Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1954

Hong Kong Annual Report

1954

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The dust cover is a replica of the coloured lithograph from the Sayer Collection "View of Wyndham Street from the Post Office, 29th November, 1846" drawn by M. Bruce, engraved by Maclure. Now the property of the Hong Kong Government.

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香港

HONG KONG

ANNUAL REPORT 1954

公共圖

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Crown Copyright Reserved

This book, or parts thereof including illustrations, may not be reproduced or translated without permission.

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ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

To be purchased from the Government Publications Bureau, G.P.O., Hong Kong and leading booksellers.

Also Obtainable from Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

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Photo: Ko Se Kang

Looking down on Hong Kong harbour from Victoria Peak.

Hong Kong

Annual Report 1954

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03706567 1

Printed and Published by the Government Printer, Old Bailey Street, Hong Kong. March, 1955.

BALL

LIBRARY

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to express its thanks to Mr. J. M. Braga for writing the history chapter of this report and assisting in the compilation of the bibliography, and to Mr. J. C. E. Britt, Mr. A. S. Abbott and Mr. L. G. Young for their contributions. The section on geology is taken from Chapter 1 of "The Geology of Hong Kong" by S. G. Davis, Ph.D., M.Sc. (London) F.G.S., F.R.G.S. Thanks are also due to all who have contributed photographs

also and other material to this report. All unacknowledged photographs were taken by Government photographers. The engraving of Murray Parade Ground about 1856 is by courtesy of London Illustrated News.

The armorial bearings on the front cover of this report are a replica of those appearing on the first seal of Hong Kong which was struck in 1842.

AGG, NO.

DATE OF ACC.

AUC.

CLASS NO,

AUTHOR NU,

REBOUND

14575

13.2.62

951.25

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Chapter

Contents

Page

I

I. REVIEW OF THE YEAR

2. POPULATION

3. OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR

ORGANIZATION

Employment

Wages and Conditions of Employment Cost of Living

Labour Department

Industrial Relations .

Industrial Training

16

21

21

23

25

26

27

35

37

37

Public Debt

39

Earnings and Profits Tax . Estate Duty

40

42

Import and Excise Duties

42

4. PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Revenue and Expenditure

Bwww.

5. CURRENCY AND BANKING

6. COMMERCE

Significant Developments

Exports of Hong Kong Products Trade Control :

Rationing

7: PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

Land Tenure and Use

Farming and Farm Products

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry

·

i

44

48

49

51

52

52

53

53

58

66

Chapter

Contents,-Continued

7. PRODUCTION AND MARKETING,-Contd.

Forestry

Page

Fisheries

Mines

Manufacturing Industries

Heavy Industries

Light Industries

Marketing and Co-operatives.

8. EDUCATION

9. PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

Public Health.

Births and Deaths

Organization of Public Health Services

Medical Department

Urban Council

Sanitary Organization

Food Inspection

Pest Control

Veterinary

Parks and Gardens

War Cemeteries .

10. HOUSING, RESETTLEMENT AND TOWN

67

70

72

74

78

80

84

91

105

105

IIO

I I I

III

116

II 7

I 20

120

121

122

124

PLANNING

Housing

Buildings

Resettlement

Town Planning

II. SOCIAL WELFARE

Infant and Child Welfare

Moral Welfare

ii

126

126

130

131

135

137

139

140

Chapter

Contents,-Continued

II. SOCIAL WELFARE,-Contd.

Probation

Youth Organizations

Care of the Physically Handicapped

Community Development

Emergency Relief

Public Assistance

12. LEGISLATION

Page

140

142

144

145

147

148

150

?

13. LAW AND ORDER

153

The Administration of Justice

153

Police

157

Crime

161

Immigration

162

Prisons

163

Records

165

14. PUBLIC UTILITIES AND Public Works

Waterworks

170

170

Electricity

Gas

Tramways

172

175

175

Bus Services

Ferries

Public Works

15. COMMUNICATIONS

177

178

180

:

Marine

Railway Roads

Vehicles

Civil Aviation .

.

185

185

188

190

192

192

iii

Chapter

Contents,-Continued

Page

15. COMMUNICATIONS,-Contd.

Post Office.

Licensing

Telecommunications

Telephones

Meteorological Services

16. PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING

AND FILMS

Press

Public Relations

Broadcasting

Rediffusion Films

194

194

195

198

199

201

201

203

204

209

210

17. RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

212

Religion

212

Research

217

The Arts Sport

220

223

18. LOCAL FORCES

229

Volunteer Forces

229

Other Auxiliary Defence Services

231

19.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

234

Topography

234

Geology

237

Climate and Weather

240

Flora and Fauna .

243

20. HISTORY

254

21.

ADMINISTRATION

269

iv

Contents,-Continued

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I BOOKS AND ARTICLES (CLASSIFIED)

Page

276

II

JOURNALS

286

III

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

287

IV

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED

IN HONG KONG

289

APPENDICES

I WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

295

II

COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND WELFARE

WELFARE

SCHEMES

296

III

IV

STATEMent of AsseTS AND LIABILITIES REVENUE

298

302

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

XV

XVI

XVII

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

MAPS

EXPENDITURE

DIRECTION OF IMPORTS INTO HONG KONG DIRECTION OF EXPORTS FROM HONG KONG PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES IMPORTED

PRINCIPAL COMMODITIES EXPORTED BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG RETURN OF Serious OFFENCES CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES XIII-A HOSPITAL BEDS IN HONG KONG

B REGISTERED MEDICAL PERSONNEL C RETURNS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE COUNCILS COMMONWEALTH AND FOREIGN

REPRESENTATION

XIV

AIRLINES

303

305

306

307

308

309

311

314

315

316

316

317

319

320

321

TYPHOON MAP

HONG KONG AND NEW TERRITORIES

INDEX

between 234-235

. back cover

337

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ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIE

:

Chapter 1

Review of the Year

As this chapter is being written the Year of the Horse is slowly giving way to the Year of the Sheep. The gallant steed is dying hardly and there will be a day or two more of confusion before the ear-shattering obsequies are complete and the Sheep brings peace and a new lunar year. In the East the horse is a symbol of authority, moving proudly against a background of panoply and war. He has an arrogant beauty and it is when his nostrils are distended, his mane flowing and his hooves battering the earth that he is a fit subject for portraiture. The domestic virtues of the Western horse are not appreciated. Constable, the brewers and the governess in her car would all have been thought guilty of debasing a fiery and independent animal to the level of some ruminant buffalo or ox with powers of traction but few other virtues.

IB

Nevertheless it was in his Western guise that the Horse descended upon this small area of his influence a year ago. There have been no manifestations of arrogance, no glorious advances and no spectacular retreats. The pace has been forward and steady and slow. The year of the Cart-horse, in fact, or, in one grim sense, of the camel.

The burden of the resettlement problem, which was described in last year's review, is not the sort of thing that could be lifted by a single dramatic effort or an

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

emotional vote. A careful study of the problem was made by a new and independent department, not, indeed, in an atmosphere of academic calm, but in a work-a-day world where squatter fires of the same type, but mercifully not of the same scope, as the fire of Christmas Night 1953, multiplied until, by the end of the calendar year, ten separate fires had occurred and over 40,000 persons had been rendered homeless. Hong Kong, small as it is, is not the only place that has had to face the problem of nearly a million refugees. since the end of the war. But it is probably the only country (and in this respect Hong Kong is a country) which has had the basic problem. multiplied by natural disasters which overnight have made many tens of thousands of desperately poor people completely and finally destitute. It was said last year that relief in such circumstances as these is no remedy. Shelter for tonight and tomorrow is of little consequence when one is faced with a problem of these dimensions. It would be tolerable to be homeless for weeks ahead if there were some reasonable hope of final security in the future.

It was accepted, as one of the driest years on record advanced, that fires in the squatter colonies could not be prevented. The flimsy inflamable structures were like the cells of a honeycomb, except that they were open to the winds and suspended on parched cliffs too steep for normal development. A match and a light breeze were sufficient to doom these inaccessible com- munities. The danger could not be prevented but it could be limited in scope. This was the first step. Fire breaks were driven through the larger settlements and those few who were displaced were rehoused

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

temporarily elsewhere. Before the fire breaks were made, over 50,000 people lost their homes in one fire and over 20,000 in another. Once the fire lanes were in existence the largest number of persons affected by any single fire was under 6,000 in spite of the fact that there were six separate fires in this period By Septem- ber, nine months after the Christmas Night fire, it could be said with confidence that a catastrophe on that scale could not recur. This was a valuable advance, if negative.

In the meantime the land problems of resettlement were being examined. An average squatter family, living in an insanitary, overcrowded and precarious hut, occupied perhaps eighty square feet of land. The only virtue of the squatter's hut, apart from its roof, was that it was within, or near, the urban area where employment and the necessities of life were to be found; but to reprovide the estimated 260,000 squatters, even on a basis of their existing illegal holdings, would have required at least 150 acres. It was estimated that within and around the urban perimeter there was at best 20 acres of land available or on call at short notice, and perhaps a further 50 acres which could be freed if squatter shacks could first be removed. In the first place it seemed doubtful whether the whole area of available non-rural land could justifiably be reserved for a single section of the community, many of whom were recent immigrants and none of whom had any legal rights to land. There were many other citizens whose claims on developed land were undeniable. In the second place it was clearly impossible to effect resettle- ment even on a basis of reproviding the tiny holdings. into which the squatters had compressed themselves.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

It became clear, therefore, when the surveys were completed, that the possibility of resettlement lay in one direction and one direction only: intensive vertical development in place of intensive horizontal develop-

ment.

The principle was accepted but its application was tentative. In the Spring we were building to two stories, in the Summer to six and in the Autumn to seven. In the Winter we were preparing to demolish some of the two-story blocks to make way for founda- tions capable of holding seven stories. There are still victims of recent fires living in pathetic cabins built against the walls of side streets and cul-de-sacs. There are still people living in deplorable squalor in between the fire breaks in the old settlements. But no one has been taken outside the physical range of employment, and nearly 70,000 people have been rehoused during the year in fire proof and sanitary dwellings far beyond what they could have envisaged when, a year or two ago, they racked the rubbish heaps for sheets of cardboard and tin with which to shape four walls and a roof. The density, ventilation and amenities of these new blocks are not satisfactory. But the design is such that later alterations can provide for all these things. And it was thought better to provide all with minimum standards of hygiene, safety and security before thinking in terms of the optimum for anyone. A plan to which approval in principle has been given provides for the construction of about 30,000 domestic units for the benefit of 150,000 squatters who will be moved in order to free land for other grades of domestic development, or who are homeless as a result of this year's fires.

4

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

If development is reckoned in terms of the elimina- tion of squalor and misery and insecurity, and the provision of the antithesis of these things for people who suffer greviously from them, then the year of the Horse has been a year of positive and promising development in Hong Kong. The anonymous observer of whom we wrote last year would not be disappointed if he climbed again to his vantage point looking across the harbour to the Nine Hills. Some at least of the grey-brown expanses of hovel-roofs have gone. And in their place are high white blocks, their vertical line broken by vari-coloured balconies, efficient, orderly and safe. They are crowded, indeed, but crowded with people many of whom had little reason to expect the treatment they have received and who may well form the nucleus of a valuable new community.

Quite apart from the strain and suffering brought about by the fire disasters mentioned above, 1954 was a trying year for everyone because of the acute shortage of water. There are no large rivers or lakes in the Colony and rainfall impounded in reservoirs constitutes the sole supply. The total rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory amounted to only 53.82 inches which is 30.82 inches below normal, and the reservoirs were never fully replenished. For two months of the year the supply was reduced to four hours a day and for five months to only three hours a day and this meagre ration was still in force at the end of the year. A daily domestic routine of filling baths and buckets with water has become a regular feature of the life of rich and poor alike, and it is borne with an equanimity which surprises visitors to the Colony. The progress made in the construction of the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir is therefore watched with great interest and, at the end

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

of the year, it was estimated that the reservoir would be in use by 1957. When fully operating Tai Lam Chung will supply almost as much water as all the other reservoirs together.

The health of the community during the year was good, and bearing in mind the immense health problem created by the destitution of about one hundred thousand persons in an abnormally hot and dry year, this fact is a measure of the efficiency of the departments. who deal with health and sanitation in the Colony. There were no large outbreaks of serious contagious diseases and the main health problem was once again. tuberculosis, although for many years every effort has been made to stamp out the disease. An interesting but tragic problem has arisen in connexion with the Colony's lepers, the majority of whom live in a leper colony run by the Mission to Lepers on a small island a few miles from Hong Kong Island. Lepers can be taken into the leprosarium, treated and cured, but the dread and loathing with which the Chinese people regard this disease and the irradicable stigma of the leprosarium make it almost impossible for a cured leper to return to, and live amongst, his relatives and friends. Unfortunately this attitude of mind also conveys itself to the victim, as it were, in the reverse, and the result has been that many lepers at the leprosarium, though cured, have refused to be discharged. Although the rehabilitation of a few cured lepers seems a small matter compared with the immense problem of resettling the squatter population, it may in the long run be more difficult to solve, for the main obstacle to its solution is not finance but the ignorance and prejudice of the community. These facts have brought about a radical change in Government's policy towards lepers. It has

6

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

been accepted that the former policy of segregating lepers from the community was creating a growing rehabilitation problem. Now it has been decided that treatment will be given to lepers in out-patient clinics unless they are badly disfigured.

The statistics of births and deaths for 1954 and previous years show without question that Hong Kong, in common with most other Far Eastern countries, has a population problem. In Hong Kong the health of a traditionally prolific population is protected by a technically proficient medical organization with the result that many children are born but few people die. If the present rate of increase continues it is likely that the population of Hong Kong will exceed 3 millions by 1964. This figure gives no cause for alarm, but it has given rise to some concern in the Education Depart- ment which is faced with the problem of providing means of education for the children of this multitude. Although in the year ending on 30th June, 1954, fifty new school buildings or extensions were opened to provide for some 14,560 pupils, more schools and more teachers are badly needed. The shortage of graduate teachers will be relieved to some extent by the mainten- ance grants and bursaries scheme which came into operation in 1954. The declared object of this double scheme is to enable needy students of merit to take a degree at Hong Kong University and a Teacher's Diploma. When the scheme is in full operation about 35 graduate teachers will be entering the profession each year. Nor has higher education been forgotten, for in 1954 Government, acting upon the recommenda- tions made by Sir Ivor Jennings, Vice Chancellor of the University of Ceylon and Dr. D. W. Logan,

7

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Principal of the University of London, increased. the recurrent annual grant to the University from $1 million to $4 million and in addition approved a capital grant of $3 million.

A link with the Colony's past history was almost severed this year when the reclamation of nine acres of land on the waterfront of the Central District of Victoria terminated the active life of the old Queen's Pier. The pier itself has yet to be demolished but despite its rather ponderous archway many residents will regret the pass- ing of this structure where more than half of the Governors of the Colony, and many distinguished visitors, have first stepped onto Hong Kong soil. Two other reclamations of a rather different character were approved during the year and the familiar work of winning back the land from the sea has already begun on one of them. The first is the reclamation of a pro- montory over 11⁄2 miles long by 800 feet wide projecting into Kowloon Bay to take a runway which will enable modern types of aircraft to operate in Hong Kong by day and night. This bold step will enable Hong Kong to attain in air communications that same high reputation that its magnificent harbour holds in sea communications.

The second important scheme is a large reclamation at Kun Tong on the north eastern side of the harbour which is to be used for industrial sites. In recent years Hong Kong has had to rely much less upon its old staple, the entrepôt trade, and much more upon its own resources of labour and initiative in order to make a living. This has been achieved by a very remarkable expansion of the manufacturing industry, and whereas

8

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

at the beginning of 1948 there were 1,275 registered and recorded factories and workshops with 64,500 workers, at the end of 1954 both these figures had almost doubled. Details of the increase in the export of goods manu- factured in Hong Kong is given in the summary of the economic situation in the next paragraph but a rather unwelcome confirmation of the success of Hong Kong manufactures is the unjustifiable and ill informed criticisms which have been directed against Hong Kong products appearing on the English markets. Notwith- standing this, Hong Kong textiles, enamel, aluminium and plastic ware, umbrellas and rubber shoes are finding a ready market and a good name in many countries. The site at Kun Tong, which is away from the city's residential area yet conveniently situated for transport, should permit a further considerable expansion of Hong Kong's manufacturing industries.

In 1847 the Governor, Sir John Francis Davis, caused to be buried under the foundation stone of the Colonial Secretariat, then about to be constructed, a metal cannister containing Victorian coins dated 1843 and 1844 and the engraved brass plate which is illus- trated opposite page 13. These were discovered in January when the old building was demolished. It is now learned with interest that the old Secretariat, which was built in the Colonial style with spacious rooms. which clearly belonged to an age more leisurely than our own was to cost £14,300 3s. 10d. The new Central Government Office which has less character but more activity than its predecessor, and contains many of the departments of Government as well as the Colonial Secretariat, was about one-third finished at the end of 1954.

9

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

There were no significant changes in the Colony's economic position in 1954. Commodity prices were slightly lower and the volume of visible trade was maintained at more or less the same level as last year. Imports and exports for the last four months of 1954 showed promising gains and the figures exceeded those for the corresponding period last year by $132 million (£8 million). Once again the mainland of China was the Colony's major supply source and best customer. China supplied 20 per cent of the Colony's total imports and took 16 per cent of total exports. The correspond- ing percentages last year were 22 per cent and 20 per cent respectively.

The values of imports and exports which may be compared with the 1953 figures in brackets were :-

Imports $3,435 million=£215 million ($3,871 million = £242 million)

Exports $2,417

)

=£151

""

($2,734

-£171

In spite of an estimated 10 per cent drop in export prices the total value of exports of Hong Kong manu- factures rose by 7 per cent. This compares favourably with the United Kingdom where the increase was 4% and with the whole world where the average increase was 6%. The most outstanding increase was in Japan with 17 per cent, and Japan is the Colony's keenest competitor in overseas markets. The main gains in Hong Kong exports last year were cotton piece goods ($20 million), enamel ware ($16 million), electric torches ($8 million), shirts ($8 million) and footwear ($7 million). To overcome import restrictions in certain countries in South East Asia, some Hong Kong manufacturers are establishing factories in these countries. There are already seven factories in Indonesia financed from Hong

10

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

Kong and ten more are under construction. Sixteen factories have been built in Thailand, five in Singapore and two in Japan. This development has disadvantages as well as advantages.

More information about Hong Kong's trade and expanding industries is given in the chapters on Com- merce and Production later in this report. The retail price index for all items (with March, 1947 = 100) fell ten points from 125 in December, 1953 to 115 in December, 1954. The following are comparative figures for the last years:

June September December

March

1951

117

119

121

120

1952

119

119

123

118

1953

115

119

130

125

1954

120

118

122

115

......

The rapid decrease in the last quarter of 1954 resulted from falls in prices of imported rice and from greatly improved supplies of other food-stuffs, mainly pork, poultry and eggs from China.

With one important exception there was little labour trouble during the year. The exception was the dispute between the Hong Kong Tramways Company and the Hong Kong Tramways Union which arose over the discharge of 31 workers who had become redundant as a result of technical reorganization in the Company. Batches of workers had been discharged on several occasions prior to this particular group but only formal protests from the Union had been received, it so hap- pened, however, that this group included the Chairman and Vice Chairman of the Union. A campaign of

11

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

agitation and recrimination was carried on by the Union, but it now seems to have spent its force without getting the expected degree of support from the workers, and the only inconvenience caused to the public was two short token strikes on the tramways and one 15 minute sympathy strike by motor bus drivers.

In the sphere of politics the unsettled situation in the Far East still gave cause for anxiety at times, but public confidence in Hong Kong was maintained. It should be stated, however, that Hong Kong's teeming population, busy earning its daily bread, is perhaps less worried by the delicacy of its position in the Far East than outside observers. Despite the failure to reach a political settlement in Korea, the continued détente there and the ceasefire in Indo-China, arranged at the Geneva Conference, brought a welcome respite. from active hostilities in East and South-east Asia and hopes that further conflict might be avoided. Business- men, however, remained cautious in their estimates of any relaxation of the restrictions still impeding the Colony's trade.

The agreement between Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Central People's Government of China to the appointment of a Chargé d'Affaires with diplomatic status in London eased rela- tions with that country to some extent, although so far as Hong Kong is concerned, the Chinese Government remained aloof. There were a number of frontier incidents, of which the most serious was the detention by the Chinese authorities in June of the yacht "Elinor" and its crew of nine Royal Naval Officers and ratings. while on a holiday cruise, and the disappearance into Chinese waters of a Police patrol launch in July. After

12

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Photo: Overseas Chinese Daily News

This informal photograph of Sir Alexander Grantham, Governor of Hong Kong, was taken as he left the Colony in July 1954. Before he returned in November he had toured the United States of America, where he gave talks and lectures about Hong Kong to large audiences in principal American cities, and appeared on broadcast and television programmes.

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A building almost as old as the Colony it- self disappeared in the summer when the old Colonial Secretariat was demolished to make room for the main block of the new Central Government Offices, the first wing of which (bottom pic- ture) has been in use since the end of 1953.

CO

Workmen excavating the site found the bronze circular plaque (at right) which commemorates the laying of the old building's foundation stone in 1847. The plaque covered a metal canister containing five contemporary coins. The inscription records that the foundation stone was laid on the 24th day of February 1847 by Sir John Francis Davis, Bart., the "Governor and Commander in Chief, Hong Kong, and Vice Admiral of the same, Her Majesty's plenipotentiary in China". The cost of the building "(being intended for Govern- ment offices)" was estimated at £14,300. 3s. 10d.

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

representations in Peking by H.M. Chargé d'Affaires both the yacht and its crew and the launch were, in due course, returned by the local Chinese authorities to Hong Kong.

On July 23rd, to the alarm and dismay of people all over the world, a Cathay Pacific Airways passenger aircraft on a flight from Bangkok to Hong Kong was shot down by Chinese fighters off Hainan Island with the loss of ten lives. The Central People's Government admitted responsibility and have now paid compensation amounting to £367,000. But the case of the Royal Naval launch fired on in the Pearl River Estuary in September, 1953, and the claim for compensation lodged with the Central People's Government by Her Majesty's Government, is still outstanding.

Interference with British merchant shipping bound to and from Hong Kong by vessels under the control of the Chinese Nationalist authorities in Formosa has continued and, as before, H.M. ships gave protection where possible and protests and claims were lodged with the Nationalist authorities.

Relations with the neighbouring Portuguese Colony of Macao have remained close and friendly. The Governor of Macao, Rear-Admiral Joachim Marques Esparteiro, spent two weeks' holiday in the Colony during the summer, and the decoration bestowed on him later in the year by his Government gave pleasure here.

The visit to the United Kingdom, after the Geneva Conference, of a trade delegation from the Central People's Government was followed with interest, and a

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

number of firms with Hong Kong interests were repre- sented on the British Trade Mission which visited Peking in November. Although the value of contracts signed by members of the mission was not high, the contract made with Chinese commercial interests has been welcomed by local businessmen and it is hoped that this may open the way for an increase of mutual trade in non-strategic commodities.

Hong Kong is the principal point of contact between Communist China and the democratic world. It also provides a vantage point from which the curious. can look at the mainland of China. Amongst important visitors in transit was the Rt. Hon. C. R. Attlee, O.M., C.H., M.P., the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons, who was leading a Labour Party delega- tion to Peking, consisting of eight members, including Dr. Edith Summerskill, Mr. Aneurin Bevan and Mr. W. Burke. Mr. Chou En Lai also stopped in the Colony briefly on June 30th on his return to China after the Geneva Conference. Another visit by Members of Parliament was made in September by a delegation of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association led by the Rt. Hon. R. Assheton. This included Sir Roland Robinson, Sir Robert Boothby, Mr. Percy Morris and The Rev. R. Sorenson. Their desire to see conditions in Hong Kong and to under- stand the complex problems of the Colony was greatly. appreciated. A further delegation of the Common- wealth Parliamentary Association including Lord Baden Powell and Lord Noel Buxton and six Members of Parliament stopped for a short while in December. Lord Rowallen, the Chief Scout, spent a week in the Colony in September. Several visitors came from the Colonial Office to observe the work of Government;

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

Sir Thomas Lloyd, Permanent Under Secretary of State for the Colonies, and Lady Lloyd in January, Mr. W. H. Chinn, Social Welfare Advisor to the Colonial Office in May, and in December, Sir John Martin, Assistant Under Secretary of State for the Colonies. Represen- tatives of the film world were Mr. Danny Kaye on a goodwill tour for U.N.I.C.E.F., Miss Ava Gardner and Mr. Clark Gable.

In addition to the various public figures who have visited Hong Kong, there has been an increasing flow of visitors to the Colony on holidays, business and shopping. A survey carried out during the year to assess the magnitude of the tourist traffic suggests that the business value of tourism to the Colony at the present time is not less than $145 million per year and that, given the right encouragement, tourism could be- come one of the Colony's leading industries. Action is being taken to promote overseas publicity for Hong Kong.

The Governor of Hong Kong, Sir Alexander Grantham, G.C.M.G. and Lady Grantham, left the Colony on home leave in May and returned via the United States of America where the Governor gave a number of lectures to promote an understanding of the Colony's problems in that country. During his absence. the Colony was administered by Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E. whose appointment as Governor of Singapore in succession to Sir John Nicholl

Nicholl was announced in December.

15

Chapter 2

Population

When in January, 1841 the British first landed on Hong Kong Island the total population was about. 2,000 persons engaged in fishing or farming, but shortly afterwards the population began to increase and by the middle of 1841 the population was about 6,000. The population grew steadily for the next 100 years, and Hong Kong developed into a large city and port, with a population estimated at 1,600,000 before the Japanese attack on the Colony in December 1941. When the Colony was liberated in 1945 the population had been reduced to between 500,000 and 600,000, but the next three years saw a large influx of people from China, largely of young men and women looking for employ- ment. In 1948 the population was estimated to be 1,800,000. The civil war in China increased the flow of refugees into Hong Kong in 1949 and 1950, and although some of these later returned to China when conditions became more settled, large numbers preferred to remain in the Colony.

In addition to the great influxes of recent years the population has been further increased by a rapidly rising birth rate. The difference between the annual rate of registered births and deaths, which increased from 29,000 in 1947 to 64,000 in 1954, has added a total of 365,000 to the population in the past eight years, and if the number of births continues to increase as it has done since 1947 the excess of births over deaths

16

Millions

2.4

2.2

2.0

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

POPULATION

GROWTH OF POPULATION

11

1.0

.8

.6

CESSION OF

KOWLOON

.4

.2

NG KO

.0

OCCUPATION PERIOD

共圖

INCLUDING

NEW TERRITORIES

40 1850 60 70 80 90 1900 10 20

L

30 40 1950

in the next decade may well reach 800,000. Registered births in 1954 totalled 83,317 and deaths 19,283 and at the end of the year the population was probably about 2 millions.

The Chinese population is predominantly of Cantonese origin, but economic and political changes on the mainland in recent years have brought to the Colony large numbers of people from other parts of China,

17

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

especially from Shanghai. There are approximately 15,000 non-Chinese permanently resident in the Colony, including about 9,500 British subjects from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth but excluding Services personnel and their dependants. The Portuguese, excluding those of British nationality, number about 850, the Americans, the next largest community, 300, and the Dutch about 80. In all, about 50 different nationalities are represented in the non-Chinese com- munity.

The indigenous population of the New Territories is composed of Cantonese and Hakka, with a sprinkling of Hoklo. The farmers comprise Cantonese, mainly settled, some families for several hundred years, in the comparatively fertile western plains, and Hakka, who are at present found mainly in the more difficult hilly land on the eastern side of the peninsula, and are generally believed to have occupied these areas for less than two hundred years. If it is correct that the Hakka are the later arrivals, then they would appear to have occupied any potentially arable land disregarded by the Cantonese, and to have penetrated in long fingers from the eastern side of the New Territories down into the south-west of the mainland and out on to the islands. The two sections maintain excellent relations, and the old custom barring intermarriages between Cantonese and Hakka is no longer observed. It is now not rare to find Hakka wives in Cantonese families and vice versa, and there are few Hakka youths who cannot speak Cantonese.

Certain occupations are predominantly Cantonese or Hakka; for instance, the oyster fisheries are entirely Cantonese, while the manufacture of bean-curd and

18

POPULATION

the quarrying of stone are, or were, primarily the sphere. of the Hakka. Farmers of both sections, when they live on or near the sea, combine fishing with agriculture, though unlike the boat people their homes remain in their villages even though they may spend nights away on the water. Their women seldom go fishing.

As a result of post-war conditions in the interior, Chinese from many provinces of China can

now be found in the more accessible parts of the New Territories as vegetable, pig and poultry farmers. They have also contributed their share to the recent development of built-up areas.

In the New Territories, sailing and rowing boats, and the people who live in them, fall into three classes: the genuine Cantonese boat people (the Tanka), the genuine Hoklo boat people and the small passenger and fishing craft used mainly by Hakka farmers. The- first two classes live mainly by fishing and use dis- tinctive types of boat. The third class, used largely for ferry work on the eastern (Hakka) side of the peninsula, are stoutly built, with hulls high out of the water along their whole length, and a single mast. The Hoklo are a small but virile minority, sailing and rowing the fastest boats; the men often speak Cantonese and Hakka in addition to their own language, and they live mostly in the eastern New Territories, in Tide Cove, Tolo Harbour, and Starling Inlet.

The biggest fishing port is Cheung Chau, but the only place where the boat people live ashore is at Tai O, where hundreds of huts on piles cover the shores of the creeks.

19

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Industrial expansion into the New Territories, chiefly at Tsun Wan and further along the south-west coast of the mainland, has introduced a new element of Shanghai labourers. Post-war mining activities have attracted a heterogeneous conglomeration of men from many parts of China, including the north-west. New road construction has brought in numbers of hardy Hakka, especially from the Ng Wah district of Kwangtung Province.

20

Chapter 3

Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization

Employment

There was steady industrial development during the year, with textiles, metal products and transport equipment (including shipyards) maintaining the lead as the principal sources of industrial employment. In the textile group, cotton spinning increased from 13 mills employing 9,881 workers to 17 mills employing 11,513. Three new mills are under construction and plans for installing additional spindles in five of the mills now operating will bring the total number of spindles to nearly 300,000. There was also a slight but steady increase in employment in factories manu- facturing plastics, enamelware, rubber shoes, leather footwear, umbrellas, cigarettes, and metal blanks for the enamelware industry.

New developments during the year included the establishment of a large modern flour mill and the manufacture of aluminium hand torch cases by the cold extrusion process. In spite of considerable industrial development in Tsun Wan in the New Territories, the distribution of industrial premises remains at about one. on the Island to each two in Kowloon and the New Territories, and the following figures for employment in registered and recorded factories and workshops for the past five years show the steady rate of development.

21

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Establishments Males Females Total

1950

1,752

57,596 34,390

91,896

1951

1,961

62,192

33,015

95,207

1952

2,088

63,093

35,933

98,216

1953

2,208

65,047

35,729

100,766

1954

2,494

72,011

43,442 115,453

In addition to workers in registered and recorded fac- tories and workshops, it is estimated that there are about 100,000 persons engaged in small unregistrable. concerns, cottage industries, and as outworkers.

Approximate figures for other major sources of employment are:-

Agriculture

Building Construction

Fishing

Government Service

Public Transport

200,000

200,000

50,000

29,000

25,000

Applications from employers to recruit local work- men for work overseas were slightly higher than in previous years. A total of 1,554 manual labourers went abroad during the year and contracts drawn up to International Labour Organization specifications were read and explained to all of them before embarkation. The majority went to Brunei, North Borneo and Sarawak for work in the oil fields or in the building trade, while others went to the phosphate mines on Nauru, Ocean Island and Christmas Island. A number of skilled textile workers went to the Argentine. Other factory workers left for Indonesia and there was a demand from Singapore for fishermen.

22

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

The following table shows the number of factories and workshops registered under the Factories and Workshops Ordinance for the past five years. Recorded establishments, i.e. premises not liable to registration but kept under observation and inspected for industrial health and safety reasons, are not included.

Applications under

Premises Registered

Total

consideration

1950

1,244

328

1,572

1951

1,344

402

1,746

1952

1,504

347

1,851

1953

1,657

468

2, 125

1954

1,812

569

2,381

Wages and Conditions of Employment

Wages

The welcome increase in the number of factories in operation not only affected the general level of employment but also served in some measure to check the tendency apparent in 1953 for wages to fall. In European type concerns such as the two major dock- yards and the public utility companies wages remained unchanged and no further consolidation of allowances into basic wages was made. Wages for daily paid workers remained approximately at the 1953 level as follows:

Skilled workmen

Semi-skilled workmen

Unskilled workmen

$6.00-$8.50

$5.00-$6.50

$3.00-$5.00

23

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Government wages and salaries were reviewed by a Salaries Commission which started work in November, 1953, and issued its report in March, 1954. Govern- ment found some of the recommendations unacceptable, but a modified scheme of salary revision, based on the Commission's proposals but including a larger measure of consolidation, received the approval in principle of the Secretary of State for the Colonies by the end of the year. An advance announcement was made just before Christmas of the revised salaries and allowances for monthly paid Government workers in the unskilled, semi-skilled and artisan groups and for disciplined staff generally. No change was proposed for daily rates of pay but Government announced its intention of trans- ferring daily paid workers to the more favourable monthly rates after a specified period of qualifying service. The new monthly salaries resulted in an increase varying from $17 to $40 per month for the lower category of workers and brought the total emolu- ments of Government staff into closer relationship with those of workers in public utility companies.

Working hours

The 48 hour week is standard in European concerns and in Chinese concerns run on western lines. In public utilities and some of the cotton spinning mills a system of three 8 hour shifts is used. In such concerns where a continuous supply must be main- tained, rest days are arranged in rotation, so that Sunday is only one of seven rest days, but in manu- facturing concerns the rest day is usually Sunday.

Some Chinese concerns, and in particular the building trade, favour a 7 day week and this is sometimes coupled with a 9 hour day.

These long

24

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

hours are popular with workers since wages are corres- pondingly greater, and the speed of working tends to be slower. Hours of work for women and young persons are regulated by law.

Cost of Living

Such an

The Government, most European concerns and some Chinese employers whose businesses are run on Western lines pay a variable cost of living allowance to their staff in addition to basic wages. allowance was essential in the unsettled conditions following the war but a number of firms have since consolidated a substantial portion of the variable allowances into basic wages, retaining only a small amount as a cushion against price fluctuations. Two indices are published regularly by the Government Statistician. The Food and Fuel Index by which the variable allowances of most manual workers are calculated is based on the market price of a number of staple articles of food and of firewood. It fell from about $15 at the beginning of the year to $13 at its close which is the lowest since early 1947 and was mainly due to the steady fall in rice prices. The Retail Price Index which reflects price variations in a wider range of commodities and services and is com- monly used in assessing cost of living allowances for white collar workers and higher grades of staff stood at 125 in December, 1953, but dropped slowly after some fluctuation in the late summer and autumn to 115 at the close of 1954.

One of the changes arising from the Government's salary revision scheme announced late in 1954 was that the variable allowances for all Government monthly

25

·

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

paid staff would in future be based on movements in the Retail Price Index and that the use of the Food and Fuel Index would be discontinued except in connexion with the allowances of daily rated staff.

Where no cost of living allowances are paid, "take home" pay, if not based on piece rates, generally tends to follow fluctuations in the cost of living, although a number of Chinese firms, particularly in the cotton spinning industry, provide free dormitory accommoda- tion and food either free or at subsidized rates, thus protecting their workers against price variations in what is the most important item of their budget.

Labour Department

The main functions of the Labour Department. consist of conciliation and mediation in industrial disputes, the inspection and registration of industrial establishments, the enforcement of health and safety precautions in such establishments and the investiga- tion of accident reports, the protection of women and young persons employed in industry, the administra- tion of the legislation Bfor workmen's compensation, the protection of emigrant workers, the registration of trade unions and the administration of the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance. The Department also ensures, in so far as is possible, the observance of International Labour Organization Conventions.

The Department was represented on an interde- partmental committee on industrial development whose recommendations for a large scale reclamation scheme to the east of Kowloon Bay to provide additional factory

26

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

sites, were accepted by Government. The administra- tion of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance which was enacted at the end of 1953 added considerably to the work both of Labour Officers and of the Labour Inspectorate, particularly during the early months. before employers had become familiar with the routine procedure involved. In the field of industrial health a medical officer was temporarily posted to the Depart- ment for preliminary survey work. The movement of labour overseas continued and at the beginning of the year a Labour Officer visited British North Borneo, Brunei and Sarawak to observe and discuss conditions of service for Chinese workmen.

Advice on trade union management, internal or- ganization and accounting procedure continued to be given by a Labour Officer who also organized classes. on the basic principles of trade unionism. The formal side of trade union work relating to the registration of unions and the enforcement of the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance had for some time been separated within the Department from the advisory side. but in December this division was emphasized by the establishment of an independent Registry of Trade Unions Department under a Registrar, a function hitherto exercised by the Commissioner of Labour.

Industrial Relations

Labour Organization

For the first time since the enactment of the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance the number of registered trade unions showed a decrease. The total number of registered unions at the end of the year

27

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

was 297, of which 223 were workers' unions, 70 were employers' associations and 4 were mixed unions of both employers and workers. Only 5 new unions were registered during the year, 3 of workers and 2 of employers, but the registration of 6 workers' unions was cancelled and one workers' union and one employers' association were dissolved. It is possible that the maxi- mum number of registrations has been reached and there may well be a further decrease in future years. A large number of workers' unions are now operating with few members and scanty funds and some may soon cease to exist. Sectional differences, personal antago- nisms and wide divergences of political views continue to divide unions of the same trade and there have been no moves towards amalgamation during the year, although amalgamation might well benefit many of the smaller unions.

Political considerations continue to form the biggest obstacle to the development of effective trade unionism in the Colony. The trade union movement is split into two main factions, one supporting the Central People's Government and the other the Chinese Nationalist Government. There are a number of nominally inde- pendent unions which are not officially affiliated to either of the two main groups but few of these keep entirely clear of one faction or the other.

The Trades Union Council (T.U.C.), which sup- ports the Chinese Nationalist Government in Formosa, still commands the support of the largest number of unions but its member unions are weak, ineffective and do little for their worker members. Some have been guilty of abuses in the operation of their rules and in the handling of their accounts and several have been

28

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

raided by the police for gambling on their premises. The T.U.C. is affiliated to the International Confedera- tion of Free Trade Unions (I.C.F.T.U.) but little is done to propagate the aims of this organization and few members of the affiliated unions have any idea of the objects for which it stands.

The left wing Federation of Trade Unions (F.T.U.) faithfully follows the policies of the Central People's Government. The F.T.U. has recently gained a certain amount of support by its concentration on the provision of welfare benefits not only for the members of its affiliated unions but for non-members as well, a policy which is prompted by political motives. The affiliated unions manipulate their rules and their finances in support of the policy of the F.T.U. and while these unions are run more effectively than the T.U.C. unions, this is done in their own political interests rather than from any interest in genuine trade unionism.

While the Registration Branch continued to ad- minister the Trade Union Ordinance until a separate Registry of Trade Unions Department was set up in December, 1954, the Trade Union Section of the Labour Department concentrated on advising trade unions on the drafting of rules, the keeping of accounts and the general administration of their affairs. Advice and education in trade union principles were, as in the past, considered the most effective means of combatting abuses and raising standards.

During the year classes in accountancy for trade unions were given both in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Each class consisted of four 1 hour lectures and representatives of 24 unions attended. The Trade

29

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Union Section also gave lectures at a boys' college and to a Teachers' Refresher Course at a Regional Seminary.

The most important part of the trade union educa- tion programme consisted of the classes on basic trade union problems started late in 1953. At the end of September, 1954, 27 unions had participated in these classes and several had joined in more than one of the series. As this form of education reaches the rank and file of union members, its importance cannot be over-emphasized and the series of classes have been reorganized with an improved syllabus and two women teachers have been included in the panel of lecturers. By the end of the year 19 trade unions had enrolled for the new series, 18 of which had not previously participated.

For the third successive year representatives from trade unions in Hong Kong attended the I.C.F.T.U. college in Calcutta for a three months' study course in trade unionism. The I.C.F.T.U. also organized two training classes in the Colony during the summer, the first of which was reasonably successful.

Collective Agreements

Although a number of agreements are in force and are working satisfactorily, no new agreement was negotiated during the year. Attempts were made to negotiate an agreement at the Fung Keong Rubber Manufactory Ltd., the largest and oldest rubber factory in the Colony, but they were not successful. The demands from the workers would have increased labour costs by at least 50% in a concern already paying the highest wages in a highly competitive industry.

30

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Labour Disputes and Stoppages

There were singularly few stoppages of work in 1954 and the year's record was inferior only to 1952 when no more than 195 man days were lost. Conditions were comparatively stable and except in one instance left wing unions continued their policy of trying to attract more members by emphasis on welfare activities rather than by intervention in industrial disputes. The activities of right wing unions were, however, respons- ible for the loss of 930 man days in two unsuccessful strikes.

The only instance of active participation by left wing unions in an industrial dispute occurred in the campaign against the management of the Hong Kong Tramways, Ltd., on the question of termination of services for redundancy. At the end of the war this Company was faced with the necessity of undertaking an extensive rehabilitation programme covering its This permanent way, rolling stock and equipment. programme entailed the engagement of many additional workers, and extra traffic staff was also engaged to deal with the increased traffic for the expanding population. of the Colony. The rehabilitation programme is nearing completion and this, coupled with mechanical improve- ments to rolling stock such as pneumatically operated gates, has made a number of workers redundant. The Company has been laying off batches of workers over the last two years and in July, 1954 it dispensed with the services of 31 traffic men, among whom were the Chairman and the Vice-Chairman of the Tramway Workers' Union. All men laid off on the ground of redundancy have been given due wages in lieu of notice and a retiring gratuity of 10% of a year's basic pay

31

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

for every year of service, irrespective of the length of time they have been employed by the Company. This retiring gratuity is normally given only to men who retire after completing 10 ten years' service. The Tramway Workers' Union is a registered union but is not recognized by the management as representing the workers. The management withdrew recognition from this union in 1950, on the grounds that it did not genuinely represent the interests of the workers, was continually guilty of gross misrepresentation and falsi- fication of reports and maintained its position by means of political intimidation and threats against the workers' relatives in China.

The earlier cases of redundancy dismissals had produced fomal protests from the union, but their reaction to the July dismissals was more positive. It took the form of an attack on the principle of an employer's right to stop employing redundant workers and the union demanded that the matter should be settled by mediation or compulsory arbitration. The Tramway management refused to compromise or to submit to arbitration on the question of principle. They stated, however, that they would welcome an independent Commission of Inquiry to go into all the facts of the dispute, including the facts relating to their withdrawal of recognition from the union so that the public might have the opportunity of forming its own judgment on this matter. The union were not prepared to welcome the appointment of such a Commission. Since there is no prospect of mediation or voluntary arbitration in this dispute, and since there is no pro- vision in Hong Kong for compulsory arbitration, it follows that the dispute will have to be settled between the union and the management.

32

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

At the end of the year, union action had still been confined mainly to an extensive press and propaganda campaign aimed at arousing public sympathy, but there have been two token strikes-one of two hours on 1st September and one of approximately 24 hours on 10th October-which received partial support from the workers.

Minor Disputes

The number of minor disputes dealt with during the year was 1,418, a figure nearly 10% less than that of the previous year. As in past years, the number of cases dealt with monthly was at its highest at the beginning of the year and gradually declined towards the end of the year. This is due to the traditional custom of employers making their staff changes at the beginning of the year.

