Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1958

Hong

Kong

Annual

Report

-1958

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Railways

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Roads, Footpaths

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Rivers & Streams, Reservoirs Ferry Services

2000-OVER

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Crown Copyright Reserved

HONG KONG

ANNUAL REPORT 1958

市政局公共圖書館UCPL

3 3288 03032725 0

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable at

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS BUREAU General Post Office, Hong Kong,

and from

THE CROWN AGENTS FOR OVERSEA GOVERNMENTS

AND ADMINISTRATIONS

4, Millbank, London, S.W. 1

A list of current publications will be found at Appendix XXI of this Report

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS may also be obtained

from

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED

DH

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     TAI LAM RESERVOIR with a storage capacity of just over 4,500 million gallons, was completed and brought into full use in 1957. This photo- graph, which shows the great dam, some 2,200 feet long and 180 feet high, was taken when a party of New Territories farmers toured the Tai Lam Reservoir area and saw for themselves how the ancillary catchment schemes would benefit them by providing water during the dry months of winter, and also by preventing flooding of their fields during the rainy season.

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WOH

DIEU

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Hong Kong Annual Report 1958

HONG KONG AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS FEBRUARY 1959

CITY

LIBRARY

HONG

+

When dollars are quoted in this Report, they are, unless otherwise stated, Hong Kong dollars. The official rate for conversion to pound sterling is HK$16 £1 (HK$1=1s. 3d.). The official rate for conversion to U.S. dollars is HK$5.714=US$1 (based on £1=US$2.80).

Noe me 14578

DATE OF ACE,

CLASS NO.

AUTHOR NO,

REBOUND

13.2.62

9.51.2 HKCr

CONTENTS

Chapter

1. REVIEW-GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY OF

HONG KONG

2. POPULATION.

3. OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

4.

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Page

1

29

2245

5. CURRENCY AND BANKING

6. INDUSTRY AND TRADE .

7. PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

62

65

80

8.

EDUCATION.

112

9. PUBLIC HEALTH

124

10. LAND AND HOUSING

153

11. SOCIAL WELFARE.

178

12.

LEGISLATION

193

13. THE COURTS, POLICE, PRISONS AND RECORDS

197

14. PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS.

214

15.

COMMUNICATIONS.

231

18.

19.

16. PRESS, PUBLISHING,

TOURISM .

17. LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

RESEARCH

RELIGION

20. THE ARTS

21. SPORT AND RECREATION

BROADCASTING, FILMS

AND

247

264

268

272

279

283

22.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

288

23. FAUNA AND FLORA

295

24. HISTORY

301

25.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

318

26. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

328

27. READING LIST

329

Appendices

Page

I. Colonial Development and Welfare

333

IIA. Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in

Main Industrial Groups

334

IIB. Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in

selected Industries in certain

of the Main

Industrial Groups

335

III. Statement of Assets and Liabilities.

336

IV. Statement of Revenue

338

V. Statement of Expenditure

339

VI. Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

341

VII. Direction of Trade-Imports.

342

VIII. Direction of Trade-Exports.

342

IX. Principal Commodities Imported

343

X. Principal Commodities Exported

344

XI. Value of Exports of Hong Kong Products

345

XII. Co-operative Societies

346

XIII. Hong Kong Students pursuing Higher Studies in

the United Kingdom.

347

XIV. Infectious Diseases Notified

348

XV. Hospital Beds.

349

XVI. Registered Medical Personnel

350

+

XVII. Government Medical Personnel under Training

350

XVIII. Crime Statistics

351

XIX. Newspapers and Magazines

354

XX. Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils

355

XXI. List of Hong Kong Government Publications.

358

Index

361

PHOTOGRAPHS

Tai Lam Chung Reservoir.

Scenes from Hong Kong Industry

Hong Kong Customs and Countryside

Hong Kong Schools and School Children

Paddyfields in Hok Tau Valley .

Cadogan Street Housing Estate.

Hong Kong by Night

Meeting the Social Challenge

Hong Kong Building Methods.

Victoria and the Harbour from mid-levels.

City Parking Problems

The new Kai Tak Airport.

H. E. the Governor, Lady Black and the Misses Black visit Lai Chi Kok Hospital and the Po Leung Kuk

Visit of the representatives of the Common- wealth Parliamentary Association (United Kingdom Branch) .

Opening of Hong Kong House, London

Page

frontispiece

between

42-3

90-1

122-3

facing

170

between

170 - 1

facing

171

between 186 - 7

facing

218

between 218-9

facing

219

between 234-5

facing

266

between 266 - 7

facing

267

Hong Kong's People-a series of studies

between 282 - 3

MAPS AND DIAGRAMS

Hong Kong and the New Territories.

end-paper map

Value of Hong Kong's Imports and Exports.

facing

74

The World Markets for Hong Kong Products

during 1958.

between

74-5

Volume of Hong Kong's Imports and Exports. facing

Increase in Schools since 1946.

Increase in Pupils since 1946

Births and Deaths, Infantile Mortality Rate,

and Tuberculosis Mortality Rate.

Hong Kong's Industrial Growth 1948-58 .

People Resettled 1953-58, and the Post-War

Increase in Housing

Key Map of Hong Kong in relation to Canton

and Macau

Page

75

114

115

138

between 138 - 9

facing

139

end-paper map

  The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all those organizations and private individuals who have contributed to this Report, whether by way of textual matter or of photographs.

  All illustrations in this Report, unless otherwise stated, are the work of official artists and pho- tographers. Requests for permission to reproduce any illustrations should be addressed to the Government Public Relations Officer, Hong Kong.

Chapter 1: Review

GROWTH OF THE INDUSTRIAL ECONOMY

OF HONG KONG

THE predominant theme in international discussions about Asia in recent years has been the urgent need for outside assistance, in cash or in kind, for the less developed and newly independent countries of the area, in order to promote their economic develop- ment and to raise the standard of living of their peoples. Hong Kong, however, has lived up to its reputation of being, as so often before, the exception to the general rule. This small Colony, almost entirely lacking in natural resources other than the indomitable will and enterprise of its people, has not only belied all prophecies of economic disaster, but also established itself as a vigorous industrial power whose activities are provoking widespread atten- tion from less successful competitors. This development has been achieved without major recourse to outside economic assistance, (other than the benefits derived from membership in the Common- wealth of Nations), and despite formidable obstacles arising from political circumstances beyond local control.

      The purpose of this Chapter is to review the circumstances which have led to Hong Kong's industrial success in the past thirteen years and to describe the consequences, some unforeseen, which industrialization has brought about in the everyday life of the Colony and its relations with the rest of the world. The record of these events will, it is hoped, help the overseas reader to under- stand why Hong Kong continues to have faith in its economic future.

      When the Union Jack was raised again in Hong Kong in the summer of 1945, it flew above a Colony which had been drained both physically and spiritually by the Japanese occupation. Its population had been forcibly reduced; its trade and industry brought to a standstill; its land neglected; and its buildings decayed if not destroyed. The outlook of the people who remained was

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

one of uncertainty and dismay. It would have required a bold and imaginative person, surveying the chaos and confusion which reigned, to predict the transformation which was to occur and the amazing resurgence of vitality and faith upon which this was based.

AN INDUSTRIAL BALANCE SHEET

     Upon what basis does Hong Kong's industrial development rest? Of the factors usually considered essential for such development, nearly all are missing. There are no raw materials available locally save fish, building stone, a small quantity of minerals-only some of which can be used in the Colony-and a variety of agricultural products insufficient to supply the needs of the population. There is no local coal, oil or other source of power, and there has been for many years a persistent and serious shortage of water. There is an acute lack of suitable sites and premises for industry. The Colony's internal market is not sufficiently large to offer a solid base for expansion, and, with free trade the life-blood of Hong Kong's existence, there has been no tariff wall or other protectionist device to shield the growth of industry from overseas competition. In its exposed geographical and political situation, Hong Kong has had to accept the serious consequences to its normal trade of the embargoes imposed for the common good of the United Nations since the outbreak of the Korean War. The extraordinary overcrowding in the urban areas which has occurred since 1947-a density of 2,000 persons to the acre is common and even 3,000 is not unusual-has produced vast, urgent social problems to hamper the administration in its striving after orderly progress and to absorb huge sums in public expenditure.

      On the credit side, favouring the development of industry, can be placed the existence of a stable government, which has provided an atmosphere of peace and security, free from violent social and political upheavals; the attraction of capital into the Colony, particularly from areas in South-East Asia shaken by discord; a deeply-rooted tradition of efficiency in such services as banking, shipping and insurance, all of them vital to industrial growth; a large merchant community with trading links all over the world; a sheltered, deep-water harbour; the existence of an abundant, hard-working and adaptable labour force; an influx from the Chinese mainland of skilled workers and industrialists (not only

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Chinese), some of them with considerable capital and knowledge of modern techniques; and the advantages deriving from the Colony's place in the Commonwealth. To these should be added a strong faith in the merits of free enterprise and least possible interference by the Government in trade and industry; a whole- some respect for the profit motive; and relative freedom from stoppages of work and other forms of industrial dispute.

THE GROWTH OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY 1841-1941

Hong Kong became a British Colony in 1841 for the simple purpose of trade with China, and prospered as a trading post because of the security and the freedom from interference which it offered. The inhabitants had little or no interest in politics; the Government was mainly concerned to provide a framework within which trade could flourish. Astride a major sea route of the Far East and at the very gateway to Southern China, it has existed as an entrepôt, a mart and storehouse for goods in transit to Asia and the West. This dominant entrepôt character of the Colony prevailed until within the past few years.

"The Harbour is Hong Kong' was an old saying and this fact was indisputable until recently. It is not surprising therefore that the first industries were the natural offshoots of a prosperous port. The first industrial venture was ship repairing and the first local product was a ship launched at East Point in 1843, two years after the Colony was established. By 1860 a large graving dock had been set up at Aberdeen. The first sugar refinery was established in 1878, and a second one in 1884, to meet the needs of ships' victualling officers. In 1885 a rope factory was started, again primarily to cater for the seafaring trade, and in 1899 a cement factory was moved from Macau to Hong Kong. From time to time there were other tentative efforts to set up new industries. Thus, the first spinning mill was opened in 1899, but it closed down a few years later. In 1902 the manufacture of rattanware began. In 1906 iron mining was started and a flour mill was opened in the New Territories. (Like the spinning mill, the flour mill did not last long). In 1910 the knitting of cotton singlets and vests was first established. Some of these ventures obtained a firm foothold and flourished, but they went more or less unnoticed

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

    amid the Colony's growing entrepôt activities. At the outbreak of the first world war the picture was of a number of enterprises linked with the operation of the port, with some cottage industries in addition. Some impetus was given to the development of light industry by the 1914-18 war when the Colony was denied various manufactured goods from European sources and turned to making these itself-for example, vests, towels, biscuits, perfumery, and cigarettes. Later developments included a weaving factory, operat- ing thirty hand looms, established in 1922, and a flashlight factory, established in 1927. But the first really important stimulus to industry occurred in the 1930's with the immigration of factories as a result of disturbed conditions in Kwangtung and subsequently with the introduction, under the Ottawa Agreements, of Imperial Preference. These concessions encouraged local manufacturers to compete in new markets outside neighbouring areas and attracted new investment to the Colony. By 1935 knitting and weaving had become an important industry, as had also the manufacture of flashlights and rubber footwear.

     The next important stimulus to development was the outbreak of the second world war when part of the demand for war materials was met in Hong Kong by the supply of locally-built ships, webbing equipment, and other military and civilian supplies for which contracts were obtained. The records of industrial produc- tion were lost during the occupation, but it is estimated that in 1941 there were about 1,200 factories in operation.

POST-WAR RECONSTRUCTION

On the restoration of British rule in August 1945 immediate steps were taken to rehabilitate the Colony. Emphasis was placed on the resumption of commerce, and by 23rd November 1945, not three months after the liberation, the Colony was formally reopened for private trading. This did much to strengthen public confidence. The merchant community quickly availed itself of the regained facilities and the volume of trade increased rapidly. The market for both capital and consumer goods of all kinds in the war-torn Far East was so favourable to sellers that many new commercial enterprises grew up almost overnight. Japan in her turn was prostrate and could offer no competition in trade or industry.

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5

For two years the business boom continued steadily, but in 1947 there were fears of a recession, owing to unsettled conditions prevailing in China. Faced with foreign exchange difficulties and mounting inflation, the Chinese Government imposed severe restrictions on imports, while the military situation in the north made it difficult for Hong Kong merchants to obtain traditional items for export. They directed their efforts elsewhere, particularly to South-East Asia, and, contrary to expectations, business in the Colony continued to prosper. The apparently insatiable demand for consumer goods throughout the whole of the Far East con- tinued until 1949 and it was relatively easy to divert cargoes originally intended for China.

THE DECLINE OF THE CHINA TRADE

Although merchant shipping was embarrassed by the blockade of Chinese ports after 1949 by the Nationalists who had withdrawn from the mainland, deliveries of goods to North China increased and at the end of 1950 there were signs of a brighter future- improved trade relations with China, an increase in the volume of business with South-East Asian territories, and more local industries. In 1950 the Colony's total trade had reached the record figure of $7,503 million. This trade boom was spectacular but short-lived. Trade reached the all-time value record of $9,303 million in 1951, but three factors then completely transformed the Colony's economic position-the first was the imposition of restric- tions on trade with China by the Western powers; the second, and partly a consequence of the embargo, an abrupt change in the trading policy of China; the third, and most important factor of all, the arrival of the refugees.

It was in 1949 that the Colony began to benefit from a substantial influx of capital from the mainland, seeking secure investment, and the first signs of the initial upsurge in industrial development which was to occur over the next four years became noticeable. But it was also the time when the Colony had imposed upon it a back-breaking burden under which it has staggered ever since-a vast, overwhelming influx of population.

The civilian population of the Colony, which was 840,473 at the time of the last census in 1931, had risen to 1,600,000 in 1941.

6

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Japanese reduced the number to 600,000, but by the end of 1946 the population had again risen to 1,600,000 as people in search of safety and work drifted back to the Colony from South China. In 1949, when the new regime was securing its grip upon the mainland, immigration became a torrent. By April 1950 the population had increased to 2,360,000. A survey conducted by Dr. Hambro on behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1954 estimated that the rise in population included some 700,000 refugees. The majority of these people were indigent, and their entry into the Colony created the gravest problems. They had to find housing; they had to find food and clothing; they needed medical treatment when sick; and their children needed schooling. The Colony was already short of these facilities for its existing population. The pressure on buildings and on the small area of developable land became intense.

The vast horde of refugees, many of peasant stock, could not be absorbed on the land. They settled in and around the urban areas in conditions of profound distress. But it was these people in their ramshackle huts, crowded cheek by jowl on the hillsides and on the rooftops of tenement blocks, who turned their hands to new trades and within a few years attracted the curious gaze of the world to the results of their activities.

      The Korean War began in June 1950 and the Colony started introducing controls over trade in strategic materials the following month. The next year was even more fateful for Hong Kong. As a result of the United Nations' resolution of 18th May 1951, a partial embargo on trade with China was imposed in June. This was a crippling blow to local commerce. Although total trade for the year was valued at $9,303 million, the increase over the 1950 figure was due partly to a general rise in world prices and to the need to obtain raw materials for local industry in a seller's market from whatever new sources could be found. A more accurate index of the real value of trade in 1951 is given by the tonnage figures which fell by over one million tons (17.5%) compared with those of the previous year. Up to the present time the entrepôt trade with China has continued only as a shadow of its former self and Hong Kong has, in fact, been saved from economic disaster mainly by its exertions in the field of industry. If it was from China that the main ingredients of the industrial

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7

     revolution came, in the form of capital, entrepreneurs and labour, it was the sharp spur of necessity which speeded it up from 1950 onwards. As the Colony's position as an entrepôt for China trade declined, it began to take more interest in world trade of wider variety. Further, it switched its emphasis from trading to manu- facture and this so quickly that few people, even in the Colony itself, were aware at the time of what was happening. Indeed, it took some years to convince the rest of the world that Hong Kong had become a manufacturing centre of any significance.

       In June 1950 the Hong Kong Government banned the export of all goods to North Korea and in August it banned the export to China of some 200 items of strategic importance, including petroleum. Another 100 items were added to the banned list in December and still further items in March 1951. In compliance with the spirit of the United Nations' resolution already referred to, Hong Kong's controls were further augmented and all strategic items became subject to both import and export control. These measures, taken at a time when trade with China was the main part of the Colony's total trade, had immediate and serious effects on the economy. But worse was to follow. The United States Government imposed a total embargo on all transac- tions with China in which its nationals, its resources or its currency were even remotely involved, and initially it applied this embargo to Hong Kong. This was almost a death-blow for the Colony's fledgling industries. Factories which relied on raw materials from the United States immediately found themselves without any sup- plies and were forced to close down. The cumulative effect of the Colony's own controls and the ruthless application of the American embargo led to severe unemployment. Trade with the United States, which had risen from 9.4% of the Colony's total trade in 1938 to 16.3% in 1947, slumped to 4.3% in 1953. Exports to China which in 1938 represented 45% of Hong Kong's total exports and amounted to 18% in 1948 had dropped to 4% by 1956.

      Fortunately for Hong Kong the United States Government was willing to modify its embargo on the provision of guarantees by the Hong Kong Government regarding the end-use of U.S. materials shipped to the Colony for its factories. Also, the Colony's

8

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

merchants and industrialists quickly turned to other sources of supply. The steps which Hong Kong took to cut off a major part of its livelihood by enforcing the embargo on trade with China became increasingly effective. Import controls, end-use controls, movement controls, export controls, increased preventive staff, more and faster patrol craft to intercept smugglers in the Colony's waters, all contributed to the diminution of trade with the tradi- tional major customer. Hong Kong was even expected at times to act as a final checkpoint on the controls exercised by other members of the United Nations.

Further, the Chinese Government began to exercise rigid control over China's foreign trade, and it now prefers to make bulk deals direct with foreign governments, in this way largely by-passing Hong Kong and the port and warehousing facilities which it offers.

      It has taken some time to assess the long-term consequences for Hong Kong of these developments, but it is now generally accepted that the export trade to China has been lost for the foreseeable future, even if the embargo were completely lifted; and that the Colony's future prosperity rests upon its success, first, in adapting its entrepôt facilities to serve the world as a whole and, second, in establishing its own industries on a secure and prosperous footing by the development and diversification of its products and the winning of as many new markets as salesmanship, price and quality can attract.

The economic effects of the Korean War carried one compensa- tion for the Colony, although this was disguised at the time as merely another difficulty. The United States Government enacted its Foreign Assets Control Regulations in 1952, under which the importation into the United States or its dependencies of any merchandise originating in China or North Korea was prohibited. Furthermore, under these regulations, a wide range of goods traditionally obtained from China or North Korea was presumed to be of Chinese or North Korean origin, even though produced or manufactured in Hong Kong or in any other non-Communist terri- tory and then exported to the United States. To surmount this bar to trade and to secure the resumption of this class of exports to the United States the Government introduced a system of inspection and certification of Chinese-type goods manufactured in Hong

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Kong. Gradually the method of certification and the list of per- mitted goods were extended and now cover over 100 commodities, ranging from lotus seeds to Chinese junks. The heavy expense incurred by the Government in applying the procedures called for under the Foreign Assets Control Regulations has been justified by a steady rise in exports of these 'presumptive' items. Moreover the embargo has given a distinct boost to the local production of Chinese-type exports which could no longer be sent to the United States if manufactured in China-e.g., embroidered goods, lacquer- ware, hardwood furniture, and foodstuffs. Many new enterprises have actually come into being to meet American demand.

     The many Hong Kong products not affected by the Foreign Assets Control Regulations could still be freely imported into the United States without any special certification, but the market for Chinese-type goods was valuable and they formed a most useful adjunct to the main items of export such as flashlights, basket- ware, gloves and, later, garments. By the beginning of 1958 there were no less than 772 establishments registered with the Commerce and Industry Department for inspection and supervision under the comprehensive certificate of origin system, and the number of certificates issued rose from 8,200 in 1953 to 62,200 in 1958. Furthermore, the percentage of exports to the United States in relation to the Colony's total exports rose from 4% in 1952 to 11% in 1958 and in the latter year the United States imported products wholly or principally of Hong Kong origin to the value of $205.36 million, the majority of which were covered by comprehensive certificates. The United States was in fact the third best customer for the Colony's exports in 1958. It can therefore be said that to some extent at least the difficulties which arose in 1950 proved to be a temporary blessing in disguise.

THE PROMOTION OF INDUSTRY

     Hong Kong thus succeeded in making a virtue of its own necessities; and the consequent increase in the industrial potential of the Colony between 1947 and 1952 is illustrated by the fact that in the former year there were 1,050 industrial undertakings employing 64,000 workers and in the latter 2,088 industrial under- takings employing 98,126 workers. In 1947 locally-manufactured

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

goods accounted for about 10% of the Colony's exports; in 1952 the figure had risen to perhaps 25%.

But it needed fresh efforts to convince the world that these exports of Hong Kong products which were arriving in increasing quantities in overseas markets did really come from Hong Kong. The first general overseas reaction was that the goods were merely re-exports of Japanese products falsely declared and label- led in order to enjoy the advantages of Imperial Preference. There followed allegations of pirating of trade marks and designs, based on a few discovered cases. Then, as the critics became convinced that there was in fact a wide range of industrial production in Hong Kong, accusations were made that wages and other conditions of employment in the Colony were so inferior as to constitute unfair competition.

In the face of these attacks and in view of the fact that materials for industry had to be imported, some in a semi-manufactured state, the certification of goods as genuine Hong Kong products for acceptance in overseas markets became of increasing impor- tance. As in the case of the Foreign Assets Control Regulations mentioned above, an elaborate system of checks and inspections of factories registered for certificates of origin and Imperial Preference certificates was enforced.

     Apart from the development of the certificate of origin proce- dures, helping local industry by showing the world that 'Hong Kong can make it' has been a preoccupation of the Government over the past ten years. Individual manufacturers, many merchant firms, the various Chambers of Commerce, the Chinese Manufac- turers' Association, and the Hong Kong 'Exporters' Association have all played a prominent part in gaining the interest of overseas buyers. In many ways the best ambassadors have been the goods themselves-attractive in price and improving each year in quality.

As a further means of supporting the export drive, the Govern- ment embarked on an extensive publicity campaign, both by way of attendance at trade fairs and the publication of trade journals. Similar efforts have been made by local commercial and industrial organizations.

The first real expression of the policy on trade fairs was the Colony's participation in the 1948 British Industries Fair. There

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was a Hong Kong exhibit at the annual Fair for the next seven years and each year the number of trade inquiries increased. Participation ceased after 1955, largely because the nature of the Fair had changed. Members of the Chinese Manufacturers' Asso- ciation had meanwhile been showing their goods at exhibitions in South-East Asian countries (e.g. in Singapore, Malaya, Indonesia) and the Government broke new ground, from 1954 onwards, by arranging sponsored displays in Seattle, Toronto, Frankfurt and New York. Plans have been made to test markets in Australia by participation in the Melbourne Trade Fair in 1959. Individual merchants and manufacturers have exhibited local products with success at other fairs as well. Concurrently the Chinese Manufac- turers' Association has been improving its annual exhibition of local products, first held in the Colony in 1938 and revived, after the war-time hiatus, in 1948. While designed primarily to present local products to the local consumer, these exhibitions have also attracted businessmen, individually or in delegations, from a number of overseas countries, principally Asian. In the field of trade publications, the Government opened its campaign in 1949 with a Commercial Guide to Hong Kong, designed to meet a need of merchant houses overseas for commercial information concern- ing Hong Kong. In 1950 the British Industries Fair Directory, for the guidance of visitors to the Hong Kong display at Olympia, was first produced. The functions of these two publications and of other trade fair directories were then absorbed by the present Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory, of which since 1953 three revised editions have so far been published. A monthly Trade Bulletin has also been published by the Commerce and Industry Department since 1954, and this has gradually built up a world-wide circulation among overseas businessmen wishing to keep abreast of developments in the Colony's industry and trade.

EXPORT PROBLEMS

Stimulation of light industry by active sales promotion overseas has been effective. Hong Kong's manufacturers have gained con- fidence in competing against industries elsewhere, and the world in general has gradually learned (in spite of some remaining

12

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

    scepticism) that there is a large and widening range of genuine Hong Kong products. But this has not solved all Hong Kong's difficulties.

Lack of foreign exchange has from time to time affected the ability of other countries to purchase Hong Kong goods. The fluctuations in the percentage of the Colony's total exports ab- sorbed in recent years by, for example, Indonesia, a natural market for the Colony's products, is a reflection of this: 1954- 9%; 1955-8%; 1956-16% (in this year Indonesia was the Colony's best customer); 1957-10%; 1958-7% (now fallen to fifth place).

      Since the war the growth of light industries in countries such as Thailand, the Philippines and the West Indies, which formerly relied mainly on primary production and are now trying to diversify their economies, has affected their willingness to accept competing manufactures. This difficulty is clearly likely to increase. With its free trade policy and almost complete absence of import duties, Hong Kong is not in a position to bargain with these countries in defence of its exports.

     One natural consequence has been that Hong Kong has had to seek outlets for its goods in more developed countries, where the emphasis on cheapness is not so great and better quality is a real consideration. In countries such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and South Africa, opposition has imme- diately arisen because the comparatively low price of Hong Kong goods has affected long-established domestic industries, and it is from these countries that accusations of sweated labour, poor quality goods, dumping, pirating of designs, etc., have come. The principal attacks have been on the textile industry, dealt with in more detail below.

     Despite the protection provided by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the past five years have seen various moves made to discriminate against Hong Kong's exports, directly or indirectly.

Some examples can best illustrate this trend. In 1955 the Irish Republic raised its tariff against Hong Kong gloves. In 1956 South Africa attempted to enforce anti-dumping legislation against Hong Kong and in 1957 it imposed alternative specific duties on a wide

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range of Hong Kong products, which have had serious results. In 1957 the Central African Federation made more rigorous its re- quirements regarding country of origin content of certain goods claiming preference on entry into the Federation, so affecting Hong Kong's principal exports to that area. Similar, but so far unsuccess- ful, attempts have been made in the United States and Canada to increase tariff barriers against a number of Hong Kong products. A recent example-the introduction of a quota upon imports of Hong Kong cotton textiles into French West Africa-is dealt with later in this Chapter.

INDUSTRIAL GROWTH

In the light of the charges of unfair competition through low wages and 'sweated labour' it would perhaps be as well to bring the picture of local industry up to date at this stage and fill in more details. The following table shows the increase in the number of industrial undertakings since the end of 1952 and the number of workers employed in them:

Industrial Undertakings

Year

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Workers

2,088

98,126

2,317

103,596

2,494

115,453

2,925

129,465

3,319

146,877

3,373

153,033

4,906

179,997

These figures refer only to those industrial undertakings which for statutory or other reasons have come within the ambit of the Labour Inspectorate of the Labour Department.

       The above is, however, far from the complete picture of in- dustrial employment. It is estimated that there are over 150,000 persons working in unregistrable, small-scale and cottage and handicraft industries, as outworkers, and in the under-employed industrial fringe. A further 120,000 are employed in building and engineering construction, 64,200 in the fishing industry, and 21,000 in public transport undertakings.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      The following are details of increases in the numbers of under- takings and workers in some sectors of industry over the past ten years. The figures indicate clearly the rapid growth of light industry during this period, although shipbuilding and ship re- pairing remains the Colony's principal heavy industry.

No. of undertakings

No. of workers

1948

1958

1948

1958

Rubber footwear

49

69

4,370

7,864

Plasticware ...

3

296

33

8,024

Metal products

214

575

11,100

24,342

Cotton spinning

6

20

1,750

12,613

Knitting

183

272

5,084

8,511

Cotton weaving

151

183

6,480

15,870

Garments and Shirts

25

455

654

20,366

19

Shipbuilding and repairing

Increases in employment over the past ten years in six leading

30

9,730

10,049

industries have been as follows:

Garment making

Metal products

Cotton spinning

Cotton weaving

Plasticware

Rubber footwear

Total

Workers

19,712

13,242

10,863

9,390

7,991

3,494

64,692

     This figure of 64,692 in six industries is 56% of the total increase in employment in all industrial undertakings over the ten-year period. The textile industry as a whole, embracing cotton spinning, weaving, and the manufacture of wearing apparel, has been for some years the largest employer of labour in the Colony, account- ing for over one third of the employment in industrial under- takings. Other main industries from the point of view of employ- ment, besides those already mentioned, are the manufacture of foodstuffs and printing.

Despite the concentration on these leading industries, there has nevertheless also been a striking diversification. This is illustrated

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by the following examples of new processes, apart from the success- ful revival of cotton spinning and flour milling, introduced since the war: wool spinning and weaving, carpet making, glove making, photo-engraving, the manufacture of marbles, fishing nets, latex products, bicycle tyres, steel bars, pressure stoves, kerosene lamps, cutlery, fire extinguishers, watch cases, slide fasteners, cameras, artificial pearls, gramophone records, fountain pens, and plastic articles of all kinds, including raincoats and acid-resisting pipes. Under the United Nations' classification of industrial processes, the number of different processes carried on in the Colony has increased from 122 in 1948 to 260 in 1958.

      One striking example of how a new industry sprang up very quickly is afforded by the manufacture of woollen gloves. This started in February 1952 when a glove importer in the United States, who had been unable to secure the necessary licence to import into Japan a large quantity of woollen yarn from the United Kingdom for the manufacture of woollen gloves, suggested to an old-established Hong Kong firm that it should consider the possibility of manufacturing woollen gloves in the Colony instead. The matter was investigated and an expert was sent out from the United States to teach local employees how to operate knitting machines. The first products were ready for export six months after the arrival of the expert. By early 1954 there were eight registered factories engaged solely in the manufacture of woollen gloves, but other knitting factories were also making gloves in addition to other lines. In 1953 the Colony exported 296,136 dozen pairs valued at $6,496,735; in the following year 520,869 dozen pairs valued at $9,774,235; by 1957 exports were 1,434,737 dozen pairs and the value was $26,205,828.

The rising industrial potential was also reflected in the increase in the value of products wholly or principally of Hong Kong origin relative to the value of the Colony's total exports; this ratio increased from about 25% in 1952 to 39.9% in 1957. In 1958 the value was $1,260 million, an increase of $58 million over the previous year, and it was 42.2% of the value of the Colony's total exports for the year. The proportion may be found to be even higher when a complete separation of exports of domestic products from re-exports is made in the trade statistics in 1959. As it is, more persons are now employed in industry than in trade. The

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

number of persons directly or indirectly dependent on industry is estimated to be about 1.4 million, or 50% of the total population.

CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

     Having described the growth of industry itself and the difficulties with which it has been confronted, it is now necessary to say something of the conditions under which the Colony's exports are produced.

     Working conditions in factories in Hong Kong, as elsewhere in the world, vary considerably. In some, for example the large spinning mills, they are excellent. The wage rates are reasonable and the workers enjoy free dormitory accommodation, subsidized meals, free medical attention, schooling, and other benefits. Even where conditions are apparently less satisfactory, these are fre- quently mitigated by the traditional clan relationship between proprietor and worker and by the custom of feeding and some- times accommodating the workers on the premises. Cases have been known in small establishments where the proprietor continued to take meals in the factory with his workmen while they were on strike.

     Wage rates in industry as a whole vary from $7.00 to $12.00 a day for skilled workmen, $4.00 to $8.00 a day for semi-skilled, and $2.50 to $6.00 a day for unskilled. While most of the wages paid in industry appear to be low by Western standards, one must bear in mind that the pattern of living is different, and that the worker's cost of living is also lower. Although wages have risen during the past eight years, fluctuations in the cost of living have been very slight. The Retail Price Index, by which movements in the cost of living are measured to a base 100 March 1947, has changed little over the past eight years, with an average of 118.

There are various reasons why radical improvement in the Colony's working conditions cannot be achieved overnight. The principal one is that improvement must follow expanding outlets for the Colony's goods. Each restriction on exports tends to dis- courage capital investment and makes it more difficult for manu- facturers to plan improvements. Other reasons lie in the pressure of population on jobs and accommodation. Although there is a shortage of skilled labour, there is a great excess of semi-skilled

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      and unskilled labour. Competition for employment is very fierce; there is therefore a tendency on the part of workers not to press for higher wages or shorter hours when they are already anxious about their ability to maintain their existing conditions against all-comers. The trade union structure is weak and seriously affected by alien political influences, while joint consultation and other forms of negotiating machinery common in Western countries are still in their infancy. Most of Hong Kong's industry is young; the industrial revolution has taken place since 1947 and throughout the past eleven years an acute shortage of industrial premises has persisted. The majority of establishments are small. In 1958, 66% of them employed less than 20 workers and used 16% of the labour force, as the following table shows:

No. of industrial undertakings

No. of workers employed in each

1 19

Total No. of

workers

3,225

28,780

957

20

www.y

50

28,877

326

51

100

22,297

168

101

200

24,411

62

201

300

14,121

27

301 400

9,388

17

401

500

7,818

36

501

1,000

23,297

10

1,001 - 2,000

13,976

2

over 2,000

7,032

76

temporarily

closed down

4,906

179,997

These numerous small establishments, which do not include the even smaller concerns operating in squatter areas and elsewhere, are a manifestation of Chinese thriftiness, enterprise, and desire for independence. But generally they are poorly equipped and run. They are under-capitalized and they lack managerial skill. They cannot afford to introduce modern labour-saving machinery, and even if they could, the type of premises in which they operate would, in many cases, preclude this. They are chiefly concerned to keep costs as low as possible, in order to stay in being. With only a small internal market, it has been a question of safeguard- ing export outlets or going to the wall. High rentals have also

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

forced upon factory proprietors the fullest possible economies in labour costs.

     The competition for existence is aggravated by the continuing increase in population, now estimated to total 2,806,000. The natural increase by excess of births over deaths over the past four years has been: 1955-71,000; 1956-77,000; 1957-78,000; 1958-86,000. To this must be added a steady flow of illicit im- migration from China. It is now estimated that in the past ten years some one million persons from China have entered and made their homes in Hong Kong. As the emigration outlet for the local population is almost non-existent, the pressure on jobs, housing and social services grows.

The Government's fundamental concern since 1949 has been to maintain conditions in which as many of its inhabitants as possible can make at least some kind of a living. The dilemma which it faces is whether to take steps deliberately to enforce rapid improvements in working conditions, which would almost certainly be followed by a large increase in unemployment and under- employment, or to strive towards the necessary improvements at a pace which will not bring any abrupt upset to the economy.

     Notwithstanding these difficulties, the Labour Department has made constant efforts to improve working conditions. Frequent inspections of factories are carried out under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance. In 1958, for example, the total of inspections of all kinds was 24,622. In cases where the minimum requirements of safety, health and welfare are lacking, renewal of registration of the factories is withheld until the necessary im- provements have been made. All lay-out plans for new factories or for alterations to existing factories are subject to approval by the Labour Department and no plans are approved until appropri- ate provision has been made for ablutions, dining/rest rooms, lighting, ventilation, etc. Although this does not solve the problem of unsatisfactory industrial premises in old tenement blocks in particular, it does ensure that there will be permanent improve- ment in working conditions as new factories are built and old ones altered. In accordance with the provisions of the many International Labour Conventions which are applied to Hong Kong, special attention is paid to the conditions of employment of

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     women and young persons, to the enforcement of workmen's compensation legislation, the investigation and prevention of occu- pational diseases, the improvement of medical services in industry, accident prevention, and the maintenance of healthy working con- ditions generally. Employers are encouraged to provide housing for their employees by the grant of land on concessionary terms and growing numbers are takings advantage of these facilities. The activities of the Labour Department have increased in the past few years (the Labour Inspectorate alone is four times the size it was four years ago), and an increasing number of industrial managements now appreciate the importance of good working conditions; nevertheless much still remains to be done.

EVENTS OF THE YEAR

The year 1958 saw a number of important developments in the Colony's economic policies.

      In the search for greater export outlets a three-man commercial mission, representing local commerce and industry and the Govern- ment, visited eleven countries in Central America and the Carib- bean in November/December, covering a distance of over 26,000 miles. Its purpose was to explore the possibility of expanding trade in the area, and to explain Hong Kong's position and functions as a trading, industrial and tourist centre. The mission received a cordial welcome and found much interest in Hong Kong goods. It reported that it should be possible to enlarge exports of inexpensive consumer goods to the area.

The Government announced its acceptance of the conclusions of an expert from the International Labour Office that there was an urgent need to improve standards of supervision in Hong Kong industry in order to keep pace with its rapid expansion and tech- nological development, and that a Supervisory Training Section should be established in the Labour Department. Steps were in hand at the end of the year for the immediate implementation of the new policy.

Concurrently with this, the report of an I.L.O. industrial efficiency expert, who had already overseen the introduction of training classes in industrial management at the Hong Kong Technical College, was under consideration.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     In an address on 4th December, at the opening of the 16th Annual Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, sponsored by the Chinese Manufacturers' Association, His Excellency the Governor, Sir Robert Black, stated that the Government was studying the possibility of the formation of an Industrial Bank for the financing of industry in the Colony.

      In the same address His Excellency also referred to the Govern- ment's intention to extend its statistical and market research services and so assist industry and commerce towards better plan- ning, to the opening in 1959 of another overseas Hong Kong Government Office in Sydney which would supplement the services provided by the existing offices in London and Tokyo, and to the need for a Federation of Industries widely representative of the Colony's industry as a whole and able to speak with authority on behalf of industry as a whole. This question of setting up a Federation of Industries had first been mooted in 1957, and during 1958 a Government-appointed advisory committee was studying it and had reported by the end of the year with a firm recommendation in favour of a Federation.

      For a number of years the Government has been seeking to provide more land for industrial purposes by reclamation schemes, the most important of which is at Kwun Tong on the eastern shore of Kowloon Bay. There, by the end of 1958, 64 acres had been reclaimed and seventy industrial sites had been sold on conces- sionary terms; on ten of these sites, new factories have now been erected, construction work has started on eight, and building plans have been approved for thirty one. At Cheung Sha Wan on the west side of Kowloon peninsula, thirty nine acres for a mixed residential/industrial area have also been reclaimed. At Tsuen Wan in the New Territories, twenty two sites in a new industrial area of about fourteen acres have been sold and seven of the sites developed. A further interesting feature of the Cheung Sha Wan reclamation was the provision by the Government of a five-storey 'flatted' factory with 470 units, each of approximately 200 square feet, to absorb small industrial undertakings cleared from squatter areas. This 'flatted' factory, which provides communal ablution and other facilities, was in full operation by the end of the year and other similar factories were under construction or being planned.

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      In the training of future technicians, managers and engineers for local industry the Hong Kong Technical College and the University of Hong Kong have long played their part. Towards the end of the year the University announced plans for the resump- tion of the training of electrical and mechanical, as well as civil, engineers. Enrolment at the Hong Kong Technical College, in its new and larger premises opened in November 1957, stood at 375 full-time and 6,063 part-time students in September 1958, an increase over the previous session of about 30 full-time and 631 part-time students. This represented an increase in overall enrol- ment of some 12% and it reflected the increasing demand for technical education arising from the rapid development of local industry. A noteworthy feature was the establishment of a textiles department to provide courses on textile technology.

During a major debate on the state of the United Kingdom cotton industry on 30th June, Hong Kong working conditions came under criticism. The Government was already working on a draft Employment Bill, designed to improve many aspects of local conditions of employment, and the Paymaster General announced that Miss S. A. Ogilvie, O.B.E., Assistant Labour Adviser to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, would visit Hong Kong to discuss conditions of employment generally with the Government while this legislation was under consideration.

      This official arrived in the Colony on 8th July and during her stay of twenty four days she visited more than fifty industrial undertakings, nine of them at night, varying from the largest cotton spinning mill in the Colony to small tenement workshops, and had full discussions with prominent local industrialists and trade union representatives. It was announced at the time of her departure from the Colony that, as a result of her visit, Miss Ogilvie had made a number of suggestions regarding the proposals already in draft, designed to effect a reduction in the hours which women and young persons were legally permitted to work.

These proposals were designed to bring the law on the subject into line with current practice amongst the majority of the Colony's employers. The main aim was to restrict normal working hours, exclusive of overtime and intervals for meals and rest, to a maxi- mum of 10 in a day for all women and young persons, and to introduce a weekly rest day for them. As an interim measure

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

pending the enactment of the full Employment Bill, regulations under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance were drawn up incorporating these and other proposals to ameliorate working conditions for women and young persons. The new regula- tions were considered and approved by the Labour Advisory Board and by the Legislative Council and will come into force on 1st January 1959.

Among the events which affected the Colony's industries during the year, none was more important than that connected with Lancashire opposition to imports of Hong Kong cotton and made- up goods. Grey cloth from Hong Kong first entered the United Kingdom market in any real quantity in 1953, and, initially, a large part was processed there for re-export; imports were, how- ever, insignificant in relation to those from India. Opposition to the import of cotton textiles from Asian countries mounted after 1955 and at the end of 1956 the United Kingdom Cotton Board despatched a Mission, led by Sir Cuthbert Clegg, which reached India in December and Hong Kong in January of the following year. The Mission succeeded in reaching an understanding with India on the limitation of cloth exports, dependent on similar understandings being reached with Hong Kong and Pakistan. The discussions with Hong Kong textile interests were complicated by the lack of a representative textile body with whom to negotiate. An understanding could not at first be reached and in the meanwhile local exports of cotton textiles to the United Kingdom continued to increase.

Following an exploratory visit by Sir Frank Lee, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., Permanent Secretary to the Board of Trade, in March 1958, a delegation from the Cotton Board, led by Lord Rochdale, M.C., Chairman of the Board, arrived in the Colony on 23rd September and began negotiations with an eleven-man ad hoc Hong Kong Textiles Negotiating Committee, headed by the Hon. J. D. Clague, C.B.E., M.C., which had been set up with the help of the Government. The Cotton Board delegation eventually left Hong Kong on 9th October after securing an agreement in principle that exports of cotton manufactures to the United Kingdom should be limited for a period of three years, but the terms of the undertaking by local industry were not finally agreed until the last days of December, to come into force as from

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      1st February 1959. This undertaking provides in brief that exports to the United Kingdom of Hong Kong manufactured cotton gar- ments and piece-goods, whether grey or finished, shall be subject to a ceiling of approximately 164 million square yards annually for a period of three years. Outside the ceiling are cotton yarn, garments made from United Kingdom cloth, and any goods imported into the United Kingdom for re-export with or without processing.

       On 31st October the French Ministry of Economic Affairs, without any prior warning, announced the establishment of a quota for the importation of Hong Kong goods into France and French West Africa equal to 50% of the value of such imports in 1957. The French authorities justified this move with sugges- tions of dumping and the export of mainland Chinese textiles under the guise of Hong Kong goods. Strong and urgent repre- sentations were made to France by Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, and the outcome was awaited at the end of

the year.

       Concern voiced in the United States during the year over increasing imports of cotton goods from Hong Kong, mainly shirts, blouses and brassieres, culminated in January 1959 in an announcement that an Assistant Secretary of the United States Department of Commerce would visit Hong Kong in February to consult with the Government and industry on the possibility of finding a solution to the problem.

       In the context of these events, it was with very real pleasure that the Hong Kong Branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association was able to invite the United Kingdom Branch to send a delegation to the Colony in order that its members might acquaint themselves with as many aspects of Hong Kong life as possible. The all-party delegation led by the Rt. Hon. R. H. Turton, M.C., M.P., spent two weeks in Hong Kong and were able to see all major aspects of the Colony's life and to discuss its problems with the persons most directly concerned. The dele- gation left on 13th November, and before departure expressed their optimism over the future prospects of Hong Kong and their admiration for the way in which problems were being tackled: a fitting note, perhaps, on which to draw this review of past events to a close.

Chapter 2: Population

THE total civilian population at the end of 1958 was estimated to be 2,806,000 of whom less than 1% was non-Chinese. In August 1957 a Housing Survey was conducted by the University of Hong Kong and was the first scientific attempt at estimating a large sector of the population made since the war. The population estimates may be amended in the light of the Report of this Survey which will be published during 1959.

The last population census was held in 1931 when the civilian population was found to be 840,473. Another census should have been held in 1941, but the unsettled conditions following the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, the fluctuations in population following the attack on Canton in 1938, and later the Japanese invasion of the Colony, caused the plan to be abandoned. The influx of immigrants to which Hong Kong has been subjected since the end of the war has been one of the main considerations which have so far made the holding of a census impracticable.

      An unofficial count by air-raid wardens in 1941 before the Japanese attack put the population at about 1,600,000. This number was greatly reduced during the occupation and it is estimated that the total amounted to less than 600,000 when the Colony was liberated in August 1945.

The population grew rapidly after the liberation, and by the end of 1946 it was believed that the immediately pre-war level of 1,600,000 had been reached. An assessment of the population in September 1949 by the then Department of Statistics put the total at 1,857,000.

Estimates for subsequent years have been based mainly on the birth and death registration figures and on the arrival and departure figures modified, where necessary, by additional informa- tion available at the time of making the estimate.

The population problem is complicated by illegal immigration, and by the fact that in any one year the number of journeys made

POPULATION

25

235

and recorded both ways across the frontiers is usually equal to or greater than the estimated total number of the population.

     The population increased during 1958 by some 129,000 to reach an estimated total of 2,806,000. Of this increase 86,070 was due to the excess of registered births over registered deaths, and 43,156 to recorded immigration. The actual number of registered births was 106,624 in 1958 compared with 97,834 in 1957, and of registered deaths was 20,554 compared with 19,365 in 1957. These figures yield for 1958 a birth rate of 38.8 per mille and a death rate of 7.5 per mille, on a mid-year population of 2,748,000.

URBAN POPULATION

     The majority of urban residents originally came from Kwang- tung. As a result of economic and political changes in China during the past several years, a large number of people from Shanghai and the neighbouring area have established themselves in the Colony.

At the end of 1958 the number of British subjects from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth, excluding Service per- sonnel and their dependents, numbered about 15,000. The total of non-Chinese residents, excluding British nationals, was about 7,900; of these the most numerous national communities were: American, 2,147; Portuguese, 1,630; Filipino, 581; Japanese, 359; Dutch, 354; French, 312; and Italian, 281.

     The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are neighbour- ing Po On and Tungkwun, Waiyeung and Muiyuen (principally Hakka), Chiuchow, the so-called Four Districts (Sunning, Sunwui, Hoiping and Yanping), Namhoi, Punyü, Shuntak and Chungshan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien com- munity and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

     The chief linguistic characteristic of the urban area is that, although a wide variety of Chinese languages and dialects are used in daily life, Cantonese is the lingua franca. Apart from Cantonese, the languages or dialects most widely heard are Hakka, Chiuchow, Kuoyü (the national language), the Shanghai dialect and, of course, English, the popularity of which has increased considerably in

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the last ten years. Before the war the Colony was not much affected by the movement in China to popularize Kuoyü. The war, however, took many local residents into China, and many came back afterwards with some knowledge of Kuoyü. Though this language is not normally spoken by Cantonese people in Hong Kong, a far greater number understand it now than before the war.

NEW TERRITORIES

The indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories consist of four principal groups: Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka. Although these groups show differences in physical appearance, dress, organization and custom, which suggest that they are racially distinct, it is safer to treat them as linguistic rather than racial groups.

     The Cantonese occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories, and own a good deal of the best valley land in various other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long District, have a history of continuous settlement since the late eleventh century, in the Southern Sung dynasty, with whose imperial family the clan was connected by marriage. Villages in the Tung Chung and Shek Pik valleys, on Lantau Island, date back to the early Yuan dynasty, in the late thirteenth century. Subsequent migrations have brought Cantonese from many districts of Kwangtung, and throughout the principal islands they are the majority community. The earliest families in Yuen Long District speak a form of the Namtau dialect, an offshoot of Tungkwun, not very easy for city Cantonese to follow, but city Cantonese (Punyü dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, and is explained as meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or even before. The Cantonese were the more successful settlers, however, and in the areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are always found upstream, along foothills, and in general on the worse land. At an early stage they seem to have become dependants or serfs

POPULATION

27

     of the powerful Cantonese families. The balance was restored later by heavy immigration from the East River districts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the Hakka are now almost exclusive possessors of the Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung and Hang Hau peninsulas, and of the foothills of Tai Mo Shan. They are the majority community in Tai Po, Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan, and on the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan.

      The origin of the Hakka is unknown. They have contradictory traditions pointing to both a northern and a southern origin, and, while the greatest numbers of them are found in eastern Kwang- tung, there are many in Kiangsi and some in Szechuan and Taiwan. In the New Territories there are certain villages which show indications of being of non-Chinese origin; such villages are invariably Hakka-speaking. Both Cantonese and Hakka are languages of the Yueh group, presenting features characteristic of the standard speech of the early T'ang dynasty (seventh century); and Hakka, while closely resembling Cantonese in most respects. preserves a few even earlier characteristics.

In Kwangtung for many centuries there was strife between Cantonese and Hakka, culminating in a war in the early nine- teenth century which required the intervention of the Manchu Government. They are now at peace and inter-marriage, formerly unknown, is now not unusual. Some villages are peacefully shared between the two groups and most Hakka people can speak Cantonese, except in the remotest areas.

The Hoklo have frequented the area since time unknown. They are traditionally boat dwellers, but in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations. There are influential land communities of them on Cheung Chau and Peng Chau. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hok- kien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their language belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast from Fukien to Hainan Island. The more primitive types of Hoklo dwelling are distinguish- able by the use of thatch and mud bricks, instead of tiles and

stone.

The Tanka (egg families) are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which

28

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

    they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Shui sheung yan' (water-borne people). They are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. Their entire families live afloat. These people were subject to discrimination in Imperial China, for they were forbidden to live ashore or to engage in trade, and they were not allowed to enter for the Imperial examinations. Like the Hoklo, whom they resemble in many respects, they have been in the area since time unknown. Chinese records suggest that they originally spoke a non-Chinese language. At present they speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese, which they appear to have adopted early in the fourteenth century, during the Yuan dynasty. At Tai O, on Lantau Island, there is the rare instance of a fairly large group of Tanka living ashore, or rather half-ashore, in huts built on stakes over a muddy inlet.

Certain parts of the New Territories mainland have been affected by the great numbers of refugees who, since 1937, have come to the Colony from all parts of China. In general where they have settled in the country, it has been in assimilable numbers; but certain groups of Tungkwun and Chiuchow cultivators, and of miners from North China, have resisted assimilation and preserved a refugee mentality. These, however, form only a very small minority of the total rural population.

An increasing number of city dwellers of all nationalities have in recent years been building bungalows and small week-end residences in the New Territories. Most of these are along the main roads, particularly at Sha Tin, Tai Po, near the Fan Ling golf courses, and along the road to Castle Peak and Clearwater 'Bay. On the islands the principal areas affected are Cheung Chau and Silver Mine Bay.

Chapter 3: Occupations, Wages and

Labour Organization

OCCUPATIONS

THE principal sources of employment in Hong Kong are industry, commercial houses connected with the entrepôt trade, agriculture, fishing and the internal distributive trades.

No general employment figures are available, nor has it been feasible since the war, because of rapidly changing conditions, for the Government to undertake the compilation of such figures. Employment figures are, however, held for all industrial concerns registered or recorded* with the Labour Department, and these cover the bulk of the Colony's industries.

The number of persons engaged in agriculture and fishing is estimated to be slightly less than 275,000. The total number of persons employed by the Hong Kong Government was slightly over 40,000, while an additional 21,000 were engaged in the public transport services. An estimated 120,000 workers were employed in building and engineering construction. During the year the number of persons employed in a civilian capacity by the Armed Services fell by over 3,000. This decrease followed from the decision in 1957 to close down H.M. Dockyard in a phased opera- tion extending over two years, and to make reductions in the civilian establishments in the Colony of the Army and R.A.F.

The main factor affecting employment continued to be, as for several years past, industrial expansion, but this was limited during the year by trading restrictions encountered by local manu- facturers in various parts of Asia and Africa, by the general trade recession in the middle of the year, and by the continued shortage of suitable industrial sites, particularly for small concerns. Despite these unfavourable factors the number of registered industrial undertakings rose by 295 to 2,705. An additional 773 undertakings

*This term is explained later in the chapter under Factory Inspection and Registration.

30

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

were in the course of registration. Increases in the inspectorate staff of the Labour Department have made possible the regular inspection of a greatly increased number of industrial premises too small for registration, and as a result the number of registered and recorded industrial undertakings increased by 1,533 to 4,906 and the number of workers employed in them by 26,964 to 179,997. There were small increases in the number of outworkers and in the number of those employed in the industrial fringe.

     Work on the reclamation at Kwun Tong to provide sites for industry continued, and by the end of the year ten factories were in operation and eight were under construction. Plans for thirty one other factories had been approved. Land sales and reclamation at Kwun Tong are also mentioned in Chapters 1, 6 and 14.

     The manufacture of textiles, engaging 42,338 workers, remained the principal source of industrial employment. Within this industry the majority of the workers are employed in cotton weaving (15,870 workers) and cotton spinning (12,613 workers). The textile industry, together with the manufacture of wearing apparel, employing 25,602 workers, accounted for 37.8% of the industrial work force. Other important industries were the manufacture of metalware (24,342 workers) and the manufacture and repair of transport equipment, including shipbuilding and repairing (14,540 workers), which together with the textile and wearing apparel industries accounted for 59.3% of all workers in registered and recorded industrial undertakings as against 62% for 1957. The expansion of industry and industrial employment over the past three years has been as follows:

Year

1956

1957

1958

3,319

3,373

4,906

Industrial Male Female Total Undertakings Workers Workers Workers

91,443 55,434 146,877 94,579 58,454 153,033 108,844

71,153 179,997

A more detailed table showing the development of industry over the same period by main industrial groups, and by selected industries within certain of these groups, is at Appendix II.

Unemployment. The absence of general employment statistics precludes anything but estimates on the broadest basis concerning unemployment and under-employment. Although the growth of

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

31

industry and the sustained high level of building activity kept large numbers employed, and skilled workers found their services in demand, there was a large surplus of unskilled labour, most of it in the under-employed category.

There were fluctuations in employment in various industries, but reduced employment in any particular field was offset by increased employment in another. Changes of this kind do not necessarily imply any lengthy period of unemployment for individual workers, since the majority of semi-skilled and unskilled workers are adaptable and are capable of turning their hands, for example, from weaving or garment-making to assembly work in a metal- ware factory or gumming in a rubber shoe factory.

Migration for Employment. Migration to other territories for employment continued to take place; but only on a small scale, owing to immigration restrictions imposed by countries unwilling to accept Chinese as permanent settlers. A small number of workers left permanently to join relatives in the United States, Canada, South America, Australia and France. Skilled and semi- skilled workmen from the Colony, as before, were much in demand in the Brunei oilfields and in development projects in North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak. Local textile and enamelware factories sent skilled hands to develop connected enterprises in Indonesia, Burma, and Thailand. During the year the number of employment contracts for emigrant manual workers officially approved by the Government showed little change, the total being 2,054 compared with 2,051 in 1957.

In April 1958 the North Borneo Government announced a scheme for the settlement of a limited number of Hong Kong agricultural workers in that territory. Applicants under the scheme must be sponsored by relatives or friends who are already North Borneo residents. These emigrant agricultural workers are to be protected in their employment by a three-year contract until such time as they are allowed to settle permanently or are required to return to Hong Kong.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT

     Wages. Wages are normally calculated on a monthly, daily or hourly basis or on piece rates, but it is customary for most daily

32

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

and piece-rated workers to be paid at weekly or fortnightly intervals. Most unskilled workers employed as general labour are on daily rates of pay, as are a considerable number of skilled and semi-skilled operatives in industry. The majority of industrial production process workers are, however, paid on piece rates. Both men and women receive the same piece rates, but in general men receive slightly higher monthly or daily rates than women engaged on the same work. Pay for learners in trades where a period of in-plant training is necessary is frequently below the unskilled rates, but wages rise rapidly with increases in skill.

No significant changes in wage rates were observed during the year. This reflected the continuing stability in the cost of living. The wage range for daily-rated workers was estimated as:

Skilled workmen

Semi-skilled workmen

Unskilled workmen

$7 to $12 a day

$4 to $8 a day $2.50 to $6 a day

     A bonus of one month's wages is paid at Chinese New Year in many concerns.

Some firms provide free food and accommodation for their regular employees. Others provide canteens, from which food and other necessities are supplied at subsidized rates, thus giving their workers partial protection against rises in the cost of living. The Government, most European concerns, and some Chinese concerns run on Western lines pay a basic wage, together with a variable cost of living allowance to compensate for price fluctuations. The allowances paid are based on the Retail Price Index, compiled and published monthly by the Commerce and Industry Depart-

ment.

      Working Hours. Consideration has been given for some time to the introduction of legislation providing minimum standards of conditions of employment in local industry, and, in particular, limitation of the hours of work. Surveys were made during the first half of the year of the hours worked by both men and women in all types of industrial undertaking. The normal daily hours of work in local industry, exclusive of overtime and rest periods, were found to average 9 hours for men and 91⁄2 hours for women. Approximately 65% of all women workers and over 70% of all male workers, work 10 hours or less per day. The 48-hour week

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

33

     is standard in European undertakings. In public utilities and some of the cotton spinning and weaving mills a system of three 8-hour shifts is used. Rest periods varying between half an hour and three hours per day are usually given, and this is invariably the case where the working day exceeds eight hours: daily rest periods over the whole of industry averaged one hour for both men and women. Some 70,000 workers in local industry have no regular rest day, but in small concerns it is customary for the workers to be granted leave without pay on request. The rest day, where one is given, is usually Sunday, except in concerns where continuous production must be maintained and rest days are accordingly arranged in rotation.

      Largely arising out of the controversy over the export of Hong Kong textiles to the United Kingdom, considerable interest was aroused in the United Kingdom during the year concerning hours of work in the Colony's textile industry. In July Miss S. A. Ogilvie, O.B.E., Assistant Labour Adviser to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, visited Hong Kong in order to prepare a first-hand report on local conditions of employment generally. It was decided, after consultation with Miss Ogilvie, that certain provisions of the draft Employment Bill (to which reference has been made in previous Reports) relating to the hours of work of women and young persons, should be enacted as a matter of urgency. Towards the end of the year, regulations were therefore made under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, to come into force on 1st January 1959, providing for restrictions on the working hours of women and of young persons under the age of 18 employed in industry and for a weekly rest day for such persons. These regulations which are summarized later in this Chapter are intended only as a first step in the implementation of the Government's policy to raise minimum standards of employ- ment generally.

      Cost of Living. The cost of living showed little change during the year, apart from variations caused by the normal seasonal fluctuations in foodstuff prices. The average of the Retail Price Index in 1958 was 117. The price of rice rose during the first half of the year owing to supply difficulties, but thereafter prices dropped to a more satisfactory level and remained so for the rest of the year.

34

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The following table shows the fluctuations which occurred in the officially published Retail Price Index during the year:

January

February

March...

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

:

113

118

116

114

115

115

115

117

120

120

118

118

November

December

The Retail Price Index covers a wide range of commodities and is weighted according to a budgetary survey carried out in 1948. The base of 100 is for March 1947, and although the expenditure pattern used for weighting is that of the artisan and white collar worker, the Index gives a fair reflection of general changes in the cost of living.

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

The Government's responsibilities in labour matters are dealt with by the Labour Department and the Registry of Trade Unions. Labour Department. The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to the Government on all matters connected with labour and industrial relations. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both employers and employed are represented, and which is consulted on all legislative matters affecting labour. The Commissioner is also Chairman of the Standing Committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training, an ex-officio member of the Port Committee and a member of the Kwun Tong Advisory Committee concerned with the provision of industrial sites. Concurrently he is Commissioner of Mines. The registration of trade unions, formerly a function of the Labour Department, has been undertaken by the Registrar of Trade Unions since December 1954, when a separate depart- ment was set up for this purpose.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

35

       The Labour Department is responsible for the initial preparation of all labour legislation, and keeps under review the legislative and administrative arrangements for giving effect to the Colony's obligations under International Labour Conventions. It carries out the registration and inspection of industrial undertakings to ensure, in particular, safe and healthy conditions of work. It acts as a channel of conciliation in disputes between trade unions and employers, and individual workmen and employers. It provides advice and assistance to trade unions in the management of their affairs, including the organization of classes on various aspects of trade unionism; seeks to encourage joint consultation in industry; and advises on the establishment of appropriate machinery for this purpose. It is responsible for the protection of women and young persons employed in industry in compliance, in particular, with internationally accepted restrictions on their working hours. It protects emigrant workers; and administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, primarily by investigations conducted by a staff of trained labour inspectors. It carries out surveys of wage rates and levels, and conditions of employment; and is responsible for ensuring that publicity is given to the major provisions of the legislation with which the Department is con- cerned. At the end of the year the Department had made arrange- ments to begin in 1959 to offer training in supervisory techniques to representatives of local industry.

      During the year the distribution of a large number of industrial safety posters to local factories was continued. In addition to the publication of various pamphlets by the Department, fifty four different articles dealing with aspects of safety, health, welfare, trade unionism, etc., were prepared by officers of the Department and distributed through the Public Relations Office for use by the local vernacular press. Through the courtesy of the Chinese Manu- facturers' Association, the Labour Department was for the second time provided with a stall in which to mount a display at the Annual Exhibition of Hong Kong Products held in December. The display aroused interest and the opportunity was again taken to spread more knowledge of the Department's activities among local employers and workers by means of numerous hand-outs, by organizing film shows and displays at the Exhibition, and by radio broadcasts.

36

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Registry of Trade Unions is responsible for dealing with applications by new trade unions for registration under the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, and with applications by registered unions for registration of alterations of rules, of change of name or of amalgamation, and with dissolutions. The Registrar also has the power to cancel the registration of a union in certain circumstances.

Registered trade unions are required by the Ordinance to trans- mit to the Registrar before 1st June each year annual returns, showing changes in membership figures and the names of the principal officials, and their audited accounts within one month of presentation to members. During the year the Department prosecuted seventeen unions for late submission of annual returns. Certain unions were for the first time prosecuted for late trans- mission of accounts, while the registration of one organization was cancelled for this offence.

     The year ended with 312 unions on the register as against 307 in December 1957. Eleven new trade unions (all of workers) were registered, but six organizations (three of workers, two of employers and one mixed) were removed from the register. While the three workers' unions had ceased to exist, and the two employers' associations became limited companies, the mixed organization was cancelled for failure to transmit accounts in time. The total of 312 registered unions is made up of 238 workers' unions, 65 organizations of merchants or employers and 9 mixed organizations of employers and workers.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS.

Labour Organization. The number of workers' unions on the register is in excess of practical needs. Most of the trade unions in the Colony continue to be affected by political considerations. With the exception of a small number of independent unions, the majority of workers' unions are affiliated to one of the two trade union federations.

     The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, which supports the Chinese People's Republic, has sixty four affiliated unions, the majority of whose members are employed in leading shipyards and utility companies. There are in addition twenty one unions,

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

37

nominally independent, which subscribe to the policy and par- ticipate in the activities of the F.T.U. During the year the F.T.U. continued its policy of providing welfare benefits not only to members of affiliated unions, but also to all workers willing to accept them.

The Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades Union Council, which supports the Nationalist regime in Taiwan, has seventy affiliated unions, with a further sixty two unions participating in its activities. The majority of the members of these unions are employed in building construction, Chinese restaurants, tea-houses, and in catering and miscellaneous services. The T.U.C. remains affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, but does not play an active part within that body. The new headquarters building of the T.U.C., called Labour House, was opened on 1st May.

      Independent unions are few and mostly small in membership, and several of them are undecided as to where their interests should lie. Some of them, however, have made continuing efforts to improve their internal administration and the services offered by them to their members. The Teachers' Association was repre- sented in 1958 at international conferences in Ceylon and Rome organized by the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession.

During the year the Labour Department under its trade union education programme arranged, in co-operation with the Technical College, three series of lectures on simple accounting for the benefit of local trade unions. Each series consisted of eight talks of an hour and a half each and some 85 persons from 38 trade unions attended the lectures. The Trade Union Section, as well as other sections of the Labour Department, gave lectures to pupils of a number of Anglo-Chinese secondary schools and middle schools. Towards the end of the year a trade union requested the Depart- ment to arrange a series of lectures on certain basic aspects of trade unionism, and these were commenced in December.

      Joint Consultation. Joint consultation is not widely practised in the Colony but there is evidence that appreciation of its value is slowly growing. Many employers who understand and appreciate its purpose are, however, reluctant to experiment in this field

38

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

while political interests dominate labour in Hong Kong. Officers of the Labour Department have made, and continue to make, visits to factories to explain the advantages of joint consultation, and these are also stressed in press releases and talks. It is hoped that these methods will in time develop a proper appreciation of joint consultation not only amongst employers but also amongst workers.

      Labour Disputes. One strike was in progress at the beginning of the year while three others occurred during 1958. Man-days lost totalled 6,999. This is less than for any year since the war, except 1952 when only 195 man-days were lost, and compares very favourably with a post-war average of approximately 81,400. The first strike was caused by an endeavour by the management to rectify poor production, while the second and third occurred after workers were dismissed for fighting. The fourth had no single clear-cut cause but resulted from the culmination of a number of matters on which the union involved had failed to obtain replies from the management which they regarded as satisfactory. The first two strikes were unsuccessful, the last two resulted in concessions being made by the managements.

      H.M. Dockyard. The announcement in November 1957 that H.M. Dockyard would be closed down over a two-year period resulted in intense activity by the unions having members in the Yard, in particular by the left-wing Hong Kong Naval Dockyard Chinese Employees' Industrial Union. Demands were presented to the Dockyard authorities that they and the Hong Kong Govern- ment should accept responsibility for securing other employment for discharged workers, and not merely undertake to help them, and that no worker should be laid off until a job could be found for him; that the Dockyard authorities should award one year's severance pay to redundant workers over and above gratuities; and that gratuities should be calculated on the basis of four weeks' wages for each year of service. The Dockyard authorities offered a gratuity of two weeks' gross pay, including allowances, for each year of service. In support of these demands a number of short sit-down strikes and other demonstrations were staged in the Dockyard and visits were made by groups, organized by the left-wing union already mentioned, to Government House, various Government Departments and prominent local citizens. These

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

39

activities had their culmination on 1st March when a demonstra- tion led to an employee of the Dockyard being prevented from leaving his office. Police reinforcements had to be sent to the Yard and remained there until the demonstrators dispersed. Following this demonstration, the leaders of the agitation were warned that such incidents threatened public order; no further major incidents took place during the year. On 3rd June the Dockyard authorities replied to the representations they had received by announcing that, although severance pay could not be granted nor any guarantee of alternative employment before discharge be given, the scale of retiring gratuities had been reconsidered and that these would now be calculated at a rate of two weeks' pay for each year of service up to 10 years, three weeks' pay for every year of service from the 11th to the 20th, and four weeks' pay for every year of service over 20. These terms, while not considered satisfactory by either right- or left-wing unions, had, in conjunc- tion with the success of the Employment Liaison Office (see below) in finding fresh employment for the workers discharged, a con- siderable affect in lessening tension in the second half of the year.

At the time of the announcement of the closure, an assurance was given by the Dockyard authorities and the Hong Kong Government that every endeavour would be made to find other work for the 4,600 employees concerned, and for this purpose the Commissioner of Labour set up an Employment Advisory Committee which recommended the establishment of an Employ- ment Liaison Office in the Labour Department and in H.M. Dockyard. All the Dockyard employees were registered and information to facilitate selection of suitable workers was cir- culated to potential employers. During the year the total run-down was 2,233 workers and of these, apart from 59 workers who were discharged or retired on grounds other than redundancy, 1,917 or 86% were known to have found other employment, the great majority through the efforts of the Employment Liaison Office. Help was also given by the Employment Liaison Office to Dockyard workers laid off in 1957 before the closure announce- ment, as well as to redundant civilian employees of the War Department and Royal Air Force. During the year 855 such workers were found employment through the office.

40

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The New China Enamelware (H.K.) Ltd. The strike at this concern, had its origin in a proposed reorganization of the factory which involved new rates of pay. The strike commenced on 9th December 1957 and continued until 10th January 1958, when work was resumed following the acceptance by the workers' representa- tives of concessionary proposals made by the management. These laid down conditions for the disengagement of all regular workers and their re-engagement on new pay rates. The management also agreed to make enhanced payments for holidays and for the New Year bonus. A further 5,000 man-days were lost during the year, making a total of 16,040 during the dispute.

      The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd. The 200 electrical welders in this dockyard are employed through a contractor and not by the dockyard direct. On 28th June an argument between two welders of different political views develop- ed into a fight and as a result the contractor dismissed both men on disciplinary grounds. The left-wing faction immediately demanded reinstatement of the left-wing worker concerned and when this was refused, a number of workers started to go slow and refused to work overtime. Production began to be affected and on 3rd July the Labour Department, at the request of the management, attempted conciliation but without success. The management of the dockyard then issued a warning to the workers that unless normal working was resumed, they would take appro- priate counter measures. As there was no response to this warning, a lockout was declared at 7 p.m. on 8th July in respect of the welding section. After picketing the dockyard gates for three days, the union requested an immediate return to work on 11th July. The management agreed and work in the welding section was resumed on the following day. This dispute, which had no industrial background, caused the loss of some 850 man-days and involved a loss in pay to each of the workers affected of between $14 and $100. Other sections of the dockyard continued to work normally while the dispute was in progress.

      Hong Kong & China Gas Co. Ltd. In 1956 this Company opened a new plant some three miles away from the old works in Kowloon. In October of that year some 80 workers, and in May 1957 a further 40 workers, who lived in the vicinity of the old works were transferred to work in the new plant. As there

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

41

were complaints from many of these workers of extra travelling expenses incurred by them as a result of the change in their workplace, the management granted them a travelling allowance of 40 cents a day, which was to cease after a period of sixteen months from the date of transfer. The allowance for the first group of workers moved to the new plant was discontinued in April 1958 without incident, and none was expected when that for the remaining workers affected ceased to be paid in November 1958. Strong objections to the cessation of the allowance were, however, raised in October by the Hong Kong & China Gas Co. Ltd. Chinese Employees' Association (T.U. 90), which also took the opportunity to raise various complaints regarding action taken by the management to remove anomalies which had arisen in the working of the agreement signed between the management and the workers' representatives in 1947. As the replies given on these matters by the management were considered unsatisfactory by the union, it ordered its members in both the Hong Kong and Kowloon works to take strike action. Work by employees other than retort men stopped on three occasions (18th and 25th October and 14th November) while negotiations with the management were taking place. After the commencement of strike action, a demand was also made by the union for pay for the period during which such action was taken. The management conceded that there might be some cases of genuine hardship caused by the discontinuation of the travelling allowance, and announced that it would therefore continue the allowance for all the workers concerned. Other concessions regarding medical treatment, over- time work on Sundays and the payment of a proportion of the Chinese New Year bonus to workers leaving the Company's service before the actual date of the New Year were also made. In spite of these concessions the dispute was not settled, as the union maintained its demand for pay for the strike period, but by the end of the year the position appeared to have improved. 249 man-days were lost by strike action during the year.

      Gin Nih Weaving Factory, Tsuen Wan. This concern, which operated two factories with a total of 350 looms employing 375 workers, ran into financial difficulties early in the year, and went into part-time production in June. The proprietor failed to raise extra capital to keep going and announced the closure of both

42

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

factories on 11th July. The workers demanded a gratuity of two months' wages and a proportion of the annual bonus normally paid at Chinese New Year by the management. The employer, who was heavily in debt, refused these demands, and the workers then shut themselves up in the two factories and refused to let any of the goods and chattels be removed, including a quantity of finished cloth.

The Labour Department was compelled to intervene and many long meetings were held with the employer and the workers' representatives. The employer claimed that he was unable to pay outstanding wages or refund apprentices' deposits or meet bills incurred for food supplied to the workers unless he was free to sell the cloth, while the workers were unwilling to release the cloth unless the employer was prepared to pay a gratuity in addition to arrears of wages. Relations between both sides became very strained and Police assistance was necessary on one occasion to escort the employer out of one factory when he was hemmed in by the workers. After the Labour Department had offered its good offices in ensuring that the employer honoured the promises he had made to turn over proceeds from the sale of the cloth to the workers, a settlement was reached whereby the employer agreed to increase his offer by providing a small gratuity in addition to arrears of wages. This was accepted by a majority of the workers and the cloth and other goods were handed over to their representatives for sale. Payment of arrears of wages, a refund of deposits and a gratuity of $74.90 per head were even- tually made from the proceeds under Labour Department supervi- sion on 30th and 31st August 1958. Both factories re-opened in October under new management and many of the workers obtained re-employment.

     The National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd. and the Nam Jam Factory Ltd. These two concerns shared the same factory building, the Nam Jam Factory making torches under licence for National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd., which was responsible for marketing and sales. The former employed about 700 workers and the latter 125 workers. According to the management, business started to fall off in the autumn as sales in India, Burma and Indonesia became poor. Local sales were also affected by imports from China. National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd. decided therefore in October that

Old Crafts, New Techniques,

in Hong Kong Industry

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    A RECENT but lusty addition to Hong Kong's steadily expanding family of industries is the manufacture of carpets, which are finding a ready overseas sale, particularly in the United States of America. The carpets of Peking and Tientsin have long been famous. Those now being manufactured in Hong Kong follow not only the traditional North China styles but incorporate contemporary designs or can be produced to the requirements of the individual buyer. The picture shows girls touching up a carpet in the final stages of manufacture.

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THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY in all its branches---from the production of yarn to the making-up of finished garments is now Hong Kong's largest and most valuable industrial asset. In 1958 the Colony's cotton mills earned $320 millions in foreign exchange and the various branches of the garment- making industry $437 millions. Because spinning and weaving is largely a post-war industry, Hong Kong's bigger mills have the advantage of modern machines and equipment. This helps them in a most competitive world market.

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raw

are

THE SCENES On this and the opposite page are typical of almost any of Hong Kong's larger cotton mills. Top left: A section of a spinning hall where raw cotton begins to take on the appearance of yarn. Bottom left: A corner of the laboratory of a big mill where cotton, yarn and cloth tested at all stages to ensure high and consistent quality. Top right: A male operator in a weaving shed checking the yarn as it is wound from cones on to a warp loom. Bottom right: Inspection room in a weaving factory showing women inspectors examining cloth which has just come from the looms.

BRAI

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...

CRAFTSMAN (OLD STYLE): The intricately carved pieces of ivory produced in Hong Kong workrooms and displayed in the Colony's shops never fail to fascinate the overseas visitor. There are approximately 1.000 skilled ivory workers in Hong Kong, each craftsman having his own set of tools (mainly a wide range of files and drills) which are never borrowed or lent. Apprentices must undergo at least five years' rigorous tuition before being considered sufficiently adept to take their place among the regular practitioners of the ancient craft.

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CRAFTSMAN

(MACHINE AGE):

now

                    Many of Hong Kong's industries are making their own jigs, dies and moulds, the product of the skilled tool- maker, which were formerly imported from overseas. There is a big demand for skilled engineers in all branches of industry and the Colony's techno- logical institutes are playing their part in training able young men. Technical education is aimed at giving both sound theoretical and practical instruction and meeting, as far as possible, the workaday demands of industry.

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THE MANUFACTURE of plasticware is now one of Hong Kong's major industries. with nearly 300 registered factories and a labour force estimated at over 8.000 by the end of 1958. Many of the operators are women. Injection, blow moulding and extrusion machines are all used, many of the machines them- selves being made in the Colony, as are the necessary moulds. Photographs on this page show first and near-final stages in the manufacture of dolls in a Hong Kong factory. Above: the designers' studio and, below: assembly.

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KIT

HO

AT KAI TAK Airport there is one of the finest installations for the maintenance and repair of aircraft in the Far East. Many aircraft which would not normally land at Hong Kong are regularly flown to the workshops of the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Ltd. for overhaul. The Company's shops and engineers are capable of handling many different types of air- frames, engines (including jet) and electrical systems. Picture shows H.A.E.C. mechanics at work on a Rolls Royce Dart engine in the Company's test house.

CRAIG & DO# ›

OLDEST OF ALL Hong Kong's industries is shipbuilding and repairing. There are two major dockyards, employing between them some 6,000 men and equipped to undertake the building of new vessels up to 500 feet long and 10,000 tons displacement, or the docking of ocean-going ships up to 750 feet. These yards can handle repairs of all kinds to both hulls and machinery and possess cranes capable of lifting up to 150 tons. During recent years there has been a considerable increase in the business handled by smaller Hong Kong yards and vessels for almost every country in the Far East and Australasia are now being built in the Colony. This photograph, taken in one of the larger yards, shows workmen drilling a large plate of sheet steel.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

43

its factory would have to close down and this led to the closure of the Nam Jam Factory which had no other outlet for its products. National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd. closed on 23rd October and the Nam Jam Factory closed six days later. Separate talks were started between the management and workers' representatives of the two factories. The workers of National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd. made initial demands of 100 days' pay as a redundancy gratuity, while those of the Nam Jam Factory requested 120 days' pay. After protracted negotiations, 60 days' pay was given to each worker of the Nam Jam Factory on 25th November, while 80 days' pay was given to each of the workers of National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd. on 4th December.

      Minor Disputes. The number of minor disputes dealt with by the Labour Department during the year was 1,621, an increase of 542 cases over the number in the previous year. The greater publicity gained by the Department was believed to be the reason for the large increase.

LEGISLATION

      By the Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Ordinance, 1958, which came into force on 28th March, the schedule of trades which had previously restricted the application of the main Ordinance to workmen engaged in the more hazardous occupations was abolished. This had the effect of bringing within the scope of the Ordinance, with minor exceptions, all manual labourers of whatever income and all non-manual workers whose incomes do not exceed $700 a month.

      The Workmen's Compensation (Exception of Agricultural Workers) Order, 1958, excluded from the scope of the Ordinance agricultural workers, apart from certain groups including those employed by registered companies in the keeping of live-stock and those who operate or maintain agricultural machinery. Most agricultural workers in the Colony are self-employed and the small number who work for hire are casual workers employed at harvest time by the peasant farmers of the New Territories.

The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations, 1958, were made by the Commissioner of Labour and approved by the Legislative Council on 5th November 1958. These Regulations, which will come into force on 1st January

44

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     1959, represent a most important advance in the limitation of hours worked by women and by young persons under the age of 18 in industrial employment. By the Regulations the maximum daily period of employment, exclusive of overtime, is to be limited to 12 hours and the maximum hours, exclusive of overtime, which may be worked to 10 hours in a day or 60 hours in a week. A weekly rest day must be given to all women and young persons. Provision is made, however, for women and young persons of or over the age of 16 to work an additional hour as overtime, up to an aggregate total of 100 hours in a year for any one industrial undertaking. This overtime is to be worked in not more than 25 weeks in the year. Young persons under the age of 16 may only work 8 hours in a day and are not allowed to be employed over- time. The Regulations prohibit more than 5 hours' continuous work without a break of at least half an hour in the case of women and young persons of 16 and over, or of one hour in the case of young persons under 16. Time limits for beginning and finishing work are also laid down, but special provisions allow these to be varied in the case of concerns operating on a scheme of shift work; night work between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. continues to be prohibited. Special provision is made for the extension of the overtime allowance to 150 hours in the year for the purpose of meeting seasonal or exceptional pressure of work; for the reckoning of overtime by reference to the individual worker and not to the industrial undertaking; for the declaration of separate sets of workers or parts of an industrial undertaking as separate undertakings for the purposes of reckoning overtime; and for transitional arrangements for the first six months of the operation of the Regulations. The Regulations also require the keeping of registers of women and young persons, the posting of notices of the period of employment and of intervals for meals and rest, and the making of returns of overtime work.

