Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1955

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Hong Kong

Annual

Report

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HONG KONG AND TH

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HONG KONG AND THE NEW TERRITORIES.

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DRAWN BY CLESO P. W. D. HONG KONG. 1955.

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DRAWN BY C. L.E S.O. P. W. D. HONG KONG, 1955.

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香港!

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NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KON

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HONG KONG

ANNUAL REPORT 1955

書名

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KON

HONG KONG GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

are obtainable at

THE GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS BUREAU

General Post Office, Hong Kong,

and from

THE CROWN AGENTS FOR OVERSEA GOVERNMENTS

AND ADMINISTRATIONS

4, Millbank, London, s.w. 1.

A full list of current publications will be found on page 231 of this Report.

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORTS

may also be obtained

from

IES

HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, LONDON.

UBLIC LIB

HONC

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED.

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S. Y. Wong, Wah Kiu Yat Po

A view from the roof of the Supreme Court, looking towards the head office of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, with part of Victoria Peak beyond.

DIEU CT MON DROIC

Hong Kong

Annual Report 195

HONG KON

J

KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Printed and Published by the Government Printer,

at the Government Press,

Java Road, Hong Kong. February, 1956.

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URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

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The dust-jacket was printed by South China Photo-Process Printing Co. Ltd., and the half-tone blocks for the illus- trations were made by South China Morning Post, Ltd.

Chapter

CONTENTS

I. REVIEW OF THE YEAR

2. POPULATION

3. OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

4. PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

5. CURRENCY AND BANKING

6. INDUSTRY AND TRADE

7. PRODUCTION

8. EDUCATION

9. PUBLIC HEALTH

10. HOUSING

II. SOCIAL WELFARE

Page

I

20

24

41

46

49

61

85

95

II2

123

12.

LEGISLATION

133

13. LAW AND ORDER

136

14. PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

146

15. COMMUNICATIONS

160

16. PRESS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

171

17. LOCAL FORCES

178

18.

RESEARCH

181

19. ARCHAEOLOGY

20. RELIGION

21. ARTS

22. SPORT

23. GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

24. HISTORY

25. ADMINISTRATION

26. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

27. READING List

183

187

190

193

196

207

222

228

229

Page

List of Hong Kong Government Publications 231

Appendices:

I. Colonial Office Statement on the Kashmir

Princess air crash .

II. Colonial Development and Welfare

III. Statement of Assets and Liabilities

IV. Statement of Revenue.

V. Statement of Government Expenditure VI. Authorized Foreign-Exchange Banks VII. Direction of Trade-Imports VIII. Direction of Trade--Exports

IX. Principal Commodities Imported. X. Principal Commodities Exported XI. Cooperative Societies.

XII. Hospital Beds, Registered Medical Personnel, Government Medical Personnel in Train-

235

237

238

240

241

243

244

244

245

246

247

ing

248

XIII. Crime Statistics

250

XIV. Newspapers and Journals published in Hong

Kong

254

XV. Members of the Executive and Legislative

Councils

255

Index

259

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to thank Professor F. S. Drake for permission to use his un- published preliminary report on the Li Cheng Uk tomb as the basis of the chapter on archaeology, Mr. J. M. Braga for advice on the history chapter, Mr. L. G. Young for his contribution on sport, and all who have contributed photographs and whose names are acknowledged in each case.

The design on the cover is a reproduction of the first seal of Hong Kong, struck in 1842.

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NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 1: Review of the Year

Hong Kong residents, as they saw 1955 out, called it an ordinary year. Hong Kong's definition of the word "ordinary", however, needs examination. The last decade has conditioned the Colony to spectacular events. Development and change, on a scale which visitors usually consider remarkable, tend to be regarded in the Colony itself as commonplace.

1955, people say, has been an ordinary year. It has seen the Government's announcement that a thorough investigation is to be made into the problem of driving a tunnel underneath the world-famous harbour, making it possible to pass by car in less than five minutes from Garden Road to the foot of Kowloon Peninsula. Yet, typical of Hong Kong public reactions, the fact that a tunnel would probably cost the tax-payer HK$160,000,000 did not figure large in the dis- cussions that followed the announcement. Comment centred on whether it would not be preferable, instead of a tunnel, to have a bridge.

The year also saw the start of work on a $110,000,000 project to revolutionize Kai Tak Airport by the construction of a 7,200-ft. runway on an artificial promontory reclaimed from the sea and projecting out into the waters of Kowloon Bay. In danger of being knocked off the international airline map by reason of its airport being too small and dangerous for the Comet and the larger conventional airliners, Hong Kong has now taken steps to keep itself firmly on the map. The airport project, when completed in 1958, will provide, for the first time since aviation started in the Colony, facilities for day and night operation all the year round.

A $125,000,000 reservoir is in course of construction at Tai Lam Chung, and during the year the Colony learnt without emotion that yet another reservoir, on the same scale, is likely to follow this one.

An important reclamation of waterfront in the heart of the Central District has provided land for the erection of a City Hall, long the subject of debate between those who think

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

that Hong Kong should be more of a cultural centre and those who think it never will be.

The 200-bed Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, of which the foundation stone was laid by the Duchess of Kent in 1952, was opened this year, and it was announced that Kowloon Hospital would be replaced by an entirely new Kowloon General Hospital, situated in King's Park. More than double the size of the existing Queen Mary Hospital, it will have 1,275 beds, a special children's section with 200 beds, and staff quarters. Costing $50,000,000, it will be the largest general hospital in the Commonwealth.

Some idea of the bold conception and design behind these and other schemes, in which Hong Kong plans for its future, can be obtained from the various models and drawings repro- duced between pages 156 and 157. To complete the impression, it should be added that the building programme for the resettlement of refugees and other squatters, one of the largest and most swiftly executed poor man's housing schemes in the world, continued without interruption, while beneath the multifarious activity which has always been characteristic of the Colony, the very basis of its livelihood was all the time changing.

When China's entry into the Korean War produced international restrictions on trade with China, Hong Kong suffered within a few months the almost total loss of the great entrepôt trade on which it had depended for a hundred years, and which was thought to be the chief source of its prosperity. Yet, in the words of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, broadcasting to the people of Hong Kong during his visit in August, "instead of interpreting all this as a threat to its existence, Hong Kong has accepted it as a challenge to its well-known ingenuity and resilience". Almost bereft of its entrepôt trade, the Colony has switched over its energies to manufacturing. The change has happened with such rapidity that there are still many countries in which people find it hard to believe that goods marked "Made in Hong Kong" really are made in the Colony. On many occasions, and in many countries, Hong Kong has been falsely accused of putting its trade mark on goods manufactured elsewhere and which, the Colony's detractors have said, were merely being re-exported. Yet this extraordinary change from an entrepôt to a largely manufacturing economy is already far advanced, and has proceeded apace during 1955.

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

3

This may serve to give some idea of what Hong Kong people mean by an ordinary year.

INDUSTRY

The number of registered and recorded factories increased during the year from 2,494 to 2,925, and the number of people directly employed in them rose from 115,453 to 129,465. Exports of local products were largely responsible for an improvement in the Colony's total exports, which began to recover from the slump into which they fell in the second half of 1953 as a result of self-imposed restrictions necessitated by Hong Kong's obligations to the United Nations. Total exports increased by $117,000,000, from $2,417,000,000 to $2,534,000,000, local products being responsible for $48,400,000 of the increase. In terms of net income to the Colony each dollar of exports of local manufacture is probably worth 4 or 5 dollars of entrepôt trade. The level of the export trade at the end of the year was still 30% below that of the first half of 1953, but the year's partial recovery shows that the Colony's transformation from an entrepôt to a manu- facturing centre is beginning to achieve its aims.

This rapid emergence of Hong Kong as an industrial producer is naturally not being achieved without difficulties in overseas markets, both in developed and underdeveloped territories. The former inevitably dislike competition from Hong Kong in their internal and their established overseas markets, while some of the latter, eager to industrialize themselves, tend to be making a start with consumer goods of the type produced by Hong Kong. In the United Kingdom, Hong Kong cotton cloth, umbrellas and woollen gloves have been the subject of protests from manufacturers; tariff hearings were held in the United States to consider the imposition of an import quota on woollen gloves (the verdict was in favour of Hong Kong); South Africa has raised her tariffs against Hong Kong cotton piece-goods, and Australia against Hong Kong preserved ginger and rubber shoes; Trinidad has increased her duties on imported shirts, to give protection to her local shirt industry; and Canadian rubber shoe manufacturers have complained of competition from Hong Kong. These are only a few examples.

One principal line of attack against Hong Kong manufactures is to allege that they are the products of unfairly low wage rates, but it is a striking fact that in the more

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

successful industries Hong Kong wages are nearer to West European standards than the latter are to American.

Cotton textiles retained first place among the Colony's products in terms of value. The year was however charac- terized by expansion of this and other established industries, details of which will be found in the Industry and Trade Chapter. The diversity of local industry is already remarkable, and is all the time increasing. 1955 saw the introduction of many new products, ranging from worsted weaving yarns, paper bags and plastic bottles to nylon hairnets, alarm clocks and underwater swimming apparatus.

The Thirteenth Exhibition of the Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers' Union was opened on the Central Reclamation. on 2 December, and was again visited, as in former years, by over 1,000,000 people. This Exhibition, which is now becoming established as a regular feature in the industrial life of the East, and is the Colony's most important demonstration of what Hong Kong is doing in the field of industry, is now beginning to attract more overseas buyers. The number of special delegations arriving from importing territories in the

East this year was particularly gratifying, including

representatives from Japan, Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand. The Exhibition occupied an area of 160,000 square feet, compared with the 120,000 sq. ft. of the 1954 exhibition, and progress in quality and diversity of product was again noticeable. A new feature, reflecting interest in more efficient production methods, was a section devoted to a display of foreign industrial machinery.

Hong Kong exhibited at the British Industries Fair, as in every year since 1948, and broke new ground by parti- cipating in the Eighth Canadian International Trade Fair at Toronto.

TRADE

Although trade improved in general, particularly towards the end of the year, exports to China continued to fall, being almost exactly one-half of 1954, one-third of 1953, and one- eighth of 1950. The fall may however be exaggerated by the official trade statistics, as much trade with China is excluded from them, goods moving direct to China without entering Hong Kong. There was a welcome improvement towards the end of the year in re-exports of Chinese goods, both produce

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

5

and manufactures. This is partly a reflexion of China's need. for foreign exchange, and partly a switch from her recent practice of selling her produce through Eastern Europe.

The fall in exports to China was compensated by increases in exports to almost all the main markets for Hong Kong manufactures. Malaya remained the principal buyer, her purchases increasing by 17%. The United Kingdom replaced Indonesia in second position, exports rising from $162,000,000, in 1954, to $251,500,000. Although exports to Indonesia fell by about 14% over the whole year, trade improved significantly in the later months, partly as a result of changes in import regulations; exports during November and December were running at 50% over the 1954 level. There was also considerable improvement in exports to Indo- China, Thailand and South Korea; these rose by 147%, 38% and 13% respectively, largely under the impetus of United States Foreign Aid Programmes. Offshore purchases under these programmes have been of great value to Hong Kong in maintaining purchasing power in Far East territories.

Money was abundant during the year, partly as a result of an inflow of capital from politically disturbed parts of the Far East. This was reflected in a continuation of the boom in real estate, and in high prices on the local share market. The Stock Exchange had a good year, turnover being estimated at $445,000,000. In order to check inflationary tendencies the three big note-issuing banks raised their interest rates on advances towards the end of the year, and restricted the advances they would make against the security of shares. The upward movement of share prices was checked, although it is not clear to what extent the credit squeeze was responsible for this.

Government trading, a legacy of the war, finally came. to an end. The principal commodity affected by the transfer of trade back to commercial channels was rice. Provision was made, however, for the maintenance of an emergency reserve of rice by limiting the right to import rice to twenty-nine importers, who guaranteed to keep certain minimum stocks. The system was the subject of public criticism as introducing an undesirable element of monopoly, but it has worked well in practice. Reserve stocks have been maintained, and prices. have not risen above reasonable levels. After some months of operation the Government announced, in view of the criticisms, that it had not been able to devise any other system

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

that was compatible with security of supply, and that the system would be retained for another year.

DEVELOPMENT

For the first time since the war the Colony's Budget for 1955-6 provided for a small deficit on current account. This was chiefly due to the extensive programme of public works, already referred to. The total estimated cost of the public works being undertaken during 1955 is $107,000,000, out of a total expenditure of $449,000,000. Improved revenue collections, due partly to the slight economic recovery from the recession of the previous year, combined with certain minor delays in carrying out so ambitious a public works programme, made it seem unlikely, at the end of 1955, that a deficit would in fact materialize.

One of the most serious internal problems connected with the growth of the Colony's industries is the provision of suitable land for an ever-increasing number of factory build- ings. The built-up areas of Victoria and Kowloon are chiefly commercial and residential, and must obviously remain so. In the New Territories, most of the land is extremely hilly, and in areas within easy reach of Kowloon the conveyance of water to upland sites, even if these could be developed, would involve numerous difficulties and high expenditure. In well- watered areas, every square foot is used for agriculture, and there is little space for industrial development. It was accordingly decided in 1954 to start work on the reclamation of a large area for factory development at Kun Tong, on the N.E. shore of Kowloon Bay. This is well out of the residential zone, east of Kai Tak Airport, with easy access to Kowloon. Fill for the reclamation is provided by the levelling of hills which have to come down in the main urban area to allow for more intensive housing development there.

Progress was made during 1955 on the first stage of the Kun Tong reclamation, and it seemed likely that the first lots would be ready for occupation by the middle of 1956. It is clear, however, from the number of applications for sites, both from new industries and factories at present in unsuitable buildings, that the earlier idea of doing the reclamation by stages will not meet the need. The full area planned for the final stage will be required as soon as possible. The Govern- ment announced that in allocating land to industries it would not depart from its established policy of awarding leases by

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

7

public auction, but that, to ensure best use of the land, bidding would be confined to approved applicants. It was announced also that the Government would be prepared to accept payment in instalments over twenty-one years at 5% interest, instead of in the normal form of a lump sum. This is primarily to encourage small industries without large capital backing.

The contract for constructing what amounts to an entirely new airfield at Kai Tak was let to a French company, the Société Française d'Entreprises de Dragages et de Travaux Publics. The contract, worth about $90,000,000, is the most valuable ever let in Hong Kong. With a new terminal and other buildings, the total cost of the new airport is expected to reach $110,000,000.

The new reservoir at Tai Lam Chung is in an advanced stage of construction, and it may be possible to close the valves and begin storing water by May 1956, although distribution will not be possible till some time later. Although this reservoir, being constructed to hold 4,500,000,000 gallons, should eliminate the danger of a really serious water shortage (such as the Colony has only narrowly escaped several times. since the war), it can already be seen, from the growth of population and industry, that its supply will not be sufficient to provide the Colony with water all the year round without restrictions. Hours of water supply in the urban areas may be expected to be longer than at present when the reservoir and its connexions are completed, but some restrictions will still have to be enforced.

In consequence, preliminary investigations were begun at Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantao Island, to determine whether or not it would be a feasible site for yet another major reservoir. If the scheme proves feasible, and is finally decided on, it will in some ways be an even more ambitious scheme than Tai Lam Chung, due chiefly to the distance. involved. Water would have to be piped to some point on the eastern end of Lantao Island, and thence under the sea, either direct to Hong Kong Island, or across the narrower strait between Lantao and the mainland near Sham Tseng, thence overland to Kowloon.

Regarding the proposal referred to above to construct a tunnel under the harbour, the consulting engineers engaged by the Government to examine the possibility presented their Report, which was published in August. It showed that

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

technically a tunnel was practicable and that the cost would be in the region of $160,000,000. The Government, therefore, set up a small inter-departmental working party to investigate the financial and economic aspects of the scheme; by the end of the year no further official statement had been made. The controversy on the relative merits of a tunnel and a bridge occupied considerable newspaper space, and private interests published preliminary details of a bridge scheme. It may be expected that in 1956 there will be further development on this subject.

HOUSING

With its estimated population of 2,400,000, rapidly increasing, and with a high birth-rate, Hong Kong has a housing problem about as difficult as that of any country in the world. Despite the most vigorous action on the part of the Government, it looks like remaining one of the Colony's chief internal problems for many years to come.

In 1955 the most obvious and spectacular progress was made in continuing the programme of resettling squatters in multi-storey buildings, in which another 30,000 people were housed. The total population of the resettlement areas increased by 42,000, bringing the present population of the areas to 153,000. The resettlement programme has been on an accelerated basis since early 1954, at which time there were more than 40,000 people homeless as a result of a series of disastrous fires in squatter areas. The decision was then taken to break away from earlier ideas, which had envisaged resettlement in terms of cottage development, and go in for multi-storey buildings. At the same time a special Department of Government was created to deal solely with resettlement problems.

Due to stringent fire precautions, and to the fact that many of the largest squatter areas have already been cleared and the inhabitants resettled, there is no longer much danger of disastrous fires of the size experienced in the past. But fire in squatter zones still remains a problem of the first magnitude. It is calculated that some 300,000 squatters still remain. For 65,000 of these accommodation is already under construction or planned; but fires still occur during the dry season, affecting up to 2,000 people at a time.

Apart from direct Government action in creating better housing conditions, various independent bodies, assisted

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

9

wholly or in part by the Government, are making notable contributions toward dealing with this urgent problem.

The Housing Authority, set up in 1954, and consisting of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, together with not more than three others appointed by the Governor, announced plans for two housing schemes. The first of these, off Java Road, North Point, will accommodate 16,000 people in 1,975 flats. The second, in Cadogan Street, will house 4,800 people in 640 flats. Both are for families in the lower income. groups of the white collar class. The costs of the schemes are $27,000,000 and $7,000,000 respectively.

The Hong Kong Housing Society, another independent body, but with an entirely non-official committee, started its activities in 1952 with the construction of 270 flats in 5-storey blocks accommodating 1,420 people. The Society's funds are obtained on loan at interest from the Colony's Development Fund, and grants up to $87,500 for site formation have been obtained from Colonial Development and Welfare. In 1955 it completed a cottage resettlement at Ma Tau Chung for 1,000 people with families whose total earning capacity is less than $350 per month. It also started a scheme at Hung Hom which, when completed, will provide accommodation for over 8,000 people in 6-storey blocks of flats, the total cost of which is estimated at $8,500,000. The first block, housing 900, was completed during the year. The estate will include 24 shops and a school.

At Healthy Village, North Point, work was well advanced at the end of the year on the first section of yet another estate, estimated to cost $5,800,000 and to accom- modate 3,700 people in 5 blocks either 10 or 12 storeys high. The design of the flats is much the same as those at Hung Hom, but they have extra amenities, such as floor lifts and refuse chutes, and are intended for white collar workers.

It was stated in last year's Annual Report that the Colony's increase of population gave no cause for alarm. As the natural rate of increase continues to rise from year to year, however, it has to be admitted that the population growth is somewhat disturbing. Figures for population in Hong Kong are no more than estimates, but they are estimates arrived at by the most thorough means employable in the circumstances. The official estimates of population used by the Government rose from 2,314,000 at the beginning of the year to 2,400,000 at the end of it, an increase of 86,000, of which 71,431 are

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

accounted for by increase of registered births over registered deaths. (See Population Chapter.) There are no signs of the Colony's refugees wishing to return on any large scale to China, and if the rate of natural increase continues to rise, as it shows every sign of doing, future measures for the provision of housing will have to be on an even greater scale than at present, calling for a mammoth effort on the part of the Government and the independent housing societies.

EDUCATION

The provision of more schools is another large problem which this increase in population is bringing to the fore. Post-war extension of education services has been on a consistently large scale. There 107,000 more places in infant and primary schools today than there were in 1947.

But the Colony has now to face the fact that even develop- ment at this rate will have to be stepped up and improved on if it is to keep pace with the rising child population. During the year the Director of Education put forward a plan to create 26,000 additional school places a year, for seven years. The plan received the Government's approval in principle; the measures being taken to put it into effect are described in the Education Chapter.

The increased importance of manufacturing industry in the economic life of the Colony is producing a need for more technical training. The Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers' Union took the initiative here by offering to contribute $1,000,000 toward the cost of new buildings for the Govern- ment Technical College, which is no longer large enough for the Colony's needs, provided the Government would match this with an equal contribution and provide a site. This led to a decision to build a new and up-to-date technical school in Kowloon at the cost of $6,000,000, to be completed in 1957.

TOURISM

Hitherto Government and responsible public opinion have been more or less united in the feeling that it would be unwise to give official encouragement to organized tourism, since, due to the tremendous number of traders and other visitors continually passing through the Colony, there would not be enough hotel accommodation of a sufficiently high

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

I I

standard, and tourists might go away with a bad impression. This general view is now changing. As Hong Kong, with its entrepôt trade gravely curtailed, looks around for alter- native means of maintaining its livelihood, it has begun to develop a new attitude in regard to tourism. In fact, if account is taken of recreational visits by United States naval vessels, tourism has, in a very few years and almost imperceptibly, become one of Hong Kong's most important new industries. In July the Government, which has so far played no part in encouraging tourism, set up a Committee to make recommendations on whether a Tourist Association should be formed, and if so, what shape it should take. Some of the principal interests concerned are represented on the Com- mittee, the Secretary of which is a Government official.

The visit in April of the Cunard White Star liner Caronia on a luxury cruise, with over 500 tourists aboard, gave an idea of the advantages to be derived from the encouragement of this and other forms of tourism. It is likely, too, that added stimulus to tourist trade will result from the number of American motion pictures which are being made with their setting in Hong Kong. These films are giving to a wider public than ever before some idea of the Colony's outstanding natural beauty.

FOOD PRODUCTION

In an average year the Colony produces about 65% of all the vegetables it consumes. Considering the small amount of land available and suitable for vegetable-growing, this is a most satisfactory figure. The Government's general policy of encouraging agriculture took an important step forward this year, when a comprehensive plan for agricultural development was tabled in the Legislative Council and adopted in principle.

The somewhat unusual background of agricultural economy in the New Territories is described in the Occupa- tions, Wages and Labour Organization Chapter. The problem of bringing neglected areas under cultivation again, and generally putting New Territories agriculture on a sounder economic basis, has been greatly helped over the past few years by the generosity and interest of Messrs. Lawrence and Horace Kadoorie, whose Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Associa-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

tion has provided grants, loans, farm buildings and livestock to villages throughout the region. In July the Legislative Council approved the establishment of a Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association Fund, which is to be made up of parallel contributions from the Association and from the Government. The work of the Association is described in more detail in the Production Chapter.

EXTERNAL AFFAIRS

The general political situation in the Far East continued to be unsettled in various ways, but public confidence in Hong Kong remained steady. The Colony's population, as in former years, was concerned chiefly with its own affairs.

Although the attitude of the Chinese Government towards Hong Kong may still be described as aloof, in the spirit of coexistence there were indications of a more relaxed attitude. Entry permits were increasingly granted to people wishing to visit China for business or pleasure, and a number of business men of British and other nationalities visited Peking, Shanghai and Canton. Included among the visitors was a further British Trade Mission, which included a number of Hong Kong representatives. While the value of contracts signed by its members was not high, it was generally considered to have been of advantage in furthering connexions with Chinese commercial interests, and it was agreed by the Chinese authorities that further visits by individual business men would be useful. There were forecasts in certain quarters of some relaxation in the current restrictions on trade with China, but in fact the general situation did not change.

On 11 April a serious incident occurred which became international news. An aircraft of Air-India International, the Kashmir Princess, which had been chartered by the Chinese Government to take a party of their representatives to the first Afro-Asian Conference at Bandung, Indonesia, crashed on a flight between Hong Kong and Jakarta with the loss of 16 lives. Very soon after the crash, an announcement from Peking plainly suggested that an act of sabotage had been committed, and the Hong Kong Government followed this within a few hours by starting that a thorough investi- gation was being made, and that if there was evidence of

I

VISIT of

the Right Hon. Alan Lennox-Boyd, M. P.

Secretary of State

for the Colonies

7

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KON

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South China Morning Post

The Secretary of State arrived on 25th July, on the first stage of a six-week tour of British territories in East Asia. He was accompanied by his wife, Lady Patricia Lennox-Boyd. At Kai Tak Airport they were welcomed by the Governor and Lady Grantham.

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In six days packed with engagements,

Mr. Lennox-Boyd inspected fishing-boats affected by the Government's mechanization scheme, saw sea-shells from the South Pacific being converted into pearl buttons for the shirts and dresses of the world,

BL

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

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visited the site of the $125,000,000 Tai Lam Chung Reservoir now

Reservoir now under construction, and showed close interest in Hong Kong's up-to-date and important

important textile

textile industry.

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J

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LIC

Informality was the keynote, nowhere more apparent than when th of the 150.000 former squatters for whom the Government ha

*

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Informality was the keynote, nowhere more apparent than when the of the

the 150,000

150,000 former squatters for whom the Government has

Secretary of State toured resettlement areas and was surrounded by some provided improved accommodation in small houses and blocks of flats.

Pan-Asia

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Secretary of State toured resettlement areas and was surrounded by some provided improved accommodation in small houses and blocks of flats.

Pan-Asia

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The degree of cooperation and financial assistance which the Government gives to voluntary social welfare

social welfare organizations,

organizations, particularly to those dealing with children and young persons, is probably unique in Asia.

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香港

NG KONG

Regular attendance at child health clinics has sent up the average weight of Hong Kong's babies.

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South China Morning Post

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Outside the urban zone the Secretary of State visited the Sai Wan Military Cemetery, and spent his last morning on Hay Ling Chau, the Colony's island leprosarium.

South China Morning Post

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

13

sabotage, no attempt would be spared to bring the criminals to justice. Intensive enquiries were made locally by the Hong Kong Police, while a Committee of Enquiry appointed by the Indonesian Government, with the participation of the Governments of India and Hong Kong, established beyond reasonable doubt that the crash was in fact the direct result of an act of sabotage evidently com- mitted in Hong Kong. The Commissioner of Police offered a reward of $100,000 to anyone producing evidence that would lead to the discovery of those responsible, but the reward, the highest ever offered in the Colony's history, was in the outcome not required. By 18 May continu- ing police investigation had led to a point where suspicion fell clearly on a man who had been employed as a cleaner on the aircraft during its servicing at Kai Tak. Enquiries at his address on that day failed to find him, and information was subsequently obtained that some hours before these enquires were made he had stowed away in a Civil Air Transport plane and arrived on the same day in Taiwan. This produced a period of delay until 3 September, when a warrant was issued for his arrest on a charge of conspiracy to murder.

As soon as the warrant was issued, an approach was made to the Chinese Nationalist authorities in Taiwan, requesting that the man be returned to the Colony for trial. After repeated reminders, the British Consul at Tamsui was informed, on 14 December, that the competent Nationalist authorities were unable to deal with the matter, since, it was stated, the request for extradition was not based on legal grounds. Despite continued investigation in Hong Kong, it did not prove possible by the end of the year to bring charges against any other people who may have participated in the crime. The full text of a statement issued by the Colonial Office in London on 11 January 1956 is reproduced in Appendix I.

In addition to individual travellers going to China, either from Hong Kong itself, or in transit through the Colony, a large number of delegations from many countries passed through on their way to or from official visits at the invitation of the Chinese Government.

Most of the Americans released from imprisonment in China, or granted exit permits under the Sino-American agreement made for the reciprocal repatriation of each others'

14

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

nationals, came out via Hong Kong, where they were met by representatives of the United States Government and of the American and British Red Cross Societies.

Vessels and aircraft under the control of the Chinese Nationalist authorities in Taiwan continued to interfere with British and other merchant shipping plying between Hong Kong and Chinese mainland ports. A new and more serious manifestation of this interference appeared in attacks by air- craft, both by bombing and gunfire. A number of ships, including 3 British and 1 Norwegian, were damaged by such attacks in the second half of the year. In three cases, in addition to material damage, casualties were sustained. Her Majesty's ships continued to give protection where possible, and protests and claims were lodged with Taiwan.

Relations with the neighbouring Portuguese territory of Macau remained close and friendly. The marriage of the daughter of the Governor of Macau, which was solemnized in the Cathedral there in April, was attended by a large number of friends from Hong Kong, including the Governor and Lady Grantham. Naval visits were exchanged between the two territories, and the Commodore-in-Charge, Hong Kong, paid a formal visit to Macau in November.

UNITED NATIONS

RA

For the first time since the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) came into existence in 1946, Hong Kong stood host for one of its Conferences, the Sub-Committee on Trade, which was held from 6 to 12 January in the hall of the Grantham Training College, Kowloon. 24 territories were represented. The Sub- Committee was opened by the Governor, and the leader of the Hong Kong Delegation, Dr. S. N. Chau, C.B.E., was unanimously elected Chairman. The Executive Secretary of ECAFE, Dr. P. S. Lokanathan, was the senior U.N. official attending the meetings.

Hong Kong was represented by a four-man delegation at the Eleventh Session of ECAFE, held in Tokyo in March and April, and also at the Seventh Session of the Committee on Industry and Trade which preceded the Commission meetings.

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15

A tripartite delegation, representing Government, em- ployers and labour, attended the Asian Technical Conference on Vocational Training for Industry, organized by the International Labour Organization and held in Rangoon from 28 November to 8 December.

ADMINISTRATION

The Governor, Sir Alexander Grantham, G.C.M.G., was due to retire late in the year. His Excellency has been Governor of Hong Kong since 1947, the normal term of office being five years. Sir Alexander's term was extended by two years from July 1952, and for another year from July 1954, which made his the longest governorship in the Colony's history. Early in 1955 the realization of his impending departure gave rise to a colony-wide petition to the Secretary of State for the Colonies for a further extension of his term of office. The signatories to the petition included many of the Colony's principal associations and chambers of commerce, representing all communities and interests.

The Secretary of State, the Right Hon. Alan Lennox- Boyd, M.P., visited Hong Kong in July, on the first stage of a tour of British territories in East Asia, and on the point · of departure, on Queen's Pier, produced loud cheers when he announced a further extension of the Governor's term for another two years from July 1955.

The Secretary of State was accompanied by his wife, Lady Patricia Lennox-Boyd, and spent an extremely busy six days seeing many aspects of the Colony's life. His tour included visits to several factories, meetings with prominent citizens, interviews with the principal associations concerned with electoral reform, and a Press Conference. On the eve of his departure he broadcast a short personal message over Radio Hong Kong.

In April the Colonial Secretary, Mr. R. B. (now Sir Robert) Black, left the Colony on appointment as Governor of Singapore. Mr. Black had been Hong Kong's Colonial Secretary since 1952, and his departure was the occasion of widespread expressions of regret and of good wishes in his future appointment. He was succeeded as Colonial Secretary by Mr. E. B. David, who arrived in Hong Kong later in the same month.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

16

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The death of the Chief Justice of Hong Kong, Sir Gerard Howe, occurred in May, while he was on leave in Europe, and in October Mr. M. J. P. Hogan, Attorney-General in the Federation of Malaya, was appointed his successor. The new Chief Justice arrived in the Colony in December, until which time the Senior Puisne Judge, Mr. Justice T. J. Gould, was acting Chief Justice. The year also saw the departure from Hong Kong, after thirty years of Government service, of Mr. R. R. Todd, Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

In October 1954, the Secretary of State had approved in principle the outline of a modified scheme of salary revision for government servants, based to a large extent on the recommendations of the Salaries Commission which had reported earlier in the year. His approval of the detailed proposals for junior grades was received before Christmas 1954, and for the remainder of the scheme about a month later. A Revised Scheme for Salaries and Allowances was published early in March 1955, and the task of adjusting some 25,000 salaries was almost completed by the end of that month. The scheme affected only monthly-paid staff, and did not give any substantial increase in total emoluments, except where posts were considered to have been underpaid in the past; but a higher proportion of cost-of-living allowance than had been recommended by the Salaries Commission was consolidated into basic salaries. No changes were introduced in the remuneration of daily-paid staff but, since 1 April 1955, daily-paid workers who have completed a qualifying period of service are being transferred to the more favourable monthly rates. One issue which remained undecided was that of parity between the professions themselves and between the professions and the administrative service. Mr. W. D. Godsall was appointed toward the end of the year to conduct a review of professional, administrative and superscale salaries. It is expected that his recommendations will be received early in 1956.

ASSISTANCE FROM H.M. GOVERNMENT

A loan of $48,000,000, amounting to about half the total cost, is being made by Her Majesty's Government for the development of Kai Tak Airport.

Under Colonial Development and Welfare, the most important development during the year was the approval

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

17

given in August to an enlarged scheme of development in the New Territories (D.2539), which incorporates two smaller schemes (D.1661A and D.1952A) connected with irrigation and preliminary work on the improvement of communica- tions. The grant is for £263,500, made on the understanding that 15% of the cost of the entire programme undertaken will be contributed by the Hong Kong Government.

The main features of the programme are the construction of a light motor road on Lantao Island, starting at Silver Mine Bay and running to Pui O, thence along the south coast in the direction of Shek Pik. This will be the first road on the island. Four piers are proposed-at Tung Chung, Kei Ling Ha, Tap Mun and Kat O-and a number of feeder roads linking more remote areas with the existing road system. Irrigation improvements will bring more marginal land under cultivation in many parts of the New Territories.

Another grant approved during the year, and to be administered by the University, amounts to £80,781 for the construction of a Pathology Building. From the Colonial Development and Welfare Allocation for Higher Education in the Colonies a grant of £200,000 for the 5-year period beginning April 1955 has been approved. This is to be used for the construction of a new Library.

WEATHER

Due to the Colony's dependence on rain for virtually its total water supply, the weather is often an important item of news. 1955 began with a period of severe drought. No rain fell between mid-November 1954 and the beginning of April 1955. During this exceptionally long dry season, in January, the Colony had one of its rare experiences of frost. In the Kam Tin Valley the temperature fell to 26°F; and throughout the New Territories a large part of the sweet potato crop, a principal means of rural subsistence, was lost. When rain finally came, it was unusually heavy, causing a number of landslides and house collapses, involving several deaths. The total rainfall was above average, but it unfortunately came in three or four short periods of downpour, which meant that much of it was wasted. Urban water consumption has gone up since 1954, and as a result, towards the end of the summer, Hong Kong and Kowloon water restrictions

18

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

were increased, allowing a supply of only two-and-a-half hours daily, the most severe restriction there has been since the war.

Throughout May experiments were conducted by the Royal Observatory in the production of rain by the artificial method of spraying clouds with water. The experiments unfortunately coincided with one of the periods of heavy natural downpour, but sufficient evidence was obtained to enable it to be said that the method is ineffective in the parti- cular climatic conditions of Hong Kong.

On 1 April an unusual disaster occurred in the fishing harbour of Cheung Chau, when a freak gust of wind of hurricane force, coming from the north-west and lasting less than three minutes, overturned 36 fishing boats and sank 3 large junks, with the loss of 14 lives. The District Com- missioner, New Territories, made an urgent appeal for funds to assist those whose boats had been seriously damaged, and who had in many cases lost the greater part of their fishing gear and other simple possessions. As a result of prompt public response it was possible, within three days, to pay out to all the fishermen concerned sufficient money for them to purchase all the gear etc. lost, and to make an additional lump sum grant to each family with a fatal casualty.

Another unusual tragedy occurred at Taipo Kau in August when, possibly as a result of a cloudburst in the hills, a stream beside which a number of children were having a picnic burst suddenly into a raging torrent and swept the children away. 28 people lost their lives, most of the deaths being caused by the victims being thrown against rocks by the force of the water.

MISCELLANEA

In August, while workmen were levelling a hill for a new Resettlement Area at Li Cheng Uk, on the northern fringe of Kowloon, a tomb of considerable antiquity was discovered, proving to be one of the most important historical finds ever made in the Colony. The discovery attracted widespread interest, and after the tomb had been cleared under the supervision of University representatives it was opened to the public, and later there was an exhibition of its contents given under the auspices of the University in the Fung Ping Shan Library. The tomb is discussed in more detail in the Archaeology Chapter.

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

19

An important Anglican Church meeting took place in February, when the Bishops of Hong Kong, the Philippines, Borneo and Singapore, and the Assistant Bishop of Korea, assembled to take counsel on common interests in this part of the world.

A spectacular British Forces Tattoo, the first since the war, was held in November at Caroline Hill Stadium for three nights, and was witnessed by capacity audiences.

In the same month work was completed on the impressive Military Cemetery at Sai Wan, on the east side of Hong Kong Island. The Cemetery has been established jointly by the Imperial War Graves Commission and the Government of Hong Kong, and contains the graves of the greater number of Commonwealth troops who died in the defence of the Colony against the Japanese in December 1941. At the entrance is a War Memorial commemorating several thousand men whose names are inscribed, but who have no known grave. At the ceremony, at which the Governor unveiled the Memorial, a wreath was laid by the Colonial Secretary on behalf of the Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill.

n

A Festival of the Arts, the first of its kind to be held in the Colony, and an entirely home-made product, attracted considerable interest, and is described in the Arts Chapter. Its success encouraged its sponsors to plan a similar Festival for 1956.

On 12 April a whale was found in the water under a wharf on Connaught Road West. It had apparently found its way between the piles of the wharf during high tide and been trapped as the water receded. After being shot by Marine Police the entire specimen was handed over to the University for research and teaching purposes. This is the first recorded occasion of a whale entering Hong Kong waters. It was a young male common finback whale, 27 feet long and weighing 2 tons, and the popular suggestion was that it had swum too far away from its parent school and got lost.

Chapter 2: Population

The population at the end of 1955 was estimated to be about 2,400,000.

No census has been taken since 1931, when the population was found to be 849,751. Another census should have been held in 1941, but with the Japanese invasion of China in 1937 conditions became unsettled, and the Colony has since been subject to a long succession of fluctuations of population. which has made impracticable the holding of a census. Details of these fluctuations are given in the History Chapter.

The population is clearly rising. At the beginning of 1954 the official estimate was 2,250,000; in mid-1955 the estimate was 2,340,000. Only a small percentage of this rise is due to any continued entry of refugees from China; the principal factor is an already high, and evidently still rising, birth rate. A large proportion of the newcomers who entered the Colony after the war were young men and women uprooted from their homes, coming in search of employment and security. Most of them have been absorbed into the economic life of the Colony, and, having found security, are marrying and raising families.

The natural rate of increase is somewhere in the region of 3% a year. During 1955 registered births exceeded register- ed deaths by 71,431, the respective figures being 90,511 and 19,080. This gives a birthrate of 38.7 and a death rate of 8.1. These figures must be used with caution, however, as it is probable that registration is not complete.

URBAN POPULATION

More than 99% of the population is Chinese, the great majority of whom came originally from Kwangtung Province. Apart from Chinese, and excluding Services personnel and their dependants, there are about 13,000 British subjects from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth. Other communi- ties include the Americans, with about 1,800 residents, the Portuguese, numbering about 1,700, Filipinos 370, Dutch 300, French 290, Italians 250, and Japanese 200. The total number of non-Chinese residents, excluding British nationals, is about 6,500.

POPULATION

21

The districts of Kwangtung which have supplied the largest elements of Hong Kong's urban Chinese population are neighbouring Po On and Tungkwun, Waiyeung and Muiyuen (principally Hakka), Chiuchow, the so-called Four Districts (Sunning, Sunwui, Hoiping and Yanping), Namhoi, Punyü, Shuntak and Chungshan. Other elements in the urban population include a Fukien community and numbers of overseas Chinese whose families originally came from Fukien or Chiuchow. Since the war, and due principally to the change of government in China in 1949, a considerable new element of refugees from Shanghai has been added to the population. Chinese immigrants during these critical years have in fact come from almost every part of China.

The chief linguistic characteristic of the urban area is that, although a wide variety of Chinese languages and dialects are used in daily life, Cantonese is the lingua franca. Apart from Cantonese, the languages or dialects most widely heard are Hakka, Chiuchow, Kuoyu (the national language), the Shanghai dialect and, of course, English, the popularity of which has increased considerably in the last ten years. Before the war the Colony was not much affected by the movement in China to popularize Kuoyu. The war, however, took many local residents into China, and many came back afterwards with some knowledge of Kuoyu. Though this language is not normally spoken by Cantonese people in Hong Kong, a far greater number understand it now than before the war.

NEW TERRITORIES

The indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories consist of four principal groups, Cantonese, Hakka, Hoklo and Tanka. Although these groups show differences in physical appearance, dress, organization and custom, which suggest that they are racially distinct, it is safer to treat them as linguistic rather than racial groups.

The Cantonese occupy the best part of the two principal plains in the north-western sector of the New Territories, and own a good deal of the best valley land in various other areas. The oldest villages, those of the Tang clan in Yuen Long District, have a history of continuous settlement since the late eleventh century, in the Southern Sung dynasty, with whose imperial family the clan was connected by marriage. Villages in the Tung Chung valley, on Lantao Island, date back to the early Yuan dynasty, in the late thirteenth century.

22

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Subsequent migrations have brought Cantonese from many districts of Kwangtung, and throughout the principal islands they are the majority community. The earliest families in Yuen Long District speak a form of the Namtao dialect, an offshoot of Tungkwun, not very easy for city Cantonese to follow, but city Cantonese (Punyü dialect) is the lingua franca of all the New Territories market towns, regardless of whether the particular area is predominantly Cantonese or Hakka.

The Hakka (this is their own word for themselves, and is explained as meaning strangers) began to enter this region at about the same time as the first Cantonese, or even before. The Cantonese were the more successful settlers, however, and in the areas where both groups live side by side the Hakka are always found upstream, along foothills, and in general on the worse land. At an early stage they seem to have become dependants or serfs of the powerful Cantonese families. The balance was restored later by heavy immigration from the East River districts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and the Hakka are now almost exclusive possessors of the Shataukok, Saikung and Hang Hau peninsulas, and of the foothills of Taimoshan. They are the majority com- munity in Taipo, Shatin and Tsun Wan, and on the islands of Tsing I and Ma Wan.

The origin of the Hakka is unknown. They have contradictory traditions pointing to both a northern and a southern origin, and while the greatest numbers of them are found in eastern Kwangtung, there are many in Kiangsi and some in Szechuan and Taiwan. In the New Territories there are certain villages which show indications of being of non- Chinese origin; such villages are invariably Hakka-speaking. Both Cantonese and Hakka are languages of the Yueh group, presenting features characteristic of the standard speech of the early T'ang dynasty (seventh century), and Hakka, while closely resembling Cantonese in most respects, preserves a few even earlier characteristics.

In Kwangtung for many centuries there was strife. between Cantonese and Hakka, culminating in a war in the early nineteenth century which required the intervention of the Manchu Government. They are now at peace. Formerly there was no intermarriage between them, but now Cantonese villagers have Hakka wives (seldom the reverse) and some villages are peacefully shared between the two groups. Except in the most remote areas, most Hakka can speak Cantonese.

POPULATION

23

The Hoklo have frequented the area since time unknown. They are traditionally boat-people, but in some places they have been settled ashore for several generations. There are influential land communities of them on Cheung Chau and Ping Chau. Their name suggests that they originated from Fukien Province (Hokkien), but this is probably a misnomer, Fukien being only one of their places of origin. Their language belongs to the Min group, found all along the South China coast from Fukien to Hainan Island. The more primitive types of Hoklo dwelling are distinguishable by the use of thatch and mud bricks, instead of tiles and stone.

The Tanka (egg families) are boat-people who very seldom settle ashore. They are the principal seafaring people of South China, owning large sea-going junks and engaging in deep-sea fishing. Their entire families live afloat. Until the Chinese Revolution of 1912 they were outcasts, not permitted to live ashore, engage in trade, or send their children to school. Like the Hoklo, whom they resemble in many respects, they have been in the area since time unknown. Chinese records suggest that they originally spoke a non-Chinese language. At present they speak their own distinctive dialect of Cantonese, which they appear to have adopted early in the fourteenth century, during the Yuan dynasty. At Tai O, on Lantao Island, there is the rare instance of a fairly large group of Tanka living ashore, or rather half-ashore, in huts built on stakes over a muddy inlet.

Certain parts of the New Territories mainland have been affected by the great numbers of refugees who, since 1937, have come to the Colony from all parts of China. In general where they have settied in the country, it has been in assimilable numbers; but certain groups of Tungkwun and Chiuchow cultivators, and of miners from North China, have resisted assimilation and preserved a refugee mentality. These however form only a very small minority of the total rural population.

An increasing number of city-dwellers, of all nationali- ties, have in recent years been building bungalows and small weekend residences in the New Territories. Most of these are along the main roads, particularly at Shatin, Taipo, near the Fanling golf courses, and along the road to Castle Peak. On the islands the principal areas affected are Cheung Chau and Silver Mine Bay.

Chapter 3: Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization

The principal sources of employment in Hong Kong and Kowloon are industry, commercial houses connected with the diminished entrepôt trade, and the internal dis- tributive trades.

No general employment figures are available, nor has it been feasible since the war, due to rapidly changing conditions and varying population heights, for the Govern- ment to undertake the compilation of such figures. Exact employment figures are however held in all industrial concerns registered with the Labour Department, and these cover the bulk of the Colony's industrial life.

The slight improvement in the Colony's external trade during 1955 is a fairly reliable indication that the reductions in commercial staff which were frequent from 1952 onwards, during the period when the Colony's economy was adjusting itself to the international restrictions on trade with China, have now ceased. But the demand for commercial employ- ment is high, suggesting that the improvement in trade has not yet been on a large enough scale to cause much increase in personnel employed by commercial houses.

There is no evidence of any substantial change in the number of people engaged in agriculture and fishing, usually estimated at about 250,000.

The total number of people employed by the Hong Kong Government and by the Armed Services in a civilian non-industrial capacity is in the neighbourhood of 40,000, while an additional 25,000 are engaged in public transport services.

The main factor affecting employment in 1955-and a welcome one-was the continued expansion of local industry, with a consequent increase in the number of factory workers. The number of officially registered and recorded industrial establishments rose by 431, or 17%, to 2,925, while the number of factory workers increased by 12%, to 129,465. There was a corresponding increase, in the industrial fringe which consists of concerns too small to be liable to registra-

-

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

25

tion, of cottage industries and in the number of out-workers. Partial surveys made during the year give grounds for the belief that the total number of people engaged in industry is around 325,000, and that industry now constitutes the largest single source of employment.

The principal industries are textile and metal manu- facture, shipbuilding and repairing, employing between them about 80,000 men and women. In the textile group, four new cotton-spinning mills brought the total number of mills to 18, operating in all 306,212 spindles, and employing 13,500 workers.

Unemployment. The absence of general employment statistics precludes anything but estimates on the broadest basis concerning unemployment and under-employment. Although the growth of industry and the sustained high level of building activity kept large numbers employed, and skilled workers found their services in demand, there was a large surplus of unskilled labour, most of it in the under- employed category.

There were fluctuations in employment in various. industries, but reduced employment in any particular field was offset by increased employment in another. Changes of this kind do not necessarily imply any lengthy period of unemployment for individual workers, since the majority of semi-skilled and unskilled workers are adaptable and are capable of turning their hands, for example, from weaving or garment-making to assembly work in a metalware factory or gumming in a rubber shoe factory.

Migration for employment elsewhere is unfortunately on a very small scale, owing to immigration restrictions imposed by countries unwilling to accept Chinese immigrants as permanent settlers. The main sources of external employ- ment are found in North Borneo, Brunei and Indonesia, where the services of skilled and semi-skilled workers on contract are in considerable demand for construction work, in the oilfields and in factories. During the year 1,717 manual workers left the Colony under officially approved contracts for work overseas. In compliance with International Labour Organization Conventions, contracts were for a period of two years in the first instance, or three years in exceptional cases, where the worker was accompanied by his

26

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

family. Contracts were not allowed to be renewed on expiry unless the worker was first given an opportunity to return to Hong Kong at the employer's expense. Only in excep- tional and carefully delineated cases were these regulations. relaxed.

WAGES AND CONDITIONS

Wages. There have been no significant changes in wage rates during 1955, with the exception of adjustments in the pay of Government employees. The establishment of some 200 new factories, employing over 13,000 additional workers, helped to keep wages stable, and the average wage range for daily-rated workers was:

Skilled workmen

Semi-skilled workmen Unskilled workmen

$7 - 12

$5 - 6

$3

5

The figures given for skilled workmen are higher than those quoted last year. A wider field has been covered, and workers of more than ordinary skill are now included. There are some highly skilled workers who receive as much as $15 per day. Piece rates are common in large sections of industry, and where they are in force, women workers receive the same rates as men, although their earnings may differ. Pay for learners in trades where a short period of in-plant training is necessary is frequently below the unskilled rates quoted above.

Overtime rates for manual workers vary between time- and-a-quarter and double-time, but time-and-a-half is the most usual. A bonus of one month's wages is paid at Chinese New Year in a large number of concerns.

Some firms provide both free food and accommodation. for their regular employees, whose wages are adjusted accordingly. Other concerns operate canteens for all their workers, at which food and articles of common consumption are supplied at subsidized rates, thus giving their staff partial protection against rises in the cost of living. The Govern- ment, most European concerns, and some Chinese employers whose businesses are run on Western lines, pay instead a basic wage, together with a variable cost-of-living allowance, to compensate for price fluctuations. Hitherto the allowances paid have been based on the Labour Department's Food and

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

27

Fuel Index, but from 1 July the Retail Price Index was used instead. The effect of the change was to increase take-home pay by an average of $6 per month.

The Government has begun to convert its regularly employed daily-rated workers to monthly terms which are more favourable. The change takes place subject to medical fitness after a qualifying period of three years in the case of artisans, and of five years in the case of unskilled and semi- skilled workers.

Working Hours. Some Chinese concerns, and in parti- cular the building trade, favour a 7-day week, and this is sometimes coupled with a 9-hour day. These long hours are accepted by the workers concerned, whose earnings are correspondingly greater. The working tempo also tends to be slower, and liberal tea breaks are given. Hours of work for women and young persons are, however, regulated by law in conformity with I.L.O. Conventions.

The 48-hour week is standard in European undertakings and in Chinese concerns run on Western lines. In public utilities and in some of the cotton spinning and weaving mills a system of three 8-hour shifts is used. In such con- cerns, where continuous production must be maintained, rest days are arranged in rotation. In manufacturing concerns the rest day is usually Sunday.

Cost of Living. Following the removal of price control. in August 1954, rice prices declined steadily and by May 1955 had reached the lowest point in recent years, the whole- sale price for a pound of medium quality being 35 cents, compared with 45 cents a year previously. In general, however, the cost of living remained constant throughout the year, such changes as did occur being the result of normal seasonal fluctuations in the price of foodstuffs.

No separate index for a European-style cost of living is produced, but price fluctuations for imported goods were in line with those in exporting countries. The table below shows the fluctuations which occurred in the two officially published indices. The Food and Fuel Index is based on the prices of specific quantities of ten items of common consumption. The Retail Price Index covers a wider range of commodities and services, and is weighted according to

28

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

a budgetary survey carried out in 1948. The base of 100 is for March 1947, and although the expenditure pattern used for weighting is that of the artisan and white collar worker, the Index gives a fair reflexion of general changes in the cost of living.

Food and Fuel

Retail Price

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

.....

Index

Index

$13.0438

116

$13.2615

113

$13.2532

114

$13.2170

112

$12.5820

111

$12.3855

112

$12.5486

116

$12.9572

118

$13.3255

117

$12.9882

116

$13.0005

114

$12.6330

115

LABOUR ADMINISTRATION

The Government's responsibilities in labour matters are dealt with by the Labour Department and the Registry of Trade Unions.

Labour Department. The principal functions of the Labour Department are to ensure safe and healthy conditions. of work in industrial establishments, and to secure compli- ance with internationally accepted restrictions on the working hours of women and young persons. A staff of trained labour inspectors make the necessary investigations. These inspectors also make investigations under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, which is administered by the Department. Periodic surveys of wage rates and levels and conditions of employment are carried out, and the Depart- ment is responsible for ensuring adequate publicity for the major provisions of the legislation it enforces.

The Commissioner of Labour is the principal adviser to Government on all matters connected with labour and industrial relations. He is ex-officio Chairman of the Labour Advisory Board, on which both employers and employed are represented, and which is consulted on all legislative measures affecting labour. The Commissioner is also an ex-officio member of the Port Committee, and is concurrently

L

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Chow Kwong-ming

Hong Kong Goods Seek New Overseas Markets

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The 13th Annual Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, organized by the Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers' Union, opened in December, giving its more than a million visitors an impressive demonstration of the steadily increasing variety and high standard of the Colony's industries. Among the visitors were an unusually large number of special delegations from buying territories in the East.

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Chow Kwong-ming

To grown-ups, Hong Kong as a manufacturing centre is something new to get used to; to the very young, it is something you grow up with.

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London News Agency

While, at the British Industries Fair, Her Majesty the Queen was attracted by the toys of the East, at the Hong Kong Products' Exhibition a Chinese family admired the gleaming kitchen utensils of the West-and both were made in Hong Kong.

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Chow Kwong-ming

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Photographic '49, Toronto

Pursuing a policy of drawing wider attention to its developing industries, Hong Kong exhibited this year at the 8th Canadian International Trade Fair, held in Toronto and attracting exhibitors from 31 countries.

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OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

29

Commissioner of Mines. The duties which he formerly dis- charged in connexion with the registration of trade unions are now undertaken by the Registrar of Trade Unions, who administers a separate Department for this purpose.

The Labour Department is responsible for the initial preparation of all labour legislation, and keeps under review the legislative and administrative arrangements for giving effect to the Colony's obligations under I.L.O. Conventions. It acts as a channel of conciliation in disputes both between trade unions and employers and individual workmen and employers. The Department also seeks to encourage joint consultation in industry, and advises on the establishment of appropriate machinery for this purpose. A section of the Department is responsible for advising trade unions on the management of their affairs, and for organizing classes on various aspects of trade unionism. It also ensures that I.L.O. requirements are met regarding conditions of service of emigrant labour.

The Department is represented on inter-departmental committees on industrial development, and on various other committees in the fields of welfare and vocational training. Its main office is centrally situated on the Hong Kong waterfront, with a branch office in Kowloon for the con- venience of the public and to facilitate inspections of industrial areas in Kowloon and the New Territories.

The Registry of Trade Unions, which was established as a separate Department in December 1954, is now respon- sible for the registration work formerly carried out by the Labour Department under the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, 1948. It deals with applications for registration by new trade unions, and for registration of alterations of rules or of change of name or amalgamation by registered unions, and with dissolutions. Registered trade unions are also required by the Ordinance to transmit to the Registrar annual returns before I June and their audited accounts within a month of presentation to members.

The year ended with 300 unions on the Register, as against 297 in December 1954. 10 new organizations were registered (9 of workers and I of employers), but 7 were removed from the Register, 5 having ceased to exist, while one became a limited company and another a society. The

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

300 unions consisted of 227 workers' unions, 70 organizations of merchants or employers, and 3 mixed organizations of employers and workers.

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

Labour Organization. The greater number of trade unions in Hong Kong continue to be affected by political influences, and the trade union movement remains split into two factions, one headed by the Trades Union Council (T.U.C.), which supports the Chinese Nationalist régime in Taiwan, and the other by the left-wing Federation of Trade. Unions (F.T.U.), which subscribes to the doctrines of the Chinese Government. Neither organization will embark on any kind of trade union activity unless it conceives that some clear political advantage will accrue. The F.T.U. continues to concentrate on the provision of welfare benefits, and the T.U.C. has ambitious plans for workers' housing.

