710

192

*Ophthalmia

neonatorum

X

X

105

244

Poliomyelitis..

31

3

45

7

262

41

86

20

1

20

254

148

23

Puerperal fever

7

2

2

Scarlet fever..

14

5

4

10

1

1

24

17

1

Tuberculosis

12,155 2,629 13,665 2,675 13,485 2,302 14,302 2,178

12,425 2,085

Typhus (mite-

borne)

1

1

Whooping-

cough

119

2

96

Total

16,071 2,870 18,170 2,965 18,872 2,762

197

2

110

2

48

20,241 2,589 18,005 2,467

*Influenza

No record

21

No record

53

33,700 39

11,659 25 5,727 26

Remarks:

* Notifiable since June 1958.

† Voluntary notifications.

The above table omits rabies and the six quarantinable diseases-i.e. cholera, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the years.

APPENDICES

Appendix VII- Contd

(Chapter 9: Health)

Tuberculosis Statistics

389

Estimated

Tuberculosis

Year

Mid-year

death rate

Percentage of all deaths

Population

per 100,000

registered

Percentage of TB deaths below five years of age

1956 ..

2,440,000

107.0

13.6

25.0

1957 ..

2,583,000

103.6

13.9

21.2

1958 ..

2,748,000

83.3

11.2

19.6

1959 ..

2,857,000

76.2

10.7

19.0

1960..

2,981,000

69.9

10.9

10.6

Qualified Persons on Public Health Registers

Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding Government Personnel)

Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

712

67

Government Medical Officers

222

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeons)

351

Government Dental Surgeons

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

Government Pharmacists

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

42

20

20

20

1,041

Government Nurses

699

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers)

10

Government Dressers

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives)

Government Midwives

91

1,032

673

70

390

APPENDICES

Appendix VII- Contd

(Chapter 9: Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1960

Institutions

Number of Hospital Beds

GOVERNMENT HOSPitals and DISPENSARIES

A. Hospitals

Queen Mary

Kowloon

Mental

Castle Peak (Mental)

Sai Ying Pun

Tsan Yuk

Lai Chi Kok

Wan Chai Social Hygiene

St John

South Lantau

4 Prison Hospitals

B. Dispensaries

Aberdeen

Eastern

Stanley

Hung Hom

Hong Kong Jockey Club Clinic, Tai Po

Yuen Long

Sha Tau Kok

601

413

140

240

88

200

478

30

100

17

125

2,432

26

24

6

14

Ho Tung

Sai Kung

Tai O

San Hui

Sha Tin

Silver Mine Bay

Maurine Grantham

North Lamma

Peng Chau

Shek Pik First Aid Post

27

7

7

13

7

19

3

26

7

2

204

GOVERNMENT ASSISTED HOSPITALS

*Tung Wah

650

Tung Wah Eastern

336

†Kwong Wah

664

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

281

      Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association Ruttonjee Sanatorium Grantham

340

530

Pok Oi

124

Fanling

42

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium

540

Haven of Hope Tuberculosis Sanatorium

210

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home

54

3,771

Canossa Hospital

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Hong Kong Sanatorium

Precious Blood

St Teresa's

St Paul's

Hong Kong Central

Matilda and War Memorial

Nansen Tuberculosis Rehabilitation Centre

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

316

108

100

190

172

90

52

80

1.108

517

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

58

GRAND TOTAL

8,090

*Including 86 TB beds in Infirmary, Sandy Bay.

† Including 130 beds (i.e. 45 Medical & 85 Surgical) in Infirmary at Kwong Wah Hospital.

Including 45 beds used for either medical or surgical cases.

APPENDICES

Appendix VIII

(Chapter 10: Land and Housing)

Housing Provided in 1960

Tenement Floors

Private in categories

of rated dwellings

Flats

Government

Co-operative Societies

Housing Society

Housing Authority

Resettlement

391

2,217

1,676

2,226 units

390 flats

1,039 flats

2,249 flats

over 8,000 units

Resettlement Estate Statistics

1st January 1960 31st December 1960

A. Population

Cottage Areas (one-storey buildings)

Multi-storey estates

80,386

85,570

(a) 2-storey temporary buildings (b) 6 and 7-storey permanent

buildings

6,035

4,592

223,921

267.178

310,342

357,340

B. Premises of various types on 31st December 1960

(The numbers on 31st December 1959 are shown in brackets).

Cottage Areas

Multi-storey Estates

Domestic cottages and huts

14,346 (14,161)

Self-contained flats

Domestic rooms

297 (249)

48,759 (40,362)

Shops of various kinds

381 (378)

1,946 (1,635)

Restaurants and cafes

12 (12)

199 (187)

Workshops

45 (46)

545 (417)

Factories

30 (26)

300 (217)

Schools ..

22 (23)

97 (80)

Clinics & Welfare Centres

30 (21)

76 (65)

392

APPENDICES

Appendix IX

(Chapter 13: Law, Order and Records)

Cases in the Supreme Court, District Court and Tenancy Tribunal for the Year 1960

Supreme Court

Civil appeals

Criminal appeal

Original jurisdiction

Miscellaneous proceedings

Adoptions

Criminal sessions

No of Cases

17

622

682

314

173

30

Admiralty jurisdiction

9

Probate grants

580

Bankruptcy

10

Company winding-up

4

Total for Supreme Court

2,441

District Court

Criminal jurisdiction

Civil jurisdiction

309

5,254

Total for District Court

5,563

Tenancy Tribunal

     Ordinary cases Exemption cases

1,015

2,809

Total for Tenancy Tribunal

3,824

Work in the Magistracies for the Year 1960

Hong Kong Kowloon

New Territories

Total

Total number of summary matters (charges,

summonses and applications, etc)

60,323

76,679

7,583

144,585

Total number of adult defendants

59,242

74,182

9,403

142,827

Total number of adult defendants convicted

53,768

68,109

8,288

130,165

Total number of juvenile defendants

2,693

1,570

40

4,303

Total number of juvenile defendants convicted

2,601

1,471

40

4,112

Total number of charge sheets issued

21,104

23.353

4,662

49,119

Total number of summons issued

37,430

46,943

2,107

86,480

Total number of miscellaneous proceedings

issued

616

2,767

814

4,197

APPENDICES

Appendix IX-Contd

(Chapter 13: Law, Order and Records)

Serious Crime in the Year 1960

Offence

Number

Number

of cases reported

of cases detected

393

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed

16 years 17 years

& under

& over

921

24

19

+3 1

Class 1-Offences against the person

Murder-attempted

1. Murder

2.

3. Infanticide

4. Manslaughter

13

22 15

6

6

1

5. Serious assaults

535

509

37

467

6. Throwing corrosive fluids

4

3

2

7.

Abortion

11

10

9

8.

Abominable offences

1

1

1

9.

Gross indecency

4

4

1

10.

Indecent assault on a male

4

3

11.

Rape

2

1

1

12.

Indecent assault on a female

150

109

21

86

13.

Other serious offences on

women and girls

18

17

1

17

14. Kidnapping

1

1

1

15. Criminal intimidation

18

18

17

16. Bigamy

17. Incest

18. All other serious offences

against the person

29

18

1

10

Total serious offences against

the person

810

722

61

635

Class 2-Breaking offences

19. Sacrilege

20. Burglary

106

44

w |

-

3

35

21. Housebreaking

205

38

7

30

22. Housebreaking with intent

68

49

1

32

23. Shop and store breaking

68

26

1

20

24. Office breaking

11

4

3

3

25. Other breaking

7

4

4

26. Breakings-all attempted

8

5

5

Total breaking offences

473

170

15

129

394

APPENDICES

Appendix IX-Contd

(Chapter 13: Law, Order and Records) Serious Crime in the Year 1960

Offence

Number

Number of cases reported

of cases detected

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed 16 years 17 years

& under

& over

Class 3-Larceny offences

27. Robbery with firearms

1

28. Robbery with other offensive

weapons

22

29. Robbery with aggravation

56

30. Robbery

31. Assault with intent to rob

2637

10

26

911

0620

1

10

10

34

3

5

32. Demanding money, etc, with

menaces

78

57

33. Larceny from person (snatching) 34. Larceny from person (pickpocket)

281

141

41

22233

73

423

314

90

238

35. Larceny from dwelling..

756

258

55

153

36. Larceny from ship & wharf

30

20

24

37. Larceny from vehicle

603

242

46

102

38. Larceny of bicycle

391

196

18

100

39. Miscellaneous simple larceny

5,780

3,357 .