      The Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) (No. 2) Regulations, 1958, which were approved by the Legislative Council on 3rd December 1958, made certain amendments of a technical nature to the Regulations approved in November.

      The next step in the Government's declared policy of raising minimum standards of employment generally is an Industrial Employment (Holidays with Pay and Sickness and Maternity

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

45

Benefits) Bill. Work on this measure was going ahead as a matter of urgency at the end of the year, and it will act as a stop-gap until such time as a much more comprehensive Employment Bill can be introduced.

      During the year progress was also made with the following legislation: Clean Air Bill; Boilers and Pressure Receivers Bill; the Employment Bill; Mining (Amendment) Bill; Trade Union Registration Bill; Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Bill.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

Factory Registration and Inspection. During the year 580 applications for registration were received and 499 registration certificates were issued; 6 were refused, the premises being closed down; and 82 applications for registration were withdrawn. 211 factories found operating in unsuitable buildings were closed down, and 202 registration certificates were surrendered for cancellation, the premises for which they were issued having ceased to be used as factories. At the end of 1958 there were 2,705 places of employ- ment registered under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, and 773 in course of registration. These figures do not include 1,428 recorded establishments. These are small premises not registrable under the Ordinance but kept under observation by the inspectorate because from 15 to 19 workers are employed, or for industrial health and safety reasons, or because of the employment of women and young persons. The great increase in the number of recorded establishments is due to the expansion of the inspectorate and the greater coverage made during wage and employment surveys during the year. The total number of industrial undertakings registered, in the process of registration, or recorded was 4,906 at the end of the year.

Visits made by the labour inspectorate during the year totalled 24,622. Of these, 20,256 were routine inspections for the enforce- ment of safety, health and welfare provisions, while 792 were concerned with industrial or occupational accidents and workmen's compensation; 940 were night visits to industrial premises in connexion with the employment of women and young persons during prohibited hours; 483 were wage inquiries; 929 were connected with the employment of young persons; and 1,222 were

46

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

    connected with special surveys on hours of work, supervisors, humidification, workers' accommodation and checks on the nature of the trade carried out.

      Industrial Health. The activities of the Industrial Health Section fall into three main divisions: the investigation and prevention of occupational diseases; the improvement of medical services in industry, including the care of industrial accident cases in par- ticular; and the maintenance of healthy working conditions in factories and other workplaces. In addition, technical advice is given on many and varied subjects related to health in industry. The appointment of a laboratory assistant for sampling work and two health visitors, for the follow-up of workers injured in accidents, made it possible during the year to expand the work of the Section in these directions.

The prevention of occupational diseases is undertaken by the investigation of cases which come to light, by surveys of trades known to be hazardous, and by the regular medical supervision of workers in such trades. Government medical officers assist by notifying cases of industrial disease coming to their knowledge, while other cases are notified by private practitioners. The number so notified is not large but the information received is of great value, as often the discovery of a single case draws attention to conditions potentially dangerous to many workers. Silicosis and dermatitis are the most important diseases that have come to light in this way.

The number of cases of occupational disease recorded during the year was as follows:

Dermatitis

Silicosis

Chrome Ulcer

Pneumonitis in brass foundry worker

Lead Poisoning

Aniline Poisoning

Insecticide Poisoning

Hydrogen Sulphide Poisoning

Hyperidrosis (excessive sweating)

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

366

11

1

1

1

5

4

3

2

64

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

47

      Silicosis is the most serious occupational disease found in Hong Kong, though fortunately the number of cases on record is only twenty nine. The disease occurs among workers in quarries where granite of a high silica content is produced and also in factories where quartz is ground for industrial use. The proportion of workers in the latter trade who have been affected is high and the time of development of the disease unusually short. Lead poisoning occurs in small factories where scrap materials are smelted to recover the lead and in which the maintenance of healthy conditions is difficult. Dermatitis occurs in a wide range of industries, but probably the most important single cause is the use of solvents, such as kerosene, to clean the hands after work. Aniline poisoning has again been met with among wharf coolies handling leaking containers, and cases of hydrogen sulphide gas- sing occurred in coolies at a refuse dump.

      Trades known to be hazardous to workers have been surveyed during the year; individual factories are kept under observation and workers in them medically examined. All workers in stone- grinding factories have been X-rayed; blood examinations have been carried out on lead workers and those handling radio-active substances, while the latter also wear film badges which are examined by the Radiological Protection Service of the Medical Research Council.

      The number of examinations carried out during the year was as follows:

Film badges :

Spoilt

2

11

Excessive dose

Excessive and Contaminated

Contaminated

25

Normal

132

174

Blood Counts on:

Lead workers

Luminisers

Urine samples for lead content

19

26

12

When cases of disease due to the patient's occupation are found, the circumstances are investigated and recommendations made in

48

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

conjunction with the labour inspectorate. Where a whole trade appears to be involved, standard conditions are drawn up which can be applied to every factory; in the case of silicosis an Inter- departmental Committee has been set up to investigate the problem as a whole. In nearly every case of occupational disease it is possible to follow-up the individual workers affected and to keep their workplaces under observation.

      All newly opened factories are inspected by an Industrial Health Officer who advises on environmental and occupational health problems. These inspections provide an opportunity to keep a watch for possible hazards and to make further investigations when necessary. During the year a preliminary survey of tempera- ture and humidity in a group of textile factories was made with a view to the possible introduction of limits on the use of artificial humidification.

Advice is given on the improvement of existing medical arrange- ments in factories. Particular attention is given to concerns where women supervisors are employed at night. The inclusion of first aid rooms is required in all newly built factories where the size, the nature of the trade or other circumstances warrant it, and suggestions are made regarding the design and equipment of such facilities. Satisfactory liaison has been established with many of the general practitioners working in industry.

First aid classes for factory workers are organized with the help of St. John Ambulance Association. During the year 4 classes were held and 80 workers trained, making a total of 191 workers trained in 10 classes since the inception of the scheme.

With the appointment of a health visitor to the Section at the beginning of March and of another on 1st October it has been possible to follow-up a large proportion of industrial accident cases and ensure that they obtain necessary treatment and, where possible, rehabilitation. There is no rehabilitation centre or service in the Colony as yet, but much can be done for individual cases to assist them in making use of the services which are available. The Industrial Health Officer is a member of the Committee of the Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, a voluntary organiza- tion formed during the year to expand rehabilitation facilities for those disabled in industry or in other ways.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

49

Industrial Accidents. 4,948 industrial and occupational accidents (99 fatal) involving 5,029 persons were reported and investigated. This is 151 more accidents, with 13 more fatalities than in 1957. Of the total, 2,806 (35 fatal) were in registrable workplaces, an increase of 641 accidents (16 fatal) over the previous year. Compared with 1957 there was an increase in accidents per thousand industrial workers from 14.1 to 15.5 for all accidents, and from 0.124 to 0.194 for fatalities. It is thought that the widening of the scope of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance has resulted in the reporting of more accidents, but the rise in accidents, and in particular in fatalities, is disappointing and an intensification of the industrial safety publicity campaign is being carried out.

Welfare. Every registrable workplace must supply first aid equipment and drinking water, and all plans for new factory buildings must include provision for dining or rest rooms. An increasing number of industrial managements appreciate the im- portance of welfare facilities for their workers, and many have progressed beyond the minimum standards required by the Labour Department. Besides dining and rest rooms, more than thirty clinics are provided by industrial concerns and at these doctors attend periodically each week to treat occupational and general diseases of the workers concerned and sometimes their families, in some cases free of charge. In some industrial undertakings canteens, non-profit-making co-operative stores, subsidized meals, free cooking facilities, barber shops, laundries, reading rooms and school rooms are provided. Many of the large concerns in the Colony provide accommodation for their workers. Among the more prominent of such housing schemes are those of the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd., in associa- tion with the Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ltd., which pioneered workers' housing projects in Hong Kong over fifty years ago, the Hongkong Tramways Ltd., the China Motor Bus Co., Ltd., the Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd. the Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd. and the 'Star' Ferry Co., Ltd. All these companies provide, in addition, welfare centres attached to the housing schemes. A number of firms provide accommodation of the dormitory type, and in such cases canteens are also provided which serve free or subsidized food. In eleven cases dormitory

50

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

accommodation is provided free of charge. Many of those concerns which cannot afford to erect their own accommodation either rent or buy tenement buildings for this purpose.

Some undertakings organize picnic excursions for their workers in the summer and walks in the country in the winter. Welfare facilities frequently include cinema shows, Cantonese opera, table tennis, libraries, sports grounds for football and basketball games, and in a few instances even swimming pools. In some cases free or subsidized schooling for workers' children, and free classes for adults are arranged. During the year several firms took advantage of the Workers' Playtime Programme organized by Radio Hong Kong. Several firms have a Welfare Officer and Welfare Depart- ment, and in others a member of the staff is in charge of personnel matters. Some voluntary organizations also cater for the welfare of industrial workers by providing hostels and playgrounds. The Salvation Army's Thomson Memorial Boys' Hostel houses 154 young workers, and the Y.W.C.A. runs two hostels for factory girls.

Workmen's Compensation. The Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1953, which lays down minimum rates of compensation payable to workmen for injuries received in the course of their work, is now operating reasonably satisfactorily. Both employers and workers are becoming increasingly familiar with its provisions. Two amendments to the Ordinance providing an extension of the scope of its application were made during the year, and these are described above in the section on Legislation. Experience suggests, however, that further amendments to the Ordinance may be desirable, and these are at present being studied.

During the year 52 cases of fatal accidents and 4,129 cases of non-fatal accidents were settled. A total of $1,317,546 was paid as compensation, of which $340,764 was awarded by the District Courts to dependants of workmen killed in industrial accidents.

      Industrial Training. In view of the rapid expansion of industry in the Colony and the consequent need for providing increasing numbers of competent supervisors, the Government requested the services of an expert in Training Within Industry under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance to make a

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

51

survey of the need for, and the possibility of, introducing supervi- sory training in Hong Kong. The expert, Mr. D. J. Marler, visited the Colony between February and April, and as a result of recommendations made in his report, the Government established towards the end of the year a supervisory training section in the Labour Department to offer training in supervisory techniques to representatives of the Government and local industrial and com- mercial concerns in 1959.

      Craft apprenticeship within the Government service is provided by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, the Public Works Department in its electrical, mechanical and waterworks branches, the Stores Department in its workshops, and by the Printing Department. Vocational training classes for coxswains and engineers are operated by the Marine Department for Government employees, and by the Fisheries Division of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department for fishermen.

      A new group of apprentices started work in September in the Public Works Department and the Kowloon-Canton Railway under the new scheme of recruitment and training which was introduced in 1955. Apprentices are selected by means of examination and interviews; they are required to sign indentures, and attendance at supplementary technical classes is compulsory; the boys are released from the workshop one whole day a week to attend classes at the Hong Kong Technical College and, in their own time, attend classes two evenings a week.

      Apprenticeship training schemes are operated by H.M. Dock- yard, the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd., the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd., by the public utilities, and by a number of other European and Chinese firms. Encouragement is given by these concerns to apprentices to attend technical classes, and financial help towards fees is often provided. Some large spinning and weaving mills have apprenticeship schemes for mechanics or junior engineers; in certain cases recruit- ment is by competitive examination and the mills provide classes on their own premises in both technical and general educational subjects.

The Standing Committee on Technical Education and Voca- tional Training, set up in 1954, met four times during the year.

52

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      The work of the Technical College and the two government technical schools is described in Chapter 8.

NEW TERRITORIES

Although farming and fishing are the two principal occupations in the New Territories, the pattern of country life has been modi- fied by factors common to other maritime areas of South China. Even before the New Territories became part of the Colony, Hong Kong's influence as a growing commercial city had begun to attract young men away from their villages in search of work either in town or overseas. Lamma Island, close to Hong Kong, was the first place to be affected, many of its young men becoming seamen in British ships. In the first decade of this century many Hakka youngsters migrated to the West Indies, principally from the Sai Kung, Hang Hau and Sha Tau Kok areas. The Tung Chung valley, on Lantau Island, is another area from which large numbers have gone abroad as seamen or to settle in other countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. The villages adjoining the northern border, notably San Tin and Lo Wu, provide the cooks and waiters for many Chinese restau- rants in European ports.

Remittances from family members abroad or working in the urban area of the Colony thus came by the 'thirties to form a significant item in the economy of most New Territories villages. In one or two instances they were even the largest single item in the economy of a village. One obvious result of the reduction in the farming population, following this movement abroad, was that hilly land formerly under cultivation was neglected, sea- walls and dykes protecting fields near the sea were not properly repaired, and agriculture became confined in some parts to the more easily accessible and well-watered areas. Agriculture further- more became largely an occupation for women, the younger and able-bodied men going abroad to earn their living.

A sharp change occurred after the war. While the natural rate of rural population increase rose steeply, China coast shipping, due to international restrictions on trade with China, declined sharply, throwing many former seamen out of work. Less favour- able conditions in the West Indies cut off emigration opportunities.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

53

Younger men, who would normally be reaching the age to follow in their fathers' footsteps and go to sea or to settle abroad, had to stay in their villages. At the same time there was a reflux of former emigrants from the West Indies, and even from urban Hong Kong. Quite suddenly, the land was insufficient to maintain its own population. The long-neglected higher terraces and coastal fields had by this time been lost-the former by erosion, the latter by invasion of the sea-and, in general, to repair the damage was beyond village resources.

      Gradual progress is now being made, with Government assist- ance and encouragement, in repairing these several decades of neglect, and agriculture, which had formerly been sinking into a subsidiary to other more exciting and profitable jobs, is gradually regaining its proper importance.

      The Tsuen Wan area has been affected more than any other part of the New Territories by the growth of industries in the Colony during the past ten years; Tsuen Wan having developed during this time from a group of old-fashioned villages into a rapidly enlarging industrial and market town. New Territories people have not, however, been much attracted by factory work (or sought after by employers), and most of the labour engaged is from Hong Kong and Kowloon, together with an element of Shanghai refugee labour. A welcome exception is at Sham Tseng, where a large number of local village girls have been employed. The large iron mine situated in the hills beneath the peak of Ma On Shan employs almost entirely immigrant labour from North China. Other smaller mines employ local labour.

      The industries more truly typical of the New Territories are the operation of salt pans, the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, beancurd, soya sauce and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick manufacture, shipbuilding and repairing, stone quarrying and leather manufacture. On Peng Chau, in the Southern District, there is a match factory for which, as a sideline occupation, villagers on neighbouring islands make hand-prepared match-boxes. In all the fishing towns a substantial section of the land population earns a livelihood by providing restaurants and shops, chiefly used by the floating population.

Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation

THE Colony's Statement of Assets and Liabilities at 31st March 1958 is at Appendix III and analyses of the Colony's Revenue and Expenditure in the financial years 1956-7 and 1957-8, together with the Estimates for 1958-9, are at Appendices IV and V.

      Apart from the cost of external defence, to which, however, a contribution is made, Hong Kong is financially self-supporting, raising revenue from local sources to meet the cost of all local works and services. The Colony's Legislative Council is the sole taxing and spending authority. There are no financially independ- ent subsidiary bodies such as local government authorities in the United Kingdom.

      During the year an important development occurred when the Secretary of State granted a considerable relaxation in financial control. In 1948 the Colony was released from Treasury control and given a large measure of autonomy over its own finances. The control which the Secretary of State still retained at the time was that his approval was required for the annual Estimates, for supplementary provisions exceeding $1 million in the case of capital expenditure and $1 million in the case of recurrent expendi- ture, for the issue of any loan and for any expenditure involving important points of principle. Under the new procedure the Colony's Legislative Council becomes the only authority in such matters and the previous system of control is replaced generally by informal consultation between the Financial Secretary and the Finance Branch of the Colonial Office. Prior approval of the Secretary of State is, however, still required in certain matters including currency and banking.

Since the first post-war financial year, when in spite of the legacy of the war years there was only a very small deficit, the budget has been balanced each year and in many years a sub- stantial surplus has accrued. The financial year runs from 1st

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

55

April to 31st March. Revenue and Expenditure since 1st April 1954 have been as follows:

Revenue $ mill.

Expenditure $ mill.

Surplus

$ mill.

1954-5 ...

434.4

373.3

61.1

1955-6 ...

454.7

402.5

52.2

1956-7 ...

509.7

469.5

40.2

1957-8 ...

584.2

532.7

51.5

Deficit

554.1

648.1

94.0

1958-9 (estimate)

      It is especially noteworthy that these surplus balances have been accumulated despite the fact that all capital expenditure, other than a small amount which was met by an increase in public debt (see below), was met from revenue. For example, in the years 1956-7 and 1957-8 the contribution to capital expenditure from recurrent revenue collected in those years was $103 million and $102 million respectively.

      The principal reason for these results, which are on the face of them so favourable, is that the exceptionally rapid increase in population during these years generated internal economic activity which substantially raised the yield of taxation without an increase in the rates of taxation; whereas there was an inevitable time-lag before the Government could develop the public and social services necessary to meet the requirements of the increased population. Since 1950-1, when the last significant increase in tax rates was made, revenue has increased from $291.7 million to $584.2 million in 1957-8. The rate of increase in revenue has been affected by variations in such factors as the economic situation and capital inflows, but the upward trend is unbroken. On the other hand, refugees form a large part of the increased population and it seems certain that the growth of the national income has not kept pace with the growth of population. As the development of public and social services has accelerated, the margin between recurrent revenue and expenditure has tended to narrow: for example, the proportion of the latter to the former was 50% in 1952-3 but had risen to 70% by 1957-8. There is even now a fair margin between them, but the Colony still faces a formidable programme of expansion of public and social services and a vast public works programme to meet the needs of the present population.

56

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Revenue and Expenditure figures for 1957-8 are at Appendices IV and V. Revenue was $77 million over the original estimate, the main excess being on Profits Tax ($17 million), Land Sales ($13 million) and Duties ($10 million), all reflecting increased economic activity. Expenditure was $28 million below the original estimate, the main element of under-spending being Public Works Non-Recurrent, which was $34 million below the estimate of $152 million.

A deficit of $94 million has been budgetted for 1958-9, but it appears now that the deficit will not in fact arise, partly because the yield of revenue is once again exceeding expectations, and partly because the Public Works target of $187 million again appears to be beyond practical capacity.

The formal statement of Liabilities and Assets at Appendix III shows that at 31st March 1958 net available public assets amounted to $541 million, of which $138 million was earmarked in a Revenue Equalization Fund as a reserve against future deficits on current account. There were, in addition, a Development Fund of $149 million, of which $81 million was uncommitted, and a Local Loans Fund of $1 million. These were combined into a Develop- ment Loan Fund in October 1958. The Fund is used to finance social and economic development projects of a self-liquidating nature. The greater part has been used for low-cost housing schemes.

According to normal government practice the Statement of Assets and Liabilities excludes the Public Debt of the Colony from the liabilities. The debt at 31st March 1958 was equivalent to approximately $31 per head of population and was made up as follows:

34% Dollar Loan 1934

$

920,000

34% Dollar Loan 1940

3,772,000

34% Rehabilitation Loan 1947-8 ..

46,666,000

Kai Tak Airport Loan

32,725,120

C.D. and W. Loans ...

749,600

84,832,720

     Indebtedness rose by $12 million during the year, in con- sequence of drawings from the United Kingdom's interest-free

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

57

loan of £3 million for the development of Kai Tak Airport; this loan will be repayable in twenty annual instalments. The Reha- bilitation Loan, which was raised in 1947-8 to cover part of the cost of post-war reconstruction, is repayable in 1973-8; there is provision for a sinking fund which stood at $14 million on 31st March 1958.

      Details of Colonial Development and Welfare grants and loans are given in Appendix I.

IMPORT AND EXCISE DUTIES

      There is no general tariff, and for most goods Hong Kong is a free port so far as duties levied upon goods for protection or revenue purposes are concerned. There are, however, six groups of commodities, either imported into or manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, upon which duties are levied under the authority of the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydro-carbon oils, toilet preparations and pro- prietary medicines (grouped together), table waters and methyl alcohol.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at between 80% and 87% of the rate for non-Empire liquor. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further preferential margin over Empire beer. Rates of duty on different types of liquor range from $1.30 per Imperial gallon on locally-brewed beer to $61 per Imperial gallon for liqueurs and spirits not of Empire origin. On Chinese wine and liquor the rate, depending on origin, is $6 or $7 per gallon plus 24 or 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by weight exceeds 25%.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges between $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco and $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and manufacture.

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates are $104 per ton for diesel oil for road vehicles, $26 per ton for other diesel oil, $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b. price ex shipping port for imported

58

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

goods, and 25% of the selling price ex factory for locally-produced goods. Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per Imperial gallon, and the duty payable on methyl alcohol is $7 per gallon plus 28 cents per gallon for every 1% by which the alcoholic strength by volume exceeds 25%.

       The actual revenue from these duties for the last three financial years and the estimated yield for 1958-9 are as follows: *

1955-6

1956-7

1957-8

Estimate 1958-9

       Hydrocarbon oils Liquor

Tobacco

22,051,407 24,477,764 26,145,514 27,000,000 20,451,426 24,659,782 26,566,105 26,999,000 37,356,960 40,774,037 45,163,230 47,000,000

Toilet preparations and proprietary medicines

Table Waters

3,418.036 4,779,955 1,982,960 2,607,760

5,188,186 5,250,000 2,653,268

2,600,000

Methyl Alcohol

6,427

1,000

Total ..

85,260,789

97,299,299 105,722,731 108,850,000

      The small yield from the duty on methyl alcohol is explained by the fact that the only purpose for which it is levied is in order to control the movement and use of this toxic substance. During the year exemption from this duty was granted for methyl alcohol used in the overhaul of aero-engines.

No dues are levied on exports. Drawback is paid, upon certain conditions, on duty-paid commodities used in process of manu- facture or preparation locally, if exported from the Colony.

RATES

Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845 when an Ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands, houses and premises 'for the upholding of the requisite Police Force'. Today rates are one of the largest revenue-producing items, the estimate for 1958-9 being $70,070,000.

       The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a tenement, by which is meant any land or any building or part thereof held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown.

* Details may not necessarily add up to totals owing to rounding.

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

59

      Rates are levied in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and also in that part of the New Territories adjacent to the main road from Lai Chi Kok to Castle Peak.

      In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are, with a few exceptions, charged at 17% per annum of rateable value, and are payable quarterly in advance: in respect of the New Territories the corresponding charge is 11%. The valuations are prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation, and demand notes are issued by the Accountant General for payment at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears, but the yield from this has been comparatively small.

INTERNAL REVENUE

Tax on Earnings and Profits: Direct taxation on incomes was first introduced in Hong Kong in 1940 when the War Revenue Ordinance (1940) was enacted for the purpose of raising funds by way of a tax on incomes to assist His Majesty's Government in the prosecution of the War. The object of the wartime legislation had been removed by August 1945 when the Colony was liberated and no attempt was made to re-establish the administration of that temporary measure.

Post-war rehabilitation imposed a heavy drain on the Colony's resources and in 1947, in view of the urgent need of revenue, it was decided to introduce some measure of taxation on incomes in a more permanent form. The Inland Revenue Ordinance was enacted with the object of raising revenue through legislation which would be simple in operation, the principle of taxation at source being adopted in preference to that of obligatory individual assessment.

The scope of charge under the Inland Revenue Ordinance is limited to incomes and profits arising in or derived from the Colony. Overseas income of a Hong Kong resident does not attract tax whether remitted to the Colony or not. The Ordinance imposes four separate taxes which cover the various types of income or profit. These are Property Tax, Interest Tax, Salaries Tax and Profits Tax, the first two being collected by deduction at source.

      The standard rate of tax has remained unchanged at 121% since 1950-1. Profits of businesses, interest payments and most

60

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

annuities are charged in full at the standard rate. However, small unincorporated businesses whose profits do not exceed $7,000 are exempted from Profits Tax. Property Tax is charged at half the standard rate on the net rateable value of all land and buildings in the Colony, originally with the exception of property situated in the New Territories. The development of the Colony during the past twelve years has led to expansion of the urban areas resulting in certain built-up districts in the New Territories being rated, with a consequent increase in the scope of Property Tax. Profits for Profits Tax purposes are computed in an orthodox manner as is the chargeable income for Salaries Tax purposes. Allowances granted in the latter case include Personal Allowance at $7,000, allowance for wife $7,000, and allowances for children ranging from $2,000 for each of the first two to $200 for the ninth child. The net income is then charged at graduated rates rising from 24% on the first $5,000 by steps of $5,000 to 25% on net chargeable income exceeding $45,000. The maximum charge is limited to tax at the standard rate on the total assessable income before deduc- tion of any other allowance.

Although the Ordinance imposes four separate taxes, every resident, either temporary or permanent, may elect to be personally assessed by stating in one sum the total of his Hong Kong income which would otherwise be chargeable with any of the other taxes. He is then granted allowances and charged at graduated rates of tax on a scale similar to Salaries Tax, except that there is no limit to the amount which may be charged at 25%. Any sums paid on account of the four principal taxes charged are set off against the tax chargeable on the total accumulated income. A temporary resident is defined as one living in the Colony for 180 days during any one fiscal year or 300 days during two consecutive fiscal years one of which is that in respect of which the election is made.

       Taxes collected under the Inland Revenue Ordinance constitute the second largest single item in the public revenue of the Colony. The estimated revenue from this source for 1958-9 is $100,000,000 and is exceeded only by the estimate of $108,850,000 for duties under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance.

      Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines. The Ordinance is now being amended to conform approximately to the latest United

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

61

     Kingdom practice. The rates of tax vary from 2% to 52% on estates valued from $5,000 to over $30,000,000 respectively. The estimated revenue from this duty for 1958-9 is $12,500,000. Estate Duty, like Earnings and Profits Tax, is charged only on Hong Kong estates, no charge being made in respect of assets outside the Colony. The yield from this source for the past five years has averaged $15,000,000.

Stamp Duty legislation in the Colony is based on the United Kingdom Stamp Acts. Fixed duty varies from 10 cents on proxy forms to $20 on deeds. Ad valorem duty varies from 10 cents per $500 to $2 per centum. In addition, an excess duty of 3% is payable on conveyances of land in respect of the first sale after September 1948. The estimated yield from Stamp Duty for 1958-9 is $23,000,000.

      Entertainment, Dance Halls, Bets and Sweeps Taxes also provide substantial amounts of revenue. The total estimates of revenue from this source for 1958-9 amount to $22,500,000. Entertainment Tax is normally charged on the price of admission to all places of public entertainment at an average rate of approxi- mately 22%. Certain categories of performances are entirely exempted from tax, whilst a remission of 75% in tax is granted for live performances which in the opinion of the Colonial Secretary are of special cultural or artistic value. Remission was granted in ten cases of this latter type during 1958. A Public Dance Halls Tax is levied at 10% on dance hall charges, while a 5% duty is imposed on all totalizator receipts and a 25% duty on cash sweep receipts.

Business Registration was introduced by the Business Regulation Ordinance in 1952 and provides for the compulsory registration of all business names. An annual registration fee of $200 is payable with certain exemptions for small businesses which might suffer undue hardship. The estimated yield from this source for 1958-9 is $6,000,000.

Chapter 5: Currency and Banking

IN 1841, when Hong Kong was founded, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. Until 1862, however, the Government kept its accounts in sterling, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

      A mint producing a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar was set up in 1866, but the new coin was not popular and the mint was closed down two years later, the machinery being sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

By an Order of the Queen in Council dated 2nd February 1895 a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was authorized to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and was followed by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention as practically the sole medium of ex- change, apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks -the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (now the Chartered

CURRENCY AND BANKING

63

     Bank) the Oriental Bank having closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India having reorganized. In 1911 the reorganized Mercantile Bank of India (now the Mercantile Bank) was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

      The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. By the Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note- issuing banks were obliged to surrender, in exchange for certificates of indebtedness, all silver previously held by them against their note issues. These certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in sterling and operates in a similar manner to the normal Colonial Currency Board. The Ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender. At the same time the Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation; these are backed by a Note Security Fund, which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins to the value of 5 cents, 10 cents and 50 cents.

Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been main- tained at approximately 1/3d. sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December 1958 was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Subsidiary notes and coin

$

772,822,050

32,741,500

22,992,150

      The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some

64

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

modifications necessitated by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor in Council and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1958 there were eighty one licensed banks, of which thirty five were authorized wholly or partially to deal in foreign exchange. A list of these latter is given in Appendix VI. Many of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities to the public. Interbank transactions are facilitated by a clearing house association with fifty three members. Monthly clearings in 1958 averaged $1,309 million.

      No licensed banks operate in the New Territories, although there are several towns of a size which in England would have one or more banks. Safe custody for cash is provided by the larger shops; for other banking business it is necessary to travel into Kowloon or Hong Kong.

Chapter 6: Industry and Trade

INDUSTRY

IN the last decade the pattern of Hong Kong's economy has changed, and industry, which prior to the Second World War was of minor importance, has now assumed an important role. The circumstances which have led to this changeover from a predomi- nantly commercial to an industrial economy are reviewed in Chapter 1 of this Report.

      Today, there are 4,906 registered and recorded factories, employ- ing 179,997 persons in Hong Kong. A detailed breakdown of these figures will be found in Appendix II. The vast majority of these concerns are owned and operated by the Colony's Chinese resi- dents. In addition a large number of smaller concerns, mostly pursuing traditional Chinese handicraft activities, in many cases set up by refugees, employ over 150,000 people.

No special benefits are available to industry by way of income tax or import duty concessions. Apart from a few revenue- producing duties, the Colony is a free port and Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

      The variety of goods produced by local industry is now con- siderable, but in general, while the heavier industries such as shipbuilding continue to be important, the Colony has become best noted for the price, quality, and range of the products of its light industries. Of importance are cotton piece-goods, cotton yarns, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, cotton and woollen gloves, enamelware, aluminiumware, torches, torch bat- teries and bulbs, vacuum flasks, plasticware, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather footwear, and rattanware. Among traditional Chinese goods produced, brocade piece-goods, embroideries and drawnwork, crocheted gloves, carved articles of wood and ivory, and paper novelties are the best known.

Industrial development in the Colony is hampered by scarcity of water and lack of land suitable for industrial purposes. To

66

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

offset the shortage of flat land, the Government is levelling hilly ground and using the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. The largest of several such schemes is at Kwun Tong, also mentioned in Chapters 1, 3 and 14, where some 140 acres of industrial land will eventually be provided. By the end of the year industrial sites totalling 1,767,180 square feet had been sold, and a number of sites for the housing of employees who will wish to live near the new factories made available to employers on concessionary terms.

Water conservancy schemes, such as the recently completed project at Tai Lam Chung and the new scheme at Shek Pik on Lantau, are helping to alleviate the chronic shortage of water.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

Shipbuilding and Repairing. This section of industry is mainly centred on two large establishments which together have an annual new building capacity of 80,000 gross tons and can accommodate vessels up to 500 feet in length on their building berths. Major repair work, including the complete rewinding of large motors, and all types of engineering, electrical, sanitary, refrigerating and underwater work can be carried out. General civil engineering and construction work is also undertaken. During 1958 repairs were carried out on 1,535 vessels aggregating 4,800,000 gross tons, as compared with repairs carried out in 1957 on 1,630 vessels aggregating 8,770,000 gross tons.

      Other yards are concerned with the smaller types of wooden and steel craft such as ferries, lighters, yachts, launches and native-type vessels.

      There are six granite dry docks in the Colony, the largest being 787 feet overall and 93 feet 4 inches wide. Two stationary ham- merhead cranes each with a lifting capacity of 150 tons, and a crane barge with sheer-legs of 40 tons lifting capacity, are available. Other facilities include foundries which can handle castings up to 30 tons, ocean-going towage and salvage vessels, and a fleet of harbour repair launches.

      Throughout 1958 shipyards in the Colony were kept constantly busy. A cargo vessel of 5,863 gross tons was delivered and a sister ship launched for the same owners; a number of cargo, passenger and special purpose vessels ranging in size up to 2,100 gross tons

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

67

were completed; Hong Kong-built yachts and pleasure craft con- tinued to enjoy a well deserved popularity in overseas markets; and a large motor vessel which had been driven ashore in a typhoon at the entrance to the Harbour was salvaged and is now undergoing extensive repairs.

      The Naval Dockyard, which is practically of an age with the Colony, began to close during the year. The circumstances of its closure are dealt with fully elsewhere in this Report, but it is appropriate to mention it in connexion with the Colony's industry, the more particularly as it was made available on occasion for work on merchant vessels when the civil dockyards were fully engaged. It employed over 5,000 men, many of them highly skilled, had a local pay-roll of some $12,000,000 a year and indirectly brought other extensive benefits to the Colony. The loss of this industry must be regarded as a serious blow to Hong Kong's

economy.

Iron Foundries and Rolling Mills. Other heavy industries rep- resented in Hong Kong are iron foundries and mills rolling iron and steel reinforcing bars and rounds, and brass and aluminium strips and sheets. Production is mostly absorbed locally by exten- sive building projects and the metal products industries, although sizeable quantities of bars and rounds are shipped abroad, princi- pally to Asian territories.

Isinc

LIGHT INDUSTRIES

lothing

Textiles. Since 1948 the textile industry has expanded rapidly to become the Colony's major industry) Spinning of cotton, rayon, silk and woollen yarns, weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing, and the manufacture of all types of garments and textile goods are carried on. The spinning mills, operating over 350,000 spindles, are amongst the most up-to-date in the world and first class amenities are generally provided for workers. Cotton yarn counts range from 10s to 60s carded and combed in single or multiple threads. Production of all counts in 1958 was over 120,000,000 lbs., the greater part of which was consumed by local weaving establishments.

In the weaving section, cotton grey drill, canvas, shirting, striped poplins, ginghams, and other bleached and dyed white cloth and

68

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

prints are the main items. Production in 1958 was estimated to be in excess of 250,000,000 square yards. Most of the production is exported but there is a tendency for this to decrease. As the quality of locally woven and finished cloth improves, the Colony's garment manufacturers turn the more readily to utilizing local materials. Other products of the Colony's weaving industry are silk and rayon brocade of traditional Chinese design, tapes, webbing and lace, carpets and rugs.

      Dyeing, printing and finishing of textiles in the Colony has shown a marked advance during the past few years, although this section has rather lagged behind other sections in speed of develop- ment. Multi-colour printing, pre-shrinking by several processes under licence and polymerizing for the production of 'drip-dry' fabrics are undertaken for use by the local garment industry and for export. A large new finishing mill is scheduled to commence production shortly.

      An almost unlimited range and variety of garments is manu- factured in Hong Kong, the most important being shirts. Silk and brocade house and evening coats, tea gowns and embroidered blouses, underwear and nightwear have a world-wide popularity in quality markets.

      Custom and mail-order tailoring, principally of men's suits, has developed in recent years into a considerable industry. Suits of excellent cut and quality, in whatever material is required, are exported all over the world.

      The Colony's knitting mills produce towels, tee-shirts, singlets, underwear and nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in cotton, silk, wool and rayon, and other fabrics.

Felt Hats. The felt hat industry is mainly concerned with manu- facture from imported hoods or imported discarded hats; one factory carries out the entire process of manufacturing from wool. Hong Kong is one of the largest exporters of cheap-quality felt hats.

      Enamelware. Production is principally of brightly coloured household utensils suited to the requirements of South-East Asian and African markets. More sophisticated designs, however, are also manufactured.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

69

Aluminiumware. Good quality household ware in a wide range of articles is produced. Aluminium ingots, which are imported mainly from Commonwealth countries, are melted and rolled in the Colony.

       Vacuum Flasks and Jugs. The manufacture of vacuum bottles, flasks and other containers is an old-established industry in Hong Kong and exports are substantial. All components are locally made and the finished products are of excellent quality and design.

Electric Torches, Batteries and other electrical products. The high standard of workmanship in the electric torch industry is now well known and Hong Kong-made torches have found their way into almost every country in the world. In addition to the many local brands, 'Ray-O-Vac' and 'Ever-Ready' torches and 'Winchester' batteries are manufactured under licence in the Colony on a substantial scale.

Other sections of the industry deal with the assembly and manufacture of electrical appliances of all kinds, the assembly of neon lights, radio assembly and repair, and the manufacture of Christmas tree lighting sets and other novelties. Electric and battery-driven clocks are also produced.

Other Metal Products. The range and variety of light metal products is too wide to enumerate. Examples are hurricane lanterns, kerosene pressure stoves and lamps, nails, screws, tin cans, novelties, metal windows, umbrella ribs, zip fasteners, steel furniture, safes, office equipment, domestic refrigerators, and kerosene radiators and water heaters.

Paints. High-quality paints, varnishes and lacquers are produced for local sale and for export, and Hong Kong paints have a reputa- tion for quality and durability. The Public Works Department of the Hong Kong Government is the principal local user.

Foodstuffs and Beverages. Although Hong Kong's preserved ginger is perhaps its best-known food product overseas, the foodstuff and beverage industry has many branches, including flour and rice milling, bakeries, canning and preserving of fruits, fish products and vegetables, the manufacture of soy sauce, gour- met powder, confections, bean curd, fruit juices, soft drinks, Chinese wine, beer and malt.

70

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Products are largely for local consumption, but considerable quantities are exported to South-East Asia.

Sugar Refining. The Colony's largest sugar refinery was estab- lished in 1884. High grade refined crystals, and granulated and soft sugars are produced from imported raw sugar. Specialities are the making of half cubes, icing, castor and soft brown sugar, and golden syrup in colourful retail packings for domestic use.

Tobacco Manufactures. The cigarette industry uses modern machinery, much of it automatic, and Hong Kong-made cigarettes are comparable in quality with any in the world. Packaging material of a high standard is also made locally. The export of cigarettes to China has virtually ceased since 1949, and the bulk of the industry's output is now consumed locally, but some exports are made to Macau and the Pacific Islands.

Footwear. The Hong Kong rubber boot and shoe industry has been established since 1932, the range of products including Wellington boots, plimsolls, beach, sports and house shoes and slippers, mainly for export to traditional markets in the United Kingdom and Canada.

      Good-quality leather footwear is also manufactured for local demand and export, principally to Malaya.

Leather and Travel Goods. Suitcases, travelling bags, trunks and handbags, and all varieties of leatherware are manufactured in the Colony. Both imported and locally tanned hides and skins are used in production.

Cement. The cement needs of the Colony's constantly expanding building industry are met in large measure by the products of one large establishment. All raw materials, apart from some clay and iron ore, are imported.

      Cordage, Rope and Twine. The requirements of shipping using the port gave rise early to the rope industry, which is one of the oldest established in Hong Kong. All types of ropes and hawsers are manufactured from imported Manila hemp.

Plasticware. A very wide variety of small articles is produced and locally-made dies and moulds are used. The latter are of a high standard of workmanship and are now exported to manu- facturers in other parts of the world. Several of the larger establish- ments have installed fully up-to-date equipment. Tooth brushes,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

71

mugs, beakers, combs, coat hangers, chopsticks, cigarette cases, mahjong sets, toys and novelties, many of which are of consider- able ingenuity, are made. The well known 'Walt Disney' and 'Tom & Jerry' characters are produced under licence. An ancillary industry is the plastic coating of rattan by extrusion for use by local rattan weavers. Plastic insulation of wire is also carried out. Wood and Rattan. The manufacture of good-quality wooden furniture and toys is a sizeable industry in the Colony, and Hong Kong bamboo and rattan household articles have achieved a world-wide popularity.

Wood carving in camphorwood and teak is a traditional skill.

      Aircraft Engineering. One large establishment in the Colony provides transit and repair facilities for nineteen airlines using Kai Tak Airport. Facilities exist for complete airframe and engine overhaul, and work is received from twenty four countries as far afield as Australia, New Zealand and Canada.

Miscellaneous. Traditional handicrafts such as carving in ivory, jade and other precious stones, embroidery, lace and fine needle- work, the manufacture of brass, pewter and other metal ornaments, flourish in the Colony side by side with the more modern types of industries.

TRADE

The value of the Colony's external trade fell during 1958. The combined value of imports and exports, at $7,582.53 million, was lower by $583.19 million than that for 1957; this was, however, mainly a fall in import values, which fell by $555.72 million compared with the abnormally high figure for 1957, while the value of exports declined by $27.47 million. The fall in export values was a fall in re-exports; the value of exports of products wholly or principally of Hong Kong origin rose above their 1957 level by $58.28 million, and at $1,260.28 million recorded their highest annual total yet. Cargo tonnages by all means of transport rose from 6,880,885 tons in 1957 to 7,376,471 in 1958.

The value of exports in 1958 was $2,988.80 million. The increase in the value of exports to the United States, the United Kingdom, China, Thailand and Western Germany which took place in 1958 could not offset the heavy reductions in exports to Japan and Indonesia. Over 56% of the value of exports was taken by six

72

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

countries: the United Kingdom, Malaya, the United States, Thailand, Indonesia, and China; while almost 40% of total exports was accounted for by textiles and clothing.

The value of imports in 1958 was $4,593.73 million, a fall of 11% compared with 1957. China remained the principal source of supply of the Colony's imports, and China, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States together provided 64% of the value of total imports of which 65% consisted of food and manu- factured goods. Imports fell from all countries, except China, Malaya and Middle and Near East countries.

The value of exports to the United Kingdom rose by $56.49 million to $393.24 million and accounted for 13% of total exports, making the United Kingdom Hong Kong's most valuable customer in 1958. Over 80% of this increase was made up of increases in exports of textile yarns and piece-goods, and footwear. Imports from the United Kingdom fell by $136.39 million to $530.89 million; the principal commodities affected were base metals, textile yarns and piece-goods, transport equipment and manufac- tures of metals.

The United States has become third on the export list with purchases rising in 1958 by $128.17 million to $326.35 million. Exports of clothing alone accounted for $82.97 million of this increase, while other commodities affected were miscellaneous manufactured articles, footwear, and fish and fish preparations. Imports from the United States fell by $99.48 million to $439.56 million; the value of imports of ores and metal scrap, textile fibres and waste, and textile yarns and piece-goods all decreased.

Malaya was Hong Kong's second most valuable customer in 1958 and bought goods worth $382.23 million, which was $10 million more than in 1957. Imports from Malaya also increased but by only $1 million.

Trade with China showed an increase in the value of both imports and exports compared with 1957. Imports increased by $265.81 million to a total of $1,396.92 million, which represented 30% of total imports. Foodstuffs, especially live animals for food, cereals and cereal preparations, fish and fish preparations, and sugar and sugar preparations, recorded increases, as also did textile yarns and piece-goods and base metals. The steady fall in

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

73

the value of exports to China since 1951 was reversed in 1958 when it rose by $32.41 million to $155.76 million.

      Trade with Japan fell considerably in 1958. Although Japan takes second place on the import list with a value of $596.99 million, this was $166.38 million less than in 1957, this fall being due almost entirely to the reduction in imports of textile yarns and piece-goods. Exports to Japan fell by $108.10 million; the principal commodities affected were ore and metal scrap and textile fibres and waste.

Trade with Indonesia continued to decline in 1958. Exports to Indonesia of textile yarns and piece-goods and base metals fell and total exports were valued at $210.75 million compared with $312.49 million in 1957. There was a fall of $31.57 million in imports.

      Thailand is now fourth among export markets, and fifth as a source of supply. Exports to Thailand rose by $28.85 million to a total of $217.01 million in 1958; increases were recorded in the values of base metals, textile yarns and piece-goods and fruits and vegetables. Imports, however, fell by $31.49 million to a total of $160.29 million.

      The division of the Colony's exports into re-exports and exports of domestic products is not complete and although a wide range of Hong Kong products is recorded separately in the Trade Statistics, it was decided that in 1958 the presentation of statistics on exports of local products should take a different form. To the list of items separately classified were added those items an analysis of the export declarations of which revealed that nor- mally 90% or more of their value is accounted for by manufac- tures of Hong Kong origin. The list of items included is shown in Appendix XI. The value of the exports of these products 'wholly or principally of Hong Kong origin' in 1958 was $1,260.28 million compared with $1,202.00 million in 1957, and represented 42% of the value of the Colony's total exports. The map between pages 74 and 75 illustrates the countries which were customers for these local products. The United Kingdom, the United States, Malaya and Indonesia were the most important, taking together nearly 55% of the total. The most important exports were cloth- ing, cotton piece-goods, cotton yarns, footwear and enamelled household utensils.

74

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Compared with 1957 the most significant increases in exports of local products in respect of countries were: $72.44 million to the United States, $48.08 million to the United Kingdom, and $20.34 million to the German Federal Republic; and in respect of commodities, $66.95 million in outerwear, $25.84 million in foot- wear, and $12.74 million in toys and games.

      The trend of the Colony's trade by value and volume for the years 1948-58 is illustrated by the graphs facing pages 74 and 75. Tables showing the principal countries trading with the Colony and the main commodities concerned, with comparative figures for 1956, 1957 and 1958, are at Appendices VII-X. Appendix XI shows the values of exports of products wholly or principally of Hong Kong origin.

Hong Kong sent a delegation to the first session of the Com- mittee on Trade of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East held in Bangkok in January 1958. In March another delegation attended the fourteenth session of the full Commission which took place in Kuala Lumpur.

The Colony was also represented at the Commonwealth Trade and Economic Conference held in Montreal in September.

TRADE DEVELOPMENTS

      The principal developments in 1958 concerning Hong Kong's trade in local products are reviewed in Chapter 1 of this Report. Other events which have a bearing on the future prosperity of local industry are briefly described below.

      The negotiations in connexion with the proposed European Free Trade Area have been closely followed, and the probable effects on Hong Kong carefully studied. The Colony is unique among dependent territories of both the Common Market countries and the prospective members of the Free Trade Area in that it has a highly-developed light industry and an extensive export trade in manufactured goods. The establishment of an European Trade Area from which the Colony was excluded could only be detri- mental to Hong Kong's economic position.

      The Canadian Tariff Board published in March 1957 a factual statement of its findings on the production, consumption, marketing, and imports and exports of waterproof footwear and rubber-soled

VALUE OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

IN MILLION H.K. DOLLARS

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

Total Imports

Total Exports

Imports from China

Exports to China

1948

'50

'52

'54

'56

1958

میده

■MONG KONG

The

World Market

for Hong Kong Products during 1958

OVER HK$90 MILLION

UNITED KINGDOM. SOUTH-EAST ASIA NORTH AMERICA · NORTH & WEST AFRICA

UNITED KINGDOM HK$328,593,640

SOUTH EAST ASIA HK$253,021,842 Malaya HK$100,073,975, Indonesia HK$54,446,417, Thailand HK$43,021,356, Philippines HK$24,006,031, British Borneo HK$11,952,721, Laos HK$7,938,799, Macau HK$6,091,366, Cambodia HK$3,401,260, South Vietnam HK$2,089,917.

NORTH AMERICA HK$233,752,911

U.S.A. HK$205,360,563, Canada HK$28,392,348.

NORTH & WEST AFRICA HK$97,684,739 Nigeria HK$35,365,566, French Equatorial & West Africa HK$30,390,044, Africa, n.e.s. HK$15,670,729 British West Africa, n.e.s. HK$15,265,728, French North Africa HK$992,672.

HK$29-90 MILLION

WESTERN EUROPE • AUSTRALASIA CENTRAL AMERICA & WEST INDIES SOUTH & CENTRAL AFRICA

WESTERN EUROPE HK$90,562,224 German, Federal Republic HK$41,589,609, Sweden HK$12,608,461, Netherlands HK$10,008,553, Norway HK$6,278,009, British Mediterranean Territories HK$3,978,637, Belgium HK$3,645,857, Italy HK$3,627,993, Denmark HK$2,924,957, France HK$2,755,153, Switzerland HK$1,520,655, Europe, n.e.s. HK$1,517,349, Austria HK$106,991.

AUSTRALASIA HK$49,092,842 Australia HK$39,050,921, New Zealand HK$10,041,921.

CENTRAL AMERICA & WEST INDIES HK$41,431,634-

Central America, n.e.s. HK$18,334,636, British West Indies HK$18,074,465, Cuba HK$2,035,440, Haiti HK$1,610,746, Mexico HK$1,376,347.

SOUTH & CENTRAL AFRICA HK$36,704,222

Union of South Africa HK$21,253,219, Belgian Congo HK$6,940,528, Central African Federation HK$6,183,932, Madagascar HK$2,326,543.

HK$18-29 MILLION

EAST AFRICA. THE MIDDLE EAST OCEANIA · SOUTH-WEST ASIA

EAST AFRICA HK$28,237,301 British East Africa HK$23,267,064, Mauritius HK$4,744,749, British Commonwealth, n.e.s. HK$225,488.

THE MIDDLE EAST HK$26,437,047 Middle & Near East Countries HK$19,580,763, Aden HK$6,838,266, Egypt HK$18,018.

OCEANIA HK$26,172,931 United States Oceania HK$15,077,363, Oceania, n.e.s. HK$6,090,232, Fiji HK$3,567,675, British Oceania, n.e.s. HK$1,437,661.

SOUTH-WEST ASIA HK$18,923,034 Ceylon HK$9,784,092, Burma HK$6,219,958, Pakistan HK$1,485,614, Asia Countries, n.e.s. HK$800,246, India HK$633,124.

LESS THAN HK$17 MILLION

SOUTH AMERICA. EAST-ASIA CHINA, NORTH KOREA & N. VIETNAM U.S.S.R. and EASTERN EUROPE

SOUTH AMERICA HK$16,862,804

Venezuela HK$11,262,457, South America, n.e.s. HK$4,695,999, Brazil HK$584,177, Argentina HK$320,171.

EAST ASIA HK$11,339,760

Japan HK$7,313,133, South Korea HK$2,678,058, Formosa (Taiwan) HK$1,348,569.

CHINA, NORTH KOREA & N. VIETNAM HK$1,462,662 China (excluding Formosa) HK$1,292,849, North Vietnam HK$169,338, North Korea HK$475.

U.S.S.R. & EASTERN EUROPE HK$163

n.e.s. Not elsewhere specified

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

IN THOUSAND LONG TONS

6,000

Total Imports

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

Total Exports Imports from China

Exports to China

1948

'50

'52

'54

'56

1958

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

75

      canvas footwear without making any recommendations. Following this, representations were made by five Canadian rubber companies for the introduction of alternative specific import duties which would have the effect of raising very substantially the duty on Hong Kong rubber footwear. The Commerce and Industry Depart- ment assisted the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce and the Hong Kong Exporters' Association in the preparation of a joint brief to the Canadian Tariff Board, setting forth reasons against the adoption of these changes. A public hearing was held by the Board in March 1958, and towards the end of the year the Board recommended to the Federal Government that the tariff rates on imported rubber footwear should be left unchanged.

       In October reports were received that the issue of import licences for Hong Kong-manufactured gloves had been suspended by the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs. Official representations were made to the Netherlands Government, as a result of which the temporary suspension was removed in November.

       In the same month it was reported from Zurich that the Swiss customs authorities had limited the duty-free import of grey cloths from Hong Kong to those which, after finishing treatment, would not be resold to West European and North American countries. This action appears to have arisen from a misapprehension by the Swiss Government as to Hong Kong's relationship with the Organization for European Economic Co-operation and the right of access of its goods to the United States and Canada. The United Kingdom Government was requested to make appropriate repre- sentations to the Swiss Government.

Import duties on rubber footwear, piece-goods and certain types of garments were increased in the British East African territories from May 1958. Correspondence with the Government of Uganda revealed that these increases were designed principally to raise additional revenue, but also to protect the nascent domestic industry. The effects of these changes are being closely watched. Trade Promotion. The activities of the Government in the field of trade promotion have been generally described in Chapter 1. Succeeding paragraphs provide further details of the year's work of the Trade Promotion Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department. It should also be mentioned here that in all these activities the Director of Commerce and Industry is ably assisted

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

by the Trade and Industry Advisory Committee, a committee representative of the Colony's merchant and industrial community. The status of the Committee is being changed to that of a Board on 1st January 1959.

      The Trade Promotion Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department, which is responsible for organizing Colony participa- tion in overseas trade fairs, also publishes and distributes overseas a monthly illustrated Trade Bulletin' partly financed by local advertisers. At the end of the year local circulation was 1,500, while 7,000 copies were being distributed free to readers overseas. The 1958 edition of the Department's 'Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory' was published in May. This Directory is a comprehensive guide to Hong Kong business in its economic and administrative setting. The 1959 edition will be published in the spring.

        The Trade Promotion Branch also maintains a trade reference library and a display room where samples of local products are on show for the benefit of both overseas visitors and members of the public.

      One important function of the branch is to deal with trade inquiries from abroad and to arrange factory visits for overseas visitors or meetings between them and local trade bodies or representatives. During the year arrangements of this nature were made for trade missions from the Sudan and San Francisco, several Members of Parliament, and officials from Malaya, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East.

The Commerce and Industry Department considerably extended its market research services during the year.

Documentation of Origin. Hong Kong is traditionally an entrepôt so that, in the world of regulated trade, certification of the origin of the products which it sells has become increasingly a matter of importance. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Manu- facturers' Association and the Indian Chamber of Commerce issue certificates of Hong Kong or other origin which are acceptable in varying degree to overseas authorities. The majority of overseas au- thorities requiring certificates of Hong Kong origin stipulate those issued by the Commerce and Industry Department. Possessing

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77

almost no raw materials, Hong Kong's claim to originate its manufactures rests on the work done in processing imported materials, or their transformation into entirely new products. During 1958 the Commerce and Industry Department continued to take pains to ensure that goods which it certifies as of Hong Kong origin warranted that designation.

      Except in the case of exports to the United Kingdom, the Department also issues Imperial Preference Certificates for exports claiming entry at preferential rates into those Commonwealth countries which grant preference to Hong Kong. They certify the proportion of Commonwealth content in the goods they cover and are based on cost statements prepared by public accountants approved for the purpose. In the case of the United Kingdom, the accountants themselves issue the certificates and submit cost state- ments in support direct to H.M. Customs and Excise in the United Kingdom.

During 1958 the certification work of the Department continued to expand and the principles governing the issue of certificates of origin and Imperial Preference certificates were under constant review. The Department modified its practices and procedures wherever possible to expedite the issue of certificates and to simplify the handling of an increased volume of applications. Co- operation and liaison with overseas customs authorities proved beneficial in both the promotion and the control of certified exports. Exports of goods certified by the Commerce and Industry Department as of Hong Kong origin were valued at $465.4 million during 1958. Imperial Preference certificates covering goods (other than exports to the United Kingdom) to the value of $132.2 million were also issued.

      An additional complexity arises from the need to preserve Hong Kong's trade with the United States in accordance with the United States Foreign Assets Control Regulations which prohibit the import of a range of products presumed to originate in mainland China or North Korea unless evidence is produced to the contrary. Procedures operated by the Department and designed to produce this evidence were expanded in 1958. Exports of 'presumptive' commodities were valued at over $230.6 million.

       Statistics. The Statistical Office of the Commerce and Industry Department publishes monthly statistics of the quantity and value

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

    of goods imported or exported. Figures for trade statistics are collected from the declarations which importers and exporters are required by law to file with the Statistical Office.

During the year the Country and Commodity Classification Lists were extensively revised and new declaration forms were designed for use in conjunction with Hollerith punched card equipment which was installed in December. These changes will enable the Department, from January 1959, to publish separate statistics of trade with an increased number of territories and to effect a complete separation of domestic exports from re-exports.

TRADE CONTROL

Import controls over items no longer of strategic significance were relaxed in August. Quantitative and end-use controls are maintained now only in respect of highly strategic commodities.

Export controls were also relaxed in August to permit a number of previously embargoed items no longer of strategic value to be exported to China and North Vietnam.

THE PREVENTIVE SERVICE

The enforcement of trade controls, and the inspection of factories and goods in connexion with the export of Hong Kong products under certificates of origin and Imperial Preference certificates are among the duties of the Preventive Service. This is the uniformed and disciplined enforcement branch of the Commerce and Industry Department. Its tasks are many and varied, but in the main the Service is concerned with the protection of revenue accruing from goods which are dutiable. Other responsibilities include the prevention, in co-operation with the Police Force, of illicit traffic in narcotics. The presence of over 20,000 small craft in the waters of the Colony and the long rugged coastline impose their own peculiar problems and difficulties, in addition to those normally encountered in a major seaport.

      At the beginning of the financial year 1958-9 a re-organization of the Service was introduced in order to bring salary scales and qualifications for appointment to ranks below Revenue Inspector into line with those of the Police Force. The service, as re- organized, has a total establishment of 335 consisting of the Chief

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

79

Preventive Officer, the Deputy Chief Preventive Officer, two Assistant Chief Preventive Officers, an inspectorate of 194, and 137 other ranks. The first recruits to the new grades were taken into the Service in September, but the transition to the new establishment will not be completed until early in 1959 when, for the first time for several years, all vacancies are expected to be filled.

       The allocation of duties between the two major sections of the Service, the Investigation Branch and the Operations Branch, was also re-arranged in the course of the year. The former now deals with anti-smuggling research, factory inspections, excise and legal proceedings, while the latter is responsible for maintaining anti- narcotics control and, where necessary, a round-the-clock system of patrols on land and sea. Control over the sea lanes is carried out by a fleet of six patrol launches and one fast pursuit launch.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

       There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London, adminis- tered by a Director and situated in Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, W.C.2. There is also a Hong Kong Section, under a Representative with the rank of First Secretary, attached to the British Embassy, Tokyo: the Representative's official address is Naka 8th Building, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-Ku, Tokyo.

      Among Commonwealth countries, India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner, and the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Pakistan by Trade Commissioners. Consulates-General are maintained by Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Panama, the Philippines and the United States. Consulates are maintained by Argentina, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Vietnam. The consular representatives of Czechoslovakia, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey resident in London, and the Israel Trade Commissioner resident in Bombay, have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, the Irish Republic, Nicaragua, and Spain have Honorary Consuls resident in Hong Kong. In addition, France, Italy and Thailand have Trade Commissioners, while Austria has an Honorary Trade Representative, all resident in the Colony.

Chapter 7: Primary Production and Marketing

LAND TENURE IN THE NEW TERRITORIES

SHORTLY after the New Territories were incorporated into the Colony a Land Court was set up to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of land, and all existing tenures thereby established were confirmed by the Hong Kong Government and recorded in a single Block Crown Lease. Such holdings are known as Old Schedule Lots. The Land Court completed its work in 1905. All land not recorded in the Block Crown Lease was deemed to be unleased Crown Land, leases of which can be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories lands thus acquired are known as New Grant Lots. Certain prescriptive rights over 'Crown Land' have, however, always been recognized either tacitly or by official acknowledgment; most villages have rights of this kind over a greater or smaller area adjoining them, where they graze their cattle, cut grass, and bury their dead; and no Crown Land in the New Territories is put up for auction without giving the nearest village or villages a chance to object. Such objections, whether on economic or geomantic grounds, are usually accepted if reasonable.

      Most of the land in the New Territories is separately classified as either agricultural land or building land, and permission has to be obtained from the New Territories Administration for per- mission to convert land from one status to the other. Minor buildings, such as watchmen's sheds, pigsties, etc., i.e. buildings definitely concerned with farming, are usually allowed to be erected on agricultural land. In cases where the owner of an Old Schedule Lot in agricultural status wishes to erect a house of traditional Chinese construction, this is usually permitted without payment of a premium, provided the building will not interfere with any rural development or country town plan.

New Territories land policy follows the same general lines as that for the urban area, particularly in the towns and in areas required for industrial development. In the more rural parts the

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

81

New Territories Administration is primarily concerned with pre- serving a balance between the sometimes conflicting needs of agricultural production on the one side, and of urban development on the other.

        Some account has to be taken of the fact that much of the best land is owned by clans established in the area for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep of ancestral halls and observances, for purposes of clan welfare, and the main- tenance of schools. Such land may not be disposed of without the written consent of all the clan members (sometimes numbering many hundreds) and the permission of the District Officer, who will not allow the clan holding to be reduced unless he is satisfied that it is in the best interests of the clan, and of the neighbourhood.

       Rents and values of agricultural land in the New Territories are customarily reckoned in paddy, convertible into money, in case a crop other than rice is grown, at the market rate of a specified variety. Crown Rents, however, are collected in cash at a rate fixed when the lease was granted. Most Crown Rents have thus progressively declined in relation to the customary value of agricul- tural land, and in some cases are now hardly worth the trouble of collection.

An average rent for two-crop rice land would be about 1,600 lbs. of paddy per acre per annum, or about 40% of the total annual yield from two crops. Though much of the land is owned by clans, individual holdings are uniformly small, averaging under two acres. There are very few farmers who cultivate more than five acres. Where land is rented it is usually on annual tenancy, and often the arrangement between landlord and tenant is verbal. For a description of Land Policy in general see under Land in Chapter 10.

LAND UTILIZATION

In 1954 Dr. T. R. Tregear, Senior Lecturer in Geography of the University of Hong Kong, made a reconnaissance study of land utilization in the Colony and his data on a scale of 1:80,000 were published by the University of Hong Kong. In 1953 the Agricul- ture, Fisheries and Forestry Department commenced a Land

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Utilization Survey of arable land. This work was completed in 1955 and maps prepared on a scale of 1:20,000. The work of both teams forms the data for a new report entitled Land Use in Hong Kong and the New Territories by T. R. Tregear, which was published by the University in 1958.

       The Colony's total area of 391 square miles may be classified from the viewpoint of land utilization as follows:

Remarks

Class

Area (sq. miles) of whole

Percentage

(i) Built-up (urban areas)

21

5.4

(ii) Steep country

110

28.1

Includes roads and railways.

Rocky, precipitous hillsides, incapable of plant establish-

ment.

(iii) Woodlands

13

3.3

Natural and established woodlands.

(iv) Grass & Scrub lands

171

43.7

Natural grass and scrub.

(v) Eroded lands

18

4.6

Stripped of cover. Granite

country. Capable of re- generation under pine.

(vi) Swamp & Mangrove

lands

7

1.8

Capable of reclamation.

(vii) Arable

51

13.1

Includes orchards and vege- table gardens.

In 1937 it was estimated that the total afforested area was 103 square miles and the total wooded country approximately 130 square miles. During the Japanese occupation most of the timber was stripped from the hills and catchment areas. This is being replaced and extended by a vigorous afforestation policy. During 1958 an additional area of 2,127 acres was afforested. Of the land under Class (iv), about 13 square miles of marginal land could be brought into cultivation for a limited range of crops by terracing and the provision of irrigation water. This is being done in several localities as population pressure increases. The balance of this land class will be used for the establishment of forest plantations.

All readily cultivable land, including a considerable and grow- ing area of terraced country, is highly cultivated; skilled use being made by traditional practices of natural sources of irrigation. A survey of arable land made early in 1958 indicates that this

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

83

     class, as compared with the Department's previous survey, is used as follows:

(i) Land under vegetable cultivation is now 3,615 acres as

compared with 2,254 an increase of 1,361 acres.

(ii) Land under two-crop paddy has dropped from 20,191 acres

to 19,050-a decrease of 1,141 acres.

(iii) There is an overall increase in land cultivated of about 307 acres of which 153 acres are accounted for by the extension of orchards.

(iv) About 64 acres less of field crops are now cultivated and 105 acres of abandoned land have been brought into cultivation.

Against this purely agricultural use of land must be set the demands of a predominantly urban Colony with a rapidly rising population and a basis of economy that is becoming increasingly industrial. Urban industry is now Hong Kong's largest employer and industries require land. Wherever possible, factories and urban extensions in country zones are concentrated on land reclaimed from the sea-as at Kwun Tong and Tsuen Wan-but towns such as Yuen Long, Tai Po and Sha Tin are all expanding, and it is unavoidable that in the process fields in the close vicinity of towns will be lost to agriculture; or at least that agriculture will be restricted in such areas to market gardens. The land policy of the New Territories Administration restricts the process as far as is reasonably possible, but each year's figures of agricultural acreage emphasize the struggle between the demands of town and country.

       In view of the pressure of rapid industrial expansion on land requirements, more hillside land is being opened for agricultural purposes. Large areas are also required for settling people who have been assisted by various welfare organizations to take up farming. In order to have some idea of the potential agricultural value of available land, most of which is marginal, the Govern- ment is making use of the services of experts from the Colonial Pool of Soil Surveyors and the Soil Survey of the Colony is now under way.

      Indispensable adjuncts to the agricultural development of neglected land are improved communications and irrigation. Here the Government has received considerable assistance from Colonial

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Development and Welfare funds (see Appendix I) and from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association. The parts of the New Territories to which particular attention is being given are the Sha Tau Kok and Sai Kung regions, and Lantau Island.

      There is a Rural Development Committee, appointed by the Governor in June 1954, with official and unofficial members, under the Chairmanship of the District Commissioner, New Territories. Its duties are to advise the Government on all matters relating to New Territories development, in particular to the extension of agricultural credit and the preparation of Colonial Development and Welfare schemes.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION: ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY

The Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department was found- ed in 1950. Prior to this, there had existed for several years a small Department of Forestry and Botany and in 1948 two specialist officers were appointed to advise the Government on Agriculture and Animal Industries, which were assuming im- portance in the New Territories. The Department now consists of four divisions: Agriculture, Animal Industries, Fisheries (Marine and Fresh Water) and Forestry. It has expanded rapidly since 1953 and the overall policy is to increase food production, and conserve plant and animal resources. The Department gives technical advice to farmers, fishermen, administrators and welfare organizations concerned with farmers and fishermen. By demon- stration, teaching and extension of approved farming and forestry practices, the Department encourages the conservation of vital water supplies, soil and soil fertility, and, in general, appropriate land use. The Department also organizes an annual Agricultural Show which is popular with the farming community and townsmen alike.

      The Director of the Department is a qualified agricultural scientist and is assisted administratively by the heads of the four divisions, who are also qualified professional officers. The Director is a member of the Rural Development Committee (referred to earlier in this chapter under Land Utilization), Chairman and Trustee of the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund and a member of the Fisheries Advisory Committee. The headquarters

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

85

of the Department are at Lai Chi Kok on the outskirts of Kowloon.

       The total permanent staff of the Department is now 700 compared with 200 in 1952. The estimated expenditure in 1958-9 was $4,445,100, compared with $2,470,395 in 1952-3.

       The policy and organization of the various divisions of the Department are described in succeeding paragraphs. These are followed by a general account of agriculture, animal industries, fisheries and forestry in Hong Kong during 1958.

Agricultural and Animal Industries Divisions. A broad policy for the development of Agriculture and Animal Industries was accepted in principle by the Government towards the close of 1955. This policy envisaged the improvement of irrigation and communications throughout the New Territories, planned settle- ment of undeveloped land, the diversification of farming to include the extension of animal industries, a soil survey of the Colony, and planned experimental work directed to the introduction of new crops, the improvement of existing crop varieties, soil fertility and the control of pests and diseases of crops and animals.

The general experimental station of the Department serving Agriculture and Animal Husbandry is situated at Castle Peak in the New Territories. This station is concerned with pig improve- ment (local pig breed), poultry investigations and rice work. A veterinary laboratory is available for animal disease diagnosis and investigations, and for the preparation of rinderpest vaccine. A vegetable research station has been developed at Sheung Shui and a horticultural station at Tai Po. Exotic pig breeding is conducted at Sheung Shui Pig Station and pig cross-breeding work at Sai Kung Agricultural Station. A new station has recently been completed at Ta Kwo Ling for experimental work on dry land farming. These stations also include the offices of the agricultural extension and other field staff of the districts concerned. Additional posts and stations are situated at Sha Tin, Ko Po, Kam Tin, and Silvermine Bay on Lantau Island. New stations or agricultural posts are planned for Au Tau, Tau Pass, Ha Tsuen, Chek Kang, Tai O and Tung Chung. A chemical laboratory is situated at Lai Chi Kok.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      The Agricultural Division, under the immediate control of an Agricultural Officer, carries out investigative work on crops, such as variety trials, seed selection, soil fertility studies, manurial trials, and pests and disease control, on agricultural stations including the observation post on Tai Mo Shan at 2,000 feet, the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association Farm at 1,250 feet, and elsewhere on land rented from farmers. The extension, advisory, educational and observation work on crops and animal husbandry is the function of district agricultural officers operating in district stations and posts. The total permanent strength of the Division is 178 and includes 17 University graduates in several fields of agricultural science and 2 officers with diplomas in agriculture. The balance of the subordinate staff have been trained under service conditions. The Division comprises seven sections: Exten- sion, Crop (Research), Soils (Research), Pest Control (Research), Rural Education, Land Utilization and Agricultural Credit.

The Animal Industries Division was established in 1955 and is under the control of a Senior Veterinary Officer, with a total force of 88 permanent officers including 2 qualified veterinarians, 8 graduates in other fields of science relating to animal husbandry, and one officer with a diploma in animal husbandry. The balance of the subordinate staff have been trained under service conditions. The Division is divided into four sections: Animal Disease Control (Field Services), Animal Husbandry (Research), Diagnostic Services and Disease Control (Regulatory). In the latter section the Division deals with animal quarantine, rabies control, dairies and slaughter- houses in the New Territories, including meat inspection. The Senior Veterinary Officer is also technical adviser to the Director of Urban Services on problems connected with urban slaughter- houses at Ma Tau Kok and Kennedy Town.

Fisheries Division. The primary aim of the Government is to foster the expansion, in an orderly manner, of the marine and fresh water fisheries of the Colony for the purpose of meeting the nutritional needs of the population and improving the economic status of those engaged in fishing or fish farming. Policy is also directed to problems of overfishing and the conservation of fisheries resources. This policy, which concentrated in the imme- diate post-war years on the organization of wholesale marketing

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

87

of marine fishing described later in this chapter under Marketing, was broadened with the establishment in 1952 of the Fisheries Division of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department and the emergence in 1952 of the Fisheries Research Unit as a part of the University of Hong Kong. The activities of these bodies and the Co-operative and Marketing Department, which controls the Fish Marketing Organization, are co-ordinated by a Fisheries Advisory Committee.

        The Fisheries Division, the Fisheries Research Unit and the Co-operative and Marketing Department also participate in the activities of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Hong Kong was represented at the 8th session of the Council, which was held in Ceylon in December, when the United Kingdom delegation was led by Dr. F. D. Ommanney, Director of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Unit.

         The Fisheries Division is concerned with fisheries demonstration and extension work, the promotion of mechanization, the training of fishermen for certificates of competency as masters and en- gineers, operational investigations concerned with fishing methods, craft and fishing gear, the extension of pond fish culture and oyster farming in co-operation with the Fisheries Research Unit of the University of Hong Kong, and the demonstration of approved fishing techniques. The staff of the Division number 52 permanent officers including a Fisheries Officer, 2 Assistant Fisheries Officers, a Fishing Master and 11 Fisheries Supervisors. One of these officers is a qualified graduate and four have diplomas in marine or fresh water fisheries. District offices have been established throughout the Colony and the marine headquarters is at Aberdeen adjacent to the Fish Marketing Organization. The Division possesses two small inshore mechanized junk-type fishing vessels. A further vessel of some 110 feet will be constructed in 1959 for distant-water fisheries operational research.

       Forestry Division. A Forest Policy was approved by the Govern- ment in 1953. The principal aims of this policy are to afforest waste hill-lands in order to stabilize the soil, prevent erosion and protect water supplies; to produce the maximum quantity of fuel and timber; and to encourage private and village forestry.

88

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Forestry Division, with its headquarters at Tai Lung, near Fan Ling, is organized into five district branches covering the New Territories. In four districts semi-independent district organizations are now functioning smoothly; in the fifth division, which mainly covers Lantau, nursery work has started, an access road made and plans prepared for offices and staff quarters near Pui O on the Mui Wo-Cheung Sha road.

In each district a Forestry Supervisor is responsible for all branches of forestry work including afforestation, forestry lot work, amenity planting, and protection. The total permanent staff of the Division is 299, including in the technical service a Forestry Officer, a Senior Forestry Supervisor, 5 Forestry Supervisors, 2 Overseers, a Foreman, 10 Forest Rangers, 28 Foresters and 141 Forest Guards. Five officers of the Division are graduates, the balance of the subordinate staff have been trained under service conditions.

AGRICULTURE

      Rice. The area under two-crop paddy has fallen from 20,191 acres in 1954 to 19,050 acres in 1958. This land has not gone out of production but is now being used for permanent vegetable culture. A further area of 2,915 acres is used for one-crop brackish water paddy and 245 acres for one-crop upland paddy. On a milling percentage of 68, a total of 22,395 metric tons of rice was produced in 1958 at an average price of $56 per picul; the money value of the crop was $20,730,714. The average yield of rice from one acre of two-crop paddy land is about 1.1 metric tons. With seed of approved varieties, good irrigation and the use of fertilizers, production reaches 1.5 metric tons an acre on average land and up to 1.8 metric tons on better soils.

      Vegetables. The permanent vegetable area has increased from 2,254 acres in 1954 to 3,615 acres in 1958. This increase of 1,361 acres is due mainly to 1,141 acres of rice land which has gone over to vegetable culture, and the further development of 220 acres of marginal land. An additional area of approximately 1,000 acres of two-crop paddy land is used for the cultivation of European vegetables during the rice fallow following the harvest of the second rice crop.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

89

      Six to eight crops of Chinese vegetables can be harvested annually. During 1958, 1,387,797 piculs of vegetables were sold through the Vegetable Marketing Organization at a value of $26,562,534. The main varieties are white cabbage, flowering cab- bage, turnips, leaf mustard cabbage, Chinese kale, Chinese lettuce, tomatoes, water spinach, string beans and watercress. During the cool months cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce and tomatoes are produced in quantity and are of excellent quality. Further details concerning vegetable production are given below under Marketing.

      Sweet Potatoes. Two crops of tubers on approximately 2,560 acres are harvested annually and the average yield per annum is about 14 tons per acre. On an average market price of $15 per picul the annual value of the crop is approximately $9,200,000. An additional area of 5,700 acres of paddy fallow following the harvest of the second rice crop is planted up to short-term sweet potatoes, the vines of which are used for pig feeding.

       Other Field Crops. About 850 acres are cultivated in numerous small areas for field crops such as peanuts, taro, radish, yams and sugar-cane. These crops are grown mainly for home consumption in the New Territories.

      Fruit. The local production of fruit is small at present but is expanding with the successful establishment of village orchards. The main varieties produced are wong pei, local lemon, tangerine, Japanese apricot, guava, papaya, laichee, pineapple and orange. Accurate statistics are not available, but it is estimated that 38,647 piculs of assorted fruits were harvested during the year, valued at about $2,131,305 for export and local consumption.

      Crops and Fruits for Export. A limited range of fruits and crops are processed for export to Chinese citizens living overseas. The main market is the United States of America. Although the quantities exported are small, they provide an additional source of earning for the small farmer. These products include water- chestnut, Japanese apricot, local lemon, taro, bitter cucumber, white cabbage, ginger and radish. It is estimated that the area planted to these crops in 1958 was 2,520 dau chung and that the value of exports was in excess of $2,736,712.

New Crops. The recent interest shown in the revival of tea cultivation is continuing and an experimental area on Grassy Hill

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

to the north of Tai Mo Shan is being prepared for the cultivation of this crop. Certain hilly areas in the New Territories are being planted up with ginger under arrangements with local fruit pre- serving firms, which wish to reduce their dependence on supplies from China. Some fair crops have been harvested and the quality is improving as the farmers concerned gain in experience.

      As explained in the section dealing with Land Utilization, land resources in the Colony are very limited and settlement is confined to resettlement of refugee farmers and urban squatter cultivators. Due to industrial expansion many people who were supplementing their income by cultivating patches of land in the urban areas have had to discontinue this practice. Some who relied entirely on what they could get from the land have had to move to the New Territories and start afresh. This migration from city to country is, wherever possible, organized and carried out by the Land Utilization Section of the Agricultural Division. In the past five years an additional area of 350 acres of marginal land has been opened up for cultivation by refugee farmers. Land has been terraced on the hillsides in Tsuen Wan and elsewhere with assistance from the field staff of the Department and financial support from welfare organizations.

      As part of the Government's agricultural policy, much has been done over the past five years to improve water supply and irriga- tion for farming. Up to the end of 1958 the Government, aided by grants from Colonial Development and Welfare funds (see Appendix I), had constructed two impounding reservoirs of 48,000,000 gallons capacity at Lo Fu Hang and Hung Shui Hang; 71,900 feet of irrigation channels; 42 diversion dams; 19 water ponds for vegetable farming; and an irrigation system at Sheung Shui by pumping water from the Indus River. In addition, seven small impounding reservoirs have been repaired and more irriga- tion systems installed. Valuable assistance for this work has been rendered by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, a philanthropic organization which associates its welfare work with Government planning and whose activities are directed in the technical field by the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. By the end of 1958 this organization had supplied sufficient cement. to farmers to enable them to construct 37 new wells, 63 diversion

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Photo by Chou Wing Ping, A.R.P.S.

LION DANCES are a fairly common sight in Hong Kong, particularly in rural areas. The lion is made largely of cloth and is basically manipulated by a two-man team, one man carrying the cardboard head and the other operating the hind quarters. But it is usual to have an extra man available for special stunt effects. A small or- chestra in which percussion instruments predominate-provides appropriate music.

Overleaf Winter afternoon at Sai Kung in the New Territories.

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X

     EVERY YEAR, on the 23rd day of the 3rd Moon (which, in the Western Calendar, falls as a rule in May), Hong Kong's boat people celebrate with colourful ceremonies the birthday of their patron, Tin Hau, the Goddess of Heaven. Of some twenty celebrations held in Hong Kong, the biggest (depicted here) usually takes place at Joss House Bay where there is a temple dedicated to the Goddess. To this bay come thousands of pilgrims, borne in a flotilla of junks which are decorated with red banners, brightly coloured flags and floral garlands. Traditional dragon and lion dances are organized in the open ground of the temple and whole roasted pigs are offered to the Goddess.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

91

dams, numerous irrigation channels totalling 21,120 feet in length, and 15 small reservoirs. In the same period repairs were effected to 18 wells and 11 diversion dams.

The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association has also helped with the construction of roads, paths and bridges. Gifts of cement and other building materials (and in some cases where the work is beyond the competence of village groups, the employment of skilled labour) have enabled village communities to construct or repair 211,200 feet of village paths and roads, 10 piers, 11 bunds for flood control, 7,165 feet of drains, 33 bridges, 8 sea-walls and 2 culverts. In 1958, 44,997 bags of cement were given for these and similar projects.

