Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1956

gong Kong Annual Report

1956

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The dust-cover is from an oil- painting recently acquired by the Government of Hong Kong. The painting is ascribed to Chinnery (who died in 1852), but for historical and stylistic reasons is almost certainly by another hand. The inclusion in the painting of the Old Secretariat ( completed in 1848), the Cathedral (com- pleted in 1849) and a matshed on the site of Government House (commenced in 1852) date the scene to about 1850.

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The dust-cover is from an oil- painting recently acquired by the Government of Hong Kong. The painting is ascribed to Chinnery (who died in 1852), but for historical and stylistic reasons is almost certainly by another hand. The inclusion in the painting of the Old Secretariat (completed in 1848), the Cathedral (com- pleted in 1849) and a matshed on the site of Government House (commenced in 1852) date the scene to about 1850.

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HONG KONG AND THE NEW TERRITORIES.

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DRAWN BY CLE SO P. W. D. HONG SONG, 1956.

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DRAWN BY CLESQ PW.D. HONG KONG.1956.

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HONG KONG

ANNUAL REPORT 1956

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A list of current publications will be found at Appendix XX of this Report

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S. Knowles

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Hong Kong

Annual Report 1956

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Printed and Published by the Government Printer,

at the Government Press,

Java Road, Hong Kong. February, 1957

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The blocks for the halftone illustrations were supplied by the South China Morning Post, Ltd., and the artwork for the eight colour charts was designed by Marklin Advertising, Ltd. The four pages of colour and the frontispiece are from 35 mm colour transparencies.

Chapter

CONTENTS

I. REVIEW-A PROBLEM OF PEOPLE.

2. POPULATION

3. OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Cr I w N

4.

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION .

5. CURRENCY AND BANKING

6. INDUSTRY AND TRADE

7. PRODUCTION

·

8.

EDUCATION

9.

PUBLIC HEALTH

10.

HOUSING

II.

SOCIAL WELFARE

12.

نا

Page

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31

37

58

64

67

81

109

124

144

162

LEGISLATION

13. LAW AND ORDER

14. PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

15.

COMMUNICATIONS

16. PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

177

181

199

214

230

17.

LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

241

18.

RESEARCH

245

19.

RELIGION

248

20.

ARTS

252

21.

SPORT

255

22.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

258

23. FAUNA AND FLORA

266

24. HISTORY

272

25. CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

290

26. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

297

27. READING LIST

298

Appendices

I. Colonial Development and Welfare IIA, Industrial Undertakings and Persons Em-

ployed in Main Industrial Groups

IIB. Industrial Undertakings and Persons Em- ployed in selected Industries in certain of the Main Industrial Groups .

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301

302

303

III. Statement of Assets and Liabilities

IV. Statement of Revenue

304

306

V. Statement of Government Expenditure .

307

VI. Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks VII. Direction of Trade-Imports VIII. Direction of Trade-Exports

309

310

310

IX. Principal Commodities Imported X. Principal Commodities Exported XI. Co-operative Societies.

XII. Hong Kong Students pursuing Higher

Studies in the United Kingdom

311

312

313

314

XIII. Returns of Infectious Diseases, 1955 & 1956. 315

XIV. Hospital Beds

316

XV. Registered Medical Personnel

317

XVI. Government Medical Personnel in Organized

Training

317

XVII. Crime Statistics

318

XVIII. Newspapers and Journals published in Hong

Kong

321

XIX. Members of the Executive and Legislative

Councils

322

XX. List of Hong Kong Government Publications 326

Index

329

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank all those organizations and private individuals who have contributed to this Report, whether by way of textual matter or of photographs. In the case of photographs acknowledgement is also made individually except when the photograph was taken officially by the Public Relations Office.

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Chapter 1: Review

A PROBLEM OF PEOPLE

JUDGING from the criticisms one hears, there is an idea in some minds that the functions of Government are exercised

in a sort of sterile vacuum where theories can be tested and principles applied in isolation from those inconsequential occurrences over which even a Government has no control. In fact, the contrary is far nearer to the truth. It is seldom indeed that a situation arises where principle can be applied with the knife-edge precision of that early Buddha who, tiring of the quarrels of earth's inhabitants, descended to a high mountain in Ceylon and called together all the men, birds, beasts and fish in order to resolve their differences. His audience, says the record, asked a million and one abstruse questions and the all-seeing god, after pondering them, answered every one in the negative.

That divine afflatus is gone. Modern governments can sel- dom answer questions with a 'yes' or a 'no.' There are con- tingencies, hypotheses, counsels of caution and considera- tions of expediency. One never, at the end of a year,' simply reports progress, as if direction were maintained like the path of an aircraft. More often annual reviews are statements of the reasons why progress has not been made, why direction has been changed. One states and assesses the 'problems'- problems being all those varied events, or influences, which hinder or prohibit the application of pure principle, which halt or deflect progress, which inhibit that resounding nega- tive. The reviews with which this report traditionally begins are no exception. Progress has always been there, but it is hedged about with a crop of problems which have confounded

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the purpose and confused the achievement. 'Problems of the year,' the chapter might on occasion have been called.

In this edition, instead of reviewing all the various prob- lems by which the Government of Hong Kong has been beset from January to December 1956, it is proposed to select a single problem which has been very much in our minds for the last ten years, and to give a brief account of its origin, nature and effect, and of the way in which it has been attacked (there is still no final solution to it) in the years since the war. This may not be an altogether inap- propriate course, because the problem selected is the Colony's King Charles's head and from an examination of it some- thing of the background to the general history of Hong Kong during these ten years will emerge.

Looking back over this period, one can say that there is little that has been done that would not have been done differently in some way if one problem had never existed. Finance, education, medical and health services, social welfare, prisons, police, industry, commerce, labour relations, land policy, housing, agriculture and fisheries, political relations- even the law itself-all bear the unmistakable surcharge (in a few cases an almost obliterating surcharge) of this single problem. It is the problem of a vast immigrant population ; vast because for every resident of the Colony at the British reoccupation in 1945 there are now four residents.

A few figures will explain the position more precisely. The land area of the Colony of Hong Kong is 391 square miles. Of this 12 square miles are developed for residential, com- mercial or industrial purposes, 50 square miles are cultivated, and the remainder is largely hillside or swamp which is unsuitable for agriculture and could not be developed for other purposes without disproportionately heavy expenditure on site-formation or services. The immediately useable land area of the Colony is, therefore, 62 square miles. From this and from the fishing grounds within and around the waters of the Colony 500,000 people obtained their livelihood in

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1931. At the outbreak of the Japanese war the population had increased to 1,600,000. On the British reoccupation in 1945 the wholesale expulsions enforced by the Japanese had reduced that number to 600,000. By the end of 1946 the population was 1,600,000; by 1950 it was 2,360,000 and by the end of 1956 something over 2,500,000. Not all of the increase between 1945 and 1956 (nearly two million) was immigrant population. Perhaps a figure of 400,000 represents the natural increase in the population and a further 400,000 the people who were residents of the Colony before the war and returned to it after the Japanese surrender. The increase between 1945 and 1956 due to immigration was, therefore, somewhere about one million, and of this number Dr. Hambro, who conducted a survey on behalf of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in 1954, has estimated that about 700,000 were refugees. Hong Kong was already over-crowded in 1941 and to arrive at a 'normal' population in relation to the Colony's actual state of develop- ment it is necessary to look back rather further to, say, 1937 when the population was about 1,200,000. The annual rate of natural increase is at present about 75,000.

We have, therefore, a total area of 391 square miles (of while 62 square miles is immediately useable) with a normal capacity of about 1,200,000 persons. This area is now re- quired to accommodate over 2,500,000 persons and to absorb a rate of natural increase of 75,000 per annum. New Zealand has an area of 103,939 square miles, a population of 2,153,000 and a rate of natural increase of 27,000 per annum.

There is the size of the problem, but how and why did it arise? In the years before the Pacific War it was the policy, indeed almost a tradition, to allow freedom of movement to Chinese across the border with China. There were many reasons for this. Economically, Hong Kong was at that time the entrepôt for the great market of China. Goods arrived in bulk from all over the world and were unloaded into the warehouses of Hong Kong. There they were broken

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

down into small parcels and these were conveyed by traders into all parts of China. Freedom of movement for these agents, buyers, or itinerant traders was essential if Hong Kong was to fulfil and promote its economic role, and to obtain in return for its re-exports (it had no natural products. and few manufactures to sell abroad) the produce of China. either for its own use or to be stored, sorted and passed on to its customers overseas. Socially the connexions between Hong Kong and China are very close in normal circum- stances. There is no marked geographical feature to form a natural frontier, and people on either side of the political border come from the same stock and lead the same sort of lives. Many long residents of Hong Kong still had their family homes in the villages of Kwangtung and Kwangsi and these they visited frequently and sometimes for extended periods. Even where personal ties had been lost, these visits were enjoined by Chinese custom. Students from Hong Kong went back to the universities of China for higher education. In the reverse direction Chinese in search of an education with a Western emphasis came to Hong Kong, and Chinese generally used the Colony as their point of contact with the whole of the Western world. There was a further reason. It was the period of China's spasmodic but long-drawn civil war in which perhaps one of the few stable factors was the accessibility and availability of Hong Kong as a refuge. For her part, Hong Kong took pride in her role as a safe and well ordered sanctuary and she welcomed all who sought asylum, on the sole condition that they did not continue whatever struggle they were engaged in from within her borders. In 1932 the Japanese attack on China. began. By 1937 Canton had been captured, and as the Japanese Army advanced to the British border several hun- dreds of thousands of refugees fled before it, crossed the border and tacitly claimed asylum. The influx continued. A time came when there was no longer any possibility of absorbing such large numbers into the organized life of the

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community and it was found necessary, after much heart- searching, to impose immigration restrictions on entry from China. When the Japanese attack on Hong Kong came in 1941 the Colony was desperately (or so it seemed at the time) overcrowded, and this was one of the factors which impeded its effective defence. The Japanese inherited the same prob- lem but resorted to more drastic measures. In 1942 and 1943 up to 1,000,000 people were expelled, many of them immigrants of a few years earlier, to find such livelihood as they could in the villages and fields of South China.

With the British reoccupation, many returned. The old immigration restrictions were not enforced as far as Chinese travellers from the mainland were concerned, and many thousands of people, impelled by the chaotic con- ditions in China at the time, flooded into Hong Kong seeking, in the main, better opportunities and economic security. Hong Kong began to accept the implications of a population some 25% greater than what might be re- garded as its normal capacity. But worse was to come. By the end of 1949 China's new civil war had spread to the Southern provinces. This and the rapid consolidation of the new régime resulted in a fresh influx, greater than Hong Kong had ever known. This time they were mainly political refugees. By May 1950 there was an increase in population of some 700,000 from this cause alone and in addition to the 'economic' increase between the end of the Pacific War and the capture of Canton by the Communists. Restrictions on entry from China were inevitable. On this occasion a quota system was applied and a rough balance was struck between those entering and leaving the Colony at the border. By February 1956 it was thought that the position might have stabilized itself in the sense either that no more Chinese wished to enter the Colony permanently or that new im- migrants would be naturally balanced by those who, having sheltered in the Colony since the closing stages of the civil war, were now prepared to return to China. All restrictions

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

were relaxed for a trial period of seven months. There was, however, no stability. The seven months showed an adverse balance of at least 56,000 permanent immigrants a rate of immigration well in excess of the Colony's high natural increase. The quota system was, therefore, reimposed early in September 1956.

When one sees a child, or even a dog, run over by a motorcar one hurries to help and the emotions of horror and pity do not die easily. But when one reads of one million homeless exiles all human compassion baulks and the great sum of human tragedy becomes a

becomes a matter of statistical examination. Personal charity is largely unavailing, vast schemes of national relief are a temporary palliative. Even- tually the last vestiges of hope are centred on the calculating machine and the drawing board. For the last ten years Hong Kong has lived with just such a problem as this. Relief, then jobs, and then homes, for perhaps as many in all as a million people who were not here when the British rule was re-established.

The reader may well ask why this was allowed to happen. A small integrated community with resources appropriate to its size surely has a right to protection against an inunda- tion of strangers. This is an internationally accepted prin- ciple, and Hong Kong's own pre-war and more recent history has shown that it can and must be applied when the situation becomes threatening-or (the cynical reader may add) when the Government wakes up to its responsibilities to its established citizens. Why was the situation ever allowed to develop into the vast problem that now faces the Govern- ment? Was it assumed that up to one million immigrants could be assimilated to an acceptable degree and in reason- able time?

The answer to these questions may fall oddly on modern ears. The immigrants were admitted on humanitarian grounds alone and the problems to which they would give rise if they did not return or emigrate elsewhere were deliberately

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accepted. The first influx fled from the shattered economy and threat of famine which followed the Pacific War. The people who followed in the second influx voted with their feet against the new régime which was established when the Nationalists withdrew to Formosa. In either case the im- migrants sought in Hong Kong something sufficiently im- portant to themselves to necessitate the abandonment of their homes, the severance of family ties and the renunciation of traditional allegiances. No one will ever know what it cost them to abandon the land on which their ancestors had made their living. They were not denied what they sought, and Hong Kong accepted the burden which they brought with them in the name of humanity rather than because it had any special standing in the matter other than the accident of contiguity.

There were, of course, no homes at all for the great majority of the refugees. There were two reasons for this. In the first place, the serious overcrowding, which had necessitated both immigration control and rent control im- mediately before the Pacific War, began to build up again very shortly after the Japanese surrender, and by 1950 the pressure of population was worse than it had ever been in the Colony's history. In the second place, although conven- tional war damage was comparatively slight, neglect and decay had made serious inroads into the quality and quantity of domestic buildings. There had been no building at all during the occupation, and world-wide shortage of supplies and shipping in 1946 and 1947 delayed even the rehabilitation of such buildings as could have been quickly repaired. A small proportion of the refugees were able to bring some capital with them. This they used in the first place to buy out sitting tenants, many of whom may well have been long residents of Hong Kong. But even the high prices obtained could not provide alternative accommodation, and it was not long before those local people who had been tempted into parting with their homes found themselves no better off than

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the refugees. Some refugees entered into occupation and some Hong Kong residents went out into the streets. The effect of this on the refugee problem as such will be referred to later.

If accommodation was desperately short, so was land. Even ten years ago there were few vacant levelled sites. Building land in Hong Kong is not found, it is made; either hacked out of the hills or created by reclamation. And there are clear limits to either process. Most of the refugees were farmers, a true cross-section of the population of China which is overwhelmingly agricultural. But where was the farming land? 50 square miles was under cultivation, and that 50 square miles was already supporting a population of nearly 300,000, three times as many as when the rural areas adjoin- ing the city first came under British rule in 1898. Almost all of the remaining country, which, apart from the cities of Hong Kong and Kowloon, measures another 328 square miles, is made up of steep and rocky hillside on which no farmer has ever found a living. The rural land already had more farmers than it could support.

The immigrants were homeless and the only livelihood they knew was debarred to them. They therefore depended on the two cities. Depended-the word has a melancholy aptness. For, when virtually all the vacant urban sites, Crown land and leased land alike, had been over-filled with their flimsy insanitary shelters, they moved into the hills with which the cities are surrounded and hung their shacks in deep festoons over rocks bared by the war-time search for fuel. But always they crowded in on the town, for there alone lay the hope of rice for tomorrow. They turned their hands to new trades with the resilience and resourcefulness of their race, and they caused little trouble so long as they were left undisturbed in their pathetic settlements, densely packed by both necessity and choice.

Before turning to the Government's attitude to this pre- dicament-and it became a predicament with astonishing

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rapidity-it may be useful to examine some of the circum- stantial problems to which these predominantly immigrant settlements gave rise. It has been said of these people that nothing but land for them to farm would make them happy and contented members of society. There was no land, and if they were to remain and become good citizens they had to be weaned away from their discontent and transformed by some social alchemy from the mentality of the farmer to that of the industrial worker. Until that transformation was achieved, the seeds of discontent would remain. Around them they saw a flourishing community, well established and bat- tening on the post-war boom. The majority were far enough removed from that community in the economic and social sense, but they were still further removed in their political views. The Communist Government of China was rapidly establishing itself and it lost no time in trying to win over the whole-hearted allegiance of overseas Chinese. This met with some success, and, even where the Marxist doctrines had no appeal and the initial pogroms were roundly con- demned, there were many overseas Chinese who saw in the solidarity, determination and incorruptibility of the new régime, spiritual qualities from which a new and better China might eventually emerge when the first excesses had run their course, and when the exotic doctrines had been tempered by the Chinese genius for compromise. Both communists and non-communists were well represented in the settled com- munities of Hong Kong. On the one hand there was support for the new régime and on the other a cautious tolerance. There were still others who were frankly opportunist-watch- ful, uncommitted and hoping desperately to succeed in laying their bets immediately before the horses passed the post. It was the traditional policy of the Government to hold itself firmly aloof from the internal politics of China and to pre- vent China's battles being fought out in the streets of Hong Kong. The application of this policy had always required considerable dexterity but the situation which now presented

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itself called for a subtle combination of firmness, perspicacity, patience and understanding. In the economic sphere, how- ever, the impact of the refugees and other immigrants from China was not, by reason of a concatenation of circumstances, so disturbing as might have been expected. It is again necessary to look back over certain developments in the last ten years.

Immediately after the war the chaotic economic condition of Asia, and Hong Kong's own remarkable recovery, pro- vided an opportunity to widen the traditional entrepôt func- tion between China and the West so as to include goods moving to or from other areas in the Far East. Industry, which had its beginnings in the nineteen-thirties in relatively inefficient small-scale production, stimulated by Imperial Preference and later by the war in Europe, recovered more slowly. It was encouraged by the post-war scarcity of con- sumer goods, but it was also handicapped by the lack of raw materials, all of which had to be imported at a time when there was a world-wide shortage of shipping.

The increase of population up to 1949 has been called 'economic' immigration. It sprang from mainly economic causes, and in the economic sphere at all events Hong Kong was able to absorb it. The expansion of trade alone provided a reasonable and improving standard of living for all. Then came the victory of the communist faction in China and, shortly afterwards, the Korean War. The first event was responsible for the influx of the political refugees; and the second led to the American embargo on trade with China (and, initially at least, with Hong Kong), and later to the United Nations embargo on the export of strategic goods to China. Although she was faced with the problem of provid- ing in some way or other for a new influx of 700,000 people, and although the introduction of economic controls was likely to have a serious indirect effect on non-strategic trade, Hong Kong took immediate steps, more far-reaching than those taken by any other territory, to give effect to the em-

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bargo on China and so cut off, at its own expense, a major part of its own livelihood. The effect was that total trade, which in 1950 had increased significantly, fell back in 1952 to approximately the 1949 level in terms of value and con- siderably below 1949 in terms of volume. Indeed, by early 1955 trade with China had dropped to some 15% only of the total (in 1938 75% of the Colony's trade involved China either as market or as source) and was in practice limited to the relatively minor proportions which the embargo allowed and the new trading methods of the Chinese made feasible. In 1951 an American journalist referred to Hong Kong as 'this dying city' and questioned how it could survive with its swollen population and with a great part of its normal trade sacrificed for the general good.

Hong Kong's economic survival was due to the expansion of, and a revolution in, its industry; and this was made possible in some measure by the three gifts which some of the political refugees brought with them from China; the first a surplus of labour, the second new techniques from the North coupled with a commercial shrewdness and determina- tion superior even to that of the native Cantonese, and the third new capital seeking employment and security.

In 1948 there were 1,160 factories and workshops with a total labour force of some 60,000. By mid 1955 there were 2,500 factories and workshops employing 118,000 persons. Another 200,000 persons were employed indirectly or in domestic industries largely in the squatter and resettlement areas. There are now 3,319 factories and workshops employ- ing 146,877 persons, and the number of persons directly or indirectly dependent on industry is probably at least 50% of the population. More important, however, has been the revolution in techniques and the improvement of quality. Although in general the emphasis is still on consumer goods, there has been a great diversification of products. 400 different types of manufacture and processes are now carried on, including some development of heavier industry-in particu-

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lar steel. Since 1949, therefore, industry has been Hong Kong's economic salvation. It has also meant salvation for the refugees though it could provide for many of them little more than a bare subsistence.

It is against this background of the general political and economic scene that the more particular problems created by the squatters must be examined. The word 'squatter' is introduced because it is now necessary to find a rather broader term which will include three classes of deprived persons, i.e. immigrants who left China before the Com- munist victory, refugees who left China because of that victory, and the Hong Kong residents who sold out their homes to wealthier immigrants in one or other of the two former classes, and themselves became virtually destitute. The one thing that all classes had in common

was the inability to find or to afford conventional accommodation. The squatter settlements contained elements of all three categories though the first and third categories were not nearly so numerous in the settlements as the second. It has been necessary in the course of earlier generalizations to speak as if the settlements gave rise to a single political problem and as if they were filled with people with a com- mon background. Numerically the generalization is justified, but it is of some importance in what follows to appreciate that in fact there were two minority groups in the settlements one of which was composed of people who were not strictly refugees, though they were immigrants, and the other of people who were neither refugees nor immigrants.

For reasons which have already been given, the squatters crowded in upon the two towns, Victoria on the Island of Hong Kong and Kowloon on the mainland peninsula. Their need was so great and so pressing that they had no thought for the ownership of land and it would have required an army of police to have restrained them. Virtually every size- able vacant site which was not under some form of physical or continuing protection was occupied, and when there was no

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flat land remaining they moved up to the hillsides and colonized the ravines and slopes which were too steep for normal development. The huts were constructed of such material as they could lay hands on at little or no cost- flattened sheets of tin, wooden boarding, cardboard, sacking slung on frames-every variety of two dimensional material that was light enough to carry and cheap enough to beg or steal or buy for a few dollars. Land was scarce even for the squatters and the huts were packed like dense honeycombs or irregular warrens at different levels, with little ventilation or light and no regular access. The shacks themselves were crowded beyond endurance. In some cases five or six human beings existed in a cubicle measuring 40 square feet. Density was at a rate of 2,000 persons to an acre in single storey huts. There was, of course, no sanitation and there was seldom any organized system of refuse disposal. There was in most cases no mains water immediately available, and water for all purposes had to be carried long distances from communal standpipes or collected from such hillside streams as the season allowed. Cooking fuel was charcoal or wood used in open 'chatties' (small cooking stoves) and at night some of the huts were lit with kerosene lamps or candles. Chickens, ducks and pigs shared the huts or the narrow congested areas around them. Sacking curtains over the doors gave privacy and they provided a measure of warmth in winter and of protection from torrential rains in the summer. Some of the squatters had work in the towns; others started cottage industries, which were sometimes more akin to small primitive factories, in the settlements, either in their own huts or in similar structures erected specially for the purpose. Inspection of such premises was impossible and it is probably true to say that each of these enterprises constituted a danger to health or to life and limb in one form or another. In such conditions every kind of vice flourished. Drugs were manu- factured, sold and stored; there were divans, brothels and gambling houses; every form of crime was sheltered by the anonymity of these dark places.

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The settlements varied in size. The largest, Shek Kip Mei, once accommodated 80,000 persons. In 1953 it was estimated that there was a total of 300,000 squatters. (That figure has subsequently been increased. Following upon a survey made in late 1955, it was estimated that those resettled and those awaiting resettlement total something like 500,000.) The squatters were gregarious by nature and perhaps found that larger communities offered greater scope for a livelihood, for organization, and for protection from the various authorities. However that may be, the fact that they did organize them- selves in very large units had two important effects: it - eventually facilitated clearance by way of vast building projects which could alone make any impression on the immensity of the problem, and for the moment it made the danger to the community as a whole infinitely more im- mediate and more serious.

:

The immediate danger lay in two directions public health and fire. There were, of course, other strains and stresses which this situation imposed on the community-the potential threat to law and order, political complications, the gross overtaxing of medical and educational services, the steriliza- tion of virtually all the land suitable for development, the strain on an imported food supply, a water shortage worse than the Colony had ever known, a housing shortage which would have been serious even if there had been no squatters -all these problems would have to be tackled in due time, but for the moment the really vital risks lay in the danger of a widespread epidemic or in a major conflagration. By some miracle the first of these dangers never materialized. The second did, time and time again; and it is one of the ironies of this desperate situation that it was fire that cleared the first site for a 'decanting' scheme of resettlement which is now accepted as the only feasible solution to the problem, and which is still continuing today.

Why was that solution so long in coming? Why was a situation in which, on current estimates, 300,000 people lived

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in conditions such as those described above allowed to develop without some remedial measures being taken? The answer to these questions is complex. In the first place, it is perhaps difficult, in the light of our present knowledge, to appreciate how imperceptibly, and yet with what astonishing rapidity, the problem matured. In two years the squatter population increased from 30,000 to at least 300,000. Once the fringes of the settlements had been occupied a virtual screen was established, behind which the density increased without apparent change, until one day huts could be seen thrusting out of the levelled area and up the ravines into the low hills with which the cities are surrounded. Perhaps 80,000 people now occupied an area which a few weeks ago seemed to contain no more than a string of roadside huts. They were, of course, essentially mobile. Their crude shacks could be dismantled in a few hours and could be transported for several miles without assistance from outside the family. They were desperate and determined people who were now accustomed to the insecurity of someone else's land, and in practice disturbance meant little to them except the search for a new site. Surveys were undertaken but they were then unskilled and the results were inaccurate and conflicting. All that was known with certainty was that a problem of frightening dimensions was building up at a frightening speed.

LIC

The Government hesitated at first to tackle this amorphous problem for two reasons. It seemed impossible to believe that this was in truth Hong Kong's problem. Hong Kong had granted immediate sanctuary to the refugees; but was not their rehabilitation and ultimate disposal a matter for some wider organization than a charitable next-door neighbour? If the responsibility was not Hong Kong's there were three ways, and only three, in which she could be relieved of it; either the refugees could return to their homeland, or they could emigrate to some other country, or the costs of their integration into Hong Kong's own community could be

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accepted as a charge upon the conscience of the free world and be underwritten by some international agency. In the beginning it seemed that the first of these three possible courses was both the logical and the likely solution. There was evidence that the worst excesses of the new régime in China were over. Even if no radical change of heart had yet occurred, it appeared that the new rulers were becoming more conscious of their reputation abroad and more anxious to win the approbation of overseas Chinese, whatever their political views. And perhaps, now that the violence of the upheaval was over, now that the refugees had suffered these many months of poverty and exile, they would take matters into their own hands and return. There was no question whatever, of course, of compulsion. They were absolutely free to exercise the choice as and when each individual wished. The Government waited for that choice to be exercised;-and it became increasingly clear as the months and years passed that it had been exercised in silence and that they would not return.

The two other courses were neither in the discretion of the refugees themselves nor of the Government of Hong Kong. In 1954 Dr. Hambro's report confirmed that the Hong Kong Government could be relieved of its burden only by emigra- tion or outside financial assistance. The complications attach- ing to the former and the enormous scope for the latter were both emphasized, and, with Dr. Hambro's departure, it was evident to the Government that any form of relief from out- side sources would take time to muster and negotiate,-and that time might well be the one commodity that would not be provided.

The second reason why the Government hesitated to come to grips with the situation was, and it can be said frankly, the immensity of the problem which it presented. The re- quirement was the provision of decent, permanent, fire-proof homes for several hundreds of thousands of people. Granted all else, the only land on which a project of these dimensions

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could be accommodated was both occupied by the squatters and also subject to a prior claim, for it must not be forgotten that there existed in Hong Kong a most serious housing problem quite apart from the question of the resettlement of the squatters. In all parts of the Colony the tenement build- ings were crowded to five or six times their pre-war density, rents of new premises were prohibitively high, and, if the squatters are disregarded, the single urgent need of the whole Colony was for low-cost housing. The people who endured this need were the established lower-paid workers, the very back-bone of the Colony, and, prima facie at all events, older residents who had the first claim on the Colony's resources. - It seemed that their need could be met only by freeing the land sterilized by the squatter settlements. But where were the squatters to be moved to? And even if the land could be formed out of the hillsides or reclaimed from the sea, who was to sponsor such an enterprise-far removed from the resources of the housing societies and unattractive to private enterprise? It had never in the past been Govern- ment's policy to enter into the field of domestic construction and there seemed to be valid economic reasons why it should not do so now. And although it was clear that only the Colony's budget could provide funds of the magnitude needed for site formation and construction on the scale re- quired, it was not so much the prime cost as the incidental implications of so drastic a commitment that gave Govern- ment pause. By setting itself up as the landlord of some 300,000 refugees, did not Government by that fact alone recognize them as an integral part of the population? And did not this imply schooling for their children, care for their sick, more imported food, more reservoirs taking years to build, and, perhaps worst of all, more delay to the Colony's legitimate projects of development while these special needs were being met?

Perhaps enough has been said to show that there were the most cogent reasons for delay and for careful deliberation

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before the Government finally committed itself to a policy which up to the time of writing has accounted, directly and indirectly, for the expenditure of perhaps $330 million from public funds. It remains to give some account of how that policy developed and how it was put into effect.

The story begins in January 1950, when the population was estimated at 2,360,000 and the squatters at something over 300,000. In that month a squatter fire took place in Kowloon City which rendered 20,000 persons homeless. In April immigration controls on entry from China were put into force. These two events had their separate, but to some extent complementary, effect on the policy which was fol- lowed for the remainder of the year. On the one hand, fire was now accepted as the major and immediate danger, and attempts were made to drive fire-breaks through the most congested parts of the settlements with the object of limiting the scope of conflagrations which were now accepted as being virtually inevitable in the conditions in which the squatters lived and worked. This implied that the settlements were accepted temporarily and that Government action was limited to such practical steps as could be taken to render them less dangerous. The reason for this, as has already been men- tioned, was that it was hoped that with the influx of im- migrants checked, and with a return to more settled con- ✓ditions in South China, there would be a reverse movement of population which might go some way towards solving the squatter problems without intervention by the Government. By the middle of 1951 it was becoming clear that those hopes were unlikely to be realized and a first attempt was made at tackling the squatter problem in its entirety.

A number of small areas were set aside for what were called 'approved' resettlement structures and two or three larger areas for 'tolerated' resettlement. Accommodation in the 'approved' areas was in the form of semi-permanent bungalows and these were reserved for families with longest residence in the Colony and who had the means to conform

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with the structural standards laid down. The rest of the squatters were to go to the 'tolerated' areas where there was little control of the type of structure erected. Both types of area were to be planned in the sense that they were laid out in planned sites with allowance for roads, fire-breaks, etc., and both included communal water supply and com- munal latrines. Sufficient land for the larger tolerated' areas could not be found near the main centres of employ- ment and they were unpopular for this reason; but the 'approved' areas were more conveniently placed. For the next 2 years this policy continued to be applied and devel- oped. Provision was made for the shops, factories and work- shops in the squatter settlements to be replaced in the new areas. Schools were started and the voluntary agencies helped in many ways with improving conditions among the increas- ing numbers who had been resettled.

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By the end of 1953 there were 9,000 units of accommoda- tion in the resettlement areas. Of these, 4,400 were domestic units of the 'approved' type and 4,350 were huts in the 'tolerated' areas. The remainder consisted of about 140 re- settlement shops and about 40 factories and workshops. About 30,000 persons had been resettled by these means. There were 15,000 others whose circumstances had been im- proved though they were still living in what were virtually squatter conditions; and it was then estimated that there were well over 250,000 still awaiting resettlement. Thus while steady progress was being made, it was already becoming apparent that the process of resettlement must somehow be accelerated if the problem as a whole were ever going to be solved. But there were many obstacles to acceleration. For one thing Government expenditure on the scheme was rising to $5 million annually and it was undeniable that the scheme had substantial weaknesses. Resettlement in the 'tolerated' areas gave a little more control, a little more orderliness and considerably less danger from fire, but that was all. It pro- vided no solution to the basic human and social problems.

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Worse still, it would all have to be done over again some day. In the 'approved' areas conditions were, of course, much more satisfactory. Some of them contained charmingly kept and decorated cottages which were much to be preferred from health and other points of view to the overcrowded tenements in the town. But each cost well over $1,000 and while few squatters were destitute, most could not rise to these heights even with assistance from welfare agencies, or with the benefit of hire-purchase terms such as were arranged by the non-profit-making Settlers Housing Corporation. In any event there were only 4,400 of these units, and perhaps fifteen to twenty times that number were still needed. This might not have been too impossible a problem if land could. be found on which to site a greatly extended programme. But it could not. It was becoming ominously evident that convenient and available land was absolutely exhausted and that there was now a straight choice between excessively high, and ever increasing, site formation costs in areas which would be acceptable to the squatters, and new sites away from the towns which would not be acceptable. It may seem. odd to speak of 'acceptability' in relation to people in such straits-but access to the means of livelihood was an over- riding consideration to them, and where sympathy and co- operation with Government were withdrawn the whole sita- tion was opened up for the insidious political influences that were never far from the squatter settlements. As a practical plan, therefore, the policy which has just been described, though it had made some steady progress for 23 years, was now working itself to a standstill because its basic material- land-was exhausted. On Christmas Night, 1953, land was provided by an act of God. 45 acres were cleared of human habitation by the most extensive fire of the Colony's history.

In the Shek Kip Mei fire of 25th December, 1953, over 50,000 persons lost their homes. This constituted a crisis of the first order, for not only did Government have on its hands a relief programme equivalent in terms of numbers

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to that which would arise if the city of Chester were razed to the ground, but it was also faced with a wholesale re- appraisal of existing policy which was no longer a practical proposition in terms of available land. Three immediate deci- sions were taken which formed the basis of a new policy which is still being applied today, three years later, with marked success. The decisions were, first, that the land cleared by the fire should be used to the maximum practical intensity for the resettlement of the fire victims; second, that Government would itself build and finance the resettlement buildings; and third, that Government would make itself responsible for the provision of food for the homeless until they could be resettled in permanent buildings.

It will be appreciated that these three decisions constituted a radical departure from every aspect of the policy which had been applied hitherto, and, in particular, that they im- plied that Government now assumed direct responsibility for the squatters in their moment of extreme need, and that Government would, from now on, itself enter the field of resettlement using public funds and its own constructional resources. There is no doubt that these decisions were not taken without a full appreciation of the implications or with- out many misgivings. But they were taken and there is no doubt that they were right. Their effect was to place upon a community still suffering, with some indignation, from the economic effects of the China embargo, a vast new burden which would not be lightened for many years to come. Hong Kong has entered upon many major public works since the war. A $125 million reservoir is nearing completion, a $110 million airport is in process of construction, a $50 million hospital is about to begin, and reclamations costing a total of $30 million have been constructed to provide land for industry, for housing, for open spaces and for civic purposes. But those three decisions in early 1954 implied a greater com- mitment than any of the major schemes just mentioned,- perhaps something short of $250 million-and of this com-

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mitment $46 million has already been spent at the time of writing. The commitment was undertaken because the spec- tacle of such extremes of misery, need, and danger in the heart of a prosperous city could no longer be tolerated. And when one considers the causes of the problem, its develop- ment and the incidence of moral as opposed to circumstantial responsibility for its amelioration, it can hardly be said that those decisions were devoid of courage and altruism.

To return to the Shek Kip Mei fire. There were something over 50,000 persons homeless. There had been serious squat- ter fires on earlier occasions, but the total homeless in all of them, spread over four years and a diversity of areas, was not greater than those now affected by the events of a single night. In terms of the destruction of human habitation it was incomparably the worst fire in the Colony's history. For- tunately, and here again a tribute must be paid to the quali- ties of courage, resource and charity which grace the Chinese character, just under half of the fire victims contrived to make their own arrangements for new accommodation either by renting spaces in other areas or by packing themselves into the already overcrowded huts or bed-spaces occupied by friends or relatives. This left about 27,000 persons on the streets in the vicinity of their old home. In these streets they were allowed to erect such shelters as they could either from the salvage of the fire (the fire site itself was kept entirely clear after an interval for search) or from such other materials as they were given by the authorities or could obtain elsewhere. Temporary latrines and bath-houses were provided in the streets, communally cooked food distributed daily by Government, temporary clinics were established, warm clothing and other necessities were distributed by charitable organizations and a very widely supported relief fund was inaugurated. All remains of the fire were bulldozed into the earth as, with the Army's help, the whole site was levelled and drained in order to give the maximum possible new building land. The first units of

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emergency accommodation were completed on the site of the fire in February 1954-53 days after the catastrophe.

This at least gave breathing space in which to examine the new policy a little more closely. A new department of Government, the Department of Resettlement, was set up with authority over registration, clearance and all the pro- cesses of resettlement. Working in conjunction with a sub- committee of the Urban Council, this department proceeded to re-examine the overall policy in the light of what had been done and planned as a direct consequence of the Shek Kip Mei fire. Its attention was first given to what was still the imminent, ever present danger-fire. The reactions of Government, the squatters, and indeed the community as a whole, to the Christmas night catastrophe was a source of inspiration to all who were concerned in any way with those early measures of relief and rehabilitation. But it was a dis- tinctly sobering thought that there was no reason on earth why another fire, or two, or three, of equal or greater pro- portions, should not occur at any moment. In the current resettlement jargon summer was the 'close season' for fires, but the rains were not due until April and another 'fire- season' would begin in October. The first attack made by the new department on the overall problem was a more deter- mined and ruthless prosecution of the policy of driving wide fire-breaks through the larger squatter areas. Fires would still occur, nothing could prevent that, but if a series of wide channels were dug through the mass of habitations at the necessary intervals one could then be quite sure that no fire of the appalling dimensions of Shek Kip Mei could happen again. But the driving of the lanes itself involved the compli- cated process of the clearance and resettlement of at least 7,500 persons, and this in turn created a new and immediate de- mand for more land and more houses. Somehow these two vital commodities were found and the fire-lane plan got well under way. It was to be complete by October 1954, the begin- ning of the new 'fire-season'. But again the gods were

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unkind. In July 1954, in the very middle of the 'close sea- son', the third worst squatter fire in the Colony's history occurred at Tai Hang Tung, just a month before the fire lanes in that area were to be completed. 24,000 people lost their homes in the hours of darkness and there ensued a melancholy repetition of the events which had followed the Shek Kip Mei fire. The streets of Shamshuipo in Kowloon, which had just been cleared of the victims of the earlier fire, were again filled with temporary shacks. The cost of direct relief measures was again running at above $40,000 a day. The resettlement of the remaining Shek Kip Mei fire victims, those who had found temporary accommodation off the streets, was deferred, and the new destitutes were given precedence.

The Resettlement Department revised its dispositions, put new plans in train and returned to the question of overall policy. There was talk of a survey and census of all squatter areas. But it was thought on good general grounds that there were 250,000 squatters and fire victims (in fact, the total was probably nearer 450,000) remaining to be resettled and it seemed an unjustifiable extravagance to use valuable man- power and time in proving that that estimate was wrong-at least until the job was much nearer completion. The separate problems presented by Hong Kong and Kowloon were then considered. It seems that as far as Hong Kong Island was concerned the problem might possibly be capable of solution by a vigorous prosecution of the old methods which had been applied before the Shek Kip Mei fire. But in Kowloon the position was much worse. In Kowloon a relatively simple calculation showed that the problem simply could not be solved unless squatters could be rehoused in areas substan- tially smaller than those which they occupied in squatter conditions. The conclusion was reached by the Resettlement and Public Works Departments, and eventually accepted by Government, that in order to achieve this (for such was the density of population in squatter areas) resettlement must

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take place in buildings of six or seven storeys. At this rate of development the Tai Hang Tung area could resettle 35% more people than it held before the fire, while two-storey development after the Shek Kip Mei fire was sufficient only for the original residents. This decision put the final seal on Government's strange new role of financier, contractor and landlord to a potential 20% of the population, for, with the concept of multi-storey buildings at a rent which resettled squatters could afford to pay, the last hope of interesting private capital vanished.

It may be of interest to the reader to have at this stage some description of these multi-storey blocks which from now on absorbed the main stream of resettlement. The basic design chosen was a six-storey block, H-shaped in plan. The long arms of the H consisted on each floor of sixty-four rooms and the cross-piece contained two water standpipes, six communal flush latrines and a communal open space for washing clothes. Each room was 120 square feet in area and access was by a balcony running completely round each long arm of the H. There were four staircases, one at each corner of the building. The average density of resettlement was five adults to a room (a child of ten years or under counting as half an adult) and smaller families were required to share a room; so that each building housed rather under,000 adults or well over 2,000 persons. The allowance of 24 square feet to an adult represented a considerable degree of overcrowding by normal standards, but this was emergency accommoda- tion; it was sanitary, weather-proof and fire-proof, and it was more realistic to judge it by what it replaced rather than by arbitrary standards of what was desirable.

In spite of continuing study and scrutiny, the blocks (which are still being built today) have undergone surprising- ly little change from this early prototype. Buildings are now usually of seven storeys instead of six, and they have flat roofs, strengthened and fenced so as to add to the space for recreation. Communal bathing rooms, on a scale of one to

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every thirty-five domestic rooms, were added. No water was laid on in these bathing rooms, but partitioned stalls were provided in which washing could be done by the bucket and scoop method. Electric light was installed, and a number of ground floor rooms were converted into shops measuring 240 square feet, which were let at a realistic rent.

In all this planning there was one glance at a more distant future. The buildings were permanent but it was foreseen that a time might come when large scale building of sub- standard cubicle accommodation would prove more an embarrassment than an asset to the community. The build- ings were therefore designed so that they could be converted at a later date into orthodox self-contained flats. Each flat would be of about 250 square feet, including a small private balcony, and could probably be let for about $40 a month at present price levels. There was no way of foreseeing how soon, and to what extent, such conversion could be carried out-but it was felt that this extra provision, though a potentiality, would ensure that the buildings were always an asset to the Colony.

The economics of the scheme are of some interest. A per- manent 6-storey building, capable of housing well over 2,000 persons, could be constructed for the amount which was being spent every fortnight, during the spring of 1954, in supplying free food to the victims of the Shek Kip Mei fire. Once the piling had been completed, a seven-storey building, containing 840 rooms, could be completed in about eight weeks. A striking example of the way in which Hong Kong's outstandingly efficient building industry works is provided by the developments which followed the Tai Hang Tung fire, of which mention has been made above. The fire occurred on 22nd July, 1954. Plans for the permanent development of the area with eight seven-storey blocks were being prepared even before the clearance of the debris had been completed. A piling contract was let on 29th September, 1954, and on 31st October, 1954, before all the piling had been done, a

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building contract was let. The construction of the eight seven-storey blocks, comprising 4,606 rooms, was completed on 6th March, 1955.

Rentals were related not only to the capacity of the settlers to pay, but also to the cost of construction. Government granted land at one half of the upset price and advanced the funds required for capital expenditure on a forty years loan at 31% interest per annum. An average seven-storey block of 432 rentable rooms could be constructed for $795,600. It would require 23,000 square feet of land which, at half upset price, might be valued at $10 a square foot-$230,000. Annual outgoings, which comprised amortization, crown rent, maintenance and administrative and miscellaneous re- current expenditure, would total $65,239. This gave a rent for each room of $12.50 a month. $1 a month was added for water, 50 cents for bad debts, voids, etc., and the actual inclusive rent was fixed at $14 a month. It is of interest to note that rents from multi-storey estates are now running at $3 million a year, and that in 1956 only $1,213 had to be written off as irrecoverable arrears of rent.

The building of seven-storey blocks has continued. There are now 40 separate blocks spread over four resettlement estates and housing some 103,000 persons. There still remain the older colonies of cottages in areas where the land is less urgently needed. In these too, particularly under the auspices of various private voluntary agencies (who have themselves spent something of the nature of $84 million in relief in the last six years), the resettlement process continues to a limited extent. There are some 100,000 persons in these smaller areas. On present estimates, there remain in the Colony as a whole some 334,000 squatters (including those who have in recent months set up their shacks on the roof-tops) still awaiting resettlement. In other words a town of the population of Plymouth has been built, and another town of the population of Coventry is required. The worst of the fire danger is now over. Fires can and do occur, but they are limited in area and

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can be brought under control more quickly. And land is at last being earned for future operations (and not only for resettlement operations) by the 'decanting' process whereby accommodation on any given area is built for more people than occupied it previously, thus providing free space into which squatters from a second area can be put while that area itself is being re-developed.

Although the rents from the resettlement estates are now being collected without difficulty and according to plan, and although 40% of the squatters are now resettled in tolerable homes, it must not be thought that resettlement, in the particular conditions of Hong Kong, is ever a once-for-all operation that can be forgotten as soon as the tall buildings are completed and occupied. No-one yet quite knows to what new problems these vast communities, living their uniform lives in uniform surroundings, will give rise. All are direct tenants of the Government. But the rights of a landlord rest ultimately on the final sanction of eviction. These people cannot be evicted without re-creating those very dangers which the establishment of the tenancies was intended to remove. They are where they are, not from the exercise of any choice on their part, but because there was nowhere else for them to go and because they were put there by the Government, now their landlord. It is a strange, involved problem, but one which is not devoid of potentialities both for bad and good. The recent riots alone provide an indica- tion of the possible threats to public order that may be sparked off and spread like a forest fire in such conditions. And it would be criminally foolish to overlook the opportuni- ties which these estates offer to political or even subversive agitators. On the other hand, such compact and uniform communities probably present a unique field for experimental education in the social and civic spheres. There are now clubs, schools and other forms of communal activity in the estates, but it is difficult to see how these somewhat tentative social services can be developed to reasonable standards until

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the buildings have been converted, on the lines already mentioned, into orthodox self-contained flats. The essential need is to restore to these deprived lives something of the personal dignity and pride which privacy affords, and which communal living, for all its advantages, denies. But the conversion of the multi-storey blocks cannot yet be foreseen. The frustrating aspect of what has been done is that it cannot be carried to completion in a single home until the same. preliminary process has been repeated over and over again, and until many of the contingent problems have been resol- ved. Some 300,000 squatters remain to be resettled. In terms of expenditure actually incurred on those who have been resettled, this means 200 more acres of land, 120 more seven- storey blocks, a further $200,000,000 from public funds and a continuing strain on Government's and the Colony's resources in all aspects of planning and construction. Just how all this money and land and concentrated effort is to be found is a question for the future. A recent issue of 'The Economist' praises the drive and energy with which the task of resettling the squatters is being pursued, but describes it as an 'apparently hopeless task'. It can, however, be said that as much money is being spent annually as the speed of the engineers and contractors on the land will allow and that land and basic engineering capacity are the limiting factors. Subject to these limiting factors, plans exist for the resettle- ment of 230,000 more squatters in the next six years.

But soon it may be that the contingent problems which these very activities in turn create may themselves exert a restraining influence. The conventional housing needs of the Colony are desperately serious and are thought by some to demand priority. It is certain that conditions in some old tenement buildings are far worse than conditions in most resettlement blocks. It is also certain that for every dollar that has been spent by Government, whether directly or by way of subsidy, on conventional housing much more than a dollar has been spent on resettlement. This deferment of the

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claims of one section of the community cannot continue indefinitely. And to accept the squatter into the community implies more than building a roof over his head. There is schooling, for example. The primary school expansion pro- gramme alone will cost $55 million over the next five years. That is for the benefit of the whole Colony, but it seems logical to assume that the present and former squatters, representing as they do some 20% of the community, will in fact derive a disproportionate share of the benefit, and that that share might be available for higher, as opposed to primary, education if the squatters did not exist. Clinics and hospitals are perhaps a more pressing need. These cannot really wait. The new communities themselves provide a most fertile ground for epidemic disease and for the traditional scourge

of tuberculosis. And then there are the social services. How is one to hope to integrate these new communities, which Government is creating as fast as its sources will allow, into the existing social system unless a special and equally comprehensive effort is made throughout the whole range of social welfare? More land is needed for industry; trade relations become vital. The potentialities, as has been said, are both good and bad. More prisons are needed, more courts of justice, a larger and more mobile police force, an inflated administrative machine. Some element in all these requirements is directly attributable to what has been done, and is still being done, in this single sphere of resettlement. It is perhaps not too much to say that the people of Hong Kong have pledged a portion of their own future for the benefit of strangers who took refuge here;-and sometimes it almost looks as if they are also required to pay interest on the pledge at compound rates.

www.***

Chapter 2: Population

THE population at the end of 1956 was estimated to be about 2,535,000, excluding Service personnel and their families, but until a census can be held, any estimate of the population in Hong Kong must of necessity be regarded as tentative.

The last census was taken in 1931, when the population was found to be 849,751, including 9,434 Service personnel. Another census should have been held in 1941, but with the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, conditions became un- settled, and the plan was abandoned. The Colony has since been subject to a succession of increases in population, which has made the holding of a census impracticable.

An unofficial census made by air raid wardens in 1941, before the attack on Hong Kong by the Japanese, showed the population to be about 1,600,000. This number was greatly reduced during the Japanese occupation, and it is estimated that the total amounted to less than 600,000 when the Colony was liberated in August 1945.

After the cessation of hostilities in 1945 the population of the Colony increased rapidly, and by the end of 1946, it is believed to have reached its immediately pre-war level of 1,600,000. A population survey was made in 1947 by the then Statistical Department, and the total at the close of that year was assessed at approximately 1,800,000. Estimates for sub- sequent years are based on birth and death registration figures and arrival and departure statistics.

The population of the Colony continued to increase during 1956, reaching an estimated total of 2,535,000 by the end of the year, an increase of 135,000. Of the total increase about 77,500 or 57% was due to the excess of registered births over deaths. The relaxation of immigration controls on the border

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from February to September 1956 alone accounted for an increase of 56,000 in the permanent population.

The estimated natural rate of increase in the population of 3.8% was maintained throughout 1956. In actual figures registered births amounted to 96,746 in 1956 as compared with 90,511 in 1955. The total number of deaths increased slightly from 19,080 in 1955 to 19,295 in 1956, the rate per thousand being 7.9 and 7.6 respectively.

URBAN POPULATION

The majority of urban residents originally came from Kwangtung. As a result of economic and political changes in China during the past several years, a large number of people from Shanghai and the neighbouring areas have established themselves in the Colony.

During the year 1956 the number of British subjects from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, excluding Service personnel and their dependants, increased to about 14,000. Other communities include Americans, with about 1,870 residents, Portuguese numbering 1,770, Philippinoes 390, French 360, Dutch 340, Italian 280 and Japanese 250. The total of non-Chinese residents, excluding British nationals, is about 7,000.

The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are neighbouring Po On and Tungkwun, Waiyeung and Muiyuen (principally Hakka), Chiuchow, the so-called Four Districts (Sunning, Sunwui, Hoiping and Yanping), Nam- hoi, Punyü, Shuntak and Chungshan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien community and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Kwangtung or Fukien.

The chief linguistic characteristic of the urban area is that, although a wide variety of Chinese languages and dialects are used in daily life, Cantonese is the lingua franca. Apart

The Hong Kong Housing Society's Estate, Healthy Village, North Point.

J. M. Rowlands

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T

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ONG KONG

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from Cantonese, the languages or dialects most widely heard are Hakka, Chiuchow, Kuoyu (the national language), the Shanghai dialect and, of course, English, the popularity of which has increased considerably in the last ten years. Before the war the Colony was not much affected by the movement in China to popularize Kuoyu. The war, however, took many local residents into China, and many came back afterwards with some knowledge of Kuoyu. Though this language is not normally spoken by Cantonese people in Hong Kong, a far greater number understand it now than before the war.

NEW TERRITORIES

The indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories consist of four principal groups, Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka, Although these groups show differences in physical appearance, dress, organization and custom, which suggest that they are racially distinct, it is safer to treat them as linguistic rather than racial groups.

The Cantonese occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories, and own a good deal of the best valley land in various other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long District, have a history of continuous settlement since. the late eleventh century, in the Southern Sung dynasty, with whose imperial family the clan was connected by marriage. Villages in the Tung Chung and Shek Pik valleys, on Lantao Island, date back to the early Yuan dynasty, in the late thirteenth century. Subsequent migrations have brought Cantonese from many districts of Kwangtung, and throughout the principal islands they are the majority com- munity. The earliest families in Yuen Long District speak a form of the Namtau dialect, an offshoot of Tungkwun, not very easy for city Cantonese to follow, but city Cantonese (Punyü dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

A

squatter village and Resettlement

Estate, side by side at Tai Hang Tung.

W. H. Shipway

34

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, and is explained as meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or even before. The Cantonese were the more successful settlers, however, and in the areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are always found upstream, along foothills, and in general on the worse land. At an early stage they seem to have become dependants or serfs of the powerful Cantonese families. The balance was restored later by heavy immigra- tion from the East River districts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the Hakka are now almost exclusive possessors of the Sha Tau Kok, Sai Kung and Hang Hau peninsulas, and of the foothills of Taimoshan. They are the majority community in Tai Po, Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan, and on the islands of Tsing Yi and Ma Wan.

The origin of the Hakka is unknown. They have contradic- tory traditions pointing to both a northern and a southern origin, and while the greatest numbers of them are found in eastern Kwangtung, there are many in Kiangsi and some in Szechuan and Taiwan. In the New Territories there are certain villages which show indications of being of non- Chinese origin; such villages are invariably Hakka-speaking. Both Cantonese and Hakka are languages of the Yueh group, presenting features characteristic of the standard speech of the early T'ang dynasty (seventh century), and Hakka, while closely resembling Cantonese in most respects, preserves a few even earlier characteristics.

In Kwangtung for many centuries there was strife between Cantonese and Hakka, culminating in a war in the early nineteenth century which required the intervention of the Manchu Government. They are now at peace. Formerly there was no intermarriage between them, but now Cantonese villa- gers have Hakka wives (seldom the reverse) and some villages are peacefully shared between the two groups. Except in the most remote areas, most Hakka can speak Cantonese.

POPULATION

35

The Hoklo have frequented the area since time unknown. They are traditionally boat-people, but in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations. There are influential land communities of them on Cheung Chau and Ping Chau. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their lan- guage belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast from Fukien to Hainan Island. The more primi- tive types of Hoklo dwelling are distinguishable by the use of thatch and mud bricks, instead of tiles and stone.

The Tanka (egg families) are boat-people who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves will not use this name, which they consider derogatory, but call themselves 'Nam Hoi yan' or 'Shui Sheung yan'. They are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. Their entire families live afloat. Until the Chinese Revolution of 1911 they were outcasts, not permitted to live ashore, engage in trade, or send their children to school. Like the Hoklo, whom they resemble in many respects, they have been in the area since time un- known. Chinese records suggest that they originally spoke a non-Chinese language. At present they speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese, which they appear to have adopted early in the fourteenth century, during the Yuan dynasty. At Tai O, on Lantao Island, there is the rare instance of a fairly large group of Tanka living ashore, or rather half-ashore, in huts built on stakes over a muddy inlet.

Certain parts of the New Territories mainland have been affected by the great numbers of refugees who, since 1937, have come to the Colony from all parts of China. In general where they have settled in the country, it has been in assimil- able numbers; but certain groups of Tungkwun and Chiu- chow cultivators, and of miners from North China, have resisted assimilation and preserved a refugee mentality.

36

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

These however form only a very small minority of the total rural population.

An increasing number of city-dwellers of all nationalities, have in recent years been building bungalows and small weekend residences in the New Territories. Most of these are along the main roads, particularly at Sha Tin, Tai Po, near the Fan Ling golf courses, and along the road to Castle Peak and Clearwater Bay. On the islands the principal areas affected are Cheung Chau and Silver Mine Bay.

香港

v7

共圖

書:

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 3: Occupations, Wages and

Labour Organization

OCCUPATIONS

THE principal sources of employment in Hong Kong and Kowloon are industry, commercial houses connected with the entrepôt trade, agriculture, fishing and the internal distribu- tive trades.

No general employment figures are available, nor has it been feasible since the war, due to rapidly changing condi- tions and varying population heights, for the Government. to undertake the compilation of such figures. Employment figures are, however, held for all industrial concerns regis- tered with the Labour Department, and these cover the bulk of the Colony's industrial life.

There is no evidence of any substantial change in the number of people engaged in agriculture and fishing, usually estimated at about 250,000.

The total number of people employed by the Hong Kong Government and by the Armed Services in a civilian non- industrial capacity is in the neighbourhood of 40,000, while an additional 25,000 are engaged in public transport services.

The main factor affecting employment in 1956 was the continued expansion of local industry, with a consequent increase in the number of factories. The number of officially registered and recorded industrial undertakings rose by 394, or 13.5%, to 3,319, while the number of factory workers increased by 13.4% to 146,877. There was a corresponding increase in the number of outworkers in registered under- takings and in the industrial fringe, which consists of concerns, including cottage industries, too small to be liable to registration.

38

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

In spite of the acute shortage of land suitable for industrial development, industry continued to expand at a rapid pace, and although 380 premises were closed down, or ceased to operate, there was, as mentioned above, a net increase of 394 registered and recorded industrial undertakings, and a net increase of 17,412 workers, of whom 7,542 were women. The sale of a number of sites at the end of the year in the new industrial area at Kun Tong, with more sales following in 1957, should assist in accelerating the rate of industrial development.

The manufacture of textiles, with 42,254 workers, remains the principal source of industrial employment. The textile industry together with the manufacture of metalware (26,062 workers), shipbuilding and repairing (12,859 workers), and the manufacture of wearing apparel and made-up textile goods (10,342 workers) provide employment for 62% of all registered industrial workers. The expansion of industry and industrial employment over the past three years has been as follows:

Industrial

Male

Female

Total

Year

Undertakings

Workers

Workers

Workers

1954

2,494

72,011

43,442

115,453

1955

2,925

82,573

47,892

129,465

1956

3,319

92,443

55,434

146,877

A similar table showing the development over the same period of industry by main industrial groups, and by selected industries within certain of these groups is at Appendix II.

Unemployment. The absence of general employment. statistics precludes anything but estimates on the broadest basis concerning unemployment and under-employment. Although the growth of industry and the sustained high level of building activity kept large numbers employed, and skilled workers found their services in demand, there was a large surplus of unskilled labour, most of it in the under- employed category.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

39

There were fluctuations in employment in various indus- tries, but reduced employment in any particular field was offset by increased employment in another. Changes of this kind do not necessarily imply any lengthy period of un- employment for individual workers, since the majority of semi-skilled and unskilled workers are adaptable and are capable of turning their hands, for example, from weaving or garment-making to assembly work in a metalware factory or gumming in a rubber shoe factory.

Migration for employment in other territories continues, unfortunately, to take place on a small scale, owing to immigration restrictions based on unwillingness to accept Chinese as permanent settlers. During the year a small number of workers left permanently to join relatives in the United States, Canada, South America, the Philippines and Malaya. Employment contracts rose to 2,201, compared with 1,717 in the previous year. Skilled workmen from the Colony are much in demand in the Brunei oilfields and in government construction works in Brunei and elsewhere. Local textile and enamelware factories sent skilled hands to develop connected enterprises in Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, the Philippines and Argentina.

LIBR

WAGES AND CONDITIONS

Wages. After the announcement in May of pay increases for industrial workers in the Royal Naval Dockyard, as well as in the other two Services, the managements of the Taikoo and Hong Kong and Whampoa Dockyards announced with effect from 1st July an overall wage increase of from 15% to 20%. Similar increases were also made in certain other European-operated industrial establishments, whilst Govern- ment daily-rated workers were granted increases in July as follows:-9 cents per hour in basic rates for skilled artisans and 6 cents per hour for apprentices, with intermediate rates for the other grades.

40

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

During the year wages of workers in building construction and engineering also rose, mainly because of increasing demand for labour as a result of the continuing building boom, the airport extension and other major construction projects. The increasing number of new factories requiring labour was another factor in preventing any decline in wages. The average wage range for daily-rated workers was:

skilled workmen

semi-skilled workmen

unskilled workmen

$7.00 to $12.00 a day

$5.00 to $ 8.00

$3.00 to $ 6.00

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Except in the category of skilled workmen, these rates were higher than those for the previous year, the main reason being that with the introduction of modern machinery many operators carried greater responsibility and achieved higher output. Some highly skilled workers received from $15.00 to $18.00 a day. In large sections of industry piece-rates are common, both men and women receiving the same rates. Pay for learners in trades where a short period of in-plant training is necessary is frequently below the unskilled rates quoted above.

Overtime rates for manual workers vary between time-and- a-quarter and double-time, but time-and-a-half is the most usual. A bonus of one month's wages is paid at Chinese New Year in many concerns.

Some firms provide free food and accommodation for their regular employees. Other concerns operate canteens for all their workers, at which food and articles of common con- sumption are supplied at subsidized rates, thus giving their staff partial protection against rises in the cost of living. The Government, most European concerns, and some Chinese employers whose businesses are run on Western lines pay instead a basic wage, together with a variable cost of living allowance to compensate for price fluctuations. The allow- ances paid are based on the Retail Price Index, compiled

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

41

and published monthly by the Commerce and Industry Department.

Working Hours. Some Chinese concerns have a 7-day working week, and this is sometimes coupled with a 9-hour day. (These long hours are favoured by the workers, con- cerned, since their earnings are correspondingly greater.) Some of the more enlightened employers give a day off in every seven, and though the holiday is not paid, a day's wage as bonus is given if there has been no absence during the week. Hours of work for women and young persons are regulated by law in conformity with I.L.O. conventions.

The 48-hour week is standard in European undertakings and in Chinese concerns run on Western lines. In public utilities and in some of the cotton spinning and weaving mills, a system of three 8-hour shifts is used. The rest day is usually Sunday, except in concerns where continuous production must be maintained and rest days are accordingly arranged in rotation.