Dominated by political ends, the unions are largely ineffective in the industrial field, and there is little to choose between them. Most of the independent unions remain weak, drifting from one faction to the other without quite losing their independence. A few of the independent unions, how- ever, show promise, and appear to have realized the necessity of carrying on genuine trade union activity within their own trade or industry.

B

The T.U.C. represents the greater number of unions, but the F.T.U. has a larger membership in a smaller number of unions. Paying membership is about equally divided.

The T.U.C. still remains affiliated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, but did not send a representative to the Fourth World Congress of this body held in Vienna during the year. The F.T.U. is not affiliated officially with any outside body, but the All-China Federa- tion of Trade Unions claims as part of its national member- ship a membership in Hong Kong approximately equal to that of the F.T.U.

300 trade unions in a colony the size of Hong Kong is a very large number. In practically every industry, trade or occupation the workers employed are organized to some degree. The soft drinks industry is perhaps the only industry

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

31

of any importance which has no trade union. The woodwork trade has 14 unions catering for its workers, and the building construction industry 11. Undoubtedly, in some industries amalgamation would be to the advantage of the workers, but political and other differences make this difficult.

Important educational work, undertaken by the Trade Union Section of the Labour Department, has undoubtedly led to an improvement in the working of some trade unions. During the year 3 series of classes were held, attended by members of 21 unions.

Joint Consultation machinery was established towards the end of 1955 within the Hong Kong Tramways Ltd. after successful elections had been held by the workers themselves to choose representatives of the various sections of the staff. Industrial relations within this Company have long been bedevilled by disputes, which have taken many forms, between the management and the left-wing Tramway Workers' Union, from which the management withdrew recognition in 1951. In response to an invitation from the management, 53% of the staff voted for their own representa- tives to meet the management regularly to discuss conditions of service and to ventilate staff grievances. The election was boycotted by both left- and right-wing unions, and although a number of ballot papers were returned blank, the fact that over half the total staff submitted valid votes is an encourag- ing sign of a genuine desire for employer-employee relation- ships to be kept free from political influences.

Labour Disputes and Stoppages. There was a total of 14 strikes and lock-outs during 1955, resulting in the loss of 33,567 man-days. This figure compares unfavourably with the 2,235 man-days lost in 1954, but is well below the post- war average of 145,666.

The principal occasions of strikes were wage disputes and dismissals due to redundancy or discipline. Only three of the strikes were successful. The others failed completely, the employees in some cases losing their jobs when fresh workers were engaged. There were four lock-outs by employers, three of which arose out of strikes; all these lock-outs were successful.

At the beginning of the year it appeared that the F.T.U. had decided to change to some extent the emphasis of its

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

activities from welfare schemes, which it had fostered during 1954, to more direct agitation in the labour field. Early in 1955 a spring offensive was launched, bringing serious disputes in the Mayar and Fou Wah Silk Mills. At the same time the left-wing Spinning, Weaving and Dyeing Workers' Union made widespread complaints concerning conditions. in the whole of the spinning industry. Most of these com- plaints sprang from incidents deliberately engineered by the union.

In June a full-scale attack on the amount and method of computing of cost-of-living allowances paid to workers was made by 18 member unions of the F.T.U. The Employers' Federation conceded that some adjustment was necessary, and in July its members adopted a scheme which had the general effect of increasing workers' earnings by $6 a month.

The dispute at Hong Kong Tramways Ltd. mentioned in last year's Annual Report continued until October 1955. No further strike of tramway workers occurred this year, but there was spasmodic agitation in the left-wing Press. The dispute concerned the dismissal for redundancy of 31 workers, among whom were the Chairman and Vice-Chairman of the Tramway Workers' Union. Eventually, after the manage- ment threatened legal action unless uniforms and other company property were returned, the men came forward to collect the gratuities due to them, and the dispute subsided.

The strike and lock-out at the Mayar Silk Mills, one of the larger mills in Tsun Wan, accounted for 17,500 man- days lost, about half the total for the year. In February 1954 the management had cut wages by 25% on the grounds of poor business. This cut still left wages in the factory 5% above the average in the industry, but in February 1955 the Silk Weaving Workers' General Union demanded the restoration of the cut. Go slow and short strike tactics were used until the management locked out the 300 workers involved. Militant pickets stopped the passage of goods out of the factory and prevented new applicants for employment presenting themselves. Warnings by the Police that pickets' activities should be confined to peaceful persuasion were ignored, and the Police eventually had to resort to force to clear a way for workers to enter the factory. The strike collapsed with 100 new workers being taken on and 200 of the former staff resuming work.

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33

A dispute involving about 400 workers concerned the Shanghai section of the tailoring trade. In October the left- wing union suddenly sent to some 40 employers a so-called new agreement on wages and working hours. The document was prepared without previous discussion with employers, and its provisions would have placed managerial functions largely in the hands of the workers. Considerable wage increases were demanded. The employers, who have an effective association, stood firm and refused to sign or discuss the new agreement. Accordingly, about 75% of the workers were brought out on strike by the union. The 25% who remained at work have right-wing political leanings. The strike was particularly ill-advised, as the workers knew as well as anybody else that they could not get work elsewhere. However, they remained away from work more than 14 days and lost 5,000 man-days as a result."

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Another dispute concerned the largest maker of camphor chests. Premises in which 37 employees worked demolished, whereupon the left-wing union demanded that all 37 be immediately given work in the main factory, which employs about 200. When the management said this was impossible, the union countered by calling a strike in the main factory. Pickets attempted to prevent the movement of goods out of the factory, and police intervention was necessary. Following discussions in the Labour Department, the strikers returned to work after a month.

The transfer of spinning workers and machinery from one mill to another operated by the same concern led to a dispute on pay rates in the new mill. The workers who were to be transferred objected to the rates in the new mill, which were somewhat less favourable than those they had previously enjoyed; but instead of appointing representatives to discuss matters with the management, they went on strike and picketed the premises to prevent the machinery from being moved. The pay issue was eventually settled by the management agreeing to a 10% adjustment, but since, in order to avoid loss of production, they had taken on some 80 workers from other mills, the final result was that a corresponding number from the union responsible for the strike lost their jobs.

Minor Disputes. The number of minor disputes dealt with by the Department during the year was 1,241, a figure

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

which represents a drop of some 10% compared with 1954. Chinese employers are accustomed to make staff changes around Chinese New Year, which falls in the first quarter, so that the number of disputes was, as usual, higher in this period, gradually declining towards the end of the year.

LEGISLATION

The Factories and Workshops Ordinance was replaced in September by the Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, 1955, which is an ordinance of greater scope, making possible a more effective control over the conditions of employment of workmen in industry. Regulations under the new ordinance replaced those under the old. The new legislation is designed to meet problems raised by the Colony's greatly increased industrial activity. It ensures that Hong Kong's obligations under I.L.O. Conventions are fully met.

A minor amendment was made to the Mining Ordinance, 1954, to extend the permissible length of prospecting and mining licences. In addition, a Trade Unions Registration Bill, drafted in consultation with the Registry of Trade Unions, to replace in part the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, 1948, was submitted to the Government. Draft legislation on apprenticeship and on the inspection and control of pressure vessels was under consideration.

SAFETY, HEALTH AND WELFARE

Factory Registration and Inspection is undertaken by the Labour Department to ensure proper standards of industrial health and safety. During the year 584 applications for registration were received. 372 registration. certificates were issued; 63 were refused and the premises closed down. 192 factories found operating in unsuitable buildings were closed down, and 205 registration certificates were surrendered for cancellation, the premises for which they were issued having ceased to be used as factories. At the close of 1955 there were 1,979 places of employment registered and 718 applications for registration were still outstanding. These figures do not include recorded establish- ments, which are premises not registrable under law but kept under observation by the inspectorate. In addition to these,

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

35

a number of other industrial undertakings are also subject to inspection to ensure compliance with industrial health and safety legislation generally, and in particular to the provisions relating to the employment of women and young persons.

A total of 16,669 visits were made by the labour inspectorate during the year. Of these, 1,630 were concerned with industrial or occupational accidents and workmen's compensation; 873 were night visits to industrial premises in connexion with the employment of women and young persons during prohibited hours; 178 were wage enquiries; 859 were connected with the employment of young persons; and 13,129 were routine inspections for the enforcement of safety, health and welfare provisions.

An Industrial Health Officer, appointed during the year, conducted an investigation to determine the efficiency of electro-static precipitators installed in a cement works, and a survey to determine the value of oil-spraying to reduce dust during the blowing process in cotton mills. Further surveys are being planned.

Industrial Accidents. 3,059 industrial and occupational accidents (85 fatal) were reported and investigated. This is 1,345 more than last year, but with 7 fewer fatal accidents. Of the total, 1,521 (13 fatal) were in factories. The increase is to a large extent an increase in the reporting of incidents. The new Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance requires that every accident, as a result of which the employed person is incapable of performing his ordinary work for one day, be reported. Under previous legislation, accidents were not notifiable unless the employed person was unable to perform his ordinary work for three days. Increased reporting of accidents under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance is an additional factor. It must be expected, however, that the increased scale of industrial activity in the Colony will lead to a larger total number of accidents, and it is particularly satisfactory in these circums- tances that the total number of fatal accidents reported has actually decreased.

Welfare. Employers are increasingly accepting the provision of welfare facilities for workers as part of the responsibility of management. In every registrable work- place first-aid equipment and drinking water must be

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

supplied. All plans for new factory buildings must include provision for dining or rest rooms. Some employers go further than this, however, by providing additional benefits such as free medical attention for workers and their families, free quarters or, more usually, dormitory accommodation, and subsidized meals or canteens run on a non-profit-making basis. Smaller concerns often cannot afford such measures, but it is worth mentioning that normally even in the smallest factory a constant supply of tea or boiled water is available.

Outside the place of employment, picnic excursions, and stage and cinema shows are often provided. Some employers arrange for free or subsidized schooling for workers' children and free classes for adult workers. Larger establishments have provided sports grounds or swimming pools.

Workmen's Compensation. The Workmen's Compensa- tion Ordinance, which came into force in December 1953, lays down minimum rates of compensation payable to work- men for injuries received in the course of their work. The Ordinance has been amended subsequently, so as to cover certain civilian employees of the Armed Services and work- men in government establishments. Under it, the Commis- sioner of Labour is now empowered to approve compensation payments in all cases of permanent and temporary disable- ment in which agreement has been reached by the parties. Fatal cases, and cases in which no agreement can be reached, are dealt with by the courts. The Labour Department advises employers and workmen on all matters arising out of the Ordinance.

During the year 85 cases of fatal accidents, and 2,974 cases of non-fatal accidents, were dealt with, a total of $813,907.62 being paid as compensation.

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING

Craft apprenticeship within the Government service is provided by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, the Public Works Department in its electrical, mechanical and water- works branches, the Stores Department in its workshops, and by the Printing Department. Vocational training classes for coxswains and engineers are operated by the Marine

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

37

Department for government employees, and by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry for fishermen.

A new system of recruitment and training was introduced this year for apprentices in the Public Works Department and the Kowloon-Canton Railway. The success- ful applicants are required to sign indentures, and attendance at supplementary technical classes is compulsory; the boys are released from the workshop one whole day a week to attend classes at the Hong Kong Technical College and, in their own time, attend classes two evenings a week.

Apprenticeship training schemes are operated by H.M. Dockyard, the Taikoo Dockyard & Engineering Co. Ltd., the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd., by the public utilities, and by a number of other European and Chinese firms. Encouragement is given by these concerns to apprentices to attend technical classes, and financial help towards fees is very often given. One large spinning and weaving mill, situated in the New Territories, which started a new training scheme in 1954, provides classes on its own premises in both technical and general educational subjects.

Apprenticeship is common in Chinese-run industrial establishments, but with a few exceptions systematic training and supervision are lacking. In the majority of cases the apprentice is expected to acquire his skill by watching and imitating other skilled workers.

There is a Standing Committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training, appointed in 1954, which met four times during the year.

NEW TERRITORIES

Although farming and fishing are the two principal occupations in the New Territories, the pattern of country life has been modified by factors common to other maritime areas of South China. Even before the New Territories became part of the Colony, Hong Kong's influence as a growing commercial city had begun to attract young men away from their villages in search of work either in town or overseas. Lamma Island, close to Hong Kong, was the first

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

place to be affected, many of its young men becoming seamen in British ships. In the first decade of this century many Hakka youngsters migrated to the West Indies, principally from the Saikung, Hang Hau and Shataukok areas. The Tung Chung valley, on Lantao Island, is another area from which large numbers have gone abroad as seamen or to settle in other countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. The villages adjoining the northern border, notably San Tin and Lo Wu, provide the cooks and waiters for many Chinese restaurants in European ports.

Remittances from family members abroad or working in the urban area of the Colony thus came by the 'thirties to form a significant item in the economy of most New Territories villages. In one or two instances they were even the largest single item in the economy of a village. One obvious result of the reduction in the farming population, following this movement abroad, was that hilly land formerly under cultivation was neglected, sea-walls and dykes protect- ing fields near the sea were not properly repaired, and agriculture became confined in some parts to the more easily accessible and well-watered areas. Agriculture furthermore became largely an occupation for women, the younger and able-bodied men going abroad to earn their living.

A sharp change occurred after the war. While the natural rate of rural population increase rose steeply, China coast shipping, due to international restrictions on trade with China, declined sharply, throwing many former seamen out of work. Less favourable conditions in the West Indies cut off emigration opportunities. Younger men, who would normally be reaching the age to follow in their fathers' footsteps and go to sea or to settle abroad, had to stay in their villages. At the same time there was a reflux of former emigrants from the West Indies, and even from urban Hong Kong. Quite suddenly, the land was insufficient to maintain its own population. The long-neglected higher terraces and coastal fields had by this time been lost the former by erosion, the latter by invasion of the sea,-and, in general, to repair the damage was beyond village resources.

Gradual progress is now being made, with Government assistance and encouragement, in repairing these several decades of neglect, and agriculture, which had formerly

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

39

been sinking into a subsidiary to other more exciting and profitable jobs, is gradually regaining its proper importance.

The main crop is rice, grown in all the valleys and, wherever possible, on irrigated hill terraces. New Territories rice includes some varieties of a very high standard, and it is the general practice of villagers to take their own rice to town, and barter it for a larger quantity of cheap imported rice, of lower quality, for their own use. Where sufficient water is available, the fields are made to produce two rice crops per year, but in salty land, and where no water can be stored in winter, only one crop (the second) can be grown. The principal winter crop is sweet potatoes, but wherever there is quick transport to town and a sufficient supply of fertilizer, there is an increasing tendency for green vegetables to be grown. These include most of the best-known European summer vegetables, the season for which in Hong Kong is the winter.

Pig-breeding is an important source of livelihood in most villages, and, particularly in hilly areas, there are good herds of the local humped cattle, for beef and draft, but not for milk. Cut grass also has commercial value, principally for breaming (applying fire to ships' hulls to cleanse them from slime, weeds, etc., a process which, in the case of fishing junks, is undertaken about ten times a year), and in villages which are within easy range of fishing towns grass is collected, chiefly by women, and transported to town on foot or in small family-owned boats. Almost all coastal villages own small boats or sampans, used for transport and inshore fishing, the latter being exclusively a man's job.

Certain occupations are traditionally followed by dif- ferent sections of the rural community. The Deep Bay oyster fishing, for example, is a Cantonese occupation, while beancurd manufacture and stone quarrying are Hakka occupations.

The Tanka, and those Hoklo who have not settled permanently ashore (see Population Chapter), live entirely by fishing. The largest boats, suitable for deep-sea fishing, are Tanka, the boats being generally owned by women. Hakka boats are used principally for transport on the eastern side of the New Territories; they are stoutly built, single-masted, with hulls high out of the water along their

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

whole length. Hoklo boats lie lower in the water, high in the stern; whether sailed or rowed they conform to the same basic design, and are the fastest of the inshore boats used.

The Tsun Wan area has been affected more than any other part of the New Territories by the growth of industries in the Colony during the past ten years; Tsun Wan having developed during this time from a group of old-fashioned villages into a rapidly enlarging industrial and market town. New Territories people have not, however, been much attracted by factory work (or sought after by employers), and most of the labour engaged is from Hong Kong and Kowloon, together with an element of Shanghai refugee labour. A welcome exception is at Sham Tseng, where a large number of local village girls have been employed. The large iron mine situated in the hills beneath the peak of Ma On Shan employs almost entirely immigrant labour from North China. Other smaller mines employ local labour.

The industries more truly typical of the New Territories are the operation of salt pans, the preparation of salt-fish, fish-paste, beancurd, soya sauce, and preserved fruits, the burning of coral and sea-shells for lime, brick manufacture, shipbuilding and repairing, stone quarrying and leather manufacture. On Ping Chau, in the Southern District, there is a match factory, for which, as a sideline occupation, villagers on neighbouring islands make hand-prepared match-boxes. In all the fishing towns a substantial section. of the land population earns a livelihood by providing restaurants and shops, chiefly used by the floating popula-

tion.

Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation

Revenue and Expenditure figures since 1 April 1952 are

as follows:

1952-3

1953-4

1954-5

1955-6 (Estimate)..

Revenue $

Expenditure

Surplus

$

$

484,590,446 411,749,658

72,840,788

396,881,967 355,407,771 41,474,196

434,452,321 373,343,609

61,108,712

Deficit

413,681,000 449,045,950 35,364,950

It should be noted however that the figures for both revenue and expenditure for 1952-3 include a

sum of $100,000,000 which was transferred from the General Revenue Balance to establish a Revenue Equalization Fund. Further contributions to the fund were made in subsequent years and charged to expenditure, and on 31 March 1955 the fund stood at $137,514,761. The General Revenue Balance on the same date was $293,791,762. A statement showing the Assets and Liabilities of the Colony at that date is at Appendix III.

Revenue for 1954-5 exceeded the estimate by $44,972,321. The largest excess, $7,035,171, was due to Estate Duty paid on one very large estate. Another large excess was on Stamp Duty; this amounted to $5,967,498 and was due to greatly increased activity in the property market. Under Revenue Head 1, Duties, three subheads together produced an excess of $9,704,790; they were Import Duty on Hydrocarbon Oils, excess $4,411,374; Import Duty on Tobacco, excess $2,931,744; and Duty on locally-manufactured Liquor, excess $2,361,672. This was closely followed by Head 11, Land Sales, with an excess of $8,614,723, due to greater develop- ment and an increase in land values. Details of the main heads of Revenue are given in Appendix IV.

Expenditure for 1954-5 fell short of the estimate by $14,918,441. The total saving effected under various heads was $60,805,279, this being offset by excesses of $45,886,838 under others. Details of the main heads of Expenditure are given in Appendix V.

The largest excess over the estimate, amounting to $33,047, 137, came under Miscellaneous Services. Of this, two sums, of $14,912,771 and $13,805,922, were in respect of relief

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

and rehabilitation of fire victims and of arrears of salary arising from the 1953 Salaries Revision.

Other major items were Defence, Miscellaneous Measures ($3,909,894), mainly as the result of taking over the remaining stocks of the Supplies Division of the Commerce & Industry Department after the cessation of government trading; Resettlement Department ($3,574,550), being the cost of a new Department formed during the year; and Post Office ($3,234,917), due to increased traffic and higher freight charges.

Development Fund expenditure incurred during the financial year 1954-5 was $1,488,501, and now totals $5,593,500 since the inception of the Fund. In addition, a sum of $842,173 was paid in respect of housing loans and charged to advance accounts.

The Public Debt of the Colony on 31 March 1955 was as follows:

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1934) 31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1940)

31% Rehabilitation Loan (raised in 1947-8)

...

$ 2,600,000 5,186,000 46,666,000

$54,452,000

The two Dollar Loans are each redeemable by twenty-five annual drawings, and the Rehabilitation Loan is covered by a Sinking Fund which on 31 March 1955 stood at $14,106,278, this being the market value of the sterling investments held on behalf of the Fund.

Loans from Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom amounted at the end of the financial year 1954-5 to $1,700,320. Of this sum, $1,333,120 is the amount received up to 31 March 1955 from the $48,000,000 which is to be loaned toward the cost of the development of Kai Tak Airport. The other loan, amounting to $367,200, is made under Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme D. 1967- Loans to Fishermen for Mechanization of Craft. Of this, $319,391 has already been issued to fishermen. For further reference to Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes, see under the Review of the Year.

ΤΑΧΑΤΙΟΝ

Earnings and Profits Tax, which is a substitute for the more orthodox type of income tax, was first imposed by the Inland Revenue Ordinance (Cap. 112) in 1947. It falls into

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

43

four separate taxes. In each case the amount levied is limited to tax on specified income or profits arising in, or derived from, the Colony. The standard rate of tax for the 1955-6 year of assessment is 12%, a rate which has remained unchanged since 1950-1.

The four separate taxes are :

(1) Profits Tax (sub-divided into a Corporation Profits Tax and a Business Profits Tax), charged at the standard rate on all companies or businesses operating in the Colony. In the case of unincorporated businesses, no tax is payable provided their profits do not exceed $7,000. Otherwise tax is payable in full on all Hong Kong profits.

(2) Salaries Tax, charged on all individuals in receipt of income from employment. This is charged at graduated rates, ranging from one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of net chargeable income, to double the standard rate on net chargeable income exceeding $45,000. In arriving at net chargeable income the following allowances are first deducted:

(a) Personal allowance-$7,000.

(b) Allowance for wife-$7,000.

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(c) Child allowance ranging from $2,000 for the first

child to $200 for the ninth child.

The maximum charge, however, is limited to tax at the standard rate on the total assessable income without the deduction of any allowances.

(3) Interest Tax, charged at the standard rate on most interest payments. It is normally collected from the payer of the interest, who deducts it at source from the interest paid.

(4) Property Tax, charged at half the standard rate on the net rateable value of all land and buildings in the Colony.

As an alternative to these separate taxes a resident may elect to be personally assessed on his total Hong Kong income. A single assessment is then made by allowing similar allowances and charging similar rates of tax as in the case of the Salaries Tax. A set-off is then allowed for any of the four separate taxes already paid.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Revenue derived from the four taxes in the 1954-5 year

of assessment was as follows:

Corporation Profits Tax

Business Profits Tax

$54,750,777.98 26,603,250.79

Salaries Tax

Personal Tax

Interest Tax

Property Tax

81,354,028.77

9,505,072.25

2,147,773.16

2,856,921.95

11,803,746.02

$107,667,542.15

Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines at rates varying between 2% (in the case of estates valued between $5,000 and $10,000) and 52% (in the case of estates valued at over $30,000,000). The total revenue received from this duty during 1954-5 was $12,035, 170.

Rates have been levied in the Colony since 1845, when an Ordinance was passed to raise an assessed rate on lands, houses and premises "for the upholding of the requisite Police Force." To-day rates are one of the largest revenue-producing items, the estimate for 1955-6 being over $44,000,000.

The basis of rateable value is the annual letting value of a tenement, by which is meant any land or any building or part thereof held or occupied as a distinct or separate tenancy or under licence from the Crown.

Rates at present are levied in Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon. Until recently a modified form of rating, according to the capital value of buildings, existed in three urban areas of the New Territories. These modifications were repealed in 1954, however, with the inten- tion of gradually extending the urban method of valuing to the New Territories (outside New Kowloon), one area of which has been designated under the Rating (Parts of the Colony) Regulations 1954, and a valuation of the tenements in it ordered for the financial year 1956-7.

In Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon rates are mainly charged at 17 per cent per annum of rateable value, and are payable quarterly in advance. In respect of any new valuation in the New Territories, the corresponding charge will be 11 per cent. The valuations are prepared by the Com- missioner of Rating and Valuation, while demand notes are issued by the Accountant-General for payment at the Treasury. There is provision for a surcharge on any rates in arrears, but the yield from this has been comparatively small.

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45

Import and Excise Duties. There is no general tariff, and for most goods Hong Kong remains a free port, so far as duties levied upon goods for protection or revenue purposes are concerned. There are, however, five groups of commodi- ties, either imported into, or manufactured in, the Colony for local consumption, which are treated as sources of revenue, and upon which duties are levied under the authority of the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet preparations and proprietary medicines, and table waters.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at approximately 80% of the rate for non-Empire produce. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further pre- ferential margin over Empire beer.

In December certain increases were made in liquor duties, largely to compensate for loss of revenue due to the repeal of the Meals and Intoxicating Liquor Tax (a sumptuary tax introduced in the circumstances prevailing immediately after the war and charged at 10% on meals and liquor consumed in restaurants). The duty on locally-brewed beer was raised from $1 to $1.30 a gallon, but no increase was made in the case of imported beer. Duty on whisky and gin of Empire origin was raised from $44 to $53 a gallon, and on non-Empire brandy from $55 to $61 a gallon. On Chinese wine and liquor, the increase was $1 a gallon, making it $6 or $7 depending on origin.

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The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco, to $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and manufacture.

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates are $104 per ton for heavy diesel oil for road vehicles, $26 per ton for other diesel oil, $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b. price ex-shipping port for imported goods, and 25% of the selling price ex-factory for locally-produced goods. The duty on table waters is 48 cents per Imperial gallon.

No dues are levied on exports. Drawback is paid on duty-paid commodities manufactured locally, if exported from the Colony. The number of general bonded and licensed warehouses is adequate.

Chapter 5: Currency and Banking

In 1841, when Hong Kong was founded, China's currency was based on uncoined silver. The normal unit for foreign trade throughout the Far East was the Spanish or Mexican silver dollar, and by a proclamation of 1842 Mexican or "other Republican dollars" were declared to be the Colony's legal tender. Until 1862, however, the Government kept its accounts in sterling, and there were several unsuccessful attempts to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

A mint producing a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar was set up in 1866, but the new coin was not popular and the mint was closed down two years later, the machinery being sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

By an Order of the Queen-in-Council dated 2 February 1895, a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was authorized to be minted in India, and in Hong Kong this gradually replaced the Mexican dollar, although the latter still remained legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver. This gaye Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large, but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes in the Colony, and was followed by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Although not legal tender, these notes became more and more the customary means of payment, because of the incon- venience of dealing with large amounts of silver, and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange, apart from sub- sidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks-the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China,-the Oriental Bank having

CURRENCY AND BANKING

47

closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India having reorganized. In 1911 the reorganized Mercantile Bank of India was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935. Hong Kong followed. By the Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender, in exchange for certificates of indebtedness, all silver previously held by them against their note issues. These certificates, which are non-interest-bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver surrendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in the form of sterling and operates in a similar manner to the normal Colonial Currency Board. The Ordin- ance also made the banknotes legal tender. At the same time the Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation; these are backed by a Note Security Fund, which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins to the value of 5, 10¢ and 50¢.

Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1/3d. sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate, both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31 December 1955 was:

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

Subsidiary notes and coin

EA

726,802, 187

27,691,500

17,238,383

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since. August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications necessitated by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt.

BANKING

The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence from the Governor-in-Council to do so, and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1955 there. were 91 licensed banks, of which 33 were authorized to deal in foreign exchange. A list of these latter is given in Appendix X. Some of these banks have branches or corres- pondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities to the public. Interbank transactions are facilitated by a clearing house association with 51 members. Monthly clearings in 1955 averaged $1,159,666,853.

There are no licensed banks in the New Territories, although there are several towns of a size which in England would have one or more banks. Safe custody for cash is provided by the larger shops; for other banking business it is necessary to travel into Kowloon or Hong Kong.

Chapter 6: Industry and Trade

In the last ten years the pattern of Hong Kong's economy has changed profoundly, and industry which, prior to the Second World War, was only of minor importance, has now assumed the major rôle.

The Colony's first industries were in the nature of services allied to the development of the port. The earliest. was, of course, shipbuilding and repairing. The first locally- built vessel, the Celestial, 80 tons, was launched in 1843. Two sugar refineries were established, the first in 1878, the second in 1882, not so much to satisfy the needs of the then small local population, but the requirements of ships' victualling officers. In 1885 a rope factory was started, again primarily to cater for the seafaring trade. A cement factory was transferred to Hong Kong from Macau in 1899.

At times there were tentative efforts to set up new modern industries, but these faded out, like the spinning mill which was started in 1899 and closed down a few years later. However, some industries obtained a firm foothold, such as the manufacture of rattanware, which started in 1902, and of cotton knitted singlets and vests, which started in 1910. These however flourished more or less unnoticed amid the Colony's growing entrepôt activities.

The first real stirrings in industry occurred during the First World War, and in the years following there was some expansion. A weaving factory, operating 30 hand looms, was established in 1922, and in 1927 the first flashlight factory came into being.

It was the Ottawa Agreement of 1932, under which Hong Kong products became entitled to Imperial Preference, which provided the first major encouragement to local industry, assisting existing manufacturers to seek wider markets for their goods and attracting new investors. Additional stimulus was provided in the first years of the Second World War, when locally-manufactured military and civilian supplies aided the Allied cause. It is estimated that in 1940 there were about 800 factories.

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Factory rehabilitation after almost four years of enemy occupation was rapid, urged on by an acute shortage of goods throughout the whole of war-scarred South-East Asia. A vital year for local industry was 1948, when the influx of refugees from China reached its peak. While most arrived destitute, many brought capital and technical skill which found ready employment in Hong Kong.

When the Korean War and the resultant embargo on trade in strategic materials with China drastically reduced the volume of Hong Kong's commerce, only industrial expansion could ward off the dangers threatening economic stability, and provide employment for a greatly swollen and still increasing population. Local manufacturers reacted quickly to the new situation, and, in spite of difficulties in obtaining certain raw materials, a growing volume and range of Hong Kong goods from many new industries, and from invigorated older ones, began to flow out to the world.

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Today Hong Kong possesses 2,925 registered and recorded factories, employing a labour force of 129,465 workers. In addition to these registered undertakings, there is a very large number of smaller concerns, many of which pursue handicraft activities of a traditionally Chinese charac- ter, some of which have been set up by refugees. It is estimated that just under 200,000 people find employment in these smaller industrial undertakings.

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The variety of goods turned out by local industry is considerable, but, in general, while heavier industries, such as shipbuilding, continue to be important, the Colony has become noted for the price, quality and range of the products of its light industries. Among the most important of these products are cotton piece-goods, cotton yarns, towelling, ready-made garments of all kinds, enamelware, aluminium- ware, torches, torch batteries and bulbs, vacuum flasks, plasticware, paints and varnishes, rubber and leather footwear, and rattanware. Among the traditional Chinese goods produced, brocade piece-goods, embroideries and drawnwork, crocheted gloves and paper novelties are the best-known.

In 1954 exports of local products were valued at £42,617,436. In 1955 this figure rose to £45,644,910, representing 29% of the total value of the Colony's exports. The United Kingdom was the best customer. Although South-East Asian countries are naturally important buyers

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

51

of Hong Kong goods, economic restrictions in some parts of the region and industrialization in others have forced the Colony's merchants and manufacturers to look further afield for new markets.

There is without doubt scope for further industrial development in the Colony, but certain difficulties have to be faced. The first of these is the severe shortage of water. This will be ameliorated to some extent when Tai Lam Chung Reservoir is completed. The second difficulty is a shortage of suitable industrial land in Hong Kong's hilly terrain. In the past much of the Colony's residential and commercial development has been achieved by the simple expedient of excavating hillsides and using the spoil to reclaim land from the sea. This method is being used to make the reclamation at Kun Tong referred to in the Review of the Year, and which will provide within the next few years about 140 acres of land for industrial sites.

Heavy Industries

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The Colony's 21 shipbuilding and repair yards employ over 7,540 workers.

Most of the yards are capable of handling and building small craft, lighters, barges and ferries; but the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd., and the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong, Ltd., which together have an annual building potential of 80,000 gross tons, are equipped with the most up-to-date machinery and have facilities to carry out any major repairs, including the com- plete re-winding of large motors, the balancing of turbine rotors, electrical repairs on any scale, repairs to sanitary and refrigerating systems, and under-water work.

There are six granite dry-docks in the Colony, the largest of which is 787 ft. over-all and 93 ft. 4 ins. wide. There are two stationary hammerhead cranes capable of lifting up to 150 tons. Other facilities available are ocean-going tugs, harbour repair launches, a crane barge equipped with sheer- legs lifting up to 40 tons, and foundries capable of handling castings of up to 30 tons.

During 1955 the two large shipyards carried out repairs on 1,513 vessels, with an aggregate of approx. 7,850,900 gross tons. Apart from repair, the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Company carried out several major reconstructions, including the building of a new and lengthened centre section into an

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

oil tanker, utilizing the existing bow and stern, and the conversion of a second large tanker into an iron ore carrier. The conversion contract, which involved a vessel which lay at the time in dry-dock in Bremen, was secured in the face. of keen competition from European shipyards. The Company also built a number of steel diesel harbour tugs, launches, barges and ferries. The Taikoo Dockyard built and launched two cargo vessels of 5,790 gross tons each, powered by Taikoo- Doxford engines, for the China Navigation Company Ltd., in addition to a number of smaller vessels and lighters.

Among shipyards specializing in small craft, the Hong Kong Transportation Company was awarded a $11,000,000 contract to build 30 oil barges for the Burmese Inland Water Transport Board. From the slipways of the Cheoy Lee Ship- yard came a lighthouse and buoy tender for the Sarawak Government, and police and preventive service launches for the Hong Kong Government.

Other heavy industries in Hong Kong include 14 iron foundries and 4 steel rolling mills, employing altogether 1,280 workers. The rolling mills concentrate principally on the production of steel reinforcing bars from converted steel scrap, which are used in the main to meet the demands of extensive local building projects. The export market for these products has recently increased considerably, due to some mills being able to offer bars conforming to British Standards Specifica- tions. Exports of iron and steel bars and rounds in 1955 were the highest to date, amounting to 268, 140 cwt., valued at £525,410. Thailand and New Zealand were the principal buyers.

Light Industries

The extensive variety and versatility of Hong Kong's light industries are now generally recognized, and the steadily improving quality of the products turned out is emphasized by the growing demand for them in such markets as the United Kingdom.

Textiles. This is the Colony's largest industry, covering all processes from the spinning of cotton, rayon, silk and woollen yarns to weaving, knitting, dyeing and finishing, and the manufacture of all types of garments. There are 727 factories in the industry employing 43,192 workers. The 19 cotton spinning mills employ 13,274 workers. The aggregate number of spindles is 293,052, compared with 247,000 in 1954.

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

53

These mills are among the most modern in the world, producing counts of yarns ranging from IOS to 60s carded and combed, supplied in single or multiple threads. Total monthly output, based on 20s

20s counts, is approximately 10,549,872 lbs., of which a large proportion is taken up locally by knitting and weaving factories. The remainder is exported, principally to Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, the United Kingdom, South Korea, Burma and the Philippines. Exports of cotton yarn in 1955 amounted to 32,351,460 lbs., valued at £6,270,487. A number of the mills are also equipped for weaving with the latest types of automatic loom. There are 51 finishing mills.

In the weaving section of the textile industry there are 146 factories, operating about 6,500 power looms and employ- ing over 8,500 workers. There are also numerous handlooms operating in smaller establishments. Drills and grey sheeting, which form the bulk of the cloth produced, account for 31% of the Colony's textile exports. Other fabrics of importance are shirtings, matts, osnaburgs and towellings. Exports of cotton piece-goods amounted to 164,730,831 square yards, valued at £11,384, 106, with the United Kingdom the principal buyer, and Indonesia and Malaya next in im- portance. Exports of cotton towelling were valued at £823,228.

There are 14 establishments producing brocade piece- goods of traditional Chinese design. The remaining textile concerns include knitting and ready-made garment factories producing underwear and outerwear, gloves, bathing suits, socks, stockings and many other items. Exports of shirts were valued at £4,106,758, cotton singlets at £3,683,991, and gloves at £2,366,651. The United Kingdom was the chief destination for both shirts and gloves.

Footwear. 67 factories, employing 8,584 workers. Rubber footwear, manufactured by 54 of the factories, is one of the Colony's major exports. Products include Wellington boots, plimsolls, and shoes for beach, sports, and house wear. Of high quality, these have met with increasing demand from overseas buyers. 1,594,994 dozen pairs, valued at £3,856,611, were exported in 1955. Principal markets were the United Kingdom and Canada.

The remaining factories turn out a variety of footwear, mainly leather, which finds steady markets, principally in Malaya and Thailand.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Metal Products. 399 factories, employing 17,780 workers. Products are very extensive, including enamelware, aluminiumware, vacuum flasks, needles, nails and screws, hurricane lamps, tin cans, umbrella ribs, and metal windows.

The most important single metal industry is enamelware, in which 32 factories, with 114 furnaces, are engaged. En- dangered by over-expansion since 1954, this industry rallied considerably towards the end of 1955. Principal destinations for Hong Kong enamelware are East and West Africa. Total exports in 1955 were valued at £3,527,660. The principal markets for aluminiumware, chiefly household utensils, are Vietnam, Malaya, Indonesia, Africa and the Philippines. Exports were valued at £610,249.

New ventures in metal products include the manufacture of cigarette lighters and underwater swimming apparatus.

Electric Appliances. Electric hand torches, or flashlights, are manufactured by 34 factories, employing about 5,600 workers. The high standard of workmanship in the industry has attracted keen demand from nearly every major country in the world, the principal buyers being the United States, India, Africa, the United Kingdom, Thailand and Malaya. Apart from many local brands, "Ray-O-Vac" and "Ever- Ready" torches are manufactured under licence. Seamless aluminium torches are a recent development. Exports amount- ed to 3,534,480 dozen, valued at £3,088,259.

Eight factories, employing over 850 workers, manufacture torch batteries, overseas demand for which is increasing. 5,002,960 dozen, valued at £663,682, were exported, Indonesia, Malaya, Vietnam, Thailand, and African countries being the principal buyers. Radio batteries were factured for the first time.

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Thirty factories, employing about 800 workers, manufacture electric bulbs, appliances and the assembly of neon lights. Exports of bulbs amounted to 10,144,601 dozen, valued at £365,658.

Foodstaffs and Beverages. 323 factories, employing over 7,300 workers, are connected with the Colony's large food and beverage industry. The more important of these include 1. sugar refinery; 21 factories preserving and canning vegetables and fruits; 7 preserving ginger; 60 rice and wheat flour mills; 2 meat canning and preserving factories; 59 factories pressing vegetable oils and manufacturing bean curd, soya sauce and

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

55

gourmet powder; 28 soft drinks factories and Chinese wine distilleries; and 1 brewery. The remaining concerns include bakeries, confectioners, etc.

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In the food industry the Colony is possibly best known for high-quality refined sugar. Two small concerns engaged in processing sugar, but the refinery, the Taikoo Sugar Refining Co. Ltd., is capable of refining 1,000 tons of sugar a week, and apart from high-grade refined crystals, granulated and soft sugars, it also produces half cubes, icing, castor, golden coffee crystals and golden syrup. Total exports, of refined sugar amounted to 47,376 tons, valued at £2,011,347. Malaya, Vietnam, South Korea and Macau were the principal buyers.

Total exports of foodstuffs and beverages were valued at £1,001,914.

Paints, Varnishes, Enamels and Lacquers. 9 concerns, employing over 460 workers. The bulk of production is consumed locally, but overseas interest is growing. Exports totalled 4,402 tons, valued at £773,586.

Plastic Ware. 65 factories, employing 1,491 workers, and in many cases using up-to-date production techniques. Much of the machinery used is made locally. Products include tooth- brushes, mugs, plates, combs, coat-hangers, cigarette cases, electric fittings, plastic-coated rattan, signboards, chopsticks, mahjong sets, toys and buttons. An important development within the industry is the use of polythene. Household utensils and seamless bottles in this pliant material are now available.

Exports were valued at £492,553, the principal markets being Malaya, Africa, Middle and Near East countries, Burma, the Philippines, and the West Indies.

Hats. 120 factories, employing about 3,400 workers, manufacture waterproof hats, sun hats, topees, straw hats, caps and, most important, felt hats. In this last line alone there are 25 factories. Exports of felt hats amounted to 248,449 dozen, valued at £251,979. Principal markets were Thailand, Malaya, Burma, India, and African countries. Exports of all other hats were valued at £405,446.

Cordage, Rope and Twine. 42 concerns, employing about 935 workers. The majority cater only for local needs, but the larger, such as the Hong Kong Rope Manufacturing Company, established in 1885, supply cables and ropes not only to the many ships which call at Hong Kong, but also

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

for export to many parts of the world. Exports were valued at £103,227, the principal buyers being Western Germany, Thailand and Malaya.

Cement. The Green Island Cement Co. Ltd., employing about 260 workers, manufactures cement chiefly for local use, but 1,036,191 cwt., valued at £396,821, was exported to North Borneo, South Korea, Malaya and other countries.

Cigars and cigarettes, manufactured from imported tobacco by 6 factories, employing over 1,140 workers, and using modern machinery. The bulk of production is consumed locally, but 146,209 lbs. of cigarettes, valued at £42,703, were exported, Macau and Indonesia being the principal buyers.

Matches. 4 factories, employing about 680 workers, with steady markets in Malaya, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, and Middle and Near East countries. Exports amounted to 15, 120 cases, valued at £144,032.

Among the many other local industries, sawmills and the manufacture of wooden articles employ 1,717 workers; print- ing, publishing and paper dyeing, 7,235 workers; chemicals and cosmetics, 1,889; glass, pottery, clay and abrasives, 2,052.

TRADE

Tables showing the value of imports from and exports to the principal countries trading with the Colony, and the main commodities concerned, with comparative figures for 1953 and 1954, are at Appendices VII, VIII, IX and X.

The total value of the Colony's external trade in 1955 increased by 7%, and was reflected in cargo tonnage, which rose to 5,896,367 tons, compared with 5,176,256 tons in 1954.

The value of exports of Hong Kong products again. increased, compensating to some extent for the restricted and declining export trade with China. Imports from China increased in value by 30%, and considerable increases were also registered in imports from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and Thailand. Exports, including re- exports, to China and Taiwan showed a reduction of more than 50%, but exports increased to the United Kingdom (55% higher than in 1954), Malaya, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, and the United States.

The rise in imports from the United Kingdom was due. principally to increased purchases of textile fibres, metals,

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

57

machinery, and transport equipment, and in exports the commodities chiefly responsible were, as indicated earlier, locally-manufactured textiles, clothes and footwear.

The principal imports from China to rise in value were foodstuffs, textiles, oilseeds and paper. The exports which fell off were chiefly dyes, medicinal products, and fertilizers.

The United States Foreign Assets Control Regulations continued to affect exports of local products, and additional items were released for export under agreed certification procedures.

The United Kingdom increased her imports of local products by 86% over the value figure for the previous year-75m. to $139.5m.-and was the best market for local manufactures. Indo-China, Malaya and Thailand also increased their purchases of Hong Kong products.

The principal local products exported, in order of value, were cotton piece-goods, cotton yarns, footwear, shirts, cotton singlets, enamelware and electric torches.

TRADE PROMOTION

Hong Kong's participation in the British Industries Fair proved to be the most successful since the Colony first took part in 1948. The number of enquiries received totalled 998 (350 more than in 1954), and covered most of the wide range of local products. 70% of the enquiries were from buyers in the United Kingdom.

A comprehensive Colony exhibit was displayed at the 8th Canadian International Trade Fair at Toronto, Hong Kong's first official participation in a fair in that country. The Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers' Union sent dis- plays of local products to centres in South-East Asia, the most successful being a display organized in Singapore. The Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce did some useful trade promotion by organizing a display at the Junior Chamber International 10th World Congress held in Edin- burgh in November, at which a young Hong Kong business man, Mr. A. de O. Sales, was elected World President of J. C. I. for 1956.

The Department of Commerce and Industry, through its Trade Division, has the prime responsibility of making the Colony's manufacturing and trading potentialities more.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

widely known. Its "Trade Bulletin", of which 8,000 free copies are sent each month to overseas addresses, has proved a valuable medium, and has been supplemented by the first edition of "Commerce, Industry, Finance", a pictorial commercial guide and business directory of the Colony, also published by the Department. 18,000 copies of this directory were made available for free distribution overseas, and received favourable reviews in a number of overseas trade journals.

The Director of Commerce and Industry is additionally responsible for Government bulk purchases of firewood and certain foodstuffs, and control over stocks of reserved com- modities, industrial development, trade development and certificates of origin, trade licensing, the collection of revenue from business registration and import and excise duties, the activities of the Preventive Service, and the production of statistics required by any Department of Government.

In 1955 an officer of the Department was sent on a study course of industrial management and planning in the United Kingdom, with a view to extending the Department's activities by giving general assistance to local manufacturers in improving their production methods and in catering for overseas requirements.

Handicrafts or home industries are not formally organized, neither do they receive any special encouragement from the Government as compared with other industries.

No special benefits are available to industry by way of income tax or import duty concessions. Apart from a few revenue-producing duties, the Colony is a free port and government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

All businesses are required to register with the Department of Commerce and Industry under the Business Regulation Ordinance, 1952, the annual fee for a business registration certificate being $200.

The vast majority of industrial concerns are owned and operated by the Colony's Chinese residents.

A new idea for Hong Kong in the field of trade promotion, made possible by the generous cooperation of Royal Interocean Lines, was the installation of a display of local products aboard the m.v. Ruys, on the Hong Kong- South Africa South America run. Many United Kingdom

INDUSTRY AND TRADE

59

newspapers commented on the Colony's floating showcase, and reports indicate that it has been of interest to business- men at ports of call. Further displays are being installed in other vessels.

The Department persevered in its efforts to enhance the status of Hong Kong Government Certificates of Origin, which are required by the customs authorities of many countries as proof of local manufacture. A strict surveillance was maintained throughout the year over factories eligible to receive such certificates, and in the few instances where irregularities occurred the offenders were prosecuted. A close liaison was maintained in this connexion between the Department and overseas customs authorities. The latter were encouraged, when necessary, to send samples of ship- ments for checking in the Department and were readily furnished with information regarding standards of produc- tion in particular industries in Hong Kong.

Two developments merit attention. The first was the formation of the Hong Kong Exporters' Association, composed of merchants and manufacturers anxious to protect the Colony's reputation for fair trading and preserve the goodwill of overseas buyers by ensuring that all shipments made by member firms of the Association conform strictly to sample. The second was the combining of local spinning mills into the Hong Kong Cotton Spinners' Association, which includes among its objectives the origination and promotion of improvements in the industry, already a model industry in Hong Kong with up-to-date plant and excellent welfare facilities.

The Secretary of State for the Colonies, during his visit in August, visited three factories and saw examples of the manufacture of cotton piece-goods, buttons, and woollen gloves. He expressed keen interest in the Colony's industrial development, a sympathetic understanding of its problems, and confidence in its future.

Another important visitor during the year was Mr. C. Henniker-Heaton, Director of the Federation of Master Cotton Spinners' Associations Ltd. in the United Kingdom, who spent some days in the Colony in May in order to study economic conditions and the development of the textile. industry. Every effort was made to give Mr. Henniker- Heaton a comprehensive picture of local textile production and the Colony's many problems. He was conducted round

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four spinning mills and held discussions with representatives of the Hong Kong Cotton Spinners' Association and with government officials.

TRADE CONTROL

In May, as a result of improved anti-smuggling export controls, it became possible to abolish the Essential Supplies Certificates system of internal control, thus simplifying importing procedure. Import controls over strategic materials were maintained on a quantitative basis, and in December import restrictions over a large number of minor strategic items were considerably eased to permit importers to hold larger stocks. Export controls over strategic items remained unchanged, except that a few special shipments were per- mitted under internationally agreed procedures where the end-use of the commodity was of no strategic significance.

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OVERSEAS REPRESENTATION

There is a Hong Kong Government Office in London, administered by a Director and situated in Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, W.C.2., and there is a Hong Kong Section, under a Representative with the rank of First Secretary, in the British Embassy, Tokyo.

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Among Commonwealth countries, India is represented in Hong Kong by a Commissioner, and Canada and Australia by Trade Commissioners. There is also a United Kingdom Trade Commissioner. Consulates-General maintained by Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Indo- nesia, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Panama, Thailand and the United States. Consulates are maintained by Argentina, Norway, Paraguay, the Philippines, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Vietnam. The consular representa- tives of Czechoslovakia, Mexico, Poland, Spain and Turkey, resident in London, and the Israel Trade Commissioner, resident in Bombay, have jurisdiction extending to Hong Kong. Austria, Burma, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominica, Finland, Greece, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Spain and Uruguay have Honorary Consuls resident in Hong Kong.

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The Expanding Pattern of Industry

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Hong Kong's swing from entrepôt trade to industry has been so rapid that many countries find it difficult to believe that the trademark "Made in Hong Kong" is genuine. Industry is already the Colony's largest employer and source of livelihood, and it is growing rapidly. This photograph shows the framework being erected for the annual manufacturing exhibition which has now become a fixture in the industrial life of the East.

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Gainsborough Studio

Ship-repairing is still the largest single industry, and the Colony's two large dockyards, where the top pictures on this and the opposite page were taken, are among the best-equipped in Asia.

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IBR

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港公

Gainsborough Studio

The scope of the Colony's manufactures is widening with astonishing speed. Rope is an important item, and the picture below shows factory girls pressing out metal parts for the spring mechanism of umbrellas.

G SUB

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7

Tin Kung

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Roy Tsang

foo

Two of Hong Kong's most active industries with the widest markets. Above, painting designs on enamelware and, below, assembling vacuum flasks on the last stage before export.

the

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Chapter 7: Production

LAND TENURE

All land in the Colony is held on leasehold tenure granted by the Crown. With one or two rare exceptions, such as some of the existing holdings of the naval and military authorities and the precinct of St. John's Cathedral, there is no freehold tenure.

In the early days of the Colony, leases were granted for 75, 99 or 999 years. The present practice is for leases to be granted for 75 years, renewable for a further 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. In the New Territories, in order to coincide with the period of the lease from China, which will expire on 30 June 1997, Crown leases are con- ventionally expressed as being for the residue of a term of 75 years from 1 July 1898, renewable for a further 24 years, less the last three days.

Land administration in Hong Kong and Kowloon is the responsibility of the Director of Public Works, who is concurrently the Building Authority. The Director also controls New Kowloon, which is that part of the New Territories situated immediately north of Boundary Street, Kowloon, and south of the Kowloon hills. The District Commissioner, New Territories, is responsible for land administration throughout the rest of the New Territories. Records of land grants by the Crown and of all private land transactions are kept in the Registrar-General's Department (see under Law and Order) for Hong Kong and Kowloon, and in the three District Offices, situated in Kowloon, Taipo and Ping Shan, for the whole of the New Territories, with the exception of certain lots which are administered by the Director of Public Works and are usually known as Inland Lots. These cover a large part of New Kowloon. Deeds relating to these are recorded in the Registrar-General's Department.

In recent years, certain groups of the 75-year Crown leases granted in the Colony's early years, and chiefly affecting land in Kowloon, have reached their expiry dates. Public statements of Government policy in regard to the terms and conditions under which new Crown leases would

!

:

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

be granted were made in 1946 and 1949. Terms and condi- tions for new leases have already been agreed in a large number of cases, and other leases will become due for renewal in rapidly increasing numbers as further categories fall due. During the financial year 1954-5 revenue from renewals of this type of lease was $1,239,070. A further statement in 1952 intimated that the Government would be prepared to pay ex-gratia compensation for buildings law- fully erected on certain Kowloon lots, the leases of which could not be renewed owing to town planning requirements, and provision is made for possession of such lots to be retained until the land is required by Government.

The Government's general policy is to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction. In certain instances land required for public utilities is sold by private treaty. Land for schools, clinics and certain other charitable pur- poses is usually sold by private treaty at preferential rates, varying from a purely nominal figure up to the current market value.

Revenue obtained during the financial year 1954-5 from the sale of land by auction amounted to $6,156,000, while that arising from sale by private treaty, extensions of area, and grants in exchange was $4,537,000.

Since 1948, with the approval of the Secretary of State, certain grants of land have, as a special measure and under certain conditions, been made by private treaty at roughly half the market value for the provision of cheap housing and for factory workers' quarters. See also the Housing Chapter.

Policy concerning the sale or grant of Crown land is governed not so much by the availability as by the scarcity of all types of land. In order to ensure that available Crown land is put to the best possible use, all sales or grants are subject to a covenant wherein the lessee undertakes to develop the lot up to a certain rateable value within a specified period, the amount of expenditure depending on the location and type of development allowed. In addition to the covenant, leases contain clauses controlling the use to which land may be put, in accordance with town plan- ning. They also provide for the annual payment of Crown rent which is, however, relatively low compared with the annual economic value of the land. Until the lessee has

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63

fulfilled the building covenant, he is not permitted to sell or mortgage the property; but once he has fulfilled it, he is free of these particular restrictions, except where land has been sold by private treaty at a preferential rate. In cases of this type, the lessee is required not to dispose of the property. If he ceases to use it for its authorized purpose, it reverts to the Crown.

The basic principle behind the disposal of Crown land is that the maximum use shall be made of it, either indus- trially, or for the provision of the greatest possible amount of living space compatible with town planning. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, usually because public services are not yet available or because a site is reserved for some future purpose, the land is not left empty or unused, but is granted on a temporary annual licence. This policy particularly facilitates the development of small industries. The 1954-5 revenue from such licences was $3,379,368.

New development programmes often involve the resump- tion of small agricultural lots. In general the Government's policy is to pay cash compensation for such resumptions, although occasionally other land is granted in exchange.

Shortly after the New Territories were incorporated into the Colony a Land Court was set up to hear the inhabitants' claims to tenure of land, and all existing tenures thereby established were confirmed by the Hong Kong Government and recorded in a single Block Crown Lease. Such holdings. are known as Old Schedule Lots. The Land Court completed its work in 1905. All land not recorded in the Block Crown Lease was deemed to be unleased Crown Land, leases of which might be sold at public auction, as in Hong Kong and Kowloon. New Territories lands thus acquired are known as New Grant Lots.

Most of the land in the New Territories is separately classified as either agricultural land or building land, and permission has to be obtained from the New Territories Administration for permission to convert land from one status to the other. In general when applications are received to convert land to building status the Administration re- quires the lessee to surrender his lots and receive in exchange a smaller area of equivalent value in building status. Minor buildings, such as watchmen's sheds, pigstyes etc., i.e.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

buildings definitely concerned with farming, are usually allowed to be erected on agricultural land. In cases where the owner of an Old Schedule Lot in agricultural status wishes to erect a house of traditional Chinese construction this is usually permitted without payment of a premium, provided the building will not interfere with any rural development or country town plan.

New Territories land policy follows the same general lines as that for the urban area, particularly in the towns and in areas required for industrial development. In the more rural parts, the New Territories Administration is primarily concerned with preserving a balance between the sometimes conflicting needs of agricultural production on one side, and of urban development on the other. Some consideration has to be taken of the fact that much of the best land is owned by clans established in the area for hundreds of years. By tradition a proportion of the rent. raised from clan land is set aside by the clans themselves for the upkeep of ancestral halls and observances, for pur- poses of clan welfare, and the maintenance of schools.

Such land may not be disposed of without the written. consent of all the clan members, sometimes numbering many hundreds, and the permission of the District Officer, who will not allow the clan holding to be reduced unless he is satisfied that it is in the best interests of the clan, and of the neighbourhood.

Rents and values of agricultural land in the New Terri- tories are customarily reckoned in paddy--convertible into money, in case a crop other than rice is grown, at the market rate of a specified variety. Crown Rents, however, are col- lected in cash at a rate fixed when the lease was granted. Most Crown Rents have thus progressively declined in relation to the customary value of agricultural land, and in some cases are now hardly worth the trouble of collection.