      The Association has also assisted during periods of drought by pumping water for nurseries, the pumping units being operated by the Agricultural Division. It has also provided village groups with 200 Japanese Rice Threshers and 400 Japanese Knapsack Sprayers for pest control, and made gifts, for example, of cattle, goats, pigsties, pigs, poultry, farm buildings, and free livestock inoculations to the poorer members of the farming community. A new scheme of livestock improvement which commenced this year is described below under Animal Industries.

      The most significant change resulting from these efforts is that although rice is still the major crop and is efficiently cultivated, it does not occupy the same dominant position in the thinking of the farmer. There is a greater tendency to diversify agriculture and, on the average, about 35% of fallow rice land following the harvest of the second rice crop is used for catch-cropping. Orchards are being established where land is available and more small livestock are being raised in association with rice and vegetable cultivation. Farmers are using more and more artificial fertilizers to enhance their production and more insecticides to control pests and diseases.

The formal training classes for young farmers in practical crop and animal husbandry which were started in 1957 were con- siderably increased in 1958. Agricultural education is now the responsibility of one senior officer of the Department, and during 1958 a total of thirty six students was trained at Castle Peak and Ta Kwo Ling Agricultural Stations in courses arranged by

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

specialist officers. This scheme has been enthusiastically adopted by farmers and will be further extended in 1959.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

      Pigs and poultry are the principal food animals reared in the Colony. Cattle are mainly used for draught purposes. There is insufficient land for extensive grazing practices.

      A census of the livestock population completed in November 1958 yielded the following numbers of animals and birds:

Dairy Cattle

Brown Cattle

Buffaloes

Sheep

Goats

:

:

:

2,935

13,818

1,938

17

326

Pigs

Fowls

Ducks

Geese

Turkeys

:

:

:

106,631

1,158,170

125,876

2,500

300

Pigeons

Quails

80,000

1,500

Pigs. The pigs of Hong Kong are mostly Chinese types of Fa Yuen, Wai Chau and Lung Kong breeds. The Department maintains herds of pure exotic strain pigs such as Berkshire, Mid White and Large White for experimental purposes and distribution for the eventual improvement of the Colony's pig stock. In the villages pigs are often kept under primitive condi- tions, but due to the influence of the Department and the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association there has been a decided improve- ment in husbandry.

       In 1958 the number of pigs of local origin admitted to the local abattoirs for slaughter was 325,890. This represents an increase of 30% over last year and amounts to 27.8% of the total pigs slaughtered in the Colony for food. The comparative figure for 1953 was 64,000. The value of pigs raised in Hong Kong in 1958 is estimated at $32,000,000.

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Important experimental work is being undertaken by the Depart- ment on the selection of pure strains of local pig breeds, the cross breeding of local and exotic breeds and feeding, with emphasis on local products. The Department together with the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association is carrying out an important live- stock improvement plan which has as its aim the establishment of 2,000 women farmers as pig raisers using improved local sows (provided by the Government and the Association) crossed with exotic and improved local boars at boar centres provided by the Government.

      Cattle. Local brown cattle and buffaloes are kept for work purposes but surplus stock is sold to butchers. The Chinese brown cattle appear to be ideally suited to the local environment and village management. The return from sales of local cattle for slaughter was in excess of $1,500,000 and sales of breeding stock were in excess of $250,000 in 1958. Over 2,740 farmers have been assisted in acquiring better-type animals either by gifts from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association or by loan assistance from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, a fund started originally in 1955 by equal contributions by the Government and Messrs. Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie.

Poultry. The dependence on supplies from China of hatching eggs is one of the limiting factors in a stable poultry industry; two other principal concerns are disease control and the price of imported feed. Disease control has been greatly improved and some expansion of the industry has taken place as a result of distribution by the Department of meat meal purchased from the Kennedy Town abattoir, and by gifts of selected poultry by the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association. Local production of exotic strains, mostly White Leghorns, continues to increase. The total returns from poultry raising this year were probably in excess of $10,000,000.

       Ducks and Geese. Ducks are raised in the wetter areas of the Colony and along the banks of streams for home consumption and export. The raising of geese for the local market has extended over the past three years. Reliable statistics on local sales are not available but a conservative estimate places the year's total in excess of $1,500,000.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     Pigeons. Pigeon keeping is now a thriving industry in Hong Kong and prices in 1958 ranged up to $9 a pair for squabs. One of the most popular types of table birds is the White or Blue King crossed with the Homer. The sales of squabs in 1958, at an average price of $6 a pair, were in excess of $1,500,000.

      Milk. The dairy cattle in the Colony consist mainly of Friesians but there are also Ayrshires, Jerseys and Illawarra Shorthorns. These animals are concentrated in three areas-one large farm in Hong Kong, one large group of farms in the Diamond Hill area of Kowloon, and one smaller group in the Tsuen Wan district of the New Territories. There is also a small private farm on Lantau Island maintained by Trappist Monks. All these animals have passed the single intrademal (comparative) test for tuber- culosis. 10,431,850 pounds of milk were produced during 1958, valued at $9,398,665.

      Peasant farmers are increasingly availing themselves of the advisory service of the Animal Industries Division. The Colony remained free during 1958 from rabies and rinderpest, but foot and mouth disease continued to occur in quarantine stations in animals imported for slaughter. There were also 70 outbreaks of a mild type of this disease in cattle and pigs in the New Territories and a similar outbreak in the dairies in the Diamond Hill area of Kowloon. The increasing realization amongst farmers of the value of preventive inoculation is shown by the fact that in 1958 19,180 pigs were inoculated against swine fever and 11,248 cattle against rinderpest. 3,688,500 doses of Ranikhet vaccine and 3,015,820 doses of Intranasal Drop vaccine were used for the prevention of Newcastle disease. The veterinary diagnostic labora- tory is well established and, in addition to this diagnostic service, is producing lapinised rinderpest vaccine for use in the Colony.

In view of the inadequate land resources of Hong Kong and the small cattle population, no work has been done on the improve- ment of pastures. Extensive grazing is not practised. Instead, dairy cattle are stall fed, using planted guinea grass as green fodder and concentrates, and are exercised in courts. Working animals are fed cut fodders and a little concentrate. Through its extension service the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department has demon- strated the value of planting up rice bunds and other available areas

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95

with green fodder grasses for animal feeding. A wide range of fodder grasses and legumes have been introduced for trial.

FISHERIES

Marine Fish is the main primary product of Hong Kong, and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Colonies. It con- sists of over 8,500 junks of various sizes and designs, and 20 Japanese-type trawlers, 9 of which are of British registry. They are manned by a sea fishing population of approximately 72,000, chiefly Tanka, operating from various ports and fishing centres, the most important of which are Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan (on Hong Kong Island), Cheung Chau, Tai O, Tai Po and Sai Kung.

Junks are built locally from imported timber, of which China fir is the most popular. Due to continued shortages of fir, however, more teak and yacal have been used. About 95% of the fleet is owner-operated, the rest being owner-directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

The inshore fishing grounds for purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and small liners are confined to the waters south of the Colony up to 20 fathoms. The bigger junk trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their area of operation and now work in waters from 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung, from 111° 30′ to 116° E. and 20° to 22° 30′ N. A large number of these deep-sea vessels are sailing craft, and during the typhoon season, from July to October, their crews occupy themselves with repairing junks, nets, rigging, sails and equipment.

       In 1958 the Chinese Government imposed restrictions on inshore fishing in Chinese territorial waters. Inshore waters were first defined as waters within the 30 fathoms line, but this was sub- sequently extended. Hong Kong inshore fishermen who have tradi- tionally fished in these waters were allowed to continue provided they conformed with the rules regarding local fishing areas, joined the fishing co-operatives, and marketed 70% of their catch in China.

Hong Kong fishermen reacted very strongly to these impositions. Several thousand junks returned to Hong Kong waters and are endeavouring to eke out a living by fishing the already overfished

96

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

inshore waters of the Colony. It is estimated that some 5,000 junks are now concentrated in Hong Kong waters.

The mechanized fleet increased from 2,173 to 2,358 vessels in 1958, the major increases being among small long liners, purse seine net boats and shrimp trawlers. The total quantity of fish landed was 44,906 tons (valued at $47,439,264), as compared with 46,609 tons in 1957. The decrease in production was due to the restrictions on inshore fishing imposed by the Chinese Government. Further statistical data on the fishing industry are given below, under Marketing.

Oyster-beds and Fish Ponds. Oyster culture in this region has a tradition of 700 years behind it. The principal area concerned is Deep Bay where, from the 6,060 acres on the New Territories side of the Bay, a total of 1,200 tons of fresh oyster meat (valued at about $1,400,000) was produced in 1958. The bulk of this was processed into dried meat and into oyster juice which, following certification of local origin by the Fisheries Division staff, was exported.

Experiments conducted by the Division have demonstrated that oysters can be brought into marketable size in 2 to 2 years by adopting the Japanese 'hanging-drop' method of culture; whereas by the primitive method commonly practised at Deep Bay a period of 4 years is required. These experiments have not, however, been followed by the local oyster farmers as the cost and labour involved are considered to be too expensive. Further experiments, designed to reduce the cost of production, were under way at the end of the year.

Attempts to transfer the local edible oyster from Deep Bay (on the western side of the New Territories) and establish it in Tolo Harbour (on the east coast) did not prove successful. The Fisheries Research Unit, whose work is also described in Chapter 18, have introduced a Japanese species of marine edible oyster into Tolo Harbour and present indications are that it is growing satisfactorily.

The Pearl Culture (Control) Ordinance, which is also mentioned in Chapter 12, was enacted towards the close of the year, and commercial operations on pearl culture are due to commence in Tolo Harbour early in 1959.

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97

An additional thirty seven acres of land was converted into fish ponds in 1958, thus bringing the total area devoted to fish culture in the New Territories up to some 555 acres. The estimated produc- tion of carp and mullet was 400 tons (valued at $1,400,000) as against 506 tons in 1957. This decrease was largely due to the shortage of grey mullet fry supply to stock the ponds this year.

      Fish fry exporters despatched some 20 million fry, as against only 14 million in the previous year. The main destinations were Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan.

FORESTRY

It is only in recent years that any serious attempt has been made to carry out afforestation on a considerable scale in the New Territories, and the landscape has not yet been appreciably changed. The hills are predominantly grass covered, but a thicker cover of shrubs is found in some areas and there is some scrub forest in remote and inaccessible places. Where the vegetation has been protected against cutting and fire, as for example on Hong Kong Island, there are also thickly-wooded areas. The villagers cut grass for fuel and this practice, combined with the prevalence of hill fires in the dry season, has brought about the complete destruction of the vegetation with consequent soil erosion in many parts of the Colony. On the lower hill slopes the villagers have forestry lots, but in most of them the pine trees are so scattered and badly lopped that they scarcely alter the barren aspect of the land.

The Forestry Division of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department encourages forestry generally and is directly concerned with afforestation of the water catchment areas, assistance to village forestry and amenity planting. A thick forest cover is essential in the catchment areas to prevent erosion and silting of reservoirs and to promote regular stream-flow by inducing maximum retention of water in the soil. In other areas forestry can provide timber and fuel for local consumption and improve the economy of the rural population. In fact, forestry is the only form of extensive land development possible in the New Territories, where three-quarters of the land could not be developed profitably in any other way.

98

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Depending on the weather, planting is usually started in the cool, wet spring and is continued until June or July. Although planting has been done successfully in the late summer, it has usually been found that trees planted after July have too short a period in which to settle down before the onset of the dry weather in October.

The 1958 season was more favourable than usual for planting work. Frequent light rain from January to March facilitated an early start and the bulk of the programme of pine planting was completed before the beginning of the hot weather. April and May were drier than usual but were followed by a further period of suitable weather commencing in June. The programme of work for the year was completed without difficulty and, as results were good and little restocking required, planting material was saved, enabling several additional areas to be planted late in the season. A total of 2,127 acres of new plantations was formed in forest reserves during the season. That this constitutes a very large increase on previous years, can be seen from the following figures for areas planted during the past five years:

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Total

734 acres

690

1,065

"

1,272

99

2,127

5,888 acres

      The forest reserves are, for the most part, co-extensive with the Colony's water catchment areas. In the Tai Lam Forest Reserve, afforestation has been completed in the areas adjacent to the reservoir, and in the northern part of the catchment area the hills, which were in 1953 so completely devastated by erosion, are now well covered by a thick green mantle of pine plantations. Afforestation was continued in the remaining grass areas of the direct catchment area and a nursery was started at Tai Tong in a seriously eroded section of the northern indirect catchment areas. In the Shing Mun Forest Reserve, afforestation continued on the southern slopes of Tai Mo Shan and in areas along Route Twisk. Afforestation of the small Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve, in which there are many older plantations dating from the pre-war period,

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

99

was completed during the year. Planting continued in the Pat Heung Forest Reserve, where two-thirds of the area has been com- pleted. In the Fu Shui Forest Reserve, which forms the catchments of two small irrigation reservoirs in Castle Peak district, planting, which was started rather late in 1957, has already been extended over half the total area. The forest reserves mentioned in this paragraph extend unbroken across the mountains of the Colony from Castle Peak in the west to Tai Po in the east and comprise altogether about 13,000 acres.

       Planting was also done in the Kowloon Hills Forest Reserve (catchment of the Kowloon reservoirs) and at Shap Long, Lantau Island, where a new forest reserve was formed extending over the whole peninsula. Prisoners from the Chi Ma Wan Prison were employed in this reserve enabling a very big increase in planting to be effected. In fact, about a quarter of the total for the year was planted in the Shap Long Forest Reserve.

      The forest reserves are divided into compartments of 200 - 300 acres, and records and maps are prepared giving details of the areas of various species planted in each compartment. Track is thus kept of each plantation so that replanting and tending can be prescribed annually: for, in addition to the new planting, there is a great deal of such work to be done in the established planta- tions. The main species planted is pine (Pinus Massoniana), but experimental plots of a wide variety of other species have been made and some of these are now being planted more extensively. Among the most promising are species of Casuarina and Eucalyptus.

       In order to provide tree seedlings for afforestation the Forestry Division maintains a series of tree nurseries in the New Territories -a main nursery of twenty three acres at Tai Lung, smaller per- manent nurseries in each forest district and temporary nurseries in many of the areas currently being planted. Altogether there are some twenty nurseries with a total area of approximately forty acres. These nurseries are capable of producing two to three million tree seedlings annually. Most of the seedlings are grown in nursery beds and lifted for planting with bare roots; care being taken to see that the roots are not injured or allowed to dry out before planting, which must be done without delay. This manner of planting is likely to give very variable results, depending on the

100

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

weather; indeed, if a long spell of dry weather follows planting, all the plants may be lost. In recent years more plants have been raised in containers-tubes made of metal, roofing felt or plastic film-since, although this method is initially more expensive, the results are far more reliable and not so much influenced by the weather. In this way it is possible to continue planting right through the spring and summer, using bare-rooted plants in the wet weather and tubed plants in the drier periods. In addition to plants for afforestation, trees are raised for amenity planting and for sale to the public at very low prices.

A scheme of assistance to village forestry has been evolved, the final object of which is to teach the villagers how to plant and manage their forestry lots profitably. Model plantations have been formed which show quite clearly the results which can be achieved, and these plantations have been useful in arousing the interest of the villagers and as demonstration areas. The Forestry Division also offers financial and technical assistance to form trial planta- tions in the village lots. Trees take a long time to grow and it is not always easy to convince the villagers that forestry will be profitable. Interest in the scheme is spreading steadily, if somewhat slowly, and it will be a number of years before the work now being done will begin to produce results. In 1958 the scheme was extended to all five forest districts and 617 acres of trial planta- tions were planted with departmental assistance in village lots. Small plantations were started on a number of the islands adjacent to Lantau-on Cheung Chau and Peng Chau for example-and it is hoped that these will become public forests for the benefit of the local communities. Closely connected with the Forestry Lot Scheme is the Tree Planting Day campaign. This is held annually in April to encourage more tree planting by schools, public bodies and private individuals, and to make the general public 'forestry conscious' since protection of the plantations would be almost impossible without public understanding and co-operation.

      During the dry season from October to March there is a constant threat of fire in the plantations and elaborate fire precautions are put into effect. Fire-lookouts which have been established on strategic hill-tops in the plantation areas are connected by field telephone to fire control points, where men, equipment and trans- port stand by during particularly dangerous periods. A system

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

101

of roads, paths and fire-barriers is also maintained to facilitate fire fighting. Exceptionally dry weather in the first week of January and a completely rainless autumn occasioned rather more serious fire losses in 1958 than in normal years. Approximately 80 acres of plantation were destroyed by fire, including one promising young pine area near Chuen Lung Village on Route Twisk. It will be noted that these losses, serious though they are, represent but a small percentage of the total area of 6,000 acres planted since 1953. Illegal woodcutting, once a major source of injury, has greatly declined over the past five years and is now of very little importance compared with fire. All the forest reserves are regularly patrolled to check illegal cutting.

      Perhaps the most important and far-reaching event of the year was the formation of an independent Forest Research Branch. The object of forest research in connexion with afforestation is to study and compare results both in experimental areas and in ordinary plantations, and to attempt to define the basic require- ments for good results. Unless afforestation work is based upon well-conducted research it is sure to fail or become uneconomic; particularly in an area such as Hong Kong where natural tree growth is scanty and there is little past experience to use as a basis.

      The re-export of graded timber to the high-class markets of the United States, Australia, Europe and South Africa continues to expand. There is no locally grown timber available, all timber for local consumption or export being imported, mostly from Borneo.

MARKETING

      Fish Marketing Organization. With the aim of promoting the general development of the local fishing industry, the Government has imposed certain controls on the landing and wholesale market- ing of marine fish. These controls are exercised through an agency known as the Fish Marketing Organization, which in one aspect of its operations provides many services which would otherwise be undertaken by middlemen. The Organization is a non-profit- making concern deriving its revenues, and so covering its expenses, from a 6% commission charged on all the sales of fish at its

102

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

markets. Its operations ensure that the fishermen obtain fair prices and a stable market for their catches; consumers also benefit through the cheap and efficient services which are provided. The Fish Marketing Organization is a non-Government body, although one or two of its more senior officials, including the head of the Organization (the Director of Marketing), are civil servants. The Organization at present operates under emergency legislation, in replacement of which the Marketing (Marine Fish) Ordinance, 1956, was enacted in May 1956. The introduction of this Ordin- ance has, however, been deferred pending the preparation of the necessary subsidiary legislation.

      The Fish Marketing Organization was established shortly after the reoccupation of Hong Kong in October 1945, and now operates five wholesale fish markets. These are established at Aberdeen and Shau Kei Wan on the Island, at Yau Ma Tei in Kowloon, and at Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. Six fish- collecting depots and posts have also been set up in the main fishing villages, and from these the Organization provides sea and land transport to the wholesale markets.

At the markets the Organization's staff sorts the fish into species and sizes, weighs it and prepares it in lots for sale by public auction. Fishermen may collect the proceeds of their sales directly after the sale has taken place; alternatively, if they so prefer, the Organization will send the money back to the depot or post which serves their area. As an additional marketing service, the Organiza- tion provides free transportation of fish to buyers' establishments in the urban areas.

      The following species of fresh marine fish were marketed in greatest quantity during 1958:

Average Whole-

Golden Thread ...

Conger Pike

Lizard Fish

Red Sea Bream ...

Horse Head

Mackerel Scad

Piculs Tons

sale price in cents

per catty

109,404 6,512

79

37,349

2,223

52

...

33,776 2,010

34

27,858

1,658

74

24,999 1,488

80

23,328 1,388

30

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

103

Local production during the last five years and average whole-

sale prices during the same period were as follows:

Quantities & Values

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Average Wholesale Prices

(in cents per catty)

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

Piculs

Tons

Value ($)

663,769

39,510

42,977,489

677,599

40,333

36,800,531

679,187

40,428

43,267,461

783,033

46,609

51,041,714

754,421

44,906

47,439,259

Fresh Fish

Salt Fish

67

55

56

43

66

49

65

47

57

37

      1958 was a most difficult year for local fishermen. Traditionally, the fishing grounds of many Hong Kong based fishermen are in or near to Chinese waters, but early this year the Chinese Govern- ment gave notice that they intended to impose restrictions on the use of fishing grounds within Chinese territorial waters. These restrictions were not strictly enforced until 1st August; from then onwards the landings of the local fleet were greatly affected until December, when the restrictions were eased to a certain extent and landings returned to near normal. An unusual feature of fish marketing during the year has been the import of marine fish, particularly salt/dried fish, from China, a reversal of the trend of some years ago when Hong Kong used to export substantial quantities of fish to China. As a result of the fishing-ground restrictions, the total sales through the Marketing Organization decreased by approximately 7%. The effects of these restrictions are described in more detail under Fisheries earlier in this Chapter.

      The embargo on the importation of salt/dried fish from the Colony, imposed by the Chinese Government in June 1950, remained in force throughout the year. Salt fish exporters, however, continued to explore other outlets and as a result approximately 580 tons of locally caught and processed salt/dried fish were exported during the year. The main importing countries were Indonesia, Singapore, Malaya, Canada, the Philippines and the United States of America.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

In June 1957 the Fish Marketing Organization became con- cerned for the first time with the marketing of prawns and shrimps. This development was introduced specifically to meet the require- ments of the American market. During 1958 some 2,710 tons of prawns were handled, valued at approximately $8,500,000.

The provision of cheap credit is one of the most important of the related services which the Fish Marketing Organization offers to local fishermen. The Organization's revolving loan fund, first established in 1946, had by the end of 1958 made 4,192 loans totalling $5,280,000 and of this total some $4,280,000 had been repaid. In 1957, C.A.R.E., an American relief agency, donated $31,000 to serve as the nucleus of a loan fund for shrimp and prawn fishermen. Twenty six loans totalling $28,340 had been issued from this loan fund by the end of 1958.

      The education of fisher children is another principal object of the Fish Marketing Organization, the general aim being to provide education up to Primary IV standard; in certain major fishing centres this will be extended to include Primary VI. Schools have been established in eight main fishing centres and considerable progress was made during the year in constructing new premises. In particular, a new six-classroom school was built at Shau Kei Wan, one of the main fishing centres in the Colony; the new school is operated on a two-sessional basis and will eventually educate a total of 550 fisher children pupils at a time. At the end of 1958, 1,885 fisher children were obtaining their education through the Organization. Of this number, 1,013 were students at the Organization's own schools, while the remainder were in receipt of scholarships or other awards with which to finance. their education at other institutions.

      Vegetable Marketing Organization. Following the success of the Fish Marketing Organization, the Government decided to introduce a similar system for the selling wholesale of locally-produced vegetables, in which the problems were not dissimilar. The scheme, which was first established in September 1946, now operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property, and for the appointment of a Marketing Advisory Board, consisting of the Director as Chairman and four other persons,

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

105

nominated by the Governor, who have wide and practical experi- ence of the difficulties and needs of farmers. It is the Government's declared policy that the Organization should one day be run by the farmers themselves as a co-operative enterprise.

      The Organization undertakes two main functions. First, it collects vegetables from depots and posts conveniently located throughout the New Territories and transports them to the whole- sale vegetable market in Yau Ma Tei. Second, it arranges the sale of this produce and manages all the attendant financial transactions.

      In these respects the Organization is very similar to its Fish Marketing counterpart. Important differences, however, lie in the method of sale which in the case of the Vegetable Marketing Organization is by negotiation and not by auction, and in the degree of practical assistance provided by Co-operative Marketing Societies which are responsible for handling approximately 66% of the total local production of vegetables. The reasons for negotiated sales, as opposed to an auction system, are not difficult to find on an average, approximately 12,000 separate lots are sold daily to some 2,500 buyers. The number of lots rises to over 20,000 a day in the main season, making sales by auction im- practicable.

      The Organization is self-supporting and the costs of the various services are met from a 10% commission charged on sales. Of this commission 30% is refunded to co-operative marketing societies in respect of the vegetables for which they are responsible.

      The weights and values of vegetables marketed through the Organization over the last five years are as follows:

Locally-produced

Piculs

Tons

Value ($)

1954

1,019,692

60,696

18,259,193

1955

1,117,629 66,526

19,939,762

1956

1,293,354 76,985

21,589,103

1957

1,193,662 71,051 21,719,517

1958

:

1,387,797 82,607

26,562,534

Imported

1954

193,479 11,517

4,266,494

1955

105,656

6,289

2,164,460

1956

122,363

7,284

1,685,920

1957

134,098

7,982

1,925,268

1958

118,374

7,046

1,584,748

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      As is the case with the Fish Marketing Organization, it is intended that any financial surpluses should be ploughed back into the industry in the form of improved services and other benefits. An instance of this policy is the aid which the Organiza- tion has given to local farmers in overcoming their main problem of recent years the lack of cheap fertilizer. The Organization is now operating a scheme for the maturation and distribution of nightsoil to farmers at a low price.

      Cheap credit facilities for the improvement and encouragement of agriculture under the control of the Registrar of Co-operatives and Director of Marketing are available from two sources: the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund, and the Vegetable Marketing Organiza- tion Loan Fund. Since the establishment of the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund in July 1954, farmers have received 5,395 loans totalling approximately $4,465,000, while 437 further loans totalling some $1,539,000 have similarly been made from the Vegetable Marketing Organization's Fund.

      The main types of vegetables grown locally and imported are shown below together with their average wholesale prices :

Average Whole- sale price in cents

Piculs Tons

Locally-produced

per catty

White Cabbage...

290,848 17,312

16

Flowering Cabbage

128,880

7,671

25

Leaf Mustard Cabbage ...

90,302

5,375

16

Chinese Kale

...

69,320

4,126

21

Chinese Lettuce...

63,266

3,766

13

Imported

Taro

13,641

812

13

Tientsin Cabbage

8,881

529

17

Chinese Melon ...

7,953

473

11

Round Cabbage .

6,479

386

12

Yam Bean

5,361

319

08

889

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

The first appointment of a Registrar of Co-operatives was made in May 1950, and the combined Co-operative and Marketing Department came into being in October of the same year. Since

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

107

that date the Co-operative movement in Hong Kong has made rapid progress and is being accepted by an increasing number of persons, including peasant farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic method of improving their lot.

Inevitably, particularly among farmers and fishermen, the main weight of effort has been directed towards the physical formation of societies and towards ensuring that these are organizationally and economically sound. The next step, which can only be achieved over a period of years, will be the development of the existing societies into a fully effective co-operative movement.

An interesting development during the past three years has been the growth in the number of Co-operative Building Societies; these societies are at present formed exclusively of local pensionable officers of the Civil Service and operate with funds provided by the Government.

During 1958 thirty four additional co-operative societies were registered, bringing the total on register at the end of December to 213 societies. The societies registered in 1958 comprised one Pig Raising Society, five fishermen's Thrift and Loan Societies, one Consumer's Society and twenty seven Co-operative Building Societies. At present there are twelve different types of society and their functions and scale of operations are briefly described below: Vegetable Marketing Societies. The nineteen societies collect and market the vegetables grown by their members, and handle loans obtained for their members both from the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and from the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. In 1958 about 66% of locally-produced vegetables were marketed through these co-operative societies.

Federation of Vegetable Marketing Societies. The Federation was established in March 1953. It has as its object the im- provement of liaison between member-societies and the under- taking of a number of activities on their behalf. Its principal and long-term aim, however, is the gradual taking over of the functions of the Vegetable Marketing Organization. Pig-Raising Societies. The thirty seven societies have as their object the provision of assistance to members in increasing pig production and particularly in the provision of credit facilities for the purchase of stock and feed.

108

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Federation of Pig-Raising Societies. The Federation was registered in November 1954 with the purpose of improving liaison between pig-raising societies and of assisting member- societies in their contacts with Government departments. In 1958 the pig raisers of the Colony found much difficulty in meeting competition from imports of cheap pork from China. In order to combat this opposition, the Federation has per- suaded its members to reduce costs of production wherever possible and has evolved a scheme for the bulk purchase of pig feed at low prices.

Fishermen's Thrift Societies. The main object of these seven societies is to inculcate the habit of making small personal savings and they may be regarded as being the foundation of co-operative effort among the fishing community. After a period of successful operation as Thrift Societies, individual societies may qualify for 'promotion' to the status of Thrift and Loan Societies.

Fishermen's Thrift & Loan Societies. The first of these societies was registered in September 1952. They have proved very successful, and at the end of 1958 twenty eight societies were registered. Their main functions are to encourage thrift and to provide security for, and arrange the disbursal of, loans granted to members from the Fish Marketing Organization. One of these societies undertakes an additional function of providing loans for construction of houses for members. Fishermen's Credit & Marketing Society. The functions of this society are parallel to those of the Thrift & Loan societies, but, in addition, it owns and operates a mechanized collecting vessel which brings its members' catches to the market for sale.

Salaried Workers' Thrift & Loan Societies. There are now two

Thrift & Loan Societies. Their aims are to encourage members to save a portion of their income and to utilize their savings for small individual loans. In addition, one society has in- troduced a medical scheme for the benefit of its members and their dependants.

Irrigation Societies. The two existing societies own and operate pumps, irrigation channels, etc. through which their members are able to obtain water for their fields.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

109

Co-operative Building Societies. 112 of these societies had been registered by the end of 1958. These societies were formed to comply with the conditions prescribed by the Government as part of its programme to assist in the solution of the housing problems of local pensionable officers. The work is described further in Chapter 10.

Fish Pond Society. The only society of this kind, the Luk Keng Fish Pond Society, owns a fish pond at Luk Keng near Sha Tau Kok with the purpose of improving and developing fish culture.

Credit & Consumers' Societies. There are now two Consumers' Societies and their function is the purchase of consumer goods in bulk for resale to members. The first society was formed by the Forestry Division of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department in 1955 and its aims are to encourage members to save and to utilize savings for small individual loans. The second Society was registered this year and is formed exclusively of fishermen based on the island of Ap Chau in the New Territories.

     Figures of the membership and finances of Societies will be found at Appendix XII.

MINING

There is mining of iron, lead, wolfram and graphite by under- ground methods, whilst kaolin clay, quartz and feldspar are worked by opencast methods. Iron ore and kaolin are exported to Japan, lead ore to the United Kingdom and Europe, wolfram to the United Kingdom and United States, and graphite to the United States and Taiwan. Kaolin is also used locally by manufacturers of rubber goods, whilst quartz and feldspar are solely produced for local consumption, principally by the enamelware, ceramic and glass-making industries.

All mining leases and licences and prospecting licences are for the New Territories, i.e. the mainland and the islands of Lantau, Chek Lap Kok, West Brother, Ma Wan and Tsing Yi, and opera- tions are mainly controlled by individuals or by small Chinese mining companies. At the close of the year there were five mining leases, twenty three mining licences and two prospecting licences in operation.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

In 1958 production from the Ma On Shan Iron Mine was almost entirely from underground sources. The ore was treated in the 700-ton-a-day crude ore capacity dressing plant situated near the waterfront, and concentrates were transported by barge to ships anchored in Tolo Harbour.

      The continued low market price for wolfram discouraged general interest in the mining of this mineral, and the Needle Hill Mine was responsible for all production for the year.

      Prospecting for beryl, graphite and iron ore was undertaken in 1958, but there was no discovery of economic importance.

       The Colony's production of minerals for the year was as follows:

Mineral

Value in $

Production in long tons

Feldspar..

1,653.19

57,862

Graphite, 80% fixed carbon

...

1,934.25

284,335

Graphite, 50% fixed carbon

1,350.50

57,284

Iron Ore ...

105,125.14

3,994,755

Kaolin

Lead Ore

Quartz

7,620.73

685,866

35.99

14,791

--

4,484.30

89,686

38.46

299,803

Wolframite

      The Mines Department is under the control of the Commissioner of Labour in his capacity as Commissioner of Mines, and is under the immediate direction of a Superintendent of Mines, who is assisted by two Assistant Inspectors of Mines.

The ownership and control of all minerals is vested in the Crown under the Mining Ordinance, 1954. This ordinance also provides for the issue by the Commissioner of Mines of prospecting licences for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of two years, and of mining licences for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years. It also provides for the Land Officer to issue mining leases for periods of up to twenty one years. Details of mining leases and licences and prospecting licences in operation on 1st January and 1st July are published in the Government Gazette. The Superintendent of Mines issues Authorized Buyers' Licences for the sale and purchase of ores, grants Mine Blasting Certificates, and approves Certificates of Origin and Export Licences for minerals mined in the Colony.

PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

111

He is also responsible for arranging for the collection of rents, premia and fees in connexion with licences granted, and for the computation and collection of royalties on mineral sales at the rate of 5% of the value of minerals won. Inspection of mining areas and survey work in connexion with applications for, or the grant of, mining and prospecting licences is carried out by the Mines Department.

Chapter 8: Education

THE rapid progress made in education in Hong Kong since the war may be measured in the following figures. In 1945, on the liberation of the Colony, there were 4,000 pupils in schools. Three years later the number had risen to 18,000. In 1954 it was 249,177, and in September 1958, 418,546.

      The number of schools (including kindergarten and post- secondary) and total enrolment on 30th September 1958 were as follows:

No. of

Enrolment

Schools

% of No. of Enrolment Teachers

Government Schools ...

65

51,333

12.3

1,306

Grant-aided Schools

20

18,772

4.5

728

Subsidized Schools

378

108,985

26.0

3,250

Private Schools

885

224,215

53.6

8,050

Special Afternoon Classes

15,241

* 3.6

Total

1,348

418,546

100.0

13,334

      If this table is compared with that in Chapter 8 of last year's report, it will be seen that while the percentage of pupils accom- modated in private schools has fallen slightly, the private schools are still responsible for over half the total enrolment and represent some 65% of all schools in Hong Kong. Since private schools, i.e. schools which do not receive Government aid under either the Grant or Subsidy Code, also tend to charge higher fees than government or government-aided schools, their numerical predomi- nance in the educational system clearly illustrates the very great continuing public demand in the Colony for education, even at a high cost.

      School Expansion Programme. The Government seven-year plan for the expansion of primary education, instituted late in 1954 with the aim of providing by the end of 1961 places for all children of primary school age, made good progress during the year. The present target figure is 33,000 new places each year. During the

EDUCATION

113

first nine months of 1958 the following new accommodation had been completed and pupils admitted:

Government Schools

Subsidized Schools

Private Schools

Total

No. of

No. of

Pupils

Schools

Classrooms admitted

6

126

11,340

11

160

14,400

8

96

8,640

25

382

34,380

Government schools are built and equipped entirely from Govern- ment funds. Subsidized schools are assisted by the free grant of a site, by a building subsidy, and by a subsidy for recurrent costs. They often receive interest-free loans as well. Selected private schools, operated on a non-profit-making basis, may receive a free grant of land and interest-free building loans. The schools men- tioned in the table above were all in new buildings and provided accommodation for an additional 34,380 pupils. In addition, exist- ing schools built seventy seven extra classrooms accommodating 6,930 pupils as part of their normal expansion.

The Government directly maintains forty four primary schools, ten secondary schools, two technical secondary schools, a technical college, and two teacher training colleges. The average age of pupils entering and leaving government primary schools is 6 and 13 respectively. For secondary schools the figures are 13 and 19.

Grant Schools (which are nearly all secondary schools) function under the terms of the Grant Code, under which the Government pays the difference between the approved expenditure of a school and its income from fees and other sources. This approved ex- penditure includes salaries, leave pay, incidentals, and passages for teachers who are so entitled. Alternatively, a block grant may be made. Grants may also be made up to 50% of the cost of new buildings, equipment, and major repairs. The usual medium of instruction in Grant Schools is English.

      A joint examination is held annually for pupils from Primary 6 classes in government schools, government-aided schools and private schools to select pupils for secondary education in govern- ment and aided secondary schools.

Subsidized Schools (which are mostly primary schools) are operated under a Subsidy Code. By its aid selected schools can

114

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

keep fees reasonably low and pay teachers the same salaries as are paid in government schools. There are now 378 subsidized schools, an increase of 21 over last year, brought about by the building of 11 new schools, and by the admission of 10 private schools to the Subsidy Code. In addition, some schools have erected new buildings and others have added classrooms as normal expansion. The subsidized schools have benefited both by the employment of an increasing number of trained teachers and by greater opportunities for their pupils to receive a secondary education.

       Private Schools. Considerable indirect Government assistance is given to private schools through special courses for improving the professional qualifications of teachers and through inspection and advice from specialists. A Special Advisory Panel has been set up in the Education Department to assist and advise managers of private schools on all aspects of school management, including registration, premises, equipment, staffing, finance and general administration.

Private colleges are now playing a more important part in post- secondary education and show increased enrolment. A Chinese Colleges' Joint Council representing three post-secondary institu- tions was engaged during the year in considering the raising of the standard of admission requirements, and of staff, premises and equipment. The growing importance of these institutions is re- flected in the grant of a number of Government scholarships and bursaries tenable for a four-year course at the day colleges. The holders of bursaries will take an arts or science course, and then receive a year's training at a government teacher training college. Special afternoon classes were formed in 1950 for the benefit of children who were unable to obtain admission to primary schools. They are of two hours' duration, cover general subjects, and are run through the co-operation of a large number of schools, mostly private. Enrolment in these classes, which in 1957 was 19,428, has decreased this year owing to increased school facilities available under the development programme.

      Training of Teachers. In 1958, 36 graduates were awarded Diplomas in Education by the University of Hong Kong, 562 students from the teacher training colleges passed their college examinations, and 195 members of the in-service training courses

1,400

INCREASE IN NUMBER OF SCHOOLS SINCE 1946

1,300

1,200

Private

Subsidized

1,100

1,000

900

K

800

700

HONG

600

500

400

300

200

100

Government

Grant-in-Aid

1946

'48

'50

'52

'54

'56

1958

Note: The above figures include the Evening Institute but not the University of Hong Kong

THOUSANDS

420

INCREASE IN PUPILS IN SCHOOLS SINCE 1946

390

360

330

PRIMARY AGES 4-14

SECONDARY AGES 12-20

POST-SECONDARY AGES 18 AND OVER

300

270

240

210

180

150

NG KON

120

90

60

30

1946

'48

'50

'52

'54

'56

1958

Note:

The above figures include Evening Institute students but not students at

the University, nor 15,241 students attending special afternoon classes.

EDUCATION

115

for teachers qualified as primary school teachers. A special course of training for kindergarten teachers has been organized for twenty teachers. The total enrolment for full-time training college courses in 1958-9 was 695, and for in-service training courses for un- qualified teachers was 531. In all, 13,334 teachers were in service at the end of September 1958.

A Professional Teachers' Training Board is responsible for dealing with general matters regarding teacher training and advises on the integration of teacher training in government training colleges and the University.

       Voluntary education and welfare work is carried out by a wide variety of bodies in Hong Kong. The Kaifong or Neighbourhood Welfare Associations provide free schooling for poor children, and the British Red Cross Society organizes hospital schools for crippled children. There are schools for the deaf, for the blind and for lepers, orphanages, and homes for maladjusted children, while the Po Leung Kuk provides free schooling for the homeless young women and children in its care (See also Chapter 11).

Other agencies which form part of the educational pattern include the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the Children's Playground Association, the Boy Scouts' and Girl Guides' Associa- tions and the Rotary Clubs.

In co-operation with the Social Welfare Department, the Educa- tion Department works closely with voluntary agencies of this kind and is represented on the recently established Mental Health Association of Hong Kong. It is also closely associated with the Medical Department in the sphere of health education, and, in the professional sphere, with the Hong Kong Teachers' Association.

Libraries are maintained by the British Council, the United States Information Service, the local Chambers of Commerce, a number of Government departments including the Education Department, and the University of Hong Kong; access to the University and official libraries is restricted. Books, pamphlets, journals and visual-aid material are distributed by the Public Relations Office, the British Council, various consular authorities and commercial agencies. The British Council, whose activities are also described in Chapter 20, administers certain post-graduate

116

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

scholarship awards and gives advice and assistance to students intending to take courses in the United Kingdom.

In the educational scene, as described above, three main problems confront all interested bodies, public or private: a swollen population, due to influx of refugees, together with a high rate of natural increase; the scarcity of new school sites in a small and highly developed territory; and the problem of obtaining sufficient qualified teachers.

      Expenditure on Education. A brief summary of expenditure by the Education and other Departments from August 1957 to July 1958 inclusive is given below:

Total $

Recurrent Expenditure :

Personal Emoluments

$17,900,168

Other Charges

4,192,077

Maintenance and Repairs of School

Buildings (Public Works Department)

450,940

22,543,185

Grants and Subsidies :

Recurrent

28,009,944

Capital

4,186,562

32,196,506

Grants to the University of Hong Kong:

Recurrent

5,700,000

Capital

554,674

6,254,674

Capital Expenditure:

Furniture and equipment for new

government schools...

971,478

New school buildings (Public Works

Department).

6,090,211

7,061,689

...

$68,056,054

Expenditure on Education by other Departments :

Medical Department

$

570,191

Kowloon-Canton Railway

104,356

Co-operative and Marketing Department

78,093

$

752,640

       Legislation. All colleges, schools and other institutions of learn- ing, with the exception of a small number of schools for the

EDUCATION

117

children of members of Her Majesty's Forces, are subject to the provisions of the Education Ordinance. The Director of Education, who, under the Ordinance, has general control over education in the Colony, is chairman of the Board of Education, which has advisory functions, its members being appointed by the Governor. The Director is required to keep registers of schools, teachers, and managers of schools, and to ensure that satisfactory standards are maintained in respect of school buildings, methods of enforcing discipline, the keeping of registers and accounts, the payment of fees, and the proper conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers. The University of Hong Kong, which is an independent body, is exempt from the provisions of the Education Ordinance.

        An Ordinance to amend the Education Ordinance, 1952, was enacted in 1958. The amendments did not embody any change in policy towards education, but were necessary to clarify and strengthen the provisions of the 1952 Ordinance. At the same time Government took wider powers to protect pupils in schools from physical hazards and political activities.

The main purpose of the legislation is to effect further safe- guards for the well-being of children. Not only does compliance with the requirements for registration under the Ordinance ensure a reasonable standard of safety in schools, but periodic inspection and advice by officers of the Education Department also ensure that schools are conducted along satisfactory lines.

       Higher Education. Beginning its life in 1911 largely with financial assistance from generous friends and benefactors, the University of Hong Kong has since been mainly supported by recurrent and non-recurrent grants made annually by the Govern- ment. Its recurrent expenditure is now about $10,000,000 and the Government subvention towards recurrent expenditure for the current financial year is $5,900,000. In addition the budgetted capital subvention for 1958-9 is $3,000,000. Grants of Crown land have been made from time to time; the central University estate now covers an area of thirty six acres and other estates total almost nine acres.

There are faculties of Arts, Science, Medicine, and Engineering and Architecture with enrolments in October 1958 of 527, 147, 276 and 135 respectively. The Institute of Oriental Studies had 23 students and the Social Study course 18, giving a total of 1,126

118

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

undergraduate and post-graduate students, both full-time and part-time. Of this number 295 or 26% were women. The general medium of study is English. The minimum qualification for entry to undergraduate courses is gained through the Matriculation Examination, which is similar in type and standard to the General Certificate of Education Examinations conducted by the Univer- sities of the United Kingdom. Most of the undergraduates are Chinese but many other races are represented, particularly from South-East Asia. Three hundred and eight university students are receiving financial aid in the form of scholarships or bursaries.

      The possibility of increasing undergraduate numbers to 1,500 or more over the next five years is under consideration.

       The number of full-time teaching staff, from demonstrators upward, is 177. Of these over half are locally recruited.

      A new University Ordinance, conferring a greater degree of autonomy upon the University, was brought into force on 1st September 1958. The main changes in the new Ordinance are in the composition and powers of the Court and the Council, which now include a proportion of elected members, and in the institution of a Convocation of graduate members of the University. The Ordinance is also dealt with in Chapter 12.

      The development of a building site south of the Main Building for a new Library and Students' Union, with funds to be provided partly from Hong Kong Government sources and partly by a grant from Colonial Development and Welfare funds is at an advanced stage of planning. It is hoped that building will start during 1959.

      The University set up in February 1958 an Engineering Advisory Committee to ascertain the need for fully qualified, locally trained civil, mechanical and electrical engineers and to investigate the extent to which local industry might contribute to the cost involved. In November the Government announced that, in the light of the Committee's report, it was prepared to provide $350,000 as half the capital cost involved in the expansion of the University Faculty of Engineering by the reinstatement of degree courses in electrical and mechanical engineering. (The civil engineering course was restored shortly after the war). The Government's undertaking was subject to certain conditions, one of which is that the other half of the capital cost should be raised from unofficial sources.

EDUCATION

119

For an account of research work in the University during 1958, see Chapter 18.

Scholarships. Seventeen Government scholarships amounting to $34,500 per year, tenable at the University of Hong Kong, were awarded on the results of the 1958 Hong Kong Matriculation Examination. Ten of these were awarded to students intending to take courses in the Arts Faculty, four in the Science Faculty and three in Engineering.

Forty two Government bursaries amounting to $121,700 a year, tenable at the University of Hong Kong, were awarded to assist four students taking the Diploma in Education course, and twenty eight Arts and ten Science students who intend to become teachers. Seven bursaries amounting to $12,600 a year were also awarded for the Social Study course at the University of Hong Kong.

Thirteen Government scholarships amounting to $19,800 a year and thirty six Government bursaries amounting to $53,700 a year, tenable at post-secondary day colleges, were awarded to students who passed the 1958 Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination.

One hundred and eight pupils at Anglo-Chinese secondary schools and thirty seven pupils at the Special Classes Centre were assisted in their matriculation studies by maintenance grants amounting to $10,580 a month. The Special Classes Centre exists to prepare selected students who have passed the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination for entry to the University of Hong Kong.

Higher Studies Overseas. The British Universities Selection Committee advises and recommends students wishing to go to the United Kingdom for higher studies. The Head of the Students' Branch of the Colonial Office and the Hong Kong Students' Office in London arrange their placing. The Director of the Hong Kong Students' Office and his Assistant are also responsible for the students' general welfare, including making arrangements for them to be met and accommodated on arrival, advising them on their multifarious personal problems, and arranging suitable contacts and hospitality.

Hong Kong House, a residential club and social centre in London, which is operated by the Hong Kong Government for

120

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     Hong Kong men and women studying in the United Kingdom, was officially opened in May 1958 and has accommodation for about eighty students.

      A table showing the distribution of the 1,444 students pursuing higher studies in the United Kingdom in 1958 by the courses which they follow is at Appendix XIII. Most of them are taking courses not available at the University of Hong Kong. In addition, 508 students went to the United States for further study, 162 to Canada, 378 to Australia and 23 to the Republic of Ireland. Figures for Hong Kong students in other countries are not available.

Examinations. The considerable number of external examina- tions conducted by the Education Department on behalf of examin- ing bodies abroad attracted 3,261 candidates in 1958. The examina- tions which attracted the largest number of candidates this year

were:

Name of Examination

London University Degree Examinations

London University General Certificate of Education

Examination

Chartered Institute of Secretaries Examination

Total No. of Candidates

17

1,745

44

Association of International Accountants

Examination

Association of Certified and Corporate Accountants

Examination

-

...

Institute of Book-Keepers' Examination

London Chamber of Commerce Examination

Pitman's Shorthand Examination

75

41

125

836

359

These examinations have proved extremely helpful to local candidates, who, without going abroad, may qualify themselves for a degree or a diploma of a university or professional institution in the United Kingdom. Candidates entering for these examina- tions are steadily increasing in number and some examinations are held twice or even three times a year.

      The Department also conducts two School Certificate Examina- tions and a Joint Primary 6 Examination (the latter for entry to secondary schools), for all of which the number of candidates grows steadily from year to year. In 1958 there were 3,341 entries

EDUCATION

121

for the English School Certificate Examination, an increase of 357 over last year; 2,165 entries for the Chinese School Certificate Examination, an increase of 299; and 7,697 entries for the Joint Primary 6 Examination, an increase of 1,423.

      Technical Education. The Technical College has now settled down in its new premises, and full use is being made of the additional accommodation and new facilities. Keswick Hall, built with the aid of generous donations, will provide both the College and other public organizations with much needed accommodation in Kowloon for lectures, meetings and social activities. Trade Advisory Committees have been formed for the Building, Com- merce, Textile, Electrical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering Departments. An Advisory Committee has also been set up for the Technical College as a whole.

      At the beginning of the session there were 375 full-time and 6,063 part-time students undergoing courses organized by the Technical College. Courses include Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Building Construction and Plumbing, Naval Architec- ture, Navigation, Telecommunications Engineering, Field Survey- ing, Advanced Structures, Refrigeration, Industrial Chemistry, Textiles, Commerce, Book-keeping and Pitman's Shorthand. Besides these, part-time day release courses are offered for engineering apprentices in Government workshops and commercial engineering firms. There is also another part-time day release course in Industrial Chemistry for laboratory technicians, and special courses are run for Health Inspectors and Fire Brigade officers.

The Victoria Technical School with an enrolment of 501 boys and the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls with an enrolment of 303 provide five-year secondary technical courses, together with specialized courses such as Woodwork, Metal Work and Technical Drawing for boys, and Domestic Science, Embroidery and Needle- work, Pottery and Woodwork for girls.

      The Salesian Society runs two schools which provide students with technical and trade courses; and in both of these schools there is a secondary technical school section added to the Artisan Section. There is also a number of private schools and colleges in the Colony offering technical courses at various levels.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

       Adult Education is provided through the classes of the Evening Institute, the Technical College Evening Department, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and by private night schools. Enrolment in government institutions was as follows:

Evening Institute

Technical College Evening Department

Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies

4,990

4,715

154

      Different types of evening courses designed to repair early educational deficiencies and improve employment prospects are organized under the Evening Institute. There were 299 classes, including 101 English classes, 21 post-primary extension classes, 27 teachers' classes for art, music, handwork, woodwork and domestic science, 57 classes on general background education and 86 classes on practical background education such as sewing and knitting, housecraft and woodwork. Most of these classes are held in government school premises in both rural and urban areas.

      The Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies was established in 1951 to provide three-year courses in General Arts and Com- merce. These courses are intended for men and women who have passed the School Certificate Examinations and are eager to spend their evenings in pursuit of advanced studies through the medium of the Chinese language.

Eight Adult Education and Recreation Centres are run to provide a wide variety of activities, recreational, cultural and creative, particularly for the poorer sections of the community. Nominal fees are charged for specific instructional courses but not for recreational and group activities. The organizers and supervisors of the centres are mostly government teachers who have gone through a nine-month part-time training course. Centres publish a quarterly Bulletin and organize various committees to plan the programmes of activities. The total number of centre members has risen from 3,524 in 1957 to 11,127 in 1958, and the nightly attendance for formal instruction and recreational activities ranges from 300 to 600 at each centre.

Music, Drama and the Arts occupy an important place in the school curriculum and in extra-curricular activities. In 1958 the Schools' Music Festival celebrated its Tenth Anniversary. To mark the occasion, many new features were introduced. A record number

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THE DRIVE to provide enough schools to give at least primary education to Hong Kong's rapidly increasing juvenile population gains steadily in momentum. School building programmes for the current school year (mid-September 1958 to mid-September 1959) will, it is hoped, provide additional places for not less than 80.000 new pupils. Photographs show (above) diligent youngsters practising the writing of Chinese characters and (below) a typical 24- classroom Government primary school (in Li Cheng Uk Resettlement Estate).

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A FINE example of a modern secondary school in Hong Kong is the new Maryknoll Sisters School for girls which was opened on 1st May 1958. A five-storey building, it has 18 classrooms, eight special rooms and facilities for studying domestic science and housecraft. Below: A young potter in the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls.

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EDUCATION

123

of 1,700 entries was received and an estimated 12,000 pupils were directly involved. There was a further increase in entries for the examination of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, with 1,676 students entering for the practical examination, and 626 entering for the theoretical, as compared with 1,340 for the practical and 529 for the theoretical examinations in 1957. Seven candidates were considered for a scholarship offered by the Associated Board. A number of artistes of international repute visited the Colony and many performances were made available to students at reduced prices. A pageant, entitled "These Fabulous Islands', involving nearly 1,000 performers, many of whom were school children, was staged in early November by the Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children and was attended by some eighty thousand people. The adjudicators of the Inter-School Drama Competition reported that the standard displayed in these plays was of a much higher quality than usual. Art exhibitions in schools were very popular and reflect the fact that the Colony is a meeting place of the cultural ideas of the East and the West. The schools contributed in various ways to the Hong Kong Festival of the Arts where the school art exhibition was an encouraging feature (See also Chapter 20).

In the field of physical education, and of sports and games, training and refresher courses for teachers have resulted in im- proved standards of performance and organization. 1,475 teachers from all types of schools attended courses in physical education. The emphasis continued to be placed on the training of in-service teachers.

Chapter 9: Public Health

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

      RESPONSIBILITY for the administration of the Public Health Services is divided between the Medical Department, the Urban Council acting through the Urban Services Department, and the New Territories Administration. The Medical Department provides out-patient clinic facilities and hospital services, and deals with such matters as epidemiology, vital and morbidity statistics, mater- nal and child health, school hygiene and the health of school children, malaria control, tuberculosis control, measures to combat social diseases, port health control and international health matters, and health education. The Urban Services Department is concerned with environmental sanitation, domestic cleanliness, and control of the import, preparation, handling and sale of food in the city areas. The District Commissioner, New Territories, is statutorily responsible for the public health in the New Territories and is advised by officers of the Medical Department.

The work of the Medical Department is under the direction of the Director of Medical and Health Services, and that of the Urban Services Department under the Director of Urban Services, who is concurrently the Chairman of the Urban Council. Close liaison is maintained between these two departments through the Assistant Director of Health Services, who is in administrative charge of all health activities in the Colony and is concurrently Vice-Chairman of the Urban Council and public health adviser. He has certain executive functions in regard to both the Council and the inspectorate of the Urban Services. The inspectorate is further guided by Health Officers of the Medical Department, who exercise statutory powers under public health legislation. The work of the District Health Officers is directly controlled by the Senior Health Officer, who also exercises supervisory control over Medical Officers in charge of other health activities such as Maternal and Child Health Services, the School Health Service, etc.

PUBLIC HEALTH

125

      The estimated expenditure for the financial year 1958-9 was $43,427,300. To this should be added subventions totalling $11,451,900 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Mission to Lepers Hong Kong Auxiliary, and other similar organizations. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical Department and the medical subven- tions represented approximately 8.47% of the Colony's total estimated expenditure of $648,121,710. Estimated capital expendi- ture for the Medical Department was $12,900,000.

      During the year satisfactory arrangements were concluded, in conjunction with the University of Hong Kong and the Society of Apothecaries in London, for examinations leading to the Licen- tiateship in Medicine and Surgery of the Society of Apothecaries. Doctors holding qualifications granted by certain Medical Schools in China prior to 1950 were accepted for entry to the examinations which were held in the last quarter of the year. Forty three doctors passed in all parts of the examinations and a further forty four passed in one or more subjects. Further examinations are to be held during 1959 and again, if the situation warrants, during 1960.

GENERAL HEALTH

      The basic health problems of the Colony continue to arise from the dense over-crowding of the population, the lack of adequate housing and the still prevailing shortage of water. These factors combine to foster the spread of communicable disease and militate against satisfactory application of the principles of hygiene. Ignorance and poverty play their part, but even where instruction is given and the will to live healthily exists, the people only too often lack the physical space and amenities to apply their knowl- edge adequately. Despite this, a surprisingly high level of general health and sanitation is maintained. No major epidemic of any disease occurred in 1958 although the incidence of certain diseases shows some rise and preventable diseases such as diphtheria and typhoid are disappointingly prevalent, despite determined efforts to bring them under control. There was continuing and urgent pressure on all the Government free and low-cost medical services, in spite of the establishment of a large number of privately organized charita- ble and welfare clinics. The major Government clinics all worked

126

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

at high pressure, fifteen hours a day, from 9 a.m. to midnight and all hospital facilities were strained to the limit.

      The overall death rate remained at the abnormally low crude rate of 7.5 deaths per 1,000 of population and the infant mortality rate further declined to 54.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. The number of births continued to increase and maternal mortality returns were the most satisfactory yet recorded in the Colony, the rate being 0.85 deaths per 1,000 total live and still births.

      During 1958 severe and extensive outbreaks of cholera in nearby territories constituted a serious threat to the health of Hong Kong. Comprehensive measures to control the introduction of cholera were put into effect by the Government, and the Port Health Authorities arranged for the quarantine or surveillance of over six hundred persons arriving from infected areas without adequate evidence of protective inoculations against cholera. Over 5,000 lbs. of fresh fruit and other suspected foodstuffs were impounded. It is gratifying to record that these measures were successful and no case of cholera occurred in the Colony. At the same time the Government vaccine laboratory increased production to over a million doses of anti-cholera vaccine so that there was an adequate reserve of vaccine should an outbreak occur.

There was no recurrence of severe epidemic influenza although a considerable number of cases were notified, mainly during the second quarter of the year. The high incidence of diphtheria was the most disappointing feature; the increase noted in the autumn of 1957 continued into the early months of 1958, 694 cases being reported by the end of April. The incidence again began to increase, as it usually does, towards the end of the year, but not to the same extent as in the autumn of 1957. A total of 1,555 cases of diphtheria were recorded for the whole year. The anti- diphtheria campaigns conducted did not at first receive the usual gratifying response although, following an intensification of propa- ganda, this improved later. The unfortunate record of the year in respect of this disease may be ascribed largely to the reluctance of the population to avail themselves of the free services offered for the protection of their children. Fortunately modern methods of treatment saved the vast majority of cases, which occurred mainly amongst infants and pre-school-age children who had not been vaccinated or had only received one injection. There were

PUBLIC HEALTH

127

134 deaths, giving a case mortality rate of 8.6% as compared with 10.4% in 1957.

A sudden sharp increase in the reported incidence of polio- myelitis occurred in the summer months, from May to August, during which time 244 out of the year's total of 262 cases were notified. The pattern of incidence followed the experience of previous years on a somewhat large scale. While poliomyelitis of the infantile type has occurred sporadically in this area for many years, the distribution of cases now occurring may be indicative of a shift towards the more epidemic form of the disease.

There has been observed in many of the less developed parts of the world an almost constant inverse ratio between infant mortality rates and poliomyelitis case rates, with a corresponding change in the pattern of the disease from a sporadic disease of infants to an epidemic disease of more severe form with a tendency to include older children and adults. This transition also appears to be linked to raised levels of hygiene and environmental sanita- tion which result in postponement of the age when natural mild infection and consequent immunity might be acquired. This gives rise to a susceptible community of older persons in whom the disease is likely to be more dangerous. It is possible that this situation may be expected in Hong Kong where the infant mortality rate has been halved during the last decade and improved methods of sanitation continually extended.

Advice on the value and expediency of a mass anti-poliomyelitis vaccination programme for the general public, using a Salk type vaccine, was sought from the World Health Organization Regional Adviser on Poliomyelitis in Singapore, He later visited the Colony to assess the local situation and to advise further on the possible use, at a later stage, of an oral attenuated live vaccine.

Ophthalmia neonatorum, an eye infection of new-born infants, was made a notifiable disease for the first time, the objective being the institution of early treatment of the disease, which is a potent cause of blindness in childhood. Since June 1958, 105 cases have been reported.

       Notifications of tuberculosis showed a welcome decrease. The mortality rate for this disease fell for the first time below 100 deaths per 100,000 persons to 83 deaths per 100,000.

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HONG KONG, ANNUAL REPORT

The results of the campaign for the B.C.G. vaccination of infants were particularly encouraging, over 46% of babies born in 1958 having been vaccinated within a few days of birth.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

      In 1958 both the number of births registered and the birth rate showed an increase over the previous year's figures and the natural increase of 86,070 persons is the highest yet recorded.

      The following table gives the figures of births and deaths for the last five years:

Year

Death rate per 1,000 of estimated mid-year population

Births

Birth rate per 1,000 of estimated

Deaths

mid-year

population

1954 ...

83,317

36.6

19,283

8.5

1955

...

90,511

38.7

19,080

8.2

1956

96,746

39.7

19,295

7.9

1957

97,834

37.9

19,365

7.5

1958 ...

106,624

38.8

20,554

7.5

The infant mortality rate showed a further decline to 54.3 per 1,000 live births. This rate, which is considered a sensitive index of the health of a community, has been approximately halved in the last decade. The neonatal mortality rate was 23.4 per 1,000 live births. The still birth or pre-natal mortality rate was 12.2 per 1,000 total births.

Maternal mortality returns were the most satisfactory yet recorded. The low figure of 92 deaths attributed to pregnancy or child birth gives a rate of 0.85 deaths per 1,000 total births.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

      Appendix XIV lists in tabular form the number of cases and deaths from notifiable diseases reported in the Colony during 1958 with the corresponding figures for 1957 for comparison.

Tuberculosis. As in many communities in South-East Asia, tuberculosis is the principal health problem and in Hong Kong just over 2% of the adult population have the disease in an acute form. Control measures are now beginning to show results, im- provements being noted particularly in those below five years of

PUBLIC HEALTH

129

     age. The death rate has fallen to 83.8 per 100,000 persons, which is less than one half the figure recorded in 1951.

      The control programme is directed mainly against the disease in infancy since at one period almost 40% of the total deaths from tuberculosis occurred before the age of 5 years. The measures adopted are (i) the vaccination of new-born children with B.C.G. before they have had a chance to become infected (approximately 50% of children born receive this vaccination on a voluntary basis within two to three days of birth); (ii) preventive treatment by means of isonicotinic acid hydrazide in young children who have been recently infected but as yet show no sign of disease; (iii) large-scale efforts to sterilize known cases of tuberculosis in the community by the use of ambulatory chemotherapy.

The main source of case finding is the Government Tuberculosis Service which operates large full-time clinics in the urban area, with smaller part-time clinics in all large population centres in the rural areas. The main line of attack is by ambulatory chemo- therapy which, for economic reasons, is most suited to this type of community. Fifteen thousand cases have received continuous therapy during the year, involving three-quarters of a million attendances. Approximately 1,800 beds are now available for the treatment of tuberculosis in the Colony; just over 1,000 of these, including 444 beds at the Grantham Hospital, are operated directly by the Government or under Government subsidy and receive their cases from the Government Tuberculosis Service. The main non- official body co-operating in the tuberculosis campaign is the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association which administers the Grantham Hospital (540 beds), the Ruttonjee Sanatorium (230 beds) and Freni Memorial Convalescent Home (106 beds). This Association is subsidized by the Government and there is the closest co-operation with the Government Tuberculosis Service. Population tuberculosis surveys have had to be delayed until such time as facilities can be extended to meet the continuously increasing demand for treatment. Special surveys are conducted in certain industrial undertakings and amongst school teachers.

Funds are available to assist patients who have been advised by Government medical officers to give up work to undergo treatment for tuberculosis. Assistance in kind as well as in cash

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

is available to a lesser degree from other official and non-official

sources.

One large new clinic is at present under construction and others are being planned as it is considered that expansion of the ambula- tory treatment scheme is likely to yield the best return under existing epidemiological conditions.

      The following table contrasts the mortality figures for tuber- culosis during the past five years:

Estimated

Year

mid-year

Death rate

population

per 100,000

Percentage of all deaths

TUBERCULOSIS

Percentage of T.B. deaths below 5

registered

years of age

1954

2,277,000

126.3

14.9

31.2

1955

2,340,000

120.0

14.7

28.0

1956

2,440,000

107.0

13.6

25.0

1957

2,583,000

103.6

13.9

21.2

1958

2,748,000

83.8

11.2

19.6

      Venereal Diseases. The number of cases suffering from infectious forms of venereal disease who present themselves for treatment has continued to decline; it is believed that this reflects a falling incidence in the general population.

     The table below gives the figures of cases of syphilis treated at all Social Hygiene clinics during the last 5 years:

Primary Syphilis

Secondary Syphilis

Early latent Syphilis

Late latent Syphilis

Early congenital Syphilis

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

393

153

93

17

9

54

34

20

7

3

2,209

1,044

733

450

417

3,983

24

2,853

19

2,616

2,532

2,766

19

3

7

The incidence of other venereal infections treated at clinics has also shown a considerable decline as the following figures indicate :

Gonorrhoea

Chancroid

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

1955

1956

1957

1958

11,309

10,609

9,881

8,360

2,468

1,614

689

294

249

140

178

91

For treatment, penicillin in its various forms remains the standard

therapy for both syphilis and gonorrhoea.

PUBLIC HEALTH

131

No further increase in the penicillin resistance of gonococci, as has been noted elsewhere, has yet manifested itself in Hong Kong. The incidence of penicillin reactions, urticaria and other minor intolerances, however, is mounting and this factor may mitigate against the continued use of penicillin rather more quickly than will the development of bacterial resistance. Penicillinase for the treatment of these reactions became available in October 1958.

New combinations of anti-biotics have been used for clinical trial in the treatment of gonorrhoea.

Post-treatment surveillance has been developed and some 6,500 letters were dispatched during the year for this purpose.

Visits by female social hygiene visitors to female contacts and defaulters from treatment were considerably increased during 1958, following an increase in staff for this purpose.

      Leprosy. Ten special clinic sessions for leprosy are held each week and monthly attendances at these average over 3,000.

Nine hundred and seventy six new patients reported, of whom 379 were found to be suffering from leprosy. Infectious cases are admitted to the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium (run by the Mission to Lepers) whenever possible and 111 patients were transferred there in the course of the year.

As an alternative to the standard drug Diaminodiphenyl sulphone (Dapsone) a new compound Diamonodiphenylsulphozide (D.D.S.O.) was brought into use for the treatment of suitable cases.

An increased number of cases with deformities received remedial surgical treatment and a number of successful ulnar nerve trans- plants and tibialis tendon transplants have been performed both by surgeons in Government hospitals and in the Maxwell Memorial Centre at the Leprosarium itself.

Contact investigation followed by B.C.G. vaccination of child contacts and the follow-up of defaulters from treatment is now carried out by personal home visiting; follow-up by correspondence was discontinued during the year as being less effective.

      Dermatology. Patients with skin complaints are treated free at Social Hygiene Clinics as these sessions for dermatology serve as useful preliminary diagnostic centres for the detection of latent

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

syphilis and leprosy, quite apart from the routine work of the diagnosis and treatment of skin ailments. Over 50,000 attendances were recorded at these skin clinics in 1958 at which biopsies, fungus culture and patch testing for allergy, and antibiotic sensitivity tests are available.

       Malaria. The number of cases notified in 1958 was 659. One death was recorded; this occurred in an elderly patient suffering from cancer who was accidentally infected during the course of repeated blood transfusions. Ninety five per cent of all notified cases originated in unprotected areas of the New Territories; the Sai Kung peninsula accounted for 85% of the total. This region has some 38 scattered villages and a large population living in junks and sampans amongst whom the great majority of cases occurred.

Benign tertian parasites were found to be the predominant infection in over 90% of cases; some 50% were malignant tertian; and 3% were quartan.

      The method of control continues to be mainly based on anti- larval measures. Areas at present under active and permanent control measures consist of the populated portion of the whole of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon; this corresponds to the urban areas of the Colony in which the main part of the population is concentrated. In addition, in the New Territories, the town area of Cheung Chau Island, Rennie's Mill Camp and Chi Ma Wan Prison are similarly protected. Ground control work at the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir site was terminated towards the end of September 1958, on completion of construction of the dam. Work in the Castle Peak area was likewise discontinued in October when the screening of the new Mental Hospital buildings was undertaken as a protective measure not only against mosquitoes but also against flies and other winged insect pests.

      At Hay Ling Chau the anti-malaria work is undertaken by the Leprosarium staff, while the necessary insecticides are supplied by the Government Malaria Bureau.

      Since 1957 anti-malaria oil has been employed as the main larvicide. In view of insecticide resistance problems, the use of Gammexane Dispersible Powder (P520) has now been confined

PUBLIC HEALTH

133

to agricultural lands where the application of oil would be unsuit- able.

       In certain instances, the Malaria Bureau also undertakes to deal with culicine mosquito breeding. Against breeding of Culex fati- gans, Diazinon Dispersible Powder has been found very useful particularly when breeding is located in sumps.

For Aedes togoi, which breeds profusely in the brackish water of numerous rock pools along the sea-shore, gammexane brick still retains its effectiveness after 7 to 8 years of continuous use.

Up to the present, except in the few selected areas mentioned above, no overall anti-malaria programme has been undertaken in the New Territories and chemoprophylaxis is still advisable there.

The Malaria laboratory carries out the work of identification and dissection of mosquito specimens, staining and examination of blood smears, field tests on the efficacy of various insecticides, and tests of the susceptibility of anophelines to insecticides.

       Poliomyelitis. A total of 262 cases with 41 deaths from this disease was reported in 1958. There was an abrupt rise in incidence from 9 cases in April to 53 cases in May. The peak monthly total of 82 cases was reached in June; in July and August a slight decline was observed and an abrupt fall to only 4 cases followed in September. 217 or 82.8% of all cases occurred in Chinese infants or children under 4 years of age. The 13 non- Chinese patients notified were mainly members of the Armed Services or their families and included 2 adult cases arriving in the Colony after contracting the disease elsewhere. Males appeared to be more affected than females in the proportion of 3 to 2.

Nearly all cases suffered the paralytic form of the disease and type 1 poliomyelitis virus was recovered from specimens sent to the Virus Reference Laboratory in Singapore.

This is the first year on record where the incidence of this disease has shown such a clear-cut rise in the summer months. The higher incidence recorded this year can partly be explained by the much improved reporting of the disease which is now evident as a result of increased public awareness, more resort to practitioners of Western medicine and better appreciation of the benefits of physiotherapy.

134

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The following table shows in detail all cases and deaths reported from Poliomyelitis according to age:

Age (years)

Under 1 year

Aged 1 year ...

Aged 2 years

Aged 3 years

Aged 4 years

5-9 years

10 - 14 years

15 - 19 years

20 years and over

Total ...

No. of Cases

No. of Deaths

69

18

99

11

29

1

25

4

11

1

12

5

2

10

3

262

41

      Diphtheria. Diphtheria continued to occur throughout the year and, as previously, showed a marked seasonal rise in the winter months. During 1958 notifications were received of 1,555 cases and 134 deaths, giving a case mortality of 8.6% compared to that of 10.4% in 1957.

The great majority of cases was reported amongst children of pre-school-age who had not been fully immunized against the disease.

      Free prophylactic inoculation was carried on throughout the year, particularly in the Maternal and Child Health Centres. An intensified campaign was undertaken in the autumn before the start of the season when a higher incidence of the infection is to be expected.

A total of 109,336 first doses, 90,396 second doses and 42,330 'booster' doses of diphtheria toxoid were given. Twenty nine carriers of the disease were discovered and treated during 1958. Enteric fever. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continued to be mildly endemic throughout the year and the incidence showed no seasonal rise during the hotter months. Notifications numbered 816 with 34 deaths. The case mortality continues to fall with the use of modern antibiotic drugs and was 4.2% this year compared with 4.5% in 1957 and 6.1% in 1956. Nearly half the reported cases occurred in children between 5 and 14 years of age.

      As in the past, free anti-typhoid immunizations (TAB) were available to the general public throughout the year. The

PUBLIC HEALTH

135

programme was intensified for three months in an early summer campaign. A total of 269,258 inoculations was given during 1958, mostly to children of school age.

Apart from immunization, control measures included the super- vision of restaurants and other food premises, the exclusion of carriers from food handling and the general health education of the public. Special food hygiene education was directed towards employers and employees in all businesses dealing with food.

      Bacillary Dysentery. Notifications of this disease in 1958 were less than for several years past and 22% less than in 1957. Four hundred and twenty four cases were reported, 45% of which were in young children under 4 years of age. There was the anticipated higher incidence in the summer months. Sixty eight carriers were detected and treated under the supervision of the area Health Officers concerned.

Measles. The total number of cases reported for the year was 786 which was rather less than in 1957. This figure cannot represent more than a small proportion of the true number of children who contract measles and the 191 deaths reported gives a wholly inaccurate case mortality rate of 24.3% for a disease. known to be widespread, though mild.

This lack of notification of measles probably also applies to chickenpox; both these diseases, well-known to the Chinese popula- tion, continue to be treated traditionally by herbalists who do not notify cases to the Health Authorities.

HOSPITALS

      Excluding nursing homes and institutions maintained by the Armed Services, there are thirty one hospitals in the Colony. Twelve of these are the responsibility of the Medical Department and the other nineteen are run by various charitable, missionary and private organizations. Ten of the charitable and missionary institutions receive substantial assistance from the Government.

      The twelve Government hospitals provide a total of 2,198 beds, the Government assisted hospitals 3,593 beds, and private hospitals 1,106 beds. In addition, various Government dispensaries provide a further 124 beds, mainly in the New Territories and practically

136

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     all for maternity cases. There are 579 beds in private maternity and nursing homes.

There is therefore in the Colony a total of 7,600 beds for all purposes, including the mentally ill and those suffering from infectious diseases. Excluding the 1,841 beds set aside for tuber- culosis, the 280 beds for the mentally ill, and the 605 beds for the treatment of leprosy, there are 4,874 beds available for all general purposes, including maternity. Assuming the population to be about 2,800,000 this gives a figure of 1.73 beds per thousand of the population, a number which is far from adequate by modern standards. It must be noted, however, that the figures quoted are for the normal bed-capacity of the various hospitals. In many cases the actual bed-occupancy is much higher as extra camp beds are used extensively.

A detailed breakdown of the number of hospital beds in Hong Kong is given in Appendix XV.

      The twelve Government hospitals comprise two large general hospitals, two mental hospitals, two maternity hospitals, one large hospital for both long-term cases and infectious diseases, one infectious diseases hospital, two prison hospitals, one small hospital for the treatment of venereal diseases, and the St. John Hospital, which caters for general, maternity and tuberculosis cases, on Cheung Chau Island.

The two major hospitals are the Queen Mary Hospital on the Island and the Kowloon Hospital on the mainland.

By the gracious consent of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, the new 1,300-bed Kowloon Hospital now in the course of construction will be known as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital. Work on the site has commenced and His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh will lay the foundation stone when he visits Hong Kong early in March 1959.

It is not possible in a short account of this kind to give more than a brief sketch of some salient features of the non-Government hospitals, but they may be divided into several groups:

(i) The Tung Wah Group of four hospitals-the Tung Wah and Tung Wah Eastern Hospitals and Sandy Bay Infirmary on the Island and the Kwong Wah Hospital and Infirmary in Kowloon-provide a total of 1,616 beds. These hospitals

PUBLIC HEALTH

137

are operated by the Tung Wah Hospital Board of Directors, an entirely Chinese charitable organization which, besides these hospitals, is also responsible for various services to the poor and needy of the Colony. A large subsidy is now granted by the Government in respect of the hospitals and the Medical Superintendents of the three main hospitals are Government Medical Officers. These hospitals provide a most useful service and are gradually being modernized. The Board of Directors have planned to rebuild the Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon to provide a large modern general hospital of 1,200 beds. The first stage of this de- velopment started during the year and H. E. the Governor laid the foundation stone on 14th July 1958.

(ii) Mission hospitals range from the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium of 605 beds (including 25 in the new wing opened this year) to small institutions with about 50 in-patients. They also vary from completely charitable in- stitutions supported by mission funds and local voluntary donations to nursing homes which are more or less self- supporting. Several of the purely charitable institutions receive substantial subsidies from the Government. In addi- tion to hospitals, there are a number of Homes for the blind, the deaf and the aged, and a large number of Orphanages. (iii) Hospitals maintained by the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association, which have already been mentioned under Tuberculosis.

Dispensaries. The Government maintains a large number of out- patient clinics varying from large institutions housing many special- ist services to small single-doctor dispensaries or even (in the New Territories) some dispensaries staffed by nurses and visited once or twice a week by a doctor. Again, there are special clinics for tuberculosis, for maternal and child health, for dentistry, for eyes, for leprosy and for dermatology and venereal diseases. In such circumstances figures for the number of individual institutions mean little as there is no means of distinguishing between the large and the small, but the numbers of separate institutions are:

Hong Kong Island

Kowloon

New Territories

15

14

13

138

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The total numbers of out-patients seen at Government clinics and dispensaries during the past five years is of interest as showing the very considerable expansion which is occurring :

1953

1954

1955

1956

1957

2,340,682

2,517,815

2,869,045

3,165,109

3,397,074

4,068,919

1958

In most cases these out-patient facilities are provided on a 'dollar-a-time' basis: that is, the patient, if he is capable of doing so, is expected to pay one dollar for each visit to the dispensary, this fee including whatever treatment, drugs or injections may be considered necessary. Provision is made for free treatment if circumstances warrant it and certain clinics such as those for tuberculosis, maternal and child health, venereal diseases, leprosy, and eye diseases in children, are completely free. In addition to 'fixed' dispensaries, the department has two mobile dispensaries which pay regular visits to outlying villages in the New Territories, and visits are also made by launch to certain areas which cannot otherwise be reached. The Jockey Club 'Floating Clinic', the m.v. 'Chee Hong', illustrated elsewhere in this Report, went into full service on 6th May 1958 and has proved most successful in provid- ing medical facilities to inhabitants of the isolated districts on the eastern seaboard. The Hong Kong Jockey Club have generously donated funds for another 'floating clinic' of a similar type which will enable medical attention to be given to residents on the western seaboard.

     It is significant that health and medical work form one of the three principal services which occupy the attention of the majority of the Chinese voluntary and charitable organizations in Hong Kong. The only two interests which rival those of health and medicine are education and the provision of death benefits.

     The principal charitable organization is the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, to which reference has already been made. It is noteworthy that 30% of all babies born in hospitals in Hong Kong were delivered in the hospitals of this group.

      Two other long-established Chinese charitable associations, the Chung Sing Benevolent Society and the Lok Sin Tong, also ran

-

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

110,000

100,000

BIRTHS

DEATHS

90,000

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

17

1946 '47 '48 '49 '50 '51 '52 '53 '54 '55 56 '57 1958

INFANTILE

MORTALITY RATE

TUBERCULOSIS

MORTALITY RATE (Per 100,000 population)

70

8820

60

(Per 1,000 live births)

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

50

L.

T

40

30

20

10

200

0

1952 '53 54 55 56 '57 1958

1952 '53 '54 '55 '56 '57 1958

METAL PRODUCTS

1948

Factories.... 174

Workers. 9,914

1958

LE

Factories.... 575

Workers.. 24,342

1948

PLASTIC WARE

1958

33

Factories.... 296 Workers... 8,024

Factories.3 Workers..

SHIPBUILDING & REPAIRING

RUBBER PRODUCTS

1948

1958

8,788

Factories.. ..55 Factories... 107

30

Workers. 4,427

Workers..

• ·

1948

1958

Yards. . . . . . . 19

Yards.

Workers. 9,729

Workers.. 10,049

* 2007

FOOD MANUFACTURE

1948

Factories.....97

1958

Factories.... 360

WEARING APPAREL

1948

Factories.....37

1958

Workers... 3,308 Workers. 6,921

• •

Workers. 1,196

Factories. . . . 585 Workers.. 25,602

T-

COTTON WEAVING

1948

COTTON SPINNING

1948

Factories.. 151

• •

Workers... 6,488

1958

Factories.... 183 Workers.. 15,870

1958

Mills Workers.. 1,755

. 6 Mills

Workers..