Cost of Living. In general, there was little change in cost of living during the year, apart from that caused by normal seasonal fluctuations in the price of certain foodstuffs. The price of rice remained relatively steady. The table below shows the fluctuations which occurred in the two officially published indices. The Food and Fuel Index is based on the prices of specific quantities of ten items of common consumption. The Retail Price Index covers a wider range of commodities and services, and is weighted according to a budgetary survey carried out in 1948. The base of 100 is for March 1947, and although the expenditure pattern used for weighting is that of the artisan and white collar worker, the Index gives a fair reflection of general changes in the cost of living. An independent survey of workers' budgets carried out by Mr. E. F. Szczepanik, Lecturer in Economics in the University of Hong Kong, in December 1955, tended to confirm the accuracy of the original survey.

42

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Food and Fuel

Index

Retail Price

Index

January

$12.6285

114

February

$12.5948

114

March

$12.6002

113

April

$12,6492

114

May

$12.7316

115

June

$12.6970

117

July

$13.0745

120

August

$13.0992

122

September

$13.4262

125

October

$13.4262

125

November

$13.2685

122

December

$12.7570

120

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

The Government's responsibilities in labour matters are dealt with by the Labour Department and the Registry of Trade Unions.

Labour Department. The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to Government on all matters connected with labour and industrial relations. He is ex-officio Chair- man of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both employers and employed are represented, and which is consulted on all legislative measures affecting labour. The Commissioner is also an ex-officio member of the Port Committee, and is concurrently Commissioner of Mines. The duties which he formerly discharged in connexion with the registration of trade unions are now undertaken by the Registrar of Trade Unions, who administers a separate department for this

purpose.

The Labour Department is responsible for the initial pre- paration of all labour legislation, and keeps under review the legislative and administrative arrangements for giving effect to the Colony's obligations under I. L. O. conventions. It carries out the registration and inspection of industrial under- takings, to ensure, in particular, safe and healthy conditions

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

43

of work. It acts as a channel of conciliation in disputes between trade unions and employers, and individual workmen and employers. It provides advice and assistance to trade unions in the management of their affairs, including the organization of classes on various aspects of trade unionism; seeks to encourage joint consultation in industry; and advises on the establishment of appropriate machinery for this purpose. It is responsible for the protection of women and young persons employed in industry in compliance, in particular, with internationally accepted restrictions on their working hours. It protects emigrant workers; and administers the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, primarily by inves- tigations conducted by a staff of trained labour inspectors. It carries out surveys of wage rates and levels, and conditions of employment; and is responsible for ensuring that publicity is given to the major provisions of the legislation with which the Department is concerned.

The Department is represented on interdepartmental com- mittees on industrial development, and on various other committees in the fields of welfare and vocational training. During 1956 it moved into new offices in the Central District of Hong Kong. There is also a branch office in Kowloon which facilitates inspections of industrial areas in Kowloon and the New Territories.

The Registry of Trade Unions, which was established as a separate department in December 1954, is now responsible for the registration work formerly carried out by the Labour Department under the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, 1948. It deals with applications for registration by new trade unions, and for registration of alterations of rules or of change of name or amalgamation by registered unions, and with dissolutions. Registered trade unions are also required by the Ordinance to transmit to the Registrar annual returns before 1st June and their audited accounts within one month of presentation to members.

44

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

I

During the year 33 unions were prosecuted for sending in their annual returns late. The year ended with 304 unions on the register, as against 300 in December 1955. Nine new organizations were registered (8 of workers and 1 of em- ployers) but five (3 of workers and 2 of employers) were removed from the register. Four of these unions had ceased to exist; the registration of the other union was cancelled for violation of the Ordinance. The 304 unions consisted of 232 workers' unions, 69 organizations of merchants and employ- ers, and 3 mixed organizations of employers and workers.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Labour Organization. Most of the trade unions in the Colony continue to be affected by political considerations. Except for a small number of independent unions, they support either the Chinese People's Republic or the Nation- alist régime in Taiwan.

The Federation of Trade Unions, supporting the Com- munist régime in Mainland China, continues to maintain its. policy of providing welfare benefits, not only to members of its affiliated unions but to all workers willing to accept them. During the year an increased number of unions affiliated themselves to the F.T.U., whose strength has consequently

grown.

The principal activities in 1956 of the Trades Union Council, supporting the Nationalist régime in Taiwan, were in the propaganda field. The Council remains affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, but does not play an active part within that body.

Whilst the number of unions affiliated to the F.T.U. is considerably lower than the number affiliated to the T.U.C., the declared membership and approximate paying member- ship of unions under the former body is nearly twice that of unions under the latter.

During the riots at the time of the 'Double Tenth' cele- brations in October the premises of some left-wing unions

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Roy Tsang

The 14th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, which is organized each winter by the Chinese Manufacturers Union, has been seen this year by over 1,000,000 people. The Exhibition's gay decorations by day and by night have become an established feature of the waterfront scene at Christmas.

#

E

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IES

Panoramic view

view of the Causeway Bay district. The public from the sea and opened during the year. When the park is standards, work on which commenced during 1956. In the Yacht Club, and behind the Island, Jardine Matheson's godowns,

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Panoramic view of the Causeway Bay district. The public from the sea and opened during the year. When the park is standards, work on

1956. In the which commenced during 1956. Yacht Club, and behind the Island, Jardine Matheson's godowns,

recreation ground (centre), known as Victoria Park, was reclaimed completed it will include a swimming pool built to Olympic foreground is Kellett Island, headquarters of the Royal Hong Kong where the noon-day gun is fired daily throughout the year.

R.A.F. Photo

العامة.

HC

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

recreation ground (centre), known as Victoria Park, was reclaimed completed it will include a swimming pool built to Olympic oreground is Kellett Island, headquarters of the Royal Hong Kong where the noon-day gun is fired daily throughout the year.

R

R.A.F. Photo

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Taikoo Dockyard

In October the Fire Boat "Alexander Grantham" played a major part in quelling the fire aboard the s.s. "Ala" which first asked for assistance when 50 miles from the Colony. The crew of 33 were rescued by the U.S. Navy, and the ship itself was towed to Hong Kong waters where the fire was finally put out. In December the Annual Parade and Review by H. E. the Governor of the Hong Kong Police Force was held at the Government Stadium. A detachment of the Marine Police pass the saluting base.

Police Photo

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OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

45

were damaged and several of their members were killed or injured. As was stated in the recently published Report on the Riots, it appears that in Tsuen Wan in particular officials and members of a small number of right-wing unions were involved with triad society members and gangsters in the attacks.

The independent unions are few and mostly small in membership, and several of them are undecided as to where their interests should lie. Some of them, however, such as those for teachers and certain white collar workers, have shown signs of genuine trade union activity in the interests of their members.

Trade union educational work organized by the trade union section of the Labour Department, whilst not entirely effec- tive-indeed, it can never be so unless properly organized by the trade union movement itself,-made progress, parti- cularly concerning trade union accountancy. In conjunction with the Education Department a series of lectures and discussions on trade union subjects were also organized for teachers of civics to give them background knowledge of the trade union movement. In addition, during the year six series of classes on different subjects were held, which were attended by a total of just over 250 members from 37 different unions.

Joint Consultation. The use of joint consultation machinery in industrial concerns is not common, a notable exception being the Hong Kong Tramways Ltd., in which a committee has worked successfully since the end of 1955. Many employers are reluctant to experiment in this field, while in most industrial undertakings the workers lack the experience and organization to press effectively for the establishment of joint consultative committees. It is hoped, however, that with the further training of workers and trade union officials, a better understanding of the advantages and responsibilities of joint consultation may be obtained.

46

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Labour Disputes and Stoppages. There were 10 strikes and 3 lockouts during 1956, resulting in the loss of 30,052 man-days, about 10% lower than the loss of man-days in 1955 and well below the post-war average figure of 135,155.

The principal causes of strikes were demands for better terms of service and dismissals due to redundancy or dis- cipline. Only one of the strikes was successful. The others failed, the employees in some cases losing their jobs when new recruits were engaged. One of the lockouts was un- successful, the employer finally accepting the workers' terms. Details of some of the more important disputes follow: The Barrel-Making Trade. The growing use of metal canisters instead of wooden barrels has led over a period of years to a fall in production in this trade; there were 22 establishments in 1940 compared with 9 now. The workers, numbering 123, in the Hong Kong and Kowloon Barrel Workers' Union sought a collective agreement from the employers to cover wages, holidays, apprenticeship, over- time and outwork, and the replacement of workmen on leave from a pool of those out of employment. After a number of meetings in the Labour Department, an acceptable com- promise was reached on all points but the last. In June the union called a strike. Certain packers (e.g. of ginger) negotiated with some of the workers for work to be carried out on a piece-rate basis, while most of the employers recruited and trained new workers. The unemployed then started 'co-operatives' of their own and made barrels in competition with the employers. It became clear that it was a strike in name only, and the small number of genuine unemployed soon found other casual work. Towards the end of the summer new union officials were elected, and these decided to bring their dispute to an end by not pressing for any of the original demands, provided the employers would take back those workers who had had to seek employ- ment outside the trade. The employers refused to do even

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

47

this, and the dispute concluded with some 20 of the former workers having been displaced by new trainees.

Cheoy Lee Shipyard. Following the revision of wages in the two European-managed dockyards in July, members of the Kowloon Dock Amalgamated Workers' Union and other left-wing unions employed in the Cheoy Lee Shipyard, which is next in size to the two major dockyards, also demanded wage increases in spite of the fact that their wages had throughout been higher than in the other two dockyards. The management refused to recognize the five workers who lodged the demands as representative of the whole body of workers, and 'go-slow' tactics were adopted in certain sections of the yard. At the end of August 87 workers taking part in the 'go-slow' action were laid off on grounds of redundancy. On 1st September agitators brought work to a complete standstill by throwing stones and metal scrap at those who had ignored exhortations to stop work. The management countered with a lockout, registered those will- ing to work on their existing terms and evaded the pickets by bringing their workers in by sea. New workers were engaged to bring numbers up to the original strength of 900. About 200 of the left-wing workers became unemployed as a result of the dispute and have since asked their respective unions to find other employment for them. During the dispute, the unemployed workers paid comfort visits and distributed propaganda leaflets to those at work in the yard, a reversal of the usual process. It is of interest that the wages paid in this yard are higher than in any other yard in the Colony. The demand for higher wages was due to the fact that the union backing it had already obtained an increase from the management of the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co. and its members employed in the Cheoy Lee yard considered that they should also receive an increase.

Lea Tai Textiles Co. Ltd. At the end of August this mill found itself in difficulties, and the management wished to curtail production and work two shifts out of three, the

48

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

surplus workers working on a rotation basis. Left and right wing workers combined to demand the payment of a food allowance of $1.50 a day to those who were not working. The management made counter proposals to increase time worked on each shift from 8 to 11 hours, which was the practice when the mill first started, with redundant workers either being paid off or kept on rotation. This was rejected by the workers who considered it a retrograde step. Before further negotiations could take place, confusion caused inside the mill by the inter-mixing of yarn of various counts, probably deliberately, forced the management to suspend operations on 4th September. The supply of food was continued for a few days, but was finally stopped. The workers of both left and right wing factions managed to arouse considerable support from other trade unions and from other organizations. Attempts were made by first one faction and then the other to approach the management for further negotiation. Finally, one month after the suspension, the management agreed to resume work on the original eight- hour shift basis and to pay a small subsidy to cover the cost of food consumed by the workers during the initial stages of the dispute. Lin Ma Hang Mines. Heavy rains in June destroyed the access road to this lead mine and curtailed operations. When the Wing Lee Construction Co., which was engaged in the repair of the road, offered a higher wage to its workers than that paid by the mine, it attracted a considerable number of miners. The mine manager protested to the construction company, which dismissed the men concerned. These men, feeling unjustly treated, brought out the remainder of the men at the mine on strike. After a series of meetings at which no agreement could be reached the District Commissioner, New Territories, personally intervened and a number of miners resumed work on a piece-rate basis under the direction of the local village elder. Relations between the management and the miners, however, remained uneasy at the end of the

year.

R

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

49

Minor Disputes. The number of minor disputes dealt with by the Labour Department during the year was 1048, a drop of some 15% compared with the figure for 1955. This decline is partly a reflection of reluctance on the part of workers in general to take any action which may jeopardize their employment.

LEGISLATION

In January the Workmen's Compensation (Exception of Prisoners) Order, 1956, was made to clarify the status of prisoners under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance. In June the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (Amendment of Second Schedule) Order, 1956, was made in order to ensure effective control, under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, of any industrial under- taking in which X-ray or radio-active substances are used. for industrial purposes. In July the Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Amendment) Regulations, 1956, were intro- duced in order to apply certain of the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Regulations to building and engineering con- struction sites. In September the Workmen's Compensation (Rules of Court) (Amendment) Rules, 1956, were made in order to abolish, under the Workmen's Compensation Ordin- ance, all Court fees relating to workmen's compensation claims and awards, and their enforcement.

Further progress was made with the Trade Unions Regis- tration Bill, and with draft legislation on apprenticeship and on the inspection and control of pressure vessels.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

Factory Registration and Inspection. Factory registration and inspection is undertaken by the Labour Department to ensure proper standards of industrial health and safety. During the year 507 applications for registration were received and 488 registration certificates were issued; 12 were refused, the premises being closed down; and 80 applications

50

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

for registration were withdrawn. 176 factories found operat- ing in unsuitable buildings were closed down, and 192 registration certificates were surrendered for cancellation, the premises for which they were issued having ceased to be used as factories. At the end of 1956 there were 2,275 places of employment registered under the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, and 652 in course of registration. These figures do not include 392 recorded establishments, which are premises not registrable under the Ordinance but kept under observation by the inspectorate; nor do they include the numerous small industrial premises which are subject to inspection to ensure compliance with provisions relating to the employment of women and young persons.

و

A total of 17,122 visits were made by the labour inspector- ate during the year. Of these, 1016 were concerned with industrial or occupational accidents and workmen's com- pensation; 756 were night visits to industrial premises in connexion with the employment of women and young persons during prohibited hours; 109 were wage inquiries; 424 were connected with the employment of young persons; and 14,817 were routine inspections for the enforcement of safety, health and welfare provisions.

Industrial Health. The Industrial Health Officer, appoint- ed to the Department in 1955, was available for full time duties from April 1956, when a special Section was organized for industrial health work, which expanded steadily during the year. The Industrial Health Officer, assisted by a labour inspector specializing in health matters, maintains an office in the Department but, in addition, uses part of the Govern- ment Chemical Laboratory for the analysis of samples. Much of his time during the year has been spent in obtaining and designing equipment.

As there is no system of notification of industrial diseases, few cases have come to light. Cases discovered have been investigated and, where necessary, surveys have been made

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

51

of the industries concerned. Surveys have also been made of industries known to be hazardous, without waiting for cases of illness to come to light. Recommendations for the improve- ment of working conditions are made where necessary. The major surveys carried out during the year were of the luminising industry (radio-active substances), of type-foun- dries (lead poisoning) and of quarries (silicosis). Other smaller surveys have been conducted and advice has been given in individual cases.

Another matter to which attention has been paid during the year is the improvement of medical facilities in industry. A scheme for the medical supervision, by private doctors under the direction of the Industrial Health Officer, of certain women supervisors working at night in spinning and weaving factories has been brought into force.

As a first step towards raising the standard of first aid training in factories a course of first aid lectures for factory workers was arranged with the aid of St. John Ambulance Association and the Employers' Federation.

Industrial Accidents. 4,528 industrial and occupational accidents (97 fatal) involving 4,601 persons were reported and investigated. This is 1,462 (12 fatal) more than last year. Of the total, 2,340 (33 fatal) were in registrable workplaces. The increase is due mostly to an increase in the reporting of minor accidents under the Factories and Industrial Under- takings Ordinance, 1955, which requires that every accident, as a result of which the employed person is incapable of per- forming his ordinary work for one day or more, be reported. Additional reasons are increased reporting of accidents under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, and increased industrial activity in the Colony involving the employment of more workers, many of whom are new to industry.

Welfare. Every registrable workplace must supply first-aid equipment and drinking water, and all plans for new factory buildings must include provision for dining or rest rooms.

!

52

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

An increasing number of employers, however, accepting the provision of welfare facilities as part of the responsibility of management, go a good deal further than the bare minimum. Some provide additional benefits such as subsidized meals, free cooking facilities or canteens run on a non-profit-making basis, small stores with goods at controlled prices and free medical attention for workers, facilities which are in certain cases extended to their families as well. Free quarters or more commonly dormitory accommodation are sometimes provid- ed, and during the year two more firms have established housing projects for workers and their families. Smaller concerns often cannot afford such measures, but it is worth mentioning that normally even in the smallest factory a constant supply of tea or boiled water is available.

Some establishments organize picnic excursions, and stage and cinema shows. During the past year several firms have taken advantage of the Workers' Playtime Programme organized by Radio Hong Kong. Some employers arrange for free or subsidized schooling for workers' children and free classes for adults. Larger establishments have provided sports grounds and indoor recreation such as table tennis. Two old established firms have for some years had a welfare officer and welfare department; several firms have appointed one of their staff to take charge of personnel matters. One other firm has more recently appointed a Chinese woman as full time Personnel Officer.

Workmen's Compensation. The Workmen's Compensa- tion Ordinance, which was enacted in December 1953 and lays down minimum rates of compensation payable to work- men for injuries received in the course of their work, is now operating, on the whole, reasonably satisfactorily. Both employers and workers are becoming more familiar with its provisions. One amendment to the Ordinance made during the year is mentioned in the section on Legislation. Ex- perience has shown, however, that some further amendments

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

53

to the Ordinance may be desirable, and these are at present being studied.

During the year 4,627 non-fatal and fatal accident cases were dealt with, and a total of $1,362,317 was paid as com- pensation.

Industrial Training. Craft apprenticeship within the Government service is provided by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, the Public Works Department in its electrical, mechanical and waterworks branches, the Stores Department in its workshops, and by the Printing Department. Vocation- al training classes for coxswains and engineers are operated by the Marine Department for government employees, and by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry for fishermen.

A second group of apprentices started work in September in the Public Works Department and the Kowloon-Canton Railway under the new scheme of recruitment and training which was introduced in 1955. Apprentices are selected by means of examination and interviews; they are required to sign indentures, and attendance at supplementary technical classes is compulsory; the boys are released from the work- shop one whole day a week to attend classes at the Hong Kong Technical College and, in their own time attend classes two evenings a week.

IB

Apprenticeship training schemes are operated by H.M. Dockyard, the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co., Ltd., the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co., Ltd., by the public utilities, and by a number of other European and Chinese firms. Encouragement is given by these concerns to apprentices to attend technical classes, and financial help towards fees is very often given. Some large spinning and weaving mills have apprenticeship schemes for mechanics or junior engineers; in certain cases recruitment is by com- petitive examination and the mills provide classes on their own premises in both technical and general educational subjects.

54

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

There is a Standing Committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training, appointed in 1954, which met three times during the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

Although farming and fishing are the two principal occupations in the New Territories, the pattern of country life has been modified by factors common to other maritime areas of South China. Even before the New Territories became part of the Colony, Hong Kong's influence as a growing commercial city had begun to attract young men away from their villages in search of work either in town or overseas. Lamma Island, close to Hong Kong, was the first place to be affected, many of its young men becoming sea- men in British ships. In the first decade of this century many Hakka youngsters migrated to the West Indies, principally from the Sai Kung, Hang Hau and Sha Tau Kok areas. The Tung Chung valley, on Lantao Island, is another area from which large numbers have gone abroad as seamen or to settle in other countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. The villages adjoining the northern border, notably San Tin and Lo Wu, provide the cooks and waiters for many Chinese restaurants in European ports.

Remittances from family members abroad or working in the urban area of the Colony thus came by the 'thirties to form a significant item in the economy of most New Terri- tories villages. In one or two instances they were even the largest single item in the economy of a village. One obvious result of the reduction in the farming population, following this movement abroad, was that hilly land formerly under cultivation was neglected, sea-walls and dykes protecting fields near the sea were not properly repaired, and agriculture became confined in some parts to the more easily accessible and well-watered areas. Agriculture furthermore became largely an occupation for women, the younger and able- bodied men going abroad to earn their living.

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

55

A sharp change occurred after the war. While the natural rate of rural population increase rose steeply, China coast shipping, due to international restrictions on trade with China, declined sharply, throwing many former seamen out of work. Less favourable conditions in the West Indies cut off emigration opportunities. Younger men, who would nor- mally be reaching the age to follow in their fathers' footsteps and go to sea or to settle abroad, had to stay in their villages. At the same time there was a reflux of former emigrants from the West Indies, and even from urban Hong Kong. Quite suddenly, the land was insufficient to maintain its own population. The long-neglected higher terraces and coastal fields had by this time been lost-the former by erosion, the latter by invasion of the sea,-and, in general, to repair the damage was beyond village resources.

Gradual progress is now being made, with Government assistance and encouragement, in repairing these several decades of neglect, and agriculture, which had formerly been sinking into a subsidiary to other more exciting and profitable jobs, is gradually regaining its proper importance.

The main crop is rice, grown in all the valleys and, wherever possible, on irrigated hill terraces. New Territories rice includes some varieties of a very high standard, and it is the general practice of villagers to take their own rice to town and barter it for a larger quantity of cheap imported rice, of lower quality, for their own use. Where sufficient water is available, the fields are made to produce two rice crops per year, but in salty land, and where no water can be stored in winter, only one crop (the second) can be grown. The principal winter crop is sweet potatoes, but wherever there is quick transport to town and a sufficient supply of fertilizer, there is an increasing tendency for green vege- tables to be grown. These include most of the best-known European summer vegetables, the season for which in Hong Kong is the winter.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Pig-breeding is an important source of livelihood in most villages, and, particularly in hilly areas, there are good herds of the local humped cattle, for beef and draft, but not for milk. Cut grass also has commercial value, principally for breaming (applying fire to ships' hulls to cleanse them from slime, weeds, etc., a process which, in the case of fishing junks, is undertaken about ten times a year), and in villages which are within easy range of fishing-towns grass is col- lected, chiefly by women, and transported to town on foot or in small family-owned boats. Almost all coastal villages own small boats or sampans, used for transport and inshore fishing, the latter being exclusively a man's job.

Certain occupations are traditionally followed by different sections of the rural community. The Deep Bay oyster fish- ing, for example, is a Cantonese occupation, while beancurd manufacture and stone quarrying are Hakka occupations.

The Tanka, and those Hoklo who have not settled per- manently ashore (see Population Chapter), live entirely by fishing. The largest boats, suitable for deep-sea fishing, are Tanka, the boats being generally owned by women. Hakka boats are used principally for transport on the eastern side of the New Territories; they are stoutly built, single-masted, with hulls high out of the water along their whole length. Hoklo boats lie lower in the water, high in the stern; whether sailed or rowed they conform to the same basic design, and are the fastest of the inshore boats used.

The Tsuen Wan area has been affected more than any other part of the New Territories by the growth of industries in the Colony during the past ten years; Tsuen Wan having developed during this time from a group of old-fashioned villages into a rapidly enlarging industrial and market town. New Territories people have not, however, been much attracted by factory work (or sought after by employers), and most of the labour engaged is from Hong Kong and Kowloon, together with an element of Shanghai refugee labour. A welcome exception is at Sham Tseng, where a large

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

57

number of local village girls have been employed. The large iron mine situated in the hills beneath the peak of Ma On Shan employs almost entirely immigrant labour from North China. Other smaller mines employ local labour.

The industries more truly typical of the New Territories are the operation of salt pans, the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, beancurd, soya sauce and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick manufacture, shipbuilding and repairing, stone quarrying and leather manufacture. On Ping Chau, in the Southern District, there is a match factory, for which, as a sideline occupation, villagers on neighbouring islands make hand-prepared match-boxes. In all the fishing towns a substantial section of the land population earns a livelihood by providing restaurants and shops, chiefly used by the floating popula- tion.

Ka

LIC LIBRAR

Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation

Revenue and Expenditure figures since 1st April, 1953, are

as follows:

1953-4

1954-5

1955-6

Revenue

Expenditure $

$

396,881,967 355,407,771 41,474,196

434,452,321 373,343,609 61,108,712

Surplus $

454,720,189 402,463,642 52,256,547

Deficit

1956-7 (Estimated)

...

449,937,080 493,263,090 43,326,010

On 31st March, 1956, the General Revenue Balance and the Revenue Equalization Fund stood at $311,436,145 and $137,614,761 respectively. A statement showing the assets and liabilities of the Colony at that date is at Appendix III.

Revenue for 1955-6 exceeded the estimate by $41,039,189. The largest excess was that under Revenue Head 1, Duties, with an excess of $11,180,789, of which import duty on hydrocarbon oils ($4,551,407) tobacco ($3,356,960) and duty on locally manufactured liquor ($1,813,288) provided the major share. Another large excess was on stamp duties (a sub-head under Revenue Head 3, Internal Revenue) with a surplus of $6,895,084 over the estimate, due mainly to increased activity in the property market. The next largest increase was under Revenue Head 2, Rates, with excesses for Hong Kong and Kowloon of $3,393,079 and $2,526,728 respectively. Large excesses were registered under Revenue Head 9, Revenue from Lands, Rents, etc. There was a surplus of $4,686,398 under the sub-head Interest, derived from increased sterling investments and from the higher interest rates on surplus funds deposited locally and in the United Kingdom. Under Revenue Head 10, Miscellaneous Receipts, there were increases of $3,224,426 from Royalty

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

59

payments and $1,007,201 under the sub-head, other Mis- cellaneous Receipts. Under Revenue Head 11, Land Sales, chiefly in Kowloon and New Kowloon, there were increases amounting to $3,772,251 and $1,019,261 respectively. Details of the main heads of Revenue are given in Appendix IV.

Expenditure for 1955-6 fell short of the estimate by $46,582,308. The total saving effected under various heads was $67,039,777, this being offset by excesses of $20,457,469 under others. Details of the main heads of Expenditure are given in Appendix V.

The largest excess over the estimate, amounting to $16,299,543, came under Head 19, Miscellaneous Services. This was mainly accounted for by an additional contribution of $10,162,005, to, the Development Fund, the reimburse- ment of $3,437,995 to the Development Fund of penditure incurred on the Hong Kong Stadium, and the payment of $1,054,477 being the balance due on arrears of salary arising from the 1953 Salaries Revision.

Development Fund expenditure incurred during the finan- cial year 1955-6 was $16,531,208, and on 31st March, 1956, totalled $22,124,708 since the inception of the Fund.

The Public Debt of the Colony on 31st March, as follows:

Of

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1934)

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1940)

LIBRA

was

D

$ 2,040,000

4,715,000

31% Rehabilitation Loan (raised in 1947-8)

46,666,000

$53,421,000

The two Dollar Loans are each redeemable by twenty-five annual drawings, and the Rehabilitation Loan is covered by a Sinking Fund which on 31st March, 1956, stood at $13,098,541, this being the market value of the sterling investments held on behalf of the Fund.

Loans from Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom amounted at the end of the financial year 1955-6

60

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

to $9,837, 120. Of this sum, $9,333,120 is the amount received up to 31st March, 1956, against the $48,000,000 loan which has been promised by Her Majesty's Government in con- nexion with the development of Kai Tak Airport. The other loan, amounting to $504,000, is made under Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme D. 1967-Loans to Fisher- men for Mechanization of Craft. Of this $490,066 has already been issued to fishermen. Details of Colonial Development and Welfare grants and loans are given at Appendix I.

TAXATION

Earnings and Profits Tax, which takes the place of the more orthodox type of income tax, was first imposed by the Inland Revenue Ordinance (Cap. 112) in 1947. It falls into four separate taxes. In each case the amount levied is limited to tax on specified income or profits arising in, or derived from, the Colony. The standard rate of tax for the 1956/57 year of assessment is 12%, a rate which has remained un- changed since 1950-1.

The four separate taxes are:

(1) Profits Tax (sub-divided into a Corporation Profits Tax and a Business Profits Tax), charged at the standard rate on all companies or businesses operating in the Colony. In the case of unincorporated businesses, no tax is payable provided profits do not exceed $7,000. Otherwise tax is payable in full on all Hong Kong profits.

(2) Salaries Tax, charged on all individuals in receipt of income from employment. This is charged at graduated rates, ranging from one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of net chargeable income, to double the standard rate on net chargeable income exceeding $45,000. In arriving at net chargeable income the following allowances are first deducted:

(a) Personal allowance-$7,000. (b) Allowance for wife-$7,000.

Hong Kong's Heavy and Light Industries.

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ES

Taikoo Dockyard

Shipping lines have for years recognized the Colony's first-class facilities both for shipbuilding and for quick and efficient repair work. The majesty of a new vessel taking shape is well illustrated in the above photograph.

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0

PUBLIC

This

Cargo - liner gets

a thorough overhaul in dry dock before resum- - ing its journey to Europe.

Taikoo Dockyard

Heavy lifting equipment

is another feature of the Colony's Dockyards. The vessel being put in- to the water is one of a number of tugs built locally for the Kaitak Air- port principal contractors.

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Taikoo Dockyard

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Hong Kong's cotton mills represent some 300,000 spindles and employ a labour force of about 14,000. Custom tailoring is a business which is now being developed on a large scale particularly for export.

Roy Tsang

Roy Tsang

IBR

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This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

These toy soldiers, which would delight the heart of any small boy, are made in unbreakable plastic and are remarkable for the fine detail of their design. They are hand painted. Flashlight batteries, formerly supplied chiefly to South East Asia, are now being exported to many other parts of the world.

Roy Tsang

Roy Tsang

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PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

61

(c) Child allowance ranging from $2,000 for the first

child to $200 for the ninth child.

The maximum charge, however, is limited to tax at the standard rate on the total assessable income without the deduction of any allowances.

(3) Interest Tax, charged at the standard rate on most interest payments. It is normally collected from the payer of the interest, who deducts it at source from the interest paid.

(4) Property Tax, charged at half the standard rate on the net rateable value of all land and buildings in the Colony (other than in the New Territories).

As an alternative to these separate taxes a resident may elect to be personally assessed on his total Hong Kong in- come. A single assessment is then made by allowing similar allowances and charging similar rates of tax as in the case of the Salaries Tax. A set-off is then allowed for any of the four separate taxes already paid.

Revenue derived from these taxes in the 1955-6 year of assessment was as follows:

Corporation Profits Tax

Business Profits Tax

Salaries Tax

Personal Tax

Interest Tax

Property Tax

$47,205,872.06

21,516,406.94

$68,722,279.00

9,899,117.42

1,528,685.92

2,936,405.62

14,566,062.60

$97,652,550.56

Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines at rates varying between 2% (in the case of estates valued between $5,000 and $10,000) and 52% (in the case of estates valued at over $30,000,000). The total revenue received from this duty dur- ing 1955/56 was $6,639,433.64.

Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845 when an Ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands,

62

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

houses and premises 'for the upholding of the requisite Police Force.' To-day rates are one of the largest revenue- producing items, the revised estimate for 1956-7 being over $56,000,000.

The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a tenement, by which is meant any land or any building or part thereof held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown.

Rates are levied in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, New Kowloon and also in that part of the New Territories adjacent to the main road from Laichikok to Castle Peak. The latter area, which includes the industrial district of Tsuen Wan, was first assessed on a rental basis from 1st April, 1956.

In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are, with a few exceptions, charged at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value, and are payable quarterly in advance: in respect of the New Territories the corresponding charge is II per cent. The valuations are prepared by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation, and demand notes are issued by the Accountant General for payment at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears, but the yield from this has been comparatively small.

го

IMPORT AND EXCISE DUTIES

There is no general tariff, and for most goods Hong Kong remains a free port so far as duties levied upon goods for protection or revenue purposes are concerned. There are, however, five groups of commodities, either imported into or manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, which are treated as sources of revenue and upon which duties are levied under the authority of the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet prepara- tions and proprietary medicines, and table waters.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at between 80% and 87% of the rate for non-Empire liquor. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further preferential

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

63

margin over Empire beer. Rates of duty on different types of liquor range from $1.30 per Imperial gallon on locally- brewed beer to $61 per Imperial gallon for liqueurs and spirits not of Empire origin. On Chinese wine and liquor, the rate is $6 or $7 depending on origin.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges between $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco and $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and manufacture.

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates are $104 per ton for diesel oil for road vehicles, $26 per ton for other diesel oil, $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b. price ex shipping port for imported goods, and 25% of the selling price ex factory for locally produced goods. Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per Imperial gallon.

No dues are levied on exports. Drawback is paid, upon certain conditions, on duty-paid commodities used in process of manufacture or preparation locally, if exported from the Colony. The number of general bonded and licensed ware- houses is adequate.

LIBR

Chapter 5: Currency and Banking

IN 1841, when Hong Kong was founded, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or 'other Republican dollars' were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. Until 1862, however, the Government kept its accounts in sterling, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

A mint producing a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar was set up in 1866, but the new coin was not popular and the mint was closed down two years later, the machinery being sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

By an Order of the Queen in Council dated 2nd February, 1895, a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was authorized to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gave Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and was followed by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Cor- poration. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention

CURRENCY AND BANKING

65

as practically the sole medium of exchange, apart from sub- sidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks-the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China,-the Oriental Bank having closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India having reorganized. In 1911 the reorganized Mercantile Bank of India was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. By the Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender, in exchange for certificates of indebtedness, all silver previously held by them against their note issues. These certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in the form of sterling and operates in a similar manner to the normal Colonial Currency Board. The Ordinance also made the banknotes legal tender. At the same time the Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation; these are backed by a Note Security Fund, which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins. to the value of 5¢, 10¢ and 50¢.

Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1/3d. sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

66

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December,

1956, was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Subsidiary notes and coin

731,705,375

33,391,500

18,161,453

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications necessitated by the posi- tion of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

#

The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor in Council to do so, and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1956 there were 86 licensed banks, of which 32 were authorized wholly or partially to deal in foreign exchange. A list of these latter is given in Appendix VI. Some of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities to the public. Interbank transactions are facilitated by a clearing house association with 51 members. Monthly clearings in 1956 averaged $1,263,501,490.

There are no licensed banks in the New Territories, although there are several towns of a size which in England would have one or more banks. Safe custody for cash is provided by the larger shops; for other banking business it is necessary to travel into Kowloon or Hong Kong.

Chapter 6: Industry and Trade

INDUSTRY

In the last decade the pattern of Hong Kong's economy has radically altered, and industry which, prior to the Second World War, was of minor importance, has now assumed a major role.

The Colony's first industries were in the nature of services. allied to the development of the port. The earliest was, of course, shipbuilding and repairing. The first locally-built vessel, the 'Celestial', 80 tons, was launched in 1843. Two sugar refineries were established, the first in 1878, the second in 1882, not so much to satisfy the needs of the then small local population, as the requirements of ships' victualling officers. In 1885 a rope factory was started, again primarily to cater for the seafaring trade. A cement factory was trans- ferred to Hong Kong from Macau in 1899.

From time to time there were tentative efforts to set up new industries; a spinning mill was started in 1899 and closed down a few years later. Some industries, however, obtained a firm foothold; in 1902 the manufacture of rattan- ware began and in 1910 the knitting of cotton singlets and vests became established. These, although flourishing, were more or less unnoticed amid the Colony's growing entrepôt activities.

The first real stirrings in industry occurred during the First World War and the following years saw some expan- sion. A weaving factory, operating 30 hand looms, was established in 1922 and in 1927 the first flashlight manufac- tory came into being.

The Ottawa Agreements of 1932, under which Hong Kong products became entitled to Imperial Preference, were the first

1

68

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

real encouragement to local industry, enabling manufacturers to seek wider markets for their goods and attracting new investment. The first years of the Second World War pro- vided additional stimulus, when locally made military and civilian supplies aided the Allied cause. It is estimated that in 1940 there were some 800 factories in the Colony.

Factory rehabilitation, after almost four years of enemy occupation, was rapid, impelled by an acute shortage of con- sumer goods throughout war-scarred South-East Asia. 1948, when the influx of refugees from China reached its peak, was a vital year for local industry. Most of the refugees arrived destitute, but many brought capital and technical skills, both of which found ready employment in Hong Kong.

片區

When the Korean War and resultant embargo on trade in strategic materials with China drastically reduced the volume of Hong Kong's commerce, only industrial expansion could offset the dangers theatening economic stability and provide employment for the greatly swollen and still growing popula- tion. Local industrialists reacted quickly to the new situation, and, despite difficulties in obtaining certain raw material supplies, an increasing volume and range of Hong Kong products from many new and reinvigorated industries began to flow out to world markets.

IB

Today, there are 3,319 registered and recorded factories, employing 146,877 persons in Hong Kong. A detailed break- down of these figures will be found in Appendix II. The vast majority of these concerns are owned and operated by the Colony's Chinese residents. In addition a large number of smaller concerns, mostly pursuing traditional Chinese handi- craft activities, in many cases set up by refugees, employ an estimated 200,000 people.

No special benefits are available to industry by way of income tax or import duty concessions. Apart from a few revenue-producing duties, the Colony is a free port and Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

69

The variety of the goods produced by local industry is considerable, but in general, while the heavier industries, such as shipbuilding, continue to be important, the Colony has become best noted for the price, quality, and range of the products of its light industries. Of importance are cotton piece-goods, cotton yarns, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, cotton and woollen gloves, enamelware, aluminium- ware, torches, torch batteries and bulbs, vacuum flasks, plasticware, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather foot- wear, and rattanware. Among traditional Chinese goods produced, brocade piece-goods, embroideries and drawn- work, crocheted gloves and paper novelties are the best known.

Without doubt there is scope for further industrial develop- ment in the Colony, but certain difficulties have to be faced. Firstly, there is a severe shortage of water, although this will be ameliorated to some extent when the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir is completed. Secondly, there is the lack, in Hong Kong's hilly terrain, of land suitable for industrial purposes. In the past much of the residential and commercial develop- ment has been achieved by the expedient of excavating hill- sides and using the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. This is being done at Kun Tong Reclamation, referred to in Chapter 14, which will provide within the next two or three years some 140 acres of industrial land. In this area industrial sites totalling some 349,000 square feet were sold during 1956.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

Shipbuilding and Repairing. While the majority of the shipbuilding and repair yards are concerned with the smaller types of wooden and steel craft such as ferries, lighters, yachts and launches, the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd. and the Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd. together have an annual new building capacity of 80,000 gross tons. Both are equipped with the most up-to-date

70

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

machinery and have facilities to carry out any major repair work, including the complete rewinding of large motors, the balancing of turbine rotors, electrical repairs on any scale, repairs to sanitary and refrigerating systems, and underwater work.

The Colony possesses six granite dry docks, the largest being 787 ft. overall and 93 ft. 4 ins. wide. There are two stationary hammerhead cranes with a lifting capacity of 150 tons. Other facilities are ocean-going tugs, harbour repair launches, a crane barge equipped with sheer-legs of 40 tons lifting capacity, and foundries capable of handling castings up to 30 tons.

During 1956 the two large shipyards carried out repairs on 1,567 vessels aggregating over 8,250,000 gross tons. Apart from normal repair work, the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock carried out an extensive conversion of an oil tanker into an iron ore carrier within a period of ninety days, salvaged and carried out repairs on a vessel which had gone aground in the Paracels, and granted the facilities of the yard to George Wimpey & Co. Ltd. to build a reinforced concrete pump- house, which was eventually launched, towed across the harbour as a buoyant unit, and sunk in its required position. The Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company launched a number of small vessels and lighters, and are building two cargo vessels of 5,790 gross tons each for the China Naviga- tion Co. Ltd.

Among other shipyards, the Hong Kong Transportation Company completed a £687,500 contract to build 30 oil barges for the Burmese Inland Water Transport Board, and Cheoy Lee Shipyard launched, among other smaller craft, three steel vessels, two of 1,280 tons and one of 800 tons, for Korean interests.

Iron Foundries and Rolling Mills. Other heavy industries represented in Hong Kong are iron foundries and mills rolling iron and steel reinforcing bars and rounds, and brass

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

71

and aluminium strips and sheets. Production is mostly absorbed locally by extensive building projects and the metal products industries, although sizeable quantities of bars and rounds are shipped abroad, principally to Asian territories.

LIGHT INDUSTRIES

Textiles. Since 1948 the textile industry has expanded rapidly to become the Colony's major industry. Spinning of cotton, rayon, silk and woollen yarns, weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing, and the manufacture of all types of garments and textile goods is carried on. 300,000 spindles are operated in the mills, some of which are among the most modern and well-equipped in the world. First class amenities. for workers are generally provided. Counts of yarns range from 10 to 60s, carded and combed, single or multiple threads. Several mills are equipped with the most up-to-date combing plant to improve quality and for spinning yarns of finer counts. Total output of yarns of all counts is about 82 million lbs. each year. Much of the production is utilized by the local weaving industry, but exports are substantial.

Several of the spinning and weaving mills are equipped with modern automatic looms. Sheetings, shirtings, drills, mats, osnaburgs, cellular fabrics, checks and suitings are produced, grey sheetings being the most important single item. Tapes, webbing, lace, and silk and rayon brocade in traditional Chinese designs are also woven.

In the garment-making section of the industry all types of clothing are produced; shirts are the most important, but silk and brocade house-coats and tea gowns, embroidered blouses, underwear and nightwear have a worldwide sale in quality markets.

The knitting mills produce a variety of articles including towels, tee-shirts, singlets, underwear, outerwear, nightwear, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings in silk, cotton and wool.

72

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Enamelware and Other Metal Products. The enamelware and aluminiumware industries concern themselves mainly with the production of household utensils. While all markets are catered for, the enamelware factories have made a speciality of producing the brightly-coloured articles suited to the taste of South-East Asia and Africa.

Other metal products, to cite but a few, are vacuum flasks and jugs, hurricane lanterns, needles, nails, screws, tin cans, metal windows and umbrella ribs.

Electric Torches, Batteries and Bulbs. The high standard of workmanship in the electric torch industry has become well-known, and Hong Kong torches have found their way into almost every country in the world. In addition to the many local brands, 'Ray-O-Vac' and 'Ever-Ready' torches are produced under licence in the Colony on a substantial scale. Other sections of this industry deal with the assembly and manufacture of electrical appliances of all kinds, the assembly of neon lights, radio assembly and repair, and the manufacture of Christmas tree lighting sets and other novelties.

Paints. High quality paints, varnishes and lacquers are produced for local sale and for export. Hong Kong paints are steadily gaining a reputation for quality and durability. The Public Works Department of the Hong Kong Govern- ment is the principal single user.

Foodstuffs and Beverages. Although Hong Kong's pre- served ginger industry is perhaps the best known overseas, the Colony's foodstuff and beverage industry has many varia- tions, including flour and rice milling, bakeries, canning and preserving of fruits, fish products and, vegetables, the manu- facture of soy sauce, gourmet powder, confections, bean curd, fruit juices, soft drinks, Chinese wine, beer and malt.

Products are largely for local consumption but consider- able quantities are exported to South-East Asia.

Tobacco Manufactures. Cigars and cigarettes are manu-

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

73

factured in the Colony, the principal factories being those of the British-American Tobacco Co. (Hong Kong) Ltd., Nan Yang Brothers Tobacco Co. Ltd., the Hong Kong Tobacco Co. Ltd. and the London Tobacco Co. Ltd. The industry uses modern machinery and Hong Kong made cigarettes are comparable in quality with any in the world. Packaging material of a high standard is also made locally. The industry has suffered greatly from the virtual cessation since 1949 of exports of cigarettes to mainland China, the bulk of output being now consumed locally. Quantities of locally produced cigarettes are exported to Macau and the Pacific Islands.

Footwear. The Hong Kong rubber boot and shoe industry has been established since 1932, the range of products in- cluding Wellington boots, plimsolls, beach, sports and house shoes and slippers, mainly for export to traditional markets in the United Kingdom and Canada.

Good quality leather footwear is also manufactured for both local demand and export, principally to Malaya.

Cement. The Green Island Cement Company Ltd. is the sole cement manufacturer in the Colony. All materials, apart from clay and iron ore, are imported. Production is mainly for local use, but a quantity is also exported.

Cordage, Rope and Twine. The requirements of shipping using the port gave rise early to the rope industry, the Hong Kong Rope Manufacturing Company Ltd. with a production capacity of 3,500,000 lbs. a year being one of the Colony's oldest established factories. All types of ropes and hawsers are manufactured from Manila hemp.

Plasticware. This industry, which came into being after the Second World War, produces a very wide variety of small articles, locally-made moulds often being used. Many of the factories are small, using hand-operated moulding equip- ment; a few of the larger establishments have up-to-date extrusion plant. Tooth-brushes, mugs and beakers, combs, coat-hangers, chopsticks, cigarette cases, mahjong sets and

74

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

an almost unlimited range of plastic novelties are produced. Plastic coating of rattan by extrusion, for use by the local rattan industry, is a recent development.

Sugar Refining. The only large scale refinery in the Colony is that of the Taikoo Sugar Refining Company Ltd., which was established in 1884. High grade refined crystals, and granulated and soft sugars are produced from imported raw sugar. Specialities are the making of half cubes, icing, castor and soft brown sugar, and golden syrup in colourful retail packings for domestic use.

Felt Hats. The felt hat industry is mainly concerned with manufacture from imported hoods or imported discarded hats; one factory carries out the entire process of manufacturing from wool. Hong Kong is one of the largest exporters of cheap quality felt hats.

TRADE

The Colony's external trade in 1956 showed a significant expansion, the combined total value of imports and exports increasing by 24.4% compared with that for 1955. The rise in the value figure was reflected in cargo tonnage, which rose from 5,896,367 tons in 1955 to 6,653,088 tons in 1956.

Total exports, including re-exports, rose in value by 26.7% over the previous year. The country showing the largest increase in value was Indonesia, up by 159.3%. Marked increases in the value of exports were also recorded for Japan, Thailand and the United Kingdom. However, exports to China declined by 25.1% to HK$136 million (£8.5 million) the lowest since the war; and to South Korea by 34.9%.

The value of imports exceeded the total for 1955 by 22.8%. China remained the Colony's principal supplier, and Japan was next in importance. Imports from both of these two countries were the largest in value recorded since the war. Considerable increases were also registered in the value of imports from the United Kingdom, the United States and Pakistan. However, imports from India fell in value by 39.1%.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

75

There was a significant drop in the value of imports from the United Kingdom and Europe in December, which is largely due to the closure of the Suez Canal and the re- routing of ships round the Cape.

The rise in the value of imports from the United King- dom was attributable to heavier purchases of base metals, machinery, manufactures of metals, textile yarns and piece- goods. The main commodities accounting for increased ex- ports to the United Kingdom were locally manufactured clothing and cotton piece-goods.

Among imports from China, commodities showing a large increase in value were cotton piece-goods, animal and vege- table oils, non-metallic mineral manufactures, cereals and cereal preparations, and inedible animal and vegetable crude materials. Imports of live animals, chiefly, for food, fell in value by 15.9%. The fall in the value of exports to China was due mainly to reduced purchases of dyeing and tanning materials, chemicals and fertilizers.

The value of imports from Japan increased by HK$284.6 million (£17.8 million), over 50% of which was accounted for by textile yarns and piece-goods alone. Other items showing a large increase in value were base metals and non- electrical machinery. The principal commodities responsible for the rise in the value of exports to Japan, were textile. fibres, ores and metal scrap, mineral fuels and related materials, cereals and cereal preparations, and base metals.

The increase in the value of imports from the United States was attributable mainly to raw cotton, and medicinal and pharmaceutical products. Imports of textile yarns and piece- goods, however, fell in value by 20.7%. Exports of clothing to the United States increased in value by 116.5%.

Although exports to Indonesia during the whole of 1956 rose by 159.3% over the previous year, exports during September to November declined in value to less than 50% of the level for the preceding months, but recovered appreci- ably in December.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The trend of the Colony's trade by value and by volume for the years 1948 to 1956, and the principal sources and destinations of exports in 1956 are illustrated in the diagrams between pp. 76 and 77. Tables showing the value of imports from and exports to the principal countries trading with the Colony, and the main commodities concerned, with comparative figures for 1954 and 1955, are at appendices. VII, VIII, IX and X.

Details of a wide range of Hong Kong products are re- corded separately in the Hong Kong Trade Statistics. The value of these exported during 1956 exceeded the total for 1955 by 7.2%. Separate records are not kept for all items, but the overall total for 1956 is probably over 30% of the Colony's total exports.

The United Kingdom increased her imports by 16.3% over the value for the previous year, and was again the best customer for Hong Kong products. Indonesia replaced Malaya in the second position, exports to this country rising by 39.6%. Malaya reduced her purchases by 14.1% and dropped to third place. A large reduction was also recorded in the value of such exports to Thailand, but exports to British West Africa increased in value by 36.3%.

The diagram facing p. 76 illustrates the principal Hong Kong products exported during the year 1956.

TRADE PROMOTION

Government participation in the promotion of Hong Kong's trade is most evident in the arranging of Colony ex- hibits at trade fairs and the production of trade publicity material, but intervention when the entrepôt trade or export of the Colony's domestic products is threatened by the action of overseas countries continues to be an important function of the Commerce and Industry Department. In the conduct of all these matters the Director of Commerce and Industry is ably assisted by the Trade and Industry Advisory Committee, a committee representative of the Colony's mer- chant and industrial community.

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL HONG KONG PRODUCTS IN 1956.

свад

PAINT

Cotton Piece Goods

Cotton Yarns

and Threads

Cotton Singlets

Enamel

£ Sterling 10,831,696

6,099,243

4,715,854

4,761,025

Ware

Shirts

4,471,935

Electric

Torches

B

3,087,147

Rubber Soled

Canvas Shoes

Preserved Fruits, Ginger

and Jams

Rubber

Footwear

Leather Footwear

Pressure Lamps and Metal Lanterns

Iron and

Steel Bars

Paints, Varnishes, and Enamels

2,463,077

1,547,305

ARIES

1,174,295

1,133,092

1,074,456

915,195

929,239

+

Torch Batteries and Bulbs

919,531

Towels

896,925

Plastic

605,847

Articles

Aluminium

Household

Ware

515,053

:)

Vacuum

Flasks

467,951

ས་

A

$ Million

VALUE OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(In Million H.K. Dollars)

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

R

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

!

Total Imports

Total Exports

Imports from China Exports to China

i

+

0

1948 1949

1950

1951

1952 1953

1954

1955 1956

housand Long Tons

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(In Thousand Long Tons)

6,000

5,500

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

Total Imports

Total Exports

Imports from China Exports to China

0

1948 1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

PRINCIPAL SOURCES AND DESTINATIONS OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1956.

Principal Countries

!

Imports £ Million

Exports

£ Million

CHINA 64.9

8.5

JAPAN 50.7

19.9

UNITED

32.1

18.6

KINGDOM

INDONESIA 3.7

31.3

MALAYA 9.5

23.3

U. S. A. 26.5

7.3

THAILAND 11.6

20.0

INDO CHINA

4.3

8.7

WESTERN

7.4

2.3

GERMANY

SOUTH

0.8

7.8

KOREA

OTHER

73.9

COUNTRIES

TOTAL

52.9

£ 285.4

£ 200.6

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

77

The path of Hong Kong's thriving industry with its un- usual dependence on exports for its major market is not always a smooth one; success in particular overseas markets is apt to invite tariff or other restrictions on imports against which the Colony with its own liberal trade policy is in no position to retaliate, even if it wished to do so. During the year South Africa imposed anti-dumping measures against Hong Kong enamelware, but relaxed them when it was explained that dumping was impossible in the circumstances of Hong Kong. The success which Hong Kong manufac- tured rubber footwear has enjoyed in Western Germany caused its Government to place a discriminatory quota on imports from Hong Kong, but in response to representations the quota was fixed at a fairly high level. Representations have recently been made by the rubber footwear industry in Canada which may end in discriminatory action against Hong Kong. During the year France, which had previously per- mitted the import of Hong Kong manufactured flashlights and bulbs, placed an extremely small quota on the import of these articles. Negotiations to have the quota increased had not borne fruit by the end of the year.

In 1955 the first rumbling of a campaign against the un- restricted import of cotton yarn, grey cloth and shirts from Hong Kong into the United Kingdom were heard, and in 1956 certain trade interests in Lancashire launched a major publicity campaign for the imposition of restrictions against both Hong Kong and Indian products. The United Kingdom Government has refused to raise barriers against this trade.

In May Hong Kong displayed its products for the second time at the Washington State Trade Fair in Seattle and was the largest individual exhibitor. The range of products shown was wider, their quality much better than in 1954, and buyers from Canada and the west coast of the United States showed considerable interest in what was shown.

A comprehensive exhibit was also sent to the Frankfurt International Autumn Trade Fair, the Colony's first venture

78

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of this kind in Continental Europe. A delegation, led by Mr. C. Blaker, M.C., E.D., Chairman of the General Chamber of Commerce, attended the fair; several Hong Kong firms for the first time had their own booths displaying their own particular products; the range and quality of the products of local industry excited encouragingly favourable comment. It is always difficult to assess the benefits of participation in trade fairs, but there was a noticeable increase in West German trade inquiries and trade visitors after the Frankfurt exhibition.

Once again the Chinese Manufacturers' Union held an exhibition in December-the fourteenth in a series which began before the war-designed to show the people of the Colony and overseas buyers the great variety of manufactures in Hong Kong and the progress made in the previous twelve months. The exhibition which took place on the site of the new City Hall was characterized this year by more sophis- ticated stall design, and by improved packaging and presenta- tion of products.

The Trade Promotion Branch of the Commerce and Industry Department, which is responsible for organizing Colony participation in overseas trade fairs, also publishes and distributes overseas a monthly illustrated Trade Bulletin' mainly financed by local advertisers, and special publicity literature for fairs and businessmen. In two years, the Bulletin has established a lively and succinct manner of presentation, and has built up a circulation of 1,500 local and 7,500 overseas readers. A new edition of the department's 'Commerce, Industry and Finance Directory' was prepared in readiness for publication early in 1957.

Possessing almost no raw materials, Hong Kong's claim to originate its manufactures rests on the work done in process- ing imported materials, or their transformation into entirely new products. The Commerce and Industry Department during 1956 augmented its efforts to ensure that goods which it certifies as originating in Hong Kong. warrant such

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

79

certification, a matter particularly important in relation to the imperial preference granted by other Colonial territories for imports from Hong Kong. A number of rulings clearing up points on costings for Certificates of Origin purposes were transmitted to the accountants approved for preparation of imperial preference certificates which are later counter-signed by the department. The inspection staff was augmented and a great number of spot checks were carried out with the object of checking costings and consignments ready for ship- ment. There was one successful prosecution for uttering a forged certificate. These measures were designed to maintain the credit of Government certificates of origin with overseas customs authorities. The Department continued to co-operate closely with these authorities, and its staff had the advantage in 1956 of discussing procedures on the spot with representa- tives of the Malayan and North Borneo Customs administra- tions.

An additional complex of certification procedures arises from the necessity to preserve Hong Kong's trade with the United States in the face of the Foreign Assets Control Regulations, which prohibit the import of a range of prod- ucts, presumed to originate in mainland China unless evidence is advanced to the contrary. Procedures operated by the Department and designed to produce such evidence were somewhat expanded in 1956; exports of 'presumptive' commodities amounted to nearly $65 million; there was a 44% increase in the number of comprehensive certificates issued as compared with 1955.

TRADE CONTROL

During the year import controls were maintained on a quantitative basis over highly strategic materials, but with an easing of restrictions over a large number of minor strategic items to permit importers to hold larger stocks. Export controls over strategic items also remained un- changed, except that reasonable shipments of particular items

80

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of relatively low strategic value were permitted to the China Mainland in cases where the civilian end-use of the com- modities was satisfactorily established.

OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London, administered by a Director and situated in Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, W.C.2, and there is a Hong Kong Sec- tion, under a Representative with the rank of First Secretary, at the British Embassy, Tokyo.

Among Commonwealth countries, India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner, and Canada and Australia by Trade Commissioners. There is also a United Kingdom Trade Commissioner. Consulates-General are maintained by Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Panama, Sweden, Thailand and the United States. Consulates are maintained by Argentina, Korea, Norway, the Philippines, Portugal, Switzerland and Vietnam. The consular representatives of Czechoslovakia, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey, resident in London, and the Israel Trade Commissioner, resident in Bombay, have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Spain and Uruguay have Honorary Consuls resident in Hong Kong. In addition, France, Italy and Thai- land have Trade Commissioners, while Austria has an Honorary Trade Representative and Burma a Trade Repre- sentative, all resident in the Colony.

Chapter 7: Production

LAND TENURE

THE form of land tenure in use in the Colony is leasehold from the Crown. In the early days of the Colony Crown leases were granted for 75, 99, or 999 years. The present practice is for leases to be granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. In the New Territories, in order to coincide with the period of the lease from China, which will expire on 30th June, 1997, Crown leases are conventionally expressed as being for the residue of a term of 75 years from 1st July, 1898, renewable for a further 24 years, less the last three days.

Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsibility of the Director of Public Works, who is con- currently the Building Authority. The Director also controls New Kowloon, which is that part of the New Territories situated immediately north of Boundary Street, Kowloon, and south of the Kowloon hills. The District Commissioner, New Territories, is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. Records of land grants by the Crown and of all private land transactions are kept in the Registrar General's Department (see under Law and Order) for Hong Kong and Kowloon, and in the three District Offices, situated in Kowloon, Tai Po, and Ping Shan, for the whole of the New Territories, with the excep- tion of certain lots which are administered by the Director of Public Works and are usually known as Inland Lots. These cover a large part of New Kowloon. Deeds relating to these are recorded in the Registrar General's Department.

In recent years certain groups of the 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early years, and chiefly affecting

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

land in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Public statements of Government policy in regard to the terms and conditions under which new Crown leases would be granted were made in 1946 and 1949. Terms and conditions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for renewal in rapidly increasing numbers as further categories fall due. During the financial year 1955-6 revenue from renewals of this type of lease was $1,092,608. A further statement in 1952 in- timated that the Government would be prepared to pay ex-gratia compensation for buildings lawfully erected on certain Kowloon lots, the leases of which could not be renewed owing to town planning requirements, and provision is made for possession of such lots to be retained until the land is required by Government.

A particular area concerned is the proposed Yaumati Com- munity Centre in Kowloon between Kansu Street and Public Square Street, indicated on the Town Planning Board's approved plan No. LK2/19. Leases of a number of lots within this proposed Centre have already expired and will not be renewed, but as the implementation of the Community Centre Scheme is of a long term nature, the lessees are per- mitted to remain in occupation for the time being.

The Government's general policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. In certain instances land. required for public utilities is sold by private treaty. Land for schools, clinics, and certain other charitable purposes is usually granted by private treaty at preferential rates, vary- ing from no premium at all up to the current market value.

Revenue obtained during the financial year 1955-6 from the sale of land by auction amounted to $5,570,575, while that arising from sale by private treaty, extensions of area, and grants in exchange was $6,990,659.

Since 1948, with the approval of the Secretary of State, certain grants of land have, as a special measure and under

PRODUCTION

83

certain conditions, been made by private treaty at roughly one-third the market value for the provision of cheap housing, and for workers' and staff quarters. See also the Housing Chapter.

Policy concerning the sale or grant of Crown land is governed not so much by the availability as by the scarcity of all types of land. In order to ensure that available Crown land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant wherein the lessee undertakes to develop the lot up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount of expenditure depending on the location and type of development allowed. In addition to the covenant, leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, in accordance with town planning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent which is, however, relatively low compared with the annual economic value of the land. Until the lessee has fulfilled the building covenant, he is not permitted to sell or mortgage the property; but once he has fulfilled it, he is free of these particular restrictions, except where land has been sold by private treaty at a pref- erential rate. In cases of this type the lessee may not dispose of the property. If he ceases to use it for its authorized purpose, it reverts to the Crown.

Restrictions on development contained in old leases are sometimes found to be outmoded by modern trends, and standards for the modification of such lease conditions to allow more intensive development while preserving the amenities of the district have been laid down during the year. Much interest has been shown in these proposals by developers and their professional advisers, and it is anti- cipated that they will facilitate the rebuilding of much under- developed property.

The basic principle behind the disposal of Crown land is that the maximum use shall be made of it, either industrially or for the provision of the greatest possible amount of living space compatible with town planning. Where it is not

84

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

possible to dispose of land immediately, usually because public services are not yet available or because a site is reserved for some future purpose, the land is not left empty or unused, but is granted on a temporary annual licence. This policy particularly facilitates the development of small industries. The 1955-6 revenue from such licences was $3,126,053.

New development programmes often involve the resump- tion of small agricultural lots. In general the Government's policy is to pay cash compensation for such resumptions, although occasionally other land is granted in exchange.

Shortly after the New Territories were incorporated into the Colony a Land Court was set up to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of land, and all existing tenures thereby established were confirmed by the Hong Kong Government and recorded in a single Block Crown Lease. Such holdings are known as Old Schedule Lots. The Land Court completed its work in 1905. All land not recorded in the Block Crown Lease was deemed to be unleased Crown Land, leases of which can be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories lands thus acquired are known as New Grant Lots. Certain prescriptive rights over 'Crown Land' have, however, always been recognized either tacitly or by official acknowledgment; most villages have rights of this kind over a greater or less area adjoining them, where they graze their cattle, cut grass, and bury their dead; and no Crown land in the New Territories is put up for auction without giving the nearest village or villages a chance to object. Such objections, whether on economic or geomantic grounds, are usually accepted if reasonable.

Most of the land in the New Territories is separately classified as either agricultural land or building land, and permission has to be obtained from the New Territories Administration for permission to convert land from one status to the other. Minor buildings, such as watchmen's sheds, pigstyes etc., i.e. buildings definitely concerned with

PRODUCTION

85

farming, are usually allowed to be erected on agricultural land. In cases where the owner of an Old Schedule Lot in agricultural status wishes to erect a house of traditional Chinese construction this is usually permitted without pay- ment of a premium, provided the building will not interfere with any rural development or country town plan.

New Territories land policy follows the same general lines as that for the urban area, particularly in the towns and in areas required for industrial development. In the more rural parts the New Territories Administration is primarily con- cerned with preserving a balance between the sometimes conflicting needs of agricultural production on one side, and of urban development on the other.