Labour Legislation

The Workmen's Compensation (Amendment) Or- dinance, 1954, which was passed in December, 1954, brought locally-engaged civilian employees of the three Armed Services within the scope of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, 1953, and gave the Commis- sioner of Labour authority to approve payment of compensation where the amount to be paid had been agreed by both parties. Fatal cases and disputed cases continue to be dealt with by the District Courts.

Safety, Health and Welfare

In addition to registered premises, there are approx- imately 300 recorded establishments and other industrial undertakings subject to inspection by labour inspectors

33

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

for purposes of safety, health and welfare or in con- nexion with the employment of women and young persons. The same reasons require that inspectors extend their activities to the hundreds of cottage industries in domestic buildings and squatter areas. A total of 15,085 visits were made by the inspectorate during the year. Of these 2,323 were in connexion with industrial and occupational accidents and work- men's compensation; 667 were night visits to industrial premises in connexion with the employment of women and young persons in prohibited hours; 831 were visits to young persons employed in industry; 103 were wage inquiries and 92 were visits to apprentices. The remain- ing 11,069 were routine inspections of workplaces for the enforcement of safety, health and welfare provisions.

During the year 1,714 occupational and industrial accidents (92 fatal) involving 1,748 persons were reported and investigated. Of these, 1,143 (20 fatal) were in factories and workshops. This is a total increase of 1,077 (45 fatal) and in factories and workshops, an increase of 671 (6 fatal). The accident frequency rate for industrial workers has increased from 4.6 to 6 per thousand workers and fatalities from 0.13 to 0.16 per thousand. The considerable increase in recorded acci- dents, although due in part to the increased number of industrial establishments, is mainly the result of increased reporting brought about by the provisions. of the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance.

Workmen's Compensation

The Workmen's Compensation Ordinance came into force on 1st December, 1953, and 1954 was the first full year of operation. Over 1,700 cases were dealt

34

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

with and more than $320,000 was paid out in compen- sation. The Ordinance requires an employer to pay half wages for periods of temporary incapacity but many employers in fact pay wages in full as well as medical expenses and the cost of artificial limbs where an employee loses a limb in an industrial accident.

Industrial Training

Apprenticeship and Vocational Training

Craft apprenticeship within the Government service is provided by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, the Public Works Department in its electrical, mechanical and waterworks branches, the Stores Department in its workshops and by the Printing Department. Outside Government apprenticeship training schemes are oper- ated by the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. Ltd., the Royal Naval Dockyard, by the public utilities and by a number of other European and Chinese firms. Encouragement is given by these concerns to appren- tices to attend technical classes and financial help is sometimes given.

Apprenticeship is common in Chinese industrial establishments but with a few exceptions systematic training and supervision are lacking. Usually the apprentice is excepted to acquire his skill by watching and imitating skilled workers.

Vocational training classes for coxswains and engineers are operated by the Marine Department for Government employees and by the Fisheries Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry for fishermen. These were well attended and

35

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

in 1954 217 fishermen obtaining their certificates of competency as coxswains and 20 as engineers. Voca- tional classes are also run by different industrial undertakings and by various organizations such as trade unions.

During the year a Standing Committee on Tech- nical Education and Vocational Training was appointed by the Governor and met several times. Its terms of reference were (i) to keep under constant review the current facilities for, and the varying requirements of, technical education and vocational training with parti- cular reference to commerce and industry; and (ii) to advise Government on the steps to be taken to meet these requirements and on all other general matters relating to technical education and vocational training.

36

Chapter 4

Public Finance and Taxation

Revenue and Expenditure

The revenue and expenditure figures since 1st April, 1951 are as follows:

1951/52

....

1952/53

1953/54

1954/55 (Estimate)...

Surplus

Revenue Expenditure

$

$

$

308,564,248 275,855,951 32,708,297

484,590,446 411,749,658 72,840,788

396,881,967 355,407,771 41,474,196

389,480,000 388,262,050 1,217,950

It should be noted however that the figures for both revenue and expenditure for 1952/53 include a sum of $100,000,000 which was transferred from the General Revenue Balance to establish a Revenue Equaliza- tion Fund. A further contribution to this fund of $26,000,000 was charged to expenditure in 1953/54 and the fund now stands at $137,414,761. The General Revenue Balance at the 31st March, 1954 was $242,436,594 and a statement showing the Assets and Liabilities of the Colony at that date is at Appendix III.

Revenue for 1953/54 exceeded the estimate by $48,239,267. The largest single excess was Earnings and Profits Tax with $14,470,451 over the estimate, which may be

may be largely attributed to the Inland Revenue Department's progress in dealing with arrears of assessments. Another large excess was on the

37

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

sub-head of Interest; this amounted to $6,595,761, and was due to the greater sums available for investment. Details of the main heads of Revenue are given in Appendix IV.

Expenditure for 1953/54 exceeded the estimate by $27,237,952, the gross increase of $64,821,813 being partially offset by savings of $37,583,861. Details of the main heads of Expenditure are given in Appendix V.

The greater part of the excess came under the head, Miscellaneous Services, and amounted to $50,131,339. There were four unforeseen items under this head: a further contribution of $25,000,000 to the Revenue Equalization Fund; $14,000,000 to the Development Fund; $6,805,074 expended on relief and rehabilitation of the Christmas night fire victims at the Shek Kip Mei Squatter area; $1,935,000 loaned to schools.

Other major items were Post Office expenditure of $3,125,893 owing to increased traffic (this was more than covered by corresponding revenue); and Subventions, amounting to $2,462,471, the largest item being $3,000,000 to the Hong Kong University, partly offset by savings of $537,529 under the same head.

Development Fund expenditure for the financial year was $8,166,333 and now totals $16,216,979 since the inception of the Fund. The Fund no longer bears the cost of the Tai Lam Chung Water Supply Scheme and the expenditure incurred up to the 31st March, 1954, amounting to $12,111,979 was reimbursed out of the $14,000,000 contribution mentioned above.

38

t

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Public Debt

The Public Debt of the Colony at the 31st March, 1954 was as follows:

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1934)

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1940)

31% Rehabilitation Loan (raised in 1947/48).

$ 3,160,000

5,658,000

46,666,000

$ 55,484,000

The two Dollar Loans are each redeemable by twenty-five annual drawings and the Rehabilitation Loan is covered by a Sinking Fund which on the 31st. March, 1954 stood at $13,242, 194, this being the market value of the sterling investments held on behalf of the Fund.

Three loans have been received on behalf of Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes and these are as follows:-

D. 994-Agricultural Village Depots,

Recurrent Expenditure

D. 1066-Vegetable Market Lorries

D. 1967-Mechanization of Fishing Fleet

$ 148,000

300,000

204,000

$ 652,000

The first two loans have been passed on to the Vegetable Marketing Organization and $83,455 of the third has been issued to fishermen. Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare locally administered schemes are given in detail in Appendix II.

39

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Earnings and Profits Tax

This tax which is a substitute for the more orthodox type of income tax was first imposed by the Inland Revenue Ordinance (now Cap. 112) in 1947. It falls into four separate taxes, brief details of which are given below. In each case the amount levied is limited to tax on the specified income or profits, arising in or derived from the Colony. The standard rate of tax for the 1954/55 year of assessment is 12%; this rate has remained unchanged since 1950/51.

*

The four separate taxes are as follows:

(1) Profits Tax (sub-divided into Corporation Profits Tax and Business Profits Tax), which is charged at the standard rate on all companies or businesses carrying on business in the Colony. In the case of unincorporated busi- nesses no tax is payable if the profits do not exceed $7,000.00. Otherwise tax is payable in full on all Hong Kong profits.

(2) Salaries and Annuities Tax which is charged on Hong Kong residents in respect of income from employment. This tax is charged at graduated rates, ranging from one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000.00 of net chargeable income to double the standard rate on net chargeable income exceeding $45,000.00. In arriving at net chargeable income the follow- ing allowances are first deducted-

(a) Personal allowance-$7,000.00

(b) An allowance for a wife-$5,000.00

40

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

(c) Child allowance ranging from $2,000.00 for the first child to $200.00 for the ninth child.

The maximum charge, however, is limited to tax at the standard rate on the total assessable income without the deduction of any allowances. (3) Interest Tax which is charged at the standard rate on most interest payments. It is normally collected from the payer of the interest, who deducts it at source from the interest paid.

(4) Property Tax which is charged at half the standard rate on the net rateable value of all land and buildings situated in the Colony.

As an alternative to these separate taxes a resident of the Colony may elect to be personally assessed on his total Hong Kong income. A single assessment is then made by allowing similar allowances and charging similar rates of tax as is the case in Salaries and Annuities Tax. A set-off is then allowed for any of the four separate taxes already paid.

Revenue derived from the four taxes in the 1953/54 year of assessment was as follows:

Corporation Profits Tax $58,671,806.43

...

Business Profits Tax

.......

Salaries & Annuities Tax

Interest Tax

Property Tax

Personal Assessment

29,833,743.84

$88,505,550.27

9,635,233.69

2,927,416.13

11,141,772.47

2,260,478.30

Total ....

$114,470,450.86

41

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Estate Duty

Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines at rates varying between 2% in the case of estates valued between $5,000 and $10,000 and 52% in the case of estates valued at over $30,000,000. The total revenue received from this duty during 1953/54 amounted to $4,182,012.35.

Import and Excise Duties

There is no general tariff and for most goods Hong Kong remains a free port, so far as duties levied upon goods for protection or revenue purposes are concerned. There are, however, five groups of commodities, either imported into or-manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, which are treated as sources of revenue and upon which duties are levied under the authority of the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet preparations. and proprietary medicines, and table waters.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at approximately 80% of the rate for non-Empire produce. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further preferential margin over Empire beer. Rates of duty on different types of liquor range from $1.15 per Imperial gallon on locally-brewed beer to $55 per Imperial gallon for liqueurs and brandy not of Empire origin.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco to $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates. are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and manu- facture.

42

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates vary from $104 per ton for heavy diesel oil for road vehicles, to $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and pro- prietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b. price ex-shipping port for imported goods, and 25% of the selling price ex-factory for locally produced goods. Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per Imperial gallon.

on

No dues are levied on exports. Drawback is paid duty-paid commodities manufactured locally if exported from the Colony. The number of general bonded and licensed warehouses is adequate.

43

Chapter 5

Currency and Banking

At the time of Hong Kong's foundation in 1841, China's currency was based on uncoined silver but the normal unit for foreign trade was the Spanish or Mexican dollar. A proclamation of 1842 declared the first legal tender to be the Mexican or "other Republican dollars". Until 1862, however, the Government kept its accounts in sterling, and there were several unsuccessful attempts in this period to change the basis of the Colony's money from silver to gold.

A Hong Kong mint producing a Hong Kong equivalent of the Mexican dollar was set up in 1866, but the new coin was not popular and the mint was closed in 1868, the machinery being sold to establish the first modern mint in Japan.

In 1895 in pursuance of Her Majesty's Order in Council dated 2nd February in that year a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was minted in India and gradually replaced the Mexican dollar in current use, although the latter remained legal tender and the standard by which other dollars were judged. The sterling or gold value of the dollar varied with the price of silver, giving Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large but a reasonably stable one with China.

In 1845 the Oriental Bank issued the first banknotes. in the Colony, and was followed by the Chartered Bank

44

CURRENCY AND BANKING

of India, Australia and China, the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India, and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Although not legal tender these notes became more and more the customary means of payment because of the inconvenience of dealing with large amounts of silver and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance of 1895 restricted the issue of banknotes to specifically authorized banks-the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China-the Oriental Bank having closed its doors and the Chartered Mercantile Bank of India having reorganized. In 1911 the reorganized Mercantile Bank of India was added to the list of authorized note-issuing banks.

The rising price of silver from 1931 onwards forced China to abandon the silver standard in 1935 and Hong Kong followed. By the Currency Ordinance of that year, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note-issuing banks were obliged to surrender in exchange for certificates. of indebtedness all silver previously held by them against their note issues. These certificates, which are non-interest bearing and are issued or redeemed at the discretion of the Financial Secretary, became the legal backing for the notes issued by the note-issuing banks, apart from their fiduciary issues. The silver sur- rendered by the banks was used to set up an exchange fund, which in practice keeps its assets in the form of sterling and operates in a similar manner to the normal Colonial Currency Board. The Ordinance also made. the banknotes legal tender. At the same time the Government undertook to issue one-dollar currency

45

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

notes to replace the silver dollars in circulation; these are backed by a Note Security Fund, which maintains its assets partly in sterling and partly in Hong Kong dollar bank accounts. The Government also issues subsidiary coins to the value of 5, 10¢ and 50¢.

Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at

at approximately 1/3d. sterling, although the banks may deal with the public at a few points on either side of this rate both to allow for a profit margin and, to a slight extent, to meet fluctuations in demand and supply.

The total currency in nominal circulation at 31st December, 1954 was made up as follows:-

Bank note issue

Government $1 note issue

$727,490,640

26,891,500

Subsidiary notes and coin

16,469,783

The Colony has been a part of the sterling area since August 1941. Exchange Control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom, with some modifications necessitated by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepot.

Banking

The Banking Ordinance provides that no institution may engage in banking without obtaining a licence. from the Governor in Council to do so, and that each bank must publish an annual balance sheet. At the end of 1954 there were 94 licensed banks of which 26

46

CURRENCY AND BANKING

were authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Some of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer comprehensive banking facilities to the public. Interbank transactions are facilitated by a clearing house association with 51 members. Monthly clearings in 1954 averaged $1,115,442,488. A list of the banks operating in Hong Kong is given in Appendix X.

There is no licensed bank in the New Territories, although there are several townships of a size which in England would have one or more banks. Safe custody for cash is provided by shops, especially money- changers, and for other banking business it is necessary to travel into Kowloon or Hong Kong.

47

Chapter 6

Commerce

The total value of imports and exports for the year was $5,852 millions, a reduction of $754 millions (11%) compared with the 1953 total. The figures relating to the total volume of imports and exports, however, show an increase and cargo tonnages rose from the 1953 total of 5,021,866 tons to 5,176,256 tons. This difference between the value and volume figures indicates a general decrease in prices during the year. The trend of trade by value and volume from January, 1948 to December, 1954, is illustrated in diagrams between pages 90 and 91.

An encouraging feature of the year was the increase in the value of local products exported, an indication of Hong Kong's growing importance as an industrial centre, despite increased competition in overseas markets. On the other hand, restrictions on trade, consequent upon the banning of all exports of strategic goods to North Korea and China, remained in force during the year.

The value of merchandise imported during 1954 was $3,435 millions, a decrease of 11 per cent compared with the 1953 total of $3,872 millions. Imports from the United States, Belgium and Japan increased considerably but large reductions were recorded for the United Kingdom, China, Thailand and Western Germany.

48

COMMERCE

Tables showing the principal countries from which the Colony imported merchandise in 1954 (see diagram facing page 91) and the principal commodities involved with comparative figures for 1952 and 1953 are at Appendices VI and VIII.

The value of the Colony's exports, which amounted to $2,733 millions in 1953, fell to $2,417 million in 1954, a reduction of 11 per cent. China, Indonesia, Japan and Thailand all recorded greatly reduced values, and although some other countries, notably the United Kingdom and South Korea, increased their imports from Hong Kong, these were insufficient to counterbalance the general decline in exports.

Tables showing the principal countries to which the Colony exported goods in 1954 (see diagram facing page 91), and the principal commodities involved, with comparative figures for 1952 and 1953, are at Appendices VII and IX.

L

Significant Developments

U.S.A.

The increase in imports from the U.S.A. was very largely due to heavier purchases of nylon fabrics. The U.S. Foreign Assets Control Regulations continued to cause difficulties for manufacturers wishing to export local products and the value of these exports to the U.S.A. showed a small increase of just over $1 million.

49

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Indonesia

Compared with 1953, exports to Indonesia were again substantially reduced, maintaining the down- ward trend which began in 1952. In 1952 Indonesia was Hong Kong's second most important entrepot customer, but in 1953 took only third place. However, Indonesia remained the best buyer of Hong Kong produce and purchased more than $154 million worth of goods during the year.

Japan

An agreement between the Japanese and United Kingdom Governments signed in London in January, 1954, resulted in the removal of restrictions on the export of goods of Japanese origin to the Sterling Area and permitted unrestricted import into Hong Kong and re-export to any destination, except for strategic goods. Although the value of imports from Japan showed an increase over 1953, exports decreased considerably. The main items showing an increase in imports were wool, cotton and rayon yarns.

South Korea

One of the most interesting developments during the year was the increase in the value of exports to South Korea by $117 millions. Among the exports of local manufacture were ten fishing trawlers, built to the specifications of the United Nations Korea Reconstruction Agency.

China (Mainland)

The United Nations ban

ban on the export of strategic materials remained in force throughout the year. In spite of the financial loss which these.

50

COMMERCE

controls represent to the Colony, the embargo was most rigidly enforced. Total trade with China declined in comparison with 1953 both in value and volume.

United Kingdom

The value of trade with the United Kingdom fell by $62.1 millions compared with 1953. Imports were $369.3 millions and exports $162.2 millions. The most encouraging feature of this trade is that the export of local manufactures more than doubled in value (from $35.1 millions to $75.1 millions) compared with 1953 but Hong Kong still imports almost two and a half times as much from the United Kingdom as it exports to that country.

Exports of Hong Kong Products

An important feature of the year's trading was the increase in the value of local products exported. The fact that Hong Kong manufactures more than held their own in overseas markets, despite the difficult trading conditions which prevailed throughout the year, indicates that the enterprise of Hong Kong manufacturers and official trade development activities have met with some success. The total value of local exports increased from $635 millions in 1953 to $682 millions in 1954, and amounted to 28 per cent by value of all exports.

Exports to Indonesia, Pakistan and Thailand declined, but there were notable increases in the shipment of Hong Kong products to Africa, South America, Australia, South Korea and the United Kingdom.

The principal local products exported during the year are illustrated in the diagram facing page 90.

51

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Trade Control

In March, as a result of improved anti-smuggling export controls, it became possible to introduce certain simplifications in the procedure for the internal distri- bution of strategic goods. There was no important change in the licensing procedure during the year.

Rationing

On 7th July the retailing of rationed rice was dis- continued as supplies were abundant and on 11th August, Government announced that it had decided to withdraw from the rice trade altogether. This was accomplished by the end of the year and the trade was handed over to approved importers.

Hong Kong Government maintains a London Office at Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.2 and Hong Kong's interests in Japan are dealt with by the First Secretary, Head of the Hong Kong Section, British Embassy, Tokyo.

52

Chapter 7

Production and Marketing

Land

Land Ownership and Tenure

All land in the Colony is held on leasehold tenure granted by the Crown and with one or two rare exceptions, such as some of the existing holdings of the Naval and Military authorities and the Saint John's Cathedral compounds, there is no freehold tenure.

In the early days of the Colony, leases were granted for 75 years, 999 years or 99 years. The present practice is for leases to be granted for a period of 75 years, renewable for one further term of 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. In the New Territories, in order to coincide with the period of the lease from China, which expires on 30th June, 1997, Crown leases are conventionally expressed as being for a term of 75 years from the 1st of July, 1898, renewable for a further term of 24 years, less the last three days.

In recent years, certain groups of the 75 year Crown leases granted in the early years of the Colony, such as rural building lots, in the Victoria Peak district, and Kowloon inland lots on the mainland, have reached the expiry dates. Public statements of Government's policy in regard to the terms and conditions upon which new Crown leases would be granted were made in 1946 and 1949. Terms and conditions for the grant of new leases have already been agreed in a large number of

53

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

these cases, and other leases will become due for renewal in rapidly increasing numbers as further categories fall due. A further statement in 1952, intimated that Government would be prepared to pay ex-gratia compensation for buildings lawfully erected on certain Kowloon inland lots, the leases of which could not be renewed owing to town planning require- ments, and provision is made for possession of such lots to be retained until the land is required by Government. During the last financial year the revenue from renewal of this type of lease was $361,284.

It is Government policy to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction, but in certain instances land necessary for public utilities is sold by private treaty. It has also been the policy to sell land for schools, clinics and certain other charitable purposes by private treaty at preferential rates varying from a purely nominal figure up to market value.

The revenue obtained during the financial year 1953/54 from the sale of land by auction amounted to $2,733,000 while that arising from sale by private treaty, extensions of area and grants in exchange was $2,937,000.

In order to encourage home building, private treaty sales to individuals and to development companies were introduced for a short period but the results were disappointing and have now given way to various schemes for the grant of land at roughly half the market value for the erection of workers' flats. In addition a number of sites, totalling II acres, have been made. available to the two Housing Societies and two sites totalling roughly 10 acres have been made available to

54

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

the Housing Authority while a further 30 acres is under consideration for grant to the Housing Authority for the building of permanent low cost housing. 12 acres have also been made available for the erection of permanent housing for the Resettlement Department and consideration is being given to the allocation of a further 30 acres for this purpose. About 1,000 acres have been set aside as temporary resettlement areas.

Government policy concerning the sale or grant of Crown Land is governed by the scarcity of all types of land. In order to ensure that available Crown Land is put to the best possible use all sales or grants are subject to a covenant to develop the lot within a reason- able period, the amount of expenditure depending on location and type of development allowed. Due to the shortage of land, it has been found difficult in recent years to meet the requirements for schools, clinics, play- grounds, and other public purposes. A survey was carried out in the previous year to facilitate the dis- tribution of available resources and this has been revised as required to provide for increasing demands for various public purposes.

In addition to the covenant providing for develop- ment within a set period, leases also contain clauses controlling the use to which the land shall be put in accordance with planning requirements and providing for the payment of an annual crown rent which is, however, relatively low compared with the economic annual value. Until the lessee has fulfilled the building covenant he is not permitted to sell or mortgage the property, but once he has fulfilled this covenant he is free of these particular restrictions, except where land has been sold by private treaty at preferential rates. In

55

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

this instance, the lessee is required not to dispose of the property and if he ceases to use it for its authorized purpose, it reverts to the Crown.

It will be seen that the basic principle behind the disposal of Crown Land is that the maximum use shall be made of it either industrially, or for the provision of the greatest possible amount of living space compatible with planning requirements. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, because public services are not yet available or where a site is reserved for some future purpose, which cannot be implemented until later, the land is not held out of use but is granted on a temporary annual licence. Some 5,728 such licences for land are in current issue and this policy particularly facilitates the development of small industries. annual revenue exceeding $3,180,000 is obtained from these licences.

Government has recently approved the reclamation of some 78 acres at Kun Tong on the north-east side of the harbour for industrial development and it is hoped that the reclamation will be completed within 3 years. Considerable industrial development is taking place at Tsun Wan in the New Territories involving further reclamation, and plans are in hand for further industrial development in the Gin Drinker's Bay area.

New development programmes often involve the resumption of small agricultural lots and in general it is the policy of Government to pay cash compensation for such resumptions, although rarely in certain special circumstances other land is granted in exchange. In the remoter parts of the island and on the fringe of New Kowloon there are a number of agricultural lots

56

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

used mainly for market gardening. In the New Territories, there is a considerable area of paddy fields, cultivated largely by tenant farmers, but industrial and other development is tending to encroach upon this agricultural land in certain areas.

Land Utilization

Two important projects were completed in the year under review. A land utilization map was prepared by Dr. Tregear of Hong Kong University which depicts, on a scale of 1 in 80,000, built up areas, badly eroded areas, woodlands, grasslands, swamp lands and farm lands. A detailed survey of farm lands was carried out by officers of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry which reveals that 13% of the total land area of the Colony has been developed for agriculture and animal industries.

Cultivated areas are mainly confined to the coastal plain in the northwestern part of the mainland and the numerous small valleys which open out on to the narrow flats. Smaller valleys in the higher country are being developed where soils are good and water supply is adequate. Elsewhere, close to urban market com- munications, hillsides and narrow valleys are being terraced for the raising of vegetable crops.

The nature of the terrain precludes any extensive development of agriculture and the main form of land utilization, involving about 70-80,000 acres, will be by afforestation. This is being carried out as fast as is practicable under an approved forest policy. It is possible that agriculture can be extended over about 40,000 acres or 16% of the total land area and this can

57

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

be accomplished gradually by providing communica- tions and improving irrigation, particularly in the area off Shataukok and Sai Kung and on the island of Lantao. With improved irrigation it is thought that an area of approximately 5,000 acres could be made to produce heavier crops and the problems of water supply for farming are therefore being carefully investi- gated. Considerable improvement in irrigation has already been made with welcome assistance from Colonial Development and Welfare funds.

The planting of forests in the higher country and on land unsuitable for agriculture or tree cropping is of considerable importance to agriculture in Hong Kong. By restricting run-off, valuable water is held back and slowly passes down under control through water channels and irrigation ditches to the crops. The trees are a long-term permanent crop and farmers and villagers in many localities, by combining forestry with agriculture, improve their peasant farming economy.

The latest figures for the land area used for crop- ping are as follows:

Paddy Vegetables Orchards

Miscel- Cultivation laneous Abandoned

Total

Acres

24,576

2,111

1,068

3,006

2,008

32,769

Agriculture

Farms & Farming. Most of the arable land is planted with rice on small holdings which average about acres. There are very few tenant farmers who cultivate land in excess of 3 acres and the few owner- operated farms rarely exceed 5 acres.

The great

2

58

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photo: Chow Kwong Ming

No jobs could be more dissimilar than those of the boiler-maker (above) and the young girl whose deft needle stitches the embroideries for which Hong Kong is famous. Both are typical of the widely differing skills required in the Colony's rapidly developing industries which give employment to thousands of workers.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photo: Mayfair Studios

One of Hong Kong's newest industries is the manufacture of electric clocks. The pictures show (above) assembly of clocks in a modern factory and (below) the clocks being tested for performance and endurance before despatch to the retailer.

&

KONG PUBLIC

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photo: Father Mark Tennien

Half a million people in Hong Kong walk on wooden shoes called "Mook Kek"-a name which sounds like their click-clack rattle on the city streets. The soles are sawn foot-shape from blocks of hard wood (above left); an artist applies ornament (right); while (below) the shopman displays his wares and reckons the day's takings on his abacus.

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Photo: Fred Carter, Seattle

Hong Kong manufacturers are looking further and further afield for fresh markets for their products. The two photographs above were taken on the Hong Kong stand at the Seattle Trade Fair in February, 1954. Below: H. E. The Governor watches first-year students of Northcote Teachers' Training College putting the finishing touches to a fine scale model of the port for display in the "Hall of Harbours and Shipping" at the Durban Centenary Exhibition, 1954.

Photo: Asia Photo Co.

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

majority of farmers are sub-tenants and in many cases sub-tenancies are held through two or three hands. Land is usually rented for a period of one year and rent is charged at the rate of 40%-60% of the rice yield. An arrangement whereby the tenant and the landlord farm in partnership has been in operation for many years in the New Territories and appears to work satisfactorily.

Most farmers grow two crops of rice on irrigated land and, if their farms are close to vegetable collecting centres, or have easy access to the centres, they raise vegetables and sweet potatoes on a portion of the fallow following the second rice crop. The greater use of fallow land for catch cropping depends upon water supply and the ability to maintain fertility by the use of fertilizers. Farmers who concentrate on vegetable production farm small areas which seldom exceed 1 acre and are usually very much smaller but, by intensive cultivation, the use of nightsoil, organic fertilizers and artificial fertilizers, a satisfactory level of production is maintained.

Ploughs, harrows and hand tools are of local origin and give good service. Human labour is plentiful and is used on all forms of farm work including digging, harrowing, seeding, transplanting, spraying, watering and weeding. Most of the work on the small vegetable patches is performed by hand tools and human labour. During the dry weather water is lifted by tread wheels and distributed by watering cans from wells or centrally placed concrete storage pits. The latter are also used as receptacles for diluting nightsoil with water before feeding it to the vegetable plots.

59

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Both vegetable and rice farmers raise some chickens. and pigs and in some places the raising of ducks is increasing, particularly in the areas of brackish water paddy. The general picture is one of clean and inten- sive cultivation of rice and vegetables as the basic crops with the farmers seizing any opportunity to speculate on such sidelines as were profitable in the previous

season.

Farming Techniques. The primitive farm ploughs and harrows give excellent service and there is nothing to be gained by adopting costly western tractors and implements. Fields are no bigger than a tennis court. The working up of tilth by Chinese farmers is not very different from western methods, but, for reasons of economy of land in small holdings, it is not possible. to alternate crop and animal husbandry or even rotate crops or prolong a long fallow period to maintain fertility. Artificial fertilizers are used when they can be afforded and are growing in popularity. On the whole, however, the Chinese farmers rely on traditional fertilizers such as nightsoil, bone meal, ashes, duck feathers, meal cakes and dried pulverized animal Not all the land is worked up for catch crop- ping following the second rice crop and in some localities the land is spelled a little by adopting a form of land rotation for the area under catch crops. Where agricul- tural land must be cultivated intensively the maintenance of fertility on naturally poor soils depends upon the use of compost, nightsoil, organic fertilizers and greater use of artificial fertilizers.

manure.

Crops. A narrow range of crops is cultivated in the New Territories for subsistence and cash. Markets exist in the urban areas for farm surpluses, and

60

=

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

vegetables and livestock products under normal circum- stances command fair prices. Small quantities of animal feeding stuffs are grown locally but most of the feed for livestock is imported. The principal crops grown for local consumption are rice and vegetables. Fruits, including papaya, pineapple, bananas, lychees, lungngan, guava, citrus (lemons, pomelos, oranges and mandarins) are grown in small quantities. Small quantities of sugar cane, groundnuts and millet are also grown in season and in the winter sweet potatoes are produced on a large scale.

As a result of the prohibition placed upon the export of Chinese products to America local farmers have developed a few export crops such as water chestnuts. and prepared vegetable and fruit products, but the increasing demand of a large local population for home grown foods limits the area of land brought under export crops. However, this new development has brought ready cash to the rural areas and broadened the economy of subsistence farming.

IC LIB

Rice. Chinese farmers are naturally adept in the cultivation of rice, their staple food, and they have evolved varieties and farming techniques to conform to the local environment. The rent of farm land is almost always reckoned in terms of paddy and an average rent would be about 1,600 lbs. of paddy per acre per annum, or about 40% of the total annual yield from the two crops of rice. Much higher yields are obtained in more favoured areas by the use of selected seed of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry.

61

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Fields watered only by rainfall, and swamps irrigated with brackish water may produce only one crop of rice annually, but irrigated fields yield two crops each year. Latest estimates show that about 24,000 short tons of milled rice are grown annually in the New Territories and this is enough to satisfy the needs of the whole population of the Colony for about one month.

Vegetables. It is estimated that vegetable farmers, and rice farmers who grow vegetables, produce about three fifths of the Colony's needs. During the winter months a wide range of European type vegetables are grown, bringing a much needed supply of fresh food to the local markets. In the summer months, the range of vegetables is limited and Hong Kong is then dependent to a much greater extent on imported supplies. The varieties, quantities and value of the business are set out in the marketing section.

Water Chestnuts. Owing to the difficulties farmers experienced in disposing of this crop, which was grossly over-produced last season, the quantity grown this season has been reduced from 700 acres to 140 acres. The average yield is about 30 piculs per dau chung (10.7 tons per acre) and the cash return $50 per picul (37.5 cents per lb). The crop is grown under the same conditions as paddy and supplants the second rice crop. Most of the chestnuts are processed and exported to the United States of America.

Maintenance of Soil Fertility. The intensity of cultivation, with short fallow periods following a succes- sion of crops, drains the fertility of the naturally poor

62

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

soils. Production is maintained by skilled use of artificial and natural fertilizers, and the collection of matured nightsoil from the urban areas and its dis- tribution to the farming areas is now extremely well organized. Investigations into the use of city garbage for the manufacture of compost are being undertaken by the Urban Services Department and the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry.

Agriculture in 1954. The rice crop suffered severe- ly from drought this year. In the drier areas the Agricultural Division assisted by pumping water to nursery beds and fields. Losses from insect damage were heavier than in normal years but were kept down by the vigilance of the pest control team of the Agricul- tural Division aided by commercial firms. The first rice crop was of average yield but there was an overall loss of 20% in the second rice crop as a result of typhoon damage at harvest time. Drought and typhoon, insect damage, disease in livestock, and the occurrence of foot and mouth disease for the first time, made 1954 a most difficult farming year.

Animal Husbandry. As the best land in the Colony is devoted to food crops and the hill country is too steep for grazing there is very little dairy farming and beef and sheep are not raised in the Colony. Local cattle are bred and used for ploughing and cultivation but not for transport. The local cattle are small and hardy beasts, highly suitable for work on the small terraced fields. Considerable numbers of pigs and poultry are raised on farms or by special breeders and the breeding of ducks, geese, turkeys, rabbits and quail

63

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

is increasing. Recent surveys of the animal population of the Colony are summarized in the following table :-

Cattle & Buffaloes (working animals). 8,970

Dairy Cattle

Pigs

Poultry

Ducks

Quail ..

Pigeons

Geese

Furkeys

2,300

47,860

322,800

107,000 82,800

22,400

I,200

1,300

200

H

Goats

Rabbits

1,500

Dairying. There is one large dairy farm and several small farms which keep imported dairy cattle for fresh milk. The usual breeds imported are Holstein, Ayrshire, Guernsey and Jersey and the animals are stall fed and rarely leave their byres. The animals are fed on imported feed and concentrates supplemented by locally grown guinea grass. All animals are tested for freedom from tuberculosis and are inoculated against other bovine diseases.

Pigs. Pork is an important item in the Chinese diet and the Colony's demands for pork far exceed its local supply. Farmers purchase weaners and rear them to porker weights but since 1947, there has been a steady and important increase in pig breeding by both farmers. and specialist breeders. At present only 12% of the pork consumed in the Colony is locally produced and it is hoped that despite many difficulties local products

64

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

will be greatly increased. Improvements in animal husbandry, particularly breeding and feeding, disease control, the provision of boar centres and organized extension work among farmers are already beginning to have an effect upon this important farming industry.

Minor Livestock Products. Large numbers of eggs are produced in the Colony by farmers and poultry breeders from both local and imported breeds of poultry, and there is a large demand for poultry meat. There is also a big overseas demand for dried and smoked ducks and preserved eggs, and the increase of duck raising in the New Territories to meet this demand was an important development in 1954.

The meat consumed in the Colony is mainly imported and during the last quarter of the year greatly increased numbers of pigs from China passed through the slaughterhouse and for the first time, for many years large numbers of beef cattle from China were available. Prices of livestock products are greatly affected by the supply of slaughter stock and rice bran from China. Returns to farmers were fair with a tendency to fall by the end of the year.

Animal Diseases. Foot and Mouth disease made its first appearance in the Colony and the outbreak is described in Chapter 9. Serious losses from Newcastle and other diseases occurred in poultry and in pig stock from contagious abortion, but it is hoped that the transfer of veterinary staff from the Urban Services Department will enable the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry to control these diseases. A veterinary laboratory equipped for diagnostic work has been set up at the Lai Chi Kok headquarters of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

65

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

The department was founded in 1946 and now comprises the four divisions of Agriculture, Animal Industries, Forestry and Fisheries (marine and fresh- water). It has expanded rapidly since 1953 and its overall policy is to protect and develop plant and animal resources. The Department gives technical advice and assistance to farmers, fishermen, administrators and others and, by afforestation and the teaching and demonstration of approved farming and forestry prac- tices, encourages the conservation of vital water supplies, soil and soil fertility.

The headquarters of the department is at Lai Chi Kok and there are eight agricultural stations, at Castle Peak, Tsun Wan, Sheung Shui, Taipo, Shatin, Sai Kung and Taimoshan and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantao Island. Forestry district headquarters and nurseries are strategically placed for afforestation and protection, and fisheries centres are located at Aberdeen, Shaukiwan, Taipo and Kam Tin. The central forestry nursery at Fanling is nearing completion and new fishing centres are contemplated for Cheung Chau and Sai Kung.

Agriculture Division. Investigation work on crops, including variety trials, seed selection, soil fertility studies, manurial trials and pest and disease control, is carried out at Castle Peak Main Station and Sheung Shui Vegetable Station. Extension, advice, educational and observation work on crops and animal husbandry are the functions of the district agricultural officer operating from the district station. The extension staff is aided by two teams concerned with pest control and survey duties.

66

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

Animal Industries Division. The Animal Indus- tries Division is concerned with pig and poultry breeding work at Castle Peak, Sheung Shui Pig Station and Sai Kung Agricultural Station. More attention is now being given to local breeds of poultry and pig stock, and to the White Leghorn as an egg producer and the Japanese Middle White and Berkshire pig breeds. This is the result of four years of study of many imported breeds in the light of the market requirements. The division is also responsible for animal disease control and investigations into animal diseases and animal husbandry.

Forestry. Forestry services are organized in a separate division under the control of the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Towards the end of 1953, Government accepted a new forest policy for Hong Kong and the year 1954 has seen the beginnings of forestry work on a more ambitious scale than ever before in the Colony. The main object of forestry in Hong Kong is not the pro- duction of timber and other forest products for the Colony as a whole, for, with its limited land area, Hong Kong could never be self-supporting in forest products. The new policy aims at afforestation of the Colony's waste hill-lands with two main objects in view. First and most important, is to conserve and increase water supplies. Forests form the ideal cover in water catchment areas. They protect the soil, prevent erosion and in addition render the soil extremely porous and absorbent. The heavy summer rains are absorbed into the soil and later appear in the form of springs and streams which provide a regular flow of water into the

67

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

reservoirs throughout the year. The second object is to provide timber and poles for use in the New Terri- tories and to improve the lot of the rural population.

The new afforestation scheme has necessitated the reorganization and expansion of the Forestry Division. Prior to 1953, a limited amount of forestry work had been carried out in a few areas of the New Territories. When it was decided to carry on work throughout the whole area simultaneously, the Colony was divided into 5 forest districts, each with adequate staff to carry on all branches of forestry work. It was also necessary to extend and improve the nurseries to supply planting stock. During the year a large new nursery was started in the Fanling area which will become the headquarters of the Forestry Division, and it is at this nursery that most of the plants for afforestation will be grown. Owing to the time required to prepare the ground and raise tree plants from seed, it is not expected that this nursery will be fully productive until 1956. But from 1956 onwards it should be possible to accelerate the afforestation programme. A good start was made in planting work in 1954 and the planting programme with a target of 700 acres was exceeded by about 40 acres at the end of the planting season.

Most of the afforestation work of the year was in the main catchment areas. At Tai Lam Chung there was planting in almost all the areas immediately adjacent to the projected reservoir and also in all the eroded areas, the main species used being pine and eucalyptus. The soils of this catchment area are generally poor and the best results have been obtained with pine, which is already well established in many of the areas planted. In the Shing Mun catchment area there was planting

68

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

in the direct catchment area and in the indirect catch- ment area above Tsun Wan and in the vicinity of the TWISK road. In the Shing Mun area there is little erosion for most of the ground is grass covered, and the soils are much better than at Tai Lam Chung. Good results have been obtained at Shing Mun with eucalyptus, and the pine plantations appear to be growing rapidly. Planting was also carried out in the Kowloon Reservoir area, at Tai Po Kau Forest Reserve and in a newly established reserve on the hill-slopes behind the Castle Peak Agricultural Station.

In addition to afforestation in forest reserves and catchment areas, afforestation of village forestry lots was continued under the supervision of the Forestry Division. During the year the scheme of assistance was revised in order to ensure better results, the main change being that the villagers are now encouraged to co-operate in the formation of village plantations in well defined blocks rather than to carry out scattered planting individually. This makes supervision and management easier and should result in greater returns. It was still not possible to carry out much planting outside the Sai Kung area where the scheme has been in operation for several years, but it should be possible to extend it throughout the New Territories as soon as more tree plants are available from the new nursery at Fanling.

Protection of the plantations and forest areas is a difficult problem. With many hundreds of acres of young plantations, most of which are in grassy areas, the danger of damage by fire is very great. The autumn of 1954 was drier than usual and during this period a large proportion of the staff was engaged on

69

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

fire protection duties. A number of fires did occur in plantation areas but they were promptly extinguished and the damage was not great. As the trees in most of the plantations are very small, damage by illegal woodcutting was negligible but the Forestry Division is still responsible for protection of the vegetation in other parts of the Colony and a large section of the staff is permanently employed on patrol work. In late summer there was a serious outbreak of defoliating caterpillars on pine in the Fanling area, but the pest did not appear in large numbers in other localities and none of the recently established plantations was damaged.

Fisheries. Fisheries technical and administrative services are organized as a separate division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

The main primary product of Hong Kong is marine fish and the fishing fleet consists of about 6,000 junk- type fishing craft, of various sizes and designs, and 13 steel trawlers of British registry. They are manned by a sea fishing population of 53,000 who operate from the various ports and fishing centres of the Colony.

The Chinese junk type vessels are built locally from imported timber. China fir is the most popular of these but due to shortages in the current year more teak and yacal have been used. Almost 95% of the fishing fleet is owner-operated and about 5% owner- directed by fish dealers and fishing companies.

The inshore fishing grounds for purse seiners, gill netters, shrimp trawlers and small liners is confined to the waters up to 20 fathoms south of the Colony.

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

I

Trawlers and long liners operate in waters from 30 to 65 fathoms along the coast of Kwangtung, extending from 111° 30' to 116° longitude East and 20° 15′ to 22° 30' latitude North. A large number of the deep sea vessels are sailing craft, and, during the typhoon season from June to October, their crews are busy with the work of repairing the junks, nets, rigging, sails and equipment. The late typhoon of 1954 caused damage to the fishing fleet estimated at $800,000.

In 1954 39,510 tons of fish were landed as compared with 31,439 tons in 1953. This increase in fish landings was due to the extension of mechanization of junk-type inshore fishing vessels and the encouragement given by the Marine Department and the Fisheries Division. to companies concerned with deep sea fishing. The mechanized inshore fishing fleet increased to 702 vessels and 13 deep sea fishing vessels under British registry of 1,321 gross tons were added to the fishing fleet. In addition 18 Japanese trawlers were operating with the deep sea fleet.

Experiments with new fishing methods and gear carried out during the year resulted in the adoption by native fishermen of purse seining with a single. mechanized junk, which enabled them to fish during the season of the N.E. monsoon. An improved type of shrimp trawl was also introduced and brought in good catches. Demonstrations of under water lights. as an aid to fishing continued. The capstan on the Division's 30-foot fishing boat has proved very use- ful for shrimp trawling and many fishermen have approached the Fisheries Division for loans to instal capstans on their boats. Two modified junks for deep sea fishing are now being built in a local shipyard.

71

1

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Other activities of the Fisheries Division include a scheme for loans to fishermen for mechanization of their junks and towards the close of the year 44 loans varying from $4,000 to $8,000 each had been granted to fishermen. A fisheries exhibition was held in February at which diesel engines, fishing gear and other equip- ment were displayed. The exhibition was visited by nearly 60,000 persons, most of whom were fishermen. Training classes for coxswains and engineers were continued and in 1954 217 coxswains and 20 engineers. gained their certificates of competency from the Marine Department.

Fishponds, Oyster Beds and Fish Fry. There are about 500 acres of ponds used for fish farming in the New Territories which produce annually about 300 tons of carp and mullet. Experimental attempts to introduce carp rearing in paddy fields were continued. Mullet fry was difficult to obtain from the usual local sources and ponds were stocked to only 75% of their normal capacity. The export of fish fry by air, which was introduced by the Fisheries Division, has now been taken over by private enterprise. The American embargo on Hong Kong oysters which had seriously affected the industry in previous years was lifted in August.