.20 12,613

1948 HONG

HONG KONG'S INDUSTRIAL GROWTH 958

INDUSTRIES 122-FACTORIES 1,266-WORKERS 63,873.

INDUSTRIES 260-FACTORIES 4,906-WORKERS 179,997

300,000

NUMBER OF PEOPLE RESETTLED 1953-58

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

DEC 53 JUN 54 DEC 54

JUN 55 DEC SS JUN 56 DEC 36 JUN $7

DEC 57

JUN SO

DEC 58

THE POST-WAR INCREASE IN HOUSING

VICTORIA

REST OF ISLAND

KOWLOON

NEW KOWLOON

45,000

40,000

35,000

30,000

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

He 田田 田田 田

POST-WAR

田田

PRE-WAR

田田

田 田

田 田

Houses, Flats and Tenement floors at 31st December 1958. Inclusive of low-cost housing, but exclusive of resettlement buildings and staff accommodation provided by Government, the University and the Services.

PUBLIC HEALTH

k

139

medical clinics; the Lok Sin Tong, in addition, erected during 1958 a new Maternity Home. The District Associations, drawing their members from people claiming a common ancestral home in some part of China, also gave evidence of the popular demand for medical or health services. During 1958 eighteen of them ran medical clinics providing free or subsidized treatment by qualified practitioners. Between them, they dealt with more than 10,000 patients.

      The Clansmen's Associations, composed of persons with the same surname though not necessarily related to each other, have also responded to the popular demand for medical facilities. The majority of these Associations were not financially able to provide proper clinics, but they were able to call on doctors from amongst their own members to provide free or low-cost treatment for other members.

The Kaifong Welfare Associations also provided free or low-cost medical treatment to the sick poor. Twenty eight of these Kaifong Associations ran clinics under the control of fully qualified and registered medical practitioners. Between them they treated 50,000 patients in 1958. These Associations, however, also have to cater for the fact that a very large number of people in Hong Kong still wish to consult Chinese Herbalists, and they have therefore engaged the services of suitable herbalists to meet this demand. No Kaifong Association ran a maternity home in 1958, but several provided special financial or other facilities to assist expectant mothers to get institutional treatment at a reduced rate. Several Kaifong Associations also co-operated very fully with the Govern- ment in vaccination campaigns and in a drive to improve standards of hygiene in the home.

HEALTH SERVICES

Port Health. The Port Health Administration is responsible for the prevention of the importation of infectious diseases into the Colony by sea, land and air; for sanitary control of the port area and airport; and for the carrying out of the provisions of the International Sanitary Regulations, 1951, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance. The Epidemiol- ogical Section compiles statistics of communicable diseases, and

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

plans and supervises immunization campaigns for the prevention of smallpox, typhoid fever, diphtheria and other diseases.

Air traffic was particularly heavy and 45,615 passengers and crew members from infected ports were inspected by Port Health staff during the year; 613 of these were subjected to quarantine measures, mostly by surveillance, on arriving in the Colony.

     All persons entering the Colony by the land frontier at Lo Wu were vaccinated against smallpox if not in possession of valid certificates of vaccination or a re-entry permit issued by the Hong Kong Police.

Medical inspections of unberthed passengers travelling as emi- grants on ships continued to be carried out; a total of 7,154 of these inspections was made in the year on board sixty six ships.

International deratting certificates were issued to seventy two vessels after fumigation with either hydrogen cyanide or sulphur dioxide, and deratting exemption certificates were granted to 130 ships after inspection. The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony and returns of rodents destroyed and bacteriological examinations carried out for P. pestis were submitted weekly to the W.H.O. Epidemiological Intelligence Station, Singapore.

      Mosquito control measures were continued throughout the year. The port and airport were kept free from Aedes aegypti in its larval and adult stages as required by Article 20 of the Inter- national Sanitary Regulations.

A routine check was maintained on the purity of drinking water supplies to ships by bacteriological examination of weekly samples from water boats and dock hydrants; of 521 samples taken remedial action was required in eighty cases where the results were below standard.

       Maternal and Child Health Services. These services offer, on an ever-increasing scale, free maternal and child care on an out- patient basis. The services operate from seven full-time centres in the urban areas and hold sessions in regional and outlying dispensaries. Antenatal, post-natal, infant welfare and 'toddler' clinics are conducted regularly. Antenatal clinics were held on 1,831 occasions in the year and attendances showed a 12% rise over the 1957 figures, although post-natal visits showed little

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141

     increase. Attendances at child health clinics increased by over 30% during the year.

Home visits by health visitors are an important aspect of the work and are an effective means of general health education; 37,846 of these visits were made during 1958.

      Prophylactic immunizations, particularly against tuberculosis, smallpox and diphtheria, are available throughout the year in all the full-time centres.

      Government midwifery services include facilities for domiciliary and maternity home deliveries, both free of charge. Clinics with maternity beds operate mainly in the rural areas, while the domiciliary service is used when possible in the urban areas; however, in the latter districts, the majority of deliveries are undertaken in the maternity wards of hospitals owing to the very crowded housing conditions. In 1958, 49 midwives attached to 22 centres delivered 13,740 cases.

      There are also 204 midwives practising privately in the Colony; they delivered 38,498 babies in the year. These midwives and the premises in which they work are required to be registered with the Director of Medical and Health Services who appoints a Supervisor of Midwives to be responsible for their supervision. There are 129 maternity homes at present registered.

During the year 49,865 new born infants were vaccinated against tuberculosis, using B.C.G. vaccine, in the first few days of their life.

      School Health Services. These services are organized in two sections: a general health service for all schools and a medical and dental treatment service for pupils and teachers participating in a fee-paying scheme.

The general health service is responsible for inspection of the sanitary conditions of school premises, of which 1,569 were in- spected during 1958, for prophylactic immunization programmes for school children, for the control of infectious disease and for health education.

      Tuberculin testing and vaccination of negative reactors with B.C.G. vaccine is undertaken on a large scale; 18,500 children were tested in the year and of 1,944 negative reactors only 11 were

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     not vaccinated. Anti-diphtheria inoculations totalling 89,163 were also given in urban schools during 1958.

The medical treatment service remained limited; with the con- tinued exclusion of new participants, the number eligible for this scheme fell to 28,088, distributed among 44 government schools, 80 subsidized schools and 230 private schools.

Industrial Health. The health of workers in factories and other industrial undertakings is cared for by the Industrial Health Section of the Labour Department, which is staffed by the Medical Department with an Industrial Health Officer, an Assistant Industrial Health Officer, two Health Visitors and a Technical Assistant.

The work of the Section falls into three main divisions: the prevention of occupational diseases, the improvement of medical facilities in factories and the follow-up of cases of industrial accident. The most serious diseases met with in industry have been silicosis and lead poisoning, but fortunately cases have been few. Dermatitis occurs in a large number of local industries. Strict precautions are taken against injury from radiation in trades where X-rays or radioactive substances are used, and so far no signs of ill health due to this cause have been detected.

      First aid classes are organized for factory workers, including a number of staff from Government workshops, and advice is given on first aid and medical equipment in factories. Reports of all industrial accident cases are seen by the Industrial Health Officers who follow up those cases which appear to require further care. Although there is as yet no organized rehabilitation service in the Colony, help is given to injured persons to obtain proper treatment and to assist those in need of rehabilitation and re- employment.

Health Education. The need for health education throughout the Colony remains evident. The main aim is to help people to help themselves through a better knowledge of health matters. A very wide field is covered by the Medical Department, as well as by the Urban Services, Labour and Social Welfare Departments. The Maternal and Child Health centres of the Medical Department are particularly active in these programmes, which are undertaken by an experienced body of health visitors; the School Health Services

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also conduct health teaching on a large scale in schools, school clinics, and teachers' training colleges.

      Immunization campaigns amongst the general public are organized by the epidemiological section of the Port Health Office and accompanied by propaganda through all available media. The large Resettlement Estates are especially fruitful ground for this work. In this connexion the loud-hailer van donated by the Rotary Club of Hong Kong some years ago continues to be invaluable, combining as it does the advantages of a loudly self-advertising inoculation centre, with mobility, which brings this service im- mediately to the people.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

      The Government Ophthalmic Service is based upon two major ophthalmic clinics in the urban area equipped with operating theatres, and investigation and treatment rooms, from which radiates out a specialist service to ten out-patient centres all of which are visited regularly. In addition, some thirty sessions are held monthly in the outlying dispensaries of the New Territories. The Service bases its policy on the realization that, as 75 per cent of the blindness in Hong Kong is preventable, there has to be brought to all parts of the Colony an effective specialist service fully integrated with the public health programmes.

The medical staff of the Government Ophthalmic Service con- sists of one Ophthalmic Specialist, six medical officers (ophthal- mologists), two almoners, one nursing sister, nine ophthalmic nurses, three ophthalmic male nurses, one dispenser, one health visitor, and five sight-testing or dispensing opticians.

The Tung Wah Group of Hospitals employs three part-time ophthalmologists who hold out-patient clinics once weekly with fortnightly operating sessions. The University of Hong Kong employs one part-time ophthalmologist for two sessions weekly. There are some fourteen other doctors in the Colony practising ophthalmology, mainly as refractionists in private practice. The specialists in ophthalmology of the Armed Services practise ophthalmology in their spare time as refractionists.

The two major Government Ophthalmic Clinics hold daily out- patient clinics, with attendances of over 500 persons at one clinic.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

There are daily operating sessions in each clinic, and the total of major and intermediate ophthalmic operation procedures each year is about 3,000. There are ten ophthalmic beds available in the Government hospitals. Three sight-saving refraction centres func- tion through the year to treat ophthalmic defect or disease amongst school children. There is one central optical workshop, which in the main makes the spectacles prescribed under the School Health Scheme; in addition, spectacles can be issued free or at greatly reduced cost to totally destitute ophthalmic patients who need them.

There were two important items of legislation enacted during the year as precautionary measures in the prevention of blindness. The first made the notification of all cases of ophthalmia neona- torum compulsory and the second provides that no person unless he is a registered medical practitioner or is provisionally registered shall hold himself out as being qualified, competent or willing to undertake the treatment of diseases of the human eye, or the prescription of remedies for these diseases or the giving of advice in connexion with the treatment for them.

DENTAL SERVICE

The Government operates a General Dental Service and a School Dental Service. The former is responsible for the treatment of Government officers and their dependants, in-patients of Govern- ment hospitals, prisoners, and certain other categories of the poorer members of the population. The School Dental Service provides routine examination and treatment of participant children in government, subsidized, private and grant schools. The operating staff for these clinics numbered between nineteen and twenty three full-time Dental Surgeons and one Dental Nurse through the year. Visits by patients to dental clinics totalled 99,876 and were divided between the various classes as follows:

Government Officers

Government Officers' Dependants

General Public

School Children

23,256

24,162

18,119

34,339

In all, 26,837 permanent and 25,269 deciduous teeth were ex- tracted, 28,696 permanent and 3,117 deciduous teeth were filled or

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145

     crowned, and 1,203 dentures, bridges, and special prosthetic appliances were fitted in the General and School Dental Clinics. Orthodontic appliances were also fitted.

Two Dental Surgery Assistants were awarded World Health Organization fellowships and went to New Zealand in September for training as Dental Nurses.

      Registration of dentists is compulsory in Hong Kong and since 1949 only academically qualified dentists have been accepted. At the end of the year there were 375 dentists on the Register, of whom only 84 were academically qualified.

      A Government Dental Scholarship scheme was instituted in 1954 to ensure a steady source of supply of well-qualified dental surgeons for the Colony. In 1958 three students returned after four years study in the Dental School of the University of Malaya. Five students were sent to the University of Adelaide and four more to the University of Melbourne on courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Dental Surgery. At the end of the year there were, in all, twenty five dental students studying abroad under the scheme, eleven in Singapore and fourteen in Australia.

      Several dental clinics are operated by welfare organizations for the poor, and many dentists give their services free of charge. The Hong Kong Dental Society organizes evening clinics at the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society's Centres in Hong Kong and Kowloon and at the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association's Ruttonjee Sanatorium. Dentists are also included in the St. John Ambulance Brigade Penetration Parties which visit remote areas in the New Territories.

URBAN SERVICES

The Urban Council, the constitution of which is described in Chapter 25, has statutory responsibility in a number of matters normally falling within the scope of municipal administration, including bathing beaches, swimming pools, cemeteries, crematoria, mortuaries, the collection and disposal of refuse and nightsoil, the inspection and health control of domestic premises and food establishments, food hygiene and sampling, markets, hawkers, parks, playgrounds and urban amenities, pest control, public latrines and bathhouses, slaughterhouses, and multi-storey car parks.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

In addition, the Urban Council is to be entrusted with administra- tion of the new City Hall, work on which will commence in 1959. The Council is empowered by the Public Health (Sanitation) and the Public Health (Food) Ordinances, and other enactments to make by-laws for the regulation and control of these matters, subject to the approval of the Legislative Council.

During the year the work of the Law Revision Select Committee was completed, the fourth draft of the Public Health and Urban Services Bill being adopted by the Council and forwarded to the Government. Revision of the subsidiary legislation in the form of twenty seven sets of by-laws and regulations is also virtually complete.

The Urban Services Department has three main sub-divisions, the first dealing with sanitation, the second with hygiene, and the third with parks, playgrounds and urban amenities. At the end of the year the overall establishment, other than the Housing and Gardens Divisions, contained 276 administrative, professional and technical officers and 6,341 other workers, including a health in- spectorate of 235 officers, of whom 187 have passed the Royal Society of Health examination for Public Health Inspectors and 48 are probationary inspectors under training. The work of the Gardens Division is described in Chapter 21.

      The continued expansion of Hong Kong in 1958, both in terms of population and of building development, necessitated a cor- responding increase in departmental buildings and staff and in the range of their activities. Projects in hand or completed during the year included new bathhouse/latrines and markets.

      The increase in establishment for the financial year 1958-9 amounted to some 860 posts. In the main, these were overseers (42), gangers (60) and sanitary coolies (563). The administration was strengthened by 28 clerks, and an additional 19 posts of driver were approved.

      District Health Work. Intense overcrowding continued in 1958 to present many serious health problems, and measures designed to achieve the best possible standard of domestic and environmental sanitation continued to be exceptionally important. For the purpose of inspection, the urban area is divided into a series of Health Units, each with approximately 600 domestic floors which include a

PUBLIC HEALTH

147

number of licensed premises. Three of these units form a Health District, responsibility for the district resting with a District Health Inspector. In turn, these districts are grouped appropriately to form Health Areas, each under the supervision of a Senior Health Inspector. This system permits an easy variation of boundaries in conformity with the development of individual

areas.

The greater proportion of the district inspectors' time is allotted to the regular inspection of the 120,000 domestic floors in the urban areas, an average of 2,000 floors per inspector; this is well in excess of the 1,200 floors which is regarded as the desirable maximum for one inspector, although even 1,200 floors for one district inspector is a very high figure. The limiting factor is the capacity to recruit, train and absorb new officers. Forty eight probationary inspectors were recruited for training during 1958, and twenty seven newly-qualified inspectors from the previous course became available and were posted for duty, making some seventy three engaged on this work.

There was favourable public reaction to the new system of block house inspection, introduced during the year. House- holders are notified by postcard of the date and time that their premises will be inspected. A team of four or five inspectors is employed to carry out block inspection in one district on five mornings of the week. This enables the visiting inspectors to abate many nuisances on the spot by direct action, to instruct the occupants on health education and to receive any complaints. Access to premises has proved much easier and more co-operation has been given by the public.

The other major part of the district inspectors' work is con- cerned with supervision of the 9,000 premises licensed by the Urban Council, most of which are premises dealing with raw or unprotected foods. Those concerned with food handling and the catering trades are far from being fully aware of the basic prin- ciples of food hygiene; once again the fundamental need is health education. To this end licensed food establishments were given special attention during inspections, resulting in a marked improve- ment in standards of cleanliness.

Most people in Hong Kong are not conscious of the importance of health measures, and the Council has had to pay special

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

attention to health education. 'Miss Ping On', a figure composed of two Chinese characters (E), which may be translated as 'good health', appeared on a series of posters, and was well received. The series covered many aspects, typical examples being the proper disposal of refuse and the importance of fresh air and sunlight. The posters, some of which are illustrated elsewhere in this Report, were also reproduced as film slides for showing in cinemas. In addition, a loudspeaker van was used for talks, an essay competition held, and an oratorical contest arranged for school children. A series of demonstrations in clean food handling was given to 8,230 employees of licensed food establishments and to Kaifong Associations, and 3,380 copies of a booklet 'From Hand to Mouth' were distributed.

      Food Inspection. Further locally-recruited inspectors were sent to the United Kingdom for training in Meat and Food Inspection and on their return, after successfully qualifying for the Royal Society of Health Certificate of Meat and Other Foods, were available for the small food unit created as a result of the Colony's dependance on imported foodstuffs and the important export trade in Chinese delicacies. With the expansion of this unit, a greater measure of protection will be afforded to the food supply of the Colony.

Slaughterhouses. The slaughter of food animals is, in the urban areas, restricted to the two Government slaughterhouses, one at Kennedy Town, Hong Kong, and the other at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon. During the year 1,036,160 pigs, 126,872 cattle and 10,846 sheep and goats were slaughtered there.

      The premises are old and cramped, and their inadequacies mean that it is extremely difficult to maintain an acceptable standard either of hygiene or of inspection, although, wherever possible, improvements are carried out. In order to remedy this situation plans for two new abattoirs, one on each side of the harbour, are now well in hand. The congested state of the abat- toirs was not eased this year by the very large imports of cattle from China. While the slaughter-rate increased considerably, the weight of meat did not rise proportionately because of the poor quality of the live animals.

      The by-products plant showed the best returns yet since its inception in 1954. During the year it converted 603 tons of

PUBLIC HEALTH

149

      condemned materials into 260 tons of animal feed, industrial grease and fertilizer.

Hawkers and Markets. In the interests of public health, legisla- tion for the control of the sale of meat, fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables has been in force for many years. In the early days, it was considered that standards of hygiene could only be satisfac- torily controlled if these commodities were sold from stalls in Government markets. At the end of the year there were forty two of these retail markets. Present policy is not to confine the sale of these commodities to markets but to allow freely the sale of fruit and vegetables by hawkers and the sale of all market com- modities by licence in shops, so long as these shops meet the conditions laid down by the law. Since health considerations no longer mean, as they used to, that market stallholders have a monopoly of trade in meat, fish and poultry, the Government does not have to anticipate the need for or supply all the premises for the trade. At present, in fact, the trade is itself opening up new shops in areas where they are needed. The building of markets in newly developing areas is now considered much less important than the reconstruction of some of the older and more congested market buildings.

      In April the Tai Hang Market had to be moved from its existing site and re-established nearby in order to permit drainage and road work in the area. At So Kon Po the market roof was found to be in a dangerous condition and was removed. Architects' plans for a new market at So Kon Po are now being studied while details of a complete programme of market reconstruction (in- volving ten other markets) are also being worked out.

        The number of hawkers within the urban area continued to rise with the increase of population. These hawkers retail many com- modities, offer the services of certain trades and operate stalls for the sale of cooked food. The majority of them are licensed, but a great many unlicensed hawkers operate in the more crowded areas. Generally speaking, unlicensed hawkers are not harried if they keep clear of the main thoroughfares, do not cause obstruction and do not interfere with the legitimate trade of licensed hawkers. Many licensed hawkers, however, particularly fixed pitch vegetable hawkers, find it impossible to compete with the unlicensed pedlars and themselves join the milling throng of pedlars.

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      At the end of 1957 a Report on Hawkers (with policy recom- mendations) was published as a result of the efforts of a combined Police and Urban Services' liaison team, in an endeavour to seek a solution to the hawker problem. The major recommendation was for the formation of a disciplined body within the Urban Services Department to exercise effective control over hawkers. This report was accepted by the Government, and detailed planning put in hand for the recruitment, training, and discipline of personnel for this new section.

       Various new methods of hawker control were tried out, the object being to bring hawkers of all kinds and classes into line with the law without depriving anyone of an honest means of earning a living. These control methods, together with special arrangements for night scavenging in the worst hawker areas, brought about a great improvement in general conditions and, in some cases, eliminated complete squatter colonies living in the middle of streets and on fixed pitch sites.

      The results of a hawker control operation which took place in January in the neighbourhood of Sham Shui Po Market were very successful and, for the first time for many months, both market stallholders and hawkers were able to do their fair share of business, while trading practically side by side. Some in fact had their business increased to quite an appreciable extent.

      In Resettlement Estates hawker control work was not neglected. Yet another method of resiting hawkers was tried out in Tai Hang Tung Resettlement Estate where no less than 400 hawkers were allocated, by ballot, properly constructed stalls from which to sell their produce. Similar arrangements were made in Shek Kip Mei and planned for other Resettlement Estates. Normally, the ballot- ting for these sites is carried out daily.

Perhaps the most successful of all these cleaning-up operations was the one which took place in September in Stanley Street, Hong Kong. Noted for its cooked food stalls, this street was littered with tables, chairs, utensils, and other paraphernalia belonging to the stallholders. Congestion was further aggravated by the use of the street for food preparation and food service. A thorough cleaning-up operation in the street and its surrounding area transformed the situation, confining the scope of the cooked

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food stalls to within recognized limits and making the thorough- fare once more easily accessible to through pedestrian traffic.

     Public Latrines and Bathhouses. The provision of additional public bathhouses and latrines proceeded in accordance with a long-term programme, the object being primarily to provide facilities for residents of densely-populated areas where flush sanitation is scarce or non-existent. Two new combined public latrine and bathhouse buildings were erected, making a total of nineteen in the urban districts. In addition, two new public latrines were erected. The nineteen bathhouses were used by 2,177,517 persons during the year, giving a total daily average of 5,966

persons.

Pest Control. The Pest Control Section of the Urban Services Department is responsible for the control of rats, mice, mosquitoes, fleas, cockroaches, bed-bugs, lice, biting midges, and other pests. This section also carried out regular control measures against flies at the Gin Drinkers Bay Refuse Dump.

An important part of the Section's duties is rodent control, and a total of 260,074 rodents were collected during the year. Another important aspect of the work is that of mosquito control, 10,444 breeding places being found and dealt with during 1958. The control of Cat Fleas, arising from infestations of both cats and dogs, continues to be a problem of increasing importance; over 150 disinfestations of premises against this pest were carried out by the Section during the year.

Scavenging and Conservancy. About 3,500 persons were employ- ed on the collection and disposal of refuse and on street cleansing, using 60 specialized refuse-collecting vehicles, 10 street-washing vehicles, 2 combined cesspit emptiers and washing vehicles, and 22 dumb barges specially constructed for the transport of bulk refuse. A day and night street-washing service was also maintained for the cleansing of roads, lanes, footpaths, market and hawker areas, the flushing of street gully traps and the laying of dust round building sites and reclamations.

The average amount of refuse collected rose from approximately 2,000 cubic yards a day in 1957 to about 2,200 cubic yards a day in 1958. The increase in volume is about 6% a year. The method of disposal is by marine dumping on an area of foreshore which

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is being reclaimed at Gin Drinkers Bay in the New Territories, some five miles west of the urban area of Kowloon. Since the dump first opened in September 1955 some 520,000 square feet of land have already been reclaimed.

Only about two-thirds of the buildings in the urban area have water-borne sanitation, and the conservancy section provides for the collection and disposal of nightsoil from nearly 45,000 floors with dry latrines. This section employs a staff of about 1,600 male and female workers, operating at night-time with nine specially- designed dumb barges, and sixteen specialized motor vehicles. More than 68,000 cubic yards of nightsoil were collected. Most of it was delivered by barges towed to the Tsuen Wan Maturation Station from where, after processing, it is delivered by the Vegeta- ble Marketing Organization to New Territories farmers for use as fertilizer.

NEW TERRITORIES

The Scavenging service provided by the District Administration in the New Territories is a two-fold operation. In the larger town- ships, the scavenging service is organized on a basis similar to that in the urban areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon with regular collections of refuse and with street-sweeping patrols. At the same time a form of rural sanitation is practised in the more remote villages where the provision of adequate scavenging services presents an entirely different problem.

Scavenging in the townships is as frequent as the present limited staff and facilities permit, the refuse being dumped at Gin Drinkers Bay, Tai Po, Au Tau and Sun Hui. For the more remote areas, mobile gangs on land rovers provide a coverage for a number of the smaller villages which are within striking distance of the main roads. The refuse collected in these villages is usually burnt or buried on the spot. Three incinerators have been built at Sha Tau Kok, on Peng Chau, and at Mui Wo, and more are planned.

Chapter 10: Land and Housing

LAND

     Land Tenure. The form of land tenure in use in Hong Kong is leasehold from the Crown. In the early days of the Colony, Crown leases were granted for 75, 99, or 999 years, and the present practice is for leases to be granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. In the New Terri- tories, in order to coincide with the period of the lease from China, which will expire on 30th June 1997, Crown leases are conventionally expressed as being for the residue of a term of 75 years from 1st July 1898, renewable for a further 24 years, less the last three days.

      Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the respon- sibility of the Director of Public Works, who is concurrently the Building Authority and Chairman of the Town Planning Board. The Director also deals with New Kowloon, which is that part of the New Territories situated immediately north of Boundary Street, Kowloon, and south of the Kowloon hills. The District Commis- sioner, New Territories, is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. Records of land grants by the Crown and of all private land transactions are kept in the Registrar General's Department (see Chapter 13) for Hong Kong and Kowloon, and in the District Offices situated in Kowloon, Tai Po and Ping Shan, for the New Territories, with the exception of certain lots which are administered by the Director of Public Works and are usually known as Inland Lots. These cover the majority of the built-up parts of New Kowloon and deeds relating to them are recorded in the Registrar General's Department.

The principal laws relating to the development and use of land are the Buildings Ordinance, 1955, the Town Planning Ordinance (Chapter 131) and the New Territories Ordinance (Chapter 97).

      Land Policy. The Government's basic policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction; all land disposed of for

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commercial and industrial purposes and residential sites sold to the general public are dealt with in this way. Land required for various types of special housing projects described later in this Chapter, for public utilities, and for schools, clinics, and certain other charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty. The premium charged in such cases varies from nothing for non-profit- making schools, etc. up to the full market value for public utilities.

Policy concerning the sale or grant of Crown land is governed by the scarcity of all types of land. In order to ensure that available Crown land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant in which the lessee undertakes to develop the lot up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount of expenditure depending on the location and type of development allowed. In addition to this covenant, leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, in accordance with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent.

The policy of sale by public auction ensures, by and large, that the person best able to develop the land within the limitation laid down in the lease obtains the right to do so, and that the community receives the maximum return in cash for such leases. Due to the low Crown rent reserved, this policy does not, generally speaking, enable the Government to derive direct financial gain from any subsequent increase in the value of the land after sale. For this reason the very large increases in land values in recent years have resulted in relatively little increase in recurrent revenue from land, since the bulk of the Colony's more valuable land is held on long lease.

      In the earlier part of this century the leases of lots lying in the better residential districts frequently included restrictions limiting the type and height of buildings. These restrictions have served their purpose well, but the demands of an increasing population now require more intensive development of these areas. Such lease conditions are therefore modified in accordance with standard zoning schedules which, while preserving the amenities of the district, are designed to allow more intensive development subject to the payment of a premium. Considerable interest has been shown in these zoning schedules and developers have availed

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themselves of this opportunity to redevelop existing property by higher buildings.

In recent years certain groups of 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early years, and chiefly affecting land in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Public statements of Government policy in regard to the terms and conditions under which new Crown leases would be granted were made in 1946 and 1949. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for renewal in rapidly increasing numbers. Renewal premia may be paid either in a lump sum or by instalments over an agreed number of years, and the majority of lessees avail themselves of the latter method of payment. For this reason the revenue in any one year is relatively small, but since such payments will continue to be made for upwards of 80 years, the total revenue involved is considerable.

On renewal, the boundaries of lots are adjusted to conform with street improvement lines, etc., and where land is required for major replanning schemes the leases will not be regranted. In these latter cases the Government has announced its intention to pay ex gratia compensation for buildings.

Government Land Transactions. The demand for industrial sites, which was intense in 1957, continued through 1958 and during this period a programme of sales of lots in Ma Yau Tong Bay (also known as Kwun Tong Tsai Bay) was drawn up to provide areas designed for use by the shipbuilding, timber and sawmill trades. In all, some 38 sites totalling about 16 acres will eventually be offered for auction in this vicinity. One large area of about 5 acres was sold by auction for residential purposes for about $2.5 million, and a considerable number of grants were made by private treaty for approved low-cost housing schemes and other non-profit-making and institutional purposes. Several large areas of private land, for the most part used for agricultural purposes, were acquired by compulsory purchase. These areas were mainly required for resettlement estate schemes, schools and roads to serve such projects; the former owners are sometimes offered other sites, suitable for residential or industrial develop- ment, as an alternative to cash compensation.

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Little land was sold by auction for housing, due partly to scarcity of sites and in part to the higher priority accorded to approved low-cost non-profit-making housing schemes, land for which may be acquired by private treaty at roughly one-third of market value.

      Revenue obtained during the financial year 1957-8 from the sale of land by auction amounted to $9,783,889, from renewals of expired 75-year leases $2,086,485, and from private treaty sales, modifications, extensions and exchanges $11,909,599.

Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, usually because public services are not yet available or because a site is reserved for some future purposes, the land is not left empty or unused but is granted on a temporary annual licence. The 1957-8 revenue from such licences was $2,835,219. During the year, due to the expansion of permanent development, it became necessary to cancel some of these licences, which are likely to decrease in number as time goes on.

      Land Value and Development Trends. The steady rise over the past ten years in the value of land used for residential purposes was not so apparent in 1958; in fact there was a lull in develop- ment of this nature during the middle of the year. Industrial land values, on the other hand, were unaffected, and, if anything, such values rose slightly during the year, possibly because many owners of unrestricted leases decided to purchase industrial sites in the outlying districts, thereby releasing the more central sites, occupied by outmoded factory buildings, for multi-storey residential de- velopment.

Residential development trends continued more and more to- wards the skyscraper pattern, particularly in districts where land values were high. The re-development of existing premises con- tinued unabated and tenancy tribunals, convened to hear applica- tions for the exemption of properties from the provisions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, dealt with as many cases as, if not more than, in the previous year. Statutory tenants were paid a higher rate of compensation per square foot by their landlords so that vacant possession could be obtained.

A Development Division of the Public Works Department was set up during 1958 to plan and carry out large-scale engineering works designed to open up new land for housing and industry.

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      On 28th February 1958 the conclusion of an agreement between the Hong Kong Government and the War Office was announced, providing for the surrender of the Murray Barracks, Murray Parade Ground and the Detention Barracks on Hong Kong Island, as well as certain areas in Sham Shui Po Camp in Kowloon. In return the Government undertook to provide buildings to the value of $17,200,000, to waive arrears of rent due for Sham Shui Po Camp and to agree to free occupation by the Army of the remain- der of the camp for as long as it was required.

      The surrender of these areas, which have been the subject of negotiations for a considerable number of years, will release for development some ten acres of valuable and badly needed land. Perhaps most important, it will permit the replanning of one of the busiest intersections in the Colony's road network at the foot of Garden Road.

Another important development concerning land and property occupied by the Army occurred on 11th December when the Government announced that it had agreed to provide a formed site for a new Services hospital to be built by the War Department in the King's Park area of Kowloon. This arrangement had been made as the only practical way of securing the early release of La Salle College, requisitioned since 1949 for use as a military hospital. It is hoped that the College can be vacated by the summer of 1959 when temporary arrangements have been made by the Services to provide for all their hospital requirements. On completion of the new Services hospital, the Bowen Road site of the present Military Hospital on the Island will revert to the Hong Kong Government.

      Survey. During the first few post-war years survey was a matter of expediency; old survey plans and records had to be tracked down, war damaged areas had to be rebuilt, boundaries of lots redefined, and plans prepared for new engineering projects and installations. The Survey Office concentrated on re-establishing property boundaries, making purely local surveys not tied into the Colony Grid; for all other work, surveys were made upon an assumed datum.

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It was not until 1952 that the Survey Office was able to take stock and organize itself for proper land survey. In the following year a systematic detailed survey at a scale of 1/600 (50′ = 1′′) was started in the built-up areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and over 3,400 acres have already been completed.

      In 1955 contouring was started (mainly by tachymetric methods) on all marginal land ripe for development; these surveys are plotted at a scale of 1/2,400 (200′ = 1′′) and 37 square miles have been completed.

Precise levelling was started in 1955 to check the few remaining Bench Marks, and to establish new ones. By the end of 1958 levels around Hong Kong Island for a distance of 25 miles and around the New Territories for a distance of 54 miles had been completed. Levels between the Island and the Kowloon peninsula are tied across in two places, at Tsim Sha Tsui and the Lei Yue Mun Straits.

The New Territories were surveyed at the turn of the century by Survey of India personnel who divided the cultivated areas into convenient districts and made a purely local survey of each. In 1929 Brigadier Winterbotham, then Director of Colonial Surveys, recommended that these individual surveys be revised and tied into the Hong Kong Grid to produce an overall survey. This, however, was not done at the time and it was not until some years after the war, when land development in the New Territories was becoming more important, that it was decided to carry out a resurvey to a scale of 1/1,200 (100′ = 1′′). Despite a shortage of Land staff, the New Territories Survey Section has surveyed and plotted 36 square miles, concentrating on those areas where development is already taking place or is likely to take place in the near future. The original funds for this survey were provided under a Colonial and Development Welfare scheme (see Appendix I).

Mapping in Hong Kong is left almost entirely to the Military Surveyor, and although excellent maps are produced, they are designed for military use and have certain disadvantages for the civilian user. Some small maps produced by the Survey Office and printed by the Government Printer have found a ready public

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sale, e.g. The Peak District, the City Centre and the small end- paper maps of this Report. More maps of this kind are planned.

HOUSING

      The general background of Hong Kong's housing problem, which has been so gravely accentuated by the influx of refugees from China, may be briefly described as follows. The majority of the population lives in the tenements of the urban area, which are densely overcrowded. Of 80,000 tenement floors existing before the war, 16,000 were damaged or destroyed during the occupation. By 1946 it was estimated that the population had already returned to its pre-war figure of 1,600,000; it has continued to grow, by immigration and natural increase, until it is now estimated to be 2,806,000. The housing situation before the war was already giving cause for serious concern; it is by all appearances far more serious today. From the records, it appears that the domestic accommodation damaged or destroyed during the war was not fully replaced until 1950; but by that year the Colony was already receiving large numbers of refugees from China. New buildings are being constructed at a rate of about 1,000 a year. Much of this new building, however, has been accomplished at the expense of the demolition of old property, and it is estimated that the average rate of total increase over recent years has been only about 700 buildings a year, of which 500 buildings a year represent additional domestic accommodation. This in turn represents about an additional 4,000 domestic premises a year which might reasonably accommodate 40,000 to 50,000 persons. The population is estimated to be increasing, by natural increase and immigration, by 100,000 to 150,000 persons a year. The housing position has nevertheless shown some slight improvement over recent years, due mainly to the wide-scale activities of the Resettlement Department in the resettlement of squatters.

It is estimated that 13.5% of the population are living in the New Territories and the islands, 6.5% are boat-people, and the remaining 80% inhabit the 36 square miles of the urban area (Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon), the great majority being resident in the ten square miles of the built-up city and tenement area on the harbour shores and the Kowloon

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peninsula. At the end of 1958, the urban population on this basis amounted to 2,245,000 persons. 273,435 persons were housed in resettlement accommodation, an increase of some 44,000 persons over the previous year. It was estimated that there were still about 325,000 persons without regular housing of any kind, and that the balance of 1,647,000 were occupying regular housing of some kind.

At the end of 1958, the regular domestic accommodation available in the urban area consisted of 1,168 houses, 9,419 large flats, 14,208 small flats, 88,622 tenement floors and 8,229 low-cost housing units. 50% of this accommodation was of post-war construction; the increase in percentage over the previous year's figure of 44% shows the considerable extent during the year of new building and the demolition of old property of pre-war construction. 10,420 new domestic premises were erected during the year; but 2,207 domestic premises were also demolished, so that the total increase was 8,213 domestic premises. This represents a considerable improvement over the average increase of recent years of about 4,000 premises a year.

      A Special Committee on Housing was appointed in 1956 to investigate and report on the housing situation. The Committee rendered its Final Report in 1958 and from the statistics produced it was for the first time possible to gain a clear picture of the condition of the houses and the living conditions of the popula- tion. The major proportion of buildings was constructed of brick walls, with reinforced cement concrete roofs and floors, and concrete stairs. There was nevertheless a fair proportion of old- style property (mainly built before 1903) with wooden floors, wooden stairs, and roofs of tiles on rafters. 95% of present-day building is of reinforced concrete construction. The standards of construction obtaining were generally the minimum allowable, and the facilities provided on individual floors were in many cases poor by any reasonable standards. Over 21,000 premises were found to be pre-1903 premises so lacking in basic hygienic facilities as to constitute a danger to the health of the inhabitants. Over 7,000 premises, mainly in the central districts of Hong Kong Island, were in back-to-back houses of pre-1903 construction with wooden stairs, a type of construction likely to constitute a danger to the inhabitants in the event of fire. The actual living conditions

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      of the inhabitants were shown in the results of a housing survey, carried out at Government expense by the Hong Kong University in August 1957 at the request of the Special Committee. This survey covered 1,265,000 persons, consisting of 267,000 house- holds, living in the regular housing of the urban area. In general, the position shown is one of gross overcrowding, with the major proportion of the households having a family income below $300 a month, being unable to afford more than $60 a month in rent, rates and all connected payments, and inhabiting a living area less than 120 square feet, which is the area of the standard room in the Resettlement multi-storey estates. 79% of all households were sharing the accommodation they occupied. 95,000 households were living in cubicles, 43,000 in bedspaces, 8,000 in cocklofts and 4,000 on verandahs. Only 20,400 households had accommodation which included a living room not used for sleeping.

The seriousness of the position has long been appreciated, although it has not previously been known exactly how bad it is. In succeeding paragraphs are described some of the ways in which the Government, in many cases in association with private enter- prise, is seeking to remedy the housing shortage.

       Since the war land has been made available by Government at about one-third of the estimated market value in order to encour- age non-profit-making housing projects by a number of voluntary societies catering for the general public, or by larger employers for their own employees.

Amongst the voluntary societies, the principal role has so far been played by the Hong Kong Housing Society, the pioneer locally in the field of low-cost housing. The Society, formed in 1948 as an off-shoot of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and incorporated by Ordinance in 1951 as a separate body, now manages a total of 2,476 flats, cottages and shops accommodating approximately 15,017 people, an increase of 1,021 properties during the year 1958. It has been aided by loans both from the Colony's Development Fund and grants from United Kingdom Colonial Development and Welfare funds. In addition, a scheme was started in 1957 whereby commercial firms could lend money to the society for building purposes and in return have allocated

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to them for their employees a guaranteed number of flats. The Society's principal estates are:

(a) Hung Hom: a further 576 flats housing 3,690 people were added during 1958 to the existing 684 flats and 25 shops housing 4,428 people.

(b) Sheung Li Uk: a further 90 flats housing 494 people were added during 1958 to the existing estate of 270 flats housing 1,400 people.

(c) Healthy Village: this estate contains 280 flats and 12 shops, housing 1,689 people. A further 318 flats to house 2,264 people were under construction and due for completion in 1959.

(d) Má Tau Chung: this estate contains 184 cottages, housing

1,032 people.

(e) Tsuen Wan: during 1958, 116 flats housing 978 people were built at Tsuen Wan and a further 303 flats to house 2,029 people were under construction and due for comple- tion in 1959.

(f) Kwun Tong during 1958, 189 flats housing 1,306 people were constructed and a further 891 flats to house 5,595 people were due to be completed in 1959.

      In addition, site formation commenced on two more schemes (Shu Kuk Street-590 flats for 3,794 people) and Shau Kei Wan (2,913 flats for 19,173 people), and land was ear-marked at Aberdeen for 1,110 flats to house 7,077 people and at Kai Tak for 378 flats to house 2,100 people.

      Other voluntary societies interested in low-cost housing include the Hong Kong Model Housing Society, which in 1952 completed 100 flats in an estate at North Point and in subsequent years has added a further 200 flats; and the Hong Kong Economic Society, which in 1955 completed its estate housing 280 families at Lady Grantham Villas in Kowloon.

Amongst employers, there have been two tendencies, the first of which is exemplified by the textile and other modern factories which have included in their premises dormitory-type accommoda- tion for their workers (but not families). The second method, that of constructing flats for employees and their families, has been followed, for example, by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, which has erected 100 flats for its local staff housing

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     about 500 people, and during 1958 had under construction a further 188 flats to house about 1,000 people; Hongkong Tramways Ltd., which has built at North Point a total of 265 flats housing 1,825 people; the China Motor Bus Co., Ltd., which has 232 units housing about 1,077 people; the Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd., which built 80 flats for its local staff, housing 411 people, and 220 units for its workmen housing 950 people; and the 'Star' Ferry Co., Ltd., which has built 50 flats in Kowloon for its local staff housing about 440 people.

In its own field as an employer, Government has fostered the formation of co-operative building societies by offering loans to groups of local civil servants on the pensionable establishment to enable them to purchase land and construct blocks of flats. By the end of 1958, 112 building co-operatives, with a total of 2,467 members, had been formed and projects involving the loan of over $68,000,000 had been completed or approved. 681 flats have so far been built and occupied under these co-operative schemes, 211 of them during 1958. Further flats are under construction and further schemes under consideration.

      The Housing Authority, which was set up four years ago under the provisions of the Housing Ordinance, No. 18 of 1954, and charged with the duty of providing accommodation for people living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions, continued to make steady if unspectacular progress during 1958. The Authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex-officio, with not more than three other members to be appointed by the Governor (two such appointments have so far been made), and the Commissioner for Housing ex-officio. The Authority functions as a commercial enterprise and, although rents are kept as low as possible, they must be sufficient to cover expenditure. Crown land is allocated at one-third of the estimated market price. Government loans are granted at a low rate of interest; for the Authority's first two schemes the rate was 31%, but in 1955 it was raised to 5% per annum for future schemes. The Government maintains a general control over the Authority's activities, and all its projects must receive the prior approval of the Government.

The routine administration and execution of the decisions of the Authority are carried out by the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department, under the direction of the Commissioner

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for Housing, functioning as the Authority's principal executive officer. The staff was considerably expanded during the year, and now numbers eighty two. One important appointment made was that of a Housing Architect, who has been entrusted with the formation of an architectural section which it is envisaged may eventually carry out the Authority's schemes in their entirety, instead of having the work done by private architects as at present. The salaries of all staff are reimbursed to the Government by the Authority, plus a 30% surcharge to cover the cost of pensions, quarters, passages, office accommodation, printing and other over- heads.

The Authority's first estate, which has been constructed on reclaimed land on the sea front at Java Road, North Point, was completed in November 1957 and is now fully occupied with a total population of over 12,400. The estate occupies a fine site of about 6 acres, and contains 1,955 flats, as well as an 18-classroom primary school for 800 pupils, two health clinics, a post office, an assembly hall to seat 500 people, and 71 shops. A bus terminus has been incorporated within the boundaries, and it is likely that a passenger-ferry terminal, connecting with the mainland at Hung Hom, will be constructed close by in the near future. Although the density of 2,000 persons per acre is undoubtedly high, each flat has through draught and uninterrupted access to light and air; in addition, ample provision has been made for open spaces and playgrounds within the estate. The flats which are all self-contained, are of different sizes, to accommodate from three to eight persons. Rents vary from $60 to $138 a month, exclusive of rates and water charges. The minimum accommoda- tion provided consists of a living/dining room, lavatory, shower, balcony and facilities for drying clothes. An adequate lift service is provided, and there are refuse chutes at central points in each block. The school, clinics and post office were built at Government expense and are operated by Government departments. This estate, which cost nearly $33,000,000, was designed by Mr. Eric Cumine, F.R.I.B.A.

Overlooking the harbour near Green Island, the Authority's second estate, illustrated elsewhere in this Report, is nearing com- pletion at Sai Wan Tsuen, Kennedy Town. The site, the highest point of which is 285 feet above street level, covers 34 acres, and

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is on a steep hillside, which entailed fairly extensive cutting. The cost of site formation was almost entirely met by a grant from Colonial Development and Welfare funds. The estate, planned on cross-contour development, consists of 636 flats, in five blocks, averaging ten storeys in height, and designed to accommodate nearly 4,200 people. Three of the blocks were finished in October and are already occupied, the remaining two are due for comple- tion in February 1959. There is also a three-storey community centre, and a number of warehouses; provision has been made for playgrounds and open spaces within the development. The flats, which are of different sizes to accommodate from five to ten persons, are generally of a simpler type than at North Point but are likewise self-contained and provided with balcony, kitchen, lavatory, and ablution facilities. The type of plan adopted is the gallery approach system, with blocks only one flat deep; this ensures that all the flats are airy and well-ventilated. An interesting feature of the arrangement is that with very little structural alteration two adjoining single-room flats can be con- verted into a larger flat with a living-room and two bedrooms, should this prove practicable at some future date. Lifts and refuse chutes are installed. Rents vary from $82 to $127 a month, exclusive of rates and water charges. The total cost of this scheme, which is designed by Mr. T. S. C. Feltham, A.R.I.B.A., will be about $7,800,000.

       The Authority's third project, its most ambitious so far, is at So Uk, Kowloon. This is probably the largest domestic housing development ever carried out in the Far East as an integrated scheme. Site formation, which commenced in February 1957, was seriously hampered by rainy weather during 1958, and is unlikely to be finished before January 1959. The major part of the cost will be met from Colonial Development and Welfare funds. Four private architects, working as a consortium under the chairman- ship of Mr. Eric Cumine, F.R.I.B.A., were appointed to design the buildings on the estate, working to a master plan designed by Mr. Cumine. Piling of certain sections is expected to start in February 1959, followed shortly after by the commencement of building work. The first section of the estate is likely to be completed by March 1960. The estate will eventually house about 30,000 people, in about 4,600 flats (the rents of which will be

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somewhat lower than in other schemes). Two 24-classroom schools are included within the estate, and the total capital cost of the scheme will be in the region of $50,000,000. This 19-acre site slopes from north to south and the blocks, most of which face south over the harbour, will be on different levels and so enjoy adequate light and air. There will be plenty of covered play areas and open recreation space.

Planning of a fourth estate, the architects for which are Messrs. Palmer & Turner, to be built on a 20-acre site to the north-east of Kai Tak Airport, has started, and a topographical survey finished. A fifth site, of about 10 acres, at Ma Tau Chung, Kowloon, has also been reserved for the Authority's use, and development of this area is now being planned.

      Concurrently with planning and building, work has continued on the selection of tenants for the Authority's flats, on the basis of a points scheme, in which the most important factor is the applicant's housing need, though other factors, e.g. tuberculosis in the family, are also taken into account. At present applications are only considered from persons over 21 years of age who have lived in Hong Kong continuously since July 1948, and who have a total family income of between $300 and $900 a month. By the end of 1958, 43,051 application forms had been issued, and 22,580 completed forms had been received from applicants who apparent- ly satisfied the basic conditions. Completed forms are now being returned at a fairly constant rate of about 90 a week. A consider- able volume of work is involved in visiting applicants in their homes (undertaken by specially-trained staff) in order to check the particulars given and collect further relevant information, and by the end of the year 9,382 of these visits had been made, in addition to 10,144 personal interviews given at the head office on points of difficulty.

      As mentioned earlier in this chapter, the Special Committee on Housing, under the chairmanship of the Commissioner for Housing, rendered its Final Report during 1958. The Committee concentrated on the situation in the urban area and presented not only a detailed and factual picture of the housing situation and the needs of the population, but also its recommendations as to the measures, both direct and indirect, which the Government

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might take to ensure that these needs are met so far as is practic- able. The Committee recommended that such measures should aim at the eventual provision of sufficient housing to ensure that each person had not less than 35 square feet of habitable floor area; the Committee also pointed out that if all the present regular domestic accommodation was shared equally amongst all the pres- ent inhabitants, everyone would have less than 35 square feet and additional accommodation for some 750,000 persons was required before all the existing urban population could be satisfactorily housed to the standard recommended. The Committee advocated a 10-year programme to achieve this aim; other recommendations dealt with the development or redevelopment by the Government of sufficient land, and the provision or extension of the necessary communal facilities, to meet the needs shown, and the co-ordina- tion and direction of all public housing activities in a programme designed to assist those processes of development and redevelop- ment required. At the end of the year these recommendations were under consideration by the Government.

RENT CONTROLS

      The 1947 Landlord and Tenant Ordinance replaced certain temporary proclamations made shortly after the end of the war. It was designed to protect tenants in controlled pre-war premises, and determined the maximum increases in rent (30% for domestic premises and 45% for business premises over the standard or, generally speaking, 1941 rents) which any landlord could charge in these controlled premises. Essentially the same controls exist today, although increases of 55% of standard rent for domestic premises and 150% for business premises were per- mitted in 1953, the latter having already been raised to 100% in 1949. It is now possible for a landlord wishing to redevelop controlled property to obtain permission to do so through a Tenancy Tribunal on conditions which include the payment of compensation to tenants for the loss of their tenancies. Particulars of exemption proceedings during the year are given in Chapter 13.

Since 1953 two Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux have been set up within the framework of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs to assist in the smooth working of the Landlord and Tenant

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Ordinance. The principal statutory responsibilities placed on these Bureaux are to provide Tenancy Tribunals with certain factual information whenever an application is made by a landlord for exemption from control or by a tenant for the reduction of rent. As a direct result of their contact with landlords, principal tenants and sub-tenants, the officers of these Bureaux are drawn into mediating in a large number of minor but varied tenancy disputes. This service has been of great value since the parties concerned are usually reluctant to go to a court, and still more reluctant to testify in public against their closest neighbours. Over one thousand of these arbitration cases were handled by the staff of the Bureaux during 1958 and not one had to be referred for final settlement to a Tribunal or to a Magistrate's Court.

RESETTLEMENT

      The squatter problem in Hong Kong is a direct result of the rapid increase in the population of the Colony during the years following the war. The housing available was soon swamped by the stream of immigrants from China, which increased to a flood in 1949 as the Chinese Civil War spread southwards, and those who could not find or could not afford normal accom- modation built squatter shacks on the hillsides, or wherever they could find space. By these means a large part of the urban areas of Kowloon and Hong Kong were soon covered by squatter colonies, some of which had a population of more than 50,000 persons. Squatter fires were frequent, and these colonies, besides constituting a grave health risk, occupied almost all the sites urgently needed for the Colony's rapidly expanding needs, in particular for more houses, more schools and more factories. It was therefore decided in 1951 to establish resettlement areas in which sites for one-storey cottages or huts could be offered to squatters cleared from areas required for permanent development. The living conditions in the cottage resettlement areas were a great improvement on those in the squatter areas, but progress in their development was slow, partly because most squatters could not afford to build cottages on the sites offered, and partly because the only sites available for such development were steep, relatively remote, and on heavily eroded hillsides.

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At the beginning of 1954, after the disastrous Christmas night squatter fire at Shek Kip Mei in which over 50,000 people were made homeless in a few hours, a major change in policy was made. It was decided to construct from public funds large multi- storey resettlement estates as the only practicable solution of the squatter problem, and to set up a Resettlement Department, work- ing under the direction of the Urban Council, to co-ordinate all activities relating to the control and resettlement of squatters. In the five years since that decision was taken multi-storey resettle- ment accommodation has been built by the Government for some 200,000 squatters, at a total capital cost of $80,000,000. The legis- lation under which the Resettlement Department now works is the Resettlement Ordinance, 1958, which is further dealt with in Chapter 12.

      These buildings, which are designed and built by the Public Works Department, are of a standard design. They are seven storeys high and divided into rooms varying in size from 86 square feet to 240 square feet, the majority being of 120 square feet for a family of five persons. Communal latrines, washing spaces, and bathing cubicles are provided on each floor, and electricity is available in the public areas as well as for all settlers who can afford it. Rents have been calculated to cover adminis- trative costs and the repayment of all capital costs, including all engineering works and a nominal figure of $10 a square foot for the land, in 40 years with interest at 31%. On this basis the rent of the standard room is $14 a month. Ground floor rooms are let to settlers residing in the estate for use as workshops, or as shops or restaurants, a rent of $100 a month being charged for the standard shop of 240 square feet. The average resettlement block accommodates about 2,500 persons, and the larger estates have a population of between 40,000 and 65,000 persons.

      At the end of the year there were six resettlement estates. One of them, Wong Tai Sin Estate, was not yet completed, and further extensions had been planned to three others. In addition work was in progress on the construction of three new estates, at Jordan Valley, Kwun Tong, and Chai Wan, the first estate on the Island, and plans had been approved in principle for a further six estates.

      The estate blocks have been so designed that the rooms can be readily converted to self-contained flats, and a number of them

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     have already been converted in this way to provide quarters for the estate administrative staff. In 1957 one block at Lo Fu Ngam estate and another at Wong Tai Sin estate were built entirely as self-contained flats in order to rehouse families who were living in accommodation of a similar standard at the time of clearance. Each of these flats has its own bathroom, kitchen and small private balcony. The rent, including rates and water charges, is $45 a month for a flat of 240 square feet and $65 a month for a flat of 360 square feet.

      Most squatter areas that have to be cleared contain not only domestic squatters but also workshops and small factories. Some of these can be resettled in ground floor rooms of resettlement estates, but these rooms are unsuitable for the larger concerns and those using power-driven machinery. To meet this need an experimental resettlement factory was built at Cheung Sha Wan in 1957; it is a five-storey building with 94,000 square feet of floor space, and it is of the same basic design as the standard resettle- ment domestic block. The rents have been calculated to cover all recurrent costs and to provide for the recovery of the capital cost in twenty one years, with interest at 5%. Rents vary from floor to floor, the average being $55 a month, including rates, for the standard unit of 200 square feet. The experiment has been a success and similar factories, with minor modifications, are to be built in new estates.

The development of the fourteen cottage resettlement areas has not been on the same scale. These areas are essentially temporary in nature; as the needs of the Colony extend most of them will, in the course of time, be required to make way for permanent development, and the opportunity for further extension is corre- spondingly limited. They are administered by the Resettlement Department, which is responsible for the provision and main- tenance of terracing and paths; cottages are nowadays built by voluntary organizations, which either rent them direct to the settlers or hand them over to the Government for disposal. During the year a total of 689 new cottages were built, of which 178 replaced previously existing wooden huts, and the population of the areas rose from 76,420 to 80,492.

38,223 squatters were cleared and resettled during 1958, and 96.16 acres of land were freed for development. The areas cleared

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HONG

RIES

FROM THE AIR, paddy fields looks like some intricate mosaic. The colours of the mosaic vary according to the season of the year-the browns and reds of seed-time changing to the vivid greens of first growth, thence to the yellows and ochres of the ripening crop and finally to the grays and whites of the harvested fields. These fields in Hok Tau (Stork's Nest) Valley, New Territories, were photographed just after the rice harvest. Rice stooks can still be seen in some of the fields.

KIT

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THIS PHOTOGRAPH shows the second estate to be built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority to provide flats at moderate rentals for families of small means. Situated near Cadogan Street, Kennedy Town, overlooking the western end of the harbour by Green Island, the estate consists of 636 flats, at rentals ranging from approximately $80 to $130 a month. When all the flats are fully occupied

T

the population of the estate will be in the neighbourhood of 4,200. Tenants started to move into the estate towards the end of 1958 but it will be Spring 1959 before all five blocks have been completed and the last tenants are able to take possession. The estate has been built on a particularly steep and difficult hillside site, covering about 3 acres. at a cost of approximately $8 million.

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HONG KONG BY NIGHT presents a spectacle unrivalled by few cities of the world. Both Victoria and Kowloon are gayly illuminated, and the lights themselves and their reflections in the water provide a fascinating show from almost any point within the harbour area. The reds, blues, greens and ambers of neon predominate. Chinese characters lending themselves particularly well to this form of illumination on shop facades and sky signs. Both photographs on this page were taken in Nathan Road. Kowloon.

UBLI

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LAND AND HOUSING

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included sites for additional resettlement estate blocks, for other housing, for schools, clinics and welfare centres, for factories, and for Public Works Department engineering works. The largest clearance operation was to enable a road to be built linking Shek Kip Mei and Tai Hang Tung Estates; 597 structures on the line of the road, containing 8,062 persons, were cleared in four stages, the total area cleared being 5.25 acres. Many of the buildings were solidly constructed of stone, two and three storeys high.

While the danger of major squatter fires has receded now that most of the larger squatter colonies have been cleared, there were thirty four fires in 1958, the largest of which, at Kowloon Tong, rendered 1,684 people homeless. It is not normally possible to offer immediate resettlement to fire victims, but, wherever possible, alternative sites are allocated on which they can build themselves new huts, either on the fire site itself (if it is not required for immediate development) or on any Crown land available in the vicinity. Where this is not possible, temporary hut sites are some- times laid out in the public streets for the fire victims until they can be resettled. During the year 5,417 victims of earlier fires were resettled from these street huts.

      The administration of large multi-storey estates presents special problems, partly because of their size and partly because of the poor circumstances of the inhabitants, many of whom are not in regular employment. Resettlement has, however, solved the hous- ing problem for these people, and there is no doubt that the majority realize that they are better housed than most of the families in normal tenement buildings in the Colony and appreciate what is being done for them. One indication of this is the fact that, out of a total of $6,356,615 due as rents of rooms in 1958, only $3,520 had to be written off as irrecoverable arrears.

      Every assistance is given to any voluntary organization willing to carry out welfare work in resettlement estates or cottage areas. In the cottage areas, sites are granted on permit to such organiza- tions. In the multi-storey estates, where no sites can be made available, the rooftops of the estate blocks, which have penthouses at either end, are allocated to charitable organizations for use as boys' and girls' clubs, under the supervision of the Social Welfare Department, or as schools, under the supervision of the Education Department. In addition, ground floor rooms are made available

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to the Medical Department or to voluntary organizations for clinics or case centres. Most valuable work of this type is now being done by numerous charitable organizations in both the estates and cottage areas.

      Details of the resettlement population and of the different types of premises in the cottage areas and the multi-storey estates at the beginning and end of 1958 are as follows:

A. Population

1st Jan. 1958

31st Dec. 1958

Cottage areas

(one-storey buildings) .......

76,420

80,492

Multi-storey Estates

(a) 2-storey temporary buildings

15,207

6,793

(b) 6- and 7-storey permanent

buildings

137,137

186,150

*

228,764

273,435

B. Premises of various types on 31st December 1958 (The numbers on 31.12.57 are shown in brackets).

Cottage Areas

Multi-storey Estates

Domestic cottages and huts

14,709 (14,304)

Nil

(Nil)

Self-contained flats

Nil

(Nil)

155

(70)

Domestic rooms

Nil

(Nil)

32,632 (26,138)

Shops of various kinds

428

(379)

1,108

(643)

Restaurants and cafes

16

(16)

175 (108)

Workshops

52

(49)

331

(253)

Factories

52

(25)

121

(54)

Schools, Clinics and Welfare Centres

43

(37)

87

(53)

URBAN BUILDINGS

      During the year the volume of private building works again increased and the value of new buildings in the Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon areas reached the record figure of $240,337,365.

      Whereas in the past the erection of tall buildings was confined mainly to the business centre in Victoria, several other areas are now competing strongly in this field. This is particularly noticeable along the whole length of Nathan Road in Kowloon, and in the Causeway Bay, North Point and Quarry Bay areas on the Island,

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where composite buildings of between fifteen and twenty storeys high are now quite common.

Domestic Buildings. Buildings of all types for residential use continue to hold the dominant position in new development and redevelopment. Considerable progress has been made by the various bodies charged with the task of providing domestic accommodation for the white-collar and artisan classes in the lower income bracket. Many of these schemes were completed during the year and a number of new projects are well in hand. In addition, many of the local Government officers' housing schemes have been completed and occupied, and a number are now in course of construction. However, the greatest contribution to domestic building in general, if Resettlement projects are excluded, has been made by private developers and several large estates are almost ready for occupation. In a number of cases, whole blocks of land bounded by four streets have been developed as one unit. Corner sites tend to be redeveloped more rapidly than sites having a single frontage only.

      Non-domestic Buildings. A wide variety of buildings connected with all spheres of life and activity in the Colony were also erected during the year, the more important being 91 factories and work- shops, 39 schools, 39 godowns and stores, 13 offices, 8 churches, 3 hospitals and 10 petrol filling stations.

On the commercial side a number of new office blocks were completed and occupied, while several others are in various stages of construction. The rate of construction of schools and factory and workshop buildings accelerated this year and the erection of new factory buildings on the reclamation at Kwun Tong is gather- ing momentum.

      One interesting feature has been the tendency during the year to provide large numbers of individual shops with arcades at ground, first and second floor levels in large redevelopment projects; an- other feature which is developing is the design of composite build- ings suitable for multi-purpose use.

      Plans for 1,342 new buildings were submitted to the Building Authority for approval during 1958 and of these 1,063 were for European-type houses, flats, apartment blocks, housing schemes, Chinese-type tenements and low-cost one-room flats. The

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

remainder of the plans covered non-domestic buildings of many types. There were also several thousand plans dealing with building works other than new buildings, e.g. rehabilitation of, and altera- tions and additions to, existing buildings, site formation schemes, drainage works, demolition of existing buildings, and amendments to previously approved plans.

During the same period 805 permits were issued allowing the occupation of completed buildings. Of these permits 522 were for buildings to be used for residential purposes.

NEW TERRITORIES HOUSING

      In the New Territories (apart from New Kowloon) the Buildings Ordinance does not apply, but control of buildings is exercised by the New Territories Administration, along the lines of the Build- ings Ordinance where town buildings are concerned, but with wide latitude in respect of village housing. No structure may be erected without the approval of the District Officer concerned.

In villages of traditional South Chinese construction the houses are built in rows one behind another, usually all facing the same way, the exact position of the village being determined according to principles of geomancy. A typical example of geomantic siting is for a village to be built on the lower slopes of a hill, facing rice-fields and sea, with hills extending like two arms on the right and left, and with a grove of trees, which by tradition must not be cut down, immediately behind the village. Often there is a pond, and more trees, across the front of the village.

      Many villages (but not so many as in the adjoining part of China) have walls, gates, watch-towers, and even a moat. In front of the first row of houses there is usually an open cement-paved space which may be used for drying vegetables and medicinal plants, as well as being a convenient meeting-place. The spaces between each of the back rows of houses are narrow, with paved access and open drains. Houses are constructed of locally-made blue brick or rough-cut granite blocks, a heavy tiled roof, and, in recent years, cement floors. Such houses stand for hundreds of years. In the poorer villages houses are built of sun-dried mud brick, faced with plaster. These houses deteriorate after a few years, the owner usually rebuilding in similar style. If left

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unoccupied, they soon disintegrate into heaps of rubble: in which case superstition will often forbid rebuilding on the same site. A well-built stone village house usually consists of a single ground floor room with only one entrance, often separated from the outer court by a covered porch. One side of the room (usually near the door), or one side of the porch, may be used for cooking, while the other side is used for storing grass, the principal fuel. The rear portion of the room may be screened off with wooden partitions, for use as a bedroom, and over this portion, raised some eight feet above floor-level, there may be a wooden platform or gallery used for storage or for extra sleeping accommodation. There are no ceilings, fire-places or chimneys, and few windows. The altar and shelf for ancestral tablets is at the back of the room, facing the main entrance. In the hilly Hakka areas, on account of the scarcity of level ground, many houses have their sleeping accommodation in an upper storey reached by ladder.

New Territories housing is at the present time being substantially influenced by more modern ideas, particularly in imitation of new buildings (such as schoolhouses) designed by urban architects. These, however, mainly affect the choice of materials. The essential form of the traditional Chinese house is maintained, except that newer houses have more windows. Architects are seldom, if ever, employed for village houses.

In certain areas city-dwellers have built modern bungalows and small week-end houses. In the market towns, where two- or three- storey buildings have existed for many years, modern shop and tenement buildings differ little from those in Kowloon. For any building in reinforced concrete, or of other than traditional design, it is obligatory to employ an architect.

TOWN PLANNING

In formulating its post-war planning policy the Government has borne constantly in mind the fundamental necessity that all plan- ning must be flexible, able to adapt itself to rapidly changing circumstances, and attuned to economic and social conditions.

       Sir Patrick Abercrombie visited the Colony in 1948 and prepared a preliminary planning report; this outlined various physical prin- ciples and indicated how they might be applied to local conditions.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     On the procedural side the report recommended a master plan and the establishment of a large office to draw up and administer it. The Government, however, did not adopt the master-planning technique, and instead a special section was formed within the Crown Lands and Surveys Office of the Public Works Department to carry out a limited planning policy.

      Planning activity is confined generally to the preparation of outline development plans and the co-ordination of the work of the various departments concerned with development. Since 1953 plans have been prepared for twenty four of the less developed of the thirty six planning districts in the urban area and for one major district in the New Territories. Layout plans of a few small New Territories townships and of certain urban areas have also been prepared. These have been used as a guide in the sale of Crown land, but little control has been exercised over the development of private land, except when the lease conditions have enabled this to be done without incurring expenditure from public funds.

      In the case of five planning districts, i.e. North Point, Yau Ma Tei, Hung Hom, Ma Tau Kok and Chai Wan, which include a large percentage of private property, and parts of others i.e. Fung Wong Village and Ma Tau Tong Bay where village interests are likely to be affected, the outline development plans have been exhibited publicly, and the resulting criticisms or suggestions considered before final submission to the Governor in Council for approval.

A draft plan for Tai Hang Village, Causeway Bay, was published during the year. The drainage of this area, which was twice flooded in last year's heavy rainstorms, cannot be improved without large scale rebuilding and the raising of the ground level in certain parts of the district. Objections to the draft plan were under consideration by the Government at the end of the year.

      The general work of this Town Planning Unit, and in particular the preparation of outline development plans, is done under the auspices of the Town Planning Board established under the Town Planning Ordinance.

      Planning during recent years has been mainly concerned with the provision of land for resettlement and every other form of

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177

housing; provision of land for the expansion of local industry; the improvement of communications; and the effects of the Build- ings Ordinance, 1955, which permits higher buildings than hitherto. These subjects are dealt with more fully in other parts of this Report.

During 1958 the Planning Unit maintained close liaison with the various consultants appointed by the Government to report on various development projects, for example, the provision of new land by large reclamation schemes. It was also considering the implications of the agreement on Military Lands mentioned earlier in this Chapter and the ultimate development of the land affected by the closure in 1959 of H.M. Dockyard.

      An officer from the Unit took part in the United Nations Seminar on Regional Planning in Asia and the Far East, held in Tokyo in July - August 1958.

Chapter 11: Social Welfare

THE Hong Kong visual exhibit at the Ninth International Con- ference of Social Work in Tokyo at the end of 1958 had as its central feature an enormous photograph of densely packed but orderly lines of people queueing for food, after the great fire of Christmas night 1953 had deprived over 50,000 squatters of their flimsy homes in a few hours; superimposed on the photograph was the steep red line of a population graph; above it in bold letters was written the theme: 'Tackling Hong Kong's Problem of People'. Below and on either side appeared a series of photo- graphs depicting first the environment, from squatter shacks and cubicles in slum tenements to resettlement cottages and seven- storey estates; then selected illustrations of the efforts being made to meet social needs-clubs and schools on rooftops in the estates, casework centres, children's libraries, clinics, food distribution and so on. This exhibit was designed to give delegates a strong im- pression of teeming population in a narrow space; the many who visited Hong Kong after the Conference obtained vivid confirma- tion by visiting a resettlement estate, where thirty to fifty thousand live in a 'new town', not yet a community, of eleven acres. This brief description may serve also as an introduction to the problems of social welfare in the present Report.

Such is the setting; and refugees from China still enter illegally. In the course of the past ten years it is estimated that approxi- mately one million persons have come into Hong Kong from China. These figures bear comparison with the far more widely publicized refugee problem of Berlin, different though that problem is in many respects.

In the fields of housing, education and public health great strides have been made, as will be apparent from other chapters in this Report, although the goal tends constantly to recede because of the very high rate of population increase, which approached 8% during the year. The problems in the field of social welfare are further immensely aggravated by poverty due to lack of employment, or

SOCIAL WELFARE

179

at least to under-employment. For instance, the abandonment of babies on the streets, the numbers of young children uncared for while their parents are at work, juvenile mendicancy and prostitution, the increasing numbers of destitutes or unemployed applying for relief-all these common features of the Hong Kong scene have causes which are mainly economic. Increased oppor- tunity for full employment would of itself cure to some extent many of the social ills which welfare agencies seek to overcome. In this struggle, the voluntary welfare organizations and the Government Social Welfare Department co-operate closely as partners. There is no doubt that the Department unaided could make very limited progress and in certain directions only; the voluntary bodies for their part need Government support in their task. Moreover both require the encouragement which advice, experience and financial resources from abroad already provide in some degree but could well give more abundantly. It is to be hoped that the proposed International Refugee Year, from mid- 1959, sponsored by the United Kingdom and other Governments, will serve to stimulate the imagination or goad the conscience of potential donors.

The Government in Hong Kong is advised both on the co- ordination of voluntary and official social work and on policy and planning by a Social Welfare Advisory Committee appointed by the Governor; its members are the Chairmen of four prominent voluntary organizations ex-officio, and seven members selected for their personal experience and interest in social work, with the Director of Social Welfare as Chairman. Two sub-committees were studying the questions of moral welfare and welfare of the deaf during the year and are expected to report back to the Committee shortly. The Committee is also charged with advising on applica- tions by institutions and associations for subvention from public funds and for permission to appeal to the public through flag days. In Hong Kong, almost all the residential institutions in the field of social welfare are run by voluntary organizations, whether old-established Chinese bodies, religious foundations or other charitable associations; the main exceptions comprise certain in- stitutions in the charge of the Probation Section of the Department, which are closely associated with the Courts, and the North Point Relief Camp. Voluntary bodies, of which there are over 100 of

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

all kinds operating in the welfare field, also engage in most other forms of social work, except for matters in which the Director has statutory duties, such as adoption, the care and protection of females below 21 and probation work. There is very close liaison between these bodies and the Department and a great number of them receive financial support by way of subvention. The Govern- ment thus relies upon voluntary effort to meet in large measure many of the most pressing needs, such as relief feeding, homes for orphans, the handicapped and the aged, clubs and libraries for children and so on.

      The Hong Kong Council of Social Service is a federation of over forty of the more important voluntary bodies; it co-ordinates their work for instance through its Central Relief Records Office which exists to prevent overlapping-acts as a clearing house for fresh ideas and projects, and promotes the formation of new organizations charged with resolving the social problems of the moment as they arise. Thus in the past the Council has fathered the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society and the Hong Kong Housing Society; in 1958 it sponsored the new Society for Reha- bilitation, which intends to establish centres where the physically handicapped can be trained for employment. The Council has also been studying the questions of indebtedness and small savings. During the year a social survey of Resettlement Estates was undertaken by the University of Hong Kong in conjunction with the Council and the Department, and with Government financial support. The statistical analysis of this survey was still in progress at the end of the year. Another concern of the Council is the provision of an outlet for the products of refugee craftsmen as well as of persons in the care of various welfare agencies, through its 'Welfare Handicrafts' shop situated in a busy locality in Kowloon.

      As briefly mentioned in Chapter 25, the Social Welfare Depart- ment became independent of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs at the beginning of the year, when the latter retained the staff of the former Community Development Section, now renamed Chinese Liaison Officers. The Department now has six specialist Sections, concerned with child welfare, group work for youth, moral welfare, probation, the care of the handicapped, and public assistance. The year's work, both voluntary and official, may

SOCIAL WELFARE

181

     for the most part be conveniently described under these six headings.

Infant and Child Welfare. Child welfare work in Hong Kong may be divided broadly between institutional care, including day care in nurseries or play centres, on the one hand and measures for the protection of children by virtue of the law or for customary or legal adoption on the other hand. Generally speaking, institu- tional and day care is undertaken by voluntary organizations, with close liaison and in many cases financial support from the Govern- ment through the Social Welfare Department; whereas legal powers for the care and protection of children and adoption questions are the direct concern of the Department. This follows the pattern which runs through social work in other fields.

The number of children abandoned on the streets was about twenty a month during 1958. These were usually small babies, nearly all girls; the reason was usually economic, combined in some cases with physical or mental defect. Such children, orphans and children whose parents fail to care for them properly are admitted to the thirteen children's homes and five babies' homes run by voluntary bodies. These include several institutions sup- ported entirely within Hong Kong and controlled by Buddhist foundations or by boards of prominent citizens of Hong Kong. The largest of these, the Po Leung Kuk, which has been a refuge for children in need for the last eighty years has lately been re-organized on modern lines and was giving shelter to 270 children at the end of the year. The other main group comprises homes run by Christian missionary bodies, both Catholic and Protestant, some of them established for nearly a century. The largest and most modern Home, Children's Garden, built on the cottage plan by the Christian Children's Fund with a substantial Government contribution, housed nearly 800 children at the end of 1958, and provided a varied education and vocational training. The Homes together shelter about 2,200 children and over 500 babies.

The need for day care of children of working mothers, many of them factory employees or unskilled labourers on low rates of pay, has been increasingly recognized; there are now five nurseries and two creches which were caring for some 450 children at the end of 1958, and a number of voluntary bodies are planning to

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

open new nurseries in the future. Staff training facilities available to the various bodies which run children's homes, day nurseries, etc. were supplemented for the first time in 1958 by a special six months' training course run jointly by the Y.W.C.A. and the Department, with qualified volunteer lecturers.

      The Society for the Protection of Children operates five centres at which poor mothers are taught to look after their children properly and are given special food for them; over 5,000 children are regularly cared for at these centres.

The Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance, 1951, con- ferred extensive powers for the custody, guardianship and care of children in need of protection on the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. These powers had generally been exercised by the Social Welfare Officer. At the beginning of the year, when the Social Welfare Department was formally established, the powers conferred by the Ordinance were transferred to the Director. At the end of the year there were 233 statutory wards of the Director, 30 of whom were male wards by Order of the Juvenile Court. Under the Ordinance, girls who are adopted by Chinese custom must be registered with the Department and the Director automatically becomes their guardian; there were 1,768 registrations at the end of 1958. The customary adoption of sons is also recorded if the parents so wish; 1,486 such cases were on record. The welfare of many other children is the concern of the Department, either temporarily while their parents are in prison or in hospital or owing to ill treatment or family difficulties; or semi-permanently pending adop- tion, employment, marriage or majority; many of these are visited in their homes while others are in institutions with which close liaison is maintained. At the end of the year the total including wards was 6,451.

      The Adoption Ordinance, 1956, which provides for adoption by Order of the Supreme Court is increasingly used; in 1957, its first full year of operation, 30 Orders were made and in 1958 85 Orders, while 95 applications were still in process.

      The Department has co-operated closely with two voluntary organizations, International Social Service Incorporated and Catholic Relief Services, in arranging for the adoption of children abroad, principally into Chinese families in the United States. In some cases the Director, as legal guardian, was given special

SOCIAL WELFARE

183

authority by the Supreme Court to consent to adoption overseas through the good offices of one or other of these organizations. By the end of the year 64 children had left Hong Kong for legal adoption into a family abroad and 260 children were waiting to leave. The work of these organizations materially assists Hong Kong in making provision for the increasing number of children without a family or a home.

      Moral Welfare. No large city is free from prostitution, but in Hong Kong the problem is aggravated by the conditions of a major seaport. The predominant cause is economic, that is to say, the great difficulty of earning a living.

      The law provides extensive sanctions against the exploitation of women, especially young girls; it is the task primarily of the Police to enforce these provisions, and of the Women's and Girls' Section of the Social Welfare Department to seek to rescue the victims of exploitation, so that they may be equipped to earn an honest living and to find a place in society. Efforts are particularly directed towards the younger girls who are discovered in raids on brothels or referred by the Social Hygiene Clinics of the Medical Department, while they are still prepared to welcome advice and training for a normal life.

       At the end of the year a branch office was about to be opened in Kowloon, designed to render the advice of the trained case- workers of this Section more readily accessible to those who need it.

      The Department is fortunate in being able to entrust young prostitutes, in suitable cases, to the care of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd who are specially trained for this rehabilitation work and can accommodate girls who need education and vocational training in a sympathetic environment at Pelletier Hall, an institu- tion which was opened in 1956. During the year the Sisters have increased the capacity of this Home from 80 to 128 and plan to raise it to about 200 in the future. The girls, who are normally under the age of 18 on entry, are educated and taught how to earn a living and run a home of their own. Forty five girls were admitted to the Home during the year and twenty seven dis- charged, mainly to employment in factories.

      The Women's and Girls' Section of the Department also advises and helps unmarried mothers and their children; for them a

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

refuge is provided in the Po Leung Kuk, already mentioned under the heading of Child Welfare, where limited space is set aside for them. During the year seventy five unmarried mothers came to the Department for help and fourteen were admitted to the Kuk.

      Among other types of cases to which the officers of the Section devote much time and thought in giving advice and counsel are victims of indecent assault, family cases involving incompatibility or some moral difficulty, adolescent girls in need of care and protection or girls who have ceased to be amenable to parental control. Wherever possible, some stable form of work is found for those who seek to earn their living.

      Probation. Juvenile delinquency in Hong Kong is less wide- spread than in comparable towns or seaports in the United Kingdom. The commonest minor offence with which juveniles are charged before the Courts is illegal hawking; among more serious charges, simple larceny predominates. The principal cause is un- doubtedly economic; children are often obliged to earn what they can to help the family to exist. It is important to maintain and develop institutions, clubs and other centres where children and young people can be given recreation, instruction and some communal life away from the streets and their overcrowded homes. These centres contribute to drawing them away from the 'protection' of illegal (Triad) societies and from the temptation to take to petty crime.

The Probation Section of the Social Welfare Department has fourteen Probation Officers, three of whom are in charge of residential institutions for the training of delinquents. The other eleven officers, three of them women, are directly engaged in probation work, serving the Magistracies of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and the courts of Tai Po and Ping Shan in the New Territories; whilst all are liaison officers to the District Courts and the Supreme Court.

      At the end of the year the total number of persons placed on probation by Court Order was 250, of whom only 47 were females. Supervision was also exercised over 17 cases (3 female) referred by the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, the Magistrates, the Police or welfare agencies; these cases receive the same standard of supervision as that given to probationers. Of the total of 217 males under supervision at the end of 1958, 102 were adults; of

SOCIAL WELFARE

185

the 50 females, 29 were adults. The courts are tending to make increased use of probation as an alternative to imprisonment or other sentences, especially in the case of adults. 106 persons ceased to be on probation during the year; of these 16 were charged with new offences while still on probation and 2 were untraced. The remainder, 83%, satisfactorily completed the period of probation.