739

1,896

40. Receiving

92

92

8

52

Total larcenies

8,523

4,721

1,012

2,722

Class 4-Offences involving fraud

41.

Embezzlement

138

125

2

68

42. Larceny by servant

363

345

25

198

i

43. Larceny by bailee

63

50

9

29

44. Larceny by trick..

152

45

45. Obtaining by false pretences

197

169

27

28

79

46. Fraudulent conversion

67

..

61

2

35

47. Obtaining credit by fraud

16

15

12

48. Forgery

55

54

49. Obtaining by means of forgery

31

28

50. Possession of forged documents,

notes, dies, etc

15

155

51. Uttering forged documents, etc

81

81

3

6

16

52. Counterfeiting offences

53. Other frauds and cheats

287

282

4

183

Total frauds

1,465

1,270

52

666

APPENDICES

Appendix IX-Contd

(Chapter 13: Law, Order and Records)

Serious Crime in the Year 1960

Offence

Number

Number

of cases reported

of cases detected

395

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed 16 years 17 years

& under

& over

Class 5--Other serious offences

54.

55.

Arson

Malicious damage

56. Threatening letters other than

5

5

1

in

5

151

128

18

94

demanding

4

57. Conspiracies

13

13

13

1

33

58. Offering bribes to police

27

27

59. Offering bribes to others

8

8

1326

60. Soliciting or receiving bribes by

police

4

3

61. Soliciting or receiving bribes by

others

8

8

4

62. All other serious offences not

classified

43

41

1

37

Total other offences

263

235

21

209

Total of classes 1 to 5

11,534

7,118

1,161

4,361

Percentage of crime detected in classes 1 to 5 =

61.71%.

Class 6-Offences discovered

following arrest

63. Membership of an unlawful

society

1,127

1,127

6

1,094

64. Possession of arms and/or

ammunition

65. Unlawful possession

24

24

1,005

1,005

52

1123

20

851

66. Possession of housebreaking

implements

21

21

11

67. Possession of instrument fit for

unlawful purpose

112

112

68. Found on enclosed premises

28

28

21

2223

25

69. Loitering with intent to commit

a felony ..

228

228

5

207

70. Other serious offences

2

2

2

Total class 6 offences

2,547

2,547

66

2,242

Grand total of all serious crime

14,081

9,665

1,227

6,603

Percentage of crime detected in all classes = 68.63%.

396

APPENDICES

Appendix IX-Contd

(Chapter 13: Law, Order and Records)

Traffic

Comparative figures for the last six years are below:

Accidents

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

Fatal

139

131

125

154

174

183

Serious injury

735.

672

748

951

1,229

1,709

Slight injury

3,745

3,618

3,726

4,513

4,969

5,201

Damage only

7,156

7,580

7,415

9,032 8,987

7,605

Total

11,775

12,001 12,014 14,650 15,359

14,698

Number of Registered Vehicles, Licensed Drivers, Provisional (Learner) Licences issued and Driving Tests conducted

1955

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

Number of registered vehicles

24,986 29,004 31,685 35,314 39,629 47,232*

Number of licensed drivers

Provisional (Learner) licences

issued

49,366

61,824 76,053 89,429

104,288 118,310

56,971

Driving tests conducted

No Record

17,902 27,100 25,875 28,457 20,375

16,473 21,285 22,137 73,621

* These figures do not include non-motorized vehicles.

Population Movements

       Comparative figures for the last five years of movement in and out of the Colony and the issue of visas, passports, certificates of identity and re-entry permits are:

1956

1957

1958

1959

1960

Movement in and out of the Colony

Number of passports issued

2,967

Number of visas issued

30,391

3,009,681 3,104,393 2,164,650 2,224,503 2,479,019

3,609 3,626 4,350 5,662

34,466 38,331 37,627 38,169

Number of certificates of identity issued

10,708

Number of re-entry permits issued

434.016

16,349 17,187 14,223 16,628

409,677 363,092 337,202 371,079

1. Europe

APPENDICES

Appendix X

(Chapter 15: Communications)

Communication Statistics

Services to

Marine Statistics

Number of Shipping Lines providing regular sailings

Twenty

Twenty two

2. North America

3.

South America

4.

Australia and New Zealand

5.

Middle East

6.

Africa

7.

Round the World

8.

Asia

Nine

Thirteen

Fourteen

Sixteen

Six

Frequent sailings to all parts

SUMMARY OF FOREIGN TRADE

VESSELS ENTERED

397

Number

Class of vessels

Tons net

of vessels

Passengers landed

Cargo

landed tons

Ocean-going

5,098

15,261,930

33,605

4,577,276

River steamers

977

1,144,422

533,278

14,095

Junks

9,528

1,030,782

923,397

Mechanized vessels under 60

tons net

3,721

166,353

133,883

19,324 17,603,487

566,883

5,648,651

Vessels CLEARED

Number

Passengers

Class of vessels

Tons net

of vessels

embarked

Cargo loaded tons

Ocean-going

5,031

14,941,188

35,861*

1,932,635

River steamers

976

1,142,865 514,379

16.329

Junks

9,561

1,031,211

117,807

Mechanized vessels under 60

tons net

3,733

167,665

9,784

19,301

17,282,929

550,240

2,076,555

* Includes 5,750 Emigrants.

TOTALS FOR VESSELS ENTERED AND CLEARED

Year

1st April 1959 to

31st March 1960

Number of vessels all classes

Tons net

Passengers landed & embarked

Cargo loaded &

discharged

38,625

34,886,416 1,117,123*

7,725,206

* Includes 5,750 Emigrants.

398

APPENDICES

Appendix X-Contd

(Chapter 15: Communications)

Kowloon-Canton Railway, British Section*

Length of line ..

      Main points of call Passengers carried Passenger kilometres Freight carried

Total revenue

Main line-22 miles

Total length of line-35 miles New Territories (Hong Kong)

5,891,040 (5,993,037)

151,507,001 (126,677,301)

355,860.79 metric tons (253,862.27)

$9,848,285 ($8,076,133)

$4,312,634 ($3,860,707)

$5,535,651 ($4,215,426)

Operating expenditure

Net operating revenue

Capital expenditure

$ 350,051 ($681,606)

* Figures for 1959 are shown in brackets.

Vehicles

(Total of vehicles registered on 31st December 1959 Total of vehicles registered on 31st December 1960 Private cars (including 31 on Lantau Island) Motor cycles (including motor scooters)

Taxis (including 14 in NT)

Buses

Goods vehicles

Crown vehicles

Rickshaws

Tricycles

Density of vehicles per mile of roadway

Passenger aircraft

Passengers

Freight

Mail

41,298)

48,890 31,507

3,533

1,026

871

9,151

1,129

866

807

98

Air Traffic

In

Out

5,962

5,961

186,650

194.254

1,529,507 kilos

3,251,143 kilos

599,190 kilos

738,912 kilos

Telegraph and Radio Traffic

Telegrams accepted for transmission

Telegrams delivered

883,596 1,136,377

Telegrams handled in transit

1,022,618

Telex Calls-Outward minutes

82,603

Telex Calls--Inward minutes

94,538

Telex Calls -Relayed minutes

18,090

Overseas Radiotelephone Calls-Outward minutes

417,786

Overseas Radiotelephone Calls-Inward minutes

608,931

Radio Pictures-Transmitted

40

Radio Pictures-Received

34

Harborfone Calls with Ships in Harbour

52,792

Press Broadcast-Number of Hours

25,585

Meteorological Broadcasts-Morse-Number of Hours Inland Telegrams

47,031

3,698

Daily

APPENDICES

Appendix XI

(Chapter 16: Publications, Broadcasting and Films) Some Leading Newspapers and Magazines

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

South China Morning Post Hong Kong Tiger Standard

China Mail

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po Sing Tao Jih Pao Kung Sheung Yat Po Hong Kong Shih Pao

(Hong Kong Times) Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Pao

Tsun Wan Yat Po

Chiu Yin Pao

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Far Eastern Economic Review Sunday Examiner Weekend Mirror