An average rent for rice land would be about 1,600 lbs. of paddy per acre per annum, or about 40% of the total annual yield from two crops. Though much of the land is owned by clans, individual holdings are uniformly small, averaging about 2 acres. There are very few farmers who cultivate more than 5 acres. Where land is rented it is usually on annual tenancy, and often the arrangement between landlord and tenant is verbal.

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65

The principal laws relating to land are the Buildings Ordinance (Cap. 123), the Town Planning Ordinance (Cap. 131), and the New Territories Ordinance (Cap. 97). In addition there are important General and Special Conditions of Sale relating to all land in Hong Kong and Kowloon and (in the New Territories) to all New Grant Lots. These Conditions vary according to the nature and position of the lots concerned, and are laid down, in their respective areas, by the Director of Public Works or the District Commissioner, New Territories.

LAND UTILIZATION

A survey made by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in 1954 showed that 13% (about 30,000 acres) of the total land area of the Colony was being used for agriculture and animal industries. The nature of the terrain precludes any extensive development of agricul- ture in new areas, but there is a certain amount of land formerly cultivated which, due to circumstances described in the New Territories section of the chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization, has been allowed to become waste. If these lands, and other small marginal tracts, can be re-opened for cultivation, it is estimated that the amount of agricultural land could be enlarged by 10,000 acres from 13% to 16% of the Colony's total area. The most practical form which planned land utilization can take in the very much larger parts of the rural zone which, due to steep hills, poor soil and absence of water, are unsuitable for agriculture, is afforestation. It is estimated that over 70,000 acres can, with time and persistence, be planted with

trees.

Against this must be the set the demands of a pre- dominantly urban colony with a rapidly rising population and a basis of economy that is becoming increasingly industrial. Urban industry is now Hong Kong's foremost employer and source of livelihood, and industries need land. Wherever possible, factories and urban extensions in country zones are concentrated on land reclaimed from the sea-as at Kun Tong and Tsun Wan,--but towns such as Yuen Long, Taipo and Shatin are all expanding, and it is unavoidable that in the process fields in the close vicinity

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of towns will be lost to agriculture. The land policy of the New Territories Administration restricts the process as far as is reasonably possible, but each year's figures of agricul- tural acreage emphasize the struggle between the demands of town and country.

During 1955 it is estimated that the total area under cultivation remained unchanged, but this was only achieved because the decreases in cultivated land near towns were statistically compensated for by the re-opening of neglected land on hills and in less accessible areas. It cannot be expected that this balance will be maintained indefinitely.

Indispensable adjuncts to the agricultural development of neglected land are improved communications and irriga- tion. Here the Government is receiving considerable assist- ance from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds (see Review of the Year), and from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association. The parts of the New Territories particu- larly in need are the Shataukok and Saikung regions, and Lantao Island.

There is a Rural Development Committee, appointed by the Governor in June 1954, with official and unofficial mem- bers, under the chairmanship of the District Commissioner, New Territories. Its duties are to advise the Government on all matters relating to New Territories development, in particular to the extension of agricultural credit and the preparation of Colonial Development and Welfare schemes.

AGRICULTURE

The annual production of milled rice in the New Terri- tories is estimated at 17,680 metric tons, about enough to feed the whole population of the Colony for a month. The next largest crop is vegetables, some production figures of which are given below, under Marketing. It is estimated that the Colony produces about 65% of all the vegetables it consumes. Sweet potatoes are the most important winter crop, and small quantities of sugar-cane, groundnuts and millet are also grown in season. There is a certain amount of fruit-growing, the principal fruit trees being listed in the Flora section of the chapter on Geography and Climate.

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67

As a result of restrictions on the export of certain products from China to the United States, New Territories farmers have developed a few export crops, such as water chestnuts and prepared vegetable and fruit products; but the increasing local demand for home-grown food limits the area that can be brought under export crops. This new development has, however, brought ready cash in certain zones, and broadened the economy of subsistence farming.

Ploughs, harrows, and hand-tools are of local origin and give good service. There is nothing to be gained by adopting costly western tractors and implements.

Where possible, two crops of rice are grown on irrigated land. The yield ranges from 30 times the seed on the best land, to 4 times on thin hill soils. In places with access to town, vegetables are often grown on a portion of the fallow, following the second rice crop. In other areas, after the second crop the land is spelled by adopting a form of land rotation for the area under catch-crops. The greater use of fallow land for catch-cropping depends on water supply and maintaining the soil's fertility by artificial means. Chemical fertilizers are used when they can be afforded, but on the whole reliance is placed on traditional fertilizers, such as nightsoil, bone meal, ashes, duck feathers, meal cakes and dried pulverized animal manure. Vegetable farmers (many of them immigrants who do not own paddy land) usually cultivate very small areas, seldom more than one acre, and depend entirely on fertilizers in order to make intensive use of their plots.

1955, due to the weather, was a particularly difficult year for farmers. In January there occurred the coldest spell in 50 years; heavy frost damaged sweet potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and other less frost-resistant vegetables. The pro- longed drought that followed held up the sowing and transplanting of the year's first rice crop, and in the torrential downpours which came when the drought finally broke, large areas were flooded at Sheung Shui, Yuen Long, San Tin, Chuk Yuen, Shui Pin Wai, and Lam Ti, causing further losses of rice and vegetable crops. Added to this, much of the paddy was attacked by stem borers. It is estimated that the average loss on the first crop, due to these various reasons, was over 30%.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

216 acres were under water-chestnuts for export to the United States. This is an increase of 64.8% over the previous year. The average yield is 30 piculs per tauchung (10.7 tons per acre) and the cash return $40-45 per picul (304 to 33.7¢ per lb.). The crop is grown under the same conditions as rice and supplants the second rice crop.

Animals

Pigs and all kinds of poultry, including quail, are the principal food animals reared. The hill country is too steep and too small in area to support grazing animals such as beef-cattle or sheep. The local cattle (used for draft and beef, but not for milk) are small hardy animals, suited for work in the small terraced fields typical of a large part of the Colony's cultivated area.

Recent estimates of the animal population of the Colony

are :

Cattle and buffalo

(working animals) ....

9,000

Dairy cattle

2,800

Pigs

50,000

Fowl

500,000

Ducks

100,000

Quail

85,000

Pigeons

Geese

Turkeys

LIB

Goats

Rabbits

22,000

1,000 $1,000

300

2,000

There is one large dairy farm and several smaller ones. Dairy cattle are mainly Holstein, Ayrshire, and Shorthorns, originally imported from Australia, the United Kingdom and Canada, and revived from time to time by the importation. of fresh stock. The animals are stall-fed and rarely leave their byres. Production is maintained by the feeding of imported fodder and concentrates, supplemented by locally-grown guinea grass. All animals are tested for freedom from tuber- culosis, but only a few of the larger farms maintain tubercle- free herds.

Specialist breeders are responsible for most of the pig and poultry raising, which is on the intensive system. There is scope for rearing more pigs and poultry among small farmers, but hitherto farmers whose main crop is rice have

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shown little inclination towards systematic animal-rearing. This is partly due to lack of capital, shortage of locally- obtainable feed, and lack of experience in animal husbandry; but the fact that many villages have hitherto depended partly on remittances from abroad is another important factor which should not be overlooked, and which is discussed in the New Territories section of the chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization. Loans from Government sources, and loans and grants from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, are beginning to bring a significant change here. Local pork production, which at present stands at about 12% of requirement, is increasing, primarily due to this assistance, and to work done by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry in improving husbandry methods, controlling disease, providing boar centres, and organizing extension work amongst small farmers. Pork, however, is a most im- portant item in Hong Kong's daily diet, and for it the Colony depends on the import from China of live pigs, over 500,000 of which are brought in annually.

For eggs the Colony again depends a good deal on imports from China, but there are several large egg 'farms in the Colony, with imported birds, mostly White Leghorns. A steady demand for poultry meat is being increasingly met from local resources. There is also an overseas demand for dried and smoked ducks, and for preserved eggs. This has led to an extension of duck-raising in marshy areas.

The meat consumed in the Colony is mainly imported on the hoof and during the year there has been an increase in the numbers of pigs, cattle and buffaloes passing through the slaughterhouses. Among inedible livestock products, hides, pig bristles, and bone meal form the largest items, mainly imported from South-East Asia for re-export to Europe and the Middle East.

Foot-and-mouth disease, which first appeared in 1954, has practically died out in the farming areas, although many cases of the disease are discovered amongst freshly imported slaughter stock in the quarantine yards. Government measures are taken to keep the Colony free of rinderpest by annual inoculation of all bovine stock. Newcastle disease of poultry, although still taking a heavy toll, is now kept under control by

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

inoculation. Some 2,000,000 doses of vaccine are used annually.

FISHERIES

Marine fish is the primary product of Hong Kong, and the fishing fleet is the largest of any port in the Colonies. It consists of over 6,000 junks, of various sizes and designs, and 31 Japanese-type trawlers, 12 of which are of British registry. They are manned by a sea fishing population of approx. 56,000, chiefly Tanka, operating from various ports. and fishing centres, the most important of which are Aberdeen and Shaukiwan (on Hong Kong Island), Cheung Chau, Tai O, Taipo and Saikung.

Junks are built locally from imported timber, of which China fir is the most popular. Due to continued shortages of this, however, more teak and yacal have been used. About 95% of the fleet is owner-operated, the rest being owner- directed, by fish dealers and fishing companies.

The inshore fishing grounds for purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and small liners are confined to the waters up to 20 fathom South of the Colony. Trawlers and long liners operate in waters from 30-65 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung, from 111° 30' to 116° E. and 20° 15′ to 22° 30′ N. A large number of the deep-sea vessels are sailing craft, and during the typhoon season, from July to October, their crews occupy themselves with repairing junks, nets, rigging, sails and equipment.

I

The mechanized junk fleet increased from 702 to 890 vessels in 1955, the major increases being among shrimp trawlers, small long liners and purse seine net boats. Despite this, however, the total quantity of fish landed was only 40,333 tons, as compared with 39,510 tons in 1954. This was mainly due to the poor season experienced by the purse seine net fishermen.

Oyster-beds and fishponds

Oyster culture in this region has a tradition of 700 years behind it. At present the principal area concerned is Deep Bay, where, with assistance from the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, important improvements

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71

are being made in oyster culture methods. The area con- centrated on consists of 4,575 acres on the New Territories side of the Bay. Three areas of 10 acres each have been taken over by the Department, and following demonstrations of the Japanese hanging-drop method of culture (a consider- able improvement on local traditional methods), the acreage under cultivation is now being gradually extended into deeper water. Annual production, valued at $1,400,000, is about 1,000 tons of fresh oyster meat, the bulk of which is processed into dried meat and into juice, for export.

In Tolo Harbour attempts are being made to introduce edible oysters, and two varieties of pearl oyster are under observation.

There are about 500 acres of ponds used for fish farming, producing annually about 350 tons of carp and mullet. After three successive years of experimenting on raising carp in rice-fields, it is now considered that, for various reasons, this form of culture is not at present suited to local farming requirements.

Dealers exported 22m. fish fry by air and sea, the main destinations being Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan and Japan.

Further statistical data on the fishing industry are given below, under Marketing.

FORESTRY

Forestry plays a dual rôle in Hong Kong. In the catch- ment areas of the Colony's ever-expanding water supply system, a thick forest cover is essential to prevent erosion and silting of reservoirs, and to promote regularity of stream- flow by inducing maximum retention of water in the soil. In other areas, well-managed village forests can provide the rural population with an added source of income from the sale of timber, as well as with stakes for agricultural purposes and small timber for the construction of houses and animal pens. The chief rural fuel is grass.

The Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is the prime mover in all that concerns afforestation.

To meet the needs of an increased planting programme, started in 1954, the Division continued its training of senior staff and the establishment of nurseries and district forest

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

centres, virtually completing the reorganization which the new programme entailed. A manual of instructions for forestry staff was prepared with the aim of coordinating work throughout the districts; species trials continued; and plans were drawn up for establishing 1,000 acres of new plantations in 1956, including for the first time an area on Lantao Island. At the same time, efforts were made to attract villagers to the new scheme of assistance for the planting of village forestry lots, and to extend amenity planting throughout the New Territories.

Tai Lung Nursery-a new 23-acre forest nursery near Fanling, the formation of which began in July 1954, was practically completed by the end of 1955. This nursery has been laid out with an integrated system of internal roads, piped water supply, nursery buildings, stores, offices and staff quarters, for the economical production of 1,000,000 plants annually. Already well stocked, it will come into full production in 1956.

Planting work is best carried out during the cooler wet weather of spring and early summer. 1955 was not a favour- able year, due to the early drought, and the bulk of the planting had to be delayed until the heavy rains and hot weather of June and July. Frequent replanting was necessary, and because of unfavourable weather and limited supplies of planting material, it was not possible to reach the target of 850 acres of new plantations for 1955. Just over 700 acres were planted, and in some cases repeatedly replanted, giving however a fair measure of success in spite of adverse conditions. Planting continued in the catchment areas of the Jubilee, Tai Lam Chung and Kowloon Reservoirs, at Taipo Kau Forest Reserve, and also in a new area, to be known as Pat Heung Forest Reserve, which extends from Sek Kong westward to join the Tai Lam Chung catchment area, to which it will be linked by catchwater.

The scheme of assistance to village forestry was revised in 1954 to make it more attractive to villagers. The Forestry Division now offers full assistance to villagers to establish on their lots a small trial area of 5-10 acres, showing the advantages of correct forestry techniques and the most suitable tree species. The response has been good, and trial plantations of this kind were established on a number of lots

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73

in the Saikung region and, for the first time, in other areas- including Castle Peak and Pat Heung. It is hoped that interest will continue to spread, and that, as the lessons of good forest management are learned, country people will be able to carry on profitable forestry with the minimum of help and advice from the Division's staff.

In January a serious fire broke out in the Shing Mun area (Jubilee Reservoir) during the drought, and rapidly spread over an area two miles long, threatening nearly 1,000 acres of young plantation. It burned from midday until the next morning, and it was only by the most persistent efforts of a large section of the forestry staff that it was brought under control and damage restricted to 135 acres. This serious loss drew attention to the dangers of fire in the increasing areas of new plantation, and plans for adequate fire control, started in 1954, were brought into effect before the end of 1955. A system of paths and fire barriers was made in each forest area; new fire look-outs were brought into use; field telephones were obtained for rapid spotting and reporting of fires; portable fire pumps were obtained from the U.S.A., and a publicity campaign appealing to the public to avoid careless fires and "Keep Hong Kong Green" was planned. In this way it is hoped to prevent serious fire losses in future. Protection against illegal woodcutting continued, but damage from this source was insignificant.

Apart from Government work in afforestation, the only large-scale forest project in the Colony is a scheme started in 1953 by the Lantao Development Company in a pre- dominantly upland area in the hinterland of Tai Pak, a small village on the east coast of Lantao. This is the Colony's first commercial venture in forestry, and its promoters are working to a ten-year programme of planting; in addition to the standard varieties, Australian hoop pine is being introduced.

ADMINISTRATION AND POLICY

The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry was founded in 1950, and now consists of four divisions : Agriculture, Animal Industries, Fisheries (marine and fresh- water) and Forestry. It has expanded rapidly since 1953, and its overall policy is to protect and develop plant and animal

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

resources. The Department gives technical advice and assistance to farmers, fishermen, administrators and others, and, by afforestation and the teaching and demonstration of approved farming and forestry practices, encourages the conservation of vital water supplies, soil and soil fertility. The Director of the Department is a member of the Rural Development Committee, referred to earlier, under Land Utilization. Each Division is under a fully-qualified technical officer, and the staff includes 18 assistants and supervisors. holding degrees from various Chinese universities.

A broad policy for the development of agriculture and animal industries was submitted to the Government by the Director and accepted in principle towards the close of the year. This policy envisages the improvement of irrigation and communications throughout the New Territories, planned settlement of undeveloped land, the diversification of farming to include the extension of animal industries, a soil survey of the Colony, and planned experimental work directed to the introduction of new crops, the improvement of existing crop varieties, soil fertility, and the control of pests and diseases of crops and animals. The Division of Animal Industries, which is a new development, became responsible for all animal husbandry and disease control work.

The headquarters of the department is at Laichikok, and there are eight agricultural stations, at Castle Peak, Tsun Wan, Sheung Shui, Taipo, Shatin and Saikung, on Taimoshan, and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantao Island. Forestry district headquarters and nurseries are strategically placed for afforestation and protection, and fisheries centres are located at Aberdeen, Shaukiwan, Taipo and Kam Tin. A fishing centre at Cheung Chau was completed in 1955, and a new centre is contemplated for Saikung.

The Agriculture Division carried out investigation work on crops, including variety trials, seed selection, soil fertility studies, manurial trials, and pest and disease control, at Castle Peak Main Station and Sheung Shui Vegetable Station. Extension, advice, educational and observation work on crops. and animal husbandry are the functions of district agricultural officers operating from the district stations. The extension staff is aided by two teams concerned with pest control and survey duties.

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75

The Animal Industries Division is concerned with pig and poultry breeding work at Castle Peak, Sheung Shui Pig Station, and Saikung Agricultural Station. More attention is now being given to local breeds of poultry and pig stock, to the White Leghorn as an egg-producer, and the Japanese Middle White and Berkshire pig breeds. This is the result of four years of study of many imported breeds in the light of market requirements. The division is also responsible for animal disease control, and investigations into animal diseases and animal husbandry.

The Fisheries Division carried out experimental fishing from the motor research trawler Alister Hardy, with an otter trawl and a Danish seine, in cooperation with the Fisheries Research Unit of Hong Kong University. The Division's 30-foot fishing boat continued to be used for demonstration shrimp beam trawling, inshore otter trawling and purse seining. Nylon nets were introduced to fishermen, and experiments were made on the preservation of ramie and cotton fishing nets. With the help of the Marine Department, plans for a second 30-foot boat, with a much-improved hull form and embodying many changes in general arrangement (all of which could be adopted with advantage by fishermen), were completed at the end of the year. This vessel, which will be constructed in a primitiye junk-building yard from templets provided by the Division, will be used to demonstrate the use of the Norwegian mechanical net roller. This will make it possible for purse seiner fishermen to operate a net approximately four times the size of their present nets. Other activities of the Fisheries Division include a scheme for loans to fishermen for winches and for mechanization of their junks, financed by Colonial Development and Welfare. 75 loans, varying from $600 to $10,000 each, were made. A fisheries exhibition was held in January, at which diesel engines, fishing gear and other equipment were displayed. The exhibition was visited by nearly 80,000 persons. Training facilities for fishermen continued to be provided. 134 coxswains, 25 engineers, and 11 skippers of British-registered trawlers passed examinations set by the Marine Department, and were granted Certificates of Competency.

The Forestry Division's activities are described above, under Forestry.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association, working! closely with the Department, continued to give invaluable practical assistance in agricultural development. Village= requirements for the construction or repair of wells, dams, irrigation channels, paths and bridges were investigated by the District Officers of the three districts into which the New Territories are divided, and in all cases where assistance seemed warranted, but which were beyond the capacity of the local public works vote operated by the New Territories Administration, the requirements were referred to the Associa- tion, which generously provided tens of thousands of bags of cement for small but important works of this kind. Free gifts of pigs and pigstyes were made, and during the drought pumps were supplied to assist irrigation.

The sponsors of the Association, Messrs. Lawrence, and Horace Kadoorie, made a gift of $250,000 to the Government to start a loan fund for farmers, and the Government, in accepting the gift, made a dollar-for-dollar contribution and introduced the necessary legislation to enable the fund to be established. Known as the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, it is operated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, with the Director as trustee.

MARKETING

Fish Marketing Organization

With the aim of promoting general development in the fishing industry, the Government controls the wholesale marketing and transport of all marine fish, and operates a Fish Marketing Organization which, by reducing the profits of middlemen, ensures that fishermen receive reasonable and steady returns for their catch. This in turn encourages them to try out new gear and improved methods of fishing, and makes possible a general improvement in their conditions of livelihood. The Fish Marketing Organization, the senior personnel of which are members of the Civil Service, is controlled by the Director of Marketing, but maintains itself out of a 6% commission charged on all sales. The Organiza- tion is so devised that, with the future development of cooperative societies, it could eventually become a cooperative organization independent of Government. The Director of Marketing is concurrently Registrar of Cooperative Societies.

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Hong Kong's discriminating tastes in food give commercial value to a variety of livestock, including ducks and salt-water snails.

BLIC LIBRA

Chow Kwong-ming

Francis Wu, F.R.P.S.

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RAR

Summer dawn over Cheung Chau, prosperous fishing centre of 22,000 people with one of the

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Dr. Khoo Keng-wah

Summer dawn over Cheung Chau, prosperous fishing centre of 22,000 people with one of the Colony's most popular swimming beaches. Lantao Island is seen in the background.

40

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Es

Dr. Khoo Keng-wah

olony's most popular swimming beaches. Lantao Island is seen in the background.

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South China Morning Post

Celebrating the Festival of the Queen of Heaven, a party of fisherfolk cruise in the harbour, complete with ceremonial lion and his attendants.

PRODUCTION

77

The Organization was started in October 1945. It now controls four wholesale fish markets-at Aberdeen, Shauki- wan, Yaumati, and Taipo. As fishermen operate from various scattered ports, internal transport to bring the fish from village or port to main market is important. Collecting centres have been set up in the main fishing towns, and from these the Organization provides land or sea transport to convey catch to the markets.

At the markets the fish is sorted and graded, prepared in suitably sized lots, weighed, and sold by public auction. The proceeds of sale (less the 6% commission) may be collected at the markets by individual fishermen shortly after their catches have been sold, or returned to the collecting centres to be collected at the sellers' convenience.

The species of marine fish landed in greatest_quantity during 1955 were

Golden Thread

Conger Pike

......

Red Sea Bream

Lizard Fish

Yellow Croaker

Hair Tail

Piculs

Tons

Average wholesale price in ¢ per catty

80,880 4,814

77

44,117 2,626

47

...

40,130 2,389

65

34,724 2,067

31

22,636 1,347

93

20,390 1,214

42

The following figures show the increase in local landings of marine fish over the past five years.

1951

.......

1952

1953

1954

1955

Piculs Tons

Value $

506,606 30,155.1 39,122,237 578,565 34,438.4 38,517,861

528,184 31,439.5 41,676,354 663,769 39,510.1 42,977,489

677,599 40,333.3 36,800,531

~IBR

Below are the average wholesale prices of fish sold in the markets over the same period, in cents per catty.

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

Fresh Fish Salt Fish

82

65

70

56

80

74

67

55

56

43

Wholesale prices of fish this year have been the lowest

since the Organization started, and from the fishermen's point

78

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

of view 1955 may be described as a bad year. This is, paradoxically, largely a result of the success of the Govern- ment's measures toward developing the fishing industry and mechanizing the fleet. Although Hong Kong still imports the larger amount of fresh-water fish consumed, the supply of marine fish is now evidently level with demand, and it would appear that the next step required is to export and develop reliable overseas markets for Hong Kong's marine fish surplus, presumably in dried form.

The commercial export of salt-dried fish was seriously affected when the Chinese authorities banned its import into China in 1950. This ban is still in force, but local merchants have been able to find new outlets, and markets have been established in Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Canada and the United States.

In order to provide credit for productive purposes for local fishermen, the Fish Marketing Organization set up a revolving loan fund in September 1946. The fund has revolved many times; 2,643 loans, amounting to $2,533,944, have been issued, of which $1,996,871 has already been repaid.

In the Organization's welfare programme, education continues to play a major part. Over 1,350 fishermen's children are receiving education at schools wholly or partially financed by the Organization.

Vegetable Marketing Organization

LIBE

The Government's arrangements for vegetable marketing may be described as a companion scheme to that for fish marketing. The control operated applies to the wholesaling and transport of vegetables in Kowloon and the New Territories. Hong Kong Island remains a free market (largely for imported vegetables), the aim of the arrangements being to protect and assist vegetable-growers in the New Territories.

The scheme, started in September 1946, now operates under the Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952, which provides for the appointment of the Director of Marketing, as a corporation sole, and for the establishment of an Advisory Board, with the Director as chairman, and four other members nominated by the Governor.

The areas to which vegetable production is chiefly con- fined are considerable distances from the wholesale vegetable

PRODUCTION

79

market in Yaumati, Kowloon. To overcome transport difficulties, the Organization established collecting centres throughout the New Territories. From these centres, and from 16 vegetable marketing cooperative societies operated by farmers themselves, vegetables are conveyed to market by a fleet of diesel lorries owned by the Organization, and originally purchased with the assistance of loans from Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare.

With the exception of certain services provided by the cooperative societies for their members, the Organization's staff is responsible for the handling of all vegetables intended for sale at the market from their receipt at collecting centres, and for the return of the proceeds of sales to the same centres, where farmers may collect them at their convenience. For all services given by the Organization a commission of 10% of the sale price is charged. In the case of vegetables marketed through cooperative societies, however, 30% of this com- mission is refunded to each society, in payment for those services which they have provided, and which would otherwise have been the responsibility of the Organization.

The introduction of orderly marketing facilities, together with the provision of loans and the supply of cheap fertilizer, has been an important factor in stimulating vegetable pro- duction. To this should be added that among the refugees who have entered the Colony since the war have been significant numbers of vegetable-growers from nearby districts of Kwangtung. A combination of these two features probably gives the answer to the satisfactory results obtained.

The weights and values of vegetables handled by the Organization over the past five years are as follows :

Piculs Tons Value ($)

668,225 39,775

14,309,426

773,517 46,043 13,326,294

846,739 50,401 15,565,307

Locally-Produced

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

...

Imported

1951

1952

1953

1954

1955

1,019,692 60,696 18,259,193 1,117,629 66,526 19,939,762

Piculs Tons Value ($) 229,130 13,639 4,651,244

202,786 12,071 3,755,809

247,359 14,724

4,297,299

193,479 11,517 4,266,494

105,656 6,289 2,164,460

80

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

One of the important services undertaken by the Organization is the distribution of nightsoil to vegetable farmers. Started by the Organization in 1952, this continues. to operate with success, with the cooperation of the Urban Services Department.

Short-term loans to improve and encourage agriculture in the New Territories continued to be available to farmers from the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund. Since the Fund was in- augurated, in July 1954, over 4,000 loans were issued, totalling approx. $875,000. Valuable assistance has also been received from Colonial Development & Welfare Funds; during 1955 grants received from this source amounted to $37,485. The C.D. and W. loans of $300,000 for the purchase of diesel lorries were fully repaid this year.

The main types of vegetables grown locally and imported are shown below, with average wholesale prices.

Kuco

ocally-Produced

Average wholesale price in 4 per catty

HON

Piculs

Tons

White cabbage

Flowering cabbage ... Mustard-leaf cabbage Turnip

316,669 18,849

11

91,805 5,465

20

74,271 4,421

15

70,714

4,209

11

Chinese kale

....

39,262 2,337

20

Imported

Piculs

Tons Average wholesale

price in ¢ per catty

Tientsin cabbage

11,975

713

18

Hairy squash

10,701

637

15

Chinese melon

10,537

627

14

Taro

5,677

338

23

Irish potato

5,025

299

18

COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

Since the appointment of the Registrar of Cooperative. Societies, in May 1950, and the formation of the Cooperative and Marketing Department in August of the same year, the cooperative movement has made satisfactory progress. During 1951, 3 societies were registered; this number rose to 10 in 1952, and to 31 the following year. A further 21 societies

PRODUCTION

81

were established in 1954, and by the close of 1955 there were 86 societies in operation. This is a record increase of 34 societies in a single year. The new ones were 2 vegetable marketing societies, 3 fishermen's thrift and loan societies, I fishermen's credit & marketing society, 21 pig-raising societies, 5 building societies, I irrigation society and I consumers' society.

There are at present 12 types of society, the functions and scale of operations of which are given here briefly.

Federation of Vegetable Marketing Societies. Registered in March 1953, the Federation was established to improve cooperation and liaison among individual vegetable market- ing societies, and to undertake a number of functions collec- tively on behalf of its 16 member-societies.

Vegetable Marketing Societies. These 16 societies collect and assist in the marketing of vegetables grown by members, and distribute loans obtained collectively from the Joseph Trust Fund. Over 61% of vegetables produced locally were marketed through them, and through farmers' collecting centres (embryo cooperative societies).

Fishermen's Thrift & Loan Societies. The first of this type was registered in September 1952, its progress being carefully watched by fishermen, who by nature are extremely cautious in adopting new ideas. It proved successful, and there are now 23 societies, the functions of which are to encourage their members to save money, and to arrange for the disbursal of loans obtained from the Fish Marketing Organization.

Fishermen's Credit & Marketing Society. Registered in August 1955 this is the first of its kind in Hong Kong. Its functions are similar to those of a thrift & loan society, but in addition it owns and operates a mechanized vessel for collecting fish on the high seas from its members, and under- takes to convey catch to market and make arrangements for sale.

Federation of Pig-Raising Societies. Registered in November 1954, the Federation was established to improve liaison among pig-raising cooperatives and assist member- societies in their contacts with Government Departments.

82

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Pig-Raising Societies. The first of these was established in March 1952, with the aim of developing pork supplies in the Colony. Several societies have purchased boars and assist their members in obtaining feed on credit, with financial aid from the Joseph Trust Fund.

Salaried Workers' Thrift & Loan Societies. The first of these was established in June 1953 by workers and officers of the Nightsoil Distribution Centre in Tsun Wan, operat- ing under the Vegetable Marketing Organization. Following its success, a similar society was registered in September 1953 by employees of the Fish & Vegetable Marketing Organizations, including civil servants. The aims are to encourage members to save, and to utilize savings for small individual loans.

Cooperative Building Societies. To ease the housing problem and to assist civil servants wishing to obtain their own quarters, the Government has provided financial aid in the form of loans through the medium of these societies. The first and largest (336 members) was formed in March. 1954, and was followed by the registration of five smaller societies this year. Their functions are to apply to the Government for necessary loans and building sites, and to ensure that proper repayments are made.

Irrigation Societies. To ensure water supplies and irrigation facilities for members. Situated where irrigation is difficult, the 2 societies own and operate pumps for obtain- ing water from streams and conveying it to members' fields.

Draft Animal Society. To obtain draft animals, and make them available to members for work in their fields.

Fishpond Society. Registered in December 1954, and situated at Luk Keng, near Shataukok, this Society aims to develop and improve pond fish culture. It operates under the advice of the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, obtaining initial finan- cial help from the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association.

Credit and Consumers' Society. Registered in 1955, this society was formed by 226 members of the Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry. Its aims are those of a salaried workers thrift &

PRODUCTION

83

loan society, but with the added function of purchasing consumer goods in bulk for re-sale to members.

The policy of the Cooperative and Marketing Depart- ment has been to ensure that developments are properly planned and economically sound, and to improve under- standing of cooperative principles in general. The growth of the cooperative movement in the Colony has been due in very large measure to encouragement given by the Govern- ment, to assistance and guidance by departmental officials, to Government financial aid, to the Fish and Vegetable Marketing Organizations, the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Association Fund, and the J. E. Joseph Fund.

Figures of membership and finances of the cooperative societies will be found in Appendix XI.

MINING

There is mining of iron, lead, wolfram, graphite and kaolin clay. The production is nearly all exported: iron ore and kaolin to Japan, lead ore to the United Kingdom and Europe, wolfram to France and the United Kingdom, and graphite to the United States.

A notable event in the year's mining was the discovery of beryl in two areas, one of which is being thoroughly prospect- ed in order to ascertain whether the ore can be worked on a commercial basis.

The graphite mine on West Brother Island continues to show good production results. The type of amorphous graphite produced finds a ready market, and two new areas in other parts of the New Territories are being prospected. Prospecting is also being carried out in the Lam Tsuen valley zone for lead.

By the end of the year preparations had almost been completed to change the Ma On Shan iron mine from open- cast to underground working. During the transition period the ore dressing plant was fully employed processing dumps of low grade ore accumulated during the past five years. Kaolin clay pits were actively mined, and there has also been keen interest in feldspar and quartz.

84

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Colony's output of minerals for the year was:

Production Value ($)

Iron Clay

in tons

115,500

4,620,000

5,432

325,920

Graphite

1,535.25

121,076

Quartz & Feldspar Lead

692.9

.....

20,790

384.7

326,995

Wolfram (WO 3 65%).

23.01

154,650

Beryl (Be O 10/12%).

Molybdenum

1

2,000

.02

142

The Mines Department is under the general control of the Commissioner of Labour, in his capacity as Commis- sioner of Mines, and is headed by a Superintendent.

The Mining Ordinance, 1954, provides for the issue of prospecting and mining licences by the Commissioner, and of mining leases up to 21 years by the Land Officer. The Ordinance has been amended during 1955 so as to permit the issue of prospecting and mining licences for longer periods than previously. Authorized buyers' licences for the sale and purchase of mineral ores are approved and issued by the Superintendent of Mines.

KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 8: Education

Education in Hong Kong is voluntary, and there is great public demand for it. 37% of all the schools in the Colony are either run directly by the Government or assisted by government grants and subsidies. Government assistance is given also to private schools in the shape of grants of land on favourable terms, and interest-free loans.

The number of schools and total enrolment on 30 June 1955 were as follows:

Government

Schools

Pupils Teachers

45

21,016

613

Grant-aided

19

14,554

605

Subsidized

333

55,553

1,834

Private

753

154,430

6,393

Special Afternoon Classes

16,497

1,150

262,050

9,445

Apart from the University of Hong Kong, which is an independent body, all colleges, schools and other institutions of learning are subject to the provisions of the Education Ordinance, 1952. The Director of Education, who, under the Ordinance, has general control over education in the Colony, is chairman of the Board of Education, which has various statutory powers. Its members are appointed by the Governor. The Director is required to keep a register of schools, teachers, and managers of schools, and to ensure that satisfactory standards are maintained in respect of school buildings, methods of enforcing discipline, the keeping of registers and accounts, the payment of fees, and the proper conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers.

The Government directly maintains 27 primary schools, 10 secondary schools, 2 technical schools, a technical college, 2 teacher-training colleges, and 3 evening institutions. The average age of entering and leaving government primary schools is a little over six and thirteen respectively, and for secondary schools just over thirteen and nineteen.

}

Under the terms of the Grant Code, the Government aids selected schools by paying the difference between the approved expenditure of a school and its income from fees and other sources. This approved expenditure includes salaries, leave

86

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

pay, incidentals, and passages for teachers who are so entitled. Grants may also be made up to 50% of the cost of new buildings and major repairs. The Government contributed $750,000 towards the cost of a new building for the Wah Yan College, Hong Kong, which was opened in September, and has accommodation for 900 pupils in one session. There are 19 secondary schools functioning under the Grant Code, and many of them have large primary departments; the usual medium of instruction in the senior classes is English.

The Government also operates a Subsidy Code, the object of which is to encourage the establishment of primary schools which have reliable committees of management and are staffed with trained teachers. This Code provides the means by which satisfactory primary education can be given to children in rural as well as urban areas, and by its aid school managers can keep fees reasonably low and pay teachers the same salaries as are paid in government primary schools. There are now 333 primary schools receiving subsidies, of which 8 have middle classes and 3 have vocational classes.

The 753 private schools, maintained entirely out of their own resources, provide for nearly 63% of the school popula- tion. They include every type of school from kindergarten to post-secondary, adult and vocational. The majority offer full-time primary or secondary education in the medium of Chinese, but there has been some expansion in secondary Anglo-Chinese education. Chinese middle schools take the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination, while the Anglo-Chinese Secondary Schools take the Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination.

Actual expenditure on education by the Education and other Departments from August 1954 to July 1955 may be briefly summarized as :

Recurrent Expenditure:

Personal emoluments

Maintenance & repairs of

Total

$11,393,712

($)

Other charges

2,115,633

school buildings buildings

(Public

Works Department)

255,612

13,764,957

Grants and Subsidies:

26,468,324

Capital Expenditure:

Furniture and equipment for

new government schools

389,803

New school buildings (Public

Works Department)

1,716,812

2,106,615

42,339,896

EDUCATION.

Expenditure by other Departments:

Department of Medical and Health Services ...

298,178

Kowloon-Canton Railway

56,711

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry

77,886

432,775

87

POLICY AND DEVELOPMENT

The paramount object of the Government's educational policy is still the expansion of primary school education. As a result of Government measures, such as a five-year plan for building new government schools, and of efforts by private bodies, the infant and primary school enrolment rose from about 81,000 in 1947 to almost 188,000 in 1955. It is estimated however that by 1961 the number of children of primary school age (6-12 years) will have risen to 366,000.

In 1955, to meet the challenge of this situation, the Government accepted in principle a seven-year plan to create 26,000 additional school places a year, and has approved the expenditure necessary for carrying out the first stage. This expenditure comprises the cost of extending teacher-training facilities, the building of additional government schools, increased aid to permit the building of more subsidized schools and to enable more of them to adopt the two-sessional system, and the grant of interest-free loans to non-profit- making private schools for the extension of existing premises and the construction of new buildings. By these means, and by increasing, within safe limits, the sizes of existing classes, it is anticipated that the target of the first two years of the seven-year plan is likely to be reached.

The chief difficulty in continuing the same rate of expan- sion will be the scarcity of sites. Future planning envisages in most cases 24-classroom schools, housed in multi-storeyed buildings, on restricted sites with playground space provided on the ground floor or on the roof.

The growing number of children in primary schools will increase the demand for secondary education. One new Anglo-Chinese co-educational secondary school, maintained by the Government and named the Queen Elizabeth School, has already been opened, and three grant-aided Anglo- Chinese secondary schools are planned.

88

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

To provide Chinese middle school pupils with improved. facilities for higher education, special classes have been open- ed to enable selected pupils from these schools to prepare for admission to the University of Hong Kong. Two large and well-administered colleges offering higher education through the medium of the Chinese language have been granted building sites in order to remove the present handicap of inadequate accommodation and to permit expansion.

The rapid industrialization of the Colony is causing a greater demand for technical education. Enrolment at the Government Technical College has increased to the point where new accommodation must be provided if efficiency is to be maintained and plans for development realized. A generous offer by the Hong Kong Chinese Manufacturers' Union to contribute $1,000,000 towards the cost of a new building, on condition that the Government match this sum with an equal amount and provide a suitable site, should make possible the completion of the first stage of a college in Kowloon by 1957.

There is also a growing demand for adult education. A new development has been the opening of an Adult Reading and Recreation Centre which uses a government school's premises in the evening; the response to this experiment, and to the instructional type of courses recently provided, has been so satisfactory that it is now proposed to extend these services as far as presently-voted funds permit.

HIGHER EDUCATION

The University of Hong Kong is an independent body incorporated under the University Ordinance of 1911. It is largely supported by recurrent and non-recurrent grants of up to $7,000,000 made annually by the Government. During the year, a grant of up to £200,000 from the Higher Education Allocation of the Colonial Development and Wel- fare Fund has been approved for the quinquennium beginning 1955. There are faculties for Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering and Architecture, and an Institute of Oriental Studies, which includes in its objects the promotion of interest in such studies and of understanding and goodwill between the peoples of East and West. The Council of the Institute of Civil Engineers has now accorded recognition (for a period.

EDUCATION

89

of four years in the first instance) to the University's degree of Bachelor of Science in Engineering (Civil) as exempting from Parts I and II of the Institute's Examination for corporate membership.

Entry to undergraduate courses is gained through the Matriculation Examination, which is similar in type and standard to the General Certificate of Education Examinations conducted by the Universities of the United Kingdom. Students, of whom there were this year 811 reading for first degrees, are drawn from all parts of the world, and while the majority are Chinese, many other races are represented, particularly from South-East Asia. The number of teaching staff, including demonstrators, was 158. 17 government scholarships tenable at the University were awarded on the results of the Matriculation Examination. 8 of the holders of these scholarships will study medicine, 6 science, 2 engineer- ing and I arts.

Under a bursary scheme for prospective secondary- school teachers, suitable students, who might otherwise be unable to afford higher education, are assisted to take an Arts or Science degree, and the University Diploma in Education. This year, funds available for new bursaries amounted to about $120,000, and 50 awards were made, 8 to graduates taking the Diploma Course in Education, 30 to under- graduates in the Faculty of Arts, and 12 in the Faculty of Science.

To assist suitable pupils, in financial need, to take the two-year matriculation course and qualify for entrance to the University, maintenance grants, up to a limit of $200 a month, were also awarded. There were 97 recipients, the funds available amounting to some $8,500 a month.

Further maintenance grants, totalling $4,000 a month, were available under a new scheme which will enable selected pupils who have been successful in the Hong Kong Chinese School Certificate Examination to improve the standard of their English and qualify for entrance to the University. 60 applicants were selected, and they will take a special two-year sixth-form course at a government school; 39 grants were made.

A special committee advises and recommends students wishing to go to the United Kingdom for higher studies. The Director of Colonial Scholars in London arranges their

90

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

placing, and the Director of Hong Kong Students is respon- sible for their general welfare, including the arrangement of suitable contacts and hospitality. Although students are making increasing use of these facilities, there are still some who prefer to make their own arrangements. The following table shows the distribution of students by the courses which they follow. Most of them are pursuing courses which are not available in Hong Kong.

Courses

Commercial subjects

Education

Fine Arts, Applied Arts,

Architecture

Students

23

13

32

40

48

Source of payment*

1 Government Scholarship 1 Colonial Development &

Welfare Scheme

1 British Council Scholar-

ship

.... 2 Government Scholarships 3 Colonial Development &

Welfare Scheme

Law

Medical Sciences

Philosophy and Humanities,

Arts

25

Public Administration

4

......

Science (General)

Secretarial

18

4

......

Social Sciences

11

.....

Technology and Engineering

Sciences

136

2 British Council Scholar-

ships

2 Sino-British Scholarships

2 Government Scholarships Colonial Development & Welfare Scheme

Meteorology

Nursing

L

3

110

467

......

2 Hong Kong University

Scholarships

1 British Council Scholar-

ship

1 Taikoo Dockyard

Scholarship

Colonial Development & Scheme

3 Government Scholarships 3 Sino-British Scholarships 1 World Health Organiza-

tion Scholarship

students are privately financed except where stated otherwise.

1 addition, 130 students went to the U.S.A. for further study, 167 to Canada, 136 to Australia, and 7 to Eire. Figures. for Hong Kong students in the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan and other countries are not available. Apart from the students listed in the table, there were 142 students in the United

ingdom taking preliminary courses.

EDUCATION

91

The Department conducts a considerable number of external examinations on behalf of examining bodies and Universities in the United Kingdom. The most popular of these is the General Certificate of Education of London University, for which there were over 600 candidates in the current year. Other examinations include the External Degree Examinations of the University of London, the technological examinations of the City and Guilds of London Institute, and commercial examinations of various British organizations. The London Chamber of Commerce Examinations attract as many as 300 candidates at each of three annual sessions.

The estimated number of teachers employed in all schools. in the Colony during the year was 9,445. With the intro- duction in February of revised salary scales and allowances, affecting teachers in government, grant and subsidized schools, teaching has become an attractive career both for University undergraduates and students leaving school. This is reflected in the number of applicants for admission to the training colleges, which rose from 1,531 in 1953 to 2,349 in 1954, and to 2,558 in 1955.

To help meet the demand for trained teachers which will be created by the fulfilment of the seven-year plan for the expansion of primary schools, the Grantham Training College will be extended to accommodate 300 students by September 1956; the enrolment there in the year 1954-5 was 132.

In 1954, 14 graduates were awarded Diplomas in Education by the University, 149 students from the training colleges became certificated teachers on probation, and 142 members of the urban course of training for teachers qualified as primary school teachers for the purpose of the Subsidy Code. By the end of the year, 242 students were receiving full-time training and 552 in-service teachers were attending the urban and rural courses of training.

A Professional Teachers' Training Board is responsible for integrating the teacher-training facilities of the Govern- ment and the University.

TECHNICAL AND ADULT EDUCATION

Technical education is provided in three government. institutions, two trade schools of the Salesian Society, and a number of private schools. The government institutions are

92

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls, with an enrolment of 272 girls in a five-year course with emphasis on commercial, domestic and industrial subjects; the Junior Technical School, with 267 boys undergoing a secondary technical school course in general subjects, woodwork, metalwork and technical drawing; and the Technical College with 328 students doing full-time courses at post-secondary level in building and engineering, radio technology, radio operating, and commer- cial subjects. Short courses are offered for radar maintenance technicians, and for ships' officers preparing for Ministry of Transport Certificates of Competency. Students are prepared for the external examinations referred to earlier.

The Technical College Evening Department, with 4,275 students, gives senior and advanced courses in building, electrical and mechanical engineering, naval architecture, and telecommunications, corresponding to the National Certificate Courses in the United Kingdom. Shorter courses are offered in book-keeping and shorthand, field surveying and internal combustion engines, this last course being taught in Chinese. Classes in building, mechanical and electrical engineering, taught in Chinese, were opened for the first time in Septem- ber. In English, there are classes in engineering and building, mathematics and technical drawing for apprentices and artisans whose basic education is insufficient for entry into the senior courses.

The Trade Schools of the Salesian Society give a 5-year apprenticeship training in mechanics, electro-mechanics, carpentry, shoemaking, tailoring and printing. Instruction is in Chinese, but English is included in the curriculum. One of the schools (at Aberdeen) is residential.

Technical education is also provided by a number of private commercial and technical schools, but standards of accommodation, equipment and tuition vary greatly. Most of them offer evening classes only, the subjects including civil, mechanical, automobile, electrical and aeronautical engineering, commercial subjects, radio servicing and dress- making. Commercial subjects are taught in both day and evening classes. The medium of instruction is English or Chinese for the engineering classes, and English in the commercial classes.

Adult education is provided through classes of the Evening Institute, the Technical College Evening Depart-

EDUCATION

93

ment, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies, and by private night schools.

The Evening Institute now has 30 urban classes in English, for which there is an increasing demand; 19 classes for a general background course consisting of Chinese, English, civics, arithmetic, and general knowledge; and 20 classes of a general practical nature, which include instruction in woodwork, housecraft, sewing and knitting. With other classes, the total enrolment in September came to 2,838, of whom 1,908 were men and 930 women. The enrolment of the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies, which provides 3-year courses in arts, commerce and journalism, was 479, of whom 262 were men and 217 women.

During the year ending 30 June 1955 37 new buildings or extensions were opened, providing accommodation for 11,740 pupils, 9,010 of them at the primary stage. Towards the cost of two of these buildings, required for government schools, generous contributions were made by private individuals. Accommodation for a further 11,000 pupils was provided by permitting increases in classroom accommodation, encourag- ing the two-sessional system, and by other measures under the seven-year plan. Though it is increasingly necessary that primary schools should work in two sessions, it is hoped that secondary schools will not have to adopt this system.

There were 1,992 entries for the English School Certificate Examination, an increase of 234 over last year, and 1,491 entries for the Chinese School Certificate Examination, an increase of 179. The syndicates responsible for these two examinations are helping to maintain and improve the standards of secondary education in the Colony.

There were 1,104 entries for the Schools Music Festival, as compared with 68 in 1949, and the competitors were highly praised by the adjudicator, Dr. Herbert Wiseman, Vice- Chairman of the British Federation of Music Festivals. The standard of performance in the Inter-School Dramatic Com- petition, which is keenly contested every year, has shown marked improvement. Prize-winners' concerts and the winning plays of these two competitions formed part of the Hong Kong Festival of the Arts, and 150 paintings by school children were on display at the Festival Art Centre.

Interest in sports and games, in which girls are taking an increasing part, was as keen as ever, and the New

94

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Territories Schools Sports Association, formed last year, has been well supported. Increased interest in other extra- curricular activities was seen in the development of physical education in schools and training colleges, in school societies, visits and projects, and in various handicraft and rural activity sections of the New Territories Agricultural Show. New primary courses have been introduced with a rural, marine or urban bias according to the environment, and many schools now include courses in housecraft.

Cooperation between school authorities and parents. is maintained by Parent-Teacher Associations, and much useful work is done by Old Boys' and Old Girls' Associations, some of which organize free schools for poor children. Some secondary schools also provide free schooling in the summer holidays for children who would otherwise have none; senior pupils, suitably coached, act as teachers.

There is further information on technical training and apprenticeship, in the chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization; and on health education and school health service in the chapter on Public Health.

LIC LIBRA

Chapter 9: Public Health

The only incidence of the six major quarantinable diseases (cholera, plague, smallpox, relapsing fever, typhus and yellow fever) was four cases of typhus. The general incidence of notifiable diseases has risen slightly, compared with 1954, but mortality has decreased. The situation in re- gard to typhoid fever is particularly encouraging, the number of cases notified during 1955 being the lowest recorded since 1950, and the number of deaths (58) the lowest since 1946.

There is still a disappointingly high incidence and mortality, particularly amongst young children, from tuber- culosis, the dysenteries, both primary and secondary pneumonias, and gastro-enteritis; but last year saw a definite halt to the steady rising incidence of diphtheria, and this year has seen

a substantial decrease in the notifications and mortality from that disease, following the intensive mass immunization campaigns of the past three years. Malaria has long been under effective control, and this year fewer cases than ever were reported, nearly all of them relapses, not fresh infections.

Tuberculosis, however, continues to be the major health problem, and while the present gross overcrowding and economic depression continue, there is little prospect of achieving any marked improvement. The death-rate from this disease, though falling steadily under modern treatment, is still several times higher than that of the United Kingdom. A distressing feature of the disease in Hong Kong is that about one-third of the deaths occur in children under five; an index of social and economic conditions. Amongst adults an unusually high percentage of deaths occurs in men, pro- bably a reflexion of the abnormal sex-distribution of the population, as well as of economic stresses.

The control of leprosy has shown increasingly good results, and some progress has been made in the organized rehabilitation of cases in which the disease has been effectively arrested. Special attention was again given during the year to anti-enteric measures, anti-diphtheria immunization, and increasing the level of vaccination protection against smallpox.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The crude death-rate continues to be extremely low (only 8.2 per mille), while births continue to increase, infant mortality to decline slowly, and maternal mortality to remain remarkably low. The steady natural increase in the population, at an average net rate of just on 200 a day, is introducing fresh problems of health, housing, employment and education. All existing medical facilities are severely overtaxed.

There have been the usual large number of fires in squatter areas, producing acute problems in sanitation, relief, and rehabilitation. The development of industry in the New Territories, particularly at Tsun Wan, demands constant vigilance to maintain even minimum standards of public health. In addition, there is the persistent severe shortage of

water.

Details of the tremendous work going on to provide better housing conditions will be found in the next chapter. To give some idea of the medical and health background of the Colony, it has to be remembered that hundreds of thousands of people are still living in squatter shacks or else herded together in insanitary congested tenements where in some cases as many as 80 people may be sharing a kitchen, with one tap that delivers water for only 2 hours a day, and one latrine which, when it is a flushing water-closet, is often rather worse than a dry-pan latrine because of shortage of flushing water. Under these conditions it is not surprising to find diseases of congestion, such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, measles and pneumonia, and diseases associated with dirt, such as gastro-enteritis, the dysenteries, and the enteric fevers, stubbornly persisting and taking toll in human lives and vitality. Against this background it is easier to appreciate the intense effort which goes to giving the Colony the very high general level of public health it at present enjoys.

Communicable Diseases

The table opposite gives the year's return of infectious. diseases, with comparisons from 1954. To these figures may be added the following comments.

Amoebic Dysentery occurred throughout the year with very slight seasonal variations.

Bacillary Dysentery. Almost half the cases occurred in children under 10, and 51.4% of the deaths were in children

PUBLIC HEALTH

Infectious Diseases

1954 and 1955

97

Chinese Non-Chinese Yearly Total

Deaths

Diseases

1954 1955 1954 1955

1954 1955

1954 1955

Amoebic dysentery

188 171

48

39

236 210

6

6

...

Bacillary dysentery...

509

500

23

24 535

524

34

37

(clinical)..

3

3

Chickenpox

186

276

47

104 233

380

4

Diphtheria .............

1,095

831

9

9 1,104

840

116

71

Enteric fever....

1,076

725

23

10 1,099

735

83.

58

Malaria

452

220

23

9 475

229

16

9

Measles

570

444

27

99

597

543

126

88

Meningitis

14

11

14

11

3

3

Poliomyelitis

20

35

29

16

49

51

9

3

Puerperal fever........

8

8

3

1

Rabies (human).........................

3

3

3

(animal)...........................

(9)

(11)

Scarlet fever

18

27

2

18

20

45

1

Tuberculosis

12,447 14,060

61

88 12,508 14,148 2,876 2,810

Typhus (urban)...

2

2

(scrub)

2

2

Whooping cough

123

199

7

14 130 213

1

Total..

16,709 17,510

299

430 17,008 17,940 3,276 3,095

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

under 5. The increasing tendency for this disease to occur amongst young children appears to have been checked. The following table illustrates the trend over the past six years.

1950 1951

1952

1953

1954 1955

under 5

24

92

*94

299

250

205

....

Cases

over 5..

234

282

242

363

285

319

% of total under 5

9.3

24.6

28

45.2

46.7

39.1

under 5

4

13

12

16

27

19

Deaths

(over

over 5 ...

11

16

10

10

% of total under 5.......

26.7

44.8

54.5

61.5

73

233

10

18

51.4

Diphtheria. The incidence of this disease has roughly doubled each year from 1947 to 1954. This year there has been a marked drop in notifications. Immunization was carried out throughout the year, and was intensified during the annual anti-diphtheria campaign, which was held a little earlier than usual this year, in the months immediately preceding the normal peak period of incidence. Propaganda in favour of immunization was conducted in all schools and curative and infant welfare clinics, by loud hailers mounted on mobile vans touring the streets, and by posters. The response, though not as great as had been hoped, was satisfactory.

Enteric fever, which threatened to produce an epidemic. in 1953, and was still dangerously prevalent in 1954, has shown a dramatic drop in incidence. These are the lowest figures on record since 1950 as regards notifications, and the fewest number of deaths since 1946. Of special interest was the absence of any peak in the incidence during the summer, the first year on record in which there has been no such increase. This deviation from the usual trend of the disease indicates a definite improvement in the typhoid situation. A number of factors contributed to reduce incidence of the disease:

(a) Prophylactic measures, which included an extensive T.A.B. inoculation campaign, the regular super- vision of eating establishments, and the education of their employees in food-handling, by personnel of

PUBLIC HEALTH

99

the Health Department, and the exclusion of carriers. from employment as food-handlers.

(b) An increase in filtered water supplies during the

summer.

(c) Resettlement of large numbers of squatters in

sanitary housing conditions.

(d) Marked improvement in personal hygiene and

environmental sanitation as a result.

(e) An increase in the number of immunes among the population, following the repeated inoculation campaigns of the past 3 years, and following in- fection and sub-clinical infection.

Malaria. Investigation of the few cases definitely proved to be fresh infections indicated that they had all been con- tracted outside the areas under anti-malarial control.

Measles, although showing a slight decline in notifica- tions, continued to be the principal cause of infant mortality among the notifiable communicable diseases other than tuberculosis.

Poliomyelitis. Except for a sharp rise in incidence during May and June, when 36 cases were notified, the disease occurred sporadically throughout the year, and again affected mainly infants and European newcomers.

Rabies. Constant propaganda, stringent precautions governing the movement of dogs, and insistence on all dogs being protected by inoculation with anti-rabies vaccine, are among the measures taken to eliminate this disease. In each human case the victim had failed to report the bite, and had received no prophylactic treatment. Amongst the animal cases were some involving pigs and cattle. The outbreak was confined to rural areas near the Chinese frontier, and it is suspected that the source of infection may have been stray dogs from neighbouring territory.