Further statistical data on the fishing industry is included in the marketing section of this chapter.

Mines

The Mining Ordinance, 1954, the Mining (General) Regulations, 1954, and the Mines (Safety) Regulations, 1954, came into operation on the 15th October, 1954. This legislation authorizes the issue of prospecting and mining licences by the Commissioner of Mines and of

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

mining leases up to a period of 21 years by the Land Officer. The Mines Department is under the Com- missioner of Mines, who is assisted by a Deputy Commissioner, a Superintendent and an Assistant Inspector.

The mining industry of the Colony is in the hands. of local Chinese companies and the principal minerals worked are iron, lead, wolfram, graphite and kaolin clay deposits. The production is all exported, iron ores to Japan, lead ores to the United Kingdom and European countries, wolfram to the U.S.A., graphite to the U.S.A., United Kingdom and Europe, and kaolin clay to Japan. The marketing of the ores is on contract, c.i.f. terms and payments are made on the world market prices. An ore-dressing plant capable of concentrating from 500 to 700 tons of magnetite ore to 62% Fe. per day has been installed at the iron mine. Reorganization from opencast workings to underground mining is proceeding and production estimates for the coming year are 200,000 tons of Fe. concentrates. A lead mine will be opened up within the next four months but wolfram mines are inactive because of the low market prices of tungsten. Considerable interest is being shown in the local graphite production. Prospecting for clay deposits has shown a marked increase.

The following table shows the Colony's output of minerals for the year :--

Clay

Minerals

Production

Value

6,063.0 Tons HK$ 363,780.00

Iron

90,800.0 Tons

Lead

368.3 Tons

Graphite

1,840.0 Tons

Wolfram (WO 65%) Molybdenum

60,335.4 lbs.

3

193.7 lbs.

Tin

73

3,713,600.00

167,471.60

319,120.00

1,633,886.00

522.99

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Manufacturing Industries

General. Certain industries, such as shipbuilding and repairing, have existed in Hong Kong for many years, but the present widespread industrial develop- ment started only in the nineteen thirties, when local manufacturers first began to take advantage of Imperial Preference to market products such as flashlights and rubber footwear in Commonwealth countries. Since then industrial development has gone ahead with increasing rapidity, particularly since the second world war.

Pre-war records of local industry were lost during the Japanese occupation but it is estimated that there were about 800 registered and recorded factories and workshops in 1940, with about 30,000 workers. At the end of 1947 the number of factories had risen to 1,275 with 64,500 workers, and at the end of 1954 the corres- ponding figures were 2,381 factories, with 111,879 workers.

In 1940 the main industries were shipbuilding and repairing, rubber footwear, flashlights, weaving, knit- ting, metalware, enamelware and food products. Since 1945 the scope of local industry has broadened consider- ably and now includes cotton and wool spinning, nylon knitting, aluminium and brass rolling and stamping, kerosene refining, silk screen printing, egg packing, and the production of drinking straws, tapestries, woollen gloves, fire extinguishers, rolled steel bars, gramophone records, electric irons, kettles and clocks, pressure lamps, plasticware, and many other items.

In 1954 a large modern flour mill and a zip fastener factory were established, and the production of artificial pearls and other imitation jewellery, steel window frames, automatic kerosene water heaters, and photo-

74

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P

Photo: Taikoo Dockyards

Hong Kong's reputation for shipbuilding and repairing is second to none among Far Eastern ports. The photograph shows an entire pre-fabricated deck house being lifted on board a 6,500 ton freighter building in a Hong Kong Yard.

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Photo: Wadeson Lee

Through the deep channel of Lyemun Pass, ships drawing up to 34 feet of water enter the almost land-locked anchorage of Victoria Harbour. Seventeen square miles in extent, the port lays claim to being one of the finest and most picturesque harbours in the world.

Ө

Photo: Mee Cheung

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AR

о

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Deepwater wharves, backed by spacious warehouses, offer every facility for passenger and cargo handling. Fortyseven buoy moorings are also available and the Hong Kong lighterage companies and junkmasters are experts at the

job of loading and unloading ships moored in the stream.

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HONG

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IR

RIES

Photo: Willies Chou

The Colony's bays and coves give shelter to the craft of more than 60,000 fisherfolk. The photograph, taken at Aberdeen, shows how nets are spread to dry, suspended from the junk's main mast.

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

printing on porcelain and enamel was also begun. A steady expansion of activity in the important cotton spinning and enamelware industries was recorded.

The accelerated rate of industrial development since the war was due in part to the arrival in the Colony of capital and skilled labour from the Chinese mainland. The population having increased so rapidly between 1945 and 1949, manufacturers had not only a large reservoir of efficient and willing labour to draw upon, but also a considerable local market for certain of their products. Many of the new industries which have grown up since the war have catered particularly for the large markets of South East Asia.

The outbreak of war in Korea in 1950 quickly led to a marked decline in the Colony's traditional entrepôt trade. It has therefore become increasingly important that local industry should be encouraged and that new products and new markets should be developed, in order to provide employment for a population which, already seriously overcrowded, is increasing by more than 50,000 each year.

Although there was a drop of 11% in the Colony's trade in 1954, exports of locally manufactured products made a further gain, being valued at $681,878,981 as compared with $635,287,904 for 1953. The increase by $46,591,077 does not reflect the full measure of the gain, since the prices of many local products declined. Exports of local products, which were about 10% of the Colony's total exports in 1947, rose to over 30% of total exports in 1954.

This steady development in local industry was achieved in the face of continuing restrictions on trade

75

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

maintained for various reasons by certain other South East Asian territories in particular, and despite increas- ing competition from other manufacturing countries. Special attention was paid during the year to publicizing Hong Kong as a manufacuring and trading centre of growing importance, particularly through the medium of the monthly Trade Bulletin published by the Depart- ment of Commerce and Industry, and to improving the system of certification of local products under Hong Kong Government Certificates of Origin, in order to increase the confidence of overseas customs authorities in the authenticity of local products. These efforts met with some success. There have been many more inquiries from overseas about the possibilities of trade with Hong Kong, and overseas customs authorities have raised fewer difficulties over the admission of local products.

Hong Kong successfully participated in the British Industries Fair. Despite the overall decrease in the number of visitors to the Fair, 638 inquiries from visitors from 48 countries were received at the Colony's stand. The number of inquiries was 78 more than in 1953. A Colony exhibit was also displayed at the Washington State Third International Trade Fair at Seattle in February, 1954, while the Chinese Manufacturers' Union sent displays of local products to exhibitions in New York, Mexico and Indonesia.

The 12th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, sponsored by the Chinese Manufacturers' Union, was opened on 16th December, 1954, by the Governor and ended on 12th January, 1955. Located on a new and more spacious site, this Exhibition was the largest held so far, and accommodated 654 stall units. A compre-

76

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

hensive general display section included a number of new items developed during the year. A new automatic kerosene water heater attracted much attention. Delega- tions from Formosa, Indonesia and the Philippines attended the Exhibition, as well as many other overseas visitors who came in a private capacity. The meeting of the Sub-Committee on Trade of the United Nations' Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East was held in Hong Kong from 6th to 12th January, 1955, while the Exhibition was in progress, and as a result delegations from a wide range of countries, mainly in South East Asia, were able to visit the Exhibition and obtain some idea of the state of development of local industry. Attendance at the Exhibition exceeded one million for the second year in succession.

During the year it was announced that Government intended to reclaim from the sea an area of about 140 acres at Kun Tong on the eastern shore of Kowloon Bay, in order to provide land for new factory sites. Work was begun on the initial stages of the scheme, involving an area of 78 acres, and the first sites are expected to be available in 1955. Completion of the work on the first area is likely to take three years and will cost about $10,000,000

B1

The Department of Commerce and Industry is responsible for promoting industrial development and handicrafts in the Colony. The Trade Development Division, which was set up in the Department during 1953, continued to expand its activities.

Handicrafts or home industries are not formally organized, nor do they receive any official encourage- ment from Government. Nevertheless, production is

77

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

undertaken by a very large number of small concerns situated in squatter settlements and tenement buildings. It is estimated that more than 200,000 persons may be employed in such domestic-type industries. The majority of industrial concerns are Chinese owned and operated.

No special benefits are available to industry by way of income tax or import duty concessions, although duty on locally brewed beer is less than that on imported beer. Apart from a few revenue producing duties, however, the Colony is a free port and Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum.

All businesses are required to register with the Department of Commerce and Industry under the Business Registration Ordinance, 1952, and pay an annual registration fee of $200.

Heavy Industries

Hong Kong's development as one of the world's great ports rapidly gave rise to the shipbuilding and repairing industry. Today there are twenty shipbuild- ing and repair yards in the Colony, employing in all some 7,000 workers. These establishments are mostly small concerns handling wooden vessels, lighters, launches, ferries, yachts, and other small craft, and the industry is mainly centred on the Hong Kong & Whampao Dock Company Ltd., and the Taikoo Dock- yard & Engineering Company of Hong Kong Ltd., which together have an annual building potential of 80,000 gross tons. Up to date machinery and equip- ment enable these Companies to apply the latest

78

1

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

techniques in both welded and rivetted constructions and building berths can accommodate vessels up to 500 feet in length. In 1954 these two yards handled repairs in dock or on slipway of 498 vessels totalling 1,285,316 gross tons, and afloat of 1,044 vessels of 6,662,858 gross tons. These vessels represented 16 different nationalities, approximately 72% being British and 20% from Scandinavian Countries. Among the major repairs undertaken by the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Ltd., was the reconstruction and lengthening of a British oil tanker, involving cutting away the centre section, constructing a new centre 28 feet longer than the original, and re-assembling with the original bow and stern portions. This entire operation was completed in fourteen weeks. In 1954 Taikoo Dockyard launched a cargo vessel of 6,580 tons deadweight for China Navigation Company Ltd. A sister ship is also under construction and both vessels will be powered by Taikoo-Doxford Oil Engines developing 4,500 B.H.P.

The foundries of these establishments can handle castings of up to 30 tons in weight. There are six granite dry docks in the Colony, the largest of which is 787 feet over-all and 93 feet 4 inches wide at the sill, in which vessels of up to 690 feet length and 86 feet beam have been docked. There are two stationary hammer head cranes capable of lifting up to 150 tons. Well equipped wide-range salvage tugs are available.

During the year the Cheoy Lee Shipyard of Kowloon was awarded a contract to build ten 77 ton wooden fishing trawlers for the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency. The contract was completed. well within the very short stipulated time of six months.

79

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Other heavy industries in Hong Kong are repre- sented by 12 iron foundries, employing 400 workers, and 5 mills for rolling iron and steel bars and rounds, employing about 1,000 workers. The bulk of produc- tion is utilized locally, but some is shipped to other South East Asian territories. Facilities exist for con- verting steel scrap, obtained locally from ship breaking, into mild steel reinforcing bars for building construction and other purposes in Hong Kong and other South East Asian countries.

Light Industries

A wide range of light industries exists in the Colony manufacturing varied products of increasingly good quality. The most important of these industries are described below.

Textiles. The textile industry has expanded rapidly since 1948 and now employs the largest labour force in the Colony, estimated at over 30% of the total number of workers employed in registered and recorded fac- tories. There are 17 cotton spinning mills in Hong Kong operating at present a total of 246,942 spindles and employing over 11,500 workers. The addition of 28,000 spindles at an early date is contemplated. Counts of yarn spun range from 10s to 60s carded and combed and can be supplied in single or multiple threads. Total output based on 20s counts is about 98,950,000 lbs. weight of yarn per annum, exported largely to Indonesia, Pakistan, Burma, South Korea, and the Philippines. Several of the mills have installed most modern combing plants and have changed over to roller bearing spindles in order to improve quality and

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

to spin yarns of finer counts. Some of the factories are equipped for weaving and use the latest type of automatic looms.

There are 152 weaving factories, employing over 9,000 workers, in the Colony. The cloths produced are sheetings, shirtings, drills, mats, osnaburgs, cellular fabrics, checks and suitings. Tapes, webbing, laces, and other fabrics are also woven. Exports are mainly to Indonesia, the Philippines, South Africa, Malaya, Thailand, Australia, the United Kingdom and East Africa. Three weaving mills produce brocade silk materials for making up into house coats, tea gowns and other ready made garments. There are 44 finish- ing factories, employing over 1,000 persons, and 292 knitting mills with over 10,000 workers are producing excellent articles of underwear and outer garments, swimsuits, gloves, socks and stockings, in silk, cotton and woollen yarns. In 1954, exports of cotton piecegoods amounted to a declared value of £11,343,023, cotton yarn to £6,048,774 and textile made up articles to £9,945,604.

Enamelware and other metal products. There are 26 factories employing over 4,500 workers producing enamelware articles, and 25 factories making tin cans, 36 engaged in electroplating, 5 producing aluminium- ware, 6 producing vacuum flasks and 204 making needles, nails and screws, hurricane lanterns, brass and aluminium sheets, metal windows, umbrella ribs and other metal articles. Over 14,000 persons are engaged in these industries. During 1954 exports of household utensils of enamelware amounted to £3,831,010 and of aluminiumware to £286,366.

81

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Paint and Lacquer. Ten factories with about 400 workers are engaged in the production of high quality paints and lacquers for local sale and export. Principal overseas markets are Malaya, Thailand and Burma. Exports in 1954 amounted to 9,554,188 lbs. valued at £764,442.

Foodstuffs and Beverages. There are 272 factories employing over 6,000 workers engaged in the food manufacturing industry. Seventeen of these deal with the canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables, 8 with ginger, 58 with flour and rice milling, 27 with bean curd, 20 with soy sauce and gourmet powder, 31 are bakers and confectioners, and the reminder are concerned with various other food products. Twenty- nine concerns with over 1,000 employees produce soft drinks, Chinese wine, beer and malt.

In 1954 exports of foodstuffs and beverages were valued at £1,458,468.

Electric Torches, Batteries and Bulbs. There are 31 factories with over 4,800 employees manufacturing electric hand torches, 8 factories with a total of some 650 workers making batteries, and 25 factories employ- ing about 700 workers producing bulbs. Six factories with about 270 workers are engaged in the repair of radios, the manufacture or assembly of electrical appli- ances and the assembly of neon lights. Exports in 1954 of electric torches, batteries and bulbs amounted to a declared value of £3,633,997.

Tobacco Manufactures. Five factories employing about 1,000 workers manufacture cigars and cigarettes. The principal factories are those of the British American Tobacco Company (Hong Kong) Ltd., Nanyang Bro-

82

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

thers Tobacco Company Ltd., the Hong Kong Tobacco Company Ltd., and the London Tobacco Company Ltd., Cigarettes and cigars of all qualities are produced and the manufacture of packaging is also carried out. The closure of the Chinese market since 1949 has seriously affected this industry. Exports of cigarettes during 1954 were valued at £47,451.

Footwear. The principal types of footwear made locally are rubber shoes and boots. Fifty-two factories with over 6,500 employees are engaged in this industry. Exports during 1954 amounted to 1,091,914 dozen pairs valued at £2,736,555, the largest market being in the United Kingdom.

Cement. One factory, the Green Island Cement Company Ltd., manufactures cement and has a capacity of 110,000 tons a year. It employs 260 workers. Apart from clay and iron ore all the raw materials required are imported. The great bulk of the company's output is absorbed locally, but some cement is exported to Malaya and Borneo and other places in South East Asia. In 1954 exports were valued at £285,126,

Cordage, Rope and Twine. Forty-two factories employing some 900 workers are engaged in this in- dustry. The most important is the Hong Kong Rope Manufacturing Company Ltd., which makes ropes and hawsers of all kinds from raw fibre imported from the Philippines. Exports of rope during 1954 were valued at £193,811.

Matches. There are four match factories in the Colony employing about 600 workers. Their products. are of good quality, and the best markets are in Malaya, the Philippines and Indonesia. The value of exports during 1954 was £163,356.

83

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Plasticwares. There are 36 factories employing over 660 workers in this branch of local industry. Several are equipped to use modern techniques and a very wide range of articles is produced including tooth brushes, mugs, plates, combs, coat hangers, cigarette cases, electrical fittings, signboards, chopsticks, poker chips, and toys.

During the year exports were valued at £479,147, the main markets being in Malaya, Indonesia, and Burma.

Sugar Refining. There are 4 sugar factories and refineries in the Colony, employing over 500 workers. The only large-scale refinery is that of the Taikoo Sugar Refining Company Ltd., which was established in 1884. The principal source of raw material is Mauritius, and the Company produces light quality refined sugar, granulated sugar, crystals, half cubes, brown sugar and golden syrups.

Miscellaneous. Other local industries which em- ploy substantial numbers of workers are mining and quarrying-1,600; wearing apparel, footwear (other than rubber) and made-up textiles-5,600; wood and cork manufactures (other than furniture)-1,500; print- ing, publishing and paper dyeing-6, 200; chemical and chemical products (other than paints and lacquers) -2,400; clay, pottery, abrasives, glass and glassware

-1,900.

Marketing and Co-operatives

Fish Marketing Organization. Since the Fish Marketing Organization was set up by Government in 1945 every effort has been made to foster and develop the local fishing industry, whilst at the same time safe- guarding the interests and welfare of the local fishermen.

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PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

Foremost in the programme of development has been the establishment of efficient marketing facilities to ensure the fishermen a fair return for their produce and so encourage them to increase production.

There are about 53,000 fishermen, including their families, engaged in the fishing industry, operating from fishing ports and living in villages scattered over a wide area, many of which are not within easy reach of the four wholesale fish markets. In order to simplify the collection of fish the Organization set up fish col- lecting centres in the main fishing villages and fish is collected from these centres and conveyed to market by the Organization's own fleet of diesel lorries, or by motor launches.

On arrival at the market the fish is sorted, weighed and auctioned and the proceeds of the sale (less 'a 6% commission charge for services provided by the Organ- ization) can be collected by the fishermen if he travels with his fish, or returned to the collecting centre where he can collect it at his convenience.

BY

In 1950 the Chinese authorities placed an embargo on the import of salt dried fish from Hong Kong which seriously affected the salt fish dealers, but by deter- mined and sustained efforts they have managed to establish new and promising markets in the Philippines, Java, Thailand, Singapore, Formosa and the U.S.A.

The mechanization and improvement of Hong Kong's fishing fleet has resulted in a very great increase in the production of fish. Since 1946 production of fresh fish has increased sixteen-fold, the landing figures being 32,000 piculs in 1946 as against 554,000 in 1954.

85

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The greatest increase for any one year was in 1954 when landings exceeded those of the previous year by 136,000 piculs.

A revolving fund was set up by the Fish Marketing Organization in September, 1946 to extend credit to fishermen for the purpose of purchasing new fishing gear and to mechanise their vessels. During 1954, 324 fishermen obtained loans amounting to $797,205.00 of which $458,500.00 has already been repaid. Fisher- men also received financial assistance from Colonial Development & Welfare Funds for mechanisation. $237,433.00 was disbursed in loans from this Fund during 1954 of which $90,085.00 had been repaid by the end of the year.

The main types of fresh fish sold in the wholesale markets during the year and the average wholesale and retail prices of these fish are given below :-

Type of Fish

Average Wholesale Price ($ per catty)

Average Retail Price ($ per catty)

Golden Thread

$0.93

$1.22

Lizzard Fish

.41

.55

Yellow Croaker

Red Sea Bream

Conger Pike ....

Anchovies

.97

1.30

......

.97

1.32

.75

1.03

.42

.60

Education still holds an important place in the welfare programme of the Organization. In addition to the eight schools run for the specific benefit of children, subsidies are granted to other fishermen's schools and scholarships are awarded to fisher-children

86

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

of outstanding merit. At present over 1,300 fishermen's children are receiving education and $50,000 was spent for this purpose in 1954. A two months' adult reading class was also held in Cheung Chau and was attended by 70 fishermen.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. The Vegetable Marketing Organization was established by Government in September, 1946, to control the wholesale marketing of vegetables produced in, or imported into, the New Territories.

The

The difficulties with which the local farmer is faced when marketing his produce are considerable. central Wholesale Vegetable Market is situated many miles from the actual areas of production and for this reason the farmer's biggest problem is transporting his produce to market. The Organization has solved this problem for the farmer by setting up a number of Farmers' Collecting Centres at strategic points throughout the New Territories from which vegetables are collected and conveyed to market in the Organiza- tion's own transport. The whole marketing procedure, from the collection at a centre to the return of the proceeds of the sale (less a 10% commission for services) to the collecting centres for distribution to the farmers is handled by the Organization's staff. Many of the Farmers' Collecting Centres have been converted into Farmers' Co-operative Societies operated by the farmers themselves.

The facilities provided by the Organization together with the assistance extended to farmers in the form of education, loans and the supply of cheap fertilizer, have certainly been a powerful incentive to the vegetable farmers and have resulted in greatly increased produc-

87

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

tion during the year. The Vegetable Marketing Organization in 1954 handled 60,696 tons of locally produced vegetables as against 50,401 tons of local produce in 1953. The increase from 19,440 tons handled in 1947 to 60,696 tons handled in 1954 is a remarkable achievement and particularly since quality of the vegetables has not deteriorated.

The Nightsoil Distribution Scheme for supplying cheap fertilizer to farmers started by the Vegetable Marketing Organization in 1952 has also contributed to the increase in the production of local vegetables.

The Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952, under which the Marketing Organization operates, provides for the appointment of the Director of Mar- keting as a corporation sole, and an Advisory Board consisting of the Director of Marketing as Chairman and other persons nominated by Government.

The Organization's revolving fund for vegetable farmers is still very popular. At the end of the year a total of 1,255 farmers had benefited from short-term loans amounting to $315,824.00. In addition to this fund the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund was inaugurated in July 1954 in order to encourage and improve agriculture in the New Territories. By the end of the year 487 farmers had received loans through their Co-operative Societies amounting to $130,220.00 from this fund. Assistance received in the form of grants from the Colonial Development & Welfare Fund during 1954 amounted to $22,087.50. The sum of $149,968.52, which was the total amount borrowed by the Organiza- tion between 1947-53 from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund for agricultural development, has now been fully repaid.

88

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING

The main types of vegetables produced locally in 1954 were cabbage, white cabbage, turnips and toma- toes. Ginger was grown in the New Territories, for the first time on a commercial basis, with very satis- factory results and it is anticipated that this product will be grown in increasing quantities in coming years. The main types of vegetables imported during the year were Tientsin cabbage, Irish potatoes, Chinese melons and hairy squash. The average wholesale and retail prices of local and imported vegetables during the year are as follows:

Locally produced vegetables

Average Wholesale

Type

Price (per catty)

Average Retail Price (per catty)

Flowering Cabbage ..

$0.20

$0.27

White Cabbage

.14

.21

RIES

Turnips

.12

.20

Tomatoes

.16

.27

Type

Imported vegetables

Average Wholesale Price (per catty)

Average Retail Price (per catty)

Tientsin Cabbage

$0.27

$0.38

Irish Potatoes

.23

.37

Chinese Melon

.11

.18

Hairy Squash

.15

.25

89

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Co-operatives

In 1954 21 new co-operative societies were registered bringing the total number operating in the Colony to 52. Newly registered societies include three vegetable marketing societies, nine fishermen's thrift and loan societies, one building society, one draft animal society, one fish pond society and one Federation of pig raising co-operative societies. Appendix XII gives details of the societies and their membership.

The first attempts in 1952, to foster a spirit of co-operation among fishermen through thrift and loan societies were not very successful but the fact that since that year the number of societies has increased from I to 20 indicates that the natural distrust of these societies is gradually disappearing. Pig raising and pig-feed societies are also increasing in popularity, but the facilities for loans offered by the J. E. Joseph Trust Fund are to some extent responsible for this. An important step in connexion with these societies has been the formation of the Federation of Pig Raising Co-operative Societies.

Over 60% of the total vegetable produce of the Colony is now handled through Co-operative Societies and Farmers' Collecting Centres (which are embryo Co-operative Societies). It is hoped that this percentage. will be increased to 75% before the end of 1955.

90

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED IN HONG KONG DURING 1954

GINGER

[PAINT]

EIE

PRESERVED FRUITS, JAMS,

GINGER, ETC.

PAINTS, VARNISHES, ETC.

£ Sterling

£ 1,258,955

764,442

COTTON YARN AND THREAD

COTTON PIECE GOODS

TOWELS

ENAMEL WARE

ALUMINIUM WARE

TORCHES

美(r)

TORCH

BATTERIES

AND BULBS.

6,048,774

11,343,023

552,562

3,831,010

286,366

2,826,419

PRESSURE

LAMPS

COTTON SINGLETS

SHIRTS

807,578

IC LIBRA

584,712

4,165,979

4,001,964

LEATHER FOOTWEAR

851,395

CANVAS SHOES

RUBBER

FOOTWEAR

VACUUM

FLASKS

1,789,117

947,438

395,324

$ MILLION

600

500

1951

1952

SNOH

1953

1954

AVERAGE MONTHLY VALUE OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS & EXPORTS SHOWN QUARTERLY

(IN MILLION H.K. DOLLARS)

TOTAL IMPORTS

=

TOTAL EXPORTS

IMPORTS FROM CHINA EXPORTS TO CHINA

400

1948

1949

300

200

100

0

1950

SONG

PUBLIC

LIBRE

.

PIES-

|

JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC

دی

THOUSAND LONG TONS

600

500

400

1948

300

200

100

1949

AVERAGE MONTHLY VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS & EXPORTS SHOWN QUARTERLY

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

TOTAL IMPORTS

TOTAL EXPORTS

IMPORTS FROM CHINA EXPORTS ΤΟ CHINA

=

די.

ONG

KONG

PUBLIC

LIBRAR

1950

1951

CO

1952

1953

1954

0

JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT | 1 I MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP

JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL OCT JAN APR JUL 1 1 1 } | 1 1 } I | DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC MAR JUN SEP DEC

OCT

PRINCIPAL SOURCES AND DESTINATION

OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1954

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES

UNITED KINGDOM 23.1

MALA YA

10.1

JA PA N

29.0

CHIX43.2

СНІ

THAILA

THAILAND

8.2

IMPORTS

£ MILLION

共圖

+

EXPORTS

£ MILLION

10.1

20.6

7.1

24.4

P

8.1

U.

S

17.5

GERMANY

9.7

ARIES

UBLICAIBRAP

SOUTH KOREA

.6

DONESIA 2.2

3000

00

4.4

1.4

10.6

14.0

FORMOSA

2.9

5.0

GRAND TOTAL

£ 214.7

£ 151.0

Chapter 8

Education

In 1946 there were just under 60,000 students of all types studying in the Colony: today there are about 250,000. Unsettled conditions in China and the conse- quent influx of refugees, the political stability of the Colony, the increasing birthrate and decline in the infant mortality rate have between them enlarged the Colony's population and increased the number of children requiring primary education each year.

When the Colony was reoccupied in 1945 it was found that most of the existing school buildings and equipment would have to be renewed. This in itself involved much work but when the need for increasing and extending educational facilities for a growing school population was taken into account, the task became

enormous.

In 1951 Government gave its approval to a 5 year plan for the building of new Government schools, allow- ing a capital expenditure of one and a half million dollars for each of the five years. Three-quarters of the school population finishes its education at the primary school stage. The emphasis has therefore been on the expansion of primary school education rather than secondary and higher education. Since 1946 the number of places in primary schools has increased from 53,518 to nearly 170,000.

91

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Steps taken to provide more primary school accom- modation include an increase in the size of classrooms and classes, and encouragement to industrial and commercial firms to assist in financing new schools. Government also encourages missionary and philan- thropic bodies to build primary schools by offering sites, interest free loans and subsidies for building and running costs. Well established bodies may also be provided with sites and interest free loans for the build- ing of private primary schools.

Education in the Colony is voluntary and under the general control of the Director of Education, acting under the Education Ordinance, 1952, which gives statutory powers to the Board of Education in certain educational matters. The Director is required to keep a register of schools, and of teachers and managers of schools, and to ensure that satisfactory standards are maintained in respect of structural requirements, methods of enforcing discipline, the keeping of registers and accounts, the payment of fees, and the proper conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers.

Government itself directly maintains 22 primary schools, II secondary schools, two technical schools, a technical college, and three teacher training colleges. The average age of entry and leaving Government primary schools is a little over six and thirteen respec- tively and for secondary schools just over thirteen and nineteen years of age.

Under the terms of the Grant Code, Government aids selected schools by paying the difference between the approved expenditure of a school and its income from fees and other sources. This approved expendi- ture includes salaries, incidentals, and passages and

92

EDUCATION

leave pay

for teachers who are so entitled. Grants may also be made up to 50% of the cost of new buildings. and major repairs. There are 20 schools functioning under the Grant Code, 18 of them having large secondary departments. English is the usual medium of instruction in the senior classes.

Government also operates a Subsidy Code, the object of which is to encourage the establishment of primary schools which have reliable committees of management and are staffed with trained teachers. The financial assistance given under this Code enables school managers to keep fees reasonably low and ensures that teachers employed in schools receiving such assistance are paid equivalent salaries to those paid to teachers in Government run primary schools. The Subsidy Code provides the means by which satisfactory primary education can be given to children in rural as well as urban areas. There are now 327 primary schools receiving subsidies, 12 of which also include general secondary or technical classes.

At the end of the year under review, 719 private schools in the Colony maintained entirely from their own resources between them catered for over 64% of the school population. They included every type of school from kindergartens to schools providing adult evening classes and post-secondary education in Chinese. Government exercises a more direct super- vision over grant aided and subsidized schools than over private schools with the result that the standard of tuition on the whole tends to be higher in schools aided by public funds than in private schools. There are, however, many very good private schools.

93

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The number of schools and total enrolment on 30th

June, 1954, were as follows:

No. of

Enrolment

No. of

Schools

Teachers

Government

40

17,589

558

Grant-aided

20

14,247

648

Subsidized

327

47,705

1,670

Private

719

142,942

6,290

Special Afternoon Classes

12,179

1,106

234,662

9,166

The financial difficulties experienced by the Univer- sity of Hong Kong, which is an independent body incorporated under the University Ordinance, 1911, led to Sir Ivor Jennings, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Ceylon, and Dr. D. W. Logan, Principal of the University of London, being invited to visit the University and advise the Chancellor and the Council on financial and other matters. They arrived in September, 1953, and their report, published in February, 1954, recommended an increase in Govern- ment's recurrent annual grant to the University from $1 million to $4 million, and, in addition, an annual capital grant from the Government of up to $3 million. Government increased its grant to these figures in respect of the year 1954-55.

The number of students at the University this year was 938. They are divided between the faculties of arts, science, medicine, engineering, architecture and education. Eighteen government scholarships tenable at the University were awarded on the results of the Hong Kong University Matriculation Examination. Six of the holders of these scholarships will study medicine, six science, four arts and two engineering.

94

EDUCATION

In view of the serious shortage of graduate teachers for secondary schools, Government has introduced a bursary scheme for prospective secondary, school teachers. Under this scheme suitable students, who might otherwise be unable to afford higher education, will be assisted to take an arts or science degree and the University Diploma in Education. The maximum value of a bursary is $4,200 p.a. but smaller awards may be recommended by a selection committee which takes into acount the financial needs of the applicants. This year, funds available for these bursaries amounted to about $165,000 and fifty-nine awards were made; nine to graduates taking the course for the Diploma in Education, thirty-eight to undergraduates in the faculty of arts, and twelve in the faculty of science.

It is thought that the lengthening of the matricula- tion course to two years may deter some students from continuing their education beyond School Certificate Examination level. Government has, therefore, intro- duced a maintenance grant scheme whereby needy students who have done well at the School Certificate Examination may be given financial assistance to enable them to complete their matriculation course and qualify for entrance to the University of Hong Kong. Priority is given to applicants who appear to be suitable for, and likely to enter, the teaching profession, but can- didates wishing to study for other careers are also eligible. The size of a grant awarded is determined by the particular circumstances of the applicant.

1

A special committee advises and recommends students wishing to go to Britain for higher studies. The Director of Colonial Scholars in London arranges their placing and a liaison officer is responsible for

95

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

their general welfare, including the arrangement of suitable contacts and hospitality. Although students are making increasing use of these facilities, there are still some who prefer to make their own arrangements. The following table shows the distribution of students by the courses they follow and the country in which they are studying. Most of them are pursuing courses which are not available locally.

Country*

Courses followed

Source of payment†

U. K.

Canada

Agricultural Sciences

1

4

Commercial subjects

9

6

Education

15

Fine Arts, Applied Arts,

Architecture

19

7

Law

Medical Sciences

35

61

3

CA

Philosophy and Humanities,

Arts

12

14

Public Administration

3

Science (general)

14

78

Secretarial

2

Social Sciences

1

Technology and Engineering

Sciences

116

14

Inland revenue

2

Meteorology

4

1 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

4 Government Scholarships

2 Government Scholarships

1 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

3 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

5 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

3 Government Scholarships

6 Sino-British Scholarships

2 Government Scholarships

1 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

2 Colonial Development and

Welfare Scheme

Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme

Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme

293

127

* In addition to the figures given 7 students went to Eire for further study, 100 to U.S.A. and 157 to Australia. Figures for Hong Kong students in the Philippines, Formosa, Japan and other countries are not available.

† All students in Canada are privately financed and all those in the United

Kingdom are privately financed except where stated otherwise.

96

EDUCATION

Apart from the students listed in the table, there were 150 students in the United Kingdom taking preliminary courses. Three officers of the Education Department were granted study leave by the Govern- ment; one is specializing in primary school administra- tion, one in teacher training, the other in the teaching of English as a foreign language.

The Department conducts a considerable number of external examinations on behalf of universities and examining bodies in the United Kingdom. The most popular of these is the London University General Certificate of Education for which there were 338 candidates in 1954. Other examinations include external degree examinations of the University of London, University of Cambridge Overseas School Certificate and Certificate of Proficiency in English, commercial examinations of various British organiza- tions and City and Guilds of London Institute tech- nological examinations. The London Chamber of Commerce examinations normally attract as many as 200 candidates each year.

The estimated number of teachers employed in all schools in the Colony during the year was 9, 166; approximately 75% were teaching in primary schools. It is estimated that normal retirements and wastage together with the planned expansion of Government and Government aided schools will create during the next three years an annual demand for about 640 new teachers and that 500 of these will be required for primary schools. This figure does not, however, include an estimate for an increase in private schools.

97

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

In 1953, 16 graduate teachers were awarded Diplomas in Education by the University and 138. students from training colleges became certificated teachers on probation. If recruitment succeeds in filling the existing institutions to normal capacity and no wastage occurs, the maximum number of teachers who will be trained each year in full-time professional courses will be 220. Part-time training is being given to 280 practising teachers through special urban and rural courses of training.

The Professional Teachers' Training Board set up last year has continued its policy of integrating the teacher training facilities of Government and the University. The work of the Board has covered such subjects as exchange of information concerning training courses, the most efficient use of the facilities of the University and Government, the provision of profes- sional assistance to students, and refresher courses and higher courses of training.

The Education Department maintains two libraries; a reference library, from which teachers may borrow books, and a textbook library at the Northcote Training College. The University of Hong Kong possesses an English and a Chinese library, but membership is restricted. The British Council and the United States Information Service libraries cover a wide range of fiction and non-fiction books and are open to the general public. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce has a library consisting mainly of commercial publications. The Junior Chamber of Commerce has been very active in establishing libraries for children in schools and welfare centres. It is expected that provision will be made for a public library in the new City Hall when this is erected.

98

EDUCATION

Three Government institutions provide technical education-the Technical College, the Junior Technical School and the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls. The Technical College is for students of post-secondary school level and had 188 day students studying courses in building, telecommunications, radio servicing, navi- gation, mechanical engineering and commerce. Some of these courses are designed to train students to a professional level and qualify them to sit for examina- tions of professional institutions. The Junior Technical School with an enrolment of 252 offers a four-year pre- apprenticeship course which includes general subjects and woodwork, metal work and technical drawing. The Ho Tung Technical School for Girls had an enrolment of 202. The course provided has now been extended to five years in order to enable students to sit for the School Certificate Examination. Beginning with general subjects, it branches out into domestic, commercial and industrial courses with specialist instruction as a preparation for employment.

The Technical College Evening Department con- tinues to expand. There were 2,394 students on the roll last year and courses were offered in building, electrical engineering, radio engineering, field survey- ing, mechanical engineering, and naval architecture. These are senior and advanced courses of 3 years' duration and 2 years' duration respectively which correspond to the National Certificate courses offered by technical colleges in the United Kingdom. These courses are taken in English but a two year course of instruction on the internal combustion engine is taught in Cantonese. For the purpose of preparing apprentices and tradesmen who have insufficient basic education for admission to the senior classes, a three-

99

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

year preliminary course of instruction is provided. The Department is also responsible for 14 evening classes in commerce at which shorthand, book-keeping and costing are taught.

Private technical and commercial schools with day and night classes had a total enrolment of 4,426. Among the technical courses offered are electrical engineering, civil and mechanical engineering, wireless telegraphy, aero engines, automobile engineering, handicrafts and dress-making; the commercial courses included English, shorthand, typewriting, book-keeping and accounting. In some schools, the medium of instruction is English and in others Chinese. The standards of tuition and equipment vary greatly.

KUTA

A Technical Education Investigating Committee, consisting of Government officers and representatives of commerce and industry submitted its report to the Board of Education during the year. The latter has recom- mended to Government the adoption of the report in principle and as a result several committees have been formed. The Standing Committee on Technical Edu- cation and Vocational Training is to advise Government generally on matters concerning technical education and vocational training, an Advisory Committee for the Ho Tung Technical School for Girls has been set up and another committee will deal with the provision of part- time day release classes for Government apprentices and will consider the desirability of using indentures.

1)

Adult education is provided through classes of the Evening Institute, the Technical College Evening Department, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies, evening courses for adult workers, and by private night schools. In addition, officers of the

100

EDUCATION

Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department and others visited centres of local industry to advise and give lectures on agricultural, technical, industrial and special subjects. Maximum enrolment figures for adult education in classes provided directly by Government were 1,883 in general classes, 3,695 in technical and vocational classes, and 436 in the School of Higher Chinese Studies. Government evening courses are arranged according to demand; they include English, Chinese, accountancy, commercial book-keeping and costing, shorthand, biology, handwork, carpentry, building, engineering, and naval architecture. Literacy classes are organized in rural areas where there is a demand.

Existing facilities for adult education were aug- mented by a new project designed to provide a general background education and certain courses of a trade or technical nature for industrial workers and others who have had only limited education. Classes were started at three levels-higher, middle and lower primary. Courses included Chinese, English, civics, general knowledge, arithmetic and certain technical subjects.

During the year ending 30th June, 1954, fifty new buildings or extensions were opened which provided accommodation for some 14,560 pupils, including about 7,840 at the primary stage. Accommodation for a further 10,000 pupils was found in existing schools or in new schools opening in existing premises adapted for the purpose. New buildings in rural areas provided solely for primary education; those in the urban areas provided for the expansion of primary, secondary, and technical education and in a number of cases enabled existing secondary schools to operate as whole-day

101

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

schools. The shortage of primary schools makes it increasingly important that these should operate in two sessions but in the interests of efficiency, it is hoped that secondary schools will operate as whole-day schools.

There were 1,796 entries for the English School Certificate, an increase of 266 over last year and 1,309 entries for the Chinese School Certificate, an increase of 243.

The syndicates responsible for these two examinations are helping to maintain and improve the standards of secondary education in the Colony.

The continued popularity of music, drama and art was again evident in the Schools Music Festival and the Inter-School Dramatic Competition and also the paintings of children in Hong Kong schools which were exhibited at the International Children's Painting Exhibition in Indonesia. The Associated Board of the Royal School of Music has decided to grant a scholar- ship worth £200 p.a. and tenable for 3 years at the Royal College of Music in London to a suitable candidate.

In schools in the urban areas interest in sport was as keen as ever and in the New Territories, largely as a result of the initiative of teachers recently trained for teaching in rural schools, an association has been formed to organize annual sports meetings. In order to produce an equitable allocation of playing fields in the urban areas, the Director of Education has been given authority for the allocation and administration of fifteen hockey, football and cricket pitches.

Increased interest in other extra-curricular activities was seen in the development of physical education in schools and training colleges, in the number of entries

102

EDUCATION

for the School Gardens Competition and in the various handicraft and rural activity sections of the New Terri- tories Agricultural Show. New primary courses have been introduced with a rural, marine or urban bias according to the environment, and many schools now include courses in housecraft.

Civics has become an important subject in the curriculum of many schools. The basic idea of this course is to encourage a sense of responsibility rather than to provide knowledge for examinations. Periodic visits were made to public utility companies, govern- ment departments and private undertakings. Postmen, policemen and other public servants visited primary schools where they gave personal accounts of their work, and the Traffic Branch of the Police Department con- tinued to arrange talks, lectures and demonstrations at schools and training colleges on road safety.

The Anti-Tuberculosis Association arranged an exhibition which was attended by several thousand children. Later, a competition was held for school- children for the best essay on ways and means of pre- venting the spread of tuberculosis and entries from a large number of schools were received.

At the invitation of Government, Mr. Lyndford Keyes of the World Health Organization Secretariat visited the Colony and gave specialist advice on school health education. Discussions with the medical author- ities, school heads and others interested in medical and health services, resulted in the formation of a team to plan and demonstrate ways in which the school health education programme can be developed.

103

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Co-operation between school authorities and parents is being helped by the growth of Parent-Teacher Associations.

Many schools maintain a practical interest in charitable organizations such as hospitals and orphan- ages which are supported by voluntary subscriptions. A special children's ward is maintained at Ruttonjee Sanatorium by an annual contribution from the schools. Books and magazines have been collected for patients. in hospitals in response to an appeal from the Red Cross Organization. The Old Boys' and Old Girls' Associations of some of the schools have organized free schools for poor children and some secondary schools arrange this type of school in the summer holidays. Senior students acting under the guidance and advice. of their teachers give lessons in reading, writing and health to illiterate children.

104

C

LIBRARIE

Chapter 9

Public Health and

Urban Services

Public Health

General Health

No case of cholera, plague, smallpox, relapsing fever, typhus or yellow fever, occurred during 1954 in Hong Kong. The major serious diseases affecting the population are still tuberculosis, the pneumonias, diph- theria and gastro-enteritis in childhood. The case mortality rate, in so far as it can be estimated, has shown a decline. Malaria is a comparatively minor problem, the number of notified cases this year being the lowest on record.

The diseases which proved to be most troublesome were those associated with overcrowding, dirt and ignorance of hygiene and these were undoubtedly encouraged by the restrictions placed upon the use of piped water. A series of fires in squatter areas which rendered tens of thousands of persons homeless created a big sanitary problem but, in spite of this, the incidence of typhoid and dysentery was not as high as in 1953.

The crude general death rate remained remarkably low suggesting that the number of young adults is relatively high, but without a census no accurate estimate of the age and sex distribution of the population can be made, nor can specific mortality and morbidity rates be calculated.

105

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Tuberculosis has been fought by B.C.G. vaccination and improved clinical services; the pneumonias and gastro-enteritis in childhood by further expansion of the Maternal and Child Health Services, assisted by certain voluntary organizations. The enteric diseases and dysenteries have been combatted by intensive pro- paganda, vaccination and an attempt to improve by education, kitchen and service handling of food served to the public in restaurants, cafes and food-stalls. Diphtheria, the incidence of which has been steadily increasing year by year, has been the subject of an intensive propaganda and immunization campaign assisted by the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. The results are encouraging.