Much of the time of the probation staff was occupied in investi- gating the family and other background of offenders brought before the courts, with a view to making a report designed to assist the judge in passing appropriate sentence. During the year social investigations were conducted in the case of 1,924 males and 179 females of whom 115 males and 15 females were sentenced to detention in institutions run by the Probation Section; others were referred to welfare centres, clinics, etc. for assistance in rehabilitation or sent for reformative training to one or other of the training centres administered by the Prisons Department. Probation was more widely used by the Courts as an alternative to imprisonment in cases of default in payment of fines.

      In January 1958 the Probation of Offenders Rules were intro- duced under the Ordinance passed at the end of 1956; these Rules govern the functions of Probation Officers and Probation Com- mittees. Two Probation Committees were appointed, one for Hong Kong Island and the other for Kowloon and the New Territories.

The Remand Home, which has accommodation for 54 juveniles, was widely used by the Juvenile Courts and the Police for three types of cases; juveniles arrested and awaiting trial, juveniles on remand, and juveniles sentenced to detention for residential train- ing for periods of a few months. 4,114 persons, of whom 770 were girls, were admitted to the Home during the year.

Castle Peak Boys' Home, which had been administered by the Salvation Army under an agreement with the Government, was taken over on 1st April 1958 and is now run as an Approved School by the Probation Section. This institution has accommoda- tion for a hundred delinquent boys sentenced to detention for vocational and trade training for periods of between two and five years. The curriculum includes primary education, carpentry, shoe- making and leather-work, tailoring, rattan weaving, gardening, and pig and poultry keeping. The Salvation Army runs a Girls' Home

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

at Kwai Chung which provides accommodation for fifty girls for training in needlework, rattan weaving and housework.

There are three non-Government institutions of particular value to the Probation Section. The first is the Hong Kong Sea School, Stanley, which accommodates 300 boys, all of them either orphans or from poor homes, and trains them for a career at sea. After completing their course of two or three years they are able to find immediate employment with shipping companies. The school began construction of a new wing in 1958, with funds donated by the Hong Kong Jockey Club. Secondly, the Children's Centre, Kowloon, which offers educational and vocational training to over 100 poor children. Lastly, there is the Juvenile Care Centre which was established on the Island with the express aim of preventing juvenile delinquency. This Centre provides primary education and vocational training for over 800 boys and girls who attend the Centre daily, a number of them being accepted upon the recom- mendation of Probation Officers and welfare agencies.

      Youth Organizations. The families of many thousands of children in Hong Kong live in slum tenements, often in extremely cramped spaces, or in one room in a Resettlement Estate. In these overcrowded conditions family life becomes a struggle and physical recreation hardly possible, except in the streets, where a game can be played at some risk or a dog-eared and dubious book or magazine borrowed for ten cents from a 'children's library' pedlar who displays his wares at a street corner. Moreover, there are still many children for whom no places can be found in primary schools. For these children, youth organizations seek to provide recreation, informal education, hand work and group or team competitions, thus giving them a fuller and perhaps more stable background than their homes can provide.

      The largest organization in this field is the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association which was itself running over 100 clubs with a membership of some 3,650 children at the end of the year, while another 75 clubs with nearly 4,500 members were run by affiliated bodies, among them the Youth Welfare Section of the Social Welfare Department (24 clubs with over 800 members). Each club normally functions for half the day and has anything up to 40 members. An important and exacting part of the club leader's job is to get to know each of his members as an individual, to

Meeting the Social Challenge

Be Social

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IN HONG KONG, where the population is swollen annually not only by natural increase (86,070 in 1958) but by a steady influx of indigent newcomers from China, where housing is scarce and overcrowding a commonplace, welfare and health problems are of unusual magnitude. In the fight against the social evils of poverty, ignorance, ill-health and squalor, the official agencies of Government are joined by well over 100 voluntary welfare organizations and many small groups of welfare workers sponsored by different missionary bodies. Concentration of effort is largely on the young. The photograph shows a children's band in the grounds of the Ebenezer Home and School for the Blind.

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IT IS ESTIMATED that there are now in Hong Kong between 50.000 and 60.000 children of school age whose parents cannot afford to send them to school. Such children have far too much time on their hands and, roaming the streets without supervision, are liable to get into mischief if not into serious trouble. Street libraries, set up (as illustrated) on pavement's edge, where trashy comic books may be read for a few cents. do thriving business.

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ΤΟ GET THE children off the streets and to provide healthy recreational and educational facilities for them, is the aim of organizations such as the Boys and Girls Clubs Association which now has some 180 youth clubs either run directly by the Association or affiliated to it. The Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce has done pioneer work in the provision and stocking of children's libraries. Photographs show (above) a children's reading room in the crowded Wan Chai district of Victoria and (below) youngsters at play in a rooftop club in one of the Kowloon resettlement areas.

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VOLUNTARY organizations figure prominently in an extensive programme for the distribution of relief goods to the Hong Kong poor. Large quantities of surplus wheat, flour, corn meal, dried milk etc. from the U.S.A. are distributed. together with clothing and medicines, by agencies such as the Lutheran World Federation, Church World Service, the Catholic Relief Services and C.A.R.E. Since 1955 over 50 million pounds of food valued at US$4,500,000 have been brought into Hong Kong and over 1,000 tons of used clothing distributed.

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THE GOVERNMENT Social Welfare Department has six feeding centres which at present provide some 3.000 destitutes and unemployed people with cooked meals and another 4,000 with dry rations to supplement what they can get for themselves. The photo- graphs show (above) distribution of rice by a welfare worker to a group of eager youngsters in a distribution centre at the Shek Kip Mei Resettlement Estate and (below) families being issued with cooked rations at a Government feeding centre.

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THE GOVERNMENT Medical Department operates six full-time maternal and child health centres and 20 subsidiary part-time centres. The Society for the Protection of Children has five centres. Pre-natal as well as child care advice is given and health visitors call upon families and their homes. Upper picture shows a typical scene in a child health centre. Lower picture shows the dispensary on board the floating clinic described on the opposite page.

GP

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VG P

TO BRING medical services to rural areas the Medical Department runs two mobile dispensaries which pay regular visits to outlying villages. At the beginning of 1958 a floating clinic was put into service, thus making it possible to reach out-of-the-way spots and islands whose inhabitants could not otherwise easily secure medical care. The photograph shows villagers boarding the 'Chee Hong', a 70-foot long motor launch, which was donated to the Government by the Hong Kong Jockey Club.

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A NEW personality appeared on the Hong Kong scene in 1958 and, although merely a two- dimensional cartoon figure, rapidly gained popular affection--including frequent mention in the Colony's press. She is Miss Ping On (or, in English, Miss 'Good Health') and she is possibly

     unique in that part of her charm lies in the exhibition of her skeleton- the two characters which make her name Ping (4) On (*). The brain- child of the Urban Council Select Committee on Health, she was brought to life, clothed and is guided on her various adventures by the Publicity Section of the Public Relations Office. Month by month in colour posters, hand-bills and cinema slides, (a selection of which is shown here) she advises on the elementary rules of hygiene and good health.

SOCIAL WELFARE

187

visit the parents regularly at home and to see to it that the life of the Club is so directed as not to form a barrier between the children and their families. Towards the end of the year the Association transferred its headquarters to a building of its own which will also form a centre for Club leaders and for a variety of training courses for social workers. The Rotary Club of Hong Kong has met a large proportion of the cost of this important project.

The Chinese Y.M.C.A. and the Y.W.C.A. also provide several thousand children and young persons with clubs and recreational centres where they can follow their bent in vocational training, handicrafts, amateur dramatics or study. The Girl Guides' and the Boy Scouts' Associations continue to expand, their membership having reached some 2,000 and 5,000 respectively. Their work for young people is too familiar to require description here, except to note the very successful visit paid to Hong Kong by Lady Baden-Powell in March.

       At the Holiday Camp at Silvermine Bay on Lantau Island, some 3,500 children from poor families, selected mainly from the Clubs, spent a week's holiday in open country by the sea. A second camp established by the Lions Club of Hong Kong at Junk Bay and run by the Chinese Y.M.C.A. was opened in the summer and took in ninety poor children, together with 300 children from families who are better off. The Chinese Y.M.C.A. Swimming and Recreation Centre at Lai Chi Kok was most popular, especially during the summer when at least 2,000 young people used it every day.

There is a great need for children's libraries where those who cannot afford to buy books and cannot get into school are able to read decent books and magazines. The two libraries run by the Children's Playground Association at the Southorn and Queen Elizabeth Centres were together used by an average of 650 children every day. The Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce equipped and stocked two more libraries during the year, making a total of fifteen since the Chamber first became interested in this form of public service in 1951. One of these, very recently opened in a Resettlement Estate, is already used by some 600 children every day. The mobile library van presented by the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      Chamber to the Department continued to serve children in the New Territories.

       A second storey was added to the Thomson Memorial Hostel run by the Salvation Army, which now accommodates 154 young workers. On the opening of its new Maurine Grantham Residential Centre at Yau Yat Chuen, the Y.W.C.A. converted a nursery in Sham Shui Po into a hostel for 66 factory girls. The need for cheap hostel accommodation for young people is still acute.

Staff training again occupied much of the time of experienced personnel. The Department ran a Youth Leadership Training Course, in conjunction with the Grantham Training College. At the beginning of the year two Girl Guide Leaders returned from Australia after an intensive five weeks' training course and have since been conducting courses especially for non-English-speaking Guiders. The Girl Guides' Association, with financial assistance from the Government, was able to invite a Trainer from the United Kingdom to spend a year in the Colony, starting in November, to help train Guide leaders. For the first time, the Boy Scouts' Association organized a course for its Training Team of twenty seven members, which proved very successful. In their turn, the Training Team had a busy year training Scouters, and over 300 certificates were issued to Scouters for passing various tests.

       Youth work in Hong Kong is co-ordinated by the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations, on which the Department and all the main organizations in this field are represented; this federal body also runs the Silvermine Bay Camp through a Committee.

Care of the Disabled. Voluntary and official welfare organiza- tions both strive to provide services for the physically and mentally handicapped. The Special Welfare Services Section of the Depart- ment is responsible for the registration of the physically handi- capped, the blind and the deaf and co-operates closely in the planning of rehabilitation facilities; in these the voluntary agencies and the Education, Medical and Labour departments all play their part in a common effort to help the disabled to live useful lives. The Society for the Relief of Disabled Children cares for fifty four crippled children at its Sandy Bay Children's Sanatorium.

SOCIAL WELFARE

189

     The new Hong Kong Society for Rehabilitation, which sprang from a sub-committee set up in 1957 by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, plans to provide physio-therapy, limb-fitting and vocational training under medical supervision at a centre to which curable disabled adults will be admitted, so as to be equipped again for employment. The Society has received much encourage- ment and advice from the International Society for the Welfare of Cripples whose President, Sir Kenneth Coles, and Secretary- General, Mr. Donald V. Wilson, visited the Colony during the year; another visitor was Dr. Henry D. Kessler, a United Nations Consultant on Rehabilitation. At its North Point Camp, the Department provides vocational training and sheltered employ- ment for some 120 homeless and disabled adults including ten cured leprosy patients discharged from the Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium. Accompanied by the Orthopaedic Specialist of the Medical Department, a member of the Department's staff attended the Pan-Pacific Conference on Rehabilitation held in Sydney from 10th to 14th November and remained for about two months' training generously arranged and financed by the Australian Advisory Council of the Physically Handicapped.

It has been estimated that there are 5,000 blind persons in the Colony; 1,600 are registered with the Blind Welfare Unit of the Department which also runs five clubs for the blind where simple braille and handicrafts are taught. The Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce again presented coloured walking sticks in 1958 for the use of the blind. An important event was the visit to the Colony from 10th to 14th March of Mr. John F. Wilson, O.B.E., Director of the Royal Commonwealth Society for the Blind, as a result of which the Society has arranged to second an officer for about two years to advise and assist in the develop- ment of blind welfare work. As part of this development the Hong Kong Society for the Blind plans to set up a sheltered workshop for 200 blind persons. The local Society is running a vocational training centre in conjunction with the Department, with classes in machine-sewing and rattanwork for thirty trainees, as a first step towards a workshop. The Ebenezer Home and School for the Blind intends, with a large grant from the Hong Kong Jockey Club, to rebuild and enlarge its premises so as to increase con- siderably its present number of 100 pupils. The Canossa Home

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

for the Blind which has some fifty residents is also planning to build new premises and to expand its work, which has been stimulated by the return of one of the Sisters after training in the United Kingdom. The Music Training Centre for the Blind, which opened in September 1957, now has sixteen pupils.

       A sub-committee on the Welfare of the Deaf was appointed by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee at the end of 1957 to study existing services for the medical care, education and welfare of the deaf. Its recommendations are expected to be made shortly. A party for the deaf organized by the Department was attended by over 500 deaf people and helped to establish contacts for sample survey of 478 cases carried out on behalf of the Sub- Committee. The Hong Kong School for the Deaf, which uses the oral method of instruction, had over a hundred boarders at the end of 1958; the Chinese Overseas School for the Deaf and Dumb, together with its branch school in Kowloon, caters for ninety five day pupils.

       The Hong Kong Jockey Club donated $1,000,000 in 1958 to the Little Sisters of the Poor for the erection at Aberdeen of a second home for the aged and $100,000 to the Committee of the Sin Tin Toa, a Taoist organization, to extend their home. This will enable another 650 old people to receive residential care, in addition to the 1,000 inmates of the five existing Homes for the aged.

       There are now over a hundred mentally deficient children in institutions such as North Point Camp, the Po Leung Kuk, and the three hospitals of the Tung Wah Group. An ad hoc Committee has been arranging transfers between these institutions in the interests of easier management and training. Hong Kong still lacks a proper institution devoted to the care of mental defectives, despite efforts made during the year towards this end.

       The Mental Health Association sent 4 delegates and an observer to the First Asian Seminar on Family Life and Mental Health held in the Philippines from 7th to 31st December.

Public Assistance. Increases in the population of the Colony by immigration as well as by natural causes have led to yet heavier pressure on available employment. The retrenchment of staff con- sequent upon the reduction in Armed Services' establishments has not improved the position, although so far the great majority

SOCIAL WELFARE

191

of those affected have been able, with Government assistance, to find other work. Many thousands of families are obliged to depend upon the earnings of irregular and unskilled labour for their livelihood; poorly paid and under-nourished, they have no material or physical reserves and remain above the level of desti- tution only by dint of constant effort. There is here a vast field for relief work.

      During the year there was a considerable increase in the amount of outdoor relief provided through the Department. An average of nearly 3,000 people received a free cooked meal every day at one of the six departmental welfare centres and some 3,250 shares of dry rations were distributed regularly to about 1,600 families to be cooked at home. The recipients were the physically handi- capped, the sick (particularly sufferers from tuberculosis and their families), widows with dependent children, and others who were shown on detailed inquiry to be unable to support themselves, whether temporarily or permanently.

       The North Point Relief Camp, the only Government institution with accommodation for the destitute and disabled and their dependants, provided limited indoor relief. The average population of the camp was between 400 and 500 and the turnover about 40 per month.

      Voluntary welfare organizations played an important part in the work of public assistance. The Lutheran World Service gave free medical treatment to many needy persons, particularly refu- gees, supplied some 90,000 people with supplementary foodstuffs through eleven centres in the urban area, and gave a number of cash grants. Church World Service and the Catholic Welfare Committee of China both distributed food on a large scale; the former helped to finance a variety of relief projects, while the latter assisted welfare clinics with part of their medical supplies. C.A.R.E. (Co-operative for American Remittances to Everywhere, Inc.) financed a number of 'self help' projects and distributed some 250,000 food parcels. Locally-made machinery has been installed by several voluntary bodies for manufacturing noodles from im- ported relief food including a proportion of milk powder, thus providing a nutritious and easily prepared addition to the diet of those in need.

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The quantity of surplus foodstuffs from the United States which entered Hong Kong during 1958 for distribution locally by these and other organizations amounted to some 15,500 tons; nearly half of this consisted of wheatflour and the rest of corn- meal, broken rice, milk powder and beans.

The Hong Kong Family Welfare Society gave advice and assistance to over 3,000 families every month. Members of each family are interviewed or visited at home and the Society's trained caseworkers help them to find employment, accommodation, medical treatment, etc. and sometimes provide loans or cash grants. The Society of St. Vincent de Paul also provided relief grants, free schooling and medical fees for the needy.

      Emergency Relief. 1958 was a comparatively quiet year in the field of emergency relief. 35 fires, 6 house collapses, 19 shipwrecks of fishing craft, 4 landslides and 1 explosion claimed a total of rather more than 6,000 victims including 26 dead (17 by ship- wreck), 34 injured and 12 missing. The most serious fire of the year broke out on 26th October at the Model Village, Kowloon, causing the destruction of 250 huts and rendering some 1,700 people homeless. The most serious house collapse, at 212 Johnston Road on 1st October, affected 33 families consisting of 190 people. Hot meals or dry rations were distributed by the Department to the victims immediately after each disaster. Food parcels, used clothing, blankets, cash grants and shelter were provided by voluntary organizations such as the Kaifong Welfare Associations, the District Associations (whose members claim a ancestral home in China), the British Red Cross Society, the Salvation Army and the four organizations already mentioned above as playing a part in public assistance.

common

Chapter 12: Legislation

      FORTY Ordinances were enacted during 1958. The greater part of these were amendment Ordinances.

       Education. The Education (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 2, which is also dealt with in Chapter 8, made extensive amendments to the Colony's legislation relating to schools. In particular, new provisions have been made with the object of ensuring a reason- able standard of safety with respect to the structure of, and the danger of fire in, premises which are not constructed for use as schools but which are nevertheless permitted to be used for this purpose owing to the shortage in Hong Kong of premises speci- fically constructed for use as schools.

This Ordinance also contained numerous provisions designed to remedy weaknesses which had become apparent in the existing law. Merchandise Marks. The Merchandise Marks Ordinance (Chapter 41) (the principal Ordinance) has been amended so as to bring the Colony's legislation on this subject more closely into line with that of the United Kingdom. The principal objects of the Merchandise Marks (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 6, are as follows. First, to specify more clearly the defences which are available to a person charged with an offence under section 3 of the principal Ordinance, to increase substantially the penalties provided for a contravention of that section and to provide for the forfeiture of any goods by means of or in relation to which an offence against the principal Ordinance has been committed, whether or not any person has been convicted of the offence. Second, to extend to Hong Kong manufacturers the protection given by section 14 of the principal Ordinance to United Kingdom industry and, by an amendment based on section 3 of the Mer- chandise Marks Act, 1953, to extend to certification trade marks the provisions relating to the use of United Kingdom or Hong Kong trade marks on imported goods.

       The University of Hong Kong. The University Ordinance, No. 13, repealed and replaced the existing University Ordinance

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     (Chapter 319). One of the principal objects of the new Ordinance is to give to the University a greater degree of autonomy. The need for this was pointed out in a report made in 1953 by Sir Ivor Jennings and Dr. D. W. Logan in which they put forward the view that the Hong Kong Government had inevitably played a greater part in the management of the University and in the moulding of policy than would have been considered appropriate in England, Ceylon or Malaya.

The principal changes effected by this Ordinance are as follows. The only ex-officio members of the Court are now the members of the Council, the members of the Senate and the Registrar. The powers of the Court have been reduced and the powers of the Council and the Senate have been increased.

Resettlement. The legislation which provided for the resettle- ment and clearance of squatters was contained in a series of regula- tions made under the Emergency Regulations Ordinance (Chapter 241). The legislation was in need of revision and this has been achieved by the enactment of the Resettlement Ordinance, No. 16. The Ordinance has made no substantial change in the existing legislation, but has simplified resettlement procedure, given statu- tory authority to existing practice of the Resettlement Department and recognized the status of the occupants of the multi-storey resettlement blocks, built and owned by the Crown, as tenants of the Crown, a status which was already recognized from a legal point of view.

Holding of Land by Charities. The object of the Charities (Land Acquisition) Ordinance, No. 23, is to prevent the accumulation of excessive areas of land in the hands of charitable bodies and thereby to ensure that the best use and development is made of such land. The Ordinance provides that a charitable body shall not hold or acquire land except under a licence from the Governor, and ensures compliance with this restriction by providing that if any land is held or acquired by a charitable body in contravention of the provisions of the Ordinance, this land shall be liable to forfeiture, which will be effected by means of the Crown Rights (Re-entry) Ordinance (Chapter 126) as if the right of re-entry had arisen by reason of the breach of a covenant in a Crown lease. The Ordinance does not, however, prevent a charitable body from investing its funds in mortgages, but contains provisions

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195

      designed to ensure that a charitable body does not evade the restrictions on the holding or acquiring of land by manipulating the equities of redemption.

Registered Trustees Incorporation Ordinance, No. 24. During the last eighty years a large number of organizations having reli- gious or public charitable objects have been incorporated by private Bill. The object of this Ordinance, which has been adapted largely from the Charitable Trustees Incorporation Act, 1872, is to provide a simple and inexpensive method whereby the trustees of such organizations may become incorporated. This object is achieved by providing for their incorporation by the Governor and, whilst the onerous provisions of the Companies Ordinance (Chapter 32) will not apply to any organizations so incorporated, practical control will be maintained by the Governor by means of the certificate of incorporation which may be granted subject to such conditions and directions as may be specified.

Pearl Culture. The culture of pearls is a new industry in Hong Kong. To provide for the protection of this industry and for its orderly development, legislation was enacted in 1958 in the shape of the Pearl Culture (Control) Ordinance, No. 26. The Ordinance provides for the licensing of persons carrying on the business of cultivating pearl oysters or the culture of pearls and prohibits the cultivation of these oysters or the pearls which they contain except under a licence. Provisions have also been made enabling the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry to prescribe the areas within the waters of the Colony in which pearl oysters may be cultivated and, in order to ensure the conservation of the stocks of natural pearl oysters in these waters, prohibiting the collection or sale of immature oysters unless they have been cultivated under licence.

       Immigration. The enactment of the Immigration (Control and Offences) Ordinance, No. 34, has brought up-to-date the Colony's legislation for the control of immigration. The Immigrants Control Ordinance (Chapter 243) and the Passport Ordinance (No. 13 of 1952), which duplicated certain penal provisions, have been consolidated in the new Ordinance. The principal new provisions of this Ordinance are as follows: first, a provision which makes it illegal for any person who has entered the Colony in contravention of the Ordinance to remain in the Colony except under and in

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accordance with a permit from the Immigration Officer, and, second, the vesting in the Immigration Officer of a power to seize, remove and detain any vessel, aircraft, train or vehicle, subject, in the case of a vessel exceeding 250 gross tons or an aircraft or train, to the prior consent of the Colonial Secretary.

Chapter 13: The Courts, Police,

Prisons and Records

THE COURTS

THE Courts of Hong Kong include the Supreme Court, the District Court, the Magistrates' Courts, the Tenancy Tribunals and the Marine Court.

      The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice, one Senior Puisne Judge and two Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases with a jury, and to deliver convicts to gaol. The judges also have jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. The Supreme Court is also a Court of Equity, with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

      The laws of England, as they existed on the 5th April 1843 apply in the Colony save insofar as they are inapplicable to the local circumstances of the Colony or its inhabitants or have been modified by laws passed by the Legislature of the Colony. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, which modified, and in some instances excluded, provi- sions made in the English Rules of Practice. A statement on the laws of Hong Kong will be found in Chapter 25.

      All civil claims above $5,000 are heard in the Court's original jurisdiction, as well as all miscellaneous proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appointments of trustees, and company

matters.

Magistrates hold preliminary inquiries into indictable offences

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and, if a prima facie case is made out, the accused are committed for trial at the criminal sessions, which are held once a month.

      There is an appeal from the Supreme Court to a Full Court, consisting of two or more judges as directed by the Chief Justice.

      Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge, who may direct that the appeal, or any point in it, be considered by the Full Court.

      As in previous years, the appellate jurisdiction had a heavy calendar dealing with 270 criminal appeals and 19 civil appeals. The level of work in the original jurisdiction also rose appreciably, 657 actions being instituted as against 495 in 1957. In the Mis- cellaneous Proceedings register, 210 applications were entered as against 102 for 1957.

In the Criminal Sessions of the Supreme Court, 74 cases were heard involving 87 accused of whom 70 were convicted.

The District Courts have jurisdiction to hear claims up to a value of $5,000 and a special jurisdiction in Workmen's Compensation. The District Court Judges also have a criminal jurisdiction greater than that of Magistrates, which enables them to try certain cases which would otherwise have to be committed to the Supreme Court Sessions. The District Courts, of which two normally sit on Hong Kong Island and two in Kowloon, were once more kept extremely busy. The total number of actions instituted, namely 4,456, exceeded the total for 1957 by more than 1,200 cases and constitutes a record for any one year since the inception of these Courts in 1953, the previous record total being 3,201 for 1955. In their criminal jurisdiction the District Courts tried 388 persons of whom 337 were convicted; this represents an increase of approximately 15% over the previous year.

There are Magistrates' Courts on Hong Kong Island, in Kow- loon, and in the New Territories. The courts in Kowloon hear cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. In the New Territories, there are courts in Tai Po and Ping Shan, with one magistrate dividing his time between both places. On Hong Kong Island, apart from the regular Magistrates' Courts, there is a Justices of the Peace Court, composed of two Justices of the Peace sitting together five afternoons a week. One of the

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199

Justices is usually a solicitor. During the year seventeen solicitors and forty four lay Justices served in this Court.

The Magistrates' Courts continued to have a busy year with five courts functioning on Hong Kong Island, five in Kowloon and one in the New Territories. It will be seen from the table of figures below that once again in Kowloon the courts dealt with sub- stantially more cases than the Hong Kong courts.

Statistics of work in the Magistracies are as follows:

Hong Kong Kowloon

New Territories

Total

Total number of summary matters (charges, summonses and applica- tions, etc.)...

73,782 121,920

9,451 205,153

Total number of defendants (adult

and juvenile)

...

77,136

119,298

10,199

206,633

Total number of defendants con-

victed (adult and juvenile)

72,935

111,112

9,479

193,526

Total number of adult defendants

73,337

113,327

10,151

196,815

Total number of adult defendants

convicted

...

69,185

105,152

9,436

183,773

Total number of juvenile defendants

3,799

5,971

48

9,818

Total number of juvenile defendants

convicted

...

3,750

5,960

43

9,753

Total number of Charge Sheets

issued

31,915

69,582

3,782

105,279

Total number of summonses issued

40,945

52,105 5,869 98,919

In the Tenancy Tribunal, the number of applications made for determination of rent payable, or for approval of agreed rental in excess of the permitted rent totalled 1,121 as against 1,146 for 1957. The number of exemption cases filed was one less than for 1957, the figures for the past four years being 639 for 1955, 1,004 for 1956, 1,410 for 1957 and 1,409 for 1958. These applications are brought under the provisions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, under which an applicant, wishing to obtain exemption from the Ordinance in respect of certain buildings, brings pro- ceedings before a tribunal for that purpose. These tribunals consist of a president (who has legal qualifications) and two lay members chosen from a panel appointed by the Chief Justice. During the year no less than 211 of these lay members rendered valuable service on the tribunals.

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       A new sphere of work was introduced when the Adoption Ordinance was passed in 1956. During 1958 ninety one adoption applications were filed.

       In the Probate Department a continued increase in work is reflected in the following figures of grants made: 386 in 1955, 452 in 1956, 478 in 1957 and 579 in 1958.

POLICE

The problems of the Police Force are those usually associated with a major sea port and city. They are multiplied, however, by the continuing rapid development of the whole area and increasing density of population. Victoria and Kowloon together now con- stitute the fourth largest city in the Commonwealth after London, Bombay and Calcutta. Expanding population, new industrial areas, and extensive rebuilding, including the rapid growth of densely populated resettlement areas, have all called for con- tinuous vigilance, re-deployment of duties, and reassessment of ideas and methods.

       Despite the swiftly moving changes that occur and which neces- sitate constantly revised methods to deal with specific problems, in Hong Kong, as elsewhere, the beat Constable is a familiar part of the daily scene. A great part of his training is devoted to stressing the necessity for co-operation with the public, and this, together with the growth of civic mindedness, has resulted in the Force obtaining increased help from the public in combatting crime and maintaining law and order.

Other methods of police watch and ward, such as radio car patrols, support the man on the beat and are readily available to assist members of the public. In each of the three Districts of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories and Marine, there are Emergency Units which provide a tactical reserve ready at all times for special operations or to deal speedily with any localized disorder or disaster. The measures were further streng- thened this year by the formation of the Police Training Contingent with the dual object of training personnel of all ranks for internal security duties, and at the same time providing reserve units readily available at short notice.

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      The Colony's importance as an international cross-roads accentuates the need for close liaison between the Hong Kong Police and the Police Forces of other countries throughout the world. As part of this close international police relationship, the Hong Kong Police frequently entertain police officers from other countries who come to study methods employed here.

The New Territories, with its widely dispersed rural population and its land frontier with China, imposes special considerations not found in the urban and more densely populated areas of Hong Kong Island and Kowloon. The police in the New Territories have to be much more intimately associated with local community life and problems. In this respect a great deal has been achieved through the use of village penetration patrols which, working on foot, cover areas inaccessible by road. These patrols spend several days in each area living in the villages, giving advice and assistance where they can. They also assist in escorting mobile teams providing medical and other social services to outlying districts. Good relations are further fostered by the giving of cinema shows and in sporting activities between police and village teams. Close liaison is maintained with the New Territories Administration and the Rural Committees in all matters affecting the life and well- being of the community, thereby ensuring the fullest co-operation and understanding on the many problems involving the residents of the New Territories.

Illegal immigration into the Colony has remained a major problem and the long sparsely populated coastline, with its numerous small coves and beaches, affords points of ingress difficult to control. Some degree of success has been achieved, but there are still those who slip through the net to add further congestion to the already over-populated urban areas. Much of the success achieved has been due to the vigilance of the Marine Police Division on which devolves the responsibility of policing the territorial waters of the Colony and its numerous islands, as well as the enforcement of shipping regulations in the waters of the Port of Victoria, one of the world's busiest harbours.

       Chain of Command. The Force, under the command of a Com- missioner and Deputy Commissioner, is organized under a Colony Headquarters at which there is an Assistant Commissioner responsible for general administrative matters concerning the

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     Force. He is assisted by a number of Staff Officers, each responsi- ble for a particular aspect of administration. The three Territorial Police Districts, the Criminal Investigation Department and the Special Branch are commanded by Assistant Commissioners. The Anti-Corruption and Narcotics Branch, the Police Training School, the Police Training Contingent, the Traffic Branch, the Com- munications and Transport Branch and the Immigration Office are in the charge of Senior Superintendents. The three Territorial Districts each contain a number of Divisions, Sub-Divisional Stations and Posts. Included in the New Territories District is the Marine Division equipped with a fleet of twenty five craft which are fitted with either radiotelephone communication or wireless telegraph, and equipment for air-to-launch communica- tion; ten are fitted with radar.

      The Criminal Investigation Department is generally responsible for the prevention, detection, and prosecution of crime, with specialized units at Colony Headquarters and detective units decentralized throughout the three territorial Districts. The Special Branch is responsible for the prevention and detection of sub- versive activities. The Anti-Corruption and Narcotics Branch is designed as a centralized unit for the better collection and dis- semination of information, and the investigation and prosecution of offences, relating to corrupt practices and narcotics.

      The Force has an establishment of 7,149, consisting of 82 Gazetted Officers, 615 Inspectors and 6,452 Rank and File. The actual strength on 31st December 1958 was 81 Gazetted Officers, 537 Inspectors and 6,140 Rank and File. Included in these figures is an establishment of Women Police consisting of 1 Gazetted Officer, 3 Inspectors and 118 Rank and File.

       Auxiliaries. The Auxiliary Police Force consists of two former units known as the Police Reserve and Special Constabulary which were amalgamated in September 1957, on an administrative basis. Legislation for the new Force is expected to be promulgated in the near future. The effect of the amalgamation is that the combined Auxiliary Forces now have one Chain of Command, and are therefore administratively more convenient to operate for training and emergency duties. The officers and men of the two units have lost none of their enthusiasm through the amalgama- tion, and because of this the new unified Force has settled down

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extremely well. The total strength of the Auxiliary Force on 31st December 1958 stood at 1,849 for all ranks, an increase of thirty two over the previous year.

       A very valuable adjunct to the Police Force in the rural areas are Village Guards. They are selected and appointed by their own Village Councils, operate in and around their own villages, and serve as a very useful link between village Communities and the police.

Crime. The peak year for serious crime in Hong Kong was 1954, and since then a gradual reduction has been recorded. 1958 was no exception, and despite a steadily growing population, a very satisfactory decrease in reported crime was obtained. The detec- tion rate of crime also showed considerable improvement. The full statistics of serious crime are recorded at Appendix XVIII.

Much of the decrease in serious crime can be attributed to preventive action taken by the police against the Colony's criminal elements. An important aspect of this has been the sustained drive against the criminal secret societies, or Triads, members of which are responsible for much of the crime and vice in Hong Kong. In September alone, as part of a special sweep preceding the October 1st and 10th celebrations, nearly 1,000 members of Triad Societies were arrested and prosecuted. It is worthy of note that during October the number of preventable crimes committed was the lowest for many years.

Another feature of crime preventive work was the increase in Police Supervision applied to habitual criminals. At the end of the year over 5,000 persons were subject to Court Orders to report periodically to the police in order that a check on their activity could be maintained.

There was little change in the great volume of prosecutions undertaken in respect of crimes regarded as non-serious and minor breaches of the law although as the year progressed these too tended to decrease, due mainly to increased observance by the public of the many regulations necessary to maintain order in the densely populated urban areas of the Colony.

The police were assisted to no small extent in the prevention of crime and the apprehension of criminals by members of the public, in many cases at great personal risk to the persons

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concerned. During 1958, at ceremonies held at Colony Head- quarters, fifty two letters of appreciation and monetary awards were presented by the Commissioner of Police to members of the public for outstanding services to the community.

      Training. All ranks are introduced to the Force through the Police Training School where they are given an initial training period lasting six months, except in the case of Women Constables whose initial training is four months. The training programme covers a wide variety of subjects including law, court procedure, police regulations and duties, unarmed combat, weapon training, foot and riot drills, physical training and first aid. In addition, all local recruits are taught basic English and this is followed by more advanced lessons during subsequent service. The Marine Police are given special instruction in seamanship, port regulations and signalling.

Despite the fact that there has been a considerable increase in the number of applicants for Rank and File vacancies, only a small fraction measure up to the basic physical and educational requirements. Enrolments for Rank and File during the year numbered 625 of whom twenty six were Women Constables.

      During the year, thirty eight overseas and five local Probationary Sub-Inspectors were taken on strength. As from 1958 all Proba- tionary Sub-Inspectors on leaving the Training School are required to undergo a further two years of practical and theoretical training at Divisions.

      Forty five Rank and File have now attended Cadet Courses which are designed to give selected personnel a six months' inten- sive training course with a view to promotion to Sub-Inspector. Fourteen have already gained promotion to the Inspectorate and six were granted accelerated promotion as N.C.OS.

       Advanced training courses for officers of the Criminal Investi- gation Department and regular duty Rank and File are held at the Police Training School whenever accommodation is available. These courses are designed to increase efficiency and improve the professional ability of those attending. During the year seventy five Detectives, thirty N.C.Os. and 180 Constables attended these

courses.

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        A number of officers on vacation leave attended courses of instruction in the United Kingdom. During 1958 one overseas Gazetted Officer and two local Inspectors were sent to the United Kingdom to attend courses held at police training centres.

       Communications and Transport. This important branch of the Force is controlled from Colony Headquarters. All vehicular transport and all forms of communication, including radiotele- phony, wireless telegraphy, teleprinter, telephones and also radar equipment, are the responsibility of the branch.

During the year a review of police radio communications was completed and its recommendations approved by the Government. Equipment to implement this scheme has been ordered.

At present the Force has a network of 111 radio stations arranged to link Headquarters with Districts, Districts with Divi- sions, and Divisions with Stations and Posts. There are also direct links with mobile units such as patrol cars, marine craft and foot patrols equipped with pack sets.

       During 1958 a total of 13,368 telephone calls necessitating police action were received at the Control Room, Colony Headquarters. Of this number, 9,005 were received through the 999 telephone system, which links the public with the police. Police action taken as a result of these calls resulted in the arrest of 1,043 persons.

        The Force received a substantial reinforcement of vehicles in 1958 with the arrival of sixty three Land Rovers and now has a strength of 363 vehicles of all kinds. The total mileage run by all vehicles during the year was 3,534,272 and the fleet had an accident rate of one vehicle to every 19,419 miles covered.

Traffic. The increase in the number of vehicles on the roads continued, aggravating the already serious traffic congestion in the urban areas.

As reported in Chapter 15, Dr. G. Charlesworth, Traffic Con- sultant, visited the Colony in 1958 to advise on measures to improve Hong Kong's urban road traffic system on a long-term basis.

Revision of traffic legislation proceeded with the enactment of new Parking and Waiting Regulations made under the Road Traffic Ordinance, 1957. These Regulations brought local law on

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this subject up to date and generally follow the practice in force in the United Kingdom.

       Education of the public in road safety was undertaken con- tinuously throughout the year by means of a Traffic Exhibition, a Traffic Safety Week, and lectures to school children and others. The main theme was pedestrian crossings and their use. Special task forces were sent out to show people on the ground how to use pedestrian crossings and motorists how to observe them. The results were most encouraging and contributed materially to road safety and an improved standard of good manners and courtesy.

Together with a substantial increase in registered vehicles, there was also a sharp rise in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents rose from 125 in 1957 to 154 in 1958, while accidents involving serious injury increased from 748 to 951 for the same period. Comparative figures for the last five years are:

      Fatal Serious Injury

Slight Injury

1954

1955

1956

1957

1958

101

139

131

125

154

621

735

672

748

951

444

3,397 3,745

3,618

3,726

4,513

5,119

7,156

7,580 7,415

9,032

Damage Only

Total ...

9,238 11,775 12,001 12,014 14,650

       The number of drivers increased by 13,376 bringing the total of licensed drivers up to 89,429.

       During the year 25,875 provisional (Learner) driving licences were issued and 21,285 driving tests were conducted.

       Immigration. The Commissioner of Police is concurrently the Immigration Officer for the Colony. All persons entering Hong Kong, other than Cantonese from the province of Kwangtung, must be in possession of valid travel documents. In addition, aliens, with the exception of those passing through Hong Kong on ships or aircraft, are required to have visas. The entry of Cantonese from Kwangtung province is controlled by a quota system whereby the numbers permitted to enter Hong Kong are governed by the numbers who go out. Local residents wishing to visit China may ensure that they can return outside the quota by obtaining a re-entry permit before they leave. This permit, former- ly valid for any number of journeys within six months, has now

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been made valid for twelve months. The number of re-entry permits issued during 1958 was 363,092.

The movement of European refugees from China through Hong Kong for settlement in other countries continued throughout the year under the auspices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2,221 of these persons passed through the Colony during the year, bringing the overall figure since the movement began in 1952 to 12,453.

       There were 38,331 visas, 3,626 new British Passports and 17,187 Certificates of Identity issued during the year. The total recorded movement in and out of Hong Kong during 1958 was 2,164,650.

       The Immigration (Control and Offences) Ordinance which was enacted in 1958 is described in Chapter 12.

PRISONS

Three new institutions were opened during the year: H.M. Prison, Tai Lam; Cape Collinson Training Centre; and the Staff Training School. This brings to eight the number of institutions administered by the Commissioner of Prisons.

Tai Lam Prison will take convicted drug addicts who now make up over 60% of the prison population. The new prison will receive addicts who have been convicted of any offence, whether or not the charge is brought under the Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. The buildings comprise the single-storey workers' lines and the bun- galows built for the engineers engaged on construction of the Tai Lam Chung dam, now completed. When fully operative the prison will have a capacity of 800. There will be a vigorous programme of rehabilitation followed by a period of after-care supervision. Tai Lam Prison opened in November 1958 and 350 prisoners had been received up to the end of the year.

Cape Collinson Training Centre occupies buildings formerly used by the Army. These consist of concrete huts each capable of housing eight boys and easily adaptable for Training Centre purposes. The Centre is situated in a beautiful and healthy position on the south of Hong Kong Island. The capacity is 150. The Centre replaces the former Tung Tau Wan Training Centre, the site of which was too cramped for further development.

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       The Staff Training School has been set up in the buildings at Stanley released by the Tung Tau Wan Training Centre. In addition to basic training it will provide a variety of courses, including refresher courses at intervals in an officer's career.

       Stanley Prison is situated on the Stanley Peninsula on the south of Hong Kong Island. It was built to accommodate 1,746 prisoners but has been overcrowded throughout 1958. The main buildings consist of six three-storeyed separate cell blocks, each with 286 cells. There are separate wards for European prisoners, for prisoners under punishment, and for previous offenders serving periods of five years and over. There is an excellent hospital and well-equipped workshops, kitchen and laundry. 8,238 prisoners were received during the year, the daily average number in custody being 2,635 (the daily average in 1957 was 2,420).

       Victoria Prison is next to the Central Magistracy and within a few minutes of the Supreme Court, a situation well suited to its functions as a Classification Centre and prison for male prisoners on remand and awaiting trial. 6,058 prisoners were received in 1958, the daily average population being 400 (479 in 1957).

       Chi Ma Wan Prison is near the village of Shap Long on the south-east corner of Lantau Island and 13 miles from Victoria. It is a minimum security establishment with accommodation for up to 650 short-term prisoners. The main occupation is the afforestation of the area surrounding the prison. So far, with the advice of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department, 676 acres have been planted and a further 772 acres are scheduled for development in the next planting season. 4,180 prisoners were received in 1958, the daily average population being 610 (501 in 1957).

       Lai Chi Kok Prison for women is on the mainland, on what were once the outskirts of Kowloon; the prison has gradually been hemmed in by growing industrial and resettlement areas. The women sleep in dormitories, with the exception of long-term first offenders who have pleasant rooms which were formerly cells but are now never locked. The Matron and all her staff are locally recruited. 1,221 women were received in 1958, the daily average number of occupants being 144 (119 in 1957).

Training Centres. Stanley Training Centre and Cape Collinson Training Centre both take boys between the ages of 14 and 21

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209

sentenced to detention in a Training Centre. The provisions of the Training Centres Ordinance are based on the Borstal section of the Criminal Justice Act, 1948. The Centres can together take 270 boys, all of whom would probably have gone to prison before the inception of the scheme. Of 344 boys released over a period of six years only 70 have been reconvicted. 161 boys were accepted during the year, the daily average population being: Stanley Training Centre, 143; Cape Collinson Training Centre, 105.

      The staff of the Prisons Department consists of 13 gazetted officers, 585 other ranks, and 148 schoolmasters, trade instructors, clerks, mechanics and others.

       After-care. The Salvation Army and Family Welfare Society have continued their work among adult prisoners. The Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society has begun its task of co-ordinating and extending the work of such voluntary agencies.

       After-care of boys discharged from the Training Centres is in the hands of three After-care Officers who in difficult conditions carried heavy case loads with much success.

RECORDS

       The Registrar General's Department comprises the Land Office, the Registries of Births and Deaths, Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents, and the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding Up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy.

Land Office. The principal function of the Land Office is the registration of all instruments affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon and portions of New Kowloon; instruments affecting land in the rest of New Kowloon and the New Territories being registered in one or other of the three District Offices. Although the system of registration under the Land Registration Ordinance is basically one of registration of deeds and not of title, the Land Office Registers do in fact show in a clear and accurate manner the devolution of title to each lot, or section of a lot, and details of all incumbrances affecting it. The result is that, in practice, the system is regarded as virtually equivalent to registration of title. Land tenure is described in Chapters 7 and 10.

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Among the other functions of the Land Office are the issue, renewal, variation and termination of Crown leases of all land registered in the Land Office, the granting of mining leases, and advising the Government generally on matters relating to land.

The intense building activity of recent years continued through- out the year, but the emphasis was latterly on completing projects rather than on starting new ones. Many large blocks of flats were completed, and the flats sold off to separate owners in accordance with the practice that has grown up in the past few years. This resulted in the number of land transactions registered in the Land Office during the year rising to 18,148, some 27% more than last year's record total. The total of the amounts involved rose by 21% over the 1957 total to $980,388,000, another record figure. Sums advanced on mortgages of land totalled $329,638,000, over $84,000,000 more than in 1957. The average rate of interest remained steady at about 12% per annum.

Companies. The Companies Registry maintains records of all companies incorporated in Hong Kong, and also of all foreign corporations carrying on business in the Colony. At the end of the year there were 3,251 local companies and 381 foreign cor- porations registered compared with 2,980 and 366 respectively in 1957.

The Companies Ordinance (Chapter 32) is based on the United Kingdom Companies Act, 1929 (now repealed). On incorporation in Hong Kong a company pays a fixed fee of $100 plus $2 per $1,000 of nominal share capital. Foreign corporations establishing a place of business in the Colony do not have to pay this fee: they merely pay $5 fees on filing the documents required by Section 318 of the Companies Ordinance.

Trade Marks and Patents Registries. The Trade Marks Ordin- ance, 1954, is based on the Trade Marks Act, 1938, but there are some variations.

      During the year 1,263 new trade marks were registered, as against 1,073 in 1957. Registrations are valid for seven years (fourteen years if registered prior to 1st January 1955), but may be renewed indefinitely for further periods of fourteen years. There were 14,936 trade marks on the Register on 31st December 1958.

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211

       Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registra- ble under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance (Chapter 42). This provides that the grantee of a patent in the United Kingdom may, within five years from the date of issue of the patent, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong. During the year seventy seven patents were so registered.

       Bankruptcies and Liquidations. Fifteen bankruptcy petitions (two relating to the same debtor) were filed during the year and Receiving Orders made in eleven cases. The Official Receiver was appointed Trustee in eight of these cases. In the other three the creditors were not due to meet until January 1959. In one case involving two weaving factories at Tsuen Wan employing some 450 workers, the Official Receiver managed to arrange, within one month from the date of the Adjudication Order, for the factories to be taken over by another manufacturer, thus enabling the workers to resume work.

       Four petitions were presented for the compulsory winding-up of companies, one of which was withdrawn prior to the hearing. One winding-up order was made, and the Official Receiver appointed Liquidator. The remaining two petitions were pending at the end of the year.

       Marriages. All marriages, except non-Christian customary marriages, are governed by the provisions of the Marriage Ordinance (Chapter 181). Under this, it is necessary for a notice of intended marriage to be exhibited at the Registry for fifteen clear days, after which the Registrar issues a certificate which enables the marriage to be solemnized at a licensed place of worship, or to take place as a civil marriage before the Registrar. The Governor has the power in special circumstances to grant a licence authorizing a marriage to take place before the expiry of the fifteen day period, or dispensing with notice altogether.

       Notices of intended marriage are accepted, and civil marriages are performed, both at the main Marriage Registry in the Supreme Court Building in Hong Kong and at the Kowloon Sub-Registry situated in the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Building, Mong Kok.

       The validity of Chinese customary marriages is not affected by the Marriage Ordinance, and such marriages do not require to be

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registered. Marriages under the Ordinance have, however, become popular with all classes of the Chinese population, for the advantages of having an official certificate of marriage are now more widely appreciated, and for many years there has been a steady increase in the yearly total of registered marriages. In order to accelerate and assist this changing trend in public opinion, the Government announced in August 1958 that it had decided to investigate the practicability of extending further the facilities for civil marriages. By the end of the year a planned expansion of marriage registries had been approved in principle and will be ̧ put into effect over the next few years. In 1958 the number of registered marriages reached 7,636, 574 more than in 1957. The increase can be attributed mainly to arrangements made during the year enabling marriages to take place in the Kowloon Sub- Registry on a full-day instead of half-day basis as previously. In all, 2,972 marriages were performed there, and 3,871 at the main Registry. The remaining 793 marriages were solemnized at licensed places of worship.

      Births and Deaths. The registration of births and deaths is compulsory under the Births and Deaths Registration Ordinance (Chapter 174). The General Register Office is situated in the centre of Victoria, and district registries are located where most needed throughout the Colony. In the outlying rural and island areas births are registered by district registrars calling regularly at the District Rural Committee Offices, and deaths are reported to the local police stations.

      During 1958 106,624 births (the highest figure ever) and 20,554 deaths were registered as compared with 97,834 births and 19,365 deaths in 1957. In addition, there were 2,332 births registered more than one year after their occurrence. This large number of post-registrations is due to the fact that before the war parents, especially in the New Territories where there were no local registration facilities until 1932, frequently neglected to register the births of their children. There was also no registration of births in Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation. Nowadays the possession of a birth certificate is essential for many purposes, and there has therefore been for many years a constant flow of applications for post-registration.

127,305 birth certificates were issued as against 134,954 in 1957.

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213

       Adoptions. An Adopted Children Register is maintained at the General Register Office under the Adoption Ordinance, 1956. In 1958 eighty six adoptions were registered, bringing to 115 the total number of adoptions registered since the first entry was made on 22nd July 1957.

Chapter 14: Public Utilities and

Public Works

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Waterworks. The supply of water to Hong Kong is the responsi- bility of the Public Works Department of the Government.

       In the absence of large rivers or other regular sources of supply, the Colony is entirely dependent for its water on rain, most of which falls during the summer when the south-west monsoon blows and occasional typhoons are experienced. The seven months October to April inclusive are regarded as the dry season, with an average rainfall of 18.27 inches, but, because the ground is so dry, very little of the rain finds its way into the reservoirs. As the dry season may sometimes extend to the end of June, the average daily consumption during the winter months has to be carefully husbanded in order that there may be a reasonable quantity of water in the reservoirs at the end of April as a reserve against late rains. The inadequacy of existing resources also involves a certain amount of restrictions even during the wet

season.

A new reservoir at Tai Lam Chung in the New Territories was completed in 1957, and the Colony now has fourteen storage reser- voirs which have a total capacity of 10,500,000,000 gallons. The new reservoir is the largest, having a capacity of 4,507,000,000 gallons. The older reservoirs, which are situated both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, normally fill up completely during the wet season, and the new one should also do so after all its catchwaters have been constructed. Despite this substantial and very welcome improvement in water supplies, and the con- struction, which is now under way, of another new reservoir at Shek Pik, described later in this Chapter, the fact must be faced that the storage, together with the dry-weather yield from streams, may still be inadequate for the demands of a rapidly growing population and increasing development, and that restrictions on

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

215

the hours of supply may have to go on being imposed every dry

season.

      The Government is constantly exploring every available means of increasing water supplies, including the possibility of damming sea inlets and turning them into fresh water lakes. Preliminary surveys and tests were commenced in 1958 at Plover Cove and Hebe Haven in the northern New Territories. Recent research into salt water distillation was also examined; this method has hitherto been precluded as a solution to Hong Kong's water problems because of the very high cost of producing comparatively small quantities of fresh water. New methods show promise of produc- ing fresh water at a cost which might make it an acceptable method of producing at least part of the Colony's total supply.

      Of the maximum possible storage only 2,362,000,000 gallons can be held on the Island, and with the completion of the reservoir at Tai Lam Chung approximately one half of the Island's con- sumption is supplied from the New Territories. The water is conveyed across the harbour in two 21-inch diameter concrete-lined steel submarine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a large proportion of the water has to be pumped, and in some areas repumped, necessitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs.

In addition to these works, Hong Kong has a system of catch- waters 35 miles long, and when the Tai Lam Chung Scheme is complete the total length will be about 50 miles. These channels run along the mid-levels of various hillsides, intercepting streams and water courses and conveying their water into storage reser- voirs. The water supply to the Island and the urban areas of Kowloon is filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment, and a high standard of purity is maintained. Practically all the water is supplied to consumers through meters, at an average cost of 80 cents (one shilling) per 1,000 gallons. Some of the poorer districts are at present provided with water through standpipes, free of charge.

At the beginning of 1958 there was a ten-hour supply each day, but because of the very dry weather the hours were reduced to eight a day on 27th January. The rainfall for the first quarter was almost twice the average, and a ten-hour supply was restored on 2nd April. The rainfall for April, May, June and the first half

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     of July was well below average; by the beginning of July there were only some 3,660,000,000 gallons in storage, and the hours of supply were reduced to five a day on 10th July. Heavy rains fell during the latter half of July and September, and all the reservoirs, with the exception of that at Tai Lam Chung, were overflowing by 2nd September. The hours of supply were increased to ten a day on 2nd August, but a reduction to eight a day was made on 27th November.

      The Colony's water supplies were temporarily reduced between 25th April and 15th May as a result of a fracture in the tunnel lining causing a leak to develop, at the rate of about one million gallons a day, in one of the tunnels bringing water from Tai Lam Chung Reservoir. At first, supplies for the urban areas were restricted to four hours a day in the afternoon; then on 2nd May a four-hour zoning system was introduced; finally on 17th May, after strenuous efforts by the engineers concerned, a ten-hour supply was introduced. A further seepage on a much smaller scale developed at the site of the previous leakage at the end of the year. The cause of the original trouble is not known for certain but may be due to some form of earth movement in the Tsuen Wan area.

      Average daily consumption for the year was 53.03 million gallons, the peak consumption being 83.90 million gallons. This is the highest consumption ever recorded, and it is somewhat dis- concerting to note that the average consumption for the year represents a 10.4% increase over last year and the maximum consumption a 14.8% increase.

      The year's work included a large programme to replace existing mains and extend the distribution system. One factor which is causing an increase in the demand for water supplies is the rapid expansion of the Colony's Resettlement Estates. In these estates mains water is provided through standpipes. The number of regular water consumers increases as more estates are constructed because the squatter areas, which the resettlement projects replace, had only very limited regular means of obtaining water. All resettlement estates are very densely populated and need a large quantity of water for flushing. Wells sunk to provide this water have proved hopelessly inadequate. In order to conserve mains water, work was commenced in 1958 on seven separate schemes

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

217

to provide salt water for flushing at resettlement estates and other private properties in the vicinity of the estates. The work entails the building of eight service reservoirs, two dams and seven pumping stations, and the laying of approximately 9,000 feet of 15-inch diameter pipe and 55,000 feet of 18-inch diameter pipe. After the schemes have been completed, it will be possible to supply about 20,000,000 gallons of salt water a day for flushing and air-conditioning. Fire hydrants are being installed on the salt water mains and, in this way, much needed fire fighting facilities will also be provided. For the same purposes consideration is also being given to the possibility of extending the existing salt water mains in the Central District of Victoria.

Work was continued during the year on the Tai Lam Chung Scheme. Contracts were let for the construction of three more service reservoirs and for about seven miles of catchwater chan- nels. About 10,000 feet of 30-inch diameter trunk main was laid. More contracts would have been let for catchwater channels, but there was strong objection from villagers in the Yuen Long area, who feared that the catchwaters would intercept their irrigation water. Work was delayed until the villagers could be convinced that the catchwaters would be beneficial to them and their farms, and that the Government would do everything possible to safe- guard the water needed for irrigation purposes.

       A new dam is to be constructed to flood the Shek Pik Valley on the south coast of Lantau at an estimated cost of $220,000,000. It will hold 5,350,000,000 gallons of water and will be the biggest, as well as the most costly, so far constructed in the Colony. Preliminary investigations started as long ago as November 1954. A preliminary report indicated that the nature of the sub-soil near the valley mouth where the dam would have to be built was such as to make construction of a conventional-type dam either extremely costly or perhaps even impossible. The report went on to recommend that experiments should be carried out on the stabilization of porous strata by injecting into them a mixture of clay, cement and a varying quantity of other chemicals to make the porous materials impermeable to water. A team of engineers arrived in 1957 to conduct the experiments, which proved entirely successful, and a report was received in June 1958 that the building of a dam was a practical proposition. A contract was

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

then let for the construction of the foundations employing the grouting technique used in the experiments. The dam will be an earth dam, 170 feet in height and about 1,700 feet in length. Several contracts were also let for preliminary works, such as access roads and quarters.

In the New Territories all the principal market towns have water supplied either from main sources or provided independently from local stream intakes. Supply hours are subject to restriction as in the urban areas, but the system of piped water supplies is gradually being extended year by year. The following villages, which used to obtain their water from wells or stream intakes, which ran dry during the winter months, were provided during the year with a public water supply: Sham Tseng and Ting Kau on the mainland, and Tai O on Lantau.

In addition to the shortage of water for domestic purposes, there is also not enough for agriculture in the New Territories. To remedy this situation and, as mentioned above, to allay the fears of villagers that the construction of new catchwaters for large new reservoirs was diverting water that would otherwise flow onto agricultural land, the Government has been carrying on a policy of increasing irrigation supplies. A large number of small schemes consisting of diversion dams and channels for irrigation purposes were completed in 1958. Work was commenced on two dams, each approximately 60 feet in height, to impound between them about 40,000,000 gallons of water. A Malayan firm experienced in deep-well drilling was employed on sinking deep wells and thirteen wells were completed, the deepest one going down to a depth of about 303 feet. Of the thirteen wells completed only six yielded a satisfactory supply; more wells are being sunk. Further details of the steps taken to improve irrigation supplies are given in Chapter 7.

Electricity. Electricity on the Island is supplied by The Hong- kong Electric Co., Ltd., distributing an alternating current at 22 kV and 6.6 kV, 3 phase, 50 cycles. Bulk consumers are supplied at 6.6 kV and domestic consumers at 346/200 volts. The amount of electricity generated during 1958 was 378,000,340 kilowatt hours, an increase of 8.17% over the previous year's figure.

       The number of consumers at the end of the year was 83,872, an increase of 8.84% over the 1957 figure.

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G

      UP SHE GOES! The sight of modern ferro-concrete or steel-framed buildings surrounded by scaffolding of traditional bamboo never fails to intrigue the visitor to Hong Kong. This photograph, taken during the construction of a typical multi-storey block, shows a 'human chain' of labourers passing up. from hand to hand, steel rods for reinforcing concrete in yet another storey.

CENTRAL DISTRICT, Victoria, and Hong Kong Harbour as seen from Mid-Levels. looking north-west towards the hills of the Kowloon peninsula and the New Territories. The photograph indicates something of the extent of new- and ever higher-building during recent years. Prominent to the left centre of the photograph are the Main and East Wings of the Central Govern- ment Offices, towering above the 100 years old St. John's Cathedral with.

beyond (mid centre) the three tall spires of the Chartered Bank (entirely new building nearing completion), Hongkong & Shanghai Bank and the Bank of China. Among the trees in foreground can be seen the buildings of Murray Barracks, also more than one hundred years old. By agreement between the War Office and the Hong Kong Government this valuable land will shortly be released by the Army, thus affording further sites for development.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

IN COMMON With most other cities, Hong Kong suffers from traffic congestion and acute parking problems, particularly in the main business districts. There are now some 35,000 motor vehicles in the Colony and only 463 miles of road. Photograph shows typical weekday scene on the Central Reclamation, Victoria, and, (to right rear) one of the new three-tiered, public car parks which are the Government's current solution to the problem of getting as many cars as possible off the streets.

E

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Bulk Power

Domestic and Commercial Power

95,247,837

2,801,082

64,732,048

161,512,379

219

324,293,346

During the year the peak-load reached a figure of 75 M.W., an increase of 3.5% over 1957. The steam raising capacity is 1,400 k.lbs/hr. and generating capacity 122.5 M.W. The increase in steam raising and generating capacities is due to the commis- sioning of the new 'B' Station with an initial capacity of 30 M.W.

In order to keep ahead of demands for electricity, three 10 M.V.A. 22/6.6 K.V.A. transformers were added to the Com- pany's substations supplying the north side of the Island. The planning of three more major substations is in hand. Some twenty five new local substations and ten transformer kiosks were added to the system during 1958. The laying of 22 kV and 6.6 kV Feeders and Interconnectors continues apace.

Charges for electricity range from 28 cents a unit to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting, and 12 cents a unit to 11.4 cents a unit for power. All rates are subject to a fuel surcharge due to the fluctuating cost. of fuel. The surcharge rate of 15% in operation at the beginning of the year was reduced to 12% on 1st March. Special rates are quoted for bulk consumers of industrial power.

      In Kowloon electricity is supplied by the China Light and Power Co., Ltd., whose services extend to the principal market towns in the New Territories and to many villages. During the year over- head lines were considerably extended. On the island of Lantau, supply has been made available to Shek Pik and Tai O. The load continues to grow steadily each year, and during 1958 there were more demands from both industrial and domestic consumers. The increase continues to be caused principally by new urban and industrial development, and the demolition of old buildings and their replacement by larger modern structures. 398 factories were connected to the Company's mains. Air-conditioning is becoming a noticeable factor of load growth during the summer months.

Construction of the new Power Station is now well advanced. The buildings have been completed and one turbine and two boilers

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      have been commissioned. A further boiler and turbine will be ready for commissioning shortly and the final turbine is scheduled for commissioning early in 1959.

The present capacity of the Station is 122,500 kilowatts.

Approximately 550,750,000 units of electricity were generated during the financial year 1957-8, of which 469,933,008 units were sold. Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Power

Bulk Supply

93,344,056

3,023,439

154,178,170

219,387,343

469,933,008

In September 1957 the Company had 95,028 consumers. By October 1958 the number had risen to 111,613, an increase of 17.45%.

Charges for electricity (per unit) are:

Lighting

Power

Domestic Power

Kowloon

New Territories

29 cents

37 cents

14 cents

14 cents

13 cents

13 cents

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge. The rate of 15% in operation at the beginning of the year was reduced to 12% on 1st March. Special rates are available for large industrial consumers.

      The only part of the New Territories to have its independent source of electric light is Cheung Chau, where there has been an electric power station in existence since 1913. Originally started as a community project, it later sold out to commercial interests and has since changed hands several times. The present owners, the Cheung Chau Electric Co., Ltd., have their offices in Victoria. The basic rate, as from 1st June 1958, is 90 cents a unit for lighting and 42 cents a unit for domestic and commercial power, with special reductions for large consumers.

      Gas. Gas is supplied on both sides of the Harbour by The Hong Kong & China Gas Co., Ltd. which was first established in 1861. Gas is at present provided by a completely modern plant at Ma Tau Kok and by the original plant at West Point.

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221

Twin under-water gas mains were laid across the Harbour in 1958 to connect the Kowloon and Island areas of supply. Work is now proceeding on the construction of an additional plant at Ma Tau Kok which will use oil for gas-making, instead of coal. When the new oil gas plant is complete and in operation, the West Point Works will be closed down and all Island gas requirements will be pumped across the Harbour from Ma Tau Kok. At present about one-third of the Island's requirements are coming from Ma Tau Kok.

       Gas main extensions are in hand to the east and west of the Kowloon area of supply and other extensions are increasing the areas supplied with gas.

Total quantity of gas sold in 1958 was 712,429,500 cu. ft. compared with 675,964,900 cu. ft. in 1957. The number of con- sumers rose from 10,311 to 11,352.

      Tramways. An electric tramway service is operated by Hong- kong Tramways Ltd. on Hong Kong Island. The track, the gauge of which is 3 feet, is about 19 miles in length when calculated on a single track basis. It extends from Kennedy Town to Shau Kei Wan with a branch line encircling the Race Course in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the City of Victoria. The tramcars are of the four-wheeled, double-deck, single-staircase type and are intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The operating voltage is 500 volts direct current.

The average daily service of cars run in 1958 was 138. This provided a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, which is in the centre of the system, the minimum service frequency was a car every 35 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried during the year was over 173,500,000, while the total mileage run was slightly over 7,500,000.

Fares are charged at a flat rate for any distance over any route (the maximum route length is 63 miles) of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (11⁄2d.) 3rd class. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, students and Services personnel.

      The Peak Tramway, operated by the Peak Tramways Co., Ltd., was opened for traffic in May 1888, and was then known as the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With a lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and a Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant and incorporate safety features which make it possible for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track. Passengers are carried to and from the Peak at the rate of approximately 1,000 an hour.

      Towards the end of the year the Public Works Department co- operated with the Company in constructing a temporary diversion bridge over Kennedy Road so that, without interruption to the tramway service, the existing stone bridge could be re-built to provide additional head-room and road-width for motorists.

Bus Services. On Hong Kong Island bus services are maintained by the China Motor Bus Company, Ltd. which operates a fleet of 237 diesel-engined buses and two sightseeing coaches, all of United Kingdom manufacture. During 1958 the Company's vehicles covered some 9,200,000 miles and carried over 79,000,000 pas- sengers, both figures exceeding those for any previous year. Thirty five new underfloor-engined buses were licensed, whilst a number of vehicles due for replacement were withdrawn from service.

The Company moved into its new headquarters and mainte- nance block at North Point during the latter part of the year and also acquired at public auction a further site of 20,000 square feet for garaging its expanding fleet.

      During 1958 the Kowloon Motor Bus Co., (1933) Ltd. operated twenty eight bus routes in Kowloon and ten bus routes in the New Territories. In October, two new bus routes were opened for service in Kowloon.

      A number of old buses were scrapped during the year and replaced by a similar number of new buses. The number of passengers carried was 289,000,000 and the mileage of the Com- pany's fleet of buses was 23,500,000.

Ferries. The 'Star' Ferry Co., Ltd., operates a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

223

Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern extremity of the Kowloon peninsula. Eight vessels are in service and operate daily for 19 hours. A three-minute service, taking seven minutes to cross, is maintained during the busy periods of the day, and a regular service until 1.30 a.m. Over 36,300,000 passengers were carried in 153,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 99,500 persons.

The Hongkong & Yaumati Ferry Co., Ltd. began operations on 1st January 1924 with eleven small wooden steam-vessels servicing three cross-harbour routes. Today the Company operates a fleet of forty eight diesel-engined vessels which maintain six cross-harbour ferry services as well as ferry services to outlying districts in the New Territories.

The routes inside the Harbour are between Wilmer Street, Jubilee Street, Stewart Road and Tonnochy Road on the Island, and Sham Shui Po, Mong Kok, Jordan Road and Kowloon City on Kowloon peninsula. The Company also operates the sole vehicular-ferry service between Jubilee Street and Jordan Road.

During 1958 a record number of 93,740,000 passengers and 1,426,000 vehicles were carried, being an increase of 8,210,000 passengers and 39,000 vehicles over the previous year's figures. The Kowloon City/Wan Chai ferry service, which commenced operations on 3rd July 1956, carried 5,670,000 passengers in 1958, an increase of 1,060,000 passengers over the 1957 traffic.

Of the ferry services to outlying districts, that to Cheung Chau was well patronized throughout the year. The summer months saw large numbers of holidaymakers attracted to Silvermine Bay and Peng Chau. During cooler weather, the Hong Kong/Tai O Service via Kap Sui Mun, Castle Peak and Tung Chung carried many pilgrims and hikers for the monasteries of Lantau Island. The Tolo Harbour service which provides a welcome link with the outside world for isolated villages along the shores of Tolo Harbour, carried 68,000 passengers during 1958.

      On the 24th July 1958 the Hong Kong/Tsing Yi/Tsuen Wan ferry service resumed operations after an interruption of more than sixteen years. Over 340,000 passengers were carried in the last five months of 1958.

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      New construction during 1958 consisted of one single-ended steel ferry vessel the 'Man Fat', which replaced an old wooden ferry vessel of the same name. In addition, the single-ended ferry vessel the 'Man King', launched in December 1957, joined the fleet in May 1958. The Company's Tai Kok Tsui Depot with its three slipways carried out continuous maintenance work on the fleet throughout the year.

PUBLIC WORKS

Port Works & Development. The reclamation of a strip of land 250 feet wide between Rumsey Street and Morrison Street in Central Victoria, an area of about five acres, was completed during 1958. The sea wall retaining this reclamation will provide landing berths for the Macau ferries, and the reclaimed land, apart from providing valuable development lots, will permit Connaught Road Central to be widened.

The construction of the new piers in Hong Kong and Kowloon for the Star Ferry service was completed during 1958, making possible the simultaneous berthing of four ferries on each side of the Harbour.

At Hung Hom, in Kowloon, 1,400 feet of sea wall was com- pleted and permitted the reclamation of a further fourteen acres. Landing steps were incorporated into this sea wall in order to provide berthing facilities for small craft. The additional work necessary to complete this sea wall and reclamation was held in abeyance pending a decision on the ultimate reclamation line.

At Kwun Tong work in connexion with the reclamation of Industrial Zones I and II was continued so that by the end of 1958 a total of over sixty four acres had been reclaimed, the greater part being then sold for factory sites. Spoil for this reclamation is being obtained from an area of the neighbouring foothills known as Kwun Tong, Housing Zone III, where the sites are being so levelled as to provide an area of about twenty seven acres for housing and community use. Further mention of this scheme is made in Chapters 1, 3 and 6.

       In November 1958 work commenced on the foundations of a 500 feet long sea wall adjacent to Tong Mi Road, Kowloon. The

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

225

     land to be reclaimed in this scheme will permit Tong Mi Road to be widened and extended.

In the New Territories, piers at Kat O Island, Tap Mun Island and Chi Ma Wan Prison on Lantau were completed, while work commenced on the construction of piers at Kei Ling Ha Hoi and Sok Kwu Wan in Tolo Harbour and on Lamma Island respective- ly. The construction of three breakwaters between Tsing Yi Island and Nga Ying Chau was also started in 1958. When complete, these breakwaters will form a typhoon anchorage to replace the existing natural typhoon shelter at Tsuen Wan which is being rapidly absorbed by a reclamation scheme. The sea wall for this reclamation, which is now under construction, is to be approxi- mately 3,500 feet long and should be completed by the end of 1959.

      Mr. F. H. Allen, Director of the United Kingdom Hydraulics Research Laboratory, visited Hong Kong in July in order to investigate and report on the possible effects of further reclama- tion and other works in the Harbour area.

      During the year a total number of 11,000 tests on various kinds of engineering and building materials were carried out. Out of these, 1,300 tests were made for private architects and contractors; this represented a remarkable increase over the figure (606) for the previous year. With the installation of a new 200-ton compression machine, the Laboratory was able to test larger and stronger samples than before for compressive strength.

      Buildings. The contruction of buildings by the Public Works Department progressed steadily throughout the year, but the pro- gramme of new works was so heavy that it proved necessary to commission private architects to design and supervise the construc- tion of some twenty of the new projects.

      At the central reclamation in Victoria, the construction by the Public Works Department of the second and smaller three-tiered car park was completed, providing accommodation for nearly 200 cars. This building, which has not yet been opened for use, adjoins the site of the proposed new City Hall, the drawings for which had been completed and piling tenders invited by the end of the year.

      For the Medical Department, piling was finished and tenders received for the second stage of the Castle Peak Mental Hospital.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     These buildings, with Phase I, will accommodate 500 patients together with medical officers and staff, and the scheme has been designed to allow for its expansion to a 1,000-bed hospital. The preparation of working drawings continued for the new 1,300-bed general hospital in Kowloon which, with the gracious consent of Her Majesty the Queen, will be known as the Queen Elizabeth Hospital; preliminary site formation work was also started. Piling was completed for the adjacent Sisters' and Nurses' quarters and tenders were invited for the superstructures. For the existing Kowloon General Hospital, working drawings were prepared for a new three-storey theatre and ward block which will provide two major and two minor operating theatres and wards for seventy additional beds with ancillary accommodation. For the Queen Mary Hospital on Hong Kong Island, a private architect in- vestigated and reported on the feasibility of enlarging and modernizing the hospital by increasing the number of beds, providing new operating theatres, a radiological department, and teaching facilities for medical students and nurses. A private architect also prepared drawings for the new Government clinic at Sai Ying Pun and construction of the building was started.

      Buildings for the Police Force included a new divisional police station at Tsuen Wan, with rank and file barrack quarters, single officers' quarters, and four flats for married officers and their families. These buildings were nearing completion by the end of the year. Piling was started in October at Cheung Sha Wan for the large scheme which will provide 826 police rank and file married quarters, together with a twenty four-classroom standard government primary school and a medical clinic. Sites at North Point and Kennedy Town on the Island and at Farm Road in Kowloon were surveyed, and sketch plans were in course of prep- aration for, some 2,000 additional police rank and file married quarters. The Nissen-hutted Volunteer Slopes Camp at Fan Ling in the New Territories was taken over from the Army and adapted for occupation as a police camp. On Lantau Island a police post was completed at Silvermine Bay by a private architect.

      As a further stage in the development of the Technical College, Keswick Hall was completed and handed over to the Education Department. The building has an assembly hall and stage for 750, together with a students' dining room and kitchen, and is planned

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

227

to allow for extension. A private architect was preparing a scheme for additional laboratories at the Technical College. In a previous year the Public Works Department had produced designs for a five-storied, twenty four-classroom standard primary school for 1,080 children, which would fit onto a site of about 24,000 square feet. In view of the shortage of land and consequent smallness of the sites the design incorporates play areas on the flat roofs and an open-sided play and assembly area under the building at ground level. One school of this type was completed in 1958 at Li Cheng Uk, while a second, at Cheung Hong Street, was in the early stages of construction; work had started at four other sites. In areas where sites are particularly difficult to find, the feasibility of building thirty-classroom schools by the addition of a further floor to the standard school designs is being examined. For King's College secondary school, working drawings were completed for the addition of classrooms and laboratories. Work- ing drawings were also started for new buildings for Northcote Training College at Pok Fu Lam; this scheme will provide accom- modation for 400 students, with a hostel for 200 and flats for four wardens and their families. In addition to this work by the Public Works Department, six primary schools by private architects were completed, while working drawings were in hand by private architects for additions to, or the rebuilding of, four more schools.

Standard three-bay fire stations for the Fire Brigade were completed at Yuen Long and Tsuen Wan in the New Territories and at Ma Tau Chung in Kowloon. The construction of two small fire stations was started at Cheung Chau Island and Tuen Mun San Hui, while working drawings were started for a combined building at Peng Chau to house a fire station, a post office, and stores and quarters for the New Territories Administration. Site work had started by the end of the year for a post office at Sheung Shui in the New Territories, which will include some departmental living quarters at first floor level.

       The West Wing, which is the final stage of the Central Govern- ment Offices on Hong Kong Island, was nearing completion by the end of the year. This building, which will accommodate the offices of several Government departments, is built on a very steeply sloping site and has six floors at one end and thirteen

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

floors at the other; this has added considerably to the complexity of the structure. An underground car park is provided for approximately 140 cars. Further office space is incorporated in the designs, by private architects, for three magistracies, of which that at Causeway Bay is under construction while the two at Western District and North Kowloon are at the drawing board stage. A new court is also being designed for the New Territories. For the Prisons Department, site formation was completed and construction work started towards the end of the year on the prison officers' quarters at Arbuthnot Road beside Victoria Prison. This scheme will provide sixteen flats for prison officers in an eight-storey block with garages below, an eleven-storey block containing forty two married warders' quarters and a third block with barrack accommodation for forty warders. In addition, building work was started on a pair of houses for prison officers at Chi Ma Wan Prison on Lantau Island. Cape Collinson Camp was taken over from the Army and converted for use as a vocational training centre for young offenders.

      During the year the Resettlement Department programme was advanced by the construction of 9,800 rooms for 49,000 settlers in estates at Tai Wan Hill, Lo Fu Ngam, Wong Tai Sin and Li Cheng Uk, while site formation and construction were started for estates at Jordan Valley, Kwun Tong and Chai Wan, the latter being the first estate on Hong Kong Island. The Jordan Valley and Chai Wan schemes each include a five-storied block of factory units to provide working space for the numerous small industries that are displaced when squatter areas are cleared. A workers' canteen is provided at roof level on each of these factory blocks.

Schemes for the Urban Services Department include a large crematorium at Sai Wan on Hong Kong Island for which a start was made on the working drawings. For Victoria Park, drawings were in course of preparation for a refreshment kiosk, and further investigations were being made for a band stand or orchestral shell. Construction of parks and playgrounds progressed at Bowen Road, Cornwall Street, Argyle Street and three resettlement estates, as did the planning and construction of eight public latrines and bath-houses. Private architects were working on plans for two new abattoirs at Kennedy Town and Cheung Sha Wan, as well as a market at So Kon Po and development schemes at

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

229

      Sai Yee Street, Kowloon, and Whitfield Street, Hong Kong, for the provision of officers' quarters, garages and scavenging depots. A private architect was also engaged on drawings for a new park and open-air swimming pool at Kowloon Tsai.

      The construction of a new nine-storey building at North Point for the Government Stores Department was nearing completion at the end of the year. The building will provide furniture work- shops and storage space on the lower floors, offices on the top floor, and a staff canteen on the roof. A contract was let for the demolition of Buxey Lodge Government hostel and working drawings were completed for the erection on this site of sixty flats for civil servants. Work was also carried out on numerous other small projects and the large annual programme of main- tenance of Government buildings continued throughout the year.

Drainage. Water-borne sewage systems are provided in nearly all built-up areas, including the larger towns in the New Territories. As reconstruction of old buildings and the erection of large new blocks of flats continue, the number of new connexions made is steadily increasing. Many of the older sewers are thus becoming loaded beyond their designed capacity, and the work of re-laying and enlarging them is going steadily forward. Major schemes have also been approved for the provision of intercepting sewers which will abolish the numerous outfalls into the Harbour and bring the sewage to selected sites, where it will be chemically treated and discharged through submarine outfalls. In several cases pump- houses have had to be installed to raise the sewage in the inter- cepting sewers when gravity flow was impossible. The first project covering the Yau Ma Tei area of the Kowloon peninsula is now in operation, whilst one on the eastern side of the Kowloon peninsula is virtually complete except for the necessary screening plant. A start has also been made on the intercepting sewers required for the Wan Chai area.

Surface water, draining from the hills through built-up areas, was originally led to the sea through large open-trained channels, known locally as nullahs, which passed down the centre of roads, with bridges at road intersections. These nullahs were frequently ten feet or more wide and almost square in section. With the tremendous increase in both vehicular and pedestrian traffic it became essential for such obstructions to be removed. During the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

last six years work on this has proceeded steadily, and many nullahs have either been decked or culverted, greatly relieving congestion on a number of main traffic routes. Extensive culvert construction has been carried out at resettlement estates, such as Wong Tai Sin and Chai Wan, in diverting existing streamcourses for site clearances.

Chapter 15: Communications

     THE Colony of Hong Kong owes its existence to its position as a major communications centre on the China Coast. Although in the course of the years the emphasis has to some extent shifted from purely entrepôt and other commercial activities to the development of local industries, described in Chapters 1 and 6, the Colony still depends as much as ever upon the efficient organization and control of facilities for shipping, aircraft, rail and road transport, postal services and telecommunications.

MARINE

The Port of Victoria is renowned not only for the beauty of its natural features, which are described in Chapter 22, but also for its excellent port facilities and handling rate, which are compara- ble with those of any other first-class port.

The administration of the Port is vested in the Director of Marine who, in close co-operation with local commercial interests represented on advisory Port Committees, seeks continuously to stimulate the development of ever higher standards of service, opportunity and safety in its use.