Scarlet fever. Normally very rare in Hong Kong, in May 1955 there was a sudden outbreak which attracted immediate attention. The infection, however, did not spread. It is of interest that the peak incidence of both scarlet fever and poliomyelitis occurred within the same period.

Tuberculosis continues to be the principal single cause of death. The case fatality rate has dropped from 64.9% (1946)

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

to 36% (1950) to 23% (1954) to 19.9% (1955). The two government clinics diagnose 70% of the total cases notified, and the majority of the rest are notified by other government or government-assisted institutions. General practitioners appear to be making very few notifications. There are just over 1,000 beds available for the treatment of tuberculosis, but to offset this acute shortage of hospital beds, ambulatory treatment has been greatly and successfully developed at the government clinics. During 1955, 5,000 cases were so treated. By means of this ambulatory treatment the following results are achieved :

(a) Patients with minimal non-cavitatory disease can receive their entire treatment while continuing to work.

(b) Patients with minor cavitation may, after ambulatory treatment, be controlled by collapse therapy after a few days or weeks in hospital, instead of 5 months, as previously.

(c) Patients with more advanced disease, requiring surgical treatment, may receive their preparatory treatment at the clinics, and have the operation. within 4 weeks of admission, instead of requiring several months' preparatory treatment in hospital before operation.

(d) More advanced cases can be rendered non-infectious for long periods, thus reducing sources of infection in the community.

The danger of producing infection contacts by resistant strains of the infecting organism has been carefully consider- ed, and although the risk is recognized, it is considered that the over-all value of this method of treatment justifies the risk. In addition to this out-patient treatment, well over 2,000 cases attend the clinics each month for refill collapse therapy. The Hong Kong system of treating tuberculosis has been favourably commented on by several prominent workers in the field of tuberculosis who have visited the Colony, and has attracted the attention of the World Health Organization.

The B.C.G. campaign continued and is becoming in- creasingly popular. B.C.G. vaccination has been offered to all schoolchildren and is available through the infant welfare. clinics to all infants whose parents care to bring them, and to all suitable contacts of known cases of tuberculosis. B.C.G.

PUBLIC HEALTH

ΙΟΙ

vaccination is offered in the principal maternity hospitals, and in December arrangements were made for the distribution of free supplies of the vaccine to general practitioners, for the vaccination of new-born children. In 1956 it is hoped to extend this supply to midwives in private practice. All contacts of notified cases of tuberculosis are offered medical examination with minimum inconvenience. All notified cases are visited in their homes and instructed in methods to prevent the spread of infection.

X-ray surveys are carried out, but are restricted to annual surveys of civil servants, and employees of certain firms, who undertake to be responsible for the medical care of any employee discovered to be suffering from tuberculosis. As many cases are found to be in impoverished circumstances, a welfare scheme is in operation. The funds available amount to $100,000, and for the first time this provision was found to be inadequate. Assistance is given through the Medico-Social Service in the form of family allowances, rehabilitation grants, and extra nourishment, usually in the form of milk powder.

Work is now proceeding on the erection of a new institution under the auspices of the Anti-Tuberculosis As- sociation, which will provide an additional 550 beds.

Leprosy

Determined efforts are now being made to decrease the age-long dread of this disease. The successful curative work of the Mission to Lepers' centre (which can accommodate 500 patients) on Hayling Island, in the New Territories, is well publicized, and is arousing much public interest and support. Only a fraction of the total number of victims of this disease can hope to be accommodated on the island, although a rapid building expansion, with Government financial assistance, is in progress. Admissions to the leprosarium are restricted to the most acutely infectious cases, or to those requiring hospital treatment for other well-defined reasons. The majority of lepers are now treated at Government clinics as out-patients. This has the advantage of not up- rooting the sufferer from his environment and employment, and the steadily increasing attendances reflect the growing confidence and appreciation of those afflicted by this disease. The number of clinics held weekly for lepers was increased from 4 to 7. An interesting feature is that a surprisingly large number of people report to these clinics who are not in fact

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

found to be suffering from leprosy, but for one reason or another fear that they may have contracted the disease. This is an interesting reflexion on the changing attitude toward the disease which the hope of relief and cure has brought about, overcoming the former horror and desire to conceal the very possibility of having it. In an attempt to prevent the in- fection of infants, all children born to lepers or in contact with any known leper, are vaccinated with B.C.G. vaccine.

A special committee has been organized to deal with the rehabilitation of cured lepers. Suitable employment has been found for several. These discharged lepers are kept under routine check at the clinics to detect any evidence of possible relapse, but to date no such relapse has been detected.

Venereal Disease

The most significant feature of the current year has been the marked reduction in the incidence of new cases of primary and secondary syphilis, and of cases of early congenital syphilis, consequent on the introduction of routine blood- testing during pregnancy. No baby showing signs of congenital syphilis has been born to any mother who received treatment during pregnancy as a result of the disease being detected at an ante-natal examination.

There was no drop in the incidence of acute gonorrhoea, but the complications of this disease are now most infrequently seen. In complete contrast to what has been reported in the United Kingdom and in America, no rise in the incidence of non-gonococcal urethritis has been noted.

Trial has been made of the use of ultra-long-acting penicillins in the treatment of primary syphilis, particularly in pregnancy. It has been found most difficult to secure adequate post-treatment follow-up, because of the tendency of a great many patients to give false addresses and fail to return. An investigation was carried out on the effectiveness of aureomycin and triple sulphonamides administered orally in male patients suffering from acute gonorrhoea. A cure rate of 91.3% was obtained."

Births and Deaths

Following the trend of the last few years the birth-rate continued to rise to a still higher level, whilst the death rate dropped. There were 203 fewer deaths from all causes than

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103

in 1954. The following table gives the statistics of births and deaths for the last six years :

Births

Birth-Rate per 1,000 of population

Deaths

Death-Rate per 1,000 of population

1950

60,600

26.8

18,465

8.2

1951

68,500

34

20,580

10.2

1952

71,976

32

19,459

8.6

1953

75,544

33.6

18,300

8.1

1954

83,317

36.6

19,283

8.5

1955

90,511

38.7

19,080

8.2

The maternal mortality rate in 1955 was 1.16 per 1,000 births, compared with 1.24 per 1,000 births in 1954, and 0.97 in 1953. The infant mortality rate was 66.4 per 1,000 live births, compared with 72.4 per 1,000 in 1954, and 73.6 in 1953. The infant mortality rate has fallen steadily since the war and, if the war years are excluded, over the last 25 years. The neo-natal mortality, or number of children dying in the first month of life, was 2,095, giving a neo-natal mortality rate. of 23.1 per 1,000 live births. The number of still-births was 1,250, giving a pre-natal mortality rate of 13.8 per 1,000 live births.

PUBLIC HEALTH ADMINISTRATION

Responsibility for the administration of public health is divided between the Department of Medical and Health Services, the Urban Council, the Urban Services Department, and the New Territories Administration. The Department of Medical and Health Services deals with such matters as epidemiology, vital and morbidity statistics, maternal and child health, school hygiene and the health of schoolchildren, malaria control, tuberculosis control, measures to combat social diseases, health education, port health control and international health matters, and supplies hospital and out- patient services. The Urban Council and the Urban Services Department are concerned with environmental sanitation, domestic cleanliness, and control of the import, preparation, handling and sale of food. The District Commissioner, New

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Territories, is statutorily responsible for public health measures in the New Territories, and is advised by officers of the Medical Department.

The work of the Medical Department is under the direction of the Director of Medical and Health Services, and that of the Urban Services Department under the Director of Urban Services, who is concurrently the Chairman of the Urban Council. Close liaison is maintained between the two Departments through the Assistant Director of Health Services. He is concurrently Vice-Chairman and public health adviser to the Urban Council, and has certain executive functions in regard to the Urban Council. He also has certain executive functions in regard to the inspectorate of the Urban Services, which is further guided by health officers of the Medical Department, who have statutory powers under the public health legislation affecting both Departments. The work of the district health officers is directly controlled by the Senior Health Officer.

To the estimated $30,278,630 expenditure for 1955-6 should be added subventions, totalling $6,262,144, to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the Mission to Lepers, and other similar bodies. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical Depart- ment and the medical subventions represents approximately 8.83% of the Colony's total estimated revenue. Estimated capital expenditure for the Medical Department is $2,101,000.

Due to lack of epidemiological information from China, arrivals from all Chinese ports east of Canton are medically inspected by the Port Health Division of the Department, and a quarantine post has been established at the railway bridge on the land frontier. The Malaria Bureau conducted surveys in various parts of the New Territories, and its control system was extended to the area near Shap Long, Lantao Island, where the Social Welfare Office has its home for the disabled and destitute. Ante-natal, post-natal and child wel- fare sessions are now conducted in three main centres and fifteen subsidiary centres. Infant health sessions are held daily at the main centres, and usually once-weekly at the subsidiary centres; but at Chai Wan, Tsun Wan and Shaukiwan it has been found possible to increase the number of sessions to five per week.

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105

There is a School Health Service for all Government schools and such subsidized and private schools as are willing to participate. In return for a charge of $1 per student per month, the medical staff visits schools periodically, and conducts systematic inspections of schoolchildren at specified ages. Those found with any defect are referred to the appro- priate clinic. The Service cooperates with the tuberculosis service in detecting tuberculosis either in schoolchildren or their teachers, and includes provision for dental and ophthalmic treatment. There is considerable demand for the extension of the Service to all schools in the Colony, but without very considerable increases in medical staff, accom- modation and equipment this would not be possible.

Health education, in the form of film shows, filmstrips, flannelcraft, health talks and demonstration classes, is con- ducted at all Health Centres. Pamphlets on infant care have been translated into Chinese, and are distributed on a large scale. Posters of various kinds, dealing with such matters as ante-natal hygiene, diet and general cleanliness, are used in maternity and child health centres. A series of lectures in health education was delivered in English to students at the Northcote Training College, and it is planned to repeat a similar course in Cantonese to the students attending the Grantham Training College for teachers in 1956. Four special schools have cooperated with the World Health Organization team and personnel of the Medical Department in a special health-educational effort seeking to enlist the cooperation of

parents.

There is a Government Ophthalmic Service, based upon two major centres, completely equipped with ophthalmic operating theatres and investigation rooms, from which teams visit regulary ten out-stations at weekly or fortnightly inter- vals. In addition to the Service, there are 14 ophthalmic specialists in private practice, the University employs one part-time ophthalmic specialist for two sessions weekly, and some of the private practitioners give honorary consultant service at the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. The Service has a central optical workshop, dealing mainly with spectacles prescribed under the School Health Service. The principal ophthalmic diseases presenting at first attendance at govern- ment clinics were acute ophthalmias, cataract, trachoma, syphilis and glaucoma, in that order.

(

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

In the Government Dental Service there are eight detal clinics in operation, four in the General Dental Service, three in the School Dental Service, and one operating jointly for the General and School Service. It is estimated that the number of persons seeking attention at the general clinics is approx. 50,000. 42,000 children contributed to the School Dental Service.

Nine scholarships were awarded under the Government Dental Scholarship Scheme. Three of the scholars went to Singapore to take up clinical studies, and six joined the Hong Kong University Preliminary Science Class. After one year's study at the University, these students will go to Singapore for the four clinical years of the dental course. On completion of their training, the students will be expected to give two years' service to the Hong Kong Government.

Several dental clinics are operated by welfare organiza- tions, either for their own members or for the poor in their respective vicinities. In the latter category are included the evening clinics at the Family Welfare Society's centres, and the St. John Ambulance Brigade Penetration Party, which visits remote areas in the New Territories.

Development

The most important development was the opening of Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, on the site of the old Civil Hospital, in one of the most densely populated parts of Victoria. It has 200 beds and facilities for training 70 mid- wives.

The Kowloon General Hospital, due to be started shortly, is discussed in the Review of the Year, and other hospital development is referred to under Public Works, Chapter 14: The Mental Hospital to be built at Castle Peak, replacing an old cramped building in Victoria, will accommodate 50c patients, and the site will allow for extensions to accommodate

1,000.

The extension of the Maurine Grantham Health Centre at Tsun Wan has provided room for 6 more maternity bed: and for extended maternal and child health work. The Sai kung Health Centre is a dispensary with out-patient facilitie and 6 maternity beds.

PUBLIC HEALTH

107

In Appendix XII will be found a list of all hospitals in Hong Kong, government and private, with numbers of beds, the total numbers of registered doctors, nurses and other medical personnel, and a list of government medical personnel undergoing organized training.

URBAN SERVICES

The Urban Council, the organization and activities of which are described in the chapter on Administration, has statutory responsibilities for various public health measures in the urban area. The Chairman of the Council is also Director of the Urban Services Department, the Sanitary Division of which is responsible for the actual performance of public health activities in the urban area. The staff of the Division consists of 166 administrative, professional and technical officers, and 4,690 other workers. This includes a health inspectorate of 138 officers who have passed a Royal College of Health examination. The Division is sub-divided into interrelated sections dealing with sanitary maintenance of buildings and open spaces, pure food supplies, the establish- ment and control of public retail markets, the licensing and control of hawkers, the prevention and mitigation of disease, the collection and disposal of refuse, conservancy (disposal of nightsoil), disposal of the dead, and control of public swimming-beaches and life-saving.

Recurrent expenditure incurred by the Sanitary Division. of the Urban Services Department in 1955 amounted to nearly $14,000,000, of which over $12m. was wages.

16 fully-qualified meat and food inspectors will be re- quired for duty in the new abattoir which is to be constructed at Kennedy Town, and steps are being taken to train as many local men as possible in this type of work. In June four local officers returned, after qualifying, from the United Kingdom, and two more were sent in August to take the appropriate

course.

The system of house-inspection introduced last year, under which the health inspectorate personally advise tenants in cleaning methods and hygiene but leave them to cleanse Itheir own premises, has been generally well-received by the public, and can now be said to be successful. This system replaced the long-established practice of quarterly house- cleansing, undertaken throughout most of the urban district (by the Sanitary Division, and itself a relic of the days when

108

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

the Colony was subject to almost annual occurrences of plague (see History Chapter).

Approximately 2,300 people are employed on the col- lection and disposal of refuse and on street cleansing, utilizing 52 refuse-collection vehicles, 6 street-washing vehicles, and 18 barges specially constructed for the removal of refuse. Street-washing vehicles were diverted from normal day-time operations to convey mullah- and well-water to markets, slaughterhouses and garages for washing-down purposes, as a measure of main water conservancy. A regular service has, however, been maintained for the cleansing of street gully- traps and the nightly washing of roads and footpaths.

The amount of refuse collected daily is steadily in- creasing, and now amounts to 1,650 cubic yards. All refuse is removed daily by specially-constructed barges to the Council's dump in Gin Drinkers' Bay. The old refuse dump near Kun Tong was closed down in September to allow for intensive reclamation and industrial development in that area. The dump at Gin Drinkers' Bay should have an existence of at least 10 years. (See also under Public Works, Chapter 14.)

Special arrangements had to be made for cleansing and providing temporary latrine and ablution facilities in streets in which some 50,000 people sought temporary shelter after being rendered homeless by fires in various squatter areas.

Although many new buildings and houses with the water- carriage system are being erected each year, there has been a 5.3% increase in the demands on the conservancy disposal service, which maintains a daily service for more than 50,000 floors, and employs a staff of over 1,400.

A new type of conservancy vehicle, designed to improve on the present system of conveyance by manual labour, has undergone satisfactory trials, and the financial aspects of introducing such vehicles for general use are under con- sideration.

The amount of nightsoil collected during the year exceeded 90,000 cubic yards. Most of it is delivered by barge to Tsun Wan, whence the Vegetable Marketing Organization arranges distribution to farmers throughout a large part of the New Territories. (See also Production Chapter.)

Constant attention is given by various advisory com- mittees, consisting of professional and technical officers, to

For children living in

cramped homes, the street

is often a

reading room.

1. Resettlement

Areas simple

provision is

made for schools

and places of

recreation;

not palatial,

but at least

the children

a.e off the street.

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ONG KONG PUBIC LIBRA

Tai Hang Tung Resettlement Estate, completed earl gives a partial idea of Hong Kong's programme of programme ranks among the largest and most quickly

1:

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BI

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Tai Hang Tung Resettlement Estate, completed early gives a partial idea of Hong Kong's programme of programme ranks among the largest and most quickly

in 1955, costing $8,000,000, and housing 24,000 people, providing homes for squatters and refugees. The whole lemented poor man's housing schemes in the world.

1

HONG

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in 1955, costing $8,000,000, and housing 24,000 people, providing homes for squatters and refugees. The whole irlemented poor man's housing schemes in the world.

RIES

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Above, an area of squatter shops and homes of the kind which the Government's resettlement programme is steadily doing away with. Below, a typical Resettlement Area shop, giving an idea

the improved standards being achieved.

of

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PUBLIC HEALTH

109

improve the standard of health and hygiene in the community. Regular inspections are made of more than 5,000 premises licensed for the preparation or sale of food, and of more than 100,000 floors to check on domestic cleanliness. Advantage is taken, whenever occasion permits, of giving advice on personal and food hygiene. Over 1,300 food samples were taken for bacteriological or chemical analysis. More than 75,000 public health nuisances were dealt with, and over 33,000 lbs. of unwholesome foodstuff were seized, or voluntari- ly surrendered, and destroyed.

Two new public bath-houses were erected, making a total of twelve in the urban district. They have a daily attendance, for which no charge is made, of over 4,000 people of both sexes. The provision of additional bath-houses and public latrines is proceeding under a five-year programme.

To improve the conditions under which food is sold from cooked-food stalls, and to reduce the incidence of intestinal diseases, a competition is held between the 999 licensed stalls in the various districts in the urban area. The winners are presented with an inscribed plaque, which may be retained for a period of 6 months. Points are awarded for various aspects of cleanliness and the competitions are judged on the basis of periodic inspections by the health staff. The stall- holders in the respective districts are keen to win, and an encouragingly high standard of cleanliness has been attained.

One new retail market was constructed, in Tung Tau Resettlement Area, bringing the total provision in all markets to 2,288 stalls.

The retailing of fresh meat, fresh fish and poultry is restricted to public markets, or to foodshops, operating under special licence. Only fresh meat from animals slaughtered in government abattoirs is permitted to be sold in markets and foodshops. Imported meat may be sold under special permit.

714,961 pigs, 76,006 cattle, and 10,319 sheep and goats were slaughtered in the abattoirs and marketed. Retail prices. of meat fluctuated between $3 and $4.10 per catty for pork, and between $2.80 and $4 per catty for beef. Approx. 680 tons of moribund or diseased animals were condemned at the abattoirs.

A by-products plant, installed at Kennedy Town Slaughterhouse in September 1954, operated during the year

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with considerable success. The plant processes carcases condemned as unfit for human consumption (and which would otherwise be burned), and from these recovers meat and bone meal, animal grease, and small quantities of hoof and horn meal. There is a steady market for these products. The meat and bone meal, in particular, has proved such a boon to poultry farmers that the marketing of this commodity is now undertaken by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Pest Control is a responsibility of the Urban Services Department. In addition to routine pest control activities, work was completed on the testing of certain repellent formulations for use against troublesome biting midges (Lasioheiea stimulans). It was found that a stearate cream containing 70% di-methyl-phthalate and 30% zinc stearate will give good protection, for at least 3 hours after applica- tion, against both biting midges and the abundant mosquito pest, Aedes albopictus. Other development work completed included the introduction of a special bait base mixture and bait containers for use with warfarin (an anti-coagulant rodenticide), thus making possible the use of this highly effective material against domestic rodents.

Parks and Gardens

The Gardens Division of the Urban Services Department is concerned with practical horticulture and botanical work. The horticultural section is responsible for maintaining and developing the Botanic Gardens and the grounds of Government House, public recreation areas and children's playgrounds in the urban areas, most grounds of government schools, offices, hospitals, and quarters, and the grassed areas of the Airport. Responsibility for amenity tree-planting in streets on Hong Kong Island was transferred to the Division during the year. In the upkeep of these areas, which now total about 410 acres, a regular force of 190 gardeners, park- keepers, groundsmen and tree workers is engaged, with the help of a further 194 unskilled seasonal workers.

The horticultural section has four main nurseries for the production of ornamental plants to supply the needs of the Division, and for sale to the public. Several thousand- plants are grown in pots each year for official decoration purposes, and for non-competitive displays at agricultural and horticultural shows. It was a good year for chrysanthemums; several plants were displayed at Government House, each

PUBLIC HEALTH

III

being 63 feet in diameter and 20 feet in circumference, bearing an average of 330 blooms on a single stem plant.

The botanical section is primarily concerned with the care of the Colonial Herbarium, housed in an air-conditioned room in the University. The collection comprises some 26,000 specimens, and is largely the work of botanists and plant explorers in China at the beginning of the century. Specimens and data are continually being added as areas in the remoter parts of the Colony are again botanically surveyed. There is regular exchange of plant material with overseas institutions.

This year a new variety of camellia, hitherto unknown in Hong Kong, was discovered.

A communication received from Kew as this Report goes to press confirms that this is "a very distinct new species", and that it is "almost incredible" that so distinct a plant, with such large flowers, should be found growing within a few miles from the urban centre of Kowloon. The camellia was found at Shing Mun.

War Cemeteries

On 20 February the Governor unveiled the Memorial at Sai Wan Military Cemetery, in the presence of relatives and friends of the fallen (many of whom had travelled to Hong Kong from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia), representatives of the Commonwealth Governments, the Board of Admiralty, the Army Council, the Air Council, various religious denominations, ex-Service bodies, local Forces, and Government and civil organizations.

The Memorial, which is in the form of a shelter with a forecourt, is set at the entrance to the cemetery in an imposing natural setting, about 300 feet above sea-level, and com- memorates 2,056 officers and men of the Land Forces of the Commonwealth who gave their lives in the defence of the Colony in 1941, or subsequently died in captivity, and who have no known grave. Within the cemetery are more than 1,500 individual graves of their comrades. In the Stanley Military Cemetery there are another 660 individual war graves, and other small groups of war graves exist in other cemeteries.

The Chairman of the Urban Council, who is the local representative of the Imperial War Graves Commission, supervises the maintenance of all war graves and memorials, and is responsible for local administration. All construction work is supervised by the Public Works Department.

Chapter 10: Housing

Housing is the most important challenge which the community has to face in the social and economic field. The general background of Hong Kong's housing problem, and the importance which the Government attaches to the housing in adequate conditions of the Colony's 300,000 refugees and squatters still uncatered for by housing schemes, is discussed in the Review of the Year. Figures of refugee influx since the war will be found in the last section of the History Chapter, and additional background information is contained in the chapters on Population, Public Health, and Social Welfare.

In addition to the squatter population there is dense overcrowding throughout the tenements which make up a large part of Victoria and Kowloon. The legal minimum living space in the Colony is 35 sq. ft. per adult, but if this legal provision were enforced it is estimated that about. another 350,000 people would have to be re-housed. The Colony thus has at least 650,000 people living in substandard conditions, and a population which in 1954 was rising by purely natural increase at a rate of 1,230 a week, and which is now rising at the rate of 1,360 a week.

As an attempt to meet this grave situation, the Govern- ment, in April 1954, created a Housing Authority, charged with the duty of providing accommodation for people living in over-crowded and unsatisfactory conditions. Under the provisions of the Housing Ordinance, No. 18 of 1954, the Authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex-officio, plus not more than three members appointed by the Governor. Only two such appointments have in fact so far been made.

The Authority functions as a commercial enterprise, and although rents will be kept as low as possible, they must be sufficient to cover expenditure. No subsidies, as such, are given, but Crown land is allocated at half the normal upset price, and Government loans are granted at a low rate of interest. In 1955 the rate for future schemes was

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raised from 31% to 5% per annum. The Government main- tains a general control over the Authority's activities, and all its housing schemes must receive its prior approval.

It was not at any time intended that the Authority should have the monopoly of providing low-cost housing, and private development receives every encouragement. A number of larger business concerns have constructed quarters for their employees, and schemes of this sort are aided by the allocation of land on favourable terms. The Government itself has started a scheme to assist local officers (who are not, except in special cases, provided with official quarters) to build their own homes on a cooperative basis, and several of these projects are now under way. In addition, the Hong Kong Housing Society (see Review of the Year), the Hong Kong Model Housing Society, and the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society are making significant contribu- tions to dealing with this difficult problem. The last-named completed its housing estate at Tai Kok Tsui referred to in last year's Report.

The routine administration and execution of the decisions of the Authority are carried out by the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department, under the control of the Director of that Department, who is con- currently Chairman of the Housing Authority. Only a nucleus staff is so far operating, but it is anticipated that in 1956 recruitment will be on a brisker basis. A housing manager has been appointed from the United Kingdom, and is expected to arrive in April 1956. Salaries of all staff are repayable to Government, plus a 30% surcharge to cover the cost of pensions, quarters, passages, etc.

The full organization of the Division will include sections to deal with administration, accounts, and estate management, but of these only the first has so far been set up. Due to shortage of staff in the Public Works Depart- ment, the designing of the Authority's projects has so far been entrusted to private architects, but the possibility of setting up an architectural section within the Division is under consideration.

Much of the first year of the Authority's existence was taken up with the preliminary planning needed to set its schemes in motion. By the end of 1955, this work was largely completed. An efficient and comprehensive system of select

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committees (ten in all) is in operation, meeting at frequent intervals, in order to deal with such matters as architectural planning, tenancy selection, estate organization, byelaws, sites, finance and accountancy, publicity, and slum clearance. Meetings of the Authority itself are held as often as circumstances dictate; in addition, two Press conferences. were held, at which details of the various projects were promulgated. Agreement has now been reached with the Government on the main principles of the financial arrange- ments to be followed, and auditors (who will also act as financial consultants on an honorary basis) have been appointed.

One of the main difficulties experienced by the Authority is the lack of suitable building sites. Indeed, such sites, where expensive and prolonged site formation is not involved, are now virtually unobtainable within the urban area, where most of the people to be re-housed must be accommodated, so as to be near their places of livelihood. It is thus self-evident that land within the urban area, or at least the accessible parts of it, must not be sterilized by cheap single-storey housing. Vertical development, in the shape of multi-storeyed buildings, has been accepted as the only solution. This does not make for an ideal form of dwelling, and flats are relatively expensive to construct. In addition, the maximum densities permitted in the United Kingdom and elsewhere must be considerably exceeded if sufficient accommodation is to be provided with the limited land resources available. The Authority's long-term plans envisage the eventual provision of a minimum of 10,000 housing units a year. To make this target feasible it has had to accept net densities of 1,500 or more persons to the acre, but even on this basis it has not been easy to find land.

The Public Works Department recently carried out a general sites survey, to meet the requirements not only of assisted housing schemes, but also of schools, clinics, play- grounds, and other public necessities. This survey was revised during the year to provide for the Government's stepped-up activity in dealing with the housing problem, and is related closely to all development planning. 1,000 acres have already been reserved for temporary resettlement, but much of even this would need clearing of minor struc- tures, levelling and draining, before it could be used.

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The object of the projects so far formulated by the Housing Authority is to provide flats of a good basic standard suitable for, and within the means of, the white collar class of worker. In March the Government approved the plans for the first estate, to be constructed on reclaimed land on the sea-front off Java Road, North Point. There, on a 6-acre site, 1,975 self-contained flats, in 11-storey blocks, to accommodate about 16,000 persons, are in the process of being erected. The estate includes a school for 800 pupils, two health clinics, a post office, community centre, and 73 shops. A bus terminus will be incorporated within the boundaries, and a passenger ferry terminal will be con- structed nearby. The flats are of different sizes, to accom- modate from five to ten persons. Rents are not yet fixed, but will probably vary from about $50 to about $100 a month, exclusive of rates and water charges. The minimum accommodation provided will consist of a living room and separate bedroom, and in addition each flat will have its own kitchen, lavatory, shower, balcony and facilities for drying clothes. An adequate lift service will be provided, and there will be refuse chutes at central points in each block. The school, clinics, and post office will be run by Government Departments. The total cost of the scheme is estimated to exceed $26,000,000 and the flats should be ready for occupation in July 1957. The estate is designed by Mr. Eric Cumine, F.R.I.B.A.

In August the Government approved plans for the next estate, to be constructed at Cadogan Street, Kennedy Town, and costing about $7,000,000. This site, covering 32 acres, is on steep hillside, entailing fairly extensive cutting and site formation, the cost of which is to be met by a grant from Colonial Development and Welfare. The buildings are. being planned on cross-contour development, and at its highest point the site is about 285 ft. above street-level. 640 flats will be constructed, in five blocks, averaging 9 storeys in height, and designed to accommodate about 4,500 persons. There will also be a 3-storey community centre, warehouses, and a number of shops; provision has been made for play- grounds and open spaces within the development. The flats on this estate are generally of a simpler type than at North Point, but are likewise self-contained, and provided with shower, balcony, kitchen and lavatory. Lifts and refuse chutes will be installed. Rents are likely to vary from about $65 to about $90 a month, exclusive of rates and water

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charges. Site formation is scheduled to start in March 1956, and the flats should be ready for occupation in September

1957.

The Authority's third project, on which planning is still in the preliminary stage, will be a 15-acre site at So Uk, in Shamshuipo; and it is probable that the next scheme to be submitted for Government consideration will be one for the development of a 6-acre site on the Clearwater Bay Road, adjacent to the Airport.

The above projects represent a capital investment of well over $100,000,000. But it is already apparent that even a programme of these dimensions will fall very far short of meeting the Colony's housing needs. The serious problem of the natural increase of population is being examined, also the possibility of carrying out, or encouraging, re-develop- ment of slum property.

RESETTLEMENT

The governing factor in clearance and resettlement operations in 1955 was the major policy decision taken last. year that multi-storey resettlement buildings should be built by Government and financed from public funds. An import- ant change in the design of these buildings was made early in the year, when it was decided that a seventh storey should be added, and that the flat roofs should be designed for recreation and welfare purposes.

The first of the new seven-storey estates was completed on the Tai Hang Tung fire site, north of Boundary Street, Kowloon, by the end of March, and now houses over 24,000 people. The first three blocks of a large new estate of eleven blocks at Li Cheng Uk were completed, and work started on two other estates. By the end of the year multi-storey accommodation for about 50,000 people was under construc-

tion.

The blocks in the multi-storey estates vary in size and are in the shape of the letter H, the cross-bar of which accommodates lavatories, washing spaces and bathing cubicles, while the two wings each contain anything from 56 to 128 rooms on each floor, each room measuring 12 ft. 6 ins. by 9 ft. 6 ins. The total number of rooms in an average block is between 500 and 600. The rent per room was provisionally fixed at $10 in 1954, pending an examina-

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tion of the capital and recurrent costs. Early in the year this examination was completed, and it was decided that receipts. from rent should cover both the repayment of the capital cost in forty years, with interest at 31%, and also all recur- rent costs, including the cost of administration. On this basis, the rent for one room worked out at $14 a month, inclusive of the charge for water. It has been found that this is a sum which settlers can afford to pay. This is shown by the fact that during 1955, out of a total of $1,853,300 due in rent for rooms in multi-storey estates, only $1,538 had to be written off as irrecoverable.

During the year it was also decided that settlers who had previously operated shops in squatter areas should be given the opportunity of renting ground-floor rooms for combined business and domestic purposes at a higher rental. Many have availed themselves of this opportunity. A rent of $100 a month is charged for a ground-floor room, 25 ft. by 9 ft. 6 ins. (double the normal size).

The multi-storey estates are administered by area officers of the Resettlement Department, whose main task is one of educating the inhabitants to observe ordinary rules of hygiene, pay their rents, and in general become good citizens. When it is considered that these persons have formerly been living in insanitary squatter areas where almost all activities were illegal, it can be appreciated that the work of administering these estates requires constant vigilance, coupled with a high degree of tact and under- standing.

The 1954 decision that the main stream of resettlement should be directed into multi-storey buildings was made necessary by the Colony's land problem referred to earlier. The earlier cottage Resettlement Areas have, however, made an important contribution towards the solution of the squat- ter problem. Their population increased during the year from 57,000 to 68,000. In general these areas, of which there are fifteen, consist of steep hillside, unsuitable for multi- storey buildings. Terracing and site formation are carried out by the staff of the Resettlement Department at Government expense, and permit fees are charged for the sites. The majority of the huts or cottages have been built by the settlers themselves at their own expense, but many have been built by charitable organizations and some by the Govern- ment. There are still possibilities for expansion in five of

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these areas, one of which is at Tsun Wan in the New Territories, but it is unlikely that their population will ever exceed 100,000.

The clearance of fire lanes in squatter areas has been continued, and has had some effect in limiting the extent of squatter fires. Their frequency has not, however, appreciably diminished. There were 30 fires during the year, 10 of which were in November, when over 9,000 people were made homeless. Nearly 6,000 of these were victims of a fire at Fa Hui on 1 November. After each fire the Social Welfare Office registers the homeless, who are then provided with free meals for a period not exceeding one month, while various voluntary organizations assist by gifts of clothing or money. As it is not normally possible to offer early resettlement to fire victims, temporary sites are allocated on which they can build themselves new huts. When possible, these sites are on barren hillsides not required for permanent development, but it is unfortunately often necessary to use portions of public streets as temporary hut sites. By the end of the year the number of fire victims so accommodated was over 19,000.

Every assistance is given to any voluntary organizations willing to carry out welfare work of any kind in Resettlement Areas. In the temporary cottage areas, sites are granted on permit to such organizations, and during the year three. schools and two welfare centres were completed. In the multi-storey estates, where sites are not available, eight rooftops (with shelters at either end) and 28 rooms were allocated for welfare purposes, and there is no doubt that the work being done by these organizations is of great benefit to the settlers, their children, and indeed to the Colony as a whole.

A survey of the squatter areas not yet resettled established their population as over 300,000, at least 200,000 of whom are in places which should be cleared as soon as possible, either because of health and fire risks, or because the land is needed for permanent development. These figures are much higher than previous rough estimates indicated, and emphasize the need for many more multi-storey estates.

The population of the Resettlement Areas has increased by 42,000 in 12 months, the figures for the different types of area being as follows:

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1 Jan. 55.

31 Dec. 55.

Temporary cottage areas

57,000.

68,000.

Emergency 2-storey structures built by

Government at Shek Kip Mei

35,000.

36,000.

Permanent 6- and 7-storey buildings

built by Government

19,000.

49,000.

111,000.

153,000.

It is of interest that over 87,000 of these 153,000 persons are now living in premises owned by Government.

As with other forms of assisted housing, the greatest obstacle to further resettlement operations is the difficulty of finding more large sites for multi-storey estates, each block of which requires an area of over one acre, when allowance is made for access roads and the minimum amount of open space. The sites must be within easy reach of the places of work of the settlers, many of whom cannot afford daily bus fares. Future progress depends on the availability of large sites. The limiting factor is land.

URBAN BUILDINGS

Building standards in Hong Kong are reasonably high; the best building materials and the most up-to-date methods of construction are widely used. The Colony buildings-apartments, private residences, banks and com- mercial offices-compare favourably with those of any other city.

Minimum standards of design, material and construction (covering all aspects of housing, including health, ventila- tion, drainage, and safety) are laid down in the Buildings Ordinance, which has been revised from time to time to meet changing conditions and views on housing standards. The latest of these revisions has recently been completed, a new Buildings Ordinance (see chapter on Legislation) becoming law at the end of the year.

Under the Buildings Ordinance, no building may be erected in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon unless plans of it have been previously submitted to, and approved by, the Director of Public Works in his capacity as the Building Authority.

As in every year since the war, private building develop- ment was on a large scale. It has been often said that it is

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impossible to find a place within the urban zone where the sound of building cannot be heard from somewhere; and it is more or less true.

1,451 new buildings, including 528 European-type and 737 Chinese-type residences and 186 other structures, were completed, an increase of 30% over 1954.

787 plans, involving the construction of 1,767 buildings, were submitted to the Building Authority during 1955. These included 536 European-type residences, 958 Chinese- type residences, 73 factories, 53 apartment buildings, 17 schools, 3 churches, 5 blocks of staff quarters, 33 housing schemes, 20 offices, 45 warehouses and stores, 2 clinics, a convalescent home, a hostel, a cinema, 17 service stations, a Civil Aid Service training centre, and an ambulance station.

There were also 849 plans covering rehabilitation, alterations and additions, mostly to domestic properties, 47 site development schemes, and a large number of plans covering minor constructional work, such as garages and temporary buildings. In addition, 3, 182 plans were submitted for reinforced concrete details and drainage works, and amendments to previously approved plans.

NEW TERRITORIES HOUSING

In the New Territories (apart from New Kowloon) the Buildings Ordinance does not apply, but control of build- ings is exercised by the New Territories Administration, along the lines of the Buildings Ordinance where town buildings are concerned, but with wide latitude in respect. of village housing. No structure may be erected without the approval of the District Officer concerned.

In villages of traditional South Chinese construction the houses are built in rows one behind another, usually all facing the same way, the exact position of the village being determined according to principles of geomancy. A typical example of geomantic siting is for a village to be built on the lower slopes of a hill, facing rice-fields and sea, with hills extending like two arms on the right and left, and with a grove of trees, which by tradition must not be cut down, immediately behind the village. Often there is a pond, and more trees, across the front of the village.

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Many villages (but not so many as in the adjoining parts of China) have walls, gates, watch-towers, and even a moat. In front of the first row of houses there is usually an open cement-paved space which may be used for drying vegetables and medicinal plants, as well as being a con- venient meeting place. The spaces between each of the back rows of houses are narrow, with paved access and open drains. Houses are constructed of locally-made blue brick or roughcut granite blocks, a heavy tiled roof, and, in recent years, cement floors. Such houses stand for hundreds of years. In the poorer villages houses are built of sun-dried mud brick, faced with plaster. These houses deteriorate after a few years, the owner usually rebuilding in similar style. If left unoccupied, they soon disintegrate into heaps of rubble. A well-built stone village house usually consists of a single ground-floor room, with only one entrance, often separated from the outer court by a covered porch. One side. of the room (usually near the door) or one side of the porch, may be used for cooking, while the other side is used for storing grass, the principal fuel. The rear portion of the room may be screened off with wooden partitions, for use as a bedroom, and over this portion, raised some eight feet above floor-level, there may be a wooden platform or gallery used for storage or for extra sleeping accommodation. There is no ceiling, fireplace or chimney, and few windows. The altar and shelf for ancestral tablets is at the back of the room, facing the main entrance. In the hilly Hakka areas, on account of the scarcity of level ground, many houses have their sleeping accommodation in an upper storey reached by ladder.

New Territories housing is at the present time being substantially influenced by more modern ideas, particularly in imitation of new buildings (such as school houses) designed by urban architects. These, however, mainly affect the choice of materials. The essential form of the traditional Chinese house is maintained, except that newer houses have more windows. Architects are seldom, if ever, employed for village houses.

In certain areas city-dwellers have built modern bun- galows and small weekend houses. These particular areas are given in the chapter on Population. In the market towns, where two- or three-storey buildings have existed for many

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years, modern shop and tenement buildings differ little from those in Kowloon. For any building in reinforced concrete it is obligatory to employ an architect.

TOWN PLANNING

A preliminary planning report for Hong Kong was prepared by Sir Patrick Abercrombie in 1948. This set out the main lines along which long-term development should proceed. The population, however, has risen well beyond the limit of 2,000,000 envisaged at the time of Sir Patrick Abercrombie's visit. This has accelerated development in the Colony and produced significant alterations to the data on which the Report was based. Several large new reclama- tions, which had not been envisaged for many years to come, have already been completed or are advancing rapidly towards completion. The reconstruction of Kai Tak Airport, necessitated by world developments in aviation, has led to other alterations, and the growth of industry has required the development of Kun Tong and Tsun Wan as industrial

centres.

Wherever possible, however, the main intentions of the Report are being followed. Within the preliminary pattern given in it, the preparation of outline development plans is undertaken by a small Town Planning Unit, which is part of the Public Works Department and coordinates govern- mental work on planning problems. The plans set out the principles to be followed in the improvement of any district concerned, and when necessary, are broken down into greater detail to show the lay-out of specified zones.

As the Government owns the freehold of virtually all land in the Colony, there is little or no impediment to the controlled use of unleased Crown land. When planned improvements affect land already leased, compulsory pur- chase, or purchase by negotiation, is sometimes necessary. A Town Planning Ordinance, giving powers both in this respect and in regard to the control of the use of land, has been in force since 1939, but it is only recently, due to increased development, that full use is being made of its provisions, in order that the best possible use may be made of the limited area available for development.

See also the section on land tenure in the Production Chapter.

Chapter 11: Social Welfare

Voluntary effort is closely interwoven with official action in the fabric of social welfare services in Hong Kong. There are approximately 100 voluntary organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, covering infant and child welfare, youth work, care of juvenile delinquents and discharged prisoners, moral welfare, public assistance, housing, care of the physically-handicapped, old people's welfare and com- munity development. These organizations work harmoniously and in close association with the Government's Social Welfare Office, an important department associated with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

A few of the orphanages run by voluntary agencies have a history dating back a hundred years, and the duties of protection of women and children had for many years been carried out by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The establishment of the Social Welfare Office in 1947, just before social and economic changes far-reaching in their con- sequences were about to take place, came at an opportune

moment.

In 1948-9, as the National Government of China collapsed, hundreds of thousands of refugees entered the Colony, at a time when the more vulnerable categories in the population (such as the aged) were either unable or unwilling to return to their villages in China. This resulted in new social problems for which there could be no prospects of speedy solution. The influx of refugees not only caused the Colony to become grossly overcrowded, with probably one of the highest population densities in the world, but presented to the authorities serious fire and health risks from the illegal and unhygienic wooden squatter settlements. The majority of the immigrants, uprooted from ties of kin and community, have not found it easy to adapt themselves in their new environment. Most of them eke out an existence by casual work, whilst some of their weaker members further increase the problem of prostitution, which is already of considerable magnitude in this large seaport. The number of non-school children has been estimated at 60,000, constituting a con- siderable challenge to youth welfare organizations.

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The determined effort which the Government and various independent bodies are making to deal with the housing of refugees is discussed in the Review of the Year, and in the Housing Chapter. In formulating policy for the further development of welfare work, the Social Welfare Officer is assisted by the Colony's Social Welfare Advisory Committee, composed of representatives of voluntary agencies and members of the public chosen for their experience in social work. Some of the recommendations of its Sub-Committee on Welfare of the Blind have already been carried out; the proposals of its Sub-Committee on Child Care are being considered by the Government; and a detailed study of the problem of prostitution by its Moral Welfare Sub-Committee. is nearing completion. This Committee is also responsible for the over-all coordination of existing welfare services, and for making recommendations on the amounts of Government subvention to be paid annually to volu organizations.

The unofficial Council of Social Service, on which the Labour, Education, and Medical Departments and the Social Welfare Office are represented by observers, fills an important rôle as the coordinating body of the 32 voluntary organizations affiliated to it. Meetings of representative member societies are held regularly, providing opportunities for discussion of welfare problems and encouragement of new projects.

Material relief, by way of supplementary food and medical supplies, is distributed by voluntary agencies in squatter, resettlement and other areas where it is badly needed. Above all, a promising trend can be seen in the provision, by welfare organizations, of centres in Resettlement Areas for social and educational activities. Two neighbourhood associations, or Kaifongs, formed in Shek Kip Mei and Ngau Tau Kok, a family case-work centre planned in Tai Hang Tung by the Church World Service and the Family Welfare Society, several clubs recently established by the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association and by the Social Welfare Office, and a number of schools run by voluntary associations in Resettlement Areas, are some of the amenities which will do much to weld these neighbourhoods into communities.

Infant and Child Welfare

Children deprived of a normal home-life are mainly looked after in voluntary homes, of which there are nineteen,

·

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125

having the care of 2,250 children who are either abandoned, orphaned or destitute. (Juvenile delinquents, girls in moral danger, and physically-handicapped children are catered for in special institutions). Voluntary organizations also operate three day-nurseries, one of which functions in a Resettlement Area, for children whose mothers are at work, mostly as hawkers and factory or home-industry workers. A crêche for restoring to health under-nourished babies is run by the Society for the Protection of Children, which in addition carries on, at five centres, its work of educating mothers of poor families in infant hygiene and feeding, and of giving out milk and other nutritious food to supplement the diet of infants.

Statutory functions for the protection of children and juveniles are exercised by the Social Welfare Office, under the Protection of Children and Juveniles Ordinance, the aim of which is to safeguard the interests of girls under 21 living away from their parents and in need of care and protection, and of those who have been adopted. Registration for adopted daughters is compulsory, and for adopted boys voluntary. Cases of suspected trafficking in, or ill-treatment of, children are investigated and action taken for the welfare of the children. There are now 5,175 children whose welfare is supervised by Children's Officers, and of these 2,110 are children in need of care and protection, 1,772 are adopted daughters, and 1,293 adopted boys. Close liaison is maintain- ed with the Po Leung Kuk, a place of safety for purposes of much of the work under the Ordinance, and with other voluntary organizations, many of which likewise receive a Government subvention.

The largest group of children is looked after by the Christian Children's Fund Inc., which, in addition to a child welfare centre, operates six children's homes and subsidizes three others. This organization has been allocated a site at Wu Kwai Sha, in the New Territories, for a Children's Garden, consisting of a group of homes to be run on the cottage system, where it will be possible to take in more orphaned or destitute children and also, it is hoped, provide technical training.

Women's and Girls' Welfare

A Section of the Social Welfare Office, formerly known as the Moral Welfare Section, but now increased in scope,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

discharges statutory responsibilities for the welfare of children. in moral danger and the protection of women, as well as being concerned with aid to unmarried mothers, rehabilitation of prostitutes, and settling family disputes.

The Sisters of the Good Shepherd, who assist in the work of this Section by providing institutional training for juvenile prostitutes and other young girls, moved into their new home, Pelletier Hall, where it will be possible eventually to take in up to 100 girls-44 more than in their former temporary home.

Probationary Work

Juvenile delinquency is not a serious problem in Hong Kong; the majority of the offences committed by boys and girls who were brought before the two juvenile courts arose more from poverty (illegal hawking to supplement family earnings etc.) rather than from any intrinsically anti-social motives. The Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, 1953, which set. up juvenile courts, also introduced probation as a form of treatment for young offenders. Four probation officers now supervise 80 probationers. Their work is greatly facilitated by two children's centres set up by philanthropic committees, which are run partly as probation hostels and partly as clubs for street-children who might otherwise become potential delinquents. In the clubs, tailoring, rattan-weaving and broom-making are taught. The Juvenile Care Centre caters for 250 children, and Shanghai Street Children's Centre for 107. The former provides accommodation, in addition, for 60, and the latter for 40, probationers and destitute children.

With the opening in June of a new Remand Home, in Matauwei Road, facilities are now available for the care of juveniles on arrest and remand, and on short-term detention as a form of treatment. An assistant probation officer with previous training in the United Kingdom in the administra- tion of remand homes is the superintendent of this new Social Welfare Office venture. The Castle Peak Boys' Home, an approved school for boys run by the Salvation Army on behalf of the Social Welfare Office, opened a new wing in September, providing additional premises for the expansion of education and recreation. In addition to education in good citizenship, vocational training in shoe-making, carpentry, rattan work and agriculture is given to the 80 boys in the Home. At the Kwai Chung Girls' Home, an approved school for girls which is also managed by the Salvation Army on the

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same basis, the vocational training given is mainly in domestic work.

Adult offenders constitute about 30% of the cases handled by the Probation Section. The majority of them are referred for inquiries into home background and circumstances; but some are sent for assistance and a few for supervision under a form of recognizance. Legislation to provide for adult probation is under consideration, and in view of expected increase in work and greater demands on the staff, a pro- gramme of in-service training has been organized for three assistant probation officers recruited recently. Aid to discharged prisoners has been undertaken since 1951, by the Salvation Army for men and by the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society for women. In addition to relief in cash and kind, advice and assistance to get a new start in life are given to those who need help.

Youth Organizations

There are 97 youth clubs in operation, with a total membership of 4,000, either run directly by, or affiliated to, the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association. The 21 clubs. established by the Social Welfare Office are among those affiliated. Activities include games, inter-club competitions, visits to places of interest, physical training, and instruction in handicrafts and simple reading and writing. In June, a collection of paintings, the work of club members; was exhibited under the sponsorship of the British Council, and in November a 3-day Boys' and Girls' Clubs Exhibition, in which over 50 clubs participated, was visited by 10,000 spectators. An important purpose of the club movement is to cultivate in the members a spirit of service to the community. The creation of 3 Boy Scout Troops, 3 Girl Guide Companies, a Brownie Pack and a Cub Pack among club children has strengthened this trend. Expansion is being directed toward the establishment of senior clubs (for children in the 16-18 age group) and extension of activities to Resettlement Areas. Six rooftop clubs were opened in the Tai Hang Tung and Li Cheng Uk Resettlement Areas, and two in the Chuk Yuen Resettlement Area (in the Recreation Centre built by the Junior Chamber of Commerce.)

In addition to their 12 children's libraries already operating in various districts, the Junior Chamber of Commerce handed over to the Social Welfare Office in March

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a mobile library for the use of non-school children in the New Territories. With the aim of raising the standard of children's spare-time reading matter, the Council of Social Service sponsored the publication of two series of children's books. The first series consisted of three prize-winning manuscripts submitted for a competition organized by the Council for a Chinese novel suitable for teen-agers. The second series, specially selected and attractively illustrated, is for younger children.

The playing-fields of the Children's Playgrounds As- sociation's two centres (the War Memorial Welfare Centre in Wantsai and the Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre at Mongkok), both equipped with football pitches and up-to-date stadia, are used by about 15,000 school and non-school children weekly, in addition to the numerous young apprentices who use the grounds daily. During the year, approximately 3,000 youngsters from poor families and orphanages spent a week's holiday at the Silver Mine Bay Holiday Camp, the manage- ment committee of which is appointed by the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations, the coordinating body for all youth welfare in the Colony.

Two Y.W.C.A. Industrial Girls' Hostels house 70 factory girls. The W. M. Thomson Memorial Boys' Hostel, run by the Salvation Army for apprentices, has reached its maximum capacity of 56.

A large number of underprivileged children are, however, not yet covered by existing youth services, and the training of potential youth leaders is still of primary importance. A Club Leadership Training Course is run by the Social Welfare Office, in conjunction with the Grantham Training College, and refresher courses, round-table discussions, practical training classes in handicrafts and physical culture are held by the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association for its leaders.

Care of the Disabled

A Welfare Centre for the Physically-Handicapped, near Shap Long, on Lantao Island, was opened at the end of April. It is run by the Social Welfare Office, and was originally intended primarily for the disabled ex-Nationalist soldiers at Rennie's Mill. All except 80 of these men, with their depen- dants, have now been repatriated to Taiwan, however, and

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the Centre is thus able to take in other destitute disabled persons for training and institutional care. At the end of the year there were 138 physically-handicapped people, with 33 dependants, living in the Centre, while case-workers were engaged in studying the suitability for admission of many more cases. Employment under sheltered conditions has been organized, and articles such as bead-necklaces, plastic string- bags, gloves and wooden toys are produced. The majority of the residents are cripples, but recently several cured lepers were transferred from the Hayling Island leprosarium and are assisting in the Centre's vegetable farm.

The School for the Deaf, a subsidized school, provides 70 pupils with special educational treatment, including speech- training and the teaching of handicrafts. Increased facilities for deaf children are envisaged with the grant of land by the Government to the Rotary Club of Hong Kong Island (East) on which to build new premises for the Overseas Chinese School for Deaf and Dumb, which will then be in a position to take in more pupils than at present and develop vocational training.

The Ebenezer Blind Home opened an extension in June, making space available for a further 30 blind children. The present capacity of the Home is 100, of whom about 30 are adult blind women engaged in teaching in the Home, or in sheltered employment, such as knitting by hand and machine, weaving woollen scarves, or rattan work. The rest are children of school age receiving a primary school education, mainly through the medium of Cantonese braille. English braille is also taught, and several older pupils are learning how to type. There are a number of day-pupils in the Home, among them eight blind boys from North Point Relief Camp, which has under its care about 30 blind people of both sexes.

The inauguration of the Hong Kong Society for the Blind was a most significant event for the Colony's estimated blind population of 4,000. Approximately 800 non-institutional blind are now registered with the Social Welfare Office, and relief is given to those found living under conditions of hard- ship. The new Society's first project is to launch a drive for funds to advance the work of preventing blindness and promoting the education, rehabilitation and welfare of the blind.

Hong Kong was represented by the Superintendent of the Ebenezer Blind Home at the Far East Conference on

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Work for the Blind, held in Tokyo in October, during which month also, another delegate to the Conference, Major D. R. Bridges, Blind Welfare Officer, Federation of Malaya, paid a visit to Hong Kong and gave valuable advice on blind welfare. In November, a member of the Social Welfare Office returned from a 6-months' training course specially arranged by the British Empire Society for the Blind and a month's tour of blind welfare agencies in Malaya and Singapore.

No special provisions exist at present for the care of mental defectives, but 65 of them are sheltered in various welfare institutions. The Council of Social Service's Sub-Committee on the Care of Mental Defectives has proposed, among other recommendations, the setting up of a home for mental defectives.

#

Community Development

Community development works mainly through Kaifongs -Neighbourhood Associations-based on Chinese traditions but organized on lines necessary for the efficient execution of present-day welfare programmes. Revived in 1949, 23 Kai- fongs are now recognized by the Social Welfare Office, in which there is a special Section to give guidance and encouragement to Kaifong work. Kaifongs are always to the fore in assisting the Social Welfare Office in emergency relief measures after squatter fires and other disasters. They have cooperated closely with the Government in such other matters as registration of persons, vaccination and diphtheria immunization campaigns, and spreading propaganda on water-saving, fire precautions and blood donation.

Their free schools cater for 4,947 underprivileged children, and their free clinics treated 193,290 cases during 1955, compared with 4,000 pupils and 73,000 patients during 1954. A great deal of attention is paid to the provision of recreational facilities in their neighbourhoods. 700 games were played by their 59 basketball and football teams, giving free entertainment to thousands of spectators. They maintain several playgrounds, equipped with miniature football pitches, basketball, badminton and volleyball courts, and this year three new children's playgrounds were opened under their auspices. The Hung Hom Kaifong maintains a public library, erected at a cost of over $100,000.

They are also active in adult education, while their Women's Sections give free maternity care to needy expectant

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mothers and conduct domestic classes for some 400 women in their districts.

Three women's welfare clubs, aiming at the promotion of fundamental education for women to enable them to earn a livelihood or raise their standards of living, the provision of facilities for the improvement of women's health, and the encouragement of more active participation by women in social welfare and other civic work, were formed during the year. This is a new departure in welfare activity. Classes in home-economics, and two literary classes, have already been started by these clubs, for women in their districts.

Community Centres, as such, do not exist in Hong Kong, although there are two multi-functional centres managed by the Children's Playgrounds Association which bear some resemblance to them, with playgrounds, football pitches, stadia for sports and for showing educational films, economy canteens, children's libraries, and floor-space for several wel- fare organizations. St. James's Settlement, run by the Anglican Church, also forms the nucleus of a community centre, consisting of a parents' centre (with library, clinic and games room), seven mixed clubs for 230 boys and girls, a mothers' club, and adult education classes.