Some account has to be taken of the fact that much of the best land is owned by clans established in the area for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep of ancestral halls and observances, for purposes of clan welfare, and the maintenance of schools. Such land may not be disposed of without the written consent of all the clan members, sometimes numbering many hundreds, and the permission of the District Officer, who will not allow the clan holding to be reduced unless he is satisfied that it is in the best interests of the clan, and of the neighbourhood.

Rents and values of agricultural land in the New Terri- tories are customarily reckoned in paddy;-convertible into money, in case a crop other than rice is grown, at the market rate of a specified variety. Crown Rents, however, are collected in cash at a rate fixed when the lease was granted. Most Crown Rents has thus progressively declined in rela- tion to the customary value of agricultural land, and in some cases are now hardly worth the trouble of collection.

An average rent for rice land would be about 1,600 lbs. of paddy per acre per annum, or about 40% of the total annual yield from two crops. Though much of the land is owned by clans, individual holdings are uniformly small,

86

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

averaging under 2 acres. There are very few farmers who cultivate more than 5 acres. Where land is rented it is usually on annual tenancy, and often the arrangement between land- lord and tenant is verbal.

The principal laws relating to the development and use of land are the Buildings Ordinance, 1955, the Town Planning Ordinance (Cap. 131), and the New Territories Ordinance (Cap. 97). In addition there are important General and Special Conditions of Sale relating to all land in Hong Kong and Kowloon and (in the New Territories) to all New Grant Lots. These Conditions vary according to the nature and position of the lots concerned, and are laid down, in their respective areas, by the Director of Public Works or the District Commissioner, New Territories.

LAND UTILIZATION

A survey made by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in 1954 showed that 13% (about 30,000 acres) of the total land area of the Colony was being used for agriculture and animal industries. The nature of the terrain precludes any extensive development of agricul- ture in new areas, but there is a certain amount of land formerly cultivated which, due to circumstances described in the New Territories section of the Chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization, has been allowed to become waste. If these lands, and other small marginal tracts, can be re-opened for cultivation, it is estimated that the amount of agricultural land could be enlarged by 10,000 acres from 13% to 16% of the Colony's total area. The most practical form which planned land utilization can take in the very much larger parts of the rural zone which, due to steep hills, poor soil and absence of water, are unsuitable for agriculture, is afforestation. It is estimated that over 70,000 acres can, with time and persistence, be planted with trees. The area under afforestation was extended by 1,400 acres this year.

"

PRODUCTION

87

Against this must be set the demands of a predominantly urban colony with a rapidly rising population and a basis of economy that is becoming increasingly industrial. Urban industry is now Hong Kong's largest employer, and indus- tries need land. Wherever possible, factories and urban extensions in country zones are concentrated on land re- claimed from the sea-as at Kun Tong and Tsuen Wan,- but towns such as Yuen Long, Tai Po and Sha Tin are all expanding, and it is unavoidable that in the process, fields in the close vicinity of towns will be lost to agriculture. The land policy of the New Territories Administration restricts the process as far as is reasonably possible, but each year's figures of agricultural acreage emphasize the struggle between the demands of town and country.

During 1956 it is estimated that the total area under culti- vation remained unchanged, but this was achieved only because the decreases in cultivated land near towns were statistically compensated for by the re-opening of neglected land on hills and in less accessible areas. It cannot be expected that this balance will be maintained indefinitely.

In view of the pressure of rapid industrial expansion on land requirements, more hillside land is being opened for agricultural purposes. Large areas are also required for settling people who have been displaced by dam-construction schemes and for those who have been assisted by various welfare organizations to take up farming. In order to have some idea of the potential agricultural value of the available land, most of which is marginal, Government is making use of the services of experts from the Colonial Pool of Soil Surveyors and an examination of the soils of the Colony is now under way.

Indispensable adjuncts to the agricultural development of neglected land are improved communications and irrigation. Here the Government has received considerable assistance from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds (see Appen- dix I), and from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The parts of the New Territories to which particular atten- tion is being given are the Sha Tau Kok and Sai Kung regions, and Lantao Island.

There is a Rural Development Committee, appointed by the Governor in June 1954, with official and unofficial mem- bers, under the Chairmanship of the District Commissioner, New Territories. Its duties are to advise the Government on all matters relating to New Territories development, in particular to the extension of agricultural credit and the preparation of Colonial Development and Welfare schemes.

AGRICULTURE

The annual production of milled rice in the New Territories is estimated at 19,088 metric tons, about enough to feed the whole population of the Colony for a month. The next largest crop is vegetables, some production figures of which are given below, under Marketing. The production of vegetables has increased by 10,553.7 metric tons. Sweet potatoes are the most important winter crop, and small quantities of sugar-cane, ground-nuts and millet are also grown in season. There is a certain amount of fruit-growing, the principal fruit trees being listed in the chapter on Fauna and Flora.

As a result of restrictions on the export of certain products from China to the United States, New Territories farmers have developed a few export crops, such as water chestnuts and prepared vegetable and fruit products; but the increasing local demand for home-grown food limits the area that can be brought under export crops. This new development has, however, brought ready cash in certain zones, and broadened the economy of subsistence farming.

Ploughs, harrows, and hand-tools are of local origin and give good service. There is nothing to be gained by adopting costly western tractors and implements.

Where possible, two crops of rice are grown on irrigated land. The yield ranges from 30 times the seed on the best

PRODUCTION

89

land to 4 times on thin hill soils. In places with access to towns, vegetables are often grown on a portion of the fallow, following the second rice crop. In other areas, after the second crop the land is spelled by adopting a form of land rotation for the area under catch-crops. The greater use of fallow land for catch-cropping depends on water supply and maintaining the soil's fertility by artificial means. Chemical fertilizers are used when they can be afforded, but on the whole reliance is placed on traditional fertilizers, such as nightsoil, bone meal, ashes, duck feathers, meal cakes and dried pulverized animal manure. Vegetable farmers (many of them immigrants who do not own paddy land) usually cultivate very small areas, seldom more than one acre, and depend entirely on fertilizers in order to make intensive use of their plots.

The absence of typhoons and frost, and a rainfall of 2226.3 mm., although rather unevenly distributed, made growing conditions for most crops more favourable than during the year 1954/55. Improved cultural methods, including a better understanding of balanced fertilizer application, as well as reduction of losses from insect pests by correct and system- atic application of insecticides, have increased production. The area under paddy during the season was estimated to be 23,352.79 acres from which 28,071 metric tons of paddy were produced, an increase of 2,071 metric tons over the amount produced in 1955.

204 acres were under water-chesnuts, a crop which is grown principally for export to the United States. This is a decrease of 5.5% over the previous year. The average yield is 30 piculs per dau chung (10.7 tons per acre) and the cash return $40-45 per picul (30¢ to 33.7¢ per lb.). The crop is grown under the same conditions as rice and supplants the second rice crop.

ANIMAL INDUSTRIES

Pigs and all kinds of poultry, including quail, are the

90

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

principal food animals reared. The hill country is too steep and too small in area to support grazing animals such as beef-cattle or sheep. The local cattle (used for draft and beef, but not for milk) are small hardy animals, suited for work in the small terraced fields typical of a large part of the Colony's cultivated area.

Recent estimates of the animal population of the Colony, which are more accurate than those published in previous

years, are:

Cattle and buffalo (working animals)

Dairy cattle

Pigs (breeding stock)

Fowl

Ducks

Quail

Pigeons

18,000

2,600

20,000

500,000

100,000

20,000

30,000

1,000

Geese

Turkeys

Goats

Rabbits

RIES

500

300

1,000

There is one large dairy farm, and several smaller ones. Dairy cattle are mainly Holstein, Ayrshire, and Shorthorns, originally imported from Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada, and revived from time to time by the importa- tion of fresh stock. The animals are stall-fed and rarely leave their byres. Production is maintained by the feeding of imported fodder and concentrates, supplemented by locally- grown guinea grass. All dairy animals are tested for freedom from tuberculosis. Under an amendment, made in September 1956, to the Public Health (Animals & Birds) Ordinance, (Chapter 139), 271 animals, which were positive reactors to the test, were slaughtered. Generous compensation was paid by Government to the owners of these animals.

Specialist breeders are responsible for most of the pig and poultry raising, which is on the intensive system. There is

PRODUCTION

91

scope for rearing more pigs and poultry among small farmers, but hitherto farmers whose main crop is rice have shown little inclination towards systematic animal-rearing. This is partly due to lack of capital, shortage of locally- obtainable feed, and lack of experience in animal husbandry; but the fact that many villages have hitherto depended partly on remittances from abroad is another important factor which should not be overlooked, and is discussed in the New Territories section of the Chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization. Loans from Government sources and grants from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association are beginning to bring a significant change here. Local pork production, which at present stands at about 12% of require- ment, is increasing, primarily due to this assistance, and to work done by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in improving husbandry methods, controlling disease, providing boar centres, and organizing extension work amongst small farmers. Pork, however, is a most important item in Hong Kong's daily diet, and for it the Colony depends on the import from China of live pigs, over 500,000 of which are brought in annually.

2

For eggs the Colony again depends a good deal on imports from China, but there are several large egg farms in the Colony, with imported birds, mostly White Leghorns. A steady demand for poultry meat is being increasingly met from local resources. There is also an overseas demand for dried and smoked ducks, and for preserved eggs. This has led to an extension of duck-raising in marshy areas.

The meat consumed in the Colony is mainly imported on the hoof, and during the year there has been an increase in the numbers of pigs, cattle and buffaloes passing through the slaughter-houses. Among inedible livestock products, hides, pig bristles, and bone meal form the largest items, mainly imported from South-East Asia for re-export to Europe and the Middle East.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Foot-and-mouth disease, which first appeared in 1954, has practically died out in the farming areas, although many cases of the disease are discovered amongst freshly imported slaughter stock in the quarantine yards. Government measures are taken to keep the Colony free of rinderpest by annual inoculation of all bovine stock. Newcastle disease of poultry is now kept under control by inoculation. Some 2,000,000 doses of vaccine are used annually.

FISHERIES

Marine fish is the main primary product of Hong Kong, and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Colonies. It consists of over 6,000 junks, of various sizes and designs, and 32 Japanese-type trawlers, 13 of which are of British registry. They are manned by a sea fishing population of approx. 56,000, chiefly Tanka, operating from various ports and fishing centres, the most important of which are Aber- deen and Shaukiwan (on Hong Kong Island), Cheung Chau, Tai O, Tai Po and Sai Kung.

Junks are built locally from imported timber, of which China fir is the most popular. Due to continued shortages of fir, however, more teak and yacal have been used. About 95% of the fleet is owner-operated, the rest being owner- directed, by fish dealers and fishing companies.

D

The inshore fishing grounds for purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and small liners are confined to the waters up to 20 fathom South of the Colony. The bigger junk trawlers and long liners have gradually extended their area of operation and now work in waters from 30-70 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung, from 111° 30' to 116° E. and 20° to 22° 30' N. A large number of these deep-sea vessels are sailing craft, and during the typhoon season, from July to October, their crews occupy themselves with repairing junks, nets, rigging, sails and equipment.

The mechanized fleet increased from 890 to 1,342 vessels in 1956, the major increases being among small long liners,

PRODUCTION

93

purse seine net boats and shrimp trawlers. The total quantity of fish landed was 40,451 tons, as compared with 40,333 tons in 1955. The comparatively small increase in landings, when considered in relation to the greatly increased number of mechanized vessels, is explained by the fact that the fleet operated by one of the local British registered trawler com- panies was laid up for several months.

Oyster-beds and fish ponds. Oyster culture in this region has a tradition of 700 years behind it. At present the principal area concerned is Deep Bay, where, with assistance from the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, impor- tant improvements are being made in oyster culture methods. The area concerned consists of 4,575 acres on the New Territories side of the Bay. Three areas of 10 acres each have been taken over by the Department, and following demon- strations of the Japanese hanging-drop method of culture, (a considerable improvement on local traditional methods), the acreage under cultivation is now being gradually extended into deeper water. Annual production, valued at $1,300,000, is about 943 tons of fresh oyster meat, the bulk of which is processed into dried meat and into juice, for export.

In Tolo Harbour attempts are being made to introduce edible oysters. Moreover, a pilot experiment, conducted by local business interests in association with Japanese techni- cians, has proved that a lucrative cultured pearl industry can be created in the area.

There are about 500 acres of ponds used for fish farming, producing annually about 410 tons of carp and mullet. Due to the difficulty of obtaining supplies of the customary species of carp fry from China, local fish culturalists have become increasingly more interested in rearing tilapia, a fish which will breed profusely in the captivity of even the smallest pond. For the same reason dealers exported only some 61 m. fish fry, as against 22 m. during the previous year. The main destinations were Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and Japan.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Further statistical data on the fishing industry are given below, under Marketing.

FORESTRY

Forestry plays a dual role in Hong Kong. In the catchment areas of the Colony's ever-expanding water supply system a thick forest cover is essential to prevent erosion and silting of reservoirs, and to promote regularity of streamflow by inducing maximum retention of water in the soil. In other areas well-managed village forests can provide the rural population with an added source of income from the sale of timber, as well as with stakes for agricultural purposes and small timber for the construction of houses and animal pens. The chief rural fuel is grass.

E

The Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry is the prime mover in all that concerns afforestation.

To meet the needs of an increased planting programme, started in 1954, the Division continued its training of senior staff and the establishment of nurseries and district forest centres. A manual of instructions for forestry staff was prepared with the aim of co-ordinating work throughout the districts; species trials continued; and plans were drawn up for establishing 1,000 acres of new plantations in 1957. At the same time efforts were made to attract villagers to the new scheme of assistance for the planting of village forestry lots, and to extend amenity planting throughout the New Territories.

D

Tai Lung Nursery-a new 23-acre forest nursery near Fanling the formation of which began in July 1954, has been completed. This nursery has been laid out with an integrated system of internal roads, piped water supply, nursery buildings, stores, offices and staff quarters for the economical production of 1,000,000 plants annually. Already well stocked, it is now in full production.

PRODUCTION

95

Planting work is best carried out during the cooler wet weather of spring and early summer. 1956 was favourable due to the early rains, and the planting programme was put into operation on a large scale; replanting was also necessary for the previous years' failures. 1405.66 acres were planted. during the year, and this is the first time that the annual target of 1,000 acres of new planting has been exceeded. Planting on Lantao Island has been undertaken for the first time and 98 acres of new planting have so far been completed. Planting continued in the catchment areas of the Jubilee, Tai Lam Chung and Kowloon Reservoirs, at Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve, and also in the Pat Heung Forest Reserve, which extends from Sek Kong westward to join the Tai Lam Chung catchment area, to which it will be linked by catch-

water.

The scheme of assistance to village forestry was revised in 1954 to make it more attractive to villagers. The Forestry Division now offers full assistance to villagers to establish on their lots a small trial area of 5 - 10 acres, showing the advantage of correct forestry techniques and the most suitable tree species. The response has been very good, and trial plantations of this kind were established on a number of lots in the Sai Kung, Castle Peak and Pat Heung areas. Interest has continued to spread and, as the lessons of good forest management are learned, country people are able to carry on profitable forestry with the minimum of help and advice from the Division's staff.

A

No serious forest fires occurred during this year. A system of paths and fire barriers was made in each forest area; new fire lookouts were brought into use; field telephones and radio sets were obtained for rapid spotting and reporting of fires; portable fire pumps were obtained from the U.S.A.; and a master map was completed at Laichikok covering the whole of Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories and showing in each compartment radio operation posts, field

96

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

telephone lines and outposts. When a fire occurs it is plotted on a map from which it can be quickly seen what action should be taken and what operation posts need to be contacted, etc. A publicity campaign appealing to the public to avoid careless fires and 'Keep Hong Kong Green' was continued. In this way it is hoped to prevent serious fire losses in future. Protection against illegal woodcutting con- tinued, but damage from this source was insignificant.

Apart from Government work in afforestation, the only large-scale forest project in the Colony is a scheme started in 1953 by the Lantao Development Company in a pre- dominantly upland area in the hinterland of Tai Pak, a small village on the east coast of Lantao. This is the Colony's first commercial venture in forestry, and its promoters are working to a ten-year programme of planting; in addition to the standard varieties, Australian hoop pine is being introduced.

The imports and re-exports of timber have increased. Local firms have their own Graders, who have completed the Grading Course set by the Singapore Forestry Commission and passed as Qualified Graders.

ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry was founded in 1950, and now consists of four divisions: Agriculture, Animal Industries, Fisheries (marine and fresh- water) and Forestry. It has expanded rapidly since 1953, and its overall policy is to protect and develop plant and animal resources. The Department gives technical advice and assist- ance to farmers, fishermen, administrators and others, and, by afforestation and the teaching and demonstration of approved farming and forestry practices, encourages the conservation of vital water supplies, soil and soil fertility. The Director of the Department is a member of the Rural

PRODUCTION

97

Development Committee, referred to earlier, under Land Utilization. Each Division is under a fully-qualified technical officer, and the staff includes 26 assistants and supervisors holding degrees from various Chinese universities.

A broad policy for the development of agriculture and animal industries was submitted to the Government by the Director and accepted in principle towards the close of 1955. This policy envisages the improvement of irrigation and communications throughout the New Territories, planned settlement of undeveloped land, the diversification of farming to include the extension of animal industries, a soil survey of the Colony, and planned experimental work directed to the introduction of new crops, the improvement of existing crop varieties, soil fertility, and the control of pests and diseases of crops and animals.

The headquarters of the department is at Laichikok, and there are eight agricultural stations, at Castle Peak, Tsuen Wan, Sheung Shui, Tai Po, Sha Tin and Sai Kung, on Taimoshan, and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantao Island. Forestry district headquarters and nurseries are strategically placed for afforestation and protection, and fisheries centres are located at Aberdeen, Shaukiwan, Tai Po and Kam Tin.

The Agriculture Division carried out investigation work on crops, including variety trials, seed selection, soil fertility studies, manurial trials, and pest and disease control, at Castle Peak Main Station and Sheung Shui Vegetable Station. Extension, advice, educational and observation work on crops and animal husbandry are the functions of district agricultural officers operating from the district stations. The extension staff is aided by two teams concerned with pest control and survey duties.

The Animal Industries Division is concerned primarily with the control of animal diseases. Animal husbandry is also a function of this Division which is endeavouring to improve

98

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the pigs and poultry raised in the Colony by crossing the local stock with exotic breeds.

The Fisheries Division carried out experimental fishing with modern gear from the motor research trawler 'Alister Hardy,' in co-operation with the Fisheries Research Unit of Hong Kong University. The Division's 30-foot native-type fishing boat Olenka' continued to be used for inshore beam and otter trawling. A second 30-foot motorized boat, the 'Yuen Ling', was launched towards the end of the year. This vessel, which has a much-improved hull form and embodies many changes in general arrangement (all of which can be adopted to advantage by local fishermen), was constructed in a primitive junk-building yard, technical assistance being provided by the Marine Department and an outside consultant naval architect. Other activities of the Fisheries Division include the operation of a scheme for loans to fishermen for mechanization of their junks, financed by Colonial Development and Welfare Funds. 21 loans, varying from $4,500 to $8,600 each, were made. Training facilities for fishermen continued to be provided. 110 coxswains, 13 engineers, and 10 skippers of British-registered trawlers passed examinations set by the Marine Department, and were granted Certificates of Competency. Some 75,000 people visited the Fisheries Exhibition held in February, at which diesel engines, navigational instruments and sea products, etc., were displayed by 26 commercial firms. An extensive array of gear and equipment used by the Hong Kong fisher- men, together with the non-indigenous gear used by the Division, was put on show. The fisherfolk themselves were drawn into 'their' exhibition by a series of sampan races and competitive demonstrations of practical skill afloat, which greatly intrigued both the floating population and the visiting landsmen.

The Forestry Division's activities are described above, under Forestry.

PRODUCTION

99

The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association,* working closely with the Department, continued to give invaluable practical assistance in agricultural development. Village requirements for the construction or repair of wells, dams, irrigation channels, paths and bridges were investigated by the District Officers of the three districts into which the New Territories are divided, and in all cases where assistance seemed warranted, but which were beyond the capacity of the local public works vote operated by the New Territories Administration, the requirements were referred to the Association, which generously provided tens of thousands of bags of cement for small but important works of this kind. Free gifts of pigs and pigstyes were made, and during the drought pumps were supplied, as in previous years, to assist irrigation. A total of 59 orchards, 400 sprayers and 200 threshers were also given.

Ku

MARKETING

Fish Marketing Organization. With the object of promot- ing the general development of the local fishing industry, the Government has imposed certain controls on the landing and wholesale marketing of marine fish. These controls are exercised through an agency known as the Fish Marketing Organization, which in one aspect of its operations provides all the services which would otherwise be undertaken by middlemen. The Organization is a non-profit-making concern deriving its revenues, and so covering its expenses, from a commission charged on all the sales of fish which are made

* In 1955 the sponsors of the Association, Messrs. Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie, made a gift of $250,000 to the Government to start a loan fund for farmers, and the Government, in accepting the gift, made a dollar-for-dollar contribution and introduced the neces- sary legislation to enable the fund to be established. Known as the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, it is operated by the Depart- ment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, with the Director as trustee. Up to December 1956, 3,704 loans totalling $623,015 had been granted of which $331,627 have been repaid.

100

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

at its markets. Its operations ensure that the fishermen obtain fair prices and a stable market for their catches: consumers also benefit through the cheap and efficient services which are provided. The Fish Marketing Organization is a non- Government body, although one or two of its more senior officials, including the head of the Organization (the Director of Marketing) are Civil Servants. The Organization is so devised that it could, at some future date, become a co- operative undertaking. During the year new legislation, the Fish Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1956, was introduced to put the Organization on a proper statutory basis (See Chapter 12).

The Fish Marketing Organization was established shortly after the re-occupation of Hong Kong, in October 1945, and now operates five wholesale fish markets. These are estab- lished at Aberdeen and Shaukiwan on the Island of Hong Kong, at Yaumati in Kowloon, and at Tai Po and Sha Tau Kok in the New Territories. A total of eight fish-collecting depots and posts have also been set up in the main fishing villages, and from these the Organization provides sea and land transport to the wholesale markets.

At the markets, the Organization's staff sorts the fish into species and sizes, weighs it and prepares it in lots for sale by public auction. Fishermen may collect the proceeds of their sales directly after the sale has taken place or, if they prefer, the Organization will send the money back to the nearest depot or post. As an additional service in the market- ing procedure, the Organization provides free transportation for buyers to their place of business in the urban areas.

The following species of marine fish were marketed in greatest quantity during 1956:

Average Whole- Piculs Tons sale price in ¢

per catty

Golden Thread NEMIPTERUS VIRGATUS

(Houttuyn)

89,206 5,310

87

Conger Pike

MARAENESOX ARABICUS (Schneider)

42,805 2,548

56

PRODUCTION

ΙΟΙ

Average Whole-

Piculs Tons sale price in ¢

per catty

Red Sea Bream TAIUS TUMIFRONS

(Tanaka & Schlegel)

32,584 1,940

79

Lizard Fish

SAURIDA TUMBIL

(Richardson)

31,311 1,864

39

Red Snapper

LUTJANUS ERYTHROPTERUS

(Bloch)

21,707 1,292

53

Yellow Croaker PSEUDOSCAIENA CROCEA

(Richardson)

18,853 1,122

115

Local production during the last five years and average wholesale prices in cents per catty during the same period

were as follows:

Quantities & Values

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

679,187

Piculs Tons Value ($) 578,565 34,438.4 38,517,861

528,184 31,439.5 41,676,354

663,769 39,510.1 42,977,489

677,599 40,333.3 36,800,531

40,427.8 43,267,461

Average wholesale prices

Fresh Fish

Salt Fish

1952

70

56

1953

80

74

1954

67

1955

56

ICL

55

43

1956

...

66

49

1956 was a better year, financially, for the local fishermen than its predecessor, although it was not marked by any notable increase in landings. Nevertheless, the average whole- sale price increased, due largely to a decline in the imports of fresh-water fish from the Chinese Mainland and to a general rise in the cost of foodstuffs.

The embargo on the importation of salt/dried fish from the Colony, imposed by the Chinese authorities in June 1950, remained in force throughout the year. Salt fish exporters,

102

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

however, continued to explore other outlets as a result, exports of locally caught and processed salt/dried fish rose by approx. 8%. The main importing countries in 1956 were Indonesia, Singapore, Canada and the United States.

A

The Fish Marketing Organization's revolving loan fund, established in September 1946, continued to provide credit for local fishermen. At the end of the year a total of 3,077 loans had been made, amounting to $3,307,659 of this sum, $2,775,196 has been repaid.

Education plays an important part in the welfare pro- gramme of the Organization, and nearly 1,750 fishermen's children are now receiving an elementary education in the schools operated or financed by the Organization.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. Following the success of the Fish Marketing Organization, Government decided to introduce a similar system for the wholesaling of locally produced vegetables, in which the problems were not dis- similar. The scheme, which was first established in September 1946, now operates under the Agricultural Products (Market- ing) Ordinance, 1952, which provides for the appointment of a Director of Marketing who is made a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property, and for the appointment of a Marketing Advisory Board, consisting of the Director as Chairman and four other persons, nominated by the Governor, who have wide and practical experience of the difficulties and needs of farmers.

The Organization undertakes two main functions. First, it collects vegetables from depots and posts conveniently located throughout the New Territories, and transports them to the wholesale vegetable market in Yaumati. Second, it arranges the sale of this produce and manages all the at- tendant financial transactions.

In these respects the Organization is very similar to its Fish Marketing counterpart. Important differences, however, lie in the methods of sale, which in the case of the Vegetable

PRODUCTION

103

Marketing Organization is by negotiation and not by auction, and in the degree of practical assistance provided by co- operative marketing societies, which are responsible for han- dling approx. 65% of the total local production of vegetables. The reasons for negotiated sales, as opposed to an auction system, are not difficult to find: on an average, approximately 12,000 separate lots are sold daily to some 2,500 buyers. The number of lots rises to over 20,000 a day in the main season, making sales by auction impracticable.

The Organization is self-supporting and the costs of the various services are met from a 10% commission charged on sales. 30% of this commission is refunded to co-operative marketing societies in respect of the vegetables for which they are responsible.

The weights

LE

x-

values of vegetables marketed through the Organization over the last five years are as follows:

Locally-Produced

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

Imported

1952

1953

1954

1955

1956

Piculs

Tons Value ($)

773,517

46,043

13,326,294

846,739 50,401 15,565,307

1,019,692 60,696 18,259,193

1,117,629. 66,526 19,939,762 1,293,354 76,985

'NG 1 202,786

21,589,103

LIB

12,071

3,755,809

247,359 14,724

4,297,299

193,479 11,517

4,266,494

105,656 6,289 2,164,460 122,363

7,284 1,685,920

As is the case with the Fish Marketing Organization, it is intended that any financial surpluses should be ploughed back into the industry in the form of improved services and other benefits. An instance of this policy is the aid which the Organization has given to local farmers in overcoming their main problem of recent years-the lack of cheap fer- tilizer. The Organization is now operating a scheme for the

104

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

maturation and distribution of night-soil to farmers at a very low price.

Cheap credit facilities for the improvement and encourage- ment of agriculture under the control of the Director of Marketing are available from two sources-the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and the Vegetable Marketing Organization Loan Fund. Since the establishment of the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund in July 1954, farmers have received 7,411 loans, total- ling $1,648,751, whilst further loans, totalling $862,954, have been made from the Vegetable Marketing Organization's fund.

The main types of vegetables grown locally and imported are shown below together with average wholesale prices:

Locally-Produced

White

White cabbage

Tons

Average Wholesale

price ¢ per catty

Piculs

297,384 17,701

14

Flowering cabbage

...

99,286 5,910

20

Turnips

Leaf Mustard

Chinese Lettuce

Imported

89,887 5,350

8

...

cabbage

68,245 4,062

13

52,156 3,105

10

Tientsin cabbage

17,700 1,054

BRA

16

Sweet potatoes

17,199 1,024

10

Taros

9,901

589

16

Chinese melon

8,483

505

10

Hairy squash

8,359

498

17

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

The first appointment of a Registrar of Co-operatives was made in May 1950 and the combined Co-operative & Market- ing Department came into being in August of the same year. Since that date the Co-operative movement in Hong Kong has made rapid progress, and is being accepted by an increas- ing number of persons, particularly farmers and fishermen, as a sound and democratic method of improving their lot.

PRODUCTION

:

105

In 1951 three Co-operative Societies were registered by the end of 1955 this number had increased to eighty-six. During 1956 thirty-two additional registrations took place, making a total at the end of December of one hundred and eighteen societies.

The societies registered in 1956 comprised one Vegetable Marketing Society, two Fishermen's Thrift & Loan, two Pig- Raising and twenty-seven Co-operative Building Societies. There are at present twelve types of society, the functions and scale of operations of which are briefly described below:

Vegetable Marketing Societies. These seventeen Societies. collect and market vegetables grown by members, and handle loans obtained by members from the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund and from the Vegetable Marketing Organization loan Fund. Over 63% of locally produced vegetables w marketed through these and embryo co-operative societies.

Federation of Vegetable Marketing Societies. The Federa- tion was established in March 1953, with the objects of improving liaison between member-Societies and of under- taking a number of activities on their behalf.

Pig-Raising Societies. The first society of this type was registered in March 1952, since when the number has risen to thirty-two. Their aim is to assist members in increasing their production, and in particular to provide credit facilities for the purchase of stock and feed.

Federation of Pig-Raising Societies. The Federation was registered in November 1954, to improve liaison among pig- raising Societies and to assist member-Societies in their con- tacts with Government Departments.

Fishermen Thrift and Loan Societies. The first of these Societies were registered in 1952. They have proved very successful and at the end of 1956 twenty-five Societies were registered. Their main functions are to encourage thrift, and to provide security for and arrange the disbursal of loans granted to members from the Fish Marketing Organization.

106

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Fishermen's Credit & Marketing Society. The functions of this Society are the same as those of a thrift & loan Society, but in addition it owns and operates a mechanized collecting vessel, which brings members' catches to market where the Society arranges the sales.

Salaried Workers Thrift and Loan Societies. There are at present two Thrift and Loan Societies. Their aims are to encourage members to save a portion of their income and to utilize these savings for small individual loans.

Irrigation Societies. These two Societies own and operate pumps, irrigation channels, etc. through which their mem- bers are helped to obtain water for their fields.

Draft Animal Society. To obtain draft animals and make them available to members for ploughing.

Co-operative Building Societies. Thirty-three of these Societies have been registered as part of Government's plan to provide improved housing for members of the Civil Service. They provide legal entities with which Government can deal and agencies which can ensure that Government loans are promptly and properly repaid.

2.

Fish Pond Society. Situated at Luk Keng, near Sha Tau Kok, this Society aims to improve and develop pond fish culture.

Credit and Consumers' Society. Formed by members of the Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in 1955, its aims are to encourage members to save and to utilize savings for small individual loans. Another function of this Society is the purchasing of consumer goods in bulk for re-sale to members.

The growth of the Co-operative movement in the Colony has been due in very large measure to encouragement given by the Government, and the part which has been played by the Fish & Vegetable Marketing Organizations. Additional financial support has come from the Kadoorie Agriculture Aid Loan Fund and from the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund.

PRODUCTION

107

Figures of membership and finance of the Co-operative Societies will be found in Appendix XI.

MINING

There is mining of iron, lead, wolfram and graphite by underground methods, whilst kaolin clay, quartz and feldspar are worked by opencast methods. Iron ore and kaolin clay are exported to Japan, lead ore to the United Kingdom and Europe, and wolfram and graphite to the United Kingdom and the United States. Kaolin clay is also used locally by rubber manufacturers. Quartz and feldspar are solely pro- duced for local consumption, principally by the glass-making, enamelware and ceramic industries.

All mining leases and licences, and prospecting licences are for the New Territories, i.e. the mainland and the islands. of Lantao, Chu Lu Kok, West Brother, Ma Wan and Tsing Yi.

At the Ma On Shan iron mine the transition from opencast to underground operation was almost completed by the end of the year, the ore dressing plant being partly used on processing accumulated dumps of low-grade ore.

During the year one lead mine and one wolfram mine were in process of rehabilitation, prior to resuming production, whilst prospecting continued for beryl, iron ore, lead ore, wolfram and graphite.

The Colony's production of minerals for the year was as follows:

Graphite

Iron ore

Kaolin

Lead ore

Quartz & Feldspar

Wolfram ore

Long Tons Value H.K.$

2,441.75

346,700

122,963.17

4,918,500

5,463.43

327,800

198.65

137,450

3,004.92

75,120

24.22

295,820

The Mines Department is under the control of the Com- missioner of Labour in his capacity as Commissioner of

108

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Mines, and is under the immediate direction of a Super- intendent of Mines.

The Mining Ordinance, 1954, provides for the issue by the Commissioner of Mines of prospecting licences for periods of six months, renewable up to a maximum of five years, and mining leases up to twenty-one years by the Land Officer. The Superintendent of Mines issues Authorized Buyers Licences for the sale and purchase of ores, grants Mine Blasting Certificates, and approves licences for the export of ores mined. He is also responsible for the collection of rents, premia and fees in connexion with licences granted, and for the computation and collection of royalties on mineral sales. All surveys for prospecting and mining licence areas are carried out by the Mines Deparment.

HONG

GKONG PUBLIC

!

IBRARIES

Chapter 8: Education

SINCE 1946 the total number of children at school has risen from about 60,000 to nearly 300,000 and the number of schools to 1,200. Some indication of the general pattern of education is afforded by the tables facing pp. 116-117 which illustrate the increase in pupils and schools in the Colony during the past 10 years.

From these tables it will be seen that at present over 60% of all pupils are being educated in private schools, and that these schools in turn represent some 66% of all schools in the Colony. Since private schools, i.e. schools which do not receive government subvention under either the Grant or Sub- sidy Code, also tend to charge higher fees than government or government-aided schools their numerical predominance in the educational system clearly illustrates the very great continuing public demand in the Colony for education even at a high cost. It should incidentally be noted that the very big expansion of private schools has been rendered possible only by the adaptation of buildings designed for other pur- poses and by the employment of large numbers of untrained teachers. On the other hand almost all government schools. occupy buildings specifically designed for such use and all the teachers are qualified.

The number of schools (including kindergarten and post- secondary) and total enrolment on 30th June, 1956, were as follows:

No. of

Enrolment

Schools

No. of Teachers

Government Schools Grant-aided Schools

46

24,547

767

20

16,160

652

Subsidized Schools

346

64,802

2,260

Private Schools

788

...

171,899

8,771

Special Afternoon Classes

21,201

Total:

1,200

298,609

12,450

IIO

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The part played by private schools-primary, secondary, vocational and adult-is one which, though prominent, has always posed a number of problems, varying in intensity and kind, but particularly concentrated in the rapid development and changing aspects of the last decade. Their contribution to the expansion of school places this year has been sub- stantial, over 5,000 being provided by the adoption of the two-sessional system. With Government aid by way of interest-free loans and grants of land on favourable terms many reliable and public-spirited corporate bodies have been able to see their dreams of suitable buildings realized. There is, moreover, an ever-increasing number of private schools which in tradition and service to their pupils rank with the best in the Colony, and are frequently rewarded by seeing former pupils taking a leading role in many walks of life.

R

On the other hand the recent expansion of government and subsidized schools, and of private schools in suitable premises, has intensified the problem of the many private schools which are in premises not designed for school pur- poses. No private school is able to reduce its fees to the level of those in a government or government-aided school, nor in general can its teachers receive like salaries and conditions. of service. It is thus inevitable that the school which is inherently uneconomic must lose pupils and eventually be forced to close. Yet despite adverse factors, the percentage enrolment in private schools, compared with total enrolment, has been fully maintained up to the present time.

Considerable indirect Government assistance is also given to private schools through special courses for improving the professional qualifications of teachers; more regular inspec- tion and advice from specialists; and permission for approved schools to participate in public examinations at both primary and secondary levels.

Private institutions are now playing an increasing role in post-secondary education. This year has seen the opening of several new post-secondary college buildings, the beginning

EDUCATION

III

of an integration of individual schools, and the development of more realistic objectives which will undoubtedly lead to more purposive studies, higher standards of scholarship, and wider fields of employment.

Subsidized schools are operated under a Subsidy Code, the object of which is to encourage the establishment of reliable committees of management and provide the means by which satisfactory primary education can be given to children in rural as well as urban areas; by its aid school managers can keep fees reasonably low and pay teachers the same salaries as are paid in government primary schools. There are now 346 subsidized schools, an increase of 13 over last year, caused partly by the erection of new buildings and partly by the admission to the Subsidy Code of some existing private schools. The subsidized schools have benefited both by the employment of an increasing number of trained teachers and by greater opportunities for their pupils to receive a secondary education.

Grant schools function under the terms of the Grant Code, under which Government pays the difference between the approved expenditure of a school and its income from fees and other sources. This approved expenditure includes salaries, leave pay, incidentals, and passages for teachers who are so entitled. Alternatively, a block grant may be made, providing teachers' salaries less a sum of not more than $400 a month per teacher, the actual deduction being dependent upon the fees charged which are retained by the school. Grants may also be made up to 50% of the cost of new buildings and major repairs. Of the 20 secondary schools functioning under the Grant Code, many have large primary departments; the usual medium of instruction in the senior classes is English.

To ensure the selection of the best candidates for secondary education, the grant-aided schools, which previously made their own selection, have now agreed either to participate in

I 12

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the joint Primary 6 Examination and admit up to 67% of their Form I entrants on the results, or to reserve at least 30% of their places for pupils who have qualified for Form I in that examination. J

Government directly maintains 28 primary schools, 10 secondary schools, 2 technical schools, a technical college, 2 teacher-training colleges, and 3 evening institutions. By the end of the year four new primary schools had been completed under the seven-year plan, providing nearly 7,200 places. The average age of entering and leaving government primary schools is a little over six and thirteen respectively, and for secondary schools just over thirteen and nineteen.

The special afternoon classes were formed in 1950 for the benefit of children who were unable to obtain admission to primary schools. They are of two hours' duration, cover general subjects, and are run through the co-operation of a large number of schools, mostly private.

Planning and Development. The demand for primary education in special afternoon classes has emphasized the need for more education at low fees and in 1955 Government accepted in principle a seven-year plan to provide by 1961 enough places for all children of primary school age (6-11 inclusive). This plan originally envisaged the provision of 26,000 new places a year, but, mainly because of the con- tinued rise in the natural increase of the population, it has been necessary to revise the target figure to over 30,000 places a year of these, it is hoped that about 13,000 will be in government schools, and the remainder in subsidized and private schools. At the same time Government gives assistance to private and government-aided bodies in replac- ing unsuitable and uneconomic accommodation.

During the year ending 30th June, 1956, 43 new buildings or extensions were opened, providing accommodation for 15,220 pupils, nearly 13,000 of them at the primary stage.

花圈

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.

PUBLIC LIB

H

W. Szeto

The marked development of the education programme is reflected in the numerous new school buildings opened during the year. Above, the Tak Sun School, a 15-classroom Anglo-Chinese Government-subsidized primary school. Photographs of other schools are on the following page.

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香港

New Asia College, a private post-sec- ondary college in Farm Road, Kowloon.

G. D. Su

Lai Chack Middle School, a private 25-classroom Chinese primary and middle school.

KONG PU

Mainland Studio

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Perth Street Govern- ment School, a typical 24-classroom Govern- ment Primary School.

Asia Photo

EDUCATION

113

Accommodation for a further 16,000 pupils was provided by permitting increases in classroom accommodation, by en- couraging the two-sessional system, and by other measures under the seven-year plan. Although it is increasingly neces- sary that primary schools should work in two sessions, it is hoped that secondary schools will not have to adopt this

system.

Teacher Training. In addition to providing, and assisting the provision of, more and better accommodation, Govern- ment aims at raising the standard of instruction in schools. To that end, it is concerned with the training of the necessary number of teachers and has accordingly expanded the teacher training college accommodation; it is also concerned with training practising teachers who are at present unqualified and special training courses are now provided.

The estimated number of teachers employed in all schools in the Colony during the year was 12,450. With the introduc- tion last year of revised salary scales and allowances, affecting teachers in government, grant and subsidized schools, teach- ing has become an attractive career both for University undergraduates and students leaving school. This is reflected in the number of applicants for admission to the training colleges, which rose from 1,531 in 1953 to 2,830 in 1956. Under the seven-year plan, the Grantham Training College has been extended this year to accommodate up to 300 students, as compared with an enrolment in 1954/55 of 132.

During the year nearly 200 trained teachers entered the private schools and, mainly for the benefit of those schools, refresher courses and conferences were held for teachers of middle school science and Chinese, and for kindergarten mistresses.

In 1955 17 graduates were awarded Diplomas in Education by the University, 187 students from the training colleges became certificated teachers on probation, and 225 members

114

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of the urban and rural courses of training for teachers quali- fied as primary school teachers for the purpose of the Subsidy Code. By the end of the year 281 students were receiving full-time training and 426 in-service teachers were attending the urban and rural courses of training.

A Professional Teachers' Training Board is responsible for integrating the teacher-training facilities of the Government and the University.

Post-Primary Education. In the interests of balanced development, the needs of secondary, technical, higher and adult education are not being overlooked. One big new government co-educational secondary school was opened to- wards the end of 1955, and the rebuilding and expansion of government-aided secondary schools have been encouraged. A new Technical College is being built and equipped with the aid of generous donations in cash and kind from the Chinese Manufacturers' Union, and various business and manufacturing firms. The enrolment of the private post- secondary colleges, which provide a variety of academic, commercial and economic courses, and that of the Special Classes Centre, which offers an avenue to Hong Kong University to selected middle school pupils who have been taught in the medium of Chinese, have both increased. Much work has also been done in the field of adult education to provide recreation for the poorer section of the community and to offer courses designed to repair early educational deficiencies and improve employment prospects.

A great deal of Voluntary Education and Welfare work is carried out by various bodies in Hong Kong. The Kaifong or Neighbourhood Associations provide free schooling for poor children, and the British Red Cross Society organizes hospital schools for crippled children. There are schools for the deaf, for the blind and for lepers; orphanages; homes for maladjusted children; whilst the Po Leung Kuk provides free schooling for the homeless young women and children in its care.

EDUCATION

115

Other agencies which form part of the educational pattern include the Christian Associations, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, the Children's Playground Association, the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Associations, and the Rotary Clubs of Hong Kong and Kowloon.

In co-operation with the Social Welfare Office the Educa- tion Department works closely with voluntary agencies of this kind and is represented on the recently established Mental Health Association of Hong Kong, which has aroused public interest. It is also closely associated with the Medical Department in the sphere of health education, and in the professional sphere with the Hong Kong Teachers' Associa- tion.

Libraries are maintained by the British Council, the United States Information Service, the local Chambers of Commerce, the Education Department and the University of Hong Kong, membership of the last two being restricted.. Books, pamphlets, journals and visual-aid material are dis- tributed by the Public Relations Office, the British Council, various consular authorities and commercial agencies. The British Council takes a leading part in the cultural sphere, arranging lectures, discussion groups, film-shows and exhibi- tions, and also administers post-graduate scholarship-awards and gives advice and assistance to students intending to take courses in Britain.

In the educational scene, as described above, three main problems confront all interested bodies, public or private; a swollen population, due to the influx of refugees, a higher birth-rate and lower infant mortality rate; the scarcity of sites in a small and highly developed Colony; and the problem of finding the means to finance new projects.

Actual Expenditure on education by the Education and other Departments from August 1955 to July 1956 may be briefly summarized as:

116

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Recurrent Expenditure:

Personal emoluments

Other Charges

Maintenance & repairs of school

Total $

$13,199,995

2,646,549

buildings (Public Works Depart- ment)

334,103

16,180,647

Grants and Subsidies:

28,458,889

Capital Expenditure:

Furniture & equipment for new

government schools

360,418

New school buildings (Public Works

Department)

1,674,471 2,034,889

46,674,425

Expenditure by other Departments:

Department of Medical and Health Services

360,207

Kowloon-Canton Railway

76,079

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry

92,633

528,919

Legislation. All colleges, schools and other institutions of learning, with the exception of a small number of schools for the children of members of Her Majesty's Forces, are subject to the provisions of the Education Ordinance, 1952. The Director of Education, who, under the Ordinance, has general control over education in the Colony, is chairman of the Board of Education, which has advisory functions, its members being appointed by the Governor. The Director is required to keep a register of schools, teachers, and managers of schools, and to ensure that satisfactory standards are main- tained in respect of school buildings, methods of enforcing discipline, the keeping of registers and accounts, the payment of fees, and the proper conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers. The University of Hong Kong, which is an independent body, is exempt from the provisions of the Education Ordinance.

INCREASE IN PUPILS IN GOVERNMENT, GRANT-IN-AID, SUBSIDIZED AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS SINCE 1946.

1946 ●●●

1947 **

00

1948 ●●●●re

1949 O

1950

1951

оо

C

оо

PRIMARY

AGES

4 to 14

SECONDARY AGES

12 to 20

POST-

SECONDARY

AGES 18

& OVER

1952 ●●●●●●●

1953 00

1954 ●●●

1955

1956 ●●●●●●●●●●

in

thousands 20

Note:

40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300

The above figures include Evening Institute students but not students at the University, nor 19,262 students attending special afternoon classes.

No. of Schools

1200

1100

1000

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

NUMBER OF SCHOOLS SINCE 1946

INCREASE IN NUMBER OF

SCHOOL SINCE 1946

GOVERNMENT

Grant-in-Aid

Subsidized

Private

U

0

1946

1947 1948

1949

1950

1951

1952 1953 1954 1955

1956

MARCH

Note: The above figures include the Evening Institute but not the University of Hong Kong.

EDUCATION

117

Higher Education. The idea of establishing a University in Hong Kong was first elaborated in a local newspaper in 1905. It was taken up by the late Lord Lugard when he became Governor of the Colony, and through his efforts and leadership the University of Hong Kong was incorporated as an independent body under the University Ordinance of 1911. With it was amalgamated the Hong Kong College of Medicine which had been in existence since 1887.

By 1913 the Faculties of Medicine and Engineering were functioning steadily. The Faculty of Arts was established in the same year, but there was no Faculty of Science until 1938, pure Science subjects meanwhile being taught in the Faculty of Arts. The Faculty of Architecture was instituted in September 1951 and is the first of its kind in Far Eastern Universities. There is now also an Institute of Oriental Studies, which includes in its objects the promotion of interest in such studies and of goodwill between the peoples of East and West.

Beginning its life largely with financial assistance from generous friends and benefactors, the University since 1920 has been largely supported by recurrent and non-recurrent grants made annually by Government. Grants of Crown land have also been made from time to time, and the University estate now covers an area of 36 acres.

Minimum qualification for entry to undergraduate courses is gained through the Matriculation Examination, which is similar in type and standard to the General Certificate of Education Examinations conducted by the Universities of the United Kingdom. Most of the undergraduates are Chinese but many other races are represented, particularly from South East Asia. The total number (including graduate students) in October 1956 was 886, of whom about one-quarter are women. 157 students are receiving financial aid, in the form of scholarships or bursaries.

The number of teaching staff, from demonstrators upward, is 174. Of these over half are locally recruited.

118

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

During the year the University decided to adopt a Report by the specially appointed Salaries and Wages Committee, which established a clear-cut and comprehensive salary struc- ture, including a new approach to the question of outside practice by members of the academic staff. The increase in salaries and allowances is estimated to cost over $1 million per annum, and the Government, after a debate in Legisla- tive Council, agreed to grant a sufficient additional subvention to enable the scheme to be fully implemented.

During the year a University Press has been established to deal with the increasing publication work begun in 1953. The Press has now many books and journals under its imprint, perhaps its largest achievements being in orientalia, in which field the Journal of Oriental Studies is well known. Some of the books are published jointly with the Oxford University Press.

Of the three University residential halls for men, Eliot Hall on the estate has been converted into a students' recreation centre. In its place, University Hall was opened on a property recently acquired by the University.

An interesting development has been the appointment of a Director of Extra-Mural Studies. It is too early as yet to make forecasts of the results of this appointment, but in view of the undoubted local demand for adult education they may be far-reaching.

Scholarships. 18 government scholarships tenable at the University were awarded on the results of the Matriculation Examination. 5 of the holders of these scholarships will study medicine, 8 science, 4 arts and 1 dentistry.

Under a bursary scheme for prospective secondary-school teachers; suitable students, who might otherwise be unable to afford higher education, are assisted by Government to take an Arts or Science degree, and the University Diploma in Education. This year funds available for new bursaries amounted to about $160,000, and 41 awards were made, 2 to

EDUCATION

119

graduates taking the Diploma Course in Education, 23 to undergraduates in the Faculty of Arts, and 16 in the Faculty of Science.

To assist suitable pupils, in financial need, to take the two-year matriculation course and qualify for entrance to the University, the Government is also prepared to make main- tenance grants, up to a limit of $200 a month. During 1956 there were 112 recipients, the funds available amounting to some $7,500 a month.

Further maintenance grants, totalling $4,000 a month, were available in connexion with the 2-year Course run at the Special Classes Centre to enable selected pupils who have been successful in the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination to improve the standard of their English and qualify for entrance to the University. 49 new awards were

made.

Higher Studies Overseas. A special committee advises and recommends students wishing to go to the United Kingdom for higher studies. The Head of the Students' Branch of the Colonial Office arranges their placing, and the Director of Hong Kong Students is responsible for their general welfare, including the arrangement of suitable contacts and hos- pitality. A table showing a distribution of these 807 students by the course which they follow is at Appendix XII. Most of these students are pursuing courses not available in Hong Kong.

D

In addition, 235 students went to the United States of America for further study, 111 to Canada, 196 to Australia, and 17 to Eire. Figures for Hong Kong students in the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan and other countries are not available. Apart from the students listed in Appendix XII, there were 262 students in the United Kingdom taking pre- liminary courses and other courses.

The Government has acquired the Lancaster Gate Hotel in London as a centre and hostel for Hong Kong students

\

120

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

in the United Kingdom. The hostel will be known as Hong Kong House and will be under a Board of Governors appointed by the Governor. The building, which is expected to be ready for occupation towards the end of 1957, will accommodate upwards of seventy students.

The Government has also contributed £2,000 towards a scheme to build an international hall of residence for men students at London University, in which places will be reserved for students from contributing countries.

Examinations.The Education Department conducts a con- siderable number of external examinations on behalf of examining bodies and Universities in the United Kingdom. The most popular of these is the General Certificate of Education of London University, for which there were over 590 candidates in the current year. Other examinations. include the External Degree Examinations of the University of London, the technological examinations of the City and Guilds of London Institute, and commercial examinations of various British organizations. The London Chamber of Commerce Examinations, held three times a year, attract as many as 600 candidates in all.

The Department also conducts two School Certificate Examinations, for which the number of candidates grows steadily from year to year. There were 2,455 entries for the English School Certificate Examination, an increase of 463 over last year, and 1,618 entries for the Chinese School Certificate Examination, an increase of 127.

Technical Education is provided in three government institutions, two trade schools of the Salesian Society, and a number of private schools. The government institutions are the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls, with an enrolment of 237 girls in a five-year secondary-school course with emphasis on commercial, domestic and industrial subjects; the Victorial Technical School, formerly the Junior Technical School, with 257 boys undergoing a secondary technical

EDUCATION

121

school course in general subjects, woodwork, metalwork and technical drawing; and the Technical College with 283 students attending full-time courses at post-secondary level in building and engineering, radio technology, radio operating, and commercial subjects. Part-time day release classes are provided for housing managers, health inspectors and engineering apprentices. Short full-time courses are offered for radar maintenance technicians, and for ships' officers preparing for Ministry of Transport Certificates of Com- petency. Students are prepared for the external examinations. referred to earlier.

The Technical College Evening Department, with 3,504 students, conducts five-year courses in building, electrical and mechanical engineering, naval architecture, and tele- communications, corresponding to the National Certificate Courses in the United Kingdom. Shorter courses are offered in book-keeping and shorthand, field surveying and internal combustion engines. Certain of the building and engineering courses are also taught in the medium of Chinese. Classes in engineering and building, mathematics and technical drawing are provided for apprentices and artisans whose basic education is insufficient for entry into the senior courses.

The Trade Schools of the Salesian Society give a 5-year apprenticeship training in mechanics, electro-mechanics, carpentry, tailoring and printing. Instruction is in Chinese, but English is included in the curriculum. One of the schools (at Aberdeen) is residential.

Technical education is also provided by a number of private commercial and technical schools, but standards of accommodation, equipment and tuition vary greatly. Most of them offer evening classes only, the subjects including civil, mechanical, automobile, electrical and aeronautical engineer- ing, commercial subjects, radio servicing and dressmaking. Commercial subjects are taught in both day and evening classes. The medium of instruction is English or Chinese

J

I 22

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

for the engineering classes, and English in the commercial classes.

Adult education is provided through classes of the Evening Institute, the Technical College Evening Department, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies, and by private night schools.

The Evening Institute now has 48 urban classes in English, for which there is an increasing demand; 22 classes for a general background course consisting of Chinese, English, civics, arithmetic, and general knowledge; and 24 classes of a general practical nature, which include instruc- tion in woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. With other classes, the total enrolment in September came to 3,607, of whom 2,068 were men and 1,539 women; in addition, 1,219 men and 342 women were registered as members of the Adult Reading and Recreation Centres. The enrolment of the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies, which provides 3-year courses in arts and commerce, was 302, of whom 160 were men and 142 women.

In Music, Art and Drama, talent and enthusiasm exist in abundance. There were 1,315 entries for the Schools Music Festival, compared with 68 in 1949, and the competitors were highly praised by the adjudicator, Miss Helen Henschel (Lady Claughton). The standard of performance in the Inter- School Dramatic Competition, which is keenly contested every year, continues to show improvement. The schools again contributed in various ways to the Hong Kong Festival of the Arts, the number of paintings submitted for display being particularly encouraging.

In the field of Physical Education, and of sports and games, in which girls are taking an increasing part, the training and refresher courses provided for teachers have helped to stimulate keenness and improve standards of per- formance and organization. The New Territories Schools Sports Association, formed in 1954, is well supported. Extra-

EDUCATION

123

curricular activities also flourish in the form of school societies, visits and projects, and of participation by the rural schools in various handicraft and rural activity sections of the New Territories Agricultural Show. A Safety First Exhibition attracted much interest among pupils and teachers, and there is in general a growing awareness of the importance of education for citizenship.

Representatives from Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, North Borneo and the Commissioner-General's Office attended the Regional Conference of Directors of Education in October 1956. This was the first time this Conference had been held in Hong Kong. The Conference, which was opened by the Governor, lasted for three days and the subjects discussed included post-secondary education in the medium of Chinese, technical education, secondary schools in rural areas, ethical instruction in schools, and the selection, production and protection (of copyright) of text books.

PUBLIC LIBRARI

Chapter 9: Public Health

no heall

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

mathwis

RESPONSIBILITY for the administration of the Public Health Services is divided between the Department of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council acting through the Urban Services Department, and the New Territories Administration. The Department of Medical and Health Services deals with such matters as epidemiology, vital and morbidity statistics, maternal and child health, school hygiene and the health of school children, malaria control, tuberculosis control, measures to combat social diseases, port health control and international health matters, and health education. It also supplies medical services both out-patient and hospital. The Urban Services Department is concerned with environmental sanitation, domestic cleanliness, and con- trol of the import, preparation, handling and sale of food in the city areas. The District Commissioner, New Territories, is statutorily responsible for the public health in the New Territories and is advised by officers of the Medical Depart-

ment.

LIC

ཆ}་-ཨཱི ·

The work of the Medical Department is under the direction of the Director of Medical and Health Services, and that of the Urban Services Department under the Director of Urban Services, who is concurrently the Chairman of the Urban Council. Close liaison is maintained between these two departments through the Assistant Director of Health Services, who is in administrative charge of all the health activities in the Colony and is concurrently Vice-Chairman of the Urban Council and public health adviser. He has certain executive functions both in regard to the Council and the inspectorate of the Urban Services. The inspectorate are

PUBLIC HEALTH

125

further guided by Health Officers of the Medical Depart- ment, who exercise statutory powers under the public health legislation. The work of the District Health Officers is direct- ly controlled by the Senior Health Officer, who also exercises supervisory control over Medical Officers in charge of other health activities such as Maternal and Child Health Services, the School Health Service, etc.

The estimated expenditure for the financial year 1956/57 is $32,849,490. To this should be added subventions totalling $7,473,020 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Anti- Tuberculosis Association, Mission to Lepers, Hong Kong Auxiliary, and other similar bodies. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical Department and the medical subventions represents approximately 8.96% of the Colony's total estimated revenue. Estimated capital expenditure for the Medical Department is $2,313,000.

GENERAL HEALTH

The Colony continues to be extremely overcrowded although good progress is now being made in housing development. Industrial expansion continues at a rapid rate, particularly in the New Territories. Many new factories are of a satisfactory standard, several providing housing and medical clinics for their employees; others still remain in unsuitable temporary premises and cannot be described as satisfactory.

In 1956, as in the previous three years, the Colony has remained free from any case of the six quarantinable diseases i.e. smallpox, cholera, plague, epidemic typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever. There were no noteworthy outbreaks of any of the other communicable diseases. The incidence of notifiable diseases in general decreased, with a corresponding decrease in mortality from 17,940 cases and 3,095 deaths in 1955 to 16,071 cases and 2,870 deaths in 1956. The largest variations from the figures of the previous year are to be

}

126

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

noted in the decreased notification of tuberculosis, diphtheria and whooping cough, and an increased incidence of reported malaria and measles.

The enteric diseases, while continuing to remain a limited public health problem, showed little variation from the situa- tion in 1955, when there was evidence that this disease was coming under effective control. The incidence of the dysen- teries showed little change, but deaths ascribed to bacillary dysentery were considerably reduced from 37 in 1955 to 4 in 1956, the lowest figure for 10 years. Approximately 40 per cent of the cases of this type of dysentery occurred in infants and young children under 4 years of age, an incidence which is probably due most of all to the grossly overcrowded condi- tions under which the population live. Cases of cerebrospinal meningitis are surprisingly rare considering the common association of this disease with overcrowding, 21 cases being reported. Poliomyelitis, as notified, did not constitute any major problem, fewer cases being reported during the year under review than in the preceding year. Investigations carried out during the year on the antibody blood serology of the population appear to indicate that the majority of the local population have acquired immunity to this disease at a very early age. For the first year since the war no case of rabies, either animal or human, was reported. Immunization campaigns designed to increase protection against smallpox, typhoid and diphtheria were conducted at the appropriate seasons. These campaigns are widely publicized through the press and radio, and by loud speaker vans accompanied by mobile vaccination teams. It has been found that the loud speaker van is much the most effective method of immediate- ly attracting a good response from the population.

BIRTHS AND DEATHS

The birth rate again showed a rise above the figure for 1955, while the death rate continued to remain fairly station-

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127

ary. The following table gives the statistics of births and deaths for the last five years :

Births

Birth-Rate per 1,000 of population

Death-Rate

Deaths

per 1,000 of population

1952......

71,976

32

19,459

8.6

1953..

75,544

33.6

18,300

8.1

1954....

83,317

36.6

19,283

8.5

1955.....

90,511

38.7

19,080

8.2

1956.....

96,746

39.7

19,295

7.9

The maternal mortality rate in 1956 was 0.90 per 1,000 births, compared with 1.16 per 1,000 births in 1955, and 1.24 in 1954. The infant mortality rate was 60.9 per 1,000 live births, compared with 66.4 per 1,000 in 1955, and 72.4 in 1954. The infant mortality rate has fallen steadily since the war and, if the war years are excluded, over the last 26 years. The neo-natal mortality, or number of children dying in the first month of life, was 2,342, giving a neo-natal mortality rate of 24.2 per 1,000 live births. The number of still births was 988, giving a pre-natal mortality rate of 10.2 per 1,000 live births.

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

The table at Appendix XIII sets out in detail the returns of communicable diseases notified during the year as com- pared with 1955, including the mortality due to those diseases. Certain of these diseases call for some specific comment.

Bacillary Dysentery. While notifications of this disease were about the same as those for 1955, deaths ascribed to it decreased markedly and were the lowest recorded since 1946. The incidence shows a peak between the months of May and August. The following table shows the number of cases and deaths in two age groups with figures of the previous five years for comparison.

128

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Age

1951

C. D.

1952 C. D.

1953

1954

1955

1956

C.

D.

C. D.

C. D.

C. D.

0-4

92 13

94 12

299 16

250 27

205 19

213 1

5 & over

282 16

242 10

363 10

285 10

319 18

347 3

...

Total .....

374 29

336 22

662 26

535 37

524 37

560 4

0-4 percentage of total

Cases

24.6 28.0

45.2

46.7 39.1

38.0

Deaths

44.8 54.5 61.5 73.0 51.4 0.25

Enteric fever. The case fatality rate for this disease con- tinued to fall, though the number of cases notified was slightly higher than in 1955. A change in the age group distribution of this infection appears to have taken place since 1953, the highest number of cases now affecting children aged 5 to 9 years of age rather than the young adults of between 20 and 24, as was more commonly found in the immediate post-war years.

An immunization campaign was again conducted through- out the second quarter of the year with a view to raising resistance in the population during the peak period of summer incidence. Following these annual campaigns there has been a definite arrest in the prevalence of Enteric fever.

Diphtheria. The lowering of the incidence of this disease, which became dramatically apparent last year, was main- tained but, disappointingly, not materially increased. The immunization campaign was again particularly directed to children under 10 years of age, and the response was good. It is apparent, however, that many very young children still escape immunization and fall victim to this disease.