A feature of the year has been the appearance of a health problem created by the rapid industrialization of the New Territories. At Tsun Wan, in particular, factories have been built without adequate accommoda- tion for the workers, who live in insanitary squatter huts near the factories. However, the statistics for 1954 indicate that public health has been satisfactory and for this much credit must be given to the Urban Services Department.

Infectious and Communicable Diseases

Enteric Fever. The high incidence of this disease in 1954 was disturbing. In spite of an intensive inocu- lation campaign in which, for each of the last two years, about a quarter of a million persons have had first doses and a little under 100,000 have had second doses, there were 1,099 cases with 83 deaths in 1954. On the other hand, the case fatality rate is now only

106

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IC L

Photo: S. Y. Wong

The task of housing Hong Kong's grossly inflated post-war population is the most vexatious problem now confronting the Colony's government. At the beginning of 1954-despite persistent efforts at resettlement made during the previous three years- there were still approximately 250,000 people living in "squatter" communities. These squalid aggregations of ramshackle huts, sited higgledy-piggledly, built for the most part of wood and other highly combustible materials, present an ever-present menace to the well-being of the whole community. They are health hazards and above all, they are fire hazards.

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Photo: Willie's Studio

A large-scale squatter village fire, such as swept the Tai Hang Tung settlement on the evening of 22nd July 1954, brings much suffering to thousands of unfortunate people. This particular fire laid waste 13 acres, destroyed some 2,000 buildings (mainly of wood construction), killed nine people, injured many more and rendered over 24,000 homeless. Next morning, all that remained of Tai Hang Tung village was a wilder- ness of untidy, smoking debris.

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Photo: Mayfair Studios

After any big fire the various relief organisations of Government get quickly to work. The victims are assembled and registered, food and clothing issued, help given in finding temporary quarters. The orderly crowd seen in the upper photograph, several thousand strong, covering almost the whole of a cricket field, are awaiting registration after a fire. Below: The Army lends a hand in the distribution of rations.

Photo: Mayfair Studios

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The most disastrous fire in Hong Kong's history broke out in the squatter village o flames swept through 45 acres and, within a matter of three hours, almost 60,000 some little idea of its scale. From the street on the left, right up into the foothills empty shells.

Of the wooden huts which surrounded them scarcely a visible trac

Just ten months later the lower photograph was taken. spread) a brand-new village has arisen....

·

In place of desolation and orderly rows of fireproof building were devised by the Public Works Department for speedy erection in the minimun village are Hong Kong's long-term answer to the resettlement problem.

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The most disastrous fire in Hong Kong's history broke out in the squatter village of flames swept through 45 acres and, within a matter of three hours, almost 60,000 some little idea of its scale. From the street on the left, right up into the foothills, empty shells. Of the wooden huts which surrounded them scarcely a visible trace

Just ten months later the lower photograph was taken. spread) a brand-new village has arisen...

In place of desolation and orderly rows of fireproof buildings were devised by the Public Works Department for speedy erection in the minimum village are Hong Kong's long-term answer to the resettlement problem.

Shek Kip Mei, Kowloon, on Christmas Day 1953. Fanned by a strong wind the people were homeless. The upper photograph, taken three days after the fire, gives there is scarcely a building unscathed. The stone buildings still standing are mainly remains.

the disorderly squalor which preceded the fire (and which indeed helped its rapid in properly laid-out streets. The long two-storey buildings in foreground and centre space of time. The big multi-storey blocks which surround the perimeter of the

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*

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hek Kip Mei, Kowloon, on Christmas Day 1953. Fanned by a strong wind the eople were homeless. The upper photograph, taken three days after the fire, gives here is scarcely a building unscathed. The stone buildings still standing are mainly

'mains.

e disorderly squalor which preceded the fire (and which indeed helped its rapid properly laid-out streets. The long two-storey buildings in foreground and centre pace of time. The big multi-storey blocks which surround the perimeter of the

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共圖

The magnitude of the Shek Kip Mei fire and the speed with which order was restored and new houses built can be guaged from the photographs on this page. They were taken in early February, only six weeks after the fire. By that time the whole site had been largely levelled, new streets laid out, drainage and water mains installed and The first cottages of brick and stone with asbestos roofs were going up rapidly. were ready for occupation by February 16. By the end of the year 54,000 people had been re-housed.

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Resettlement in Hong Kong takes many forms. Steep hillsides unsuitable for per- manent development are terraced to permit the orderly erection of huts and cottages. The simple huts above were constructed by the occupants themselves on sites made available by Government which also supplied without charge the four corner-posts and the roof. The more elaborate cottages below were professionally built, for purchase outright or on reasonable hire-purchase terms. They cost between £75 and £150.

Many of these cottages are also built by charitable societies and given free to deserving families.

Photo: Overseas Chinese Daily News

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Multi-storey flat blocks have finally been selected as the long-term solution to Hong Kong resettlement. They have two main advantages: (a) they are economical of land (b) can be converted at a later stage to appartment blocks with normal amenities. (In the blocks as at present constructed water supply, latrines, etc. are communal). What the ex-squatters think of their new homes can be guaged from the enthusiastic welcome they gave the Governor of Hong Kong when he visited the new blocks at Shek Kip Mei in December.

Photo: South China Morning Post, Ltd.

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

7.6% and has declined steadily from 52% in 1946. During the year intensive propaganda campaigns were organized to encourage the public to submit to inocu- lation and in addition the public health staff have used every method possible to fight the disease.

The Dysenteries. 771

77I cases were reported this year compared with 947 last year.

Diphtheria. The U.N.I.C.E.F.-assisted campaign against this disease was continued during 1954. Pro- paganda in favour of immunization was carried on in schools, at curative and infant welfare clinics and by road hoarders and posters. 194,230 first injections and 120,892 second injections of toxoid were given; the corresponding figures in 1953 were 195,797 and 154,377 respectively.

However, there were 1,104 cases of diphtheria during the year with 116 deaths as compared with 1,116 notifications and 133 deaths in 1953. Unfortunately cases of diphtheria are frequently brought to hospital in a late stage of the disease and tracheotomies are very frequently performed in the infectious diseases hospitals.

Measles. This disease is present all the year round but most common in the spring. There were 597 cases with 126 deaths as compared with 661 and 50 respectively in 1953. No special preventive measures were taken against the disease.

Poliomyelitis. Cases occurred sporadically through- out the year and there were 39 cases with 9 deaths, as compared with 22 cases and 3 deaths in 1953.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Rabies. Stringent precautions covering the move- ment of dogs and protective inoculations were continued and no case of rabies in a human being was recorded. 9 cases occurred in animals.

Tuberculosis. For many years tuberculosis has been by far the most serious clinical and public health problem in the Colony and this is true of the year 1954. 12,508 cases were notified and there was 2,876 deaths. The figures for 1953 were 11,900 and 2,039.

The Medical Department operates the only two large-scale diagnostic clinics in the Colony. One of there was opened on 1st April, 1954, to replace an older clinic which was no longer suitable for this purpose. There were 218,424 attendances at these clinics with an average monthly increase of 2,000 attendances at each. The increases can mainly be attributed to an increase in the use of specific drugs for out-patients. There was also a great increase in attendances for artificial pneumothroax

pneumothroax and artificial pneumoperi- toneum and over one thousand per month were dealt with. The success of this treatment has fully justified the time spent upon it.

In 1954 evening sessions were started at the tuber- culosis clinics but it is too early to gauge their success. However, attendances at branch clinics in various public dispensaries showed gratifying increases, and it is evident that the confidence of the public in the services. offered by the Government is increasing.

The B.C.G. vaccination campaign has continued. All school children have already been offered B.C.G. inoculation and in schools a steady maintenance pro-

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

gramme has been instituted. In an attempt to extend inoculation to children not attending school and to seek out the many non-attenders, a house-to-house campaign was introduced in conjunction with the Urban Services House Cleansing Squads, but it had to be abandoned. when the water shortage put an end to the regular work of the squads. Vaccinators attend regularly at Child Welfare Clinics and encourage mothers to have their children inoculated as early as possible. Experi- mental vaccination of new born children has been in operation throughout the year and a method of vaccina- tion has now been evolved by means of which it should be possible to extend the work considerably.

X-ray surveys are carried out, but they are restricted mainly to annual surveys of Government servants and to certain firms who are prepared to undertake the responsibility for the medical care of any of their employees who are found to have the disease.

Leprosy. Owing to the extreme reluctance of the Chinese community to accept cured lepers once they have been in a leper hospital, there has been a shift of emphasis in the policy governing their treatment. Formerly it was the practice to segregate as many lepers as possible at the Mission to Lepers settlement on the island of Hay Ling Chau. Now greater emphasis is being placed on treatment at out-patient leper clinics in the urban areas. In future only severe or com- plicated cases with disfigurement will be encouraged to go to Hay Ling Chau.

The table at Appendix XIII-C shows statistics of the more important infectious diseases in the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Births and Deaths

Following the trend of the last few years, the birth rate continued at a very high level, whilst the death rate remained at a relatively low level. The following table gives the statistics of births and deaths for the last

five years:

Year

Births

Birth Rate per 1,000 of Population

Death Rate

Deaths

per 1,000 of Population

1950 ......

60,600

26.8

18,465

8.2

1951 ..

68,500

34

20,580

10.2

1952

71,976

32

19,459

8.6

1953

75,544

33.6

18,300

8.1

1954 .....

83,317

36.6

19,283

8.5

Perhaps the main reason for the Colony's high birth rate is the young age grouping of the Colony which is due principally to the post-war influx of young people from China seeking work. The same factor to some extent explains the low death rate but the effective control of epidemic and killing diseases is probably the main reason for this.

The maternal mortality rate in 1954 was 1.24 per 1,000 births compared with 0.97 in 1953 and 1.14 in 1952. The infant mortality rate was 72.4 per 1,000 live births compared with 73.6 in 1953 and 77.1 in 1952. The infant mortality rate has fallen steadily since the war and, if the war years are excluded, over the last 25 years. All births are registered and the credit for the present low figure rests with the well-trained midwives and registered medical practitioners who deliver 97% of all births.

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

Organization of Public Health Services

Responsibility for the administration of public

health

measures is divided between the Medical Department, the Urban Council and Urban Services Department and the District Administration, New Territories. The Medical Department deals with such matters as epidemiology, vital and morbidity statistics, maternal and child health, school hygiene and the health of school children, malaria control, tuberculosis control, measures to combat social diseases, health education, port health control and international health matters, whereas the Urban Council and the Urban Services Department whose work is described in detail later in this chapter, are concerned with environmental sanitation, domestic cleanliness, control of the importa- tion, preparation, handling and sale of food. The District Commissioner is statutorily responsible for public health measures in the New Territories and is advised by officers of the Medical Department.

The Medical Department

The work of the Medical Department is under the direction of the Director of Medical and Health Services and that of the Urban Services under the Director of Urban Services who is concurrently the Chairman of the Urban Council. Close liaison is maintained between the two departments through the Deputy Director of Health Services under whose administration the Medical Department Health Services are grouped. He is con- currently Vice-Chairman and public health adviser to the Urban Council and has certain executive functions in regard to the Urban Council. He also has certain. executive functions in regard to the Inspectorate of the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Urban Services, which is further guided by Health Officers of the Medical Department, who hold certain statutory powers under the public health legislation affecting both departments. The work of the district Health Officers is directly controlled by the Senior Health Officer, who is concurrently Secretary of the Health Staff Conference, an informal liaison committee. composed of medical officers and the senior administra- tive inspectors, which meets under the Chairmanship of the Deputy Director of Health Services to co-ordinate policy and plan joint action.

Expenditure on Medical Services. The estimated expenditure for the financial year 1954/55 is $27,843,553. To this should be added subventions totalling $6,391,800 to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, the Anti- Tuberculosis Association, and other similar bodies. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical Department and the medical subventions represents approximately 8.8% of the Colony's total estimated revenue. Estimated capital expenditure for the Medical Department was $5,303,000.

The Port Health Service. This sub-department is responsible for the sanitary control of the harbour and airport, compilation of epidemiological statistics and reports, and for rendering assistance is vaccination campaigns. The staff of the Service consists of health officers and inspectors, public vaccinators and. a fumigator. Close liaison is maintained with the World Health Organization's Epidemiological Station in Singapore.

During the year special attention was paid to incoming vessels and aircraft from plague-infected or suspected ports, and due to a lack of epidemiological

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information from the Chinese mainland, all Chinese ports east of Canton were regarded as being infected with smallpox. A considerable number of ships were inspected and fumigated with sulphur and cyanide and a survey of small craft in the waters of the Colony showed that a certain amount of mosquito breeding was taking place in junks. Aedes aegypti was the pre- dominant species and was found to be breeding almost exclusively in drinking-water storage receptables of cargo junks employed as lighters. As this mosquito is responsible for the transmission of yellow fever, it is most important that it should be kept under control. The absence of Aedes aegypti breeding ashore pointed to the introduction of this species by vessels from outports. Control measures were directed mainly to breaking the breeding cycle of the Aedes by the frequent cleansing of drinking water storage receptacles. These measures appear to have been successful as only 26 cases of breeding were discovered during the year.

The Malaria Bureau. The staff of the Malaria Bureau which is responsible for the control of malaria in Hong Kong consists of a malariologist, malaria inspectors, and daily paid overseers and labourers. The population at risk in the area controlled by the department is about 2 millions including about 25,000 Europeans. The cost of the anti-malarial work which is by larval control methods works out at 20 cents per head of the population per annum. This also includes the cost of control of nuisance mosquitoes. In addition to the protection of the civilian population, consultative work is done and many surveys are carried out on behalf of the Royal Navy, Army and Royal Air Force in the New Territories and outlying islands.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

In addition to these control measures, investigations. were continued to determine the level of immunity of the rural population in the New Territories, and the possible value of DDT as a residual spray in the control of rural malaria. Further progress was also made in the study of the effectiveness of several new larvicides.

468 malaria cases were notified, 18 of which were Europeans. Of these 18, only three were found to have contracted the disease in the controlled area. The incidence of clinical malaria in the New Territories remained low but it was highest among non-immune immigrants from other areas.

other areas. The immunity which has been developed by the populace of the New Terri- tories through residence among the partially immune immigrant Shanghai and Honan workers was main- tained.

The health of the British troops in the New Territories on protective paludrine remained good, and no resistance to this drug was noted.

Social Hygiene Service. In addition to the routine facilities for treating the social diseases, a service providing free blood tests for all patients of midwives in private practice is available.

Maternal and Child Health. There were 17 centres concerned with maternal and child health at the begin- ning of the year, another was started in May when the Maurine Grantham clinic was opened at Tsun Wan in the New Territories.

Emergency services were provided for expectant mothers rendered homeless by squatter fires and in a special emergency maternity hospital 150 babies were

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born to victims of the great fire of Christmas night, 1953. Following the serious fire in July, another emergency maternity hospital was set up in the King George V School where there were 19 deliveries.

Health Education. Mass health education in the form of film shows, film strips, flannel craft, health talks, and demonstration classes was given at all the health centres. Pamphlets on infant care have been translated into Chinese and are to be distributed in quantity. Posters of various kinds dealing with such matters as ante-natal hygiene, diet and general cleanliness have also been produced and are used in Maternity and Child Health centres.

The Health Education campaign has been helped by U.N.I.C.E.F. equipment supplied for this purpose

in 1953.

School Health Service. This service is for all Government schools and such subsidized and private schools as are willing to participate. The medical staff visits schools periodically and conducts systematic inspections of school children at specified ages. Those found with any defect are referred to the appropriate clinic. The school medical service co-operates with the tuberculosis service in detecting tuberculosis either in school children or their teachers.

Hospitals. In addition to the 11 hospitals run by the Medical Department, there are 15 run by non- Government agencies, 6 of which receive financial help from the Government. The total number of beds in the Colony, including those in dispensaries, is 4,695, and their distribution is given in Appendix XIII-A.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Medical Personnel. The number of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel officially and privately employed in the Colony is given in Appendix XIII-B.

New Construction. The Medical Department opened two large new centres during the year; a large polyclinic for physical medicine, dental and chest clinics, with adequate X-ray and dental laboratory, at Kennedy Road, Wanchai, and the Maurine Grantham Health Centre at Tsun Wan, which in addition to a health centre, accommodates a small maternity hospital of 12 beds, a pharmacy, a general curative clinic and quarters for the resident staff.

A new Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital of 200 beds at Sai Ying Pun is nearing completion and plans are being made for a new general hospital of 1,200 beds in Kowloon and for a custodial home and mental hospital at Castle Peak for 500 patients.

Urban Services

The Urban Council

The Urban Council, the organization and activities. of which are described in Chapter 21, has statutory responsibilities for various public health measures in the urban area. The Chairman of the Council is also Director of the Urban Services Department, and the Sanitary Division of this department is responsible for the actual performance of public health activities in the urban area.

The staff establishment of this Division

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

consists of 168 administrative, professional and technical officers and 4,529 other ranks. The division is sub- divided into inter-related sections dealing with:

Sanitary maintenance of buildings and open

spaces.

Pure food supplies.

The establishment and control of public retail

markets.

The licensing and control of hawkers.

The prevention and mitigation of disease.

Collection and disposal of refuse.

Conservancy.

Disposal of the dead.

Control of public swimming beaches and life.

saving.

Recurrent expenditure incurred by the Sanitary Division of, the Urban Services Department in 1954 amounted to $13,405,166.51 of which $10,943,272.47 was wages.

Sanitary Organization

In March of this year 27 probationers passed the Royal Sanitary Institute Examination and qualified as Health Inspectors. Another 31 are due to qualify early in 1955. The full benefits of the increases in staff and reorganization, however, will not be felt for another 18 months, but some improvements are already being made as the new hands gain experience. Four Health

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Inspectors, partly trained in meat and food inspection, have been sent to the United Kingdom for an additional year of training and to qualify for a Meat and Food Certificate. On their return these inspectors will be employed in a new abattoir at Kennedy Town.

For many years the Urban Services Department carried out house cleansing quarterly throughout most of the urban area but in 1954, owing to the acute shortage of water, this was replaced experimentally by a system of house inspection. Under this system tenants are left to clean their own houses and the Health Inspectors advise them as to cleansing methods and hygiene.

Approximately 2,200 persons are employed on refuse collection and disposal, and street cleansing, together with 51 specialized refuse collection vehicles, 6 street washing vehicles and 18 barges specially constructed for the removal of refuse.

The amount of refuse collected each day is steadily increasing and now amounts to 1,551 cubic yards. This is approximately 2 times the amount collected in 1947. All refuse is removed daily by specially constructed barges to the Council's dump at Sham Wan.

Street washing vehicles have been engaged daily for the last six months in delivering well and nullah water to all markets and one slaughter-house for wash- ing down in order to conserve Government mains water. This is in addition to the regular duties of cleaning street gully traps and nightly routine washing of about 65 miles of roads and footpaths per vehicle.

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

Squatter fires this year which have driven the fire victims to settle temporarily in the streets have thrown much extra work on the Division which has had to provide temporary latrines, bath-houses and large refuse bins.

Although many new buildings and houses mostly with water carriage system are being erected each year, there is still a steady increase in the demands on the conservancy disposal service, which covers nearly 50,000 floors and employs a staff of over 1,400. Much of the increase is due to the provision of proper sanita- tion in the new buildings erected for resettling squatters. A specially designed vehicle for conservancy service imported from the United Kingdom has been put into use and found most suitable for daylight removal of nightsoil from temporary latrines erected for squatter fire victims in certain streets. Nightsoil collection during the year exceeded 90,000 cubic yards, which is three times the quantity collected during 1946/47.

The various advisory committees and professional and technical officers are giving constant attention to the problems of improving the standard of health and hygiene in the community.

Three new public bath-houses have been erected during the year, making a total of ten in the urban district with a daily attendance, for which no charge is made, of over 3,900 persons of both sexes. The provision of additional bath-houses and public latrine accommodation is being increased according to a five

year programme.

119

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Food Inspection

More than 4,400 premises licensed for the prepara- tion or sale of food are inspected regularly and when possible advice on personal and food hygiene is given. To improve the conditions under which food is sold from cooked food stalls and to reduce the incidence of intestinal diseases, the Council approved a competition held between the licensed stalls in the various districts of the urban district. Points were awarded for various aspects of cleanliness and based upon periodical inspec- tions by the health staff. The stallholders of the various districts joined in enthusiastically and the standard of cleanliness was encouragingly high.

Seven new retail markets, containing 2,103 stalls, some of them sited in resettlement areas, were con- structed during the year.

The retailing of fresh meat, fresh fish and poultry is restricted to public markets or food shops under special licence. Only fresh meat from animals slaugh- tered in Government abattoirs may be sold in markets. and food shops but imported meat may be sold under special permit. Swine, cattle, sheep and goats were slaughtered in the abattoirs and marketed during the year and the market retail prices of meat fluctuated between $3.40 to $4.80 for pork and $3.60 to $6.50 for beef per catty.

Pest Control

i.

New work in pest control included field trials on the use of repellents and insecticides for the control of biting midges (Lasiohelea stimulans) and attempts to

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

find a suitable bait base mixture for use with warfarin (an anti-coagulant rodenticide) against domestic rodent pests, but it is not yet possible to assess the results of these researches. Inquiries from members of the public about centipedes have given rise to an investigation of these pests; information is being collected about the various species, their occurrence, habits and the toxicity of the venom of the larger species.

Transfer of Veterinary Staff. Before October, 1954, the prevention and control of animal diseases in the Colony was the responsibility of the Urban Council under the Public Health (Animal and Birds) Ordinance, Cap. 139, whereas responsibility for the health and improvement of livestock in the New Territories lay with the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. In order to place the responsibility both for animal husbandry and the prevention and control of animal diseases in the Colony under the one authority, the veterinary staff of the Urban Services Department was transferred to the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry with effect from the 1st October.

Foot and Mouth Disease. Foot and mouth disease transmitted from China, was identified for the first time amongst indigenous cattle in the rural areas. It affected cattle, buffaloes and pigs throughout the New Territories, but because of its mild clinical form and owing to the inherent resistance of native animals, it was little more than a nuisance to farmers and there were few deaths. First discovered in July, the disease appeared to have died out by the end of the year. Precautionary inoculation with Type 'A' vaccine was carried out on all exotic dairy stock as soon as it became

121

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

known that the virus type responsible was exclusively type 'A' and no cases occurred amongst foreign bred dairy cattle.

By-products Plant. The burning of meat, offal and carcases, condemned in the two urban slaughterhouses as unfit for human food, has long been considered. wasteful and costly. Plans for the new central abattoir incorporate modern plant for the conversion of this material into meat and bone meal for livestock feed and inedible fat for soap manufacture. In September of this year a complete but small scale dry rendering plant, intended as a prototype for the main installation to provide experience in operating this type of machinery, was set up adjacent to the Kennedy Town slaughter- house. This pilot plant has successfully processed an average of 12 tons of condemned meat daily and the quality of the resultant products has easily reached trade standards.

3

4

Parks and Gardens

The Gardens Division of the Urban Services consists of two sections, one of which is concerned with practical horticulture and the other with the botanical work of the Colony.

The horticultural section is responsible for the maintenance and development work of the Botanic Gardens and Government House grounds; all public turfed and non-turfed recreation areas and children's playgrounds in the urban areas; most grounds of Government schools, offices, hospitals, and quarters; and the grassed areas of the airport. In the upkeep of

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

these areas, which now total roughly 382 acres, a regular force of 155 gardeners, park-keepers and groundsmen is engaged with the seasonal services of a further 183 unskilled workers.

In the early part of the year, two parks with adequate spaces for games but with special facilities for the comfort of the aged were opened to the public- the King George V Memorial Parks in Hong Kong and Kowloon. Although a site had been allocated for a park in Hong Kong, work was not started until late in 1953.

Two major development planting schemes were in hand at the close of the year. One is the construction of the football pitch and grassed arena in the modern sports stadium being built at Sookunpoo to accom- modate nearly 30,000 persons, and the other is the construction of a sports ground on top of the roof of a service reservoir.

The horticultural section has three main nurseries for the production of ornamental plants to supply the needs of the Division, and for sale to the public. Several thousand plants are grown in pots each year for official decoration purposes, and for non-competitive displays at agricultural-horticultural shows. An inspection ser- vice of live plants and plant products leaving the colony is maintained by this section.

The botanical section is primarily concerned with the care of the colonial herbarium which is housed in an air-conditioned room in the University. The collec- tion comprises some 26,000 specimens, and is largely

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

the work of botanists and plant explorers to China at the beginning of the century. Specimens and data are continually being added as areas in the remote parts of the colony are again surveyed botanically. Each year specimens are forwarded for identification by the police, the government chemist, research institutions, and by members of the public. In recent years the section has made many field excursions to acquire specimens of local plants for studies at the University and foreign institutions into the alkaloidal properties they are said to contain.

War Cemeteries

Since the re-occupation of the Colony in 1945, endeavours have been made to locate and identify the remains of personnel of all the armed services, including those of allied forces and other affiliated forces, who fell in the fighting for the defence of the Colony in 1941, or who later died in captivity. In 1948 the Imperial War Graves Commission assumed responsibility for completion of the work which included the planning and development of the war cemeteries. The Director of Urban Services has been appointed as agent for the Commission in Hong Kong.

The planning, of the war cemeteries and the design of the memorials is the work of the Commission's chief architect, Mr. C. St. Clair Oakes, M.B.E., F.R.I.B.A. All construction work has been in the hands of the Public Works Department and the horticultural develop- ment is progressing under the supervision of the Superintendent of Gardens.

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PUBLIC HEALTH AND URBAN SERVICES

At Saiwan Bay a semi-circular forecourt approach leads to the shelter-like memorial to dead who have no known grave, within which are recorded 2,056 names; on a separate panel are a further 144 names of those whose remains are known to have been cremated. Beyond the memorial extends the war cemetery.

At Stanley the approach has been completed; it consists of a stairway of smooth cut granite rising from the main road to the cemetery many feet above. At the head of the stairway is the cross of sacrifice and beyond stretches the cemetery.

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Chapter 10

Housing, Resettlement and Town Planning

Housing

The Housing Authority. The population of Hong Kong immediately prior to the outbreak of hostilities in 1941 was estimated to be about 1,600,000 persons. This figure was reduced to less than 600,000 during the Japanese occupation but by 1946 the numbers had again risen to 1,600,000. Between 1949 and the end of 1954, the population rose from an estimated 1,850,000 to the present figure of about 2 millions, the greater part of the increase being caused by the flow of refugees into the Colony from China. The accommodation available in the Colony was naturally not equal to such a rapid increase in population. The poorer class tene- ments were first overcrowded to saturation point and then the immigrants began to form insanitary and highly inflammable squatter settlements on the fringes of the city. Although the squatter problem is being met by steps which are described later in this chapter, the general housing problem has yet to be solved, and there can be no easy or speedy solution.

The legal minimum living space in the Colony is 35 square feet for each adult and if this legal provision were to be enforced in existing tenements it is estimated that about 350,000 people would have to be rehoused. Many of these tenements are obsolete and insanitary and should be rebuilt but the population of

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the Colony is increasing by an estimated 1,000 persons a week through the natural preponderance of births over deaths.

It was against this background that the Housing Authority was created on the 29th April, 1954, and was charged with the duty of providing accommodation for those persons in the Colony living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions. It is not intended that the Authority should have the monopoly of housing, and private development will still be encouraged. A number of business concerns have constructed quarters for their staff and schemes of this sort are being aided by the allocation of land at reduced premia. Government itself, which does not provide accommodation for its local staff, except in special cases, has started a scheme to assist local officers to build their own homes on a

co-operative basis. Finally the forerunners of the Housing Authority, the Hong Kong Housing Society and the Hong Kong Model Housing Society are, for the present at any rate, to continue their housing schemes.

By the provisions of the Housing Ordinance, No. 18 of 1954, the Housing Authority consists of all members of the Urban Council, ex officio, together with not more than three persons to be appointed by the Governor. Two such appointments have been made.

The Authority functions as a commercial enter- prise and while the rents of the accommodation which it provides are to be kept as low as possible, they must be sufficient to cover all its expenditure. No sub- sidies, as such, are given but Crown land is allocated at half the normal upset price and loans are given by

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Government at reduced rates of interest. All housing schemes must have the prior approval of the Govern- ment which maintains a general control over the activities of the Authority.

Routine administration and the execution of the decisions of the Authority are carried out by the Housing Division of the Urban Services Department, under the control of the Director of that department, who is also the Chairman of the Housing Authority. Only the nucleus of this Division has been so far appointed. The full organization of the Division will include sections to deal with general administration, accounts, and estate management, but of these only the first has so far been set up. It was intended that the design and construction of all buildings for the Authority should be undertaken by the Public Works Department, but owing to pressure of work that depart- ment has been unable to accept this commitment. A suitable organization is now being built up but until it is ready to start work the Authority has had to rely on private architects.

The first meeting of the Authority was held in June. Select committees were set up and at once met to consider the various problems that came within their respective provinces. Draft by-laws were prepared and a tentative scheme for the selection of tenants was drawn up; financial arrangements of the Authority, particularly in its relations with Government, were con- sidered, basic specifications were drawn up for flats to be constructed by the Authority and a search was made for suitable building sites. Progress in some of these. matters was slow; by the end of the year the by-laws.

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were still under consideration but progress has been made in schemes for the selection of tenants pending the arrival of a Housing Manager whose professional advice is essential before the final details can be drawn up. Agreement on the financial arrangements has been reached in principle but some details are still to be settled.

One of the main difficulties involved in planning housing schemes in the Colony is the lack of suitable building sites, particularly in the urban areas. The maximum densities permitted in the United Kingdom. and other European countries must be considerably exceeded if sufficient accommodation is to be provided with the limited land resources available. The Authority hopes to provide eventually for the construction of a minimum of 10,000 housing units a year and to meet this programme it has accepted the principle of multi- storey construction with net densities of 1,500 or more persons to the acre. But even on this basis it has been difficult to find land, and it was not until 24th August, 1954, that the first two sites at Java Road, North Point and Cadogan Street, West Point, were allocated. The planning of these estates was well advanced by the end of the year and a detailed scheme for the North Point estate was almost ready for submission to Government for approval. The plans for this site, which is about six and a half acres in extent, provide for 1,770 flats in 11 storey blocks, with a total potential population of about 15,000 persons. Provision has also been made for a school for 850 pupils, a community centre, clinics, a post office and 48 shops. The West Point site is precipitous and more difficult to develop but the plans. provide for ingenious cross-contour construction and it

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is anticipated that accommodation for more than 3,000 persons will be provided on the site, which is about 3 acres in area.

The total cost of these schemes is estimated to be about $32,000,000. It is expected that the flats will be completed by about twenty months from the date of approval of the schemes.

A further site of about 14 acres at Li Cheng Uk has been allocated to the Authority and it is now being surveyed. Other sites are under consideration.

Private Housing-Extensive private development. continued throughout the year and progress was made by several Co-operative Housing Societies. The Yau Yat Chung Development Company on the area north of Boundary Street and the Hong Kong Home Building Society at Kau Lung Tsai and Jardine's Lookout, com- pleted many domestic buildings. The additional flats of the Hong Kong Model Housing Society referred to in last year's report and the erection of blocks of flats by the Hong Kong Housing Society at Ma Tau Wei Road was under way. Another housing scheme at Tai Kok Tsui sponsored by the Hong Kong Economic Housing Society for low cost housing for middle class workers was also in progress. The cost of the site formation for the flats built by the Hong Kong Housing Society is being met from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds.

Buildings.-778 plans involving the construction of 2,055 buildings were submitted to the Director of Public Works for approval. These included 921 European type buildings, 931 Chinese type buildings, 86 factories, 3 hotels, 3 cinemas and theatres, 15 schools, 5 churches,

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3 blocks of staff quarters, 2 blocks of working class flats, 5 club buildings, 11 offices, 64 godowns and stores, I hostel, I clinic, I distillery, I temple, I mosque and 1 Jockey Club grandstand. There were also 3,803 plans covering rehabilitation, alterations and additions mostly to domestic property: 51 site development schemes. and a large number of plans covering minor construc- tional work, such as garages and temporary buildings. A total of 1,214 new buildings comprising 498 European type and 484 Chinese type dwellings and 232 other structures was completed.

The new Draft Building Ordinance and Regula- tions are still under consideration and it is hoped that they will be adopted early next year. It was agreed that the Buildings Ordinance should apply to the Tsun Wan District of the New Territories when suitable staff had been recruited.

Resettlement

The year 1954 was the busiest year ever for resettle- ment work. On Christmas day 1953, 58,000 persons had lost their homes in the great Shek Kip Mei fire and the problem of rehousing this multitude had to be faced as the new year began. As the year proceeded there were five large squatter fires and a number of small ones; these together destroyed the homes of an additional 42,000 persons so that, during the period 25th December, 1953-25th December, 1954, out of the whole urban population about one person in every 20 lost his home in a squatter fire.

These unhappy developments had two important results. First, they transformed the squatter problem. from a stubborn and apparently endemic evil into an

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emergency of the first order; and second, the fires freed for proper development substantial areas of valuable land which the presence of squatters had rendered unusable and whose removal had defied all ingenuity.

Early in the year an emergency sub-committee of the Urban Council was appointed, under the chairman- ship of Col. J. D. Clague, an unofficial member, to advise what measures should be adopted to meet this new situation. All the recommendations of the sub- committee were later accepted and formed the basic plan for resettlement operations undertaken during 1954. These recommendations represented an abrupt departure from previous policy. The two main recommendations were that, as land was short, it would be necessary to resettle squatters in permanent multi-storey buildings; and, that since this undertaking would not attract sufficient private capital the construction should be undertaken directly by Government and financed from public funds. The same sub-committee recommended a reorganization of the administrative arrangements for squatter clearance and resettlement, and this was put into effect in the spring when a temporary Department of Resettlement was set up under a Commissioner for Resettlement, to be responsible for all matters connected with the prevention of illegal building and the clearance and resettlement of squatters.

The acceptance of the new principles involved the Government in the novel and interesting experiment of constructing vast emergency housing estates in which some of the poorest inhabitants, many of whom had in the past barely felt the impact of the administration, became the direct tenants of the Government. Once the decision to construct the emergency houses had

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been accepted, the Public Works Department and the Colony's building industry were largely responsible for the progress. The speed with which they proceeded with this enormous task exceeded the most hopeful estimates.

During the year the Government constructed emer- gency accommodation for 54,000 persons, and contracts were let and started for the construction of similar accommodation for an additional 32,000 persons. 35,000 of the persons rehoused in this way during the year were accommodated in temporary two-storey structures which are to be demolished in due course to make way for permanent buildings. Eight permanent six storey blocks, each housing over 2,000 persons, were completed and occupied during the year. The design of these buildings and the speed with which they were completed, attracted wide-spread interest. Each build- ing contains 384 rooms measuring 12′ 6′′ × 9′ 6′′ and each floor has two water standpipes and six communal flush latrines. The buildings are so designed that they can be converted, each pair of rooms becoming one orthodox low-cost flat with its private water supply, latrine and a balcony. As these blocks were brought into use, experience suggested a number of modifica- tions which were incorporated in the design for future contracts. The most important change suggested was the addition of one more storey and the buildings under construction at the end of the year were to consist of seven storeys.

The question of the rent to be charged for this accommodation was under careful examination as the year ended. As an interim measure, the charge had been fixed at $10 per room per month plus an additional

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no

$1 per month for water. Experience had shown, how- ever, that this was not an adequate return on the capital cost of the permanent buildings. Whilst it was generally accepted that removal of the squatter areas was urgently needed in the interests of the whole com- munity, it was nevertheless considered that there was case for supplying the squatter with subsidized housing at the expense of the taxpayer. Some squatters were poor but many were quite well off. Some were old established residents of the Colony but many were recent arrivals who had no claim to any special privilege. The only feature common to all squatters was that they were all in illegal occupation of land. Whilst it was recognized that this was usually no fault of the squatter, it was widely felt that he should pay a fair rent for his new accommodation. These arguments were accepted by Government and at the end of the year preparations were being made to adjust the rents to an economic level worked out on a basis applicable to all low-cost housing schemes in Hong Kong. The economic rent is likely to be about $14 per room per month, a very low figure. when compared with the rent of similar accommodation available on the open market.

Government's policy at the close of the year under review was to accelerate and expand the multi-storey resettlement programme as far as funds would permit with a view to removing all the worst squatter areas within about two years.

Thus resettlement operations in 1954 assumed a new direction and impetus. Formerly persons cleared from squatter areas had been required to re-establish themselves at their own expense in temporary structures in areas which were mainly far from the centres of

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employment. Now they are to be offered emergency accommodation constructed at the public expense and let out at a reasonable rental. But the earlier form of resettlement has not been discontinued and throughout the year resettlement in temporary huts or cottages has proceeded on areas of Crown land unlikely to be required. for permanent development for some time. In round figures the population statistics are as follows:-

Settlers accommodated in temporary structures not built by Government.

Settlers accommodated at a monthly rental in temporary structures built by Government

Settlers accommodated at a monthly rental in permanent six-storey structures built by Government

Total number of settlers

On 1st January, 1954.

On 31st December,

1954.

43,000

57,000

35,000

19,000

43,000

111,000

Town Planning

A preliminary planning report for Hong Kong was prepared by Sir Patrick Abercrombie in 1948, and this sets out the main lines along which long term development should proceed. The main intentions of this report have been followed but in view of the increase in population well beyond the limit of 2,000,000 envisaged in the report, and such major projects as the proposed new airfield and reclamations, some quite substantial alterations have been necessary. The main changes at present contemplated are large industrial centres at Tsun Wan and at Kun Tong on the east side

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If

of Kowloon Bay, which will amount to new towns. the population continues to increase it may be necessary to build a new settlement in the beautiful and fertile valley of Shatin.

Within the preliminary pattern the preparation of outline development plans is undertaken in the Public Works Department by a small unit co-ordinating the work of the various branches of the department on planning problems. The plans set out the principles. to be followed in the improvement of the district con- cerned and are then broken down into greater detail on layout plans.

As the Government owns the freehold of virtually all land in the Colony, it is in a position to implement most of its planning provisions by direct covenants with the lessees, insofar as undeveloped land is con- cerned. In the case of developed land, the application. of any planning requirements to which a property does not already conform is carried out either by including new covenants in a lease when it comes up for renewal or, if necessary, by re-entering upon the land and paying compensation. Up to the present, however, planning control of the type exercised in the United Kingdom is not applied in Hong Kong.

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Chapter 11

Social Welfare

Social Welfare in Hong Kong is characterized by the very close collaboration which exists between official and voluntary agencies. There are now nearly a hundred voluntary welfare organizations in Hong Kong, a few of which have been established in the Colony for over a century. It was not until after the last war that Government provided its own organization for the administration of social welfare.

Kong's population From time to time,

In the early days, Hong numbered but a few thousand. whenever civil strife or famine occurred in China, immigrants flocked over the border from Kwangtung province, the majority of whom returned to their native villages when the situation in their homeland was more normal, or when there was a decline in the Colony's economy. As the Colony developed, its population steadily increased until at the time of the official census in 1931 it numbered nearly 865,000. By mid-1941 this figure had doubled as a result of the Sino-Japanese war, but following the outbreak of the Pacific War in December, 1941, two thirds of the people in Hong Kong again sought refuge on the mainland. With boom- trade conditions prevailing after the end of World War II the influx from the interior of people attracted by prospects of work and better living standards, reached higher proportions than ever before and the

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need arose for organized welfare measures, as opposed to the purely remedial services which were already existing.

In 1947 the Social Welfare Office was established and apart from taking over all the duties concerning the protection of women and children, delegated by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, it also became responsible for the development of other forms of constructive wel- fare work. The creation of the Social Welfare Office was a timely event, for soon after its establishment the social problems of the Colony were aggravated by events. following the change of regime in China notably the influx into the Colony of hundreds of thousands of refugees. In addition, United Nations restrictions on trade with China and an independent and temporary United States embargo on trade with Hong Kong adversely affected local economy at a time when the physically weak, the aged, and the unskilled, were either unable or unwilling to return to their native villages in China. In the work of promoting the welfare of a population which now stands at some 23 millions, the Social Welfare Office has the co-operation of the many religious and voluntary welfare societies in the Colony.

Assisting the Social Welfare Officer in the task of co-ordinating welfare work is the Social Welfare Advisory Committee of the Hong Kong Government which is composed of representatives of voluntary agencies and members of the public chosen for their experience in social work. Four sub-committees have already made recommendations on blind welfare, child care, juvenile offenders and emergency relief, while a sub-committee on moral welfare is nearing the end of its investigations. A measure of co-ordination among

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Photo: Kong Yuen

In

Whilst not every case is as pathetic as that of this blind child who, abandoned by her parents, has found affection and security in the Honeyville home for Blind Girls, the relief and rehabilitation of the Colony's underprivileged is a task of enormous proportions. A survey mission by the United Nations High Commission for Refugees has estimated that there are at least 667,000 refugees now in Hong Kong. comparison with its size, the Colony is probably faced with the biggest displaced person problem of any place on earth. How the Government's own Social Welfare Department and Council of Social Services, which includes more than 70 voluntary bodies, are meeting some of the many aspects of this relief programme is shown on the following pages.

Photo: South China Morning Post, Ltd.

Comfort for the Aged....

These inmates of a Home for old people run by the Little Sisters of the Poor seem to be sharing a fine joke.

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Recreation for Youth....

A happy gathering of girl students in the Hong Kong Young Women's Christian Association.

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Training for the Very Young.

Small boys who might otherwise lead ragamuffin lives on the streets are cared for mentally and physically in the Juvenile Care Centre.

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Government kitchens not infrequently function 24 hours a day and are capable of turning out 140,000 meals daily. Above: Preparation of vegetables in a corner of the Hung Hom Kitchen. Below: Young inmates of the North Point Relief Camp draw their rations at the serving hatch.

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Many generous donors provide milk for Hong Kong's growing children. The group shown here is drinking the daily ration provided by the Church World Service Milk Distribution Scheme.

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Photo: Marcus Mak

The little waif clutching her milk dish was snapped at a Catholic Welfare Society milk distribution centre. The young mothers and babies at right were photographed in Rennies Mill Camp Welfare Centre.

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Kowloon Boy Scouts (above) assist the Maryknoll Sisters at King's Park with the distribution of milk powder received through the National Council of Catholic Welfare. Below: A mobile clinic, operated by volunteer doctors and nurses, makes its bi-weekly stand at Shau Ki Wan.

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Lessons.

Orphan children in the French Convent School.

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Handicrafts....

Boys at woodwork in the St. Christopher's Home.

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Play.

A game of Blind Man's Buff in the Wai Kwong Home of the Christian Childrens' Fund Inc.

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Kai-fongs are community associations whose aims are the advancement of all welfare activities and the development of friendly relationships within their districts. There are now 21 Kai-fong Associations in Hong Kong with a total membership of 250,000. The Kaifongs have done particularly good work in the relief of victims of squatter village fires. Their activities are as varied as they are beneficial as, for example, (above) the party for 399 old people given by Yaumati Kai-fong and (below) the free clinic organized by Wanchai Kai-fong. (The doctor's services are voluntary).

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SOCIAL WELFARE

welfare agencies is also achieved by the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, which consists of welfare bodies organized largely on the western pattern. In November, the Social Welfare Office, in conjunction with the Council, organized a social welfare exhibition. Its purpose was to interest members of the public in all the various types of social work being carried on in Hong Kong. The exhibition was open for three days and was visited by about 20,000 people.