Emergency Relief

Although there has been no squatter fire comparable in magnitude to the one which devastated Tai Hang Tung in July last year, rendering 24,000 persons homeless, a variety of disasters-a freak storm in the fishing town of Cheung Chau, floods in Yuen Long and Tsun Wan, collapses of old houses in congested urban areas, fires in tenements, and 8 major and 30 minor fires in squatter areas-all necessitated emer- gency relief measures by the Social Welfare Office, assisted by voluntary agencies. 34,749 victims were registered by relief staff; 2,758,759 free meals and 68,976 dry rations were distributed. Clothing and blankets were issued either by the British Red Cross Society or by the Church World Service, and the distribution of non-government relief, consisting mainly of rice or cash grants, was undertaken by Kaifongs.

Public Assistance

The Colony's rapid industrialization has partially eased the burden imposed by the swollen population, by assimilat- ing a proportion of those who are of working age, especially

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those who are young or in their prime. The major problem with which public assistance agencies have to contend is the inadequate earnings of those who strive to maintain themselves by precarious and part-time work. As stated in Chapter 3, under-employment is a greater problem than unemployment. Many of the under-employed are inadequately housed, in need of better nutrition, and unable to provide medical attention for themselves and their families.

The sense of family obligation is very strong, but in areas such as squatter colonies, where poverty is common, welfare organizations have to step in to meet needs which are universal among the majority of their residents. The Catholic Welfare Committee of China, through nearly 100 centres in various parts of the Colony, the Lutheran World Federation through its 22 centres, and the Church World Service, dis- tributed food, clothing and medical supplies to the value of over $10,000,000.

The first two of these organizations, in their programmes of resettlement abroad, have resettled thousands of distressed foreigners from China, and have taken on the registration and interviewing of Chinese applicants for emigration to the United States under the Refugee Relief Act.

There are a number of voluntary organizations subsidized by the Government, concerned in the alleviation of distress. The Family Welfare Society is carrying out, from four branches in the urban areas, the rehabilitation of families by means of loans or grants to set them up in business. The Society of St. Vincent de Paul gives monetary grants for food, or for payment of school fees or medical expenses, and the Hong Kong War Memorial Fund assists with grants to various categories of people bereaved as a result of war.

Official programmes of public assistance operated by the Social Welfare Office include out-door relief, administered through 6 welfare centres, and in-door relief in 2 camps, at North Point and Morrison Hill. At the 6 centres an average of 2,570 free meals is distributed daily to the needy, drawn mainly from vulnerable categories, such as widows with dependent children, the physically-handicapped, and the aged.

Institutional care for approximately 1,000 old people who are without means of support is provided at four voluntary homes. The need for this is illustrated by the fact that the Poon Yeuk Ching Sheh Home, was filled to capacity within a month of opening.

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公 共

!

書館

Above, the raised hand of public safety at a difficult junction on Garden Road, the main ascent to Victoria Peak. Below, the raised hand of welcome, as a penetration patrol arrives at a remote New Territories village.

KONG PUBL

Police Department

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PHPLAS

I

IES

Asia Photo Supply P. C. Lee

S.C.M.P.

The Combined Services Tattoo, held in November, attracted capacity audiences. Top: the Retreat at the Finale. Middle: "The Forlorn Hope in the Attack on San Sebastian 1813". Bottom: the Massed Bands of four infantry Regiments.

Chapter 12: Legislation

Sixty-nine Ordinances were enacted in 1955.

In the field of charities, two new trust funds have been established: the Grantham Scholarship Fund, by Ordinance No. 8, and the Kadoorie Agricultural Aid Loan Fund, by Ordinance No. 25. Two existing funds have been made into statutory trust funds: Ordinance No. 9 created the Brewin Trust Fund, which originated in 1906 to commemorate the Registrar-General of that name (a post which was the forerunner of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs); and Ordinance No. 67 created the Education Scholarships Fund. The former wide powers to make regulations controlling publications, contained in the Control of Publications Consolidation Ordinance, 1951, have been restricted by an amending Ordinance, No. 57. Some of the regulations which had been made have been rescinded, and have been enacted in a modified form as part of the Ordinance. The Magistrates (Amendment) Ordinance, No. 2, has provided that where a magistrate has an action brought against him for something done in the course of his duty, it is now a good defence for him to show that he had not acted maliciously and without reasonable and probable cause; a similar protection is afforded to doctors, by Ordinance No. 56, in respect of things done by them under the Mental Hospitals Ordin- ance (Cap. 136). The Administration of Justice (Summary Offences) Ordinance, No. 52, which is in force for one year, and may then be extended for further periods by resolution of the Legislative Council, is intended to relieve the congestion in the magistrates' courts. It provides that persons charged with certain minor traffic offences may, if they so choose, pay the fine prescribed in the Ordin- ance without having to attend court. Direct taxation for the 1955-6 year of assessment will be assessed in accordance with the amendments to the Inland Revenue Ordinance, introduced by Ordinance No. 36. Salaries tax may now be paid by tendering Tax Reserve Certificates, issued by the Commissioner of Inland Revenue under Ordinance No.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

66. The recommendations of two international bodies have been reflected in this year's legislation : those of the International Labour Organization in the Factories & Industrial Undertakings Ordinance, No. 34; and those of the World Health Organization in the extensive amend- ments to the Quarantine and Prevention of Diseases Ordinance effected by Ordinance No. 38. The Emergency (Agricultural Poisons) Regulations, 1955, banned the import and prohibited the possession of certain organic phosphorus compounds which were being used as insec- ticides and had been the cause of several accidental deaths. Another danger, this time to aircraft, was controlled by the Air Navigation (Abatement of Smoke Nuisances) Ordinance, No. 11.

Urban Council and Corrupt and Illegal Practices Ordin- ances. The Urban Council Ordinance (Cap. 101) was one of the three major Ordinances which were replaced on the Statute Book this year. The new Ordinance, No. 14, is intended to give effect to various suggestions which had been made with regard to reorganizing Urban Council elections. This Ordinance, and its companion, the Corrupt & Illegal Practices Ordinance, No. 20, were modelled on the well-tried. legislation in the United Kingdom. There was previously no legislation controlling the conduct of elections. The latter Ordinance prohibits bribery or threatening of electors, the making of false statements with regard to the character of candidates and the personation of voters; it also provides for the limitation of candidates' election expenses.

Buildings Ordinance. A Committee set up in September 1953 by the Director of Public Works recommended that this Ordinance, No. 68, together with such of the regulations as had been prepared, should be enacted without waiting for the remainder of the regulations to be drafted. The Ordin- ance was thus passed by the Legislative Council at the end. of the year. It is intended to be brought into force as soon as architects and building contractors have had an opportunity to familiarize themselves with it and with the regulations to be made. Nearly 200 of these, in three sets, have been published for information. Most of the changes are dictated by the advance in the science of building in the twenty years since the last Buildings Ordinance (Cap. 123) was enacted. The Building Authority is now required to take into con-

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135

sideration plans made by the Town Planning Board before giving his approval to proposed buildings. He is also given powers to control, and, where necessary, prevent, buildings being used for purposes other than those for which they were built.

Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance. This Ordinance, one of the more important enacted, is discussed in the chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organiza- E tion.

-共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

2

Chapter 13: Law and Order

The Courts of the Colony consist of the Supreme Court, the District Courts, the Magistrates' Courts, and the Tenancy Tribunals.

The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice, one Senior Puisne Judge, and two Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases before a jury, and to deliver convicts to gaol. The judges also have jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. It is also a Court of Equity, with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

The practice of the English Courts is in force in the Colony except where, being inapplicable to local circum- stances, it has been modified by Hong Kong legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, which modified, and in some instances excluded, provisions made in the English Rules of Practice. A statement on the laws of Hong Kong will be found in the Administration Chapter.

All civil claims above $5,000 are heard in the Court's original jurisdiction, as well as all miscellaneous proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appointments of trustees, and company matters.

Cases in the Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bank- ruptcy Jurisdictions of the Court are usually heard by the Chief Justice. Indictable offences are first heard before magistrates and are committed to the criminal sessions, which are held once a month.

A right of appeal exists in all these cases. Appeals are heard by a Full Court, consisting of two or more judges. Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form

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of appeal is heard by a single judge, who may direct the appeal, or any point in it, for consideration by the Full Court.

657 actions, consisting of 489 Original Jurisdiction claims and 168 matters in Miscellaneous Proceedings, were instituted in this division. Most of the claims in the actions arose out of commercial transactions.

In the Supreme Court in its criminal jurisdiction, 86 persons were convicted, as against 68 in 1954. Most of the convictions were in respect of crimes of violence, such as murder, robbery with aggravation, wounding and man- slaughter.

The District Court, which came into being in 1953, has two branches, one in Hong Kong, in the Supreme Court building, the other in Kowloon, in the Kowloon Magistracy building. The District Court assumed the jurisdiction of the old Summary Court, wherein civil claims up to and including $5,000 were heard by puisne judges. The District Judges have powers in criminal jurisdiction greater than those of magis- trates, and these powers enable them to try certain cases which would otherwise have to be committed to the sessions.

In the civil jurisdiction, 3,201 cases were instituted, a record for the post-war period. Most of the claims were of a commercial nature.

Cases under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance form another branch of litigation dealt with in the District Courts. These cases are mounting in number, and are likely to increase as the provisions of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, passed in 1953, become more generally known.

In its criminal jurisdiction the Hong Kong District Court tried 135 people, of whom 104 were convicted. In the Kowloon District Court 157 people were tried and 110 convicted.

There are Magistrates' Courts on Hong Kong Island, in Kowloon, and in the New Territories. The court in Kowloon hears cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. In the New Territories there are courts in Taipo and Ping Shan, with one magistrate dividing his time between both places.

There is also a Justice of the Peace Court, composed of two Justices of the Peace sitting together five afternoons a week. One of the Justices is usually a solicitor. This court functions in the Hong Kong Magistracy.

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The work done in the Magistracies during the year showed such an increase that in November space had to be found, in the vicinity of the Hong Kong Magistracy, for another court. Five regular courts were thus functioning daily in Hong Kong, together with the Justices of the Peace in the afternoons and a Juvenile Court in the mornings. In Kowloon four regular courts operated throughout the year.

The total number of charges and summonses showed an increase of 18% over 1954, the total being 200,603, a very substantial portion of which was made up of such offences as hawking without a licence and breaches of traffic regula- tions. As the Acting Chief Justice explained in his speech at the ceremonial opening of the Assizes in January, these offences, though individually not serious, are in total one of the Colony's major problems.

There was a decrease in the number of offences by juveniles, with 34,584 convictions, as against 39,700 for 1954. Most of the charges against juveniles were in connexion with minor offences, such as hawking and obstruction.

Statistics of work in the Magistracies are as follows:

New Territories

Hong Kong Kowloon

Total

Total number of charges

79,006 60,800

2,300 142,106

Prosecutions against

against adults

and juveniles

96,689

118,342

5,237

220,268

Convictions against adults and

juveniles

93,379

117,110

4,721

215,210

Prosecutions against juveniles

only

9,403

25,393

16

34,812

9,193 25,383

8

34,584

Convictions against juveniles

only

Summonses issued

28,696 27,518 2,283 58,497

There was a drop in the number of applications to Tenancy Tribunals, as compared with previous years. From 659 cases in 1951, the numbers mounted to the formidable total of 5,263 in 1954. This year the number of applications filed was 2,754. On the other hand, the numbers of exemption cases have increased. These applications are brought under the provisions of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, under which an applicant, wishing to obtain exemption from the Ordinance in respect of certain buildings, brings proceedings before a tribunal for that purpose. These tribunals consist of a president (a member of one of the legal professions) and two lay members chosen from a panel appointed by the Chief Justice. The hearings of exemption cases are sometimes

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protracted, due to the fact that many tenants are usually involved. The number of cases filed was 639, compared with only 52 in 1953.

POLICE

The Hong Kong Police Force, which has an outstanding reputation for efficiency and public service, has a strength of 5,357, an increase of 76 since 1954. It consists of 53 gazetted officers and an inspectorate of 461, of different grades, of whom 294 are expatriate. The rank-and-file consist of 562 Northern Chinese, 168 Pakistanis, and 4,046 Southern Chinese, chiefly Cantonese and Hakka. There is one woman inspector and 66 n.c.o.s and constables. The Force is relieved of all but strictly police duties by a civilian staff of 889.

The Police organization consists of a Headquarters and two main branches, the Uniform Branch and the Criminal Investigation Department.

The Uniform Branch operates throughout the Colony, being divided into two territorial commands, with marine and traffic divisions. The Marine Division polices the waters of the Colony and harbours, and is equipped with a fleet of 24 craft, ranging from ocean-going vessels to motorboats. Most of these are fitted with radio telephone or wireless telegraphy; four are equipped with radar.

The organization also includes emergency units, a railway police unit, an airport police unit, a waterfront searching unit, village penetration patrols, a police dog unit, radio-equipped patrol vehicles, and hawker squads.

The Criminal Investigation Department comprises the Detective Branch, which is responsible for the detection of crime and the coordination of special measures for its prevention; the Anti-Corruption Branch, which handles matters relating to corrupt practices and narcotics; and the Special Branch, which is responsible for the detection and prevention of all subversive activities. The Special Branch also controls and operates the Immigration Department, a registry of aliens, and a registry of approved societies.

No difficulty is experienced in obtaining suitable local recruits of the required educational and physical standard for the rank-and-file. With the exception of woman police recruits, who do 2 months' initial training, all ranks undergo a period of 6 months' training at the Police Training School,

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Aberdeen, before entering upon their duties. The syllabus includes law and police duties, drill and weapon training (including the use of tear smoke), unarmed combat, and first aid. The Marine Police are additionally trained in seamanship, port regulations, and signalling. All Chinese recruits are taught basic English at the School, and this is followed by more advanced lessons during subsequent service. All non- Chinese members of the Force are required to qualify in Cantonese as part of their professional examinations. 271 recruits of all ranks completed their training during the year.

Advanced training courses of 2 or 4 weeks' duration are taken regularly by both the inspectorate and the rank-and-file.

The Communications Branch of the Force controls and operates radio networks, telephones and teleprinters. The main radio network controls the radio-equipped cars, which are on patrol day and night and are available to answer any calls received over the 999 telephone system. There are also two networks in the New Territories, one covering frontier stations, the other the inland stations and patrol cars. Two marine networks cover cruising launches and harbour launches. In addition there are six radio-telephony links. which, when in operation, enable contact to be maintained between the two territorial commands and the Central Opera- tions Room at Police Headquarters.

There are two command networks, linking up the commanding officers of the Hong Kong and Kowloon commands to the divisional stations in their respective commands. Additionally, every divisional station is linked up with all its divisional sub-stations by means of a separate radio-telephony network. These divisional networks enable all the stations in the same division to be in constant radio contact with each other.

Four of the police cruising launches are, as has been said, equipped with radar, which in addition to its function as a navigational aid, is extensively used for the interception of craft operated by various types of law-breakers during hours of darkness.

All police stations and offices are linked by telephone through three main exchanges in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories. A teleprinter system is worked from a central transmitter at Police Headquarters, with 20 receiver- stations in the main police stations.

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Crime. Over-population and economic distress continue to be the main causes of the high crime figures. The Colony nevertheless enjoys a remarkably healthy state of law and order.

422,811 reports were made to the Police, a decrease of 45,615 compared with the previous year. 158,093 reports disclosed no criminal offence and were mainly requests from the public for police assistance or advice. The balance of 264,718 included 23,265 reports of serious offences (27,876 in 1954), of which 12,567 (54%) resulted in arrest and prosecution. The remaining 241,453 were miscellaneous offences, of which 213,908 were prosecuted before the courts, convictions being registered in 203,853 cases. The figures for the various classifications of offences are given in Appendix XIII.

Decreases in serious crime are revealed in murder, serious assaults, burglary, housebreaking, larceny from the person, and several other offences. Armed robberies increased.

Members of the public continued to assist the Police, and were responsible for the arrest of 705 people perpetrating serious crime. 13 letters of appreciation and monetary awards were presented to members of the public for outstanding services to the community.

The comparative figures for traffic accidents are as follows:

1951 1952 1953 1954 1955

Fatal Serious

Slight

104 106

72 101

139

490 466 448 621

735

2,328 2,698 3,124 3,397

3,745

7,156

Damage only ... 3,937 4,787 4,892 5,119

6,859

8,057 8,536 9,238 11,775

The number of fatal accidents increased by 38, those involving serious injury by 114. The largest increase was in the damage only category, which increased by 2,037 cases. These increases, however, must be seen in relation to the increase in the number of motorists and vehicles.

The number of drivers in the past two years has increased by 16,133, the total now being 49,366. The number of learners' licences issued in the same period was 56,971. The number of vehicles on the roads in the same period increased by 5,004. From these figures it can be seen that the average

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vehicle is being used by more than one driver, and thus naturally for a greater number of hours and miles, increasing congestion and the potential risk of accidents.

The Immigration Department issued 21,284 visas, 2,055 British passports, 1,340 renewals, 13,019 Chinese entry permits, and 847 emergency travel documents. The total recorded movement in and out of the Colony was 1,308,437. The number of calls at the Immigration Office in connexion with immigration matters was 250,000.

In addition to their statutory duties of watch and ward, the Police render a variety of services to the public, such as delivering and collecting mail in isolated parts of the Colony, and conveying urgent cases of illness to hospital by car and launch. The Police Band gives regular public performances in many parts of the Colony, and cinema shows are often provided in schools and villages.

PRISONS

The five establishments under the control of the Com- missioner of Prisons are administered from the Department's Headquarters in Victoria.

Stanley Prison, designed to accommodate 1,746 prisoners, receives all male convicts sentenced to one month and over. These prisoners are classified and grouped according to previous records and length of current sentence. All prisoners serving a term of one year or over are employed in the industrial section of the Prison, where they work under the supervision of qualified instructors. Short-term prisoners are employed outside the walls on various tasks connected with gardens, piggeries, reclamation, health and sanitation work.

One hall houses 75 long-term first-offenders who are within six months of their release date. Here training is rounded off with suitable lectures, classes, and short ex- cursions outside the Prison.

6, 160 prisoners were received at Stanley, the daily average number in custody being 1,665.

Victoria Prison, adjacent to the Central Magistracy, received 11,636 prisoners, the daily average population being 880. The various groups of prisoners are strictly segregated. In addition, this establishment serves as a reception and classification centre for all male convicts. The buildings are among the oldest in the Colony, but modifications and

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improvements to lighting and plumbing have improved them as far as is possible, pending the construction of a new prison.

Laichikok Prison, situated on the fringe of urban Kowloon, accommodates up to 240 women prisoners. The good management and cheerful atmosphere of the Prison are frequently commented on by Prison Visitors. The entire staff are locally recruited. First-offenders live in association, with well-equipped sleeping cubicles, and attend language and handicraft classes after working hours. 1,559 women were received, the daily average number of occupants being 98.

Stanley Training Centre takes boys between the ages of 14 and 21. Legal proceedings governing acceptance are based on the Borstal section of the Criminal Justice Act 1948, adapted to suit local conditions. Particular attention is given to education and vocational training, and there has been some success in finding employment for inmates on release from the Centre. 39 boys were accepted during the year, the daily average being 111.

Tung Tau Wan Training Centre, a second institution of the same kind, was opened in February, and 52 boys had been accepted up to the end of the year. There is accommoda-

tion for 80.

An After-Care Officer was appointed to the Prisons staff in November, and after in-service training he will be responsible for all boys released from the Training Centres. After-care of adult prisoners is in the hands of the Salvation Army and the Family Welfare Society.

The staff of the Prisons Department consists of 9 gazetted officers, 445 other ranks, and 109 others, including school- masters, instructors, clerks, storekeepers and mechanics.

RECORDS

The Registrar-General's Department, situated in the Supreme Court building, comprises the Land Office, the Registries of Marriages, Companies, and Trade Marks and Patents, and the Offices of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding Up, the Official Trustee, the Judicial Trustee, and the Official Solicitor in Lunacy.

Land

The principal function of the Land Office is the registra- tion of all instruments affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

and New Kowloon; instruments affecting land in the New Territories (other than New Kowloon) being registered in the three District Offices. Although the system of registration is legally one of registration of deeds and not of title, the Land Registers show in a clear and accurate manner the devolution of title to each lot, or section of a lot, and details of all incumbrances affecting it. The result is that in practice the system is regarded as virtually equivalent to registration of title. Land tenure is described in the Production Chapter.

Among the other functions of the Land Office are the issue, renewal, variation and termination of title to Crown land, the granting of mining leases, and advising the Government generally on matters relating to land.

As mentioned elsewhere, 1955 was a year of high activity in land and building investment. This is reflected in the Land Office business, which dealt with 11,754 instruments, involv- ing $650,215,599, increases of over 2,500 and $90,000,000 respectively over 1954, which was itself a record year. The total amount advanced on mortgages of land was $200,815,472. The average rate of interest was around 12% per annum, somewhat lower than in recent years, owing to the large amount of capital seeking investment.

Companies

The Companies Registry maintains records of all companies incorporated in the Colony, and all foreign corporations carrying on business in the Colony. Prior to I June 1955, the maximum fee payable by a company on registration in respect of its nominal share capital was $500, but as from that date the fee became $100 plus $2 per $1,000 of capital. At the end of the year there were 2,930 companies on the Register, and 489 foreign corporations.

Foreign corporations establishing places of business in Hong Kong do not have to pay the fee mentioned above: they merely pay the usual $5 fees on filing documents required by Section 318 of the Companies Ordinance (Cap. 32).

Trade Marks and Patents

The Trade Marks Ordinance, No. 47 of 1954, which is based on the Trade Marks Act 1938, came into operation on 1 January 1955. The Ordinance includes new provisions. enabling the registration of defensive and certification trade marks, and of registered users. 987 new marks were registered,

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and 86 marks that were on the old Register lost during the Japanese occupation were registered in the new Register in accordance with the provisions of the Trade Marks Register (Reconstruction) Ordinance, under which the last date for registration in the new Register was 8 December 1955. Registrations are valid for 7 years (14 years if registered prior to 1 January 1955), but may be renewed indefinitely for further periods of 14 years. The number of marks on the Register is 11,713.

Hong Kong law does not provide for the original grant of patents, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registrable under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance (Cap. 42). This provides that the grantee of a patent in the United Kingdom may, within five years from the date of the issue of the patent, apply to have it registered in Hong Kong.

Bankruptcies

Seven bankruptcy petitions were filed, but two were withdrawn. They included two complicated cases relating to local banks with estimated liabilities of about $1,500,000 and $7,000,000 respectively. The tendency is for creditors to prefer to appoint the Official Receiver as Trustee, instead of an outside public accountant. The Official Receiver was appointed in four of the five cases, including those of the two banks.

Marriages

All marriages except non-Christian customary marriages are governed by the provisions of the Marriage Ordinance (Cap. 181). Under this, a notice of intended marriage is ex- hibited at the Registry for 15 days, after which the Registrar issues a certificate which enables the marriage to be solemnized at a licensed place of worship, or to take place as a civil marriage before the Registrar. The Governor may grant a licence authorizing the marriage to take place before the expiry of the 15-day period, or dispensing with notice altogether.

Although the validity of unregistered Chinese marriages is not affected by the Marriage Ordinance, marriage at the Registry is becoming increasingly popular, as the advantages of having a proper certificate of marriage are better under- stood. The number of marriages registered in 1955 was 4,598, the highest ever.

Chapter 14: Public Utilities and Public Works

Waterworks

The supply of water to the Colony is the responsibility of the Public Works Department of the Government.

Owing to the absence of large rivers, or other sources. of supply, the Colony is entirely dependent for its water on rain, most of which falls during the summer when the south- west monsoon blows and occasional typhoons are experienced. The water is impounded in 13 storage reservoirs which have a total capacity of 5,970,000,000 gallons. These reservoirs, which are situated on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories, normally fill up completely during the wet season, but the storage, together with the dry-weather yield of streams, is inadequate for the demands of a growing population and increasing development. Severe restrictions on the hours during which water is available to the public have to be imposed every dry season. Of the maximum possible storage, only 2,362,000,000 gallons can be held on the Island. The Jubilee Reservoir, situated not far from Tsun Wan in the New Territories, is at present the Colony's largest, holding 2,921,000,000 gallons, with a dam 275 feet high, one of the tallest in any colonial territory. It will, however, soon take second place to the new reservoir now under construction at Tai Lam Chung which, when completed, will impound at least 4,500,000,000 gallons. In addition to these works, Hong Kong possesses a system of catchwaters 35 miles long. These channels run along the mid-levels of various hillsides, inter- cepting streams and water courses, and conveying their water into the various storage reservoirs.

About one-third of the Island's consumption has to be met from New Territories reservoirs. This water is conveyed across the harbour in two 21-inch diameter concrete-lined steel submarine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a large proportion of the water has to be pumped, and in some areas re-pumped, necessitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs. The water supply to the Island and the urban area of Kowloon is filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment, and a high standard of purity is maintained.

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Practically all the water is supplied to consumers through meters, the charge being based on the total cost of provision, including capital cost.

In addition to the severe restrictions on supply during the dry months, the inadequacy of existing resources involves a certain amount of restriction even during the wet season. After the exceptionally dry weather of 1954, followed by three almost rainless months at the start of this year, rain fell in abundance, and a potentially critical situation was fortunately averted. An unusually dry September and October, however, caused a rapid decrease in the yield from streams, and in November it was necessary to reduce the urban hours of supply to 2 hours daily-the shortest period since the war. The average daily consumption for the year was 34.61 million gallons, the peak figure being 50.52m. gallons, reached during an 11-hour supply period in September.

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In the New Territories all the principal mainland market towns have water supplied either from main sources provided independently from local stream intakes, and the system of piped water supplies is gradually being extended year by year. During 1955 a scheme to provide water to Shataukok, started in 1954, was completed. The most im- portant project, however, was the provision of water to the town area of Cheung Chau, supplying a population of about 22,000. There is no suitable place on the island itself for the construction of a reservoir, and the water has been obtained by building a reservoir in the hills behind Shap Long on the neighbouring Lantao Island. This is conveyed through a 6-inch diameter pipe for a distance of almost 2 miles by land, subsequently passing through about 0.8 mile of 6-inch diameter submarine pipeline across the narrow channel separating Lantao and Cheung Chau. The water gravitates to a filter and collecting tank on Cheung Chau, and is then pumped to a 100,000-gallon capacity service reservoir situated on one of the highest points on the northern end of the island. The full capacity of the Shap Long reservoir is 30,000,000 gallons.

The erection of a 7m. gallons per day rapid-gravity filtration plant on Taipo Road, near Kowloon Reservoir, built with the aim of increasing the quantity of water available to consumers during the wet season, when frequently a con- siderable volume of flood water runs to waste, was practically

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completed. Quarters were constructed for the staff of this and the existing filters in the same neighbourhood. Above Sai Wan, on Hong Kong Island, work began on the erection of a similar filtration plant, with a capacity of 3m. gallons per day, and on a new 4m. gallon service reservoir.

The year's work included a large programme to replace existing mains and extend the distribution system. One factor which has caused an increase in the demand for water supplies is the rapid development of the Colony's resettlement programme. In Resettlement Areas main water is provided by means of stand-pipes. As the number of Resettlement Areas. increases, so does the number of people who formerly, when they lived in squatter shacks, had only very limited regular means of obtaining water, and who are now becoming daily users of main water for the first time.

To facilitate the levelling of part of a hill which has to come down in connexion with the Government's scheme to extend Kai Tak Airport, it was necessary to take up and re-lay on a different alignment the 24" trunk main to the service reservoir at Kowloon Tsai. This work was completed during the year.

Work on the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir gained impetus. It included work on the dam itself, filtration building, tunnels. and four service reservoirs with a total capacity of 321m. gallons. 30,000 feet of steel pipes, 30, 24 and 21 inches in diameter, have now been laid, and contracts have been let for further trunk mains, consisting of about 40,000 feet of 36, 30 and 24 inches diameter steel pipes, a balance tank and pumping station, a catchwater tunnel and settling basin.

It was already clear, however, that even when Tai Lam Chung Reservoir is providing capacity supply there will still not be enough water to meet the Colony's demands, and restrictions on supply hours will still be necessary. It was therefore decided to investigate, by means of boring tests, the possibility of constructing yet another reservoir, on the same scale as the Jubilee and Tai Lam Chung Reservoirs, to be started on completion of the latter. The area selected for these tests is the Shek Pik valley on the south coast of Lantao Island. If these tests are successful the pipe connexion to the urban area will be the longest so far laid.

Electricity

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149

Electricity on the Island is supplied by the Hongkong Electric Company Ltd., distributing an alternating current at 22 kilovolts and 6,600 volts, 3 phase 50 cycles. Bulk consumers are supplied at 6,600 volts and domestic consumers at 346/200 volts. The amount of electricity generated during 1955 was 272,349,900 kilowatt hours, an increase of 8% over the previous year's output.

The number of consumers at the end of the year was 70,902, an increase of 3,962, or 6%, over the 1954 figure. Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

74,638,611

Public lighting

1,745,498

Bulk power

48,139,843

Domestic and commercial power

108,540,836

233,064,788

This is an increase of 9% on the 1954 figures.

During the year the peak load reached a maximum of 59,000 kilowatts, an increase of 8.6% over 1954. A newly commissioned turbo-alternator is now in operation, bringing the generator capacity to 92,500 kilowatts. The steam-raising capacity remains at 837,000 lbs. per hour, but good progress is being made in the erection of a further unit to increase this.

The distribution system on the east side of the Island has been supplemented by the addition of two 22-kilovolt feeders, which are expected to be commissioned on arrival of the transformers in March 1956. Extra provision will be rendered necessary by the rebuilding programme west of the city centre, and by the transfer to Sai Wan of certain industries displaced by low-cost housing schemes.

Charges for current range from 28 cents per unit to 15.4 cents per unit for lighting, and 12 cents to 11.4 cents for power, with special rates quoted for bulk consumers. All rates are subject to a 9% fuel surcharge, due to increased cost of fuel.

In Kowloon electricity is supplied by China Light and Power Co. Ltd., whose services extend to the principal market towns in the mainland part of the New Territories and to such villages as are situated within reasonable distance of main roads. The load continues to grow steadily each year, and

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during 1955 there were more demands than ever from both industrial and domestic consumers. The increase in demand is principally caused by new urban and industrial develop- ment, the demolition of old buildings and their replacement by larger modern structures. 604 factories were connected to the Company's mains, compared with 385 in 1954.

This expansion has required the planning of a new power station, the building of which will be carried out in stages. Further turbines, boilers, transformers and switchgear have been ordered in connexion with the project.

The present capacity of the station is 82,500 kw., but this will be considerably increased on completion of the schemes now under way.

Approximately 367,000,000 units of electricity were generated during the financial year 1954-5, of which 318,642,047 units were sold. Total sales (in units) were as follows:

Lighting

Public lighting

Power

Bulk supply

64,450,101

2,283,873

• •

100,883,593

151,024,460

318,642,027

In September 1954 the Company had 55,980 consumers. By October 1955 the number had risen to 65,412, an increase of 16.8%.

Charges for electricity (per unit) at 1 January 1950 are :

Lighting Power

Domestic power

Kowloon New Territories

29c.

37c.

14c.

14c.

13c.

13c.

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which is at present 9%. Special rates are available for large

industrial consumers.

Work has started on an important extension of the Company's service in the New Territories which, when completed, will benefit a large but comparatively remote area. A submarine cable has been laid from the mainland just west of Sham Tseng across to the small island of Ma Wan. An overhead line, the poles for which have already been erected, crosses this island, and a further stretch of submarine cable

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151

connects from there to the north-eastern tip of Lantao Island. It is expected that current will be installed on Ma Wan early in 1956, and when the entire scheme is completed all the main towns and villages on Lantao Island will have electric light. Detailed surveys for the transmission line were in progress at the end of the year, and it is the Company's intention to connect first the Silver Mine Bay area, heading thence along the south coast to Shek Pik and across the hills to Tai O, which is the island's largest town, with a population of about 14,000. No exact population figure is held for the whole of Lantao, but it is certainly over 20,000. Hitherto, apart from a few weekend houses with private generators in the Silver Mine Bay area, the only part to have electric light has been Tai O. During the year the China Light and Power Co. bought over the independently-operated Tai O Electric Company and is at present supplying electric light there on the same basis as before. The rate is $1 per unit.

The only other part of the New Territories to have its independent source of electric light is Cheung Chau, where there has been an electric power station in existence since 1913. Originally started as a community project, it later sold out to commercial interests and has since changed hands several times. The present owners, the Cheung Chau Electric Company, have their offices in Victoria. The basic rate is $1 per unit, with certain reductions for larger consumers.

Gas

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Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by the Hong Kong & China Gas Co., Ltd., which was first established in 1861. The capacity of the plant, situated on Hong Kong Island, is 1 million cub. ft. per day, and that in Kowloon I million cub. ft. per day.

4

Before the end of 1956 the completely modern plant now in course of erection at Ma Tau Kok will be in operation with a capacity of 1 million cub. ft. per day. Current extension of plant on Hong Kong Island will raise the pro- ductive capacity of the West Point Works from 1,250,000 cub. ft. per day to 1,750,000 cub. ft. per day in 1956.

Total quantity of gas sold in 1955 was 587,011,700 cub. ft. as against 584,816,600 cub. ft. in 1954. The number of consumers rose from 7,686 to 8,447.

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Tramways

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

An electric tramway service, on the Island only, is operated by the Hongkong Tramways Ltd. The track, calculated on a single track basis, is about 19 miles in length, and extends from Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan. All routes pass through the city of Victoria. There is also a branch line which encircles the racecourse in Happy Valley. The tramcars are of the double-deck, single-staircase type intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The gauge is 3 feet and the operating voltage 500 volts direct

current.

1

A daily service of 126 cars is operated, providing a car every two minutes in each direction on all routes. Through the city area, in the centre of the system, the minimum service frequency is a car every forty seconds in each direction. 146,000,000 passengers were carried during the year, the total mileage run being 63 million.

4

Fares are charged at a flat-rate for any distance over any route (the maximum route length is 63 miles) of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (12d.) 3rd class. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, students and Service personnel.

The Peak Tramway, operated by the Peak Tramway Co. Ltd., was opened for traffic in May 1888, and was then known as the Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With a lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and a Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant, and incorporate safety features which make it possible for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track.

During 1950 and 1951, the Company replaced its former wooden cars with new cars of improved design and all-metal construction, lighter and stronger than the old ones, and capable of carrying a greater number of passengers.

For the sixth year in succession the service carried more than 1,500,000 passengers, and traffic was once again heavier than in the previous year.

Bus Services

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153

Bus services on the Island are maintained by the China Motor Bus Company Ltd., operating a fleet of 193 vehicles. The replacement of petrol-engined chassis by heavy-duty diesels enabled the Company to augment the number of buses in daily service during the year, and mileage (7.8 millions) increased by 5%. The number of passengers carried, includ- ing a conservative estimate of journeys made by monthly ticket holders, was approx. 64.5 millions. It is anticipated that mileage and passenger figures will again be exceeded in 1956, when the Company will start taking delivery of some thirty new buses and two sight-seeing coaches.

The year saw the extension of the Tonnochy Road- Shaukiwan service as far as the Chai Wan Resettlement Area, and the introduction of a new route to the mid-level district of Robinson Road. This latter service, like several others, runs over steep and narrow winding roads, necessitating the operation of small vehicles with powerful engines, and the Company still experiences difficulty in obtaining additional buses for this type of work from the United Kingdom, current delivery being in the region of eighteen months.

The Kowloon Motor Bus Co. (1933) Ltd. continued to make further progress in its activities to improve and maintain an efficient bus service in Kowloon and the mainland part of the New Territories. During the year under review, the Company revised its services by abolishing four existing bus routes and introducing in their place six new services. The fares of the altered services were adjusted, and there was an additional adjustment of fares in the New Territories, where a new system of short-distance fare stages was introduced which is a considerable improvement for country people.

At the close of 1955, the Company's fleet of buses consisted of 165 double-deck buses and 205 single-deck buses. Orders were placed for 50 new double-deck buses and 30 single-deck buses, of which 16 single-deck buses have been delivered and the rest are expected to arrive early in 1956. When all these vehicles have been delivered, the Company will possess a fleet of 450 buses.

Some 200,000,000 passengers were carried, and the mileage covered by the Company's buses was 19m. miles. as against 1723m. passengers and 172m. miles in 1954.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Work began on the construction of the Company's new headquarters and depôt at To Kwa Wan, and a large piece of property at Laichikok was acquired for another depot to house the growing number of buses.

Ferries

The "Star" Ferry Company, Ltd. operates a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsimshatsui at the southern extremity of the Kowloon Peninsula. Seven vessels are in service and operate daily for 192 hours. A three-minute service, taking eight minutes to cross, is maintained during the day, and a regular service until well past midnight. Approximately 35 million passengers were carried in 133,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 96,000 persons.

The Hongkong and Yaumati Ferry Company Ltd. operates 5 cross-harbour ferry services between various points on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. One of these services is the Colony's sole vehicular ferry, giving a connexion from Jubilee Street, Hong Kong, to Jordan Road, Kowloon. In addition, the Company maintains outlying district services which link Hong Kong with the more important islands of the New Territories.

During 1955 the total number of passengers and vehicles carried on the cross-harbour ferry services once again broke all previous records. 77,250,000 passengers and 1,172,000 vehicles were carried during the year, an increase of 2,400,000 passengers and 44,500 vehicles over the previous year.

The service from Jordan Road to Tonnochy Road, Wantsai, was again the busiest route, carrying over 18,600,000 passengers during the year, an increase of more than one million passengers over the 1954 figure. Further- more, with the completion of the new Sookunpo Sports Stadium, capable of holding 28,500 spectators, larger crowds. are attracted on football days to travel across from Kowloon direct to Wantsai, the Tonnochy Road pier being not far from the Stadium.

A second Wantsai service, to Kowloon City, was scheduled to begin operations during the year, but was postponed pending the arrival of lifts ordered from the United

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155

Kingdom for the new Kowloon City ferry pier. It is now hoped that this service will be inaugurated early in 1956. A new government pier is also under construction at Stewart Road, one block west of Tonnochy Road, on completion of which it would be possible to divert the present Jordan Road service to the larger Stewart Road pier, and use Tonnochy Road pier for the Kowloon City service.

The outlying district services were again well patronized, particularly during the summer. The principal routes are direct to Cheung Chau, indirect to Cheung Chau via Ping Chau and Silver Mine Bay, direct to Silver Mine Bay on Sundays and public holidays, and to Tai O via Ma Wan, Castle Peak and Tung Chung. On weekdays, ten sailings were made per day to Cheung Chau, four to Silver Mine Bay and Ping Chau. These were increased by four additional services to Cheung Chau and six extra to Silver Mine Bay on Sundays and public holidays. The outstanding improvement of the year was the extension of the last ferry to 7.15 p.m. from Cheung Chau to Hong Kong in the winter timetable, an increase of 45 minutes over the summer schedule. During the past few years Cheung Chau has developed into a suburb from which people commute from their homes to places of employment in Hong Kong on the 7.45 a.m. ferry, returning by the 5.45 p.m. ferry. One of the reasons for this change, leading to increased traffic on this service, is the slightly lower cost of living in Cheung Chau.

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The outlying district services were increased on 20 March by the addition of a ferry service in Tolo Harbour, between Taipo Kau Railway Pier, Ma On Shan, Shap Sze Heung, Lai Chi Chong, Tai Tan, Chik Kang and Tap Mun. The service, which is within the sheltered reaches of Tolo Harbour, is principally for the benefit of hitherto isolated villages in Taipo District, but weekends find a large number of holidaymakers travelling on picnic outings. The number of passengers carried on this service from 20 March to 31 December was 34,900.

On 28 October the Company was given licence to operate a service between Tsun Wan, Tsing I, Tai O and Hong Kong. This route was in the Company's pre-war ferry franchise, but was not resumed, despite the rapid development of Tsun Wan into an industrial area, because of the destruction of the pier at Tsun Wan. The Company has now agreed to construct a temporary pier, pending the reclamation of Tsun Wan

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

waterfront and the completion of a permanent government pier. The service is expected to start early in 1956.

During 1955 two new ferries, the Man Yan and Man Cheong, were completed and put into service, and a third vessel was launched. The Company had earlier purchased five steel single-ended ferries, prefabricated by Messrs. Yarrow & Co. Ltd., at Scotstoun, Glasgow. The ferries completed this year, however, are considered to be an improvement on earlier designs and have been built at the Hong Kong Shipyard. A fourth sister-ship, also under construction at the yard, is scheduled for launching in February 1956. The dimensions of these vessels are length overall 103'6", breadth moulded 24', depth moulded 9', with British-made marine diesel engines. They carry a maximum of 650 passengers. On completion of the new ferry now being built, the Company will have a fleet of 44 diesel-engined ferry vessels, ranging from 6 vehicular ferries each capable of carrying 800 passengers and 30 vehicles, to the smallest wooden ferry vessel, Man Ching, with a carrying capacity of 197 passengers.

Maintenance of the ferry fleet is carried out at the Company's depôt at Tai Kok Tsui, where two slipways were completed by the end of the year, the larger of which is capable of taking vessels up to 500 tons. The depôt now consists of a machine shop, 3 slipways, a pier, a boiler makers' shop, and various departments concerned with main- taining the fleet's efficiency.

PUBLIC WORKS

The reclamation, begun in 1951, of nine acres of land in a central position on the Victoria waterfront was completed in August. This reclamation will provide a site for a City Hall, as well as a concourse area for a large new passenger ferry pier. Construction of this new pier, together with a similar one at Tsimshatsui, Kowloon, to replace the present obsolete "Star" ferry piers in Hong Kong and Kowloon, was started in October, and is expected to be completed by April 1958. A partial use of the new piers, however, should be possible by April 1957.

Work on the construction of the modern Sports Stadium at Sookunpo was completed in September, with the exception of the installation of a public address system and flood-

Hong Kong Plans

For The Future

This section of artists' drawings shows some of the major projects in the Colony's ambitious pro- gramme of long-term development.

V

HO

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Kai Tak Airport as it will look when completed in 1958. Part of the existing run- way is seen on the extreme left. The new airport, with its impressive runway heading straight out into the waters of Kowloon Bay, will be situated on an 8,200-ft. artificial promontory reclaimed from the sea. The contract for con- struction, excluding airport buildings, is for $90,000,000, the largest contract ever let in the history of the Colony. In the middle distance, centre, is the Kun Tong_reclamation, being made for industrial development, and described in the Review of the Year. In the distance is Lyemun, the deep-water narrow entrance to the Port of Victoria, used by most ocean-going shipping.

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Above, a perspective drawing of the new Kowloon General Hospital, and when completed, will be the largest hospital of its kind in the

Below is a photograph of a model of what the

what the first housing look like when completed. The site is Java Road, North Point, flats, set out in three eleven-storey blocks. Covering 6 acres.

Jez.

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n

Above, a perspective drawing of the new Kowloon General Hospital, and when completed, will be the largest hospital of its kind in the

Below is a photograph of a model of what the first housing look like when completed. The site is Java Road, North Point, flats, set out in three eleven-storey blocks. Covering 63 acres.

work on which is expected to start in 1956. It will have 1,275 beds, Commonwealth. It is scheduled to be ready for opening in 1960.

estate to be built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority will and the estate will accommodate over 16,000 people in 1,975 the estate will include a school, clinics, a post office and 73 shops.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

ει

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

›rk on which is expected to start in 1956. It will have 1,275 beds, mmonwealth. It is scheduled to be ready for opening in 1960.

ate to be built by the Hong Kong Housing Authority will d the estate will accommodate over 16,000 people in 1,975 è estate will include a school, clinics, a post office and 73 shops.

}

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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The above is a cut-away perspective of one of the Housing Authority's flats, of which a general impression is given overleaf. The estate has been designed by Mr. Eric Cumine, F.R.I.B.A., and the blocks are so spaced as to ensure the maximum ventilation.

Below is an approximate view of Tai Lam Chung Reservoir, in which it is expected that water storage will begin in 1956. The total capacity will be 4,500,000,000 gallons, and yet another reservoir of comparable size is to follow when this is completed.

KON

LIB

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PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

157

lighting, which await the arrival of the necessary equipment from the United Kingdom. The Stadium provides an Association Football pitch of full international size, surround- ed by a 450-metre seven-lane running track. In the first stage, seating accommodation for 28,500 spectators has been provided on terraces cut out of the sides of the hills, but only the western side of the Stadium has a covered stand. This section accommodates radio commentators' boxes and a police control box. At the open end of the valley there is a modern pavilion, with changing rooms and administrative offices. A dam has been built on the small stream which flows through the valley, giving the Stadium an independent water supply for cleaning, watering and sanitation. The whole site, including car parks, covers more than 16 acres.

A new Kowloon public pier was built during the year at Tsimshatsui to replace the original public pier, which will be absorbed by the proposed new passenger ferry pier men- tioned above. The new pier is 195 feet long and 50 feet wide, and is made of reinforced concrete. Four sets of landing steps are provided, each capable of accommodating large launches.

Yet another passenger ferry pier was completed in August at Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon. This pier will replace the old Kowloon City ferry pier which, before the war, was the terminal of a ferry service running from Victoria to Kowloon City. Built of reinforced concrete, 235 feet long by 68 feet wide, it will, like the new modern ferry piers referred to above, have electrically-operated ramps and lifts which can be raised and lowered to suit tidal conditions when passengers are embarking and landing. The installation of the ramps and lifts has been delayed due to the non-arrival of equipment from the United Kingdom. The way in which this will improve ferry services is referred to under Ferries, above.

Various reclamation schemes in progress in several places along the shores of the harbour have been made possible by extensive site formations which are being carried out for the implementing of low-cost housing schemes. In addition, a large reclamation covering 227 acres has been started at Kun Tong, to supply factory sites for the Colony's rapidly increasing industries. The first stage of this reclamation, with an area of 89 acres, is due for completion in September 1957. The work includes extensive sea-wall construction and the excavation, from the surrounding hills, of approximately 1,800,000 cubic yards of earth. In order to make this

:

i

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

reclamation available, it was necessary to scrap the present Colony refuse dump, hitherto located here, and find another place for city refuse disposal. The site chosen is in Gin Drinkers' Bay, off the village of Ha Kwai Chung, in the New Territories. In view of a fairly swift current in the area, a rubble mound 1,550 feet long has been built connecting the mainland with the small offshore Pillar Island. This wall prevents the displacement of refuse after it has been dumped from barges.

Many new government buildings were started or com- pleted during this year. A 24-classroom co-educational secondary school was finished in Kowloon, and a primary school in Pokfulam. Building work started on a large primary school at Tsun Wan, in the New Territories, and working drawings for three 24-classroom primary schools-two in Kowloon and one in Hong Kong,-together with extensive additions to the Grantham Training College, were completed. Sketch plans for a new Technical College in Kowloon were prepared.

Work completed for the Department of Medical and Health Services included the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, new quarters for nursing staff and for housemen at the Queen Mary Hospital, a Government Chemical Laboratory, a health centre at Saikung, and extensions to the Maurine Grantham Health Centre at Tsun Wan. A start was made on site formation for a new Mental Hospital near Castle Peak, and on the first block of buildings for it. Sketch plans were started for a new polyclinic at Sai Ying Pun. Messrs. Easton & Robertson completed and submitted to the Government their final sketch designs for the proposed Kowloon General Hospital.

For the Police Department, Western Police Station, on Hong Kong Island, was completed, and building work began on an eight-storey block of rank-and-file quarters within the station compound. Good progress was made on major extensions to Eastern and Yaumati Police Stations. Working drawings were completed for married quarters and a barrack block at the New Territories Depôt, Fanling, and working drawings were in hand for inspectorate quarters at Western Police Station.

The Government Printing Workshops at North Point, and the Government Mechanical Workshops at Caroline Hill, were completed. So too were ten-storey blocks of flats for civil

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

159

servants at Leighton Hill and above Conduit Road. These comprise a total of 99 one-, two- and three-bedroom flats. The Conduit Road block, which has been named Chater Hall, occupies part of the site of the former Marble Hall, the home of the late Sir Paul Chater, who bequeathed the property to the Government.

The new Colonial Secretariat and Council Chamber in Lower Albert Road, and a block of government offices in Shamshuipo were under construction at the end of the year. Working drawings were being prepared for Public Works Department branch offices in Kowloon, and for two further ten-storey blocks of flats similar to Chater Hall and those at Leighton Hill.

The Sai Wan Military Cemetery, laid out by the Public Works Department in accordance with drawings prepared by the Imperial War Graves Commission, was completed and officially opened in February.

Water-borne sewage systems are provided in nearly all built-up areas, including the larger towns in the New Territories. As reconstruction of old buildings and the erection of large new blocks of flats continues, the number of new connexions made is steadily increasing. Many of the older sewers are thus becoming loaded beyond their designed capacity, and the work of re-laying and enlarging them is going steadily forward. Major schemes have also been approved for the provision of intercepting sewers, which will abolish the numerous outfalls into the harbour and bring the sewage to selected sites, where it will be chemically treated and thereafter discharged via submarine outfalls. The first project, covering the west side of the Kowloon Peninsula, is nearing completion, and the second, which will cover the Wantsai area, will shortly be started.

Surface water, draining from the hills through built-up areas, was originally led to the sea via large open-trained channels, known locally as nullahs, which passed down the centres of roads, with bridges at road intersections. These nullahs were frequently 10 feet or more wide and almost square in section, and with the tremendous increase in both vehicular and pedestrian traffic it became essential that such obstructions be removed. During the last four years work on this has proceeded steadily, and many nullahs have been either decked or culverted, greatly relieving congestion on a number of main traffic routes.

Chapter 15: Communications

MARINE

The Port of Victoria, world-famous for its magnificent harbour, is not only outstanding in beauty, but is a safe anchorage and the main typhoon refuge in the China Sea. It is also one of the busiest ports of the world and is justly proud of a reputation for efficient handling of passengers and cargo, and also for a turn-round of shipping which compares favourably with other major ports.

The Port is well supplied with commercial wharves and piers, the principal ones being on the mainland of Kowloon. The largest berths can accommodate vessels up to 750 ft. in length with a maximum draft of 32 ft. Storage space is plentiful, with warehouses (godowns) on the mainland pro- viding 750,000 measurement tons of storage space, and on the Island 230,000 tons. The godowns are equipped with electric cranes and other modern handling devices.

In addition to these wharf facilities, the Government maintains for hire 50 moorings, comprising 21 "A" class buoys, suitable for vessels up to 600 ft. in length, and 29 "B" Class, for vessels up to 450 ft. 16 of the "A" Class buoys are of special strength to meet typhoon conditions.

During the year ending 31 March 1955, (the figures for 1954 are shown in brackets) 7,589 (7,344) ocean-going vessels of 21,879,742 (21,113,305) nett tons, 2,068 (2,306) river steamers of 2,418,006 (2,258,283) nett tons, and 22,131 (21,756) junks and launches of 1,458,761 (1,358,711) nett tons, entered and cleared the Port.

A total of 775,556 (769,961) passengers were embarked and disembarked; of these 56,164 (56,651) were carried by ocean-going vessels, and 719,392 (713,310) by river steamers.

Weight tons of cargo discharged and loaded were as follows:

Ocean-going vessels: River steamers:

Junks and launches:

...

Discharged

Loaded

3,408,963 (2,799,945) 1,367,208 (1,324,073)

24,045 (21,559)

14,056 (34,840)

...

411,977 (354,885)

132,398 (96,551)

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161

The large decrease in cargo loaded by river steamers is attributable to continued curtailment of trade with China.

In addition to all modern aids to navigation, the Government maintains a 24-hour ship-shore visual signalling system covering all berths in the harbour. The signal stations at Waglan and Green Island (E. and W. ap- proaches) are equipped with radio telephony, and notice is given of expected arrivals so that no time is lost in an endeavour to maintain the quick turn-round of shipping. The rapid handling of ships at buoys and anchorages is further assisted by the use of radio telephone by stevedoring, lighterage and shipping companies. This enables vessels to be connected quickly to the shore telephone service.

Both eastern and western entrances to the harbour are provided with quarantine anchorages, where the doctors on duty are in radio telephone communication with the shore signal stations.

Pilotage is not compulsory in Hong Kong waters, but pilots are always available at reasonable charges.

Hong Kong maintains its eminence as a seaport with a high reputation for efficiency amongst shipowners, char- terers, shippers and seamen. Cargoes are handled at the wharves with modern equipment and facilities, and in the harbour by lighters and junks in the time-honoured way, but the statistics of cargo handled speak for themselves. The Marine Department maintains efficient harbour services, but without the aptitude and efficiency of local organizations and labour the rapid turn-round of ships could not be achieved.

Ship-repairing remains Hong Kong's major industry (see chapter on Industry and Trade). All new construction is carried out under survey by government surveyors, under the Director of Marine, or by the classification societies, of which Lloyd's Register and the American Bureau maintain exclusive surveyors, or by other societies represented by long-established firms of general surveyors. During the year more than 200 vessels of eleven nationalities utilized the services of Marine Department surveyors in matters of survey and documentation, as required by the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea.

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Hong Kong possesses unexcelled sea communications, and regular services are maintained by 15 shipping lines to Europe and the United Kingdom, 18 to the North American continent, 9 to Australia and New Zealand, as well as lines to Africa and South America, and innumerable lines to Asian ports from Yokohama to Karachi.

KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow, with connexions to North, East and South-West China. The British Section of the line, which is 22 miles long, is owned by the Hong Kong Government, and is operated between Kowloon and Lowu on the southern bank of Shumchun River, which forms part of the Colony's frontier with China. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the North, but since October 1949, when the Central People's Government was establish- ed, through passenger services have been suspended. Passengers proceeding to and from China change trains at the frontier. Goods traffic in wagonloads has been passing to and from China without off-loading at the frontier since 1950.

The total revenue for 1955 was $5,222,444. Operating expenditure was $3,785,746, leaving a net operating revenue of $1,436,698. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $4,625,933, $3,641,660, $984,273 respectively. Capital expenditure was $5,731,320. The net operating revenue for 1955 is therefore about $452,425 more than last year.

Passenger traffic decreased by 24,782, compared with 1954, while goods traffic increased by 43,100 tons. In spite of a decrease in passenger traffic, revenue from this source was more than last year, due to a zoning of fares which became effective on 1 July.

Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 3,534,972, or 92.79% of the total. Passengers to and from the frontier station of Lowu numbered 274,724 and the majority of these travelled between Hong Kong and China.

The railway will not regain its former prosperity until there is a relaxation of the trade and travel restrictions now

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163

in force between the Colony and China and the through passenger service is resumed. At present, passengers passing from British to Chinese territory or vice versa have to walk the 300 yards separating the two termini.

Two diesel electric locomotives, ordered from Australia, were put into use in September, after a naming ceremony by the Governor and Lady Grantham. One locomotive was , named "Sir Alexander", the other "Lady Maurine". 19 passenger coaches, ordered in Britain in 1948, have been delivered.

Statistics for 1955 are as follows:

Length of Line

:

Main line-22 miles

Main points of call

:

Passengers carried

:

Freight carried

:

Total length of line-35 miles New Territories (Hong Kong)

3,809,696

162,318 tons

Passenger miles

:

46,188,368

ROADS

During the year the length of public roads was increased by six miles, bringing the total to 443 miles.

Details are as follows:

Island

Kowloon

New Territories

Miles

Concrete

66.07

31.55

16.93

114.55

Bitumen macadam

73

22.38

69.56

164.94

..

Water-bound

macadam

35.49

59.28

42.75

137.52

...