Measles, Chicken Pox and Whooping Cough. Measles continues to be the principal cause of infant mortality among the notifiable diseases. Notification of cases is certainly incomplete, and this disease is undoubtedly more serious amongst the child population than is generally appreciated. Chickenpox is of importance in Hong Kong because of the danger of confusion with smallpox; whooping cough, another

PUBLIC HEALTH

129

disease which tends to be somewhat reglected by parents, is all too often followed by serious complications and death.

Scarlet fever. Following the unusual outbreak in May 1955, this disease again appears to have virtually disappeared from the Colony.

Malaria. 'Protected' areas, in which control methods are applied, now comprise the whole of the Island, the urban areas of Kowloon and certain selected parts of the remainder of the Colony. In order to avoid as far as possible the danger of developing resistance amongst anopheline mosquitoes to insecticides by combining the use of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides simultaneously as larvicides and as adulticides, it has been considered advisable to discontinue D.D.T. residual spraying in the villages on the perimeter of the larval controlled areas as from the beginning of 1957.

80 per cent of all cases notified originate from unprotected areas. The apparent increase in the incidence follows a tight- ening up on notification after it had come to light that a large number of cases occurring in certain rural areas, where there is a tendency to regard the disease as 'normal', were not being reported. Malaria surveys of young children have been conducted in the unprotected areas, and the result in- dicated considerable variation between different localities. Spleen rates and parasite rates, however, were found to be gratifyingly low, and the disease does not present a major problem in this Colony.

The cost of the present malaria control measures is approxi- mately 34 cents per head of population per annum, and this small expenditure includes also the control of nuisance mos- quitoes in certain areas.

Poliomyelitis. During the year 31 cases of poliomyelitis occurred sporadically in various parts of the Colony. The incidence was highest in the third quarter of the year (21 cases), infants and young children being mainly affected. The risk of infection appears to be distinctly greater among

!

130

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

non-Chinese with residence of short duration in the Colony- there were 8 cases, all under 25 years of age, from among the Armed Services and their families during the year.

Poliomyelitis has been notifiable as an infectious disease since July 1948, the first full year for reports being 1949. Only paralytic cases are usually notified and all figures given are for such cases, with the exception of 7 cases in 1954 which were non-paralytic. No virus laboratory is available nearer than Singapore, and few serological tests to confirm diagnoses have been made.

Infection chiefly affects two quite specific groups, namely, (a) infants and young children both Chinese and Non-

Chinese; and

(b) young Non-Chinese adults particularly those who have

recently arrived in the Colony.

The first group (under 5 years of age) have accounted for 54% of all cases notified from 1949 to 1956; the majority have been Chinese but it is to be noted that the ratio of Chinese to Non-Chinese in the population is approximately 100 to 1. The second group of young European adults appear to be especially at risk within the first year or so of arrival, and a large number of the cases occurring in this group have been among British servicemen and their families; visiting United States Navy personnel have also been affected. The disease is also more fatal in this group with a tendency to a rapidly ascending paralysis causing death within one or two days of onset. There appears to be no real sex difference in the infantile group. The young adult group naturally shows more males affected since the servicemen at risk are pre- dominantly male. As regards season of the year, cases have occurred at random throughout the whole year with the exception of 1955 when 26 cases were reported in June. There has been no apparent association between and incidence of cases and immunological procedures-particularly anti- diphtheria inoculations though several hundred thousand of

PUBLIC HEALTH

131 these injections have been given to children under 10 years of age since 1952.

At the end of 1955 a small pilot survey to determine serum antibody types of this disease in Hong Kong was conducted with the aid of Professor J. H. Hale, M.D., M.R.C.P., Professor of Bacteriology at the University of Malaya. In June 1956 Professor Hale visited the Colony and conducted a more extensive survey for the same purpose. The results, which are now awaited, will be dealt with in the Medical Department's Annual Report in due course.

Tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis remained the prin- cipal health problem in the Colony. Though the number of notified cases continued to be high, the death rate from the disease is falling slowly but still exceeds 100 per 100,000. A recent statistical report compiled by the World Health Organization indicates that the chances of infection in Hong Kong, with a high death rate at an early age, are greater than in any other country covered by the report.

Control measures are based on the protection of infants and young children by B. C. G. vaccination and by therapeu- tic measures designed to control the disease in known cases. B. C. G. vaccination is officially sponsored and financed, the main campaign now being concentrated on the vaccination of new born infants in the first few days of life. Supplies of vaccine for this purpose are available free of charge to all private medical practitioners and midwives on demand. Older children are offered vaccination, after preliminary skin test- ing, through the School Health Service, the Maternal and Child Health Service, the Tuberculosis Service and through the Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association. All notified cases are visited in their homes by Tuberculosis Visitors and advised on hygiene methods to prevent the spread of infec- tion. Contacts of all notified cases are offered free clinical and X-ray examination in Government Clinics.

Because of the shortage of beds treatment of Tuberculosis

132

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

at Government institutions is now based on preparatory chemotherapy at out-patient clinics, brief intensive treatment in hospital, and prolonged follow-up treatment again at the out-patient clinics. The results of this form of treatment, forced upon Hong Kong by local circumstances, are gratify- ingly satisfactory. The Tuberculosis Specialist has just published a full analytical report on the method, which gives results only a little inferior to the more conventional forms of treatment.

The Anti-Tuberculosis Association has almost completed building a new 540 bed hospital for the treatment of better- class cases of tuberculosis on a payment basis.

Leprosy. There has been a considerable increase in the number of leprosy cases attending for treatment; 8 clinic sessions are now held weekly in the Urban Areas and 3 ses- sions monthly in the New Territories. 751 cases were dis- covered in 1956, of which nearly 40% were of the infectious. variety. Much the same technique is used in the treatment of leprosy as for tuberculosis and for the same reasons, the majority of cases being treated as out-patients and not up- rooted from their homes and segregated. The increasing readiness with which new cases are coming forward volun- tarily for treatment reflects growing confidence amongst the people. Contact tracing and observation, particularly of children in infected households, produced good results. Steps to protect young children exposed to risk are under considera- tion. At present B. C. G. is being used, and in some cases prophylactic chemotherapy on a restricted and tentative basis.

A special almoner to assist in the difficult problem of the rehabilitation of cured leprosy patients was appointed in 1956.

An unofficial settlement of leprosy patients squatting in Sandy Bay at Pokfulam was cleared in July 1956 to allow completion in that area of a new convalescent hospital building for crippled children. Increased accommodation in

25,000

20,000

15,000

10,000

5,000

NUMBER OF COTTAGES IN RESETTLEMENT AREAS 1953-56 NUMBER OF ROOMS IN RESETTLEMENT ESTATES 1954-56

COTTAGES

ROOMS

PUBL

11

学习

31.12.53 31.3.54 30.6.54 $30.9.54

- 31.12.54 31.3.55 30.6.55 30.9.55 31.12.55 31.3.56 30.6:56 | 30.9.56

31.12.56

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

NUMBER OF PERSONS RESETTLED 1953-56

4.

t

F

31.12.53 31.3.54 30.6.54 30.9.54 31.12.54 31.3.55 30.6.55

30.9.55 31.12.55 31.3.56 30.6.56 30.9.56

31.12.56

תיו

PUBLIC HEALTH

133

the Leprosarium at Hei Ling Chau, which is administered by the Mission to Lepers with the aid of Government grants, was made available during the year.

The Venereal Diseases. Steady improvement in the control of these diseases has been maintained. 56 Clinic Sessions are now held each week for the diagnosis and outpatient treatment of venereal diseases. A small hospital of 28 beds is available for the inpatient treatment of women. Very satis- factory liaison with the medical branches of the Armed Services continued to help the follow-up and treatment of notified contacts. Routine postal and personal follow-up of defaulters from treatment was moderately successful.

Blood tests for syphilis are carried out for all expectant mothers attending, Ante-natal clinics, for intending emi- grants to the United States of America and for reasing number of patients referred from Family Planning Clinics throughout the Colony.

HEALTH SERVICES

Port Health. The Port Health Administration is respon- sible for the prevention of the importation of infectious diseases into the Colony by sea, land and air, for the sanitary control of the port area and airport, for the carrying out of the provisions of the International Sanitary Regulations, 1951, as embodied in the Quarantine and Prevention of Disease Ordinance, for the compilation of epidemiological statistics and reports and for the planning and supervision of anti-smallpox, anti-diphtheria, anti-typhoid and other cam- paigns. The staff consists of health officers and inspectors, public vaccinators and a fumigator.

Ships were inspected and fumigated as necessary with sulphur or cyanide, and issued with International Deratting or Deratting Exemption Certificates.

The dock area and airport are included in the rodent control scheme for the Colony, and returns of rodents destroyed and

134

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

spleen smears examined for P. pestis were submitted weekly to the World Health Organization Epidemiological Intel- ligence Station, Singapore, by this office.

A constant check is maintained on the purity of drinking water supplied to ships by bacteriological examination of weekly samples from water boats and dock hydrants.

Maternal and Child Health Services. Maternal and Child Health Services provide ante-natal, post-natal, and infant care in five full time centres and fourteen part-time centres throughout the Colony. A new full-time centre was opened at Homantin in September 1956. Several special clinic sessions to care for children of pre-school age (2-5 years) were started during the year. The remaining members of the World Health Organization Maternal and Child Health team which had been assisting in the development of Maternal and Child Health Services since 1954 left Hong Kong in March 1956.

Midwifery services, both for home deliveries and for de- liveries in maternity homes, are provided by 35 Government midwives who undertook 11,013 deliveries during 1956. Private midwives delivered 34,771 babies, mostly in the 133 private maternity homes registered in the Colony.

School Health Service. There is a School Health Service, in which the number of participants has still to be limited owing to the great increase in the school population and to the lack of accommodation, staff and facilities to attend them. Apart from regular periodic medical inspections of pupils and treatment of their minor ailments at school clinics, spectacles are prescribed and made for those requiring them, and limited dental treatment is offered. A reorganization of the School Health Service is at present under consideration.

Health Education. This work is an important part of the work in all Health Centres, particularly in the Maternal and Child Health Clinics and School Clinics. The Health Visitor

PUBLIC HEALTH

135

and Health Nurse are the key workers in this branch of Pre- ventive Medicine. The most effective results are probably achieved by individual home visits, although group demon- strations, discussions, film strips and similar methods of health propaganda are popular and well attended at clinic sessions.

OPHTHALMIC SERVICE

This Service is especially concerned with the early diagnosis and treatment of those diseases which cause blind- ness. It is estimated that 75% of blindness in Hong Kong is preventable if recognized at an early stage.

The Service is based on two major Ophthalmic Centres in the urban areas-one on the island and one in Kowloon- which are equipped with operating theatres, and from which a specialist service of regular Ophthalmic Clinics is operated in outlying dispensaries of the New Territories.

The staff includes four dispensing opticians who make spectacles prescribed for children under the School Health Scheme and for destitute ophthalmic patients.

Apart from the Government service, the Chinese Hospital Groups employ three part-time ophthalmologists who hold out-patient clinics once weekly, with fortnightly operating sessions. The University employs one part-time ophthal- mologist for two weekly sessions. There are some fourteen other doctors in the Colony practising ophthalmology, mainly as refractionists in private practice.

DENTAL SERVICE

The Government operates a General Dental Service and a School Dental Service; the former being responsible for the treatment of Government Officers and their dependants, impoverished persons under medical treatment in Govern- ment Hospitals, prisoners and certain other categories of the poorer members of the population. The School Dental

136

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Service examines and treats participant children in Govern- ment, subsidiary and private schools.

Visits by patients to dental clinics totalled 78,223 during the year, and were divided between the various classes as follows:

Government Officers

Government Dependants.

General Public

School Children

15,499

12,538

17,190

32,996

In all 24,000 permanent and 31,476 deciduous teeth were extracted, 20,273 permanent and 3,808 deciduous teeth were filled or crowned, and 1,123 dentures and special prosthetic appliances were fitted in General and School Dental Clinics.

X

One student dental nurse was sent to the Dental Nurse Training School in Penang for two years and four months training. On her return in 1957 she will be employed in the School Dental Service.

During the year the Government entered into an agreement with an approved panel of private dentists under which, in order to relieve the pressure on the Government dental clinics, Government servants can apply to these private practitioners for dental treatment against reimbursement by Government of half the agreed scale of fees.

The Government Dental Scholarship scheme was instituted in 1954 to provide a steady source of supply of qualified dental surgeons for the Colony. Students spend one year at Hong Kong University and four years at the Dental School of the University of Malaya in Singapore. 5 students began their studies during 1956, making a total of 17 in receipt of Government dental scholarships.

Several dental clinics are operated by welfare organizations for the poor; and many dentists gave their services free of charge, particularly at the evening clinics at the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society's Centres in Hong Kong and Kow-

PUBLIC HEALTH

137

loon, and in connexion with the activities of the St. John Ambulance Brigade Penetration Parties which visit remote areas in the New Territories.

DEVELOPMENT

Scavenging in the New Territories became the responsi- bility of the District Commissioner, New Territories, in October, when this function was transferred from the Medical Department.

A new Government Dispensary with 7 maternity beds at Sai Kung was officially opened in January 1956, and an extension was made to the Maurine Grantham Health Centre at Tsuen Wan, which increased the number of maternity beds from 13 to 26.x

Plans for two new major health centres at Tai Po and Shek Kip Mei were completed within the year.

The new Cardio-Respiratory Unit provided by the Univer- sity at Queen Mary Hospital was opened on 14th August, 1956, and is proving an invaluable adjunct to the investiga- tion of diseases of the heart and lungs. It is now possible to carry out valvotomy for mitral stenosis after essential pre-operative investigations.

The first stage of the new Mental Hospital at Castle Peak has been completed with the construction of the Chronic Wards. It is expected that these will be opened in January 1957.

Work continues on planning the new 1,300 bedded Kow- loon Hospital and a large new polyclinic at Sai Ying Pun. Training of the additional medical personnel for the new Hospital is also under way.

In Appendix XIV will be found a list of all hospitals in Hong Kong, Government and private, with numbers of beds; in Appendix XV a statement of the total numbers of registered doctors, nurses and other medical personnel; and

1

138

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

in Appendix XVI a list of Government medical personnel undergoing organized training.

URBAN SERVICES

The Urban Council, the constitution of which is described in the Chapter on Constitution and Administration, has statutory responsibility in a number of matters normally falling within the scope of municipal administration, includ- ing bathing beaches, swimming pools, cemeteries, crematoria, mortuaries, the collection and disposal of refuse and night- soil, the inspection and health control of domestic premises and food establishments, food hygiene and sampling, mar- kets, hawkers, parks and playgrounds, pest control, public latrines and bath-houses, and slaughterhouses. The Council is empowered by the Public Health (Sanitation) and Public Health (Food) Ordinances, and other enactments to make by-laws for the regulation and control of these activities, such subsidiary legislation being subject to the approval of the Legislative Council. During the year considerable time and effort was devoted towards a revision both of the sub- stantive law under which the Council operates and of the supporting by-laws. The second draft of a new Public Health and Urban Services Ordinance was under consideration by the Law Revision Select Committee at the end of the year, and several sets of by-laws had been revised.

The Urban Services Department has two main sub- divisions, one dealing with sanitation and certain aspects of public health; the other with parks, playgrounds and gardens. At the end of the year the staff of the Sanitary Division consisted of 184 professional and technical officers, and 5,436 other workers. This included a health inspectorate of 178 officers, 150 of whom had passed a Royal Society of Health examination, and 28 probationer Inspectors under training. The staff of the Gardens Division was five pro- fessional and technical officers, and 298 other workers.

PUBLIC HEALTH

139

Sanitary Division. Approximately 2,600 people were em- ployed on the collection and disposal of refuse and on street cleansing, using 52 refuse-collection vehicles, 6 street-washing vehicles and 18 barges specially constructed for the removal of refuse. Street-washing vehicles were diverted from normal day-time operations to convey nullah and well-water to mar- kets, public latrines, slaughterhouses and garages for wash- ing down purposes, as a means of conserving mains water. A regular service was, however, maintained for the cleansing of street gully-traps and the nightly washing of roads and foot-paths.

The amount of refuse collected increased steadily, and amounted at the end of the year to 1,710 cubic yards daily. The method of disposal is marine dumping in an area due to be reclaimed, the present city refuse dump being recently opened at Gin Drinker's Bay in the New Territories some five miles west of Kowloon. The vehicles deliver their refuse to specially constructed barges which are towed to the dump by tugs and are there discharged by manual labour. Diffi- culties were experienced during the year as a result of the steep gradient of the sea-bed at the dumping area and the strong tidal currents, which caused slides and occasional collapses at the face of the dump. Working conditions at the dump are uncongenial and arduous, and consideration is being given to the possibility of using more modern methods. During the year additional transport was provided to convey staff to and from the dump, and it was decided that working time should include travelling time; in addition, a free mid- day meal was provided.

In the urban areas increasing difficulties in keeping street hawker sites clean has made it necessary to introduce an extra night-scavenging service in certain areas. Special ar- rangements were made for cleansing and providing temporary latrine and ablution facilities in streets in which some 28,000 people sought temporary shelter after being rendered home- less by fires in various squatter areas.

140

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The conservancy section, which provides for the collection and disposal of night-soil from approximately 48,000 floors, employs a staff of about 1,700. The amount of night-soil collected exceeded 70,000 cubic yards, most of which was delivered by barges to the Tsuen Wan Maturation Station, from where it is distributed by the Vegetable Marketing Organization to farmers in the New Territories for use as fertilizer. Additional staff were engaged to enable all con- servancy staff, who do all their work at night, to enjoy a 42-hour working week and two-day rest period each month. Orders were placed for eight new tanker-type conservancy vehicles for service in the Central District of Hong Kong. Delivery of the vehicles is expected early in 1957. It is hoped that this experiment in the mechanization of the night-soil collection organization will bring an improved service to house-holders and cause less offence during collection and transport.

Many complaints about mosquitoes were received during the spring and autumn. Apart from several anti-mosquito drives in particular districts, a campaign which embraced nearly all the urban area was held during September. 30,000 houses and huts were visited, and 756 breeding places were found and eliminated. A severe infestation of flies in Pok- fulam and the Peak areas of the island was brought under control by effective survey and abatement action.

New activities of the Pest Control Section included the introduction of warfarin (an anti-coagulant rodenticide) for routine use in the control of rats and mice. This material, which is safer to human beings and domestic animals than most other rodenticides, also has the advantage of being effective against all three species of rodent pests which occur commonly in the urban area of Hong Kong.

Another new activity was the commencement of studies on the life-histories and habits of the two common culicine mosquito pests (Aedes albopictus and Culex fatigans) with a view to the development of more effective control measures.

PUBLIC HEALTH

141

Regular inspections are made by health inspectors of more than 7,000 premises licensed for the preparation or sale of food, and of some 117,000 domestic floors. Whenever pos- sible advice is given on personal and food hygiene. During the year 1,380 food samples were taken for bacteriological or chemical analysis, and over 31,000 lbs. of unwholesome food- stuffs were seized, or voluntarily surrendered, and destroyed. More than 44,000 public health nuisances were dealt with.

The retailing of fresh meat, fresh fish and poultry is restricted to public markets or to food-shops operating under licence. Only fresh meat from animals slaughtered in ap- proved abattoirs is permitted to be sold in markets and food- shops. Imported meat may be sold under special permit. In the Government abattoirs 720,009 pigs, 81,998 cattle, and 9,606 sheep and goats were slaughtered, and some 502 tons of dying or diseased animals were condemned during the

year.

A sub-committee of the Finance Committee of Legislative Council and a new Select Committee of the Urban Council were appointed to consider in detail the construction of a new Government abattoir at an estimated cost of over $20 million.

The By-Products Plant at the existing abattoir continued to operate satisfactorily, producing about 96 tons of meat and bone meal, 95 tons of animal grease and 1 ton of hoof and horn meal. The demand for the latter continues to exceed present supply. With a view to improving the yield of these products by better preservation of the available raw materials for processing, work on a refrigerated store for the plant will shortly be put in hand.

One retail market at Reclamation Street was demolished and is being replaced by a new market of modern design, which will also provide for the market stalls hitherto accom- modated on the site of the old Yaumati Market. The small retail market in Healthy Village, North Point, was demol- ished to enable the building of the Hong Kong Housing

142

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Society's Estate to go ahead. This resulted in a slight de- crease in the number of market stalls to 2,282.

The provision of additional public bath-houses and latrines proceeded in accordance with a long-term programme. Three new public bath-houses were erected, making a total of fifteen in the urban district. No charge is made for the use of these bath-houses, which have a daily attendance of over 4,100

persons.

At the end of the year there were 7,939 licensed pedlar hawkers, 1,252 cooked food stalls, 724 non-cooked food stalls, 5,556 fixed pitches (from which commodities of every de- scription from vegetables to haberdashery are retailed), 1,525 fixed pitches occupied by tradesmen and newspaper hawkers, and 339 ice cream hawkers. The stalls and pitches are regu- larly inspected, special attention being paid to their activities from the public health point of view.

Serious obstruction is being caused by cooked food stalls which are setting chairs and tables outside their permitted area on public foot-paths and scavenging lanes. This has led to a ban being placed by the Council on the issue of new licenses and on the transfer of existing stalls to new sites. Experiments are now being made to determine afresh what would be a reasonable and realistic amount of seating space for customers at these stalls.

The Gardens Division of the Urban Services Department is concerned with practical horticulture and botanical work. The horticultural section is responsible for maintaining and developing the Botanic Gardens; the grounds of Government House; public recreation areas and children's playgrounds in the urban areas; most grounds of government schools, offices, hospitals and quarters; and the grassed areas of the Airport. These areas now total about 425 acres. There are five main nurseries for the production of ornamental trees, shrubs, and other plants. Several thousand plants were grown in pots during the year for official decoration purposes, and for non-competitive displays at agricultural and horticultural

PUBLIC HEALTH

143

shows. Responsibility for amenity tree-planting in streets in Kowloon was transferred to the Division during the year (responsibility for this work in Hong Kong having been taken over in 1955).

The need for more public open spaces, playing-fields and children's playgrounds makes itself continually felt. A pro- gramme for future development was drawn up, and several new areas were put into use during the year. Considerable progress was made in the development of Victoria Park on the Causeway Bay Reclamation. Tree-lined paths, hard- surfaced games pitches and two children's playgrounds were laid out, and the Public Department commenced the construc- tion of a public swimming-pool, changing rooms, pavilions and service buildings.

Careful thought was given to the preservation of the his- toric Sung Wong Toi monument at Kai Tak, and, after consultations with the local Kai Fong Welfare Association and the Lok Sin Tong Benevolent Society, a rest garden in the appropriate style of the Sung Dynasty has been built close to the original position of the memorial. The inscribed portion of the stone in its new setting is illustrated between

pp. 204-205.

The botanical section is primarily concerned with the care of the Colonial Herbarium, housed in an air-conditioned room in the University. The collection consists of some 27,000 specimens, and is the work of a long line of botanists and plant explorers, whose work started in 1841 when Richard Brinsley Hinds made the first important collection of plants on the island of Hong Kong. Specimens and data are con- tinually being added as areas in the remote parts of the Colony are again botanically surveyed.

Multiplication of the solitary plant of the newly found Camellia granthamiana was put in hand, and propagating material distributed to institutions in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. An interesting but less spectacular find was a flourishing collection of Camellia oleifera, a species thought to have been extinct locally.

Chapter 10: Housing

THE housing position appears to grow more serious year by year. The general background of Hong Kong's housing problem, which has been so gravely accentuated by the influx of refugees from China, may be briefly described as follows. The majority of the population lives in the tene- ments of the urban area which are densely overcrowded. Of 80,000 tenement floors existing before the war, 16,000 were damaged or destroyed during the occupation. By 1946, it was estimated that the population had already returned to its prewar figure of 1,600,000; it has continued to grow, by immigration and natural increase, until it is now estimated to be 2,535,000. It is virtually certain that new housing has in no way matched this increase. The housing situation before the war was already giving cause for serious concern; it is by all appearances far more serious today. Although the legal minimum living space in the Colony is 35 sq. ft. per adult, an unofficial survey conducted during the year in four of the worst tenement districts indicated an average of about 15 sq. ft. an adult for the four districts and an average of just over 12 sq. ft. per adult for the worst district. Those who cannot find, or cannot afford, accommodation in the tenements tend to become squatters. Although by the end of the year resettlement accommodation had been provided for over 200,000 squatters, it was estimated that an even greater number still remained in illegal occupation of Crown and other land, and on the roof-tops of the most congested districts.

But the real seriousness of the situation lies in its apparent development from bad to worse. In the last 12 months the population is estimated to have risen from 2,400,000 to 2,535,000. Of this increase of 135,000, only 77,000 can be

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accounted for as the natural increase by excess of births over deaths; the remainder must be accounted for as immigrants, the great majority from China, who have chosen for one reason or another to come to Hong Kong. The year's excess of births over deaths may not present an immediate addition to the housing problem, although it will obviously do so in due course; the immigrants do, in-so-far as every immigrant means an additional person, usually an adult, to add to the overcrowding in existing accommodation. To house these 58,000 immigrants would cost about $30,000,000, if they were provided with accommodation of the type in the Resettlement multi-storey estates; it would cost about $120,000,000 if they were provided with the type of housing at present being financed from public funds and let on a non-profit-making basis. These figures do not include the cost of land. There would be less cause for alarm if the number of houses being built matched the need for accom- modation. The number of houses does continue to grow, and there is at the present time something of a building boom in the Colony. Over the last 5 years an average of over $66,000,000 of private capital has been expended each year on domestic accommodation. In 1956 approximately $163,000,000 of private capital was expended on building of which approximately $106,000,000 went into domestic accom- modation. It is doubtful whether as much as $40,000,000 of this went into tenement houses, or accommodation within reach of the pocket of the majority of the population. But even if it did, the fact remains that it would only just have sufficed for the numbers of the immigrants, assuming they could pay the rents demanded, without catering for the needs of the expanding population, and without relieving the existing density of overcrowding or decreasing the number of squatters.

The housing situation, therefore, continues to present many grave problems. For the majority of the population of the urban area, the only accommodation available is a cubicle,

1

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

or a bedspace, in a crowded tenement building often itself in need of repair or reconstruction; and for this accommoda- tion a relatively substantial rent is required, notwithstanding the degree of rent control and protection from eviction afforded by the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance.

Since the war land has been made available by Government at about one-third of the usual market value in order to encourage non-profit-making housing projects by a number of voluntary societies catering for the general public or by larger employers for their own employees.

Amongst the voluntary societies the principal role has been played by the Hong Kong Housing Society which is the pioneer locally of low-cost housing. The Society, which was formed in 1948 as an offshoot of the Hong Kong Council of Social Service and incorporated by Ordinance in 1951 as a separate body, at present controls 4 Estates in Hong Kong and Kowloon :

(a) The Estate at Hung Hom is the largest, with 25 shops and 406 flats already occupied by a population of 3,000 mostly at monthly rentals, including rates, of $82. Building is going ahead on 276 flats, and work on a further 876 will start very shortly. This Estate on completion will consist of 1,558 flats for white-collar workers whose average monthly income is $530.

(b) At Sheung Li Uk there are 270 flats accommodating 1,400 people with monthly inclusive rentals from $61 to $80. Further extensions are planned.

(c) At Healthy Village, North Point, the initial stage of the Society's first Hong Kong estate, which will ultimately include 580 flats, was occupied in 1956. There are 12 shops and 280 flats already in use, housing some 1,680 persons at inclusive monthly rentals of $61 to $110. The accommodation provided here has somewhat better amenities than that at Hung Hom.

(d) At Matauchung, the Society's oldest property, there

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are 184 cottages let at a monthly rental of $30 to families whose income is below $350 a month. The total population. of the estate is 1,032.

The Housing Society now manages a total of 1,177 flats, cottages, or shops, housing some 7, 100 people. Construction. has been financed by loans at low interest, totalling some $17 million so far, from the Colony's Development Fund. Site formation has been carried out with grants from the United Kingdom's Colonial Development and Welfare Funds.

Other Societies interested in low-cost housing, not in Resettlement areas, include the Hong Kong Model Housing Society, which in 1952 completed 100 flats in an estate at North Point and in subsequent years has added a further 200 flats; and the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society, which in 1956 completed its estate housing 280 families at Lady Grantham Villas in Kowloon.

Amongst employers, there have been two tendencies, the first of which is exemplified by the cotton mills and other modern factories which have included in their premises. modern dormitory accommodation for workers. The second method, that of constructing flats for employees and their families, has been followed, for example, by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation which has erected 200 flats for its local staff; the Hong Kong Tramways which has already built 160 flats at North Point and is planning a further 100; the China Motor Bus Company which houses 200 workers and their families; and the Hong Kong Electric Company which has provided accommodation for 259 of its employees. The response of employers, however, to this scheme has for the most part been disappointing.

In its own field as an employer, Government has fostered the formation of co-operative building societies by offering loans to groups of local civil servants on the pensionable establishment to enable them to purchase land and construct blocks of flats. By the end of 1956 33 building co-operatives

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

with a total of 903 members had been formed, and projects involving the loan of $28 million had been completed or approved. More schemes are under consideration.

It has, however, for some time been obvious that greater efforts than these were required in the provision of low-cost housing. In 1954 a Housing Authority was created, charged with the duty of providing accommodation for people living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions. Under the provisions of the Housing Ordinance, No. 18 of 1954, the Authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex-officio, plus not more than three members appointed by the Governor. Two such appointments have so far been made. The Authority functions as a commercial enterprise, and although rents will be kept as low as possible, they must be sufficient to cover expenditure. Crown land is allocated at one-third of the normal market price, and Government loans are granted at a low rate of interest. In 1955 the interest rate for future loans was raised from 31% to 5% per annum. The Government maintains a general control over the Authority's activities, and all its housing schemes must receive Government's prior approval.

The routine administration and execution of the decisions of the Authority are carried out by the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department, under the control of the Director of that department, who is concurrently Chairman of the Housing Authority. The staff was considerably expanded during the year; a full-time Secretary to the Authority was appointed, and a Housing Manager arrived from the United Kingdom in April to be responsible for selection of tenants and management of properties. Recruit- ment and training of the necessary investigating staff was put in hand. The salaries of all staff are reimbursed to Government by the Authority, plus a 30% surcharge to cover the cost of pensions, quarters, passages, office accommoda- tion, etc. The building schemes so far put in hand are being carried out through private architects.

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The Authority's first estate is now under construction on reclaimed land on the sea front at Java Road, North Point. There, on a fine site of about 6 acres, 1,955 self-contained flats, in 11-storey blocks, to accommodate about 12,000 persons are now being erected. Although the density is high, each flat has through draught and uninterrupted access to light and air; ample provision has been made for open spaces and playgrounds within the estate. The estate includes a school for 800 pupils, two health clinics, a post office, community centre and 73 shops. A bus terminus will be incorporated within the boundaries, and a ferry terminal will be constructed nearby. The flats, which are all self-contained, are of different sizes, to accommodate from 5 to 10 persons. Rents are not yet fixed but will probably vary from about $60 to about $120 a month, exclusive of rates and water charges. The minimum accommodation provided will consist of a living room and separate bed room, and in addition each flat will have its own kitchen, lavatory, shower, balcony and facilities for drying clothes. An adequate lift service will be provided, and there will be refuse chutes at central points in each block. The school, clinics and post office will be run by Government Departments, and have been designed to approved specifications. The general building contract for this estate, which will cost about $33,000,000, was let in August 1956, and by the end of the year structural work had been completed in all blocks up to the 8th floor. The flats are expected to be ready for occupation in July 1957. An artist's drawing of the estate, as it will appear when completed, was exhibited at the 1956 exhibition of the Royal Academy of Arts in London, and is reproduced between pp. 156-157. The estate is designed by Mr. Eric Cumine, F.R.I.B.A.

Work on the Authority's second estate, overlooking the harbour near Green Island, at Cadogan Street, Kennedy Town, commenced in July 1956. This site, covering 31 acres, is on a steep hillside, entailing fairly extensive cutting and site formation, the cost of which is to be met by a grant from

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Colonial Development and Welfare Funds. The buildings are being planned on cross-contour development, and at its highest point the site is 285 ft. above street level. 640 flats will be constructed here, in 5 blocks, averaging 9 storeys in height, and designed to accommodate about 4,500 persons. There will also be a 3-storey community centre, 10 ware- houses and a number of shops; provision has been made for playgrounds and open spaces within the development. The flats on this estate are generally of a simpler type than at North Point but are likewise self-contained, and provided with shower, balcony, kitchen and lavatory. The type of plan adopted is the gallery approach system, with blocks only one flat deep: this ensures that all flats are airy and well- ventilated. An interesting feature of the arrangements is that with very little structural alteration two adjoining single-room flats can be converted into a flat with a living-room and 2 bedrooms, should this prove practicable at some future date. Lifts and refuse chutes will be installed. Rents are likely to vary from about $65 to about $90 a month, exclusive of rates and water charges. Building construction is scheduled to start in February 1957, and the flats should be completed about 12 months later. The total cost of this scheme, which is designed by Mr. T.S.C. Feltham, A.R.I.B.A., is estimated at $7,500,000.

The Authority's third project will be at So Uk, Cheung Sha Wan. This will probably be the largest domestic housing development ever carried out as an integrated scheme in the Far East. Site formation, which has been planned to a master lay-out plan produced by Mr. Eric Cumine, is expected to commence in February 1957 and will take just over a year to complete. The major part of the cost of site formation work will be met from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds. At the end of the year four private architects were appointed to design the estate, working as a consortium under the. chairmanship of Mr. Cumine. Standards and details of the

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accommodation to be provided are still under discussion, the general intention being to house about 30,000 persons in blocks of flats varying from 12 to 16 storeys. Two schools are to be included, and the total capital cost of this estate will be of the order of $50 million. This 19-acre site slopes from south to north, and the blocks, most of which will face south over the harbour, will for the most part be on different levels, a situation which is favourable to the provision of adequate light and air. There will be plenty of covered area and open recreation space on the estate.

Preliminary consideration is also being given to the plan- ning of a fourth estate, to be built on a 26-acre site specially reserved by the Government to the north-east of Kai Tak Airport.

As this planning and building work has proceeded, the initial steps are being taken in the selection of tenants. The Authority's waiting list was opened on 1st November, 1956, and special publicity was given to the basic conditions of eligibility and the general principles which would govern selection. At present an application is considered only if the applicant is over 21 years of age, has lived in Hong Kong at least since mid-1948, and has an income between $300 and $900 a month. During November and December 17, 168 application forms were issued, and by the end of the year 4,835 completed forms had been received from applicants who on the face of it satisfied the basic conditions. Completed forms were coming in steadily at the rate of about 70 a day. A start has also been made on visiting applicants in their homes in order to check particulars given and collect further relevant information. 470 of these visits had been made by the end of December. Allocation of tenancies is to be made in accordance with a points system in which much the most important factor is the applicants' housing need.

Considerable steps have, therefore, been taken towards

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the provision of low-cost housing for the population. Indeed if the efforts of the Resettlement Department, which has housed over 200,000 persons, be taken into account, it can be stated that accommodation on a non-profit-making basis has been provided or is planned for over 300,000 persons or approximately 12% of the population. It is nevertheless evident that the needs of the increased population are still out-stripping the housing provided, and that a solution of Hong Kong's housing problem requires an all-out effort, which must, in practice, be limited by the availability of land and capital, and by the capacity of the building industry.

In order to obtain a clearer appreciation of the whole problem the Governor in February 1956 appointed a special committee, under the Chairmanship of the Director of Urban Services, to investigate and report on the Colony's housing situation, including resettlement of squatters, in relation both to the needs of the population, now and in the foreseeable future, and to the resources likely to be available for the purpose. The Committee was to make specific recommenda- tions as to the measures, both direct and indirect, which Government might take to ensure that those needs are met so far as is practicable. In its first interim report, which was accepted by the Government in July, the committee recom- mended that the resettlement programme should be expedited, and that a Development Division of the Public Works Department should be set up in order to plan and carry out large-scale engineering works designed to open up new land. for housing and industry. The second recommendation, the acceptance of which represented a new departure in the Government's land development policy, reflected the com- mittee's belief that the most important and urgent task was to relieve the basic land shortage and that such a programme, though expensive, would bring in, as it proceeded, substantial revenue from land sales as well as the benefits for which it was primarily designed. Difficulties in recruiting the

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necessary engineering staff have unfortunately held up the formation of this new Development Division.

RESETTLEMENT

It is now two and a half years since the decision was taken in 1954 to embark on a gigantic programme for the con- struction of large Resettlement Estates of seven-storey blocks as the only practicable means of solving the squatter problem, and so releasing the land urgently needed for the houses, factories, schools, hospitals and other essential requirements of a rapidly expanding community. So far Government has built multi-storey resettlement accommodation for 103,000 persons, in addition to the temporary two-storey accommoda- tion for 36,000 persons built early in 1954.

Before 1954 the only form of resettlement offered to squat- ters was the allocation of sites in resettlement areas which consisted of terraced hillsides unsuitable for multi-storey buildings. It is still the policy to develop these older resettle- ment areas, now known as cottage areas, to the maximum extent possible, and the 14,000 one-storey cottages and huts. which they now contain provide reasonable housing for over 72,000 persons. 10,800 of these cottages are owned by the settlers themselves, while the remainder are rented, sometimes on hire purchase terms. 1,000 cottages are owned by the Government, and for these a monthly rent of $10 is charged in addition to the quarterly permit fee payable for sites in the cottage areas.

52,700 squatters were cleared and resettled during 1956. Some 14,000 of these were the victims of squatter fires, while 38,700 were occupying 104 acres of land required urgently for various forms of permanent development. The areas cleared included sites for two large housing estates to be built by the Housing Authority, for eleven schools, and for four welfare and community centres. Other sites were cleared to allow the Public Works Department to carry out major drainage and road works, and to lay new water mains for

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the Tai Lam Chung scheme. The remaining sites were needed for houses and factories to be built by private enterprise.

The great majority of the squatters cleared were resettled in seven-storey blocks built by the Public Works Depart- ment. At Tai Hang Tung and Li Cheng Uk eighteen such blocks were completed, and good progress was made on the redevelopment of the Shek Kip Mei Estate, where seven- storey blocks are being built to replace the temporary two- storey buildings erected immediately after the Shek Kip Mei fire of December 1953. A fourth estate at Hung Hom in Kowloon is half-finished, and site formation for a fifth estate at Lo Fu Ngam in the north-eastern part of Kowloon is under way. These last two are small estates which will house about 17,000 persons between them, but work is now about to start on a very large estate at Wong Tai Sin, north of Kai Tak Airport, the first stage of which will provide accom- modation for about 63,000 persons.

The administration of these estates, which may house as many as 55,000 persons, presents special problems, particu- larly as the inhabitants were all formerly living in insanitary squatter areas which were beyond the reach of the normal urban administration. As in every community there are some undesirable elements in these congested resettlement estates, but there is no doubt that the great majority do appreciate what is being done for them by Government and are respond- ing to the efforts of the staff to train them to be decent, law-abiding citizens of Hong Kong. One indication of this is the fact that out of $3,322,187 due in 1956 as rent for rooms in the resettlement estates bad debts amounted to only $1,213.

The annual revenue collected from the estates is sufficient to cover all administrative and maintenance costs, and also to provide for the recovery of the original capital costs (on the basis of a nominal charge of $10 per square foot for the land) in 40 years, with interest at 31% per annum.

Particular attention has been paid during the year to the problem of providing employment for resettled persons, or

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of enabling them to continue to practise the great variety of trades and occupations which are to be found in the squatter areas. For this reason most of the ground-floor rooms in multi-storey resettlement estates are now being allocated for business purposes, including all kinds of shops, restaurants, cafes and many different types of workshop. Such businesses normally occupy a complete bay of 240 sq. ft., at a rental of $100 a month.

There are, however, a number of industries which cannot be allowed in domestic buildings, and it has, therefore, been decided to construct a large five-storey factory building at Cheung Sha Wan, in the north-western part of Kowloon, to accommodate squatter factories and workshops. This building will contain 95,000 sq. ft. of floor space and will be suitable for a wide range of factories and workshops not requiring large areas of open ground. This pilot project will be com- pleted by mid-summer 1957.

More welfare centres have been built in the cottage areas where it is still possible to allocate sites for such purposes. In the multi-storey estates, where no sites can be made available, the practice is to allocate large roof-tops with penthouses at either end, together with a certain number of normal rooms, to welfare organizations willing to conduct boys' and girls' clubs under the supervision of the Social Welfare Office. The Education Department has also recently agreed that the penthouses on these roof-tops may be used for school pur- poses, and it is hoped that the present figure of three schools will soon be considerably increased.

Squatter fires have been less frequent and smaller than in previous years, and the total number made homeless by such fires was under 6,000, as compared with over 14,000 in the previous year.

Squatter prevention teams have had a busy year, probably owing to the large influx of persons from China during the period when immigration restrictions were relaxed. During that period there was a great increase in the number of huts on the roof-tops of privately owned tenement buildings,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

leading the Government to decide that further squatting on roof-tops must be prevented if a serious new fire and health risk was to be avoided. A survey of all roof-tops in November showed that the number of roof-top squatters was about 63,000, and these persons have been urged to find other accommodation; it is not possible at present to offer them resettlement. Every roof in the urban areas is now regularly visited by patrols, and all huts erected since the date of the completion of the survey are by law required to be de- molished.

The larger squatter areas which were such a serious fire risk have now all been cleared, and the total number of per- sons resettled has reached the figure of over 205,000, while schemes already approved and under way will provide accom- modation for a further 85,000. When these schemes are com- pleted, the population of the resettlement areas and estates will total 290,000, but there will still be about 190,000 persons living as squatters, not including the 63,000 persons in huts on roof-tops.

A year ago the chief obstacle to the solution of the squatter problem seemed likely to be lack of suitable large sites for new resettlement estates. This difficulty has now been over- come, and the problem is now mainly one of finding ways and means of accelerating the engineering works on the sewers, drains, roads and piped water supplies which must be provided before the available sites can be occupied.

Particulars of the population and of the different types of premises in the cottage areas and the multi-storey estates are as follows:

A. Population

1 Jan. 56.

31 Dec. 56.

Cottage Areas

(one-storey buildings)

67,968

72,843

Multi-Storey Estates

(a) 2-storey temporary buildings

36,312

30,147

(b) 6- and 7-storey permanent

buildings

48,803

102,901

153,083

205,891

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

R.A.F. Photo

Top Photograph gives a good idea of the density of tenement type housing, in the Central and Western districts of Victoria. Below, Government is tackling the squatter problem energetically and realistically. The Li Cheng Uk Resettlement Estate under construction, is designed to accommodate about 42,000 persons.

Resettlement Department

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HONC KO

Ifils image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

ONG

L

RIF

L

BRA

Perspective of the North Point Housing Scheme for the Hong It will comprise 1,955 flats, to accommodate about 12,000 hall, clinics, a school for 800 pupils, a a post office, and

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Perspective of the North Point Housing Scheme for the Hong It will comprise 1,955 flats, to accommodate about 12,000 hall,

clinics, a school for

school for 800 pupils, a post office, and

1

Kong Housing Authority at present in course of construction. persons.

persons. The

The estate which will also include an assembly

73 shops, will be

be ready for occupation in July 1957.

Eric Cumine

,

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

ng Housing Authority at present in course of construction.

rsons. The estate which will also include

shops, will be ready for occupation in

an

assembly July July 1957.

Eric Cumine

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

NG KONG

PU

R.A.F. Photo

This aerial view of the Kowloon Tong area illustrates the changing face of the Colony in its newly developed districts. In the background at right are blocks of Army quarters constructed since the war, and at farthest right, three blocks, the staff quarters of a local bank. In the middle foreground on the left, is the Tai Hang Tung Resettlement Estate housing some 38,000 persons, and on the right the Yau Yat Tsuen housing estate. The recreation grounds in the foreground belong to the Police Force and the Services.

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B. Premises of various types, as on 31.12.56.

Cottage Multi-Storey

Areas

Estates

Domestic cottages & huts

14,001

nil

Domestic rooms of 120 sq. ft.

nil

23,066

Shops of various kinds

388

379

Restaurants and Cafes

Workshops

Factories

Schools & Welfare Centres

10

51

47

147

22

nil

29

21

URBAN BUILDINGS

On 1st June, 1956, the new Building Regulations, made under the Buildings Ordinance, 1955, came into effect, and private building works in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon are now controlled by these Regulations, admin- istered by the Director of Public Works in his capacity as Building Authority.

These Regulations, which lay down minimum standards of design, construction, sanitation and materials, are now in line with modern Building legislation in other parts of the world, give greater freedom to Architects and Engineers in the lay- out, planning and height of buildings, and allow structures to be designed in accordance with modern engineering practice.

During the year private building work in the Colony con- tinued unabated, not only in the form of development and redevelopment of areas outside the City of Victoria and on the Mainland, but to an extent perhaps more marked than previously in the centre of the City of Victoria itself. It is apparent that building owners are anxious to make full economic use of the valuable sites in the city centre, as a result of which the older four-storey or five-storey buildings with their lofty ceilings are, as circumstances permit, being replaced by modern multi-storey structures utilizing to the full sites on which they stand.

Plans for 1,704 new buildings were submitted in 1956 to the Building Authority for approval, and of these 1,509 dealt

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

with the proposed erection of living accommodation in one form or another-European type houses, flats and apartments, and Chinese tenements-illustrating that there is still no diminution in the demand for housing accommodation. The remainder of the plans covered buildings such as factories, godowns, schools, churches, offices, etc. Also submitted were several thousand plans dealing with building works not being new buildings-e.g. rehabilitation of, and alteration and ad- ditions to existing buildings, site formation schemes, drainage works and amendments to previously approved plans.

During the same period 1,104 permits were issued allowing the occupation of completed buildings. Of these permits 815 were for buildings to be used for residential purposes.

NEW TERRITORIES HOUSING

In the New Territories (apart from New Kowloon) the Buildings Ordinance does not apply, but control of buildings is exercised by the New Territories Administration, along the lines of the Buildings Ordinance where town buildings are concerned, but with wide latitude in respect of village hou- sing. No structure may be erected without the approval of the District Officer concerned.

In villages of traditional South Chinese Construction the houses are built in rows one behind another, usually all facing the same way, the exact position of the village being deter- mined according to principles of geomancy. A typical exam- ple of geomantic siting is for a village to be built on the lower slopes of a hill, facing rice-fields and sea, with hills extending like two arms on the right and left, and with a grove of trees, which by tradition must not be cut down, immediately behind the village. Often there is a pond, and more trees, across the front of the village.

Many villages (but not so many as in the adjoining parts of China) have walls, gates, watch-towers, and even a moat. . In front of the first row of houses there is usually an open

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cement-paved space which may be used for drying vegetables and medicinal plants, as well as being a convenient meeting place. The spaces between each of the back rows of houses are narrow, with paved access and open drains. Houses are constructed of locally-made blue brick or rough-cut granite blocks, a heavy tiled roof, and, in recent years, cement floors. Such houses stand for hundreds of years. In the poorer vil- lages houses are built of sun-dried mud brick, faced with plaster. These houses deteriorate after a few years, the owner usually rebuilding in similar style. If left unoccupied, they soon disintegrate into heaps of rubble: in which case super- stition will often forbid rebuilding on the same site. A well- built stone village house usually consists of a single ground- floor room, with only one entrance, often separated from the outer court by a covered porch. One side of the room (usually near the door) or one side of the porch, may be used for cooking, while the other side is used for storing grass, the principal fuel. The rear portion of the room may be screened off with wooden partitions, for use as a bedroom, and over this portion, raised some eight feet above floor-level, there may be a wooden platform or gallery used for storage or for extra sleeping accommodation. There is no ceiling, fire- place or chimney, and few windows. The altar and shelf for ancestral tablets is at the back of the room, facing the main entrance. In the hilly Hakka areas, on account of the scarcity of level ground, many houses have their sleeping accommoda- tion in an upper storey reached by ladder.

New Territories housing is at the present time being sub- stantially influenced by more modern ideas, particularly in imitation of new buildings (such as school-houses) designed by urban architects. These, however, mainly affect the choice of materials. The essential form of the traditional Chinese house is maintained, except that newer houses have more windows. Architects are seldom, if ever, employed for village houses.

In certain areas city-dwellers have built modern bungalows

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

and small weekend houses. These particular areas are men- tioned in the Chapter on Population. In the market towns, where two- or three-storey buildings have existed for many years, modern shop and tenement buildings differ little from those in Kowloon. For any building in reinforced concrete, or of other than traditional design, it is obligatory to employ an architect.

TOWN PLANNING

A preliminary planning report for Hong Kong was pre- pared by Sir Patrick Abercrombie in 1948. This set out the main lines along which long-term development should proceed. The population, however, has risen well beyond the limit of 2,000,000 envisaged at the time of Sir Patrick Abercrombie's visit in 1948. This has accelerated development in the Colony and produced significant alterations to the data on which the Report was based. Several large new reclama- tions, which had not been envisaged for many years to come, have already been completed or are advancing rapidly towards completion. The reconstruction of Kai Tak Airport, necessitated by world developments in aviation, has led to other alterations, and the growth of industry has required the development of Kun Tong and Tsuen Wan as industrial

centres.

IB

Wherever possible, however, the main intentions of the Report are being followed. Within the preliminary pattern given in it, the preparation of outline development plans is undertaken by a small Town Planning Unit, which is part of the Public Works Department and co-ordinates governmental work on planning problems. The plans set out the principles to be followed in the improvement of any district concerned, and, when necessary, are broken down into greater detail to show the lay-out of specified zones.

As the Government owns the freehold of virtually all land in the Colony, there is little or no impediment to the con- trolled use of unleased Crown land. When planned improve-

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ments affect land already leased, compulsory purchase, or purchase by negotiation, is sometime necessary. A Town Planning Ordinance, giving powers both in this respect and for the control of the use of land, has been in force since 1939, but it is only recently, due to increased development, that full use is being made of its provisions, in order that the best possible use may be made of the limited area available for development.

香港

云港公

共圖書

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

ཉྩ ཝ ཏ མ ༼ ཨཐ ཨ༢ ཀཾ སྱཱ ཝ་ར་ཏ ། ད་ར

Chapter 11: Social Welfare

WELFARE work in present day Hong Kong is carried out against a social background probably without parallel any- where else in the world. The outstanding factor in this background is density of population, a population which has become swollen far beyond the Colony's capacity to absorb it effectively, and which includes some 700,000 who came to Hong Kong as refugees from Mainland China. Next in im- portance in the social background is the low standard of living of a large part of the population, and the fact that the restrictions on Hong Kong's traditional status as a free port, which have been in existence since shortly after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, have caused a slow but progres- sive deterioration in living standards generally. The popula- tion is almost entirely Chinese, the great majority being Cantonese from the neighbouring province of Kwangtung. Probably less than 50% have lived in the Colony as long as ten years.

Hong Kong has always been fortunate in the number of religious and voluntary organizations which serve its welfare needs. There are some with a hundred years of service to the Colony who are still working here. Government did not directly concern itself with social welfare work until it set up its own Social Welfare Office in 1948. This department, from its beginning as an offshoot of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, has grown steadily, and now comprises seven separate divisions dealing with Relief, Child Welfare, Youth Welfare, Women and Girls' Welfare, Probation, Community Development, and Special Welfare Services (which includes such handicapped groups as the blind and crippled).

The relationship between the official Social Welfare Office

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and the many unofficial religious and voluntary welfare bodies has always been close and harmonious, and this has drawn particular comment from welfare workers visiting the Colony from overseas. It is Government's policy to encourage wherever possible that spirit of service to the community which is so characteristic of Hong Kong, and the Social Welfare Office is the direct link between the Government and the voluntary welfare organizations, both Chinese and non- Chinese.

The welfare problems which exist in this overcrowded Colony are so varied and so vast, and the combined resources of the welfare organizations so limited by comparison, that any danger of serious overlapping of effort could not arise at present even if there were no co-ordination of any kind. But in fact, the Hong Kong Council of Social Service exists as the co-ordinating body for some thirty or more of the larger voluntary organizations which are affiliated to it, whilst the Colony's Social Welfare Advisory Committee-of which the Social Welfare Officer is the Chairman and only Govern- ment member-advises Government on social welfare matters and helps to draw up policy for the further development of welfare work. Co-ordination of group activities particularly related to the welfare of young people is effectively carried out by the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations.

Apart from social welfare in the narrower sense, which is the special field of the Social Welfare Officer working in the closest touch with voluntary effort, Government has undertaken a vast welfare programme in the wider sense of the term, which includes the rehousing of squatters, the extension and improvement of medical and educational facilities, and industrial welfare. These matters are the con- cern of the Resettlement, Medical, Education, and Labour departments respectively, and are dealt with in other chapters. They should, however, be remembered when reading this chapter, so that a complete picture of welfare work in Hong Kong can be formed.

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The main handicap to the more rapid development of welfare work in Hong Kong, after lack of funds (which is also not unusual in other territories), is the serious shortage of trained and well-qualified staff. The University of Hong Kong has been conducting a Social Science course for some years now, but the number of students who come forward is small, and it would appear that social work as a career is too exacting physically and emotionally, and too little re- warding financially, to attract many aspirants. To offset this unsatisfactory state of affairs, the amount and quality of purely voluntary-as opposed to professional-welfare work is quite surprising, and cannot be too highly spoken of.

Infant and Child Welfare. Statutory functions for the protection of children are exercised by the Social Welfare Officer hehalf of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, under the Protection of Women and Juvenes Ordinance. The main purpose of this Ordinance is to safeguard the interests of all girls under twenty-one years of age who are in need of care and protection, and of those who have been adopted. There are now 6,359 children whose welfare is supervised by the Children's Officers of the Social Welfare Office. Of these, 1,795 are adopted daughters (registration compulsory), 133 are wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, 1,389 are voluntarily registered adopted sons, whilst the rest are children in need of care and protection, including those found abandoned, begging, beyond control, etc. The Social Welfare Office works in very close liaison with the Po Leung Kuk, which is a declared place of refuge, mainly in connexion with work under the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance.

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The care of orphans, abandoned children, and children deprived of a normal home life is largely in the hands of voluntary children's institutions, of which there are 35, in- cluding orphanages, babies' homes and nurseries. A number of these children's homes receive annual Government grants. There are now well over 2,000 children being cared for in

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orphanages and other children's homes, but this figure does not include juvenile delinquents, girls in moral danger, or physically handicapped children, who are cared for in special institutions. The leading organization in the Colony dealing with the institutional care of children is the Christian Children's Fund, which is planning to build a new orphanage known as 'Children's Garden' at Wu Kwai Sha in the New Territories. This Home, which is being built on the cottage system, will be one of the most modern in the whole of the Far East, and will accommodate up to 1,000 children.

During the year a new Adoption Ordinance came into force, making legal adoption now possible. Previously the only form of adoption that existed in the Colony was that prescribed by Chinese custom.

The Child Welfare Section of the Social Welfare Office has been responsible for extra duties in 1956, handling cases for proposed adoption abroad, especially for emigration to the United States of America under the Refugee Relief Act of July 1953, which permitted 4,000 orphans throughout the world to enter America for adoption. Exhaustive inquiries were made in nearly 100 such cases.

A number of voluntary organizations have continued to show interest in developing day nurseries and crêches for the children of mothers who have to go out to work. Some of these ventures have not survived for long mainly on account of financial difficulties, but the end of the year saw seven well established day nurseries in operation throughout the Colony, notable among these being the Y.W.C.A. nursery at Un Chow Street, the Faith-Hope Nursery at Homantin and the Eastern Women's Welfare Club nursery at North Point. There are others still in the planning stage.

In the field of Infant Welfare the Society for the Protection of Children continues its valuable work of educating the mothers of poor families in methods of child care, and in bathing, feeding and distributing supplementary food to

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children under one year of age. During December a new Centre was officially opened by the Society at Shaukiwan.

Women & Girls' Section. In common with all important sea ports, Hong Kong faces the social problem of prostitu- tion on a large scale. Apart from economic pressure which forces women to take up the trade, many very young girls are forced into prostitution by destitute parents. The Women and Girls' Section of the Social Welfare Office discharges statutory responsibility for the welfare of children in moral danger under the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordin- ance. The reclamation and rehabilitation of these young girls, many of them still children, is the principal responsibility of the Section, but aid is also given to any adult prostitute who wishes to return to a normal life. The Section is also closely concerned with aid to unmarried mothers and their children, to adolescent girls in need of care or protection, to victims of indecent assault, etc.

The most important part in the rehabilitation of girls who have gone astray is the finding of suitable employment, and here some difficulty arises in fitting each girl to the work most suited to her capabilities. Another real difficulty is the very strong local prejudice against employing any woman or girl who has been a prostitute.

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The Sisters of the Good Shepherd, who are specialists in this type of welfare work, are now well settled in their new home, Pelletier Hall, where they provide up-to-date and effective institutional training for juvenile prostitutes. It is hoped that Pelletier Hall will eventually be in a position to accommodate up to 150 girls.

Probation. Delinquency amongst juveniles and young persons in Hong Kong does not on the surface constitute a problem which can compare with that of large towns and sea-ports in the United Kingdom. Most juveniles appear before the Courts in Hong Kong and Kowloon on charges of illegal hawking, whilst amongst the remainder charges of

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larceny predominate. However, a constant need exists to establish an adequate number of institutions, clubs and centres where children and youths can be removed from the harmful influences of undesirable homes and malignant secret societies in order that their lives may be shaped within an atmosphere of spirit, example, and constructive training cal- culated to fit them for a responsible place in society.

The Probation Section of the Social Welfare Office consists of 10 officers, 6 of whom are actively engaged in probation work. These 6 officers, one of whom is a woman, currently supervise 135 probation cases and maintain voluntary iden- tity with more than 30 cases referred by the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs and other agencies.

The Courts are making much increased use of Probation Officers by asking for comprehensive reports relating to the social background of the families. These social investigations apply not only to offenders, but also to mendicants who in Hong Kong present an almost insoluble problem. Probation Officers have in the past year investigated the social back- ground of some 2,250 cases. Over 800 of these cases have been admitted to institutions, camps, hospitals, welfare cen- tres, etc. throughout the Colony.

Three institutions which are of particular value to the Probation Section are the Hong Kong Sea School, Stanley, the Shanghai Street Children's Centre, Kowloon, and the Juvenile Care Centre, Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Sea School concentrates exclusively on sea training and has been expanded recently to make provision for 300 boys between the ages of 14 years and 18 years. The success of this enter- prise is shown by the fact that the demand from shipping companies exceeds the supply of boys,, a most gratifying anomaly in a field of work where normally the difficulties of rehabilitation are the major concern.

The Remand Home, Kowloon, serves a dual purpose in that juveniles are admitted on arrest and remand and also for short-term periods of detention not exceeding six months.

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Approximately 300 children pass through the Home each month with an average daily muster of between 40 and 50.

Castle Peak Boys Home, an approved school for boys managed on agreement by the Salvation Army on behalf of the Hong Kong Government, in addition to primary educa- tion provides vocational training for 100 boys. The Salvation Army also manages on the same basis the Kwai Chung Girls Home which is an approved school for girls. It is noteworthy that crime amongst women and girls is very low.

Aid to discharged prisoners is undertaken for men by the Salvation Army, and for women by the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society. In addition to relief in cash and kind, advice and assistance are given to those who need help to obtain a new start in life.

A new Probation of Offenders Ordinance will shortly be brought into operation which will enable the Courts to place on probation persons of either sex whether juvenile or adult, first offenders or recidivist. This Ordinance provides also for the establishment of Probation Homes and Hostels and the introduction of Probation Committees.

Youth Organizations. There are in the Colony some 50,000 to 60,000 children who have to spend most of their lives on the streets without any form of family discipline and without any education, formal or otherwise. The task of earning enough money to find food and shelter is so urgent that there is no room left for family life as those more fortunate under- stand the term. These street children are growing up without affection, without any ethical standards, in fact without standards of any kind except the will to survive. Some of these children are being helped by meeting their emotional starvation with love, friendship, understanding and good example. This is being done for the 5,500 boys and girls, between the ages of 8 to 18 years in the 113 clubs which exist in Hong Kong today. These clubs are either run · directly by, or are affiliated to, the Boys' & Girls' Clubs

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Association, and include the 21 clubs sponsored by the Social Welfare Office. The clubs are centres where the children meet together under supervision, and by engaging in a variety of activities (such as games, inter-club competi- tions, visits to places of interest, physical training, simple reading and writing exercises, and handicrafts) they are helped to grow up into healthy and alert men and women, and reliable and thoughtful citizens.

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During the first four months of the year a series of inter- club competitions in story-telling, singing, dancing and drama were held, in which 50 clubs participated. Plans are in hand to hold a 'Prizewinners' Concert' early next year. Scouting and guiding as club activities continued to expand and there are now five Scout Troops, two Cub Packs, three Guide Companies and two Brownie Packs attached to clubs. During the year an additional eight organizations have established roof-top clubs in Tai Hang Tung, Li Cheng Uk, and Shek Kip Mei Resettlement Estates.

The Mobile Library, a gift from the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce to the Social Welfare Office, con- tinued to serve non-school children in the New Territories. Towards the end of the year the Library also visited gularly the Tai Hang Tung, Li Cheng Uk and SheKip Mei Resettlement Estates to serve the large number of children who neither attend school nor belong to a roof-top club.

Particular progress was also made in scouting and guiding amongst handicapped children in blind homes, the Lepro- sarium at Hei Ling Chau and the Hong Kong School for the Deaf at Diamond Hill. A noteworthy development of the Girl Guides Association was the extension of its activities into the New Territories where as many as 22 new Companies were established.