      The Port is well equipped with modern aids to navigation, both in the approaches and within the Harbour area, and all lights have been fully re-established and modernized since the war. At Waglan Island there is a light with a visibility of 21 miles together with a diaphone fog signal; at Tathong Point a powerful electric oscillator fog signal is now in use; and the light installed on Green Island at the western end of the Harbour has a visibility of 16 miles.

The main approach to Hong Kong is marked by a radio beacon and appropriately spaced radar reflectors so that entrance may be effected at all times. The Harbour itself is well lighted and singularly free from submerged dangers. The eastern entrance can be used by ocean-going vessels with a draught not exceeding 36

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

feet, whilst the western entrance now provides a channel for vessels not exceeding 30 feet, the previous limit having been 24 feet. Pilotage is not compulsory but is advisable due to large-scale reclamation and harbour-works which are now in progress.

Each entrance is covered by a Quarantine Examination Anchor- age with Port Health launches on duty from 7 a.m. to sunset in summer and 7 a.m. to 6 p.m. in winter, whilst radio pratique may be granted in certain cases. This arrangement prevents unnecessary movements within the crowded Harbour. Immigra- tion formalities and such customs inspections as may be necessary are also completed at quarantine anchorages so that passengers are free to go ashore as soon as vessels have reached their final berth.

Ship/shore communications are provided by three Signal Stations, each manned continuously and fitted with modern day- light signal lamps which provide coverage for all anchorages within the Harbour and its approaches. In addition, Waglan Lighthouse operates a Signal Station equipped with a radiotele- phone which enables the first information of all vessels sighted in the eastern approaches to be passed immediately to the Port Authorities, owners and agents. Radiotelephones are also installed in Marine, Port Health, Police, Preventive Service and Fire Fight- ing launches. Sets may also be hired commercially with a direct connexion to the land telephone system.

      The internal security of the Harbour and the waters of the Colony is maintained by the Marine Division of the Hong Kong Police, who man and operate a fleet of twenty five Police Launches. All these launches are in radiotelephone communication with the Control Room at Police Headquarters.

      The Fire Brigade maintains in constant readiness a modern ocean-going fire float, together with other fire fighting craft suitable for work in the shallower waters of the Colony. A new shallow- draught fire float is at present under construction.

Regular services are maintained by 18 shipping lines to Europe and the United Kingdom; 20 to the North American continent; 9 to Australia and New Zealand; as well as lines to Africa and South America, and innumerable lines to Asian ports from Yokohama to Karachi. Moreover the attractive and efficient

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233

     facilities available for the handling of cargo and passengers in the Port have convinced traders that it is economical and generally beneficial to their interests to use Hong Kong as a warehousing, transhipping and bunkering point.

Safe berths are available to all vessels with draughts up to 36 feet, at all states of the tide. Commercial wharves can accom- modate vessels up to 750 feet in length and a maximum of 32 feet in draught, and the Government maintains for hire 50 moor- ings, 20 of which are specially designed to withstand typhoon conditions.

      Cargo-handling compares favourably with the most advanced ports. Efficient modern methods, a plentiful supply of labour, lighterage, road-transport, and experienced staffs, capable of under- taking any operation from the stowage of special cargoes to the handling of heavy-lifts and bulk oils, make the Port popular with all connected with shipping. 750,000 measurement tons (mainland) and 230,000 measurement tons (Island) of godown space is equip- ped for ordinary, refrigerated and dangerous goods storage.

       Ships' bunkers are supplied by three of the major oil companies, whilst coal and fresh water can be supplied alongside at any berth in the Port or at the oil-installation wharves. The supply of fresh water is generally only restricted in the dry winter months.

       There are eleven cross-harbour ferry services, including one passenger-vehicular service. These services, operating frequent schedules, transported more than 128,000,000 people and 1,400,000 vehicles in 1958. There is also a number of ferry services operating outside the Harbour area to Aberdeen and coastal towns or villages of the New Territories. The more important ferry services are described in greater detail in Chapter 14.

It was announced in December that the terminal sites of the second vehicular-ferry service, mentioned on page 272 of the 1957 Annual Report, would be situated at the Kowloon City Ferry Concourse and at the North Point Sand Depot and not, as previously proposed, at Hung Hom and the North Point Housing Estate concourse.

      Colony development is greatly assisted by native-type craft, of which more than 23,000 operate in Hong Kong waters. These are engaged in various occupations from fishing to the transport of

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cargo. During the year, in the internal trades, these craft trans- ported more than 690,000 tons of cargo inward and 124,000 tons outward, whilst in trade with China they imported large quantities of foodstuffs; their total external trade for 1958 amounting to about 1,426,000 tons inward and 108,000 tons of cargo outward. About 1,500 junks operate inside Hong Kong Harbour itself, transporting thousands of tons of cargo to and from ocean-going shipping.

      The shipyards and marine engineering establishments in the Colony maintained a satisfactory level of both repair and main- tenance work on ships calling at the Port in 1958. Over one hundred new vessels were constructed to the order of locally- based owners and for others overseas in the Persian Gulf, Malaya, the Pacific and America.

      The services of the Ship Surveys staff of the Marine Department and of the resident Surveyors of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Bureau Veritas, Norske Veritas and the American Bureau of Shipping are in constant demand by the thousands of ships of all nationalities which use the Port. Government Surveyors, apart from ensuring the observance of the International Conventions on Safety of Life at Sea and Load Lines, were fully occupied during 1958 in tonnage computations and checking standards of crew accommodation for the new ships built and the ships applying for registration, under the British flag, at Hong Kong.

The Hong Kong Register of Ships now embodies half a million gross tons of shipping, of which 117 are foreign-going steam or motor vessels of over 500 gross tons. The Examination Centre at Hong Kong, serving the needs of navigating and engineering officers and crews manning this fleet, is the only centre between Calcutta and Melbourne presently engaged in this work and, together with the Hong Kong Technical College, gives full facilities for examinations for all Certificates of Competency of Common- wealth validity, and for Certificates in Radar Maintenance and as Radar Observer.

        A Port Welfare Committee attends to the welfare of crews of visiting ships by allocating money provided by private donation and Government grant to organizations devoted to this work. This year the Committee distributed $180,000.

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Pr

IC

IN READINESS for the jet age of aviation, Hong Kong is enlarging and modernizing its airport at Kai Tak. At present 19 international airlines operate into Kai Tak and five more are planning to use it in 1959. First stage in the $130,000,000 expansion programme was the completion of a great new runway 8.350 feet long and 200 feet wide. This in itself was a remarkable engineering feat, since almost the entire length of the runway is laid. as shown in this photograph. on an artificial promontory reclaimed from the sea. The promontory is 163 acres in area and extends for some 1 miles into the waters of Kowloon Bay. Construction involved the building of 3 miles of sea-wall, moving over 20,000,000 tons of material by dredging and hill demolition, and paving over 60 acres of runway and taxiways.

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THE CENTRAL photograph shows how the new airport looks in relation to the old-the runways of the latter being discernible on the strip of ground at the base of the hills in the middle distance. Two sizeable hills at the landward end of the reclamation, which constituted aviation hazards, had to be levelled, incidentally providing dressed stone for the sea-wall and spoil for the reclamation.

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OTHER PHOTOGRAPHS depict: top left, one of the concrete areas of the new runway being laid: bottom left, demolition in progress at the historic Hill of Sung, showing some of the great quantity of dressed stone secured in the process; top right. spoil being tipped into the sea during construction of the protecting sea-walls and. bottom right, granite blocks for the outer casing of the sea- wall being hoisted into position.

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Photo by South China Morning Post Ltd.

ON 12TH SEPTEMBER 1958 the Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Robert Black, marked the completion of the first phase of the airport development programme when. in a helicopter, he flew through and cut a ribbon stretched across the landward end of the new runway, thus symbolically opening it to international air traffic.

The second stage of the development project --construction of a new parking apron and provision of a temporary terminal building--has already started and is expected to be completed by May 1959. The third and final stage includes the construction of a permanent terminal building, public area and ancillary buildings before the end of 1960. The new terminal building has been designed for efficient and speedy handling of passengers in maximum comfort and is capable of future expansion at short notice if required, without interference with existing facilities. The lower picture shows an artist's impression of the terminal building as it will look upon completion. Its estimated cost is about $19.000.000.

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      During the financial year ending 31st March 1958 (figures for 1956-7 are shown in brackets) 8,522 (7,650) ocean-going vessels of 24,762,199 (21,981,848) net tons, 2,892 (2,289) river steamers of 2,574,326 (2,291,376) net tons, and 36,958 (31,101) junks and launches of 3,036,147 (2,565,654) net tons entered and cleared the Port.

      A total of 1,405,406 (1,301,227) passengers were embarked and disembarked; of these, 67,949 (59,688) were carried by ocean- going vessels, and 1,337,457 (1,241,539) by river steamers.

Weight tons of cargo discharged and loaded were as follows:

Discharged

Loaded

3,575,876 (3,571,332) 1,504,721 (1,751,092)

Ocean-going vessels

River Steamers

16,917 (14,383)

Junks and Launches

1,426,382

(1,103,679)

22,858 (19,942)

108,029

(118,283)

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

      Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow, with connexions to North, East and South-West China. The British Section of the line, which is 22 miles long, is owned by the Hong Kong Government and is operated between Kowloon and Lo Wu on the southern bank of the Sham Chun River, which forms part of the Colony's frontier with China. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the North, but since October 1949, when the present Chinese Govern- ment was established, through passenger services have been suspended. Passengers proceeding to and from China change trains at the frontier. Goods traffic in wagon-loads has been passing to and from China without off-loading at the frontier since 1950.

The total revenue for 1958 was $7,552,218. Operating expendi- ture was $3,205,710, leaving a net operating revenue of $4,346,508. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $8,427,347, $4,309,314 and $4,118,033 respectively. The net operating revenue for 1958 is, therefore, $228,475 more than last year. Capital expenditure was $729,497.

Passenger traffic decreased by 321,824 compared with 1957, and goods traffic increased by 34,159 tons.

Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 4,663,112 or 87.84% of the total. Passengers to and from the

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     frontier station of Lo Wu numbered 645,583 and the majority of these travelled between Hong Kong and China. At present, passengers passing from British to Chinese territory or vice versa walk the 300 yards separating the two termini.

Statistics for 1958 (with figures for 1957 in brackets) are as follows:

Length of line

Main line---22 miles

Total length of line-35 miles

5,308,695 (5,630,519)

Main points of call

:

New Territories (Hong Kong)

Passengers carried

:

Freight carried

:

238,114 tons (203,954)

Passenger miles

65,802,829 miles (73,299,030)

ROADS

With the construction during the year of sixteen miles of new road, there are about 479 miles of road in Hong Kong. There are 187 miles of road in Victoria and the rest of the Island; 126 miles in Kowloon; and 166 in the New Territories. Almost all are sur- faced with concrete or asphalt and carry heavy traffic, being now used by over 36,500 vehicles.

Most of the roads were built before the war and were of light construction. The huge increase in traffic has necessitated a con- tinuous programme for reconstructing these roads to heavier specifications. Unfortunately, much of the newly completed work is seriously damaged by the large number of trench openings cut into all roads by the various utility services providing supplies to the redeveloped buildings-a problem to which there does not appear to be any very satisfactory solution despite the close co-operation of all the parties concerned. Since many of the roads were originally only rickshaw or chair tracks, their alignment and width are not suited to modern traffic. Resumption of private land has therefore been necessary in many cases to obtain adequate widths and to eliminate dangerous corners. In these circum- stances road improvements have to be a compromise between what is needed to provide really adequate roads and the amount of private land which can reasonably be resumed. During the year $3,000,000 was voted for compensation for owners of prop- erty affected.

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      A traffic-route diagram was prepared in 1958 for Victoria to ensure that the main and secondary routes are improved on a rational basis and reasonable traffic flow to all parts of the city is maintained. Dr. G. Charlesworth, a traffic specialist, who is Head of the Traffic Section of the United Kingdom Road Research Laboratory, was invited to visit Hong Kong during the year and, whilst confirming that what had been done was on the right lines, advised that there was a need for greater co-ordination between the departments concerned and that more staff should be appointed to collect and correlate the statistics needed for future planning.

      Hong Kong's first pedestrian subway, across Connaught Road, was in course of construction during 1958 in order to remove the interference to the flow of vehicular traffic caused by the stream of pedestrians to and from the Star Ferry piers. As many as 250 persons a minute cross the road during the morning and evening rush hours. The new subway, which will be about 135 feet in length, will serve as an extension to the existing covered way leading from the piers, with access to and from both Connaught and Chater Roads.

Work also started towards the end of 1958 on the construction of a road across the North Kowloon foothills. This road will link the Kai Tak area with the Tai Po Road, by-passing Sham Shui Po and the other busy and congested districts of Kowloon.

The two quarries operated by the Roads Office produced about 230,600 tons of crushed stone and fines during the year, while the bituminous macadam mixing plants attached to these quarries produced 77,800 tons of coated materials. Almost the whole of this supply of stone and macadam was used by the Roads Office's contractors.

       The increase in the weight of traffic has shown up weaknesses in some of the surfacing materials which had been quite satisfac- tory under lighter traffic. Revised mixes for asphalt and macadam were therefore made at Mount Butler Quarry, and new plant for their manufacture was ordered for Hok Yuen Quarry in Kowloon. Some difficulties were encountered in laying these materials, but these have now been overcome.

The improvement and extension of street lighting continued in 1958, over 1,200 new electric lamps being installed. Most of these

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lamps were in new locations, but some replaced gas or inadequate electric lamps.

VEHICLES

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony on 31st December 1958 was 36,522. This represented an overall increase of 3,598 over 1957. There is now a density of 76 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Private Cars (including 2 on Lantau Island) Motor Cycles (including motor scooters)

Taxis

Buses

Goods Vehicles

    Crown Vehicles Rickshaws Tricycles

:

:

:

:

:

:

:

24,378

2,357

693

741

5,429

1,255

869

800

36,522

MULTI-STOREY CAR PARK

Hong Kong's first multi-storey car park, which is operated by the Urban Services Department under the general control of the Urban Council, completed its first year of operation in December. Situated at the Star Ferry Concourse in Victoria, the three-storey building has parking space for 403 cars and is open day and night. It has been increasingly used by office workers and shoppers, an average of 15,760 cars being parked each month, and has been completely filled on a number of occasions, although there has been no reduction in the amount of free parking space available nearby.

Reduced rates for short-term parking, cheap night and week-end rates, and monthly tickets were introduced in December.

The second of the multi-storey car parks, to hold 169 cars, was completed during the year on the City Hall site. It will be opened as soon as the present free parking space is required for the erection of the City Hall.

CIVIL AVIATION

On 12th September 1958 H.E. the Governor opened the new runway at Hong Kong Airport. This runway, which will eventually

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be 8,350 feet long and 200 feet wide, has been constructed on a promontory 800 feet in width and extending for 1 miles into Kowloon Bay from which it was reclaimed. The runway and parallel taxiway are stressed to take aircraft weighing up to 400,000 lbs. all-up weight, and cleared areas of 300 feet and 800 feet will be provided at the south-east and north-west ends of the runway. It is expected that all work in connexion with the runway will be completed by March 1959.

This was the most important public works project of the year and marks the virtual completion of the first stage in the Airport Development Plan which is designed to provide an international airport capable of operating on a 24-hour basis and of handling the new jet and prop-jet aircraft which are now expected to be flying on the Pacific routes by the middle of 1959.

The construction of the new airport, which is being financed from local funds with an interest-free loan of £3,000,000 from the United Kingdom Government, is estimated to cost at least $130,000,000 (£8,150,000). All phases of the constructional planning and work are being supervised by the consulting engineers, Messrs. Scott & Wilson, Kirkpatrick and Partners, working under the direction of the Director of Public Works; the Director of Civil Aviation co-ordinates the operational requirements. Overall plan- ning and expenditure are reviewed as necessary by an Airport Progress Committee, under the Chairmanship of the Deputy Financial Secretary (Economic).

Upon the closing of the two old runways, work began immedi- ately on the second stage of the development plan, which involves the construction of a new terminal aircraft parking area capable of accommodating up to eleven large aircraft; the provision of a hydrant refuelling system to be controlled from the new fuel farm; the construction of a new freight building which will be used as a temporary terminal building for about eighteen months; and the building of a new airport airmail centre and other ancillary services. This stage is due for completion by the end of May 1959 and by that time the full airport and approach lighting systems will have been installed, certain radio and radar approach and navigational aids will be in position, and the airport will be operating on a 24-hour basis.

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      Planning of the third and final stage, namely the erection of a new airport terminal building with associated public terminal facilities, has been somewhat protracted because of the need to ensure that the proposed terminal facilities whilst adequate to meet both present and future needs, were not at the same time on too elaborate a scale to justify the cost involved. On the advice of the Airport Progress Committee, the Government eventually decided that the original plans were too ambitious and should be considerately modified by the elimination of certain inessential facilities. As a result the estimated cost of construction of the terminal has been reduced from $25 million to $16 million and the revised scheme is expected to be completed towards the end of 1960. The architect's sketch of the new building, as it will ultimately appear, together with scenes from the construction and opening of the runway, are illustrated elsewhere in this Report.

      Hong Kong Airport lies at the base of the Kowloon Peninsula with its new runway extending into Kowloon Bay. The airport is suitable for both land and sea operations and, as explained above, now operates only on a dawn to dusk basis, night operations being restricted to emergency only due to topographical hazards and limited visual and radio navigational aids. The administration and operational facilities are controlled by the Director of Civil Aviation and a small number of specialist officers, who supervise all spheres of civil aviation and co-ordinate the planning for future developments. Of the total staff of 336 officers in the Civil Aviation Department, 312 have been locally recruited, and training facilities are made available in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom to enable all technical personnel to gain further knowledge and experience.

The Civil Aviation Department provides staff and equipment to cover the usual administrative and operational services such as Air Traffic Control, Telecommunications, Air/Sea Rescue, Fire and Crash, Aeronautical Information and Air Registration, and, in conjunction with the Royal Observatory, also provides an Aeronautical Meteorological Information Service. Cable and Wire- less Ltd. is responsible for the technical maintenance of the Colony's aeradio services. Aeronautical engineering facilities in the form of aircraft and engine maintenance, repair and overhaul are offered by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co., Ltd.

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     (see Chapter 6 for details), while the Far East Flying Training School provides Primary Flying Training and Aeronautical Engineering and Electronics Training.

      All air services to Hong Kong Airport are of an international character and nineteen airlines, including two local airlines, operate air services connecting Hong Kong with the principal world air routes at a frequency of 184 flights to and from Hong Kong a week. The notable features of the year's operations have been the introduction of the turbo-prop Bristol Britannia 312 and the Super Constellation type G, while B.O.A.C.'s Comet IV made its first trip to the Colony for the opening of the new runway.

Details of traffic for the year are:

Passenger Aircraft

Passengers...

Freight

Mail

In

4,773

Out

4,780

122,082

132,269

792,061 kilos.

2,646,725 kilos.

403,295 kilos.

288,977 kilos.

POST OFFICE

      Postal Services. The upward trend in postal business during recent years continued in 1958 with both traffic and financial figures for the year being the highest recorded.

      Considerable difficulty was still experienced in accommodating this increase in the two main Post Offices at Victoria on the Island and Tsim Sha Tsui in Kowloon; although additional accommoda- tion, which will be made available on upper floors of the General Post Office building early in 1959, will be of assistance.

No new Post Offices were opened in 1958 and there is still a need for more Post Offices in outlying districts. A vigorous pro- gramme of development is, however, being followed and new offices for Kowloon City, Mong Kok, Sheung Shui and Peng Chau Island are already under construction. Planning has also reached an advanced stage for construction of an airmail centre at Kai Tak Airport, and preliminary plans have been made for new Post Offices at other points, including a new Central Post Office on Nathan Road in Kowloon.

       An increase in the number of destinations served by ships calling at Hong Kong resulted in the number of direct letter mail

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despatches constituted being increased from 77 to 90 and a reduction in transmission time to many places. Air mail despatches formed remained at the level of 74 destinations. Parcel despatches were increased by both air and sea, 36 and 95 destinations respectively now being served.

The Kowloon-Canton Railway is the main medium for the cir- culation of mails to and from China, the number of bags handled exceeding 100,000. One despatch of mail to various districts in China is made and one mail is received daily.

Surface letter mails were being received at the end of the year from 90 different places as compared with 76 in 1957, but air mails continued at the level of 69. The number of places from which parcel mails were received increased to 31 by air and 46 by sea.

      A very considerable increase in the number of registered items handled was recorded, 4,056,255 items being handled as compared with 2,988,871 in 1957. Parcel traffic figures also rose to 1,107,353, the figure for 1957 being 956,179.

The exchange of Christmas greeting cards maintained its popu- larity, with a record total of 5,483,916 items being handled in the ten days preceding Christmas. On 22nd December alone over 800,000 items were posted. With the use of a temporary labour force, a better clerical staff position and a very good response by the public to a 'Post Early' campaign, all traffic was cleared on time.

      The value of money order and postal order business rose to $10,609,527 for the year, the figure for 1957 being $7,058,074. This was mainly due to the higher value of transactions and the increasing popularity of the $3, $4 and $5 postal orders.

Revenue receipts totalled $33,630,238. In addition, revenue stamps to the value of $3,843,622 and Wireless Licences to the value of $1,729,987 were sold over post office counters.

      Stamp Competition. The decision was announced in February 1958 to make a new issue of Hong Kong stamps of all denomina- tions in 1962, preceded by a special commemorative issue to mark the centenary of the first Hong Kong stamp of 1862. A competi- tion open to all comers was organized during the year and closed on 31st December 1958, with 214 designs being received from 48 entrants in 6 countries, including 84 designs from Hong Kong.

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Radio Licensing. The Wireless Division of the Post Office is responsible for the issue of all types of radio licences, including those for amateur wireless stations and radio dealers. The number of broadcast receiving licences in force on 31st December was 71,631 as against 64,486 on 31st December 1957. This represents an increase of nearly 8.5%. 865 other licences were also issued as against 721 in 1957.

         This division also conducts examinations for the Postmaster General's Certificate for proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy, and carries out the survey and inspection of ships' and aircraft' wireless stations. In addition, examinations are carried out, on behalf of the Marine Department, for the Ministry of Transport's Radar Maintenance Certificates. Another function is the enforcement of the regulations made under the International Telecommunication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecom- munication Ordinance (Chapter 106).

      The Wireless Division maintains a close liaison with the Hong Kong Communications Board and its Frequency Assignment Committee on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external telecommunications.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS *

       Cable & Wireless Ltd. are responsible for all telegraph services between Hong Kong and overseas, for telegraph and radiotele- phone services with ships at sea, and for a VHF Harborphone service with ships anchored in Hong Kong Harbour. They also provide a service for internal telegrams throughout the Colony, and are responsible for the technical maintenance of Radio Hong Kong, the aeradio and meteorological radio services, and the VHF communications of various Government departments. In conjunc- tion with the Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd., a radiotele- phone service is maintained with most countries.

The company operates seventeen high-speed wireless telegraph circuits working with all the major centres of the Far East and with Europe. It also operates three modern-type duplex submarine cables, connected to the Company's world wide network of

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

142,500 miles of submarine cable. During 1958 a new wireless telegraph circuit was opened to Davao in the Philippines.

The radiotelephone service continued to expand during 1958, services to East and South Africa, Portugal, Teheran and Yugoslavia being opened. Additional relay services were also provided, and the hours of the schedules to some countries were extended.

A local teleprinter service for acceptance and delivery of tele- grams is maintained, and a Deskfax facsimile service for the same purpose was opened in 1958 for use by hotels. The opening of an international Telex service is scheduled during 1959, firstly to Japan, Singapore, Australia and Europe, with expansion later to other centres.

Estimated traffic figures for 1958 (with 1957 figures in brackets) are as follows:

Telegrams Transmitted Telegrams Delivered

Telegrams in Transit ...

Radiotelephone inward calls ...

Radiotelephone outward calls

Radio Pictures Transmitted

(60 Pictures)..

Radio Pictures Received (20 Pictures)

Press Broadcasts

965,000 (920,300) 1,067,100 (1,098,700)

469,600 (433,800)

571,800 (543,600) minutes

450,000 (429,400)

minutes

15,960 sq. cms. (29,397)

4,832 sq. cms. (1,915)

43,000,000 (41,924,000)

words

Meteorological Broadcasts

Harborphone calls with ships in

harbour

639,000 (564,000) words

42,000 (45,439)

TELEPHONES

      The Colony's internal telephone service is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd., a public company operat- ing under statutory control. Radiotelephone service is available to most parts of the world in co-operation with Cable and Wireless Ltd.

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       The system is fully automatic and service is provided from five major exchanges and a number of satellite exchanges. Construc- tion of two more major exchanges in Kowloon, with a combined ultimate capacity of 32,000 lines, began in 1958 and is scheduled for completion in 1959.

The Company's system now comprises some 62,000 direct exchange lines and 24,000 extensions, making an approximate total of 86,000 stations. Demand for service continues to grow and planning for additional exchanges to meet this demand is continuous.

Despite increasing costs, telephone rentals remain unaltered and are possibly the lowest in the world. Rentals are charged on a 'flat rate' basis at $300 per annum for a business line and $225 per annum for a residential line. For this fee the subscriber may make as many local calls as he wishes.

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

       The Royal Observatory is the sole source of weather informa- tion in Hong Kong. The Central Forecast Office at the Observatory provides forecasts for the general public, shipping and the Armed Forces, and supplies analyzed weather charts by facsimile to the Aviation Forecast Office at the airport. In addition to its mete- orological duties, the Observatory operates a seismological station and a time service.

The Royal Observatory's most important function is to give warning of storms. Whenever a tropical depression, storm or typhoon moves into the China Sea, six-hourly and often three- hourly statements of position, intensity and direction of movement of the centre are issued. Frequent reliable ship reports and storm reconnaissances by aircraft help to locate storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use, and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion.

       Four tropical storms affected Hong Kong during the year, but a gale warning was necessary on only one occasion. Local storm warning signals were displayed for a total of 214 hours and the strong monsoon signal for 230 hours.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Details of the year's weather are given in Chapter 22.

METEOROLOGICAL RESEARCH

      Hong Kong's contribution to the International Geophysical Year consisted of additional radiosonde ascents, and both radio- sonde and radarwind ascents to very high altitudes. Special seismological records were made, and locally-registered ships voluntarily co-operated by making a large number of weather observations.

Work continued with a long-term project to determine whether afforestation may affect the run-off of surface water by increasing condensation in foggy conditions. A study of the effect of mete- orological conditions on tides and of tidal waves at Hong Kong was completed. The Radiosonde Section of the Observatory made a detailed investigation of the corrections made to radiosonde observations, and the results were published in a paper entitled Modification to Lag and Radiation Corrections for the Kew Type Radiosonde in the Troposphere.

Chapter 16: Press, Publishing, Broadcasting,

Films and Tourism

PRESS

HONG KONG has a large and active press. At the end of December 1958 some 180 periodicals and publications of all kinds were listed by the Registrar of Newspapers. Not all of these are daily news- papers. Indeed newspapers proper, including weekly and bi-weekly papers, account for only forty six of the total registered. The remainder are mainly magazines of all kinds. A list of some of the leading publications is at Appendix XIX.

      The vast majority of these newspapers and periodicals are published in the Chinese language. There are only a round dozen English-language publications in both categories.

       The extent of readership is unknown. Unofficial estimates put the total circulation of Chinese-language newspapers (morning and afternoon) at somewhere in the region of half a million copies a day. But since audited circulations and certified net sale figures are unknown, this estimate must be taken with reserve.

      Eighteen of the Colony's newspapers are members of the News- paper Society of Hong Kong and may be regarded as the principal newspapers of the Colony. Among Chinese morning newspapers, recognized leaders are the Wah Kiu Yat Po (Overseas Chinese Daily News), Sing Tao Jih Pao and Kung Sheung Yat Po (Industrial & Commercial Daily), all of which maintain a good balance between foreign and local news and are, generally speak- ing, non-partisan politically. All three also publish afternoon editions. A popular non-political daily which has no afternoon edition is the Sing Pao. Orthodox Chinese communist policies are voiced in the Ta Kung Pao, Wen Wei Pao and New Evening Post, whilst the Hong Kong Times speaks for the Nationalist regime in Taiwan. Other Chinese newspapers which are members of the Newspaper Society are the New Life Evening Post and Hung Look Daily News, as well as the bilingual Daily Commodity Quotations.

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      Only two morning newspapers are published in the English language the South China Morning Post and the Hong Kong Tiger Standard (the latter owned by Sing Poh Amalgamated Ltd., publishers of Sing Tao Jih Pao and Sing Tao Man Pao). The South China Morning Post Ltd. also publishes the afternoon newspaper China Mail (the oldest daily newspaper in the Colony) and the weekly Sunday Post-Herald.

During recent years the Hong Kong press world has displayed considerable stability and there have been few failures but, equally, few new ventures started.

      As with daily newspapers, the leading publications in the magazine field are all Chinese. Despite educational developments and a steady increase in the number of Chinese who are com- pletely literate in both English and Chinese, it would seem that the majority of the people of Hong Kong prefer to read in their native language. Since 1946 there have been several attempts to start new English-language magazines, but the majority of these failed to secure a circulation sufficient to warrant continued publication. Of major magazines in the English language, only the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review and bi-monthly Hong Kong and Far East Builder-both of which are specialist in their appeal and command circulations outside the Colony-have survived for any number of years.

Four international news agencies maintain full-scale bureaux in Hong Kong, and it is indicative of the attention paid to world news by the local press that the majority of leading newspapers subscribe to at least three, if not all four, of the services provided. The agencies are the Agence France Presse, Associated Press of America, Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press) and United Press International. Offices are also maintained in Hong Kong by the independent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency (official agency of the Chinese Government), the Central News Agency of the Taiwan administra- tion and the Japanese agencies, Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service. There are also a number of small local agencies serving the vernacular newspapers and two or three correspondents (either staff or part-time representatives) for other overseas agencies, in the Colony. Broadcasting and television systems-particularly those of the North American continent-are also well represented.

PRESS, PUBLISHING, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM 249

The Time and Life magazine organization and the New York Times both maintain bureaux in Hong Kong.

The number of editors, correspondents, broadcasters and tele- vision units visiting the Colony continues to increase year by year. In 1958 there were about 300 of these visitors.

PUBLISHING

      The vast majority of books printed in Hong Kong are in the Chinese language, the most notable exceptions being the English publications of the University Press and a number of business guides and directories. Of the Chinese books registered, the largest single category consist of text-books for use in Chinese Primary and Middle Schools in Hong Kong and South-East Asia. Some twenty per cent of all books locally registered tend to fall into this category. The second largest group are the religious publica- tions of the various churches and missionary bodies, many being translations from the English; these make up about fifteen per cent of the total. Roughly ten per cent could be classed as fiction, mostly of a very ephemeral nature, while another ten per cent deal with scientific or technical subjects. Bulletins and reports constitute another five per cent, while the remainder are a miscellany of a generally popular and transitory nature.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICE

Official information services are centred in the Government Public Relations Office. As is customary in most official informa- tion departments, the main work of the Public Relations Office is the supplying of information for dissemination through press and broadcasting channels, both domestic and foreign. As well as issuing statements of policy and information on behalf of the Government as a whole, the department handles the press rela- tions of all other departments of the Government.

      Apart from its published output and regular daily contact with local newspapers and the foreign press corps, the department's staff are active in assisting and providing local contacts for visiting correspondents, broadcasters, film units and the like.

      During 1958 there was considerable expansion of the Govern- ment's general publicity programme, particularly in the field of

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visual publicity. Officers specializing in the making of films and photographs, and in producing posters, booklets and other forms of visual display were recruited and the department was thus able to undertake many new tasks.

      Although the primary concern of the Public Relations Office is to publicize the affairs of the Hong Kong Government, the department does everything it can to promote knowledge of United Kingdom and Commonwealth affairs, and maximum use is made of much of the material supplied by the Central Office of Information in London.

      Press Section. Two of the most important functions of the Press Section are the compilation of a Daily Information Bulletin which gives news of Hong Kong Government affairs, and the preparation and editing of radio bulletins, covering both world and domestic news, in both English and Chinese, for broadcast by Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion. The Daily Information Bulletin, which is distributed to all local newspapers, foreign news agencies and correspondents, averages between 2,500 and 3,000 separate items in the course of a year. United Kingdom and Commonwealth news is carried in the London Press Service prepared by the Overseas Press Services Division of the Central Office of Information, from which items are selected and edited for distribution to the local

press.

      In addition to written output, the staff of the Press Section deal with the bulk of individual inquiries from newspapermen. Such inquiries have greatly increased in recent years and the many and various requirements of visiting correspondents, broad- casters, television and film units have added considerably to the Section's work.

      These services necessitate an almost round-the-clock operation, and Night Duty Officers are available from 10 p.m. every night, week-ends and public holidays included.

      Press photographs and other illustrations for press use are also handled by the Section. These include both United Kingdom and Commonwealth photographs supplied through the Central Office of Information and local photographs, which are now usually taken by the department's own photographers. Simplified plans, sketch maps and scale drawings, suitable for press reproduction,

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     prepared in the Publicity Section to amplify and explain the text of various stories, are also distributed as required.

      The department's system of distribution of material to the press is made available to the Public Relations Officers of the Armed Forces stationed in the Colony and to the British Council Representative, with all of whom the department works in close liaison.

Publicity Section. The development of this Section during the year has enabled some interesting and effective work to be under- taken, resulting generally in a greatly increased photographic output and considerable improvement in the standards of printed publicity. Assistance has been given to a number of other Govern- ment departments including the Commerce and Industry Depart- ment (particularly in the preparation of the monthly Trade Bulletin and the annual Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory), and the Urban Council and the Medical Department in their hygiene campaigns (e.g. the 'Miss Ping On' poster series mentioned and illustrated elsewhere in this Report). The Section designed and originated the material (mainly photographic) for a Hong Kong display at two exhibitions held in Tokyo, one in connexion with the United Nations Regional Planning Seminar held in August and the other at the International Conference of Social Work in November, the Hong Kong booth at the latter being particularly successful.

The small Photographic Unit has done much useful groundwork, producing a wide variety of photographs for use both in local publications and overseas. (The majority of photographs and all graphs in this Report are the work of the Publicity Section).

On the distribution side, the Section handles both its own production and United Kingdom publicity material (posters, book- lets, films, etc.) supplied by the Central Office of Information. The advent of television to the Colony has added another valuable outlet for British official films, and the department supplies the Rediffusion Television network with an average of two pro- grammes a week, one being the British Television News initiated by the Central Office of Information at the beginning of 1958 and the other a straight documentary programme dealing with various aspects of British life. The departmental film library recorded more than 3,000 borrowings of films for non-commercial

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     showings by clubs, schools and similar groups during the year, the films being seen by well over a million people.

RADIO HONG KONG

Radio Hong Kong is a Government broadcasting station with two medium wave transmissions and one short-wave. The Chinese service, broadcasting on 640 Kc/s, uses Cantonese, Kuoyü and Chiuchow as its principal languages; the English service, which also broadcasts regularly in French and Portuguese, is transmitted on 860 Kc/s. The short-wave transmitter on 3.94 megacycles in the 76 metre band broadcasts the Chinese programme to those parts of the Colony where medium wave reception is poor.

The studio centre occupies the sixth, seventh and part of the eighth floors of Mercury House, the headquarters of Cable and Wireless Ltd. in Victoria, fronting the central reclamation. The accommodation is rented from Cable and Wireless, who are responsible for all technical operations of Radio Hong Kong. The 2 kw. medium wave and 24 kw. short-wave transmitters are situated at Hung Hom in Kowloon. Programmes originate from Mercury House and from outside broadcasting points, in stadia, theatres, churches, etc., connected to the studios by lines rented from the Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd. The two pro- gramme services operate from separate continuity suites, the studios being well-equipped and including a concert hall with seating for 100, extending to two floors and used by both services as required.

The station is directed by the Controller of Broadcasting, with a senior programme assistant in charge of each service. The English senior programme assistant, who is on secondment from the B.B.C., supervises the work of five programme assistants and a record librarian. All English announcing and newsreading, and some programme production work, are done by part-time con- tributors. The Chinese service has eight programme assistants, seven announcers and a record librarian. Clerical staff, drivers and messengers bring the total programme staff to 49; technical staff are provided by Cable and Wireless.

      On 30th June Radio Hong Kong celebrated its thirtieth birthday. Both English and Chinese Programme Services celebrated the

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event with special programmes. In English and Chinese, docu- mentary programmes looked back to the birth and growth of broadcasting in Hong Kong, and the English programme included contributions for the occasion from many Commonwealth broad- casting organizations. Artists who have been broadcasting for many years took part in recitals, concerts, plays and variety shows spread over 30th June and 1st and 2nd July.

      A major decision taken during the year was that improvements in reception of Radio Hong Kong services will be made by the introduction of VHF/FM transmissions.

       Reception of the medium wave transmissions has never been satisfactory outside the urban areas, and the growth of inter- ference from both foreign stations and electrical apparatus has degraded the service given in the urban areas themselves. After exhaustive tests by Cable and Wireless engineers, it was finally decided during the year that the earlier schemes envisaging a strengthening of the medium wave transmissions should be dropped in favour of VHF/FM. 5 Kw. transmitters will be in- stalled in a new transmitting station on Mount Gough. These transmitters should give adequate coverage of the entire Colony and it is hoped to have the service in operation by the autumn of 1959.

Technical facilities generally were further improved during the year with the arrival of additional recording and studio control units. A permanent echo chamber was constructed to provide drama and music programme producers with a wider range of acoustic effects. Two VHF/FM mobile transmitters were installed in outside broadcast vans and proved valuable in the handling of complex programmes such as the annual Walkathon and the cross-harbour swimming race.

To improve the production of news bulletins, two news studios were under construction in the new West Wing of the Central Government Offices, in the section to be occupied by the Public Relations Office which is responsible for the preparation of news broadcasts.

       The effect of the all-day Chinese programme service, introduced in mid-1957, was shown by the increase in the number of radio licences. The increase in 1957 was 5,749. At the end of December 1958 licences stood at 71,631, an increase of 7,145 over 1957.

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Chinese Service. Whilst the general pattern of the Chinese service remained unchanged since the service was expanded in May 1957, several new programmes were introduced.

The main design of the pattern is a Cantonese service in which all forms of broadcasting are included, and running through this main design is a limited number of programmes in Hong Kong's minority languages, Kuoyü, Chiuchow and Hakka. News bulletins are broadcast in all three languages; plays, opera and music programmes in Chiuchow and Kuoyü, and story-telling in Kuoyü. English by Radio lessons produced by the B.B.C. are broadcast in Cantonese and Kuoyü, and Kuoyü By Radio lessons produced by Radio Hong Kong are broadcast in Cantonese.

The audience survey conducted by Radio Hong Kong in December 1957 demonstrated that among the programmes with the largest audiences are those which reflect the life of the people of the Colony, in both urban and rural areas, and those in which the people take part as entertainers. In the fields of entertainment, drama, features and outside broadcasts, therefore, increasing emphasis was placed on these types of programme.

An entirely new venture in the entertainment field was the production of a series of variety programmes which in form were very similar to the music hall variety shows of both stage and radio in Britain. Professional singers and actors took part, together with newly discovered comedians and singing acts. The pro- grammes were produced in school halls and regularly drew audiences of a thousand people.

Two variety shows were 'on the road' during the year; the well-established 'Workers Playtime', produced from a different factory or industrial establishment each week, was joined by 'Happy Farmers', a similar show produced in the towns and villages of the New Territories.

'Beginners Please', the amateur variety contest started in 1957, ran for eight series and drew capacity audiences at every per- formance.

      Musical tastes now appear to have clarified in a rather dramatic fashion among Chinese listeners in Hong Kong. The older genera- tion still wants the traditional operas, the instrumental recitals of Chinese music, and the long Cantonese ballad songs, whilst the

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younger generation seems to prefer western music in all its forms. Ephemeral popular music has as many devotees in Hong Kong as elsewhere, but there is enthusiasm for western classical music. In both the Chinese and English services of Radio Hong Kong by far the greatest number of classical music artists and listeners to classical music programmes are Chinese.

       Other Chinese entertainment programmes included quiz pro- grammes, film magazines and reviews, and request programmes, the latter drawing about three hundred letters each week, many of them from overseas Chinese in various Far Eastern and South- East Asian countries.

       The production of radio plays continued at the same level as in the previous year, approximately fourteen plays a week being produced, eleven in Cantonese, two in Kuoyü and one in Chiuchow. The plays ranged from translations of Shakespeare and modern English plays to comedies, tragedies and serials written by Hong Kong authors. Radio Hong Kong continued to provide Radio Sarawak with recordings of Kuoyü plays; at the end of the year Radio Australia was considering the use of similar material in its Mandarin service; and Radio Malaya was consider- ing using several Cantonese plays and other programmes.

       A wide range of talks and feature programmes were broadcast, including the continuation of the weekly cultural talks covering the development of Chinese drama, painting and poetry; the 'Air Doctor', a weekly health talk; and talks on photography and stamp collecting. By arrangement with the B.B.C., Sir Christopher Hinton's talks on 'The ABC of Atomic Energy' were broadcast in Cantonese and a weekly feature 'Life in Britain' dealt with subjects ranging from domestic achievements in industry and society to Britain's role in industrial expansion abroad.

Hong Kong Chinese abroad recorded their impressions in pro- grammes from the B.B.C., Radio Nederland and Radio Australia. With the number of staff available, it was only possible to produce four local features during the year, and these four pro- grammes dealt with the rundown of H.M. Dockyard, the opening of the new Kai Tak Runway, the 4th Festival of the Arts and the work of the Urban Services.

       Radio Hong Kong's first full-scale coverage of an overseas sporting event was in May, when the Cantonese sports producer

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     attended the Asian Games in Tokyo. NHK, the Japan Broad- casting Corporation, provided extensive studio and transmitter facilities through which it was possible to broadcast a nightly half-hour programme covering the day's events at the Games.

The Macau Grand Prix was covered in a similar fashion through facilities provided by Radio Vila Verde.

Religious broadcasting in Chinese was brought into line with English broadcasts during the year, when Sunday morning services were broadcast from Chinese churches. A small interdenomina- tional committee is responsible for allocating the number of broad- casts for each religious denomination.

      English Service. The English service aims at providing a balanced programme of information, education and entertainment not only for the listener from overseas temporarily resident in the Colony, but also for the very large English-speaking local audience. The latter numbers in its ranks many people who listen extensively to English-language broadcasts for serious plays, talks, and docu- mentary and classical music programmes. Within the limited hours available, the English service attempts to maintain a balance between popular entertainment and programmes of minority appeal.

Much local material is broadcast, but professional talent in all fields is scarce and considerable reliance must inevitably be placed on transcribed programmes from abroad, particularly those of the B.B.C., and relays or rebroadcasts of B.B.C. programmes. Never- theless, the range of local production is wide. Both the Hong Kong Stage Club and the Garrison Players contributed more radio drama productions in 1958 and there was a corresponding increase in plays produced by staff producers.

      Hong Kong was visited by several internationally-famous artists during the year and many of these, including Moseiwitch, Anna Russell, Maurice Clare, Jan Peerce, Carlo Zecchi and Enrico Mainardi, McHenry Boatwright, Maurice Wilk, Inia Te Wiata and Gary Graffman, gave recitals.

      Whilst the Chinese audience has ample opportunity to study western music, the western audience has little chance of learning anything of Chinese music. To give listeners this opportunity, a series of six illustrated programmes on the history of Chinese

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music, from the earliest times up to the present day, was in production at the end of the year.

       On the lighter side, several light music series were produced. Some of these were direct broadcasts from night clubs, and other series featured solo singers and pianists in studio productions.

As with the Chinese service, the number of staff producers restricts the number of local documentary programmes which can be produced. There is, however, an abundance of suitable material. Three major programmes were written in 1958: the first was a feature on the rundown of H.M. Dockyard, the second a portrait of a Hong Kong police station at night, and the third an ambitious attempt to unfold the history of broadcasting in Hong Kong on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of Radio Hong Kong in June. Many voices well-known in the past were included in this pro- gramme, together with contributions from all over the Common- wealth.

Regular features include magazine programmes such as 'Just A Year Ago', 'Patchwork', 'Motoring Magazine', 'Women Only' and 'This Week'. Many prominent personalities visiting Hong Kong took part in the latter programme, including the Chairman of Cable and Wireless Ltd., Sir Godfrey Ince, the Rt. Hon. Richard Turton, M.P., Sylvia Syms, Noel Purcell, Senator Fulbright, Lady Violet Bonham Carter, Mr. Neil McElroy, John Cunninghan, Lord Selkirk, and Schura Cherkassky.

Broadcast coverage was given to many of the public events in the Colony and several of these, particularly the opening of the new Kai Tak Runway and the 16th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, were remarkable for the complexity of the broadcast operations.

At Kai Tak, the great distances involved meant that commenta- tors had to be spaced a mile apart, with the producer in the old control tower out of sight of all his commentators and microphones and controlling the entire programme by sound only. At the Products Exhibition, a live sound picture using five remote com- mentary points was broadcast on the evening of the opening day. On New Year's Eve a tour of celebrations involved six outside broadcast locations. Other complex broadcasts were the annual Walkathon and the cross-harbour swimming race, broadcast live by the English service for the first time.

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The most important series of talks during 1958 was sponsored by the British Council. These talks, given before an audience in the British Council, were broadcast in shortened versions. Many eminent speakers took part, and the subjects covered British Professional Institutions, British Universities and Colleges, British Colleges of the Arts, and British Industry.

      Under the title 'A Thought on Your Way', a daily morning series of five-minute non-denominational Christian talks were given by both clergy and lay speakers. In December four talks on Advent were broadcast by clergy of the Anglican Church.

The demand for broadcasting time for charitable appeals grew again, nineteen appeals being broadcast.

      Audience Research. In the early part of the year the joint Radio Hong Kong and B.B.C. audience research survey begun in December 1957 was completed. Over one thousand listeners had been interviewed and the information they gave proved most useful. It enabled, for the first time, some estimate to be made of the size of the audience to radio programmes, their listening habits and their likes and dislikes. Such information is essential in the planning and preparation of a public broadcasting service.

REDIFFUSION

      Sound Relay. Rediffusion (H.K.) Ltd. provides a popular wired broadcast service throughout the Colony, extending to practically all urban areas and most of the outlying villages of the Island and the mainland. At present the system embraces more than 1,300,000 yards of main trunk network cable and approximately 3,000,000 yards of subscribers' installation cabling. Distribution is from eleven sub-stations, feeding 27 kiosks from which 172 feeders radiate to approximately 66,000 Rediffusion loudspeakers.

Programmes are originated in Rediffusion House from modern air-conditioned studios and provide three simultaneous programmes between 7.00 a.m. and midnight daily, two Networks (Gold and Silver) in Chinese and one (Blue) in English.

      Approximately 16% of Rediffusion programmes are commer- cially sponsored. The Chinese programme service offers music, news, drama, talks, sports, commentaries, women's features, children's shows, comedy, story-telling and theatre relays in

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Cantonese, Mandarin, Swatow, Hakka, Shanghai and other dialects. The English service features continuous daily broadcasts of musical entertainment, plays, studio presentations, news, B.B.C. and other relays, sports events, stock-market news, features for women and children, and many other variety presentations. Chinese broadcasts raised more than $250,000 for needy families at the Chinese New Year.

Rediffusion employs 475 local people of whom 98% are Chinese, in addition to hundreds of musicians, soloists, story-tellers and dramatic artists.

Rediffusion rental for a loudspeaker is $10 per month, and sub- scribers have a constant choice of the three programmes provided, which involves the origination of 51 hours of programmes each day.

       Rediffusion, which commenced thirty one years ago in the United Kingdom, operates in many parts of the Commonwealth and the Hong Kong company, locally controlled, is part of this world-wide organization.

Television. Rediffusion (H.K.) Ltd. opened the first television service in any British Colony in May 1957, and the service has been growing in popularity and quality of service since that date. At the end of 1958 a total of more than 2,500 subscribers had been reached.

Equipment includes the latest Pye telecine-camera chains with double channels for both 16 mm. and 35 mm. films and a full complement of studio and control equipment. Because of the language problem in Hong Kong, all Chinese films carry English captions and vice versa.

Programmes are originated from air-conditioned studios, and these include many 'live' presentations such as Cantonese operas, dance orchestras, night-club acts, children's features, and inter- views. The most popular filmed television shows have been imported from the United Kingdom and America for local trans- mission, and six full-length feature films are televised each week. Rediffusion television programmes provide approximately forty hours of wired television weekly, and some of the television periods are commercially sponsored. Outside broadcasts include many sports and special events, and a local and international newsreel is provided each evening. World personalities who appeared on

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     Hong Kong television in 1958 included Marian Anderson, Mark Robson, Lewis Gilbert, Sylvia Syms, Anna Russell, Rafer Johnson, Stanley Matthews, Leo Levitt, Herb Elliott, Blaise Calame, Shirley Evans, Jan Carter, Shirley Simons, Eddy Ray Kirk, Ken Littlewood and others.

More than 97% of the television staff are locally-trained Chinese.

      The rental fee for this service is $55 per month, with receiving unit and all maintenance supplied. For those subscribers who own their own television sets, adapted to receive Rediffusion pro- grammes, the monthly rental is $20.

COMMERCIAL BROADCASTING

On 20th December 1957, the Government announced acceptance of a tender for the operation of a new commercial broadcasting station. It will be recalled that, following a debate on a Sessional Paper 'The Future of Broadcasting in Hong Kong' in the Legisla- tive Council in 1956, the Government had decided to establish a commercial broadcasting station, since its activities might reason- ably be expected to lead to an enhanced revenue from licence fees which would help to bridge the gap between Government expenditure and revenue on Radio Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Commercial Broadcasting Company, Ltd., which will operate the new station, was formed during the year and is expected to receive its broadcasting licence and go on the air during the latter half of 1959.

FILM INDUSTRY

      The Hong Kong film industry continued during 1958 to maintain its high rate of output of films in Chinese. There are eight major producing studios, as well as a large number of small production companies that rent studio space as they require it. Two hundred and forty locally-produced feature films were submitted to the Panel of Film Censors which has to approve all films before exhibition; about a fifth of them had sound-tracks in Mandarin and the rest in Cantonese. Films in other Chinese dialects are rare. Hong Kong companies are known to have financed a number of films produced in part overseas-in Taiwan, Singapore and Japan.

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The nature and size of the market available to these films presents a financial problem. China does not import Hong Kong films, and so, apart from local audiences, Hong Kong productions are shown mainly to the Overseas Chinese of South-East Asia and in Taiwan, although now and again they are exported to the United States for exhibition to Chinese audiences there. The demand of Overseas Chinese cinema audiences for films of Chinese theme told in their own language is insatiable, but the total possible market is not large enough numerically to guarantee an economic return unless production costs are kept at a minimum, so that quantity rather than quality is generally the aim of Hong Kong production. In spite of this, however, the Colony made a good showing in April at the Fifth Film Festival of the Federation of Motion Picture Producers in Asia at Manila; out of four films entered by Hong Kong producers, 'Our Sister Hedy' won for Motion Picture and General Investment Co., Ltd. the award for the best film shown at the Festival, while Shaw Brothers' 'Diau Charn' took five awards-for the best direction, best music, best scenario, best editing and the best actress (Miss Lin Dai).

Two foreign feature films-one for a Philippine company and the other for a German company-have been shot partly in Hong Kong, and the J. Arthur Rank Organization began shooting towards the end of the year for 'Ferry to Hong Kong', a feature film directed by Lewis Gilbert in which Orson Welles, Curt Jurgens and Sylvia Sims are playing; the whole film will be shot in the Colony, and a temporary studio has been built for the interior

scenes.

      Hong Kong has also been the setting for several documentaries made for television services in the United Kingdom, France and the United States, the B.B.C. alone sending three units during the year.

      The cinema is a popular recreation in Hong Kong, and although several theatres closed during the year, some of them are being rebuilt, and other new ones were opened. The total is 65 (66,966 seats) 25 on the Island (28,172), 26 in Kowloon (29,732) and 14 in the New Territories (9,062). The majority of the buildings are modern and air-conditioned, and all but a few are equipped to show wide-screen films.

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After Chinese films produced locally, films from the United States predominate in the Hong Kong cinemas. Records of the Panel of Film Censors show that 274 American feature films were submitted for censorship during 1958, as well as 61 British and 129 from France, India, Italy, Germany, Japan, the U.S.S.R. and China.

TOURIST DEVELOPMENT

During 1958 a steady stream of tourists continued to visit the Colony by sea and air. Hong Kong has the fewest possible entry formalities, good transport services (which will be improved still further when the new Airport has been completed), shopping facilities unrivalled in the Far East and scenery of great natural beauty.

The deficiency in hotel accommodation was met to a consider- able extent during the year although there is still a shortage of first-class rooms. At the beginning of 1958 there were approxi- mately 1,582 hotel rooms available; during the year seven hotels were completed and two extended, providing an additional 829 rooms for visitors.

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The Hong Kong Tourist Association, incorporated by Ordinance in 1957, co-ordinates and promotes the Colony's tourist industry. 'It has the full support of the Government, which is providing sub- stantial financial assistance during the early stages of the Associa- tion's work. The Association has a Board of Management, with nine members broadly representative of the main sections of the industry, the Government and business generally, and an Executive Director, who took up his duties early in 1958.

The Association's main premises, consisting of offices and an Information Bureau, situated in the Peninsula Hotel Arcade in Kowloon, were opened in June; a subsidiary Information Bureau on Hong Kong Island, at the entrance to the Star Ferry piers, was opened in September.

The Association's first year has been spent in the recruitment and training of staff; the assembly of a mass of information about Hong Kong, designed to meet the many questions asked by visitors; and the production of special publicity material which by the end of the year had been distributed to some 3,240 main travel agents and businesses connected with travel in other countries.

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      In response to many requests from overseas the Association supplied articles accompanied by suitable photographs from its photographic library. It also provided, on request, a number of recorded broadcasts, which were used in Canada and the United States.

On 1st November 1958 the Association was opened to general membership. Full membership is open to any international pas- senger carrier, recognized travel agent, hotel proprietor, tourist agent or trade association. Associate membership is open to any individual or body of persons interested in travel and tourist development, either commercial or otherwise, and ineligible for membership as an Ordinary Member. At the end of the year 107 firms and individuals had been elected to membership, sixty two being Associate Members.

The Association works in close co-operation with the Hong Kong Association of Travel Agents, and, in order to promote overseas contacts, has joined the International Union of Official Travel Agents, the Pacific Area Travel Association, the British Travel and Holidays Association, and the American Society of Travel Agents.

..

Chapter 17: Local Forces and

Civil Defence Services

THE Colony's Auxiliary Services comprise the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Auxiliary Police and the Essential Services Corps. The Auxiliary Police, which was created during 1957 by a merger of the Hong Kong Police Reserve and the Special Con- stabulary, is dealt with in Chapter 13. The Essential Services Corps, although legally an entity, is split for administrative and practical purposes into four autonomous Services: the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Civil Aid Services, the Auxiliary Fire Service and the Auxiliary Medical Service.

      All these services, which consist partly of volunteers and partly of persons enrolled since the introduction in 1951 of compulsory service for locally resident citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies, are financed from funds voted annually by the Legislative Council. Service in the auxiliary defence units is in many cases a considerable commitment not only to the individual concerned but also to his employer, and it is fortunate indeed that on the whole employers are most co-operative in releasing members of their staff for these duties, even at considerable inconvenience.

      Except for small administrative and training staffs, the Auxiliary Services are manned entirely by citizens of the Colony who lead or attend training classes and exercises in the evenings or at the week-ends, and in the case of certain services attend more extended training at annual camps lasting up to fifteen days.

      Training obligations vary from service to service. The greatest commitment is in those units where members must attend every year at least sixty instructional parades of one hour's duration, six full days' training and fifteen days' training at camp. The commitment is scaled down elsewhere to the particular require- ment of the unit in question. An allowance designed to cover out-of-pocket expenses is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full day's training and for attending camp,

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officers and members are paid at the daily rate at which they would be paid on mobilization.

The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. The main units of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, which mans and operates two motor mine- sweepers; the Hong Kong Regiment, with the strength and equip- ment of an infantry battalion at lower establishment; Force Head- quarters Units, comprising a Light Troop (4.2 inch Mortars) and other specialized formations; the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force equipped with Auster aircraft and two Widgeon helicopters; the Home Guard; the Hong Kong Women's Naval Volunteer Reserve; the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps; and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force. The officers of the Force are found amongst its members, but there is in addition a small permanent staff of regular officers and non-commissioned officers attached for training purposes.

       Volunteer Service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May 1854 of the Hong Kong Volunteers. In 1878 they were renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was again changed to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December 1941 and fought with the Regular Forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December 1941. In 1956 their action was vividly recalled when part of the old Colours of the Corps, which had been buried in December 1941 to avoid capture by the Japanese, was discovered by workmen excavating a building site on Garden Road. The officers who had buried the Colours had subsequently died in captivity, leaving no record of where the Colours could be found. The remnants of the old Colours were paraded on the Annual Review of the Defence Force in March 1958 and were afterwards laid up in St. John's Cathedral.

For their gallantry in battle and subsequent escapes from Japanese prison-camps in Hong Kong, decorations were conferred upon fifteen members of the Corps; eighteen members were men- tioned in despatches.

       After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March 1949 as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later, the title 'Royal'

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was awarded to the Force by His late Majesty King George VI in recognition of the part played by its forerunner in the defence of Hong Kong.

In March 1957 the award of the Battle Honour 'Hong Kong' by Her Majesty the Queen to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force was announced. The Honour, which was awarded in recog- nition of the part played by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps in the defence of Hong Kong in 1941, is now emblazoned on the Regimental Colour.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, communications, etc. Each unit is staffed primarily by those already employed in such service augmented as necessary by others. Since in an emergency most members would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert, the Corps requires less training than the Defence Force. The Corps is now several thousands strong. Training during the year has been devoted mainly to driving instruction.

       The Auxiliary Fire Service, an autonomous unit of the Essential Services Corps, is designed to augment the Fire Brigade when necessary. It is a well trained, keen and efficient body some hundreds strong, which is regularly called upon to assist the Fire Brigade in fighting serious fires. The new A.F.S. Centre at North Point, which started functioning in November 1956, has greatly extended training facilities.

       The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide first aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in an emergency. It is built up around the Medical Department, the St. John Ambulance Brigade and other members of the medical and nursing professions. In addition, many people with no previous training in nursing and first aid have been enrolled and trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first aid workers in the field. The Unit is now several thousands strong and, whilst during 1958 there has been no marked increase in recruitment, training classes have been attended with keenness and the all-round efficiency of the Service has improved.

       The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services, and

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Photo: South China Morning Post. Ltd.

SINCE his arrival in the Colony in the latter part of January 1958, Hong Kong's new Governor, Sir Robert Black, has seen for himself as much as possible of every aspect of the life and work of the community. Lady Black and the Misses Black have been no less indefatigable. Above, Sir Robert (extreme right) enjoys a joke as a young Chinese lad, a patient in Lai Chi Kok Hospital, organizes his table of toys. Miss Kathryn Black, the Governor's younger daughter, is on extreme left. Below, Lady Black (right) and Miss Barbara Black (centre) in an infants' ward at the Po Leung Kuk.

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AMONG THE MANY visitors who came to Hong Kong in 1958 none were more welcome than five British Parliamentarians representing the United Kingdom Branch of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, who spent two weeks in the Colony as guests of the Hong Kong Branch of the Association. Members of the Delegation were the Rt. Hon. R. H. Turton, M.C., M.P. (leader), Mr. Hervey Rhodes, D.F.C., M.P., Mr. Alan Green, M.P., Mr. Sydney Irving, M.P. and the Rt. Hon. Lord Rea, O.B.E.

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THE VISITING Parliamentarians had a crowded programme which included visits to the University, schools, hospitals and health clinics, co-operative undertakings, model housing and resettlement estates, agricultural projects, factories, social wel- fare organizations, etc. Photographs on this and the opposite page show: top left. the party strolling through Victoria Park with members of the Urban Council. bottom left, in a glove-making factory, top right, among the shacks of a squatter village, and bottom right, touring one of the new resettlement estates in Kowloon.

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HONG KONG HOUSE, a London residential club and social centre purchased by the Government to provide a meeting place for Hong Kong students in Britain, opened its doors to first residents on 31st May. Many Hong Kong firms and private individuals assisted by cash donations or in providing items of furniture or equip- ment. In addition to bedrooms, restaurant and lounges, club facilities include games rooms, a library and a darkroom for photographic enthusiasts. Photographs, taken on the opening day, show, above, the Board of Governors and students taking afternoon tea in the lounge and, below, a corner of the well-equipped kitchen.

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      comprise a Wardens' Service, a Rescue Service, a Communications Unit, and other command and administrative units. The service, several thousands strong, has not increased in numbers during 1958, but members, of whom the vast majority are volunteers, are markedly keen.

The customary annual Civil Defence full day exercise was abandoned in 1958 in favour of smaller and more frequent zone exercises of a few hours' duration in which the Civil Aid Services and the Auxiliary Medical Service co-operate. The new system provides for greater continuity and better supervision of training.

Chapter 18: Research

THE University of Hong Kong continued its research programmes during 1958.

Current research projects in the Department of History include work on the history of Hong Kong with special reference to social and constitutional developments; on the beginnings of modern industry in China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; on the history of the ethnic minorities in south-west China; on problems of communication between the English East India Company and Chinese officials at Canton in the early nine- teenth century; and on aspects of the political and social history of South-East Asia since 1870. A new History of Hong Kong, which is also mentioned in Chapter 27, was published in 1958.

       The Department of Geography and Geology has continued throughout the year to investigate the occurrence of tungsten ores, the physical characteristics of local clays, the geological bound- aries and the geomorphology of the coast line. The Land Use Survey of Hong Kong was finished and a gazetteer of place names in English and Chinese for the 1:80,000 map was published. Archaeological excavations at Shek Pik and Man Kok Tsui on Lantau Island have been conducted, with financial assistance from the Government, by the University Archaeological Team which works under the direction of the Department.

In the Department of Education research projects have included the problems of higher education in Hong Kong; the employment of, and the needs of the community for, university graduates; and various aspects of mental health, in particular the psychological problems of children and young persons and the factors that may have either adverse or beneficial effect upon the mental health of children in a mixed society. Pilot psychometric studies of selected groups of school children have been started.

      New research undertakings in the Department of Economics and Political Science include China's industrial growth under Communist planning; the population problem of mainland China;

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the economic history of Japan; central banking in South-East Asia; the political structure of Hong Kong; and a comparative study of public administration in the Far East. Research on the elasticity of demand for rice is continuing. In addition, the work of the Department's Economic Research Section and its open post- graduate Seminar on Problems of Contemporary China, carried on with the support of the Asia Foundation, are continuing, and the results are currently being published in the annual journal Contemporary China (edited by Professor E. S. Kirby) and in various books issued or in preparation by the Hong Kong University Press.

      In the Department of English research proceeds, concerning chiefly English literature of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and the connexions between the ancient classics and English prose and poetry. A selection of Tennyson's poems with a biographical and critical introduction is being prepared for publication. An anthology of Elizabethan poems designed for the eastern reader or student is also in preparation, and certain special language studies are in progress.

      Research in the Department of Modern Languages has included the study of vernaculars arising from contact between the West and Asian countries. An analysis of the Spanish Creole dialects of the Philippines has already been published and a survey of the Macanese sub-dialect of Hong Kong is now in progress. Work has also been done on problems relating to China coast pidgin and to exotic elements in the vocabulary of English as spoken in Hong Kong.

       The members of the Department of Chinese and of the Institute of Oriental Studies produced Volume III, Number 2 of the Journal of Oriental Studies during 1958. The journal includes the re- searches of Mr. H. L. Lo on the last days of the Sung Dynasty in the Hong Kong region, and part of the researches of Mr. T. I. Jao on ancient Chinese manuscripts preserved in Japan. The results of a number of other research projects on Chinese historical subjects were published by Mr. H. L. Lo in several monographs and in various Chinese Journals. Mr. T. I. Jao has continued and nearly completed his massive research work on the Oracle Bone Diviners of the Shang-Yin Period. In the Institute of Oriental Studies, Mr. JEN Yu-wen has completed and published his monumental

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Studies on the Institutions of the T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo, and is continuing with the supplementary work, A General History of the T'ai-p'ing T'ien-Kuo. Mr. CHANG Hsüan, in addition to his Compilation of Chinese Characters, has been engaged upon an intensive study of the Bronze Mirrors and their Inscriptions in the University Museum of Chinese Art and Archaeology.

In the Department of Extra-Mural Studies research has con- tinued about the career of W. B. Yeats as a dramatist; a book on this subject is now ready for publication. An inquiry into the literary origins of Chinese idioms is also in progress, the results of which will be published in both Chinese and English.

      An investigation of the physical and mental performances of undergraduates has been conducted by the Department of Physical Education and research will be continued with view to establish- ing norms of physical and motor fitness characteristics.

      In the Department of Zoology research has been pursued in the fields of neurology, entomology, morphology, and fisheries. The United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare is supporting a neurological research programme for three years with a grant of US$27,000. Some of the results of the Fisheries Research Unit's programme appeared in the Hong Kong University Fisheries Journal No. 2 (September 1958), published by the University Press. The research vessel Alister Hardy steams an average of 600-700 nautical miles each month in conducting exploratory fishing and sampling operations.

New discoveries made in the Department of Chemistry in the fields of synthetic organic compounds, products from Hong Kong plants, and the mechanisms of chemical reactions are published from time to time in leading British chemical journals and con- tinue to attract attention in many parts of the world.

      The Department of Mathematics has two distinct fields of interest: pure mathematics and applied statistics. In the former, research activity has centred mainly on the problems connected with the quotient groups of finitely generated groups; the theory of linear connexions or differentiable manifolds; and an attempt to develop the theory of metrisable Lie groups from the global point of view. In applied statistics, research work has included the planning, supervision, and analysis of the first social surveys to

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be conducted by probability sampling methods in Hong Kong and also certain econometric investigations into the demand for cereals as part of an F.A.O. Programme.

The research carried out by the Department of Architecture has been in the form of practical work, the most important being the preparation of a report for the Government on the feasibility of establishing a new industrial town for 250,000 people at Tsuen Wan. For this project a consultant group was formed including members of the Department of Civil Engineering.

In the Department of Civil Engineering some interesting experi- mental studies have been undertaken for the Government on a Nullah Model for Drainage of Kai Tak. A method of analysis of indeterminate structures by successive replacement was developed. Research has also been conducted on a simplified method of analysis of R.C. structures, on the effects of wind loads on tall buildings, and on Electric Field near Bundle Conductors. A long- term research project on composite instructures, consisting of steel I-beams and reinforced concrete slabs, was commenced in June 1958, and investigations are being made on: (1) the effective width of slab acting integrally with the I-beam as the compression flange, (2) the behaviour of double spiral shear connectors, and (3) the effect of relative movement between the steel I-beam and the slab on the stress distribution over the cross-section of the composite I-beam. The erection of a two-storey three-bay pre- stressed concrete frame has been progressing satisfactorily since the arrival of equipment from England. Thirty of the members have already been cast and the frame is scheduled for testing in January 1959. Owing to the many advantages in the use of this system for building construction, a detailed programme of testing is being undertaken for this frame, to provide a greater insight into both the theoretical design methods required and the various economical methods of overcoming the practical difficulties in- volved. Experimental investigation on the effect of prestressing on steel frames has been carried out with test specimens of steel portals encased in concrete.

For meteorological research, see Chapter 15.

Chapter 19: Religion

THE Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau, covers nine recognized parish churches and eight mission chapels. In three of these worship is conducted in English, and in the remainder in Chinese. St. John's Cathedral, opened in 1849, was established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850.

       During 1958 the Bishop of Hong Kong was absent in England, where he attended the Lambeth Conference and also made exten- sive preaching and speaking tours on behalf of the Diocese.

      The main work of the year was following up the successful mission to the Diocese by the Franciscan evangelist, the Rev. Michael Fisher, in 1957. Plans went forward for the building of four new parish churches and vicarages. Several church schools planned big extensions to their buildings and some more new schools will be built. The new building for the Holy Carpenter Hostel for Young Workers was completed and St. James' Settle- ment in Wan Chai embarked on a big building project. At the Cathedral a new stained glass window was installed, and a new addition made to the Lady Chapel.

      The English-speaking Free Churches are represented by the Methodists, whose Church is on the Island; by two Union Churches, one on the Island and one in Kowloon; by the Emmanuel Church and the Alliance Church in Kowloon; and by the Baptist Church on the Island and Chapel in Kowloon. The London Missionary Society, whose chief representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the Colony's cession to Great Britain, plays a prominent part in education and medicine, and runs the Nethersole Hospital, one of the Colony's foremost medical institutions.

       There has been a marked growth in the size and vigour of the Chinese-speaking Churches in recent years. Up-to-date statistics are not available, but preliminary results of a survey now under way indicated substantial increases over the 1956 figures. At that

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time there was a minimum of 188 Churches with a membership of over 60,000 (excluding children under 12). During 1958 the Church of Christ in China successfully completed a million dollar drive for Church and school extension projects, including the proposed Robert Morrison Memorial Centre on Prince Edward Road; the Tsim Sha Tsui Baptist Church dedicated its new nine- storey Church Building on Cameron Road; the Chinese Methodist Church completed construction of its new Secondary School on Gascoigne Road; the Lutheran Church dedicated a new Church Building at Tung Lo Wan, Sha Tin. These are only indicative of the large number of new projects developed by the Protestant Churches. It should be noted, too, that, in addition to the major denominations, there is a large number of smaller groups whose total Christian work is not inconsiderable.

      Co-operation among the Protestant Churches continued during 1958 in the Chinese Christian Churches' Union and in the Hong Kong Christian Council. This latter body, which includes both Chinese- and English-speaking Churches, the Salvation Army and the Adventists, created a Hong Kong Christian Doctors' Associa- tion which was host to a Conference of representatives from fourteen countries on the subject "The Christian in Medical Work in East Asia Today'. The co-operative spirit also showed itself in the post-secondary Chung Chi College, whose fourth class graduated this year; in the Council on Christian Literature for Overseas Chinese; in the Study Centre on Chinese Religion; in the Audio-Visual Evangelism Committee; in the Student Christian Centre; and in many other ways. It is particularly evident in relation to welfare work and refugee relief problems.

      Outside observers are always impressed by the very diverse projects that are being undertaken by the Protestant Churches in the fields of welfare and refugee relief and rehabilitation. Direction for these efforts comes from continuous consultation in the Hong Kong Christian Welfare and Relief Council, and overlapping is prevented through a Central Relief Records Office. Church World Service, Lutheran World Relief, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the Salvation Army, the Committee on College Student Work Projects, together with many denominational Committees, are all carrying on a wide variety of welfare and relief work. The World Council of Churches' office continues to help many destitute non-Chinese

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     refugees move from China to a new life in other countries all over the world.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong is as old as the Colony itself. On the 22nd April 1841 the Prefecture Apostolic of Hong Kong was formally established and Msgr. Theodore Joset was appointed the first Prefect Apostolic. In 1874 the Prefecture was raised to the status of a Vicariate Apostolic and Msgr. Timoleon Raimondi, a member of the Pontifical Foreign Mission Institute, was consecrated Bishop and named Vicar Apostolic of Hong Kong. In 1946 the Vicariate was raised to the status of a Diocese and the Rt. Rev. Henry Valtorta, the fourth Vicar Apostolic, became the first Diocesan Bishop of Hong Kong. Since 1951 Bishop Lawrence Bianchi, D.D., P.I.M.E. has been the Ordinary of the Diocese.

The territory of the Diocese includes the Crown Colony of Hong Kong and the Districts of Hoiphong, Po On, and Wai Yeung, on the mainland of China. The Diocese is entrusted to the Pontifical Foreign Mission Institute who have been in Hong Kong since the year 1858.

At present there are in Hong Kong 59 members of the Pontifical Foreign Mission Institute, 53 secular priests, and 202 priests and 103 Brothers belonging to 14 different religious congregations and representing 25 nationalities. There are also working in Hong Kong 580 Sisters, belonging to 20 different congregations: of this number 258 are Chinese.

In the Colony the Church is divided into 21 parishes in Hong Kong and Kowloon, and 10 rural districts in the New Territories. Besides the 21 parish churches, there are 7 public chapels in Hong Kong and Kowloon, and 33 churches and chapels in the New Territories.

      The Catholic population, according to the census taken on 30th June 1958, numbers 131,698; there are in addition 14,334 catechumens.

The Church operates 150 schools in 76 buildings with a total enrolment of 71,112 pupils. Among these schools there are 23 Kindergartens, 71 Primary Schools, 24 Secondary Schools, 6 Industrial or Professional Schools, and 26 Night Schools.

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      Among the other Roman Catholic institutions in Hong Kong are 5 Hospitals with 451 beds, 7 Welfare Centres, 21 Clinics and Dispensaries, in which during the past year 516,299 cases were treated; 3 creches, 5 orphanages, a Home for the Aged, a Home for the Blind, and a home for wayward girls. Most of these institutions are staffed by Sisters. The Welfare work of the Church is done by various religious and lay organizations grouped into the Hong Kong Catholic Social Welfare Conference. One of the aims of the Conference is to foster better understanding and co-operation with the Government and other welfare organizations.

The Church has a Public Relations Office, situated in the Catholic Centre, Grand Building, 15 - 17 Connaught Road Central. It publishes two weekly papers, the Sunday Examiner in English and the Kung Kao Po in Chinese.

Other Diocesan organizations are the Diocesan Council for the Lay Apostolate, in which the various lay organizations are grouped, and the Diocesan Church and School Extension Com- mission. The central organization for the Church's Cultural and Social Activities is the Catholic Centre.

      Many of the principal Missions have their Far Eastern adminis- trative headquarters in the Colony.

There is a small Russian Orthodox congregation, divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former have their own Church, founded in 1934. The latter, who have inter-communion with the Anglican Church, hold their services in St. Andrew's Church Hall, Kowloon, and are known as the Orthodox Church.

      There are comparatively small groups of Chinese Muslims and non-Chinese Muslims, mostly Pakistanis and Indians. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915. A second mosque was built in 1896 in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Parsees were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer- house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874 they

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     established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

      The Jews, of whom there is a small community in the Colony, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong, where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street - - Staunton Street area of the central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

      The first Hindu temple in Hong Kong was built in 1953 and is situated in Happy Valley. There has been since 1902 a Sikh temple in Queen's Road East which has served the needs not only of the Sikh community, but of many of those Hindus from Sind and the Punjab who have been to some extent influenced by Guru Nanak's teachings.

      Buddhism maintains a strong hold amongst older Chinese, and is very far from dying out amongst the younger generation. Religious studies are conducted in a large number of monasteries or nunneries, and in hermitages built in secluded places in the Kowloon peninsula and Lantau Island where a dozen or more inmates may reside and devote themselves to quiet meditation. Big monasteries of some attraction to tourists are the Castle Peak Monastery, the Ling Wan Monastery, the Tung Po To Monastery, the Sai Nam Monastery, and Fung Ying Sin Kwun, all in the New Territories. Sutras are also expounded under the auspices of various Buddhist Associations in the urban areas.

      Early in 1958 some of the sarira, i.e. relics left after the cremation, of the late Chongkha Lama (a living Buddha) were brought to Hong Kong with a proposal that they should be interred in a suitable spot, on which a memorial would be erected. Different schools of Buddhism joined together in the participation of the Maan Shin Yuen, or Communal Memorial Service, organized by the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals in September. The objects of the Service were two-fold: to invoke the power of the Truth of Buddha for the emancipation of the spirits of the dead, and to raise funds for charitable work of the Tung Wah Group of

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Hospitals. The Tung Wah Hospitals also revived in October an ancient and solemn ceremony of Autumn Sacrifice at the Man Mo Temple in Hollywood Road. For the first time in Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Buddhist Association held a very well attended Memorial Service for the dead on Remembrance Day, at the Tung Lin Kok Yuen; the Government was officially represented.

       Mr. Hung Tak-Shing, the descendant in the 77th generation of Confucius, passed through Hong Kong twice in 1958. On both occasions he was given a warm welcome by the local Confucian and cultural bodies. Two of Hong Kong's four Confucian associa- tions, the Confucian Hall and the Confucian Academy, arranged a number of free lectures to the public on Sundays. All four Confucian associations held a joint meeting on the 27th day of the 8th moon (9th October 1958) to commemorate the 2509th anniversary of the birth of Confucius. The ancient rites were observed and, as a means of promoting interest in Confucian teachings, students of the Confucian Hall Middle School were detailed as attendants. At this ceremony, too, the Government was represented.

Chinese temples play an important role in the life of many of the people of Hong Kong. They are usually named in honour of one particular god, though in many temples several deities are worshipped, statues of Kuan Yin, the Buddhist Goddess of Mercy, standing next to the shrines of local Taoist worthies such as Wong Tai Sin and Tam Kung. As Confucian ancestral tablets will often be found in another part of the same building, the three religions of China are frequently all accommodated under the one roof. Probably the oldest and one of the most famous of Hong Kong's temples is that dedicated to Tin Hau, the Queen of Heaven, at Causeway Bay; Tin Hau is the guardian of fishermen, and temples in her honour are found near most of the fishing harbours. The Man Mo Temple, dedicated to the gods of literacy and martial valour, is another equally famous one; it is in Hollywood Road and under the direct management of the Tung Wah Hospitals. In the New Territories where the traditional Chinese clan system has been preserved to a much greater extent than in the urban areas, most villages have a clan temple, which is the centre for the ancestral worship of all the families of a particular surname in the surrounding area. All Chinese temples in Hong Kong have to

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be registered with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and are under the general control of a statutory Chinese Temples Committee unless specifically exempted by law.

      The greatest festival of the Chinese calendar is the Lunar New Year, which is welcomed in Hong Kong in the traditional manner with a deafening barrage of firecrackers, for the free discharge of which general permission is granted for two days. The traditional customs of exchanging gifts and visiting relatives and friends are also widely observed. Other festivals observed by the population as a whole are the Ching Ming festival in the Spring, when visits are paid to the graves of the family ancestors, Chung Yeung in the ninth moon, when large crowds flock to the Peak and other high points in memory of a Chinese family many centuries ago who escaped death by fleeing to the top of a mountain, and the Mid-Autumn Moon festival, the occasion for the sale and con- sumption of quantities of moon-cakes. Certain other festivals are particularly celebrated by specific sections of the community. Fisherfolk pay especial and colourful attention to the birthday of their patron saint, Tin Hau, at her temples; the fifth day of the fifth moon is the occasion for the traditional Dragon-Boat races; and the large and industrious Chiu Chow community exuberantly celebrate the Yu Lan Tsit, or Festival of the Dead, with elaborate Buddhist ceremonies and theatrical performances.