Every two months

Hong Kong & Far East Builder

CHINESE LANGUAGE

Sin Sang Yat Po

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Chung Ying Po

Weekly

Kung Kao Pao Tung Fung

(East Pictorial) Chau Mut Pao

(Week-end News) Tse Yau Chun Hsin (Freedom Front) Sinwen Tienti

(Newsdom)

Chinese Student Weekly Sunday Post

Every ten days

Wan Kou Po

(Universal Daily)

Ching Po Daily

Tin Tin Yat Po

Tai Wah Po

Ming Pao

Hong Kong Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao

(New Evening Post) Chun Pao

(Truth Daily) New Life Evening Post Grand Evening Post Seng Weng Evening News

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Tai

(Observatory Review)

Kar Ting Sang Wood

(Home Life Journal)

Fortnightly

Modern Critique Children's Paradise

Monthly

Cosmorama Magazine Yah Chow

(Asia Pictorial)

Sin Chung Hwa Pictorial Hang Fook

(Happiness Pictorial) Tsing Nin Wen Yu

(Literary Youth) Hsin Kar Ting

(New Home) Sing Tao Pictorial Teachers' Magazine

399

400

Type of appointment

APPENDICES

Appendix XII

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Executive and Legislative Councils Executive Council

Names of members

on 1st January 1960

Changes in composition during the year

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Ex officio His Excellency the Commander Succeeded by Lieutenant-General

""

""

British Forces,

Lieutenant-General Sir Edric

Montague BASTYAN, KBE, CB

The Honourable the Colonial

Secretary,

Mr Claude Bramall Burgess,

CMG, OBE

The Honourable the Attorney

General,

Mr Arthur HOOTON, QC,

Acting

The Honourable the Secretary

for Chinese Affairs,

Mr Patrick Cardinall Mason

SEDGWICK, Acting

The Honourable the Financial

Secretary,

Mr Arthur Grenfell CLARKE,

CMG

Nominated The Honourable Douglas James

Smyth CROZIER, CMG, (Director of Education)

Sir Roderick William MCLEOD, KCB, CBE on 3rd June 1960

Mr David Clive Crosbie TRENCH, CMG, MC, acted as Colonial Secretary when Mr BURGESS assumed the office of OAG from 4th April 1960 to 29th May 1960

Mr Arthur RIDEHALGH, QC, resumed duty as Attorney General on 23rd April 1960

Mr John Crichton MCDOUALL resumed duty as Secretary for Chinese Affairs on 26th March 1960

Mr John James CowPERTHWAITE, OBE, acted as Financial Secretary from 15th April 1960 to 4th May 1960

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable

Sir Sik-nin CHAU, Kt, CBE

Mr Kwok Chan, OBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Sir Sik-nin CHAU from 15th February 1960 to 7th March 1960 and from 1st July 1960 to 14th September 1960

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Executive Council

Type of appointment

Names of members

on 1st January 1960

Changes in composition during the year

401

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd

Nominated The Honourable

Michael William TURNER, CBE

Mr H. D. M. BARTON, MBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr TURNER from 30th January 1960 to 16th February 1960 and from 17th March 1960 to 13th May 1960. Mr George Osborne Wauchope STEWART appointed provi- sionally during the absence of Mr TURNER from 15th November 1960

""

Type of appointment

The Honourable

Charles Edward Michael TERRY, CBE

The Honourable

Lo Man-wai, CBE

The Honourable

NGAN Shing-kwan, CBE

Dr the Honourable

Alberto Maria RODRIGUES, OBE, ED

Legislative Council

Names of members on 1st January 1960

Changes in composition during the year

PRESIDENT:

Ex officio His Excellency the Governor,

Sir Robert Brown BLACK,

KCMG, OBE

Mr C. B. BURGESS, CMG, OBE, assumed the office of OAG during the absence from duty of the Governor from 4th April 1960 to 29th May 1960

"

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander

British Forces, Lieutenant-General Sir Edric

Montague BASTYAN, KBE, CB

Succeeded by Lieutenant-General Sir Roderick William MCLEOD, KCB, CBE on 3rd June 1960

402

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Legislative Council

Type of appointment

Names of members

on 1st January 1960

Changes in composition during the year

Ex officio

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd

The Honourable the Colonial

Secretary,

Mr Claude Bramall Burgess,

CMG, OBE

The Honourable the Attorney

General,

Mr Arthur HOOTON, QC,

Acting

The Honourable the Secretary

for Chinese Affairs,

Mr Patrick Cardinall Mason

SEDGWICK, Acting

The Honourable the Financial

Secretary,

Mr Arthur Grenfell CLARKE,

CMG

Nominated The Honourable Allan INGLIS,

(Director of Public Works)

Dr the Honourable David

James Masterton MACKENZIE, CMG, OBE,

(Director of Medical and

Health Services)

The Honourable Colin George

Mervyn MORRISON, (Director of Urban Services)

Mr David Clive Crosbie TRENCH, CMG, MC, acted as Colonial Secretary when Mr BURGESS assumed the office of OAG from 4th April 1960 to 29th May 1960

Mr Arthur RIDEHALGH, QC, resumed duty as Attorney General on 23rd April 1960

Mr John Crichton MCDOUALL resumed duty as Secretary for Chinese Affairs on 26th March 1960

Mr John James CowPERTHWAITE, OBE, acted as Financial Secretary from 15th April 1960 to 4th May 1960

Mr Hector William FORSYTH appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr INGLIS from 15th June 1960

Dr TENG Pin-hui appointed pro- visionally during the absence of Dr MACKENZIE from 20th July 1960

Mr

David Richard Watson ALEXANDER, MBE, appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr MORRISON from 22nd August 1960. Mr Kenneth Strathmore KINGHORN appointed provisionally in place of Mr ALEXANDER and during the absence of Mr MORRISON from 23rd November 1960

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Legislative Council

Type of appointment|

Names of members

on 1st January 1960

Changes in composition during the year

403

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd

Nominated The Honourable Kenneth

Strathmore KINGHORN, (Commissioner of Labour)

"

""

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable

NGAN Shing-kwan, CBE

The Honourable

Kwok Chan, OBE

The Honourable

John Douglas CLAGUE, CBE, MC, TD

The Honourable

Hugh David MacEwen BARTON, MBE

The Honourable

Dhun Jehangir RUTTONJEE, OBE

The Honourable

FUNG Ping-fan, OBE

Appointed provisionally in the place of Mr P. C. M. SEDGWICK up to 13th March 1960. Mr Robert Marshall HETHERINGTON, DFC, appoint- ed provisionally in the place of Mr SEDGWICK from 15th March 1960 to 25th March 1960 and during the absence of Mr SEDGWICK from 1st April 1960 to 26th October 1960. Mr SEDGWICK resumed his seat on 27th October 1960

Mr George Macdonald GOLDSACK appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr CLAGUE from 5th April 1960 to 30th June 1960. Succeeded by Mr GOLDSACK on 1st July 1960

Mr Donald BLACK appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr BARTON from 22nd July 1960 to 24th November 1960

The Honourable

"9"

Richard Charles LEE, OBE

The Honourable

""

KWAN Cho-yiu, OBE

Note: The style and decorations of members are given as on 1st January 1961.

404

APPENDICES

Appendix XIII

(Chapter 27: Bibliography)

Official Publications

       The Government Printer issues a catalogue every quarter of all official publications that are in print. The latest catalogue may be had from the Government Printer, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong, and from the Government Publications Bureau, General Post Office, Hong Kong.