Great efforts have been made in recent years to increase the recreational facilities for children and young persons. The Children's Playground Association strives to equip and

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maintain as many playgrounds as possible for children and young persons living in overcrowded areas. The playing fields attached to this Association's two Centres, (the Queen Elizabeth II Youth Centre and the War Memorial Welfare Centre), and also the Maple Street Playground are all equip- ped with football and basket-ball pitches and are used by nearly 16,000 school children and non-school children weekly, in addition to the large number of young apprentices who use the grounds daily.

The acute need for low-cost hostel accommodation for young workmen was in part met by the establishment of a hostel by the Chinese Y.M.C.A. in the very congested district of Shamshuipo. This Hostel provides accommoda- tion for 400 residents. Two Y.W.C.A. Industrial Girls' Hostels ise nearly 100 factory girls, whilst the W.M. Thomson Memorial Hostel run by the Salvation Army for apprentices has reached its maximum capacity of 56, but plans are in hand to provide accommodation for a further seventy.

During the year, just over 3,000 children from poor families and orphanages spent a week's holiday at Silvermine Bay Holiday Camp, the Management Committee of which is appointed by the Standing Conference of Youth Organiza- tions.

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The Club Leadership Training Course for prospective Youth Leaders continued to be run by the Social Welfare Office in co-operation with the Grantham Teachers' Training College. Refresher courses, round table discussions and practical training classes in handicrafts for all club leaders. were organized by the Boys' & Girls' Clubs Association.

Towards the end of the year the Rotary Club of Hong Kong was completing plans for the building of a Youth Leaders' Training Centre which will be handed over to the Boys' & Girls' Clubs Association to run. This centre will serve as the Colony's first training centre for social workers,

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as well as being the headquarters of the Boys' & Girls' Clubs Association.

During the year the Assistant Social Welfare Officer (Youth Welfare) returned from Indonesia where she had been on secondment as an expert adviser on Child Welfare under the auspices of the World Health Organization.

Care of the Disabled. Welfare work among handicapped and disabled groups in Hong Kong is still at a very early stage of development compared with similar work in Western countries. Resources here are so inadequate to meeting the needs of those who are normal, that little could be spared in the past for the needs of the blind, the deaf and dumb, the physically crippled, and the mentally deficient. In recent years, however, a much greater awareness of the responsi- bility towards less fortunate fellow-citizens was developed, and encouraging progress has been made in improving the care and training of blind children, deaf and dumb children, and crippled children. Such work is mainly in the hands of voluntary welfare societies, whilst the Special Welfare Ser- vices Section of the Social Welfare Office keeps in close touch with the problems of the handicapped, and with the voluntary organizations which specialize in such work. There are as yet no special provisions for the care of mentally defective children, although some 65 of them have found shelter in various welfare institutions.

The inauguration late in 1955 of the Hong Kong Society for the Blind was a milestone in the development of welfare work among the blind, and the society plans to open a sheltered workshop where the blind will first receive expert training in manual skills, and then later be able to earn their own living, either in competition with the sighted or under sheltered workshop conditions.

Ebenezer Blind Home now accommodates about one hundred blind children who receive a normal primary school education mainly through the medium of Cantonese braille,

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although English braille is also taught. There are also a number of day-pupils at the Ebenezer Home.

Very similar care and training are given at the Honeyville Home for Blind Girls, whilst the North Point Relief Camp has under its care a number of blind adults of both sexes.

On the completion of an additional building last Septem- ber, the Hong Kong School for the Deaf, which is subsidized by Government, was able to provide facilities for 30 more pupils, increasing the total capacity of the school to 100. The curriculum has been drawn up to meet the special needs of the students, and includes instruction in various handi- crafts. Increased facilities for deaf children are also planned with the grant of land by Government to the Rotary Club of Hong Kong Island (East) on which the club intends to build new premises for Victoria Park School for the Deaf and Dumb.

A convalescent home at Sandy Bay for crippled children was officially opened by Lady Grantham in November. It is managed by the Society for the Relief of Disabled Children, and is a two-storeyed building having fifty beds. Admission to this home is through either the Queen Mary or the Kowloon Hospital.

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The Welfare Centre for the Physically Handicapped at Shap Long was removed from Lantao Island to Morrison. Hill Camp in November. The number of inmates at present accommodated is 221, of whom 170 are disabled and 51 are dependants.

Community Development. Kaifong associations have existed at various periods throughout the Colony's history, but, with the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong in 1941, these old style associations disintegrated completely.

In the years following the war Kaifong welfare associations were revived and modernized with the advice and encourage- ment of the Social Welfare Office. At present there are 23 recognized Kaifong welfare associations in the Colony, most-

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Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

Boys' and Girls' Clubs for the less fortunate form an important part of youth work in the Colony. Keeness and happiness are expressed in the faces of these youngsters at play. Below, at the Castle Peak Boys' Home, run as an approved school by the Salvation Army, on the Government's behalf, these youths are taught a trade to equip them for adult life.

Salvation Army

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圖章

Roy Tsang

The care of children during the first two years of life is now the most gratifying and highly organized of the Maternal and Child Health Services. Children being given a periodic medical examination through the School Health

Health Service, which is

by the Medical Department.

Service,

run

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Roy Tsang

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The Government General Dental Service treats Government Servants and their families, in-patients of Government hospitals, prisoners and the less well-to-do members of the general public in urban and rural areas. Below, the Faith-Hope Nursery which is run by the Y.W.C.A. caters daily for toddlers from a nearby resettlement area whose mothers are mostly at work

work as hawkers or engaged in cottage industry.

Jones Photo

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Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association

Members of a Boys' and Girls' Club enjoy a picnic lunch. This movement looks after non-school children aged 8-18, of whom the majority have been forced, at a far earlier age than in western countries, to shoulder household duties or supplement family earnings by casual work such as shoe-shining, hawking etc. Below, this newly opened shop in Kowloon, organized by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, sells handicrafts produced in the Colony's welfare institutions.

Roy Tsang

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ly in the urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon. Their aim is to concentrate the efforts of the residents of a district on the development of practical welfare work on behalf of those of their own fellow-residents who stand in need.

The Community Development Section of the Social Welfare Office was set up in 1952, and is specially concerned with maintaining liaison with the many Kaifong Welfare Associations, Welfare associations in Resettlement Areas, with clan and district associations, and with other associations. in the Colony of a similar kind. The Community Develop- ment personnel offer advice and guidance to these neigh- bourhood associations, but there is no attempt at Government control over their welfare activities, which are spontaneous and genuine expressions of service to the community.

The principal activities of these Kaifong or 'Neighbour- hood' Associations are in the fields of education for under- privileged children, public health and personal hygiene, and sports and recreation. Free schools, clinics, playgrounds, libraries, domestic science classes, theatrical performances, etc., are regularly maintained and conducted for the benefit of the community. The following figures give some indication of the extent of Kaifong welfare activities during the year 1956:

(i) 6,191 poor children received primary education at 19

free schools;

(ii) 248,300 cases were treated in 18 free clinics at which

28 doctors and 46 dentists gave their services; (iii) Total membership of the 23 recognized Kaifong Associations reached 40,500 family units, the equiva- lent of over 300,000 persons.

The Kaifong Welfare Associations are always ready and eager to co-operate with the Government in any emergency relief measures. A notable example of this was after the Kowloon riots in October, when the Kaifong Associations, in co-operation with the Kowloon Women's Welfare Club,

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distributed over 100,000 diets supplied by the Social Welfare Office to deserving cases in Kowloon. The efficiency of these mass distributions by Kaifong voluntary workers is most worthy of mention. Apart from their main activities which have been enumerated above, the Kaifong Association in- terest themselves in all matters which can be of concern or benefit to their own district. They join in propaganda to save water, to obey traffic regulations, to observe fire precautions. and, more recently, to prohibit the use of pin-ball machines. They also make representations or requests to Government on such varied matters as street lighting, road repairs, public latrines, markets, hawkers, and so on.

Everything that has been done and is being planned for the future has one aim only, and that is to improve the welfare of each Kaifong's own district, so that eventually the residents of that district will develop a proper pride in belonging to it and will each have a personal interest, in developing the physical, mental and moral well-being of their own community.

The three recently formed Women's Welfare Clubs con- tinue to make encouraging progress. Sewing, cooking, and domestic science classes and informal night schools are run by all three clubs, whilst the Women's Welfare Club, Hong Kong Island East, has recently opened a day-nursery at North Point which will help to meet the urgent need for such facilities which exists among many of the working-class women in this Colony.

During 1956 a start was made by the Community Develop- ment Section in visiting the numerous clansmen and district associations throughout the Colony, with the intention of developing a closer liaison with them. Up to the present very little has been known about the activities of these numerous welfare organizations.

Public Assistance. Steadily developing local industries have continued to absorb only partially the Colony's over-

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abundant manpower. Under-employment has reduced a pro- portion of the population to poverty and want. The major problem with which public assistance agencies, both official and unofficial, have to contend is the inadequate earnings of those who strive to maintain themselves by precarious and part-time work. Many of the under-employed are ill-housed, ill-fed and unable to obtain medical attention for themselves

and their families.

The services provided by the Relief Section of the Social Welfare Office consist of outdoor relief administered through six welfare centres in Hong Kong and Kowloon, and indoor relief in two relief camps at North Point and Morrison Hill. In addition to the distribution of free meals and dry rations, which in 1956 averaged 2,215 and 2,791 daily respectively, the six Social Welfare Office relief centres carry out a variety of other activities such as helping the unemployed to obtain work (a very difficult task) or assisting applicants to abtain hawker licences or free education for their children.

In addition to its regular free medical services to the public, the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals has continued to render a variety of other welfare services, such as the running of six free schools for the children of needy families, repatria- tion of destitutes to their native places and the issue of winter clothing to various fire victims and street sleepers.

Apart from the programme of official public assistance operated by the Social Welfare Office, the Family Welfare Society, which has five branches in Hong Kong and Kowloon, assists families through the payment of rent, school fees and loans or grants for the setting up of a hawker's business, and also by giving out cash relief and relief in

kind.

The Catholic Welfare Committee of China, through about 100 centres in various parts of the Colony, the Lutheran World Federation, through its 32 centres, and the Church World Service give either constant or periodical help to

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the needy by means of distributing food, clothing and medical supplies. C.A.R.E. Inc. also has imported a large quantity of food parcels from the U.S.A. for distribution through various welfare organizations. The Society of St. Vincent de Paul gives monetary grants for food to families. in distress or for payment of school fees or medical expenses, whilst the Hong Kong War Memorial Fund assists with grants to various categories of people bereaved as a result of the war.

Care for the aged in Hong Kong is in the main well provided for within the strong family system of the Chinese. However, in order to meet the needs of those who were without any means of support, religious organizations run four old people's homes in which institutional care is provided for approximately 1,000 old people.

In the past few years an uninterrupted series of fires in squatter areas, the earlier ones of very large proportions, have necessitated on many occasions urgent mass emergency relief measures, but fortunately with the erection of multi- storey estates for the resettlement of squatters and the con- struction of fire lanes in the wooden-hut squatter areas, large fires of the type that occurred at Shek Kip Mei and Tai Hang Tung are now much less likely to occur. The largest fire during the year was the Flower Market Village fire of 22nd October, which rendered 2,280 people homeless. There has also been the usual quota of minor disasters such as small fires in tenement houses, landslides, house collapses, capsized junks and floods. The total number of victims of these disasters, including those of the Flower Market Village fire, was 5,358. After each of these disasters free meals were distributed by the Social Welfare Office, clothing and blankets were issued either by the British Red Cross Society or by the Church World Service, and the distribution of non-Government relief, consisting mainly of rice or cash grants, was undertaken by Kaifong and other welfare organizations.

Chapter 12: Legislation

DURING the year 1956 sixty-two Ordinances were enacted and reference to some of the more important of them is made in the ensuing paragraphs.

There was considerable activity in the field of charities and education. Six Ordinances were enacted incorporating new institutions, namely, the Hong Kong Society for the Blind by Ordinance No. 4, the Society for the Relief of Disabled Children by Ordinance No. 6, Institute of the Soeurs des Missions Etrangeres by Ordinance No. 9, St. John's College by Ordinance No. 20, Tsung Tsin Mission of Hong Kong by Ordinance No. 32, and the Hong Kong Tramways Educational Trust Fund by Ordinance No. 43.

Permanent and extensive provisions for the Colony's marine fish marketing system were introduced by the Marine Fish (Marketing) Ordinance, No. 28. The system of whole- sale marketing of marine fish had been developed along co-operative lines similar to the scheme in operation for the marketing of vegetables, for which provision was made in the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952.

The Colony's law relating to the distribution of German enemy property was brought into line with that prevailing in the United Kingdom by the enactment of the Distribution of Germany Property Ordinance, No. 34 and the Enemy Property Ordinance, No. 35, which was a validating

enactment.

The Colony's divorce law was extensively amended by the Divorce (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 44. The effect of this enactment was to modify the divorce law of Hong Kong to correspond more closely with the provisions of the United Kingdom Matrimonial Causes Act, 1950, the principal

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modifications being to extend the grounds for divorce to include desertion for a period of three years, cruelty and unsoundness of mind requiring the patient to be under care and treatment for five years.

Police Supervision and Probation of Offenders. The Police Supervision Ordinance, No. 12, and the Probation of Offenders Ordinance, No. 57, together constitute a marked modification of the Colony's laws relating to prevention of crime. The population of the Colony having vastly increased in recent years, the legislation dealing with this subject was proving inadequate. The Police Supervision Ordinance repeals and replaces the old Police Supervision Ordinance (Chapter 224). The new Ordinance extends the class of persons over whom a close eye may be kept and renders the system of supervision much more flexible and effective, so that an order of Police Supervision is a thing to be reckoned with by the person against whom it is made in that it is more stringent and no longer an easy matter to evade. The Probation of Offenders Ordinance, on

Ordinance, on the other hand, extends the probation system provided under the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance (Chapter 226), to include adults, thereby giving the courts the opportunity of placing an adult offender, who is not yet a hardened criminal, under the care of a trained probation officer with the object of reforming his character while there is yet time.

Adoption. While adoption by Chinese law and custom, which forms part of the common law of the Colony, has always been possible, the need for comprehensive legislation to provide a standard method of bringing into the life of a family a child who is not the natural child of the adopter has long been felt in the Colony, as indeed, elsewhere. The Adoption Ordinance, No. 22, which was, one might say 'at last', enacted, does not seek to interfere with the validity of adoptions made in accordance with the various customary Chinese methods employed, but stands supplementary to them. To some extent the Ordinance is based upon the

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United Kingdom Adoption Act, 1950, but local considera- tions preclude too close a use of the provisions of that Act. The main feature of the Ordinance is the conferring upon the Supreme Court of power to make adoption orders where both the adopter and the child reside in the Colony, and the adopter, unless the natural parent of the child, is over the age of twenty five years and not less than twenty one years older than the child, and the child has lived with the adopter for six months preceding the date of the adoption order; in addition the Court must be satisfied that the adoption is for the welfare of the child and not in consideration of payment. Provision is also made for the registration of adoptions.

Dangerous Goods. A comprehensive consolidation and revision of the law relating to dangerous goods was effected by the Dangerous Goods Ordinance, No. 38. This Ordinance together with its subsidiary legislation covers the whole field of manufacture, possession, storage and conveyance of all kinds of dangerous goods, and embraces and supersedes the provisions of the Dangerous Goods Ordinance, 1873, the Gunpowder and Fireworks Ordinance, 1901, and the Celluloid and Cinematograph Film Ordinance, 1923.

Immunities and Privileges. The Commonwealth Countries and Republic of Ireland (Immunities and Privileges) Ordinance, No. 55, was enacted to enable officers of Commonwealth countries and the Republic of Ireland, appointed by their respective Governments to perform duties in the Colony substantially corresponding to the duties of consular officers appointed by independent sovereign states, to be accorded by the Governor similar immunities and privileges as are accorded by Her Majesty's Government to officers of similar status appointed to the United Kingdom.

Law of Property. The Law of Property (Enforcement of Covenants) Ordinance, No. 56 of 1956, may well be a unique piece of legislation. It is designed to ensure that where a

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building is divided into a number of flats, in the absence of specific covenant to the contrary, covenants or agreements relating to the use, maintenance, repair, insurance or management of the building as a whole are mutually enforce- able by or against the owners from time to time of the various parts of the building. This measure has become necessary because of the practice, which arose in the Colony after the Pacific War, of purchasing single flats, and the impracticability of calling upon a person claiming through the covenantor to enter into a further Deed of Covenant in order to ensure that such covenants will be binding on him.

Road Traffic. The Vehicle and Road Traffic (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 37, is an Ordinance principally to enable extensive and ch needed revision of the subsidiary legislation relating to road traffic and ancillary matters. Three new sets of regulations have been enacted during the year, namely, the Vehicle and Road Traffic (Driving Licences) Regulations, the Vehicle and Road Traffic (Registration and Licensing of Vehicles) Regulations, and the Vehicle and Road Traffic (Construction and Use) Regulations. Work is progressing on four more sets of regulations which it is hoped will be enacted in 1957.

REC LIBR

Chapter 13: Law and Order

THE COURTS

THE Courts of the Colony include the Supreme Court, the District Courts, the Magistrates' Courts, the Tenancy Tribunals and the Marine Court.

The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice, one Senior Puisne Judge and two Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases with a jury, and to deliver convicts to gaol. The judges also have jurisdic- tion in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. It is also a Court of Equity, with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern them- selves and their estates.

The practice of the English Courts is in force in the Colony except where, being inapplicable to local circum- stances, it has been modified by Hong Kong legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, which modified, and in some instances ex- cluded, provisions made in the English Rules of Practice. A statement on the laws of Hong Kong will be found in the Constitution and Administration Chapter.

All civil claims above $5,000 are heard in the Court's original jurisdiction, as well as all miscellaneous proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appointments of trustees, and company matters.

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Magistrates hold preliminary inquiries into indictable offences, and, if a prima facie case is made out, the accused are committed for trial at the criminal sessions, which are held once a month.

There is an appeal from the Supreme Court to a Full Court, consisting of two or more judges as directed by the Chief Justice.

Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge, who may direct the appeal, or any point in it, for consideration by the Full Court.

The appellate jurisdiction had a heavy calendar in 1956 dealing with 192 criminal appeals and 24 civil appeals, whilst the level of work in the original jurisdiction was maintained during the year when 657 actions were instituted.

The District Courts, of which two normally sit on Hong Kong Island and two in Kowloon, had another busy year although the total number of actions instituted, namely 2,699, was less than the record total of 3,201 for 1955. The District Court has jurisdiction to hear claims up to a value of $5,000 and a special jurisdiction in Workmen's Compensation. The District Court Judges also have a criminal jurisdiction greater than that of Magistrates which enables them to try certain cases that would otherwise have to be committed to the Supreme Court sessions. In its criminal jurisdiction in 1956 the District Courts tried 246 persons of whom 196 were convicted.

There are Magistrates' Courts on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, and in the New Territories. The court in Kowloon hears cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. In the New Territories there are courts in Tai Po and Ping Shan. In the Magistracy on Hong Kong Island on five afternoons each week one of the Magistrate's Courts consists of two Justices of the Peace sitting together. One of the Justices is usually a solicitor. During the year

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15 solicitors and 39 lay Justices rendered valuable service in this Court.

The Magistrates' Courts continued to have a busy year with five courts functioning on Hong Kong Island, four in Kowloon and one in the New Territories. In comparison with the figures for 1955, there has been a drop in the figures for hawking without a licence or in prohibited areas, and for obstruction while hawking. In 1955 71,985 hawkers were dealt with, while in 1956 the total dropped to 44,038. The decrease in the number of hawking and obstruction offences is also reflected in the decrease in the number of juveniles appearing before the Court. Whereas 34,812 were involved in 1955, this figure had been reduced in 1956 to 19,082.

Statistics of work in the Magistracies are as follows:

Total

Hong Kong Kowloon

New Territories

Total number of charges

72,627

67,531

3,911134,069

Total number of defendants

एप

(adult & juvenile)

84,044

99,794

8,063 191,902

Total number of defendants

convicted (adult & juvenile).

78,618

96,896

7,192 182,706

Total number of adult

defendants

78,050

86,739

8,030 172,819

Total number of adult

defendants convicted

72,670

83,853 7,189 163,712

Total number of juvenile

defendants

5,994B 113,055

33 19,082

Total number of juveniles

convicted

5,948 13,043

30 19,021

Total number of summonses

issued

37,295 29,359

3,770 70,424

Once more the year has seen a fall in the number of applications made to the Tenancy Tribunals for determina- tion of rent payable, or for approval of agreed rental in excess of the permitted rent. However, the number of exemption cases has greatly increased. The total filed in 1956 was 1,004 compared with 639 in 1955. These applications are brought under the provisions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance,

1

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under which an applicant, wishing to obtain exemption from the Ordinance in respect of certain buildings, brings pro- ceedings before a tribunal for that purpose. These tribunals consist of a president (who has legal qualifications) and two lay members chosen from a panel appointed by the Chief Justice. In order to deal with this large increase, it was necessary during the year to appoint another 113 lay members to assist in the Tribunals.

POLICE

The tasks of the Hong Kong Police Force are many and varied; its problems encompass all those usually associated with a major sea port and harbour, and, for the greater part of its undertakings, a metropolitan standard is required. The very high density of population in the urban areas carries with it all the elements conducive to the corruption of morals and conduct. The hustle and bustle of a teeming metropolis, a large network of business houses and commercial under- takings supplying the needs of the Colony and engaged in large scale entrepôt trade, modern and progressive industri- alization and extensive maritime activities, all create prob- lems of one kind or another demanding from the Police Force continuous vigilance and a frequent reassessment of ideas and methods.

BR

Happily, the growth of civic-mindedness is becoming in- creasingly apparent throughout the community, and the sup- port and co-operation of the general public have done much to help the police in combatting crime and maintaining law and order. It is a fundamental principal that the only way to police an urban area effectively is by a sufficient and proper deployment of beat policemen. In Hong Kong, as elsewhere, the beat constable is a part of the familiar scene, readily avail- able and constantly in touch with the public's needs, and a steadily growing number of Hong Kong's citizens are coming to regard the policeman as their friend and the guardian of the peace.

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Although other methods of police watch and ward, such as motor patrols, are more economical in manpower, they are too impersonal to meet basic requirements and to fulfil the public need-they must continue, therefore, as units ancillary to and in support of the man on the beat. Three Emergency Units, one each in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and the New Territories, provide a tactical reserve, ready at all times for special operations or to deal speedily with any threatening situation. Mobile, and controlled by radio, these units can be operated with considerable flexibility, and their usefulness in dealing with disasters and the threat of disorder has been well established.

The Colony's importance as an international cross-roads accentuates the need for close liaison between the Hong Kong Police and the police forces of other countries, not only of neighbouring territories, but frequently farther afield in almost all parts of the world. Confidence tricksters and commercial swindlers have attempted to use the Colony as a convenient 'hideout' following the perpetration of crime or fraud elsewhere. In many cases C.I.D. inquiries have been made as far abroad as Amsterdam, Karachi and South Africa. Without the closest international police relationship, detec- tion of offenders in these cases is virtually impossible.

The New Territories have special and peculiar problems, many of which do not apply in the urban areas of Kowloon or Victoria. The long coastline and common frontier with China impose numerous problems and difficulties, and there have been many occasions calling for the utmost tact and resourcefulness in police work in these areas. Much of the coverage depends on village penetration patrols, each con- sisting of a N.C.O. and two or three constables, who visit the more remote villages on patrols lasting for three or four days. The frontier is policed from three main stations and twelve forward posts. Unlawful immigration and smuggling activities are matters which demand constant attention by the police in the New Territories.

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The Force is responsible for policing the harbour and the six hundred square miles of territorial waters of the Colony. The rugged outline of the mainland and the scores of islands, large and small, give the Colony five hundred miles of coast to be watched and guarded, whilst the Port of Victoria is one of the world's greatest harbours. One thousand marine hawkers, mostly plying in the harbour area, and a large sea-going population, living abroad junks and other small craft, add to the complexities of the task. Some twenty thousand junks in the waters of the Colony require very special attention both for their own protection and the pre- vention of offences.

Chain of Command. The Force is organized under a Colony Headquarters and its main components are two territorial police districts, the Criminal Investigation Depart- ment, the Special Branch, and the Anti-Corruption and Narcotic Branch. The Police Training School, Traffic Divi- sion, Communications and Transport Branch, and the Police Band come directly under Headquarters. The two territorial districts, Hong Kong Island, and Kowloon and the New Territories, are divided into divisions, sub-divisions, stations. and posts. Included in the Kowloon and New Territories district is the Marine Division which has a fleet of 24 craft. Most of the vessels are fitted with radio-telephone or wireless telegraphy, and eight of them are fitted with radar.

The Criminal Investigation Department is generally re- sponsible for the prevention, detection and prosecution of crime, with specialized units at Headquarters and detective units decentralized throughout the two territorial districts. The Special Branch is responsible for the prevention and detection of subversive activities. The Anti-Corruption and Narcotics Branch is designed as a centralized unit for the better collection and dissemination of information, and the investigation and prosecution of offences relating to corrupt practices and narcotics.

On 31st December, 1956, the Force had a total strength

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of 5,773, an increase of 416 since 1955, consisting of 57 gazetted officers, 478 inspectors and 5,238 rank and file. On the same date the Force had a civilian staff of 944 for the performance of clerical duties and other non-police tasks.

Apart from the regular Police Force and its civilian staff, there are two Auxiliary forces: the Police Reserve, a volun- teer force founded pre-war with membership wholly Chinese, and the Special Constabulary. The latter force is composed of a variety of nationalities and its members include volun- teers and conscripts, with the same sort of obligations for camps and training as other members of the Auxiliary Defence Services, described in Chapter 17. The Auxiliary Police assist the regular police in time of emergency and on public occasions where large crowds have to be handled. Basic training in law and general police duties is provided. for all auxiliaries, and some are also trained for duties in the Marine Division, and the Communications and Transport Branch. As part of their training the Auxiliary Police at regular intervals have for 24 hours at a time taken over the routine watch and ward duties of the Regular Force. The combined strength of both units is 1,745 officers and men, with 590 in the Reserve and 1,155 in the Special Con- stabulary. The Auxiliary Police are now well established and they have proved their real usefulness to the Force on many occasions.

The Police Force also receives a further form of support and assistance from village guards or constables in the more remote New Territories villages. These men, who are elected by the villagers themselves, have given most valuable as- sistance to the Regular Force and their importance derives not least from their service as a link between the village community as a whole and the Police.

Training. With the exception of women police recruits, who do 14 weeks initial training, all ranks undergo a period of six months' training at the Police Training School, Aber-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

deen, before entering upon their duties. The syllabus for recruit-training includes law and police duties, drill and weapons, unarmed combat and first aid. In addition, all Chinese recruits commence elementary studies in English and the Marine Police are given special instruction in seaman- ship, port regulations and signalling. All non-Chinese mem- bers of the Force are required to qualify in Cantonese as part of their professional examinations. During the year 439 recruits completed their training at the school.

Advanced training courses, varying from 2 to 6 weeks, are given to inspectors and rank and file as opportunities arise. Special courses are held for rank and file who have displayed potential fitness for promotion to inspector. Expatriate officers frequently attend courses of instruction when on leave in the United Kingdom, and during 1956 3 non-expatriate inspec- tors were sent to the United Kingdom to attend courses held at police training centres.

Communications and Transport. All police communications and transport are organized and controlled from a branch at Headquarters, covering vehicular transport, certain aspects of sea transport, signals, including the radio control room at Headquarters, and miscellaneous aids for communications and transport.

IB

The Force has a network of modern radio equipment link- ing Police Headquarters with police districts, and thence to stations and posts, and also direct links with mobile police units such as patrol cars, marine craft and foot patrols equip- ped with pack sets. At Police Headquarters a 999 telephone call system is in operation which makes possible the im- mediate relay of information from the public to the police, and then to police cars in the areas concerned. Although the telephone remains the basic form of communication through- out the Force, in time of emergency the essential require- ments can be maintained by radio communications. Tele- printers operate from a central transmitter at Police Head-

A drying ground for dyed cloth makes a bright splash of colour in Kowloon.

J. M. Rowlands

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LAW AND ORDER

189

quarters with 22 receiver stations in the main police stations and units.

During the year a total of 12,726 calls which necessitated police action was received at the Control Room at Police Headquarters. Of this number 9,716 were 999 emergency calls and the immediate police action taken in response to them resulted in the arrest of 2,196 persons.

The Force has a fleet of 270 vehicles of all types ranging from 3 ton vehicles designed to carry 30 passengers to small Land Rovers, saloon cars and motor cycles. The total mileage of police vehicles for the year was 2,850,716, and the fleet had an accident rate of only one vehicle to every 15,465 miles.

Crime. Over-population and economic distress continue to be the main causes of crime in the Colony. Corruption is still a major problem, but during the year much progress was made in detecting cases and bringing the offenders before the courts.

During the year the Criminal Records Office was reor- ganized and a new modus operandi system was introduced. A new Police Supervision Ordinance, to replace the Police Supervision Ordinance of 1923, was made law in March 1956.

Many of the criminal offences committed in the Colony have a triad background, and it has been found necessary to set up an Anti-Triad Bureau at C.I.D. Headquarters for particular investigation into the activities of members of triad societies. These persons are usually to be found among the baser criminal elements engaged in gambling, prostitution activities, dealings in narcotic drugs, extortion and most forms of vice.

The geographical position of Hong Kong lends itself as a natural transit area for narcotics. During the year a large number of seizures were made. Investigation led to the detec- tion of illicit morphine and heroin factories, and a number of dealers, who had formed well organized syndicates for the importation of narcotics, were arrested and convicted.

An art class at Northcote

Teachers Training College.

C. H. Cheng

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The number of reports made to the police dropped from 422,811 to 410,427, and of this number 184,235 disclosed no criminal offence. The balance was made up of 22,587 serious offences (as against 23,265 during 1955) of which 55% (12,320) resulted in arrest and prosecution; and 203,605 other offences which resulted in the conviction of 164,898 persons. The statistics of serious criminal offences are shown in Appendix XVII.

Ceremonies were held at Police Headquarters at which 71 letters of appreciation and monetary awards were made to members of the public for outstanding services to the com- munity. During the year members of the public were respon- sible for the arrest of 925 persons found committing serious crimes.

L

Public Disorder. On 10th October, 1956, the day of the principal Nationalist Chinese Festival known as the 'Double Tenth', a disturbance occurred in the Li Cheng Uk Resettle- ment Estate following a dispute over the removal of some Nationalist flags and emblems which had been pasted on the walls of the buildings contrary to previously notified instructions. On that day police were already at a state of alertness as part of the usual precautions taken on the occa- sion of such celebrations, and by immediate intervention were able to restore order, although feelings continued high among the inhabitants of the area. Later in the day, however, crowds continued to assemble in the area and criminal elements were quick to exploit the situation with the result that widespread public disorder broke out in the Shamshuipo District.

Throughout the first night the disorder was confined to a limited area of the town, and the police endeavoured with the minimum of force to contain it and prevent it from spreading. The situation was brought under control during the early morning hours of the 11th October. Shortly after 10 a.m. trouble again broke out, indicating a much more serious threat to law and order. At 12.30 p.m. it was decided to call

LAW AND ORDER

191

in military forces to cordon off the affected areas. Rioting continued in Kowloon from approximately 10 a.m. onwards and at 7.30 p.m. curfew was imposed. Meanwhile serious disorder had broken out at Tsuen Wan where right-wing trade unionists collaborated with Triad gangs to redress old scores and to attempt to win a dominant position in the labour world. Apart from sporadic incidents, order was re- stored in Kowloon at approximately 7.30 p.m. on 11th October and in Tsuen Wan during the early hours of 12th October.

After the disturbances intensive police action continued against gangs of criminals, hooligans and Triad Societies who had been engaged in the rioting, resulting in the arrest of approximately 6,000 persons, many of whom were sub- sequently brought before the courts on serious charges con- nected with the rioting, including 5 persons* charged with murder.

These disturbances have been made the subject of a full report from the Governor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, issued at the beginning of 1957.

Traffic. There are no easy or immediate solutions to the Colony's serious traffic problems. The volume of traffic is too heavy for the amount of road space, and only the most far-reaching and ambitious traffic schemes and road develop- ment are likely to provide any real measure of improvement. Nevertheless, some changes for the better were made during the year through alterations in the one-way street system, the provision of additional pavement railings, the construc- tion of additional 'passing bays' on narrow and winding roads, and a rearrangement of some parking areas. New Road Traffic legislation, described in Chapter 12, was also introduced which laid down special tests and licensing pro- cedures for driving instructors, imposed a higher mechanical

* On 21.1.57 4 of the 5 were convicted of murder and sentenced

to death.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

standard for vehicles, and as a whole sought to increase the general safety of all road users.

One of the most difficult problems is to reconcile the flow of vehicular traffic with the movement of pedestrians in the busy parts of the urban areas. Traffic Safety Campaigns have proved invaluable for promoting road traffic conscious- ness, and the 1956 Road Traffic Exhibition had an estimated attendance of over 200,000 persons. Special attention was also given to the education of schoolchildren in the elementary precautions to be taken for road safety.

The number of road accidents of all kinds rose from 11,775 to 12,001, but the year showed a decrease of 198 accidents resulting in deaths or injury. Comparative figures for the

last four years are :

1952

1953

195

1955

1956

Fatal

106

72

101

139

131

Serious Injury ..

466

448

621

735

672

Slight Injury

...

2,698

3,124 3,397

3,745

3,618

Damage only

...

4,787 4,892 5,119

7,156

7,580

Totals:

8,057 8,536 9,238 11,775 12,001

:

The number of drivers increased by 12,458, bringing the total number of licensed drivers up to 61,824 which represents an increase of more than 200% over the last five years. Dur- ing the year 17,902 provisional (learner) driving licences were issued. The number of vehicles increased from 24,986 to 29,004, an addition of 4,018. The average vehicle is used by more than one driver thus increasing the amount of road

usage.

Immigration. The Commissioner of Police is concurrently the Immigration Officer and is responsible for controlling the entry of all persons into the Colony. Some idea of the size and complexity of this problem has already been mentioned in Chapters 1 and 2, dealing with the increasing population. It is sufficient here to say that the movement of 3,009,681

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persons, either into or out of the Colony, was recorded during 1956; this number is just over double that recorded last year. All persons entering the Colony, other than Cantonese enter- ing from the province of Kwangtung, must be in possession of valid travel documents. In addition aliens, with the excep- tion of those passing through on ships or aircraft, are re- quired to have visas. It has long been the policy to permit the maximum freedom of movement between the Colony and the province of Kwangtung, but in recent years the increas- ing number of Cantonese wishing to take up residence in the Colony has forced the Immigration Officer to impose a quota system whereby the numbers permitted to enter the Colony are governed by the numbers who go out. This system was suspended for a trial period between February and September 1956, but as the records showed that the relaxation had resulted in an increase in the Colony's popula- tion of over 56,000 the system had to be reimposed. Local residents who wish to visit China may ensure that they can return outside the quota by obtaining a re-entry permit before they leave.

PRISONS

There are now six establishments administered by the Commissioner of Prisons, with Headquarters in the Central District of Victoria.

Stanley Prison is situated on the Stanley Peninsula on the south of Hong Kong Island. It was built to accommodate 1,746 prisoners but has been overcrowded throughout the year. The main buildings consist of six three-storeyed separate cell blocks, each with 286 cells. There are separate wards for European prisoners, for prisoners under punish- ment, and for previous offenders serving periods of five years and over. There is an excellent hospital and well-equipped workshops, kitchen and laundry. 13,434 prisoners were received, the daily average number in custody being 2,461 (the daily average in 1955 was 1,665).

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Victoria Prison is next to the Central Magistracy and within a few minutes of the Supreme Court, a situation well suited to its function as a prison for remands and male prisoners awaiting trial. The demolition of the old buildings and the erection of a modern remand block form part of the Department's building programme. During the year a building formerly part of the prison but lately used by the Government Printer was converted for use as an up-to-date Reception and Classification Centre for all male prisoners. 8,248 prisoners were received, the daily average population being 530 (880 in 1955).

Chimawan Prison is a very new institution near Shap Long on the south-east corner of Lantao. Formerly a centre run by the Social Welfare Office for disabled persons, it was taken over by the Prisons Department on 3rd December, 1956, for use as the Colony's first open prison. It can accommodate up to 700 prisoners and is at present receiving short-term first offenders. There is a great deal of work to be done on the island, and an afforestation programme is at present being worked out in conjunction with the Forestry Officer. 139 prisoners had been received up to the end of the year.

Laichikok Prison for Women is on the mainland, on what were once the outskirts of Kowloon, but the prison has gradually been hemmed in by growing industrial and resettle- ment areas. The women sleep in dormitories with the excep- tion of long-term first offenders who have pleasant rooms which are, in fact, former cells but are now never locked. The Matron and all her staff are locally recruited. 1,247 women were received, the daily average number of occupants being 92 (98 in 1955).

Stanley Training Centre and Tung Tau Wan Training Centre both take boys between the ages of 14 and 21 sen- tenced to detention in a Training Centre. The provisions of the Training Centres Ordinance are based on the Borstal section of the Criminal Justice Act, 1948. The Centres can

LAW AND ORDER

195

together take 200 boys, all of whom would probably have gone to prison before the inception of the scheme. There is a full-time After-Care Officer to look after those released. Of 122 boys so far released from the two centres only 8 have been recalled or reconvicted. 121 boys were accepted during the year, the daily average population being 184.

The staff of the Prisons Department consists of 11 gazetted officers, 482 other ranks, and 142 others, including school- masters, instructors, clerks, storekeepers and mechanics.

RECORDS

The Registrar General's Department, situated in the Supreme Court building, comprises the Land Office, the Registries of Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents, and the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bank- ruptcy and Companies Winding Up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee, and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy.

Land. The principal function of the Land Office is the registration of all instruments affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon; instruments affecting land in the New Territories (other than New Kowloon) being registered in one or other of the three District Offices. Although the system of registration under the Land Registra- tion Ordinance is basically one of registration of deeds and not of title, the Land Office Registers do in fact show in a clear and accurate manner the devolution of title to each lot, or section of a lot, and details of all incumbrances affecting it. The result is that in practice the system is regarded as virtually equivalent to registration of title. Land tenure is described in the Chapter on Production.

Among the other functions of the Land Office are the issue, renewal, variation and termination of title to all Crown land in the Colony other than in the New Territories, the granting of mining leases, and advising the Government generally on matters relating to land.

!

1

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The continued inflow of capital, an increasing population, and improved trade have resulted in rising land values, the construction of a great many new buildings, and more land. transactions than ever before. 12,567 deeds and other instru- ments involving land transactions to a total value of $697,977,239 were registered in 1956, increases of 813 and nearly $48,000,000 respectively over 1955. It is now very common for flats to be sold outright instead of being leased, and this is the chief reason for the increased number of deeds registered. The amount advanced on mortgages of land was $205,035,473, which represents some $5,000,000 more than was advanced in 1955. The trend towards lower interest rates noted last year continued, the average rate being about 11% per annum as against 12% per annum last year.

During the year a new edition of the 'Street Index' of the Colony was completed and published. This Index which shows all the streets, house numbers and lots in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon as at 31st December, 1955, took three years to complete owing to the very large number of land transactions which had been recorded since the last issue in 1938.

Companies. The Companies Registry maintains records of all Companies incorporated in the Colony, and of all foreign corporations carrying on business in the Colony. At the end of the year there were 2,740 local companies on the Register, and 365 foreign corporations were registered as having places of business in the Colony. The decrease, as compared with last year's figures of 2,930 and 489 respectively, is due to the fact that a large number of companies, both local and foreign, which had not reconstructed their records since the war, were removed from the Registers during the year.

The Companies Ordinance is based

Ordinance is based on the United Kingdom Companies Act, 1929 (now repealed). On incorpora- tion in Hong Kong a company pays a fixed fee of $100. plus $2 per $1,000 of nominal share capital. Foreign cor-

LAW AND ORDER

197

porations establishing a place of business in the Colony do not have to pay this fee: they merely pay $5 fees on filing the documents required by Section 318 of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32).

Trade Marks and Patents. The Trade Marks Ordinance, 1954, is based on the Trade Marks Act, 1938, but there are some variations.

During 1956 978 new trade marks were registered, and 140 marks that were on the old Register lost during the Japanese occupation were registered in the new Register in accordance with the provisions of the Trade Marks Register (Reconstruction) Ordinance. Registrations are valid for 7 years (14 years if registered prior to 1st January, 1955), but may be renewed indefinitely for further periods of 14 years. The number of marks on the Register is 12,825.

Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registrable under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance (Cap. 42). This provides that the grantee of a patent in the United Kingdom may, within five years from the date of the issue of the patent, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations. Ten bankruptcy petitions were filed, but one was withdrawn, leaving a net total of nine cases as against five in 1955. The Official Receiver was appointed Trustee in all cases except in the latest one in which a Receiving Order has not yet been made by the Court. One order was made for the compulsory winding-up of a Company, and the Official Receiver has been appointed Liquidator.

Marriages. All marriages except non-Christian customary marriages are governed by the provisions of the Marriage Ordinance (Cap. 181). Under this, it is necessary for a notice of intended marriage to be exhibited at the Registry for 15 clear days, after which the Registrar issues a certificate which

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

enables the marriage to be solemnized at a licenced place of worship, or to take place as a civil marriage before the Registrar. The Governor has the power to grant a licence authorizing the marriage to take place before the expiry of the 15 day period, or dispensing with notice altogether.

The validity of Chinese customary marriages is not affected by the Marriage Ordinance, and such marriages do not re- quire to be registered. The advantages of having an officially recorded marriage under the Ordinance and obtaining a proper certificate of marriage are, however, becoming very generally recognized, and marriage through the Registry is, therefore, becoming increasingly popular among all classes of the Chinese population. The total number of marriages in 1956 was 5,607 (as compared with 4,598 last year) and of this number 4,892 were performed at the Registry. This is the sixth successive year in which the total number of marriages registered has shown heavy increase.

In August 1956 a Kowloon Sub-Registry was opened in the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Building, Mongkok. At present its functions are confined to accepting notices of marriage, taking affidavits, and issuing Registrar's certifi- cates, no actual marriage ceremonies taking place there.

CIIBR

Chapter 14: Public Utilities and

Public Works

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Waterworks. The supply of water to the Colony is the responsibility of the Public Works Department of the Government.

Owing to the absence of large rivers, or other sources of supply, the Colony is entirely dependent for its water on rain, most of which falls during the summer when the south- west monsoon blows and occasional typhoons are experienced. The water is impounded in 13 storage reservoirs which have a total capacity of 5,970,000,000 gallons. These reservoirs, which are situated on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, normally fill up completely during the wet season, but the storage, together with the dry-weather yield of streams, is inadequate for the demands of a growing popula- tion and increasing development. Severe restrictions on the hours during which water is available to the public have to be imposed every dry season. Of the maximum possible storage, only 2,362,000,000 gallons can be held on the Island. The Jubilee Reservoir, situated not far from Tsuen Wan in the New Territories, is at present the Colony's largest, holding 2,921,000,000 gallons, with a dam 275 ft. high, one of the tallest in any colonial territory. It will, however, soon take second place to the new reservoir now under construc- tion at Tai Lam Chung which, when completed, will impound 4,500,000,000 gallons, thus giving a total capacity of 10,500,000 gallons. A limited delivery of water from the new reservoir is expected to begin in the spring of 1957. In addition to these works, Hong Kong possesses a system of catchwaters 35 miles long. These channels run along the

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mid-levels of various hillsides, intercepting streams and water courses, and conveying their water into the various storage reservoirs.

About one-quarter of the Island's consumption has to be met from New Territories reservoirs. This water is conveyed across the harbour in two 21" diameter concrete-lined steel submarine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a large proportion of the water has to be pumped, and in some areas re-pumped, necessitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs. The water supply to the Island and the urban area of Kowloon is filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment, and a high standard of purity is main- tained. Practically all the water is supplied to consumers through meters, the charge being based on the total cost of provision, including capital cost.

In addition to the severe restrictions on supply during the dry months, the inadequacy of existing resources involves a certain amount of restriction even during the wet season. The eight-month period from the end of August 1955 to the end of April 1956 was one of the driest on record and in consequence, the hours of supply, which had been restricted to 2 a day since November 1955, the shortest period ever recorded, had to be further restricted on the 1st May, 1956, to 3 hours every other day. The arrival of rain, however, made it possible to revert to 2 hours a day on 20th May and to increase supply to 7 hours a day on 18th June. The long dry winter was followed by far less than average rain- fall during the summer and although the hours of supply were reduced from 7 to 5 on 19th July, the reservoirs only reached 85 per cent of their capacity and for the first time on record no single reservoir overflowed to waste. Two emergency schemes, one to pump water into Jubilee Reservoir from two streams at Tai Po and the other to pump water into Kowloon Reservoir from the Shing Mun River at Sha Tin, were inaugurated early in the year to relieve the situation, and since they were brought into operation have added

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201

approximately 1,000 million gallons to the water resources of the Colony. After the beginning of the dry season in October, they delivered water at the rate of 5 million gallons a day and in spite of the low level of the reservoirs enabled the hours of supply to be maintained at 5 a day until the end of the year. The average daily consumption for the year was 31.5 million gallons, the peak figure being 54.88 million gallons, during one of the Chinese New Year Holidays in February.

In the New Territories all the principal market towns have water supplied either from main sources or provided inde- pendently from local stream intakes. The system of piped water supplies is gradually being extended year by year. On the Island of Ping Chau in Mirs Bay a small impounding reservoir was formed and a 3" diameter pipe laid from it to the village of Chau Tau. Since the war a number of factories have been erected in the Tsuen Wan district and consequently there has been a big increase in the population of this formerly rural area. The industries established there need water to process their products with the result that the existing water supply, which comes direct from the Shing Mun Catchwater, is totally inadequate. In order to provide the area with water from Tai Lam Chung work was begun on a new 5 million gallons service reservoir, which is being constructed adjacent to the Tai Lam Chung Scheme rapid- gravity filters.

The erection of a 7 million gallons per day rapid-gravity filtration plant, near Kowloon Reservoir, which was started in 1955, was completed and work was commenced on the construction of a 5 million gallons service reservoir to receive water from the filters. A similar filtration plant with a capacity of 3 million gallons per day was completed above Sai Wan on Hong Kong Island and quarters were erected for the staff to operate the new plant. The construction of a 4 million gallons service reservoir near the filters was practically finished.

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The year's work included a large programme to replace existing mains and extend the distribution system. One factor which has caused an increase in the demand for water supplies is the rapid development of the Colony's resettle- ment programme. In Resettlement Areas mains water is provided by means of stand-pipes. The number of regular water consumers increases as more Resettlement Areas are provided, because the squatter areas, which the Resettlement projects release, had only very limited regular means of obtaining water.

Satisfactory progress was made on the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir Scheme. The villagers of Tai Lam and Kwan Uk Tei which were in the flooded area of the reservoir were evacuated to Tsuen Wan where a new block of flats had been built to receive them. Filling the reservoir was started early in the summer and by the end of the year it held 1,362 million gallons. Work was completed on the 5 mile long supply tunnel between Tai Lam and Tsuen Wan, the construction of three service reservoirs with a total capacity of 22 million gallons and on the laying of approx. 45,000 ft. of steel pipes 36", 30" and 24" in diameter. Contracts were let for the erection of three pumping stations, the laying of 19,000 ft. of steel pipes, 48′′ and 36′′ in diameter, and for the con- struction of a length of catchwater 1 miles long.

The site investigations, commenced last year, in connexion with the construction of another dam to flood the Shek Pik valley on the south coast of Lantao, were completed, and the Consulting Engineers' report on the scheme was received.

Electricity. Electricity on the Island is supplied by The Hongkong Electric Company, Ltd., distributing an alter- nating current at 22 kilovolts and 6.6 kilovolts, 3 phase, 50 cycles. Bulk consumers are supplied at 6.6 kilovolts and domestic consumers at 346/200 volts. The amount of electricity generated during 1956 was 272,349,900 kilowatt hours, an increase of 13.2% over the previous year's output.

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

203

The number of consumers at the end of the year was 74,342,

an increase of 3,440 over the 1955 figure.

Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

Public Lighting

Bulk Power

Domestic & Commercial Power

82,390,545

2,025,786

53,044,784

125,950,517

263,411,632

This is an increase of 13% on the previous year.

During the year the peak load reached a maximum of 64,700 kw., an increase of 11% over 1955. A newly com- missioned boiler unit is now in operation bringing the steam raising capacity to 1,100,000 lbs./hr. The generator capacity remains at 92,500 kw.

As a result of the ever increasing use of air-conditioning together with the construction of multi-storied buildings, it has become imperative to increase the supply to the City Centre by laying three 22 kilovolt feeders, work on which will be in hand early in 1957.

Development also continues at a high rate in the North Point area: the load on the south side of the Island, however, shows little change.

Charges for current range from 28 cents a unit to 15.4 cents a unit for lighting, and 12 cents to 11.4 cents for power. Special rates are quoted for bulk consumers of industrial power. All rates are subject to a fuel surcharge due to the increased cost of fuel, the present surcharge being 9%. This is being increased to 18% on 1st March, 1957, to take account of increased fuel prices.

In Kowloon electricity is supplied by China Light & Power Co., Ltd., whose services extend to the principal market towns in the mainland part of the New Territories and to such villages as are situated within reasonable distance of

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main roads. The load continues to grow steadily each year, and during 1956 there were more demands than ever from both industrial and domestic consumers. The increase in demand is principally caused by new urban and industrial development, the demolition of old buildings and their re- placement by larger modern structures. 393 factories were connected to the Company's mains.

This expansion has required the planning of a new power station, the building of which will be carried out in stages. One turbine has been erected and will be commissioned shortly, and work has begun on the erection of one boiler. Further turbines, boilers, transformers and switchgear have been ordered in connexion with the project, and erection will begin by the middle of 1957.

The present capacity of the station is 82,500 kw., but this will be considerably increased on completion of the schemes now under way.

Approximately 437,300,000 units of electricity were gener- ated during the financial year 1955-56, of which 380,506,016 units were sold. Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

Public lighting

Power

Bulk supply

76,615,853

2,746,416

120,010,293

181,133,454

380,506,016

In September 1955 the Company had 65,412 consumers. By October 1956 the number had risen to 80,474, an increase of 23%.

Charges for electricity (per unit) at 1st January, 1957,

are :

Kowloon New Territories

Lighting

Power

29c.

37c.

14c.

14c.

Domestic Power

13c.

13c.

H

Major Public Works

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Police Photo

Started in 1952 the Colony's new reservoir at Tai Lam Chung in the New Territories is nearly ready, and although catchwaters and other subsidiary work will not be completed for another 2 years, the reservoir itself will begin in early 1957 to supply much needed water to the Colony's mains. Water storage capacity is approximately 4,500,000,000 gallons-equivalent to three-quarters of the total storage capacity of all the Colony's existing reservoirs. This scheme, which is costing $125,000,000 will be able to supply about 30,000,000 gallons daily throughout the year.

Impounding of water in the new reservoir has involved the submersion of two villages. The villagers have been compensated by Government which has also rehoused them at Tsuen Wan in a new settlement containing flats, shops and an ancestral temple, on the roof. One of the old villages and the new settlement are illustrated on the following page.

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One of the old villages disappearing beneath the rising waters the new reservoir.

of

The reservoir is 16

16 miles distant from Kowloon. The water is piped over hills by means of large gravity mains such as shown here.

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P.W.D. Photo

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Tai Uk Wai, the new home provided by Government for the villagers dis- placed from the Tai Lam Valley.

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Another large project costing over $100,000,000 is the Colony's new airport at Kai Tak. The new runway taking shape. Below, this stone, bearing the characters Sung Wong

Wong Toi, records the temporary resting place of the last Southern Sung Emperor in flight from the Mongols in

in 1278

1278 A.D. Displaced and damaged during the Japanese occupation, it has now been re-erected in a small public park near its original site.

R.A.F. Photo

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Lowering huge granite

place to

blocks into place

form the new Airport Sea Wall.

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P.W.D. Photo

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R.A.F. Photo

Another large current project is the building of new passenger ferry piers at Tsimshatsui in Kowloon and the Central district in Hong Kong. This aerial photo shows the new Terminal (foreground) jutting out from the Central Reclamation with the 14th H.K. Products Exhibition site in the middle of the picture.

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

205

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which is at present 9% and will be increased to 18% on 1st March, 1957, to take account of increased fuel prices. Special rates are available for large industrial consumers.

Survey work for extensions in Lantao Island has been completed and on arrival of the necessary equipment erection of overhead lines, transformers, switchgear, etc. will proceed without delay.

The only other part of the New Territories to have its independent source of electric light is Cheung Chau, where there has been an electric power station in existence since 1913. Originally started as a community project, it later sold out to commercial interests and has since changed hands several times. The present owners, the Cheung Chau Electric Company, Ltd., have their offices in Victoria. The basic rate as from 1st March, 1956, is 95 cents a unit for lighting and 45 cents a unit for domestic and commercial power, with special reductions for larger consumers.

Gas. Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by The Hong Kong & China Gas Co., Ltd., which was first established in 1861. A completely modern plant has been erected at Ma Tau Kok and is already in operation. Com- pletion of the work will give it a nominal capacity of 1,900,000 cu. ft. gas a day for supplying Kowloon.

A new water gas plant has been installed at the West Point works on the Island, thereby raising the nominal capacity of the works to 1,750,000 cu. ft. gas per day.

Total quantity of gas sold in 1956 was 608,067,700 cu. ft. compared with 587,011,700 cu. ft. in 1955. The number of consumers rose from 8,447 to 9,320.

Tramways. An electric tramway service is operated by Hongkong Tramways Ltd. on the island of Hong Kong. The track, the gauge of which is 3 feet, is about 19 miles in length when calculated on a single track basis. It extends from Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan with a branch line en-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

circling the Race Course in Happy Valley. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. The tramcars are of the double- deck, single-staircase type and are intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The operating voltage is 500 volts direct current.

The average daily service of cars run in 1956 was 138, with a car every 2 minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, which is in the centre of the system, the minimum service frequency was a car every 35 seconds in each direction. The number of passengers carried during the year was 158,000,000, while the total mileage run was 71 million.

Fares are charged at a flat-rate for any distance over any route (the maximum route length is 62 miles) of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (1d.) 3rd class. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, students and Service personnel.

The Peak Tramway, operated by the Peak Tramway Co., Ltd., was opened for traffic in May 1888, and was then known as the Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With a lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and a Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant, and incorporate safety features which make it possible. for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track.

During 1950 and 1951 the Company replaced its former wooden cars with new cars of improved design and all-metal construction, lighter and stronger than the old ones, and capable of carrying a greater number of passengers.

For the seventh year in succession the service carried more than 1,500,000 passengers.

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207

Bus Services. The year was one of continued progress for the China Motor Bus Company Ltd., who maintain the bus services on the Island. Some 67 million passengers were carried and the total number of miles operated was over 8.1 millions, both figures exceeding those for any previous year.

The Company operates a fleet of 200 vehicles all of which are fitted with diesel engines. New buses placed in service included fourteen of the underfloor-engined type and two with coach bodywork for tourist traffic and private parties. Over fifty new vehicles were on order at the close of the

year.

In September the staff quarters and welfare centre which the Company has built for its employees at North Point were officially opened. Accommodation is provided for more than two hundred families, and welfare facilities include a large canteen, clinic and recreation rooms. Pile driving for the Company's new depot and offices has also been completed and construction work was scheduled to commence in January 1957.

The Kowloon Motor Bus Co., (1933) Ltd., obtained delivery during the year of 50 double-deck and 30 single- deck buses and, it now has a total fleet of 450 vehicles. To cope with the growing passenger traffic, the Company has placed an order for another 100 buses which are expected to be delivered in 1957.

During the year under review five new bus routes, in Kowloon, were introduced. The passengers carried by the Company's services numbered 240 million, and the distance covered by its fleet of buses was 20 million miles, as compared with some 200 million passengers and 19 million miles in 1956.

Construction of the Company's new Headquarters and Depot at To Kwa Wan, which began in November 1955, is nearing completion and the new premises will probably be occupied early in 1957.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Ferries. The 'Star' Ferry Company, Ltd. operates a pas- senger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsimshatsui at the southern extremity of the Kowloon Peninsula. Eight vessels are in service and operate daily for 19 hours. A three-minute service, taking eight minutes to cross, is maintained during the day, and a regular service until well past midnight. Over 36 million passengers were carried in 142,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 100,000 persons.

The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Ltd. operates a fleet of 46 diesel-engined ferry vessels which maintain 6 cross-harbour ferry services as well as ferry services to the outlying districts in the New Territories.

The routes inside the Harbour consist of services connect- ing Wilmer St., Jubilee St., Stewart Road and Tonnochy Road on the Island, to Shamshuipo, Mongkok, Jordan Road and Kowloon City on Kowloon Peninsula. In addition to carrying passengers, the Jubilee Street to Jordan Road ferry service also provides the only vehicular ferry service in the Colony. A second vehicular service is under consideration.

During 1956 a record number of passengers and vehicles were carried, being 81,750,000 and 1,251,000 respectively, an increase of 4,500,000 passengers and 79,000 vehicles over the previous year's figures.

On 3rd July, 1956, a new ferry service was opened between Kowloon City on the eastern part of Kowloon Peninsula and Wantsai, directly connecting the eastern areas of the Harbour for the first time by a regular enfranchised ferry service. Since its commencement, this service has carried over 1,980,000 passengers.

Of the services to outlying districts, the Cheung Chau route again carried large numbers of holiday makers through- out the summer. It was further improved during the summer season by extending the last ferry leaving Hong Kong to

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

209

8 p.m. and from Cheung Chau to 7.45 p.m. On Mondays and the days after public holidays it was found necessary to place larger ferries on the morning sailings to Hong Kong to accommodate the increased number of passengers, both holiday makers and Cheung Chau residents who commute daily to and from their places of business in Hong Kong. The Silver Mine Bay and Ping Chau services were also well patronized, especially during the summer months. On the Hong Kong, Kap Sui Mun, Castle Peak, Tung Chung and Tai O route, a Saturday excursion ferry was introduced in addition to the existing Sunday excursion ferry. This bene- fitted trippers who wish to do a day-tour of the monasteries on Lantao Island. The Tolo Harbour Service, inaugurated in March 1955 on a temporary basis, was further extended for another year, two additional stops at Tan Ka Wan and Sham Chung being introduced at the request of the inhabitants of districts served by this route. The number of passengers carried during the year was 55,109.

Last year mention was made of a Tsuen Wan - Tsing Yi-Hong Kong Ferry Service. Delay in reclamation work and negotiations in respect of the building of a seawall and a temporary pier, however, have prevented the Company from starting the ferry service during 1956, but it is hoped that it will be inaugurated early in 1957.

I

New construction during the year consisted of the launch- ing and completion of double-ended ferry vessels 'Man Foon' and 'Man Tai'. The dimensions are length overall 117'3", breadth 30', depth 10'. These vessels are powered by Crossley Marine Diesel Engines. Their sisterships, the 'Man Wing' and 'Man Wah', have helped to carry part of the increased traffic during the past year. Two single-ended ferry vessels, the 'Man Tat' and 'Man Tien', were also completed and entered service in 1956.

Continuous maintenance and repair work is carried out at the Tai Kok Tsui Depot, where three slipways are continu- ally in use servicing the fleet, each ferry vessel being slipped

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

as a matter of routine once every three months for hull cleaning and general inspection. In order to provide greater working area, plans incorporating a permanent building berth were drawn and passed during the year for reclamation of the foreshore off the Depot. The building berth will be situated on the edge of the new seawall to facilitate launch- ings. Work on this project will commence in January 1957.

PUBLIC WORKS

The construction of new piers in Hong Kong and Kowloon to replace the present 'Star' Ferry Piers was well advanced. These piers will provide berths for four ferries at the same time on each side of the harbour which will speed up opera- tion during rush hours. The passenger gangways are wide and spacious. Waiting rooms are provided. Other facilities include an Information Bureau, Newspaper Stalls, Money Changers, Toilets and First Aid Rooms, as may be found at any large rail terminus. A clock with a full set of West- minster chimes, presented by Mr. J. Keswick, C.M.G., has been installed in a tower on the Hong Kong Pier. It is expected that two berths of each pier will be in operation by April 1957 and the remaining two by April 1958.

The new Ferry Pier at Kowloon City was completed by the installation of the passenger lifts and ramps and went into operation on 1st June.

Nearly 50 acres of land have been reclaimed at Hung Hom out of a planned total of 80 acres. This reclamation will be developed mainly as a residential area, with sites for schools and community use. The earth for this reclamation has been excavated mainly from hills at Ma Tau Wei and Tai Wan which are being levelled for low cost housing. Over one million cubic yards of earth and rock will have been moved when this work is complete.

At Kun Tong about 46 acres of a reclamation which will eventually cover 227 acres have been filled and levelled and

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

211

some factory sites in what is planned as a new smokeless industrial area have already been sold.

Reclamation schemes are in progress at Cheung Sha Wan in Kowloon and at Chai Wan in Hong Kong. At the latter a small typhoon harbour has been formed and protected by a rubble breakwater. Plans have been prepared for the develop- ment of the surrounding area as a light industrial area with residential suburbs.

During the year additional apparatus was installed at the Public Works Laboratory at North Point to widen the range of tests of building materials. These now include, for example, the testing of steel bars. This laboratory tests samples sub- mitted by private Architects and private firms as well as samples for Government works.

Good progress was made in the construction of new build- ings which included work for the Education Department, Police Force, Medical Department and the Resettlement Department. Reference to the new Airport will be found in Chapter 15.