Chapter 20: The Arts

     THE Hong Kong Festival of the Arts, begun as an experiment four years ago, has now become an institution. As in former years, the normal events in drama, music, art and literature provided a wide variety of performance and display for all who have an interest in the arts, both Chinese and Western. One innovation this year was the presentation of the open-air floodlit historical pageant 'These Fabulous Islands' at the Government Stadium by the Hong Kong Society for the Protection of Children. Nearly a thousand performers took part in this event which was seen by some eighty thousand people, the proceeds being given to charity. Cultural organizations, business firms and the Armed Forces combined to make this a spectacular item in the Festival programme.

Nine drama groups, seven music groups, and twelve societies on the visual arts side, and one literary group with bilingual interests helped to make the Festival a very successful venture. Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion provided special programmes and gave publicity, in Chinese and English, to the various events. The Festival Centre in the new Government car park on the Central Reclamation was larger than ever before. It contained not only exhibitions of Western art, photography, architecture, Chinese contemporary art, Chinese curios and a section devoted to children's art, but also an auditorium for films and lectures, a restaurant and, as an innovation this year, a Festival Club room. In addition, the Horticultural Society arranged a floral display and organized a competition for flower arrangement, while the roof was used almost every night for live demonstrations of Chinese boxing, judo, dancing, fencing, yoga and other events. In all, 71,930 people paid for admission to the Festival Centre, an increase of 13,000 over the highest figure so far recorded.

The Music Society of Hong Kong continued to link the various interests of music lovers in the Colony and again acted as co- ordinator of musical events during the Festival, offering prizes for the best musical compositions in certain fields.

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Musical events during the year included visits, under the auspices of Mr. Harry Odell, by the instrumentalists Jean Fournier, Moisewitsch, Maurice Wilk, Enrico Mainardi with Carlo Zecchi, and Blaise Calame; by the singers William Warfield, Jan Peerce, Inia Te Wiata; by the comedienne Anna Russell; and by Jack Teagarden and his Sextet. The Music Society organized concerts for the pianists Halina Czerny-Stafanska, Walter Hautzig and Gary Graffman; for the Korean Symphony Orchestra and Classical Dancers, the Amadeus Quartet, for Alan Grishman and Joel Ryce (Duo Concertante), Edmund Kurtz, 'cellist, Ian Wilson, oboist, and McHenry Boatwright, baritone. Other items arranged by the Music Society included lectures by Kurt Woess and Thor Johnson, symphony orchestra conductors, Erwin Jospe on American music, and Dr. John F. Williamson on choral technique, church music and conducting.

      The Schools Music Association continued to encourage musical appreciation among the young by presenting ten concerts which gave opportunities for children to hear visiting and local artistes. The Schools Music Festival celebrated its tenth anniversary and it is estimated that 12,000 students, a record number, took part. Lady Claughton (Helen Henschel) visited Hong Kong for the second time to act as adjudicator. Professor Brian Nash of the Royal Academy of Music and Dr. Kenneth Barrit, Director of Studies of the Royal Scottish Academy of Music, visited the Colony as examiners for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. This year saw a further increase in the number of entries (Practical 1,676 and Theory 529).

Hong Kong children submitted thirty six entries to a UNESCO Exhibition of Child Art in Japan and won twelve awards in an exhibition of 2,000 items.

In the visual arts, photography again had a notable year and the Photographic Society continued to maintain its international reputation.

      The British Council, which takes part in many cultural activities in the Colony, opened an additional centre in Kowloon at the end of the year. The centre initially contains a lending library and reading room. The usual facilities that the Council offers through its libraries of films, film strips, records and photographs

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     continued to be very popular, and the lending library in Victoria had a record year. A programme of lectures on selected subjects was arranged to cater for the needs of specialists in various fields, including the arts. The Council also continued to offer facilities for exhibitions of paintings and other forms of graphic art.

St. John's Cathedral Hall remained in very frequent use for local art exhibitions. The University's Loke Yew Hall became increas- ingly popular as a setting for musical and dramatic events. Towards the end of the year, the Government announced that work was expected to start early in 1959 on the new City Hall, which will contain a theatre and concert hall, as well as a public library, art gallery and museum.

Reference is made under Internal Revenue in Chapter 4 to exemption from, or reduction in, Entertainment Tax for certain types of cultural and artistic performances.

GOVERNMENT COLLECTIONS

During 1958 the Government continued to add to its collection of pictures and photographs illustrating life in Hong Kong, Macau and the China coast area during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Ten oil paintings were acquired by gift or purchase, including some early views of Hong Kong, and attractive portraits of a Chinese lady and of a merchant said to be the Co-Hong merchant, Gowqua. A number of prints and water colours, all having a close connexion with the Colony's first years, were also purchased. The Ho Tung Collection of eighty four paintings, mainly in oils, arrived in the Colony at the beginning of December. This collec- tion, which was presented by the late Sir Robert Ho Tung to the Government for eventual display in the new City Hall Art Gallery, will be exhibited for ten days in January 1959 in St. John's Cathedral Hall.

      As part of its policy to build up a representative picture collec- tion for the City Hall Art Gallery, the Government established in February 1958 a committee to advise on the purchase of modern paintings by local artists. The Committee made its first recom- mendations in the early summer, and by the end of the year eight pictures in oils and other media had been purchased. The

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Committee, which at present consists of three non-official members, may normally suggest new purchases up to a total value of $10,000 each year, and in special cases of exceptional interest further funds may be made available with the approval of the Finance Com- mittee of the Legislative Council. So far no cases of this latter kind have occurred.

Another aspect of the Government Collections which came to the fore during 1958 was the purchase of a number of rare books and periodicals for the City Hall Library. These included an original edition of the Chinese Repository, a periodical in twenty volumes published in Canton, Macau and Hong Kong between 1832 and 1851, and a set of the pre-war Hong Kong Naturalist. The Government photograph collection was re-catalogued, and the Colonial Secretariat Library was extensively reorganized. This Library, apart from acting as a departmental reference library, contains an extensive collection of official and unofficial publica- tions about Hong Kong which are available for consultation in the Library by members of the public.

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Chapter 21: Sport and Recreation

For the first time a Sports Festival was held in Hong Kong in 1958. The Indoor Festival was held in the Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre on 1st February and the Outdoor in the Government Stadium on the 23rd. No less than eleven controlling sports associations, the Army and a local school joined forces with the Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Committee of Hong Kong to present a programme of athletics, badminton, basketball, cycling, fencing, hockey, table tennis, volleyball, weight- lifting, softball, miniature football, gymnastics and a mass physical training demonstration. The Festival had the two-fold purpose of bringing sports leaders together to work on a comprehensive programme and of popularizing certain of the lesser known sports.

       In May Hong Kong sent by far its biggest and most varied sports contingent abroad when it entered for the Third Asian Games at Tokyo. 101 officials and competitors took part in athletics, basketball, football, lawn tennis, shooting, swimming, table tennis, volleyball and water polo and attended the many meetings and congresses of the various international sports bodies. Hong Kong won a silver medal in table tennis and a bronze medal in shooting, and was also placed in other events. The Chairman of the Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Com- mittee of Hong Kong was re-elected to the Executive Committee of the Asian Games Federation.

In July Hong Kong again sent a team overseas to compete in the Sixth Empire Games at Cardiff. This time there were seventeen officials and competitors participating in lawn bowls, fencing and athletics.

      The growing local interest in sport and physical recreation was reflected during the year by the great number of adults and children playing games wherever the opportunity offered. For this reason, public parks and playgrounds, as described later in this chapter, continued to be opened and improved. At the same time, organized sport in Hong Kong attracted an ever wider participation

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in the many leagues, tournaments and championships which are sponsored each year.

       Nearly all forms of sport are practised in the Colony. From football and swimming with their usual large enthusiastic follow- ing to the lesser known archery and fencing, which are, however, making steady headway, the whole range of competitive sport finds its own loyal supporters.

Hong Kong has always had good courts and fields developed and maintained by private clubs. In addition, public facilities have, in the post-war period, been greatly improved; plans are in hand for increasing these amenities in keeping with the growing popular demand.

       In athletics 1958 was noted for the number of visiting runners and officials who helped boost popular interest; in addition there was the Marathon Race for which entries were invited from Japan, Korea and the Philippines. The All-Malaya badminton team was entertained during the year and plans were made to send a team abroad to play in the Asian Zone of the Uber Cup. Many local basketball and volleyball competitions were held as well as inter- national fixtures with neighbouring countries. Cycling began to find support among civilian clubs, which collaborated with the Services to promote the sport. Fencers achieved their ambition of entering a team for the Empire Games.

        Footballers entertained several overseas teams, the most notable visit being that of the Blackpool Football Club. Miniature football is perhaps the game which continues to attract the greatest follow- ing among both players and spectators, and it is played wherever there is an open ground. Lawn bowlers also had a successful year, marked by the good showing of the Hong Kong team at the Empire Games.

Shooting was given a fillip when Hong Kong marksmen did well at the Asian Games. In swimming the opening of the Olympic pool at Victoria Park was marked by the highly successful visit of the Australian Empire Games men's team, and metric distances were introduced for the first time in local championships. Boxing experienced a strong revival under capable leadership and gave every promise of rapid development in the future. Archery like- wise had renewed activity and found new supporters.

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Yachting and rowing continued to provide recreation and com- petition for their followers. Water-skiing became better organized as a sport and enlisted more devotees. Underwater swimming and its kindred pastimes also enjoyed an increasing measure of popu- larity. Golf had a good year in which several visitors displayed their skill and prowess to a growing number of local players whose own standard was fast improving. Walking competitions were held as usual, including the Walkathon which appears to have become an annual event of great popular interest. Weight-lifting, too, evoked keen interest amongst its relatively small following.

Table tennis, for which Hong Kong in the past had a good reputation in a region renowned for its high standard of play, found new players of calibre. Hockey enthusiasts had the rare opportunity of seeing the world's two leading national teams in action in Hong Kong after the Asian Games, when both India and Pakistan engaged and soundly defeated the best local representative sides. Lawn tennis, had the good fortune of a visit by the Jack Kramer Group, the U. S. Davis Cup team and other notable players. The Junior All-Blacks rugby team also paid a highly successful visit to Hong Kong in March.

PARKS, PLAYGROUNDS AND OTHER AMENITIES

The management of parks, playgrounds and other similar amenities is one of the responsibilities of the Urban Council, working through the Urban Services Department. These amenities include the fine beaches on the south side of the Island, as well as the walks and look-outs on the hills above the Harbour. Apart from developing these natural attractions, the Urban Council devotes much attention to the provision of playgrounds and gardens and to carrying out other small projects designed to im- prove the appearance of the city.

       The beaches are patronized by thousands from the city. From April to November, during the main bathing season, the more popular beaches are patrolled by the sixty seven life-guards of the Urban Services Department. The beaches are also cleaned and regulated by Urban Services staff. At two of the principal beaches a contractor provides changing tents for hire, while on certain other beaches sites for beach huts may be rented for five years

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or huts themselves rented annually as a result of a ballot. The provision of refreshments is also put out to tender at the large beaches, at some of which cafes or hotels of various standards are also available.

      There is also a number of popular beaches in the New Territories which come under the administration of the District Commissioner, New Territories. Beach tents, changing rooms and other facilities on five of these beaches are provided by private contractors. There is a total of 138 beach huts on New Territories beaches which are balloted for annually. A cadre of twenty six fully trained life-guards was on duty at these beaches during the summer months.

      The shortage of land in the built-up areas has meant that the development of parks and playgrounds can only take place in keen competition with other forms of development. Before the war playgrounds were few; after the war these were, at best, dusty and uneven pieces of land or, at worst, soon covered by the ubiquitous squatters. Despite these difficulties old playgrounds have been rehabilitated and new ones laid out, varying in size from Victoria Park, occupying fifty three acres on land reclaimed from a former typhoon shelter, to small children's playgrounds. Development continues, and apart from the large parks and formal playgrounds, a great deal has been done to improve the appearance of the city by the tidying up and laying out of small derelict road- side areas, and even of traffic islands, as rest gardens.

There are now 149 acres of parks, public playgrounds and rest gardens, (including the Botanic Gardens and Victoria Park) which provide 4 tennis-courts and 9 association football, 5 miniature football, 2 hockey, 1 rugby football, and 3 cricket grounds, all grass covered, together with 26 basketball, 3 volleyball and 16 miniature football grounds on hard surfacing. Of the 44 parks, public playgrounds and rest gardens, 19 have provision for ball games.

The Victoria Park Swimming Pool, built to Olympic standards from funds donated by the Hong Kong Jockey Club, was opened in 1957. The main purpose of the pool is to cater for the under- privileged members of the community, especially children, and this is reflected in the low admission fees (30 cents for children,

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      50 cents for adults). By the end of 1958 133,595 children and 229,888 adults had used the pool, and a number of galas and competitions had also been held there, including the very success- ful visit of the Australian Empire Games' Swimming team who gave three demonstrations under the auspices of the Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association and the Hong Kong Chinese Amateur Swimming Association.

The Gardens Division of the Urban Services Department carries out or supervises all gardening development and maintenance in public recreation areas, the grounds of most Government schools, hospitals, offices and quarters, and the grassed areas at the Airport, which cover a total area of approximately 510 acres. Ornamental trees, shrubs, and other plants are grown in five nurseries which can produce several thousand potted plants for decorative purposes on official occasions.

The Division also contains a botanical section responsible for the care of, and additions to, the collection of over 27,000 speci- mens in the Colonial Herbarium. As well as maintaining this collection, started by Richard Brinsley Hinds in 1841, the section keeps in touch with institutions abroad and deals with the phyto- sanitary control of plants leaving the Colony.

The Gardens Division is also in charge of the Li Cheng Uk Tomb, which is believed to belong to the Later Han (A.D. 25-200) or the Six Dynasties (200 - 589) period. This tomb was discovered in 1955 in the course of the levelling of a low mound on a building site in Kowloon. The contents of the tomb are displayed in a small museum adjoining the tomb, which is itself entered through the museum. An illustrated handbook of the tomb, in English and Chinese, was put on sale in January to visitors, 42,617 of whom inspected the museum during 1958.

Chapter 22: Geography and Climate

THE Colony of Hong Kong, which consists of a number of islands and a portion of mainland on the S.E. coast of China, adjoining Kwangtung Province and situated immediately E. of the Pearl River estuary, lies between 22° 9′ and 22° 37′ N. and 113° 52' and 114° 30′ E. The capital city, Victoria, situated on Hong Kong Island, is 91 miles S.E. of Canton and 40 miles E. of the Portuguese Colony of Macau.

      The total land area of the Colony is 391 square miles, made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island (32 sq. miles), including Green Island, Ap Lei Chau, and other immediately adjacent islets. Victoria, on the north side of the island, has a population of approximately 1,000,000. Also situated on the Island are two important fishing towns, Shau Kei Wan and Aberdeen, and a number of villages, such as Stanley and Shek O, which have developed into popular residential

areas.

(b) Kowloon (34 sq. miles) and Stonecutters Island (4 sq. mile). The northern limit of the ceded territory of Kowloon is Boundary Street. Kowloon and New Kowloon (the urban zone north of Boundary Street) have an estimated popula- tion of more than 1,000,000.

(c) The New Territories (land area 355 sq. miles), leased from China for 99 years from 1st July 1898. The leased area consists of a substantial mainland section north of Kowloon, and 198 islands adjacent to it and in the vicinity of Hong Kong Island. It also includes the waters of Deep Bay and Mirs Bay. The principal centres of population in the New Territories are Tsuen Wan, with a population of 80,000; Cheung Chau, with 25,000 land-based inhabitants and approximately 7,000 people anchored there for the greater part of the year; Yuen Long, 20,000; Tai O, with 12,600 land-based inhabitants and about 2,000 boat dwellers; Shek

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Wu Hui, 4,800; Tai Po, with 9,000 land-based inhabitants and about 4,000 boat dwellers; Luen Wo Market, 2,900; Peng Chau (Southern District), 4,500; Castle Peak (including Old Town, New Town and Sam Shing Hui), 4,400 with approximately 2,000 floating population; and Sai Kung, 3,000, excluding floating population. The total population of the New Territories, excluding New Kowloon, is prob- ably in the region of 360,000, but as in the case of the rest of the Colony, these estimates are entirely approximate. Hong Kong Island is 11 miles long from east to west and varies in width from 2 to 5 miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock, of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,805 ft.) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The old part of the urban areas runs up steep hillside for hundreds of yards, in narrow stepped streets and terraces; but more modern parts of the town stand chiefly on a strip of reclaimed land, averaging 200-400 yards in width, which extends 9 miles along the north shore of the Island.

Between the Island and the mainland lies the Port of Victoria, often described, with San Francisco and Rio de Janeiro, as one of the three most perfect natural harbours in the world. Its area is 17 sq. miles, varying in width from 1 to 3 miles. Ocean-going ships generally use the eastern deep-water entrance, known as Lei Yue Mun, which is between 500 and 900 yards wide. On the western side the natural entrances to the harbour are wider but shallower. On this side a group of islands, which include Tsing Yi, Lantau and Lamma, provide effective shelter. The importance of Hong Kong has hitherto depended on this harbour, and on its favourable position at the mouth of the most important river system in South China, within easy reach of Canton, South China's largest city.

      The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low, dry foothills running southward from the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula 2 miles long and nowhere more than 2 miles wide. Here and there on the peninsula were a few small Chinese villages. Most of the foothills have now been levelled, and the rock and soil thus cut away have been used to extend the land by reclamation from the sea. The town of Kowloon now covers the

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entire peninsula and stretches without interruption northward into the New Territories, the boundary of which is noticeable only from the name of Boundary Street, which marks it. Further on, the Kowloon hills set a final limit to this northward urban expansion, but around the sides of the harbour, westward toward Lai Chi Kok and eastward to Ngau Tau Kok, Kowloon is extending its urban arms to embrace several rural areas with villages established there for hundreds of years. Kowloon contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal com- mercial dockyards, the largest wharves for ocean-going ships and, in the area known as Kowloon Tong, a large residential suburb. At the extreme southern tip of the peninsula, known as Tsim Sha Tsui, is the terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which passes from Kowloon under the Kowloon hills and through the New Territories to Canton.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is mountainous and barren. The highest point, situated approxi- mately in the centre of the mainland, is Tai Mo Shan (3,140 ft.). The second and third highest points are both on Lantau Island: Lantau Peak, or Fung Wong Shan (3,061 ft.), which is the western of the two, and Sunset Peak (2,857 ft.). The fourth highest point is Ma On Shan on the mainland (2,300 ft.). The north-western slopes of Tai Mo Shan descend to the Colony's largest area of cultivable land, in the centre of which is the important market town of Yuen Long. Further out the land extends to marshes and oyster-beds on the verge of Deep Bay.

The eastern half of the New Territories mainland consists of irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Villages are in general only found where there is flat watered land, in valleys or on small plateaux. Much of the upper land in the areas nearest to Kowloon has been eroded, one of the unfortunate results of the Japanese occupation, when tremendous numbers of trees were cut for firewood. At the end of the war virtually the only woods that still remained were those preserved in the neighbourhood of villages for geomantic reasons.

The 198 islands of the New Territories include many that are waterless and uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland. The principal cultivated areas are on Lantau, Lamma and Ma Wan, where water supplies are good. Apart from

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Lantau, which is nearly double the size of Hong Kong Island, most of the islands are small. They range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau, with its large fishing community, soya and preserved fruit factories, and junk-building yards, to places like the Ninepins, which are no more than granite rock, used seasonally, and by day only, by fishermen drying fish or repairing nets.

CLIMATE

Although the Colony lies just within the tropics, it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual in tropical regions. The climate is governed by monsoons. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists with occasional breaks until April, bringing cool air from high latitudes. Early winter is the most pleasant time of the year, when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; dull overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. Coastal fogs occur from time to time in early spring during breaks in the monsoon, when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north- easterlies.

      The summer is the rainy season, three-quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches occurring during the period May to September. The south-west monsoon lasts from June to August, but is not so persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. The weather during the summer is continuously hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms.

       The mean monthly temperature ranges from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temper- ature very rarely rises above 95°F in summer, or falls below 40°F in winter. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in early winter it may occasionally fall as low as 20%. The average daily duration of sunshine ranges from three hours in March to seven hours in October.

Hong Kong is liable to be affected by typhoons during the period July to October, and typhoon gales have occasionally been experienced as early as May and as late as November. Spells of bad weather, with strong winds and heavy rain, normally occur several times each year owing to the passage of these storms at

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varying distances from the Colony. Gales due to typhoons occur on the average about once a year, but it is only rarely that the centre of a fully developed typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

The year 1958 was drier, sunnier and slightly warmer than usual. The total rainfall for the year, 2033.6 mm. (80.06 in.), was 119.2 mm. (4.69 in.) below average while sunshine exceeded the normal by 12%.

During the first two months of the year, winter monsoon surges were frequent and the monthly mean temperatures were below normal. In March the cool monsoon conditions were interrupted by warm humid spells with extensive sea fog in the harbour and coastal areas. Unusually warm and sunny weather was experienced in April and the maximum temperature of 89.8°F recorded on the 26th was the second highest on record for the month. By the end of May Hong Kong was affected by the first tropical disturbance of the year. A tropical storm, whose centre passed about 130 miles to the south-west of the Colony, gave rise to 11 hours of gales at Waglan Island. From June onwards the temperature began to rise steadily and in July, the highest temperature of the year, 94.9°F, was reached, which is a new record for the month. August was drier than usual, but September had almost twice the normal amount of rainfall. By early October the winter monsoon began to set in, and fine and dry weather persisted until the end of the year with comparatively warm days and cool nights.

During the year six typhoons and eight less intense tropical disturbances were reported in the Hong Kong storm-warning area, but only one passed sufficiently close to cause general gales in the Colony.

GEOLOGY

Hong Kong Island and the New Territories consist of numerous rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. A general picture of the area is that of an upland terrain which has been invaded by the sea.

The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations, in which relative resistance of rock and structure

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through differential erosion are clearly recorded. As the region lies within the northern limits of the tropics, frosts even on Tai Mo Shan are of the rarest occurrence, and hence weathering depends almost completely upon the chemical action of the atmosphere aided by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. Erosion is likewise due to water action which is at a maximum during the torrential rains of the summer monsoon. Again denuda- tion is aided by the excessive wind velocities of the typhoons and to a much lesser extent by the gentler breezes of the dry winter monsoon from Central China. Because of the destruction of forest growth and vegetation wrought by the agricultural population by sickle and grass fires, the soil and rock mantle are left unprotected except by their own cohesion. Intensive efforts have been made to limit and control these nuisances by rigid regulations and systematic reafforestation. In consequence of this, bare rock surfaces and loose boulders occur commonly on the higher sur- faces and steeper slopes.

The laterite-type product of decay is locally such, however, as to provide an impervious mantle for the underlying rock. In colour and composition the products of weathering accurately reflect their rock origin. Although frost action is absent, mechanical disintegration due to hydration, carbonation and temperature changes, has resulted in the formations of gravel and boulders over the surfaces of some rock types. The net result of the erosion cycle is that of an upland system with rocky mountain peaks and well-defined ridges giving an impression of partly matured topo- graphy. In some areas the topography shows that adjustment to rock structure and resistance to weathering and erosion are very complete. This is evidenced particularly in the general anticlinal structure of the valleys. The Tolo Channel is a notable example. The relative resistance of the different rock formations to weather- ing is illustrated as follows. The highest peaks and the most prominent mountain ranges are all composed of Tai Mo Shan prophyry and the Repulse Bay volcanics. They tend to form smoother peaks than the Hong Kong granite which generally occurs at lower elevations with well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The Tolo Channel sediments generally weather into lowlands and valleys except for the Pat Sin conglomerate which forms peaks and ridges along the crests of the Pat Sin mountain chain.

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Unlike the hills the plains are all alluvial and formed by deposition. Benches marking old sea beaches up to 400 feet or more above sea level indicate the deep submergence of the whole region within recent geological times. Progressive uplift has brought about marked changes on the shore-line. Submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat and bog deposits drilled through in the harbour of Hong Kong indicate that the former shore-line was at least 100 feet (16 fathoms) lower than now.

During the period of submergence valley heads were gradually filled with sediment and this has been redistributed from higher to lower levels as elevation continued. The paddy fields along the lower reaches of the rivers, and the large semi-submerged plain around Yuen Long are alluvial deposits brought down by the local streams. At the brickyards on the Sheung Shui plain marine shells have been dug up fifteen feet below the alluvial deposits.

The alluvial origin of the plains is thus clear, and it is also evident that these plains are yearly growing seaward due to the deposition of the sediment brought down by the streams. It is interesting to note that an elevation of the land by 100 feet would restore the strand line approximately to the 16 fathom line and make all Hong Kong and the New Territories an integral part of the mainland. Thus across wide alluvial plains the Pearl River would develop several distributaries to the sea. There would possibly be a small channel flowing between Hong Kong and Lantau Island eastwards and a larger one passing close to the western end of Lantau Island in a south-easterly direction.

       Note: The Geology section of this Chapter is reproduced from The Geology of Hong Kong by S. G. Davis.

Chapter 23: Fauna and Flora

FAUNA

Mammals. Wild mammals are seldom seen, although the species on record are both varied and interesting. Due largely to an immense expansion of the human population in recent times, some of these mammalian species have unfortunately become scarce, rare, or even non-existent in Hong Kong. The fact that several of them (e.g. civets, wild cats, porcupines, and deer) are of considerable value locally as food is also not conducive to an increase in their numbers.

       Of the cat family, both the South China Tiger and the Leopard have occasionally entered the Colony from Chinese territory. Such visits are now extremely rare and no tigers have been reported in recent years, although a leopard was seen in the New Territories as recently as 1957. The one other member of the cat family on record is the Chinese Leopard Cat, spotted and about the size of a Domestic Cat, which is still resident in restricted numbers in certain less populated areas on the mainland.

       The Dhole or Indian Wild Dog and the South China Red Fox are both included in the Colony's fauna, though the present status of each is unknown. Monkeys still occur in small numbers, but have very localized distribution, both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. Although all of these may be the descend- ants of released or escaped specimens, it is possible that those on Hong Kong Island are the remainder of the indigenous Rhesus Monkeys which less than a hundred years ago were found on most of the small islands near Hong Kong. Another interesting mammal, seldom seen due to its secretive and largely nocturnal habits, is the primitive Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Ant-eater. Other indigenous mammals are the Chinese Ferret-Badger and the Eastern Chinese Otter. Civets are represented in Hong Kong by three species, the Large Chinese Civet, the Rasse or Small Indian Civet, and the Masked Palm Civet. A close relative of the

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civets is the Crab-eating Mongoose, of which there is at least one record, not however, in recent years.

      Reeves' Muntjac (Barking Deer) inhabits various hilly wooded localities. On Hong Kong Island, on account of its shyness and nocturnal habits, this attractive little deer may seem to be much less numerous than is actually the case. In the New Territories, on the other hand, where it is hunted, it has now become very scarce. The Wild Boar, which is hunted both for sport and because of its destructive habits to agriculture, is now extremely scarce and the present status of this animal in several parts of its former range is unknown.

The Chinese Porcupine, our largest rodent, is found in parts of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories. Small mammals include the House Shrew, various rodents, and several species of bats. Among the rodents there is the Smaller Bandicoot Rat which, in spite of its name, is the largest rat found in the Colony; it is entirely 'wild' (non-domestic) in habits and sometimes causes considerable damage to crops. Very little is known of the bats, which are represented by both insectivorous and frugivorous species.

Cetaceans occurring within or near Hong Kong territorial waters include the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale (a single record -during 1955), the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Common Dolphin.

Birds. There is much to interest ornithologists and bird watchers in Hong Kong. Including published and unpublished records, well over three hundred species of birds are known to have occurred in the Colony. A great deal more work is necessary, however, particularly with regard to breeding and feeding habits, various other aspects of ecology, and migration. The avifauna of Hong Kong includes both palaearctic and oriental species, some of the families represented being those containing the crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, weavers, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, eagles, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks and grebes, to mention only those represented by several species.

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      Reptiles and Amphibians. These are also well represented in Hong Kong, especially by snakes, lizards and frogs. Others include various terrapins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad and the Chinese Newt. Among the Colony's snakes those most commonly encountered are harmless and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Excluding certain rear-fanged species not dangerous to man, the venomous land snakes which occur are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Macclelland's Coral Snake, the Indian or Chinese Cobra, the Hamadryad (King Cobra), and the White- lipped Pit Viper (Bamboo Snake). All of the several sea snakes known to occur within or near the Colony's territorial waters are venomous, but fortunately it is not the nature of these reptiles to attack bathers.

      Butterflies and Moths. One hundred and seventy nine species of butterflies, belonging to nine families, have been recorded for the Colony in a check list published in 1953. The number of moths is far greater but no comprehensive list of local species has ever been published. The attractive and predominantly tropical butter- flies known popularly as 'swallow-tails' are conspicuous by a number of species. The magnificent Atlas Moth, with a wing-span from about seven to nine inches, is fairly common. Another very fine insect, also fairly common here, is the Moon Moth; this has a wing-span of about four to six inches, has swallow-tailed wings, and is mostly soft silvery green in colour.

Local Societies. There are two local societies concerned with the Colony's fauna. One is The Hong Kong Natural History Society whose objects are to facilitate and encourage the study of natural history, particularly in Hong Kong; the other is The Hong Kong Bird Watching Society whose main objects are to facilitate and encourage the study of the birds of Hong Kong.

FLORA

      It is not possible to make any true distinction between the trees of Hong Kong and those of the adjacent southern part of Kwang- tung Province. Among the principal trees found in the Colony are pine, Chinese banyan and camphor, to which, since the area came under British administration, have been added a large number of

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others, of which the most commonly seen are casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant.

      The principal locally-grown fruits include laichee, lungngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. Of these, papaya, pineapple, custard apple and guava were originally introduced from South America by the Portuguese some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine, native to South China, was introduced to the West in the seventeenth century by the Portuguese, who transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

      The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not completely, described in Flora Hongkongensis, by G. B. Bentham, published in 1861, and in the descriptive Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, published in 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong by A. H. Crook; Plants of Lan Tau Island by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; and numerous papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the War three official publications, in the series Food and Flowers, have appeared, giving, amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

      The flora of the Colony is tropical, but this is about the northern limit of tropical flora. The alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters results in a dormant period for tropical plants during winter. These conditions promote the de- velopment of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. The consequence is that a genus represented in Hong Kong and also in equatorial countries produces here a greater wealth of flowers of larger size.

      There is considerable diversity of flowering shrubs and trees, including magnolia, Michelia, Rhodoleia, Illicium and Tutcheria. Six species of rhododendron grow wild; there are also a wild Gordonia and wild roses. The heather family is represented by

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      a pink-belled Enkianthus, flowering at the time of the Chinese New Year. A Litsea also blooms at this time.

       Bauhinia blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered by the fathers of the Missions Etrangères at Pok Fu Lam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus any- where in the world. Its origin is unknown; it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed.

       A new and distinct species of camellia was discovered in 1955 and named Camellia granthamiana. Hybridizing has been carried out by the Gardens Division of the Urban Services Department, to cross this new species with C. hongkongensis.

       Fruit-bearing herbs include several wild hollies, Melodinus, Strychnos, wild kamquat, Gardenia, Maesa, Mussaenda ('the Buddha's Lamp'), Dichroa, several species of Callicarpa, Dianella in the lily family, Raphiolepis (the so-called Hong Kong haw- thorn), wild jasmine and wild persimmon.

       Among fruits that are either poisonous or useful for medicine are Strophanthus, Strychnos, Gelsemium and Cerbera, abundant near the sea. Edible fruit includes a wild jack-fruit, Artocarpus, rose-myrtle fruits and wild bananas. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common clematis of the English hedgerow, has five close relatives here. There are four wild violets, but, like the English dog violet, they are scentless. English honeysuckle has five relatives; their Cantonese name is 'kam ngan fa' (gold and silver flower), given because of their change in colour with age from white to yellow.

       There is a fine wild iris, further south than any other true iris, and a wild lily growing on some hillsides, with individual flowers sometimes seven inches long. By the sea a wild Crinum is found, and Belamcanda, in the iris family.

       In damp ravines may be found Chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, numerous orchids, giant aroids, tree ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with

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the so-called Hong Kong bracken, Gleichenia, and a fragrant- leaved myrtle called Baeckea.

The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since their time. At present over 27,000 specimens are preserved.

Interest in flora and horticultural work in Hong Kong is fostered by the Hong Kong Horticultural Society.

Chapter 24: History

ANTECEDENTS

      THE earliest traces of human settlement in the region are at Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantau Island, and on the beach known as Hung Shing Yeh, on the west coast of Lamma Island. From the rock carvings, pottery and implements discovered there, it is clear that in prehistoric times the islands were occupied, at least seasonally, by people whose trade connexions stretched from the Yangtse basin as far south as Indonesia. Little is known of the region before it adopted Chinese culture. Chinese histories refer to the early inhabitants as Maan, implying barbarian, and provide few details about them.

      Kwangtung was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 B.C., but it was many hundreds of years before there was any degree of Chinese migration into the province.* Remote and dangerous, its islands providing ideal hiding places for sea-robbers and bandits, this particular region was no place for civilized settlement.

       Southward Chinese migration on a large scale began to affect Kwangtung during the Sung dynasty (960-1279). Little is known of the early relations between Chinese and Maan which must have resulted from this movement, but it is clear that by this time the Maan had already adopted Chinese culture and names. Chinese settlement in the New Territories is continuous from the beginning of the thirteenth century.

For a few months during 1278 the last emperor of the Southern Sung, Ti Ping, in flight from the invading Mongols, made his capital at Kowloon, and a small hill crowned with prominent boulders was held sacred to his memory, until 1943, when the

* The tomb at Li Cheng Uk, whose discovery is described in the 1955 Annual Report, is the most striking surviving example of early Chinese settlement in the area.

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Japanese demolished it as a safety measure for the airport.* The last battle between the Sung and the Mongols was probably fought in the New Territories in 1279, not far from Tsuen Wan; and, after the Sung defeat, large numbers of the Court and nobility are said to have escaped across to Lantau Island, where some of them settled, their descendants surviving to this day.

In the earliest maritime connexions between China and the West the shipping was principally Arab, the traders including Indians, Persians and Jews, all of whom, from the seventh century onwards, formed a considerable foreign community in Canton. When, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese discovered the sea route from Europe to India, they quickly put an end to Arab trade with the Far East. In 1513 Jorge Alvares, the first European ever to command a sea voyage to China, reached the Pearl River in a chartered Burmese junk; and in 1517 the first Portuguese ships arrived, with the aim of opening regular trade with China.

      Their first attempts were unsuccessful, and it was not until 1557, partly in recognition of the help they had given the Chinese in the local suppression of piracy, that the Portuguese gained the settlement which was their aim, and established themselves at Macau.

      From then onwards, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of authoritative Chinese opinion, which was not interested in foreign trade, Macau provided the only reliable point of contact between China and the West. English contacts with Macau date from about 1600, the first English ship actually calling there in 1635 under charter to the Portuguese. Between 1601 and 1627 the Dutch made repeated attempts to capture Macau, but without success.

Regular seasonal British trade with China dates from 1700, and, although Amoy and other ports farther up the coast were visited from time to time, the bulk of the trade was with Canton, the ships weighing for dues and clearing at Taipa, just south of Macau, but being allowed up-river as far as Whampoa, 13 miles from the city of Canton, for discharging and loading. A strictly limited

* A memorial stone bearing the characters Sung Wong Toi, which formerly surmounted the hill, has now been erected in a small public park adjoining its original site.

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number of Europeans connected with the trade were, under security paid by their Chinese business associates, allowed to reside in Canton during the trade season only, being obliged by the Chinese authorities to leave the country as soon as they had completed the year's business. Only certain Chinese merchants were permitted to trade with the Europeans, and they conducted their affairs as a monopoly guild, fixing prices arbitrarily and without regard for real market values.

As, throughout the eighteenth century, the volume of trade between China and the West continued to grow, until it reached large proportions, the various restrictions imposed on it by the Chinese Government became, in European eyes, steadily less realistic and less endurable. Although the French, Dutch, Spaniards, Danes and Swedes also traded with Canton, the volume of British trade by 1763 was more than double that of all the others together. It was the British who, having the largest stake in the trade, were the most critical of the Chinese restrictions.

       In 1793 Lord Macartney was sent as Ambassador to Peking in an attempt either to improve trading conditions at Canton and Macau, or else to acquire from the Chinese Government some small island or minor port where Europeans would be able to reside permanently, trade with whatever Chinese merchants wished to deal with them, and be subject to their own laws while residing at the port.

These requests were unconditionally refused. A second embassy, sent in 1816, was even more of a failure, the Ambassador, Lord Amherst, being ordered to leave Peking without being presented to the Emperor.

Hitherto British merchants operating privately in the China trade had been under restraints imposed on them by the East India Company, which, from Calcutta, licensed private British shipping on the China route and, at Canton, saw to it that all British subjects obeyed the Chinese regulations. In 1813, however, the Company's monopoly of trade with India was abolished. Although the Company still in theory licensed traders to China, this lessening of its power made it easier for unauthorized private traders to find a foothold at Canton and Macau. The number of British traders increased, with little or no restraint on their

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activities. Finally, in 1833 the Company's China monopoly was abolished.

To replace the Company, the British Government in 1834 appointed Lord Napier as Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China. His instructions were to negotiate with the Viceroy at Canton to obtain permission for Europeans to reside there per- manently and to remove restrictions on trade. Napier having entered Canton without the required permit from the Chinese authorities, the Viceroy refused to have anything to do with him. After a few weeks of impasse, during which Napier became seriously ill, he retreated to Macau, under Chinese escort, and died there ten days later.

      Meanwhile, informed Chinese opinion was becoming seriously concerned about the activities of British and American traders, in particular about their trade in opium, the popularity of which as a narcotic was rising rapidly amongst smokers in China. In response to a number of petitions from senior members of the Chinese civil service, the Emperor Tao Kuang in 1838 appointed Lin Tse-hsü as Imperial High Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade.

Having surrounded the European buildings at Canton with troops and armed junks, and cut off supplies of food and water, Lin demanded the surrender, for destruction, of all the opium in the European warehouses, after which every trader must sign a bond promising on pain of death never to bring any more to China. Americans and others surrendered their opium and signed the bonds.

By this time Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., was the Superin- tendent of British Trade. In response to Lin's demand, Elliot ordered his countrymen to surrender their opium, and received their grudging obedience; but he refused to allow anyone to sign a bond. He finally won his point with Lin, and at the end of a siege lasting more than six weeks the British were allowed to leave unmolested for Macau.

Interest in the China trade had been steadily growing in Great Britain, and news of the siege at Canton, when it eventually reached London, aroused public opinion to demand that the Government take measures to safeguard British lives and property

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      in China. Relations between Elliot and Lin deteriorated, the Commissioner reiterating his demand for the signature of bonds. After the Portuguese Governor of Macau had warned Elliot that he could no longer be responsible for the safety of any British family remaining there, the entire British community led by Elliot removed to Hong Kong. The Chinese, who were erecting fortifica- tions on Kowloon peninsula, attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the shipping assembled in the harbour. Finally, after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters and the breakdown of all negotiations between Elliot and Lin, hostilities broke out in November 1839.

The arrival, in June 1840, of a powerful British expeditionary force, without engaging in any operations of military significance, re-opened the door to discussion. Elliot, as plenipotentiary, de- manded, according to his instructions, either the cession of an island to the British Crown or a treaty allowing British traders the rights normally enjoyed by foreigners in civilized countries. To the anger and shame of his own countrymen, Kishen, the Manchu negotiator, offered the island of Hong Kong; and, to the ridicule and contempt of his own countrymen, Elliot accepted it. On 20th January 1841 the preliminaries of a Sino-British Treaty were announced, and, without more ado, on the 26th, the island was formally occupied without any resistance on the part of the few Chinese inhabitants, who were in any case by now familiar with British ships anchoring in their waters.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

The acquisition by the Crown of a barren island rock was ridiculed, not only by British merchants in China, but also in London. Elliot was dismissed for his ineptitude in dealing with the Chinese, and was replaced by Sir Henry Pottinger, who reached the coast in August 1841.

In the face of public hostility, particularly in Canton, to Kishen's proposal to cede Hong Kong to the British, the Emperor declined further negotiation, and war was resumed. But Pottinger had not been on the China coast for more than a few months before he realized that, whatever the London view might be, Elliot's decision to accept the cession of Hong Kong was a wise one. And when,

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in August 1842, British troops were on the point of assaulting Nanking, and the Emperor at last sued for peace, Pottinger made it an article of the Treaty, that was promptly concluded, that Hong Kong should be ceded to the British Crown 'to be governed by such laws as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain etc. may see fit to direct'. In June 1843 the new Colony was officially named Hong Kong, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement growing up on the northern side of the island.

Like Singapore before it, Hong Kong from the start was declared a free port; and its subsequent growth and greatness as a com- mercial city have been due to this fundamental policy, which welcomes anyone who comes in peace, obeys the laws, and pays a few very moderate taxes.

The history of Hong Kong is in some ways no more than a chronicle of rising and falling trends of trade and population, fluctuating due chiefly to events taking place outside Hong Kong itself, particularly in China. Internally, the history is one of gradual material and social improvement, the expansion of the city by cutting into rock and by reclamation of land from the sea, the building of more reservoirs to provide for a mainly expanding population, and the provision of schools, hospitals and other forms of public service.

Hong Kong's first years as a Colony were almost chaotic. In 1841 alone the new Chinese market quarter was burnt down twice, and nearly every roof on the island came off twice in typhoons. A mysterious disease, known as the Hong Kong fever, now believed to be malaria, decimated the population; and in 1843 the health situation was so bad that the Governor and everyone who could afford to do so took temporary refuge in Macau.

Confidence did not begin to grow until 1844, from which year the real development of the Colony as we know it to-day began. At the first census the population of the island did not exceed 3,650 villagers and fishermen, living in some twenty villages and hamlets, with about 2,000 fishermen living afloat. Chinese labourers, encouraged by prospects of work, began to come to the Colony, and by April 1844 the population reached 19,000.

From 1845 the first monthly mail service between Hong Kong and Europe was started. The increased security obtained for

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traders of all nationalities by the Treaty of Nanking, and, in particular, the comparative ease of acquiring land for offices, warehouses and homes in Hong Kong and the treaty ports, attracted to the Far East a greater number of European traders than ever before, leading to a tremendous increase in commerce. This expansion was felt principally in Shanghai, which was com- mercially better situated than Hong Kong. Compared with Shanghai's astonishing development as a western city, Hong Kong's early growth was unspectacular.

       Shortly after its foundation, a great wave of emigration of Chinese labourers took place, mainly to the Straits Settlements, Thailand and Java, the bulk of the emigrants travelling in European and American ships. Hong Kong was the chief port of emigration. Later, when news went round of the opening up of goldfields in California, there was a rush of Chinese to 'Kam Shan' (the Golden Mountains), which has ever since remained the vernacular name of San Francisco. When gold was discovered in Australia, not long afterwards, thousands more rushed to 'Sun Kam Shan' (New Golden Mountains), which has become the vernacular name for Sydney. In the year 1852 alone over 30,000 Chinese emigrants passed through Hong Kong. The problems of housing such vast numbers, and preventing abuses arising in con- nexion with migration, presented severe problems to the Govern- ment of the day.

      In 1850 the series of revolts known generally as the Taiping Rebellion broke out in Kwangsi Province, and gradually spread throughout Southern China. This was the first instance where unsettled conditions on the mainland have brought to Hong Kong thousands of Chinese refugees of every social class and occupation. By 1855 the population was estimated at 72,000 and by 1861, with the Taipings still not defeated, it had risen to 120,000. The constantly recurring situation in which the Colony, almost without warning, has had to provide accommodation, food, water and other facilities for thousands of new arrivals-people with no local attachments and whose period of stay may be no more than a few years, perhaps even months-has presented successive governors of Hong Kong with problems that are unique and of exceptional difficulty. The word 'squatter' can be found in

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     Government correspondence from the first year of the Colony's existence.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

By the Convention of Peking, 1860, which concluded the Second Anglo-Chinese War, Kowloon peninsula up to present-day Boundary Street was ceded to the Crown and became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters Island.

      Permanent quarters were established in Kowloon for part of the garrison. This development was followed by the construction of new docks, more extensive than could be attempted on the Victoria waterfront, and which were the beginning of Kowloon's develop- ment as the Colony's second city. The pioneers in residential development in Kowloon were the Portuguese, followed by the Parsees, from about 1870 onwards.

By the Convention of Peking, 1898, at the conclusion of the third period of hostilities between China and the Western Powers, the Colony was again extended, acquiring under a 99-year lease a substantial stretch of mainland north of Kowloon, and a group of islands in the immediate vicinity of Hong Kong. The leased area became known as the New Territories.

The initial British occupation, which took place in 1899, met with some ill-organized armed opposition in the Tai Po and Yuen Long areas, but the confidence of the people was quickly estab- lished. Sir Henry Blake (Governor 1898-1904) personally identified himself with every aspect of the life of the Colony's new rural population, obtaining improved seed and types of livestock for them; and the relations between the Government and the people of the New Territories have ever since been distinguished by the closest confidence and goodwill. Malaria was widespread, and plague of frequent occurrence. Extensive health measures were introduced to combat these diseases, the success of the measures being reflected in a subsequent steady rise in population.

In the first decade of this century rail connexion between Kowloon and Canton was established, involving the construction of a long tunnel under the Kowloon hills, and providing Tai Po and other New Territories villages with easy access to Hong Kong. A circular road was constructed linking the chief population areas

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in the mainland part of the New Territories. Since 1949 the district road system has been considerably improved.

INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY

Until Chinese in large numbers started taking western education, there was little Chinese participation in government, western firms or banks, or in any western institutions. European and Chinese commerce pursued their own courses, largely independent of each other, occasionally linked by the precarious medium of pidgin English.

      The special needs of the Chinese population received early con- sideration. In 1845 a Board of Education was established, and the Registrar General was made responsible to the Colonial Secretary for all questions relating to the Chinese. Throughout the century this aspect of his duties grew in importance, until in 1913 a separate department had to be created-the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

Missionary schools, Catholic and Protestant, were the earliest educational foundations, soon followed by government schools. Most of them were conducted, as far as was practicable, on western lines. As soon as Chinese students started graduating from these schools, their rise to influence, in what had hitherto been a European-dominated community, was assured.

Western education led to the adoption of a considerable amount of western business method. The scale of Chinese business en- larged, until by the end of the century there were Chinese shipping lines, banks, insurance companies, department stores, theatres, wharves, warehouses and factories. As the trend continued, Chinese citizens were drawn more and more into consultation with the Government on a wide range of matters. There have been Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880, and of the Executive Council since 1926.

A demand for higher education naturally developed, and in 1887 the Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded, the prime movers in this enterprise being Dr. Patrick Manson and Dr. James Cantlie. One of the first students to graduate from the College, in 1892, was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

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In 1908 the College expanded into the University of Hong Kong. This development was made possible by the munificence of a Parsee citizen, Sir Hormusjee Mody, who presented the entire cost of the new University's main buildings. With Government support, and the aid of subsequent benefactors, the University has steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English- speaking University in surroundings overwhelmingly Chinese. Its academic standards have remained high, particularly in medicine, and it has, from its earliest years, attracted students of many nationalities, from South and South-East Asia as well as from Hong Kong.

      The area available on Hong Kong Island for urban building was originally no more than a narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore. The original waterfront of Victoria ran, with a moderate foreshore, approximately along the line of Queen's Road. Hillside construction began in Stanley Street and Wellington Street, once a fashionable neighbourhood. As the nineteenth century proceeded, the tiers of houses rose gradually up the sides of the rock, fashion rising as well.

      Reclamation of land from the sea began in the Colony's earliest days. By 1851 the waterfront had reached what is today Des Voeux Road Central, and was thereafter extended, in the face of much opposition from the principal commercial houses with foreshore sites, till it reached Connaught Road Central in 1904. This expansion, however, failed to keep pace with the increasing population. By 1870 the central part of Victoria, chiefly occupied by Chinese, was seriously overcrowded and insanitary. This was one of the factors that led the European community to climb even higher and develop the summits of the Peak as a residential area, a movement hastened from 1888 onwards, when Peak and city were linked by funicular railway.

     A sanitary commissioner, Osbert Chadwick, was finally appointed in 1882 to advise the Government; and, as a result of his report, a Sanitary Board was set up. Its measures to improve the noisome state of the city were, however, at first ineffective. The administration was labouring on one side with financial difficulties, and on the other with the negative attitude adopted by the leaders of the Chinese community and the deep-seated distrust shown by members of the public in any measures which

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might be taken as interfering with their homes and ways of living. Almost every year at the end of the century there were outbreaks of plague, which, thanks to a Japanese research worker in Hong Kong, were finally identified as being carried by rats. After this discovery, against considerable public opposition, regular house- cleansing was carried out by sanitary squads, and measures were effectively taken to restrict the spread of plague. Outbreaks, how- ever, continued on a diminishing scale until about 1927, when, for reasons unknown, occurrences of this particular disease lessened significantly in all parts of the world.

The Sanitary Board continued in existence until 1936, when its functions were broadened and entrusted to an Urban Council, with official, appointed and elected members. In 1953 the number of elected members was increased from two to four, and the franchise was widened. In 1956 the number of elected members was again increased to eight.

Reclamation meanwhile continued steadily. Between 1921-9 ninety acres were reclaimed north of Johnston Road, allowing for a large planned extension of the Chinese quarter of Wan Chai, now one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world. Since the Second World War there has been extensive reclamation, principally in the central district, Causeway Bay, and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour.

      The principle that, in a place with such totally inadequate natural water supply as Hong Kong, it was a Government respon- sibility to provide reservoirs was first laid down by Sir Hercules Robinson (Governor 1859-65). What followed may be described as a century-long race between water capacity and population. The Pok Fu Lam Reservoir was no sooner completed (1863) than it had to be extended, and the same occurred after the completion of Tai Tam Reservoir in 1883. Extensions continued in these two areas, the largest work, Tai Tam Tuk Dam, being completed in 1917.

      The lease of the New Territories provided a much needed opportunity to increase the water supply of Kowloon, which had hitherto been dependent on two wells situated near Yau Ma Tei. A new reservoir system high up in the Kowloon hills was started in 1902 and completed in 1910, extensions to it being made between 1922-5.

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      From 1930 water was conveyed to Hong Kong from the slopes of Tai Mo Shan, the highest mountain in the New Territories, but even with this, supplies remained inadequate, and in 1935-6 the same area was further developed by the construction of the Jubilee Reservoir, the largest yet built in the Colony. In 1957 another reservoir, still larger, was completed at Tai Lam Chung, and work has started on the building of yet another at Shek Pik in Lantau.

      The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies, as indeed are a number at the present time. The first Government hospital was the Civil Hospital, founded in 1859. Part of its large old-fashioned buildings is still in use, and on the remainder of the original site today stands the spacious and modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, opened in 1955. The Kowloon Hospital was opened in 1925, and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. Construction has started upon a new 1,300-bed hospital in Kowloon. The provision of adequate medical facilities at times of refugee influx has been one of Hong Kong's major problems, only surpassed by the problem of water, and surmounted only by the combined efforts of the Government and unofficial organizations.

       The need to safeguard fishing junks and other small craft from destruction by typhoons was met by the construction of large typhoon shelters on both sides of the harbour. One of the main functions of the Royal Observatory, founded in Kowloon in 1883, was to give reliable forecasts of the approach of typhoons, a function which increased in importance with the development of air transport, which in Hong Kong may be said to date from the laying-out of Kai Tak Airport in 1932.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND WORLD WAR

      In 1911 the Manchu dynasty fell, and was replaced by a Republic, guided by Sun Yat-sen, whose political thinking had been deeply influenced by his contacts with British institutions and ways of thought while a student in Hong Kong. During the events leading to the overthrow of the dynasty many refugees sought sanctuary in Hong Kong, using the Colony's Chinese news- papers as a vehicle for conveying their ideas into China.

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      Following the establishment of the Republic came a long period of unrest in China. Once again large numbers of refugees, mainly from the southern provinces, made their way to the Colony. Their arrival coinciding with a commercial boom which occurred during the First World War, many of them made their permanent home in Hong Kong, and identified themselves with local affairs. Among the refugees were a number of Buddhists who, from this time. onwards, began to develop the lonely upper hills of Lantau Island with their monastic retreats.

The anti-foreign movement which marked the rise of the Kuomintang to power in China in 1922 was reflected in Hong Kong by marked social unrest. A seamen's strike occurred in that year, and in 1925-6 there was a serious general strike, plainly engineered from Canton. Sir Cecil Clementi (Governor 1925-30), by negotiation with the Canton authorities, not only settled the dispute, but laid the foundations of a good neighbour policy with Canton, which from then on brought considerable benefit on both sides of the frontier. At the same time, the leaders of all com- munities resident in Hong Kong became increasingly aware of their social responsibilities towards less privileged sections of the population. From this awareness developed the strong interest in social welfare which has become one of the most marked features of the Colony's life.

      Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when Japan presented her Twenty-One Demands to China in 1917. These were followed by intense economic expan- sion. In 1931 Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 began a general invasion of China. As the Japanese armies pressed southwards towards Canton, which was taken in 1938, Hong Kong experienced the greatest influx of refugees it had yet seen. It is estimated that about 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938, and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the total population to about 1,600,000. At the height of the influx there were thought to be over half-a- million people sleeping in the streets.

In the earliest days of the Sino-Japanese War it was possible for valuable supplies to reach China through the Colony, but, after the fall of Canton, movement of such supplies was severely restricted. When war broke out in Europe, in September 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on 8th

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     December 1941 the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, invaded the Colony from the main- land. The first attempt to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of 15th-16th December, but a second attempt, on the 18th-19th night, could not be held. After several days of severe fighting, in which many thousands of Commonwealth troops lost their lives, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

      All members of the fighting services, which included the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, were interned as prisoners-of-war, many being subsequently sent to Japan to work in mines and docks. The majority of British-born civilians were interned in a civilian camp at Stanley. Those who remained free experienced throughout the Japanese occupation a steady deterioration of conditions. Trade was at a standstill, currency steadily losing value, and in neighbouring Kwangtung a food shortage culminated in 1944-5 in famine conditions. Large numbers of civilians moved over to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Toward the latter part of the occupation the Japanese, unable to obtain food for the existing population, organized mass deportations from Hong Kong.

      In the face of increasing oppression the fundamental loyalty of the population to the Allied cause was not in doubt. Parts of the New Territories remained in the hands of Chinese guerrillas throughout the war, in spite of vigorous punitive measures taken against them. Allied personnel escaping or evading capture were assured of assistance from the rural population.

       As soon as news of the Japanese surrender was received, a provisional government was established under the Colonial Secretary, Mr., now Sir, Franklin Gimson, assisted by civil servants released from prison camps and by leading citizens of all races, maintaining the essential form of Government until 30th August 1945, when powerful units of the British Pacific Fleet reached the Colony.

SINCE THE WAR

      A brief period of military administration was followed by the formal re-establishment of civil government in May 1946. From

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the moment of liberation Hong Kong made an astonishing recovery. In August 1945 it was estimated that the population had been reduced to about 600,000. Eighteen months later at least 1,000,000 people had returned, and the population was still rising. At the close of 1947, so far as it is possible to estimate, Hong Kong held about 1,800,000 people, with once again an acute housing problem and water shortage.

      As, during 1948-9, the forces of the National Government of China began to retreat and disintegrate, a refugee influx surpass- ing all others took place, the refugees being in many cases well-to- do merchants and their families from Shanghai and other com- mercial centres. The highest point was reached in April 1950, when it was estimated that the Colony held about 2,360,000.

      The Central People's Government was installed on 1st October 1949 and during the latter part of 1950, with the promise of more settled conditions in China, and with the departure of many of the wealthier refugees to Taiwan, South America and other distant places of refuge, the Colony's population fell for the first time since the war until by the end of 1950 it was thought to be around 2,060,000. Since then, however, due partly to the arrival of more refugees from China, but principally to a high rate of natural increase, there has been another steady rise, bringing the population to the estimated figure of 2,806,000 at the end of 1958.

      Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied this growth of population. One of the most striking features of the post-war years has been the steadily increasing part which the Government has begun to play, directly or indirectly, in the provi- sion of housing and other forms of social services for the poorer sections of the community. New low-cost housing schemes, of the conventional type or by way of multi-storied resettlement estates, have called for a heavy investment of public funds. New schools, colleges, clinics, hospitals and other essential facilities have been provided as quickly as physical resources and the training of staff will permit-on a scale unprecedented in the Colony's history. Yet, despite the substantial progress already made and the many new projects already being contemplated, the demand continues and is still far from being satisfied.

Private building on a wide scale has transformed and modern- ized much of the urban areas and the more accessible parts

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of the New Territories. Particularly in Kowloon and Tsuen Wan, industrialists have opened large modern factories producing a wide range of goods for export throughout the world. To meet the demand for more land for industry and housing, the Govern- ment has continued to carry out many new reclamations and drainage schemes, whilst the investigation of the potentialities of new areas for development is constantly. in hand. Reservoir capacity also has been doubled and is being further enlarged.

      The spectacular growth of new factories and workshops and the Colony's need to keep pace with world-wide advances in production, management and marketing techniques have been accompanied by ever higher standards of factory inspection, new labour legislation, and constantly increasing official concern with trade promotion, and technical and vocational training. A planned expansion is also under way in the fire and ambulance services.

The Government has embarked on a large-scale reconstruction of the Colony's road network. More rigorous traffic controls have been introduced in face of enlarged public transport services and the increase in number, and in size, of private cars in daily use. The railway has changed from steam to diesel-electric traction. A new airport, of which the first stage consists of the recently completed runway projecting into Kowloon Bay, is being con- structed to meet the needs of modern aircraft. Airline passengers, many of them tourists from overseas, have in turn created a demand for more and better hotel accommodation, and for sight- seeing and shopping facilities.

Postal and telecommunication services have set new records in the traffic handled. Broadcasting, wired and wireless, and wired television have developed as an essential part of the Colony's entertainment industry. Parks, playgrounds and well-supervised bathing beaches are only a few of the outdoor amenities which the public at large enjoy.

      Despite this response to the challenge of over-population and the refugee influx, the Colony's ordinary life could not have run so smoothly, had it not been for the constant vigilance and efficiency of the security forces. The Kowloon riots of 1956, which constituted the most serious outbreak of violence in the post-war years, were quickly ended, and the lessons learnt on that occasion

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put to good use in plans for the further expansion and modern- ization of the Police Force and the other agencies concerned with the preservation of law and order.

       An increased, and ever increasing, tempo is apparent in every aspect of Hong Kong's daily life, but it is the growth of local industry itself, set against a background of the disruption of the Colony's normal trade pattern by forces beyond its control, which has been the most significant feature, after population growth, in the Colony's history in the post-war years.

        As a result of the outbreak of war in Korea in June 1950, controls were progressively introduced over the export of strategic materials, beginning with petroleum and its derivatives in July of that year. As far as North Korea itself was concerned, a com- plete embargo on trade of any kind with that country was in- troduced on 8th July. In December the United States Government placed an embargo on goods destined for Hong Kong. This seriously affected supplies of raw materials essential for much of local industry, and led, for a time, to a serious disruption of the Colony's manufactures, with the threat of widespread un- employment. Fortunately, this embargo was modified by the in- troduction of a system of controls, which ensured supplies of these materials for legitimate use in the Colony.

In June 1951, as a result of the United Nations Resolution of 18th May 1951, a complete embargo on the export of strategic materials to China was imposed by the Hong Kong Government. This was a crippling blow to local commerce and the volume of trade in that year fell by over one million tons compared with the figure for the preceding year. During 1952 the United States Government introduced controls over imports of Chinese-type merchandise from Hong Kong, and even now commodities of this kind are admitted into the United States only under strict procedures designed to ensure that they are of non-Communist origin. The entrepôt trade with China, once the Colony's mainstay, has been reduced to a trickle. Recent reductions in the scope of strategic controls have done little to improve the situation, which is caused principally by China's own economic and commercial policies. Exports to China have now fallen to 4% of total exports. The Colony has been saved from economic disaster in recent years only by its enterprise in the industrial field.

Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration

CONSTITUTION

     THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supple- mented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

      The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex-officio and seven nominated members. The ex- officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secretary. There is one nominated official member. The six unofficials include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding questions which come before the Council, and for taking action, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power, under numerous ordinances, to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

      The same five ex-officio members of the Executive Council serve also on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is the President. In addition, there are four other official members and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor. These include four Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee,

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

319

on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legisla- tive Council is based on that of the House of Commons.

The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XX.

JUDICIARY

The Principles of Common Law and Equity and the Statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April 1843, except where inapplicable to local circumstances, form the basis of the legal system of Hong Kong. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain subsequent enactments and by Hong Kong Ordinances, of which a new edition, revised in 1950, was published in 1951. The courts of the Colony are described in Chapter 13.

ADMINISTRATION

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of the Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix V.

The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments, and makes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of four divisions dealing with general administration, finance, defence and government personnel. The Financial Secre- tary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence, co-ordinates the work of the local forces, described in Chapter 17, and acts as the main channel of communication between the Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office.

The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney General, who is the head of the Legal Department and is also responsible for drafting legislation and for instituting and conduct- ing public prosecutions. Members of the department include the Solicitor General, three Senior Crown Counsel and eleven Crown Counsel.

320

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. He is also specifically charged with the responsibility of maintaining direct channels of communication between the Government and all levels of Chinese society in urban Hong Kong. In addition, with the assistance of his department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, he discharges a number of statutory duties including the Chairmanship of certain Boards and Committees which are for the most part Chinese in composition, administration of the District Watch Force and Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, and a variety of licensing and registration duties. Other traditional responsibili- ties include those of arbitration in domestic or tenancy disputes, and the provision of his good offices should there be any major misunderstanding between another department and some section of the Chinese public on other than purely professional or technical matters. He also has the important responsibility of providing direct liaison with villagers in semi-rural areas on Hong Kong Island and in New Kowloon.

The Social Welfare Department, previously known as the Social Welfare Office and a sub-department of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, became an independent department on the 1st January 1958. Its functions are, with one exception, the same as before this change in status, namely, Child Welfare, Youth Welfare, Women and Girls' Welfare, Probation, Relief, and Care of the Physically Handicapped. The exception is that the responsibilities hitherto discharged by the Community Development Section of the Social Welfare Office were taken over by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and the staff of that section remained under him.

Under the Financial Secretary, the accounting operations of the Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. All public accounts of the Government, including accounts of special funds and departmental accounts, are subject to audit and inspection by the Audit Department under a Director. The Director of Audit reports annually on the accounts to the Director General of the Overseas Audit Service and to the Colonial Secretary, and a copy of his report, together with the Governor's comments, is laid before the Legislature and transmitted to the Secretary of State. The Rating and Valuation Department, under a Commissioner, is concerned

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

321

with assessments for rates and other matters connected with the rent and value of real property. The Inland Revenue Department, headed by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, administers the collection of the internal revenue of the Colony, which includes Earnings and Profits Tax, Stamp Duties, Estate Duty, Entertain- ment Tax, Dance Halls Tax, Bets and Sweeps Tax, and Business Registration Fees. The Commerce and Industry Department, under a Director, is responsible for industrial and trade development, the collection of revenue from import and excise duties, the activities of the Preventive Service, certificates of origin, trade licensing, Government bulk purchases of firewood and certain foodstuffs, control over stocks of reserve commodities, and the production of trade statistics and any other statistics required by other departments of the Government. The department also administers the London and Tokyo offices of the Hong Kong Government. (The work of these departments is described in Chapters 4 and 6).

       The Public Works Department, under a Director, consists of nine sub-departments, dealing with waterworks, Crown lands and surveys, the administration of the Buildings Ordinance, electrical and mechanical works (including Government motor transport), architecture (Government buildings), development, port works, drainage and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsi- ble for town planning. (See also Chapters 10, 14 and 15).

       The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of five ex-officio members, namely the Chair- man (who is at the same time the Director of the Urban Services Department), the Assistant Director of Health Services (Vice- Chairman), the Director of Public Works, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Director of Social Welfare; and sixteen ordinary members, of whom eight are elected and eight appointed by the Governor. The Commissioner for Resettlement sits as a temporary additional ex-officio member. The term of office of ordinary members will ultimately be four years, but certain transitional provisions are now in force as to the length of the terms of office of various groups of members. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business, but most of its business is dealt with by thirty nine select committees, which meet at frequent intervals.

322

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

      The Council carries out its responsibilities through the Urban Services and Resettlement Departments. The Urban Services Department, whose work is separately described in Chapters 9 and 21, operates the basic sanitary services in the urban area and has a variety of duties in the field of public health, such as the supervision of food premises and hawkers, the operation of the city's slaughterhouses, and pest control measures. In addition, the department controls and staffs the parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches. The management of the first of the multi-storey car parks in the centre of the city is also a responsibility of the Council, as will be the new City Hall when it is built. The Resettlement Department is responsible for the clearance and resettlement of squatters, the administration of the resettlement estates and areas, and the prevention of new squatting either on vacant land or on the rooftops of buildings, (See also Chapter 10).

       The composition of the Housing Authority and the work of the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department which is responsible, under the immediate charge of a Commissioner, for routine administration and execution of the Authority's decisions, are described in Chapter 10.

       The Commissioner of Police, who is concurrently the Immigra- tion Officer, is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force and the Prisons Department, also under a Commissioner, are described in Chapter 13. The Medical Depart- ment is described in Chapter 9; the Education Department in Chapter 8; and the Labour Department, under a Commissioner who is concurrently Commissioner of Mines, in Chapter 3.

       Reference to the Registrar General's Department will be found in Chapter 13, and to the Marine, Railway and Civil Aviation Departments, the Post Office and the Royal Observatory in Chapter 15. The Public Relations Office and Radio Hong Kong are described in Chapter 16. Chapter 7 describes the work of the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department, and the Co- operative and Marketing Department.

       The Fire Brigade, which is under the control of a Chief Officer, provides fire protection throughout the urban areas, for the main districts of the New Territories, and for shipping in the harbour. Additional fire stations are now under construction to increase

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

323

fire cover for the Colony. The Brigade comprises 809 officers and other ranks, with 60 mobile fire appliances, 3 fire boats and 20 ambulances.

The Stores Department, under a Controller, buys and distributes Government stores, manufactures and repairs all furniture for offices and quarters, and administers the Government monopoly of sand. The Printing Department, under the Government Printer, is responsible for all Government publications, most of which are produced entirely in the department itself. The Quartering Authority deals with accommodation for civil servants and Government departments.

New Territories Administration. The New Territories are divided into four administrative districts; Yuen Long in the north-west, Tai Po in the north-east, Tsuen Wan which includes the industrial town of Tsuen Wan, the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan and part of north-east Lantau, and the Southern district which includes all the remaining islands and the southern part of the Sai Kung peninsula. Each of the four districts is administered by a District Officer. The District Office for Yuen Long is at Ping Shan and that for Tai Po is at Tai Po Market. The two other District Offices are at present situated in Kowloon. The District Commis- sioner, with an office in Kowloon and headquarters staff under an Assistant District Commissioner, co-ordinates the overall adminis- tration of the New Territories. There is also a Resident Magistrate, who is a legal officer, for the New Territories. District Officers hold land and small-debt courts, and arbitrate in all kinds of disputes including family and matrimonial cases; they control Crown land and buildings, register documents and deeds relating to private land, assess and collect stamp duty, and administer a vote for small public works undertaken by villagers to improve irrigation, water supplies and communications. Close co-operation is maintained between the Administration and all other depart- ments with interests in the New Territories.

District Officers have the assistance of Rural Committees, elected by and from village representatives, and exercising various advisory functions. Although these committees have no statutory or executive powers, they have already proved their usefulness as mouthpieces of public opinion, in the arbitration of clan and family disputes, and generally as a bridge between the Administration

324

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

     and the people. The New Territories is covered by a network of rural committees, twenty seven sub-districts being recognized for this purpose as rural committee areas. Twenty five have formally established rural committees and one is in the process of forming a rural committee.

THE PUBLIC SERVICE

Appointments and promotions to most posts in the Public Service are made on the advice of the Public Services Commission, a statutory non-Government body established in 1950 with the object of improving the standard of efficiency of officers and of putting into effect the Government's policy of giving preference in appointment, wherever possible, to well-qualified local candidates whose roots are in the Colony.

Monthly paid offices in the Public Service are divided into five classes. Classes I and II include those offices normally held by administrative or professional officers, or offices of similar status. Class III offices are held by more junior officers (including the Clerical Service) with an initial basic salary of more than $260 p.m. Class IV is for disciplined staff below the rank of Police Sub-Inspector (or equivalent rank in other departments). Class V includes non-pensionable officers with initial basic salaries of $260 p.m. or less. There is also a number of daily paid officers, who may qualify after varying periods of service for transfer to monthly pay.

The Public Service has more than doubled during the last ten years, the establishment on 1st April 1958 being 40,429 compared with 15,831 on 1st April 1948. The estimated expenditure on salaries for the financial year 1958-9 was $222.7 million, which represents 34.4% of the total estimated expenditure for the year (excluding expenditure from the Development Fund) of $648.1 million.

One of the most noteworthy developments in the Public Service since the war has been the large increase in the number of local officers in the more senior posts (Classes I and II), mainly as a result of greater local recruitment to senior administrative and professional appointments in the Education, Medical and Public Works Departments. In 1950 there were 54 local officers and 448

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

325

overseas officers in these classes; on 1st January 1958 there were 362 local officers and 673 overseas officers. The proportion of local officers in Classes I and II has thus risen from 10.75% to 34.8% in eight years. The increase in the number of overseas officers has been due principally to the need to keep pace with the ever- increasing development of the Colony, which cannot be delayed until local training schemes in the University and elsewhere are able to produce enough graduates to meet all the demands of the Public Service as well as those of private enterprise. There are also 612 overseas and 7,847 locally appointed officers in Class III, making a grand total of 1,285 overseas officers and 8,209 local officers in the three classes.

       Salary Structure. Broadly speaking, the post-war structure of the Public Service, including its salary scales and general conditions of service, has been based upon the Report of the 1947 Salaries Commission. One of the Commission's recommendations led to the formation of a Conditions of Service Committee which met during 1948-50 to resolve anomalies arising out of the Commis- sion's Report and which in turn was replaced by the Public Services Commission itself. The Lo Committee on cost of living allowances also supplemented the 1947 Commission's Report by devising a system of variable cost of living allowances to replace the temporary system proposed by the Commission. In 1951 the Government consolidated a proportion of the cost of living allow- ance into basic salary. In 1952 a new system for the calculation of basic monthly salaries over $200 was introduced, which, by substantially increasing those allowances, to some extent restored the situation existing before the 1951 consolidation. In 1953 the second post-war Salaries Commission was appointed, and present- ed its Report in 1954. Since the Government was unable for a variety of reasons to accept the Commission's recommendations as they stood, Mr. P. C. M. Sedgwick was then appointed to devise a modified scheme of salaries revision into which those of the Commission's recommendations which were otherwise acceptable could be fitted. The Revised Salaries Scheme, as it is known, came into effect in 1955. The Sedgwick Report had purposely left substantially unaltered the salaries for professional, administrative and superscale posts, and in 1956 Mr. W. D. Godsall, C.M.G., conducted a review of these salaries, his conclusions

326

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

forming the keystone for the new salaries structure derived from the 1953 Salaries Commission's Report. The appointment was announced in November 1958 of a Salaries Commission, which will begin work early in 1959, to consider and submit recom- mendations for the revision of the salaries and other emoluments of all public officers in Hong Kong.

      Training. Most departments have organized schemes for the basic training of newly-recruited officers in their work and in many cases schemes provide training with a view to the improvement of efficiency and the acquisition of further knowledge or qualifica- tions. A survey carried out during the year revealed that there are sixty eight different schemes for local training of government servants. Most departments provide their own instructors and training staff, although in a few instances the facilities of the Technical College or the University, and specially qualified outside lecturers, are used. Among the schemes which provide for new recruits are those for air traffic control officers, revenue officers and inspectors, firemen and firemen drivers, health and labour inspectors, launch coxswains and engineers, nurses, midwives, health visitors, police constables and inspectors, prison warders and leaders, taxation officers, radiographic assistants and radio- graphers, laboratory assistants, dispensers, apprentice engineers and architects, assistant clerks and inspectors of works. Part-time training classes out of office hours are provided for clerical officers, postal clerks and storekeepers. There are apprenticeship schemes in the Public Works and Printing Departments and the Kowloon- Canton Railway. An important scheme for the training of teachers at Teacher Training Colleges is organized by the Education Department.

      Apart from local training, increasing use is being made of special courses of instruction in the United Kingdom and other overseas countries. The main purpose of this type of training is to fit local officers for promotion to higher posts; a secondary aim being to provide the opportunity for overseas officers, whilst on vacation leave in their home country, to familiarize themselves with the latest developments in their profession or to acquire further specialized experience. As part of this training programme 67 local officers were sent abroad during 1958 on courses of instruction and 34 overseas officers attended courses while on

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

327

vacation leave. The cost of these courses is in the region of $900,000.

The Government also takes the fullest possible advantage of the seminars, study tours and other forms of training provided by the United Nations and its specialized agencies under both the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance and the regular technical assistance programmes of individual agencies. During 1958 local participants, including both govern- ment servants and non-officials, attended seminars concerning the Protection of Human Rights in Criminal Law and Procedure (Manila), and Regional Planning in Relation to Urbanization and Industrialization (Japan), both under the auspices of the United Nations Technical Assistance Administration; an International Labour Office seminar on Co-operation (Rangoon); a Food and Agricultural Organization training centre on Agriculture Extension Work (Philippines); and seminars on Resistance of Insects to Insecticides (India) and Venereal Diseases Control (Japan), and a Training Course on Public-Health Laboratory Techniques for Virus and Rickettsial Diseases (India), all organized by the World Health Organization. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization made a Youth Travel Grant (Europe and America) to a university student; the World Health Organiza- tion granted fellowships for the study of Drug Addiction (U.S.A.) and Dental Nursing (New Zealand); and the Technical Assistance Administration granted a fellowship in Demographic Training (India) to a graduate of the University. The International Labour Office, under the Expanded Programme, supplied a fellowship in the Organization of Cottage Industries (Japan) and provided the services of an expert in Training Within Industry. Visits were paid to Hong Kong during the year by officials of the various United Nations organizations to discuss training needs, etc., and to observe the Colony's social and economic development.

Chapter 26: Weights and Measures

THE weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and the following Chinese weights and measures, given with their equivalents in avoirdupois :

1 fan (candareen)

1 ts'in (mace)

1 leung (tael)

.0133 ounces

.133 ounces

1.33

ounces

1 kan (catty=16 taels)

1.33

pounds

1 tam (picul=100 catties) = 133.33

pounds

1.19 cwts.

0.0595 tons

1 ch'ek (foot)

Statutory equivalent 14§

inches. The ch'ek is

divided into 10 ts'un

(inches), and

and each

ts'un into ten fan, or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length of a ch'ek varies, according to the trade in which it is used, from 14 inches to 11 inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

Chapter 27: Reading List

FOR an extensive bibliography on Hong Kong the reader is directed to the 1954 edition of the Hong Kong Annual Report.

      Although there is a considerable amount of published material dealing with Hong Kong, not much of it is obtainable other than in research libraries. The following are the more recent publica- tions likely to be available to the general reader:

CARRINGTON, C. E.: The British Overseas, Cambridge, 1950.

COLLINS, Sir Charles: Public Administration in Hong Kong,

Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1952.

Davis, S. G.: Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting, Collins,

London, 1949.

DONNISON, F. S. V.: British Military Administration in the Far East, History of the Second World War Series, H. M. Stationery Office, London, 1956. [Other volumes in this series are also relevant].

ENDACOTT, G. B.: A History of Hong Kong, Oxford, 1958. GREENBERG, Michael: British Trade and the Opening of

China, 1800-1842, Cambridge, 1951.

INGRAMS, Harold: Hong Kong, Corona Library, H. M.

Stationery Office, London, 1952.

MILLS, Lennox A.: British Rule in Eastern Asia, Oxford,

1942.

SAYER, G. R.: Hong Kong, Birth, Adolescence and Coming

of Age, Oxford, 1937.

      A list of the more important Government publications issued during 1958 is at Appendix XXI.

Appendices

333

Appendix I

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Colonial Development and Welfare

        Details of locally administered Grants and Loans made by the United Kingdom Government towards schemes in progress during 1958.

Estimated Expenditure

Scheme No.

Title of Development Scheme

Grant

Loan

£

£

up to 31.12.58

£

D 1967

Loans to fishermen for mechaniza- tion (Interest free loan-Repay- able by 9 annual instalments of £5,000 and a final one of £1,850 with effect from 1.4.58) ..

46,850(1)

46,850

D 2341

Site development for low-cost

housing, Healthy Village

25,000

18,034

D 2487

Construction of Pathology Insti- tute, Hong Kong University (administered by University)

80,781

74,864

D 2539

Development

schemes in New

Territories ..

263,500

208,780(2)

D 2594

Aeronautical Telecommunication

16,800

3,789(3)

D 2663

Site development for low-cost

& A

housing, Kennedy Town

52,500

52,500

D 2990

Site development for low-cost

housing, So Uk..

88,875

85,853(4)

£527,456 £46,850 £490,670

Notes: (1) £50,000 originally: reduced to £46,850 in July 1958.

(2)

Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share of estimated expenditure varies with the items comprising this scheme as follows:

£

£

Item 1. Road on South Lantau

42% of 106,730= 44,827

2.

Six feeder roads

50% 70,568 35,284

3. Piers in the New Territories

85%

26,840= 22,814

4. Irrigation schemes

85%

1

5. Survey party

85%

119,979-101,982

4,557= 3,873

£208,780

(3) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (80%) of estimated expenditure.

(4) Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (75%) of estimated expenditure.

334

Appendix II A

(Chapter 3: Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization)

Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in Main Industrial Groups

U.N. Standard Industrial

Classification

Industry

Industrial Undertakings

Persons Employed

Number

1956 1957 1958

1956 1957

1958

12

Metal Mining

3

751

14

Clay Pits & Quarrying

64

55

55

46

2,226

2,109

1.320

21

22

23

24

25

26

29

30

2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

19

Non-metallic Mining

1

33

20

Food Manufacture ..

323

322 360

6,708

6,521

6,921

Beverages

29

30

29

1,007

907

904

Tobacco Manufacture

6

8

9

1,291 1,229 1,534

Manufacture of Textiles *

639

651 680

Footwear & Wearing Apparel *

255

277 680

42,254 43,538 42,338

10,342 14,054 28,233

Manufacture of Wood & Cork ..

131

126 185

2,214 2,306 2,720

Manufacture of Furniture

29 33 137

1,050

960

2.543

27

28

Paper & Paper Products

Printing & Publishing

Leather & Leather Products

Rubber Products

30 34

52

593

740

699

380 375 609

6,966

7,298

8,265

15

16

15

363

360

300

72

73

107

7,386

7,215

8,788

31

32

Chemicals & Chemical Products *

96

93

113

2,769

2,719

3,288

Products of Petroleum & Coal ..