The following are the more important official publications issued during 1960:

Ordinances of Hong Kong, 1959

Regulations of Hong Kong, 1959

Hong Kong Annual Report, 1959 (out of print)

Annual Departmental Reports, 1959-60

Grantham Scholarships Fund Committee Report, 1959

Hong Kong Hansard Reports, 1959

Public Works Sub-Committee of Finance Committee Report, 1959-60 Estimates, 1960-1

Hong Kong Law Reports and District Court Law Reports, 1960 Part I Hong Kong Law Reports and District Court Law Reports, 1960 Part II

Hong Kong Government Staff List, 1960

Hong Kong General Clerical Service and Typists List, 1960

Hong Kong Commerce, Industry, Finance Directory, 1960 Jury List, 1960

School Certificate Examination Papers, 1960

Hong Kong Imports and Exports Classification List, 1961

Town Planning Maps and Charts

Meteorological Results, 1959 Part I

Meteorological Results, 1959 Part II

Handbook and Syllabus (Education Department)

Electricity Supply Companies Commission Report, 1959

Astronomical Tables for Hong Kong, 1961

Highway Code

A Gazetteer of Place Names in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New

Territories

Issued Weekly:

Hong Kong Government Gazette

Issued Monthly:

Trade Statistics, Imports and Exports and Re-exports

Issued Monthly (by Commerce and Industry Department):

Trade Bulletin

Index

Index

A Ma Wat, 15

Aberdeen, 100, 102, 147, 161, 208

Accidents, 125, 396

Industrial, 69, 358

Accountant General, 60, 202, 322 administration, Government, 320-4

Admiralty, 155

Adoption, 173, 206

Adult education, 114-5

after-care, Prisoners', 199 aged, Homes for, 180

Agence France Presse, 240 Agricultural land, 87-8 Agricultural show, 199

Agriculture, 16, 42, 54, 87-8, 92-4,

291-2

Agriculture and Forestry Department, 14, 25, 88, 90-2, 94-6, 98-9, 298 Air-conditioners and fans, 73 Air traffic, 398 Aircraft engineering, 71 airport, International, 58-9, 71, 84, 133, 154, 209, 225-7, 231, 234, 314, 318

        Alexander Grantham, The, 222 Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

Hospital, 142

Aliens, 38

Alister Hardy, The, 100

Alliance Church, 265

Aluminiumware, 67, 71

Alvares, J, 304

Amenities, 96, 123, 282-5

America, Central and south, 44,

223, 316

American Bureau of Shipping, 224

Amherst, 305

Amoy, 304

Amphibians, 297

Anglican church, 265

Anglo-Chinese Grammar Schools,

110, 117

Animal diseases, 96

Animal industries, 94-6

Animals 295-6

Antara News Agency, 240

antecedents, Historical, 303-7

Ap Chau, 103, 159

Apprentices, 53-4

Approved schools, 176

Arabs, 304

Area, 88-9, 289

Argentina, 85, 233

Argyle Street playground, 209, 284 Armed forces, 38, 50, 181, 245, 280,

283-4, 315-6, 320 Arsenal Street, 210 Art collections, 276-7

arts, The, 121-2, 274-6

Assets and liabilities, 57, 364-5 Associated Press of America, 240

Association football, 279

Association of Universities of the

British Commonwealth, 113 Attorney General, 319-21 Audit, Director of, 322 Auditors, 203

Australia, 44, 71, 73, 78, 85, 114,

118, 197, 223, 227, 233, 255, 309 Australian Associated Press, 240 Australian Tariff Board, 78 Austria, 85, 233

Auxiliary defence services, 256-9 Auxiliary Fire Service, 256, 259 Auxiliary Medical Service, 256, 258-9 Aviation, 225-8

Bangkok, 80, 233 Banking, 66, 366

Banknotes, 64-6

Bankruptcies and liquidations, 199,

204-5

Baptist church, 265

Bathhouses, 147

Bathing and beaches, 282-3, 318 Bay View, 145, 147

BCG vaccine, 124, 127, 130, 135 Beacon Hill, 28, 32 Beaconsfield Arcade, 209

Beer, 59

Belgium, 85, 166, 233 Benelux, 78

Bermuda, 170

Bets and sweeps tax, 62

Better Living Societies, 106, 159 Bianchi, Bishop L, 269

Bibliography, 330-51

Big Head, 94

Binnie, Deacon & Gourley Ltd,

Messrs, 12, 13, 21-2, 28

Birds, 296-7

Births and deaths, 38, 126, 128, 199,

206, 387

Blake, Sir H, 310

408

Blake Gardens, 207

Blast, 92

blind, Care of, 178-9

Block crown leases, 87 Blood banks, 139-40

Board of Education, 119, 311 Boat building, 73

Boat dwellers, 37, 40-41, 292 Boeing aircraft, 227

Boilers and pressure receivers, 51 Books, 241, 276-7

Borneo, North, 43-4, 54, 118, 197 Botanic gardens, 7, 283, 298 Boundary Street, 151, 310 Boxer rising, 268

Boy Scouts and Wolf Cubs, 121, 174 Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association,

121, 174, 278

Braden, Bernard, 243

Brass, 71

Brassfounder's ague, 52 Brazil, 85, 233 Brewery, 55

Bribery and corruption, 189-90 Brick Hill, 147

British-

Council, 114, 118, 121, 245,

277-8

Institute of Management, 69 Phosphate Commission, 43 Red Cross Society, 120, 140,

179, 182 subjects, 38

Universities Selection Committee,

113

broadcasting, Commercial, 251-4, 318 broadcasting, Government, 242,

246-51, 318

Brocade, 67

Bronchopneumonia, 125, 132

Brother Cassian Memorial Award,

121

Brunei, 43

Bubonic plague, 7

Buddhists, 139, 173, 270-1, 273, 314 Building-

Authority, 151, 158, 205 construction, 157

co-operative societies, 106

covenants, 152

force, 42

fragmentation, 200-1

Government, 207-9

industry, 71

land, 87

New, 158, 190

Private, 40-1, 204-5, 317

Bureau Veritas, 224 Burma, 85, 197, 233, 304

INDEX

Burnham scale, 116 Bursaries, 118, 384 Bus services, 218-9 Business registration, 63 Butterflies and moths, 297-8 Buxey Lodge, 208-9

Cable & Wireless Ltd, 232-4, 247 Cadastral survey, 88-9 Caine Road, 268 Cambodia, 197, 233

Cambridge University, 194 Canada, 44, 71, 77, 85, 103, 114,

193, 197, 233, 255

Cancer, 125

Canossa hospital, 138, 269 Cantlie, Dr J, 312

Canton, 37, 304-8, 311, 314-5

Canton Trust & Commercial Bank, 66

Canton, Kowloon- railway, 228-9,

311, 398

Cantonese, 39-40, 50, 110-1, 142,

175, 194, 249, 254, 274, 292, 300 Cape Collinson, 148

Cape Collinson Training Centre,

198, 208

Cape St Mary, The, 100

car parks, Multi-storey, 209, 230 CARE (Co-operative for American

Relief Everywhere, Inc), 103, 159, 180

Care of handicapped, 178-80 Caroline Hill, 209

Carpets, 55

Carving, 67

Cassian, Brother, 121

Castle Peak, 16, 41, 55, 60, 97, 100,

159, 176, 266, 270

Castle Peak Boys' Home, 176 Castle Peak Hospital, 136, 142, 207 Catchwaters, 10, 14, 18, 19, 24-5 Cathay Film Services (Hong Kong)

Ltd, 243

Cathay Pacific Airways, 227

Catholic Relief Services, 174, 182,

269

Catholic Truth Society, 269

Cattle, 94-5

Causeway Bay, 208, 268, 271, 317 Cement, 71

Cemeteries, 148

Census, 6, 37, 41, 126, 242

Central African Federation, 79, 233

Central Midwives Board, 142

Central News Agency, 240

Central Office of Information, 244,

246

Ceramics, 107

Certificates of indebtedness, 65

Certificates of origin, 82, 94 Cetaceans, 296

Ceylon, 233

Cha Kwo Ling, 156

Chadwick O,

312

Chai Wan, 145, 156, 207, 210 Chartered Bank, 64, 66

Chatham Road, 211

Chau, Sir S. N, 68

Chau Kung Island, 25

Chek Lap Kok, 266

Chemist, Government, 140

Cheung Chau Electric Co Ltd, 215 Cheung Chau Island, 16, 40-1, 100,

137, 159, 210, 212, 215, 217, 234, 237

Cheung Sha Wan, 146-7, 208 Cheung Chi-doy, 279

Chi Ma Wan prison, 97, 198, 208 Chicago International Fair, 80 Child welfare, 172-4

Children's Centre, Kowloon, 177 Children's Playground Association,

121

Chile, 85, 233, 235

China, 6, 25-7, 33, 37, 39-41, 48, 64-5, 68, 74-5, 83, 94, 101, 103, 113, 130, 139, 151, 160, 189, 221, 225, 228-9, 231, 239-40, 267, 276, 289-90, 292, 298, 303-8, 312, 314-6 China Light & Power Co Ltd, 111,

214

China Mail, 240.