Earth

9.48

4.11

12.21

25.80

Steps

.51

.51

184.55

117.32

141.45

443.32

During recent years the volume of traffic has increased considerably, and it has become necessary to adopt a higher standard of road construction, particularly on main traffic

routes.

Vibrated concrete, on suitable foundations, with a bitu- men macadam wearing coat, is now standard for main roads. Bitumen macadam 4-5 inches thick on granite bottoming, or hardcore, is used for secondary roads in urban areas,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

whilst water-bound macadam on hardcore, with surface dressing or a bitumen macadam wearing coat, is used for side roads, and also for rural roads subject to light traffic.

Experiments are in hand for the production of a more durable wearing surface for main roads, since open textured bitumen macadam has a short life under the weight of city traffic.

The reconstruction and general maintenance of roads, including the re-instatement of trenches opened for utility services, is carried out under government contract with local firms. Minor maintenance, including patching and surface dressing with recently-acquired mechanical equip- ment, is carried out by the Public Works Department, by direct labour.

Traffic congestion in many areas has required increased use of traffic islands and other aids to canalize traffic and reduce accidents.

3

In conjunction with the laying of a trunk main from Tai Lam Chung Reservoir, major reconstruction of Castle Peak Road, between 5 and 9 milestones, is proceeding. In addition to a number of large culverts, this work includes a reinforced concrete bridge at Tsun Wan, two 51-ft. spans with an overall width of 80 ft. Traffic will be carried by two carriageways, each 22 ft. wide, separated by a central 6-ft. island and two 14-ft. footpaths.

Two Government quarries are in operation, one in Kowloon and one in Hong Kong, with a combined annual production of 200,000 tons of crushed stone and 56,000 tons of bitumen macadam. Both plants are operated by the Public Works Department by direct labour, and supply the bulk of the Government's requirements for concrete aggregate and road stone. Work was completed on the access road and site formation for a new quarry on Mount Butler. This will replace that at Tsat Tze Mui which, being situated in what is now a developed area, has given rise to public complaint, due to noise and dust, and is in any case nearing the end of its useful life.

The provision and improvement of street lighting in unlit, or insufficiently lit, streets proceeded. Progress was also made in the lighting of Resettlement Areas, where trials were carried out to determine suitable methods of

COMMUNICATIONS

165

light distribution. A total of 750 new lamps was installed; the number in operation in December was approx. 5,250.

VEHICLES

The number of vehicles registered was 24,986, not including trailers, hand-carts and public chairs. This is an increase of 2,824 over 1954, representing a density of 58 vehicles per mile of roadway.

Private cars

Motor cycles

Taxis

Public hire cars

16,802

1,427

344

283

Buses

563

...

Public commercial lorries

1,394

Private commercial lorries

1,704

Government vehicles

814

Private rickshas

32

Public rickshaṣ

853

Private tricycles

770

24,986

CIVIL AVIATION

Hong Kong Airport (Kai Tak), situated on the main- land about 4 miles from the S. extremity of Kowloon Peninsula, is under the control of the Director of Civil Aviation. With Kowloon Bay adjacent to it, the Airport is suitable for land and sea aircraft, both types being controlled from the same centre. There are at present two runways, NW-SE (5,418′ x 200'), and E- W (4,756'x 200').

The standards and recommendations of the International Civil Aviation Organization in respect of air traffic control, telecommunications, air navigational aids, meteorological and aeronautical information, air-sea rescue, fire, crash and safety services, customs, health and immigration, are followed, and air registration examinations are conducted.

Details of the new vastly enlarged Airport now under construction are given in the Review of the Year, and an impression of what it will look like when completed will be found in the illustration opposite page 156. The plans involve the construction of a new runway 7,200 ft. by 200 ft. on a promontory 8,200 ft. by 800 ft. projecting into Kowloon Bay. This will enable all types of aircraft to operate into Hong Kong on a 24-hour basis, and it is

166

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

expected that the work will be completed in 1958. Before being finally approved by the Government, the plans were referred to the Port Executive Committee, in order to ensure that the new development will not interfere with any of the fairways used by shipping.

The facilities for air travel to and from Hong Kong are among the best in Asia, which, in view of the smallness of Kai Tak Airport and the fact that it can at present be used only by day, is remarkable. In all, 15 airline com- panies, including two local companies, operate regular services to and from Hong Kong, covering all principal

routes.

First-rate facilities are provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co. Ltd. for overhauls, and by the Far East Flying Training Schools for training pilots, aircraft-maintenance and radio engineers.

POST OFFICE

The traffic handled by the Post Office continued the tremendous increase which has been its main characteristic every year in the last ten. The congestion in the sorting offices of the main post offices is now such that introduction of new services can now be undertaken only as and when additional premises are available. Plans to overcome this situation are already being considered by the Government.

Air and sea services for the carriage of mails improved. considerably, particularly air services, which made possible for the first time a daily despatch to Europe and America. A minimum of four despatches per week is maintained to practically all other main administrations. The rapid for- warding and delivery of mails is one of the factors assisting Hong Kong's growth as an industrial centre.

Letter mails are despatched to 66 destinations by air and 75 by sea, direct parcel mails to 26 destinations by air and 62 by sea. Letter mails are received direct from 71 places by air and 67 by sea, direct parcel mails from 22 countries. by air and 41 by sea.

Posted traffic for the year increased by 2.93% over the total of 58,320,315 for 1954, to 60,029,100 items. The total of items received was 37,987,908, an increase of 9.5% over the total of 34,692,154 recorded for 1954.

COMMUNICATIONS

167

The total of 3,256,893 registered items handled showed an increase of 60,823, despite the increase in the registration fee which had been found necessary. Parcel traffic also increased by 60,811 parcels, to a total of 968,288. The greatest increase was again in the air parcel traffic, an additional 28,794 air parcels being handled.

A very considerable increase in Christmas postings was noted, and although some 2,400,000 items were recorded as being handled in the ten-day peak period of Christmas 1954, no less than 3,000,000 items were dealt with during the same period of Christmas pressure in 1955. This tremen- dous increase caused many difficulties, and the handling of the ever-growing traffic, especially at pressure periods such as this, makes provision of additional accommodation imperative.

The remittance services continue to grow in popularity, the value of money orders and postal orders issued and paid being $2,020,817 and $2,201,289 respectively, an increase of $985,255, giving a total of $4,222, 106. This is the first time that the total has exceeded two million dollars for both issued and paid orders.

The sale of postage stamps and revenue stamps created yet another record, the total of $26,553,869 being $2,659,349 in excess of the $23,894,520 total for 1954.

LICENSING

IBRA

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, under the control of the Postmaster-General, issues all types of radio licences, ranging from domestic broadcast receiving licences to amateur wireless stations and radio dealers' licences. The number of broadcasting licences in force on 31 December was 52,468, with 551 other licences.

The Office conducts examinations for the Postmaster- General's Certificate for Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy, and undertakes the survey and inspection of ships' and aircraft wireless stations. Another function is the enfor- cement of the regulations made under the International Telecommunication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecommunications Ordinance.

A close liaison is maintained between the Hong Kong Communications Board, the Hong Kong Frequency Assign-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

ment Committee, and the Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external telecommunications.

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

Cable and Wireless Ltd. is responsible for all telegraph and radio-telephone services between Hong Kong and over- seas, for telegraph and radio-telephone services with ships at sea, and for a VHF service with ships anchored in the Port of Victoria. The Company provides a service for internal telegrams throughout the Colony, and is responsible for the technical maintenance and development of the Colony's broadcasting and Aeradio services, meteorological radio services, and the VHF communications of various Govern- ment Departments.

During the year new radio-telegraph services with Laos, Cambodia and Japan were opened. Channelling facilities, involving new techniques, have been installed on the Singa- pore and Tokyo routes, making additional circuits available for leasing to commercial firms. On the Peak, new multi- channel radio-telephone equipment has been put into service on the Canton circuit.

The telegraphic communications of the Colony are well served by several deep-sea cables linked to the Company's worldwide network of 150,000 miles of submarine cables, and by their 14 direct high-speed wireless telegraph circuits, working with other centres in the Far East and beyond. The service was improved by laying a second high-speed cable connecting Hong Kong with Manila.

The overseas radio-telephone services, worked in col- laboration with the Hong Kong Telephone Company, expanded. New services were opened to the Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Czechoslovakia and Poland, thus extending the telephone service from Hong Kong to fifty countries. Relay services were opened between Macau and Chile, Hawaii and Mexico. The existing telephone services to Bandung and Seoul were extended by two hours daily, and an additional channel was made available to Tokyo.

The Company's radio facsimile service, already avail- able to and from Singapore and London, has been extended to include Japan and San Francisco, and a service to Manila. is contemplated.

COMMUNICATIONS

Traffic figures for 1955 were:

169

Telegrams transmitted

Telegrams received

Radiophone mins. transmitted

Radiophone mins. received

Ship-shore radiophone mins. transmitted

Ship-shore radiophone mins. received Radio pictures transmitted (366 pictures) Radio pictures received (20 pictures) Press broadcasts (words handled) Meteorological broadcasts (words handled)

TELEPHONES

1,076,470

1,111,579

410,789

807,458

140

290

96,915 sq. cms.

4,565 sq. cms.

55,000,000 700,000

The Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd. provides and operates the Colony's internal public telephone service. In cooperation with Cable and Wireless Ltd., the service is extended by radio telephone, and is available to most parts of the world. The number of direct exchange lines working on the Company's system is approx. 39,000. The number of extensions is 17,000, making a total of approx. 56,000 stations.

A new automatic exchange of 5,400 lines was brought into service for Kowloon subscribers, and a new exchange of 1,000 lines was installed to serve the Peak District. A new automatic exchange of 400 lines was provided for the Tsun Wan area in the New Territories.

Work started on the foundations of a multi-storey building intended to house a new automatic exchange of 12,000 lines. This exchange is designed to serve the Western District of Victoria; installation will begin on completion of the building, in 1956.

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES

The Royal Observatory, which is the sole source of weather information in Hong Kong, provides forecasts for the general public, shipping, aviation and the Armed Forces.

During the year Northern Indo-China stopped broad- casting weather reports, and less information was received. from aircraft in flight. On the other hand, better radio facilities, and more reports from ships enabled forecasting standards to be maintained.

The Royal Observatory's most important function is to give warning of storms. Whenever a tropical depression,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

storm or typhoon moves into the China Sea, 6-hourly, and often 3-hourly, statements of position, intensity and direction of movement of the centre are issued. Frequent reliable ship reports and storm reconnaissances by United States aircraft help locate storms accurately. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use, and warnings are widely distributed by means of visual signals, telephone, radio and Rediffusion. Although Japan suffered severely from typhoons during the year, the China Sea was little affected. The local strong wind signal was hoisted twice in Hong Kong, but no typhoon signals were displayed.

In addition to its meteorological activities, the Royal Observatory operates a seismological station and a time service.

A

*

METEOROLOGICAL "RESEARCH

In May and June, with willing cooperation from other Government Departments, the Armed Forces and private individuals, the Observatory mounted a 6-week test of the water injection method of stimulating rainfall from cumulus. clouds. Although much rain fell during the test, careful checking revealed that the method is ineffective in Hong Kong.

During the partial solar eclipse of 20 June, serial radiosonde ascents made from King's Park confirmed the validity of the standard radiation and lag corrections applied to temperature readings from the Kew Mark II B radiosonde.

A new and enlarged edition of "A statistical survey of typhoons and tropical depressions in the western Pacific and China Sea area" is being prepared for publication in 1956. It will depict storm tracks for the years 1884 to 1953.

Papers by Observatory staff which appeared during the year included works on the cool season tropical disturbances of South-East Asia (in the Journal of Meteorology, Vol. 12, No. 3, June 1955, Lancaster, Penn.), a Hong Kong fore- caster's manual (Royal Observatory Technical Note No. 10), an analysis of low cloud and poor visibility at Hong Kong Airport, 1949-54 (Technical Note No. 11), median and quartile upper air temperatures at given pressure-levels at Hong Kong, 1949-55 (Technical Note No. 12), and on artificial and orographic stimulation of rainfall in Hong Kong (Technical Note No. 13).

Chapter 16: Press, Broadcasting and Films

More than 150 newspapers and magazines of various kinds are published in Hong Kong. About a dozen are published in English, but most are in Chinese. A few are bilingual. The main ones are listed in Appendix XIV.

International news agencies are represented by the Associated Press of America, the French News Agency (Agence France-Presse), Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press), and the United Press. Each of these four agencies maintains permanent correspondents in Hong Kong and furnishes news services to local news- papers.

Offices are also maintained in Hong Kong by the independent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency (official agency of the Chinese Government), the Central News Agency of the Taiwan administration, and the Japanese agencies, Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service.

The corps of foreign correspondents regularly resident in the Colony numbers about twenty. Most are British, American and Japanese writers. The New York Times, Christian Science Monitor, Chicago Daily News, Observer (London), Daily Express (London), Toronto Star, the Time and Life magazine organization, and several other foreign publishing houses maintain permanent representatives based in Hong Kong. Leading broadcasting and television net- works also maintain correspondents and cameramen in the Colony. During the year about 200 foreign correspondents visited Hong Kong.

Four English-language newspapers are published. Three of these the South China Morning Post (weekday mornings), the China Mail (weekday afternoons) and the South China Sunday Post-Herald (Sundays)-are published by the South China Morning Post, Ltd. One, the daily Hong Kong "Tiger" Standard, is Chinese-owned, part of the chain founded by the late Aw Boon Haw.

Daily Commodity Quotations, a trade journal which appears on weekdays in both Chinese and English, provides

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

up-to-date commercial news in addition to commodity quotations.

The Wah Kiu Yat Pao (Overseas Chinese Daily News), with a large morning circulation, also publishes an evening edition, and aims at reporting news independently; it is a generally reliable newspaper. Right-wing papers giving reliable news include the Sing Tao Jih Pao, run by the proprietors of the Hong Kong Standard, and the Kung Sheung Yat Pao (Industrial and Commercial Daily News), both of which publish evening editions. The Sing Pao is a popular daily paper with a large circulation.

The Hong Kong Times, an extreme right-wing paper in Chinese, expresses Chinese Nationalist views. The Chi Yin Daily News and New Life Evening Post are popular but rather sensational newspapers. The Ta Kung Pao, the New Evening Post, and the Wen Wei Pao follow the orthodox communist line.

Among periodicals written in English, the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review is read widely beyond the confines of the Colony. So, too, is the monthly Orient, specializing in Asian political and cultural affairs.

The leading Chinese periodicals are the popular illustrated magazines, East Pictorial, Tien Hsia, Asia Pictorial, and the Four Seas Pictorial, all with overseas circulations.

circula

IB

The majority of the principal newspapers in the Colony are members of the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong, founded in 1954. The committee of the Foreign Corres- pondents' Club acts for overseas journalists stationed in the Colony.

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICE

News of government activities and explanations of government policy are given by the Public Relations Office, situated in Gloucester Building. The department's Press Section issued more than 4,000 statements and news items in 1955 and organized a number of Press conferences, besides maintaining close personal contact with local newspapers, agencies and foreign correspondents. The Section also prepares the news bulletins broadcast in English and three Chinese dialects by Radio Hong Kong.

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

173

An Advertising and Display Section is responsible for all government advertising, the preparation and distribution of posters, pamphlets and other matter, and the maintenance of a film library. Nearly 4,000 films a year are borrowed.

BROADCASTING

Radio Hong Kong is a government broadcasting station, transmitting on two wavelengths on medium wave and one on short wave. On the Chinese wavelength (640 kcs.) the principal languages used are Cantonese, Kuoyu and Chiuchow; the other medium wavelength (860 kcs.) transmits in English, with occasional broadcasts in Portu- guese and French. The short-wave service is used for the Chinese service only, with transmission designed for local coverage. In March the frequency was changed to 3.94 megacycles in the 76-metre band, to serve those parts of the Colony where medium-wave reception is weak.

The studio centre occupies the sixth and seventh floors of Electra House, the headquarters of Cable and Wireless Ltd. in Victoria, fronting the Central Reclamation. This accommodation is rented from Cable and Wireless, who are responsible for the technical operation of Radio Hong Kong. The transmitters (2 kw. for the medium-wave services, 2 kw. on short wave), are situated at Hung Hom, Kowloon. Programmes are originated from Electra House and from a number of outside broadcasting points, in stadia theatres, churches etc., connected to the studios by lines rented from the Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd. The studios are well equipped, with the two services operating from different floors, and include a concert hall with seating for 100, extending to both floors and used by both services as required.

The station is directed by a Controller of Broadcasting, with a senior programme assistant for each service, six programme assistants, four announcers for the Chinese service, two record librarians and a small clerical staff, the full personnel, excluding technical staff supplied by Cable and Wireless, amounting to 24. On the English programme a small band of enthusiastic amateur broadcasters provide indispensable services, including all announcing. The Con- troller is at present an officer on secondment from Radio Malaya.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Chinese transmission is on the air for an average of 10.1 hours daily, the English service for 10.7.

The services are made up as follows:

Chinese

English

Studio (live and pre-recorded)

52%

28%

Commercial records

36%

43%

Outside broadcasts

6%

5%

Radio relays

6%

7%

Transcriptions

nil

17%

Considerable effort is exerted by the programme organi- zers to give both services a more pronounced Hong Kong character, principally by increasing the amount of live programmes by local musicians and speakers. 1955 was note- worthy in this respect for a rise in live programmes on the English service. In a revised programme format introduced in November, the number of English programmes featuring local artists and speakers rose to 33%, although the average for the year was 28%, as given above. Hitherto the highest proportion on the English programme, achieved in 1954, was 17%.

The introduction of recording processes facilitates the presentation of locally-produced programmes, particularly where broadcasters are amateurs with limited spare time. Tape is now the predominant recording medium, the ratio of tape to disc work being 7:3. 18% of all local programme material for the English transmission was pre-recorded.

Another aim of both services is to increase the number of programmes catering for the tastes of specialist listeners, such as music-lovers, sportsmen, and filmgoers. This is being achieved by the introduction of magazine programmes. "Housewives' Magazine", on the Chinese service, has intro- duced experts on cooking, home nursing, and dressmaking. "Sports Cavalcade", on the English Service, has brought to the microphone experts in almost every field of sport, together with actuality reports and interviews with local and visiting players. "Music Magazine" is a feature to which distinguish- ed visiting musicians and local pundits contribute. Chinese film and theatre fans are catered for by visits "Behind the Stage Curtain", in which more than 60 film and stage stars have been interviewed. On the English service a new weekly feature, "Going to the Pictures", reviews current films. "We Are Living Below Victoria Peak", the Chinese trans- mission's weekly magazine of people and events locally in

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

175

the news, has achieved a high standard in the technique of actuality reporting and interviewing.

Live variety shows include, on the English Service, the popular amateur talent series, "Beginners Please", while the Chinese service can probably claim to have presented the first Chinese version of "Twenty Questions". Both services recently introduced "Popularity Poll", in which listeners are invited to name the three most popular tunes of the week. This programme has attracted as many as 663 letters a week for the Chinese version, and 220 for the English.

A review of the year's programmes amounts, in fact, to a miniature review of the year. Few of the year's distinguished visitors left without appearing in front of the microphone. They included the Secretary of State for the Colonies, Mr. Krishna Menon, Dr. P. S. Lokanathan, and an imposing array of names from the musical, literary, artistic, and sporting world. Notable among the broadcasts during the Festival of the Arts was a Chinese version of Ibsen's "The Master Builder", the Chinese programme's most ambitious production to date. Major outside broadcasts included the dedication of the Sai Wan Military Cemetery, the British Forces Tattoo, and the Annual Cross-Harbour Swimming Race. Anti-typhoid and anti-diphtheria campaigns sponsored by the Medical Department were supported with talks and special features. The candidates in the Urban Council elections were heard on both services.

The British Broadcasting Corporation supplies first-class material on transcription, the greater portion of plays, dramatic features and variety programmes broadcast by the English service being obtained from this source. Other organizations that have supplied transcribed material are the Australian Broadcasting Commission, the Canadian Broad- casting Corporation, Radio Nederland, West German Radio, and United Nations Radio. From the last-named the Chinese section of Radio Hong Kong translated into Cantonese and adapted with considerable success the United Nations Day feature, "Charter in a Saucer." Programmes were exchanged with Radio Malaya, and plans are being completed to increase this practice, especially as regards Chinese programmes. Radio Hong Kong supplied a number of despatches to the BBC's Radio Newsreel and made regular contributions to their "Asia on the Air" series. News bulletins and a number of programmes from the BBC are relayed daily.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The appearance on the market of cheaper radio sets ($100 and under) and the introduction by many dealers of hire- purchase terms resulted in a greatly increased potential audience of radio listeners. Radio is now available to thousands in the lower income groups. This has been con- firmed by figures for the sale of radio sets, and by the number of radio licences, which has increased by 8,309, compared with a rise of only 1,861 in the previous year. The present licence figure of 52,468 is a record.

Wired transmission

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Ltd. provides a wired service throughout Hong Kong and Kowloon, and extending to parts of the New Territories, including Tsun Wan, Yuen Long, Taipo, Fanling and Sek Kong. Lines are hired from the Hong Kong Telephone Co. Ltd. At present the system runs to 900,000 yards of high-level link and network with approx. 2,000,000 yards of drop-in. Distribution is from three sub- stations, two in Victoria and one in Kowloon, feeding 20 kiosks, from which 108 feeders radiate to loudspeakers.

Programmes are originated in Rediffusion House, Hennessy Road and Arsenal Street, from modern air- conditioned studios; the staff employed, including technical staff, being just under 50. In addition to live, pre-recorded, and transcribed programmes, the Rediffusion services take news bulletins and a number of popular weekly features from Radio Hong Kong's programmes. 14% of all programmes are commercially sponsored, and the service enjoys wide popularity.

The rent for a loudspeaker is $10 a month, and by the operation of a switch the subscriber has a choice of two programmes maintained daily from 7 a.m. to midnight, an English-language service, and a Chinese service transmitting in Cantonese, Kuoyu, Chiuchow, and Shanghai dialect.

Rediffusion, which started in the United Kingdom 28 years ago, operates in many parts of the Commonwealth, and the Hong Kong company, though locally registered and with a local board of directors, is part of this widespread organiza- tion.

FILM INDUSTRY

Hong Kong film studios produced 227 films in 1955, as against 188 in the preceding year. Hong Kong gives place

PRESS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

177

only to the United States of America, Japan and India as a film-producing country. About 25% of the films made are in Kuoyu, the remainder in Cantonese. Usually the Kuoyu films are of a higher standard of production and employ better- known actors. There are seven major producing studios, but there is also a large number of small production companies renting studio space as and when required. Films made in Hong Kong are shown throughout South-East Asia wherever there are large Chinese communities. Some are also shown in the United States.

In the Colony itself there are 65 cinemas. The larger modern theatres in Victoria and Kowloon are air-conditioned and equipped to show modern wide-screen productions. Of the 65 cinemas, 29 are on Hong Kong Island (23 in Victoria, 3 at Shaukiwan, and 3 at Aberdeen), and 26 in Kowloon. In the New Territories there are two at Tsun Wan, two at Yuen Long, and one each at Cheung Chau, Taipo, Shatin, Sheung Shui, Luen Wo and Castle Peak.

Apart from locally-produced films, a preponderance of American films is shown. British films are third, averaging about 50 a year, in comparison with 400 American. Japanese, French, Indian and Italian films are shown occasionally. First- and second-run cinemas are required under quota law to show British films at least seven days out of seventy.

All films must be submitted for censorship before ex- hibition to the public, but any owner or distributor of a film who is aggrieved by a decision of the Panel of Censors may appeal to a Board of Review, the decision of which is final. Provision is also made whereby anyone objecting to a film being shown may appeal to the Colonial Secretary for its examination by the Board of Review. All films passed by the censors are released for general exhibition. There is no system of special certificates limiting the audience to certain categories, as in the United Kingdom.

During 1955 Hong Kong was chosen as the setting for three Hollywood productions. In the early months Twentieth- Century Fox sent two units to film location sequences for Soldier of Fortune and Love is a Many-Splendored Thing. A Sabre Productions unit arrived in mid-December to film Flight to Hong Kong, to be released through United Artists. Several documentary units visited the Colony, and a colour travelogue on Hong Kong was produced by the local Gains- borough Studio on behalf of Royal Interocean Lines.

Chapter 17: Local Forces

VOLUNTEER FORCES

VOLUNTEER Service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30 May 1854 of the Hong Kong Volunteers. Between 1854 and 1920 volunteering fluctuated considerably, chiefly in relation to the personality and enthusiasm of successive Commanding Officers. In 1878 the Hong Kong Volunteers were re-named the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps; in 1917 their name was changed to the Hong Kong Defence Corps; and in 1920 the title was changed once more to the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

The Corps mobilized about 1,400 men to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8 December 1941, and fought with the Regular Forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25 December 1941. For their gallantry in battle and subsequent escapes from Japanese prison camps in Hong Kong, members of the Corps were awarded one D.S.O., five M.C.s, two M.B.E.s, one D.C.M., and six M.M.s; eighteen members

eighteen members were mentioned in despatches.

After the war the Corps was reconstituted on 1 March 1949, as the Hong Kong Defence Force, to which name, two years later, the prefix Royal was awarded by His late Majesty King George VI in recognition of the part played by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps in the defence of Hong Kong.

The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force is constituted by Ordinance and is a combined force comprising a naval, an army and an air force element. Men and women of different races and nationalities serve side by side in each unit. The Force is composed partly of volunteers and partly of con- scripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service in 1951. The main units of the Force are the Force Headquarter Units (consisting of an Artillery Battery and various specialist units and officers), the Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, the Hong Kong Regiment, the Home Guard, the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, the

LOCAL FORCES

179

Hong Kong Women's Naval Volunteer Reserve, the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Corps, and the Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

Training obligations vary in the different units. In most units members must attend annually, as a minimum require- ment, sixty instructional parades of one hour's duration, six full days' training and fifteen days' training at camp. An instructional allowance is granted in respect of every instructional parade. For full days training, and for attendance at Camp, officers and members are paid at the appropriate rate for regular officers and men of equivalent rank. The Force is financed from funds voted annually by the Legislative Council.

Most of the officers of the Force are found from amongst its members, but a few regular officers and N.Ç.O's are attached for the purpose of training.

The Force provides an excellent illustration of men and women of different races, both volunteers and conscripts, working together in all three Services in the common interests of the Colony.

OTHER AUXILIARY DEFENCE SERVICES

RIES

a

In addition to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Special Constabulary and the Police Reserve, number of other services have been raised and organized to assist in the defence of the Colony in an emer- gency. Legally, these are all parts of one service, the Essential Services Corps, which is raised and maintained under the Essential Services Corps Ordinance. In practice, however, the Essential Services Corps is split into four autonomous Units: the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Fire Service, the Auxiliary Medical Service, and the Civil Aid Services.

The conditions of service of the Essential Services Corps. as a whole (including its autonomous Units) have been approximately equated to those of the Defence Force, and the same training obligations are, broadly speaking, imposed; except that members are not required to undergo 15 days training in camp, or to do any full-day training. Moreover, those members of the Essential Services Corps who in an

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

emergency would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert naturally require less training. All Units are composed partly of volunteers and partly of conscripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service in 1951.

Members of the Essential Services Corps are paid. instructional allowances at the same rates as those payable to members of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force in respect of instructional parades.

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service. such as the supply of electricity, gas, water, communications, etc. It is staffed primarily by those already employed in such service, but contains an element of others normally employed. in non-essential industries or departments who would be called upon to assist in the maintenance of the specific essential undertakings, should the need for their services ever arise. The Corps is now several thousand strong.

The Auxiliary Fire Service, an autonomous Unit of the Essential Services Corps is, as the name implies, to assist the regular Fire Brigade. The Auxiliary Fire Service is now a highly trained, keen and efficient body some hundreds strong which has already been frequently called upon to come to the assistance of the Fire Brigade in a number of serious fires.

The Auxiliary Medical Service provides first-aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in an emergency. It is built up around the Government Department of Medical and Health Services, the St. John Ambulance Brigade, and the members of the medical and nursing professions in general. In addition, a large number of persons with no previous medical experience have been enrolled, and training has proceeded to the point where members are fitted to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first-aid workers in the field. The Unit is now several thousand strong and of constantly improving efficiency.

The Civil Aid Services are responsible for all civil defence. functions not covered by the other emergency services. It is divided into a number of sub-units (Wardens' Services, Rescue Service etc.) along orthodox civil defence lines, and is now several thousand strong. The members of the Unit are markedly keen and more volunteers are coming forward than can be trained. Although there is much still to be done, satisfactory progress in training is being made.

Chapter 18: Research

The University of Hong Kong is the principal centre of research in the Colony.

Its current historical projects include work on various aspects of the history of Hong Kong, China, Japan and South-East Asia. The Department of Geography and Geology is preparing a full report on land utilization in the Colony and a study of terraces and erosion surfaces. Educational projects include an investigation into the value of group methods in teacher-training and into methods of combining higher education in modern and scientific subjects with the preservation of oriental culture.

The Department of Chinese and the Institute of Oriental Studies publish a Journal of Oriental Studies, in the first two volumes of which some of the results of recent researches have already appeared.

In the Department of Biology, the Fisheries Research Unit continued a wide programme of work, including a survey of New Territories fish ponds, age determination studies of economically important marine fish, and the biology of Ostra gigas, as grown in the Deep Bay oyster beds, and did extensive work on oyster culture in cooperation with the Government Fisheries Division. The research vessel Alister Hardy continued a monthly hydrological and plankton survey of local waters. Since February the cooperation of commercial vessels has been enlisted in obtaining surface water samples across the Pearl River estuary, in the fishing grounds between Hong Kong and Hainan, and into the China Sea as far east as the Formosa Strait. In collaboration with the Government Fisheries Division, the research vessel was used to conduct experiments with non-indigenous fishing gear with a view to their possible introduction into Hong Kong fisheries.

In the Department of Chemistry research is being continued on the chemistry of various plants of the Colony and other parts of South-East Asia which have reputed medicinal or other value. Discoveries being made in these and other fields of work are published from time to time in scientific journals in Great Britain.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

A study of the blood pressure of the fisher-folk, as compared with that of city dwellers, has been completed by the Department of Physiology, and an investigation of the blood plasma volume of the local population is nearing completion.

Architectural research included studies of low-cost housing in South-East Asia, Portuguese colonial architecture in Macau and Malacca, and the development of Chinese village communities in the New Territories, with particular reference to walled villages.

In the Department of Medicine, work continued on the pathogenesis of certain diseases of the liver in Hong Kong and on the disturbances of intrahepatic circulation encounter- ed therein and their relationship to the occurrence of portal hypertension and ascites. Other studies included investigation of the disturbances of haemostasis in splenomegaly and in hepatic diseases and of the haematological findings in cryptogenetic splenomegaly and the mechanisms involved.

Research on various problems relating to the toxaemias of pregnancy and the clinical and pathological aspects of Hydatidiformole and Chorionepithelioma continued in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, which also made studies in the sodium pentathol treatment of eclampsia and conducted a radiological investigation of the morphology of the Chinese female pelvis. The Department of Surgery continued research into the treatment of peptic ulceration in Chinese patients, and the results of this are in course of publication. Clinical work on the treatment. of various disorders of the liver, notably cholangis-hepatitis, was continued, and an experimental study of the factors respon- sible for increased density of calcification of bone following interruption of its blood supply was begun.

Outside the University, in the field of historical research the Instituto Portugues de Hongkong published during the year the fourth issue of its Bulletin (in English) to appear since the war. This included a study by Mr. J. M. Braga of the earliest Portuguese contacts with this part of the China coast, with particular reference to the voyage of Jorge Alvares in 1513.

For meteorological research, see under Royal Observa- tory, page 170.

Chapter 19: Archaeology

Early in August workmen employed on the levelling of a low hill at the end of Tonkin Street, Shamshuipo, unearthed a tomb of considerable size and historical importance, the discovery of which, as soon as it became known, aroused considerable public interest.

The area, known generally as Li Cheng Uk Village, was in the process of being cleared of squatters in order to make way for a large planned settlement. The hill concerned was being levelled for part of the development, and construction of resettlement blocks of flats had already begun nearby.

Fortunately the discovery was reported almost at once, and effective measures were taken by the Government to prevent the tomb being tampered with or its contents disposed of privately. Professor F. S. Drake, Head of the Department of Chinese in the University of Hong Kong, was notified and came at once to the site, where, after discussion with members of the Public Works Department and the Police, it was decided that the interior of the tomb should be photographed, accurately mapped, and cleared under super- vision. Thereafter all concerned cooperated with united enthusiasm to make sure that the fullest benefit, from the point of view of history and research, should be obtained from this important find. Government surveyors undertook the mapping, and Public Works Department workmen, under the supervision of Professor Drake, and with the help of a group of University staff and students, carefully removed the fine earth which partially filled the tomb.

The following description of the tomb is an abstract of a Preliminary Report by Professor Drake, incorporating some of his subsequent revisions.

"The tomb is situated on the fringe of the urban area, in that part of the New Territories known as New Kowloon. The site was once close to the sea, although now, due to reclamations made in this century, it is several hundred yards from it. The land originally rose on a fairly sharp incline from the sea, to a marine terrace, beyond which it rises again sharply to become part of the Kowloon range of hills.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

"The tomb consists of three chambers, varying in length between 12 and 133 ft., 5 ft. wide, and roofed with a barrel. vault 5 ft. high. The three chambers are set in the form of the letter T, the two arms and the body of which meet on the three sides of a square chamber 7 ft. wide, covered by a domed vault, like a beehive, 9 ft. high. On the fourth side of the square chamber is an entrance, also roofed with a barrel vault, and facing a little to the east of due south.

2

"The interior of the tomb is lined with bricks, laid without mortar, and measuring about 16" by 18" by 2". The exposed edges of a large proportion of the bricks show moulded designs, sometimes including short inscriptions. In some places, however, the decoration is very faint. It has partly been destroyed by time, and in places may have been absent altogether due to carelessness in the making.

"At the time of discovery the floor of the central chamber was piled with loose earth to a depth of two or three feet, upon which pottery vessels were lying in some disorder. The top of the domed vault had been damaged. Due to the hill having been partially levelled for squatter cultivation, and having later been built on by squatters, the top of the tomb was, in fact, only a foot or so under the soil, and at one place bricks were actually visible. The top of the dome had been repaired at some time with broken brick and a block of granite, but the aperture thus repaired seems too small to have admitted a person.

"The earth within the tomb was of very fine texture, unlike the gritty soil outside, and one of the unsolved. problems is to explain how it accumulated within a closed tomb. It has been suggested that it may have been carried by water percolating between the bricks of the walls closing the ends of the chambers, where the bricks, not being under pressure, appear to be more loosely set.

"A total of sixty-one pieces of pottery was found, including four models of houses, twenty-one jars, two bowls, three stem-cups, a toilet jar (lien), a tripod with cover, and eight pieces of bronze in a very fragile condition. Some of the scattered pieces bear the marks of ancient fractures, sug-- gesting that the tomb may have been entered at some time in the past. Lower down in the earth deposit, however, were found a number of important pieces obviously in their original position.

ARCHAEOLOGY

185

"The pottery is all of the funerary type (ming ch'i) found in tombs of the Han and Six Dynasties. The designs on the edges of the bricks are mostly geometrical, and a few present stylized outlines of fishes, and some of dragons, again reminiscent of the Han and Six Dynasties. Among the bronze objects, a Han dynasty mirror is important for purposes of dating. Two short inscriptions, represented several times in the designs on the bricks, include reference to Punyü, the district in which Canton is situated, and a term which once included this particular region. The style of writing is li-shu, prevalent in the Han and Six Dynasties, but more accurate dating by means of style can only be deter- mined after careful comparison with extant inscriptions of these periods.

"One of the principal problems is that no signs of human remains or of a coffin were found. It is true that the excessive dampness of the soil, and the fact that the tomb may for long periods have been full of water, would have been sufficient to cause bones or wood to disintegrate entirely; but one might have expected to find teeth, or, if the burial was of the Han dynasty, jade amulets and metal belt-hooks. Another possibility is that the tomb was a cenotaph, perhaps of a military officer whose body could not be recovered from the battlefield.

"In any event, the tomb is an important discovery. Detailed study of it and its contents is now taking place in the University, and until these studies are completed it would be unwise to draw more precise conclusions about its date and purpose.'

,,

The probability, however, that it is at least as old as the Later Han (A.D.25-220) or Six Dynasties (220-589) is of great interest and throws a new hight on what is at present known of local history.

Prior to permanent Chinese settlement in this area, which is continuous from about the year 1100, it is known that there was at least one earlier period of settlement (on the island of Tung Lung and in the neighbourhood of Joss-House Bay), evidence of which survives in the inscription on a stone situated behind the Tai Miu on the shores of Joss-House Bay. The tomb at Li Cheng Uk suggests that there may have

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

been other attempts at settlement of an even earlier date, and that Chinese connexions with this particular part of the Kwangtung region prior to 1100 were by no means as scanty as, with our present knowledge, we are apt to presuppose.

The original intention of the Government was to demolish the tomb, after the details of it had been fully recorded. In view of the great public interest shown in it, however, the Government reversed this decision, and the area will now be retained as a small public park for recreation in the middle of the Li Cheng Uk Resettlement Area.

香港

17

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 20: Religion

The Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau, covers nine recognized parish churches and eight mission chapels. In three of these worship is conducted in English, and in the remainder in Chinese. St. John's Cathedral, built in 1847, was established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850.

The Anglican Church makes a notable contribution to secondary education in the Colony by administering, among other schools, the Diocesan Boys' and Girls' Schools, St. Paul's College, St. Stephen's Girls' College, and St. Stephen's College, Stanley. During the year St. John's College in the University was formally opened by Sir Kenneth Grubb, C.M.G., President of the Church Missionary Society, on the completion of the first half of the College buildings. One more Chinese parish church was completed, the Church of the Good Shepherd, Hung Hom, and the site for another, the Church of the Holy Carpenter, was levelled by young Christian workers temporarily unemployed. A new primary school was completed, and two more begun, and a start was made on the permanent buildings of Ch'ung Chi College.

The English-speaking Free Churches are represented by the Methodists, who have their own church on Hong Kong Island and a combined church, school, church hall and vocational training centre in Kowloon, and by other denominations grouped together with Union Churches in Victoria and Kowloon. The London Missionary Society, whose chief representative arrived in Hong Kong within a year of the Colony's cession to Great Britain, plays a prominent part in education and medicine, and runs the Nethersole Hospital, one of the Colony's foremost medical institutions.

The Anglican and Free Churches have a Council of Churches for such common action as may be needed, and the Churches have been able to make some contribution to refugee housing, child welfare centres, outpatient medical assistance, and religious work in the prisons.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

The Roman Catholic Church was until 1874 administered by a Prefect Apostolic. In that year a Bishop was appointed with the title of Vicar Apostolic, and in 1946 the status of the Church was raised to that of a Diocese, extending into China. There are twelve Roman Catholic parishes with churches on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon, and about thirty churches in different parts of the New Territories. The Church administers 76 schools, some with an English pro- gramme of studies, others with a Chinese curriculum. Due to enlargements of existing buildings and the opening of new ones during 1955, the total number of pupils in Catholic schools now exceeds 33,000. The most recent estimate of the Catholic population in the Colony (30 June) is 73,499.

The work of the Roman Catholic Church is carried on by priests of many nationalities, some engaged in parish work, others working in schools and at the University. There are about 500 nuns belonging to various religious Orders engaged in charitable and educational work in hospitals, schools, and homes for orphans, blind girls, cripples and the aged. Many of the principal missions have their Far Eastern administrative headquarters in the Colony. There are a number of important Roman Catholic seminaries on Hong Kong Island.

Welfare work carried out under the auspices of the Church is wide and varied. A mobile clinic run by the Catholic Welfare Committee visits eight different places each week and treats 2,400 cases monthly. There are 13 welfare centres, with resident staffs, in the refugee and resettlement areas. Schools are maintained in connexion with each of them, with an aggregate of more than 5,000 pupils. During the year a new church and school for the Shamshuipo area was built in Shek Kip Mei Street, Kowloon, and schools were opened. at Chuk Yuen Resettlement and at Fook Wah Village, Ngau Tau Kok.

There is a small Russian Orthodox congregation, divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former have their own Church, founded in 1934. The latter, who have intercommunion with the Anglican Church, hold their services in the Church Hall of St. Andrew's Kowloon, and are known as the Orthodox Church.

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Sing Pao

The important discovery of an ancient tomb at Li Cheng Uk is described in the chapter on Archaeology. The find excited great popular interest, and large crowds thronged daily to the site. Below, Professor F. S. Drake, of Hong Kong University, with a student, recording the tomb's interior measurements.

Universe Studio

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South China Morning Post

University staff and students at work examining wall designs and unearthing pottery from the fine soil with which the tomb was filled.

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Wen Wei Pao

A selection of the funerary objects found in the tomb, including model houses, jars, and a lidded tripod, as they were set out at the site shortly after excavation.

Close-up photographs of some of the designs made on brick on the interior walls.

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Ta Kung Pao

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Diagrams of Li Cheng Uk Tomb

WEST CHAMBER

CENTRAL CHAMBER

NORTH CHAMBER

ENTRANCE

共區

EAST CHAMBER

!

WEST

SEA AND

RECLAIMED LAND

DEPOSIT

CUTTING

BACK

TERRACE LEVELLING/

FOR

ཡ་་་་་་་་་་

RIES

EAST

IC L

EARTH

MARINE

TERRACE

HILL SLOPES

RECENT DEPOSIT

NORTH EAST

DRAWN BY F S. DRAKE

These three drawings by Professor Drake show (top) a sectional drawing of the tomb itself, (centre) the earth deposit inside the tomb at the time of discovery, and (bottom) the position of the tomb in the hill, the cutting of which led to this important historical find.

RELIGION

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Buddhist activities have expanded in recent years and the Buddhist community organizes free schools and medical centres. The school of Buddhism chiefly followed is the Mahayana. There are large Buddhist monasteries in the hills. behind Tsun Wan, at Castle Peak, Shatin, and in the western part of Lantao Island. Most of them depend for their upkeep on charitable gifts and income earned from tourists and visitors using their rest houses.

There are about 5,000 Chinese Muslims and about 1,500 non-Chinese Muslims, mostly Pakistanis and Indians. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915. A second mosque was built in 1896 in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Parsis were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer-house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874, they established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Hill Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, whose community numbers about 250, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong, where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street-Staunton Street area of the central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The first Hindu temple in Hong Kong was built in 1953 and is situated in Happy Valley. There has been a Sikh temple in Queen's Road East since 1870 which has served the needs not only of the Sikh community, but of many of those Hindus from Sind and the Punjab who have been to some extent influenced by Guru Nanak's teachings.

Chapter 21: Arts

The Hong Kong Festival of the Arts, held in the first three weeks of April, was an outstanding event in the history of the arts in Hong Kong. The object was, in the Governor's words, to "show not only what Hong Kong can do, but what it is doing, successfully and continuously, in the arts.' The original idea came from the Sino-British Club, but it so developed that literature, drama, visual arts and music. societies united in a cooperative effort which surpassed most people's expectations.

The festival programme included live and radio per- formances in European and Chinese music and drama, and organized literary competitions in English and Chinese. One special feature was the Exhibition Centre, on the Central Reclamation, designed and erected specially for the occasion, which housed exhibitions of European and Chinese visual arts. The Government lent a large number of pictures, including the remains of the Chater Collection, the Law and Sayer Collections, and a selection of photographs of old Hong Kong. An exhibition of children's art showed the work of pupils in schools. The University School of Architecture included in its section plans for the proposed City Hall, and other designs and plans by staff and students of the School. The Amateur Ciné Club showed documentary films daily at the Centre. Over 55,000 people, including 7,000 schoolchildren, visited this exhibition. An exhibition of Chinese antiquities at the Fung Ping Shan Library attracted over 9,000 visitors. A wide range of plays was presented in English by all four amateur dramatic societies; a varied and representative choice of Chinese plays was offered by the Drama Group of the Sino-British Club; and the Schools Drama Competition prize-winners gave special public performances. The Choral Group and the Crescendo Singers gave radio concerts, the choir of St. John's Cathe- dral presented Stainer's Crucifixion, and concerts were given by the Sino-British Orchestra and the Sino-British Music Group. The erection and arrangement of the Festival Centre was a major undertaking in itself, but the real achievement of the sponsors was to bring together the various groups and

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individuals interested in all the arts, thereby focussing public attention on the cultural activities of the Colony.

Celebrity visitors during the year included Messrs. Julius Katchen, Louis Kentner, Larry Adler and Maurice Clare, and the English composer and singer Mr. Michael Head, all of whom gave concerts. The visit of Dame Sybil Thorndyke and Sir Lewis Casson was a memorable event for theatre-lovers, and large audiences were captivated by their performances at recitals. A recording of a theatre forum in which they took part was broadcast twice by Radio Hong Kong.

The performance of modern Chinese straight plays is a comparatively rare occurrence, and as so much of post- Revolution Chinese thought has been expressed through the medium of straight plays this is to be deplored. The public for the Chinese legitimate theatre is not nearly as large as that for older traditional forms of musical play, incorrectly described as opera, but it is further restricted by the high rents charged by theatres. Sorrows of the Forbidden City, the story of the one from last Chinese emperor, Kuang Hsü, by Yao Hsin-nung, was one of the plays successfully produced. The Tsung Yi Dramatic Group staged Pa Kin's Home, and The Sunrise by Ts'ao Yu. The Great Wall Players presented Thunder and Rain, also by Ts'ao Yu, and the Chinese Theatre Arts Group presented The Taiping Rebellion, by Yan Han-sheng.

There were more performances of Peking Opera and better box office results than last year. The outstanding per- formance was The Suspected Slipper, with Chang O-yun in the leading rôle. Cantonese musical plays, which have the biggest box office in Hong Kong, experienced a lean year, although The Tragedy of Liang and Chu (the Romeo and Juliet of the Chinese stage) drew record audiences, thanks partly to the novelty of the revolving stage at the Lee Theatre.

The two best public libraries are still those of the British Council and the United States Information Service. The British Council maintains active interest in various cul- tural groups. The Council library and reading room, the film and filmstrip library, and a library of records, prints and pictures, provide for a variety of borrowers interested

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in the arts. The full programme of lectures and exhibitions, together with the other activities of the Council, make a lively contribution to Hong Kong's cultural life.

It is seldom in Hong Kong that a work of architecture is obviously a work of art also. The Colony's architecture has for more than a century been demonstrably utilitarian, and there has perhaps been more emphasis on drains, stresses and ventilation than on aesthetics. This year, how- ever, the new buildings of the Wah Yan College, situated on Mount Parrish, between Wantsai and Happy Valley, have set a new standard in modern architecture in the Colony. Strictly utilitarian as the entire group of buildings is, it is so harmonized with every aspect of the natural setting that views, hills, and even nearby trees combine with the buildings as parts of an integrated design. The whole con- ception is unique in Hong Kong, and should be seen in relation to the most modern architectural forms being used in Western Europe. The architects are Professor R. Gordon Brown, F.R.I.B.A. and Mr. Lars Meyrenberg.

The College church, which might be described as a brick box, and which is already being referred to somewhat irreverently by the students as the atomic pile, consists of four windowless walls of unadorned brick. Interior light is chiefly obtained through a gap which has been left between the wall heads and the ceiling. The ceiling appears to be floating between the walls, and not actually attached to them. The Stations of the Cross are depicted in outline mosaics. on the naked brick within. Executed on designs by Miss Julia Morley, R.B.A., they stand in their own right as one of the most significant works of contemporary ecclesiastical art in the East.

Chapter 22: Sport

The schemes put in hand some years ago to improve the Colony's recreation facilities are at last coming to fruition. The year's big event was the opening of the Government Sports Stadium in Causeway Bay, seating 28,500 spectators. The facilities which the Stadium provides are described in Chapter 14, under Public Works.

The reclamation of a large area in Causeway Bay is nearing completion and has been named Victoria Park. The site is the former typhoon anchorage, which has been reprovided to the seaward. At the entrance to the Park is the rehabilitated statue of Queen Victoria which before the war stood in Statue Square.

Victoria Park, towards the cost of which the Jockey Club contributed $2m., is the most notable contribution made to recreation for the under-privileged since refugees from China. sent the Colony's population up far beyond normal limits. The facilities it offers are free, and at present consist chiefly of miniature football and basketball grounds. The Govern- ment has announced its intention of constructing a 50-metre swimming pool in the Park, for which the Jockey Club has given another $1,300,000. The lack of such a pool has hitherto been a main obstacle in the way of training swim- mers for international competitions.

Hong Kong intends to participate in the 1956 Olympic. Games at Melbourne, and the Amateur Sports Federation. and Olympic Committee have been busy during the year correlating the efforts of the controlling bodies of various sports in the Colony with this end in view.

Association football attracts larger crowds than any other sport, and it is second only to horse-racing in the amount of money involved. Three overseas football teams visited Hong Kong: in January, Grasshopper (Zurich), result (Hong Kong score first) 0-1, 1-2, 0-1; in February, Admira (Vienna), 3-3, 2-5, 2-1; and in December, the Club Ferroviario de Mozambique, 2-1, 1-1, 3-0. In the local inter-

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port, Macau lost 7-3. A team representing the South China Athletic Association had a successful tour of Australia, New Zealand and Malaya.

The horse-racing season ended on 23 April and the new season began on 5 November, a longer recess than usual, due to the construction of a new Members' Stand. 181 races were run. Popular interest was as keen as usual, and the sweep on the Kwangtung Handicap, run on

on 19 November, was a record figure. In the 1954-5 season Mr. J. F. Macgregor's chestnut pony, Strathian, won the highest stakes, with a total of $14,000.

In terms of gate numbers, basketball ranks second among the most popular games played in Hong Kong. The Hongkong and Kowloon Basketball Association was responsible for the visits of a greater number of overseas teams than have ever come to the Colony before in a single year. These included three from the United States, six from the Philippines, three from Korea, six from Taiwan, one from Malaya, and one from Vietnam. In November three men's and one women's teams from Hong Kong went to Malaya, Cambodia and Taiwan for interport games.

The annual Cross-Harbour Swimming Race was held under ideal conditions. Of the 288 starters, only 3 failed to complete the course in the stipulated 1 hours. Wan Shiu- ming, the winner, established a new record of 19 mins. 18.4 secs.

The Badminton Association had a busy time at the start of the year trying to raise funds to send a team to India to compete in the finals of the Asiatic Zone of the Thomas Cup International Competitions; Hong Kong having beaten Japan in November 1954 at the Macpherson Playground, Kowloon. When it became clear that the Badminton Asso- ciation would not be able to raise enough money for the purpose, the Jockey Club and the Amateur Sports Federation gave financial help. As a result Hong Kong was represented by a team of five at the Competitions, which were held in Bombay, in April. India won by 9 matches to nil.

Two American Badminton players, Messrs. Dick Mit- chell and Carl Loveday, visited the Colony in May and played a series of exhibition games with local players.

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Lawn Bowls had a good year, the Association's League Competitions attracting 27 teams, which took part in three divisions. The Club de Recreio won the First Division; Taikoo Club the Second; and Kowloon Dock Club the Third. The Colony Open Championships had more entries than ever before, and there was a rise in the number of ladies' teams participating in the Ladies' League Bowls.

Interest in cricket was stimulated by the visit in November of a representative team of the Malayan Cricket Association. Hong Kong was beaten in three games out of four, but the games were witnessed by the largest crowds for many years, even including the visit of Australian Test stars some years ago.

The Amateur Boxing Association became affiliated to the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur, and for the first time since the war boxing championships were held. Hong Kong was represented at the South-East Asian Boxing Championships at Singapore by a team of seven. Several medals were won; Hong Kong finishing third in the team placings.

C LIBRA

Chapter 23: Geography and Climate

The Colony of Hong Kong, which consists of a number of islands and a portion of mainland on the S.E. coast of China, adjoining Kwangtung Province and situated im- mediately E. of the Pearl River estuary, lies between 22° 9′ and 22° 37′ N. and 113° 52′ and 114° 30′ E. The capital city, Victoria, situated on Hong Kong Island, is 91 miles S.E. of Canton and 40 miles E. of the Portuguese Colony of Macau. The total land area of the Colony is 391 square miles, made up as follows :

(a) Hong Kong Island (32 sq. miles), including Green Island, Aplichau, and other immediately adjacent islets. Victoria, on the north side of the island, has a population of approximately 1,000,000. Also situated on the Island are two important fishing towns, Shaukiwan and Aberdeen, and a number of villages, such as Stanley and Shek O, which have developed into popular residential areas. (b) Kowloon (31 sq. miles) and Stonecutters' Island (sq. mile). The northern limit of the ceded territory of Kowloon is Boundary Street. Kowloon and New Kowloon (the urban zone north of Boundary Street) have an estimated population of more than 1,000,000.

HONG

(c) The New Territories (land area 355 sq. miles), leased from China for 99 years from 1 July 1898. The leased. area consists of a substantial mainland section north of Kowloon, and 198 islands adjacent to it and in the vicinity of Hong Kong Island. It also includes the waters of Deep Bay and Mirs Bay. The principal centres of population in the New Territories are Tsun Wan, with a population of 38,490; Cheung Chau, with 15,085 land-based inhabitants and approximate- ly 7,000 boat people anchored there for the greater part of the year; Yuen Long, 13,863; Tai O, with 8,860 land-based inhabitants and about 2,000 boat people; Shek Wu Hui, 7,050; Taipo, 6,779; Ping Chau (Southern District), 3,864; Castle Peak (Tuen Mun and San Hui), 3,560, excluding floating

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population; and Saikung, 1,472. The total population of the New Territories, excluding New Kowloon, is probably in the region of 300,000.

The population figures for Victoria and Kowloon are entirely approximate; see Population Chapter. The figures for New Territories towns have been arrived at from an unofficial census being carried out during 1955, and not yet completed, by the New Territories Heung Yee Kuk (Council of Village Representatives), in collaboration with the New Territories Administration.

Hong Kong Island is 11 miles long from east to west and varies in width from 2 to 5 miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock, of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,805 ft.) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The old part of the urban area runs up steep hillside for hundreds of yards, in narrow stepped streets and terraces; but more modern parts of the town stand chiefly on a strip of reclaimed land, averaging 200-400 yards in width, which extends 9 miles along the north shore of the Island.

Between the Island and the mainland lies the Port of Victoria, often described, with San Francisco and Rio de Janeiro, as one of the three most perfect natural harbours in the world. Its area is 17 sq. miles, varying in width from 1 to 3 miles. Ocean-going ships generally use the east, deep- water entrance, known as Lyemun, which is between 500 and 900 yards wide. On the western side the natural entrances to the harbour are wider but shallower. On this side a group of islands, which include Tsing I, Lantao and Lamma, provide effective shelter. The importance of Hong Kong has hitherto depended on this harbour, and on its favourable position at the mouth of the most important river system in South China, within easy reach of Canton, South China's largest city.