Infant and Child Welfare

Institutional care of abandoned babies and orphaned children is largely the concern of voluntary organiza- tions and every encouragement is given by the Social Welfare Officer to the twenty nine children's homes in the Colony. The Hong Kong Society for the Protec- tion of Children is concerned with the care of babies who belong to poor families and much of their work of educating mothers in cleanliness and infant hygiene is done among squatter families. More day nurseries where working mothers can leave their young children to be suitably cared for during the daytime are needed. At present four such day nurseries are in, operation, one of which has been established recently by the Y.W.C.A. and the Church World Service in a resettle-

ment area.

Cases of suspected trafficking in, or ill-treatment of, children are investigated by Children's Officers who take whatever action is necessary for the welfare of the children concerned. The Child Welfare Section is responsible also for the welfare of all girls who are separated permanently from their parents. Some of these girls are adopted and where adoption is not made

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on the order of a competent court, they automatically become wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and are registered as such. Legal authority for this work is derived from the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance, 1951. The voluntary registration of adopted boys is also encouraged. The total number of children who are at present visited regularly by Children's Officers is about 4,000.

Moral Welfare

Some of the provisions of the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance, 1951, are carried out by the Moral Welfare Section which was set up as a separate section of the Social Welfare Office in 1952 in order to give more specialized care to children in moral danger, juvenile prostitutes, and unmarried mothers. The Order of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd, which established a home in Hong Kong in 1952, assists the Moral Welfare Officer in her task of helping young girls who have gone astray to return to a normal life. The home, which is run by this Order and can accom- modate 56 girls, is full, and a site has been allocated for a new building which will accommodate 100 girls.

A sub-committee appointed by the Social Welfare Advisory Committee is making a study of the problem of prostitution in the Colony.

Probation

The Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, 1933, set up juvenile courts and introduced probation as a form of treatment for young offenders, while the Industrial and Reformatory Schools Ordinance, 1933, made provision

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for institutions for the detention and correction of juveniles. Shortly after the end of the war in 1945, the juvenile courts, and the Prisons Department Boys' Reformatory were re-established and in 1948 an approved school for girls was set up on behalf of Social Welfare Office by the Salvation Army. Two years later, with the appointment of a Principal Probation Officer, the supervision of young probationers was transferred from the Prisons Department to the Social Welfare Office. Two centres established by philan- thropic committees serve to meet the needs of delinquent boys whose offences are not serious, but have arisen out of some social deficiency. Each centre is used partly as a hostel and partly as a club where the children are taught tailoring, rattan-weaving, and broom-making. It is planned to construct another centre soon, to cater for older children.

Boys in the reformatory school administered by the Commissioner of Prisons came under the care of the Social Welfare Office when they were transferred in February 1953 to a new approved school. Managed by the Salvation Army on behalf of Government, which gives it a subvention for that purpose, the Castle Peak Boys Home provides education in good citizenship, and vocational training in shoe-making, carpentry, rattan work and agriculture.

No special centre exists at present for the reception of juveniles on arrest or on remand, but a remand home is under construction and will be completed by the end of March 1955.

Apart from their work with juvenile delinquents, Probation Officers are increasingly used by magistrates for inquiries into the background and circumstances of

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adult offenders. Legislation for extending the use of probation to the adult courts is under consideration by Government, and in view of this, a hostel and reporting centre, which will also have facilities as a club for adults, a library, and an economy canteen, are being planned. After-care of prisoners was initiated in November 1951. Inmates of the men's prison at Stanley are now visited by caseworkers of the Salvation Army, and those in the female prison by the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society, before their discharge.

Youth Organizations

A variety of services is provided by youth organiza- tions in Hong Kong for boys and girls, mostly between the ages of nine and sixteen. 87 clubs with a total membership of about 3,600 non-school children were in existence at the end of 1954, and these were either run directly by the Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association or else affiliated to it, as in the case of the 13 Social Welfare Office clubs which are supervised by the Principal Youth Welfare Officer. The children attend- ing these clubs receive an informal basic education, as well as a training in handicrafts. The Association has begun to establish clubs for members over the age of 16, and to extend its activities to rural areas. Most of the boys and girls have to contribute to the family income or assume responsibility for household duties at an earlier age than in western countries, but a nutritional survey of 4,000 club members and other under- privileged children carried out this year by the Medical Department in co-operation with the Youth Welfare Section of the Social Welfare Office, has revealed that the health of these children is satisfactory.

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The scout and guide movements are very active in the Colony. The Boy Scouts Association opened a new headquarters in June of this year and this will provide ample space for the expansion of scouting activities in coming years.

The Salvation Army and the Y.W.C.A. provide accommodation for employed youths with small incomes. The former runs a hostel for youths, mostly apprentices, and the latter two hostels for factory girls.

In recent years a great effort has been made to increase the recreational facilities for boys and girls. The Children's Playground Association strives to equip and maintain as many playing fields as possible for children who live in congested areas. The Association's "Queen Elizabeth II Youth Centre", opened in 1953, is yet another multi-functional centre with an up-to-date sports stadium. The playing fields at the Association's two centres are used by about 15,000 school children weekly, in addition to the numerous street children and young apprentices who use the ground each day.

The Hong Kong Junior Chamber of Commerce has established 12 children's libraries in various districts and these are of great value in helping to keep boys and girls away from street libraries, where the reading matter provided is not always suitable.

During the year over 2,500 children from poor families and orphanages spent a week's holiday at the Silvermine Bay Holiday Camp. A new wing has recently been added to this camp building and it is now capable of taking 100 children at each camping period. The main building of the Camp was a gift from the Rotary Club of Hong Kong and the Camp is run by

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a management committee appointed by the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations, which is the body that co-ordinates all youth welfare activities in the Colony.

The Club Leadership Training Course for prospec- tive youth leaders continues to be run by the Youth Welfare Section of the Social Welfare Office in co-operation with the Grantham Teachers' Training College.

At the Second Assembly of the World Assembly of Youth held in Singapore in August 1954 Hong Kong was represented by five observers.

Care of the Physically Handicapped

Increasing attention is being paid to the needs of the physically handicapped. A welfare centre at Lantao Island is nearing completion and by April 1955 this will be able to take in the 80 blind and 360 other disabled persons and their dependents from Rennie's Mill Camp, 50 disabled inmates from North Point Camp and other destitute physically handicapped persons between the ages of 18 and 60. The centre will form a new community of 17 separate buildings

L including a sick-bay, school, workshops and living quarters. Its object is to fit the residents to return eventually to a normal community, and vocational training in printing, sewing, weaving, carpentry and farming will be given. Special education for blind inmates and supplementary education for adults and children will be provided as the centre develops. The social needs of the inmates are catered for by the inclusion on the staff of case-workers and a recreational worker.

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SOCIAL WELFARE

Until recently assistance for blind persons in Hong Kong had mainly taken the form of institutional care. Two voluntary homes provided training for blind women and girls and another school run under voluntary auspices catered for 20 of the 80 blind soldiers living in Rennie's Mill Camp. These, together with some aged blind persons in old people's homes, made up the total of about 200 blind persons in institutions. In April, 1954, the Sub-Committee of the Social Welfare Advisory Committee which had carried out a socio- medical investigation into 600 blind cases, submitted its recommendations for the welfare and training of the blind. Since the investigation took place, a close liaison has been built up between the Social Welfare Office and the Government Opthalmic Service over new cases discovered, and the Ebenezer Home for blind girls has extended its scope by accepting blind boys under 12 years of age.

No special facilities at present exist for the care of crippled children but the recently established Society for the Relief of the Disabled is planning to build a convalescent home for those children who can be nursed back to health and vigour.

The Hong Kong School for the Deaf opened an extension in 1953, and now has 70 children and all but one are boarders. The curriculum includes primary education and a good training in handicraft. Some children have learnt to speak through lessons given in lip-reading.

Community Development

Kaifongs, which are Neighbourhood Associations peculiar to the Chinese tradition, have existed in parts

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

of Hong Kong throughout the Colony's history. After a lapse of 8 years due to the second world war, the Kaifong Movement was revived in 1949. The Associa- tions which have since sprung up number 21 and have a membership of some 250,000. In addition to providing free schools, which cater for approximately 4,000 pupils, and maintaining free clinics which, during 1954, treated 73,000 cases, the Kaifong Associations have taken on many new functions. Since 1952, the Social Welfare Office has set up a special section to stimulate this movement, and where necessary to give advice and guidance to its leaders. Kaifongs now interest themselves in everything which may be of concern or benefit to their districts, and make represen- tations to Government on such matters as hawkers, and street lighting, and have also co-operated with the Government in the water-saving and fire prevention campaigns. Some work is done in adult education through the sponsoring of several St. John's Ambulance classes and the organization by the women's section of Kaifongs of sewing and literacy classes for women. With the aim of improving the moral tone of their community, and restoring traditional values, some Kaifongs have staged simple theatrical performances with didactic themes. Recently, the Homantin Kaifong opened a public library, the first in Kaifong history. Recreational facilities for the poorer sections of the community are also provided, and during the year these Associations have equipped playgrounds, organized sports teams, and arranged basket-ball and football matches to which admission is either free or at a nominal charge.

A notable feature of the work of the Kaifongs is the large contribution they have made to emergency

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SOCIAL WELFARE

relief measures not only by gifts of money but also by helping the Social Welfare Office to organize and distribute relief after squatter fires.

The Kaifong movement undoubtedly enjoys the enthusiastic support of a large proportion of the Colony's Chinese community and Kaifong leaders are eager to learn from other people ways in which they may improve their own work. In August 1954, for example, they sent a goodwill mission of 10 representa- tives to Singapore and Malaya to study the welfare work in those territories.

Emergency Relief

Emergency relief problems created by serious fires in squatter areas have kept the relief staff of the Social Welfare Office very busy for several years. During 1954, in addition to caring for over 50,000 victims of the disastrous Shek Kip Mei fire which occurred on Christmas night, 1953, the Social Welfare Office has put into operation additional relief measures for the victims of three other big squatter fires, which broke out at Tai Hang Tung, Li Cheng Uk and Tai Po Road, rendering 24,000, 7,000, and 6,000 persons. homeless. In addition, II smaller fires destroyed the homes of 5,000 other squatters. Fortunately, a new kitchen for mass-cooking was completed in April 1954, which greatly facilitated the enormous task of feeding on such a scale. By the end of 1954, nearly 20 million free meals had been distributed, the daily total gradually diminishing as resettlement progressed. After each big fire, special arrangements were made for handicapped persons among the victims such as pregnant women, very young children and the aged and the infirm.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

A member of official bodies and voluntary organiza- tions assisted in the emergency relief programme. The Hong Kong Branch of the British Red Cross Society helped to issue clothing and blankets, whilst relief com- mittees, in which local Kaifongs figured prominently, distributed donations from the public and other sources. amounting to $2,651,801, and rice, kitchen utensils and other household necessities.

On 29th August, 1954, a typhoon struck the Colony, causing the collapse of a number of squatter huts in the Ngau Tau Kok area. The persons thus rendered homeless received relief until they were able to move into new accommodation.

the

Public Assistance

The rapid rise of local industry has helped to provide employment for Hong Kong's swollen popula- tion but there is still a great deal of poverty in the Colony, and this is particularly noticeable in the squatter areas. A number of religious organizations, some of which were formerly in China, now function in these areas, giving aid in the form of food, clothing or medical attention to families who are in circumstances of extreme hardship. Two of these organizations have also provided needy fire victims with between 300 and 400 huts, free or at part-cost.

Particularly active in this work of relief on a family basis is the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society which operates from four branches in the urban areas of the Colony. A good deal of its assistance is given in the form of loans or grants, to distressed families.

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SOCIAL WELFARE

Generous gifts of relief supplies continued to be received from abroad, and a large number of food parcels from America were allocated to the Colony for distribution to needy families in the Christmas season. 240,000 parcels were given by the War Relief Services, Natural Catholic Welfare Conference, 25,000 are from C.A.R.R. (Co-operative American

American Remittances Everywhere), and 20,000 from the Lutheran World Relief Service.

to

In addition to the emergency relief work described above Government also gives assistance to other needy persons. An average of 2,050 meals is distributed daily at seven Social Welfare Office welfare centres which also carry out such activities as helping the unemployed to obtain work, hawkers' licences or free education for their children. The Social Welfare Office also main- tains three relief camps at North Point, Morrison Hill, and Rennie's Mill.

The aged poor are looked after in three voluntary homes, two of them catering for old people of both sexes, and one for old women only.

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Chapter 12

Legislation

During the year 1954 fifty four Ordinances were enacted and reference to some of the more important of them is made below. A feature of this year's legislation has been an increase in the number of religious, charitable and educational bodies seeking incorporation; seven Ordinances have been enacted for this purpose, in contrast with two in each of the years 1952 and 1953.

Protection of Wild Birds and Mammals: Ordin- ance No. 8 implements the recommendations of a committee which was set up to consider existing legislation giving protection to wild animals and birds. The old provisions are retained and further protection is afforded in that the trapping of all birds and mammals (other than rodents) and the possession, sale and export of certain birds and mammals are prohibited.

Prisons: Ordinance No. 17 amends and con- solidates the law relating to prisons and is more fully dealt with in Chapter 13. The necessity for new legislation has arisen because new conceptions as to the treatment of prisoners rendered previous legislation obsolete, and the rules enacted in 1925 were inadequate and in certain cases inapplicable. A complete new set of rules was enacted at the same time as the Ordinance.

Housing: Ordinance No. 18 fulfils a long felt. need in establishing a Housing Authority charged with the duty of providing housing accommodation for those

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LEGISLATION

persons in the Colony living in overcrowded and unsatisfactory conditions. The members consist of Urban Council members, ex officio, and not more than three persons nominated by the Governor. The chairman is made a corporation sole and for the purposes of the Ordinance is given power to acquire, hold and dispose of property, including existing build- ings, and to borrow money from the Hong Kong Government or other sources approved by the Governor.

Fire Brigade: The great increase of population and building in the Colony has thrown upon the fire brigade, as in the case of most public service, a very heavy burden and has led to substantial increases in its strength. In consequence it became necessary to revise and extend the provisions contained in the old Fire Brigade Ordinance which was enacted in 1925. Ordinance No. 32 in replacing the old Ordinance makes more precise definition of the constitution, duties and powers of the fire brigade and provides in greater detail for the discipline of its members.

Mining: The old Prospecting and Mining Ordin- ance, 1906, consisted of only five sections and was entirely inadequate for the proper control and regula- tion of prospecting and mining. Ordinance No. 33 and two sets of regulations made thereunder fulfil this need and deal fully with all aspects of prospecting and mining and with the safety and welfare of persons. employed in mines. Provisions which safeguard the interests of holders of private land, i.e. land held on lease etc., from the Crown are included.

Trade Marks: The revision of Hong Kong's trade marks legislation with a view to bringing it into line with equivalent legislation of the United Kingdom

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

has been under consideration since 1938. The inter- vention of the war and the loss of all records during the war years have, until recently, made it impossible to introduce the required legislation. Ordinance No. 47 achieves this purpose and follows closely the lines of the Trade Marks Act, 1938, and Singapore legislation. The provisions relating to the defensive registration of trade marks are, however, rather wider. In contrast with the Trade Marks Act, 1938, trade marks consisting not only of words but also of devices are permitted to be so registered, in view of the greater reliance placed on devices by a large section of the public. Further- more the criterion for such registration is whether the use of the mark in relation to other goods would be likely to detract from the distinctive character of the mark in relation to the goods in respect of which it is registered and used; this criterion is easier to establish and affords a wider scope for such registration than that contained in United Kingdom legislation.

Subsidiary legislation: Towards the end of the year an order was made under the Judgments (Facilities for Enforcement) Ordinance (Cap. 9) allowing facilities for the enforcement of judgments obtained in the Colonies of Sarawak, North Borneo and Brunei with effect from the 1st January, 1955; these Colonies now join the somewhat miscellaneous list of territories which enjoy the benefits of the Ordinancé, namely, Ceylon, Bermuda, New South Wales, Victoria, Singapore and the Federation of Malaya. With the exception of this Order and the regulations and rules referred to above under the headings Prisons, Mining and Trade Marks, nothing calls for special mention in the field of sub- sidiary legislation.

152

Chapter 13

Law and Order

The Administration of Justice

The Courts of the Colony consist of the Supreme Court, the District Courts, the Magistrates' Courts, and the Tenancy Tribunals.

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice and three Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases before a jury and to deliver convicts to gaol. The judges also have jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. It is also a Court of Equity with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

The practice of the English Courts is in force in the Colony except where, being inapplicable to local circumstances, it has been modified by Hong Kong legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, which modified,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

and in some instances excluded, provisions made in the English Rules of Practice. The laws of England, as they existed in that country on 5th April, 1843 are in force in the Colony except where such laws are inapplicable to local circumstances or have been subject to local modification.

All civil claims above the sum of $5,000 are heard in the Court's Original Jurisdiction as well as all miscellaneous proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appointments of trustees and company

matters.

Cases in the Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy Jurisdictions of the Court are usually heard by the Chief Justice. Indictable offences are first heard before magistrates and are committed to the criminal sessions which are held once a month.

A right of appeal exists in all these cases. Appeals are heard by a Full Court consisting of two or more judges. Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge who may reserve the appeal, or any point in it, for consideration by the Full Court, or may direct the appeal, or the point to be argued, before the Full Court.

During the year, 565 actions, consisting of 437 Original Jurisdiction claims and 128 matters in Miscel- laneous Proceedings were instituted in this division. Most of the claims in the actions arose out of commercial transactions.

A gratifying feature of the Supreme Court criminal jurisdiction is the fact that it is possible to report once more a decrease in serious crime. In 1954, 68 persons

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LAW AND ORDER

were convicted as against 89 in 1953. Most of the con- victions were registered in respect of crimes of violence, such as murder, robbery with aggravation, wounding and manslaughter.

The District Courts

This Court, which came into being early in 1953, has two branches, one in Hong Kong in the Supreme Court Building and the other in Kowloon in the Kowloon Magistracy. The District Court assumed the jurisdiction of the old Summary Court wherein civil claims up to and including $5,000 were heard by Puisne Judges. The District Judges have powers in criminal jurisdiction greater than those of Magistrates and these powers enable them to try certain cases which would otherwise have to be committed to the Sessions.

In the civil jurisdiction, 2,799 civil cases were instituted during the year, a record for the post-war period. Of this total, the Hong Kong Court accounted for 1,421 and Kowloon for 378. The total for 1953 was 2,259, which figure was itself a record. Most of the claims were, like those of the Original Jurisdiction, of a commercial nature, though there were a fair number of writs for possession and writs claiming refund of rent hitherto paid in excess of the statutory figure.

Another branch of litigation dealt with in these Courts are the cases brought under the Workmen's Compensation Ordinance of which 74 were filed during the year.

In its criminal jurisdiction the Hong Kong Court tried 104 and convicted 89 persons while the figures for the Kowloon Court were 122 persons tried and 100 convicted.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Lower Courts

There are four magistrate's courts on the Island and four in Kowloon. The

The latter hear cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. Magisterial duties in the New Territories, hitherto undertaken by the District Officers, were handed over to the Judiciary during the course of the year. Courts sit both at Taipo and Pingshan on different days with one Magistrate assigned to attend to both. There is also a Justices of the Peace Court composed of two unofficial Justices of the Peace sitting together five afternoons a week, one of whom is usually a solicitor. This Court functions in the Hong Kong Magistracy.

The work done by the Magistracies in the year under review again shows an increase over previous years. The total number of prosecutions and sum- monses came to 276,577 as against 266,819 in 1953. A very substantial portion of this total is comprised of such offences as hawking without a licence and breaches against traffic regulations. As the Acting Chief Justice explained in his speech at the ceremonial opening of the Assizes in January, these offences, which though individually are not serious are in total one of the Colony's major problems. It must be noted also that there has been an increase in the number of drug cases.

Another unhappy feature of the figures supplied by the Magistracies is the increase in the number of juvenile offences. In 1953, there were 29,068 convic- tions against juveniles while in 1954 the total was 39,700. However, an analysis of the figures relating to these juveniles reveals that most of the charges brought against them were in connexion with minor offences such as hawking and obstruction.

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LAW AND ORDER

Details of the work in the Magistracies can be seen

in the following table :-

Hong Kong

Kowloon Total

Total number of charges

69,026

55,607

124,633

Prosecutions against adults

and juveniles

106,044

170,533

276,577

Convictions against adults

and juveniles

84,017

93,095

177,112

Prosecutions against juveniles

only

17,368

38,258

55,626

Convictions against juveniles

only

16,614

23,086

39,700

Summonses issued

17,895

23,279

41,174

Tenancy Tribunals

During the year under review, there was a sharp rise in the number of applications as compared with previous years. In 1951, 659 cases were filed and in 1952 there were 1,466. In 1953, there was an increase to 2,098, while in 1954 the number reached the formid- able total of 5,263. It appears that the majority of the cases are now brought to determine or reduce rentals, and there is no doubt that the amendments effected to the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance in 1953, and the publicity given to them through various channels, has resulted in a much larger proportion of the population becoming aware, and ready to avail itself, of its rights with reference to controlled rents. Despite the fact that the tribunals sat daily hearing these applications, many were left undetermined by the end of the year.

Police

The aftermath of the Shek Kip Mei fire at the end of 1953, followed by the Kowloon Tsai and other lesser fires in the densely populated squatter areas during

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

1954, presented the Police with the difficult task of organizing about 100,000 homeless fire victims on the streets, supervising feeding queues, keeping the fire sites clear, and assisting the Commissioner for Resettlement in the problems associated with the Government's resettlement schemes. In the last five months of the year the tension caused by a dispute between the management and some of the employees of the Hong Kong Tramways Company imposed a heavy responsi- bility on the Police Force in their task of maintaining law and order throughout the Colony.

In September the Police occupied the newly com- pleted six-storeyed headquarters building which now houses the administrative offices, Special Branch, Criminal Investigation Department, Immigration Office, Accounts Office, Radio Control Room and the main armoury.

Strength By the end of the year the Force had reached a strength of 5,281, an increase of 87 during the year. It consisted of 49 gazetted officers and 444 inspectors of different grades of whom 288 were expatriate. The rank and file comprised 565 Northern Chinese, 178 Pakistanis and 3,974 Cantonese. There were 2 woman inspectors and 69 woman N.C.O.'s and constables. The Force was relieved of all but strictly Police duties by a civilian staff of 824.

Organization-This consists of the Headquarters and two main branches, the Uniform Branch and the Criminal Investigation Department.

The Uniform Branch operates throughout the Colony and is divided into two territorial districts and the Marine and Traffic Divisions. The Marine Division

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LAW AND ORDER

polices the waters of the Colony and harbour and is equipped with a fleet of twenty-five craft ranging from ocean going vessels to motor boats. Most of these vessels are fitted with radio telephone or wireless tele- graphy. Two of them are equipped with radar and two more are to be so equipped in the near future.

The organization also includes the Emergency Units, Railway Police Unit, Airport Police Unit, Waterfront Searching Unit, Village Penetration Patrols, the Police Dog Unit, radio equipped patrol vehicles and Hawker Squads.

The Criminal Investigation Department consists of the Detective Branch, which is responsible for the detection of crime and the co-ordination of special measures for its prevention, the Anti-Corruption Branch, which handles matters relating to corrupt practices in the Colony, and the Special Branch which is responsible for the detection and prevention of all activities subversive to peace and good order. The latter also controls and operates the Immigration Department, the Registry of Aliens and the Registry of approved Societies.

Recruitment and Training-No difficulty was experienced in obtaining suitable local recruits of the required educational and physical standard for the rank and file.

police With the exception of woman recruits who do two months initial training, all ranks undergo a period of 6 months training at the Police Training School before entering upon their duties. The syllabus includes law and police duties, drill and weapon

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

training (including the use of tear smoke), unarmed. combat and first aid. The Marine Police are addi- tionally trained in seamanship, port regulations and signalling. All Chinese recruits are taught basic English at the school which is followed by more advanced lessons during subsequent service. All non- Chinese members of the Force are required to qualify in Cantonese as part of their professional examinations. Three hundred and sixteen recruits of all ranks com- pleted their training during the year.

Advanced training courses of two or four weeks are now taken regularly by both the inspectorate and the rank and file.

Communications-The Communications branch of the Force controls and operates the radio networks, telephones and teleprinters. The main radio network controls the radio equipped cars which are on patrol throughout the 24 hours of the day and which are available to answer any calls received over the 999 telephone system. There are also two networks in the New Territories, one covering the border stations and the other the inland stations and patrol cars, and two marine networks covering cruising and harbour launches. In addition there are three emergency net- works which, when in operation, enable contact to be maintained between the two territorial commands and the Central Operations Room at Police Headquarters.

All police stations and offices are linked by telephone through three main exchanges in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the New Territories.

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LAW AND ORDER

The teleprinter system is worked from a central transmitter in Radio Control at Police Headquarters with 20 receiver stations in the main police stations.

Crime-There was an increase in the figures for serious crime, mainly due to the increase in the number of persons unlawfully returning from deportation. There were 8,776 cases of this nature in 1954 compared with 2,945 in 1953. Another contributory factor was the large number of persons arrested for obtaining free. meals by false pretences following the large squatter fire at the end of last year.

A total of 468,426 reports was made to the Police during the year, an increase of 52,402 over 1953. Of these reports no fewer than 191,989 disclosed no criminal offence, being mainly requests from the public for police assistance or advice. The balance of 276,437 included 27,876 serious offences (19,053 in 1953) of which 16,592 (59.52%) resulted in the arrest and prosecution of 15,441 persons of whom 358 (2.32%) were juveniles. The remaining 248,561 reports were of miscellaneous offences, of which 207, 147 resulted in the arrest and prosecution of 221,995 persons. Summonses. were issued in 16,600 cases. The figures for the various classifications of serious offences are given in Appendix

XI.

Members of the public continued to assist the Police during the year and were responsible for the arrest of 779 persons perpetrating serious crime. Forty- seven letters of appreciation and monetary awards were presented to members of the public for outstanding services to the community.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Traffic-The comparative figures for accidents are

as follows:

1947

1948 1949 1950 1951

1952 1953 1954

Fatal

132

96

119

129

101

106

72

101

Serious Injury Slight Injury

226

462

618

603

490

466

448

621

1,738 1,952

2,786 2,976

2,328

2,698

3,124 3,397

Damage only

3,233 3,871

4,923 4,619

3,937 4,787 4,892 5,119

5,329 6,381 8,446 8,327 6,859 8,057 8,536 9,238

There was an increase of 702 in the number of . accidents reported. The number of fatal accidents. increased by 29 whilst accidents involving serious injury increased by 173. The main increase was in accidents involving slight injury and damage only, and can be attributed to the congestion arising from a continued increase in the number of vehicles on the Colony's roads.

Immigration-The control and operation of the Immigration Department is one of the responsibilities. of the Police Force. During the year this department issued 18,176 visas, 1,544 British passports, 1,262 renewals, 10,568 Chinese entry permits and 3,202 emergency travel certificates. The total recorded move- ment in and out of the Colony during the year was 1,143,696 whilst the number of callers at the Immigra- tion Office in connexion with immigration matters was 214,695.

In addition to their statutory duties the Police rendered a variety of services to the public such as delivering and collecting mail, and conveying urgent cases of illness to hospitals. The Police Band gave regular public performances and cinema shows were provided in schools and villages. Public appreciation

162

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As in London and other big metropolitan centres, dialing "999" on the telephone connects the caller directly with Emergency Switch Board at Hong Kong Police Headquarters. An average of 875 emergency calls are handled every month. Below: In the Police Laboratory Dr. T. M. Teoh examines hairs through the microscope-evidence in a criminal case.

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The Hong Kong Police Training School at Aberdeen turns out men ready to go on the beat within 3 months. The training is largely practical. Upper picture shows recruits being taught Police Charge Room procedure in the School's own facsimile of the real thing. Below: Training completed, new policemen and policewomen are inspected by the Deputy Commissioner at a passing-out parade.

NG KONG

S

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LAW AND ORDER

and confidence is shown in the readiness with which the public seek aid and advice from the Police on a variety of problems.

Prisons

There are five institutions under the control of the Commissioner of Prisons. These are Stanley, Victoria and Lai Chi Kok Prisons and Stanley and Tung Tau Wan Training Centres. All are administered from a Headquarters in the city of Victoria.

Stanley Prison

Stanley Prison is built on the separate cell block system and was designed to house 1,746 prisoners. It receives all convicted male prisoners with sentences of over one month. These prisoners are classified and subdivided into groups according to previous record and length of sentence. All prisoners sentenced to one year and over are employed in industrial work and receive trade training from qualified instructors. Short- term prisoners are employed outside the walls on reclamation projects, a prison vegetable garden and piggery, and in health and sanitation work. This prison received 5,174 prisoners during the year and had a daily average of 2,099 occupants.

Victoria Prison

Victoria Prison houses remand prisoners, civil prisoners, persons awaiting deportation, vagrants and convicted prisoners serving sentences of under one month. These groups are strictly segregated. In addition, all convicted prisoners are now kept at Victoria for the first two weeks of their sentence. During this time they are medically examined and classified, and

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

are given facilities to appeal if they wish to do so. Victoria Prison buildings are out-of-date and rather gloomy, but the installation of fluorescent lighting has done something to brighten the interior. The prison received 14,839 prisoners during the year and had a daily average of 695 occupants.

Lai Chi Kok Prison

Lai Chi Kok is a small prison of the maximum security type which can accommodate up to 240 women. prisoners. It is situated on the mainland on the out- skirts of Kowloon. The Matron and staff are all locally employed. The atmosphere is bright and cheerful, and the women work willingly at simple tasks. Most sentences are short, and there is not time to teach more than the usual domestic duties. A total of 1,418 women were received into the prison during the year and there was a daily average of 102 occupants.

Stanley Training Centre

The buildings used by the former Stanley Reforma- tory School, the boys of which have been transferred to the care of the Social Welfare Office, now house boys of the Stanley Training Centre. This institution, run on the lines of an open camp, receives boys sentenced to a maximum of three years, the statutory minimum being nine months, as in the Borstal sentence in England. The Centre can take a maximum of 120 boys and 58 have been accepted this year.

Tung Tau Wan Training Centre

The huts formerly known as Stanley Prison Annexe, which are outside the perimeter of Stanley Prison and well clear of any buildings housing prisoners,

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LAW AND ORDER

have been converted into a second Training Centre. This has been done by building a new kitchen, offices and stores. Tung Tau Wan was gazetted in October 1954. The maximum age for committal to a Training Centre has been raised from 18 to 21. It will now be possible to offer an alternative to imprisonment for all male offenders under 21 who are suitable for training in a Centre.

Records

The Registrar General's Department comprises the Land Office and Deeds Registry, the Registry of Marriages, the Companies Registry, the Office of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding Up, and the Trade Marks and Patents Registry. It includes also the offices of the Official Trustee, the Official Solicitor in Lunacy and the Judicial Trustee.

Land Office

The form of tenure of land in general use through- out the Colony is leasehold, all land grants by the Crown (with the exception of a few grants of a special nature) being by means of long term Crown Lease.

The registration system obtaining in Hong Kong in regard to land transactions, as prescribed by the Land Registration Ordinance (Cap. 128), is one of Registration of Deeds, not Registration of Title, but since the inception of Land Office records in the year 1844, Registers of Title have also been maintained as part of the permanent records of the Registry, providing

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

a complete history of the devolution of the title to each particular property and a record of the present registered owner in each case.

During the year under review 9,238 instruments were presented for registration in the Land Office, in which the sum total of the transactions involved as expressed in the deeds themselves amounted to $559,439,045. These figures are greatly in excess of any previously recorded and illustrate the sustained activity of the property market, no doubt largely resulting from pressure of capital remitted here for investment. Building development continues at a record rate, an outstanding feature being the construc- tion of large blocks of offices and shops in the central areas, and of flats. It has now become a common practice for newly built flats to be sold outright to individual owners instead of being let on terms which impose payment of construction or key money.

In addition to maintaining the records of the Registry, the Land Office is responsible also for the issue, renewal, and termination of title Crown land and for the variation of the terms of Crown Leases. Numerous sales, grants, exchanges and surrenders of land were dealt with during the year and 186 new Crown Leases were issued.

A new Mining Ordinance based on recent mining legislation in other colonial territories, was enacted in August, to codify the law in relation to mining and to provide for the issue of Prospecting and Mining Licences and the grant of long term Mining Leases. The principal minerals found are wolfram, iron, lead, clay, graphite, molybdenum and tin.

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Companies

233 Companies were incorporated in 1954, 38 com- pleted winding-up, and were dissolved, and 36 were struck off the Register. At the end of the year there were 2,764 Companies on the Register.

During the year 34 Companies incorporated outside the Colony established places of business in the Colony, and 8 ceased to carry on business, leaving a total of 465 such Companies carrying on business in the Colony.

Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and

Companies Winding-up

In spite of the decline in the Colony's trade, only four bankruptcy petitions were presented in 1954, two of which were later withdrawn, and only one company, a bank, was ordered to be wound up by the Court. The Official Receiver's Office was however kept fully occupied with cases of considerable complication. outstanding from previous years.

In recent years the tendency has been for creditors to vote for the appointment of the Official Receiver as Trustee or Liquidator, the Official Receiver being Trustee in 16 out of 20 bankruptcies still outstanding, and Liquidator in 8 out of the 13 outstanding compul- sory liquidations. One of the cases in hand necessitated the Official Receiver assuming the responsibility for the operation of a cinema for most of the year.

Trade Marks and Patents

The importance of the registration of trade marks for the protection of commercial rights and interests is being more generally appreciated as the rapid deve-

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

lopment of the Colony's manufacturing industries continues. This is evident from the sustained increase in the number of registrations: During 1954 1,142 trade marks were registered, as against 1,006 in 1953, and 915 in 1952. In addition, 26 marks that had been on the pre-war Register-lost during the Japanese occupation-were registered in 1954 in the new Register under the Trade Marks Register (Re-construction) Ordinance. Registrations are valid for 14 years, and 250 registrations were renewed during 1954. At the close of the year there were 10,720 trade marks on the Register.

A new Trade Marks Ordinance, based generally on the United Kingdom Act of 1938, passed its final reading in the Legislative Council on 17th November, and came into operation on 1st January, 1955.

There is no original registration of patents in this Colony, but patents registered in the United Kingdom are registrable under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance, which provides that the grantee of a patent in the United Kingdom may, within five years from the date of issue of the patent, apply to have it registered here. There were 134 patents on the Register on 31st December, 1954.

Marriage Registry

All marriages solemnized in the Colony, except non-Christian customary marriages, are contracted under the provisions of the Marriage Ordinance. Under this Ordinance there is no legal necessity for banns to be published, but the publication of notice, normally for a period of 15 clear days, is essential. The period. may however be curtailed by a licence granted by the

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LAW AND ORDER

Governor in cases where circumstances of an unfore- seen or urgent nature preclude the full period of notice. The Governor may also, at his decretion, in cases of emergency or other exceptional circumstances, grant a Special Licence dispensing with the necessity for notice and authorizing the marriage at a place and at a time. specified in the licence. Marriages may be solemnized in any church or place of worship licensed for that purpose, or may take place as civil marriages at the Registry. The total of licensed places of worship is now 57.

The validity of Chinese customary marriages which are not registered at the Registry remains unaffected by the Marriage Ordinance. Marriage at the Registry is however becoming increasingly popular with all classes of the Chinese community, and out of a total of 3,457 marriages registered in 1954 (an increase of 797 over 1953's total), 3,166 were between persons of Chinese race, 392 of these taking place in licensed places of worship, and 2,774 in the Registry. Of the remaining 291 marriages, 182 took place in licensed places of worship and 109 in the Registry.

Where parties, one at least of whom is a British subject, desire to marry in a foreign country, notice of the intended marriages may be given under the Foreign Marriage Ordinance provided one of the parties has been resident in the Colony for one week immediately preceding such notice.

In the early part of the year the Marriage Registry was enlarged and re-designed, a new Marriage Room attractively lighted and furnished being added.

169

1

Chapter 14

Public Utilities and

Public Works

Public Utilities

Waterworks

The Colony's water supply is the responsibility of the Public Works Department. As there are no large rivers or underground sources of water in the Colony the population is entirely dependent for its supply of water upon the rainfall which is collected in reservoirs. There are thirteen reservoirs in the Colony which together can hold 5,970 million gallons. 2,362 million gallons are stored on Hong Kong Island and the remainder in the New Territories. Jubilee Reservoir at Shing Mun in the New Territories is by far the largest in the Colony, having a dam 275 feet in height and a water storage capacity of 2,921 million gallons. The reservoirs are fed by 35 miles of catch-water channels which run along the mid-levels of various hill sides to divert rainfall to the reservoirs. The reservoirs are usually filled during the summer months in the season of the south-west monsoon but even so the present resources are insufficient to meet the demands of a population which has increased so greatly since 1946. Water shortage and rationing unfortunately are now accepted as part of the normal state of affairs in the winter. Although there were heavy rains in the latter part of 1953 and it was unnecessary to reduce the hours of supply during the winter of 1953/54 to below 71 hours per day, the summer rains failed in 1954, and

2

170

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

the year was the driest on record since 1895. On May 31st, at a time when it is usual to increase the water supply it was cut to three hours per day, the smallest allowance since 1929. This three hour ration was still in force at the end of the year.

The average daily consumption of water for the year was 29.14 million gallons as against 34.43 million gallons in 1953 and the peak figure was 47.05 million gallons on the day preceding the Chinese New Year holiday (when 18 hours supply was provided) as against 51.77 million gallons in 1953:

About 40% of Hong Kong Island's consumption of water is supplied from reservoirs on the mainland and is conveyed across the harbour in 21 inch diameter concrete-lined steel submarine pipes. Because of the hilly nature of the Island, a large proportion of the water has to be pumped, and in some areas re-pumped, necessitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs. Most of the water is supplied to consumers from meters with a charge based upon the total cost of provision including capital cost. The supply to urban areas of Hong Kong and Kowloon is filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment and a high standard of purity is maintained.

In any normal year with an average rainfall a considerable volume of flood water runs to waste towards the end of each wet season. In order to utilize some of this flood water, work was started on the erection of a rapid gravity filtration plant near Kowloon reservoir having a capacity of 7,000,000 gallons per day. This will eventually replace the existing slow sand filters, the capacity of which is only 4,000,000 gallons per day.

171

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Work on the construction of the main Tai Lam Chung dam continued. Contracts were let and work started on various other parts of the scheme including tunnels between Tai Lam Chung and Tsun Wan, the filter house, two service reservoirs, each of ten million gallons. capacity, and two of five million gallons and the laying of approximately thirty thousand feet of steel pipes varying in size from 21 inch to 30 inch diameter.

The replacement of old encrusted water mains with new and larger pipes and the extension of supplies to meet new development in urban areas were continued. Limited supplies through stand pipes from existing distribution mains and from stream intakes were pro- vided for a number of resettlement areas for the benefit of victims of squatter fires. The work of reconstructing the defective north wall and roofing over the Albany service reservoir, which was previously uncovered, was completed and the realignment of part of the two 21 inch cross-harbour mains which cross the new central reclamation, and the laying of the new 27 inch diameter steel main from the reclamation to the Garden Service Reservoir were also completed.

The villages of Sai Kung and Shatin in the New Territories were provided with independent supplies. from stream intakes and work on a scheme to provide water to Sha Tau Kok was begun. Work was also in hand on a scheme to supply the Island of Cheung Chau which has a population of about 20,000.

Electricity

Electricity on the Island of Hong Kong is supplied by the Hong Kong Electric Company Ltd., distributing an alternating current at 22 Kilowatt and 6,600 volts,

172

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

3 phase 50 cycles. Bulk consumers are supplied at 6,600 volts and domestic consumers at 346/200 volts. The amount of electricity generated during 1954 was 252,192,550 Kilowatt hours, an increase of 7.6% over the previous year's output.

The number of consumers at the end of the year was 66,940, an increase of 4,427 or 7% over the figure in 1953; total sales were as follows:

Lighting

Public lighting

X

70,569,758 units

1,479,520 9)

Bulk power

44,357,929 ))

Domestic and Commercial

power

97,075,249

Total .....

213,482,456

This is an increase of 9% on the 1953 figures.

RIES

During the year the peak load reached a maximum of 54,300 Kilowatts, a 10% increase over 1953. The two boilers which were mentioned in last year's report as having been ordered in 1950, are now in operation and they raised the steaming capacity from 687,000 to 837,000 lbs/hour. The generating capacity remained at 72,500 Kilowatts. Delay in delivery of turbo- alternating plant has restricted the Company's pro- gramme of extension. The distribution system however has been strengthened during the year by the addition of E.H.T. 22 Kilowatt feeders from North Point Station to Western district and consideration is being given to

173

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

the advisability of running 22 Kilowatt overhead lines. to supply the increasing loads on the southern side of Hong Kong Island.

Charges for current range from 28 cents per unit to 15.4 cents per unit for lighting and 12 cents to 11.4 cents for power, with special rates quoted for bulk consumers, but all are subject to a 9% fuel surcharge because of the increased cost of fuel.

In Kowloon and the New Territories electricity is supplied by the China Light and Power Co., Ltd. This Company's load continued to grow steadily, as a result of the great building activity in the area serviced. Despite this heavy demand, the requirements of all classes of consumers were met in full. During the year, 385 factories were connected to the supply, as well as a large number of non-industrial premises.

During 1954, a new 20,000 Kilowatt turbo- alternator, and a 200,000 lbs. boiler were put into commission, and the capacity of the generating plant was then increased to 87,500 Kilowatts, and that of the steam plant to 1,065,000 lbs/hour.

Approximately 313,000,000 units of electricity were produced during the year 1953/54 of which 268,852,993 units were sold. Total sales were as follows:

Lighting

Power

Bulk Supply

Public Lighting

57,154,894

87,828,627

122,262,480

1,606,992

Total .....

268,852,993

174

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

On 30th September, 1954, the China Light & Power Co., Ltd., had 55,980 consumers, and this number continues to increase each month.

Charges for electricity are at present :-

Kowloon

New Territories

Lighting Power

$0.30 per unit

$0.39 per unit

0.14

0.14 99

Domestic Power

.....

0.13

0.13

""

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge

which is at present 9%. Special rates are available for industrial users.

Gas

Ho

Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by the Hong Kong & China Gas Co., Ltd., which was first established in 1861. The capacity of the plant situated on Hong Kong Island is 1 million cu. ft. per day and that in Kowloon, 1 million cu. ft. per day. The latter plant is now being replaced by a new and modern plant with a capacity of 1 million cu. ft. per day which will be situated at Ma Tau Kok.

The total quantity of gas sold in 1954 was 584,805,700 cu. ft. an increase of .012% over the previous year. The number of consumers was 7,686 and 68 of these were industrial. There were also 700 public gas lamps in use in the urban area.

Tramways

The electric tramway service is operated by the Hongkong Tramways Ltd. The track, which is about 191 19 miles in length, in single track, extends from

175

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan and passes through the city of Victoria. There is also a branch line which encircles the race course in Happy Valley. The tram- cars are of the double-deck, single staircase type intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The gauge is 31 feet and the operating voltage is 500 volts direct current.

A daily service of 120 cars is operated providing a car every two minutes or less in each direction. Through the city area, in the centre of the system, the minimum service provided is a car every forty seconds in each direction. The total number of passengers carried during the year was 142 millions and the total mileage run was over 6 millions.

Fares are charged at a flat-rate for any distance. over any route (the maximum route length is 63 miles) of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (11⁄2d.) 3rd class. The company also issues monthly tickets, and con- cession fares are given to children, students and Service personnel.

The Peak Tramway, operated by the Peak Tram- way Co., Ltd., was opened for traffic in May, 1888, and was then known as the Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With the lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and the Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant, and incorporate safety features which make it possible for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track.