China Motor Bus Co Ltd, 162, 218-9 Chinese Affairs, Secretariat for,

         168-9, 241, 249, 271, 311, 323 Chinese Churches' Union, 266 Chinese General Chamber of

Commerce, 82, 121

Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

47, 82

Chinese Middle Schools, 110, 114,

117

Chinese New Year, 44-5, 50, 272, 300

Chinese partnerships, 202

Ching Ming, 228, 272

Chiuchow, 39, 50, 249, 273

Choi Hung, 163-4, 167

Cholera, 7, 133

Chow, Miss Mimi, 275

Christian Welfare & Relief Council,

266

Christians, 139, 173, 265-70

Chuenpi, Convention of, 307

Chuk Yuen, 166

Chung Chi College, 266

Chung On Street, 231

INDEX

Chung Sing Benevolent Society, 139,

272

Chung Yeung, 272

Chungshan, 39

Church of Christ in China, 265-6

Church World Service, 141, 172, 182 churches, Anglican and Protestant,

265-7 Cigars, 59

Cinemas, 255

City Hall, New, 207-8, 230, 274, 276 Civil-

Aid Services, 209, 256, 259

Aviation, 225-8

Defence Services, 258-9

Service, 42, 320-7

Clague, Mr J. D, 81

Clan land, 88

409

Clansmen's associations, 139, 182, 272 Cleansing, 143, 148

Clear Water Bay, 324 Clementi, Sir C, 314

Clementi Middle School, 207 Climate, 5-6, 236-8, 293-4

Clinics, 51, 123, 127, 138-9, 207 Coinage, 64

collections, Government art, 276-7 Collective agreements in industry, 50 Colombia, 233

Colonial development and welfare,

15, 17-18, 33, 58, 100, 363 Colonial Office, 56, 90, 113, 330 Colonial Secretariat, 276, 320

Commerce and Industry Department,

46, 80-3, 322

Commerce, Industry, Finance

Directory, 81

Commercial Radio, 251-2

Commissioner of Rating & Valuation,

60

Commonwealth Economic

Consultative Council, 79

Commonwealth preference, 59,

75, 83

Commonwealth Scholarships and

Fellowships, 118

Commonwealth Television News, 246

Commonwealth War Graves

Commission, 148

Communicable diseases, 127-33

Communications, 221-34, 293

Community centres and development,

170-2

Community Typhoon Relief Fund,

104, 181

Companies Registry, 199, 201-4

Conditions of employment, 44-6, 50 Confucianism, 271

410

Congo, 80

Congress of Scientific Management,

Twelfth, 69

Connaught Road, 210, 312

Conservancy, 148

Constitution, 319-20

Consular corps, 85

Contracts for emigrant workers, 44

control, Trade, 82-3 controls, Rent, 168-9

Conventions of Peking, 7, 310 Co-operative Development and Fisheries Department, 90, 99, 101-3, 105

Co-operative societies, 105-7, 159,

162, 383

Corruption, 189-90

Cost of living, 46

Costa Rica, 85, 279

Côte d'Ivoire, 80

Cottage resettlement, 166, 391

Cotton textiles, 42-3, 46, 55, 67,

71-2, 75-7

Council, British, 114, 118, 121, 245,

277-8

Courts, 176, 186-7, 392

Crematoria, 148

Crime, 191-3, 393-5

Crops, 54, 93-4

Crown land, 87-8, 96, 112, 151-5,

159, 200

Crown Lands & Surveys Office, 156

Crown leases, 87, 151

Cuba, 85

Currency, 64-6

Customs, 83-5, 222

Daily Commodity Quotations, 240 Dairy Farm Ice & Cold Storage

Co Ltd, 50

Dams-

Shek Pik, 21-4, 210 Shing Mun, 9, 13

      Tại Lam, 14, 20, 198 Tai Tam Tuk, 8-9

Dance halls tax, 62 de Havilland aircraft, 227

Deaf and Dumb, Chinese Overseas

School for the, 179

Deaf, Hong Kong School for the,

179

Death rate, 206, 387

Deep Bay, 94, 290

Defence, 56, 256-9

Defence (Finance) Regulations, 66 Defence Force, Royal Hong Kong,

& Volunteer Defence Corps,

256-8, 284, 315

INDEX

Delinquency, 175-7

Denmark, 76, 185, 233, 305 Dental Council, 124

Dental services, 124, 135, 140-1 Dentistry, 141

Des Voeux Road, 312 Development fund, 13, 327 Development Loan Fund, 58 development, Trade, 76-81 Diamond Hill, 148, 156 Diphtheria, 125, 131, 134 disabled, Care of, 178-80 Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society,

175, 192

diseases-

Communicable, 127-33, 388 Occupational, 51, 358

Quarantinable, 125

Respiratory and gastro-intestinal,

125

Dispensaries, 207

Distillation of seawater, 23, 29, 34 District Associations, 139

District Courts, 176, 186

District health work, 143

District Officers, 88, 120, 151, 158,

168, 181, 200, 212, 324-5

District Watch Force, 321

Diversification of industry, 73

Dixey, Dr F, 11

Dockyards, HM, 50, 155, 223, 229, 283 Doctors, 141

Documentation of origin, 82

Dollar, British trade, Hong Kong,

Mexican & Spanish, 64

Dollar coins, 65

Dominican Republic, 85

Douglas aircraft, 227-8

Dragon boat festival, 272 Drainage, 209-10 Drama, 122, 274-5 Drawback, 60 Dress, 39

Driving licences, 396

Drought, 236

Ducks and geese, 95

Dutiable commodities legislation, 59

duties, Import and excise, 57-60, 84,

362

Dysentery, 132

Earnings and profits tax, 61-2 Earthquakes, 235-6

East India Company, Honourable,

305

East River, 41

Eastern District, 145

ECAFE, 79-80

Economic conditions, 292-3

411

education, 103, 109-22, 146, 178,

195, 311-2

Adult, 109, 114-5 Board of, 119

Conference (Oxford, 1959), 118 finance, 118, 386

Higher overseas, 113-4, 277-8, 385 Post-secondary, 109, 111-3, 170,

278

Primary, 103, 109-10 Secondary, 109-111

Voluntary, 120-1

Electric torches, batteries and

bulbs, 67

Electrical & Mechanical Depot, 209

Electricity, 157, 212

Electricity Commission, 212-3

Elliot, Capt C, 306-8

Embroidery, 67

Emergency relief, 180-1

Employers' housing, 161

employment, 42-55, 293, 355-6

bill, 51

Conditions of, 44-6, 50 Liaison Office, 50

Enamelware, 67, 76, 79, 107 Engineering, 42, 73

English, 39, 69, 110, 142, 194, 203,

240, 274

Enteric fever, 125, 131

Entertainment tax, 62

Epidemics, 125

Erosion, 14, 96-7

       Essential Services Corps, 256, 258 Estate duty, 62 Estimates, 56-8 Europe, 44

      European Economic Community, 78 European Free Trade Association, 78 Evening Institute, 114

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 114

Examinations, 114, 116-8, 122, 199,

384

Exchange control, 66, 75, 82

Exchange fund, 65

Exchange rates, 65, bookmark

Excise duties, 58-60

Executive Council, 13, 21-2, 190,

311, 319, 400-1

expenditure, Government, 33-4, 56-7, 112, 124, 128, 138, 165, 212, 232, 327, 360-1

       Exports, 60, 81, 369-70, 374-9 Export promotion, 81

Extensions to the Colony, 7, 310-1 Extra-mural studies, 114

INDEX

Fa Hui park, 209

Factories and industrial undertakings, 43, 45, 51, 67-8, 153, 166, 201, 292-3, 317

Factory registration and inspection,

47, 52, 67, 357

Family Planning Association, 182 Family welfare, 172-4

Family Welfare Society, 172 Fan Pui, 20

Fanling, 32, 141, 150, 159, 208, 228, 266 FAO, 99

Far East Bank, 66

Far East Flying Training School, 227 Far Eastern Economic Review, 240 Fauna, 295-8