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low, dry foothills running southward from the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula 2 miles long and nowhere more than 2 miles wide. Here and there on the peninsula were a few small Chinese villages. Most of the foothills have now been levelled, and the rock and soil thus cut away have been used to extend the land by reclamation

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from the sea. The town of Kowloon now covers the entire peninsula and stretches without interruption northward into the New Territories, the boundary of which is noticeable only from the name of Boundary Street, which marks it. Further on, the Kowloon hills set a final limit to this northward urban expansion, but around the sides of the harbour, westward toward Laichikok and eastward to Ngau Tau Kok, Kowloon is extending its urban arms to embrace several rural areas. with villages established there for hundreds of years. Kowloon contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal commercial dockyards, the largest wharves for ocean-going ships and, in the area known as Kowloon Tong, a large residential suburb. At the extreme southern tip of the peninsula, known as Tsimshatsui, is the terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which passes from Kowloon under the Kowloon hills and through the New Territories to Canton.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is mountainous and barren. The highest point, situated approximately in the centre of the mainland, is Taimoshan (3,142 ft.). The second and third highest points are both on Lantao Island: Lantao Peak, or Fu Yung Shan (3,061 ft.), which is the western of the two, and Sunset Peak (2,857 ft.). The fourth highest point is Ma On Shan on the mainland (2,296 ft.). The north-western slopes of Taimoshan descend to the Colony's largest area of cultivable land, in the centre of which is the important market town of Yuen Long. Further out the land extends to marshes and oyster- beds on the verge of Deep Bay.

The eastern half of the New Territories mainland consists of irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Villages are in general only found where there is flat watered land, in valleys or on small plateaux. Much of the upper land in the areas nearest to Kowloon has been eroded, one of the unfortunate results of the Japanese occupation, when tremendous numbers of trees were cut for firewood. At the end of the war, virtually the only woods that still remained were those preserved in the neighbourhood of villages for geomantic reasons. For details of forestry, see the Production Chapter.

The 198* islands of the New Territories include many that are waterless and uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland. The principal cultivated areas

* See note at the end of this Chapter.

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are on Lantao, Lamma and Ma Wan, where water supplies are good. Apart from Lantao, which is nearly double the size of Hong Kong Island, most of the islands are small. They range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau, with its large fishing community, soya and preserved fruit factories, and junk-building yards, to places like the Nine- pins, which are no more than granite rocks, used seasonally, and by day only, by fishermen drying fish or repairing nets.

CLIMATE

Although the Colony lies just within the tropics, it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual in tropical regions. The climate is governed by monsoons. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists with occasional breaks until April, bringing cool air from high latitudes. Early winter is the most pleasant time of year, when the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; dull overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. Coastal fogs occur from time to time in early spring during breaks in the monsoon, when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer is the rainy season, three-quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches occurring during the period May to September. The south-west monsoon lasts from June to August, but is not so persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. The weather during the summer is continuously hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms.

The mean monthly temperature ranges from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature very rarely rises above 95°F in summer, or falls below 40°F in winter. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in early winter it may occasionally fall as low as 20%. The average daily duration of sunshine ranges from 3 hours in March to 7 hours in October.

Hong Kong is liable to be affected by typhoons during the period July to October, and typhoon gales have occasionally been experienced as early as June and as late as November. Spells of bad weather, with strong winds and

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heavy rain, normally occur several times each year owing to the passage of these storms at varying distances from the Colony. Gales due to typhoons occur on the average about once a year, but it is only rarely that the centre of a fully- developed typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force. The last occasion when a severe typhoon passed close to Hong Kong was in July 1946.

THE YEAR'S WEATHER

In 1955 92.53 inches of rain were recorded in Hong Kong, 7.77 inches above normal. However, it was also the sunniest year since measurements of this kind were started at the Royal Observatory in 1885. The total of 2,279 hours of sunshine is 73 hours more than the previous record (1925) and 327 hours more than the average.

Until the end of March, the Colony suffered the most prolonged and severe drought since records were started more than 100 years ago. Between 5 and 12 January an intense cold spell brought the temperature down to 37.6°F at the Royal Observatory, the lowest for 55 years, and to 26.5°F at Sek Kong in the New Territories, the lowest temperature ever recorded in the Colony.

On the evening of 1 April, during the rains which broke the drought, a severe thundersquall with recorded gusts of 50 knots hit the island of Cheung Chau, overturning 36 inshore fishing vessels and sinking 3 larger junks.

The first four months were exceptionally sunny and spring fogs were rare. The summer months, May to August, apart from an absence of typhoons and being wetter than usual, were unexceptional. September, however, was the hottest September on record, with temperatures reaching 90°F on twelve days. The last three months provided fine cool weather, with more sunshine than usual.

GEOLOGY

Hong Kong Island and the New Territories are characterized by numerous rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. A general picture of the area is that of an upland terrain which has been invaded by the sea.

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The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations, in which relative resistance of rock and structure through differential erosion is clearly recorded. As the region lies within the northern limit of the tropics, frosts, even on Taimoshan, are rare, and weathering depends almost com- pletely upon the chemical action of the atmosphere, aided by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. Erosion is likewise due to water action, which is at a maximum during the torrential rains of the summer monsoon. Again, denudation is aided by the excessive wind velocities of typhoons, and to a much less extent by the gentler breezes of the dry winter monsoon from Central China. Because of the rural customs of cutting grass for fuel and lighting grass fires on hills, the soil and rock mantle are left unprotected except by their own cohesion.

The laterite-type product of decay is locally such, how- ever, as to provide an impervious mantle for the underlying rock. In colour and composition the products of weathering accurately reflect their rock origin. Although frost action is absent, mechanical disintegration, due to hydration, carbona- tion and temperature changes, has resulted in the formations of gravel and boulders over the surfaces of some rock types. The net result of the erosion cycle is that of an upland system, with rocky mountain peaks and well-defined ridges, giving an impression of partly matured topography. In some areas the topography shows that adjustment to rock structure, and resistance to weathering and erosion, are very complete. This is evidenced particularly in the general anticlinal structure of the valleys. The Tolo Channel is a notable example. The relative resistance of the different rock formations to weathering is illustrated as follows. The highest peaks and the most prominent mountain ranges are all composed of Taimoshan porphyry and the Repulse Bay volcanics. They tend to form smoother peaks than the Hong Kong granite, which generally occurs at lower elevations with well-etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The Tolo Channel sediments generally weather into lowlands and valleys, except for the Pat Sin conglomerate, which form peaks and ridges along the crests of the Pat Sin mountain chain.

Unlike the hills, the plains are all alluvial and formed by deposition. Benches marking old sea beaches up to 400 feet or more above sea level indicate the deep submergence of

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the whole region within recent geological times. Progressive uplift has brought about marked changes on the shore-line. Submerged weathered rock surfaces overlain by peat and bog deposits drilled through in the harbour of Hong Kong indicate that the former shore-line was at least 100 feet (16 fathoms) lower than now.

During the period of submergence valley heads were gradually filled with sediment, and this has been redistributed from higher to lower levels as elevation continued. The paddy fields along the lower reaches of the rivers, and the large semi-submerged plain around Yuen Long are alluvial deposits brought down by local streams. At the brickyards on the Sheung Shui plain marine shells have been dug up fifteen feet below the alluvial deposits.

The alluvial origin of the plains is thus clear, and it is also evident that these plains are yearly growing seaward, due to the deposition of sediment brought down by streams. It is interesting to note that an elevation of the land by 100 feet would restore the strand line approximately to the 16 fathom line, and make all Hong Kong and the New Territories an integral part of the mainland. Thus, across wide alluvial plains, the Pearl River would develop several distributaries to the sea. There would possibly be a small channel flowing between Hong Kong and Lantao Island eastwards, and a larger one passing close to the western end of Lantao in a south-easterly direction.

FLORA

It is not possible to make any true distinction between the trees of the Colony and those of the adjacent southern part of Kwangtung Province. Among the principal trees found in Hong Kong and the New Territories are pine, Chinese banyan, and camphor, to which, since the area came under British administration, have been added a large number of others, of which the most commonly seen are casuarina, eucalyptus and flamboyant.

The principal locally-grown fruits include laichee, lung- ngan, wong pei, loquat, pomelo, tangerine, banana, papaya, pineapple, custard apple, guava, and Chinese varieties of plum and pear. Of these, papaya, pineapple, custard apple and guava were originally introduced from South America by the Portuguese some time after the foundation of Macau. The

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tangerine, native to South China, was introduced to the West in the seventeenth century by the Portuguese, who trans- planted it to Tangier, then under their control.

Illustrated descriptions of some of the Colony's trees will be found in the Hong Kong Annual Reports for the years 1950-3.

The flora of Hong Kong Island has been fully, though not completely, described in Flora Hongkongensis, by G. B. Bentham, published in 1861, and in the descriptive Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong, by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, published in 1912. Less comprehensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs, entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series, The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong, by A. H. Crooks; Plants of Lan Tau Island, by F. A. McClure, which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931; and numerous papers published in The Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war, three official publications, in the series Food and Flowers, have appeared, giving, amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

The flora of the Colony is tropical, but this is about the northern limit of tropical flora. The alternation between hot humid summers and cool dry winters results in a dormant period for tropical plants during winter. These conditions promote the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. The consequence is that a genus represented in Hong Kong and also in equatorial countries produces here a greater wealth of flowers of larger size.

There is a considerable diversity of flowering shrubs and trees, including magnolia, Michelia, Rhodoleia, Illicium, and Tutcheria. Six species of rhododendron grow wild; there is also a wild Gordonia and wild roses. The heather family is represented by a pink-belled Enkianthus, flowering at the time of the Chinese New Year. A Litsea also blooms at this time.

Bauhinia Blakeana, named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, and discovered by the fathers of the Missions Etrangères at Pokfulam, is among the finest of the Bauhinia genus anywhere in the world. Its origin is unknown; it is a sterile hybrid, never producing seed.

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Fruit-bearing herbs include several wild hollies, Melodinus, Strychnos, wild kamquat, Gardenia, Maesa, Mussaenda ("the Buddha's Lamp"), Dichroa, several species of Callicarpa, Dianella, in the lily family, Raphiolepis, the so-called Hong Kong hawthorn, wild jasmine and wild persimmon.

Among fruits that are either poisonous or useful for medicine, are Strophanthus and Strychnos, Gelsemium, and Cerbera, abundant near the sea. Edible fruit includes a wild jackfruit, Artocarpus, rose-myrtle fruits, and wild bananas. Several species of persimmon are wild, but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten raw.

There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the common clematis of the English hedgerow, has five close relatives here. There are four wild violets, but, like the English dog violet, they are scentless. English honeysuckle has five relatives; their Cantonese name is kam ngan fa (gold and silver flower), given because of their change in colour with age from white to yellow.

There is a fine wild iris, further south than any other true iris, and a wild lily growing on some hillsides, with individual flowers sometimes seven inches long. By the sea a wild Crinum is found, and Bellamcanda, in the iris family.

In damp ravines may be found Didymocarpus, several begonias, a fragrant-leaved rush, stag's horn mosses, numerous orchids, giant aroids, tree ferns, and countless kinds of smaller ferns, including maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On hillsides English bracken, a cosmopolitan plant, may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, Gleichenia, and a fragrant-leaved myrtle called Baeckia.

The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong has been added to considerably since their time. At present over 25,000 specimens are preserved.

FAUNA

The commonest mammals are barking deer, wild pig, and civet. Barking deer, or muntjac, are numerous enough to be destructive of crops in the more remote, upland villages

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of the New Territories, but are not numerous enough to encourage villagers to be professional hunters. Due to their shyness and nocturnal habits, these small deer are seldom seen; they are to be found in the Saikung region, on Lantao, and even in the Peak District on Hong Kong Island. Wild pigs are a recurring nuisance in remote villages, and are the most usual quarry for amateur hunters. They are found in the wilder parts of the Saikung and Shataukok regions, along the Pat Sin Range, and on Lantao Island. Malacca civets, found chiefly on the upper slopes of Taimoshan, have a commercial value for trappers, civet flesh providing one of the most famous Cantonese cold-weather dishes.

Other mammals, all rare, include ferret-badgers, the crab-eating mongoose, the large Chinese civet, the masked or gem-faced civet, the dhole, or wild red dog, and the South China red fox. Tigers have on various recorded occasions been seen in the Colony, but in each case they were almost certainly visitors from farther inland.

Among rodents, the most troublesome in country areas are porcupines and paddy rats, which do considerable damage to rice crops. Domestic rodents include the cosmopolitan common brown rat, the buff-breasted rat, and the house shrew.

An item of unusual interest during 1955 was the arrival of an immature whale (Balaenoptera physalus) referred to in the Review of the Year. A common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), captured at Cha Kuo Ling in December 1954, is believed to be the first record of the species within Hong Kong waters.

An exhibition of wild life, in three spacious enclosures in the Botanic Gardens, includes a number of rarely seen species. of indigenous mammals.

The Colony's birds may be divided into residents, winter visitors, summer visitors and passage migrants, and for the bird-watcher the variety of species which may be seen in the course of a year provides continuous interest. The families of birds so far recorded include crows, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, weavers, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, falcons, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns,

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plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks and grebes, to mention only those represented by several species.

Among the Colony's snakes those most commonly en- countered are harmless. They include the common rat snake, or dhaman, the Indo-Chinese rat snake, and the chequered water snake. The small bright green bamboo snake is the commonest of the few poisonous reptiles to be found. Indian cobras and pythons exist in the Colony, but are rarely encountered. Of the various sea-snakes found, all are poisonous but inoffensive, and none of them attack swimmers.

Note: Previous editions of the Annual Report have given the number of islands in the New Territories as 75. This included only the larger ones, on which some form of human activity was possible, i.e. fish-drying, fishing from rocks etc. The present count of 198 is arrived at on the basis of including every island or rock that has grass or other vegetation on it.

The geology section of this chapter is reproduced from The Geology of Hong Kong, by S. G. Davis.

IC LIBRAR

Chapter 24: History

ANTECEDENTS

THE earliest traces of human settlement in the region are at Shek Pik, on the south coast of Lantao Island, and on the beach known as Hung Shing Yeh, on the west coast of Lamma Island. From the rock carvings, pottery and implements discovered there, it is clear that in prehistoric times the islands were occupied, at least seasonally, by people whose trade connexions stretched from the Yangtse basin as far south as Indonesia. Little is known of the region. before it adopted Chinese culture. Chinese histories refer to the early inhabitants as Maan, implying barbarian, and provide few details about them.

Kwangtung was first brought under the suzerainty of China between 221 and 214 B.C., but it was many hundreds of years before there was any degree of Chinese migration into the province. Remote and dangerous, its islands provid- ing ideal hiding places for sea-robbers and bandits, this particular region was no place for civilized settlement.

Southward Chinese migration on a large scale began to affect Kwangtung during the Sung dynasty (960-1279). Little is known of the early relations between Chinese and Maan which must have resulted from this movement, but it is clear that by this time the Maan had already adopted Chinese culture and names. Chinese settlement in the New Territories is continuous from the beginning of the thirteenth century.

For a few months during 1278, the last emperor of the Southern Sung, Ti Ping, in flight from the invading Mongols, made his capital at Kowloon, and a small hill crowned with prominent boulders was held sacred to his memory, until 1943, when the Japanese demolished it as a safety measure for the airport. The last battle between the Sung and the Mongols was probably fought in the New Territories in 1279, not far from Tsun Wan; and after the Sung defeat, large numbers of the Court and nobility are said to have escaped across to Lantao Island, where some of them settled, their descendants surviving to this day.

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In the earliest maritime connexions between China and the West, the shipping was principally Arab, the traders including Indians, Persians and Jews, all of whom, from the seventh century onwards, formed a considerable foreign community in Canton. When, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese discovered the sea route from Europe to India, they quickly put an end to Arab trade with the Far East. In 1513, Jorge Alvares, the first European ever to command a sea voyage to China, reached the Pearl River in a chartered Burmese junk; and in 1517 the first Portuguese ships arrived, with the aim of opening regular trade with China.

Their first attempts were unsuccessful, and it was not until 1557, partly in recognition of the help they had given the Chinese in the local suppression of piracy, that the Portuguese gained the settlement which was their aim, and established themselves at Macau.

From then onwards, through many vicissitudes, and against the main current of authoritative Chinese opinion, which was not interested in foreign trade, Macau provided the only reliable point of contact between China and the West. English contacts with Macau date from about 1600, the first English ship actually calling there in 1635, under charter to the Portuguese. Between 1601 and 1627 the Dutch made repeated attempts to capture Macau, but without

success.

Regular seasonal British trade with China dates from 1700, and although Amoy and other ports farther up the coast were visited from time to time, the bulk of the trade was with Canton, the ships weighing for dues and clearing at Taipa, just south of Macau, but being allowed up-river as far as Whampoa, 13 miles from the city of Canton, for discharging and loading. A strictly limited number of Europeans connected with the trade were, under security paid by their Chinese business associates, allowed to reside in Canton during the trading season only, being obliged by the Chinese authorities to leave the country as soon as they had completed the year's business. The thirteen Chinese mer- chants, who were alone permitted to trade with the Europeans, conducted their affairs as a monopoly guild, charging prices far in excess of real market values.

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As, throughout the eighteenth century, the volume of trade between China and the West continued to grow, until it reached immense proportions, the various restrictions im- posed on it by the Chinese Government became steadily less realistic and less endurable. Although the French, Dutch, Spaniards, Danes and Swedes also traded with Canton, the volume of British trade by 1763 was more than double that of all the others together. It was the British who, having the largest stake in the trade, were the most critical of the Chinese restrictions.

In 1793 Lord Macartney was sent as Ambassador to Peking in an attempt either to improve trading conditions at Canton and Macau, or else to acquire from the Chinese Government some small island or minor port where Europeans would be able to reside permanently, trade with whatever Chinese merchants wished to deal with them, and be subject to their own laws while residing at the port.

These requests were unconditionally refused. A second embassy, sent in 1816, was even more of a failure, the Ambassador, Lord Amherst, being ordered to leave Peking without being presented to the Emperor.

Hitherto British merchants operating privately in the China trade had been under restraints imposed on them by the East India Company, which, from Calcutta, licensed private British shipping on the China route and, at Canton, saw to it that all British subjects obeyed the Chinese regulations. In 1813, however, the Company's monopoly of trade with India was abolished. Although the Company still in theory licensed traders to China, this lessening of its power made it easier for unauthorized private traders to find a foothold at Canton and Macau. The number of British traders increased, with little or no restraint on their activities. Finally, in 1833 the Company's China monopoly was abolished.

To replace the Company, the British Government in 1834 appointed Lord Napier as Chief Superintendent of British Trade in China. His instructions were to negotiate with the Viceroy at Canton to obtain permission for Europeans to reside there permanently and to remove restrictions on trade. Napier having entered Canton without the required permit

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from the Chinese authorities, the Viceroy refused to have. anything to do with him. After a few weeks of impasse, during which Napier became seriously ill, he made an ignominious retreat to Macau, under Chinese escort, and died there ten days later.

Meanwhile, informed Chinese opinion was becoming seriously concerned about the activities of British and American traders, in particular about their trade in opium, the popularity of which as a narcotic was rising rapidly in China. In response to a number of petitions from senior members of the Chinese civil service, the Emperor Tao Kuang in 1838 appointed Lin Tse-hsü as Imperial High Commissioner, with orders to stamp out the opium trade.

Having surrounded the European buildings at Canton with troops and armed junks, and cut off supplies of food and water, Lin demanded the surrender, for destruction, of all the opium in the European warehouses, after which every trader must sign a bond promising on pain of death never to bring any more to China. Americans and others surrender- ed their opium and signed the bonds.

By this time Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., was the Superintendent of British Trade. In response to Lin's demand, Elliot ordered his countrymen to surrender their opium, and received their grudging obedience; but he refused to allow anyone to sign a bond. He finally won his point with Lin, and at the end of a siege lasting more than six weeks the British were allowed to leave in peace for Macau.

Interest in the China trade had been steadily growing in Great Britain, and news of the siege at Canton, when it eventually reached London, aroused public opinion to demand that the Government take measures to safeguard British lives and property in China. Relations between Elliot and Lin deteriorated, the Commissioner reiterating his demand for the signature of bonds. At Macau the Portuguese Governor warned Elliot that he could not be responsible for the safety of any British family remaining there. Facing the ships in Hong Kong harbour, where most of the British had taken refuge, the Chinese were building fortifications on Kowloon peninsula. Finally, in November 1839, hostilities broke out.

The arrival, in June 1840, of a powerful British ex- peditionary force, without engaging in any operations of

HISTORY

2II

military significance, re-opened the door to discussion. Elliot, as plenipotentiary, demanded, according to his instructions, either the cession of an island to the British Crown or a treaty' allowing British traders the rights normally enjoyed by foreigners in civilized countries. To the anger and shame of his own countrymen, Kishen, the Manchu negotiator, offered the island of Hong Kong; and to the ridicule and contempt of his own countrymen, Elliot accepted it. On 20 January 1841 the preliminaries of a Sino-British Treaty were announced, and, without more ado, on the 26th, the island was formally occupied, without any resistance on the part of the few Chinese inhabitants, who were in any case by now familiar with British ships anchoring in their waters.

THE ISLAND COLONY, 1841-60

The acquisition by the Crown of a barren island rock was ridiculed, not only by British merchants in China, but also in London. Elliot was dismissed for his ineptitude in dealing with the Chinese, and was replaced by Sir Henry Pottinger, who reached the coast in August 1841.

In the face of public hostility, particularly in Canton, to Kishen's proposal to cede Hong Kong to the British, the Emperor declined further negotiation, and war was resumed. But Pottinger had not been on the China coast for more than a few months before he realized that, whatever the London view might be, Elliot's decision to accept the cession of Hong Kong was a wise one. And when, in August 1842, British troops were on the point of assaulting Nanking, and the Emperor at last sued for peace, Pottinger made it an article of the treaty, that was promptly concluded, that Hong Kong should be ceded to the British Crown "to be governed by such laws as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain etc. may see fit to direct".

Like Singapore before it, Hong Kong from the start was declared a free port; and its subsequent growth and greatness as a commercial city have been due to this fundamental policy, which welcomes anyone who comes in peace, obeys the laws, and pays a few very moderate taxes.

The history of Hong Kong is in some ways no more than a chronicle of rising and falling trends of trade and population, fluctuating due chiefly to events taking place

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outside Hong Kong itself, particularly in China. Internally, the history is one of gradual material and social improvement, the expansion of the city by cutting into rock and by reclamation of land from the sea, the building of more reservoirs to provide for a mainly expanding population, and the provision of schools, hospitals and other forms of public

service.

Hong Kong's first years as a Colony were almost chaotic. In 1841 alone, the new Chinese market quarter was burnt down twice, and nearly every roof on the island came off twice in typhoons. A mysterious disease, known as the Hong Kong fever, now believed to be malaria, decimated the population; and in 1843 the health situation was so bad that the Governor and everyone who could afford to do so took temporary refuge in Macau.

Confidence did not begin to grow until 1844, from which year the real development of the Colony as we know it to-day began. At the first census the population of the island did not exceed 3,650 villagers and fishermen, living in some 20 villages and hamlets, with about 2,000 fishermen living afloat. Chinese labourers, encouraged by prospects of work, began to come to the Colony, and by April 1844 the population reached 19,000.

From 1845 the first monthly mail service between Hong Kong and Europe was started. The increased security obtained for traders of all nationalities by the Treaty of Nanking, and, in particular, the comparative ease of acquiring land for offices, warehouses and homes in Hong Kong and the treaty ports, attracted to the Far East a greater number of European traders than ever before, leading to a tremendous increase in commerce. This expansion was felt principally in Shanghai, which was commercially better situated than Hong Kong. Compared with Shanghai's astonishing development as a western city, Hong Kong's early growth was unspectacular.

Shortly after its foundation, a great wave of emigration of Chinese labourers took place, mainly to the Straits Settlements, Thailand and Java, the bulk of the emigrants travelling in European and American ships. Hong Kong was the chief port of emigration. Later, when news went round of the opening up of goldfields in California, there was a rush. of Chinese to "Kam Shan" (the Golden Mountains), which

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has ever since remained the vernacular name of San Francisco. When gold was discovered in Australia, not long afterwards, thousands more rushed to "Sun Kam Shan" (New Golden Mountains), which has become the vernacular name for Sydney. In the year 1852 alone, over 30,000 Chinese emigrants passed through Hong Kong. The problems of housing such vast numbers, and preventing abuses arising in connexion with migration, presented severe problems to the government of the day.

In 1850 the series of revolts known generally as the Taiping Rebellion broke out in Kwangsi Province, and gradually spread throughout Southern China. This was the first instance where unsettled conditions on the mainland have brought to Hong Kong thousands of Chinese refugees of every social class and occupation. By 1855, the population was estimated at 72,000, and by 1861, with the Taipings still not defeated, it had risen to 120,000. The constantly recurring situation in which the Colony, almost without warning, has had to provide accommodation, food, water and other facilities for thousands of new arrivals-people with no local attach- ments and whose period of stay may be no more than a few years, perhaps even months-has presented successive governors of Hong Kong with problems that are unique and of exceptional difficulty. The word "squatter" can be found in Government correspondence from the first year of the Colony's existence.

EXTENSIONS TO THE COLONY, 1860-99

By the Convention of Peking, 1860, which concluded the Second Anglo-Chinese War, Kowloon peninsula up to present-day Boundary Street was ceded to the Crown and became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters' Island.

Permanent quarters were established in Kowloon for part of the garrison. This development was followed by the construction of new docks, more extensive than could be attempted on the Victoria waterfront, and which were the beginning of Kowloon's development as the Colony's second city. The pioneers in residential development in Kowloon were the Portuguese, from about 1870 onwards.

By the Convention of Peking, 1898, at the conclusion of the third period of hostilities between China and the Western

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Powers, the Colony was again extended, acquiring under a 99-year lease a substantial stretch of mainland north of Kowloon, and a group of islands in the immediate vicinity of Hong Kong. The leased area became known as the New Territories.

The initial British occupation, which took place in 1899, met with some ill-organized armed opposition in the Taipo and Yuen Long areas, but the confidence of the people was quickly established. Sir Henry Blake (Governor 1898-1904) personally identified himself with every aspect of the life of the Colony's new rural population, obtaining improved seed and types of livestock for them; and the relations between Government and the people of the New Territories have ever since been distinguished by the closest confidence and goodwill. Malaria was widespread, and plague of frequent occurrence. Extensive health measures were introduced to combat these diseases, the success of the measures being reflected in a subsequent steady rise in population.

In the first decade of this century rail connexion between Kowloon and Canton was established, involving the con- struction of a long tunnel under the Kowloon hills, and providing Taipo and other New Territories villages with easy access to Hong Kong. A circular road was constructed linking the chief population areas in the mainland part of the New Territories. Since 1949 the district road system has been considerably improved.

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INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE COLONY

Until Chinese in large numbers started taking western education, there was little Chinese participation in govern- ment, western firms or banks, or in any western institutions. European and Chinese commerce pursued their own courses, largely independent of each other, occasionally linked by the precarious medium of pidgin English.

The special needs of the Chinese population received early consideration. In 1845, a Board of Education was established, and the Registrar-General was made responsible to the Colonial Secretary for all questions relating to the Chinese. Throughout the century this aspect of his duties grew in importance, until in 1913 a separate department had to be created-the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs.

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Missionary schools, Catholic and Protestant, were the earliest educational foundations, soon followed by Govern- ment schools. Most of them were conducted, as far as was practicable, on western lines. As soon as Chinese students started graduating from these schools, their rise to influence, in what had hitherto been a European-dominated community, was assured.

Western education led to the adoption of a considerable amount of western business method. The scale of Chinese business enlarged, until by the end of the century there were Chinese shipping lines, banks, insurance companies, de- partment stores, theatres, wharves, warehouses and factories. As the trend continued, Chinese citizens were drawn more and more into consultation with the Government on a wide range of matters. There have been Chinese members of the Legislative Council since 1884, and of the Executive Council since 1926.

A demand for higher education naturally developed, and in 1887, the Hong Kong College of Medicine was founded, the prime movers in this enterprise being Dr. Patrick Manson and Dr. James Cantlie. One of the first students to graduate from the College, in 1892, was Sun Yat-sen, later to become the founder of the Chinese Republic.

In 1908 the College expanded into the University of Hong Kong. This development was made possible by the munificence of a Parsi citizen, Sir Hormusjee Mody, who presented the entire cost of the new University's main buildings. With Government support, and the aid of sub- sequent benefactors, the University steadily developed traditions suited to its unique position as an English-speaking University in surroundings overwhelmingly Chinese. Its academic standards were high, particularly in medicine, and it quickly attracted students of many nationalities, from South and South-East Asia as well as from Hong Kong.

The area available on Hong Kong Island for urban building was originally no more than a narrow strip of comparatively level ground along the foreshore. The original waterfront of Victoria ran, with a moderate foreshore, approximately along the line of Queen's Road. Hillside construction began in Stanley Street and Wellington Street,

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URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

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once a fashionable neighbourhood. As the nineteenth century proceeded, the tiers of houses rose gradually up the sides of the rock, fashion rising as well.

Reclamation of land from the sea began in the Colony's earliest days. By 1851 the waterfront had reached what is today Des Voeux Road Central, and was thereafter extended, in the face of much opposition from the principal commercial houses with foreshore sites, till it reached Connaught Road Central in 1904. This expansion, however, failed to keep pace with the increasing population. By 1870 the central part of Victoria, chiefly occupied by Chinese, was seriously over- crowded and insanitary. This was one of the factors that led the European community to climb even higher and develop the summits of the Peak as a residential area, a movement hastened from 1888 onwards, when Peak and city were linked by funicular railway.

A sanitary commissioner, Oswald Chadwick, was finally appointed in 1882 to advise the Government; and, as a result of his report, a Sanitary Board was set up. Its measures to improve the noisome state of the city were, however, at first ineffective. The administration was labouring on one side with financial difficulties, and on the other with the negative attitude adopted by the leaders of the Chinese community, and by the deep-seated distrust shown by members of the public in any measures which might be taken as interfering with their homes and ways of living. Almost every year at the end of the century there were outbreaks of plague, which, thanks to a Japanese research worker in Hong Kong, were finally identified as being carried by rats. After this discovery, against considerable public opposition, regular house- cleansing was carried out by sanitary squads, and measures were effectively taken to restrict the spread of plague. Out- breaks, however, continued on a diminishing scale until about 1927, when, for reasons unknown, occurrences of this parti- cular disease lessened significantly in all parts of the world.

The Sanitary Board continued in existence until 1936, when its functions were broadened and entrusted to an Urban Council, with official, appointed and elected members. In 1953 the number of elected members was increased from two to four, and the franchise was widened.

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217

Reclamation meanwhile continued steadily. Between 1921-9 ninety acres were reclaimed north of Johnston Road, allowing for a large planned extension of the Chinese quarter of Wantsai, now one of the most densely populated urban districts in the world. Since the Second World War there has been extensive reclamation in the central district, Causeway Bay, and at various points on the northern shores of the harbour.

The principle that, in a place with such totally inadequate natural water supply as Hong Kong, it was a Government responsibility to provide reservoirs was first laid down by Sir Hercules Robinson (Governor 1859-65). What followed may be described as a century-long race between water capacity and population. The Pokfulam Reservoir was no sooner completed (1863) than it had to be extended, and the same occurred after the completion of Tytam Reservoir, in 1883. Extensions continued in these two areas, the largest work, Tytam Tuk Dam, being completed in 1917.

The lease of the New Territories provided a much needed opportunity to increase the water supply of Kowloon, which had hitherto been dependent on two wells situated near Yaumati. A new reservoir system high up in the Kowloon hills was started in 1902 and completed in 1910, extensions. to it being made between 1922-5.

From 1930 water was conveyed to Hong Kong from the slopes of Taimoshan, the highest mountain in the New Territories, but even with this, supplies remained inadequate, and in 1935-6 the same area was further developed by the construction of the Jubilee Reservoir, the largest yet built in the Colony. At the present time another reservoir, still larger, is being constructed at Tai Lam Chung, and investigations. are being carried out for the building of yet another after this is completed.

The Colony's earliest hospitals were run by missionary bodies. The first Government hospital was the Civil Hospital, founded in 1859. Part of its large old-fashioned buildings still stand, and on the remainder of the original site today stands the spacious and modern Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, opened in 1955. The Kowloon Hospital was opened in 1925 and the Queen Mary Hospital, one of the largest and most up-to-date in Asia, in 1937. The provision of adequate medical

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facilities at times of refugee influx has been one of Hong Kong's major problems, only surpassed by the problem of

water.

The need to safeguard fishing junks and other small craft from destruction by typhoons was met by the construction of large typhoon shelters on both sides of the harbour. One of the main functions of the Royal Observatory, founded in Kowloon in 1883, was to give reliable forecasts of the approach of typhoons, a function which increased in im- portance with the development of air transport, which in Hong Kong may be said to date from the laying-out of Kai Tak Airport in 1932.

THE CHINESE REVOLUTION AND WORLD WAR

In 1912 the Manchu dynasty fell, and was replaced by a Republic, guided by Sun Yat-sen, whose political thinking had been deeply influenced by his contacts with British institutions and ways of thought while a student in Hong Kong. During the events leading to the overthrow of the dynasty, many refugees sought sanctuary in Hong Kong, using the Colony's Chinese newspapers as a vehicle for conveying their ideas into China.

Following the establishment of the Republic came a long period of unrest in China. Once again large numbers of refugees, mainly from the southern provinces, made their way to the Colony. Their arrival coinciding with a commercial boom which occurred during the First World War, many of them made their permanent home in Hong Kong, and identified themselves with local affairs. Among the refugees were a number of Buddhists who, from this time onwards, began to develop the lonely upper hills of Lantao Island with their monastic retreats.

The anti-foreign movement which marked the rise of the Kuomintang to power in China in 1922 was reflected in Hong Kong by marked social unrest. A seamens' strike occurred in that year, and in 1925-6 there was a serious general strike, plainly engineered from Canton. Sir Cecil Clementi (Governor 1925-30), by negotiation with the Canton authorities, not only settled the dispute, but laid the foundations of a good neighbour policy with Canton, which from then on brought considerable benefit on both sides of the frontier. At the same

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time, the leaders of all communities resident in Hong Kong became increasingly aware of their social responsibilities towards less privileged sections of the population. From this awareness developed the strong interest in social welfare which has become one of the most marked features of the Colony's life.

Japanese plans for political aggrandizement in the Far East became apparent when Japan presented her Twenty-One Demands to China in 1917. These were followed by intense economic expansion. In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 began a general invasion of China. As the Japanese armies pressed southwards towards Canton, which was taken in 1938, Hong Kong experienced the greatest influx of refugees it had yet seen. It is estimated that about 100,000 entered in 1937, 500,000 in 1938, and 150,000 in 1939, bringing the total population to about 1,600,000. At the height of the influx there were thought to be over half-a-million people sleeping in the streets.

In the earliest days of the Sino-Japanese War it was possible for valuable supplies to reach China through the Colony, but, after the fall of Canton, movement of such supplies was severely restricted. When war broke out in Europe, in September 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on 8 December 1941, the same day as the attack on Pearl Harbour, powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, invaded the Colony from the mainland. The first attempt to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of 15-16 December, but a second attempt, on the 18-19 night, could not be held. After several days of severe fighting, in which many thousands of Commonwealth troops lost their lives, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

All members of the fighting services, which included the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps, were interned as prisoners-of-war, many being subsequently sent to Japan to work in mines and docks. The majority of British-born civilians were interned in a civilian camp at Stanley. Those who remained free experienced throughout the Japanese occupation a steady deterioration of conditions. Trade was at a standstill, currency steadily losing value, and in neighbour- ing Kwangtung a food shortage culminated in 1944-5 in

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famine conditions. Large numbers of civilians moved over to Macau, the Portuguese Colony hospitably opening its doors to them. Toward the latter part of the occupation the Japanese, unable to obtain food for the existing population, organized mass deportations from Hong Kong.

In the face of increasing oppression, the fundamental. loyalty of the population to the Allied cause was not in doubt. Parts of the New Territories remained in the hands of Chinese guerrillas throughout the war, in spite of vigorous punitive measures taken against them. Allied personnel escaping or evading capture were assured of assistance from the rural population.

As soon as news of the Japanese surrender was received, a provisional government was established under the Colonial Secretary, (Sir) Franklin Gimson, assisted by civil servants released from prison camps and by leading citizens of all races, maintaining the essential form of Government until 30 August 1945, when powerful units of the British Pacific Fleet reached the Colony.

SINCE THE WAR

A brief period of military administration was followed by the formal re-establishment of civil government in May 1946. From the moment of liberation, Hong Kong made an astonishing recovery. In August 1945 it was estimated that the population had been reduced to about 600,000. Eighteen months later, at least 1,000,000 people had returned, and the population was still rising. At the close of 1947, so far as it is possible to estimate, Hong Kong held about 1,800,000 people, with once again an acute housing problem and water shortage.

As, during 1948-9, the forces of the National Government of China began to retreat and disintegrate, a refugee influx surpassing all others took place, the refugees being in many cases well-to-do merchants and their families from Shanghai and other commercial centres. The highest point was reached in April 1950, when it was estimated that the Colony held about 2,360,000.

The Central People's Government was installed on I October 1949, and during the latter part of 1950, with the promise of more settled conditions in China, and with the departure of many of the wealthier refugees to Taiwan, South

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America and other distant places of refuge, the Colony's population fell for the first time since the war, until by the end of 1950 it was thought to be around 2,060,000. Since then, however, due partly to the arrival of more refugees from China, but principally to a high rate of natural increase, there has been another steady rise, bringing the population to the estimated figure of 2,340,000 in mid-1955.

Intense and unprecedented development has accompanied these increases of population. Throughout the urban area and the New Territories there has been tremendous building activity. In Kowloon, and at Tsun Wan in the New Territories, industrialists have opened large factories, pro- ducing textiles, enamelware, rubber goods, vacuum flasks, torches, etc.

As a result of the outbreak of war in Korea in June 1950, controls were progressively introduced over the export of strategic materials, beginning with petroleum and its derivatives in July of that year. As far as North Korea itself was concerned, a complete embargo on trade of any kind with that country was introduced on 8 July. In December, the United States Government placed an embargo on goods destined for Hong Kong. This seriously affected supplies of raw materials essential for much of local industry, and led, for a time, to a serious disruption of the Colony's manu- factures, with the threat of widespread unemployment. Fortunately, this embargo was modified by the introduction of a system of controls, which ensured supplies of these materials for legitimate use in the Colony.

In June 1951, as a result of the United Nations Resolution of 18 May 1951, a complete embargo on the export of strategic materials to China was imposed by the Hong Kong Government. This was a crippling blow to local commerce and the volume of trade in that year fell by over one million tons compared with the figure for the preceding year. During 1952, the United States Government introduced controls over imports of Chinese-type merchandise from Hong Kong, and even now commodities of this kind are admitted into the United States only under strict procedures designed to ensure that they are of non-Communist origin. The entrepôt trade, once the Colony's mainstay, has continued up to the present on a greatly reduced scale. The Colony has, in fact, been saved from economic disaster largely by its exertions in the field of industry.

Chapter 25: Administration

Constitution

The principal features of the constitution are prescribed. in Letters Patent, which provide for a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. Royal Instructions to the Governor, supplemented by further Instructions from the Sovereign conveyed by the Secretary of State for the Colonies, prescribe the membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils.

The Executive Council consists of five ex-officio and seven nominated members. The ex-officio members are the Commander, British Forces; the Colonial Secretary; the Attorney-General; the Secretary for Chinese Affairs; and the Financial Secretary. Up to June 1955 there was one nominated official member. The six unofficials include three Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The main function of the Executive Council is to advise the Governor, who must consult its members on all important matters. The responsibility for deciding questions which come before the Council, and for taking action, rests with the Governor, who is required to report his reasons fully to the Secretary of State if he acts in opposition to the advice given by members. The Governor-in-Executive Council is also given power, under numerous ordinances, to make subsidiary legislation by way of rules, regulations and orders. A further function of the Council is to consider appeals and petitions under certain ordinances.

The same five ex-officio members of the Executive Council serve also on the Legislative Council, of which the Governor is the President. In addition, there are four other official members, at present the Directors of the Public Works, Urban Services, Medical and Education Departments, and eight unofficial members nominated by the Governor. These include four Chinese members and one Portuguese member.

The laws of the Colony are enacted by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, which controls finance and expenditure through its Standing Finance

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Committee, on which all the unofficial members sit. Procedure is based on that of the House of Commons.

The membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils is given in Appendix XV.

Judiciary

The Common Law and Statutes of England as they existed in that country on 5 April 1843, except where in- applicable to local circumstances, form the basis of the legal system of Hong Kong. They have been extended and modified by the application to the Colony of certain subsequent enactments and by Hong Kong Ordinances, of which a new edition, revised in 1950, was published in 1951. The courts of the Colony are described in the chapter on Law and Order.

Administration

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary, the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty Departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service.

The Colonial Secretariat, under the general adminis- trative control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, coordinates. the work of Departments, and takes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions. The Secretariat consists of four divisions, dealing with general administration, finance, defence, and government personnel. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy; the Defence Secretary advises on defence, coordinates the work of the Local Forces described in Chapter 17, and acts as the main channel of communication between Government and the Armed Forces. The Secretariat includes a Political Adviser, seconded from the Foreign Office.

The Government's principal legal adviser is the Attorney- General, head of the Legal Department, who is responsible for drafting legislation, and for instituting and conducting public prosecutions. Members of the Department include the Solicitor-General and several Crown Counsel.

The Departments of Police and Prisons, each under a Commissioner, are described in the chapter on Law and Order.

224

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Under the Financial Secretary, the purely accounting operations of the Government are managed and supervised by the Accountant-General, who is in charge of the Treasury. All public accounts, whether of general revenue and expenditure, or of special funds or departmental accounts, are subject to audit and inspection by the Audit Department, under a Director. The Rating and Valuation Department assesses rates, and the Inland Revenue Department assesses estate duty and various direct taxes levied under the Inland Revenue Ordinance. Each Department is headed by a Commissioner. The Department of Commerce and Industry, under a Director, deals with trade promotion, the collection of import and excise duties, preventive work, and production of statistics for all Departments. (See Chapter 4, Public Finance and Taxation.)

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the Governor's principal adviser on all matters connected with the Chinese population. His Department, the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, provides facilities for the settlement of disputes and family cases, administers Chinese temples, maintains a District Watch Force, registers all newspapers and publica- tions, runs two tenancy enquiry bureaux, advises on deportations, performs important functions connected with the protection of women and children, and coordinates all welfare work. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is president of the board of direction of the Po Leung Kuk, chairman of the Tung Wah Hospital Advisory Board, and supervises the administration of large public charities. He is chairman of committees dealing with Chinese permanent cemeteries, recreation grounds, and many other matters concerning Chinese life. He is also the statutory ward of all adopted daughters in the Colony. The Social Welfare Office, a Department closely associated with the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, is described in the Social Welfare Chapter.

The Department of Medical and Health Services, and the Department of Urban Services are described in the chapter on Public Health, the Department of Education in the Education Chapter.

The Labour Department, under a Commissioner who is concurrently Commissioner of Mines, is described in the chapter on Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization.

ADMINISTRATION

225

The Public Works Department, under a Director, consists of eight sub-departments, dealing with waterworks, Crown lands and surveys, the administration of the Buildings Ordinance, electrical and mechanical

mechanical works (including government motor transport), architecture (government build- ings), port works, drainage, and roads. The Director of Public Works is also responsible for town planning. (See the Chapters on Housing, and Public Utilities and Public Works).

The Urban Council, constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of a Chairman (who is at the same time Director of the Urban Services Department), a Vice-Chairman (who is the Assistant Director of Health Services in the Medical Department), the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Social Welfare Officer, the Commissioner for Resettlement, and ten non-official members, of whom four are elected and six (of whom three are Chinese) are appointed by the Governor.* The term of office of un- official members is two years. The Council meets monthly to transact official business, but the main work of the Council is dealt with by 36 select committees which meet at frequent. intervals. The Council is responsible throughout Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon for public health, sanita- tion, cemeteries, bathing beaches, food factories and shops, restaurants and cafés, hawkers, laundries, public playgrounds, parks, markets and other amenities.

Resettlement of squatters is dealt with by the Com- missioner for Resettlement, head of a recently-formed Department of Resettlement, and by a select committee of the Urban Council. All members of the Council, together with not more than three additional members nominated by the Governor, comprise the Housing Authority. (See also under Public Health and Housing.)

Reference to the Registrar-General's Department will be found in the chapter on Law and Order, and to the Marine, Railway and Civil Aviation Departments, the Post Office and the Royal Observatory under Communications. The Public Relations Office and the Broadcasting Department are described under Press, Broadcasting and Films. The chapter on Production describes the work of the Department of

* These figures are correct for the year 1955. Unofficial membership

is being increased in 1956.

226

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT

Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and the Cooperative and Marketing Department.

Other Departments include the Fire Brigade, under its Chief Officer, providing efficient fire protection throughout the urban zones and in the larger New Territories towns, and equipped with land and sea transport. The Stores Department, under a Controller, buys and distributes government stores and administers the Government's monopoly of sand. The Printing Department is responsible for all government publications, most of which are produced entirely in the Department itself. The Quartering Authority deals with accommodation for Civil Servants and for Government Departments.

New Territories Administration

:

The New Territories are divided into three administrative districts Yuen Long in the north-west, Taipo in the north- east, and the Southern District, which besides the southern and S.E. part of the mainland includes Lantao, Cheung Chau, Lamma, and the other islands around Hong Kong. The District Commissioner, with an office in Kowloon and official residence near Taipo, coordinates the administration of the New Territories, each district being under a District Officer. There is now a Resident Magistrate for the New Territories. District Officers hold land and small debt courts, and arbitrate in all kinds of disputes, including family and matrimonial cases; they control Crown land and buildings, register docu- ments and deeds relating to private land, assess and collect stamp duty, and administer a vote for small public works undertaken by villagers to improve irrigation, water supplies and communications. Close cooperation is maintained between the Administration and all other Departments with interests. in the New Territories.

District Officers have the assistance of Rural Committees, elected by and from village representatives, and exercising various functions by delegation. Although these committees have no statutory existence or powers, they have already proved their usefulness as mouthpieces of public opinion, in the arbitration of clan and family disputes, and generally as a bridge between the Administration and the people. The New Territories is covered by a network of 28 Rural Committees.

in

ADMINISTRATION

Public Services Commission

227

The Public Services Commission, appointed under Ordinance in 1950, with a view to improving the standard of efficiency of officers in public service and ensuring that the claims of local candidates for appointment receive full con- sideration, advises the Governor on appointments and promotions to the great majority of vacancies in the pensionable government establishment.

The highest ranks of the public service are open to local men with suitable qualifications. At present locally-born men, most of them Chinese, hold positions in the Colonial Administrative Service, as Magistrates, Crown Counsel, and in many responsible technical posts.

HONG KONG

VG KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

Chapter 26: Weights and Measures

The weights and measures used in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom, and the following Chinese weights and measures, given with their equivalents in avoirdupois :

1 fan (candareen)

1 ts'in (mace)

I leung (tael)

.0133 ounces

.133 ounces

1.33

ounces

1 kan (catty=16 taels)

1.33

pounds

I tăm (picul = 100 catties)

133.33

pounds

1.19 cwts.

0.0595 tons

ch'ek (foot)

HONG

Statutory equivalent 145 inches. The ch'ek is divided into 10 ts'un

(inches), and each ts'un into ten fan, or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length

BR

a ch'ek varies, according to the trade in which it is used, from 14 inches to 11 inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

D

ມ່

2

Chapter 27: Reading List

For an extensive bibliography on Hong Kong the reader is directed to the 1954 edition of the Hong Kong Annual Report.

Although there is a considerable amount of published material dealing with Hong Kong, not much of it is obtain- able other than in research libraries. The following are the more recent publications likely to be available to the general reader :

CARRINGTON, C. E.: The British Overseas, Cambridge,

1950.

COLLINS, Sir Charles: Public Administration in Hong Kong, Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, 1952. DAVIS, S. G.: Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting,

Collins, London, 1949.

GREENBERG, Michael: British Trade and the Opening of

China, 1800-1842, Cambridge, 1951.

INGRAMS, Harold: Hong Kong, Corona Library, H. M.

Stationery Office, London, 1952.

MILLS, Lennox A.: British Rule in Eastern Asia, Oxford,

1942.

SAYER, G. R.: Hong Kong, Birth, Adolescence and Coming

of Age, Oxford, 1937.

URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

香港公共圖書館

RIES

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Official Publications

The Government Printer issues quarterly catalogues of all available official publications. These may be obtained from the Government Printing Department, Java Road, North Point, Hong Kong, or from the Government Publications. Bureau, General Post Office, Hong Kong.

The following are the more important official publications issued during 1955:

Hong Kong Annual Report 1954.

Cross Harbour Tunnel between Hong Kong and Kowloon (Report by Messrs. Mott, Hay and Anderson, Consulting Civil Engineers).

Report on Agriculture in Hong Kong with Policy Recommendations, by W. J. Blackie, M.Sc. (N.Z.), Director of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry. Commerce Industry Finance 1955.

(the Official Guide and Directory on Commerce, Industry and Finance in the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, published by the Department of Commerce and Industry).

Meteorological Results 1953.

Report of the Liquor Licensing Committee Revised Scheme for Salaries and Allowances (1955). Annual Departmental Reports 1954-5.

Estimates 1955-6.

Memorandum on Estimates 1955-6.

Civil Service List 1955.

Law Reports.

Hansard.

Ordinances of Hong Kong, including Proclamations,

Regulations, Orders-in-Council, etc.

Issued Weekly.

Hong Kong Government Gazette.

Issued Monthly.

Trade Statistics, Imports and Exports.

Issued Monthly (by Dept. of Commerce and Industry)

Trade Bulletin.

香港公共圖書

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

公共圖 茶 Appendices

香港

NG KONG PUBI IC LIBRAR

HONG KON

香港公共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

1

235

Appendix I

Colonial Office Statement on the Loss of the Air-India aircraft "Kashmir Princess"

issued on 11 January 1956.

Consequent upon the loss of the Air-India aircraft Kashmir Princess on April 11, 1955 on a flight between Hong Kong and Djakarta, and upon allegations that the crash had been the direct result of an act of sabotage, intensive enquiries were instituted by the Hong Kong Government.

These included the interrogation and enquiry into the antecedents of 71 persons connected in one way or another with the servicing of the aircraft during its stay of just over one hour in Hong Kong.

By mid-May the investigations carried out by the Indonesian Committee of Enquiry, including examination of the wreckage of the aircraft, had led to a strong suspicion that the crash was due to an explosion caused by the detonation of an explosive device lodged inside the starboard wing at the rear outboard corner of the wheelbay. This was confirmed in the Indonesian Government's statement issued on May 27.

Among the 27 persons whose duties took them in the vicinity of the starboard wing of the aircraft and whose activities were consequently under inquiry was Chow Tse Ming, alias Chou Chu, an employee of the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Corporation. Direct suspicion did not fall on him until May 18. Enquiries at his address on that day failed to find him and information was subsequently obtained that some hours before these enquiries were made he had stowed away on a Civil Air Transport aircraft and had arrived in Taipei, Formosa, on the same day.

In the course of the subsequent Police investigation of persons who had been associated with Chow Tse Ming before his departure for Formosa, evidence came to light to suggest that he had been procured by persons connected with a Kuomintang Intelligence Organization and had been offered a reward. There was also evidence that on four separate

236

occasions subsequent to the crash he had admitted his complicity. The accounts of what he is alleged to have said on each occasion varied slightly in detail, but in general they strongly corroborated each other and contained state- ments that he admitted that :

(a) he had sabotaged the aircraft,

(b) he had been promised a reward of HK$600,000,

(c) he had used a small time-bomb which made a slight

ticking noise,

(d) he intended to stow away to Formosa. In addition there was evidence that shortly before the crash and subsequently until he went to Formosa, Chow Tse Ming spent some hundreds of dollars, a sum well beyond his normal means.

As soon

as the warrant was issued the Nationalist Authorities in Formosa were requested to return the man for trial. After repeated reminders they informed Her Majesty's Consul at Tamsui on December 14 that the competent authorities were unable to deal with the matter since the request was not based on legal grounds.

In asking the Nationalist Authorities to hand over Chow Tse Ming for trial, Her Majesty's Government could not, in the absence of an extradition treaty, base their request on legal grounds. They pointed out to the Nationalist Authorities, however, that it was in their own interests that this outrageous crime should be cleared up.

They assured the Nationalist Authorities that Chow Tse Ming would be certain of being justly tried in strict accordance with the laws of Hong Kong and that he would be given every opportunity of presenting his defence.

Despite intensive and continuing investigation, it has not yet proved possible to bring charges against any other persons who may have participated in the crime.

237

Appendix II

(Chapter 1: Review of the Year)

Colonial Development and Welfare

Details of locally-administered Grants and Loans made by the United Kingdom Government towards schemes in progress during

1955.

Schemes No.

Title of Scheme

Grant Loan

Estimated expenditure

up to 31.12.55.

Research

R. 480A

Fisheries Research

£

CR

£

£

Unit,

Hong Kong University: Capital expenditure

...

Recurrent expenditure

33,975 11,000

Development

D. 1435

D. 1661A

Mechanization of fishing fleet (Original grant of £20,000 reduced in August, 1955) Survey party in connexion with the construction of piers in the Territories

...

New

10,550

(Incorporated into D. 2539 in August, 1955)

9,700

TV

32,951 3,255

2,906

D. 1952A

5,500

к 11,607

Irrigation in the New Terri-

tories

(Incorporated into D. 2539 in August, 1955)

D. 1967 Loans to fishermen

D. 2061

D. 2341

mechanization

for

(Interest free. Repayment of capital by annual instal- ments of £5,000 to start in 1958)

Site development for low- cost housing, Hung Hom ... (Grant of £125,000 reduced in August, 1955)

Site development for low- housing, Healthy

38,750

50,000 31,548

1C L

62,500

37,840

cost

Village

25,000

5,914

D. 2487

Construction of Pathology

Building, Hong Kong

University

80,781

12,650

(Approved in June, 1955.

Administered by Univer-

sity)

D. 2539

Development schemes in New

Territories

(Approved in August, 1955)

....

263,500

59,128

£535,756 50,000 203,299

238

LIABILITIES:

Appendix

(Chapter 4: Public

Statement of Assets and

DEPOSITS:-

Colonial Development & Welfare Schemes

Contribution towards reinforcing Garrison

Control of Publications

.........

$

534,279.04

8,000,000.00

¢

620,000.00

Custodian of Property-Abandoned Property

11,320,866.07

Custodian of Property-Interest on Trust

Account

Trust Bank

1,131,914.08

Custodian of Property-Surplus Fund

2,034,169.69

Government Servants

Hong Kong Development Fund

Miscellaneous

401,579.31

1,339,409.32

10,342,896.46

Motor Vehicles Insurance Third Party

200,000.00

Other Administrations

216,702.79

Public Works Department Private Works Account

1,423,365.09

Settlement with H.M.G.

15,975,495.68

Water Deposits

4,824,716.62

58,365,394.15

SUSPENSE:-Kowloon-Canton Railway

31,261.62

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Education Scholarships Fund

Trading Reserve Fund

....

DEVELOPMENT FUND

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:

Balance at 1 April 1954

Add surplus from 1 April 1954 to 31 March 1955

Deduct depreciation on investments

Notes:-(a)

(b)

TOTAL:

$242,436,593.80

61,108,712.23

$303,545,306.03

98,628.60

19,015,430.73

99,436,285.42

137,514,760.94

9,753,544.16 293,791,761.87

$608,253,523.33

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal Amounts due from Colonial Development and Scheme R. 480A-Fisheries Research Unit, D. 2073-Construction of pier at

III

Finance and Taxation)

Liabilities at 31 March 1955.