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PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

During 1950 and 1951, the company replaced its former wooden cars with new cars of improved design and all-metal construction, lighter and stronger than the old ones, and capable of carrying a greater number of passengers.

For the fifth year in succession the service carried more than one and a half million passengers and traffic was once again heavier than in the previous year.

Bus Services

Bus services on the Island are maintained by the China Motor Bus Co., Ltd., operating a fleet of 188 vehicles, 90% of which are heavy type oil engine public service vehicles of United Kingdom manufacture. Many of the roads over which the buses run are steep and winding and necessitate the use of short wheel base chassis of low carrying capacity, but at the end of the year an under floor engine bus built to maximum overall dimensions of 30' by 8′ with accommodation for 57 passengers was introduced for use on the lower levels.

Two new services were started during the year-one between Tonnochy Road Ferry Pier and Tai Hang Road and the other, an experimental feeder service, between Shaukiwan bus terminus and the resettlement area of Chai Wan. The total distance run during 1954 exceeded 7.4 million miles and the number of passengers carried, excluding monthly ticket holders, was 47-7 millions.

During 1954 the Kowloon Motor Bus Co. (1933) which operates in Kowloon and New Territories had 370 buses (205 single-deckers and 165 double-deckers) in service. They carried 172 million passengers as

177

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

compared with 1683 million in 1953 and covered 172 million miles which exceeded the figure for 1953 by 11 million miles. The Company received delivery of 20 new double decker buses during the year which were introduced on various routes.

A new service from Lai Chi Kok to Kowloon City was initiated and the services from Shum Shui Po to Kowloon City, and Yuen Long to Wong Koi Shan were extended to Ngau Tau Kok and Castle Peak respectively.

Ferries

The "Star" Ferry Company Ltd., operates a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern extremity of the Kowloon Peninsula. Seven vessels are in service and operate daily for 19 hours. A five-minute service taking eight minutes to cross is maintained during the day, and a regular service until well past midnight. Approximately 35 million passen- gers were carried in 131,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 96,000 persons.

The Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Co. main- tained five ferry services inside the harbour and five services to outlying districts. 74,830,000 passengers and over 1,127,000 vehicles-the latter figure an increase of 51,000 over last year-were carried across the harbour during 1954. The Company initiated an augmented service of five vehicle-carrying vessels on a 71⁄2 minute schedule but congestion was still normal on Sundays, public holidays and during rush hours on week days.

i

178

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Photo: John Stericker

There is a lively interest in the arts in Hong Kong and the Colony boasts a number of flourishing clubs and societies devoted to music, painting, drama and photography. Above: The life class of the Hong Kong Art Club meets in artist Lee Byng's studio. Below: Visitors throng the British Council Library during a three-day show by the Hong Kong Artists' Group.

GK

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The Dragon-Boat Festival each June is a colourful occasion in the Chinese calendar. Above, one of the boats participating in the races practises off Shaukiwan.

ES

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LIB

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Photo: F. S. Coote

Although 1954 saw Europeans taking part-for the first time-in Hong Kong's Dragon Boat races, the average Westerner normally prefers more conventional craft. The trim Dragon class yacht (above), built in a local yard, has many counter- parts in the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.

(Left): The camera catches a tense moment in a basketball match between a Hong Kong side and a visiting U. S. college team. Basketball is a favourite Hong Kong sport at

at which Chinese players excel.

Photo: Pan-Asia Photo News

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

Little hope is seen of this situation being eased until the projected eastern vehicular ferry service has been inaugurated.

171 million passengers were carried by the Jordan Road-Wanchai service during 1954, making it the most popular of all services operated by the company. A modern pier is now being constructed by Govern- ment at Ma Tau Kok to take the place of the old Kowloon City Pier which was in use before the war. When it is completed a service from Wanchai to Ma Tau Kok will be started.

New Territories ferry services are popular. Seven regular services were maintained to Cheung Chau each day throughout the year, four to Silvermine Bay (via Ping Chau) and one to Tai O (via Kap Sui Mun, Castle Peak and Tung Chung). On Sundays and public holidays in the summer these were increased by five, six and one additional services respectively.

Two new vessels were put into service during the year, both of them prefabricated in the United Kingdom by Messrs. Yarrows and Co., Ltd., of Scotstoun and reassembled at Hong Kong Shipyard Ltd. One, the "Man Wah", is a double-ended diesel-engined ferry vessel with a capacity of 750 and the other the "Man Hei", a single-ended diesel-engined vessel with accom- modation for 433 passengers. With the addition of these two vessels, the company now has 41 vessels in operation. The keel of another single-ended steel vessel was laid at the Hong Kong Shipyard in October and should be completed early in 1955.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

A new reinforced concrete pier at the Company's depot in Shum Shui Po which measures 230′ × 17′ was completed during the year and is for the use of vessels undergoing repairs and periodical surveys. Work on two new slipways for vessels up to 300 and 550 tons at the same depot is expected to be completed in 1955.

Public Works

The reclamation of nine acres of land from the sea in a central position on the City of Victoria's water- front, which was begun in 1951, had entered into its final phase by the end of 1954. When completed it will provide the site for the proposed new City Hall as well as a concourse area for new passenger ferry piers. The old Queen's Pier which is now within the area reclaimed is about to be demolished and the last section of the sea wall bounding the reclamation has yet to be completed. There is also some filling to be done by dumping debris and earth from building sites. This work was delayed because the existing cross harbour water mains were kept in operation until new sections were laid. As a temporary measure to relieve the parking problem in the city the six acres already reclaimed were given a thin surfacing of bituminous Macadam and the site was used as a public car park.

Work on the construction of the modern athletic. stadium at Sookunpoo proceeded satisfactorily. Every advantage is being taken of the natural features of the valley which are shaped like an aphitheatre and the floor of the valley has been levelled and will eventually provide an association football pitch of full international size surrounded by a 450 metre seven lane running track. In the first stage seating accommodation for

180

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

28,500 spectators is being provided on terraces cut out of the sides of the hills and only the western side of the stadium will be covered. This section will accom- modate radio and Rediffusion commentators' boxes and a Police Control box. At the open end of the valley a modern pavilion complete with changing rooms and administrative offices is being built. A dam will be built on the small stream which flows through the valley to provide a water supply for cleaning, watering and sanitation. The whole site, which will include adequate car parks, covers more than sixteen acres.

The new Queen's Pier came into use in the middle of the year. It is 200 feet long and 80 feet wide and made of reinforced concrete. Five sets of landing steps are provided each capable of taking large launches. Another pier of similar design was under construction at Tsim Sha Tsui on the Kowloon side of the harbour and marks the first phase of a scheme to provide large and modern ferry piers to accommodate one of the world's busiest ferry services. The new

new Kowloon terminal of the ferry service will absorb the existing Kowloon Public Pier at Tsim Sha Tsui and a new public pier, clear of the proposed terminal, has therefore to be built before work on the main scheme can commence. This is now in course of construction. The terminal on Hong Kong Island will be on the frontage of the new central reclamation mentioned earlier.

The construction of another passenger ferry pier was begun in October at Ma Tau Kok in Kowloon and this pier will replace the old Kowloon City Ferry Pier which, before the war, was the terminal of a ferry service running from the City of Victoria to Kowloon City.

181

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Built of reinforced concrete and 235 feet long by 68 feet wide, it will, like the new modern ferry piers referred to above, have electrically operated ramps and lifts which can be raised or lowered to suit tidal conditions which will facilitate the embarkation and disembarkation of passengers. A new ferry service will run from this pier to Wanchai on Hong Kong Island and will assist in the dispersal of cross harbour traffic.

At Ping Chau Island where matches and lime are produced, a new reinforced concrete pier was built from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds. Com- munication with this island had been greatly handi- capped by the lack of landing facilities, and the ferries. calling there formerly had to discharge their passengers and cargo by means of sampans and other small craft. The design of the new pier follows that of piers built in previous years at Cheung Chau Island, Tai O, on Lantao Island, and Tai Lam Chung as part of a develop- ment programme for the New Territories.

Various reclamation schemes in progress within the harbour were greatly assisted by, and co-ordinated with, extensive site formation being carried out for the construction of low-cost housing.

The cities of Victoria and Kowloon and the larger villages on the Island and in the New Territories are fully sewered. Water closets, however, are not yet in universal use and many of the older buildings still use the conservancy system. However, a main drainage scheme including pumping stations and proper outfall works has been planned and was in course of construc- tion at the end of the year.

182

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

On account of the high intensity of rainfall experienced during the summer months storm-water culverts and channels have to be large despite their comparatively short lengths and many are uncovered and occupy valuable space in the roadways. During the year many of these open 'nullahs' on roads in built up areas were decked or culverted to improve traffic conditions.

A scheme was approved for the extension of Kai Tak Airport on land to be reclaimed from the sea and the preparation of contract drawings was nearing com- pletion. Further details of the new airport are given in Chapter 15.

The majority of new Government buildings com- menced or completed during the year were for the Education, Medical and Police Departments. Primary schools at Sha Tau Kok, North Point and Sai Ying Pun were completed, while extensions to the Ellis Kadoorie School were nearing completion. Working drawings for a new secondary school in Kowloon were completed and sketch plans for a primary school at Tsun Wan were made. For the Medical Department, clinics at Wanchai and Tsun Wan were completed. Building work on the Sisters' Quarters, Queen Mary Hospital and the new Tsan Yuk Hospital made good progress and drawings were in hand for the custodial home (part of the new mental hospital project), Yaumati Market, a maternal and child health clinic at Homuntin, and the Queen Mary Hospital housemen's quarters and casualty station. The public latrine and market pro- grammes were continued. A new police headquarters, a marine police station and major extensions to Sham Shui Po Police Station were completed. Good progress

183

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

was made with the erection of the new Western Police Station and working drawings were in hand for major extensions to Eastern & Yaumati Police Stations.

A new building containing the H.K.R.N.V.R. Headquarters and offices for the Civil Aid Services was completed and further progress was made on the erection of the second stage of the Central Government Offices.

Good progress was made on the construction of new Public Works Department electrical and mechanical workshops at Caroline Hill and working drawings for the new Government printing workshops were nearing completion by the end of the year.

له

184

4

Chapter 15

Communications

Marine

The Colony is served by a principal port, Victoria, through which the Colony's main oversea trade is conducted, and nine minor ports used almost entirely for local trade and fishing. The port of Victoria is a safe anchorage and is the main typhoon refuge on the China Coast. Surrounded by high steep hills the harbour affords views which never fail to impress both newcomers and old residents, particularly at night.

The beauty of the Port is matched by its efficiency, and large and small ships are received and turned round in record time. The largest vessels which visit Hong Kong can be berthed alongside on the Kowloon side of the Harbour if they do not draw more than 32 feet. There are twelve deep water berths in Kowloon and two in Hong Kong. A heavy lift crane is available on each side of the Harbour.

Government maintains 17 "A" Class moorings suitable for vessels up to 600 feet in length and 29 "B" Class moorings for vessels up to 450 feet in length. Twelve "A" Class moorings are designed for use during typhoon weather and 10 of these have recently been much improved by the use of cast steel chain and sinkers of modern design.

The Harbour and approaches are well provided with marine navigational aids and all signal stations are manned 24 hours a day. Radio telephones are used

185

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

by stevedoring companies and shipping interests. A recent innovation is the "Harborfone" service for visiting ships, which enables vessels moored in the stream, to communicate by radio telephone with sub- scribers to the local telephone service. Oil bunkering facilities are designed and sited to minimize delays to ships which may require fuel on their way in or out of the main harbour. Two small tankers and ten oil lighters are also available for servicing vessels moored at buoys, or at the piers of the various wharf companies. Facilities for replenishing fresh water on ocean-going ships include six self-propelled lighters and a few dumb lighters, but it has been necessary in the past year to request shipmasters to restrict their fresh water require- ments to the minimum required to take their vessels to the next port of call. Pilotage is not compulsory in Hong Kong waters, but pilots are available and their fees are very reasonable.

During the year ending 31st March, 1954, (the figures for 1953 are shown in brackets) 7,344 (6,166) ocean going vessels of 21,113,305 (18, 197,763) net tons, 2,306 (3,250) river steamers of 2,258,283 (2,593,268) net tons and 21,756 (23,873) junks and launches of 1,358,711 (1,473,819) net tons entered and cleared the port.

A total of 769,961 (1,060,580) passengers were embarked and disembarked; of these 56,651 (49,291) passengers were carried by ocean going vessels, 713,310 (1,011,289) by river steamers and none (none) by junks.

Weight tons of cargo discharged and loaded were as follows:

Ocean going vessels: 2,799,945 (3,043,990) 1,324,073 (1,372,669)

Discharged

Loaded

River steamers:

21,559 (25,663)

34,840 (34,519)

Junks and launches:

354,885 (379,568)

96,551 (115,610)

186

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Photo: Chow Kwong Ming

PUB

Like youngsters the world over, Hong Kong children can't resist the toy merchant's

fascinating wares.

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Hong Kong as the traveller by air first sees it.

sees it. Kowloon peninsula juts o A corner of the Island itself and a section of Victor

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Hong Kong as the traveller by air first sees it. Kowloon peninsula juts out into the harbour, with Kaitak Airport lying at the head of the bay beyond.

A corner of the Island itself and a section of Victoria is immediately below (bottom right of picture).

Photo: S. Y. Wong

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nto the harbour, with Kaitak Airport lying at the head of the bay beyond.

› immediately below (bottom right of picture).

Photo: S. Y. Wong

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Photo: S. Y. Wong

Away from the bustle of the

Morning in the Botanical Gardens, Victoria,

streets

and (right)

Pagoda at Ping Shan,

New Territories.

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Photo: Ng Shiu Keen

COMMUNICATIONS

There was an increase in tonnage of ocean going vessels, but a decreased tonnage of cargo compared with the previous year and apart from a slight increase in cargo loaded by river steamers, the figures for river steamers, launches and junks continued to fall. The decrease in the latter figures is attributed to the curtailing of trade with the mainland of China.

The efficiency of the many port services required by modern shipping and their low cost has earned for Hong Kong a high reputation since the end of the late war. The Hong Kong Government maintains a staff of ship and radio surveyors, under the supervision of the Director of Marine, who are primarily concerned with the safety of ships and their crews and passengers under the provisions of the International Convention. for the Safety of Life at Sea. A launch equipped for the calibration of ships' direction finding sets is also provided by Government. In the year ending 31st December, 1954, a total of 224 foreign-going vessels of ten nationalities, as compared with 220 in the previous year, availed themselves of the services of Government Surveyors.

The major Classification Societies, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, the American Bureau of Shipping and Norwegian Veritas are represented by resident surveyors whose services are available to all shipowners and in some cases they are the issuing authority for Inter- national Safety Certificates to ships of those nations too small to maintain their own staffs. There are, in addition, many firms in the Colony providing such services as non-exclusive surveyors, cargo surveyors, average adjustors and compass adjustors.

187

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The activities of Government, Classification and private surveyors are related to the volume of work done in the dry-docks and repair yards of the Colony, parti- culars of which can be found on page 78, and to the services offered by the many maintenance and engineering firms in the Colony who specialize in radiotelegraphy apparatus, radar, depth-indicators and other modern devices.

For the greater safety of the port, Government has provided a modern firefloat. A local salvage company and both the large dock companies, the Taikoo Dock- yard and Engineering Company and the Hong Kong and Whampao Dock Company, maintain ocean-going salvage tugs. There are also a number of companies. who operate small tugs in the harbour and adjacent

waters.

A list of the principal shipping companies using the port is given in Appendix XVII.

The Railway

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow with connexions to north, east and south-west China. The British Section of the line which is 22 miles long is owned by the Hong Kong Government and is operated between Kowloon and Lowu on the southern bank of Shum Chun River which forms part of the Colony's frontier with China. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the north, but since October, 1949, when the Central People's Government took over the administra- tion, through passenger train services have been suspended. All passengers proceeding to and from

188

COMMUNICATIONS

China must now change trains at the frontier. For a time it was also necessary to off-load all goods traffic, but since 1950, goods traffic in wagon-loads has been passing to and from China without off-loading at the frontier.

Total revenue for the year 1954 amounted to $4,625,933 operating expenditure being $3,641,660, leaving a net operating revenue of $984,273. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $5,982,540, $4,260,040, $1,722,500 respectively. Capital expenditure was $2,506,184. The net operating revenue for 1954 is therefore about $740,000 less than last year.

Passenger traffic decreased by 158,524 as compared with 1953 whilst goods traffic declined by 114,318 tons. A general trade recession in the Colony accounted for the poorer operating revenue during 1954.

Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 3,441,188 or 89.74% of the total. Pas- sengers to and from the frontier station of Lowu numbered 393,290, and the majority of these were travelling between Hong Kong and China.

The railway will not regain its former prosperity until there is a relaxation of the trade and travel restrictions now in force between the Colony and China and the through passenger service is resumed. At present, passengers passing from British to Chinese territory or vice versa have to walk the 300 yards separating the two termini. If the river boats resume operations it is doubtful whether many people will continue to make use of the railway to travel between Hong Kong and China.

189

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

It is hoped that the two diesel electric locomotives which have been ordered from Australia will be in service by the summer of 1955. Of the 19 passenger coaches ordered in Britain in 1948, five had arrived here by the end of 1954 and it is expected that the remaining 14 will be delivered early in 1955. These will reduce overcrowding considerably.

Statistics for 1954 are as follows :

Lengths of lines

Main points of call

Total passengers carried

:

:

Total freight carried (tons): Passenger miles travelled :

: Main Line-22 miles

Total length of lines-35 miles New Territories, Hong Kong

3,834,478

119,218

45,768,740

BE

Roads

Before the war, the roads were constructed mainly of waterbound macadam and of tarmacadam, either tarpainted or with a 1" bituminous wearing coat, but there are now about 114 miles of concrete roads in Hong Kong mostly with a bituminous wearing coat and designed to take the rapidly increasing weight and volume of traffic. The more lightly constructed roads are unable to stand up to this increasingly heavy load and in 1952 a five-year road reconstruction programme was initiated under which $4 million was set aside annually for reconstructing some of the principal traffic routes of the Colony. Nearly all roads reconstructed under this programme have been built of vibrated concrete. This reconstruction, together with the general resurfacing and maintenance of roads, has been carried out by contract with local firms although small main- tenance gangs are still employed for minor works.

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COMMUNICATIONS

Increasing industrial expansion in the New Territories has necessitated considerable improvements in the main circular road. The planning of improvements to road crossings and junctions has received much attention. and, in addition to structural improvements and the construction of roundabouts and traffic islands, further vehicle-actuated traffic lights have been ordered.

The new bridge at Tai Wai, started last year, was completed and towards the end of the year work was begun on a new bridge at Tsun Wan.

There is one Government Quarry at Hok Un in Kowloon and one at North Point on Hong Kong Island and together they produced about 214,000 tons of stone and about 50,000 tons of bituminous macadam in 1954. The whole output of the two quarries was used for buildings, roads and other construction works carried out by the Public Works Department. The quarry at North Point is almost worked out and, owing to industrial and residential development in the neigh- bourhood, has become a source of public complaint. It has therefore been decided that a new quarry should be opened at Mount Butler on a site some distance away from developed areas. Work on the construction of the approach road and the site formation was well advanced at the end of the year and it is anticipated that the new quarry will be in full production by 1956. The quarry at North Point will then be closed down.

Many improvements to street lighting were made. and 900 new lamps were installed during the year bringing the total number of street lights in use to about 4,500.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Colony has 437.11 miles of roadway as

follows:-

New

Type

Island Kowloon Territories Total

Concrete

65.96

30.59

16.93

113.48

Bituminous Macadam

70.69

21.65

68.36

160.70

Waterbound Macadam

35.49

57.97

42.75

136.21

Earth

9.48

4.11

12.62

26.21

Steps, concrete or stone. .51

.51

Grand Total (Miles) .... 182.13 114.32

140.66

437.11

Vehicles

The number of vehicles registered in the Colony during the year was 22,162 and the various classes are shown below. This is an increase of 2,336 vehicles over the figure for 1953 and represents a density of 51 vehicles per mile of roadway.

Private cars

Motor Cycles

Taxicabs

...

Public Hire Cars

Buses

Public Commercial Lorries

Private Commercial Lorries

Government Vehicles

Private rickshaws

14,500

1,199

344

283

£

535

1,395

1,413

802

Public rickshaws

Private tricycles

56

853

782

22,162

Civil Aviation

Hong Kong Airport, which is situated on the main- land about 4 miles from Kowloon, is under the control of the Director of Civil Aviation. The Airport is suitable for both land and sea aircraft, for Kowloon Bay is adjacent to the airfield and both types of air traffic are controlled from the same centre.

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COMMUNICATIONS

In addition to two runways NW-SE (5,418′ × 200′) and E- W (4,756′ × 200') the following facilities and services are provided in accordance with Inter- national Civil Aviation commitments :

Air Traffic Control,

Telecommunications and Air Navigational

Aids,

Meteorological Information,

Aeronautical Information,

Air Sea Rescue, Fire, Crash and Safety

Services,

Air Registration Board Examination, Custom, Health and Immigration.

The Department of Civil Aviation submitted proposals for a new airport to meet modern operational requirements, and this, in conjunction with the report of the consulting engineers, Messrs. Scott and Wilson, was examined by a Government interdepartmental com- mittee appointed to report on the financial and economic aspects. The report of this committee, which proposed certain modifications, was approved and work is to commence early in 1955 on the construction of a new runway 7,200′ x 200′ on a promontory of a 8,200′ × 800', projecting into Kowloon Bay which will enable all types of aircraft to operate in Hong Kong by day and night.

Facilities provided by the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited, for overhauls, and by the Far East Flying Training Schools for the training of pilots, aircraft maintenance and radio engineers, continue to uphold the high reputation of aviation in Hong Kong. Appendix XVI lists airlines using Hong Kong.

193

Post Office

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

In the year under review there was an increase of work in all branches of the Post Office and in the main Kowloon office it was necessary to obtain additional accommodation at the end of the year.

The heaviest bulk increase was in posted traffic, the total of 58,320,315 items representing an increase of 16% over the gross total of 50,289,554 items in 1953. Items received rose from 31,667,740 in 1953 to 34,692, 154 in 1954.

Registered items showed a record increase of 46%, from 2,192,118 items in 1953 to 3,196,070, whilst parcel traffic also rose by over 63% from 554,337 items in 1953 to 907,477. An increase of nearly 100% in air parcel. traffic indicates the growing popularity of this service.

1

Christmas postings reached a new high record with 2,400,000 items as against 2,100,000 in 1953. Remit- tance services also increased. The value of Money Orders and Postal Orders issued and paid was $1,872,616 and $1,983,945 respectively, a total of $3,856,561 as against the previous year's total of $3,236,851.

Sales of postage and revenue stamps again provided a record with total value of $23,894,520 as against $20,972,759 in 1953.

Licensing

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office under the control of the Postmaster General issues all types of radio licences ranging from domestic broadcast receiving licences to amateur wireless station and radio

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COMMUNICATIONS

dealers' licences.

This office also conducts examinations for the Postmaster General's Certificate for Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy, and in addition undertakes the survey and inspection of ships and aircraft wireless stations. Another function of the office is the enforce- ment of the regulations made under the International Telecommunication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecommunications Ordinance.

A close liaison is maintained between the Hong Kong Communications Board, the Hong Kong Frequency Assignment Committee and the Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external telecommunications.

Many commercial firms, particularly stevedoring concerns, have been licensed to operate very high frequency radio-telephone circuits between their offices and harbour craft.

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office con- tinues to assist the Department of Commerce and Industry in regulating the import and export of telecommunications equipment.

Telecommunications

Cable and Wireless Limited is responsible for all telegraph and radiotelephone services between Hong Kong and countries overseas, for telegraph and radio- telephone services with ships at sea, and for a V.H.F. service with ships anchored in Hong Kong harbour. In addition they provide a service for internal telegrams on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories.

195

·

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Company is also responsible for the technical maintenance and development of the Colony's broad- casting and Aeradio services, meteorological radio services and the V.H.F. communications of various Government departments.

During the year more new radiotelephones and telegraph circuits were installed. To cater for the additional circuits, new equipment was installed at the Company's receiving station at Mount Butler and new aerial arrays were erected at both this station and at the Company's main transmitting station at Cape D'Aguilar. The new receivers installed at Mount Butler are of the most modern and up-to-date design and have resulted in an overall improvement on our more important circuits. New channelling techniques have been put into operation for a leased circuit to the U.S.A.

At the Peak Wireless Station, new multichannel equipment for the Canton circuits has been installed and will shortly be put into operation, and a 50' lattice steel self supporting mast has been built to carry the aerials for the service. The Aeradio services have been strengthened and improved by the erection of two 100' lattice steel masts at Hunghom Transmitting Station, and one at Kai Tak Aeradio Maintenance Station. At the Royal Observatory Wireless Station two 100' lattice. steel masts have been erected.

The despatch, reception and relaying of telegrams is the Company's principal business. The number of telegrams handled, including those in transit, is approximately 3,000,000 a year. The telegraphic com- munications of the Colony are well served by several

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COMMUNICATIONS

deep sea cables linked to the Company's world wide network of 150,000 miles of submarine cables and their 14 direct high speed wireless telegraph circuits working with other centres in the Far East and beyond.

The overseas radiotelephone services, worked in collaboration with the Hong Kong Telephone Com- pany Limited, continued to expand, and during 1954, new services were opened to Seoul, South Korea and Bombay. In addition, services have been extended to Puerto Rico and Alaska via Oakland, California. Links are also provided between Syney and Tokyo, Sydney and Taipeh, Singapore and Macau, Singapore and Manila, Oakland and Bangkok, and Oakland and Macau. Up to ten radiotelephone services can be handled simultaneously to bring twenty people, separated by thousands of miles, in direct conversation. On some days over 1,800 paid minutes of overs radio- telephone calls are handled. In addition to this the V.H.F. circuits to the Chinese mainland and Macau occupy a further 2,000 paid minutes daily.

The short range ship/shore radiotelephone service, through which ships at sea can be connected to sub- scribers on the Hong Kong Telephone Exchange, is growing in popularity. Excellent results have been obtained, as far away as 300 miles from Hong Kong, and it is hoped to be able to extend the range to beyond 500 miles.

The Company's new "Harborphone" scheme is in full operation, and facilities are available for any ship moored within the harbour to be fitted with a V.H.F. radiotelephone installation on hire, giving direct con- nexion between ship and ship or from ship to any

197

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

subscriber on the Hong Kong Telephone Exchange. This service is proving both popular and useful, and about 250 calls a day are now made to and from ships in harbour. It is believed that Hong Kong's "Harborphone" is one of the most advanced existing.

The Company's radio facsimile service, already available to and from Singapore and London, has been extended to include Japan and Manila.

The internal telegram service operated on Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, and the New Territories is being used more and more by the public. A telegram which costs only 50 cents (73d.) for ten words is delivered to any part of the Colony without extra charge.

The traffic figures for the year ending the 31st December, 1954 were as follows:

Telegrams transmitted

99

received

Radiophone minutes transmitted

received

Ship/Shore radiophone Mins. transmitted

""

.99

received

...

1,188,478

1,232,348

560,899

1,102,083

92

202

Radio pictures transmitted 207 pictures 56,240 sq. cms.

received

5

837 99

Telephones

The Hong Kong Telephone Company Ltd., provides a public telephone service which covers Hong Kong, Kowloon and the whole of the New Territories. At the end of the year 1954, the total number of direct exchange lines working on the Company's system was 33,568 and the number of extensions was 15,962, making a total of 49,530 stations.

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COMMUNICATIONS

During 1954, the Company's main exchange in the Eastern area was extended by 2,400 lines of automatic equipment and now serves 9,000 subscribers. An

exchange serving the Quarry Bay area was also extended and now serves 600 subscribers. A small automatic exchange was established to serve the rural community at Shatin in the New Territories.

Considerable progress was made during the year in the construction of the following new exchanges:-

Cameron Road, Kowloon

Peak Exchange, Hong Kong

Tsun Wan (in the New Territories)

5,400 lines.

1,000 lines.

400 lines.

All these exchanges are due for completion early in

1955.

Further extensions to the Central and East Exchanges were planned during the year and orders for equipment were placed in the United Kingdom. Further progress was made in the extension of existing underground cable networks in the Colony.

Meteorological Services

The Royal Observatory, which is a separate Government department, provides weather services for the general public, shipping, aviation and the armed forces. The main forecasting office is located at Kai Tak Airport, while the Observatory itself remains the centre for storm warnings, synoptic observations, climatology and research. The department does not control an extensive network of observing stations and the efficiency of its forecasting services depends very largely on the reception of adequate weather informa- tion from other countries and from ships and aircraft in

199

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

the region. Excellent co-operation is given by ships at sea with the result that weather conditions over the China Sea are usually known in as much detail as, for instance, over the North Atlantic but the absence of weather information from the mainland to the north continues to be a severe handicap, and it is fortunate that typhoons never approach from landward.

The provision of storm warnings has always been one of the most important functions of the Observatory since its foundation in 1884. Warnings are transmitted at 6-hourly intervals to shipping whenever a tropical storm or typhoon is located in the northern part of the China Sea or in the coastal waters of China as far north as Shanghai. When the Colony itself is threatened the local storm warning system is brought into use, and warnings are given as wide a distribution as possible by means of visual signals, telephone, Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion.

During the year a Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme for the establishment of an upper-air reporting station in Hong Kong was completed by the installation of radar wind-finding equipment at the radio- sonde station attached to the Observatory. Routine observations of upper winds, previously carried out by the pilot-ballon method, are now made four times daily by radar, while a radio-sonde ascent is made each day to determine the temperature and humidity aloft.

In addition to its meteorological activities, the Observatory maintains seismological observations and a time service.

200

Chapter 16

Press, Public Relations,

Broadcasting and Films

Press

1954 saw the formation of the Newspaper Society of Hong Kong the objects of which are to provide a central organization for members and to promote cooper- ation among newspapers. The Society is empowered to act in all matters affecting the interest of Hong Kong newspapers in general or of the Society or of its mem- bers in particular. By the end of the year most of the larger newspapers in the Colony had become members.

Some 90 newspapers and magazines are published in the Colony. Details of the main ones are given in part IV of the Bibliography.

The main international news agencies are repre- sented by the Associated Press of America, the French News Agency (Agence France-Presse), Reuter (in association with the Australian Associated Press) and the United Press. Each of these four agencies maintains permanent correspondents in Hong Kong. During the year Reuter and the Associated Press both installed teleprinter circuits to newspaper clients. Offices are also maintained in Hong Kong by the independent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency (official agency of the Central People's Govern- ment), the Central News Agency of Nationalist China and the Japanese agencies Jiji Press and Kyodo News Service. The corps of foreign correspondents regularly

201

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

resident in the Colony numbers about twenty. Most are British, American and Japanese writers. In addition to the agencies mentioned above, the New York Times, the Time & Life magazine organization, the Daily Express, London, and several other foreign publishing houses maintain permanent representatives based in Hong Kong. During the year about 150 foreign correspondents visited the Colony.

Four English-language newspapers are published. One, the daily Hong Kong "Tiger" Standard, is Chinese-owned and is part of the chain founded by the late Mr. Aw Boon Haw who died during the year. The remainder of Hong Kong's English press-the South China Morning Post (week-day mornings), the China Mail (week-day afternoons) and the South China Sunday Post-Herald (Sundays)-are published by the South China Morning Post, Ltd.

The trade journal, Daily Commodity Quotations, appears on weekdays in both Chinese and English and provides up-to-date commercial news in addition to commodity quotations.

The Wah Kiu Yat Pao ("Overseas Chinese Daily News') is one of the best Chinese newspapers in the Colony. It has a large morning circulation and also publishes an evening edition and aims at reporting news independently and is a generally reliable news- paper. Right-wing papers giving reliable news include the Sing Tao Jih Pao, run by the proprietors of the Hong Kong Standard, and the Kung Sheung Yat Pao ("Industrial and Commercial Daily News") both of which publish evening editions. The Sing Pao which is a vernacular daily paper with the largest circulation in the Colony, completed a six-storey building and

202

PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

installed the first rotary press imported into Hong Kong since the war. It is well designed for efficient newspaper work and includes such staff welfare facilities as dormi- tories and clubrooms for workers on late night and early morning duty.

The Hong Kong Times an extreme right-wing paper in Chinese, expresses the views of the Nationalist Government in Formosa. The Chi Yin Daily News and New Life Evening Post are popular but rather sensational newspapers. The Ta Kung Pao, the New Evening Post and the Wen Wei Pao represent the extreme left-wing point of view.

Among periodicals written in English, the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review is read beyond the confines of the Colony. So, too, is the monthly Orient, specializing in Asian political and cultural affairs, which, with the November issue, changed its format to "digest" size and introduced colour on text pages. The literary magazine Outlook ceased publication in July.

The leading Chinese periodicals are the popular illustrated magazines East Pictorial, Tien Hsia, Asia Pictorial and the Four Seas Pictorial, all with overseas circulations.

4

Public Relations

News of Government activities and explanations of Government policy are given by the Public Relations Office. The department's press section issued some 3,000 statements and news items in 1954 and organized a number of press conferences, besides maintaining close personal contact with local newspapers and agencies.

203

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

and foreign correspondents.

The press section also prepares the news bulletins broadcast in English and three Chinese dialects by Radio Hong Kong.

The advertising and display section is responsible for all government advertising in the press, for the preparation and distribution of posters, pamphlets and other such matters and for the maintenance of a film library. Nearly 4,000 films a year are borrowed.

Broadcasting

General

共圖

The history of broadcasting in Hong Kong is a long one. Radio Hong Kong first began broadcasting in 1928, under the control of a Broadcasting Committee. In 1939, the control of the station came under the Postmaster General and passed from him to the Public Relations Officer in 1951. 1954 was marked by the setting up of an independent Broadcasting Department when, on 1st April, the Controller of Broadcasting assumed complete control over Radio Hong Kong, News bulletins however continued to be supplied by the Public Relations Office.

Programmes originating from the studio centre in Electra House are radiated by three transmitters, operated by Cable and Wireless Limited, who are responsible for all technical operations of the station. There was no change in broadcasting hours during the year, which are as follows :

English Language (ZBW: 2KW on 860 kilocycles)

Weekdays: 0700-0900; 1230-1400; 1800-2330. Saturdays:

Sundays:

0700-0900; 1230-2330.

1000-2330.

Public Holidays:

0800--2330.

204

PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

Chinese Language (ZEK: 2KW on 640 kilocycles)

Weekdays & Saturdays: 0800-0900; 1130-1400;

Sundays: 1200-2330.

1800-2330.

Public Holidays: 0800-2330.

The short wave transmitter (ZBW 3: 21 KW on 9.52 megacycles) radiates English and Chinese pro- grammes alternately throughout the day. Weekly pro- grammes are broadcast in French and Portuguese over ZBW, whilst Cantonese, Kuoyu and Swatow are the main languages on the Chinese station. The short wave transmitter radiates all news bulletins put out by Radio Hong Kong in both English and Chinese languages. The period 1400 - 1800 on Saturdays and Sundays on the English station continues to be taken up by programmes for H.M. Forces serving in Hong Kong. At the end of the year there were 44, 159 wireless licence holders, an increase of 1,861 over 1953. There were no alterations in the permanent staff of the English section which includes one senior programme assistant and two programme assistants who are responsible for all programme planning and compilation, and who direct and train the considerable number of part time announcers and programme contributors. In the Chinese section, one programme assistant, and three new pro- gramme assistants were recruited, bringing the pro- gramme staff strength up to five in this section.

The technical training of new staff in both sections. was carried out by the engineers of Cable and Wireless Limited, who gave three lectures on the broadcasting chain, microphone technique and sound recording, and also by the programme staff who gave general pro-

205

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

gramme training. Arrangements were in hand for two programme assistants to attend a staff training course with the BBC in 1955.

Equipment

There were no large alterations or additions to equipment. The studio centre comprises two suites of three studios each (one suite for each section), a concert hall, and a recording suite capable of handling 78 and 33 r.p.m. disk, and 7 i.p.s. tape recording (all

1/1/0 continuous recording) and non-continuous high quality 30 i.p.s. tape recording.

1

Mobile recording is carried out with two trans- portable mains-driven tape recorders, and with two battery-operated portable tape recorders. These two machines have, in the last eighteen months, consider- ably improved outside broadcast techniques in the Colony.

The three transmitters are situated at Hung Hom, and are fed by land lines from Electra House. There are also a large number of permanent land lines to outside broadcast points.

Programmes

The scope of broadcasting was considerably en- larged in 1954. Wherever possible, within the limita- tions of the hours of broadcasting, the aim has been to provide the impact of live outside broadcasts, rather than recordings, and to increase not only the number but also the quality of feature programmes in both English and Chinese. Features and talks were pro- duced, in both languages, on industry, agriculture,

206

PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

social welfare, medical services, sports, Chinese festivi- ties, the work of government departments, the services and many other subjects.

To European listeners, the year was memorable for the number of well known personalities who broadcast. The Rt. Hon. C. R. Attlee, O.M., C.H., M.P., spoke after his return from China and a speech by the Rt. Hon. Ralph Assheton, M.P., a member of the Com- monwealth Parliamentary Association delegation, was broadcast. Film and Radio stars were numerous, and listeners heard, among others, Clark Gable, Ava Gardner, Michael Rennie, Danny Kaye, William Holden, The Ink Spots, John Arlott and Jon Pertwee. Studio recitals were given by Cor de Groot, Maurice Clare and Angus Morrison.

Some of the best of the year's feature programmes were those on the history of the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, shipbuilding, and the Dragon Boat Festival. The Hong Kong Stage Club, the Garrison Players and the Kai Tak Players were responsible for much of the radio drama performances which included a series of features on famous British trials, and a comedy serial. The weekly magazine programme on the arts, "Viewpoint", was joined by "Motoring Magazine", a monthly feature for those interested in cars, and the "Twenty Questions" programme was repeated.

The Chinese section carried its microphones much further afield to Un Long for the Agricultural Show, to the Leper settlement at Hay Ling Chau, to Ping Chau for the opening of a pier and right round the New Territories for 'Horse Shoe', a programme for

207

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Chinese New Year. In the last few weeks of the year, Chinese programme staff were out almost every day gathering recordings for a new weekly radio magazine "We are Living Below Victoria Peak", in which listeners have heard, among other things, how to make snake soup and a report on an incident in the last Colony civil defence exercise. The Chinese section also marked Sir Winston Churchill's 80th birthday with a feature programme and produced many other full length features on subjects ranging from the Royal Observatory to the Macau Grand Prix. Commentaries on the latter were relayed live into the English pro- gramme from Radio Vila Verde in Macau.

The increase in the number and complexity of programmes produced entailed full use being made of all studio and recording facilities. Over five hundred programme items were recorded; there were over three hundred outside broadcasts, sixty plays and features. and eighty recitals and concerts. Owing to difficulties arising in the relay of Chinese opera from theatres in Hong Kong, the Chinese section had to provide an additional twelve hours of live programmes per week.

Cooperation with other radio organizations was maintained and much help in the provision of pro- gramme material and transcriptions was given by the British Broadcasting Corporation, Australian Broadcast- ing Commission, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and Radio Nederland. Station KIRO in Seattle pro- duced a half hour feature for Radio Hong Kong on the Washington Trade Fair in which the Hong Kong delegation participated. Radio Hong Kong produced several despatches for the BBC's Radio Newsreel, contributed to the BBC Welsh Region and Light Pro-

208

PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

gramme at Christmas, and gave facilities to foreign radio correspondents passing through the Colony. At the end of a busy year, further improvements to the Chinese pro- gramme were under way and the possibility of a pro- gramme exchange between Radio Hong Kong and two new Colonial stations in the Far East, Radio Sarawak and Radio Sabah (North Borneo), was being examined. The following tables give an analysis of programme output in both sections:-

ENGLISH

CHINESE

Total hours

3,770 p.a.

Total hours

3,430 p.a.

Serious music

19.48%

Cantonese music

......

27.71%

Light music

23.68%

Mandarin music

3.81%

Dance music

22.44%

Swatow music

4.21%

Talks and Discussions ..

1.98%

Modern music

19.52%

Religion

2.98%

Cantonese Drama

6.1 %

News

8.91%

Kuoyu Drama

.76%

Features and Drama

...

8.26%

Talks and features

5.87%

Variety

4.43%

Story telling

4.96%

Children's Programmes

1.32%

Kuoyu lessons

1.50%

Outside Broadcasts

Women's and children's

(including sport)

...

1.71%

programmes

2.03%

Outside Broadcasts

Miscellaneous

Portuguese

3.49%

(including sport)

1.14%

.66%

Miscellaneous

1.78%

French

.66%

Cantonese news

7.76%

Kuoyu news

7.76%

Swatow news

5.09%

Rediffusion

Rediffusion (Hong Kong), Limited, operates a wired broadcasting system in the Colony, under a fran- chise granted in 1948, and provides two programmes,

209

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

one in English and one in Chinese, from 7 a.m. to midnight daily. The programmes include relays from Radio Hong Kong, the B.B.C., and other broadcast programmes, but are mainly originated in the Com- pany's own studios. The distribution network, which at the beginning of the year covered the whole of the urban areas of Victoria and Kowloon and most of the Peak, has now been extended to the New Territories. Tsun Wan, Sek Kong and Un Long were brought within the network during 1954, and the development plan for 1955 provides for installations in other areas of the New Territories, including military establishments.

There are three amplifying stations, two on the Island and one in Kowloon. Each subscriber has a loudspeaker and selector switch installed in the house, and pays a service rental charge of $10 per month and may pay an additional $5 a month for an extra point. Altogether some 53,000 loudspeakers have been installed.

Although the studios and most of the Company's office space at Arsenal Street were gutted by fire on December 8th there was virtually no break in the trans- mission of programmes. Broadcasting is at present being carried on from temporary studios while the Arsenal Street premises are being rebuilt.

Films

Maintaining a steady production average of about 200 feature films a year, Hong Kong is second only to the United States of America, Japan and India as a film producing country. About 25% of the films made in the Colony are in Mandarin dialect and the remainder are in Cantonese. Usually the Mandarin

210

PRESS, PUBLIC RELATIONS, BROADCASTING AND FILMS

films are of a higher standard of production and em- ploy better known actors. There are seven major pro- ducing studios, but there is also a large number of small production companies renting studio space as and when required. Films made in Hong Kong are shown throughout the countries of South East Asia wherever there are large Chinese communities. Some are also shown in the United States of America.

In the Colony itself there are now 64 cinemas in operation and more are under construction. Most of the large modern theatres are air-conditioned and are equipped to show "Cinemascope" on the new wide

screen.

Apart from locally produced films, a prepondence. of American films is shown. British films are third, averaging about 50 a year in comparison with 400 American. A few Japanese, French, Indian and Italian films are also shown occasionally. First and second run cinemas are required under quota law to show British films at least seven days out of seventy.

All films must be submitted for censorship before exhibition to the public. But any owner or distributor of a film who is aggrieved by any decision of the Panel of Censors may appeal to a Board of Review, the decision of which is final. Provision is also made whereby any person who objects to a film being shown may appeal to the Colonial Secretary for its examination by the Board of Review. All films passed by the censors are released for general exhibition. There is no system of special certificates limiting the audience to certain categories as in the United Kingdom.

211

Chapter 17

Religion, Research, The Arts, Sport

Religion

The Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macau, covers nine organized parish churches and eight mission chapels. In three of these worship is conducted in English and in the remainder in Chinese. The cathedral, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was built in 1847 and established as a cathedral church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. In addition to its work in Hong Kong University, and in secondary and primary education, the Anglican Church has taken an active part in the affairs of Chung Chi College (a Christian College of post secondary school education in arts and science and in theology) and in the development of primary education.