Federation of Hong Kong Industries,

68-9

Fees of court or office, 58 fees, School, 118 Feldspar, 107 Ferries, 84, 216-7

Ferry piers, 210

Fertilizers, 92-3, 105, 148

Festival of the Arts, 274-5, 277 festivals, Chinese, 271-3

Fiduciary issues, 65

Film censorship, 255 Film industry, 254-5

films, Government, 242-3

Filtration plants, 7-8, 11, 14, 16, 28 Finance Committee of Legislative Council, Standing, 13, 21, 23, 33, 320

finance, Education, 118

finance, Health, 124

finances, Public, 56-63

Financial control, 56

Financial Secretary, 56, 319-20, 322 Fines, forfeitures & licences, 58 Finland, 81, 85, 233

Fire Brigade, 138, 208, 222, 324 Fire risks, 98-9, 167, 181, 208, 227 First aid, 51, 53, 282 Fish-

Fresh, 102-3 Fry, 94

Marine, 99-100, 298

Marketing Organization, 99-100,

102-5, 381

Ponds, 94, 99

Salt/dried, 103

fisherfolk, Training and education of,

103-4

Fisheries, 100-1, 237

administration, 99-100

Advisory Committee, 99 Development Loan Fund, 100 Research Unit, 99-100

412

fishermen, Loans to, 102

Fishing, 40, 42, 54, 90, 99-102, 273,

292

Foods, 94, 181, 210, 236

Flora, 299-302

Fluoridation, 140

Flushing, 12

Food, 74

Food inspection, 144-5

Foot and mouth disease, 96

Football pool betting, 282 Footwear, 67, 76, 78 forces, Local, 256-8

Foreign Assets Control Regulations

(US), 83

Foreign exchange banks, 66, 366

Forestry, 14-5, 25, 89-91, 96-9, 291

Forrester, Dr Leon, 121

Fortress Hill playground, 209

Foster Parents' Plan, 172

Four Districts, 39

France, 38, 78, 85, 233, 305

Free churches, 265-6

      Free Trade Association, European, 78 Freni Memorial Convalescent Home,

137-8

Friends' Service Committee, 172 Fruit, 74, 93, 291, 299

Fu Shui Forest Reserve, 97 Fukien, 39-40

Full Court, 186

Fung Ying Sin Kwun monastery, 270

      Game licences and wardens, 298 Games, 279-82

Garden Road, 257-8, 268

      Garment industry, 42-3, 67, 71, 79 Gas, 215

Gascoigne Road, 211

Gastroenteritis, 125

GATT, 79

Gazette, Official, 108

General Certificate of Education, 117

General health, 125-7

General Medical Council, 141 General Nursing Council, 142 Geographical setting, 289 Geography, 5-6, 289-94 Geology, 11, 289-91 Germany, 75-6, 78, 85, 233 Ghana, 43, 80, 233

Gimson, Sir F, 316

Gin Drinker's Bay, 68, 148-9

Girl Guides and Brownies, 121, 174,

278

Gloucester Road, 210 Gloves, 67, 78, 187 Golf, 280

INDEX

Government-

administration, 320-4

collections, 276-7

Conveyancer, 200 Gazette, 108

Information Services, 241-6 Governor, 108, 113, 162, 176, 190, 205, 270, 272, 308, 320, 323, 326 Governor in Council, 13, 21-2, 218,

320

Grammar Schools, 110

Grant Code, 119

Grantham, Sir Alexander, 300

Grantham Hospital, 124, 128, 137 Grants-in-aid, 123

Graphite, 107

Greece, 85

Green Lane, 208

Group work with young people, 174 Guatemala, 85

Guinea, 80

Gulf of Tong King, 100

Hakka, 39-40, 240, 292

Hang Hau, 40

Happy Valley, 215, 219, 279

Harborfone, 233

Harvard Graduate School of Business

Administration, 70

Haven of Hope Sanatorium, 138, 267 Hawker Control Force, 143, 147 Hawkers, 146-7, 188, 209

Health, 123-50

Health-

education, 134, 136

General, 7, 125, 310, 313 Industrial, 51

inspectors, 142-3

Mental, 135-6, 178-80, 184-5

services, 133-6, 143-6

specialist services, 139-40

training, 141-3, 387

visitors, 52, 134, 142

Healthy Village, 160

Healy Tibbetts Construction Co

Ltd, 25

Heart disease, 125

Heavy industries, 70-1

Hebe Haven, 23, 27-32

Hei Ling Chau Leprosarium, 129,

138, 179

Helicopters, 25, 138 Helsinki, 81

HM Customs & Excise, 83

HM Dockyard, 50, 155, 223, 229 herbarium, Colonial, 285, 302 Heung Yee Kuk, 153, 325-6 Higher education, 111-3

Higher studies overseas, 113-4

413

         Hilliard, Dr L. T, 136, 180 Hinds, Richard Brinsley, 285 History, 303-18

Ho Man Tin, 211 Hoiping, 39

Hok Hoi Library, 249

Hok Yuen, 214, 230 Hokkien, 40

Hoklo, 39-40, 292 Honduras, 85

Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering

Co Ltd, 227

Hong Kong Amateur Boxing

Association, 280

Hong Kong Amateur Swimming

Association, 280

Hong Kong and China Gas Co

Ltd, 50, 215

Hong Kong and Far East Builder,

240

Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 49

Hong Kong & Kowloon Wharf &

Godown Co Ltd, 162, 223 Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 64, 66 Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co

Ltd, 216-7

Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis

Association, 124, 128, 137-8 Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, 257 Hong Kong Auxiliary of the Mission

to Lepers, 124, 129

Hong Kong Bird Watching Society,

298

Hong Kong Chinese School

Certificate, 117

Hong Kong Christian Council, 266 Hong Kong College of Medicine,

311-2

Hong Kong Communications Board,

232

Hong Kong Council of Social

Service, 121, 160, 170-2, 321 Hong Kong Cricket Club, 281 Hong Kong Daily Press, 7

Hong Kong Dental Society, 140 Hongkong Electric Co Ltd, 161,

213-4

Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 48

Hong Kong Football Association,

279, 284

Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 80, 82, 121 Hong Kong Government office,

          London, 85, 244, 322 Hong Kong Government Trade

Representative, Sydney, 85, 322

INDEX

Hong Kong Horticultural Society,

302

Hong Kong House, London, 114 Hong Kong Housing Society, 160-1 Hong Kong Island, 24-5, 60, 100, 102, 130, 136, 143-6, 148, 154, 168, 215, 289, 295, 298, 307-18 Hong Kong Junior Chamber of

Commerce, 70, 121, 146

Hong Kong Lawn Bowls

Association, 281

Hong Kong Lawn Tennis

Association, 281

Hong Kong Management

Association, 69-70

Hong Kong Medical Council, 124 Hong Kong Midwives Board, 142 Hong Kong Natural History

Society, 298, 302

Hong Kong Regiment, 257 Hong Kong Royal Naval Reserve, 257 Hong Kong Sanatorium &

Hospital, 142

Hong Kong School Certificate, 116 Hong Kong Sea School, 177 Hong Kong Settlers Housing

Corporation, 161

Hong Kong Society for

Rehabilitation, 52, 179

Hong Kong Society for the Blind,

179-80

Hong Kong Stadium, 284

Hong Kong Stock Exchange, 254 Hong Kong Students' Office,

London, 113

Hong Kong Teachers' Association,

49, 121

Hong Kong Technical College, 49, 69 Hong Kong Telephone Co Ltd, 234 Hong Kong Textiles Negotiating

Committee, 76

Hong Kong Tiger Standard, 240 Hong Kong Times, 239 Hong Kong Tourist Association, 86 Hong Kong Tramways Ltd, 162, 219 Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary

Air Force, Auxiliary Army Corps and Naval Reserve, 257

Hongs, 305

Honolulu, 233

Hospitals, 123, 128, 136-8, 207,

211, 265, 313, 390 Hospital Road, 213

Hotels, 86

Housing, 43, 125, 159-64, 391

Authority, 12, 162-4, 167, 323 Employers', 161-2, 220

Government, 162, 208-9 Society, 160-1

414

Hughes, Mr H. O, 80

Hull, Brigadier G. B. G, 13

Hung Hom, 145, 156, 160, 210 Hung Look Daily News, 240 Hung Shing Ye, 303

     Hungary, 233 Hydrocarbon oils, 59

hygiene, Environmental and food,

123, 126, 143-9

Immigration, 37-8, 54, 171, 190-2,

196, 222, 303, 323, 396

Import and excise duties, 58-60, 67 Imports, 59-60, 367-8, 373, 376-9 INAH, 135

Income tax, 60-2

India, 38, 76, 85, 122, 227, 304-5,

319

Indian Chamber of Commerce, 82 Indonesia, 43, 75, 77, 85, 240, 303,

309

Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council,

[FAO], 99

Indus river, 27

Industrial-

accidents, 69, 358 development, 15, 292-3 health, 51-4, 123, 136 relations, 46-8, 69 safety, 51-4 standards, 69

training, 68-70

undertakings, 42 welfare, 53-4

       Industry, 54, 67-73, 355-6 industry, Film, 254-5 industry, Tourist, 85-6

Infant and child welfare, 172-4 Infectious diseases, 127-33, 388 Influenza, 132-3