CASH:

ASSETS:

$

$29,786,687.42

212,956.30

29,999,643.72

At Bank (Treasury)

(P.M.G.)

In hand (Treasury and Sub-

Accountants)

(Railway)

(G.P.O.)

Sub-Total:

With Crown Agents (£981.12.10.)

Joint Colonial Fund (£2,429,000. 0.

FIXED DEPOSIT

SUSPENSE:-Kowloon-Canton Railway

ADVANCES:-

Other Administrations

Personal

....

Miscellaneous

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Investments:-

Education Scholarships Fund-

Fixed Deposit

Hong Kong Government Loan

Sterling Investments (£4,329.7.0.)

Trading Reserve Fund-

722,037.11

17,876.17

9,159.55

749,072.83

30,748,716.55

15,706.27

38,864,000.00

69,628,422.82

000,000.00

00.00

338.52

903,049.84

1,800,027.07

270,804.83

2,973,881.74

6,000.00 13,017.50 69,269.60

RIES

LIBRA

88,287.10

Fixed Deposit

.....

Sterling Investments (£788,481.10.2.)

BI

6,000,000.00 12,615,704.13

18,615,704.13

DEVELOPMENT FUND

99,436,285.42

SURPLUS BALANCES:--

Investments:-

Federation of Malaya 41% Registered Stock

1964/74 (M$5,262,500)

9,823,333.33

Federation of Malaya 4% Stock 1965/75

(M$6,776,250)

...

12,649,000.00

Hong Kong Government 31% Dollar Loan 1940

2,507,700.00

Sterling Investments (£21,720,660.12.10)

347,530,570.27

372,510,603.60

TOTAL:

$608,253,523.33

value of $100 per share in Associated Properties Ltd.

Welfare Fund are as follows:-

Capital Expenditure

Ping Chau

$46,678.72

$ 5.38

239

240

Appendix IV

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Revenue

Actual

Actual

Actual

Revenue

Revenue

Revenue. Estimate

HEAD OF REVENUE

for

for

1952-3

1953-4

for 1954-5

for

1955-6

$

$

·

1

Duties

2 Rates

3 Internal Revenue

4 Licences, Fines and Forfeitures

5 Fees of Court or Office

6

Water Revenue

7

Post Office

8

Kowloon-Canton Railway

9 Revenue from Lands, Rents, etc.

10

Miscellaneous Receipts

74,209,795 74,883,463 78,895,157 74,080,000

33,891,832 37,614,897 39,651,662 44,000,000

161,284,243 160,461,736 167,918,224 158,500,000

18,129,236 17,456,699 14,886,642 13,982,000

26,645,986 28,055,781 37,382,810 28,138,000

8,853,250 7,820,552 8,107,000

8,264,419

15,534,868 19,946,543 22,654,032 22,149,000

6,023,417 5,369,489 4,675,784 4,575,000

18,917,279 22,798,707 25,288,125 25,735,000

15,082,269 14,642,635 20,659,313 15,827,000

11

Land Sales

12 Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

377,983,344 390,083,200 419,832,301 395,093,000

5,446,707 6,058,573 11,919,723 9,005,000

1,160,395

740,193 1,403,080 1,583,000

13

Loans from United

Government

United Kingdom

1,297,217 8,000,000

Total Revenue:

Withdrawal from General

Revenue Balance

Total:

384,590,446 396,881,966 434,452,321 413,681,000

100,000,000

484,590,446 396,881,966 434,452,321 413,681,000

Appendix V

(Chapter 4: Public Finance and Taxation)

Expenditure

241

Actual

Actual

Actual

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

1952-8

Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure

1953-4

1954-5

Approved Estimate 1955-6

$

$

$

$

1 H. E. the Governor's Establishment

302,375

377,421

373,643

364,000

2 Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry Department

2,470,395

2,031,194

2,673,886

3,221,960

3

Audit Department

472,256

557,836

541,780

627,500

4 Broadcasting Department

514,853

657,607

762,380

1,443,200

5

Civil Aviation Department

1,362,335

2,061,116

2,014,476

3,298,800

6

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

2,079,539 2,612,288

2,550,166 2,715,560

7

Commerce and Industry

Department

3,341,395

3,903,831

4,021,303 5,086,440

8 Cooperatives and Marketing

Department

333,589

390,538

428,554

532,600

9 Defence:

A-R.H.K.D.F. Headquarters

and Hong Kong Regiment

1,850,960

1,984,977

2,332,085 2,136,300

B--Hong Kong Royal Naval

Volunteer Reserve

445,382

444,992

692,596 1,007,000

C-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

.....

694,733

614,449

659,475

824,700

D-Essential Services Corps

108,177

152,596

146,511

169,000

E-Auxiliary Fire Service F-Auxiliary Medical Service G-Civil Aid Services

...

153,924

196,940

467,625

614,800

.......

281,232

540,475

747,014

1,039,240

H-Registration of Persons..

298,205

318,095

339,078

435,000

I-Directorate of Manpower J-Miscellaneous Measures

57,082

68,350

29,943,531 27,586,248

24,671,894

21,262,000

10

Education Department

11 Fire Brigade

12 Inland Revenue Department

9,125,906 11,336,113

12,955,710

17,762,890

2,067,934 2,431,115 2,624,586

3,419,500

...

1,805,432 2,350,247

2,376,851

2,719,220

13 Judiciary

..

14

Kowloon-Canton Railway

1,419,125 1,938,811 2,063,912

4,576,096 4,154,838 7,832,025

2,351,130

6,617,900

15

Labour Department

543,019

16 Legal Department

17

Marine Department

18

Medical and Health Department

520,743

9,328,169

21,338,770

19

Miscellaneous Services

......

688,322

669,641

9,512,264 7,967,210

25,105,401 23,704,484

42,776,171 64,941,839 45,069,336

748,429

1,030,500

684,294

846,030

12,165,700

30,278,630

5,867,800

20

New Territories, District

Administration

21

Pensions

816,281

9,423,957

624,190 614,915

10,909,466 11,619,893

721,450

13,797,000

22 Police Force:

A-Hong Kong Police B-Auxiliaries

29,026,514 31,802,576 34,632,221 1,084,378

38,705,000

2,048,300

242

Appendix V-Contd.

Expenditure

Actual

Actual

Actual

Approved

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure

1952-3

1953-4

Estimate

23 Post Office

24 Printing Department

25

Prisons Department

26

Public Debt

....

27 Public Relations Office

28

Public Services Commission

431,411

24,610

$

8,098,358 11,420,212

1,345,770 1,399,617

5,546,444 5,693,933

5,785,353 3,766,043

506,979

$

1954-5

$

1955-6

$

12,252,302 12,841,000

1,257,406 1,946,400

5,107,071 7,012,600

3,361,345 3,335,600

531,567

511,250

28,924

32,635

36,200

29

Public Works Department

13,307,577

17,480,063

17,876,137

22,612,920

30 Public Works Recurrent

17,886,200

19,628,634 17,479,925 20,960,500

31

Public Works Non-Recurrent

く。

...

32

Quartering

33 Rating and Valuation

Department

34 Registrar-General's Department

37,113,074 30,607,359

201,399 1,921,415

45,099,178 107,440,900

2,428,319 2,048,600

249,281

327,349

354,439

482,900

487,928

580,093

602,519

685,300

35 Registry of Trade Unions

......

16,792

150,300

36

Resettlement Department

3,574,550

7,112,350

37

Royal Observatory

744,223

919,591

1,043,820

1,400,570

38

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs:

A--Secretariat

304,933

384,144

395,620

468,400

B-Social Welfare Office

3,658,889

2,529,908

2,077,036

2,734,200

C--District Watch Force

260,362

39

Stores Department

40

Subventions

5,034,977

17,670,179

258,556

1,265,085 7,874,459

27,639,261 34,645,531

271,947

318,100

7,614,500

44,394,810

41

Treasury:

A-Treasury

B-Custodian of Property

...

1,544,312 46,623

1,734,489 50,273

1,825,706 51,319

2,026,500

53,300

Council:

42 Urban Services and Urban

A-Head Office and Sanitary

Division

....

B-Resettlement Division

C-Gardens Division

D-Housing Division

.....

11,192,198 2,309,376

12,829,225 3,824,283 649,807

13,481,981

16,380,760

388,794

860,360

1,239,850

63,917

280,700

310,510,551 354,742,812 371,967,308 447,462,950

43

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

1,239,108

664,958 1,376,301 1,583,000

311,749,659 355,407,770 373,343,609 449,045,950

Total:

Transfer of Surplus Balances

to Revenue Equalization Fund 100,000,000

Total:

411,749,659 355,407,770 373,343,609 449,045,950

243

Appendix VI

(Chapter 5: Currency and Banking)

Authorized Foreign Exchange Banks

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China

Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd.

Thos. Cook & Son (Continental and Overseas) Ltd.

First National City Bank of New York

American Express Co. Inc.

Banque de l'Indo-Chine

Banque Belge Pour l'Etranger (Extrême-Orient) Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij N. V. (Netherlands.

Trading Society Ltd.)

Nationale Handelsbank N. V.

Bank of East Asia, Ltd.

Oversea-Chinese Banking Corporation Ltd.

Bank of Communications

Bank of China

Bank of Canton, Ltd.

Shanghai Commercial Bank, Ltd.

China and South Sea Bank, Ltd.

Farmers Bank of China

Young Brothers Banking Corporation

Kincheng Banking Corporation

Bank of Tokyo, Ltd.

United Commercial Bank, Ltd.

Bank of Korea

Indian Overseas Bank, Ltd.

d.

C LIBRARI

Sze Hai Tong Banking & Insurance Co. Ltd.

China State Bank, Ltd.

Hongkong & Swatow Commercial Bank, Ltd.

Sin Hua Trust, Savings & Commercial Bank, Ltd. National Commercial Bank

Wing On Bank, Ltd.

Kwangtung Provincial Bank

Bangkok Bank, Ltd.

244

Appendix VII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade

Imports

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three years:

1953

1954

1955

H.K.$

H.K.$

H.K.$

United Kingdom

474,353,929

369,370,054

441,036,467

Malaya

177,485,292

161,609,904

151,429,690

India

53,452,419

53,359,614

83,764,840

Pakistan

116,396,534

67,752,131

53,945,164

Canada

58,582,539

55,148,962

46,237,353

Australia

55,688,825

63,028,360

81,530,636

Other Commonwealth

Countries

114,644,471

113,370,161 121,740,964

China

857,136,042

691,845,761

897,646,396

Japan

384,079,187 464,537,320

525,994,315

U. S. A.

224,909,213

281,051,186

324,855,713

Thailand

...9•

289,797,495

131,174,127

185,878,109

Italy

77,542,231

31,829,455

36,609,624

Germany

212,744,708

155,572,923

128,351,816

Switzerland

105,205,291

104,550,499

99,984,164

Netherlands

119,191,463

84,436,429

64,240,036

Other Countries

551,460,001 606,782,339

475,672,297

Total

3,872,669,640 3,435,419,225 3,718,917,584

Appendix VIII

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Direction of Trade Exports

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past three years were as follows:

1953 H.K.$

1954 H.K.$

1955

H.K.$

United Kingdom

119,255,160 162,165,696

251,539,596

Malaya

337,188,222

330,540,133

375,365,533

Other Commonwealth

Countries

262,365,315

315,347,845

348,305,927

Indonesia

371,995,621

224,642,245

193,388,155

...

China

540,348,259

390,786,609

181,560,144

Thailand

206,719,599 130,182,846

179,108,555

Taiwan

105,779,717

79,864,733

37,402,084

Japan

221,586,463

114,649,954

146,255,523

South Korea

52,458,084

170,133,476

192,203,333

U. S. A.

62,369,410

70,000,948

87,869,362

Macau

Other Countries

Total

88,197,739

63,796,056

57,370,030

365,457,635 364,905,060 484,055,504

2,733,721,224 2,417,015,601 2,534,423,746

Appendix IX

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Principal Commodities Imported

Principal commodities imported, with quantities and values, during 1955, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

245

1953

1954

1955

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Value

Quantity

H.K.$

487,130 89,761,070

623,520 108,380,529

Swine (nos.)

Poultry (lb.)

Fresh

......

vegetables (cwt.).

Milk, tinned (lb.)

Eggs (gross)

400,871 69,722,385

20,915,339 34,262,288 21,648,459 39,343,822 18,259,430 34,983,079

1,894,285 24,593,547 2,248,605 34,820,288 2,033,207 33,942,248 27,606,817 33,458,849 21,177,705 23,997,355 23,507,632 23,147,335

3,072,995 56,739,668 2,788,051 50,460,492

Rice (cwt.)

Flour (cwt.)

Beans & peas (cwt.)

6,139,121 318,907,436 2,113,853 86,973,521

719,784 28,991,303

1,645,160 53,083,124

894,918 28,789,405

704,882 26,245,510

Sugar (cwt.)

Tea (lb.)

Tobacco (lb.)

3,314,424 107,461,653 2,030,310 58,430,630

12,996,221 28,188,813 14,523,208 33,170,707 16,470,763 34,848,141

11,941,454 58,091,058 12,152,530 51,509,393 11,027,529 55,116,816

2,772,647 47,727,756

5,181,792 177,290,484

662,706 20,375,979

878,734 24,389,919

1,974,345 58,248,352

Soya beans (cwt.).

Raw cotton (cwt.)

Coal (cwt.)

Furnace fuel

oil (ton)

246,754 10,139,372

753,353 155,192,471

4,137,662 18,441,606

820,328 33,263,374

1,074,166 227,550,511

4,092,384 16,819,299

444,817 15,518,354

785,672 164,602,069

4,925,590 18,690,034

Cotton yarn

447,896 45,265,670 533,642 51,725,815 541,177 54,432,292

and thread (lb.). 10,892,176 41,246,012 13,133,443 44,883,763 12,972,440 38,627,883

Cotton piece-goods

(unbleached)

(sq. yd.)

Cotton piece-goods

Tung oil (cwt.)...

33,232,302 33,005,499 52,639,084 43,728,123 69,602,318 55,084,146

(bleached) (sq. yd.) 68,112,700 92,464,661 53,769,605 81,241,545 67,886,749 98,781,721

265,945 33,126,517

115,388 10,911,046 109,167 12,375,846

2,067,655 76,498,165

Watches and watch

movements (nos.). 2,734,272 96,384,121 2,357,044 85,146,795

Artificial

textiles (sq. yd.).. 55,420,371 80,886,061 75,942,678 98,982,900 90,645,197 125,185,355

Woollen piece-

goods (sq. yd.)

...

2,024,588 31,456,171, 6,355,365 74,746,067

9,140,393 95,093,898

Groundnut

oil (cwt.)

Plants, seeds,

329,778 38,186,463 167,480 18,775,508 357,403 30,649,253

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery (cwt.).

Sulphate of

475,475 59,826,228 624,471 64,426,452

884,985 63,658,024

ammonia (cwt.) ... 2,163,695 40,821,277 6,137,839 110,540,295 2,985,992 55,055,335

246

Appendix X

(Chapter 6: Industry and Trade)

Principal Commodities Exported

Principal commodities exported, with quantities and values, during 1955, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1953

1954

1955

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Value Quantity H.K.$

Quantity

Value H.K.$

Eggs (gross)

Cuttle fish (cwt.)..

Flour (cwt.)

Beans & peas (cwt.)

Fresh

815,419 18,194,268

49,986 6,515,782

140,432 6,174,692

1,337,132 45,967,663

463,996 10,750,853

26,570 4,522,173

170,495 5,664,134

531,968 23,764,532

386,461 8,127,458

43,227 5,759,182

367,186 10,920,961

666,291 23,520,141

vegetables (wt.)..

Sugar (cwt.)

Tea (lb.)

Soya beans (cwt.).

400,442 14,421,575

2,780,095 96,716,116

8,680,812 24,885,854

540,283 22,057,732

612,943 22,833,654

1,090,397 36,743,199

9,543,986 25,744,790

408,716 17,705,520

476,465 17,815,497

995,232 33,599,463

8,541,528 22,217,852

164,905 5,801,934

Sesamum seed

(cwt.)

Tung oil (cwt.) ...

466,590 25,638,855

257,789 33,238,838

217,562 18,023,786

86,304 8,937,949

157,077 11,619,918

77,463 10,979,232

Coal-tar

dyestuffs (cwt.)

66,672 61,181,230

83,238 99,866,136

46,332 53,914,518

Cotton yarn

and thread (lb.). 35,118,077 114,413,678 32,348,506 102,608,472 36,010,964 113,588,915

Cotton piece-goods

(unbleached)

(sq. yd.)

Cotton piece-goods

36,974,999 38,267,488 43,630,693 46,000,873 68,055,286 74,095,901

(bleached) (sq. yd.) 143,276,939 174,828,561 138,560,816 160,977,855 155,875,107 172,083,563

Enamelware

Textile machinery.

46,468,246

14,472,856

61,437,309

8,961,648

56,562,339

3,898,316

Electric torches

(doz.)

2,347,186 35,933,549 3,033,383 45,264,319 3,538,217 49,514,099

Watches and watch

movements (no.).

Bristles (lb.)

Feathers (lb.)

751,762 32,548,411 206,904 6,942,993 273,768 11,136,202

771,462 13,090,537 1,121,941 19,804,245 1,119,792 13,132,120

3,673,210 11,649,428 6,458,746 18,873,321 5,878,632 21,651,181

Plants, seeds,

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery (cwt.).

303,630 50,771,056

480,493 53,973,310

483,695 53,503,562

Sulphate of

...

ammonia (cwt.). 2,752,128 52,073,556 5,876,975 109,405,473

Artificial

textiles (sq. yd.) .. 9,564,207 15,871,306 23,993,777 35,866,053 27,895,175 45,873,998

2,853,098 55,055,803

Appendix XI

(Chapter 7: Production)

Cooperative Societies

247

$

Paid-

Type of Society

Mem- No. ber-

Reserve

up

Loan

ship

Share Granted Repaid Deposit Fund Capital

Loan

31.12.55

**

ᎦᏅ

Federations 2 *27 2,150

Vegetable

5,670

Marketing 16 3,312 28,740 567,720 379,210

121,211

Fishermen's

Thrift &

I

1

Loan

23 431 3,365 200,420 128,455 127,666

3,210

Fishermen's

Credit & Marketing 1

10 10,000

29,000 11,754 1,991

Pig-raising.. 31 638 785

163,425 14,226

Salaried

Workers'

Thrift............... 2

Building

388 1,895

6 442 44,200

70,884 57,709 60,752

BRARIE

392

905

1,788

Irrigation... 2

72 360 2,000 1,200

Draft

Animal

1

14 140

Fishpond... 1 110

550

1

Credit

& Con- sumers'

1

226 1,130

86 5,670 93,315 1,033,449 592,554 190,409| 133,176

* Member-societies.

248

Appendix XII

(Chapter 9: Public Health)

Hospital Beds

GOVERNMENT

Dispensaries

Hospitals

Queen Mary

Laichikok

589

Tsun Wan (Maurine

482

Kowloon

237

...

Grantham Health Centre)

Sheung Shui (Ho Tung)

13

13

Tsan Yuk

200

Tai O

9

...

Taipo

8

Mental

140

Yuen Long

7

St. John (Cheung Chau)

102

Stanley

6

Sai Ying Pun

88

Shatin

6

Stanley Prison

70

Silver Mine Bay

6

Wantsai Social Hygiene

Tai Lam Chung

6

23

Saikung

Eastern Maternity

24

San Hui

Laichikok Prison

11

Shataukok

со сон

3

3

1,971

Total:

84

Total:

KONC

Grant-in-Aid Hospitals

Tung Wah

Kwong Wah

NON-GOVERNMENT`

Tung Wah Eastern

Nethersole

PUB

IBRAR

Private Hospitals

495

Hong Kong Sanatorium

243

440

St. Paul's

172

320

Ling Yuet Sin Infants'

125

.....

Central

96

256

St. Teresa's

90

Precious Blood

90

230

...

Matilda & War

39

Memorial

80

St. Francis'

72

37

Tai Wo

40

1,817

Total:

1,008

Ruttonjee Sanatorium

(Anti T.B. Assoc.)

Pok Oi (Yuen Long)

Hayling Island

Leprosarium

Total:

Total No. of beds in all hospitals etc. = 4,880

Registered Medical Personnel

249

Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding Government

Personnel)

504

Provisionally-registered Medical Practitioners

Government Medical Officers

69

200

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeons &

Service Dentists)

338

Government Dental Surgeons

14

Service Dentists

10

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

49

...

Government Pharmacists

6

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

834

Government Nurses

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers)

Government Dressers,

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) Government Midwives

655

11

90

908

128

Government Medical Personnel under Training

31 December 1955.

Almoners

Tuberculosis Workers

Length of

course in 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year

Year

years

LIC

Success- fully completed training, 1955

1

1

4

1

Radiographic

Assistants

4

4

3

3

2

Assistant

Physiotherapists

4

1

1

Dispensers

4

4

4

3

2

Laboratory

Assistants

4

1

3

6

Dressers

4

12

7

10

5

9

2

Nurses

4

41

28

30

33

24

Midwives

2

35

36

LO

Health Visitors

1

10

5

9

AGAINST LAWFUL

AUTHORITY

Unlawful society & assembly... Escape and rescue from lawful custody

Other

AGAINST PUBLIC

MORALITY

Unnatural offences

22

Pending at 31. 12, 54

39

Total reported in 1955

Pending investigations

at 31. 12. 55

C LIBR

18

43

3

100

3

FRIES

Appendix XIII

(Chapter 13: Law and Order)

CRIME STATISTICS

Cases reported to and dealt with by the Police

Not taken to Court

Taken to Court

Total

Civil; no case

in law; or found

false

Evidence insuffi-

cient, trivial, or undetected

Accused dead or insane

#

Total

Convicted

Dismissed

Nolle prosequi

Awaiting trial at

31. 12. 55

2

1.

1

Rape and indecent assault...

2

72

4

22

1

21

1

48

1

1

36

8

4

46

Other

4

1

1

w

3

3

2

78

4

24

2

22

52

40

8

4

50

Juveniles

39

34

4

1

39

1

2

15

15

15

12

30

24

2

4

30

1

14

84

73

6

5

84

Adults

Persons

Charged or Summonsed

250

AGAINST THE PERSON

Murder, infanticide,

manslaughter

1

28

1

11

2

Attempted murder.

19

5

75

2

17

6

7 1

14

7

3 t

19

7

15

Serious assaults, woundings

and throwing corrosive fluid

7

316

9

117

Abortion

2

72

113

4

197

176

12

1

8

7

224

1

1

Other..

4

4

1

1

1

1

4

8

369

10

135

3

126

6

232

190

20

3

19

7

262

AGAINST PROPERTY

Burglary

10

235

8

178

1

177

59

59

1

67

Housebreaking

14

581

10

455

1

454

130

119

3

8

5

98

Other breakings

4

111

4

92

92

19

18

1

21

2823

Attempted breakings

33

25

25

8

8

I

9

Robbery & assaults with

intent to rob

6

141

9

67

2

64

1

71

48

13

1

9

6

110

Demanding with menaces

51

2

16

1

15

33

27

3

3

5

45

Larceny (snatching)

30

1221

28

930

1

927

2

293

273

12

8

28

282

Pickpocketing

9

803

13

414

3

411

385

362

19

4

15

361

Larceny from dwelling

43

1195 50

1059

3

1056

129

124

3

2

7

113

Larceny from ship & wharf...

71

1

40

40

30

28

2

44

Larceny from vehicle

3

792

7

693

2

691

95

95

12

87

Larceny of bicycle

16

716 15

616

1

615

101

89

9

3

1

100

Simple larceny.

97

8538

78

5229

13

5215

3328

3258

46

24

195

3140

Receiving stolen property

|

124

124

85

28

10

5

LO

87

Embezzlement

3

209

Larceny by servant

4

211

27

40

40

170

155

10

48

48

160

152

3

LO LO

5

89

2

98

Obtaining money by false

pretences

15

Larceny by bailee

3

5 3

311

6

162

153

5

105

Larceny by trick

27

372

22

303

121

161

158

147

103

46

38

37

1

7

1

23

90

45

302

74

73

1

62

Fraudulent conversion

38

17

17

21

20

1

16

[See overleaf.

251

AGAINST PROPERTY,

Contd.

Obtaining credit by fraud.

Other frauds and cheats

Arson.

Malicious damage

Unlawful possession

Possession of unlawful

instruments

Loitering with intent and

trespassing

AGAINST THE PENAL

Pending at 31. 12. 54

Total reported in 1955

Pending investigations at 31. 12. 55

Total

Appendix XIII,- Continued

Not taken to Court

Civil; no case in law; or found

false

Evidence insuffi- cient, trivial, or undetected

Accused dead or insane

Total

Convicted

Taken to Court

Dismissed

1

47

4

137

12

8

I

3

132

4

45

I

753

4

~1100

3

44

42

12

125

123

12

1

39

7

97

1

...7

5

2

7

43

86

77

9

2

82

1

749

728

15

6

12

772

231

1

I

230

214

10 1

cr

19

231

287

16

9

7

271

238

24

9

14

255

288

17501 271

10572

47

10521

4

6946

6605

222

4

115 342

6447

CODE

Forgery and counterfeit.

35

Conspiracy

13

Bribery

335

7

1

6

28

23

4

1

16

13

5

3

5

23

17

1

16

10

4

1

1

19

Possession of arms and

ammunition

63

63

55

4

4

1

65

Nolle prosequi

Awaiting trial at

31. 12. 55

Juveniles

Adults

Persons

Charged or

Summonsed

252

AGAINST THE PENAL

CODE, - Contd.

Breach of deportation

Other deportation

Other

Totals

4633

449

7

| | 7

4633

4633

5

4628

449

160

117

172

1

448

4

4

3

3

3

5217

12

1

11

114

5205

4889

132

1

183

7

5202

300

23265 288

10758

54

106947 10

12519

11797

388

8

326

356

12045

AGAINST LOCAL LAWS

Common assault

Gambling and lotteries

93

13803

13058

12419

639

754

730

22

2

2692

349

295

54

2346

2288

56

2

Hawking

4

97673

66

62

4

97611

97159

70

382

Obstruction

Mendicancy

21

10 19089

10

16

4

12

19073

16269

96

2708

2191

36

15

21

2155

2136

19

Nuisances

4

13742 4

207

34

172

1

13535

12663

52

820

Narcotics

29

16365

5333

4954

379

11061

10586

448

27

Prostitution and brothels

5

3030

305

286

19

2730

2704

25

1

Traffic:-

Technical nature

559

51913 555

5843

45

5798

46174

41854

1605

2715

...

Dangerous driving

Other minor offences

68

168

53

6

9

17 20787 3

2400

809

1591

18401

17393

540

468

640

241453 572 27613 18923

8689

1 213908 203835 2939

7134

940

264718860

860

38371

18977 19383

11 226427 215632 3327 8 7460

LIBRARIES

RE

253

254

Daily

Appendix XIV

(Chapter 16: Press, Broadcasting and Films)

Newspapers and Magazines

English Language

South China Morning Post Hong Kong Tiger Standard China Mail

Weekly

Sunday Post-Herald

Far Eastern Economic Review Sunday Examiner

Daily Commodity Quotations

(bilingual)

Monthly

Hong Kong Trade Daily

(bilingual)

Orient

International Trade Journal Newsdom

Every 2 Months

Hong Kong & Far East Builder

Twice-Weekly

Chinese

Language

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

Kung Sheung Yat Po

Hong Kong Shih Pao

(Hong Kong Times)

Sing Pao

Ta Kung Pao

Wen Wei Pao

Chi Yin Yat Po

Chiu Yin Po

Sin Sang Yat Po

Hong Kong Sheung Po

(Hong Kong Commercial Daily)

Hung Look Po

Chung Ying Yat Po

Wan Kou Po (Universal

Daily)

Shanghai Yat Po

United Daily News

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Man Pao

Kung Sheung Man Po

Hsin Sheung Man Po (New

Life Evening Post)

Hsin Wan Pao (New Even-

ing Post)

Chun Pao (Truth Daily)

Chung Sing Man Po

Alternate Days

Tien Wen Tai (Observatory

Review)

Freeman

School Friends Magazine

Weekly

Kau Yuk Chau Po (Education

Weekly)

Lo Kung Po (Labour News) China Newsletter

Tung Fung

Tung Sai (East & West

Magazine)

Chau Mut Pao (Weekend

News)

Sing Tao Chau Pao

Tse Yau Chun Hsin (Freedom

Front)

Sinwen Tienti (Newsdom)

Fortnightly

Kum Yat Sai Kai (World

Today)

Democratic Review

Wee Magazine

Every 10 Days

Kar Ting Sang Wood (Home

Life Journal)

Monthly

Journals

Journal of Oriental Studies,

Hong Kong University Press

1954-

Tien Hsia Illustrated

(bilingual)

Yah Chow (Asia Pictorial)

Sin Chung Hwa Pictorial

Sze Hoi (Four Seas)

Tsing Nin Wen Yu (Literary

Youth)

Hsin Kar Ting (New Home)

Hong Kong University Fisheries

Journal,

Hong Kong University Press

1954-

Type of appointment

255

Appendix XV

(Chapter 25: Administration)

Executive and Legislative Councils

Executive Council

Names of members

on 1.1.55.

Changes in composition during the year

Ex-officio

""

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Commander British

Forces,

Lieutenant-General

Sir Cecil Sugden, K.C.B., C.B.E.

The Colonial Secretary,

Succeeded by Mr. E. B.

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., David, C.M.G., 18.4.55.

O.B.E.

The Attorney General,

Mr. A. Ridehalgh, Q.C. The Secretary for Chinese

Affairs,

Mr. R. R. Todd.

The Financial Secretary,

Mr. A. G. Clarke, C.M.G. Nominated Mr. B. C. K. Hawkins,

""

C.M.G., O.B.E.

(Commissioner of Labour)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr. CHAU Tsun Nin, C.B.E. Sir Man Kam Lo, C.B.E.

Dr. CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E. Mr. Leo D'Almada e Castro,

C.B.E., Q.C.

Mr. John Keswick, C.M.G. Mr. M. W. Turner.

Mr. A. Hooton, Q.C.

(Acting) from 16.8.55. Succeeded by Mr. B. C. K. Hawkins, C.M.G., O.B.E., 11.3.55.

Succeeded by Mr. Q. A. A. Macfadyen from 11.3.55 to 1.6.55. (The seat has since been vacant).

Mr. Lo Man Wai, C.B.E., appointed provisionally, during the absence of Sir Man Kam Lo from 23.7.55 to 19.10.55.

Mr. J. A. Blackwood appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Turner from 12.3.55 to 1.6.55.

256

Legislative Council

Type of appointment

Names of members

on 1.1.55.

Changes in composition during the year

PRESIDENT:

Ex-officio The Governor,

Sir Alexander Grantham,

G.C.M.G.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The same ex-officio Members

as in Executive Council

Nominated Mr. Theodore L. Bowring,

""

C.M.G., O.B.E.

(Director of Public Works).

Mr. D. J. S. Crozier

(Director of Education)

Dr. YEO Kok Cheang

(Director of Medical and

Health Services)

Mr. H. G. Richards, O.B.E. Succeeded by Mr. D. R.

(Director

Services).

of Urban Holmes, M.B.E., M.C.,

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Dr. CHAU Sik Nin, C.B.E.

""

Mr. C. E. M. Terry, O.B.E.

99

Mr. Lo Man Wai, C.B.E.

2.12.55.

LIBRA

""

""

Mr. NGAN Shing-Kwan,

O.B.E.

Mr. Dhun J. Ruttonjee.

Mr. C. Blaker, M.C., E.D.

Mr. R. C. LEE, O.B.E. appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Lo from 28.3.55 to 22.7.55.

Mr. J. A. Blackwood appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Blaker from 28.5.55 to 28.9.55.

""

Mr. Kwok Chan, O.B.E.

Dr. A. M. Rodrigues, M.B.E.,

E.D.

...

Index

香港公共圖書館

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

香港公共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Abercrombie, Sir Patrick, 122. Aberdeen, 74, 77, 140, 177. Accidents (industrial) 35, see also

Traffic.

Adult education, 88, 91-3. Africa, 54, 55, 162.

Agriculture, 6, 11-2, 24, 38-40, 64-70,

73-5, 78-80, 134, 214, 231. Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department, 37, 65, 69, 70-6, 87, 110, 181.

Index

Air-India International, see Kashmir

Princess.

Airport, 1, 6, 7, 13, 16, 42, 110,

116, 122, 139, 148, 165-6, 218. Aliens, Registry of, 139. All-China Federation of Trade

Unions, 30.

Aluminiumware, 50, 54. Americans, see United States. Anglican Church, 19, 131, 187-8. Animal diseases, 69-70, 74. Animals, 68-70, 73-5, 82, 109-10,

204-6.

Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 101,

104.

Apprentices, 36-7, 128.

Arts, 19, 93, 190-2.

Australia, 56, 60, 68, 90, 111, 162,

175, 194.

Aviation, 134, 165-6, 169-70.

Banknotes, 47-8.

Bankruptcy, 145.

Banks, 5, 46-8.

Birds, 205-6.

Births, see Population.

Black, Sir Robert, 15.

Blind Welfare, 124, 129-30.

Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association,

124, 127.

Boy Scouts' Association, 127.

Braga, J. M., 182.

Breaming, 39.

Bridges, Major D. R., 130.

British Broadcasting Corporation,

175.

British Council, 90, 127.

British Industries Fair, 4, 57. British Trade Mission, 12. Broadcasting, see Radio Hong

Kong.

Brown, Prof. R. Gordon, 192. Brunei, 25.

Buddhism, 189, 218.

Budget, see Finance.

Building industry, 31, 43, 62-3, 65,

119-20, 134-5, 138, 144.

Building societies, 82. Burma, 15, 52, 53, 55. Buses, 115, 153-4.

Business registration, 58.

Cable & Wireless Ltd., 168-9, 173. Cambodia, 168, 194.

Canada, 4, 53, 57, 60, 68, 78, 90,

111, 175.

Cantonese, 21-2, 139.

Cantonese language, 22-3, 105, 173,

176, 177.

Caronia, visit of, 11.

Castle Peak, 23, 73, 74, 75, 106,

155, 158, 177, 189, 196. Cement manufacture, 49, 56. Census, 20, 197.

Certificates of Origin, 58-9. Chater Collection, 190. Chau, Dr. S. N., 14.

Cheung Chau, 18, 23, 70, 74, 147,

151, 155, 177, 196, 199, 200, 226. Chief Justice, 16, 136-9. Children, protection of, 125. China, 4, 5, 12-4, 20-3, 24, 30, 40, 46-7, 50, 56-7, 67, 78, 104, 111, 121, 123, 132, 161, 162-3, 168, 171, 181, 202, 220.

Chinese Manufacturers' Union, 4,

10, 57, 88.

Chiuchow community, 21, 23, 173,

176.

Christian Children's Fund, Inc., 12. Churches, see Anglican Church,

Roman Catholic Church, etc.,

Churchill, Sir Winston, 19.

Church World Service, 124, 131,

132.

Cigarette manufacture, 56. Cinemas, 177.

City Hall, 1, 156, 190.

Civil servants, 16, 158-9, 227, see

also Salaries.

Climate, 199-200.

Colonial Development and Welfare, 9, 16-7, 42, 66, 75, 79, 80, 88, 90, 115.

Colonial Secretariat, 159, 223. Colonial Secretary, 15, 159, 223. Commerce and Industry

Department, 42, 57-60, 224, 231. Commonwealth representation, 60. Companies, 144.

Constitution, 222-3.

Consuls, 60.

Cooperative societies, 76, 79, 80-3. Corruption, 134, 139.

Cost of living, 27-8.

260

Cotton, 3, 4, 25, 49, 52-3, 57, see

also Textiles.

Cotton Spinners' Association, 59. Courts, 126, 136-9. Crime, 137-43.

Cross-harbour Tunnel, 1, 7, 8, 231. Crown rents, 61, 62, 64. Cumine, Eric, 115.

Currency, 46-8.

Dairy farming, 68. Davis, S. G., 206.

Deaf, care of the, 129. Deaths, see population. Defence, 42, 178-80, 223. Dental Service, 106. Development Fund, 9, 42. Diphtheria, 95, 96, 97, 98, 130,

175.

Disabled, care of the, 104, 125,

128-30.

Diseases, 95-102, 107, 134. Disputes (labour), 31-4. District Commissioner, New

Territories, 18, 61, 65, 66, 103, 226.

District Officers, 61, 64, 76, 120,

144, 226.

Dockyards, 37, 51, 52, 90. Doctors, 107, 161.

Drainage, 159.

Drake, Prof. F. S., 183.

Drama, 93, 174, 190-1.

Duties, 41, 44-5, 58.

ECAFE, 14.

Education, 10, 62, 85-94, 110, 114,

121, 123, 130, 133, 140, 158, 181, 187, 188, 214-5.

Education expenditure, 86-7. Elections, 134, 175.

Electric appliances, see Torches. Electricity, 149-51.

Embroidery, 50, 53.

Employers' Federation, 32. Employment, 24-40, 50-6, 131-2. Enamelware, 50, 54, 57. Engineering courses, 92, 166. Entrepôt trade, 2-5, 24, 49. Estate Duty, 41, 44.

Evening schools, 88, 91-3. Exchange control, 47-8.

Exchange Fund, 47.

Executive Council, 222.

Expenditure (Government), 41-2.

Exporters' Association, 59. External examinations, 91.

Factories, 3, 6, 24-8, 34, 49-56, 62,

134, 157.

Family Welfare Society, 106, 124,

127, 132, 143.

Fanling, 23, 72, 158, 176. Federation of Trade Unions, 30-4. Ferries, 51, 115, 154-6. Fertilizers, 67, 79.

Festival of the Arts, see Arts. Film censorship, 177.

Film industry, 11, 176-7. Finance (Government), 6, 41-8. Financial Secretary, 47, 224. Fire Brigade, 226.

Fires, 8, 73, 96, 118, 130, 131, 180. Fisheries Research Unit, 75, 181. Fishing industry, 18, 24, 39-40, 42,

70-1, 73-8, 81, 83, 181, 199.

Fish Marketing Organization, 76-8,

81, 83.

Fishpond culture, 71, 82, 181. Flowers, 110-1, 202-4.

Food and Fuel Index, 26-8. Food production, 11-2, 39-40,

65-71, 76-80.

Forestry, 65, 71, 73, 198. Formosa see Taiwan. France, 20, 83, 171, 177. Frost, 17, 67, 200. Fruit-growing, 66, 202-3. Fukien Province, 21.

Gas, 151.

Geology, 200-2.

Germany (West), 56, 175. Ginger, 3, 54.

Girl Guides' Association, 127. Gloves, 3, 53.

Governor, 15, 190, 222. Grant Code (schools), 85, 86. Grantham Training College, 14, 91,

105, 128, 158. Graphite mining, 83. Grass, 39, 71, 121. Groundnuts, 66.

Hakka, 21-2, 39, 121, 139. Hawkers, 107, 126, 138. Hayling Island, 101-2, 129.

Health, 34-6, 95-110, 158, 165, 180,

216, 217, see also Hospitals. Henniker-Heaton, C., 59. Hindu community, 189.

History, 181, 182, 183-6, 207-21. Hoklo, 23, 39-40.

Hong Kong, acquisition of, 210-1. Hong Kong, geographic

description of, 196-9.

Hong Kong Government London

office, 60.

Hong Kong Government Tokyo

representative, 60.

Hong Kong Housing Societies,

9, 113.

Hong Kong Tramways Ltd., see

Tramways.

Hospitals, 2, 100, 101, 104, 105-7, 110, 114, 115, 120, 142, 158, 217-8.

Ho Tung Technical School, 92. Hours of work, 27.

Housing, 2, 8-10, 62, 96, 112-22,

187.

Housing (village), 120-2.

Housing Authority, 9, 112-6, 225. Housing expenditure, 116.

Immigration, 139, 142, 160, 162,

165.

Imperial Preference, 49. Imperial War Graves Commission,

19, 111, 159.

India, 12-3, 46, 54, 55, 60, 177,

194.

Indonesia, 5, 12-3, 25, 53, 54, 56,

78, 168.

Industry, 3-4, 24-5, 30-40, 49-57,

65, 155, 221, see also Manufactures.

Information Service, see Public

Relations Office.

Inland Revenue, see Taxation. International Civil Aviation

Organization, 165.

International Labour Organization,

15, 25, 27, 34, 134. Iron mining, 23, 40, 83.

Irrigation, 17, 39, 66, 74, 76, 82. Italy, 20, 177.

Japan, 4, 14, 20, 56, 70, 71, 75, 83, 90, 130, 145, 162, 168, 170, 171, 177, 181, 194, 219-20.

Jews, 189.

Jockey Club, 193-4.

Joint Consultation in Industry, 31. Joseph Trust Fund, 80, 83. Journals, see Publications. Judges, 16, 136-7.

Junior Chamber of Commerce, 57,

127.

Junior Technical School, 92. Junks, 18, 75, 160, 199. Justices of the Peace, 137-8. Juvenile delinquency, 126, 138, 143.

Kadoorie Agricultural Aid

Association, 11-2, 66, 69, 76, 83, 133.

Kaifongs, 124, 130, 131. Kai Tak, see Airport.

Kam Tin, 74.

Kashmir Princess, 12, 13. Kent, Duchess of, 2.

Korea, 2, 5, 19, 53, 55, 56, 168,

194, 221.

Kowloon, acquisition of, 213. Kowloon-Canton Railway, see

Railway.

Kowloon General Hospital, 2, 106,

158.

Kowloon, geographic description

of, 196-8.

Kowloon Hospital, 2, 217.

Kun Tong, 6, 51, 65, 108, 122,

157.

Kuoyu, 21, 173, 176, 177. Kwangtung Province, 20-2.

Labour, 24-40.

Labour Advisory Board, 28. Labour Department, 24, 26, 28-37,

124.

Lamma Island, 37, 197, 199, 207,

226.

Land, 5, 6, 7, 41, 43, 61-6, 87, 112,

114, 119, 122, 143-4.

Land utilization, 65-6, 74, 181. Lantao Island, 7, 17, 21-3, 38, 66, 72, 73, 74, 104, 128, 147, 148, 151, 189, 197, 198, 199, 202, 205, 207, 226.

Laos, 168.

Laws of Hong Kong, 136, 222-3. Legal Department, 223.

Legislation, 34, 65, 127, 133-5. Legislative Council, 11-2, 133, 134,

170, 215, 222-3.

Lennox-Boyd, Rt. Hon. Alan,

M. P., 15, 59, 175.

Leprosy, 95, 101-2, 104, 129. Libraries, 127, 130, 131, 191-2. Li Cheng Uk, 18, 116, 127, 183-6. Light-houses, 161. Liquor, 41, 45.

Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 161. Loans, 42, 69, 112-3.

Loans from H. M. Government,

16-7, 42, 79, 80, see also Colonial Development and Welfare.

Lokanathan, Dr. P. S., 14, 175. London Missionary Society, 187. Lutheran World Federation, 132.

Macau, 14, 49, 55, 56, 168, 182,

189, 194, 196, 202, 208, 210, 220. Magistrates, 133, 136-9, 226, 227. Malaria, 95, 97, 99, 103, 104, 214. Malaya, 5, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 130,

175, 194, 195. Mandarin, see Kuoyu.

261

262

Manufactures, 2-4, 24-5, 49-57. Ma On Shan, 40, 83, 155, 198. Marine Department, 36-7, 75, 161. Markets, 76-80, 107, 109-10. Marriage, 145.

Matches, 40, 56.

Matriculation examination, 89. Ma Wan, 22, 150, 155, 199. Meat imports, 69, 109. Medical Department, 87, 103, 104-7,

124, 175, 180.

Medical expenditure, 104. Medical research, 181-2.

Menon, Krishna, 175.

Mental defectives, 130.

Mental Hospital, 106, 133, 158. Metal products, 25. Methodist Church, 187. Meyrenberg, Lars, 192. Migration, 25-6, 38.

Military Cemetery, 19, 111, 159,

175.

Military Forces, 19, 24, 61, 111,

169, 170, 178-80.

Mining, 29, 34, 40, 83-4, 144. Mission to Lepers, see Leprosy. Morley, Julia, 192. Music, 93, 190-1.

Muslims, 189.

Narcotics, 139.

Nationalist China, see Taiwan. Netherlands, 20, 175. Nethersole Hospital, 187. News agencies 171-2. Newspapers, see Publications. New Territories, 6, 11-2, 17-8, 21-3, 37-40, 44, 48, 61, 63-84, 96, 101, 104, 106, 108, 118, 120-2, 128, 137, 146-8, 149-51, 153, 155-6, 158, 163, 176, 182, 183, 196-206, 213-4, 221.

New Territories Administration, 61,

63-6, 103, 120, 226.

New Zealand, 52, 162, 194. Nightsoil, 80, 107, 108.

North Borneo, 25, 56.

Northcote Training College, 105. Norway, 14.

Note Security Fund, 47. Nurses, 107.

Observatory, see Royal

Observatory.

Old people, care of, 132.

Ophthalmic Service, 105.

Orphanages, 123.

Oyster culture, 39, 70-1, 181, 198.

Paint, 50, 55.

Pakistan, 139, 162.

Parks and gardens, 110-1, 193.

Parsis, 189. Patents, 144-5. Pat Heung, 72.

Philippines, 4, 19, 20, 53, 54, 55,

56, 78, 90, 168, 194.

Piers, 17, 154-7.

Pigs, 39, 68, 69, 76, 81, 82, 109,

204-5.

Pigs, import of, 69.

Ping Chau, 23, 40, 155, 196. Plasticware, 4, 50, 55. Playgrounds, 87, 128, 131, 224. Po Leung Kuk, 125, 224. Police, 12-3, 19, 32, 33, 52, 139-42,

157, 158, 183.

Population, 7-10, 20-3, 95, 96,

102-3, 112, 122, 123, 196-7, 219, 220-1.

Port Executive Committee, 166. Port of Victoria, 159-62, 168, 197. Portuguese community, 20, 208,

210, 220.

Post Office, 42, 115, 166-8, 231. Poultry farming, 68-70, 74-5, 110. Preserves (fruit & vegetables), 54,

199.

Printing Department, 36, 158, 226,

231.

Prisoners, after-care of, 123, 143. Prisons, 142-3, 187.

Publications, 133, 171-2, 181, 218,

224, 231.

Public Debt, 42. Public loans, 42.

Public Relations Office, 172-3. Public Services Commission, 227. Public Works, 1, 2, 6, 108, 146-8,

156-9, 163-6.

Public Works Department, 36-7, 61, 111, 113, 114, 119-20, 122, 134, 164, 183, 225.

Quarantinable Diseases, 95, 97, 134,

161.

Quarries, 39, 164.

Quartering Authority, 226.

Queen Elizabeth School, 87.

Queen Mary Hospital, 2, 217.

Radio Hong Kong, 15, 157, 68,

170, 172-6, 191.

Radio licensing, 167-8.

Railway, 36-7, 87, 139, 162-3, 198,

214.

Rain experiments, 18.

Rainfall, 17-8, 67, 72, 131, 147,

170, 199-200.

Rates, 44, 224.

Rattanware, 50.

Real estate, see Land.

263

Reclamation, 1, 6, 51, 155, 156,

157-8, 173, 216, 217. Records (land), 61. Red Cross Society, 131. Rediffusion, 170, 176.

Refugees, 20, 23, 50, 112, 123, 132, 188, 193, 213, 219, 220-1, see also Resettlement.

Refuse disposal, 107-8, 158. Registrar-General, 61, 143-5, 214. Remittances from abroad, 38, 69,

167.

Research, 170, 181-2.

Reservoirs, 1, 7, 71, 146-8, 217,

see also Water.

Resettlement, 2, 8, 18, 42, 96, 99,

109, 112, 116-9, 124, 125, 127, 148, 153, 164, 186, 188, 225. Retail Price Index, 27-8. Revenue, 41-5, 58, 62-3, 162, 167. Revenue Equalization Fund, 41. Rice, 5, 27, 39, 54, 64, 66-7, 68. Roads, 17, 66, 76, 152, 159, 163-5,

214.

Roman Catholic Church, 132, 188. Rope manufacture, 55-6. Rotary Club, 129.

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force,

178-9.

Royal Interocean Lines, 58.

Royal Observatory, 18, 169-70, 200,

218.

Rural Committees, 226.

Rural Development Committee, 66,

74.

Russian Orthodox Church, 188.

Saikung, 22, 38, 66, 70, 73, 74, 75,

106, 158, 196, 205.

St. John Ambulance Brigade, 106,

180.

St. John's Cathedral, 61, 187, 190. Saiwan, see Military Cemetery. Salaries (Civil Servants), 16, 42, 43,

113, 231.

Sales, A. de O., 57.

Salesian Society, 91, 92.

Salvation Army, 126, 127, 128, 143. Sand monopoly, 226. Sanitary expenditure, 107. Sanitation, see Urban Services. Sarawak, 52.

Scholarships, 89-90, 106, 133. School Certificate examinations,

86.

School Health Service, 105-6. Schools, see Education.

Second World War, 19, 20, 49, 111,

217, 219-20.

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, 123,

214, 224.

Sek Kong, 72, 176, 200. Sham Tseng, 7, 40, 150. Shanghai community, 21, 33, 40,

176.

Shataukok, 22, 38, 66, 147, 205. Shatin, 22, 23, 65, 74, 177, 189. Shaukiwan, 70, 74, 77, 104, 152,

177.

Shek Pik, 7, 17, 148, 151, 207. Shek Wu Hui, 196.

Sheung Shui, 67, 74, 75, 177, 202. Shipbuilding and repairing, 25, 40,

49, 51-2, 156, 161.

Shipping, 160-2, 166, 169. Shirts, 3, 53, 57.

Shoes, 3, 25, 50, 53, 57. Sikh community, 189.

Silver Mine Bay, 17, 23, 74, 128,

151, 155.

Singapore, 19, 57, 71, 78, 106, 130,

168, 195.

Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 126. Slaughterhouses, 69, 107, 109-10. Smuggling, 60.

Snakes, 206.

Social Welfare, see Welfare. Social Welfare Office, 104, 118,

123-132.

Soft drinks industry, 30-1, 55. Spinning and weaving, see Textiles. Sport, 93-4, 128, 130, 174, 175,

193-5.

Sports Stadium, 154, 156-7, 193. Squatters, see Resettlement. Stamp Duty, 41.

Stanley, 111, 142-3, 187. Steel mills, 52.

Stock Exchange, 5.

Stores Department, 36, 226.

Strikes, 31-4, 218-9.

Subsidy Code (schools), 86, 91. Sugar-cane production, 66. Sugar refining, 49, 54-5. Sweet potatoes, 39, 66.

Tai Lam Chung Reservoir, 1, 7, 51,

72, 146, 148, 164.

Taimoshan, 22, 74, 198, 205, 217. Taipo, 22, 23, 61, 65, 70, 74, 77,

137, 151, 176, 177, 196, 226. Taipo Kau, 18, 72, 155.

Tai O, 23, 70, 155, 196.

Taiwan, 4, 13, 14, 22, 30, 56, 71,

90, 128, 171, 194, 220. Tanka, 23, 39-40, 70. Tap Mun, 17, 155. Tattoo, 19, 175.

Taxation, 42-5, 133, 224. Teachers, 85, 91.

Technical College, 10, 37, 88, 92,

158.

264

Technical education, 91-3. Telecommunications, 140, 165,

167-9.

Telephones, 161, 168-9, 173, 176. Tenancy Enquiry Bureaux, 224. Tenancy Tribunals, 138-9. Textiles, 25, 32-3, 49, 50, 52-3, see

also Cotton etc.

Thailand, 4, 5, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57,

71.

Tobacco, 41, 45, 56. Todd, R. R., 16.

Tomb at Li Cheng Uk, see Li

Cheng Uk.

Torch manufacture, 49, 50, 54, 57. Tourism, 10-11.

Town planning, 62, 65, 115, 122,

135, 225.

Trade, 4-6, 12, 24, 42, 50, 51, 56-60,

160-3, 176, 215, 221.

Trade Commissioners, 60. Trade control, 60.

Trade fairs, 4, 57.

Trade marks, 144-5.

Trade promotion, 57.

Trades Union Council, 30-4. Trade unions 29-34.

Trade Unions, Registry of, 29-30,

34.

Trading, by Government, 5, 58. Traffic, 138, 141-2, 159, 163-5. Tramways, 31, 152, 216. Treasury, 44, 224.

Trees, 110, 202-3.

Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital, 2,

106, 158, 217.

Tsing I, 22, 155.

Tsun Wan, 22, 32, 40, 65, 74, 96,

104, 106, 108, 118, 122, 131, 146, 155, 158, 164, 169, 176, 177, 189, 196, 221.

Tuberculosis, 95, 96, 97, 99-101,

103, 105.

Tung Lung, 185.

Tung Wah Group of Hospitals,

104, 105, 224.

Tunnel, see Cross-Harbour Tunnel. Typhoons, 160, 169-70, 199-200,

218.

Umbrellas, 3, 54.

Under-employment 25, 132. Unemployment, 25, 132. Union Church, 187.

United Kingdom, 5, 16, 20, 38, 42, 50, 52, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 68, 83, 89, 90, 95, 102, 107, 111, 113, 114, 126, 134, 145, 157, 162, 168, 171, 176.

United Nations, 3, 175, 221, see

also ECAFE, etc.

United States, 5, 11, 13-4, 20, 38,

54, 56, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78, 83, 90, 102, 132, 162, 168, 170, 171, 177, 194, 221.

University, 17, 18, 19, 75, 85, 88-9, 105-6, 111, 181-2, 183, 187, 188, 190, 215.

University degrees, 88-9.

Urban Council, 9, 103, 104, 107,

112, 134, 175, 216, 225. Urban Services Department, 80,

103, 104, 107-11, 113, 216. Utility companies, 149-56, 168-9.

Vacuum flasks, 50, 54. Vegetable imports, 78, 79.

Vegetable Marketing Organization,

78-83, 108.

Vegetables, 11, 39, 66-7, 74, 78-80,

121.

Vehicles, see Traffic. Vietnam, 4, 53, 54, 55. Volunteer Forces, 178-80.

Wages, 3, 26-8.

Wah Yan College, 86, 192. War, see Second World War. Warehouses, 45, 160.

War Memorial Fund, 132. Water, 7, 17-8, 51, 65, 71, 76, 96,

99, 130, 146-8, 157, 181, 213, 217. Water chestnuts, 67-8.

Weights and measures, 228. Welfare, 26, 35-6, 118, 123-132,

187. 188, 219.

West Indies, 38, 55.

Whale, 19.

Women in industry, 28, 35. Women's welfare clubs, 130-1. Wood imports, 58, 70. Woodwork industry, 31, 56. Workmen's compensation, 28, 35,

36, 137.

World Health Organization, 100,

105, 134.

Young persons in industry, 28, 35. Youth welfare, 124-8, 131, 187. Yuen Long, 21-22, 65, 67, 131, 176,

177, 196, 198, 202, 226.

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HONG KONG

T

›PYRIGHT RESERVED.

15'

KEY MAP OF HONG KONG

RELATIVE TO CANTON AND MACAU

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اليا الامر

LIC

LI

0

30

45'

114° E OF GREENWICH

15'

30

DRAWN

IVE TO

CANTON

E OF GREENWICH

15'

AND MACAU

30

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

BLE

:

LIBRAR

PE OF GREENWICH

15'

30'

DRAWN

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.