The English-speaking Free Churches are repre- sented by the Methodists, who have their own church on Hong Kong Island, and by other denominations grouped together, who have established Union Churches on the Island and in Kowloon. Increasing numbers of Chinese attend the services in these churches. The Union Church in Hong Kong plans to erect a new church building to replace the one destroyed during the Japanese occupation.

The Chinese-speaking Free Churches continue to develop. The Chinese Methodist Church has expanded its educational and evangelistic activities and the Hong

212

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

Kong district of the Kwangtung Synod of the Church of Christ in China has sixteen churches in the Colony. Owing to the great number of Chinese Christians that have come to the Colony from the mainland in recent years a large number of non-Cantonese speaking Chinese churches have been established. The most prominent of these are the Swatow and Mandarin speaking churches.

During the year the non-Roman Catholic church bodies formed a Council of Churches for such common action as may be needed. The churches have been able to make some contribution to refugee housing, child welfare centres and outpatient medical assistance. Religious work in the prisons has also been further developed and now includes regular worship and teaching for young offenders. Among many new churches built is a Pentecostal church in Yaumati, a Christian and Missionary Alliance Church in Kowloon and an Anglican Village Church in Kam Tin. Work is beginning on a new college of St. John the Evangelist at Hong Kong University.

IC

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong was originally under the administration of a missionary with the ecclesiastical title of Prefect Apostolic. In 1874, as a result of the increasing number of adherents to the Roman Catholic faith, a bishop was appointed to the territory with the title of Vicar Apostolic, and in 1946 the status of the church was raised to that of a diocese, extending into China. There are twelve Roman Catholic parishes with public churches on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon, and about twenty churches in

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

different parts of the New Territories. The Church also. administers over 76 schools, some with an English programme of studies, others with a Chinese curriculum. The most recent estimate of the Roman Catholic popula- tion of Hong Kong (June 30, 1954) is 53,821.

The work of the Roman Catholic Church is carried on by priests of many nationalities some engaged in parish work, others working in schools and at the University. There are about 400 nuns belonging to various religious orders engaged in charitable and educational work in hospitals, schools, and homes for orphans, blind girls, cripples and the aged. Many of the principal missions have their Far Eastern adminis- trative headquarters in the Colony. There are a number of important Roman Catholic seminaries on Hong Kong Island, Public Mass is celebrated regularly in 58 churches and chapels in the Colony. During the past year new churches were built in Kowloon Tsai, in the Fanling district and in the Sek Kong camp, New Territories. A new church for the Shamshuipo area, to hold a congregation of 2,000, is under construction in Shek Kip Mei Street, Kowloon, together with a school attached to the church.

Welfare work under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church is organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society (established in Hong Kong, in 1863), the Catholic Women's League, the Catholic Welfare Com- mittee and the Catholic Resettlement Bureau. The Catholic Welfare Committee operates a mobile clinic which visits eight different places every week and treats 2,400 cases monthly. There are 13 Welfare Centres, with resident staffs, in the refugee and resettlement

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RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

areas. Schools are maintained in connexion with each of them, with an aggregate of more than 4,000 pupils. Four of these schools have been opened within the past year and another is under construction. Houses have been built for 165 families.

Buddhist activities in the Colony have expanded in recent years. Free schools, free medical centres and general social welfare work have been sponsored by the Buddhist community. The branch of Buddhism chiefly followed is the Mahayana. Today, there are in Hong Kong about ten Buddhist monasteries and over two hundred Buddhist "Ching Suts" (hermitages), mostly situated on the mainland and Lantao Island. There are no large Taoist monasteries.

The non-Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong are Pakistanis and Indians and number about 1,500. There are about 5,000 Chinese Muslims. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street, and the existing construction dates from 1915 when the original mosque was entirely rebuilt. In 1870, the Muslims founded their own cemetery in Happy Valley, their dead having been buried in the Breezy Point area above the Western district of Victoria. A second mosque was built in 1896, in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 it was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Sikh community and followers of the Sikh faith, numbering about 1,000, have had a temple in Hong Kong since 1870. The building was demolished during the Japanese occupation but it has since been rebuilt on a site in Queen's Road East.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Parsis were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. In 1829 they had established a prayer-house and cemetery in Macau, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874, they estab- lished a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Hill Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, whose community numbers about 250, were also established in Macau prior to the foundation of Hong Kong where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street, Staunton Street area of the Central district of Victoria. The present synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The first Hindu temple to be built in the Colony was completed in September 1953 and opened by the President of the Hindu Association. Followers of Guru Nanak have their temple known as the Sikh Temple at the Gurudwara Gap Road. Apart from this there is only private worship.

The Russian Orthodox congregation, which is about 150 strong, is divided into adherents who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and others who do not. The former founded their Church in 1934 and have a current membership of about 85. The latter hold their services in the Church Hall of St. Andrew's, Kowloon, by arrangement with the Anglican Church authorities. They are known as the Orthodox Church and formed a separate organization in 1949.

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RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

Research-Hong Kong University

In the departments of the Faculty of Arts current research projects included studies in the history of Hong Kong and various aspects of Anglo-Chinese relations in the 19th century, the economic and sociolo- gical problems of contemporary China and Hong Kong, and a linguistic analysis of characteristic features of moral situations with reference to confusions in sub- jectivist theories of ethics.

In the Department of Education there was an investigation into the value of group methods in teacher training and studies in the reading ability of University students. Material has been collected concerning the value of Chinese as a suitable language for higher education in scientific and modern subjects, and case-work recording based on clinical experience with children in difficulties at school has begun.

At the Department of Chinese and in the Institute of Oriental Studies, individual research projects includ- ed the development of ancient Chinese characters, the history of political thought in China, and the T'ai-p'ing rebellion. Some of the results of these researches have been published in the first two issues of the Journal of Oriental Studies (Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2), founded by the Institute of Oriental Studies.

Research in the Department of Geography and Geology into the distribution, occurrence, and para- genesis of tungsten, lead, and clay minerals in the New Territories and archeological excavations on Lamma and Lantao Islands has been continued. A land utilization map of Hong Kong and the New Territories on the scale of was published in October, 1954-

1

80,000

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Department of Chemistry carried out research into the mechanism of chemical reactions, on chemical changes allied to those made use of in the manufacture of plastics, on methods of extracting active principles. from plants, and on the chemistry of various plants of the Colony and other parts of South East Asia which have reputed medicinal or other value. Various dis- coveries which have been made in the Department in these fields of work have recently been published in scientific journals in Great Britain.

The Fisheries Research Unit began a hydrological survey of territorial waters in March, 1954. The Unit is also making precise biological studies of the Golden Thread (Nemipterus virgatus) and Lizard-Fish (Saurida Tumbil), two marine fishes of economic importance to the Colony, and investigating the fresh-water mullets. Work on the mullets forms part of a general survey of the chemical and biological characteristics and pro- ductivity of the New Territories fish ponds. The preliminary results of some of these investigations appeared in the Hong Kong University Fisheries Journal, No. 1, published by the Hong Kong Univer- sity Press in December, 1954. This Journal carries on, under another name, the Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station which was started in 1940, ceased during the Pacific War, and made an appearance post-war in the single issue of 1949. Other research in progress in the Department of Biology includes investigations into the marine algae of Hong Kong, the sensory nerve-endings of Mud-Skippers (Perioph- thalmus) and the pituitary bodies of amphibia.

In the Department of Medicine, work has continued on the pathogenesis and incidence of disease of the liver

218

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Photo: Chau King Fai

The Photographic Society of Hong Kong organized its 9th International Salon of Pictorial Photography in December 1954 and, as usual, attracted a big entry from overseas exhibitors. This picture, "Day Begins", is one submitted by a local photo- grapher. The Salon Catalogue recorded with justifiable pride that in the international field, Hong Kong photographers rank high. More than 60 have submitted prints to exhibitions all over the world, many taking top prizes. In "Who's Who in Pictorial Photography 1953", the ten top-ranking exhibitors listed included four from Hong Kong.

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NG KONG PUBLIC

Photo: John & Veronica Stericker

This impressive photograph, taken from the Gloucester Building looking east down Des Voeux Road Central, has been given the appropriate title of "Skyline". It is one of the many Hong Kong scenes appearing in "The Hong Kong Gift Book", published in November, 1954.

"Roofline" might well be the title of this characteristic view of tenement upper storeys in Hollywood Road. The photograph was taken by Mr. S. Y. Wong, chief photo- grapher of the "Overseas Chinese Daily News" when he climbed out onto the roof of the newspaper's new building to test a camera lens.

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Photo: S. Y. Wong

公共

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HONG K

BREVEZAVESTRA NA ZMES, MEN ABEDZIE SAKERIE, TARGET ALONGARINETEISETTERINSTENSZEMARITAINTAINEDOARDOSONG TITLERI SEGREGISTRERINTELUISTAARUANNETRERA LONGGERAR ANNETEVERINGEREELDERS CARE PEGNO NOVINEZZONI ZETORA ZALAGANGASNIEMSEET GENERA

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Photo: Francis Wu. F.R.P.S., F.P.S.A.

"Harvest Summer" is the title given to this fine study, exhibited at the Royal Photo- graphic Society International Salon in London in 1953. Mr. Wu captures admirably a familiar New Territories scene-the Hakka peasant woman, her baskets slung from bamboo pole, walking through the harvested rice fields.

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

in Hong Kong with special reference to the disturbances of intra-hepatic circulation produced and their relation- ship to the occurance of portal hypertension and ascites. Other studies include investigations of the fibrinolytic activity of the plasma in hepatic disease, and of the haematological findings in tropical splenomegaly and the mechanism involved.

Various problems relating to the toxaemias of pregnancy and the clinical and pathological aspects of Hydatidiformole and Chorionepithelioma are being studied in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaeco- logy. The Department of Surgery has been conducting clinical research in problems relating to cirrhosis of the liver and cholangitis and in the surgical treatment of peptic ulcer. Experimental research has also been carried out in conjunction with the Department of Physiology into problems related to pressure changes in health and disease in the stomach and ureter. Other research projects of the Department of Physiology include the metabolism of vitamin E, the paper electrophoresis study of haemoglobins, various aspects of racial physiology and the preparation and action of extracts of enlarged spleens. In the Department of Pathology, research has continued in the anatomical studies on carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal tract, incidence of intestinal parasites, especially clonorchis sinensis, various aspects of leprosy, anatomical studies. in tuberculosis of the lungs, and the development of primary carcinoma of the liver and its relationship with clonorchiasis.

The Department of Civil Engineering is conducting an investigation on transient analysis of electric net- work. Experimental work is still awaiting the delivery

219

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

of specialized equipment, but good progress has been made in a theoretical investigation on transcients in polyphase networks. A preliminary investigation of frictional resistance developed in riveted joints has been started.

The Arts

During the year the various clubs and societies devoted to promoting interest in the arts catered for their members and the public by concerts, exhibitions and plays. Radio Hong Kong encouraged local talent by broadcasting the performances of some of these societies and in addition offered listeners a choice of some of the best performances of music and drama from the B.B.C.

One of the cultural groups in the Colony is the Sino-British Club with sections devoted to music, drama, literature, films and history. There are also Portuguese and French cultural associations in the Colony.

There were not as many visiting celebrities this year but the concerts given by Jan Smeterlin, Cor de Groot and Pierre Fournier were well attended.

The Sino-British Orchestra concerts attracted large audiences and the use of the Empire Theatre for their last concert this year was a great success. The Cham- ber Music Section also arranged concerts.

Perhaps the most notable contribution to choral singing during the year was the performance of the St. Matthew Passion on Good Friday by the St. John's Cathedral Choir and the students of St. Stephen's Girls' College. In addition to the leading societies,

220

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

the Hong Kong Singers, the Choral Group and the Crescendo Choral Society, there were many smaller private choral groups, and a number of interesting vocal recitals and musical evenings arranged by private. music teachers, which added variety to the year's music.

The Hong Kong Schools Music Association, with the interests of young people in mind, invited Dr. Sydney Northcote to come from the United Kingdom to judge all the music items at the Sixth Annual Schools' Music Festival. The helpful character of Dr. Northcote's criticism and his mature judgment were widely appreciated. There were 902 entries from more than 90 schools and the schools for children of Services personnel were well represented.

The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music decided that a scholarship worth £200 per annum and tenable for three years at the Royal Academy of Music or the Royal College of Music in London would be awarded to a suitable candidate from Hong Kong in 1955.

In spite of the shortage of suitable theatres, 1954 was an active year for drama. In addition to the four leading societies, the Hong Kong Stage Club, the Kai Tak Players, the Garrison Players and the Lindon Players, the Norfolk Players produced 'The Man Born to be King', the Marian Players 'The Girl Who Saw The Lady', and the University Chinese Society presented the Chinese tragedy 'Thunder and Rain'. The Sino-British Club were responsible for performances of classical Chinese opera, Peking opera, and an adap- tation of Somerset Maugham's 'The Sacred Flame'. The "Theatre of the Air' offered plays by the leading

221

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

dramatic groups broadcast by Radio Hong Kong. 41 schools including eight rural schools took part in the Inter-School Dramatic Competitions. The organizing committee and panels of judges were composed of representatives of the adult dramatic groups in the Colony.

A Shakespeare Society was founded in the year under review and there were also performances of ballet and pantomime.

The British Council maintained an active interest in most local cultural groups and held exhibitions of paint- ings and lithographs and arranged lectures by experts on art, literature and the sciences. The Council main-

tains a library and reading room, a film and film strip library, and a library of records, prints and pictures. About forty local clubs and institutions other than schools borrowed from the film and film strip library.

The Hong Kong Art Club held monthly exhibitions and is proposing to extend its activities by arranging classes in modelling and sculpture. The Hong Kong Artists' Group was formed by seven experienced Chinese artists who intend to give exhibitions of their own work or that of other artists, including Chinese traditional painters.

A selection of paintings by children from Hong Kong schools was sent to an international exhibition of children's arts at Bandung, Indonesia.

In one branch of the arts, photography, work by residents of Hong Kong was acclaimed internationally to be of outstanding merit. In the list of top ranking exhibitors given in "Who's Who in Pictorial Photo- graphy 1953" four of the first ten were from Hong

222

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

Kong. Encouragement to photographic art is given by the Hong Kong Photographic Association and the Photographic Dealers' Association as well as the Public Relations Office.

Sport

General

The Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Committee arranged for teams to be sent to the Asian Games at Manila and the Empire Games at Vancouver. Financial assistance was given by both the Hong Kong Jockey Club and the Hong Kong Government.

A Hong Kong sportsman was elected to repre- sent Asian nations on the Executive Committee of the Federation de International Football Association (F.I.F.A.) and Hong Kong also sent a representative to the 29th Congress and 50th anniversary of the F.I.F.A. in Switzerland.

Facilities for sports were further improved during 1954. An important innovation was the provision of modern flood lighting systems at the Hong Kong Football Club and the South China Athletic Associa-

tion's ground. The reclamation at Causeway Bay which will provide a park and many sports grounds is nearing completion, but work on turfing has been held up by lack of rain. Work on the construction of the modern stadium at Sookunpoo continued.

Association Football

The team which the Hong Kong Football Associa- tion sent to the Asian Games was defeated by the side representing Taiwan. Most of the players in the

223

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Taiwan team were registered with the Hong Kong Football Association. In the Interport Competition. with Singapore, the Hong Kong team, playing in Singapore, lost all three games. Macau also defeated Hong Kong in the annual game. On the credit side Hong Kong regained the Aw Hoe Interport Cup from Singapore later in the year winning 3-2 in a replay, and defeated Manila in the three games played. Play- ing the Pegasus side in January Hong Kong won the three games played and in February Hong Kong drew one game and won the two others against the champion Danish team, KogeIn May Hong Kong drew one and won two games against the All India team and in November was able to beat a visiting Swedish team A.I.K. winning one game, drawing another and losing the third. In a replay of the Ho Ho Cup match the Hong Kong Chinese defeated the Malayan Chinese.

Cricket

RIES

The standard of local cricket has not improved and it is thought that before any improvement can be made more intensive coaching will have to be given to school- boys. A club side from Bangkok visited the Colony and the visit will be returned in 1955.

Badminton

Hong Kong entered for the Thomas Cup for the first time in 1954, and, receiving a walkover in the first round, played Japan in the second and won by one game. The Hong Kong team will play the next round in India early in 1955. Local competitions flourished and schoolchildren are being encouraged to take an interest in this game.

224

Athletics

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

The Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association held eight athletic meetings during the year and increased interest, mainly on the part of the Services was reflected in the larger number of entries for the meetings. New records were established in several events. Hong Kong was represented at the Asian Games by two athletes and by one at the Empire Games. One athlete gained a bronze medal in the Asian Games 200 metre event.

Yachting and Rowing

# [

The Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club held its open- ing regatta on 3rd and 4th October, 1953 and at an interport a week later against Manila and Macau, Hong Kong regained both cups. At Chinese New Year a team of Redwings went to Macau and lost to the Club Nautico de Macau by a very narrow margin. A visit to Manila to race in Dragons, Stars and 1IOS was made at Easter. Hong Kong did well in the Dragons but lost in the other two classes and so Manila regained the Interport Cup. The Victoria Recreation Club opened a new club house and boathouse at Deep Water Bay and this should stimulate interest in rowing. A successful pulling regatta has already been held.

Swimming

The Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association was represented at both the Asian Games at Manila and at the Empire Games at Vancouver.

Cheung Kin Man, the fastest sprinter in the Colony, qualified for the finals of the 100 metres at Manila and for the finals for the 100 yards at Vancouver.

225

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

The Water Polo Team did well at Manila, finishing fourth. In the three metre diving contest at Manila, the Colony was represented by Wong Sik Hon and Chan Wai Sang both of whom have been Colony champions.

The Harbour Race was swum under perfect con- ditions and all but one of the 237 starters completed the course under the stipulated time of 1 hours.

Hockey

I

The men's and women's hockey league continue to flourish and the usual interports between the Colony and Macau were held.

The Indian Flotilla which visited the Colony in July played a series of games against local teams.

Boxing

Boxing in Hong Kong is still in its infancy. Annual matches have been held from 1949 onwards in aid of the Earl Haig Fund and Service personnel have been the chief contestants. Now that Hong Kong has been affiliated to the International Amateur Boxing Association it is hoped to hold championships at all weights in 1955.

Horse Racing

Interest in, and enthusiasm for, racing in the Colony remained keen and attendances at race meetings were large. Compared with previous years the volume of betting on the totalisator decreased but this was offset to a certain extent by higher sums in cash sweeps.

226

RELIGION, RESEARCH, THE ARTS, SPORT

Chinese Club Cup, the & O. Cup. The Pearce dead heat between Bengal

220 races were run during the season, 36 less than in 1952/3. Firefly, Marietta and Beat That were the respective winners of the Ladies' Purse and the P. Memorial Cup resulted in a Lancer and Knock Again. Flt. Lt. Plumbly rode the winning horses in both the Ladies' Purse and the P. & O. Cup.

The outstanding "griffin" of the season was Mr. David Sung's Jingle Bell. Its three outings resulted in three wins, one being the Hong Kong Derby. It did not race against the older ponies of which Firefly remained the champion. In the Sassoon Cup run over a 1 mile course Firefly beat Babsie, last year's wi of the Hong Kong Derby.

Mr. K. Kwok was the jockey with the greatest number of winning mounts. Mr. H. K. Hung, who rode seven winners out of sixty-nine mounts, was the leading novice rider.

RAP

At the conclusion of the season it was found necessary to bar the lowest class of ponies from further racing in order to provide room for a new batch of subscription ponies from Australia.

Table Tennis

A representative team took part in the World Cup Series in India but did not do well. However, a team which competed in the Asian Table Tennis Champion- ships at Singapore won four of the six major events including the singles title.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Triangular interport matches between Formosa, Macau and Hong Kong were held periodically and have assisted in the improvement of play. In order to im- prove the standard of European players in the Colony, which is noticeably inferior to that of the Chinese, the Hong Kong Table Tennis Association is forming leagues and intends to hold international competitions to stimulate a healthy rivalry.

Lawn Bowls

Hong Kong had a very good bowling year. A lawn bowls team from Hong Kong participated in the Empire games for the first time in 1954, and was beaten by the winning team. A team made up of Hong Kong residents on home leave regained the Esplin Cup when it defeated the Wanstead Club in July. A league was started for women bowlers, the first in Hong Kong.

G PUBLIC LIBRARI

228

Chapter 18

Local Forces

Volunteer Forces

History

Volunteer service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May, 1854, of the Hong Kong Volunteers. Between 1854 and 1920 volunteering fluctuated considerably, chiefly in relation to the per- sonality and enthusiasm of successive Commanding Officers. In 1878, the Hong Kong Volunteers were re-christened the "Hong Kong Volunteer Corps"; in 1917 their name was changed to the "Hong Kong Defence Corps"; and in 1920 the title was changed once more to "The Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps'.

HION

War Record

ARIE

Corps

The Hong Kong Volunteer Defence mobilized about 1,400 men to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December, 1941, and fought with the Regular Forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December, 1941. For their gallantry in battle and subsequent escapes from Japanese prison camps members of the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps were awarded one D.S.O., five M.C., two M.B.E., one D.C.M., six M.M. and eighteen "Mentioned in Despatches".

After the war the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps was reconstituted on 1st March, 1949, as "The Hong Kong Defence Force." Two years later the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

prefix "Royal" was awarded to the Force by His Late Majesty King George VI in recognition of the gallant defence of Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

Present Constitution

The Royal Hong Kong Defence Force is con- stituted by Ordinance and is a combined force comprising a naval, an army and an air force element. Men and women of different races and nationalities serve side by side in each unit. The Force is com- posed partly of volunteers and partly of conscripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service in 1951. The main units of the Force are :

Force Headquarter Units consisting of an Artillery Battery and various specialist units and officers.

The Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. The Hong Kong Regiment.

The Home Guard.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.

The Hong Kong Women's Naval Volunteer

Reserve.

The Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army

Corps.

The Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

Training obligations vary in the different units. In most units members must attend annually, as a minimum requirement, sixty instructional parades of one hour duration, six full days training and fifteen days training at camp. An instructional allowance is

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LOCAL FORCES

granted in respect of every instructional parade. For full days training and for attendance at Camp officers and members are paid at the appropriate rate for regular officers and men of equivalent rank. The Force is financed from funds voted annually by the Legislative Council.

Most of the officers of the Force are found from amongst the members, but a few regular officers and N.C.Os are attached for the purpose of training.

The Force provides an excellent illustration of men and women of different races, both volunteers and conscripts, working together in all three Services in the common interests of the Colony.

Other Auxiliary Defence Services

In addition to the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, the Special Constabulary and the Police Reserve (mentioned elsewhere in this Report) a number of other services have been raised and organized to assist in the defence of the Colony in an emergency. Legally, these are all parts of one service, the Essential Services Corps, which is raised and maintained under the Essential Services Corps Ordinance. In practice, how- ever, the Essential Services Corps is split into four autonomous Units; the Units of the Essential Services Corps proper, the Auxiliary Fire Service, the Auxiliary Medical Service and the Civil Aid Services.

The Essential Services Corps

The Essential Services Corps proper consists of a number of units, each responsible for maintaining an essential service such as the supply of electricity, gas,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

water, communications, etc., etc. It is staffed primarily by those already employed in such services but contains an element of others normally employed in non-essential industries or departments who would be called upon to assist in the maintenance of the specific essential under- takings, should the need for their services ever arise. The Corps is now several thousand strong.

Auxiliary Fire Service

The function of this autonomous Unit of the Essential Services Corps is, as the name implies, to assist the regular Fire Brigade. The Auxiliary Fire Service is now a highly trained, keen and efficient body some hundreds strong which has already been frequently called upon to come to the assistance of the Fire Brigade in a number of serious fires.

Auxiliary Medical Service

The function of this Unit is to provide first aid and hospital treatment for the population of the Colony in emergency.

The Auxiliary Medical Service is built up around the Government Department of Medical & Health Services, the St. John Ambulance Brigade, and the members of the medical and nursing professions in the Colony. In addition, a large number of persons with no previous medical experience has been enrolled, and training has proceeded to the point where members are fitted to act as auxiliary nurses in hospitals or as first-aid workers in the field. The Unit is now several thousand strong and of constantly improving efficiency.

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LOCAL FORCES

Civil Aid Services

This Unit is responsible for all civil defence functions not covered by the other emergency services. It is divided into a number of sub-units (Warden's Services, Rescue Service etc.) along orthodox civil defence lines, and is now several thousand strong. The members of the Unit are markedly keen and more volunteers are coming forward than can be trained. Although there is much still to be done, satisfactory progress in training is being made.

The conditions of service of the Essential Services Corps as a whole (including its autonomous Units) have been approximately equated to those of the Defence Force and the same training obligations are, broadly speaking, imposed; except that members are not required to undergo 15 days training in camp, or to do any full-day training. Moreover, those members of the Essential Services Corps who in an emergency would continue to perform duties in which they are already expert naturally require less training. All Units are composed partly of volunteers and partly of conscripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service in 1951.

233

Chapter 19

The Geographical Setting

Topography

Hong Kong lies just within the tropics on the south-eastern coast of the Chinese province of Kwang- tung, and east of the Pearl River estuary. The Colony includes:

(a) Hong Kong Island (area 32 square miles) on which is situated the capital city of Victoria, with an estimated population of 1 million.

(b) The ceded territory of Kowloon (area 31 square miles) with an estimated population of over I million.

(c) Stonecutters Island (area

square mile).

(d) The New Territories, with an estimated popul- ation of about 250,000 lying behind Kowloon which, together with numerous islands (a total area of 355 square miles) comprises the territory leased from China on 1st July, 1898 for 99 years.

The total area of the Colony is thus roughly 391 square miles, a large proportion of which is steep and unproductive hillside. The leased territories include also the waters of Deep Bay to the west and Mirs Bay to the east. (The population figures given above include the floating population, but it should be noted that the figures are only approximate and are not based on statistical evidence).

234

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Although Hong Kong has not experienced a really severe typhoon since 1937, the Colony lies in the path of Pacific typhoons and therefore has to be ever on the alert. First warning of a typhoon in the vicinity is given when the No. 1 Signal is hoisted at the Royal Observatory. Below: Typhoon "Ida", the centre of which passed 80 miles south of Hong Kong in August, 1954, caused heavy seas in the harbour.

Photo: Overseas Chinese Daily News

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100°

100°

LOCAL STORM SIGNAL CODE

NUMBER

DAY NIGHT

SIGNAL SIGNAL

ооо

MEANING

A DEPRESSION OR TYPHOON EXISTS WHICH MAY AFFECT

THE LOCALITY.

110°

30° N

เก

5

6

7

8

9

10

STRONG

WIND

SIGNAL

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM N.W.

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM S. W.

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM N. E.

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM S. E.

GALE EXPECTED TO

INCREASE.

HURRICANE OR TYPHOON

WIND (SPEED 64 KNOTS & UPWARDS) ANY DIRECTION.

STRONG WIND (SPEED

23 TO 33 KNOTS).

共圖

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RIES

LIC LIBRA

110°

120

120°

100°

LOCAL STORM SIGNAL CODE

DAY NIGHT

NUMBER

1

SIGNAL SIGNAL

MEANING

A DEPRESSION OR TYPHOON

EXISTS WHICH MAY AFFECT

THE LOCALITY.

5

6

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS UPWARDS)

EXPECTED FROM N.W.

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM S. W.

JO° N

7

8

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS)

EXPECTED FROM N.E.

GALE (WIND SPEED 34 KNOTS & UPWARDS) EXPECTED FROM S. E.

20°

10°

9

10+

STRONG

WIND

SIGNAL

GALE

EXPECTED TO

INCREASE.

HURRICANE OR TYPHOON

WIND (SPEED 64 KNOTS & UPWARDS) ANY DIRECTION,

STRONG WIND (SPEED

23 TO 33 KNOTS),

100°

110°

110°

120°

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120°

B

130°

140° E

TYPHOON MAP OF THE WESTERN PACIFIC

Showing two tracks typical of many typhoons which either move WNW to the coast of S. E. Asia, or recurve and affect Japan.

The map also shows the boundary of the area for which storm warning bulletins are issued by the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong.

130°

140° E

30° N

20°

10°

130°

140° E

TYPHOON MAP OF

THE WESTERN PACIFIC

Showing two tracks typical of many typhoons which either move WNW to the coast of S. E. Asia, or recurve and affect Japan.

The map also shows the boundary of the area for which storm warning bulletins are issued by the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong.

香港公共圖書館

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

130°

140° E

30° N

20°

10°

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АЯ

B

Photo: J. C. E. Britt

There are several species of venomous snakes in the Colony but it is the White-lipped Pit Viper or Bamboo Snake, Trimeresurus albolabris Gray, that is responsible for almost all cases of snake bite. It has been estimated that over 100 persons are bitten yearly by this snake, but fatalities are very rare. The Bamboo Snake in the photograph is about to strike. Its natural colour is a brilliant leaf green.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

Hong Kong Island is eleven miles long from east to west and varies in width from two to five miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,805 ft.) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The old part of the urban area runs up the steep hillside for hundreds of yards in narrow stepped streets and terraces, but the modern town stands mostly on a strip of reclaimed land averaging 200-400 yards wide which extends 9 miles along the southern shore of the harbour from Sulphur Channel to Lyemun Pass.

Between the island and the mainland of Kowloon lies the harbour, a natural and almost landlocked anchorage about 17 square miles in area, and of a width varying from one to three miles. The entrance from the east is by a deep-water channel through Lyemun Pass, five to nine hundred yards wide. On the western side the harbour is protected by a group of islands pierced by channels of various depths. The largest of these islands is Lantao which is nearly twice the size of Hong Kong Island. This harbour, lying midway between the main ports of Haiphong in Indo-China and Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtse River, has become the gateway to South China and has grown to be one of the greatest seaports in the world.

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low dry foothills running southward from the escarpment of the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula two miles long and nowhere more than two miles wide. Most of these foothills have now been levelled and the soil used to extend the area by reclamation. The town of Kowloon now covers the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

whole of this peninsula and a part of the leased territory to the north of it. It contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal commercial · dockyards, wharves for ocean-going ships, and a large residential suburb. Its population in 1941 threatened to overtake that of Victoria and this now appears to have happened as a result of the additional space that is available for development as compared with Hong Kong. Accurate figures are not available, however, to substantiate this contention. The terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which connects at Canton with the network of the Chinese railways, is at the extreme southern tip of the peninsula. The Unicorn range of hills, even more precipitous though less than those of the island, forms a barrier between Kowloon and the leased territory lying behind these hills.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands. and mainland, is steep and barren. Before the war considerable areas were afforested, but one of the unfortunate results of the occupation of the Colony by the Japanese was the felling of the vast majority of the trees for firewood, with the consequence that only a few isolated woods remained, principally in the vicinity of villages. Systematic re-afforestation has been going on steadily since the end of the war. The highest point is the mountain called Taimoshan (3,142 feet) which lies seven miles north-west of Kowloon. To the north- west of this mountain and extending to the marshes on the verge of Deep Bay stretches the Colony's largest area of cultivable land. The eastern half of the New Territories mainland is covered by irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Wherever cultivation is made possible by the presence of flat land and water, villages exist and crops

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THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

are raised. Intricate terracing brings the maximum of land under cultivation and the Chinese farmers, though ready to adopt any modern methods which are suited to local conditions and whose value has been demon- strated to them by practical tests, find in fact that there are few directions in which their traditional methods can be improved.

The New Territories include 75 adjacent islands many of which are waterless & uninhabited. Produc- tive land is even scarcer than on the mainland and the island population includes many fisherfolk living aboard their boats. Lantao, the largest island, is well watered, but the gradients are such that there is little cultivation. Wild boar and barking deer abound among the well- wooded ravines and scrub-covered spurs of this lonely island. The rest of the islands are much smaller, and range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau with its large fishing community, soy factory and junk-building yards, to an island only 8 acres large (Ngai Ying Chau) until recently occupied by a single. family.

Geology

Hong Kong Island and the New Territories are characterized by numerous rugged and irregular islands with deeply dissected peninsulas. A general picture of the area is that of an upland terrain which has been invaded by the sea.

The uplands and mountains are eroded remnants of rock formations, in which relative resistance of rock and structure through differential erosion is clearly recorded. As the region lies within the northern limits

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

of the tropics, frosts even on Tai Mo Shan are of the rarest occurrence, and weathering depends almost com- pletely upon the chemical action of the atmosphere aided by the alternation of wet and dry seasons. Erosion is likewise due to water action which is at a maximum during the torrential rains of the summer monsoon. Again denudation is aided by the excessive wind velocities of the typhoons and to a much less extent by the gentler breezes of the dry winter monsoon from central China. Because of the destruction of forest growth and vegetation wrought by the agricul- tural population by sickle and grass fires, the soil and rock mantle are left unprotected except by their own cohesion. Intensive efforts have been made to limit. and control these nuisances by rigid regulations and systematic reafforestation but bare rock surfaces and loose boulders still occur commonly on the higher surfaces and steeper slopes.

The laterite-type product of decay, is locally such, however, as to provide an impervious mantle for the underlying rock. In colour and composition the products of weathering accurately reflect their rock origin. Although frost action is absent, mechanical disintegration due to hydration, carbonation and temperature changes, has resulted in the formations of gravel and boulders over the surfaces of some rock types. The net result of the erosion cycle is that of an upland system with rocky mountain peaks and well defined ridges giving an impression of partly matured topography. In some areas the topography shows that adjustment to rock structure and resistance to weather- ing and erosion is very complete. This is evidenced. particularly in the general anticlinal structure of the valleys. The Tolo Channel is a notable example.

238

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The relative resistance of the different rock formations to weathering is illustrated as follows. The highest peaks and the most prominent mountain ranges are all composed of Tai Mo Shan porphyry and the Repulse Bay volcanics. They tend to form smoother peaks than the Hong Kong granite which generally occurs at lower elevations with well etched peaks and sharp ridge lines. The Tolo Channel sediments generally weather into lowlands and valleys except for the Pat Sin con- glomerate which form peaks and ridges along the crests of the Pat Sin mountain chain.

Unlike the hills the plains are all alluvial and formed by deposition. Benches marking old sea beaches up to 400 feet or more above sea level indicate the deep submergence of the whole region within recent geological times. Progressive uplift has brought about marked changes on the shore-line. Submerged weath- ered rock surfaces overlain by peat and bog deposits drilled through in the harbour of Hong Kong indicate that the former shore line was at least 100 feet (16 fathoms) lower than now.

During the period of submergence valley heads were gradually filled with sediment and this has been redistributed from higher to lower levels as elevation continued. The paddy fields along the lower reaches of the rivers and the large semi-submerged plain about Un Long are alluvial deposits brought down by the local streams. At the brick yards on the Sheung Shui plain marine shells have been dug up fifteen feet below the alluvial deposits.

The alluvial origin of the plains is thus clear, and it is also evident that these plains are yearly growing seaward due to the deposition of the sediment brought

239

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

down by the steams. It is interesting to note that an elevation of the land by 100 feet would restore the strand line approximately to the 16 fathom line and make all Hong Kong and the New Territories an integral part of the mainland. Thus across wide alluvial plains the Pearl River would develop several distributaries to the sea. There would possibly be a small channel flowing between Hong Kong and Lantao island eastwards and a larger one passing close to the western end of Lan- tao island in a south-easterly direction.

Climate and Weather

The climate of Hong Kong is governed by the monsoons, and although the Colony lies just within the tropics it enjoys a variety of weather from season to season which is unusual in tropical regions. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists with occasional breaks until April, bringing cool air from higher latitudes. Early winter is the most pleasant time of year, for the weather is generally dry and sunny. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; dull overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. Coastal fogs occur from time to time in early spring during breaks in the monsoon, when warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-easterlies.

The summer is the rainy season, three quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches occurring during the period May to September. The south-west monsoon lasts from June to August, but is not so persistent as the north-east monsoon of winter. The weather during the summer is continuously hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms.

240

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The mean monthly temperature ranges from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature very rarely rises above 95°F in summer, or falls below 40°F in winter. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in early winter it may occasionally fall as low as 20%. The average daily duration of sunshine. ranges from 3 hours in March to 7 hours in October.

Hong Kong is liable to be affected by typhoons during the period July to October, though typhoon gales have occasionally been experienced as early as June and as late as November. Spells of bad weather, with strong winds and heavy rain, normally occur several times each year owing to the passage of these storms at varying distances from the Colony. Gales due to typhoons occur on the average about once a year, but it is only rarely that the centre of a fully- developed typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force. The last such disaster occured on 2nd September, 1937, when the wind speed reached 145 knots in a gust and 28 steamships were stranded in and around the harbour. A map which shows the track of this typhoon is between pages 234 and 235.

1954 was the driest year in Hong Kong since 1895. The total rainfall recorded at the Royal Observatory amounted to only 53.82 inches, which is 30.82 inches below normal. January and February were milder than usual, March was notable for an unusually fine display of solar haloes which was seen on the 23rd, and April was generally unsettled with rain on most days. and much low cloud and mist.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Rainfall was deficient throughout the period May to October, which is normally the rainy season; the reservoirs were never fully replenished and it became. necessary to impose severe restrictions on the water supply during the following autumn and winter. The summer was a very hot one, for there were frequent spells of fine sunny weather; both in May and July the average daily maximum temperatures were the highest on record for the month.

Two typhoons affected the Colony during the year. The first of these, "Ida", whose centre passed some 90 miles to the SSW of Hong Kong on 29th August, gave rise to an easterly gale lasting for 12 hours. A maximum gust of 87 knots was recorded at the Royal Observatory. Three ships were stranded in the har- bour, but were subsequently refloated. Unfortunately this typhoon produced little rainfall.

"Pamela", a late-season typhoon whose centre passed about 30 miles to the SSW of Hong Kong on 6th November, resulted in another gale with a maximum gust of 84 knots. Five lives were lost, but little damage was done as ample warning had been given of the approach of the storm. As a result of this typhoon the rainfall for November was more than twice the normal amount and the water shortage was somewhat alleviated. The weather cleared up after the passage of "Pamela" and the early winter was as usual mainly fair and cool.

Some 30 typhoons and tropical storms were reported in the Far East during the year. Several recurved northward and crossed Japan, which had more than its share of typhoons in September. As an

242

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

example of one of these, the track of typhoon Marie has been plotted on the typhoon map. This typhoon recurved some 450 miles to the East of Hong Kong on 24th September without affecting the Colony. It caused great havoc in North Japan two days later and was responsible for the sinking of the ferry boat Toya Maru.

Flora and Fauna

To a botanist the flora of Hong Kong is exciting: to one whose knowledge of flowers is limited to a nodding acquaintance with the common herbs of the United Kingdom, it is at first sight a little dis- appointing. On close inspection, this impression is soon dispelled.

The flora of the island has been fully, though not completely, described in Flora Hongkongensis by G. B. Bentham, published in 1861, and in the descriptive Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher published in 1912. Less compre- hensive works include a small book, remarkable for its excellent drawings, by L. Gibbs entitled Common Hong Kong Ferns; an illustrated but unfinished series The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong by A. H. Crooks; Plants of Lan Tau Island by F. A. McClure which appeared in the Lingnan University Science Bulletin series for 1931 and numerous papers published in the Hong Kong Naturalist. Since the war, three official publications in the series Food and Flowers have appeared, and give, amongst other information, articles on some of the more conspicuous wild plants of the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Mr. G. B. Bentham, one of the most distinguished botanists of his time, with considerable experience of other floras, said in part in writing of Hong Kong: "One is struck with the very large total amount of species crowded among so small an island, with the tropical character of the great majority of species, and with the very great diversity in the species themselves."

The flora of this Colony is tropical in nature but it is at about the northern limit of the tropical flora. Hong Kong has hot and humid summers and dry cool winters and this alternation results in a dormant period for the tropical plants during the winter. It would seem that these conditions promote the development of large flowers borne at definite seasons of the year. The consequence is that a genus represented both in Hong Kong and Malaya (where the climate is tropical) produces a greater wealth of flowers and of a larger size here than in the more uniform tropics of the equatorial belt.

There is an amazing wealth of flowering shrubs and trees, many with very beautiful and fragrant flowers. Some are easy to place in their correct families; for example, the common wild Gordonia looks like and is related to Camellia, and the wild roses are unmistakably roses. But most are not so easy to name. They include a Magnolia, a Michelia with large white flowers, a Rhodoleia with groups of rose-madder coloured petals surrounded by golden bracts, an Illicium. with cherry pink flowers, a Tutcheria with large Camellia-like flowers, white tinged with gold, and with masses of tangerine orange stamens. Six species of Rhododendron grow wild in the Colony; of these one is extremely abundant, another so rare that it is only

244

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

known to exist on one shoulder of Victoria Peak, Hong Kong. The Heather family is represented by a very lovely Enkianthus which is common on the hillsides and bears beautiful pink bells in early spring at the time of the Chinese New Year. Flowering at the same time is a Litsea with small creamy white and exceedingly fragrant flowers.

Hong Kong possesses its own Bauhinia which is probably the most beautiful tree of this genus in the world. The tree, Bauhinia Blakeana named after a former Governor, Sir Henry Blake, was discovered by the fathers of the Missions Estrangéres at Pokfulam. Its origin is unknown, and, as it never produces seed, it is possibly a sterile hybrid.

Many local shrubs and a few herbs have very beautiful and striking fruits, almost all the colours of the rainbow being represented. Red is the colour of the berries of many of the wild hollies-none of which have prickles among them Ardisia which is very abundant and Chloranthus which is the most holly- like of the berried plants. Orange is a common colour of fruits including the large orange-like fruits of Melodinus, the smaller fruits of Strychnos, enclosing strychnine-bearing seeds, and the berries of the wild Kamquat. The winged fruits of Gardenia, with per- sistent sepals projecting like feathers from a shuttle- cock, change to orange and red when ripe, and yield a yellow dye. Yellow is the colour of numerous fruits mostly with long and elusive names; one of which is Maesa which abounds on shady hillsides. Green is characteristic of many fruits and berries which are mostly inconspicuous in consequence; among them are those of Mussaenda, the Buddha's lamp. Blue is not

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

such a common colour; many berries are black with a bluish waxy deposit. Probably the only true blue is that of Dichroa a close relative of Hydrangea. Purple, violet and mauve are characteristic of the fruits of the different species of Callicarpa which are better known in gardens in England than in their native land. The fruits of Dianella, in the lily family, are a deep and glorious purple. Many berries are black, a common example being those of Raphiolepis the so-called Hong Kong hawthorn. The only wild Jasmine has glossy black fruits as has also the commonest of the wild Persimmons.

Numerous plants have fruits either poisonous, or edible, or useful for medicine. Strophanthus and Strychnos are both common here; Gelsemium, a source of the alkaloid gelsemidine is less so; Cerbera is abundant near the sea. Edible fruits include those of a wild Jack Fruit, Artocarpus, which when ripe resemble misshapen apricots, and are delicious. The fruits of the Rose-myrtle contain raspberry coloured flesh in which are enclosed numerous seeds; they can be made into excellent jelly. Several species of Persimmon are wild but their fruits are too astringent to be eaten. A wild banana bears fruits filled with very hard black seeds surrounded by a little sweet pulp. Several species of bramble are abundant, one of which has bright red black-berries which though palatable are hard to collect as the vines are very prickly.