2

Four new primary schools-at Tsuen Wan, New Territories, Mission Road, Kowloon, Perth Street, Kowloon, and Holly- wood Road, Hong Kong-were completed as were large extensions to the Grantham Teachers' Training College in order to meet the ever-increasing demand for teachers. A con- tract was let for the new Technical College in Kowloon, and piling was completed by the end of the year. Plans were also well advanced for the provision of a further four 24-classroom primary schools.

Further progress was made with the planned programme of housing for the uniformed staff of the Police Force with the completion of 40 flats and barrack accommodation for the Rank and File at Eastern Police Station, Rank and File. barrack accommodation at Yaumati Police Station, 200 Rank and File flats and Pakistani barrack accommodation at Fan- ling Police Depot, and 112 Rank and File flats at Western

:

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Police Station. In addition 16 flats for Married Inspectorate staff were under construction at Western Police Station, and a contract was let for the construction of 300 Rank and File flats and a 12-classroom primary school at Arsenal Street, Hong Kong.

A small Maternal and Child Health Centre at Homantin, Kowloon, a Dispensary at Sai Kung and the first stage of the new Castle Peak Hospital, consisting of a Custodial Home for 120 patients and one block of staff quarters, were completed for the Medical Department. Tenders were called for a new Polyclinic at Shek Kip Mei Resettlement Estate; progress was made on the preparation of working drawings for the remainder of the Castle Peak Hospital and quarters to provide total accommodation for 500 patients; and prepara- tion of the workings drawings for the new 1,300-bed Kowloon Hospital continued.

During the year 10,000 rooms were constructed in multi- storey buildings for the Resettlement Department, which provided accommodation for a further 50,000 settlers in estates at Li Cheng Uk, Shek Kip Mei, Tai Wan Hill and Tai Hang Tung. In addition, contracts were let for six blocks at Shek Kip Mei and eight blocks at Lo Fu Ngam, and sketch plans were prepared for a large new Resettlement Estate at Wong Tai Sin. Plans were also prepared for an experimental multi-storey factory building for Resettlement Areas, which is designed to accommodate the numerous small industries which are displaced when squatter areas are cleared.

The District Branch Offices and Post Office in Sham- shuipo, Kowloon, and the second stage of the Central Government Offices were completed. Work commenced on the Public Works Department Branch Offices, Kowloon and tenders were called for the third and final stage of the Central Government Offices.

Designs were prepared for the complete development of the reclamation area in front of the new Star Ferry Pier,

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

213

Hong Kong. This includes the new City Hall, a three-storey car park for 418 cars and a covered way linking the Ferry Pier to a pedestrian bridge over Connaught Road. Work commenced on the construction of the first section of the covered ways; working drawings were completed for the car park; and working drawings were commenced for the City Hall.

Water-borne sewage systems are provided in nearly all built-up areas, including the larger towns in the New Terri- tories. As reconstruction of old buildings and the erection of large new blocks of flats continues, the number of new connexions made is steadily increasing. Many of the older sewers are thus becoming loaded beyond their designed capacity, and the work of relaying and enlarging them is going steadily forward. Major schemes have also been ap- proved for the provision of intercepting sewers, which will abolish the numerous outfalls into the harbour and bring the sewage to selected sites, where it will be chemically treated and thereafter discharged via submarine outfalls. The first project covering the western side of the Kowloon Peninsula is virtually complete, while a start has been made on both the intercepting sewers required for the eastern side of the Kowloon Peninsula and the Wantsai area.

Surface water, draining from the hills through built-up areas, was originally led to the sea via large open-trained channels, known locally as nullahs, which passed down the centres of roads, with bridges at road intersections. These nullahs were frequently 10 feet or more wide and almost square in section, and with the tremendous increase in both vehicular and pedestrian traffic it became essential that such obstructions be removed. During the last five years work on this has proceeded steadily, and many nullahs have been either decked or culverted, greatly relieving congestion on a number of main traffic routes.

Chapter 15: Communications

THE Colony of Hong Kong owes its existence to its position as a major communications centre on the China Coast. Although in the course of the years the emphasis has to a considerable extent shifted from purely entrepôt and other commercial activities to the development of local industries, described in Chapter 6, the Colony still depends as much as ever upon the efficient organization and control of facilities for shipping, aircraft, rail and road transport, postal services and telecommunications.

MARINE

The Port of Victoria is renowned not only for the beauty of its natural features, which are described in Chapter 22 of the Report, but also for its excellent Port facilities and hand- ling rate, which are comparable with those of any other first-class Port.

The administration of the Port is vested in the Director of Marine who, in close co-operation with local commercial interests, represented on advisory Port Committees, seeks continuously to stimulate the development of ever higher standards of service, opportunity and safety in its use.

The Port is well equipped with modern aids to navigation, both in the approaches and within the Harbour area, and all lights have been fully re-established and modernized since the war. At Waglan Island there is a light with a visibility of 21 miles together with a diaphone fog signal; at Tathong Point a powerful electric oscillator fog signal is now in use; and the light installed on Green Island at the western end of the Harbour has a visibility of 16 miles.

The main approach to Hong Kong is marked by a radio

COMMUNICATIONS

215

beacon and appropriately spaced radar reflectors so that entrance may be effected at all times. The Harbour itself is well lighted and singularly free from submerged dangers. Ocean-going vessels with a draught not exceeding 36′ can enter by the eastern entrance, and if not exceeding 24′ by the western entrance. Pilotage is not compulsory but is advisable due to large-scale reclamations and Harbour-works which are now in progress.

Each entrance is covered by a Quarantine Examination Anchorage with Port Health Officer's launches on duty from 0600-1800 hours daily. This arrangement expedites the granting of pratique and prevents unnecessary movements within the crowded Harbour. Immigration formalities are also completed at this anchorage so that passengers are free to go ashore as soon as vessels have reached their final berth.

Ship/shore communications are provided by 3 Signal Stations, each manned continuously and fitted with modern daylight signal lamps, which provide coverage for all an- chorages within the Harbour and its approaches. In addition Waglan Lighthouse operates a Signal Station equipped with a radio telephone which enables the first information of all vessels sighted in the eastern approaches to be passed im- mediately to the Port Authorities, owners and agents. Radio telephones are also installed on all Marine, Port Health, Police and Fire Fighting launches. Sets may also be hired commercially with a direct connexion to the land telephone system.

The internal security of the Harbour and the Waters of the Colony is maintained by the Marine Division of the Hong Kong Police, who man and operate a fleet of 24 Police Launches. All these launches are armed and are in radio telephonic communication with the Control Room at Police Headquarters.

A modern ocean-going fire float is kept in constant

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readiness, together with other fire fighting craft suitable for work in the shallower waters of the Colony.

Regular services are maintained by 17 shipping lines to Europe and the United Kingdom; 18 to the North American continent; 8 to Australia and New Zealand; as well as lines to Africa and South America, and innumerable lines to Asian ports from Yokohama to Karachi. Moreover the attractive and efficient facilities available for the handling of cargo and passengers in the port have convinced traders that it is economical and generally beneficial to their interests to use Hong Kong as a warehousing, transhipping and bunkering point.

Safe berths are available to all vessels with drafts up to 36', at all states of the tide. Commercial wharves can accom- modate vessels up to 750′ in length and a maximum of 32′ in draft and the Government maintains for hire 53 moorings, 18 of which are specially designed to withstand typhoon

conditions.

Cargo-handling compares favourably with the most ad- vanced ports. Efficient, modern methods, a plentiful supply of labour, lighterage, road-transport and experienced staffs, capable of undertaking any operation from the stowage of special cargoes to the handling of heavy-lifts and bulk oils, make the Port popular with all connected with shipping. 750,000 measurement tons (mainland) and 230,000 measure- ment tons (island) of godown space is equipped for ordinary, refrigerated and dangerous goods storage.

Ships bunkers are supplied by 3 of the major oil com- panies, whilst coal and fresh water can be supplied alongside at any berth in the Port or at the oil-installation wharves. The supply of fresh water is generally only restricted in the dry winter months.

There are II cross-harbour ferry services, including one passenger/vehicular service, which operate frequent schedules

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transporting more than 100,000,000 people and 1,000,000 vehicles per year. There is also a number of ferry services operating outside the Harbour area to Aberdeen and coastal towns or villages of the New Territories. The more important Ferry Services are described in more detail in Chapter 14. At night the illuminated ferries in conjunction with other shipping form part of the galaxy of lights which constitutes the typical Hong Kong night-scene.

Colony development is also assisted by native-type craft, of which more than 20,000 operate in Hong Kong waters, engaged in various occupations from fishing to the transport of cargo. During the year in the internal trades these craft transported more than 600,000 tons of cargo inward and 96,000 tons outward, whilst in trade with China they imported large quantities of foodstuffs, their total external trade for the year amounting to about 800,000 tons inward and 74,000 tons of cargo outward. About 1,500 junks operate inside. Hong Kong Harbour itself transporting thousands of tons of cargo to and from ocean-going shipping.

Hong Kong as a result of its efficiently run shipyards and engineering establishments has, over the year, been able to get its fair share of both new and repair work which the world-wide demand for tonnage of all types has occasioned. Placed geographically nearly midway between Singapore and Japan, the only other two competitors in this type of work in the Far East, the ships of the many nationalities which pass through the port are able to get first-class attention with a speed and efficiency which is rapidly becom- ing known throughout the world. As an international port the supervision given by Resident Surveyors of all the major Classification Societies, and Government Surveyors working under the Director of Marine, covers every aspect arising from International Maritime Conventions, including that for the Safety of Life at Sea.

A Port Welfare Committee attends to the welfare of the

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crews of visiting ships and allocates the monies provided by private donation and Government grant to organizations. devoted to that end. Several well-equipped clubs, one of which is managed by the Port Welfare Committee itself, serve the recreational needs of the visiting seamen.

During the year ending 31st March, 1956, (figures for 1955 are shown in brackets) 7,870 (7,589) ocean-going vessels of 21,807,590 (21,879,742) nett tons, 2,272 (2,068) river steamers of 2,585,760 (2,418,006) nett tons, and 28,557 (22,131) junks and launches of 2,281,021 (1,458,761) nett tons, entered and cleared the Port.

A total of 1,306,918 (775,556) passengers were embarked and disembarked; of these 53,017 (56,164) were carried by ocean-going vessels, and

1,253,901 (719,392) by river

steamers,

Weight tons of cargo discharged and loaded were as follows:

Discharged

Loaded

Ocean-going vessels

...

3,426,583 (3,408,963) 1,628,181 (1,367,208)

River steamers

18,291 (14,056)

Junks and Launches

74,403 (132,398)

12,379 (24,045)

782,675 (411,977)

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow, with connexions to North, East and South-West China. The British Section of the line, which is 22 miles long, is owned by the Hong Kong Government, and is operated between Kowloon and Lo Wu on the southern bank of the Shumchun River, which forms part of the Colony's frontier with China. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the North, but since October 1949, when the Central People's Government was established, through passenger services have been suspended. Passengers proceeding to and from China change trains at the frontier. Goods traffic in wagon-loads has been passing to and from China without off-loading at the frontier since 1950.

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The total revenue for 1956 was $7,575,528. Operating expenditure was $3,766,301, leaving a net operating revenue of $3,809,227. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $5,222,444, $3,785,746, $1,436,698 respectively. Capital expenditure was $2,318,907. The net operating revenue for 1956 is, therefore, about $2.3 million more than

last year.

Passenger traffic increased by 1,069,930, compared with 1955, and goods traffic also increased by 53,408 tons.

Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 3,713,008 or 76.09% of the total. Passengers to and from the frontier station of Lowu numbered 1,166,618 and the majority of these travelled between Hong Kong and China.

The railway will not regain its former prosperity until there is a relaxation of the trade and travel restrictions now in force between the Colony and China and until the through passenger service is resumed. At present, passengers passing from British to Chinese territory or vice versa have to walk the 300 yards separating the two termini.

In addition to the two existing diesel electric locomotives, another three were ordered from Australia in June 1956. They are expected to be ready for delivery in February 1957.

Statistics for 1956 are as follows :

Main line-22 miles

Total length of line-35 miles New Territories (Hong Kong)

4,879,626

Length of Line

Main points of call

:

Passengers carried

:

Freight carried

:

215,726 tons

Passenger miles

:

65,435,406

ROADS

With the construction of many new roads, particularly in Kowloon, the length of roads in the Colony was increased by over 7 miles, bringing the total to 450 miles.

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Details are as follows:

New

Total

Island

Kowloon

Territories

Miles

Concrete

66.18

33.21

16.93

116.32

Bitumen Macadam

73.42

23.41

69.96

166.79

..

Water-bound

macadam

35.49

61.24

44.35

141.08

Earth

9.48

4.11

12.21

25.80

Steps

.51

.51

Total Miles

185.08

121.97

143.45

450.50

The traffic, both vehicular and pedestrian, carried by all roads, is now so much greater than was ever expected before the war that not only are most roads becoming saturated but they are also requiring uneconomical maintenance. To reduce maintenance costs and effect a gradual improvement, the policy of building new and reconstructed roads to a high standard was continued during the year. The knowledge gained from the experiments carried out last year on the production of more durable road surfacing materials was put to use, and full-scale trials using a dense macadam wearing course were successfully undertaken in a number of busy

streets.

The opening of trenches in roads is a constant cause of delays, inconvenience and irritation to road users and is almost directly related to the development of building and industry. As can be expected with Hong Kong's remarkable post-war expansion, the control of these trenches and their reinstatement requires unrelenting attention and a special organization has been built up to take care of them. A strict control has, of necessity, to be exercised and high and expen- sive standards laid down to ensure satisfactory reinstatement. The ready and willing co-operation of the utility Companies in this respect has been greatly appreciated.

General road works are undertaken by local contractors, while a direct labour force of nearly 1,200 artisans and other. workers is employed in the operation of the two Government

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quarries and on minor road maintenance. Owing to the shortage of professional and technical engineering staff a number of items of work, although of high priority, could not be undertaken. Projects undertaken included the improve- ment of major road junctions and the provision of traffic islands to reduce traffic congestion and accidents.

To cope with the substantial increase in traffic expected as a result of development in the Tsuen Wan area of the New Territories, reconstruction of the Castle Peak Road between 52 and 9 milestones to a final total width of 80 ft. continued. This work involves the construction of a number of culverts and bridges and is being carried out in conjunction with the laying of a water main from the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir to Kowloon.

The bulk of the requirements of the Public Works Depart- ment for aggregate for concrete and road stone were supplied from the two government quarries, one in Kowloon and one in Hong Kong. The combined production of these quarries during the year was 225,000 tons of crushed stone and 56,000 tons of bitumen macadam. A large amount of new plant was ordered for the new quarry being established at Mount Butler in Hong Kong and some of this was received. On comple- tion, this quarry will replace the existing quarry at Tsat Tze Mui which will then be closed down because of the dust nuisance and development in the vicinity.

Progress continued on the provision and improvement of street lighting throughout the Colony. Once again attention was directed to the lighting of roads where a danger of traffic accidents existed. A total of 700 new lamps was installed, including replacements for a number of gas lamps and obsolete electric lamps which were removed. Approximately 5,800 street lamps were in operation at the end of the year.

VEHICLES

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony was 29,004, excluding trailers, hand-carts and public chairs. This

·

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is an overall increase of 4,018 over 1955 and is the greatest annual increase ever recorded. There is now a density of 63 vehicles for every mile of roadway.

Private cars

Motor cycles

Taxis

Buses

Goods vehicles

Crown vehicles

Rickshas

Pedal tricycles

19,591

1,783

627

644

3,821

870

877

791

29,004

CROSS-HARBOUR TUNNEL AND BRIDGE

After considering the conclusions of an Inter-departmental Working Party appointed to examine the question of a Cross- Harbour Tunnel between Hong Kong and Kowloon on the basis of a report by Messrs. Mott, Hay and Anderson, Con- sulting Engineers, published in 1955, the Government announced in July 1956, that it had decided in present circumstances not to undertake the construction of such a tunnel, and that this decision also applied to a cross-harbour bridge. Instead immediate consideration is being given to the provision of a second cross-harbour vehicular ferry service. The Working Party's report and Government's later announcement excited considerable public comment.

CIVIL AVIATION

Hong Kong Airport (Kai Tak), situated at the base of the Kowloon Peninsula, is suitable for both land and sea aircraft. Its two existing runways lie N.W. - S.E. and E. - W., being 5,418′ and 4,756' in length respectively. The Airport at present operates on a dawn to dusk basis, night operations. being restricted to emergency only due to topographical. hazards and limited visual and radio navigational aids. The

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administrative and operational facilities provided are under the control of the Director of Civil Aviation, who has a small staff of specialist officers experienced in all facets of Civil Aviation. Approximately 93% of the total staff of the depart- ment is locally recruited, training facilities being available for all officers to enable them to keep abreast with modern developments in aviation.

Civil Aviation Services provided at Hong Kong Airport include:-Air Traffic Control; Air Sea Rescue, Fire and Crash Services; Aeronautical Information; Air Registration Board Surveys; Aeronautical Meteorological Information; Aeronautical Engineering, repairs, overhauls and mainte- nance (by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co. Ltd.); and Primary Flying Training and Aeronautical Engineering and Electronics Training (by the Far East Flying Training School).

Plans and work, as may be seen from the illustrations elsewhere in the Report, are well advanced on the develop- ment of a new airport which will permit 24 hours operation and use by the new jet aircraft expected to be flying on the world major air routes by 1958. It is also hoped to complete the installation of modern navigational aids to coincide with the opening of the new runway in August 1958. On the construction and financial side of the new airport the Govern- ment is advised by a firm of Consulting Engineers, a firm of Consulting Electricians, an Airport Terminal Building Committee and an Airport Progress Committee. It has now been decided that the new runway should be 8,340 feet in length instead of the 7,200 feet originally planned.

All air services to Hong Kong Airport are of an inter- national character, and 15 airlines, including two local air- lines, operate air services connecting Hong Kong with principal world air routes, at a frequency of 134 flights to and from Hong Kong per week.

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Details of traffic for the year are:

Passenger Aircraft

Passengers

Freight

Mail

In

Out

3,734

3,735

94,176

85,878

2,224,702 kilos.

736,368 kilos.

475,968

""

305,702

POST OFFICE

Postal Services. The steady increase in traffic which has been apparent since the war continued unabated. Unfortu- nately, however, plans to provide additional premises to ease the serious congestion in the main offices did not materialize and it was only through the temporary loan by the Railway Administration of a godown for transit mails that the Post Office was able to carry on without chaos.

Some relief to counter and delivery services was provided by a new branch office in the new Government District Offices in Shamshuipo, and three further offices on Hong Kong Island are in process of construction. The main problem is, however, additional space at Head Office to accommodate the heavy overseas and transit mails.

External services remained at a high peak, averaging 12 sea and 18 air mails daily. The daily air despatches to Europe and America continued, other principal administrations re- ceiving four or more services weekly.

Letter mails are despatched to 74 destinations by air and 77 by sea, and direct parcel mails to 28 destinations by air and 75 by sea. Letter mails are received direct from 76 places by air and 69 by sea, direct parcel mails from 22 countries by air and 42 by sea.

Registration and Parcel services were also maintained at a high level at 2,941,485 and 844,810 respectively.

Christmas postings produced an all-time record, over 3,500,000 items being dealt with in the ten-day peak period, and no less than 611,000 being recorded on one day. For the

}

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225

first time in the history of the Post Office it was necessary to engage temporary mail-handling staff in the rush period.

The extension of remittance services to selected Branch Post Offices was fully justified, the total of money orders and postal orders issued and paid amounting to a record figure of $4,998,168, or $776,062 over the 1955 record of $4,222, 106.

Revenue receipts also created a record by exceeding $30,000,000 for the first time. Actual collections amounted to $30,340,373 as against $26,553,869 in 1955.

Licensing. The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, under the control of the Postmaster General, issues all types of radio licences, ranging from domestic broadcast receiving licences to amateur wireless stations' and radio dealers' licences. The number of broadcasting licences in force on 31st December was 58,737 with 532 other licences

The Office conducts examinations for the Postmaster General's Certificate for Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy, and undertakes the survey and inspection of ships' and air- craft wireless stations. Another function is the enforcement of the regulations made under the International Telecom- munication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecommunications Ordinance.

A close liaison is maintained between the Hong Kong Communications Board, the Hong Kong Frequency Assign- ment Committee, and the Radio Licensing and Inspection Office. on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external telecommunications.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Telegraph and radio-telephone services between Hong Kong and overseas, telegraph and radio-telephone services with ships at sea, and a V.H.F. Harborfone service. with ships anchored in the Port of Victoria are the responsi- bility of Cable & Wireless, Ltd. The Company also provides a service for internal telegrams throughout the Colony, and

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

is responsible for the technical maintenance and development of the Colony's broadcasting and Aeradio services, mete- orological radio services, and the V.H.F. communications of various Government Departments.

During the year a new commercial wireless telegraph circuit was opened with Hanoi, and there were further exten- sions to the number of private circuits available for leasing to commercial concerns. A total of 7 private leased circuits now operate with San Francisco, Tokyo, Manila and Singa- pore, and others to Bangkok and Saigon are expected in the near future.

The telegraphic communications of the Colony are well served by 3 modern-type duplex submarine cables linked to the Company's worldwide network of 150,000 miles of sub- marine cables, and by its 15 high-speed wireless telegraph circuits working with all the major centres of the Far East and with Europe.

The overseas radio-telephone services, worked in collabora- tion with the Hong Kong Telephone Company, were further extended and new direct services were opened to Okinawa, countries in South and Central America, the Lebanon, Sai- gon, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. In addition radio- telephone relay circuits were opened for Labuan and Jesselton with the United Kingdom and for Uruguay and Canada with Macau.

PULL-

Local firms continue to appreciate the advantages of having a Teleprinter installed in their offices, and during the year numerous additional installations were carried out. The Com- pany now has 180 Teleprinters in use in the Colony.

There were improvements to the radio-telephone service with ships at sea, and ocean-phone facilities were introduced for ships at greater distances from Hong Kong. The Com- pany's radio-telephone service now links Hong Kong with 61 different countries, and this number continues to expand. During the year a phototelegram service was opened to

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227

Manila, increasing the total number of phototelegram ser-

vices to five.

Traffic Figures for 1956 were:

Telegrams transmitted

1,059,052

Telegrams received

1,135,879

Telegrams in transit

410,799

Telegrams transmitted by Teleprinter

500,002

Radiophone mins. transmitted

559,371

Radiophone mins. received

710,172

Radio pictures transmitted (217 Pictures)

64,651 sq. cms.

Radio pictures received (24 Pictures)

5,384 sq. cms.

Press broadcasts (words handled)

58,813,000

555,000

99,000

Meteorological broadcasts (words handled)

Harborfone calls to ships in harbour

Telephones. The Hong Kong Telephone Company, Ltd., provides and operates the Colony's internal public telephone service. In co-operation with Cable & Wireless Ltd. the service is extended by radio-telephone and is available to most parts of the world.

The number of direct exchange lines working on the Company's system is approximately 45,000 and the number of extensions is approximately 18,500, making an approximate total of 63,500.

The system is fully automatic and is provided by four main Exchanges and a number of satellite Exchanges.

A new main Exchange of 12,000 lines, with an ultimate capacity of 19,000 lines, for the Western District of Victoria will be completed towards the end of 1957.

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

The Royal Observatory, which is the sole source of weather information in Hong Kong, provides forecasts for the general public, shipping, aviation and the Armed Forces. In addition

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

to its meteorological duties, the Observatory operates a seismological station and a time service.

There was a slight decrease in the number of weather reports received from ships during the year; but the resump- tion of weather broadcasts from China partly compensated for this deficiency, and forecasting standards were main- tained.

The Royal Observatory's most important function is to give warning of storms. Whenever a tropical depression, storm or typhoon moves into the China Sea, 6- hourly and often 3-hourly statements of position, intensity and direc- tion of movement of the centre are issued. Frequent reliable ship reports and storm reconnaissances by aircraft help to locate storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threat- ened, the local storm warning system is brought into use, and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion. The local storm warning signal code was revised early in 1956 and a new strong monsoon signal defined.

Although typhoons caused considerable damage in the Philippines and on the coast of China during the year, Hong Kong was not seriously affected. The No. 1 advisory signal was hoisted five times when storms within four hundred miles constituted a possible threat to the Colony. The No. 3 signal followed on four of these occasions and was displayed for a total period of 114 hours, but gusts did not exceed 45 knots.

In the nine months following the introduction of the new signal code on 1st April, the strong monsoon signal was displayed during 370 hours.

METEOROLOGICAL RESEARCH

An experiment was commenced early in the year to deter- mine whether afforestation would affect the run off of surface. water in Tai Po Kau Forestry Reserve by increasing con-

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densation in foggy conditions. Considerable work was done on re-analysis of tracks of typhoons and tropical depressions for the period 1884-1953. Publications during the year included a collection of solar data for Hong Kong (Royal Observatory Technical Note No. 14), the results of special radiosonde observations during a partial solar eclipse (Technical Note No. 15), an analysis of low cloud and poor visibility at Sek Kong (Technical Note No. 16), and details of the storm warning service and of weather services for shipping.

香港

< 圖書房

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 16: Press, Broadcasting, Films and Tourism

PRESS

MORE than 150 newspapers and magazines of various kinds are published in Hong Kong. About a dozen are published in English, but most are in Chinese. A few are bilingual. The main ones are listed in Appendix XVIII.

International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, the French News Agency (Agence France-Presse), Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press), and the United Press. Each of these four agencies maintains permanent correspondents in Hong Kong and furnishes news services to local newspapers.

Offices are also maintained in Hong Kong by the inde- pendent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency (official agency of the Chinese Government), the Central News Agency of the Taiwan administration, and the Japanese agencies, Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service.

Foreign correspondents regularly resident in the Colony number about 35. Most are British, American and Japanese writers. The New York Times, Christian Science Monitor, Chicago Daily News, Observer (London), Toronto Star, and several other foreign publishing houses maintain permanent representatives based on Hong Kong. The Time and Life magazine organization moved its South-East Asia bureau from Singapore to Hong Kong towards the end of 1956 and now has four American staff men in the Colony. Leading broadcasting and television networks also maintain corre- spondents and cameramen in the Colony. During the year over 100 foreign correspondents visited Hong Kong.

Four English-language newspapers are published. Three of

}

PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

231

these-the South China Morning Post (weekday mornings), the China Mail (weekday afternoons) and the South China Sunday Post-Herald (Sundays)-are published by the South China Morning Post, Ltd. One, the daily Hong Kong 'Tiger' Standard (morning), is Chinese-owned, part of the chain founded by the late Mr. Aw Boon Haw.

Daily Commodity Quotations, a trade journal, which appears on weekdays in both Chinese and English, provides up-to-date commercial news in addition to commodity quota- tions.

Most important of vernacular daily newspapers is the Wah Kiu Yat Pao (Overseas Chinese Daily News). It has a large morning circulation, and also publishes an evening edition. Politically independent, the Wah Kiu Yat Pao is a generally reliable newspaper. Right-wing papers giving reliable news include the Sing Tao Jih Pao, run by the proprietors of the Hong Kong Standard, and the Kung Sheung Yat Pao (Industrial and Commercial Daily News), both of which publish evening editions. The Sing Pao is a popular morning paper with a large circulation.

The Hong Kong Times, an extreme right-wing paper in Chinese, expresses Chinese Nationalist views. The Tą Kung Pao, the New Evening Post, and the Wen Wei follow the orthodox communist line.

BLIC

Among periodicals written in English the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review is read widely beyond the confines of the Colony. The monthly Orient, specializing in Asian political and cultural affairs, suspended publication during the year.

The leading Chinese periodicals are the popular illustrated magazines East Pictorial, Asia Pictorial and Happiness Magazine, all with overseas circulations.

The majority of the principal newspapers in the Colony are members of the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, founded in 1954. The committee of the Foreign Correspond-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

ents' Club acts for overseas journalists stationed in the Colony.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICE

News of government activities and explanations of govern- ment policy are given by the Public Relations Office, situated in the Gloucester Building. The department's Press Section issued nearly 4,000 statements and news items in 1956, and organized a number of Press conferences, besides maintain- ing close personal contact with local newspapers, agencies and foreign correspondents. The Section also prepares the news bulletins broadcast in English and four Chinese dialects by Radio Hong Kong.

An Advertising and Display Section is responsible for all government advertising, the preparation and distribution of posters, pamphlets and other matter, and the maintenance of a film library. A total of 2,218 films were borrowed from the film lending library during the year and were viewed by 470,575 people.

BROADCASTING

Radio Hong Kong is a government broadcasting station, transmitting on two wavelengths on medium wave and one on short wave. On the Chinese wavelength (640 Kc/s) the principal languages used are Cantonese, Kuoyu and Chiuchow; the other medium wavelength (860 Kc/s) transmits in English, with occasional broadcasts in French and Portuguese. The shortwave transmitter on 3.94 megacycles in the 76 metre band broadcasts the Chinese programme, and is designed for local coverage in those parts of the Colony where reception is weak.

The studio centre occupies the sixth and seventh floors of Mercury House, the headquarters of Cable and Wireless Ltd. in Victoria, fronting the Central Reclamation. This accom- modation is rented from Cable and Wireless, who are responsible for the technical operation of Radio Hong

PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

233

Kong. The transmitters (2 kw. for the medium wave service and 2 kw. on short wave) are situated at Hung Hom in Kowloon. Programmes originate from Mercury House and from a number of outside broadcasting points, in stadia, theatres, churches etc., connected to the studios by lines rented from the Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd. The studios are well-equipped, with two services operating from different floors, and include a Concert Hall with seating for 100, extending to both floors and used by both services as required.

The station is directed by a Controller of Broadcasting, with a senior programme assistant for each service, seven programme assistants, four announcers for the Chinese service, two Record Librarians, and a small clerical staff; the full personnel? excluding technical staff supplied by Cable and Wireless, amounting to 34. Announcing and newsreading services on the English programme are all provided by amateur broadcasters.

In recent years it had become increasingly clear that an improvement in the services provided by Radio Hong Kong could only be maintained by spending considerably larger sums of public money than hitherto. Following a debate on a Sessional Paper 'The Future of Broadcasting in Hong Kong' in the Legislative Council at the beginning of the year, the Government decided to abandon the principle that revenue from licence fees should cover the cost of broad- casting; to introduce all-day broadcasting on the Chinese service; to explore all possible means of improving the coverage of the Station's transmitters; to improve the variety and scope of programmes; and to invite tenders for the operation under licence of a commercial broadcasting station, whose activities might reasonably be expected to lead to an enhanced revenue from licence fees which would help to bridge the gap between Government expenditure and revenue on Radio Hong Kong.

Action to implement all aspects of this new policy were

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

undertaken during the year, necessitating for Radio Hong Kong the recruitment of extra staff, both programme and technical, the ordering of equipment, the preparation of new programme schedules and technical experiments on coverage. While certain increases in transmission time were made on both Chinese and English programmes in November, the full effect of the expansion of services will not be felt until the middle of 1957. At the end of the year additional technical staff had been recruited and were being trained by Cable and Wireless, recruitment of extra programme and clerical staff was in hand, new equipment was under order, plans were in hand for building alterations to certain studios, and the problem of improving reception was under discussion. At the end of the year both programmes were on the air for an average of eleven hours daily.

As in previous years, much effort was expended in increas- ing the range of broadcasts reflecting the character of Hong Kong. To the weekly feature 'We are Living Below the Victoria Peak' the Chinese section added 'Topical Events' and 'Workers' Playtime'. The former is a weekly news magazine similar to the English programme 'This Week'. For the latter, artists, musicians and engineers take a show out to one of the Colony's factories each week, and this programme has proved immensely popular. This year more programmes than ever before were broadcast both in English and Chinese stressing the interdependability of both commu- nities in the Colony. For example, in the spring a series of inter-school quiz programmes, organized by the Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce, were broadcast in both services; the English version of 'Beginners Please', an amateur talent show, first broadcast in English at the beginning of the year, was followed by a similar programme on the Chinese service at the end of the year, and both filled the Concert Hall to capacity. 'Its in the News', a panel game adapted from a television feature, proved as popular with Chinese audiences as with English. These programmes

PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

235

represent a completely new idea in Chinese radio entertain- ment, and their popularity is therefore all the more gratifying.

In a more serious vein, a long-felt need was satisfied during the year with the broadcasting of a series of 'English by Radio' lessons in Cantonese and Kuoyu. These lessons were prepared by the 'English by Radio' section of the B.B.C., and have been extremely well received by listeners. The series is continuing.

In November the normal languages used in the Chinese service, Cantonese, Kuoyu and Chiuchow, were supple- mented by Hakka, in which a daily news broadcast was made.

Radio Hong Kong again made its own contribution to the Hong Kong Festival of the Arts. Together with broad- casts of the dramatic and musical productions produced for stage audiences, two radio plays were broadcast as festival productions-Lady Precious Stream' by Dr. S. I. Hsiung in English, and 'Displaced Persons' by Ursula Bloom in Cantonese.

The insatiable demand of the Chinese service for good radio-play scripts led to a greatly increased use of translations of English radio-plays. Apart from remedying the shortage of good Chinese scripts, this policy has helped to introduce the English way of life and thought to Chinese audiences, and to give guidance in the art of play-writing to Chinese script writers.

The European listener with special interests was catered for to a greater extent, and to the programmes for those who drive cars, kick balls, read books, listen to music, and so forth, were added programmes for filmgoers ('Going to the Pictures'), for women ('Women Only'), and for just plain listeners (Thursday Scrapbook'). A novel and successful experiment was carried out in February when Radio Hong Kong joined forces with Rediffusion in supporting the drive for funds organized by the Hong Kong 'Tiger' Standard to

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to assist the under-privileged of the Colony over the Chinese New Year.

The Kowloon riots in October placed a considerable strain on both services. The rapid distribution of information, particularly to areas under curfew, was of paramount impor- tance, and both services stayed on the air much longer than usual.

:

Most of the landmarks in the yearly life of the Colony are also broadcasting landmarks. There is space to mention but a few the Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, the Agricul- tural Show, the Cross-Harbour Race, the Air Display at Kai Tak, the Queen's Birthday Parade, and the Dragon Boat Races, all of which were given full broadcast coverage. Prominent men and women who visited the Colony and who broadcast included the Rt. Hon. Herbert Morrison, the Rt. Hon. Sir Hartley Shawcross, Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears, Irene Kohler, Gregor Piatigorsky, Louis Kentner, Annarosa Taddei, Maurice Clare, Chris Chataway, Professor Arnold Toynbee and Douglas Bader.

The B.B.C. continued to maintain a supply of first-class material on transcription. Transcriptions were also received and broadcast from the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Radio Nederland, and United Nations Radio. KIRO, the Columbia Broad- casting System in Seattle, recorded an eye-witness account for Radio Hong Kong on the Colony's display at the 5th International Trade Fair at Seattle, and the Voice of America produced a recorded interview with Miss Irene Yuen, a well- known local pianist now studying in America. In addition to receiving transcriptions, Radio Hong Kong for the first time produced its own-a series of programmes originally broadcast by the Chinese service being sent to Radio Malaya and Radio Sarawak.

Radio licence figures again rose during the year and now stand at 58,737, an increase of 6,269 over the previous year.

A Distinguished Visitor

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His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia passed through the Colony in November on his way to Japan. The Emperor, on arrival at Kai Tak, where he was welcomed by His Excellency the Governor.

P. C. Lee

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A night-scene of Victoria. In the foreground

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Chou Wing Ping

A night-scene of Victoria. In the foreground,

one of the Colony's modern sports-arenas.

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Chou Wing Ping

one of the Colony's modern sports-arenas.

མ་ནན་ན

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Wah Kiu Yat Po

At the Third Asian Film Festival, His Excellency the Governor and Lady Grantham pose above with Japanese film stars. Below, the Commander, British Forces, Lieutenant General W. H. Stratton inspects a passing out parade at the Police Training School.

Wah Kiu Yat Po

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PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

237

An analysis of studio operations showed the following breakdown of programme sources:

English Service

Chinese Service

Commercial records ......

41%

Commercial records

Studio (live and pre-

Studio (live and pre-

recorded)

43%

Outside broadcasts

8%

recorded)

Transcriptions

Radio relays

7%

Radio relays

...

Transcriptions

1%

57%

........

12%

17%

11%

3%

Outside broadcasts

Although there was no significant change in the number of recordings produced compared with the previous year, the hours worked in recording channels showed a sharp rise. This is due to an increase in the number of magazine-type programmes which require tape editing.

An innovation made during the year to improve technical facilities for dramatic productions was the addition of an echo control circuit in the Concert Hall. Special microphone wiring in the control booths was installed in the new Legis- lative Council Chamber.

REDIFFUSION

RIE

Rediffusion (H.K.) Ltd. provides a popular wired broad- cast service throughout the Colony, extending to outlying regions of Pokfulam, Aberdeen, Stanley, Repulse Bay on the island, and to Tsuen Wan, Un Long, Tai Po, Fan Ling, Sek Kong, Sheung Shui and Sha Tin on the mainland. At present the system embraces more than 1,000,000 yards of main trunk network cable and approximately 2,500,000 yards of subscribers' installation cabling. Distribution is from three sub-stations, feeding 20 kiosks from which 108 feeders radiate to approximately 62,000 Rediffusion loudspeakers.

Programmes are originated in Rediffusion House from modern air-conditioned studios and provide three simultane- ous programmes between 7.00 a.m. to midnight daily, two networks (Gold and Silver) in Chinese and one (Blue) in

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

English. The second Chinese programme service, the Gold Network providing an alternate Chinese programme service, was inaugurated on 23rd July, 1956.

Approximately 14% of Rediffusion programmes are com- mercially sponsored, and the Chinese programme service offers music, news, drama, talks, sports, commentaries, women's features, children's shows, comedy, story-telling and theatre relays in Cantonese, Mandarin, Swatow, Hakka, Shanghai and other dialects. The English service features continuous daily broadcasts of musical entertainment, plays, studio presentations, news, B.B.C. and other relays, sports events, stock-market news, features for women and children and many other variety presentations.

Rediffusion employs 331 local people of whom 98% are Chinese, in addition to hundreds of musicians, soloists, story- tellers and dramatic artists.

Rediffusion rental for a loudspeaker is $10 a month and subscribers have a constant choice of the three programmes provided, which necessitates the origination of 51 hours of programmes each day.

Rediffusion, which commenced 29 years ago in the United Kingdom, operates in many parts of the Commonwealth, and the Hong Kong company, locally controlled, is part of this world-wide organization.

FILM INDUSTRY

Hong Kong film studios produced 215 films in 1956. In addition, 12 Hong Kong financed films were produced partly in the Colony and partly in Taiwan, Japan or Singapore. According to UNESCO figures, Hong Kong again gives place only to the United States of America, Japan and India for total film footage produced annually. Roughly one quarter of the films made in the Colony are in Mandarin (Kuoyu) dialect. The remainder are in Cantonese. There are eight major producing studios, as well as a large number of

PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND TOURISM

239

small producing companies who rent studio space as required. Films made in Hong Kong are mostly shown in those places in South-East Asia where there are large Chinese com- munities. Some are also shown in the United States.

Altogether there are 63 cinemas in the Colony, 28 on Hong Kong Island, 25 in Kowloon and ten in the New Territories. Two of the older theatres were demolished during the year but one of them is now being rebuilt. The larger modern theatres in Victoria and Kowloon are air-conditioned and equipped to show wide-screen productions.

Apart from locally-produced films, the majority of imported films shown are American. During the year 231 American films were seen, whilst British films took third place with a total of 56 shown. French, Indian, Italian, Japanese and Russian films are shown occasionally. First-run and second- run cinemas are required under quota law to show British films at least seven days out of seventy.

All films must be submitted for censorship before exhibi- tion to the public, but any owner or distributor of a film who is aggrieved by a decision of the Panel of Censors may appeal to a Board of Review, the decision of which is final. Provision is also made whereby anyone objecting to a film being shown may appeal to the Colonial Secretary for its examination by the Board of Review. All films passed by the censors are released for general exhibition. There is no system of special certificates limiting the audience to certain categories, as in the United Kingdom.

The Federation of Motion Picture Producers in Asia selected Hong Kong as the site for their Third Annual Film Festival which was held in June. All eight member countries were represented at the Festival which was opened by the Governor at a colourful ceremony attended by many visiting actors and actresses wearing their national costumes, as well as by film company executives. Twenty six feature films and ten documentaries were submitted to the Jurors

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

for competition. The competition films were made in the Philippines, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaya, Thailand, Japan and Hong Kong. A number of guest films of French and Italian origin were also shown during the Festival Week.

During the year background scenes for the Metro- Goldwyn-Mayer production of Somerset Maugham's 'Painted Veil' were filmed in the Colony, and various scenes were also taken for films for the Church Missionary Society and the World Council of Churches.

TOURISM

A Working Committee was appointed in 1955 to consider and make recommendations on whether a Tourist Association should be established. The Committee's Report was received during the year and accepted by the Government, with some financial reservations. The Committee recommended that an incorporated Tourist Association should be established with, for the first three years, a Board of Management nominated by the Governor and financial support from the Government amounting to $3,700,000. It is on this sum that the Govern- ment has reservations but action is proceeding on the other points: a Bill is being drafted and a Board selected.

IC LIBR

Chapter 17: Local Forces and

Civil Defence Services

THERE are no regular full-time local forces, other than the Police Force. The Auxiliary Services described below are manned entirely, save for small training and administrative staffs, by citizens of the Colony who devote their leisure time in the evenings or at the week-ends to this form of public service, or are released by their employers for more extended training at annual camps.

ARMED FORCES

Volunteer service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May, 1854, of the Hong Kong Volunteers. Between then and 1920 the popularity of volunteering fluctuated, chiefly in relation to the personality and enthusiasm of suc- cessive Commanding Officers. In 1878 the Hong Kong Volunteers were renamed the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps and in 1917 the Hong Kong Defence Corps. In 1920 the title was changed to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

The Corps was mobilized, about 1,400 strong, to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December, 1941, and fought with the Regular Forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December, 1941. For their gallantry in battle and subsequent escapes from Japanese prison-camps in Hong Kong, fifteen decorations were con- ferred upon members of the Corps; eighteen members were mentioned in despatches. In June 1956 workmen excavating a building site on Garden Road discovered part of the old Colours of the Corps which had been buried there in Decem- ber 1941 to avoid capture by the Japanese. The officers who

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

had buried the Colours subsequently died in captivity, leav- ing no record of where the Colours could be found.

After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1st March, 1949, as the Hong Kong Defence Force. Two years later, the title Royal was awarded to the Force by His late Majesty King George VI in recognition of the part played by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps in the defence of Hong Kong.

Constituted by Ordinance, the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force is a combined force comprising a naval, a military and a flying component. Men and women of different races and nationalities serve side by side in each unit. The Force consists partly of volunteers and partly of conscripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service for citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies in 1951. The main units of the force are the Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve which mans and operates three craft; the Hong Kong Regiment, with the strength and equipment of a nor- mal infantry battalion; Force Headquarters Units, compris- ing a heavy-mortar platoon and other specialist formations; the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force equipped with a squadron of aircraft; the Home Guard; the Hong Kong Women's Naval Volunteer Reserve; the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps; and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

Training obligations vary in the different units. In most units members must attend every year at least sixty instruc- tional parades of one hour's duration, six full days' training and fifteen days' training at camp. During the year it was decided to reduce training obligations for efficient members of the Force with more than five years' service; but nearly all of these continued voluntarily to parade for the full train- ing programme. An allowance is granted for attendance at instructional parades, while for a full day's training, and for attending camp, officers and members are paid at the rate for regular officers and men of equivalent rank. The officers of

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LOCAL FORCES AND CIVIL DEFENCE SERVICES

243

the Force are found from amongst its members, but there is in addition a small permanent staff of regular officers and non-commissioned officers attached for training purposes. The Force is financed from funds voted annually by the Legislative Council.

Excellent co-operation is received from business concerns in releasing staff for training, particularly for camp, which is undoubtedly the most valuable training period during the year. The Force provides a fine example of men and women of different races, both volunteers and conscripts, working together in the common interests of the Colony.

OTHER AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

In addition to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Special Constabulary and the Police Reserve (see page 187), a number of other services have been raised and organized to assist in the civil defence of the Colony in an emergency. Legally, these are all parts of one service, the Essential Services Corps; in practice, however, the Corps is split into four autonomous Services: the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Fire Service, the Auxiliary Medical Service, and the Civil Aid Services.

In the Essential Services Corps conditions for training, pay, etc. are similar to those in the Defence Force, except that members are not required to undergo fifteen days training in camp, nor, generally speaking, to do any full-day training. Moreover, those members of the Corps who in an emergency would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert naturally require less training. All the Services which are included within the Corps are composed partly of volun- teers and partly of conscripts.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, water, communications, etc. Each is staffed primarily by those already employed in such

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

service, but also contains an element of others normally employed in non-essential industries or departments who would be called upon to assist in maintaining these various essential undertakings, if the need for their services arose. The Corps is now several thousand strong.

The Auxiliary Fire Service, an autonomous Unit of the Essential Services Corps, is designed, as the name implies to augment the Fire Brigade when necessary. It is a well trained, keen and efficient body some hundreds strong which has frequently been called upon to assist the Fire Brigade in fighting serious fires.

The Auxiliary Medical Service is organized to provide. first-aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in an emergency. It is built up around the Depart- ment of Medical and Health Services, the St. John Am- bulance Brigade, and other members of the medical and nursing professions. In addition, many people with no pre- vious training in nursing, first-aid, etc. have been enrolled as members, and have been trained to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first-aid workers in the field. The Unit is now several thousand strong and of constantly improving efficiency.

The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services, and comprise a Wardens' Service, a Rescue Service and other units, on orthodox civil defence lines. The members of the Civil Aid Services, which are now several thousand strong, are markedly keen. More volunteers are coming forward than can be trained.

In addition to the regular training programmes of the various Services which comprise the Essential Services Corps, a Colony Civil Defence Exercise lasting for a day is held annually and provides an opportunity for testing com- mand and communications and for co-ordinating the func- tions of these Services in the field.

Chapter 18: Research

THE University of Hong Kong is continuing with various research projects.

Its current historical projects include work on several aspects of the history of Hong Kong, China, Japan, and South-East Asia. Two books on the history of Hong Kong await publication. The Department of Geography and Geology is conducting research into land use throughout the Colony, the distribution of Hong Kong clays and their moulding characteristics and baking temperatures, glazes manufactured from local minerals, the paragenesis of the wolfram and molybdenum deposits in the New Territories, and the geomorphology of Northeast Lantau with special reference to its terraces and erosion surfaces.

Educational projects include further investigation into the value of group methods in teacher-training; continued investigation of mental health problems, particularly as they affect child development and juvenile delinquency; and studies of the educational implications of a plural society.

In the Department of Economics and Political Science research work has been concentrated on the study of economic and social conditions in Hong Kong, China and the Far East, and on the theory and history of economic development. Research services of the Department were utilized by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, the High Commissioner for Refugees, the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council, the Government of Hong Kong and several local and foreign institutions. Results of some of the researches have also been published as monographs or articles, and some con- tributions of the Department were presented at the Conference

246

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of the International Economic Association held in September 1956 in Rome.

Research in the Institute of Oriental Studies includes work on the chronological tables of Chinese history, a complete history of the Tai-ping Rebellion, and the classical theatre of China, the results of which have been prepared for publication. Other books in preparation are Characteristics of Chinese Civilization, Common Chinese

Chinese Characters Explained, A Compilation of Chinese Characters, Ancient and Modern, and Chinese Costumes.

In the Department of Biology, work in the Fisheries Research Unit has continued along the lines already laid down, the main fields of activity being related to the oyster industry, fish-pond culture, ichthyology and oceanography. In December 1955 the oceanographical programme of the research vessel 'Alister Hardy' was revised; the new survey includes twenty-nine stations, the farthest of which is 100 miles from the Colony, and is designed to assess the various factors, of which the Pearl River is the most significant, affecting the fishing grounds within the range of the Hong Kong fishing fleet. The 'Alister Hardy' is also conducting a fishing survey in conjunction with the Government Fisheries Division, and has fished in waters up to 240 miles from the Colony.

L

New discoveries made in the Department of Chemistry in the fields of synthetic organic compounds, products from Hong Kong plants, and the mechanisms of chemical reac- tions, continued to attract attention in many parts of the world.

In the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, research is being continued on the radiological investigation of the morphology of the Chinese female pelvis. Results of research on the clinical and pathological aspects of hydatidiform mole and Chorion-epithelioma have been published, and results on the sodium pentothal treatment of eclampsia will appear

RESEARCH

247

soon. Recent research on various problems relating to toxaemias of pregnancy include the study of hepatic lesion in eclampsia, and an investigation is being done on fibrinolysis in accidental haemorrhage.

An electrolytic tank has been built in the Department of Civil Engineering for solving field problems in various branches of engineering. A long term research programme using the tank will cover the fields of soil mechanics and the theory of elasticity, as well as the usual electric and magnetic fields.

Architectural research includes housing in Kowloon and the New Territories, the development of fishing communities, and the history of the theories of design.

For meteorological research, see under Royal Observatory, page 228.

KII

NG KON

PUBLIC LIBRA

Chapter 19: Religion

THE Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau, covers nine recognized parish churches and eight mission chapels. In three of these worship is conducted in English, and in the remainder in Chinese. St. John's Cathedral, opened in 1849, was established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850.

The year has seen extensive changes in the Precincts of St. John's Cathedral including the erection of a new Hall for the Sunday School; and the erection of a new East Window as a Memorial to those who died during the Japanese occupation.

The Anglican Church continues to play an important role in the field of education. In addition to the existing secondary and other schools which the Church administers, a new co- educational secondary school and two primary schools were opened or completed during the year, and building started on two more. The new buildings of the post-secondary Chung Chi College were officially opened in October.

The English-speaking Free Churches are represented by the Methodists, who have their own church on Hong Kong Island; by other denominations grouped together in the Union Church in Victoria and the Kowloon Union Church; and by the non-denominational congregation of Emmanuel Church in Kowloon. The London Missionary Society, whose chief representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the Colony's cession to Great Britain, plays a prominent part in education and medicine, and runs the Nethersole Hospital, one of the Colony's foremost medical institutions.

A statistical survey of the Chinese-speaking Churches of the urban areas, published in February 1956, showed that

RELIGION

249

there were 59 Churches of 150 members and over in Hong Kong and Kowloon. No fewer than 13 of these (11 non- Anglican) had a membership of more than 1,000, and some of them a not inconsiderable history of work in the Colony. There is in addition a considerable number of smaller Chur- ches, preaching-places and congregations in the rural areas. All sects are showing great vitality and enterprise with new Church and school buildings going up all the time, as well as Social Service Centres, Clinics, and a few institutions of Higher Learning. Of particular note is the co-operation and united work which are being developed through the Chinese Churches' Union and the more recently-formed Hong Kong Christian Council, on which are also represented the English-speaking Churches, the Salvation Army and the Adventist body.

The Roman Catholic Church, established in 1841, was until 1874 administered by a Prefect Apostolic. In that year a Bishop was appointed with the title of Vicar Apostolic, and in 1946 the status of the Church was raised to that of a Diocese, extending into China (Hoifung - Po On - Wai Yeung Districts). The Diocese, is entrusted to the Foreign Mission Society of Milan (P.I.M.E.).

There are 12 Roman Catholic Parishes with churches on Hong Kong Island and Kowloon, and about thirty churches and chapels in different parts of the New Territories. The Church administers 135 schools situated in 69 buildings- some with an English programme of studies, others with a Chinese curriculum. As a result of the extensions of existing buildings and the opening of new ones during 1956, the total number of pupils in Catholic schools is now 47,908. The most recent estimate of the Catholic population in the Diocese (30th June, 1956) is 89,537. During 1956 8 new schools and Churches were opened in the Colony, and 4 existing build- ings were enlarged.

The work of the Roman Catholic Church is carried on by 400 priests of many nationalities, some engaged in parish

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

work, others working in schools, in 5 Roman Catholic Seminaries and at the University. There are 543 nuns, belonging to various religious Orders, engaged in charitable and educational work in hospitals, schools, and homes for orphans, blind girls and the aged. Many of the principal Missions have their Far Eastern administrative headquarters in the Colony.

Welfare work carried out under the auspices of the Church is wide and varied. A mobile Clinic, run by the Catholic Welfare Committee, visits different places each week, and treats a large number of patients. Welfare Centres, with resident staffs, are operating in the squatter resettlement areas, churches and schools being maintained in connexion with each.

共店

There is a small Russian Orthodox congregation, divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former have their own Church, founded in 1934. The latter, who have intercom- munion with the Anglican Church, hold their services in the Church Hall of St. Andrew's Kowloon, and are known as the Orthodox Church.

Buddhist activities have expanded in recent years and the Buddhist community organizes free schools and medical centres. The school of Buddhism chiefly followed is the Mahayana. There are large Buddhist monasteries in the hills behind Tsuen Wan, at Castle Peak, Sha Tin, and in the western part of Lantao Island. Most of them depend for their upkeep on charitable gifts and income earned from tourists and visitors using their rest houses.

There are about 5,000 Chinese Muslims and about 1,500 non-Chinese Muslims, mostly Pakistanis and Indians. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915. A second mosque was built in 1896 in Nathan Road, Kow- loon, but in 1902 was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

RELIGION

251

The Parsees were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer-house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874 they established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Hill Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, whose community numbers about 250, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong, where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street - Staunton Street area of the central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The first Hindu temple in Hong Kong was built in 1953 and is situated in Happy Valley. There has been a Sikh temple in Queen's Road East since 1870 which has served the needs not only of the Sikh community, but of many of those Hindus from Sind and the Punjab who have been to some extent influenced by Guru Nanek's teachings.

IC LIBRA

+

Chapter 20: Arts

THE Hong Kong Festival of the Arts, 1956, again an out- standing event in the life of the Colony, followed the same general pattern as last year, being divided into the same four sections: Drama, Music, Literature and the Visual Arts with many new events in each. The souvenir programme lists twenty seven societies participating in the Festival-eleven dramatic societies, six music groups, two literature groups. and eight organizations in the visual arts section-a repre- sentative cross-section of cultural activities in the arts in the Colony

Western and Chinese drama, music, painting and other cultural activities played their part in this Second Festival of the Arts, and the various groups, while they retained their own individuality, worked harmoniously together to make the Festival achieve its aim of showing what Hong Kong is doing, successfully and continuously, in the arts. Some 60,000 people, including older students from the schools, visited the Festival Centre, a temporary structure on the Central Reclamation lent by the Chinese Manufacturers' Union. At this centre were housed exhibitions of European and Chinese art. Chinese antiquities and classical and modern paintings occupied the ground floor, the Hong Kong Art Club and the Photographic Society shared the first floor, and the Handicraft and Painting Exhibitions of Hong Kong Schools organized by the Education Department occupied the second floor. The drama programme on the English side makes impressive reading, including 'Othello' very suc- cessfully staged at the Lee Theatre, Priestley's 'Desert Highway', Somerset Maugham's 'The Circle' and the performance by the University group, the Masquers, of Dryden's 'The Secular Masque' and Milton's 'Comus'.

Ng Shiu-Keen

The Government is giving a good deal of encouragement and practical assistance to farmers in the New Terri- tories in order to make their harvests more bountiful.

At the right, Hakka women collecting and threshing rice in the traditional way, and below, a group of farmers admiring a modern farming implement at the Colony's annual Agricultural Show.

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Z

South China Morning Post

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Leading Seaman Bush R. N.

Many shoe factories have introduced modern machinery but the itinerant cobbler is a familiar and welcome figure on the Colony's pavements. In most western countries the cooper (below) has almost disappeared. But the Chinese still prefer wooden casks for household and food-keeping purposes.

Ng Shiu-Keen

JP

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:

:

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The Chinese are skilled craftsmen and for cen- turies they have been associated with ivory carving. Most of the carvings are traditional and a number of interest- ing legends are attached

to

particular pieces.

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HO

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Colourful lanterns are typical of the Chinese festival scene. A pain- ter puts the finishing touches to these gaily decorated silk lanterns.

ངྒཱ།, ཧུ། ཀ།

Ng Shiu-Keen

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Amoy Canning Co.

Radio Hong Kong attempts to cater for every section of the community. Above, a Band of factory workers broadcasting in the "Workers Playtime" series.

Below, an outside broadcast scene with a Radio Hong Kong commentator interviewing local Naval ratings for a topical feature "Hong Kong Flotilla".

E. Au Yeung

"UBLI

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ARTS

253

In Chinese drama the plays ranged from the school perform- ance of the prize-winning play in the School Drama Competi- tion to Dr. S. I. Hsiung's 'Lady Precious Stream'. This was presented as a live show in Cantonese, and an adapted version of the play was broadcast by Radio Hong Kong in English. Other plays included 'Lady West' presented in Mandarin and depicting the last days of Imperial China, 'A Thousand Ingots of Gold', also in Mandarin and the presentations of other drama groups in Cantonese.

Musical events included the Schools Musical Festival Prize-Winners' Concerts and a rendering of 'Papageno' by one of the schools, 'The Creation' by the Hong Kong Singers and the Sino-British Orchestra, and concerts by the Hong Kong Choral Group and the Sino-British Chinese Modern Music Group.

Among the visiting celebrities during the year were Maurice Clare, Irene Kohler, Benjamin Britten, Peter Pears, Louis Kentner, Eugene Istomin, Dr. Reinhand Raffalt, M. Gafni, Piatigorsky, Yoko Kono and Annarosa Taddei; other visitors were Helen Henschel (Lady Claughton) who was adjudicator at the Schools Musical Festival and Hector J. McCurrach, examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Visiting groups included the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra and the Westminster Choir, and a Folk Artists Group from China.

Some new societies were formed during the year, reflecting an increased interest in the arts. The formation of the Music Society and its enrolment of 800 members in this past year is noteworthy. An Oratorio Society has been established and has given its first concert. A new group, the Shakespeare Players, has presented its first play. The Hong Kong Society of Architects was formed in September, and it plans to stage exhibitions of architecture, including examples of local work and from overseas.

In the schools, music, drama and painting continue to

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flourish and organized activities reflect the stimulus and guidance given to the younger generation.

The Schools Music Festival started nine years ago with an entry of 70 and no choirs. This year there were more than a thousand solo items and 205 choir and class entries. Paintings by pupils from the schools were exhibited in Japan, Trinidad, Gibraltar and London. The amateur dramatic societies, in addition to their usual programmes of radio plays and live shows, continued to encourage and advise on drama activities in the schools.

Professor Edmund Blunden of Hong Kong University, the celebrated poet and critic, was awarded the Queen's Gold Medal for Poetry for 1956.

In the sphere of photography Hong Kong continues to make international news, accounting, for example, for 61 of the 371 entries accepted for the Salon Photography Exhibi- tion in London.

The Third Annual Film Festival of the Federation of Motion Picture Producers in Asia was held this year in Hong Kong. Here in common with other countries of the East the development, expansion and dissemination of tradi- tional art forms is taking place through the medium of the film.

The British Council continued to show an active interest in many local cultural groups. In addition to the library and reading room the Council maintains libraries of films, film strips, gramophone records, photographic sets and art reproductions. The reading room is in constant use for the display of exhibitions, some sent from England and others designed to encourage local artists.

Chapter 21: Sport

WITH the exception of Winter Sports, there are now few forms of recreation which are not included somewhere in Hong Kong's Sporting Calendar. It may indeed seem sur- prising to a newcomer that so many different types of sport, derived from both Europe and America, can attract so much. support within the small compass of the Colony. From Table- tennis to Soft-ball, from Fencing to Association Football, each game has its own enthusiastic group of players and supporters.

Soccer remains the biggest attraction so far as numbers of spectators are concerned, but Hong Kong's own game of Miniature Soccer (commonly known as Mini Soccer) has now probably the largest number of actual players. This game with 7 players a side, played on a half-sized football pitch, is the direct result of the local shortage of land for playing fields and from a 'kick about' has now developed into a properly regulated sport with its own Association. Some evidence of the game's popularity may be found in the fact that each week-end every available pitch is in use during the hours of daylight.

During 1956 Association Football had its usual successful season, including a variety of interesting visitors such as the Wiener Sports Club from Austria, a Yugo-Slav Team, Mohan Bagan from India and the United States Olympic Team on their way to Melbourne. In addition the Asian Cup Series held in September gave followers of the game an opportunity of seeing Israel, Korea, Vietnam and Hong Kong in a four-cornered contest. A key Match between two local teams drew a capacity crowd of 28,000 to the Govern- ment Stadium, which was opened in 1955 and is now the accepted venue for such games.

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Basketball retains its popularity and twelve Basketball teams visited the Colony from Manila, Formosa, Vietnam and the U.S.A. The highlight was the visit of the Harlem- Globetrotters who have already established a large popular following apart from serious Basketball fans.

Public interest in racing as shown by attendance, totaliza- tor turn-over and sweepstakes has continued to be keen, and the new stands, opened for the first time in the 1955 season, have been the subject of favourable comment from visiting

race-goers.

As was mentioned last year, Boxing has been revived and several very good meetings have already been held. Cards have been well arranged, and with the keen rivalry between local boxers and Servicemen there have been a number of

excellent contests.

Lawn-Bowls, which in Hong Kong is virtually a major sport, continues to flourish. One interesting feature of the game as it is played in the Colony is that it attracts sportsmen of all ages, and is by no means regarded as a pursuit to which one gravitates from more active sports.

Thanks to a group of enthusiasts in the Services, Cycling has appeared in Hong Kong and it is already beginning to attract a number of local competitors. As most racing is done in the New Territories with its hilly terrain, cycle racing must now rank as one of Hong Kong's most strenous sports.