Information Services Department,

121, 146, 241-6 Inland lots, 151

      Inland Revenue Department, 322 insecticides, Poisoning from, 84, 92 Institution of Mechanical Engineers,

69

Insurance, 202, 311

Integrated water schemes, 12, 19,

32-4

Interest tax, 61

Internal revenue, 58, 60-63 Internal Security, 192

International Certificates of

Vaccination, 133

International Committee for Scientific Management, 69 International Confederation of

Free Trade Unions, 49

INDEX

International Labour Conventions, 47 International Salvage (Association)

Ltd, 225

International Sanitary Regulations,

125, 133

International Seismological

Summary, 235

International Social Service Inc, 174 International Union of Geology

and Geophysics, 235 Interpol, 193

Ireland, 85, 113-4, 233 Iron mine, 55, 107, 292 Irrigation, 16, 17 Israel, 85

Italy, 85, 233 Ivory, 67

Japan, 6, 10, 37-8, 64, 71, 73-5, 77, 85, 89, 107, 196, 226-7, 233, 240-1, 254, 257, 292, 313, 315-6 Jews, 304

Jiji Press, 240

Joint Primary Six Examination, 116 Jordan Road, 217

Jordan Valley, 145, 210

Joseph Trust Fund, 91, 106

Jubilee Reservoir, 9, 19, 32, 300 Jubilee Street, 216

Judicial Trustee, 199 Judiciary, 320

Junk Bay, 71

junks, Mechanization of, 100, 223 justice, Courts of, 176, 186-7, 392 Justices of the Peace, 176, 186, 326 Juvenile Care Centre, 177 Juvenile delinquency, 175-7

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid

Association, 15, 17-18, 91, 212 Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 91

Kaifongs, 120, 136, 139, 145-7, 182,

187, 205, 249, 284

Kai Tak airport, 28, 58-9, 71, 84, 133, 154, 209, 215, 225-7, 231, 234, 314

Kam Tin Road, 230

Kaolin, 107

Karachi, 233

Ke-shen, 307-8

Kennedy Town, 146, 163, 219, 272 Kenya, 79

Kerosene pressure stoves and lamps,

73

Kier, J. L, & Co Ltd, 25 Kindergarten schools, 110, 120

King's Park, 211, 234

Korea, 83, 85, 280

415

Kotewall, Sir Robert, 276 Kowloon (peninsula), 7, 12, 28, 32, 60, 68, 102, 104-5, 130-1, 137, 141, 143-5, 147-8, 151, 154, 156, 163, 168, 177, 188, 207-8, 211, 214, 217, 228, 268, 289, 303, 307, 310, 317-8, 324 Kowloon-Canton Railway, 53,

228-9, 311, 398

Kowloon General Hospital, 137,

139, 207, 313

Kowloon Hills (Forest Reserve),

97, 290

Kowloon Motor Bus Co (1933) Ltd,

219

Kowloon Naval Yard, 155 Kowloon Tsai, 167

Kramer troupe, 281

Kung Sheung Yat Po, 239 Kuoyü, 39, 249, 254

Kwai Chung, 68, 157 Kwan, Nancy, 255 Kwangsi, 309

Kwangtung 6, 38, 40, 100, 279, 289,

291, 303, 315

       Kwong Wah hospital, 124, 137, 142 Kwun Tong, 29, 31, 42, 47, 52, 68, 145, 153, 160-1, 163, 179, 208, 210-11

Kwun Tong Tsai Wan, 156

Kwung Chung, 147

Kyodo News Service, 240

Labour-

administration, 46-8 Advisory Board, 47 Department, 42, 44-7, 49-53,

69-70, 123, 136

     disputes and stoppages, 50 hours, 42 inspection, 47 legislation, 51

organization, 48-9

Lai Chi Kok, 60, 198, 207-8, 215 Lamma Island, 303

Lamont Geological Observatory, 235

Land, 151-60, 60

Agricultural, 87-8

area, 88-9, 289

auctions, 151-2

Court, 87

INDEX

Languages, 39

Lantau Island (Tai Yue Shan), 16, 20-21, 25, 39, 41, 97, 137, 159, 197-8, 207-9, 214, 219, 270, 290-1, 302-4, 314, 324 Lavatories, 147

Law and order, 186-99 Law courts, 186-7, 176, 392 Lawrence, Patricia, 121 leases, Crown, 152-3

Leather and travel goods, 67, 76 Lee, Hon R. C, 80

Legislation, 47, 51, 61, 102, 104,

107-8, 112, 118-9, 123-4, 135, 143, 147, 151, 154-6, 158, 162, 168, 173, 175-7, 183-5, 187, 201, 203-6, 218, 298, 320, 325-6

Legislative Council, 26, 56, 66, 80, 190, 218, 250, 282, 311, 319-20, 401-3

Lei Cheng Uk, 145, 285, 303 Lepers, Mission to, 124, 129 Leprosy, 124, 129-30, 138 Letters Patent, 319

Libraries, 121, 174-5, 249, 276-8

licences, Import & export, 82 Life, 241

Life-guards, 283

Lifts and escalators, 184

Lighthouses, 221

Lin Tse-hsü, 306-7

Ling Wan monastery, 270

Liquidations, 204-5 Liquor, 59

Liu, Dr T. Y, 121 Livestock, 381 Lloyd's, 224

Lo Fu Ngam, 145, 207 Lo Wu, 211, 228

Loans, 12, 106

Loans from United Kingdom, 33,

58, 227

Loan, Government Dollar, 362 Local armed forces, 256-8

Local public works, 17, 211-2

Lockheed aircraft, 227

Lok Sin Tong, 139

London Missionary Society, 265, 312 London office, Hong Kong

Government, 85, 244

Office (Registrar General), 199-201 Lunacy, Official Solicitor in, 199

policy, 151-3

private, 87

Registrar, 200

sales and transactions, 152-3, 201

survey,

155

tenure, 87-8, 151

utilization, 88-90

value and development, 211

Lutheran World Service Federation,

141, 150, 182, 266-7

Luxembourg, 233

Ma On Shan, 55, 107, 292

Ma Sik-hon, 275

Ma Tau Chung, 160

Ma Tau Kok, 146, 156, 215

416

Ma Tau Wai, 163-4

Ma Wan, 40, 210, 324 Maan, 303 Macartney, 305

Macau, 9, 84, 197, 225, 267, 276,

289, 298, 304-8, 315

Machinery, 75 Magazines, 240, 399 Magistracies, 176, 208 Magistrates' courts, 176, 186-7 Malaria, 130-1, 310

Malaya, 75, 197, 233, 280, 309 Mammals, 295-6

Man Mo temple, 271 Man Tim, 217

Man Yee arcade, 231

Management association, 69-70 Managerial training, 68-70 Manchu dynasty, 314 Manchuria, 315

man-days, Loss of, by strikes, 50 Manson, Dr P, 311

Margaret, HRH Princess, 139

Marine communications, 221-5

Marine Court, 186

Marine Department, 221-5

Marine fauna, 298

Marine Police, 190-1, 194

Market gardening, 91-2, 291 Marketing, 102-6, 381-2

Marketing Advisory Board, 104 markets, Urban, 146-7 Marriage, 199, 205-6 Maryknoll Sisters, 172 Match factory, 55