4

21

33

34

Non-metallic Products

73

70

96

2,379

1,902

2,112

Basic Metal Industries

30

31

66

1,403 1,417 2,289

w w w w

35

Metal Products *

476

470 575

36

Manufacture of Machinery

206 213 280

37

Electrical Apparatus *

50

54 83

26,062 24,367 24,342

3,371 3,712 4,291

2,134 2,417 2,822

38

39

40

51

39

Construction

Transport & Transport

Equipment *

Miscellaneous Manufacturing

Industries *

15

45

47

65

12,859

14,999 14,540

221 239 447

6,955 8,304

13,517

www

5

61

Electricity & Gas

8

00

8

8

1,808

1,517

1,827

C F £ R 2 *

61

Wholesale & Retail Trade

5

5

7

667

588

606

71

Transport (Baling & Packing)

6

5

15

84

74

261

72

Storage & Warehousing ..

3

Lad

3

19

944

464

796

73

Cable & Wireless & Telephones

2

2

2

861

1,064 ∙1,072

83

Motion Picture Industry ..

5

7

8

423

479

424

84

Laundry & Dry Cleaning

120

126 200

1,728 1,773 2,379

Total.

3,319 3,373 4,906

146,877 153,033 179,997

* Similar figures for selected industries in these groups are given in Appendix IIB.

335

23

Appendix IIB

Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in selected Industries in certain of the Main Industrial Groups

U.N. Standard Industrial Classification

Number

Industry

Manufacture of Textiles

Industrial Undertakings

Persons Employed

1956 1957 1958

1956

1957

1958

Cotton Spinning

19 19

20

14,271

15,646

* 12,613

Wool Spinning

3

3

2

847

386

205

Cotton Weaving

146

158 183

9,838

11,045

* 15.870

Finishing

51

63

74

1,627

1,738

1.974

Knitting Mills

325

349

272

14,046

13,202

8,511

Cordage, rope & twine

42

41 31

938

911

498

24

Footwear, Wearing Apparel &

made-up Textile Goods

Footwear except rubber footwear

29

31

59

1,042

1,110

1,845

Wearing apparel except footwear

195

218

585

8,418

12,084

25.602

Made-up textile goods except

wearing apparel

31

28

36

882

860

786

31

Chemical & Chemical Products

Medicines

21

Cosmetics..

10

Paint & lacquer

10

Matches

3

2692

28

568

563

633

8

5

257

261

169

11

471

500

530

2

568

473

462

34

Basic Metal Industries

Rolling mills

11

12

17

738

675

1,487

35

Metal Products (except Machinery)

Tin cans

34

35

Enamelware

39

33

**

43

1,292

1,219

933

23

6,156

5,595

5.644

Vacuum flasks

5

5

6

751

767

924

Electro-plating

52

50

78

1,147

1,014

1,298

Needles

4

6

6

712

559

537

Hurricane lamps

4

4

7

368

190

398

Hand torch cases

29

30 36

5,540

5,163

5,401

Pressure stoves & lanterns

(no separate

21

(no separate

1.462

Wrist watch bands

records)

58

records)

2,003

37

Electrical Apparatus

Hand torch bulbs

28 29

34

751

868

920

Torch batteries

8

8

11

873

1,089

1.033

38

Transport & Transport Equipment

Shipbuilding & repairing

23

Tramways

1

Motor buses

2

Aircraft repair

2

3121

2121

30

8,245 10,733

10,049

1,536

1,517

1,492

973

1,057

1,083

1,437

889

909

39

Miscellaneous

Artificial pearls

7

7

7

364

313

403

Buttons

28 29 29

Bakelite ware

Plasticware

15

113 131

14 18

29

1,155

1,162

1,341

301

363

477

296

2,987

4,184

8,024

Fountain pens

5

6

9

192

164

267

Artificial flowers

(no separate records)

11

(no separate records)

1,462

          * During the year 3,900 workers employed in the weaving sections of 9 cotton spinning mills were transferred from 'Spinning' to 'Weaving'.

336

LIABILITIES

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Statement of Assets and

III

Finance and Taxation)

Liabilities as at 31st March 1958

$

$

ASSETS

$

337

Government Servants

DEPOSITS:

Colonial Development & Welfare Schemes

857,200.98

Contributions towards Building Projects

3,662,281.61

Contribution towards reinforcing Garrison

8,000,000.00

Control of Publications

669,785.95

Development Fund

14,000,000.00

1,637,185.01

Miscellaneous

15,140,104.75

Motor Vehicles Insurance Third Party

200,000.00

Other Administrations

127,319.81

Public Works Department-Private Works Account

1,987,012.58

Joint Consolidated Fund (£745,000.0.0)

CASH:

At Bank (Treasury)

$33,229,672.87

(H.K. and Kowloon

Magistracies)

(P. M. G.)

99,427.45

25.179.54

33,354,279.86

In Hand (Treasury)

887,701.02

(H.K. and Kowloon

Magistracies)

7,959.24

(K. C. R.)

(P. M. G.)

22,752.58

85,724.35

Sub Total

With Crown Agents (£872.10.2)

1,004,137.19

34,358,417.05

13,960.14

11,920,000,00

46,292,377.19

Settlement with H.M.G.

8,000,000.00

FIXED DEPOSITS

120,500,000.00

*

Water Deposits ..

6,825,241.19

61,106.131.88

SUSPENSE ..

31.261.62

IMPRESTS..

263.200.00

LOCAL LOANS FUND.

DEVELOPMENT FUND

SUSPENSE ..

19.01

1,034,667.00

ADVANCES:

148,995,731.71

SPECIAL FUNDS:

Rehabilitation Grants to Farmers of the New Territories

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

Miscellaneous

13,164.00

806,214.47

370,029.10

Other Administrations

855,514.57

Personal

2,946,906.29

4,621,799.33

137,814,760.94

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:

DEVELOPMENT FUND

148,995,731.71

Balance as at 1st April 1957

358,162,239.63

Add Surplus from 1st April 1957 to 31st March 1958

51,505,970.61

SURPLUS BALANCES:

Investments:

409,668,210.24

Less Depreciation on Investments

8,165,118.38

401,503,091.86

Federation of Malaya 44% Stock 1964/74 (MS4,350,000)

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965/75 (M$5,455,750)

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan 1940

Sterling Investments (£25,636,216.17.9)

8,120,000.00

10,184,066.67

1,699,010.00

410,179,470.20

430,182,546.87

Total

$750,855,674.11

Total

$750,855,674.11

Notes:

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal and 980 shares at a nominal value of $5 There is a contingent liability of $2,096,450.45 There is a sum of $3,401,638.02 ranking for

Airport Development Scheme.

value of $100 per share in Associated Properties Ltd., per share in Helm Brothers Ltd. (Yokohama).

in respect of the $1 Note Security Fund.

loan issue on a 50/50 basis in respect of the Kai Tak

338

Appendix IV

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Revenue

1956-7

1957-8

1958-9

HEAD OF revenuE

Actual

Estimated

Actual

$

$

$

Estimated

$

1.

Duties..

2.

Rates

97,299,299 96,200,000 105,722,731 108,850,000

56,706,453 63,400,000 65,159,092 70,070,000

3. Internal Revenue

164,424,637 154,250,000 184,892,242 164,000,000

4. Licences, Fines and Forfeitures

19,869,718 18,389,000 20,826,097 19,255,200

5.

Fees of Court or Office

37,371,630 40,776,600 44,890,165 65,344,200

6. Water Revenue

7. Post Office

9,091,303 12,609,000 12,583,521 14,711,500

29,260,077

27,551,000 29,787,572 31,219,000

8. Kowloon-Canton Railway

7,803,754

5,978,000 8,104,208 6,900,000

9. Revenue from Interest, Lands,

Rents, etc.

10. Miscellaneous Receipts

11.

Land Sales

12. Colonial Development and Welfare

Grants

37,304,753 40,590,700 42,453,784 47,325,200

21,562,630 18,634,800 29,408,197

480,694,254 478,379,100 543,827,609 527,675,100

14,937,000

13,505,000 26,244,377 16,005,000

3,459,257

2,804,900

1,313,202

1,723,300

13. Loans from United Kingdom

Government

10,592,000 12,800,000 12,800,000 8,650,900

Total Revenue

509,682,511

507,489,000 584,185,188 554,054,300

* Miscellaneous Receipts for 1958-9 are incorporated in Subhead 5.

Appendix V

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Expenditure

339

1956-7

1957-8

HEAD OF expendITURE

Actual

Estimated

Actual

1958-9

Estimated

$

$

$

$

1.

H. E. The Governor's Establishment

376,320

394,830

462,851

459,800

2.

Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry Department

3,516,078

3,933,290

3,436,074

4,445,100

3.

Audit Department

608,538

778,680

693,449

792,200

4.

Broadcasting Department

1,522,891

2,010,230

5. Civil Aviation Department

3,602,043

3,866,780

1,971,496

3,643,408 4,369,500

2,139,600

6. Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

2,768,718

3,160,100

3,108,914 3,524,500

7.

Commerce and Industry

Department

5,050,349

5,568,250

5,123,381 6,010,700

8. Co-operatives and Marketing

Department

494,927

539,690

530,814

568,200

9.

Defence:

A-R.H.K.D.F. Headquarters

and Hong Kong Regiment

2,141,423

2,289,360

2,201,383 2,096,700

B-Hong Kong Royal Naval

Volunteer Reserve

774,680

893,300

684,669

882,200

C-Hong Kong Auxiliary Air

Force

518,039

672,910

537,285

1,155,700

D-Essential Services Corps

82,157

92,050

82,283

96,900

E-Auxiliary Fire Service

194,086

197,430

207,892

254,000

F-Auxiliary Medical Service

620,663

740,690

867,409

1,074,200

G-Civil Aid Services

1,304,465

1,996,090

1,537,217

1,964,500

H-Registration of Persons

392,994

484,900

455,208

469,000

I-Directorate of Manpower

J-Miscellaneous Measures

80,243

63,100

80,298

64,900

18,731,080

10.

Education Department

11.

Fire Brigade ..

12. Inland Revenue Department

13. Judiciary

19,852,200

18,281,409 24,613,020 21,579,149 31,124,700

3,382,876 4,558,630 4,201,690 4,871,900

3,036,060 3,541,200 3,475,119 3,721,300

2,538,937 2,909,700

21,169,069

18,175,000

2,661,589

3,067,700

14.

Kowloon-Canton Railway

6,706,716

5,332,250

5,721,882

4,292,900

15.

Labour Department:

A-Labour Division

B-Mines Division

846,402 90.018

1,035,860

1,035,330

1,279,100

120,190

92,796

116,800

16.

Legal Department

850,304

885,900

869,798

931,800

17. Marine Department

8,148,696 14,005,540 11,825,050

14,032,200

18.

Medical Department

19.

30,048,868 37,243,950 34,864,883

19,128,548 7,064,800 12,800,509

43,427,300

11,520,000

Miscellaneous Services

20. New Territories, District

Administration

21. Pensions

222223

Police Force:

1,058,870 1,747,820 1,642,478 2,178,700

13,683,975 14,596,000 15,399,376 15,231,000

A-Hong Kong Police B-Hong Kong Police

(Auxiliaries)

38,255,664

44,179,200

43,004,884 57,355,900

1,211,591 1,895,920 1,267,299 1,528,300

340

Appendix V-Contd.

Expenditure

1956-7

1957-8

1958-9

Head of EXPENDITURE

Actual

Estimated

Actual

Estimated

$

$

23. Post Office

24. Printing Department

15,789,747 17,014,610

1,509,900 2,384,000

$

18,734,483 19,452,700

$

2,339,554 2,585,900

25. Prisons Department

6,193,447

7,604,390

7,200,192

8,586,900

26. Public Debt ..

3,306,588

3,281,310

3,276,765

3,247,710

27. Public Relations Office

508,196

691,200

618,337

758,800

28.

Public Services Commission

34,510

37,800

34,914

29,400

29.

Public Works Department

22,032,712

27,450,350

24,144,682

30,976,500

30.

Public Works Recurrent

31. Public Works Non-Recurrent

32. Quartering

33.

Rating and Valuation Department

34.

Registrar General's Department

712,620

21,112,864 26,133,000 30,562,816 29,977,000

112,836,529 152,063,280 117,717,594 186,750,000

2,612,366 2,562,500 2,627,955 2,886,100

489,327 677,700

1,174,500

631,924

1,135,848

725,100

1,307,400

35.

Registry of Trade Unions

156,667

183,940

185.864

192,600

36.

Resettlement Department

5,408,936

6,804,760

6,025,331

7,571,100

37.

Royal Observatory

1,415,220

2,237,940

2,047,233

2,182,500

38. Secretariat for Chinese Affairs:

A-Secretariat for Chinese

Affairs..

..

439,029

494,660

B-Social Welfare Office

2,435,091

3,019,130

502,488 2,980,000

663,500

*

C-District Watch Force

302,429

317,120

308,079

309,600

39.

Social Welfare Department

3,286,600

40. Stores Department

15,283,144

41.

Subventions

8,454,710

42,772,652 57,955,050

27,310,320

9,967,100

51,082,664

62,082,900

42.

Treasury:

A-Treasury

1,971,290

2,062,950

2,083,009

2,462,800

B-Custodian of Property

36,246

34,160

34,036

43.

Urban Services and Urban Council:

A-Head Office and Sanitary

Division

17,019,467

B-Gardens Division

C-Housing Division

1,160,162 164,497

20,568,340 18,919,945 2,356,050 1,916,027 519,200 389,157

22,174,100

2,532,700

944,500

644,875,810

44. Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

465,752,264 557,346,510 530,044,149

3,792,034 3,810,770 2,635,068 3,245,900

469,544,298 561,157,280 532,679,217 648,121,710

* New Schedule 39-Social Welfare Department in the 1958-9 Estimates,

341

Appendix VI

(Chapter 5: Currency and Banking)

Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

Chartered Bank

Mercantile Bank Ltd.

Thos. Cook & Son Ltd.

First National City Bank of New York

American Express Co. Inc.

Banque de l'Indo-Chine

Banque Belge Pour l'Etranger (Extreme-Orient)

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij N. V. (Netherlands Trading Society)

Nationale Handelsbank N. V.

Bank of East Asia Ltd.

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Ltd.

Bank of Communications

Bank of China Ltd.

Bank of Canton Ltd.

Shanghai Commercial Bank Ltd.

China and South Sea Bank Ltd.

Kincheng Banking Corporation

Bank of Tokyo Ltd.

United Commercial Bank Ltd.

Bank of Korea

Indian Overseas Bank Ltd.

Sze Hai Tong Bank Ltd.

China State Bank Ltd.

Hongkong & Swatow Commercial Bank Ltd.

Sin Hua Trust, Savings & Commercial Bank Ltd.

National Commercial Bank Ltd.

Nanyang Commercial Bank Ltd.

Bangkok Bank Ltd.

United Chinese Bank Ltd.

Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie Chekiang First Bank of Commerce (Hong Kong) Ltd.

Deutsch-Asiatische Bank

Wing On Bank Ltd. (partially authorized)

Kwangtung Provincial Bank Ltd. (partially authorized)

342

Appendix VII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade) Direction of Trade-Imports

       The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three years:

1957

1958

1956 HK$

HK$

HK$

China.

1,038,314,454

1,131,102,451

1,396,915,730

Japan

810,602,788

763,372,977

596,992,986

United Kingdom

513,333,600

667,279,421

530,889,629

U. S. A.

423,806,512

539,043,092

439,559,587

Thailand

185,362,677

191,787,225

160,287,706

Germany (Western)

118,982,636

159,266,421

135,154,017

Switzerland

131,650,766

193,038,501 130,973,836

Australia

100,274,169

112,959,941

112,769,089

Malaya

152,260,931

101,687,490

102,837,009

Indonesia

58,875,228

126,248,493

94,681,076

Netherlands

77,866,515

86,189,924

75,952,407

India ..

51,029,928

89,054,459

65,820,919

East Africa, British

55,620,548

67,352,924

65,653,228

Belgium

109,298,679

117,627,719

60,082,472

Italy

40,479,653

63,478,719

55,314,549

Cambodia

53,346,697

50,037,272

Taiwan

50,516,946

71,728,898

49,839,100

South Africa

32,008,004

55,609,132

48,248,033

Canada

46,335,227

51,362,478

42,958,937

Pakistan

98,049,901

92,003,220

33,396,776

Other Countries

471,525,969

415,914,735

345,369,274

Total

4,566,195,131

5,149,454,917 4,593,733,632

Appendix VIII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade- - Exports

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past three years were as follows:

United Kingdom

Malaya

U. S. A. Thailand

1956 HK$

1957

1958

HK$

HK$

298,371,070

336,749,032

393,241,465

372,774,225 372,683,321

382,233,325

116,570,563 198,181,851

326,353,470

319,639,045 188,159,486

217,009,924

Indonesia

501,428,419 312,495,759

210,753,637

China .

135,971,366

123,351,977

155,763,132

Japan

317,964,070 228,261,201

120,159,870

Australia

55,018,664

65,520,739

75,940,565

Germany (Western)

36,605,759

42,025,424

64,647,825

Taiwan

1.

47,482,890

60,603,212

61,715,594

Macau

57,706,599

66,380,683

57,805,218

Philippines

47,034,157

72,813,345

55,727,750

South Korea

125,182,160

71,366,430

52,807,645

Canada

29,291,189

41,110,898

51,161,926

Other Countries

748,574,252

836,568,868

763,480,366

Total ..

3,209,614,428 3,016,272,226 2,988,801,712

343

Appendix IX

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Principal Commodities Imported

       Principal commodities imported, with quantities and values, during 1958, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

Rice (cwt.)

Raw cotton (cwt.)

Cotton piece-goods

(bleached) (sq. yd.)

Swine (nos.)

Artificial textiles

(sq. yd.)

Watches and watch movements (nos.)

Diamonds, cut and

polished

4.

Furnace fuel oils (ton)

Sugar (cwt.)

Cotton piece-goods

1956

Quantity

1957

Quantity

1958

Value

Quantity

HK$

Value

Value HK$

HK$

5,557,880 191,685,546 6,162,008 214,047,979 7,509,386 266,225,097 1,305,086 254,266,681 1,385,706 257,435,957 1,345,943 212,563,587

159,732,482 205,097,287 162,652,603 214,970.756 148,987,584 196,285,796 548,537 88,556,608 543,127 92,370.005 835,960 125,898,284

134,823,576 165,591,401 112,831,147 143,758,152 69,539,660 108,536,743

3,014,099 118,695,177

4,021,629 174,946,571

2,386,806 105,006,315

85,012,658

93,619,811

725,464 100,065,004

97,785,318

699,823 81,989,905

                       760,466 91,165,235 2,398,000 72,624,921 2,138,481 81,326,755 2,656,656 82,197,386

(unbleached) (sq. yd.) 114,221,462 98,429,327 118,182,462 100,100,368 108,080,425 77,966,567

Woollen piece-goods

(sq. yd.)

Plants, seeds, flowers,

for medicines,

perfumery, etc. (cwt.)

Bed linen, table linen

and kitchen linen

Poultry, live (lb.)

Cotton yarn and thread

(lb.)

4.

Cigarettes (lb.)..

Bovine cattle, including

buffaloes (nos.)

Fresh vegetables (cwt.)

Iron and steel bars and

rounds (cwt.)

Cement (cwt.)

Passenger road motor

vehicles, complete, other than buses or motor cycles (nos.)

Gas oil, diesel fuel,

distillate stove oil (ton)

Yarn and thread of

synthetic fibres and spun glass (lb.) Tea (lb.)

Iron and steel black

plates (cwt.)

Mild steel plates and

sheets, uncoated (cwt.)

Textile machinery and

accessories

Plates and sheets, zinc

coated (galvanized) (cwt.)

8,980,237 82,628,045 11,008,102 102,849,207 7,881,632 72,412,441

602,047 77,492,629 467,192 84,972,762 1,031,261 68,276,758

39,047,723

52,690,693

60,919,457

20,477,878 38,426,660 27,455,071 44,906,818 37,574,521 57,799,680

36,542,411 103,607,275 39,360,993 97,068,344 17,755,050 49,799,952 3,925,699 36,615,009 4,642,353 47,070,440 4,784,769 49,700,121

79,802 34,568,797

2,471,835 32,654,742

895,768 32,864,108

4,982,266 29,536,371

83,411 39,385,276 132,881 46,091,580

3,398,343 44,859,946 3,199,732 41,723,212

1,911,870 79,082,546

5,711,884 32,928,023

1,290,019 37,011,538 6,661,626 35,328,637

3,381 30,959,655

4,529 42,973,575

3,724 34,837,347

160,929 29,895,504

178,254 36,243,649

176,854 34,377,837

24,007,957 67,721,392 15,448,013 57,387,472 6,909,461 29,585,850

14,397,354 26,321,506 15,340,835 29,792.532 14,035,914 29,569,679

1,007,155 38,063,584 702,204 29,237,034 816,705 27,097,158

860,501 42,545,899 677,258 26,108,769

730,861 29,443,680

20,482,312

37,354,260

23.141,169

865,410 59,449,719- 595,671 45,653,717

128,300 6,956,278

344

Appendix X

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade) Principal Commodities Exported

      Principal commodities exported, with quantities and values, during 1958, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1956

1957

1958

Quantity

Value HK$

Quantity

Value HK$

Value

Quantity

HK$

Outerwear, excluding

rubberized clothing

104,485,436

143,537,081

214,134,632

Cotton piece-goods

(bleached) (sq. yd.)

Cotton piece-goods

242,651,612 277,906,443 229,235,269 256,876,030 205,045,179 200,517,628

(unbleached) (sq. yd.) 79,667,690 89,140,814 115,193,298 125,410,743 162,464,506 158,441,478

Cotton yarn and thread

(lb.)

..

Shirts (doz.)

Underwear and night- wear (except cotton singlets and shirts) Enamelware

Toys and games

Footwear, wholly or

chiefly of textile

45,587,119 143,443,791

1,676,932 71,887,726

42,320,340 135,704,480 39,818,627 119,810,804

1,948,067 83,562,448

1,871,439 81,365,516

35,446,729

77,224,346

28,527,111

50,833,099

66,746,632

52,424,591

75,890,597

68,980,669

65,168,571

materials with rubber

soles (doz. pair)

1,237,096 39,451,658

1,206,290 36,069,088

1,832,742 56,191,694

Gloves and mittens of

(doz. pair)

      all materials (except rubber gloves)

..

2,775,959 46,781,772

3,242,960 58,045,244

2,871,418 52,361,005

Plants, seeds, flowers,

for medicines,

perfumery, etc. (cwt.)

536,260 58,004,103

362,421 51,879,438

Sugar. (cwt.)

1,199,838 41,619,204 1,111,898 51,832,064

297,454 49,477,898 1,145,299 41,484,651

28,148,836 7,853,776

Bed linen, table linen

and kitchen linen Antibiotics

Electric torches (doz.).. Cotton singlets (doz.).. ~Artificial textiles

(sq. yd.)

Furniture of vegetable

plaiting materials

(bamboo, straw,

willow, etc.)

3,640,187 49,712,619 3,042,073 41,959,634 4,872,261 76,980,160 2,335,740 36,968,781

35,534,055 33,758,141

2,448,934 32,837,755 1,964,271 31,849,939

75,782,112 92,061,678 38,896,769 44,657,403 22,998,220 28,731,047

38,426,488

29,667,029

22,360,128

25,120,671

23,137,176

Iron and steel scrap

(cwt.)

1,980,110 40,210,513 1,462,664 32,421,404

2,030,345 22,997,519

24,368,083

25,894,615

18,623,954

Medicinal and phar-

maceutical products (Chinese type)

Yarn and thread of synthetic fibres and spun glass (lb.)

Iron and steel bars and

rounds (cwt.)

24,437,360 66,379,770 12,418,149 39,737,145 4,285,957 18,190,687

684,445 30,224,043 488,622 21,550,813

643,404 17,729,363

Brass and bronze scrap

(cwt.)

75,310 13,372,860

Tung oil (cwt.)

129,874 19,260,468

132,941 24,425,105 207,855 25,687,230

91,243 12,005,751 125,073 10,343,644

Plates and sheets, zinc

coated (galvanized) (cwt.)

813,004 56,866,884

544,194 42,428,658

71,261 4,225,409

Raw cotton (cwt.)

312,513 60,104,333 201,077 41,271,820

6,588

993,816

Copper scrap (cwt.)

28,688 7,595,742

127,261 28,384,266

5,047

640,237

345

Appendix XI

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Value of Exports of Hong Kong Products

       Value of Exports of Products Wholly or Principally of Hong Kong Origin, 1956 to 1958:

1958

Commodity

Cotton piece-goods

1956 HK$ 173,307,143

1957 HK$

HK$

230,639,596

230,059,583

Outerwear, other than knitted, not embroidered,

n.e.s.

85,950,545

124,043,284

190,989,200

Footwear

83,231,302

71,890,045

97,733,101

Cotton yarns

97,587,880

108,663,871

90,614,513

Shirts

71,550,966

83,252,272

77,795,753

Household utensils, enamelled

76,176,404

66,024,457

68,274,346

Toys and games (including baby carriages,

playing cards)

28,527,111

52,424,591

65,168,571

Gloves and mittens of all materials (except

rubber gloves)

46,781,772

58,045,244

52,361,005

Electric torches

49,394,345

41,261,343

32,107,636

Cotton singlets

75,453,657

36,927,432

31,812,445

Underwear and nightwear, knit or made of

knitted fabrics (except cotton singlets and shirts)

21.315,269

30,407,436

30,545,524

Furniture of vegetable plaiting materials

(bamboo, straw, willow, etc.)

22,360,128

25,120,671

23,137,176

Linen, embroidered ..

10,736,233

15,643,542

15,899,982

Outerwear, knit or made of knitted fabrics

10,960,824

9,841,172

15,838,558

Fruits, preserved

15,578,001

13,970,370

15,780,646

Buttons and studs of all materials except those

of precious metals

20,987,307

15,425,665

15,441,333

Lacquers, varnishes, and paints

14.867.818

16,002,505

14,767,482

Towels, not embroidered

14,350,794

12,361,718

14,738,388

Plastic articles

9,693,554

11,019,242

11,508,915

Lanterns, metal

17,191,297

14,151,242

11,348,955

Articles of basketware or of wickerwork, n.e.s.

9,522,571

10,872,372

11,186,063

Torch batteries

8,744,393

11,005,205

11,057,186

Stockings and hose

16,109,985

13,300,101

10,806,604

Travel goods (trunks, suitcases, travelling bags,

dressing cases, shopping bags, haversacks, packs and similar articles) of all materials Wood furniture and fixtures

9,587,540

11,261,534

10,310,904

9,162,534

10,288,749

10,054,520

Ginger, preserved

8,701,502

9,994,008

10,014,946

Umbrellas, parasols, walking sticks, and similar

articles

14,137,015

11,087,130

9,897,581

Clothing of rubberized, oiled and similar

impermeable materials (including plastics)

13,414,005

11,085,527

9,395,046

Vacuum flasks, complete

7,487,213

7,819,553

7,917,103

Articles of clothing (e.g., handkerchiefs, shawls,

etc.), embroidered, n.e.s.

6,182,865

7,741,136

7,676,496

Household utensils, aluminium

8,240,844

8,961,863

7,510,425

Cement

7,924,713

5,811,116

6,804,511

Outerwear, embroidered

7,146,449

8,741,279

6,792,017

Handbags, wallets, purses and similar articles

of all materials

7,751,802

6,791,878

6,060,891

Iron and steel bars

14,643,115

10,837,345

5,709,882

Cigarettes

1,039,517

1,991,142

5,281,520

Torch bulbs

5,968,109

4,254,816

4,900,891

Iron ore

4,694,943

3,982,887

4,122,703

Underwear and nightwear, embroidered

3,180,839

3,997,911

2,961,435

Matches

856,986

914,898

1,843,367

Fish in airtight containers

2,248,013

2,178,122

1,814,895

Non-alcoholic beverages

869,662

991,298

926,955

Vacuum flasks (glass inners only)

386,596

507,833

853,034

Jams, fruit jellies and unfermented fruit juices

477,372

318,698

239.048

Seagrass

Beer

Tungsten ore

Total

Average per month

85,866

105,051

92,173

38,150

16,609

66,248

133,463

31,500

65,200

1,114,738,412 92,894,868

1,202,005,259

1,260,284,756

100,167,105

105,023,730

n.e.s. Not elsewhere specified.

346

Appendix XII

(Chapter 7: Primary Production and Marketing) Co-operative Societies

(Year ended 31.12.1958)

Type of Society

|Member-

Paid-up

Loan

No.

ship

share capital

Loan *

Reserve

granted

repaid

Deposit

Fund

$

$

$

Federations.. 2

37

3,750

6,510

2,746

$

15,532

Vegetable

Marketing.. 19 6,072 54,907

943,692

1,389,814

13,440 127,992

Fishermen's

Credit and

Housing

26

130

20,800

21,386

5,563

844

Fishermen's

Credit and Marketing..

10 10,000

48,900

5,635

2,442 2,090

Fishermen's

Thrift and

Loan

27

609 5,020

286,651

355,996 177,102 17,191

Fishermen's

Thrift

7

153

1,070

21,504

1,032

Pig Raising

37

1,287 46,060 402,264

476,953 5,404 13,862

Salaried

Workers'

Thrift and

Loan

423 2,295 144,631

142,382 53,678 4,044

Building

112

2,467 246,700 15,524,492†

180,536†

70,374

Irrigation

2

88 1,065

2,300

1,725

Fish Pond

117

585

7,500

1,500

Credit and

Consumers..

2

278

1,600

6,390

3,125

6,318 13,145

Total ..

213

11,567 373,18217,394,130

2,581,798

285,451 266,106

* Including repayments of loans issued during previous years.

* Direct Government Loans.

347

Appendix XIII

(Chapter 8: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Higher Studies in the United Kingdom in 1958

Courses

Architecture

Arts

Economics

Education

Students

50

2220

Source of Payment *

1 Inter-University Council Scholarship

17

22

3 British Council Scholarships 3 Government Scholarships

Froebel

Industrial Administration

1

Law

86

Librarianship

3

Medical

140

15 Government Scholarships 3 Sino-British Fellowships

Dental

Meteorology

Music

Philosophy

7

2

2 Government Scholarships

23

14

Public Administration

Religious

222

17 Government Scholarships

1 British Council Scholarship

12

Science

33

Textiles..

8

Social Science ..

11

1 Government Scholarship

Technology and Engineering

271

1 Federation of British Industries

Scholarship

Air Service Training

2

Commerce

22

Dancing

4

General Certificate of

Education

162

Nursing ..

458

7 Government Scholarships

Secretarial

Total

1,356

* All students are privately financed except where otherwise stated.

348

Appendix XIV

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Infectious Diseases Notified

Cases and Deaths 1957 and 1958

Chinese

Non-Chinese

Yearly Total

Deaths

Diseases

1957 1958 1957 1958 1957

1958 1957 1958

Amoebic dysentery

211 253

6

9

217

262

8

12

Bacillary dysentery

507

392

43

32

550

424

a

25

Chickenpox

186

234

94

44

280

278

2

3

Diphtheria ..

1,230

1,551

9

4 1,239

1,555

129

134

Enteric fever

(Typhoid and

Paratyphoid)

723

814

5

2

728

816

33

34

Malaria

441

655

6

4

447

659

1

Measles

622

769

253

17

875

786

93

191

Cerebro-spinal

Meningitis

21

28

Poliomyelitis

37

249

8

13

235

21

45

262

2228

9

17

7

41

Puerperal fever

2

4

www.m

2

|

|

*Ophthalmia

neonatorum

105

105

Rabies (Human)

I

(Animal)

|

-

Scarlet fever

4

10

1

5

10

Tuberculosis

13,611 13,451

54

34 13,665 13,485 | 2,675 | 2,302

Typhus (Urban)

-

(Scrub)

1

1

Whooping Cough..

33333

93

196

3

1

96 197

2

Total ..

17,688 18,712 482

160 18,170 18,872 2,965 2,762

The above table omits the six quarantinable diseases.e. cholera, smallpox, plague, epidemic louse-borne typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever-no case of any of which was reported during the year.

* Ophthalmia neonatorum was declared notifiable in June 1958.

Appendix XV

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1958

(The 1957 totals are shown in brackets)

Institutions

GOVERNMent hosPITALS AND DISPENSARIES

A. Hospitals

Queen Mary

Kowloon

Mental

Castle Peak

Sai Ying Pun

Tsan Yuk

Lai Chi Kok

Eastern Maternity

Wan Chai Social Hygiene

St. John

Stanley Prison

Lai Chi Kok Female Prison

B.

Dispensaries

Stanley

Hong Kong Jockey Club Clinic, Tai Po

Yuen Long

Sha Tau Kok

Ho Tung

Sai Kung

Tai O

San Hui

600

311

140

140

88

200

473

24

30

100

82

10

Total:

6

27

7

3

13

7

9

349

Number of Hospital Beds

2,198 (2.184)

Sha Tin Maternity Home

Silver Mine Bay Maternity Home

Maurine Grantham Health Centre

North Lamma Clinic

Peng Chau Clinic

GRANT-IN-AID HOSPITALS

26

7

Total:

124 (123)

*Tung Wah

637

Tung Wah Eastern

320

+Kwong Wah

659

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole

270

Hong Kong Anti-T.B. Association - Ruttonjee Sanatorium Hong Kong Anti-T.B. Association - Grantham..

336

540

Pok Oi

50

Hay Ling Chau Leprosarium

Sandy Bay Convalescent Home

PRIVATE HOSPITALS

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital Precious Blood

605

Haven of Hope Tuberculosis Sanatorium

122

54

Total:

3,593 (3,063)

316

108

St. Teresa's

St. Francis

St. Paul's

110

70

172

Hong Kong Central

Ling Yuet Sin Infants'

Matilda and War Memorial

90

120

52

Canaan Convalescent Home

68

Total:

1,106 (1,051)

PRIVATE MATERNITY HOMES

PRIVATE NURSING HOMES

528 (503)

51

(46)

GRAND TOTAL:

7,600 (6,970)

* 86 T.B. beds in Infirmary, Sandy Bay are included.

† 125 beds (i.e. 40 Mcd. & 85 Surg.) in Infirmary at Kwong Wah Hosp. are included.

350

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Registered Medical Personnel

Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding Government Personnel) . .

606

Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

88

Government Medical Officers

291

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeons and Service

Dentists)

355

Government Dental Surgeons

23

Service Dentists

10

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

63

Government Pharmacists

7

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

969

Government Nurses

941

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers)

8

Government Dressers

127

      Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) Government Midwives

916

146

Appendix XVII

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Government Medical Personnel under Training

as at 31st December 1958

Length of Course

1st year 2nd year

3rd year

No. who

success-

fully

4th year completed

training

during

year

Probationer Radiographic

Assistant

Probationer Assistant

Physiotherapist

Student Dispenser

Probationer Laboratory

Assistant

4

7

10

3

2

1

1

16

8

1

3

Student Male Nurse

Student Nurse

95

Student Nurse (Psychiatry)

1 500 w

3

17

8

13

11

49

84

3

101

6

40

18

+ + |

4.

Student Male Nurse

(Psychiatry)

3

2

12

Student Midwives (Registered

Nurses)

1

28

Student Midwives

2

18

20

Health Visitor Student

1

10

Tuberculosis Visitor

1

Assistant Almoner

1

6

31

24

11

6

6

The Course of training for Radiographic Assistants is designed to prepare them for the examinations for membership of the Society of Radiographers, and that of Health Visitors to enable them to obtain the certificate of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health.

351

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 13: The Courts, Police, Prisons and Records)

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1958

Offence

No. of No. of

cases

reported

cases

detected

No. of Persons Charged

or Summonsed 16 years 17 years

& under

& over

Class 1: Offences Against the Person

Murder-Attempted

1. Murder

2.

3. Infanticide

4. Manslaughter

25

2015

21

10

10

5

7.

Abortion

8.

9. Gross Indecency

5. Serious Assaults

6. Throwing Corrosive Fluids

Abominable Offences

10. Indecent Assault on a Male

426

364

6

6

2

2

1

2

·1

11.

Rape

4

12.

Indecent Assault on a Female

136

115

││| | | | | | 3

25

9

6

23

361

3

3

13.

Other Serious Offences on

Women and Girls

19

1

5

13

83

18

14. Kidnapping

15. Criminal Intimidation

16. Bigamy

21911

1 131 6

19

20

17. Incest

18. All other serious offences

against the person

3

3

Total Offences Against the

Person..

659

572

36

543

Class 2: Breaking Offences

19. Sacrilege

2

2

2

20. Burglary

94

54

59

21. Housebreaking

184

67

2

66

22.

Housebreaking with Intent

3

2

1

23. Shop & Store Breaking

47

21

20

24. Office Breaking

2

1

1

25. Other Breakings

9

6

26. Attempted Breakings

6

4

4

Total Breaking Offences

347

155

2

159

352

Appendix XVIII - Contd.

·

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1958

Offence

Class 3: Larceny Offences

No. of No. of

cases

reported

cases

detected

No. of Persons Charged

or Summonsed 16 years 17 years

& under

& over

27. Robbery with Firearms ..

12

3

9

28. Robbery with Other Offensive

Weapons

30

29. Robbery with Aggravation

46

30. Robbery

31. Assault with Intent to Rob 32. Demanding Money, etc. with

Menaces

13

2 o 3 m

12

28

24

1

45

3

10

12

243 2

110

97

5

76

33. Larceny from Person (Snatching)

542

270

41

209

34. Larceny from Person (Pickpocket)

523

405

71

356

35. Larceny from Dwelling..

696

227

24

196

36. Larceny from Ship and Wharf

67

34

34

37. Larceny from Vehicle

539

205

15

170

38. Larceny of Bicycle

340

130

6

112

39. Misc. Simple Larcenies..

6,812

3,948

416

3,374

40. Receiving

86

86

5

59

Total Larceny Offences

9,819

5,454

584

4,683

Class 4: Offences Involving Fraud

41.

Embezzlement

122

98

1

49

42. Larceny by Servant

272

253

9

174

43. Larceny by Bailee

53

42

5

31

44. Larceny by Trick

146

53

1

45

45. Obtaining by False Pretences

281

243

3

146

46. Fraudulent Conversion

58

52

39

47. Obtaining Credit by Fraud

15

15

13

48. Forgery

37

31

17

49. Obtaining by means of Forgery

7

7

50. Possession of Forged Documents,

Notes, Dies, etc.

17

17

19

51. Uttering Forged Documents, etc.

33

31

31

52. Counterfeiting Offences ..

53. Other Frauds and Cheats

191

186

152

Total Offences Involving Fraud

1,232

1,028

19

724

353

Appendix XVIII - Contd.

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1958

Offence

No. of No. of

cases

reported

cases detected

No. of Persons Charged

or Summonsed 16 years 17 years

& under

& over

Class 5: Other Serious Offences

54.

Arson

55.

Malicious Damage

56. Threatening Letters other than

1

117

98

Demanding

57. Conspiracies

58. Offering Bribes to Police

59. Offering Bribes to Others

6

33

33

16

16

12 200

239

92

76

18

1

1

1

60. Soliciting or Receiving Bribes by

Police

3

3

61.

Soliciting or Receiving Bribes by

Others

1

1

1

62. All Other Serious Offences-Not

Classified

80

75

62

Total Other Serious Offences

259

229

1

255

Total of Classes 1 to 5

12,316

7,438

642

6,364

Percentage of Crime Detected in Classes 1 to 5-60.39%.

Class 6: Offences discovered following Arrest

63. Membership of an Unlawful

Society.

2,615

2,615

27

2,586

64. Possession of Arms and/or

Ammunition

38

38

43

65. Unlawful Possession

1,335

1,335

25

1,323

66. Possession of Housebreaking

Implements

67. Possession of Instrument fit for

Unlawful Purpose

182

68. Found on Enclosed Premises

229

24

24

25

182

3

180

49

49

4

45

69. Loitering with Intent to Commit

a Felony

338

338

1

336

70. Other Serious Offences

14

14

1

17

Total Class 6 Offences

4,595

4,595

61

4,555

Grand Total of all Serious Crime

16,911

12,033

703

10,919

Percentage of Crime Detected in all Classes=71.15%.

354

Appendix XIX

(Chapter 16: Press, Publishing, Broadcasting, Films and Tourism)

Daily

Some leading Newspapers and Magazines

South China Morning Post

Hong Kong Tiger Standard

China Mail

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao

(Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Pao

Chi Yin Yat Pao

Chiu Yin Po

Sin Sang Yat Po

Hong Kong Sheung Po

ENGLISH LANGUAGE

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Far Eastern Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

Every 2 Months

Hong Kong & Far East Builder

Chinese LANGUAGE

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Chung Ying Po

Wan Kou Po (Universal Daily)

Ching Po

Kwok Wah Po

Tai Wah Po

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Po

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Wan Pao (New Evening Post)

Chun Pao (Truth Daily)

New Life Evening Post

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Tai (Observatory Review)

Twice Weekly

Freeman

Weekly

Kung Kao Pao

Tung Fung (East Pictorial)

Chau Mut Pao (Week-end News)

Sing Tao Chau Pao

Tse Yau Chun Hsin (Freedom Front)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom)

Every 10 Days

Kar Ting Sang Wood (Home Life

Journal)

Fortnightly

Tung Sai (East & West)

Kum Yat Sai Kai (World Today)

Democratic Review

Monthly

Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial)

Sin Chung Hwa Pictorial

Hang Fook (Happiness Pictorial)

Tsing Nin Wen Yu (Literary Youth)

Hsin Kar Ting (New Home)

Appendix XX

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Executive and Legislative Councils Executive Council

Type of appointment

Names of members on 1.1.58

355

Changes in composition during the year

Ex-officio

-

""

Nominated

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander,

British Forces,

Lieutenant-General Sir Edric

Montague Bastyan, K.B.E., C.B.

The Honourable the Colonial

Secretary,

Mr. Claude Bramall Burgess,

C.M.G., O.B.E., Acting

The Honourable the Attorney

General,

Mr. Arthur Ridehalgh, Q.C. The Honourable the Secretary

for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. John Crichton McDouall

The Honourable the Financial

Secretary,

Mr. Arthur Grenfell Clarke,

C.M.G.

The Honourable Patrick

Cardinall Mason Sedgwick, (Commissioner of Labour)

Mr.

Edgeworth Beresford David, C.M.G., resumed the office of Colonial Secretary from 23.1.58 to 24.1.58. Mr. Burgess appointed Colonial Secretary from 24.1.58.

Appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr. Douglas James Smyth Crozier, C.M.G., (Director of Education) up to 24.2.58.

""

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable

Sir Tsun Nin CHAU, C.B.E.

The Honourable

Sir Man Kam Lo, C.B.E.

Dr. the Honourable

CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E.

The Honourable

Leo D'Almada e Castro, C.B.E., Q.C.

356

Type of appointment

Appendix XX-Contd.

Executive Council

Names of members

on 1.1.58

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd.

Nominated

The Honourable

Michael William Turner, C.B.E.

The Honourable

Charles Edward Michael Terry, O.B.E.

Type of appointment

Changes in composition during the year

Legislative Council

Names of members

on 1.1.58

Changes in composition during the year

PRESIDENT :

Ex-officio

His Excellency the Officer

Administering the Government, Mr. Edgeworth Beresford

David, C.M.G.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the Commander,

British Forces,

Lieutenant-General Sir Edric

Montague Bastyan,

K.B.E., C.B.

Sir

Robert Brown Black, K.C.M.G., O.B.E., assumed the office of Governor on 23.1.58.

The Honourable the Colonial

Secretary,

Mr.

Mr. Claude Bramall Burgess,

C.M.G., O.B.E., Acting

The Honourable the Attorney

General,

Mr. Arthur Ridehalgh, Q.C.

The Honourable the Secretary

for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. John Crichton McDouall

Edgeworth Beresford David, C.M.G., resumed the office of Colonial Secretary from 23.1.58 to 24.1.58. Mr. Burgess appointed Colonial Secretary from 24.1.58.

357

Appendix XX-Contd.

Legislative Council

Type of appointment

Names of members

on 1.1.58

Changes in composition during the year

Ex-officio

Nominated

39

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd.

The Honourable the Financial

Secretary,

Mr. Arthur Grenfell Clarke,

C.M.G.

The Honourable Patrick

Cardinall Mason Sedgwick, (Commissioner of Labour) The Honourable David Ronald

Holmes, M.B.E., M.C., E.D., (Director of Urban Services) The Honourable Allan Inglis,

(Director of Public Works) Dr. the Honourable George

Graham-Cumming, (Acting Director of Medical

and Health Services)

Colin

Succeeded by Mr.

George Mervyn Morrison on 10.3.58.

Succeeded by Dr. David James Masterton Mackenzie, C.M.G., O.B.E. (Director of Medical and Health Services) on 21.1.58.

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr. the Honourable

CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E.

The Honourable

Charles Edward Michael

Terry, O.B.E.

The Honourable

Lo Man Wai, C.B.E.

The Honourable

NGAN Shing-Kwan, O.B.E. The Honourable

Dhun Jehangir Ruttonjee, O.B.E.

Succeeded by Mr. Hugh David MacEwen Barton, M.B.E., on 30.6.58. Re-appointed during the absence of Mr. Barton from 8.7.58 to 28.11.58.

14

The Honourable

Cedric Blaker, C.B.E., M.C., E.D.

Kwok Chan, O.B.E.

The Honourable

"

Dr. the Honourable

"

Note:

Alberto Maria Rodrigues,

M.B.E., E.D.

Succeeded

Douglas

by Mr. John Clague, C.B.E.,

M.C., T.D., on 21.3.58.

The style and decorations of members are given as on 1.1.59.

358

Appendix XXI

(Chapter 27: Reading List)

Official Publications

The Government Printer issues quarterly catalogues of all available official publications. These may be obtained from the Government Printer, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong, or from the Government Publications Bureau, General Post Office, Hong Kong.

The following are the more important official publications issued during 1958:

Ordinances of Hong Kong, 1957

Regulations of Hong Kong, 1957

Hong Kong Annual Report, 1957

Annual Departmental Reports, 1957-8

Grantham Scholarships Fund Committee Report, 1957

Hong Kong Hansard Reports, 1957

Public Works Sub-Committee of Finance Committee Report, 1957-8 Estimates, 1958-9

Hawkers Report

Hong Kong Law Reports, 1957, Part II

District Court Law Reports, 1957, Part II

Hong Kong Law Reports, and District Court Law Reports, 1958, Part 1 Hong Kong Law Reports-Consolidated Index and Table of Cases, 1905-57 Hong Kong Civil Service List, 1958

Hong Kong General Clerical Service List, 1958

(formerly published in the Civil Service List)

Hong Kong Commerce, Industry, Finance Directory, 1958

(for Commerce and Industry Department)

Jury List, 1958

Meteorological Results, 1955, Part I

School Certificate Examination Papers, 1958

Hong Kong Import and Export Classification List, 1959

Illustrated Handbook of the Ancient Chinese Tomb at Li Cheng Uk,

Hong Kong

Teachers' Handbook-The Teaching of English

Teachers' Handbook-The Teaching of Chinese

Teachers' Handbook-The Teaching of Mathematics

Town Planning Maps and Charts

Issued Weekly:

Hong Kong Government Gazette

Issued Monthly:

Trade Statistics, Imports and Exports

Issued Monthly (By Commerce and Industry Department):

Trade Bulletin

Index

Index

Abattoirs, New, 148, 228. Abercrombie, Sir Patrick, 175. Accidents, 49, 206.

Accountant General, 59, 320. Administration, Government, 29,

319-327.

Adoption, 182, 183, 200, 213. Adult Education, 122. After-care, Prisoners', 209. Aged, Homes for, 190. Agriculture, 85, 86, 88-92. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Department, 51, 84-101.

Aircraft Engineering, 71, 240, 241. Airport, New, 56, 57, 238-240. Allen, Mr. F. H., 225. Aluminiumware, 69. Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Committee of Hong Kong, 283.

America, Central and South, 19, 31. America, United States of, 7-9, 12,

13, 15, 23, 25, 31, 71-77, 89, 101, 103, 104, 109, 115, 120, 192, 232, 234, 248, 259, 261-263, 270, 317. Anglican Church, 272, 273. Animal Diseases, 94.

Animal Industries, 85, 86, 92-95. Anti-T.B. Association, Hong Kong,

125, 129, 137, 145. Apothecaries, Society of, 125. Apprentices, 51.

Approved Schools, 185.

Armed Forces, 29, 39, 117, 157,

251, 264-266, 319.

Arts, The, 122, 123, 279-282. Asian Games, 256, 283.

Asian Seminar on Family Life and

Mental Health, 190.

Assets and Liabilities, 56, 336, 337. Attorney General, 318, 319. Audience Research, 254, 258. Audit, Director of, 320.

Australia, 11, 31, 71, 79, 120, 145,

189, 255.

Auxiliary Civil Defence Services,

264, 266, 267.

Aviation, 238-241.

Baden-Powell, Lady, 187. Banking, 62-64, 341.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations, 211. Bathing and Beaches, 285, 286. Beer, 57, 69.

Bets and Sweeps Taxes, 61. Beverage Industry, 69, 70. Bibliography, 329, 358. Birds, 296.

Births and Deaths, 18, 25, 128, 212. Blind, Care of, 189, 190.

Boat Dwellers, 27, 28, 95, 104, 159,

288, 289.

Borneo, North, 31, 101. Botanic Gardens, 286.

Boy Scouts and Cubs, 115, 187, 188. Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association.

115, 186.

British-

Broadcasting Corporation, 252,

254-256, 258.

Council, 115, 258, 280. East Africa, 75.

Industries Fair, 10, 11. Red Cross, 115, 192. Subjects, 25, 264.

Broadcasting, Commercial, 260. Broadcasting, Government, 252-258. Brunei, 31.

Buddhists, 181, 276-277.

Building, 29, 31, 159-167, 172-174,

210, 225-229, 310.

Authority, 153, 173.

Co-operative Societies, 109, 163,

346.

Covenants, 154.

Ordinance, 153, 174, 321.

Private, 28, 159-167, 172-175,

210. Burma, 31, 42.

Bus Services, 222.

Business Registration, 61, 321. Butterflies and Moths, 297.

Cable & Wireless, Ltd., 240, 243,

244, 252, 253.

Canada, 12, 13, 31, 74, 75, 79, 103,

120.

Canossa Home for the Blind, 189. Cantonese, 25-28, 206, 252, 254, 255,

259, 260.

Cape Collinson Training Centre,

207-209.

362

C.A.R.E. Inc., 104, 191.

Car Parks, Multi-storey, 225, 238,

322.

      Castle Peak Boys' Home, 185. Catholic Relief Services, 182. Catholic Welfare Committee of

       China, 191, Cattle, 86, 92, 93. Cement, 3, 70, 343. Census, 5, 24.

      Certificates of Origin, 8-10, 76, 77. Charlesworth, Dr. G., 205, 237. Chartered Bank, 62.

Cheung Chau Electric Co., Ltd., 220. Chi Ma Wan Prison, 99, 208, 225,

228.

Child Welfare, 181-183. Children's Centre, Kowloon, 186. Children's Garden, 181. Children's Playground Association,

115, 187.

China, 5-9, 18, 24-28, 31, 36, 37,

     51, 62, 63, 70-73, 77, 78, 90, 93, 95, 103, 148, 159, 168, 174, 178, 201, 206, 234-236, 242, 248, 262, 268, 269, 288, 301-317.

China Light & Power Co., Ltd.,

219, 220.

China Motor Bus Co., Ltd., 49,

163, 222.

Chinese Affairs, Secretary for, 167, 168, 180, 182, 278, 309, 318, 319. Chinese Colleges' Joint Council, 114. Chinese General Chamber of

Commerce, 10, 76, 115.

Chinese Manufacturers' Association,

10, 11, 20, 35, 76.

Chiuchow, 25, 252, 254, 278.

Cholera, 126.

Christian Children's Fund, 181. Church World Service, 191, 273. Churches, Anglican and

       Non-Anglican, 272-278. Cinemas, 261.

City Hall, New, 146, 281, 282, 322. Civil-

Aid Services, 264, 266, 267. Aviation, 238-241.

    Defence Services, 264, 266, 267. Servants Co-operative Building

       Societies, 107, 109, 163, 346. Service, 29, 319, 324-327. Clague, Hon. J. D., 22.

Clan and District Associations, 139,

192.

      Clegg, Mission of Sir Cuthbert, 22. Climate, 291, 292.

Clinics, 49, 129-132, 137-145, 164,

172, 226, 275.

Coles, Sir Kenneth, 189.

Colonial Development and Welfare, 83, 84, 90, 118, 158, 161, 165, 333.

Colonial Secretary, 61, 318, 319. Commerce and Industry

Department, 9, 32, 75-79, 321. Commerce, Industry and Finance

Directory, 11, 76.

Commonwealth Parliamentary

Association, 23.

Commonwealth Trade and Economic

Conference, 74.

Communicable Diseases, 128-135,

348.

Communications, 221-224, 231-246. Companies Registry, 210. Confucianism, 277.

Conservancy, 151, 152, 229. Constitution; 318, 319. Consular Corps, 79.

Co-operative and Marketing

Department, 102, 104, 106, 107. Co-operative Societies, 105-109,

163, 346.

Cordage, Rope and Twine, 70. Cost of Living, 33, 34.

Cotton Textiles, 21, 22, 30, 33, 65, 67, 68, 72, 73, 75, 334, 335, 343-345.

Courts, 185, 197-200, 319, 323. Credit and Consumers' Societies,

109.

Crime, 203, 204, 351-353. Crops, 88-92.

Crown Leases, 80, 153, 155, 210. Currency and Banking, 62-64.

Dance Halls Tax, 61.

Deaf and Dumb, Overseas Chinese

School for the, 190.

Deaf, Hong Kong School for the,

190.

Death Rate, 25, 126, 128, 212. Defence Force, Royal Hong Kong,

264-266, 314.

Dental Service, 144, 145. Dermatology, 131, 132. Development Fund, 56, 161. Diphtheria, 126, 127, 134. Disabled, Care of, 188-191. Disabled Children, Society for the

Relief of, 188.

Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society,

209.

Dispensaries, 137-140, 143, 275, 349. District Courts, 184, 198.

District Health Work, 146-148. Dockyard, H.M., 29, 38, 39, 51,

67, 177, 255, 257.

Dockyards, Civilian, 3, 30, 40, 51,

66, 67, 234.

Dollar, Hong Kong, 62, 63. Drainage, 229, 230, 271. Drama, 122, 123.

Driving Licences, 206.

Ducks and Geese, 92, 93. Dutiable Commodities

Legislation, 57.

Duties, Import and Excise, 57, 58. Dysentery, 135.

Earnings and Profits Tax, 59, 60. Ebenezer Blind Home, 189. E.C.A.F.E., 74, 76.

Education, 104, 112-123, 141, 142, 164, 166, 171, 186, 193, 226, 227, 268-271, 309, 310. Electric Torches, Batteries and

Bulbs, 4, 9, 65, 69, 335, 344.

Electricity, 218-220.

Embargoes on Trade with China,

        2, 5-7, 77, 95, 96, 103, 317. Emergency Relief, 192. Empire Games, 283.

Employment, 9, 13, 14, 29-31, 52,

53, 65, 334, 335.

Advisory Committee, 39. Bill, 21, 22, 33, 45.

Conditions of, 16-19, 21, 31-33. Liaison Office, 39. Enamelware, 40, 65, 68, 335. Engineering, 21, 71, 118.

Engineering Advisory Committee,

118.

English Language, 25, 26, 113, 118,

252, 256-259.

Enteric Fever, 134, 135. Entertainment Tax, 61. Essential Services Corps, 264, 266. Estate Duty, 60, 61.

European Common Market and

Free Trade Area, 74. Evening Institute, 122.

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies, 122. Examinations, 120, 121. Exchange Control, 63, 64. Exchange Fund, 63.

Excise Duties, 57, 58.

Executive Council, 318, 335, 356. Expenditure, Government, 55-57,

     116, 125, 164, 166, 169, 217, 339, 340.

Exports, 7-13, 58, 71-74, 89, 93, 96, 101, 109, 234, 317, 342, 344, 345.

Factories and Industrial

Undertakings, 3, 4, 7, 20, 22, 30, 43, 44, 58, 59, 65-71, 334, 335. Factory Registration and Inspection,

18, 45, 46.

Family Welfare Society, 145, 180,

209.

Fauna, 295-297.

Federation of Hong Kong

Industries, 20.

Felt Hats, 68.

Ferries, 222-224, 233.

Ferry Piers, New, 224, 225, 233. 'Ferry To Hong Kong', 261. Festival of the Arts, 123, 255, 279. Film Censorship, 260, 262. Film Industry, 260-262. Finance Committee, Standing, 318. Financial Control, 54.

Financial Secretary, 54, 63, 318-320. Fire Brigade, 227, 232, 322, 323. Fish-

Fry, 97.

Marketing Organization, 101-104. Ponds, 96, 97, 109.

Fisherfolk, Training and

Education of, 87, 104.

Fisheries, 13, 29, 52, 86, 87, 95-97,

101-104, 270.

Advisory Committee, 84. Research Unit, 87, 270. Fishermen, Loans to, 104, 108. Fishermen's Credit and Marketing

Society, 108.

Fishermen's Thrift and Loan

Societies, 108. Flora, 297-300.

Food Inspection, 145, 148.

Foodstuffs and Beverages, 9, 69, 70. Footwear, 4, 65, 70, 72, 74, 75, 335,

344, 345.

Foreign Assets Control Regulations

(U.S.), 8-10, 77.

Foreign Exchange Banks, 64, 341. Forestry, 87, 88, 97-101.

France, 23, 25, 31, 252, 261, 262. Free Churches, 272.

Free Trade Area, European, 74. Fruit, 89.

Fukien, 25, 27.

Furniture, wooden, 9, 71.

Gardens Division, 146, 287. Gas, 220, 221.

General Health, 125-128.

Geography of Hong Kong, 268,

288-291.

Geology of Hong Kong, 268,

292-294.

363

364

Germany, Western, 71, 74.

Gin Nih Weaving Factory, 41, 42. Ginger, 90.

Girl Guides and Brownies, 115,

187, 188.

Gloves, 9, 12, 15, 65, 68, 75, 344,

345.

Government-

Administration, 29, 318-324. (Art) Collections, 281, 282. Information Service, 249-252.

Hakka, 25-27, 52, 254. Hambro, Dr., 6. Hats, 68.

Hawkers, 149-151.

      Health Education, 142, 143. Health Services, 139-143. Heavy Industries, 66, 67, 234. Herbarium, Colonial, 287, 300. Higher Education, 117-119, 268. Higher Studies Overseas, 119, 120,

347.

Hindus, 276.

:

History of Hong Kong, 301-317. Ho Tung Collection, 281.

Ho Tung Technical School, 121. Hoklo, 26-28.

Hong Kong and China Gas Co.,

       Ltd., 40, 41, 220, 221. Hong Kong and Kowloon Trades

Union Council, 37.

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation, 62, 162.

Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock

Co., Ltd., 51.

Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Co.,

Ltd., 223, 224.

Hong Kong Council of Social

        Service, 161, 180, 189. Hong Kong Dental Society, 145. Hong Kong Economic Housing

Society, 162.

Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd., 49,

163, 218, 219.

Hong Kong Exporters' Association,

10, 75.

Hong Kong Federation of Trade

Unions, 36, 37.

Hong Kong General Chamber of

Commerce, 10, 75, 76, 115. Hong Kong Government Office,

London, 79, 321.

Hong Kong Government Office,

Sydney, 20.

Hong Kong House, London, 119,

120.

Hong Kong Housing Society, 161,

162, 180.

Hong Kong Island, 288, 289. Hong Kong Model Housing

Society, 162.

Hong Kong Products, 8-16, 20, 22,

23, 30, 65-71, 73-78.

Hong Kong Sea School, 186. Hong Kong Society for the Blind,

189.

Hong Kong Society for the Protec- tion of Children, 123, 182, 279. Hong Kong Society for Rehabilita-

tion, 48, 189.

Hong Kong Students' Office,

London, 119.

Hong Kong Teachers' Association,

37, 115.

Hong Kong Technical College, 19,

21, 37, 121, 122, 226, 227. Hong Kong Telephone Co., Ltd.,

49, 244, 245, 252.

Hong Kong Tourist Association,

262, 263.

Hongkong Tramways Ltd., 49, 163,

221.

Hong Kong, University of, 21, 24, 87, 114-119, 143, 161, 180, 193, 194, 268-271, 309, 310. Hospitals, 135-137, 312, 349. Housing, 159-175.

Authority, 163-166, 322. Commissioner for, 163, 166, 322. Division, 163, 164.

Special Committee on, 160, 161,

166, 167.

Staff and Workers, 161-163. Survey, 24, 161.

Immigration, 5, 6, 18, 24, 178, 195,

196, 201, 206, 207, 315, 322. Imperial Preference, 4, 10, 77, 78. Import and Excise Duties, 57, 58,

65.

Imports, 71-74, 78, 105, 106, 342,

343.

Income Tax, 59, 60,

India, 22, 42, 76, 79, 158, 275. Indonesia, 11, 12, 42, 71-73. Industrial-

Accidents, 49. Bank, 20.

Development, 1-23, 29-31, 65, 66. Health, 46-48, 142.

Relations, 36-43.

Safety, 35.

Training, 50, 51.

Undertakings, 3, 4, 9, 13, 14,

16, 30, 31, 334, 335. Welfare, 49, 50.

Industry, 2-4, 6, 7, 9-11, 19, 29-53,

         65-71, 81-84, 88-97, 109, 110. Infant and Child Welfare, 181-183. Infectious Diseases, 128-135, 348. Influenza, 126.

Information Service, Government,

249-252.

Inland Lots, 153.

Inland Revenue Department, 321. Interest Tax, 59, 60. Internal Revenue, 59-61.

International Conference of Social

Work, 178, 251.

International Labour Conventions,

18, 35.

International Refugee Year, 179. International Social Service, Inc.,

182.

International Society for the

Welfare of Cripples, 189.

Ireland, 12.

Iron Foundries and Rolling Mills,

67.

Irrigation, 90, 91, 108. Italy, 25.

Japan, 10, 15, 25, 71-73, 79, 321. Jews, 276.

Jockey Club, Hong Kong, 138, 186,

189, 190, 286.

Joint Consultation in Industry, 37,

38.

Joseph Trust Fund, 106. Judiciary, 197-200, 319.

Junior Chamber of Commerce,

187-189.

Junks, Mechanization of, 96. Juvenile Care Centre, 186. Juvenile Delinquency, 184-186.

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Associa-

tion, 84, 86, 90, 91. Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund, 84.

Kaifongs, 115, 139, 192.

Kai Tak Airport Development, 56,

57, 238-240.

Knitting, 67, 68.

Korea, 2, 6-8, 77, 317. Kowloon, 288-290.

Kowloon-Canton Railway, 51, 235,

236, 242.

Kowloon Hospital, 136, 226. Kowloon Motor Bus Co. (1933)

Ltd., 222. Kuoyü, 25, 252, 254.

Kwai Chung Girls' Home, 186.

Kwangtung, 4, 25-27, 206, 301. Kwun Tong, 20, 30, 34, 66, 155,

224.

La Salle College, 157. Labour-

Advisory Board, 34. Department, 13, 18, 19, 34, 35,

142.

Disputes and Stoppages, 35,

38-43.

Inspection, 45, 46. Legislation, 21, 22, 33, 35,

43-45, 50.

Organization, 36, 37.

Skilled, Semi-skilled, Unskilled,

29-32.

Lai Chi Kok Prison, 208. Lancashire, 22.

Land, 153-159, 194.

Auctions, 153, 154. Conversion of, 80, 154. Court, 80.

Office (Registrar General),

209, 210.

Military, 157, 177.

Policy, 153-155.

Sales and Transactions, 153-156. Survey, 157-159.

Tenure, 80, 81, 153. Utilization, 81-84, 90.

Value and Development, 156,

157.

Law and Order, 197-207..

Law Courts, 185, 197-200, 319, 323. Laws of Hong Kong, 318. Leases, Crown, 80, 153, 155, 210. Leather and Travel Goods, 70, 334. Lee, Sir Frank, 22.

Legislation, 33, 43-45, 116, 117,

193-196, 319.

Legislative Council, 54, 318, 319,

356, 357.

Lepers, Mission to, 125, 131. Leprosy, 131, 189.

Li Cheng Uk Tomb, 287. Libraries, 115, 187, 280-282. Life-Guards, 285, 286. Lighthouses, 231.

Light Industries, 11, 14, 15, 65,

67-71.

Lions Club of Hong Kong, 187. Liquidations. 211. Liquor, 57, 58.

Little Sisters of the Poor, 190. Living Space, Density of, 161, 164. Loans from United Kingdom, 56,

57, 239, 333.

365

366

Loans, Government Dollar, 56, 336,

337.

Local Armed Forces, 264-266. Local Loans Fund, 56.

London Missionary Society, 305. London Office, Hong Kong

      Government, 79, 321. Low-cost Housing (other than

Resettlement), 155, 161-167. Lutheran World Service, 191, 273.

Macau, 3, 70, 302-305, 314. Magazines, 247, 248, 354. Magistracies, 197-199. Malaria, 132, 133.

Malaya, 11, 70, 72, 73, 76, 145,

255, 342. Mammals, 295.

Man-days, Loss of by Strikes, 38,

40, 41.

Marine, 231-235.

Marine Department, 51, 197, 231,

232, 234.

Marine Police, 201, 202, 204, 205,

232.

Marketing, 101-106.

Marketing Advisory Board, 104. Markets, Urban, 149, 228. Marriage Registry, 211, 212. Matches, 53.

Maternal and Child Health, 128,

140, 141.

Maternity Homes and Hospitals,

136, 138, 139, 349.

Measles, 135.

Measures and Weights, 328.

Medical Department, 124-145, 188,

       189, 225, 226, 266, 349. Medical Personnel, 350. Medicines (Proprietary), 57, 58.

Mental Health, 115, 136, 188, 190. Mental Health Association of

Hong Kong, 115, 190.

Mental Hospital, New, 225, 226. Mercantile Bank, 62, 63.

Merchandise Marks Legislation, 193. Metal Products, 30, 65, 68, 69, 72,

334, 335.

Meteorology, 245, 246, 291, 292. Methyl Alcohol, 57, 58.

Midwifery Services, 141. Migration, 31, 52, 53, 307. Milk, 94, 95.

Mines Department, 34, 109-111. Mining, 53, 109-111.

Minor (Labour) Disputes, 43.

Mission Hospitals, 137, 312. Moral Welfare, 183, 184. Mosquitoes, 132, 133, 140, 151. Murray Barracks and Parade

Ground, 157.

Music, 122, 123.

Music Training Centre, 190. Muslims, 275.

Nam Jam Factory Ltd., 42, 43. Narcotics, 78, 202, 207. National Carbon (Eastern) Ltd.,

42, 43.

Natural Increase, 18, 25, 128. Naval Dockyard, (see under

Dockyard, H.M.). Netherlands, 25, 75.

New China Enamelware Co. (H.K.)

Ltd., 40.

New Territories-

Administration, 83, 124, 323,

324.

Beaches, 286.

Geography, 288-291. Geology, 292-294. Housing, 174, 175.

Land Tenure, and Utilization,

80-84, 153.

Law and Order, 198-201, 203,

323.

New Towns, 53, 176, 271. Occupations, 52, 53. Population, 26-28, 159, 288,

289.

Primary Production and

Marketing, 52, 53, 80-106. Public Health, 132.

Public Utilities, 219, 220, 223. Public Works, 90, 91, 214, 215,

217, 225.

Rates, 60.

Roads, 236, 308, 309. Scavenging, 152.

Water Supply, 90, 91, 217, 218,

311, 312.

New Zealand, 71, 76.

Newspapers, 247-249, 275, 354. Nightsoil, Maturation of, 106. North Point Relief Camp, 189-191. Nursing Homes, 136, 137, 349.

Occupational Diseases, 46-48. Occupations, 29-31, 52, 53. Ogilvie, Miss S. A., 21, 33. Oil, Hydrocarbon, 57, 58. Ophthalmia Neonatorum, 127.

      Ophthalmic Service, 143, 144. Ottawa Agreements, 4.

Overseas Representation, 20, 79. Overtime, 32, 33, 44.

Oyster-beds and Fish Ponds, 96,

97, 290.

Paints, 69.

Pakistan, 22, 275.

Pan-Pacific Conference on

Rehabilitation, 189.

Parks and Playgrounds, 285-287. Parsees, 275, 276. Patents, 211.

Peak Tramway, 221, 222. Pearls, 96, 195.

Pest Control, 151.

Philippines, 12, 25.

Photography, 280, 282.

Physical Education, 123.

Picture Collection, Government, 281. Pigeons, 92, 94.

Pig-Raising, 92, 93, 107, 108. Plasticware, 70, 71.

Po Leung Kuk, 115, 181, 184, 190. Police-

Auxiliaries, 202, 203, 264. Buildings, 226.

Communications and Transport,

205, 232.

Force, 200-207, 322.

Supervision, 203.

Training, 200, 204, 205.

Poliomyelitis, 127, 133, 134.

Population, 2, 5, 6, 18, 24-28, 159,

200.

Port, 3, 231-235.

Committee, 34.

Health, 139, 140, 232. Welfare Committee, 234. Works, 224, 225.

Portuguese, 25, 252, 318. Post Office, 241-243.

Post-secondary Education, 114, 119.

Potatoes, Sweet, 89.

Poultry, 92, 93.

Prawns, Marketing of, 104.

Press, 247-250, 354.

Preventive Service, 78, 79, 232. Primary Production, 80-101.

Printing Department, 51, 158, 323.

Prisons, 207-209.

Probation, 184-186.

Professional Teachers' Training

Board, 115.

Profits Tax, 59, 60.

Property Tax, 59, 60.

Prostitution, 183.

Public-

Assistance, 190-192.

Debt, 56, 57.

Finance and Taxation, 54-61,

336-340.

Health, 124-152.

Latrines and Bathhouses, 151.

Relations Office, 115, 249-252.

Service, 29, 324-327.

Services Commission, 324. Utilities, 13, 214-224.

Works, 224-230, 236-238.

Works Department, 51, 69, 156,

224-230, 239, 321.

Publications, Official, 358. Publishing, 249, 329.

Quarantine, 86, 94, 126, 140, 232. Quarries, 47, 53, 237.

Quartering Authority, 323.

Queen Elizabeth Hospital, New,

136, 226.

Queen Mary Hospital, 136, 226.

Radio-activity, Precautions against,

47.

Radio Hong Kong, 252-258. Radio Licensing, 243.

Railway, 51, 235, 236, 242.

Rainfall, 215, 216, 291, 292. Rates, 58, 59.

Rating and Valuation Department,

59, 320.

Rattanware, 65, 71.

Reading List, 329.

Reclamations, 20, 224, 310, 311. Records (Registrar General),

209-213.

Recreation and Sport, 283-287. Rediffusion, 258-260.

Refugees, 5, 6, 159, 168, 178, 179,

207, 315.

Registered and Recorded Factories,

29, 30, 45, 65, 334, 335. Registered Trustees, 195. Registrar General's Department,

153, 209-213.

Registration, Business, 61.

Registry of Trade Unions, 34, 36. Religion, 272-278.

Remand Home, 185.

Rent Controls, 167, 168, 199.

Reptiles, 297.

Research, 268-271.

Reservoirs, 66, 90, 214, 217, 218,

311.

367

368

Resettlement, 168-172, 180, 228.

Cottage Areas, 168, 170. Estates, 169-172, 216, 217. Legislation, 194.

Multi-storey Factories, 20, 228. Population, 172.

Retail Price Index, 16, 32-34. Revenue and Expenditure, 54, 338,

339.

Rice, 81, 83, 88, 91.

Road Traffic, 205, 206, 236-238. Roads, 236, 237, 308, 309, 316. Rochdale, Lord, 22.

Rolling Mills, 67.

Roman Catholic Church, 274, 275. Rope-making, 3, 70.

Rotary Clubs, 115, 143, 187. Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

264-266, 314.

Royal Observatory, 245, 246, 312. Rubber Footwear, 65, 70, 72-75. Rural Committees, 201, 323, 324. Rural Development Committee, 84.

St. John Ambulance Association

& Brigade, 48, 145.

Salaried Workers' Thrift and Loan

Societies, 108, 346.

Salaries Commission, 325, 326. Salaries Tax, 59, 60.

Salesian Trade Schools, 121. Salt Fish, 53, 103.

Salt-water Mains, 217.

Salvation Army, 50, 185, 188, 192,

209, 273.

Sanitary Services, 145-152, 310, 311. Sarawak, 31, 255. Scavenging, 151, 152.

Scholarships and Bursaries, 119,

145.

Schools-

Building Programme, 112, 113,

226, 227.

Certificate Examinations,

119-121.

Government, 112, 113, 121, 226,

227.

Grant, 112, 113.

Health Service, 141, 142, 144. Music Festival, 122, 123, 280. No. of Schools and Pupils, 112. Post-secondary, 112, 114, 119. Primary, 112, 113, 120, 121. Private, 112, 114.

Secondary, 113, 119, 120. Subsidized, 112-114.

Shanghai, 25, 315.

Shipbuilding and Repairing, 4, 14,

30, 66, 67, 234.

Shipping, 6, 232, 235. Silicosis, 47, 48.

Silvermine Bay Holiday Camp, 187. Sin Tin Toa, 190.

Singapore, 11, 260.

Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 183. Slaughterhouses, 92, 148, 149, 228. Social-

Hygiene, 130, 131, 137. Survey, 180.

Welfare, 178-192.

Welfare Advisory Committee,

179, 190.

Welfare Department, 115, 142,

171, 179, 180, 182-192, 320. Work, Training for, 187. Society for the Protection of

Children, 182.

Society for Rehabilitation, 180. Soil Survey, 83.

South Africa, 12.

Special Afternoon Classes, 114. Special Classes Centre, 119. Sport and Recreation, 283-287. Squatters, 6, 168-171, 307, 308. Staff training, Government, 51, 145, 146, 148, 188, 204, 205, 326, 327. Stamp Competition, 242. Stamp Duty, 61.

Standing Conference of Youth

Organizations, 188.

Stanley Prison, 208.

'Star' Ferry Co., Ltd., 49, 163,

222-224.

Statistics, 77, 78.

Sterling Area, 63.

Stores Department, 51, 229, 323. Street-Lighting, 237, 238.

Strikes, 38-43, 313.

Subway, Pedestrian, 237. Sugar Refining, 3, 70. Sung Wong Toi, 301, 302.

Supervisory Training 19, 50, 51, 327. Supreme Court, 184, 197, 198. Survey, Land, 157-159.

Swimming Pools, 229, 286, 287. Switzerland, 75.

Table Waters, 57, 58, 69. Tai Lam Prison, 207.

Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering

Co., Ltd., 40, 49, 51.

Taikoo Sugar Refining Co., Ltd.,

49.

Taiwan (Formosa), 27, 37, 97, 247,

260, 261, 315.

Tanka, 26-28.

Tariffs, 12, 13, 23, 74, 75. Taxation, 59-61.

Tea, 89, 90.

Teacher Training, 114, 115. Teachers' Association, 37. Technical-

College, Hong Kong, 19, 21, 37,

121, 122, 226, 227. Education, 21, 34, 121. Education, Standing Committee

on, 51.

Telecommunications, 243, 244. Telegraph and Radiotelephone

Services, 243, 244.

Telephones, 244, 245. Television, 259-261. Temples, 277, 278.

Tenancy Inquiry Bureaux, 167, 168. Tenancy Tribunals, 168, 199. Textiles, 13, 22, 23, 30, 33, 65, 67, 68, 72, 73, 75, 334, 335, 343-345. Thailand, 12, 31, 71, 73. Thomson Memorial Boys' Hostel,

50, 188.

Timber, 101.

Tobacco Manufacture, 70.

Toilet Preparations, 57, 58.

Tourism, 19, 262, 263.

Town Planning, 175-177.

Trade, 3-9, 11-13 19-23 71-78, 342-345.

and Industry Advisory

Committee, 76.

Bulletin, 11, 76.

Commissioners, 79.

Controls, 2, 6-9, 78, 317.

Fairs and Exhibitions, 10, 11, 35. Marks and Patents Registries, 210. Promotion, 10, 19, 75, 76. Trade Unions, 34-36.

Education, 35, 37.

Legislation, 43-45.

Traffic, 205, 206, 236-238. Traffic Accidents, 206.

Training, 19, 21, 35, 50, 51, 91,

114, 115, 188, 204, 205, 326, 327. Training Centres, Stanley and Cape

Collinson, 207-209, 228. Tramways, 221, 222.

Tregear, Dr. T. R., 81, 82. Triads, 184, 203.

Tuberculosis, 127-130.

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, 115, 125, 136-138, 143, 190, 276, 277. Turton, Rt. Hon. R. H., 23.

Uganda, 75.

Unemployment and

Under-employment, 30, 31.

United Kingdom, 12, 15, 21, 22, 25,

71-74, 76, 239, 251.

United Kingdom Cotton Board, 22. United Nations, 2, 6, 15, 19, 50, 51, 87, 127, 143, 177, 189, 207, 251, 280, 327.

United States of America, (see under

America, United States of.) University of Hong Kong, (see under

Hong Kong, University of.) University Research, 268-271. Urban---

Buildings, 172-174.

Council, 124, 145, 146, 163, 169,

238, 285, 311, 321, 322. Expansion, 83. Population, 25, 26, 288. Services, 145-152, 238. Services Department, 124, 142, 146-152, 163, 228, 229, 285, 287, 322.

Vacuum Flasks and Jugs, 69. Vegetable--

Production, 88, 89, 105, 106. Marketing Organization, 104-106. Marketing Societies, 105, 107. Vehicles, 206, 238.

Vehicular-ferries, 223, 233. Venereal Diseases, 130, 131. VHF/FM Broadcasting, 253. Victoria-

Park, 286.

Port of, 231-235, 289. Prison, 208.

Technical School, 121.

Vietnam, North, 78.

Vocational Training, 34, 51.

Voluntary Education and Welfare, 115.

Wages, 16, 31, 32.

Waterworks, 66, 90, 214-218, 311. Weather, Year's, 292.

Weights and Measures, 328. Welfare, 49, 50, 115, 178-192. West Indies, 12.

Wilson, Mr. Donald V., 189. Wilson, Mr. John, F., 189.

Women and Juveniles, Welfare of,

32, 33, 35, 43-45, 48, 182-184. Working Hours, 21, 32, 33, 44. Workmen's Compensation, 35, 43, 50.

Y.M.C.A., 115, 187, 273.

Y.W.C.A., 50, 115, 187, 188, 273. Youth Organizations, 186-188.

369

Printed and Published by the Government Printer, at the Government Press, Java Road, Hong Kong

February, 1959

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