During the year a 'Round the Island' walk was added to such traditional local competitions as the annual Cross Harbour race. The 'Walkathon', as

The 'Walkathon', as it is called, has attracted competitors of both sexes and of a variety of races, and seems well on its way to becoming a popular annual

event.

In line with world-wide developments there has been a marked increase in the popularity of water-skiing and under- water swimming, for both of which Hong Kong with its clear waters and sheltered bays offers excellent opportunities.

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Sea fishing, always a favourite local recreation, has also increased in popularity.

Now that the more accessible beaches are being rapidly filled at holidays and week-ends there has been an increase in the number of people who are making use of yachts and other small pleasure craft to penetrate to the more secluded beaches of the New Territories. Yacht racing itself continues to prosper as a sport in its own right and a number of successful inter-port regattas have been held.

One of the changes in the last year has been the develop- ment of games and athletics in the rural areas of the New Territories. Basketball, Volley-ball and Soccer are flourish- ing and the personal appearance of Bob Matthias, the former United States Olympic Decathlon Champion, gave a boost to the annual New Territories' sports meeting.

Contrary to earlier expectations, Hong Kong had only two representatives at the Olympic Games, both swimmers, of whom Cheung Kin Man also represented the Colony at the 1952 Olympics in Helsinki.

In the sphere of international competition Hong Kong can now field first class teams in Association Football, Volley- ball, Basketball, Table-tennis and Badminton.

LIBR

Chapter 22: Geography and Climate

THE Colony of Hong Kong, which consists of a number of islands and a portion of mainland on the S.E. coast of China, adjoining Kwangtung Province and situated immediately E. of the Pearl River estuary, lies between 22° 9' and 22° 37′ N. and 113° 52′ and 114° 30' E. The capital city, Victoria, situated on Hong Kong Island, is 91 miles S.E. of Canton and 40 miles E. of the Portuguese Colony of Macau.

The total land area of the Colony is 391 square miles, made up as follows:

(a) Hong Kong Island (32 sq. miles), including Green

Island, Aplichau, and other immediately adjacent islets. Victoria, on the north side of the island, has a population of approximately 1,000,000. Also situated on the Island are two important fishing towns, Shau- kiwan and Aberdeen, and a number of villages, such as Stanley and Shek O, which have developed into popular residential areas.

(b) Kowloon (31 sq. miles) and Stonecutters' Island (1 sq. mile). The northern limit of the ceded territory of Kowloon is Boundary Street. Kowloon and New Kowloon (the urban zone north of Boundary Street) have an estimated population of more than 1,000,000. (c) The New Territories (land area 355 sq. miles), leased from China for 99 years from 1st July, 1898. The leased area consists of a substantial mainland section north of Kowloon, and 198 islands adjacent to it and in the vicinity of Hong Kong Island. It also includes the waters of Deep Bay and Mirs Bay. The principal centres of population in the New Territories are Tsuen Wan, with a population of 50,000; Cheung Chau, with

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16,000 land-based inhabitants and approximately 7,000 people anchored there for the greater part of the year; Yuen Long, 15,765; Tai O with 11,000 land-based inhabitants and about 2,000 boat-people; Shek Wu Hui, 4,800, Tai Po, 9,000; Luen Wo Market, 2,841; Ping Chau (Southern District), 4,000; Castle Peak (including Old Town, New Town and Sam Shing Hui), 3,900, excluding floating population; and Sai Kung, 2,900. The total population of the New Territories, excluding New Kowloon, is probably in the region of 300,000.

The population figures for Victoria and Kowloon are entirely approximate: see Population Chapter. The figures for New Territories towns are based on the figures produced by an unofficial census carried out in 1955, to which have been added the natural increase of births over deaths and the estimated increase in population by immigration.

Hong Kong Island is 11 miles long from east to west and varies in width from 2 to 5 miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock, of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,805 ft.) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The old part of the urban areas runs up steep hillside for hundreds of yards, in narrow stepped streets and terraces; but more modern parts of the town stand chiefly on a strip of reclaimed land, averaging 200-400 yards in width, which extends 9 miles along the north shore of the Island.

Between the Island and the mainland lies the Port of Victoria, often described, with San Francisco and Rio de Janeiro, as one of the three most perfect natural harbours in the world. Its area is 17 sq. miles, varying in width from I to 3 miles. Ocean-going ships generally use the eastern deep-water entrance, known as Lyemun, which is between 500 and 900 yards wide. On the western side the natural entrances to the harbour are wider but shallower. On this

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side a group of islands, which include Tsing Yi, Lantao and Lamma, provide effective shelter. The importance of Hong Kong has hitherto depended on this harbour, and on its favourable position at the mouth of the most important river system in South China, within easy reach of Canton, South China's largest city.

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low, dry foothills running southward from the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula 2 miles long and nowhere more than 2 miles wide. Here and there on the peninsula were a few small Chinese villages. Most of the foothills have now been levelled, and the rock and soil thus cut away have been used to extend the land by reclamation from the sea. The town of Kowloon now covers the entire peninsula and stretches without interruption northward into the New Territories, the boundary of which is noticeable only from the name of Boundary Street, which marks it. Further on, the Kowloon hills set a final limit to this northward urban expansion, but around the sides of the harbour, westward toward Laichikok and eastward to Ngau Tau Kok, Kowloon is extending its urban arms to embrace several rural areas with villages established there for hundreds of years. Kowloon contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal commercial dock- yards, the largest wharves for ocean-going ships and, in the area known as Kowloon Tong, a large residential suburb. At the extreme southern tip of the peninsula, known as Tsimshatsui, is the terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which passes from Kowloon under the Kowloon hills and through the New Territories to Canton.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is mountainous and barren. The highest point, situated approximately in the centre of the mainland, is Taimoshan (3,140 ft.). The second and third highest points are both on Lantao Island: Lantao Peak, or Fu Yung Shan (3,061 ft.), which is the western of the two, and Sunset Peak

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(2,857 ft.). The fourth highest point is Ma On Shan on the mainland (2,300 ft.). The north-western slopes of Taimo- shan descend to the Colony's largest area of cultivable land, in the centre of which is the important market town of Yuen Long. Further out the land extends to marshes and oyster- beds on the verge of Deep Bay.

The eastern half of the New Territories mainlånd consists of irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Villages are in general only found where there is flat watered land, in valleys or on small plateaux. Much of the upper land in the areas nearest to Kowloon has been eroded, one of the unfortunate results of the Japanese occupation, when tremendous numbers of trees were cut for firewood. At the end of the war virtually the only woods_that still remained were those preserved in the neighbourhood of villages for geomantic reasons. For details of forestry, see the Production Chapter.

The 198 islands of the New Territories include many that are waterless and uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland. The principal cultivated areas are on Lantao, Lamma and Ma Wan, where water supplies are good. Apart from Lantao, which is nearly double the size of Hong Kong Island, most of the islands are small. They range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau, with its large fishing community, soya and preserved fruit factories, and junk-building Vards, to places like the Ninepins, which are. no more than granite rocks, used seasonally, and by day only, by fishermen drying fish or repairing nets.

CLIMATE

Although the Colony lies just within the tropics, it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual in tropical regions. The climate is governed by monsoons. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists with occasional breaks until April, bringing cool air from high latitudes. Early winter is the most pleasant time of year,

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when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; dull overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. Coastal fogs occur from time to time in early spring during breaks in the monsoon, when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer is the rainy season, three-quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches occurring during the period May to September. The south-west monsoon lasts from June to August, but is not so persistent as the north- east monsoon of winter. The weather during the summer is continuously hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms.

The mean monthly temperature ranges from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature very rarely rises above 59°F in summer, or falls below 40°F in winter. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in early winter it may occasionally fall as low as 20%. The average daily duration of sunshine ranges from 3 hours in March to 7 hours in October.

Hong Kong is liable to be affected by typhoons during the period July to October, and typhoon gales have occa- sionally been experienced as early as June and as late as November. Spells of bad weather, with strong winds and heavy rain, normally occur several times each year owing to the passage of these storms at varying distances from the Colony. Gales due to typhoons occur on the average about once a year, but it is only rarely that the centre of a fully developed typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force. The last occasion when a severe typhoon passed close to Hong Kong was in July 1946.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

In 1956 the weather was drier and sunnier than usual.

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Rainfall was normal for the first three months; but thereafter it fell below average, and the year's total of 64.93 inches was 19.83 inches less than normal. The wettest month was June when 16.29 inches fell during twenty-one days.

During the latter half of March the harbour and coastal areas were often covered by fog, which drifted inland during the early morning and adversely affected both aircraft and shipping schedules. On one occasion Waglan Island experi- enced continuous fog for seventy-two hours.

Hot and sunny weather persisted from April to October, and this was the warmest April yet recorded by the Observatory. The previous highest April temperature of 88.6°F was exceeded on seven occasions, on one of which 92.1°F was recorded. Most days in June and July had ten hours of sunshine with maximum temperatures above 90°F, while the highest temperature of the year, 93.8°F, was reached in August. From November onwards, the weather became colder and drier under the influence of a persistent anticyclone centred over the mainland of China.

Several depressions and typhoons approached within four hundred miles of Hong Kong and one of these passed westward only one hundred and sixty miles to the south of the Colony.

GEOLOGY

IC LIBY

Hong Kong Island and the New Territories consist of numerous rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. A general picture of the area is that of an upland terrain which has been invaded by the sea.

The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations, in which relative resistance of rock and structure through differential erosion are clearly recorded. As the region lies within the northern limits of the tropics, frosts even on Taimoshan are of the rarest occurrence, and hence weathering depends almost completely upon the chemical

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action of the atmosphere aided by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. Erosion is likewise due to water action which is at a maximum during the torrential rains of the summer monsoon. Again denudation is aided by the excessive wind volocities of the typhoons and to a much lesser extent by the gentler breezes of the dry winter monsoon from Central China. Because of the destruction of forest growth and vegetation wrought by the agricultural population by sickle and grass fires, the soil and rock mantle are left unprotected except by their own cohesion. Intensive efforts have been made to limit and control these nuisances by rigid regulations and systematic reafforestation. In consequence of this, bare rock surfaces and loose boulders occur commonly on the higher surfaces and steeper slopes.

The laterite-type product of decay is locally such, however, as to provide an impervious mantle for the underlying rock. In colour and composition the products of weathering ac- curately reflect their rock origin. Although frost action is absent, mechanical disintegration due to hydration, carbona- tion and temperature changes, has resulted in the formations of gravel and boulders over the surfaces of some rock types. The net result of the erosion cycle is that of an upland system with rocky mountain peaks and well-defined ridges giving an impression of partly matured topography. In some areas the topography shows that adjustment to rock structure and resistance to weathering and erosion are very complete. This is evidenced particularly in the general anticlinal structure of the valleys. The Tolo Channel is a notable example. The relative resistance of the different rock forma- tions to weathering is illustrated as follows. The highest peaks and the most prominent mountain ranges are all composed of Taimoshan porphyry and the Repulse Bay volcanics. They tend to form smoother peaks than the Hong Kong granite which generally occurs at lower elevations with well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The Tolo Channel sediments generally weather into lowlands and

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valleys except for the Pat Sin conglomerate which forms peaks and ridges along the crests of the Pat Sin mountain chain.

Unlike the hills the plains are all alluvial and formed by deposition. Benches marking old sea beaches up to 400 feet or more above sea level indicate the deep submergence of the whole region within recent geological times. Progressive uplift has brought about marked changes on the shore-line. Submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat and bog deposits drilled through in the harbour of Hong Kong indicate that the former shore-line was at least 100 feet (16 fathoms) lower than now.

During the period of submergence valley heads were gradually filled with sediment and this has been redistributed from higher to lower levels as elevation continued. The paddy fields along the lower reaches of the rivers, and the large semi-submerged plain around Yuen Long are alluvial deposits brought down by the local streams. At the brickyards on the Sheung Shui plain marine shells have been dug up fifteen feet below the alluvial deposits.

D

IE

The alluvial origin of the plains is thus clear, and it is also evident that these plains are yearly growing seaward due to the deposition of the sediment brought down by the steams. It is interesting to note that an elevation of the land by 100 feet would restore the strand line approximately to the 16 fathom line and make all Hong Kong and the New Territories an integral part of the mainland. Thus across wide alluvial plains the Pearl River would develop several distributaries to the sea. There would possibly be a small channel flowing between Hong Kong and Lantao Island eastwards and a larger one passing close to the western end of Lantao Island in a south-easterly direction.

Note: The Geology section of this Chapter is reproduced from The Geology of Hong Kong by S. G. Davis.

Chapter 23: Fauna and Flora

FAUNA

Mammals. Wild mammals are seldom seen, although the species on record are both varied and interesting. Due largely to an immense expansion of the human population in recent times, it is unfortunate that many of these mammalian species have now become scarce, rare, or even non-existent in the Colony. The fact that some of them (e.g. civets, wild cats, porcupines, and deer) are of considerable value locally as food, is not conducive to an increase in their numbers.

Of the cat family, both the South China Tiger and the Indian Leopard in former years occasionally entered the Colony from Chinese territory; such occurrences, are now extremely rare. The Chinese Leopard Cat, spotted and about the size of a Domestic Cat, is probably still resident in restricted numbers in certain less populated areas of the New Territories. The Dhole or Indian Wild Dog and the South China Red Fox are both included in the Colony's fauna, though the present status of each is unknown.

Monkeys still occur in small numbers, but have very localized distribution, both on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. Although all of these may be the descendants of released or escaped specimens, it is possible that those on Hong Kong Island are the remainder of the indigenous Rhesus Monkeys which less than a hundred years ago were found on most of the small islands near Hong Kong. Another interesting mammal, seldom seen due to its secretive and largely nocturnal habits, is the primitive Chinese Pangolin or Scaly Ant-eater. Other indigenous mammals are the Chinese Ferret-Badger and the Eastern Chinese Otter. Civets are represented in the Colony by three

"

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267

species, the Large Chinese Civet, the Rasse or Small Indian Civet, and the Masked Palm Civet; the last-named is not uncommon and its local distribution includes The Peak district. A close relative of the civets is the Crab-eating Mongoose, of which there is at least one record but which is not known to have occurred in recent years.

Reeves' Muntjac (Barking Deer) inhabits various hilly wooded localities both in the New Territories and on Hong Kong Island. On account of its shyness and nocturnal habits this small deer may seem to be less numerous than is actually the case. The Wild Boar is nowhere common in the Colony, small numbers occurring in some wilder parts of the Sai Kung and Sha Tau Kok regions, along the Pat Sin Range, on Lantao Island, and possibly in a limited area in the Tai Po region.

*

The Chinese Porcupine, our largest rodent, is found in parts of Hong Kong Island and the New Territories Small mammals include an insectivore, namely the House Shrew, various rodents, and several species of bats. Among the rodents there is the Smaller Bandicoot Rat which, in spite of its name, is the largest rat found in the Colony; it is entirely 'wild' (non-domestic) in habits and sometimes causes considerable damage to crops. Very little is known of the bats, which are represented by both insectivorous and frugivorous species.

Cetaceans occurring within or near Hong Kong territorial waters include the Common Rorqual or Finback Whale (a single record during 1955), the Black Finless Porpoise, and the Common Dolphin.

Birds. There is much to interest ornithologists and bird- watchers in Hong Kong. Including published and un- published records, over three hundred species of birds are known to have occurred in the Colony. A great deal more work is necessary, however, particularly with regard to breeding and feeding habits, various other aspects of ecology,

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and migration. The avifauna of Hong Kong includes both palaearctic and oriental species, some of the families repre- sented being those containing the crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, weavers, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, eagles, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks, and grebes, to mention only those represented by several species.

Reptiles and Amphibians are also well represented in the Colony, especially by snakes, lizards, and frogs. Others include various terrapins and turtles, the Common Indian Toad, and the Chinese Newt. Among the Colony's snakes those most commonly encountered are harmless and death from snake-bite is extremely rare. Excluding certain rear- fanged species harmless to man, the venomous land snakes which occur are the Banded Krait, the Many-banded Krait, Macclelland's Coral Snake, the Indian Cobra, the Hamadryad, and the White-lipped Pit Viper (Bamboo Snake). Of the several sea snakes known to occur in or near the Colony, all are venomous but none of them attack bathers.

R

Butterflies and Moths. One hundred and seventy-nine species of butterflies, belonging to nine families, have been recorded for the Colony. The number of moths is far greater and no comprehensive list of local species has ever been published. The attractive and predominantly tropical butter- flies known popularly as 'swallow-tails' are conspicuous by a number of species. The magnificent Atlas Moth, with a wing-span from about seven to nine inches, is fairly common. Another very fine insect, also fairly common here, is the Moon Moth; this has a wing-span of about four to six inches, has swallow-tailed wings, and is mostly soft silvery green in colour.

FLORA

It is not possible to make any true distinction between the

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trees of the Colony and those of the adjacent southern part of Kwangtung Province. Among the principal trees found in Hong Kong and the New Territories are pine, Chinese banyan, and camphor, to which, since the area came under British administration, have been added a large number of others, of which the most commonly seen are casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant.

The principal locally-grown fruits include laichee, lungngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, Banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava, and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. Of these papaya, pineapple, custard apple and guava were originally introduced from South America by the Portuguese some time after the foundation of Macau. The tangerine, native to South China, was introduced to the West in the seventeenth century by the Portuguese, who transplanted it to Tangier, then under their control.

Illustrated descriptions of some of the Colony's trees will be found in the Hong Kong Annual Reports for the years 1950-3.

The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not completely, described in Flora Hongkongensis, by G. B. Bentham, published in 1861, and in the descriptive Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, published in 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series, The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong, by A. H. Crook; Plants of Lan Tau Island, by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; and numerous papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war three official publications, in the series Food and Flowers, have appeared, giving, amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

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The flora of the Colony is tropical, but this is about the northern limit of tropical flora. The alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters results in a dormant period for tropical plants during winter. These conditions promote the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. The consequence is that a genus repre- sented in Hong Kong and also in equatorial countries produces here a greater wealth of flowers of larger size.

There is a considerable diversity of flowering shrubs and trees, including magnolia, Michelia, Rhodoleia, Illicium, and Tutcheria. Six species of rhododendron grow wild; there is also a wild Gordonia and wild roses. The heather family is represented by a pink-belled Enkianthus, flowering at the time of the Chinese New Year. A Litsea also blooms at this time.

Bauhinia blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered by the fathers of the Missions. Etrangères at Pokfulam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world. Its origin is unknown; it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed. A new and distinct. species of camellia was discovered last year at Shing Mun. It was recently named Camellia granthamiana, in honour of the present Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham.

Fruit-bearing herbs include several wild hollies, Melodinus, Strychnos, wild kamquat, Gardenia, Maesa, Mussaenda ('the Buddha's Lamp'),

Lamp'), Dichroa, several species of Callicarpa, Dianella, in the lily family, Raphiolepis, the so- called Hong Kong hawthorn, wild jasmine and wild persimmon.

Among fruits that are either poisonous or useful for medicine, are Strophanthus and Strychnos, Gelsemium, and Cerbera, abundant near the sea. Edible fruit includes a wild jackfruit, Artocarpus, rose-myrtle fruits, and wild bananas. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

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There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common clematis of the English hedgerow, has five close relatives here. There are four wild violets, but, like the English dog violet, they are scentless. English honeysuckle has five relatives; their Cantonese name is 'kam ngan fa' (gold and silver flower), given because of their change in colour with age from white to yellow.

There is a fine wild iris, further south than any other true iris, and a wild lily growing on some hillsides, with individual flowers sometimes seven inches long. By the sea a wild Crinum is found, and Bellamcanda, in the iris family.

In damp ravines may be found Chirita, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, numerous orchids, giant aroids, tree ferns, and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckea.

The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, has been added to considerably since their time. At present over 27,000 specimens are preserved.

Chapter 24: History

ANTECEDENTS

THE earliest traces of human settlement in the region are at Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantao Island, and on the beach known as Hung Shing Yeh, on the west coast of Lamma Island. From the rock carvings, pottery and imple- ments discovered there, it is clear that in prehistoric times the islands were occupied, at least seasonally, by people whose trade connexions stretched from the Yangtse basin as far south as Indonesia. Little is known of the region before it adopted Chinese culture. Chinese histories refer to the early inhabitants as Maan, implying barbarian, and provide few details about them.

Kwangtung was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 B.C., but it was many hundreds of years before there was any degree of Chinese migration into the province. Remote and dangerous, its islands provid- ing ideal hiding places for sea-robbers and bandits, this particular region was no place for civilized settlement.

Southward Chinese migration on a large scale began to affect Kwangtung during the Sung dynasty (960-1279). Little is known of the early relations between Chinese and Maan which must have resulted from this movement, but it is clear that by this time the Maan had already adopted Chinese culture and names. Chinese settlement in the New Territories is continuous from the beginning of the thirteenth century.

For a few months during 1278 the last emperor of the Southern Sung, Ti Ping, in flight from the invading Mongols, made his capital at Kowloon, and a small hill crowned with prominent boulders was held sacred to his

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memory, until 1943, when the Japanese demolished it as a safety measure for the airport. The last battle between the Sung and the Mongols was probably fought in the New Territories in 1279, not far from Tsuen Wan; and after the Sung defeat, large numbers of the Court and nobility are said to have escaped across to Lantao Island, where some of them settled, their descendants surviving to this day.

In the earliest maritime connexions between China and the West the shipping was principally Arab, the traders including Indians, Persians and Jews, all of whom, from the seventh century onwards, formed a considerable foreign community in Canton. When, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese discovered the sea route from Europe to India, they quickly put an end to Arab trade with the Far East. In 1513 Jorge Alvares, the first European ever to com- mand a sea voyage to China, reached the Pearl River in a chartered Burmese junk; and in 1517 the first Portuguese ships arrived, with the aim of opening regular trade with China.

Their first attempts were unsuccessful, and it was not until 1557, partly in recognition of the help they had given the Chinese in the local suppression of piracy, that the Portuguese gained the settlement which was their aim, and established themselves at Macau.

From then onwards, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of authoritative Chinese opinion, which was not interested in foreign trade, Macau provided the only reliable point of contact between China and the West. English contacts with Macau date from about 1600, the first English ship actually calling there in 1635 under charter to the Portuguese. Between 1601 and 1627 the Dutch made repeated attempts to capture Macau, but without

success.

Regular seasonal British trade with China dates from 1700, and, although Amoy and other ports farther up the

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coast were visited from time to time, the bulk of the trade was with Canton, the ships weighing for dues and clearing at Taipa, just south of Macau, but being allowed up-river as far as Whampoa, 13 miles from the city of Canton, for discharging and loading. A strictly limited number of Europeans connected with the trade were, under security paid by their Chinese business associates, allowed to reside in Canton during the trade season only, being obliged by the Chinese authorities to leave the country as soon as they had completed the year's business. Only certain Chinese merchants were permitted to trade with the Europeans, and they conducted their affairs as a monopoly guild, fixing prices arbitrarily and without regard for real market values.

As, throughout the eighteenth century, the volume of trade between China and the West continued to grow, until it reached large proportions, the various restrictions imposed on it by the Chinese Government became, in European eyes, steadily less realistic and less endurable. Although the French, Dutch, Spaniards, Danes and Swedes also traded with Canton, the volume of British trade by 1763 was more than double that of all the others together. It was the British who, having the largest stake in the trade, were the most critical of the Chinese restrictions.

In 1793 Lord Macartney was sent as Ambassador to Peking in an attempt either to improve trading conditions at Canton and Macau, or else to acquire from the Chinese Government some small island or minor port where Europeans would be able to reside permanently, trade with whatever Chinese merchants wished to deal with them, and be subject to their own laws while residing at the port.

These requests were unconditionally refused. A second embassy, sent in 1816, was even more of a failure, the Ambassador, Lord Amherst, being ordered to leave Peking without being presented to the Emperor.

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275

Hitherto British merchants operating privately in the China trade had been under restraints imposed on them by the East India Company, which, from Calcutta, licensed private British shipping on the China route and, at Canton, saw to it that all British subjects obeyed the Chinese regula- tions. In 1813, however, the Company's monopoly of trade with India was abolished. Although the Company still in theory licensed traders to China, this lessening of its power made it easier for unauthorized private traders to find a foot- hold at Canton and Macau. The number of British traders. increased, with little or no restraint on their activities. Finally, in 1833 the Company's China monopoly was abolished.

To replace the Company, the British Government in 1834 appointed Lord Napier as Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China. His instructions were to negotiate with the Viceroy at Canton to obtain permission for Europeans to reside there permanently and to remove restrictions on trade. Napier having entered Canton without the required permit from the Chinese authorities, the Viceroy refused to have anything to do with him. After a few weeks of impasse, during which Napier became seriously ill, he retreated to Macau, under Chinese escort, and died there ten days later.

Meanwhile, informed Chinese opinion was becoming seriously concerned about the activities of British and American traders, in particular about their trade in opium, the popularity of which as a narcotic was rising rapidly amongst smokers in China. In response to a number of petitions from senior members of the Chinese civil service, the Emperor Tao Kuang in 1838 appointed Lin Tse-hsü as Imperial High Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade.

Having surrounded the European buildings at Canton with troops and armed junks, and cut off supplies of food and water, Lin demanded the surrender, for destruction, of all the opium in the European warehouses, after which every

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trader must sign a bond promising on pain of death never to bring any more to China. Americans and others surrendered their opium and signed the bonds.

By this time Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., was the Super- intendent of British Trade. In response to Lin's demand, Elliot ordered his countrymen to surrender their opium, and received their grudging obedience; but he refused to allow anyone to sign a bond. He finally won his point with Lin, and at the end of a siege lasting more than six weeks the British were allowed to leave unmolested for Macau.

Interest in the China trade had been steadily growing in Great Britain, and news of the siege at Canton, when it even- tually reached London, aroused public opinion to demand that the Government take measures to safeguard British lives and property in China. Relations between Elliot and Lin deteriorated, the Commissioner reiterating his demand for the signature of bonds. After the Portuguese Governor of Macau had warned Elliot that he could no longer be respon- sible for the safety of any British family remaining there, the entire British community led by Elliot removed to Hong Kong. The Chinese who were erecting fortifications on Kow- loon peninsula, attempted to prevent local supplies of food reaching the shipping assembled in the harbour. Finally, after several incidents in and around Hong Kong waters and the breakdown of all negotiations between Elliot and Lin, hostilities broke out in November 1839.

The arrival, in June 1840, of a powerful British expedi- tionary force, without engaging in any operations of military significance, re-opened the door to discussion. Elliot, as plenipotentiary, demanded, according to his instructions, either the cession of an island to the British Crown or a treaty allowing British traders the rights normally enjoyed by foreigners in civilized countries. To the anger and shame of his own countrymen, Kishen, the Manchu negotiator, offered the island of Hong Kong; and, to the ridicule and

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contempt of his own countrymen, Elliot accepted it. On 20th January, 1841 the preliminaries of a Sino-British Treaty were announced, and, without more ado, on the 26th, the island was formally occupied without any resistance on the part of the few Chinese inhabitants, who were in any case by now familiar with British ships anchoring in their waters.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

The acquisition by the Crown of a barren island rock was ridiculed, not only by British merchants in China, but also in London. Elliot was dismissed for his ineptitude in dealing with the Chinese, and was replaced by Sir Henry Pottinger, who reached the coast in August 1841.

In the face of public hostility, particularly in Canton, to Kishen's proposal tecede Hong Kong to the British, the Emperor declined further negotiation, and war was resumed. But Pottinger had not been on the China coast for more than a few months before he realized that, whatever the London view might be, Elliot's decision to accept the cession of Hong Kong was a wise one. And when, in August 1842, British troops were on the point of assaulting Nanking, and the Emperor at last sued for peace, Pottinger made it an article of the Treaty, that was promptly concluded, that Hong Kong should be ceded to the British Crown 'to be governed by such laws as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain etc. may see fit to direct'. In June 1843 the new Colony was officially named Hong Kong, and the name 'Victoria' was conferred upon the settlement growing up on the northern side of the island.

Like Singapore before it, Hong Kong from the start was declared a free port; and its subsequent growth and great- ness as a commercial city have been due to this fundamental policy, which welcomes anyone who comes in peace, obeys the laws, and pays a few very moderate taxes.

The history of Hong Kong is in some ways no more than a chronicle of rising and falling trends of trade and popula-

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tion, fluctuating due chiefly to events taking place outside Hong Kong itself, particularly in China. Internally, the history is one of gradual material and social improvement, the expansion of the city by cutting into rock and by reclama- tion of land from the sea, the building of more reservoirs to provide for a mainly expanding population, and the provision of schools, hospitals and other forms of public service.

Hong Kong's first years as a Colony were almost chaotic. In 1841 alone the new Chinese market quarter was burnt down twice, and nearly every roof on the island came off twice in typhoons. A mysterious disease, known as the Hong Kong fever, now believed to be malaria, decimated the population; and in 1843 the health situation was so bad that the Governor and everyone who could afford to do so took temporary refuge in Macau.

Confidence did not begin to grow until 1844, from which year the real development of the Colony as we know it to-day began. At the first census the population of the island did not exceed 3,650 villagers and fishermen, living in some 20 villages and hamlets, with about 2,000 fishermen living afloat. Chinese labourers, encouraged by prospects of work, began to come to the Colony, and by April 1844 the popula- tion reached 19,000.

From 1845 the first monthly mail service between Hong Kong and Europe was started. The increased security obtained for traders of all nationalities by the Treaty of Nanking, and, in particular, the comparative ease of acquir- ing land for offices, warehouses and homes in Hong Kong and the treaty ports, attracted to the Far East a greater number of European traders than ever before, leading to a tremendous increase in commerce. This expansion was felt principally in Shanghai, which was commercially better situated than Hong Kong. Compared with Shanghai's astonishing development as a western city, Hong Kong's early growth was unspectacular.

Shortly after its foundation, a great wave of emigration of

1

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Chinese labourers took place, mainly to the Straits Settle- ments, Thailand and Java, the bulk of the emigrants travel- ling in European and American ships. Hong Kong was the chief port of emigration. Later, when news went round of the opening up of goldfields in California, there was a rush of Chinese to 'Kam Shan' (the Golden Mountains), which has ever since remained the vernacular name of San Francisco. When gold was discovered in Australia, not long afterwards, thousands more rushed to 'Sun Kam Shan' (New Golden Mountains), which has become the vernacular name for Sydney. In the year 1852 alone over 30,000 Chinese emigrants passed through Hong Kong. The problems of housing such vast numbers, and preventing abuses arising in connexion with migration, presented severe problems to the government of the day.

¥

In 1850 the series of revolts known generally as the Taiping Rebellion broke out in Kwangsi Province, and gradually spread throughout Southern China. This was the first instance where unsettled conditions on the mainland have brought to Hong Kong thousands of Chinese refugees of every social class and occupation. By 1855 the population was estimated at 72,000 and by 1861, with the Taipings still not defeated, it had risen to 120,000. The constantly recurring situation in which the Colony, almost without warning, has had to provide accommodation, food, water and other facilities for thousands of new arrivals-people with no local attachments and whose period of stay may be no more than a few years, perhaps even months-has presented successive governors of Hong Kong with problems that are unique and of exceptional difficulty. The word 'squatter' can be found in Government correspondence from the first year of the Colony's existence.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

By the Convention of Peking, 1860, which concluded the Second Anglo-Chinese War, Kowloon peninsula up to

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present-day Boundary Street was ceded to the Crown and became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters' Island.

Permanent quarters were established in Kowloon for part of the garrison. This development was followed by the construction of new docks, more extensive than could be attempted on the Victoria waterfront, and which were the beginning of Kowloon's development as the Colony's second city. The pioneers in residential development in Kowloon were the Portuguese, followed by the Parsees, from about 1870 onwards.

By the Convention of Peking, 1898, at the conclusion of the third period of hostilities between China and the Western Powers, the Colony was again extended, acquiring under a 99-year lease a substantial stretch of mainland north of Kowloon, and a group of islands in the immediate vicinity of Hong Kong. The leased area became known as the New Territories.

The initial British occupation, which took place in 1899, met with some ill-organized armed opposition in the Tai Po and Yuen Long areas, but the confidence of the people was quickly established. Sir Henry Blake (Governor 1898-1904) personally identified himself with every aspect of the life of the Colony's new rural population, obtaining improved seed and types of livestock for them; and the relations between Government and the people of the New Territories have ever since been distinguished by the closest confidence and good- will. Malaria was widespread, and plague of frequent occur- rence. Extensive health measures were introduced to combat these diseases, the success of the measures being reflected in a subsequent steady rise in population.

In the first decade of this century rail connexion between Kowloon and Canton was established, involving the con- struction of a long tunnel under the Kowloon hills, and providing Tai Po and other New Territories villages with

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easy access to Hong Kong. A circular road was constructed linking the chief population areas in the mainland part of the New Territories. Since 1949 the district road system has been considerably improved.

INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY

Until Chinese in large numbers started taking western education, there was little Chinese participation in govern- ment, western firms or banks, or in any western institutions. European and Chinese commerce pursued their own courses, largely independent of each other, occasionally linked by the precarious medium of pidgin English.

The special needs of the Chinese population received early consideration. In 1845 a Board of Education was established, and the Registrar General was made responsil to the Colonial Secretary for all questions relating to the Chinese. Throughout the century this aspect of his duties grew in importance, until in 1913 a separate department had to be created the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

Missionary schools, Catholic and Protestant, were the earliest educational foundations, soon followed by govern- ment schools. Most of them were conducted, as far as was practicable, on western lines. As soon as Chinese students started graduating from these schools, their rise to influence, in what had hitherto been a European-dominated community, was assured.

Western education led to the adoption of a considerable amount of western business method. The scale of Chinese business enlarged, until by the end of the century there were Chinese shipping lines, banks, insurance companies, depart- ment stores, theatres, wharves, warehouses and factories. As the trend continued, Chinese citizens were drawn more and more into consultation with the Government on a wide range of matters. There have been Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1880, and of the Executive Council since 1926.

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A demand for higher education naturally developed, and in 1887 the Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded, the prime movers in this enterprise being Dr. Patrick Manson and Dr. James Cantlie. One of the first students to graduate from the College, in 1892, was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

In 1908 the College expanded into the University of Hong Kong. This development was made possible by the munificence of a Parsee citizen, Sir Hormusjee Mody, who presented the entire cost of the new University's main build- ings. With Government support, and the aid of subsequent benefactors, the University steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking Univer- sity in surroundings overwhelmingly Chinese. Its academic standards were high, particularly in medicine, and it quickly attracted students of many nationalities, from South and South-East Asia as well as from Hong Kong.

The area available on Hong Kong Island for urban building was originally no more than a narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore. The original waterfront of Victoria ran, with a moderate foreshore, approximately along the line of Queen's Road. Hillside construction began in Stanley Street and Wellington Street, once a fashionable neighbourhood. As the nineteenth century proceeded, the tiers of houses rose gradually up the sides of the rock, fashion rising as well.

Reclamation of land from the sea began in the Colony's earliest days. By 1851 the waterfront had reached what is today Des Voeux Road Central, and was thereafter extended, in the face of much opposition from the principal commercial houses with foreshore sites, till it reached Connaught Road Central in 1904. This expansion, however, failed to keep pace with the increasing population. By 1870 the central part of Victoria, chiefly occupied by Chinese, was seriously overcrowded and insanitary. This was one of the factors that led the European community to climb even higher and

HISTORY

283

develop the summits of the Peak as a residential area, a movement hastened from 1888 onwards, when Peak and city were linked by funicular railway.

A sanitary commissioner, Oswald Chadwick, was finally appointed in 1882 to advise the Government; and, as a result of his report, a Sanitary Board was set up. Its measures to improve the noisome state of the city were, however, at first ineffective. The administration was labouring on one side with financial difficulties, and on the other with the negative attitude adopted by the leaders of the Chinese community, and by the deep-seated distrust shown by members of the public in any measures which might be taken as interfering with their homes and ways of living. Almost every year at the end of the century there were outbreaks of plague, which, thanks to a Japanese research worker in Hong Kong, were finally identified as being carried by rats. After this discovery, against considerable public opposition, regular house-cleansing was carried out by sanitary squads, and measures were effectively taken to restrict the spread of plague. Outbreaks, however, continued on a diminishing scale until about 1927, when, for reasons unknown, occur- rences of this particular disease lessened significantly in all parts of the world.

BR

The Sanitary Board continued in existence until 1936, when its functions were broadened and entrusted to an Urban Council, with official, appointed and elected members. In 1953 the number of elected members was increased from two to four, and the franchise was widened. In 1956 the number of elected members was again increased to eight.

Reclamation meanwhile continued steadily. Between 1921-9 ninety acres were reclaimed north of Johnston Road, allow- ing for a large planned extension of the Chinese quarter of Wantsai, now one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world. Since the Second World War there has been extensive reclamation in the central district, Cause-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

way Bay, and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour.

The principle that, in a place with such totally inadequate natural water supply as Hong Kong, it was a Government responsibility to provide reservoirs was first laid down by Sir Hercules Robinson (Governor 1859-65). What followed may be described as a century-long race between water capacity and population. The Pokfulam Reservoir was no sooner completed (1863) than it had to be extended, and the same occurred after the completion of Tytam Reservoir in 1883. Extensions continued in these two areas, the largest work, Tytam Tuk Dam, being completed in 1917.

The lease of the New Territories provided a much needed opportunity to increase the water supply of Kowloon, which had hitherto been dependent on two wells situated near Yaumati. A new reservoir system high up in the Kowloon hills was started in 1902 and completed in 1910, extensions. to it being made between 1922-5.

7

From 1930 water was conveyed to Hong Kong from the slopes of Taimoshan, the highest mountain in the New Territories, but even with this, supplies remained inadequate, and in 1935-6 the same area was further developed by the construction of the Jubilee Reservoir, the largest yet built in the Colony. At the present time another reservoir, still larger, is being constructed at Tai Lam Chung, and investi- gations are being carried out for the building of yet another after this is completed.

The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies. The first Government hospital was the Civil Hospital, founded in 1859. Part of its large old-fashioned buildings is still in use, and on the remainder of the original site today stands the spacious and modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hos- pital, opened in 1955. The Kowloon Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. The provision of adequate

HISTORY

285

medical facilities at times of refugee influx has been one of Hong Kong's major problems, only surpassed by the prob- lem of water.

The need to safeguard fishing junks and other small craft from destruction by typhoons was met by the construction of large typhoon shelters on both sides of the harbour. One of the main functions of the Royal Observatory, founded in Kowloon in 1883, was to give reliable forecasts of the approach of typhoons, a function which increased in impor- tance with the development of air transport, which in Hong Kong may be said to date from the laying-out of Kai Tak Airport in 1932.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND WORLD WAR

In 1911 the Manchu dynasty fell, and was replaced by a Republic, guided by Sun Yat-sen, whose political thinking had been deeply influenced by his contacts with British institutions and ways of thought while a student in Hong Kong. During the events leading to the overthrow of the dynasty many refugees sought sanctuary in Hong Kong, using the Colony's Chinese newspapers as a vehicle for conveying their ideas into China.

D

Following the establishment of the Republic came a long period of unrest in China. Once again large numbers of refugees, mainly from the southern provinces, made their way to the Colony. Their arrival coinciding with a commer- cial boom which occurred during the First World War, many of them made their permanent home in Hong Kong, and identified themselves with local affairs. Among the refugees were a number of Buddhists who, from this time onwards, began to develop the lonely upper hills of Lantao Island with their monastic retreats.

The anti-foreign movement which marked the rise of the Kuomintang to power in China in 1922 was reflected in Hong Kong by marked social unrest. A seamen's strike occurred in that year, and in 1925-6 there was a serious

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general strike, plainly engineered from Canton. Sir Cecil Clementi (Governor 1925-30), by negotiation with the Canton authorities, not only settled the dispute, but laid the founda- tions of a good neighbour policy with Canton, which from then on brought considerable benefit on both sides of the frontier. At the same time, the leaders of all communities resident in Hong Kong became increasingly aware of their social responsibilities towards less privileged sections of the population. From this awareness developed the strong interest in social welfare which has become one of the most marked features of the Colony's life.

Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when Japan presented her Twenty-One Demands to China in 1917. These were followed by intense economic expansion. In 1931 Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 began a general invasion of China. As the Japanese armies pressed southwards towards Canton, which was taken in 1938, Hong Kong experienced the greatest influx of refugees it had yet seen. It is estimated that about 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938, and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the total population to about 1,600,000. At the height of the influx there were thought to be over half-a-million people sleeping in the streets.

In the earliest days of the Sino-Japanese War it was possible for valuable supplies to reach China through the Colony, but, after the fall of Canton, movement of such supplies was severely restricted. When war broke out in Europe, in September 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on 8th December, 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, invaded the Colony from the mainland. The first attempt to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of 15th-16th December, but a second attempt, on the 18th-19th night, could not be held. After several days of severe fighting, in which many thousands of Commonwealth

HISTORY

287

troops lost their lives, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

All members of the fighting services, which included the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, were interned as prisoners-of-war, many being subsequently sent to Japan to work in mines and docks. The majority of British-born civilians were interned in a civilian camp at Stanley. Those who remained free experienced throughout the Japanese occupation a steady deterioriation of conditions. Trade was at a standstill, currency steadily losing value, and in neigh- bouring Kwangtung a food shortage culminated in 1944-5 in famine conditions. Large numbers of civilians moved over to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Toward the latter part of the occupation the Japanese, unable to obtain food for the existing popula- tion, organized mass deportations from Hong Kong.

In the face of increasing oppression the fundamental loyalty of the population to the Allied cause was not in doubt. Parts of the New Territories remained in the hands of Chinese guerrillas throughout the war, in spite of vigorous punitive measures taken against them. Allied personnel escaping or evading capture were assured of assistance from the rural population.

BR

As soon as news of the Japanese surrender was received, a provisional government was established under the Colonial Secretary, Mr., now Sir, Franklin Gimson, assisted by civil servants released from prison camps and by leading citizens of all races, maintaining the essential form of Government until 30th August, 1945, when powerful units of the British Pacific Fleet reached the Colony.

SINCE THE WAR

A brief period of military administration was followed by the formal re-establishment of civil government in May 1946. From the moment of liberation Hong Kong made an astonishing recovery. In August 1945 it was estimated that

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the population had been reduced to about 600,000. Eighteen months later at least 1,000,000 people had returned, and the population was still rising. At the close of 1947, so far as it is possible to estimate, Hong Kong held about 1,800,000 people, with once again an acute housing problem and water shortage.

As, during 1948-9, the forces of the National Government of China began to retreat and disintegrate, a refugee influx surpassing all others took place, the refugees being in many cases well-to-do merchants and their families from Shanghai and other commercial centres. The highest point was reached in April 1950, when it was estimated that the Colony held about 2,360,000.

The Central People's Government was installed on Ist October, 1949, and during the latter part of 1950, with the promise of more settled conditions in China, and with the departure of many of the wealthier refugees to Taiwan, South America and other distant places of refuge, the Colony's population fell for the first time since the war until by the end of 1950 it was thought to be around 2,060,000. Since then, however, due partly to the arrival of more refugees from China, but principally to a high rate of natural increase, there has been another steady rise, bringing the population to the estimated figure of 2,535,000 at the end of 1956.

Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied these increases of population. Throughout the urban area and the New Territories there has been tremendous building activity. In Kowloon, and at Tsuen Wan in the New Terri- tories, industrialists have opened large factories, producing textiles, enamelware, rubber goods, vacuum flasks, torches,

etc.

As a result of the outbreak of war in Korea in June 1950, controls were progressively introduced over the export of strategic materials, beginning with petroleum and its deriva- tives in July of that year. As far as North Korea itself was concerned, a complete embargo on trade of any kind with

HISTORY

289

that country was introduced on 8th July. In December the United States Government placed an embargo on goods destined for Hong Kong. This seriously affected supplies of raw materials essential for much of local industry, and led, for a time, to a serious disruption of the Colony's manufac- tures, with the threat of widespread unemployment. For- tunately, this embargo was modified by the introduction of a system of controls, which ensured supplies of these materials for legitimate use in the Colony.

In June 1951, as a result of the United Nations Resolution of 18th May, 1951, a complete embargo on the export of strategic materials to China was imposed by the Hong Kong Government. This was a crippling blow to local commerce and the volume of trade in that year fell by over one million tons compared with the figure for the preceding year. During 1952 the United States Government introduced controls over imports of Chinese-type merchandise from Hong Kong, and even now commodities of this kind are admitted into the United States only under strict procedures designed to ensure that they are of non-Communist origin. The entrepôt trade with China, once the Colony's mainstay, has been reduced to a trickle, although greater use of 'exemptions procedures' under the embargo brought a slight improvement during 1956. Entrepôt trade not involving China also improved, particularly re-exports of Japanese goods to South-East Asian destinations. The Colony has, however, been saved from economic disaster in recent years only by its enterprise in the industrial field.

Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration

CONSTITUTION

THE principal features of the constitution are prescribed in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supplemented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

L

B

a

The Executive Council, which is presided over by the Governor, consists of five ex-officio and seven nominated members. The ex-officio members are the Commander, British Forces, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Financial Secre- tary. There is one nominated official member. The six un- officials include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding questions which come before the Council, and for taking action, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor in Council (i.e. Executive Council) is also given power, under numerous ordinances, to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The same five ex-officio members of the Executive Council serve also on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is the President. In addition, there are four other official

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members and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor. These include four Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure in the Legislative Council is based on that of the House of Commons.

The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XIX.

JUDICIARY

The Common Law and Statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5th April, 1843, except where inapplicable to local circumstances, from the basis of the legal system of Hong Kong. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain subsequent enactments and by Hong Kong Ordinances, of which a new edition, revised in 1950, was published in 1951. The courts of the Colony are described in the Chapter on Law and Orde

ADMINISTRATION

PRA

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. A list of these departments is given in Appendix V.

The Colonial Secretariat, under the general administrative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of departments, and makes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of four divisions dealing with general administration, finance, defence and government personnel. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence,

S

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co-ordinates the work of the local forces, described in Chapter 17, and acts as the main channel of communication between Government and Her Majesty's Armed Forces stationed in the Colony. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office.

The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney General, who is the head of the Legal Department and also responsible for drafting legislation, and for instituting and conducting public prosecutions. Members of the Department include the Solicitor General and a number of Crown Counsel.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's prin- cipal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. His department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, provides facilities for the settlement of disputes and family cases, administers Chinese temples, maintains a District Watch Force, registers all newspapers and publica- tions, runs two tenancy inquiry bureaux, advises on deporta- tions and performs important functions connected with the protection of women and children. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is president of the board of direction of the Po Leung Kuk, chairman of the Tung Wah Hospital Advisory Board, and supervises the administration of large public charities. He is chairman of committees dealing with Chinese perma- nent cemeteries, recreation grounds and many other matters concerning Chinese life. He is also the statutory guardian of all adopted daughters in the Colony, other than those adopted under the Adoption Ordinance, 1956. The Social Welfare Office, a Department closely associated with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, is described in the Social Welfare Chapter.

Under the Financial Secretary, the accounting operations of the Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. All public accounts, whether of general revenue and expenditure, or of special funds or departmental accounts, are subject to

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

293

audit and inspection by the Audit Department, under a Director. The Rating and Valuation Department assesses rates, and the Inland Revenue Department assesses estate duty and various direct taxes levied under the Inland Revenue Ordinance. Each Department is headed by a Com- missioner. The Department of Commerce and Industry, under a Director, is responsible for industrial and trade development, the collection of revenue from import and excise duties and from business registration, the activities of the Preventive Service, certificates of origin, trade licensing, Government bulk purchases of firewood and certain food- stuffs, control over stocks of reserve commodities, and the production of trade statistics and any other statistics required by other departments of Government. (See Chapter 4, Public Finance and Taxation.)

The Public Works Department, under a Director, consists of eight sub-departments, dealing with waterworks, Crown lands and surveys, the administration of the Buildings Ordinance, electrical and mechanical works (including government motor transport), architecture (government buildings), port works, drainage and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsible for town planning. (See the Chapters on Housing, and Public Utilities and Public Works).

IB

The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of five ex-officio members, namely the Chairman (who is at the same time the Director of the Urban Services Department described in the Chapter on Public Health), the Assistant Director of Health Services (Vice- Chairman), the Director of Public Works, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the Social Welfare Officer; and sixteen ordinary members, of whom eight are elected and eight appointed by the Governor. The Commissioner for Resettle- ment sits as an additional ex-officio member. The term of office of ordinary members will ultimately be four years but certain transitional provisions are now in force as to the

294

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

length of the terms of office of various groups of members. The Council meets monthly to transact formal business but most of its business is dealt with by 37 select committees, which meet at frequent intervals.

The Council carries out its responsibilities through the Urban Services and Resettlement Departments. The Urban Services Department operates the basic sanitary services in the urban area and has a variety of duties in the field of public health, such as the supervision of food premises and hawkers, the operation of the city's slaughter-houses, and pest control measures. In addition the department controls and staffs the parks, playgrounds and bathing beaches. The Resettlement Department is responsible for the clearance and resettlement of squatters, the administration of the resettle- ment estates and areas, and the prevention of new squatting either on vacant land or on the roof-tops of buildings.

The Commissioner of Police, who is concurrently the Immigration Officer, is responsible for the internal security of the Colony. The Police Force and the Prisons Department, also under a Commissioner, are described in the Chapter on Law and Order. The Department of Medical and Health Services is described in the Chapter on Public Health; the Department of Education in the Education Chapter and the Labour Department, under a Commissioner who is concur- rently Commissioner of Mines, in the Chapter on Occupa- tions, Wages and Labour Organization.

Reference to the Registrar General's Department will be found in the Chapter on Law and Order, and to the Marine, Railway and Civil Aviation Departments, the Post Office and the Royal Observatory under Communications. The Public Relations Office and the Broadcasting Department are de- scribed under Press, Broadcasting, Films and Tourism. The Chapter on Production describes the work of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and the Co-operative and Marketing Department.

CONSTITUTION AND ADMINISTRATION

295

The Fire Brigade, under a Chief Officer, provides fire. protection throughout the urban areas (including shipping in the harbour) and the main districts of the New Territories. The Brigade is a highly trained service comprising 596 officers and other ranks who run and maintain 46 land fire appliances, a fleet of 3 fire boats and 18 ambulances. The Stores Department, under a Controller, buys and distributes Government stores, manufactures and repairs all furniture for offices and quarters, and administers the Government monopoly of sand. The Printing Department is responsible for all Government publications, most of which are produced entirely in the Department itself. The Quartering Authority deals with accommodation for Civil Servants and for Govern- ment Departments.

LL

-

New Territories Administration. The New Territories are divided into three administrative districts; Yuen Long in the north-west, Tai Po in the north-east, and the Southern District, which besides the southern and south-east part of the mainland includes Lantao, Cheung Chau, Lamma and the other islands around Hong Kong. Each district is administered by a District Officer, stationed at Ping Shan, Tai Po and Kowloon respectively, but the special needs of Lantao Island are provided for by a small sub-district office at Mui Wo, which was opened on 15th October, 1955. Another District Officer, stationed at the headquarters of the administration, is responsible for liaison with central govern- ment departments and the co-ordination of all routine work. The District Commissioner, with an office in Kowloon and. official residence near Tai Po, co-ordinates the overall adminis- tration of the New Territories. There is now a Resident Magistrate, who is a legal officer, for the New Territories. District Officers hold land and small-debt courts, and arbitrate in all kinds of disputes, including family and matrimonial cases; they control Crown land and buildings, register documents and deeds relating to private land, assess and collect stamp duty, and administer a vote for small public

!

296

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

works undertaken by villagers to improve irrigation, water supplies and communications. Close co-operation is main- tained between the Administration and all other Departments with interests in the New Territories.

District Officers have the assistance of Rural Committees, elected by and from village representatives, and exercising various functions by delegation. Although these committees have no statutory existence or powers, they have already proved their usefulness as mouthpieces of public opinion, in the arbitration of clan and family disputes, and generally as a bridge between the Administration and the people. The New Territories is covered by a network of rural committees, 28 sub-districts being recognized for this purpose as rural committee areas. 24 have formally established committees, two have provisional organizations of a similar kind and one has its interests looked after by the committee for an adjoin- ing area.

Public Services Commission. The Public Services Com- mission, appointed under Ordinance in 1950, with a view to improving the standard of efficiency of officers in public service and ensuring that the claims of local candidates for appointment receive full consideration, advises the Governor on appointments and promotions to the great majority of vacancies in the pensionable government establishment.

The highest ranks of the public service are open to local people with suitable qualifications. At present locally-born officers, most of them Chinese, hold positions in nearly all administrative, professional and technical branches of the Government.

Chapter 26: Weights and Measures

THE weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and the following Chinese weights and measures, given with their equivalents in avoirdupois :

I fan (candareen)

1 ts'in (mace)

I leung (tael)

||,

.0133 ounces

.133 ounces

1.33

ounces

1.33

pounds

I tam (picul = 100 catties)

133.33

pounds

1.19 cwts.

0.0595 tons

1 kan (catty16 taels)

I ch'ek (foot)

=

Statutory equivalent 149

inches. The ch'ek is

divided into 10 ts'un

(inches), and each

ts'un into ten fan, or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length of a ch'ek varies, accord- ing to the trade in which it is used, from 149 inches to II inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

Chapter 27: Reading List

FOR an extensive bibliography on Hong Kong the reader is directed to the 1954 edition of the Hong Kong Annual Report.

Although there is a considerable amount of published material dealing with Hong Kong, not much of it is obtain- able other than in research libraries. The following are the more recent publications likely to be available to the general reader :

#

CARRINGTON, C. E.: The British Overseas, Cambridge,

1950.

COLLINS, Sir Charles: Public Administration in Hong Kong, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1952.

DAVIS, S. G.: Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting,

Collins, London, 1949.

GREENBERG, Michael: British Trade and the Opening of

China, 1800-1842, Cambridge, 195

195

INGRAMS, Harold: Hong Kong, Corona Library, H. M.

Stationery Office, London, 1952.

MILLS, Lennox A: British Rule in Eastern Asia, Oxford,

1942.

SAYER, G. R.: Hong Kong, Birth, Adolescence and

Coming of Age, Oxford, 1937.

A list of the more important Government publications issued during 1956 is at Appendix XX.

*

共圖書發

Appendices

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

:

香港公

共圖書番

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

:

301

Appendix I

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Colonial Development and Welfare

Details of locally-administered Grants and Loans made by the United Kingdom Government towards schemes in progress during

1956.

Schemes

No.

Title of Scheme

Research

R. 480A

Fisheries Research

Unit,

Grant Loan

Estimated expenditure

५२

£

up to 31.12.56.

£

D. 944

D. 1967

33,975 8,288

Hong Kong University: Capital expenditure Recurrent expenditure (Original grant of £11,000 for recurrent expenditure

reduced in September 1956).

Development

33,975 9,077

共圖

Village Agricultural Depots,

Capital expenditure

Loans to fishermen for

mechanization

(Interest-free

Repay-

ment of capital by annual instalments of £5,000 (to start in 1958).

9,000

50,000

9,000

42,310

D. 2061

Site development for low-

D. 2341

cost housing, Hung Hom. Site development for low- cost housing, Healthy

62,500

50,592

Village

25,000

13,412

D. 2487

Construction of Pathology

Institute, Hong Kong University

80,781

(Administered by Univer-

sity).

D. 2539

Development Schemes in

New Territories

....

263,500

IC LIBE

€14,539

D. 2594

Aeronautical telecommunica-

tion

16,800

141,113(1)

4,400(2)

(Approved

in October

1955).

D. 2663 & A

Site development for low-

cost housing,

Kennedy

Town

52,500

50,000

(Grant

of £43,750,

Notes:

approved in December

1955.

Supplementary

grant of £8,750, approved in August 1956).

£553,133 £50,000 £367,629

(1)-Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (85%) of estimated

expenditure.

(2) ---Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme share (80%) of estimated

expenditure.

302

Appendix II A

(Chapter 3: Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization)

Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in Main Industrial Groups

Industry

Industrial Undertakings

Persons Employed

1954

1955 1956

1954

1955

1956

Mining & Quarrying

5

24

64

1,075

1,268

2,226

Food Manufacture .:.

260

294

323

6,421

6,358

6,708

Beverages

29

29

29

917

991

1,007

"

Tobacco Manufacture.

6

6

6

1,253

1,143

1,291

Manufacture of Textiles *

566

604

639

34,021

37,064

42,254

Manufacture of Wood & Cork

102

112

131

1,682

1,729

2,214

Footwear & Wearing Apparel *

124

216

255

5,701

8,603

10,342

Manufacture of furniture

17

A

21

29

560

686

1,050

Paper & paper products ..

16

23

30

414

483

593

Printing & publishing

336

356

380

6,437

6,752

6,966

Leather & leather products

10

12

15

256

322

363

Rubber products

56

58

72

7,845

7,944

7,386

Chemicals & chemical products *

92

...

88

96

3,048

3,038

2,769

Coal products.

1

1

13

13

Non-metallic products

61

66

73

2,171-7

2,315

2,379

Basic metal

19

20

30

1,266

1,285

1,403

Metal products *

347

433

476

20,583

23,397 26,062

Manufacture of Machinery

Electrical apparatus *

147

183

206

2,306

2,711

3,371

40

47

1,859

1,987

2,134

Transport & Transport Equipment R38

41

45

9,709 11,052

12,859

Miscellaneous *

Construction (Terrazzo)

Electricity & Gas

Petroleum Installations.

117

158

221

3,535

4,950

6,955

4

4

68

48

7

7

8

1,291

1,311

1.808

4

LO

5

5

497

527

667

Transport (cargo packing)

Storage

Cable & Wireless, & Telephones

Motion Picture industry

5

6

6

63

67

84

1

3

3

402

537

944

2

2

...

2

882

974

861

7

LO

5

5

480

392

423

Laundry & dry cleaning

Total:

75

102

120

1,198

1,518

1,728

2,494 2,925 3,319 115,453 129,465 146,877

* Similar figures for selected industries in these groups are given in Appendix IIB.

Appendix II B

Industrial Undertakings and Persons Employed in selected Industries in certain of the

Main Industrial Groups

303

17

1

Industrial Undertakings

Persons Employed

Industry

1954 1955 1956

1954

1955

1956

Manufacture of Textiles

Cotton Spinning

Wool Spinning

19

19

11,513

13,274

14,271

4

3

120

620

847

Weaving

148

149

146

9,210

8,577

9,838

Finishing

46

58

51

1,148

1,355

1,627

Knitting Mills

297

347

325

10,519

11,715

14,046

Cordage, rope and twine

43

41

42

937

935

938

Footwear, wearing apparel & made

up textile goods

Footwear except rubber footwear.

11

13

29

1,037

699

1,042

Wearing apparel except footwear

98

180

195

4.158

7,164

8,418

Made up textile goods except

Wearing apparel

15

23

506

Chemicals & Chemical Products

Medicines

17

17

21

460

四金

740

882

492

568

Cosmetics

10

9

10

231

204

257

C

Paint & Lacquer

10

9

10

400

465

471

Matches

4

4

3

806

684

568

Metal Products (except Machinery)

Tin cans

25

29

34

965

1,111

Enamel ware

27

32

39

4,980

5,334

Vacuum flasks

6

7

5

628

683

IES

292

6,156

751

Electric plating,

37

43

52

916

1,034

1,147

Needles

4

5

4

582

671

712

...

Iron & Steel works

8

11

11

574

679

738

Hurricane lamps

6

5

4

698

Hand Torch cases

31

34

29

5,422

B

508

368

5,612

5,540

Electrical Apparatus

Hand Torch bulbs

26

PUT

D

30

28

776

800

751

Torch Batteries

7

8

8

770

857

873

Transport & Transport Equipment

Shipbuilding & repairing

21

21

23

6,233

7,541

8,245

Tramways

1

1

1

1,480

1,438

1,536

Motor buses

2

Aircraft repair

2

2 2

2 2

2

900

921

973

659

585

1,437

Miscellaneous

Artificial pearls

1

1

Toys

1

1

Tooth brushes

10

5

6

7 280

65

119

364

32

54

105

460

523

460

Buttons

18

24

28

907

1,094

1,155

Ice & Cold Storage

17

20

18

717

935

1,039

Bakelite wares

10

12

15

160

250

301

Plastic wares

39

65

113

745

1,491

2,987

Fountain Pens

2

4

5

119

133

192

304

LIABILITIES:

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Statement of Assets and

$

DEPOSITS:-

Colonial Development & Welfare Schemes

568,364.00

Contribution towards reinforcing Garrison

8,000,000.00

Control of Publications

690,000.00

Custodian of Property-Abandoned Property

11,322,351.31

Custodian of Property-Interest on Trust Bank

Account

1,185,868.78

Custodian of Property-Surplus Fund

1,880,007.51

Government Servants

423,728.57

Miscellaneous

14,040,375.52

Motor Vehicles Insurance Third Party

200,000.00

Other Administrations

Public Works Department-Private Works Account

941,367.31

Settlement with H.M.G.

Water Deposits

SUSPENSE

SPECIAL FUNDS:--

Education Scholarships Fund

DEVELOPMENT FUND

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

AL

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:-

$

¢

300,488.44

14,897,043.22

5,393,010.05

60,842,604.71

LIBRARI

31,261.62

93,859.15

127,585,115.75

137,614,760.94

Balance as at 1st April, 1955

....

293,791,761.87

Add Surplus from 1st April, 1955 to 31st March,

1956

52,256,546.85

346,048,308.72

Deduct Depreciation on investments

TOTAL:

34,612,164.15

311,436,144.57

$637,603,746.74

NOTES: -Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal Amounts due from Colonial Development and Scheme D. 2061-Site development for D. 2341-Site development for

Amount due from United Kingdom Government There is a contingent liability of $1,337,708.51

i III

1 Finance and Taxation)

I Liabilities as at 31st March, 1956

ASSETS:

$

$

CASH:-

At Bank (Treasury)

$21,052,510.69

(P.M.G.)