Materials testing Laboratory, 211 Maternal and child health (MCH),

126-7, 133-4, 136

Maternity homes and hospitals, 133,

313

Matriculation, 117

Measles, 132

Measures and weights, 329

Medical and Health Department,

121, 123, 142-4, 179, 243

Medical-

personnel, 124, 389

services, 123-4

training, 141-3

medicines, Proprietary, 59 Melbourne, 69

Mental health, 135-6, 178-80, 184-5

Mental Health Association of Hong

Kong, 121, 180 Mercantile Bank, 64-5

Mercantile Marine Office, 223

Mercury House, 246

Metal products, 42

Metal-fume fever, 52

INDEX

Meteorology, 233-8, 263-4

Methodist Board of Missions, 166,

265

Methyl alcohol, 59-60

Mexico, 85

Mid-autumn festival, 272

Middle schools, 110, 114, 117 Midwifery services, 124, 134, 142 Migration, 43, 125 Milan, 81

Milk, 95-6

Minerals, 107, 290, 292, 382

Mines Department, 47, 107-8

Mining, 55, 107-8, 200, 292, 382 Minor labour disputes, 50 Mirs Bay, 27, 159

Miss Ping On, 145, 243

Missions, 120, 123, 166, 173, 311, 313 Mody, Sir H, 312 Moneylenders, 202

Mong Kok, 145, 217

Mongols, 303-4

Moral welfare, 177-8

Mortality, 125

Mosquitoes, 130

Moths, 297-8

Motor Sports Club, 281

Mould, Mr John, 212 Mount Davis, 25

Mount Gough, 246

Mount Nicholson, 209 Muiyuen, 39

Multi-storey car parks, 209, 230

Murray Parade Ground, 154, 209,

230

Music, 121-2, 274-6

Nagle, Kel, 280

Nairn Road, 211 Namhoi, 39

Nanking, 308-9

Napier, 306

Narcotics, 83-5, 135, 183, 188-90,

193, 199, 266-7, 306, 321 National Catholic Welfare

Conference, 166

Natural history, 295-302

Nauru, 43

Naval dockyard, 50, 155, 223, 229, 283 Navigation, 221-2

Needle Hill, 107

Netherlands, 38, 85, 233, 304-5

Nethersole hospital, 265

New China News Agency, 240

New Evening Post, 239

New grant lots, 87

New Kowloon, 41, 60, 130-1, 151, 154

New Life Evening Post, 240

New Territories, 7, 11, 15, 18, 27, 94, 96, 98, 100, 104, 107, 120, 137, 148, 175, 180, 188-9, 206-9, 214-5, 217-8, 230-1, 255, 270, 272, 295, 303, 310, 316

Administration, 324-6, 89-90, 168 beaches, 283

District Commissioner, 29, 123,

149, 151

employment, 43, 54 engineering unit, 211-2 geography, 289

health services, 138, 140, 149-50 housing, 158, 166 industry, 68

land tenure and utilization, 87-90,

       151, 153-4, 156 occupations, 54 population, 39-41 property tax, 61

     public health, 149-50, 130 rates, 60 scavenging, 149

water supply, 15

New York Times, 240

New Zealand, 71, 77, 85, 223, 233 Newcastle disease, 96 News agencies, 240-1 Newsweek, 240

Newspapers, 181, 232, 239-41, 314,

399

Ngau Tau Kok, 156 Ngok Yue Shan, 211 Ngong Ping, 270 Nicaragua, 85

Nigeria, 44, 80, 233

nightsoil, Maturation of, 105, 148 Noodles, 50

Norske Veritas, 224

North Borneo, 13-4, 54, 118, 197 North Point, 12, 147, 156, 161, 163,

179-80, 208, 217

Northcote Training College, 115, 118 Norway, 76, 85, 233

Note Security Fund, 65

Nurses, 124, 141-2

O Pui Shan, 211

Observatory, Royal, 234-6, 242,

263-4, 294, 314

Occupational diseases, 51-2, 358 Occupational therapy, 52 Occupations, 42-4 Ocean Islands, 43

Office of Naval Works, 50 Official publications, 404 Official Receiver, 199, 204-5 Official Trustee, 199, 204 oil, Hydrocarbon, 59, 224

INDEX

Old schedule lots, 87 Olympic Games, 249, 280 Ophthalmic services, 124 Oriental Bank, 64

Overseas General Certificate of

Education, 117

Overseas representation, 85 Overtime, 45

Oysters, 101

P & O Orient Lines, 223 Paints and varnishes, 67 Pak pai che, 217-8 Pakistan, 76, 85 Palermo, 81 Paludrine, 130

Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, 240 Panama, 85

Panel on Postgraduate Medical

Education, 141

Paper novelties, 68 Parking, 209, 229-30

Parks and playgrounds, 209, 282-5,

318

Parsees, 310, 312

Pat Heung, 18, 97

Patents, 199, 203-4

Pathology, Institute of, 139-40 Paul Y Construction Co, 25 Peak tramway, 312

Peak, Victoria, 7, 8, 155, 215, 272,

295, 312

Pearl River, 298, 304

Pearls, 101

Peking, 305

Peking, Conventions of, 7, 310

Pelletier Hall, 178

Peng Chau Island, 25, 40-1, 55,

209, 217

Peninsula hotel, 86

Persia, 304

Peru, 279

Pest control, 149 Petrol duty, 57

Pharmacists, 124

Pharmacy Board, 124

Philippines, 38, 43, 49, 85, 227,

233, 254, 280

Photography, 274, 276

Physically handicapped, 178-80

Physiotherapy, 52, 143

Pigeons, 95

Pig-raising, 54, 91, 94-5 Pilotage, 222

Pineapple Pass & Dam, 19 Ping On, Miss, 145, 243 Ping Shan, 176, 324-5 Plague, Bubonic, 7, 310, 313 Planning, 157-8

417

418

Plantation Road, 230

Plasticware, 42, 55, 67, 73, 75

Platt, Mr J. W, 328 Playgrounds, 282-5, 318 Plover Cove, 23, 28-32

Plywood, 73

Po Leung Kuk, 121, 173, 178, 180

Po Lin monastery, 270

Po On county, 26, 39

Pok Fu Lam, 300 Pok Oi Hospital, 150 Poland, 85

Police, 138, 147, 155, 180, 187-97,

284, 318, 323

     auxiliaries, 197, 256 band, 188

buildings, 208

communications and transport,

195

supervision, 193

training, 188, 191-5, 197

Poliomyelitis, 132

Pontifical Foreign Mission Institute,

268

Population, 6, 37-41, 57, 125, 188,

291-2, 308-10, 315-8, 396

Port, 84, 177, 191, 221-5

Committee, 47, 221

health, 133

Shelter, 27, 29, 101

Welfare Committee, 223 works, 210-1

Portugal, 85, 233

Portuguese, 38, 281, 298, 304, 307,

315, 319

       Post Office, 54, 58, 231-2, 318 Post-secondary colleges, 112, 115, 119 Post-secondary education, 111-3, 170,

278

potatoes, Sweet, 93

Pottinger, Sir H, 307-8

Praya, 9

Press, 239-41

Poultry, 54, 91, 94-5

Preventive medicine, 124-126

Preventive Service, 83-5, 322

Primary education, 109-10

       Primary production, 74, 87-108, 380 Printing, 240

Printing Department, 53, 324

        Prisons, 123, 137, 197-9, 208, 267 Probation, 175-7

'Problem of People, A', 3

       Professional medical registers, 124 Profits tax, 61, 67

Property tax, 61

Proprietary medicines, 59

INDEX

Prostitution, 177-8

Protection of fauna, 298 Protestant churches, 265-7, 311 Public-

assistance, 181-2

debt, 58, 362

finance and taxation, 56-63 health administration, 123-5,

142, 184

latrines and bathhouses, 147 road transport services, 217-20 service, 326-9, 42

Services Commission, 326 utilities, 212-7

works, 17-18, 58, 207-12 Works Department, 26, 28, 31, 53, 151, 155, 165, 167, 212, 227, 230, 322

Publications, 239-41, 404

Publishing, 241

Puerperal fever, 133

Puerto Rico, 233

Pumping stations, 11, 14, 25, 209 Punyü, 39-40

Quarantine, 125, 133 Quarries, 230

Quarry Bay, 161, 215 Quartering Authority, 324 Quartz, 107

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 141, 207 Queen Mary Hospital, 137, 139, 142,

215, 313

Queen's Road, 229, 312

Quota restrictions, 75, 82, 101, 103

Rabies, 96, 125 Race, 39, 68 Race course, 219

radio-activity, Precautions against,