153,828.73

21,206,339.42

In Hand (Treasury)

1,491,558.18

(D.C. and I.)

850.00

(Hong Kong Magistracy).

3,575.00

(Kowloon Magistracy)

14,566.50

(K.C.R.)

81,779.45

(Police Force)

16,060.00

(P.M.G.)

7,154.30

1,615,543.43

Sub-Total:

22,821,882.85

With Crown Agents (£986.18.11)

Joint Colonial Fund (£1,303,000.00)

FIXED DEPOSIT

IMPRESTS

SUSPENSE

ADVANCES:-

l....

Other Administrations

Personal

Miscellaneous

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Investments :-

Education Scholarships Fund-

Fixed Deposit

Hong Kong Government Loan

Sterling Investments (£3,872.17.6)

DEVELOPMENT FUND

SURPLUS BALANCES:-

15,791.13

20,848,000.00

AHO

829,975.20

2,202,126.82

305

43,685,673.98

45,000,000.00

958.20

1,462.74

423,103.92

3,455,205.94

BRARI

6,000.00 12,210.00 61,966.00

с

80,176.00

127,585,115.75

Investments :-

Federation of Malaya 42% Registered Stock

1964/74 (M$4,950,000)

9,240,000.00

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965/75

(M$6,567,750)

12,259,800.00

Hong Kong Government 31% Dollar Loan 1940

2,173,875.00

Sterling Investments (£24,632,592.8.11)

394,121,479.13

417,795,154.13

TOTAL:

$637,603,746.74

value of $100 per share in Association Properties Limited.

Welfare Funds are as follows:-

low-cost housing, Hung Hom

$30,966.28

low-cost housing, Healthy Village

19,964.56

for Kai Tak Airport Development Scheme

8,753.26

in respect of the $1 Note Security Fund.

306

Appendix IV

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Revenue

Actual

Actual

Actual

Revenue

Revenue

HEAD OF REVENUE

Revenue

Estimate

for

for

for

1953-4

1954-5

1955-6

for 1956-7

$

$

$

1 Duties

2

Rates

3 Internal Revenue

4 Licences, Fines and Forfeiture.

5 Fees of Court or Office

74,883,463 78,895,157 85,260,790 83,500,000

37,614,897 39,651,662 49,769,817 50,550,000

160,461,736 167,918,224 154,045,234 148,500,000

17,456,699 14,886,642 18,389,068 17,258,130

28,055,781 37,382

33,041,660 32,630,650

6

Water Revenue

8,853,250 7,820,552 .9,376,970 9,058,800

7 Post Office

19,946,543 22,654,032 24,470,773 25,085,000

8 Kowloon-Canton Railway

5,369,489 4,675,784 5,592,150 4,726,000

9 Revenue from Lands, Rents, etc.

22,798,707 25,288,125 31,445,353 32,038,500

10 Miscellaneous Receipts

,936,550 17,495,000

11

Land Sales

14,642,635

ONG PUBLIC

12 Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

20,659,313

LIB

390,083,200 419,832,301 432,328,365 420,842,080

6,058,573 11,919,723 13,673,932 10,005,000

13

Loan from United Kingdom

Government

..

740,193 1,403,080

681,990 4,211,750

1,297,217

8,035,903 14,878,250

Total Revenue:

396,881,966 434,452,321 454,720,190 449,937,080

Appendix V

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

HEAD OF expenDITURE

Expenditure

Actual

307

Actual

Approved Estimate

1956-7

Actual Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure 1954-5

1955-6

1 H. E. the Governor's Establishment

2 Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry Department

3 Audit Department

4 Broadcasting Department

5

Civil Aviation Department

6 Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

7

Commerce and Industry

Department

1953-4 $

$

$

$

377,421

373,643

343,159

390,130

2,031,194

2,673,886

2,816,435

3,403,580

557,836

541,780

567,644

635,310

657,607

......

2,061,116

762,380

2,014,476

1,536,292

1,517,960

3,137,671

3,496,790

2,612,288

2,550,166 2,576,707 3,033,150

3,903,831

4,021,303

4,465,336 5,575,180

390,538

428,554

439,641

521,200

8 Cooperatives and Marketing

Department

9

Defence:

A-R.H.K.D.F. Headquarters

and H.K. Regiment

B-Hong Kong Royal Naval

Volunteer Reserve

C-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force ...

......

1,984,977 2,332,085

1,840,491 2,199,510

444,992

692,596

764,481

930,790

614,449

659,475

513,975

679,930

D-Essential Services Corps..

152,596

146,511

83,454

99,550

E-Auxiliary Fire Service

...

153,924

145,826

213,490

F-Auxiliary Medical Service

467,625

539,689

696,020

G-Civil Aid Services

540,475

747,014

976,382

1,433,110

H-Registration of Persons..

318,095

339,078

376,607

399,000

I-Directorate of Manpower.

57,082

63,535

65,200

J-Miscellaneous Measures

27,586,248

24,671,894

18,521,114

19,810,700

10 Education Department

11,336,113 12,955,710

15,668,807

19,095,000

11 Fire Brigade

12 Inland Revenue Department

13 Judiciary

2,431,115 2,624,586

3,201,566

3,824,930

...

2,350,247 2,376,851

2,545,106

3,152,440

14

Kowloon-Canton Railway

1,938,811 2,063,912 2,232,407

4,154,838 7,832,025 7,499,109

2,579,230

4,212,800

15

Labour Department:

A-Labour Division

688,322

748,429

775,088

846,200

B-Mines Division

119,380

16 Legal Department

669,641

684,294

784,207

856,380

17

Marine Department

9,512,264 7,967,210 8,766,747 10,111,840

18

Medical Department

19

Miscellaneous Services

20 New Territories, District

Administration

21

Pensions

22

Police Force:

A-Hong Kong Police B-Hong Kong Police

(Auxiliaries)

614,915

695,952 792,870

11,619,893 13,705,262 13,579,000

31,802,576 34,632,221 35,024,254 42,008,200

1,084,378 1,222,473 2,010,330

23,704,484 25,105,401 27,002,383 32,849,490 64,941,839 45,069,336 22,167,343 10,930,350

624,190

10,909,466

308

Appendix V-Contd.

Expenditure

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

Actual

Actual

Actual Approved Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure Estimate

1953-4

1954-5

1955-6

$

23

Post Office

11,420,212

24 Printing Department

25

Prisons Department

26 Public Debt

27 Public Relations Office

28 Public Services Commission

29 Public Works Department

30 Public Works Recurrent

......

3,766,043

506,979

28,924

17,480,063

1956-7

$

12,252,302 13,832,245 15,616,550

1,399,617 1,257,406 1,704,458 1,663,300

5,693,933 5,107,071 5,266,299 6,628,550

3,361,345

531,567

3,333,080 3,307,000

460,955

498,410

32,635

17,876,137

34,012

41,390

19,909,432

23,491,590

31

Public Works Non-Recurrent

32

Quartering

1,921,415 2,428,319

19,628,634 17,479,925 18,628,799 21,483,500

30,607,359 45,099,178 81,433,819 126,185,660

2,755,448 2,818,420

33

Rating and Valuation

Department

34 Registrar General's Department

35 Registry of Trade Unions

327,349

354,439

442,280

503,000

580,093

602,519

659,169

702,600

......

16,792 125,123

155,280

36

Resettlement Department

3,574,550

5,499,235

6,494,730

37 Royal Observatory

919,591

1,043,820

1,255,514

1,433,870

38

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs:

A-Secretariat for Chinese

Affairs

....

384,144

395,620

447,274

B-Social Welfare Office

2,529,908

2,077,036

2,444,241

441,500 2,646,090

C-District Watch Force

258,556

271,947

306,452

313,480

39

Stores Department

1,265,085

7,874,459

9,095,193

9,231,000

40 Subventions

27,639,261

34,645,531

34,727,237

51,683,410

41

Treasury:

A-Treasury

G PITB1784,489

B-Custodian of Property

...

50,273

1,825,706 51,319

2,031,339

1,869,380

48,331

39,590

42

Urban Services and Urban

Council:

A-Head Office and Sanitary

Division

B-Resettlement Division

....

C-Gardens Division

12,829,225 3,824,283 649,807

D-Housing Division

13,481,981 388,794 860,360 63,917

15,149,850

17,757,470

1,065,775 35,962

1,256,920

221,790

43 Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

354,742,812 371,967,308 401,690,665 488,553,520

664,958 1,376,301

772,976 4,709,570

Total:

355,407,770 373,343,609 402,463,641 493,263,090

1

Appendix VI

(Chapter 5: Currency and Banking)

Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

Chartered Bank

Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd.

Thos. Cook & Son (Continental and Overseas) Ltd.

First National City Bank of New York

American Express Co. Inc.

Banque de l'Indo-Chine

Banque Belge Pour l'Etranger (Extreme-Orient)

309

Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij N. V. (Netherlands

Trading Society Ltd.)

Nationale Handelsbank N. V.

Bank of East Asia, Ltd.

共圖

書館

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Ltd.

Bank of Communications

Bank of China

Bank of Canton, Ltd.

Shanghai Commercial Bank, Ltd.

China and South Sea Bank, Ltd. Farmers Bank of China

Kincheng Banking Corporation

Bank of Tokyo, Ltd.

United Commercial Bank, Ltd.

Bank of Korea

Indian Overseas Bank, Ltd.

AC LIBRARI

Sze Hai Tong Banking & Insurance Co. Ltd. China State Bank, Ltd.

Hongkong & Swatow Commercial Bank, Ltd.

Sin Hua Trust, Savings & Commercial Bank, Ltd. National Commercial Bank

Nanyang Commercial Bank, Ltd.

Wing On Bank, Ltd. (partially authorized)

Kwangtung Provincial Bank (partially authorized) Bangkok Bank, Ltd. (partially authorized)

310

Appendix VII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade-Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three

years:

1954

H.K.$

1955 H.K.$

1956 H.K.$

United Kingdom

369,370,054

441,036,467

513,333,600

Malaya

161,609,904

151,429,690

152,260,931

India

53,359,614

83,764,840

51,029,928

Pakistan

67,752,131

53,945,164

98,049,901

Canada

Australia

55,148,962 63,028,360 81,530,636

46,237,353

46,335,227

100,274,169

Other Commonwealth

Countries

113,370,161

121,740,964 146,065,223

China

Japan

691,845,761 897,646,396 1,038,314,454 464,537,320 525,994,315 810,602,788

U. S. A.

Thailand

281,051,186 131,174,127

324,855,713

423,806,512

185,878,109

185,362,677

Italy

31,829,455

36,609,624

40,479,653

Germany (Western)

155,572,923

128,351,816

118,982,636

Switzerland

104,550,499

99,984,164

131,650,766

Netherlands

84,436,429

64,240,036

77,866,515

Other Countries

Total

.....

606,782,339 475,672,297 631,780,151

3,435,419,225 3,718,917,584 4,566,195,131

Appendix VIII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

RIES

Direction of Trade- Exports

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past three years were as follows:

United Kingdom

Malaya

Other Commonwealth

Countries

Indonesia

..

1954

H.K.$

1955 H.K.$

1956

H.K.$

162,165,696 251,539,596

298,371,070

330,540,133 375,365,533

372,774,225

315,347,845 348,305,927 380,052,355 224,642,245 193,388,155 501,428,419

China

390,786,609

181,560,144

135,971,366

Thailand

130,182,846

179,108,555

319,639,045

Taiwan

79,864,733

37,402,084

47,482,890

Japan

114,649,954

146,255,523

317,964,070

South Korea

170,133,476

192,203,333

125,182,160

U. S. A.

70,000,948

87,869,362

116,570,563

Macau

63,796,056

57,370,030

57,706,599

Other Countries

364,905,060 484,055,504 536,471,666

Total

2,417,015,601 2,534,423,746 3,209,614,428

311

Appendix IX

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Principal Commodities Imported

Principal commodities imported, with quantities and values, during 1956, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1954

1955

1956

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

487,130 89,761,070

623,520 108,380,529

548,537 88,556,608

Swine (nos.)

Poultry (lb.)

...

Fresh vegetables

(cwt.)

21,648,459 39,343,822 18,259,430 34,983,079 20,477,878 38,426,660

2,248,605 34,820,288 2,033,207 33,942,248 2,471,835 32,654,742

Milk, tinned (lb.). 21,177,705 23,997,355 23,507,632 23,147,335 28,246,869 27,994,367

Eggs (gross)

Rice (cwt.)

Flour (cwt.)

2,788,051 50,460,492 2,772,647 47,727,756

2,113,853 86,973,521

894,918 28,789,405

5,181,792 177,290,484

662,706 20,375,979

2,771,032 47,348,161

5,557,880 191,685,546

557,836 17,441,977

A

Beans and peas

(cwt.)

Sugar (cwt.)

.

Tea (lb.)

Tobacco (lb.)

Raw cotton (cwt.).

Coal (cwt.)

820,328 33,263,374

1,074,166 227,550,511

4,092,384 16,819,299

Soyabeans (cwt.).

704,882 26,245,510 878,734 24,389,919 896,496 23,730,626

2,030,310 58,430,630 1,974,345 58,248,352 2,398,000 72,624,921

14,523,208 33,170,707 16,470,763 34,848,141 14,397,354 26,321,506

12,152,530 51,509,393 11,027,529 55,116,816 12,030,650 59,089,165

444,817 15,518,354

785,672 164,602,069

4,925,590 18,690,034

172,736 5,911,791

1,305,086 254,266,681

8,713,210 34,805,007

Furnace fuel

oil (ton)

Cotton yarn and

thread (lb.)

Cotton piece-goods

(unbleached) (sq. yd.)

Cotton piece-goods

(bleached) (sq. yd.)

Tung oil (cwt.)

Watches and watch

movements (nos.).

Artificial

533,642 51,725,815 541,177 54,432,292

699,823 81,989,905

13,133,443 44,883,763 12,972,440 38,627,883 36,542,411 103,607,275

52,639,084 43,728,123 69,602,318 55,084,146 114,221,462 98,429,327

53,769,605 81,241,545 67,886,749 98,781,721 159,732,482 205,097,287

115,388 10,911,046

109,167 12,375,846 142,907 19,612,971

2,357,044 85,146,795

2,067,655 76,498,165 3,014,099 118,695,177

textiles (sq. yd.).. 75,942,678 98,982,900 90,645,197 125,185,355 134,823,576 165,591,401

Woollen piece-

goods (sq. yd.)

Groundnut oil

(cwt.)

Plants, seeds, flowers, for medicines,

...

6,355,365 74,746,067 9,140,393 95,093,898

8,980,237 82,628,045

167,480 18,775,508

357,403 30,649,253 332,075 33,056,340

perfumery (cwt.).

Sulphate of

624,471 64,426,452 884,985 63,658,024

1,200,818 77,492,629

ammonia (cwt.)...

6,137,839 110,540,295 2,985,992 55,055,335

1,902,537 36,129,633

312

Appendix X

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Principal Commodities Exported

Principal commodities exported, with quantities and values, during 1956, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1956

1954

1955

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Eggs (gross)

Cuttle fish (cwt.)..

Flour (cwt.)

463,996 10,750,853

26,570 4,522,173

170,495 5,664,134

Beans & peas (cwt.).

531,968 23,764,532

386,461 8,127,458

43,227 5,759,182

367,186 10,920,961

666,291 23,520,141

330,721 6,889,170

27,089 4,111,291

460,071 12,364,435

481,675 14,620,154

Fresh vegetables

(cwt.)

Sugar (cwt.)

612,943 22,833,654

1,090,397 36,743,199

476,465 17,815,497

995,232 33,599,463

Tea (lb.)

.....

9,543,986 25,744,790 8,541,528 22,217,852

Soyabeans (cwt.) ..

408,716 17,705,520

164,905 5,801,934

580,628 21,240,294

1,199,838 41,619,204

8,015,999 17,018,246

175,194 5,766,262

Sesamum seed

(cwt.)

217,562 18,023,786

157,077 11,619,918

...

86,304 8,937,949

83,238 99,866,136

Textile machinery

Tuug oil (cwt.)

Coal-tar

dyestuffs (cwt.). ..

Cotton yarn and

thread (lb.)

Cotton piece-goods

(unbleached) (sq. yd.)

Cotton piece-goods

(bleached) (sq. yd.)

Enamelware

32,348,506 102,608,472 36,010,964 113,588,915 45,587,119 143,443,791

43,630,693 46,000,873 68,055,286 74,095,901 79,667,690 89,140,814

138,560,816 160,977,855 155,875,107 172,083,563 242,651,612 277,906,443

61,437,309

8,961,648

56,562,339

3,898,316

77,224,346

9,139,313

77,463 10,979,232

222,621 12,720,112

129,874 19,260,468

46,332 53,914,518

28,194 24,131,113

Electric torches

(doz.)

3,033,383 45,264,319 3,538,217 49,514,099 3,640,187 49,712,619

Watches and watch movements (nos.).

Bristles (lb.)

Feathers (lb.)

......

206,904 6,942,993 273,768 11,136,202 490,118 16,993,240

1,121,941 19,804,245 1,119,792 13,132,120 301,339 4,015,835

6,458,746 18,873,321 5,878,632 21,651,181 4,067,056 18,080,327

Plants, seeds,

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery (cwt.). 480,493 53,973,310

Sulphate of

483,695 53,503,562 556,262 58,004,103

ammonia (cwt.)... 5,876,975 109,405,473 2,853,098 55,055,803 1,916,393 37,182,493

Artificial

textiles (sq. yd.).. 23,993,777 35,866,053 27,895,175 45,873,998 75,782,112 92,061,678

Appendix XI

(Chapter 7: Production)

Co-operative Societies

(Year ended 31.12.1956)

313

Type of Society

Member-

No.

ship

Paid-up share capital

Loan Loan Granted Repaid

Deposit

Reserve Fund

€9

Federations... 2

*28

2,200

Vegetable

Marketing... 17 4,497

***

41,005 854,189 547,772

8,548

120,057

Fishermen's

Thrift &

Loan.........

24

534

3,845 1,138,655 318,

172,802

7,792

Fishermen's

Credit & L

Housing.....

1

25

125 63,420 23,219

5,291

Fishermen's

Credit &

Marketing...

1

10 10,000 57,585

26,114 5,244

1,916

Pig Raising... 33 1,026 35,140 406,157 327,529

BRARI

392

Salaried

Workers'

Thrift..

2

353

1,905 74,131 60,767 42,524

3,015

Building.

33

909

....

90,900

6,927

Irrigation....

2

92

1,040

3,000

1,500

Draft Animal. 1

14

140

1

Fish Pond ....

1

117

585

Credit &

Consumers'. 1

226

1,845

|

Total...... 118 7,831 188,730 2,597,137 1,304,941 225,861 148,762

* Member-societies.

314

Appendix XII

(Chapter 8: Education)

Hong Kong Students pursuing Higher Studies in the United Kingdom

Courses

Students

Commercial subjects

29

...

Education

42

Source of Payment*

Fine Arts, Applied Arts,

Architecture

Law

Medical Sciences

......

Ku

Philosophy and Humani-

ties, Arts

3 Colonial Development & Welfare

Scheme.

1 Sino-British Fellowship.

Government Scholarships.

59 1 Government Scholarship.

1 British Council Scholarship.

58

II.

1 Colonial Development & Welfare

Scheme.

92 6 Sino-British Fellowships.

4 Government Scholarships.

2 World Health Organization Fel-

lowships.

21

1 British Colonial Scholarship.

Public Administration ..

10

2 Colonial Development & Welfare

Scheme.

8 Government Scholarships.

Science (General)

23

......

Secretarial

15

1 Government Scholarship.

Social Sciences

20

1 Government Scholarship.

2 Hong Kong University Scholar-

ships.

Technology and Engi-

neering Sciences

Meteorology

Nursing

244 2 British Council Scholarships.

2 Taikoo Dockyard Scholarships.

2 Colonial Development & Welfare

Scheme.

2

192

4 Sino-British Fellowships.

807

3 Government Scholarships.

1 World Health Organization Fel-

lowship.

* All students are privately financed except where otherwise stated.

Appendix XIII

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Infectious Diseases

1955 and 1956

315

Chinese

Non-Chinese

Yearly Total

Deaths

Diseases

1955 1956

1955 1956

1955 1956

1955 1956

Amoebic dysentery.

171 151

39

31

210

182

..

6

6

Bacillary dysentery..

500

521

24

39

524

560

37

4

Chickenpox

276

157

104

116

...

380

273

4

2

Diphtheria....

831

710

9

4

840

714

71

75

Enteric fever

725

780

10

9

735

7

58

48

Malaria ....

220

492

9

4

229

496

4

Measles

444

655

99

54

543

709

Meningitis .....

11

21

11

21

3

SA

888

86

9

Poliomyelitis ....

35

23

16

8

51

31

3

3

Puerperal fever...................

4

7

4

7

Rabies (human)

3

3

IBR

2

3

(animal)

(11)

Scarlet fever....

27

8

18

6

45

14

1

Tuberculosis.......

14,060 12,097 88

58 14,148 12,155 2,810 2,629

Typhus (Urban)

2

1

2

1

(Scrub)....... 2

2

Whooping Cough..... 199 117

14

2 213 119

1

2

Total.....

17,510 15,739

430

332 17,940 16,071 3,095 2,870

|

316

Appendix XIV

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Number of Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1956

(The 1955 totals are shown in brackets)

GOVERNMENT

Dispensaries

Hospitals

Beds

Beds

Queen Mary

598

Stanley

CO

6

Tai Po ..

8

Kowloon

245

Yuen Long

7

Mental ....

140

Sha Tau Kok

3

Sai Ying Pun

88

Ho Tung

13

Tsan Yuk

200

Sai Kung

7

Laichikok

476

Tai O ..

9

San Hui

3

Eastern Maternity

24

Sha Tin Maternity Home

4

Wanchai Social Hygiene ...

28

Silver Mine Bay

St. John (Cheung Chau) ...

102

Maternity Hospital

6

...

Maurine Grantham

Stanley, Prison

70

Health Centre

26

Laichikok Female Prison ..

14

Tai Lam Chung Hospital

6

Total:

1,985

Total:

98

(1,971)

(84)

A

NON-GOVERNMENT

Tung Wah

Grant-in-aid Hospitals

Tung Wah Eastern

Kwong Wah

Alice Ho Mui Ling

Nethersole

Hong Kong Anti-T.B.

Association Ruttonjee Sanatorium

Pok Oi (Yuen Long)

Beds

Private Hospitals

Beds

495

Hong Kong Sanatorium

& Hospital

300

340

404

Precious Blood

90

...

St. Teresa's

90

272

...

St. Francis

70

St. Paul's

172

336

Hong Kong Central ...

90

50

......

Ling Yuet Sin Infants'

125

Hei Ling Chau

Leprosarium

Total:

580

Matilda & War Memorial

80

2,477 (1,817)

Total:

1,017

(1,008)

Total Number of Beds in all hospitals, etc. = 5,577 (4,880)

Appendix XV

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Registered Medical Personnel

317

Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

Registered

Personnel)

Government Medical Officers

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeons &

Medical Practitioners (excluding Government

530

57

207

Service Dentists)

Government Dental Surgeons

Service Dentists

337

16

12

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists) ...

52

Government Pharmacists

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

Government Nurses

......

7

881

715

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers) Government Dressers

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives)

Government Midwives

7

106

901

135

KIES

Appendix XVI

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Government Medical Personnel in

Organized Training

31st December, 1956.

IBR

Length of course in

1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year

years

Success- fully

4th Year completed

training, 1956

Radiographic

Assistants

4

4

3

2

1

2

Dispensers

4

1

3

4

3

Laboratory

Assistants

4

1

1

3

6

Dressers

4

14

5

6

3

11

Nurses

4

106

38

29

14

37

Midwives

2

27

34

21

Health Visitors

1

10

10

318

Appendix XVII

(Chapter 13: Law and Order)

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1956

Offence

No. of No. of

cases

cases

No. of Persons Charged

or Summonsed

Class 1: Offences Against the Person

1. Murder

2. Murder - Attempted

3.

Infanticide

reported

detected

16 yrs.

17 yrs.

& under

& over

37

29

11

10

36

11

4. Manslaughter

5. Serious Assaults

6. Throwing Corrosive Fluids

2

2

2

408

232

4

244

6

2

1

7.

Abortion ....

7.3....

3

3

3

8.

Abominable Offences

2

1

1

9.

Gross Indecency

4

5

10.

Indecent Assault on a Male

11. Rape....

12. Indecent Assault on a Female

13.

Other Serious Offences on Women

and Girls

14. Kidnapping

15. Criminal Intimidation

16. Bigamy

17. Incest

3

1

1

82

57

4

46

...

11

1

4

2

APIES

7

2

18. All other serious offences against

BLIC

LIBR

the person

....

4

1

3

Total Serious Offences against

the Person

578

356

9

362

Class 2: Breaking Offences

19. Sacrilege

3

2

3

1

20. Burglary

241

68

84

21.

Housebreaking

453

94

8

88

22. Housebreaking with Intent

22

18

19

23. Shop & Store Breaking

76

22

26

24. Office Breaking

28

6

7

25. Other Breakings

28

8

1

19

...

26. Breakings-all Attempted.

24

6

8

Total Breaking Offences

875

224

12

252

319

Appendix XVII - Contd.

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1956

Offence

No. of No. of

cases

cases

No. of Persons Charged or Summonsed

17 yrs.

16 yrs.

reported

detected

& under

& over

Class 3: Larceny Offences

27. Robbery with Firearms

28. Robbery with Other Offensive

Weapons

...

4

3

35

7

29. Robbery with Aggravation

69

30

30. Robbery

11

7

31. Assault with intent to Rob

8

7

| │ │ │

8

9

44

7

13

32. Demanding Money, etc. with

Menaces

64

42

3

57

33. Larceny from Person (Snatching)

856

287

44

245

34. Larceny from Person (Pickpocket)

726

664

31

347

35. Larceny from Dwelling

1,162

203

14

178

36. Larceny from Ship & Wharf ..................

146

60

2

70

37. Larceny from Vehicle.

776

159

23

131

38. Larceny of Bicycle ...

516

78

5

76

39. Misc. Simple Larcenies

10,274

4,464

493

4,085

40.

Receiving

Total Larcenies

175

175

3

145

14,822

6,186

618

5,415

Class 4: Offences Involving Fraud

41.

Embezzlement...

42. Larceny by Servant

43. Larceny by Bailee

172

143

51

293

263

11

232

152

63

6

60

44. Larceny by Trick

45. Obtaining by False Pretences

46. Fraudulent Conversion

47. Obtaining Credit by Fraud

369

77

4

66

293

162

1

72

....

74

59

26

....

32

29

30

48. Forgery

72

68

13

49. Obtaining by means of Forgery...

45

40

6

50. Possession of Forged Documents,

Notes, Dies, etc.

42

39

16

....

...

51. Uttering Forged Documents

52. Counterfeiting Offences

53. Other Frauds and Cheats

28

25

16

1

1

180

166

2

124

Total Frauds

....

1,753

1,135

25

712

320

Appendix XVII-Contd.

Return of Serious Crime for the Year 1956

Offence

No. of No. of

cases

cases

No. of Persons Charged or Summonsed

17 yrs.

16 yrs.

reported

detected

& under

& over

Class 5: Other Serious Offences

54. Arson

12

2

....

55. Malicious Damage

169

71

8

53

23

56. Threatening Letters other than

Demanding

7

1

57.

Conspiracies...

15

14

1

25

58.

Offering Bribes to Police

13

13

59. Offering Bribes to Others

1

1

1221

60. Soliciting or Receiving Bribes by

Police

2

2

2

61. Soliciting or Receiving Bribes by

Others

62. All other Serious Offences not

D

classified...

515

497

11

814

Total Other Offences

734

601

20

910

Total of Classes 1 to 5...

18,762

8,502

684

7,651

Percentage of Crime Detected in Classes 1 to 5=45%.

Class 6: Offences discovered

following Arrest

63. Membership of an Unlawful

Society

521

521

9

512

64. Possession of Arms and/or

Ammunition

65. Unlawful Possession

68

....

68

3

103

1,269

1,269

25

1,248

66. Possession of House-Breaking

Implements

67. Possession of Instrument fit for

Unlawful Purpose

33

33

1

21

168

168

.....

7

82

68.

Found on Enclosed Premises......

70

64

1

59

69. Loitering with Intent to Commit

a Felony

307

306

3

304

....

70. Deportation-Breach of.

1,379

1,379

1,379

71. Deportation Other

7

7

7

72. Other Serious Offences

3

3

2

Total Class 6 Offences

....

3,825

3,818

49

3,717

Grand Total of all Serious Crime.... 22,587

Percentage of Crime Detected in all Classes=55%.

12,320

733

11,368

Appendix XVIII

(Chapter 16: Press, Broadcasting, Films and Tourism)

Newspapers and Magazines

English Language

321

Daily

Weekly

South China Morning Post Hong Kong Tiger Standard China Mail

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Monthly

Sunday Post-Herald

Far Eastern Economic Review Sunday Examiner

Newsdom

Every 2 Months

Hong Kong & Far East Builder

Chinese

Language

Daily (Morning Papers)

Twice-Weekly

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Freeman

Sing Tao Jih Pao Kung Sheung Yat Po Hong Kong Shih Pao

(Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Pao

Chi Yin Yat Pao

Chiu Yin Po

Sin Sang Yat Po

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Yat Po

Chung Ying Yat Po

Wan Kou Po (Universal

Daily)

Shanghai Yat Po

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Pao Kung Sheung Man Po Hsin Wan Pao (New

Evening Post) Chun Pao (Truth Daily) Chung Sing Man Po

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Tai (Observatory

Review)

Weekly

Lo Kung Po (Labour News)

China Newsletter

Tung Fung

Fung Sai (East & West

Magazine)

Chau Mut Pao (Weekend

(News)

Sing Tao Chau Pao

Tse Yau Chun Hsin (Freedom

Front)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom)

Fortnightly

Kum Yat Sai Kai (World

Today)

Democratic Review

Wee Magazine

Every 10 Days

Kar Ting Sang Wood (Home

Life Journal)

Monthly

Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial) Sin Chung Hwa Pictorial Hang Fook (Happiness

Pictorial)

Tsing Nin Wen Yu (Literary

Youth)

Hsin Kar Ting (New Home)

""

322

Appendix XIX

(Chapter 25: Constitution and Administration)

Executive and Legislative Councils

Executive Council

Type of appointment

Names of members

on 1.1.56.

Ex-officio

55

Changes in composition during the year

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the

Commander, British Forces,

Lieutenant-General William Henry Stratton, K.C.B., C.V.O., C.B.E., D.S.O.

The Honourable the

Colonial Secretary, Mr. Edgeworth Beresford

David, C.M.G.

The Honourable the Attorney General, Mr. Arthur Hooton, Q.C.,

Acting

The Honourable the

Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. Brian Charles Keith

Hawkins, C.M.G., O.B.E. The Honourable the

Financial Secretary, Mr. Arthur Grenfell

Clarke, C.M.G.

Mr. Claude Bramall Burgess, O.B.E., acted as Colonial Secretary during the absence of the Governor from 26.6.56 to 12.10.56 when Mr. David assumed the office of O.A.G.

Ceased to act on the return to the Colony of Mr. Arthur Ridehalgh, Q.C., on 28.5.56.

LIB

Nominated

Vacant

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Honourable

Sir Tsun Nin CHAU,

C.B.E.

The Honourable

Sir Man Kam Lo, C.B.E.

Mr.

Douglas

James

Smyth Crozier, C.M.G. (Director of Education) appointed on 2.2.56.

Type of appointment

Nominated

323

Appendix XIX-Contd.

Executive Council

Names of members

on 1.1.56.

Changes in composition during the year

UNOFFICIAL

MEMBERS:-Contd.

Dr. the Honourable

CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E.

The Honourable

Leo D'Almada e Castro, C.B.E., Q.C.

The Honourable

John Keswick, C.M.G.

Resigned on

1.2.56 and succeeded by Mr. Charles Edward Michael Terry, O.B.E., on 2.3.56.

The Honourable

Michael William Turner

Note: The style and decorations of members are given as on 1.1.57.

Type of appointment

K Legislative Council

Names of members on 1.1.56.

Changes in composition during the year

Ex-officio

PRESIDENT:

His Excellency the

Governor,

Sir Alexander William

George Herder Grantham, G.C.M.G.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

His Excellency the

Commander, British Forces,

B

Lieutenant-General William Henry Stratton, K.C.B., C.V.O., C.B.E., D.S.O.

The Honourable the

Colonial Secretary, Mr. Edgeworth Beresford

David, C.M.G.

RIE

Mr. Edgeworth Beresford David, C.M.G., assumed the office of O.A.G. during the absence of the Governor from 26.6.56 to 12.10.56.

Mr. Claude Bramall Burgess, O.B.E., acted as Colonial Secretary during the absence of the Governor from 26.6.56 to 12.10.56 when Mr. David assumed the office of O.A.G.

324

Type of appointment

Ex-officio

Nominated

Ja

99

"

Appendix XIX-Contd.

Legislative Council

Names of members

on 1.1.56.

Changes in composition during the year

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

-Contd.

The Honourable the Attorney General,

Mr. Arthur Hooton, Q.C.,

Acting

The Honourable the

Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. Brian Charles Keith Hawkins, C.M.G., O.B.E.

The Honourable the

Financial Secretary, Mr. Arthur Grenfell

Clarke, C.M.G.

The Honourable Theodore Louis Bowring, C.M.G., O.B.E.

(Director of Public Works)

The Honourable Douglas

James Smyth Crozier, C.M.G.

(Director of Education)

Dr. the Honourable YEO Kok Cheang, C.M.G., (Director of Medical and Health Services)

The Honourable

David Ronald Holmes, M.B.E., M.C.

(Director of Urban Services)

Ceased to act on the return to the Colony of Mr. Arthur Ridehalgh, Q.C., on 28.5.56.

Succeeded by Mr. Patrick Cardinall Mason Sedg- wick, (Commissioner of Labour), on 2.2.56.

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr. the Honourable

CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E.

The Honourable Charles

Edward Michael Terry, O.B.E.

The Honourable

Lo Man Wai, C.B.E.

Type of appointment

Appendix XIX-Contd.

Legislative Council

Names of members

on 1.1.56.

325

Changes in composition during the year

Nominated

99

UNOFFICIAL

MEMBERS: -Contd.

The Honourable

NGAN Shing-Kwan, O.B.E.

The Honourable

Dhun Jehangir Ruttonjee

The Honourable

Cedric Blaker, M.C., E.D.

公共

The Honourable

Kwok Chan, O.B.E.

Dr. the Honourable

Alberto Maria Rodrigues, M.B.E., E.D.

Mr. John Douglas Clague, C.B.E., M.C., T.D., appointed provisionally during the absence of Mr. Blaker from 16.6.56 to 30.9.56.

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

Note: The style and decorations of members are given as on 1.1.57.

326

Appendix XX

(Chapter 27: Reading List)

Official Publications

The Government Printer issues quarterly catalogues of all avail- able official publications. These may be obtained from the Government Printing Department, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong, or from the Government Publications Bureau, General Post Office, Hong Kong. The following are the more important official publications issued during 1956:

The Future of Broadcasting in Hong Kong.

Local Storm Signal Code.

Report of the Public Works Sub-Committee of Finance

Committee.

Report on the Review of Professional, Administrative and

Superscale Salaries, 1956.

Hong Kong Civil Service List, 1956.

Hong Kong Annual Report, 1955.

Estimates, 1956/57.

дж

Memorandum on the Draft Estimates, 1956/57.

Ordinances of Hong Kong, 1955.

Regulations of Hong Kong, 1955.

Meteorological Results 1954, Part II.

ES

Cross Harbour Tunnel, Report of the Inter-Departmental

Working Party, 1956.

Urban Council Electoral Register, 1956 (Parts I & II).

Street Index (2 Vols.).

Report of the Working Committee on Tourism, 1956.

Report on the Riots in Kowloon and Tsuen Wan.

Hong Kong Law Reports, 1954, Vol. 38.

Hong Kong Law Reports, 1955, Vol. 39.

Hansard.

Annual Departmental Reports.

Issued Weekly:

Hong Kong Government Gazette.

Issued Monthly:

Trade Statistics, Imports and Exports.

Issued Monthly (By Dept. of Commerce & Industry):

Trade Bulletin.

香港

公共圖

Index

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KON

香港公共圖

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

Index

Abattoirs; 91, 141. Abercrombie, Sir P.; 160. Accidents; 51, 53, 192. Accountant General; 292. Administration, Government;

291-296.

Adoption; 164, 165, 178, 179. Adult Education; 122. Agriculture; 37, 54-57, 88, 89. Agriculture, Dept. of; 96-99, 116. Airport, New; 21, 40, 60, 223. Aluminium; 71, 72. America, United States of; 10, 32, 54, 74, 75, 77, 79, 89, 102, 119,

165, 176, 236, 238, 257. Anglican Church; 248.

Animal Industries; 89-92, 97, 98,

141.

Animal Population; 90. Anti-T.B. Association; 125, 131,

132, 316.

Apprentices; 39, 53, 121. Architects, Society of; 253. Arts; 122, 252-254.

Association Football; 255, 257. Attorney General; 292. Audit, Director of; 293. Australia; 119, 219.

Auxiliary Civil Defence Services;

243, 244.

Auxiliary Police; 187.

Aviation; 21, 40, 60, 222-224.

Bacillary Dysentery; 127, 128. Banking; 66, 309.

Bankruptcies and Liquidations; 197. Banks, Clearing House for; 66. Barrel-Making Trade; 46, 47. Basketball; 256, 257. Beer; 62, 63, 72. Beverage Industry; 72. Bibliography; 298, 326. Birds; 267, 268.

Births and Deaths; 31, 32, 126,

127, 145.

Blind, Care of; 171, 172. Blind, Society for the; 171. Blunden, Prof. Edmund; 254. Boat-people; 35, 56, 57, 92, 98, 101, 102, 105, 106, 186, 258, 259, 261.

Bonded Warehouses; 63. Boxing; 256.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs

Association; 115, 168-171. Boy Scouts and Cubs; 115, 169. B.B.C.; 235, 236, 238. British Council; 115, 254. British Red Cross; 114, 176. British subjects; 32, 242. Broadcasting; 52, 232-238. Brunei; 39.

Buddhists; 250.

Building; 38, 40, 49, 144-161,

210, 213.

Building Authority; 81, 157, 158. Building Covenants; 83.

Building, Private; 36, 145, 157-160. Buildings Ordinance; 86, 157. Bus Services; 207.

Butterflies and Moths; 268.

Cable & Wireless, Ltd.; 225-227,

232, 233.

Camellia granthamiana; 143, 270. Canada; 73, 77, 90, 102, 119. Cantonese; 32, 33, 56, 162, 193. C.A.R.E.; 176.

Castle Peak Boys' Home; 168. Catholic Welfare Committee 175. Cattle; 90, 91.

Cement; 67, 73.

Census; 31, 259.

LIF

Certificates of Origin; 78, 79. Chartered Bank; 64, 65.

Cheoy Lee Shipyard; 47, 70. Cheung Chau Electric Co., Ltd.;

205.

Chi Ma Wan Prison; 194. Chickenpox; 128. Children's Playground

Association; 115, 169, 170. China; 3-5, 8-12, 16, 18, 32-35, 44, 55, 68, 74, 75, 79, 80, 88, 91, 101, 155, 158, 162, 185, 193, 218, 219, 288, 289.

China Light & Power Co., Ltd.;

203-205.

China Motor Bus Co., Ltd.; 147, 207. Chinese Affairs, Secretary for;

162, 164, 292.

330

Chinese Manufacturers' Union; 78,

114, 252.

Christian Children's Fund; 165. Church, Anglican; 248.

Church, Chinese; 248, 249.

Church, Methodist; 248.

Church, Non-Anglican; 248-250.

Church, Roman Catholic; 249, 250. Cinemas; 239.

City Hall, New; 213.

Civil Aid Services; 244.

Civil Aviation; 21, 40, 60, 222-224. Civil Defence Services; 243, 244. Civil Servants Co-operative

Building Societies; 147, 148. Civil Service; 37, 135, 136, 296. Climate; 261, 262.

Club Leadership Training Course;

170.

Colonial Development and

Welfare; 87, 98, 147, 150, 301. Colonial Herbarium; 143, 271. Colonial Secretariat; 291, 292. Commerce and Industry

Department; 41, 76, 78, 79, 293. Commerce, Industry and

Finance Directory; 78. Communicable Diseases; 127-133,

315.

Communications; 214-229. Community Development; 172-174. Companies Registry; 196, 197. Conservancy; 140. Constitution; 290, 291. Consular Corps; 80. Cooked Food Stalls; 142. Co-operative and Marketing

Department; 99, 100, 103. Co-operative Building Societies;

106, 147, 148.

Co-operative Societies; 104-107, B

313.

Cordage, Rope and Twine; 67, 73. Cost of Living; 40-42.

Cotton Textiles; 53, 67, 69, 71, 75,

77, 303.

Credit and Consumers' Society;

106.

Crime; 189-191, 318-320.

Cross-Harbour Tunnel and

Bridge; 222.

Crown Leases; 81-86, 195.

Cumine, Mr. E.; 149, 150. Currency & Banking; 64-66. Cycling; 256.

Dangerous Goods; 179, 216. Deaf and Dumb, Victoria Park

School for the; 172.

Deaf, Hong Kong School for the;

169, 172.

Death Rate; 31, 32, 126, 127. Defence Force, Royal Hong Kong;

241-243.

Dental Service; 135-137. Development Fund; 59, 147. Diesel Locomotives; 219.

Diptheria; 128.

Disabled, Care of; 171, 172. Disabled Children, Society for the

Relief of 172.

District Courts; 182. Divorce Law; 177, 178.

Dockyards, Civilian; 39, 47, 53,

69, 70, 217, 218.

Dockyard, Royal Naval; 39, 53. Dollar, Hong Kong; 64-66. Draft Animal Society; 106. Drains and Sewers; 213. Drama; 122, 235, 238, 252-254. Drivers, Learner; 192. Driving Instructors; 191, 192. Driving Licences; 180, 192. Ducks; 92 Dutch; 32.

Duties, Import and Excise; 62, 63.

Earnings and Profits Tax; 60, 61. Ebenezer Blind Home; 171, 172. Education; 109-123, 134, 135,

168-174, 245-250, 254. Education, Regional Conference

of Directors of; 123. Electricity; 202-205. Electric Torches, Batteries and Bulbs; 67, 69, 72, 77, 303. Embargo on Trade with China; 10, 11, 79, 80, 88, 101, 289. Employment; 11, 37-39, 54-57,

302, 303.

Enamelware; 72.

Engineering; 29, 40, 49, 152, 153. English language; 33, 119, 120,

235.

Enteric Fever; 128.

Essential Services Corps; 243, 244. Estate Duty; 61.

Evening Institute; 122.

Evening School of Higher Chinese

Studies; 122. Examinations; 117-120.

Exchange Control; 66. Exchange Fund; 65.

Executive Council; 290, 291, 322, 323. Expenditure, Government; 21, 58,

59, 307, 308.

Exports; 10, 11, 63, 68, 74-80, 93, 102, 217, 218, 288, 189, 310, 312.

Factories and Industrial

Undertakings; 11, 37, 38, 49-53, 68, 302, 303.

Factory Registration and

Inspection; 49-51.

Faculties, University; 117.

Faith-Hope Nursery; 165. Family Welfare Society; 136, 175. Fauna; 266-268.

Federation of Trade Unions; Feltham, Mr. T. S. C.; 150. Ferries; 208-210, 216, 217.

Ferry Piers, New; 210.

Festival of the Arts; 122, 235,

252, 253.

Film Censorship; 239.

44.

Film Festival, The Third Asian;

239, 240, 254.

Film Industry; 238-240. Financial Secretary; 291, 292. Fire Brigade; 215, 216, 295. Fisherfolk, Training and

Education of; 98, 102. Fisheries; 2, 37, 54, 56, 92-94,

98-102, 246.

Fisheries Division; 53, 98. Fisheries Exhibition; 98.

Fisheries Research Unit; 98, 246. Fishermen's Credit and Marketing

Society; 106.

Fishermen, Loans to; 60, 98, 102. Fishermen Thrift and Loan

Societies; 105. Fish fry; 93.

Fish Marketing Legislation; 100, 177. Fish Marketing Organization;

99-102.

Fish ponds; 93.

Fish Pond Society; 106.

Flora; 268-271.

Food and Fuel Index; 41, 42. Food Inspection; 141.

Foodstuffs and Beverages; 72. Footwear; 73, 77, 303. Foreign Assets Control

Regulations (U.S.); 79.

Foreign Exchange Banks; 66, 309. Forestry; 94-96.

Forest Fire; 95, 96. Forest Lots; 95.

France; 32, 77.

Gardens; 142, 143.

Gas; 205.

General Health; 125, 126.

Geography of Hong Kong;

258-261.

Geology of Hong Kong; 263-265.

German Enemy Property

Legislation; 177.

Gin Drinker's Bay; 139.

Girl Guides and Brownies; 115,

169.

Good Shepherd Sisters; 166. Government Administration;

291-296.

Government Information

Service; 232.

Government Schools; 112, 211. Grant Schools; 111, 112. Grantham Training College;

113, 211.

Hakka; 34, 54, 56.

Hale, Prof. J. H.; 131. Hambro, Dr., Report of; 3, 16. Hats; 74.

Hawkers; 142.

Health Education; 134, 135. Health Services; 133-135. Heavy Industries; 69-71, 217. Henschel, Miss H.; 122. Higher Education; 117-120. Higher Studies Overseas; 119, 120,

314.

Hindus; 251.

History of Hong Kong; 272-289. Ho Tung Technical School; 120. Hoklo; 35, 56.

Honeyville Blind Home; 172. Hong Kong and China Gas Co.,

Ltd.; 205.

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank

64, 65, 147.

Hongkong and Yaumati

Co., Ltd.; 208-210.<

BB

Hong Kong Christian Council; 249. Hong Kong Economic Housing

Society; 147.

Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd.;

147, 202, 203.

Hong Kong Government Office,

London; 80.

Hong Kong House, London; 119,

120.

Hong Kong Housing Society;

146, 147.

Hong Kong Island; 258, 259.

Hong Kong Model Housing

Society; 147.

Hong Kong products; 69-74, 76. Hong Kong Sea School; 167.

Hong Kong Telephone Co., Ltd.;

227, 233.

Hongkong Tramways Ltd.; 45, 147,

205, 206.

33I

332

Hong Kong Transportation Co.; 70. Hong Kong, University of; 41, 98,

115-119, 136, 137, 164, 245-247. Hospitals; 124, 132, 133, 137, 212,

316.

Housing; 7, 17, 144-160. Housing Authority; 148-152. Housing Committee, Special; 152. Housing for Staff and Workers;

83, 147.

Immigration; 5, 6, 10, 31, 32, 145,

185, 192, 193, 215. Immunities and Privileges

Legislation; 179.

Imperial Preference; 10, 67, 68, 79. Imports; 74-76, 90, 91, 101, 310,

311.

Import and Excise Duties; 62, 63. India; 74, 77, 250, 251. Indonesia; 39, 74-76, 102. Industrial Accidents; 51, 53. Industrial Development; 11, 37,

38, 43, 68, 69. Industrial Health; 50, 51. Industrial Relations; 44-49. Industrial Training; 53, 54, 98,

121.

Industrial Undertakings;

11, 37,

38, 49-53, 68, 155, 302, 303. Industrial Welfare; 51, 52. Industries, Cottage; 13, 37, 155. Industry; 11, 12, 37-57, 67-74,

88-93, 96, 97, 107, 108.

Infant and Child Welfare; 164-166. Infectious Diseases; 125-133. Inland Lots; 81.

Interest Tax; 61.

International Hall of Residence,

London; 120.

I.L.O. Conventions; 41, 42. Iron Foundries and Rolling

Mills; 70, 71.

PUB

Irrigation; 55, 87, 88, 97, 99. Irrigation Societies; 106. Italians; 32.

Japanese; 3-5, 31, 32, 74, 75, 93,

217, 289.

Jews; 251.

Joint Consultation in industry; 45. Joseph Trust Fund; 104-106. Judiciary; 181-184, 291.

Junior Chamber of Commerce; 169. Junks; 35, 56, 92, 93, 98, 186, 217,

218.

Junks, Mechanization of; 60, 92, 98. Juvenile Care Centre; 167.

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association; 87, 91, 99. Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan

Fund; 99, 106.

Kaifongs; 114, 172-174. Kai Tak Airport Development;

21, 40, 60, 223. Knitting; 71.

Korea; 10, 68, 70, 74, 162, 288. Kowloon; 258, 260. Kowloon-Canton Railway; 53, 116,

218, 219.

Kowloon Hospital, New; 21, 137,

212.

Kowloon Motor Bus Co., Ltd.; 207. Kun Tong; 38, 69, 160, 210, 211. Kuoyu; 33.

Kwai Chung Girls Home; 168. Kwangtung; 4, 32, 33, 193.

Labour Advisory Board; 42. Labour Department; 42, 43, 50. Labour Disputes and Stoppages;

46-49.

Labour Legislation; 49. Labour Organization; 44, 45. Labour, skilled, semi-skilled,

unskilled; 38-40. Laichikok Prison; 194. Lancashire; 77.

Land Auctions; 82. U Land, Clan; 85.

Land, Conversion of; 84, 85. Land Court; 84.

8

Land Office (Registrar General);

81, 195, 196.

Land, Rents for in New

Territories; 85, 86.

Land Tenure; 81-86.

1 Land Utilization; 2, 3, 86, 87.

Lantao; 35, 96, 194, 202, 209, 250. Law and Order; 181-198.

Law Courts; 181-184, 291. Lawn Bowls; 256.

Lea Tai Textiles Co. Ltd.; 47, 48. Lead Mining; 48, 107. Learner Drivers; 192.

Leases, Crown; 81-86, 195. Legislation, New; 49, 138,

177-180.

Legislative Council; 141, 290, 291,

323-325.

Lepers, Mission to; 125, 132, 133. Leprosy; 114, 125, 132, 133.

Li Cheng Uk; 190.

Libraries; 115, 169.

Licences, Temporary (Land); 84. Lighthouses; 214, 215.

Light Industries; 69, 71-74. Lin Ma Hang Mines; 48. Liquor; 62, 63.

Living Space, Density of; 17, 144. Loans from United Kingdom; 59,

60, 301.

Loans, Government Dollar; 59,

304, 305.

Local Armed Forces; 241-243. Locomotives, Diesel; 219. London Missionary Society; 248. London University; 120. Low-cost Housing (other than

Resettlement); 17, 83, 146-153. Lugard, Lord; 117.

Lutheran World Federation; 175.

Ma On Shan Mine; 57, 107. Magazines; 321.

Magistracies; 181-183. Malaria; 129.

Malaya; 73, 76, 79, 131, 136. Mammals; 266, 267.

Man-days, Loss of by strikes; 46. Marine; 208-210, 214-218. Marine Department; 53, 98, 181,

214, 215, 217. Marine Police, 186, 215. Marketing; 99-104, 177.

Marketing Advisory Board; 102. Markets, Urban; 141, 142. Marriage Registry; 197, 198. Matches; 57.

Maternal and Child Health; 134. Measles; 128.

Meat; 91, 141.

Medical Department; 124-138,

316, 317.

Medicines (Proprietary); 62, 63. Mental Health Association; 115. Mental Hospital, New; 137, 212. Mercantile Bank; 64, 65. Metal Products; 38, 72, 303. Meteorological Services; 227-229. Midwifery Services; 134. Migration; 39.

Mines Department; 42, 107, 108. Miniature Soccer; 255. Mining; 107, 108.

Minor (Labour) Disputes; 49. Mosquitoes; 140. Music; 122, 253, 254. Music Society; 253. Muslims; 250.

Narcotics; 189.

Natural Increase; 3, 31, 32, 112,

144, 145.

New Territories; 33-36, 54-57, 62, 66, 81, 84-108, 122, 123, 137, 158-160, 169, 182, 183, 185-187, 191, 195, 201, 202, 205, 208, 209, 217, 257-261.

New Territories Administration;

48, 81, 84, 87, 99, 137, 295, 296. New Territories Housing; 158-160. New Territories Scavenging; 137. New Territories Schools Sports

Association; 122.

Newspapers; 230-232, 321. Night-soil, Maturation of; 89, 103,

104, 140.

Northern Chinese; 35, 57.

Occupations; 37-39, 54-57. Oils, Hydrocarbon; 62, 63. Olympic Games; 257. Opthalmic Service; 135. Oratorio Society; 253. Ottawa Agreements; 67.

Overseas Representation; 80. Overtime; 40.

Oyster-beds and Fish ponds; 56,

93.

Paints; 72.

Pakistan; 74, 250.

Parks and Playgrounds; 142, 143. Parsees; 251.

Peak Tramway; 206. Pearls; 93, 303.

People; 1-30, 31-36, 127, 144, 145,

156, 258, 259. Personal Tax; 61.

Pest Control; 133, 134, 140. Philippines; 32. Photography; 254. Physical Education; 122. Pig-Raising; 56, 89-91, 98, 99. Pig-Raising Societies; 105. Plasticware 73, 74, 303. Po Leung Kuk; 114, 164, 292. Police Communications and

Transport; 188, 189.

Police Force; 184-193, 211, 212. Police Supervision Legislation;

178, 189.

Police Training; 187, 188. Poliomyelitis; 126, 129-131. Population; 2-5, 31-36, 144, 145,

156, 258, 259.

Port Committee; 42, 214. Port Health; 133, 134, 215. Portuguese; 32.

Port Welfare Committee; 217, 218. Post Office; 212, 224, 225. Post-primary Education; 114.

333

334

Post-secondary Education; 110,

111, 117-120. Poultry; 90-92.

Press; 230-232, 321. Press, University; 118. Primary School Expansion; 30,

112, 113, 211.

Printing Department; 53, 295, 326.

Prisoners' Aid; 168.

Prisons; 193-195.

Private Schools; 109-111.

Probation; 166-168.

Probation of Offenders

Legislation; 168, 178. Production; 81-108.

Professional Teachers' Training

Board; 114.

Profits Tax; 60, 61.

Property, Law of; 179, 180. Property Tax; 61. Prostitution; 13, 166. Protection of Children, Society

for; 165, 166.

Public Assistance; 174-176. Public Debt 59:

Public Disturbance; 44, 45, 173,

190, 191, 236.

Public Finance and Taxation;

58-63, 301-308.

Public Health; 124-143.

-

Public Services Commission; 296. Public Utilities; 199-210. Public Works; 21, 210-213. Public Works Department; 24, 53,

72, 152, 153, 293. Publications, Official; 326.

Quarantine; 125, 133, 215. Quarries; 57, 22

Racing; 256.

22NG H VG

Radio Hong Kong; 52, 232-237. Radio-Active substances; 49, 51. Radio-Licensing; 225. Rates; 58, 61, 62. Reading List; 298. Reclamations; 21, 69, 210, 211. Records (Registrar General); 81,

195-198.

Rediffusion; 237, 238.

Refugee Relief Act, U.S.; 165. Refugees; 3-17, 35, 56, 162. Registered and recorded factories;

11, 37, 38, 49-53, 68, 302, 303. Registry of Trade Unions; 42-44. Religion; 248-251.

Remand Home, Kowloon; 167, 168. Rents, Crown; 83, 85. Reptiles; 268.

Research; 228, 229, 245-247. Reservoirs, New; 21, 69, 199-202. Resettlement; 18-30, 145, 153-157. Resettlement Cottage Areas; 18-20,

153, 155-157.

Resettlement Estates; 25-29,

153-157, 169, 212. Resettlement Multi-Storey

Factory; 155.

Retail Price Index; 40-42. Revenue and Expenditure; 58-60,

306-308.

Rice; 55, 88.

Riots; 44, 45, 173, 190, 191, 236. Road Traffic; 180, 191, 192.

Roads; 219-221.

Roman Catholic Church; 249, 250. Rope-making; 67, 73.

Rotary Clubs; 115, 170, 171. Royal Observatory; 227-229. Rubber footwear; 73, 77. Rural Development Committee;

88.

St. John Ambulance Association

& Brigade; 51, 137.

St. Vincent de Paul, Society of;

176.

Safety, Health and Welfare

(Industry); 49-54.

Salaried Workers Thrift and Loan

Societies; 106. Salaries Tax; 60, 61.

Salesian Trade Schools; 121.

Salt fish; 57, 101, 102.

Salvation Army; 168, 170, 249.

Sanitary Services; 137, 139-142. Scarlet Fever; 129. Scholarships; 118, 119.

School Certificate Examinations;

120.

School Development Plans; 112,

113.

School Health Service; 134.

Schools Music Festival; 122, 254. Secondary Schools; 111-114. Shakespeare Players; 253.

Shanghai Street Children's Centre;

167.

Shipbuilding and Repairs; 38, 57,

67, 69, 70, 217.

Silvermine Bay Holiday Camp;

170.

Social Service, Council of; 163. Social Welfare; 162-176. Social Welfare Advisory

Committee; 163.

Social Welfare Office; 115,

162-176.

Soil Survey; 87. South Africa; 77.

Special Afternoon Classes; 112. Special Classes Centre; 114, 119. Sport; 255-257.

Squatter Clearance; 23, 24, 153,

154.

Squatter Fires; 14, 18, 20-25, 155,

176.

Squatter, Roof-top; 27, 155, 156. Squatters; 12-30, 152-157, 279. Stanley Prison; 193.

Stanley Training Centre; 194, 195. Star Ferry; 208, 210. Sterling area; 66.

Stores Department; 53, 295. Street-Lighting; 221. Strikes; 46-48.

Students, University; 117-119. Subsidized Schools; 111. Suez Canal; 75. Sugar Refining; 74. Sung Wong Toi; 143. Supreme Court; 181, 182. Survey, Cost of Living; 41 Survey, Housing; 144! Szczepanik, Mr. E. F.; 41.

Table-Waters; 62, 63, 72.

Taiwan (Formosa); 7, 34, 44, 93. Tanka; 35, 56.

Taxation; 60-62.

Teacher Training; 113, 114,

118, 170, 211.

Technical College, New; 114, 211. Technical Education; 53, 54,

120-122.

Technical Education, Standing

Committee on; 54.

Telecommunications; 225-227. Telegraph and Radio-telephone

services; 225-227. Telephones; 227.

Tenancy Tribunals; 183, 184. Textiles; 38, 41, 47, 48, 51, 71, 75,

77, 303.

Thailand; 74, 76, 93.

Thomson Memorial Hostel; 170. Timber Grading; 96. Tobacco Manufacture; 62, 63,

72, 73.

Toilet Preparations; 62, 63. Tourism; 240.

Town Planning; 86, 160, 161.

Trade; 74-76, 310-312.

Trade and Industry Advisory

Committee; 76.

Trade Bulletin; 78.

Trade Commissioners; 80.

Trade Control; 79, 80. Trade Fairs; 77, 78. Trade Marks and Patents

Registry; 197.

Trade Promotion; 76-79. Trade Unions; 42-44.

Trade Union Education; 45. Trade Union Legislation; 43, 49. Trades Union Council; 44. Traffic; 180, 191, 192. Tramways; 205, 206. Triads; 45, 189-191.

Tsuen Wan; 34, 45, 56, 137, 160,

191, 221, 258.

Tuberculosis; 126, 131, 132;

(of Cattle); 90.

Tung Tau Wan Training Centre;

194, 195.

Tung Wah Hospital; 115, 125, 175,

292.

Unemployment and Under-

employment; 38, 39, 175. United Kingdom; 32, 54, 59, 60, 66, 73-77, 107, 119-121, 177, 181, 239, 242, 301.

United States of America; 10, 32,

54, 74, 75, 77, 79, 89, 102, 119,

165, 176, 236, 238, 239, 257. United States Information Service;

115.

University of Hong Kong; 41, 98, 115-119, 136, 137, 164, 245-247. University Extra-Mural Studies;

118.

University Halls of Residence ;

118-120.

University Salaries and Wages

Committee; 118.

Urban Buildings; 144, 145, 157,

158.

Urban Council; 23, 124, 138, 293,

294.

Urban Expansion; 87.

Urban Population; 32, 33, 258,

259.

Urban Services; 124, 138-143.

Vegetable growing; 55, 88, 89,

102-104.

Vegetable Marketing

Organization; 102-104, 177. Vegetable Marketing Societies;

105.

Vehicles; 221, 222.

Venereal Diseases; 133.

Victoria, Port of; 214-218,

259, 260.

Victoria Prison; 194.

335

336

Victoria Technical School; 120. Vocational training; 43, 53, 54. Voluntary Education and

Welfare; 28, 114, 115, 155, 167-174.

Wages; 39-41.

Walking; 256.

War Memorial Fund, 176. Water-chestnuts;

89.

Water Restrictions; 199-202. Water-Sports; 256, 257. Waterworks; 199-202.

Weather, Year's; 89, 95, 262, 263. Weights and Measures; 297.

Welfare; 51, 52, 114, 115, 162-176,

250.

West Germany; 77, 78.

Whooping Cough; 128, 129.

香港

Women and Juveniles, Welfare of;

41, 43, 50, 164-166.

Women's Welfare Clubs; 165, 174. Workers, Government daily-paid;

39.

Workers' Playtime; 52, 234. Working Hours; 41.

Workmen's Compensation; 43, 49,

51-53, 182.

World Health Organization; 134,

171.

Yachting; 257.

Yaumati Community Centre Town

Plan; 82. Y.M.C.A.; 170.

Y.W.C.A.; 165, 170.

Youth Leaders Training Centre;

170, 171.

Youth Organizations; 168-171.

書:

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;

香港公共圖書

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