There are numerous plants which closely resemble their European relatives. Old Man's Beard, the com- mon clematis of the English hedgerow, has five close relatives here. Four wild violets also occur here; like the English dog violet they are scentless, but they are

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THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

attractive and easily recognized. The one English honeysuckle has five relatives here, with white or yel- low flowers; most have flowers larger than the wild woodbine. They are fragrant and have the attractive Chinese name of "kam ngan fa", gold and silver flower, given because of their change in colour with age from white to yellow.

One very beautiful Iris grows wild in many parts of the Colony, probably further south than any other true iris. The flowers are nearly three inches across, pale violet-mauve with deep violet, orange and yellow markings.

A very lovely Lily grows wild on the hillsides, with individual flowers as much as seven inches long; the white segments may have a purple stripe on the inner surface, and the anthers when split disclose bright orange pollen. By the sea grow a wild Crinum with white fragrant flowers and Bellamcanda in the Iris family with orange flowers spotted with red.

In damp ravines there is found a Didymocarpus with lilac flowers, related to the greenhouse Gloxinia; and several Begonias, as well as a fragrant leaved rush, Stag's horn mosses, numerous Orchids, giant aroids, tree ferns and countless kinds of smaller ferns including Maidenhair and the local Royal ferns. On the hillsides English bracken-a very cosmopolitan plant-may be seen growing together with the so-called Hong Kong bracken, Gleichenia, and a fragrant leaved myrtle called Baeckia.

The Colonial Herbarium, which provided the foundation for the work of Dunn and Tutcher's Flora

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

of Kwangtung and Hong Kong has been added to considerably since their time. At present over 26,000 specimens are preserved.

The trees of Hong Kong are described and illus- trated in the annual reports for 1950 to 1953.

Mammals

Although the majority of mamalian species in the Colony are not seen often enough to make them familiar, as a class they are represented in considerable. diversity. Members of the cat family include the tiger, an occasional visitor, the leopard which is much rarer, and the Chinese Tiger Cat, the present status of which is not known but which may still occur in some of the more remote parts on the mainland. The Dhole or Wild Red Dog and the South China Red Fox have been listed in the Colony's fauna, the former as occur- ring in the hills of the mainland, the latter on the Island as well as the mainland. The otter has also been listed but likewise is not common and does not occur on the Island.

Three species of civets-the large Chinese Civet, the Malacca Civet and the Masked or Gem-faced Civet are known to occur in the Colony. Probably only the Malacca Civet is common and it is interesting to note that the flesh of this animal is much prized by the Chinese as food in the cold weather. The Crab-eating Mongoose and the Ferret-Badger also occur, the latter being quite common.

The Barking Deer or Muntjac, although fairly plentiful in many wooded districts, is rarely seen in the day-time. It may occasionally be seen at night,

248

THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

however, especially when caught in the headlights of a car. On account of its shyness and nocturnal habits this small deer may seem to be less common than is actually the case; the Peak district on the Island is still to be included amongst its haunts. Wild Boar inhabit certain wooded districts on the mainland, notably the Sai Kung, Sha Tau Kok, Pat Sin Range and Tai Po areas. It is of interest that the average number of young in a brood appears to be only four in this Colony.

Monkeys are occasionally to be seen but whether these are specimens of the indigenous but very rare Rhesus Monkey, it is impossible to say.

An animal of particular interest is the Scaly Anteater or Pangolin which feeds to a great extent on termites. Although on record as occurring both on the mainland and Hong Kong Island, it is now rare.

Porcupines which are to be found on Hong Kong Island and on the mainland are our largest rodents and liable on occasion to damage crops and trees.Next in size among the rodents is the Smaller Bandicoot Rat, first known from Nepal and discovered here in 1946 on Hong Kong Island and in the New Territories. This is a large ground-living rat which does not enter houses. The two common domestic rodent pests are the cosmopolitan Common or Brown Rat and the Buff-breasted Rat, a small brown South Chinese race of the well-known Black or Ship Rat. House mice are not numerous but seem to be replaced to a limited extent by the House Shrew, the latter an insectivore a little. smaller than a rat with sharply pointed snout and a strong musky odour.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

A record of particular interest was the occurrence of the Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis), an adult specimen of which was captured offshore at Cha Kuo Ling in December, 1954 and identified at the University of Hong Kong. This is believed to be the first record of the species within Hong Kong territorial waters.

The construction, in the Botanic Gardens, of three spacious enclosures for the exhibition of wild mammals. has proved a success and has attracted many visitors. It is intended to use the enclosures for the display of certain rarely-seen species of indigenous mammals. Specimens so far exhibited include Rhesus Monkeys, Masked Civets, and a Chinese Leopard-cat.

Birds

There is much to interest the bird-lover and ornithologist in the Colony of Hong Kong. Appro- ximately two hundred species of birds have been identified, and may be grouped into four categories, namely: (1) Residents, (2) Winter Visitors, (3) Summer Visitors, and (4) Passage Migrants. There is, there- fore, always variety and the possibility of observing unrecorded species. The families of birds on record. for the Colony include the crow, babblers, bulbuls, thrushes, redstarts, flycatchers, minivets, drongos, warblers, starlings, weavers, finches, buntings, swallows, wagtails, cuckoos, kingfishers, owls, falcons, pigeons, rails, gulls, terns, plovers, sandpipers, herons, ducks and grebes, to mention only those represented by several species.

In 1954 the following species were recorded:- Pallas's Reed-Warbler, North China Grass-Warbler, Middendorff's Grasshopper-Warbler, Chinese Pipit,

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THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

Japanese Water-Pipit, Swinhoe's Black-faced Spoon- bill, Lesser Whistling Teal, and Yellow-necked Bittern (J. C. E. Britt); the Black Tailed Godwit (A. St. G. Walton), and Von Schrenck's Little Bittern (A. G. Downey).

Two of these records are of special interest; the occurrence of a Grass-Warbler so far South must be regarded as accidental, as all previous records have been confined to the Province of Chihli. The Chinese Pipit, hitherto confused with the very similar Richards Pipit, has now been shown to be the species which breeds on the low grassy hills of the Colony during the summer. The majority of these birds winter in Hainan and the Philippines but a few remain in Hong Kong in suitable localities.

Reptiles

Thirty-one species of land snakes, about six sea- snakes, fifteen lizards and several chelonians (tortoises, turtles and terrapins) are known to inhabit the Colony and the adjacent sea.

Of the land snakes, only six are sufficiently poisonous to be dangerous to man. Most familiar of the latter is the little bright green Bamboo Snake, the bite of which, however, has never been known to prove fatal to an adult. It is a pitviper, having a distinct pit or indentation between the eye and the nostril, and is one of our commonest snakes and a photograph of it can be found opposite page 235. Another common poisonous snake is the well-known Indian Cobra, a bite from which is likely to prove fatal if prompt treatment is not given. Fortunately bites from this snake in

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Hong Kong are extremely rare and no deaths are on record. These snakes are usually blackish or fairly dark in colour above and when on the defensive or about to strike they adopt the characteristic pose with head and forepart of the body raised and the hood expanded. The large King Cobra or Hamadryad is very rare and may be found only in the New Territories. It is the largest poisonous snake in the World and may occasionally attain eighteen feet in length.

The more frequently seen harmless snakes include the Common Rat Snake or Dhaman and its near relative the Indo-Chinese Rat Snake. The former is usually brownish above with irregular black cross-bars on the hind part of the body, and is pale_underneath where some or all of the scales are edged with black; there are distinct black vertical bars on the lips. It grows to six or seven feet in length, is extremely swift and bites fiercely when cornered. The Indo-Chinese Rat Snake is also brownish above, but lacks the dark cross-bars and black vertical bars on the lips. It does not grow quite as large and is not so inclined to bite as its large relative. Probably the commonest of all snakes is the Chequered Water Snake, a species which lives in and near fresh-water streams, ponds and ditches. It is olivaceous above, marked with darker spots and two dark streaks radiating backwards and downwards from the eye. The belly is whitish or yellowish, the scales edged with black. Although quite harmless, this snake always attempts to bite when handled. Its food consists mostly of Amphibia and fish. The largest snake in the Colony is the Indian Python. These giants of the serpent world are not poisonous, but kill their prey by constriction, being close relatives of the Boa Constrictors of the New World.

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THE GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

The sea-snakes are all poisonous, but they are inoffensive and do not attack bathers. Although breathers of atmospheric air, their tails are vertically flattened (paddle-like) and they are equipped for a thoroughly aquatic existence.

A specimen of Bennett's Water-Snake, Enhydris bennetti (Gray) was discovered at Ping Shan in the New Territories on April 21st, 1954 (J. D. Romer). Known only from Hainan and Southern China, this is the first definite record of the species occurring in Hong Kong.

Lizards are frequently seen in the Colony and are represented by four families-the geckoes, the skinks, the Agamids and the typical lizards. The most familiar is the common house-lizard, known as Bowring's Gecko. This active creature may be seen throughout the warm weather both inside and outside buildings. It is mostly nocturnal, feeding on insects and other small creatures. The majority of lizards in the Colony belong to a family, the members of which are known as skinks. They vary in size from a few inches to over a foot and are to be found on both cultivated and uncultivated land all over the Colony. They are stream-lined in appear- ance, exceedingly active, and fond of basking in the

sun.

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Chapter 20

History

The area which now forms the Crown Colony of Hong Kong is first mentioned in Chinese histories as part of the territories of the Maan Tribes, who then inhabited the greater part of China south of the River Yangtse. About this early culture little is known, though pottery of the prehistoric period unearthed on the islands of Lamma and Lantao, so and west of Hong Kong Island, indicates the existence of trade with the South at a remote period. The Maan tribes of Kwangtung gradually accepted Chinese culture from the close of the Han dynasty (third century A.D.) onwards, and by the end of the Sung dynasty (thirteenth century A.D.) the local people, whatever their racial origin, evidently regarded themselves as Chinese. The last Sung emperor, Ti-ping, in flight from the invading Mongols, made his capital at Kowloon on the mainland just opposite the Island of Hong Kong for a few months before his death in 1278, and a small hill crowned with prominent boulders was held sacred to his memory until 1943 when the Japanese demolished it.

The Arabs were already known in Canton in the seventh century A.D., but European intercourse with China dates from the sixteenth century when expeditions. from the maritime states of Europe-Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and England-penetrated into Far Eastern waters in the hope of establishing a direct trade by sea with the Moluccas or Spice Islands. At the

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HISTORY

end of the century, Queen Elizabeth herself addressed a letter to the Emperor of China. Though this letter was probably never delivered it marks the beginning of official support for a whole series of adventurous attempts to share in the trade of the Eastern countries. At the beginning of the next century a monopoly of the East Indian trade was created in favour of "The Governor and merchants of London trading in the East Indies." An early trading station at Bantam in Java soon led to the extension of the sphere of action to Japan and China.

The Portuguese had already founded the settle- ment of Macau from Malacca. In 1681 the English East India Company secured a house in Macau and a little later an approach was made to Canton itself. By 1715 a regular seasonal trade had been commenced with a shore staff residing during the season in the Canton factories and, during the summer months, in the Company's premises at Macau. The French, Dutch and Americans were not long in following the Com- pany's lead, and, by the end of the eighteenth century, Englishmen trading on their own account were begin- ning to share the benefits of this intercourse which the Chinese regulated.

Two attempts were made to establish normal official relations with China, by Lord Macartney in 1793 and by Lord Amherst in 1816; but these were rebuffed by the Manchu Court at Peking. The separate trends which British intercourse with China had hitherto taken-the activity of the East India Company, whose monopoly expired in 1831, and the unsuccessful official missions were united in 1834 by the arrival of Lord Napier in Canton as His Majesty's Chief Superintendent

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of Trade. Lord Napier's efforts at improving relations with the Chinese authorities failed and he died in Macau in October 1834. Eventually Captain Charles Elliot, R.N., succeeded him as Chief Superintendent and for five years negotiations were intermittently continued while the position of the British merchants became more and more difficult.

On January 20th, 1841, Captain Elliot announced "the conclusion of preliminary arrangements between the Imperial commissioner and himself involving the cession of the island and harbour of Hong Kong to the British Crown." Hong Kong Island was then occupied by a few fishermen and farmers and in common with a few other islands provided a notorious retreat for smugglers and pirates. He declared further that "Her Majesty's Government has sought for no privilege in China exclusively for the advantage of the British flag to the exclusion of the subjects, citizens, and ships of foreign Powers that may resort to Her Majesty's possession."

Hong Kong was formally occupied, and on January 29th Captain Elliot issued another proclama- tion declaring that Chinese resorting to the Colony "shall be governed according to the laws and customs of China, every description of torture excepted," being promised the free exercise of religious rites, social customs, and private rights.

Denounced by the Chinese and objected to by the London authorities the arrangements were not imple- mented. Sir Henry Pottinger replaced Captain Elliot as Britain's representative and hostilities were renewed, until the Chinese agreed to negotiate terms. The

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cession of Hong Kong was confirmed by the Treaty of Nanking on August 29th, 1842, and the work of build- ing up the new Colony began in earnest. In particular steps were taken to bring the Colony under its own laws, based on English law, putting an end to the temporary and informal arrangements made by Captain Elliot; though many aspects of Chinese domestic life continued to be regulated by Chinese customary law.

Early accounts of life in Hong Kong show that the early colonists had many obstacles to overcome. The new settlement was ravaged by fires, the houses levelled by typhoons, the population decimated by fevers and The Times on December 17th, 1844, com- plained that "The place has nothing to recommend it, if we except the excellent harbour. The site of the new town of Victoria-named after Queen Victoria the Good-is most objectionable, there being scarcely level ground enough for the requisite buildings, and the high hills, which overhang the locality, shut out the southerly winds, and render the place exceedingly hot, close, and unhealthy."

The administration was undeterred by these handi- caps and steady progress was made. Encouragement was given to merchants to erect business premises and residences, roads were laid down, and a town planning committee set to work. Markets and hospitals were built, churches for several denominations were provided, and schools established, all within the space of the first three years.

At the first census, the population of Hong Kong did not exceed 3,650 villagers and fisher- men living in some 20 villages and hamlets, including Stanley, Aberdeen, and Wongneichong, with about 2,000 Chinese living in boats in the harbour. En-

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couraged by prospects of work, Chinese labourers flocked into Hong Kong, and by April 1844 the population reached 19,000. The establishment of ship- building yards, eventually to grow into a major industry, dates from the Colony's earliest days.

No time was lost in linking up Hong Kong with Europe, and the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Naviga- tion Company established a monthly mail service in 1845. Commercial relations with several places were opened up, including Shanghai, Siam, and the United States of America, and the junk trade with China flourished.

Hong Kong provided a convenient port for the emigration of Chinese labourers to many places, mainly the Straits Settlements, Siam, and Java, and when news went round of the opening up of goldfields in California there was a rush of Chinese who went seeking the "Golden Mountains". When gold was discovered in Australia not long afterwards thousands of Chinese rushed to the "New Golden Mountains", via Hong Kong. Over 30,000 Chinese emigrants made use of the facilities provided by Hong Kong in the year 1852 alone. The flow of remittances to China in later years from those who established new homes on the other side of the world has been of considerable help to the economy of China. In the same way the descendants of those early emigrants have made their way up in the world, and their contacts

their contacts are still maintained through Hong Kong.

With the spread of unrest in China following the Taiping Rebellion, many thousands of Chinese flocked to Hong Kong, the first of many similar occur- rences when Chinese in search of shelter have sought

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the security and sanctuary of this Colony. The population rose by leaps and bounds and by 1855 was estimated at 72,000, and by 1861 at 120,000, taxing housing accommodation and all the other amenities with which the city had been provided.

An early reclamation scheme (1851), on a part of which the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corpora- tion building stands to-day, was found to be insufficient and was extended, while the city spread rapidly. New schools were established, to provide better educational facilities for the Chinese, among them the Anglo- Chinese College. As a matter of fact the establishment of the Board of Education as early as 1845 showed that the British were determined to make this an important aspect of the Colony's activities. More markets, better policing, the problem of water supply, additional hospitals, sanitation all pressed for attention and were tackled with energy and determination. Hong Kong rapidly took on the aspect of a modern town, and with the increasing importance of trade the Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce was formed, in 1861.

The Convention of Peking of 1860 added the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters' Island to the Crown Colony, and provision was made at Kowloon for accommodation for a part of the garrison. This was followed not long afterwards by the establishment of the Union Dock Company and the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company, the latter eventually absorb- ing the several smaller dockyards in Hong Kong and expanding into one of the largest employers of labour in the Colony. The early development of Kowloon owes a great deal to this important enterprise.

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An event which was to have far-reaching effects upon the relations of Europe and Asia was the opening of the Suez Canal (1869). The quickening of com- munications wrought changes in the commercial life of Hong Kong, shipping increased in volume from less than 2,000,000 tons in 1868 to over 5,000,000 tons within 10 years. Telegraphic cables were laid down to link Hong Kong with the rest of the world, and the Hong Kong Wharf and Godown Company was established (1871) to provide storage facilities for the greater volume of merchandise flowing through the Colony. Banking on Western lines, side by side with the Chinese, dates from the Colony's early days and has proved to be an important factor in the Colony's development.

The need for a responsible officer to deal with questions relating to the Chinese resulted in the office of the Registrar-General being established, and the Government inaugurated the system of appointing student-interpreters who would eventually be marked out for the most responsible administrative posts. To provide additional free attention for Chinese sick the Tung Wah Hospital, managed by Chinese directors. under Government supervision, was established (1872), several other services for the Chinese poor being main- tained under its auspices. In the same way the Po Leung Kuk was founded to cater for the welfare of Chinese girls, more schools were set up, some of them carried on by the Protestant or Catholic missions, others by the Government, scholarships being provided for worthy scholars. Provision was made to encourage Chinese students to acquire a knowledge of English, to equip themselves to take an increased part in the life of the Colony. Ng Choy, better known later as Wu Ting-fang, was the first Chinese to be admitted to the

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English Bar, setting a precedent which has since been followed by many others, who have come to participate actively in the life and activities of the community.

The cultural needs of the community found expression in a variety of ways, but as early as 1847 the China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society was founded, dedicated to the study of cultural contacts between the East and the West. An important feature of the colonization was the Gardens and Afforestation Department which procured seeds and plants from Australia and England, that resulted in "a general increase in the vegetative surroundings of the town, and that the increased attention given to the cultivation of trees along the public roads and around European dwellings on the hillsides had already done much to displace the pristine barrenness of the site on which the city was built, by patches of beautiful shrubbery." In course of time several vegetables and flowers found their way into China through their introduction in Hong Kong.

The opening of Haiphong and Hanoi to trade with Hong Kong enlarged the scope of the Colony's com- mercial importance, as did the establishment by Chinese capital of the China Merchants Steam Navigation Company (1874). This was followed by the linking of Hong Kong by cable to Canton, Macau, Shanghai, Foochow and other places. Further provision was made in Hong Kong, at the Praya East, for the expanding city, followed by extensive reclamations at Causeway Bay. Some interest in Kowloon was shown, the Portuguese community being among the first to take part in this enterprise. The building of houses

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on the Peak commenced at this time adding to the residential areas and providing the Colony with a salubrious retreat during the hot season.

The funicular tramway to the Peak opened up that desirable district in 1888, and extensive waterworks were carried out at Tytam, the original works at Pokfulam proving inadequate. The administration of Sir George Bowen (1883-1887) was particularly fruitful of public works and progress in several ways, and the names of Sir Thomas Jackson, Henry Keswick, and T. H. Whitehead are closely linked with the programme of commercial expansion which followed.

One of Hong Kong's most interesting contributions' to Chinese progress may be said to be the Hong Kong College of Medicine, founded in 1887. Dr. James Cantlie was the fons et origo of this institution. His son relates in his biography of Sir James Cantlie that his father conceived the idea on the voyage out from England, and "the College of Medicine for the Chinese was the result." To this end a public meeting was convened in the City Hall on October 1st, 1887, and Dr. Patrick Manson took a prominent part in its organization. Major-General W. Gordon Cameron, C.B., the Officer Administering the Government, who presided, promoted the new venture by placing the College under the auspices of the Government of the Colony.

The Chinese students were carefully selected, and seven entered the College on its inauguration. "July 23, 1892, may well be called a day of triumph," Dr. Cantlie's wife wrote, "Hamish's great day for the College of Medicine for the Chinese, presenting of

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licences to practise by the Governor." It was to Hong Kong, therefore, and its College of Medicine, later to expand into the University of Hong Kong, that Dr. Sun Yat-sen was indebted for the opportunity to acquire the scholastic background which was to bear fruit in China.

The establishment of the Alice Memorial Hospital for Chinese, under the auspices of the London Missionary Society, also dates from this period. It was only one of many contributions by this worthy institution to the amelioration of the lot of poor and needy Chinese.

10

Another important institution inaugurated at this time (1889) was Queen's College which provided accom- modation for 924 scholars, subsequently increased. This school has been the Alma mater of a large number of local boys who later in life were to distinguish them- selves in Hong Kong and in other places.

A period followed that is noteworthy principally for extensive reclamation work and roadbuilding, in the furtherance of which Sir Paul Chater took a leading part. Earnest endeavours by the authorities to promote interest among the Chinese to acquire more than a mere smattering of English have also to be recorded, in which connexion Sir Kai Ho Kai and E. R. Belilios figured prominently.

Overcrowding had already begun to be a problem in the Colony and in 1882 a Sanitary Commissioner, Oswald Chadwick, was sent to Hong Kong and as a result of his report a Sanitary Board was set up. Improvements in sanitation did not follow, however,

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until the outbreak of bubonic plague, when Dr. Kitasato, working in Hong Kong, succeeded in isolating the plague bacillus and it was found that the disease was transmitted by vermin. It was then that the importance of educating the public in hygiene was first realized and seriously pursued.

Under the Convention of Peking, signed in 1898, the area known as the New Territories, including Mirs Bay and Deep Bay, was leased to Great Britain for a period of ninety-nine years. The Government of Hong Kong soon embarked upon a big programme of works there. The Canton-Kowloon Railway was built, public health administration was established and anti-malarial measures were undertaken with determination. Sir Henry Blake identified himself with every aspect of the community's activities, which his successor, Sir Matthew Nathan, extended to Kowloon, where the road he laid down, called "Nathan's Folly" by local wags, com- memorates his

his confidence in the development of Kowloon and the expanse of country contiguous with it.

Chinese merchants at this time began taking a more prominent part in the commercial and industrial activi- ties of the Colony. They established shipping lines, were identified with wharves and warehouses, erected depart- ment stores, set up a number of small dockyards and factories, built theatres and invested heavily in real estate. They formed banks and insurance companies. on Western lines and established great import and export houses.

Hong Kong in common with the international settlement of Shanghai has thus provided the oppor- tunity for many people of Chinese and other races to

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fit into the rapidly expanding world economy of the twentieth century. Freedom of the port and freedom of entrance and egress for all persons of Chinese race were permitted in accordance with a policy which ensured for the Colony the role of entrepot both for the trade and for the labour of China's southern provinces.

The influence of Hong Kong undoubtedly had some bearing on the internal affairs of China at this time where there was a stirring among Chinese patriots. that brought profound results. One outcome of this, the "Hundred Days Reform," might have saved China much misery and pain, for Kang Yiu-wei had been inspired and he succeeded in influencing the Emperor to attempt the introduction of much needed reforms in China. The failure of the attempt led to the tribulations which brought the Manchu dynasty to its end, but it had its roots deep in the minds of the Chinese people. In Hong Kong the revolutionaries found liberty and sanctuary based on justice and freedom of speech, while the Chinese newspapers of Hong Kong provided them with a vehicle for reaching the Chinese masses.

One important contribution towards free thought in the Colony was the founding of Hong Kong Univer- sity. Sir Frederick Lugard, Governor of Hong Kong, had invited local inhabitants to discuss its feasability and as a result Mr. H. N. Mody, later Sir Hormusjee Mody, offered, in 1908, to present the Colony with the entire cost of the main buildings. Other enthusiastic supporters followed, numbers of Chinese contributing substantial sums to promote the undertaking, notably Sir Robert Ho Tung whose munificent donations over a long period of years place the Colony very much in his debt.

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Unrest in China became intense following the establishment of the Republic and the period of struggle among the war-lords. Great numbers of Chinese, mainly from South China, made their way to Hong Kong seeking refuge from turmoil in their homeland, attracted by the security to be found in the Colony. Many of them made permanent homes in Hong Kong and identified themselves with business, for this was the period of commercial expansion in the Colony which became very pronounced during the war of 1914-1918. The work of Mr. R. H. Shewan and Mr. P. H. Holyoak in the promotion of industrial enterprises is well known and Sir Henry Pollock, a leading legal figure, identified himself with the more humanitarian aspects of the community's activities and took the lead in trying to instil a civil spirit in Hong Kong. The need for such a spirit was particularly pronounced during the Seamen's Strike of 1922 followed by the more serious General Strike (1925-1926).

At this juncture Sir Cecil Clementi was largely instrumental in arranging for a settlement of the dispute in which the Canton authorities were taking a prominent part. His "good-neighbour" policy brought many benefits to Hong Kong. With the restoration of normalcy increasing numbers of Chinese made their way to Hong Kong, and a period of real commercial expansion followed the settlement.

Interest in the New Territories really began in the 1920's, and the names of Rev. H. R. Wells and Mr. J. P. Braga are identified with the promotion of the first Agricultural Show there, while expansion took place in Kowloon side by side with a big building pro- gramme on the island of Hong Kong.

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Photo: Mee Cheung

The photographer who took this picture of Causeway Bay in about 1890 recorded an early stage in the eastward spread of Victoria City. The same scene in 1954 shows clearly how Wanchai has grown seaward on land won from the sea. Causeway Bay has been reclaimed for a public park and Kellet Island joined to the mainland.

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Photo: John Stericker

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HON

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The "Illustrated London News", published this engraving of band-evening on t: afternoons this is one of the finest scenes on the island". Although the present-d rows of parked motor cars have replaced the promenaders, the architecture of 1 Cathedral dominates the scene.

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المدالانون

The "Illustrated London News", published this engraving of band-evening on the afternoons this is one of the finest scenes on the island". Although the present-day rows of parked motor cars have replaced the promenaders, the architecture of 100 Cathedral dominates the scene.

Parade at Hong Kong in its issue of August 15, 1857. The text relates that "on fine utilitarian functions of Murray Parade Ground are not quite so colourful and serried years ago has scarcely changed. The barracks on the left still stand and St. John's

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Parade at Hong Kong in its issue of August 15, 1857. The text relates that "on fine utilitarian functions of Murray Parade Ground are not quite so colourful and serried years ago has scarcely changed. The barracks on the left still stand and St. John's

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共圖

Photo: Mee Cheung

Sir Matthew Nathan, Governor of Hong Kong from 1904 to 1907 had built this un- usually broad highway through the Kowloon peninsula. It was nicknamed "Nathan's Folly". Today the Colony enjoys the benefits of his foresight in the fine boulevard called Nathan Road which has become the main traffic artery for the rapidly growing town of Kowloon.

KONG PUBL

Photo: Francis Wu's Studios (1954)

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HISTORY

Japanese plans for political development in the Far East had already been apparent when they presented their demands on China in 1917, to be followed by their intensive economic activities which disturbed Far Eastern trade very seriously. After Japan invaded China in 1937 the Colony became a refuge for many Chinese, among them large numbers from North China, and the population grew to over one and a half millions. Until the fall of Canton at the end of 1938 valuable supplies were able to reach China through Hong Kong. With the outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 the position of the Colony became precarious, and on December 8th, 1941 the blow fell. Powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, struck at the Colony. The first attempt of the Japanese to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of December 15th-16th, but a second attempt on the night of the 18th-19th could not be held. After some bloody fighting on the island, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese forces on Christmas Day. The isolated brigade on Stanley peninsula held out for a further day before capitulating on superior orders.

Hong Kong remained in Japanese hands for over three and a half years and was liberated when units of the British Pacific Fleet entered the harbour on August 30th, 1945, about two weeks after the capitulation of Japan. A brief period of military administration was followed by the re-establishment of civil government on May 1st, 1946.

The Colony made an astonishing recovery in the years that followed. Thousands of Chinese people returned to Hong Kong from the mainland and the

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population quickly reached and surpassed its pre-war level, producing a housing problem which became acute when, as the result of the success of the Communist armies in the Chinese civil war, thousands more Chinese, particularly from Shanghai and other centres of Chinese commerce, started entering the Colony as refugees. This second phase in the Colony's increase of population began in 1947, and to-day it is about 2 millions.

The history of Hong Kong in the post-war period is a record of great achievement in every phase of endeavour. The experience of previous years, with its emphasis on banking and then on commercial expansion, has had an important bearing on the industrial develop- ment which has been a great feature of recent years. The mills and factories at Shum Shui Po, Tsun Wan, To Kwa Wan, Shau Ki Wan and elsewhere are evidence of the great effort which has made Hong Kong a considerable industrial centre. Side by side with this, commercial development has grown to an extent which would not have been thought possible a few years ago.

Extensive public works have been and are being carried out, among them the scheme for a better airport in a most difficult locality, the big waterworks project at Tai Lam Chung, the largest ever undertaken here. A new hospital to meet the needs of the community is projected, and dozens of other undertakings in various parts of the Colony have been completed and others begun. Private enterprise has also contributed to this expansion, and the emphasis on construction, which has brought about a revolution in housing in Hong Kong needed to provide accommodation for the Colony's teeming population, has done much to alter the appearance of Hong Kong and Kowloon.

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Chapter 21

Administration

The Government of Hong Kong derives its con- stitutional authority from Letters Patent and Royal Instructions and is administered by a Governor, an Executive Council, and a Legislative Council. The Executive Council, which is consulted by the Governor on all important administrative matters, consists of the Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Financial Secretary (who are members ex-officio), and such other member, both official and unofficial, as may be appointed. At the end of 1954, there were six official members (including the five ex-officio members mentioned above) and six un- official members, three of whom were Chinese, and one. Portuguese. (See Appendix XIV).

The Legislative Council consists of nine official members, including the same five ex-officio members listed above, and eight unofficial members. At the end of 1954 the unofficial members included four Chinese and one Portuguese member. The laws of the Colony are enacted with the advice and consent of this Council which also approves all expenditure from public funds. Procedure is based on that of the House of Commons. There are three Standing Committees: the Finance Committee, the Law Committee and the Public Works Committee; and Select Committees are set up from time to time to advise on matters before the Council.

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The English Common Law, together with such United Kingdom statutes as were in force on 5th April, 1843, or have since that date been expressly made applicable to Hong Kong, forms the basis of the legal system, modified by Hong Kong Ordinances of which a new edition, revised to 1950, was published in 1951. The constitution of the Supreme Court of the Colony is set out in the Supreme Court Ordinance No. 3 of 1873. The law as to civil procedure was codified by Ordinance No. 3 of 1901. The Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890, regulates the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Admiralty cases.

J

The system of administration is briefly as follows:

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. The Colonial Secretariat, under the control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of all the departments and takes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions.

The Government has a Public Relations Officer whose duties are to transmit news and explain govern- ment policy to the public and to keep Government informed of public opinion. A broadcasting station, Radio Hong Kong, is maintained under the control of the Controller of Broadcasting which broadcasts pro- grammes in English and Chinese.

The Public Services Commission, which was appointed under the authority of the Public Services. Commission Ordinance, 1950, with a view to improving the standard of efficiency of officers in the public service.

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and ensuring that the claims of local candidates for appointment to the service receive full consideration, is responsible for advising the Governor on appointments. and promotions to the great majority of vacancies on the pensionable Government establishment.

Trade, Finance and Development. The Financial Secretary is responsible for financial and economic policy, and the purely accounting operations of the Government are under the general management and supervision of the Accountant General, who is in charge of the Treasury. All public accounts, whether of general revenue and expenditure, or of special funds or departmental accounts, are subject to audit and inspec- tion by the Director of Audit. The Commissioner of Rating and Valuation is responsible for the assessment of rates, and the Commissioner of Inland Revenue for the assessment of estate duty and of the various direct taxes imposed under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, Cap. 112.

The Director of Commerce and Industry is res- ponsible for Government bulk purchases of essential foodstuffs, trade promotion, price control, rationing, the collection of import and excise duties, the direction of preventive work and for the production of any statistical matter required by any department of Government. Procurement of Government requirements other than essential foodstuffs is the responsibility of the Controller of Stores.

The Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is administratively responsible for the Government's services in agriculture, fisheries and forestry, each of these divisions being under the supervision of profes- sional officers.

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The Registrar of Co-operatives and Director of Marketing is responsible for fostering the development of co-operative societies, chiefly among fishermen and farmers, and also controls the Government Wholesale Fish and Vegetable Markets.

Social Services. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is a senior administrative officer and has a wide and general responsibility in all matters affecting the Chinese community. Social welfare activities are under the direct control of the Social Welfare Officer. The Commissioner of Labour is responsible for ensuring that the conditions in factories and workshops, particu- larly with regard to health and safety, are in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation, for providing conciliation machinery for the settlement of disputes about wages and other terms of service, for encouraging modern trade unionism, and for imple- menting such International Labour Conventions as can be applied to the Colony. Government had been considering separating the work of the administration of the Trade Unions Ordinance from that of the advisory work in connexion with trade unionism for some time and towards the end of December, 1954 a separate Registry of Trade Unions was established and the administration of the Trade Unions Ordinance transferred from the Commissioner of Labour to the newly appointed Registrar of Trade Unions.

The Director of Medical and Health Services, whose department is divided into hospital, health and investigation divisions, together with the Director of the Urban Services Department, is responsible for the general health of the Colony.

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The Urban Council has responsibilities under the public health laws governing sanitation, food inspection, and related matters in the urban district, which comprises the whole of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon. The Council has power to make by-laws under the various ordinances, and these by-laws are subject to approval by Legislative Council before enactment. The Council is also responsible for the disposal of the dead, the control of hawkers, advertise- ments, amenities, public parks and playgrounds, bathing beaches and has some responsibilities with regard to the resettlement of squatters. The Council is constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance and consists of a Chairman, who is also the Director of the Urban Services Department, a Vice-Chairman (who is the Deputy Director of Health Services in the Medical Department), the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Social Welfare Officer and the Commissioner for Resettlement, who are all officials, and ten unofficial members, of whom four are elected and six (of whom three must be Chinese) are appointed by the Governor. The term of office of unofficial members is two years. The Council meets fortnightly to transact official business but the main work of the Council is dealt with by 34 select com- mittees which meet at very frequent intervals.

Education is in the hands of the Director of Education who controls government schools and supervises all private schools in the Colony.

Communications. The Director of Marine, the Director of Civil Aviation and the General Manager of the Kowloon-Canton Railway are responsible for sea, air and rail traffic, while the Director of Public Works,

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in addition to his duties in connexion with the cons- truction and maintenance of government buildings, the supervision of other buildings, waterworks, piers and government transport, is responsible for the construc- tion and maintenance of the Colony's roads.

The Postmaster General, is responsible for the collection and delivery of mail. The Royal Observa- tory, under a Director, provides meteorological services for use by aircraft and shipping, issues regular weather forecasts and is responsible for giving typhoon warnings.

Law and Order. The Attorney General is the adviser to Government on all legal matters and is also the public prosecutor. The Registrar General is the officer responsible for the registration of companies, trade marks, marriages and land deals and is also the Official Receiver and Official Trustee. Watch and ward in the Colony is kept by the Commissioner of Police, while the Colony's prisons are the responsibility of the Commissioner of Prisons. The Chief Officer of the Fire Brigade has an efficient and up-to-date force under his command.

New Territories. The administration of the New Territories is in the charge of a District Commissioner, assisted by a District Officer for each of the three districts: Yuen Long in the west, Taipo in the north and east, and the Southern District. In addition to general administrative duties, District Officers continue to hold Small Debts Courts and Land Courts, though magisterial duties in the New Territories, which were hitherto also undertaken by the District Officers, were handed over to the Judiciary during the course of the year. District Officers carry out the functions of the

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Public Works Department in controlling Crown Land and building development, and of the Registrar General in regard to records and deeds concerning private land. With the help of advisers from the Medical Department the District Commissioner is responsible in the New Territories for much of the work done in the city by the Urban Council.

Other Departments. The Commissioner of Regis- tration is responsible for the registration of persons and the issue of identity cards under the Registration of Persons Ordinance, 1949. The main work of register- ing the population was completed in the autumn of 1951.

The Quartering Authority is responsible generally for the allocation of accommodation within government and for the requisition of premises.

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Bibliography

I. BOOKS AND ARTICLES

Much has been written about Hong Kong since it became a British Colony over 100 years ago but almost all of this literature is out of print and is unlikely to be found outside the libraries of the British Museum, the University of Hong Kong, the Toyo Bunko, Tokyo, the School of Oriental and African Studies, London and the Colonial Office. Students are advised to consult the indices of these libraries.

In the following list, which is not comprehensive, the items marked with an asterisk are those which are easy to obtain at the present time. The unmarked books and articles are not easily obtainable and include several rarities but they have been listed because they are con- sidered to be of great interest and historical value and the best of the literature relating to the Colony.

General and Historical

BALFOUR, S. F. Hong Kong before the British. Shanghai 1941 (Reprinted from T'ien Hsia Monthly).

BERESFORD, Lord Charles. The Break-up of China.

London, Harper and Bros., 1899.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOWEN, Sir George Ferguson.

George Ferguson. Thirty Years of Colonial Government. Longmans Green, London, 1889 (2 vols.).

BOWRING, Sir John. Autobiographical Recollections of Sir John Bowring. London, H. S. King & Co., 1877.

*BRAGA, J. M. Noticias de Macau. (Special Supplement dedicated to Hong Kong and Anglo-Portuguese Amity) Macau, 1951.

BRAGA, J. P. Sir C. P. Chater: The Grand Old Man

of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1926.

о

BRISTOL, H. Hong Kong. East West Publishers,

1924.

*British Dependencies in the Far East, 1945-1949.

London, H.M. Stationery Office, 1949.

*BURKHARDT, Col. V. R. Chinese Creeds and Customs. South China Morning Post, Ltd., Hong Kong,

1954.

*CLARK, Russell S. An End to Tears. Sydney, Peter

Huston, 1946.

CLEMENTI, Sir Cecil. The Future of Hong Kong.

London, 1936.

*COATES, Austin. Invitation to an Eastern Feast.

Hutchinson, London, 1953.

*COLLIS, Maurice. Foreign Mud. Faber & Faber Ltd.,

London.

Correspondence and Other Documents Concerning the blockade of the Port of Hong Kong, 1868-1880. Hong Kong,

277

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

COSTIN, W. C. Great Britain and China, 1833-1860.

London, 1937 ·

*CROCOMBE, L. Slow Ship to Hong Kong. London,

Edward Stanford, Ltd., 1952..

DES VOEUX, Sir G. W. Report on the Condition and Prospects of Hong Kong and on Recent Events in the Colony. Noronha & Co., Hong Kong, 1889.

*DES VOEUX, Sir G. W. My Colonial Service.

London, John Murray, 1903 (2 vols.).

*DEWEY, T. E. Journey to the Far Pacific. London,

1952.

EAMES, J. B. The English in China, 1600-1843.

London, Sir Isaac Pitman, 1909.

EITEL, E. J. Europe in China. The History of Hong Kong from the Beginning to the year 1882. London, Luzac & Co., Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., 1895.

*Fox, Miss Grace. British Admirals and Chinese Pirates (1832-1869). London, Kegan Paul, Trench Trub- ner & Co., Ltd., 1940.

*GREENBERG, Michael. British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press,

1951.

*HEYWOOD, G. S. P. Hong Kong. British Survey

Popular Series, No. 118, 1954.

*INGRAMS, H. Hong Kong. H.M. Stationery Office,

London, 1952.

278

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*KEETON, George W.

China, the Far East and the

Future. London, 1949.

LUGARD, Sir F. Memorandum regarding the Restric- tion of Opium in Hong Kong and China. Hong Kong, 1908.

MAYERS, W. F., DENNYS, N. B., and KING, C. The Treaty Ports of China and Japan. London, 1867.

*MILLS, Lennox A. British Rule in Eastern Asia.

London, Humphrey Milford, 1942.

NORTHCOTE, Sir Geoffrey. Hong Kong: The Story of a Century. The Crown Colonist (pp. 9-39) London, January, 1941.

NORTON-KYSCHE, J. W. The History of the Laws and Courts of Hong Kong. London, T. Fisher Unwin, and Hong Kong, Noronha & Co., 1898 (2 vols.).

*RAND, Christopher. Hong Kong, The Island Between.

Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1952.

B

SAYER, G. R. Hong Kong: Birth, Adolescence and Coming of Age. Oxford University Press, 1937.

SCARTH, J. British Policy in China. Hong Kong,

1859.

SMITH, Rev. G. Report on Hong Kong, more espe- cially in reference to missionary facilities there. London, 1845.

*STERICKER, J. and V. Hong Kong in Picture and

Story. Hong Kong, 1953.

279

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

*STERICKER, J. and V. The Hong Kong Gift Book.

Hong Kong, 1954.

*

This is Hong Kong. South China Morning Post,

Ltd., Hong Kong, 1953.

*WOOD, Winifred A. A Brief History of Hong Kong. South China Morning Post, Ltd., Hong Kong,

1940.

WRIGHT, A. and CARTWRIGHT, H. A. Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China. Lloyd's Publish- ing Co., Ltd., London, 1908.

III

Natural History and Science

BENTHAM, George B. Flora Hongkongensis. London,

1861.

BROWN, Robert E. The Hong Kong Typhoon and

the Jesuit Observatories. London, 1906.

BUNBURY, Rev. G. A. Notes on Wild Life in Hong Kong and South China. St. Paul's College Press, Hong Kong, 1909.

CLAXTON, T. F. The Climate of Hong Kong, 1884- 1919 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations) Hong Kong Royal Observatory. Hong Kong, Noronha & Co., 1931.

CROOK, A. H. The Flowering Plants of Hong Kong: Ranunculaceae to Meliaceae. Hong Kong, 1930.

*DAVIS, S. G. Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting.

Collins, London, 1949.

280

1

BIBLIOGRAPHY

*DAVIS, S. G. The Geology of Hong Kong. Govern-

ment Printer, Hong Kong, 1952.

DUNN, S. T. and TUTCHER, W. J. Flora of Kwang-

tung and Hong Kong. H.M. London, 1912.

Stationery Office,

HANCE, Henry Fletcher. Florae Hongkongensis. A Compendious Supplement to Mr. Bentham's Des- cription of the Plants of Hong Kong. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1872.

*HERKLOTS, Dr. G. A. C. The Hong Kong Country- side. South China Morning Post, Ltd., Hong

Kong, 1954.

*HERKLOTS, Dr. G. A. C. China Morning Post,

*HERKLOTS, Dr. G. A. C.

Hong Kong Birds. South Ltd., Hong Kong, 1953.

Fishes of Hong Kong. Post, Ltd., Hong Kong,

*HEYWOOD, G. S. P.

Properties of Air

Common Marine Food South China Morning 1940 (Reprinted 1947).

Upper Temperatures and the Masses over Hong Kong.

Noronha & Co., Ltd., Hong Kong, 1940.

*HEYWOOD, G. S. P. Hong Kong Typhoons. Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, 1941 (new edition, 1950). Noronha & Co., Ltd., Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Naturalist. Illustrated Quarterly. Vols.

I-X, Hong Kong, 1930 to 1941.

*HUGHES, R. H. Hong Kong: An Urban Study. The Geographical Journal, Vol. CXVII Part I, March, 1951.

281

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

JARRETT, V. H. C. Familiar Wild Flowers of Hong Kong. South China Morning Post, Ltd., Hong Kong, 1937.

Jefferies, C. W. Meteorological Records, 1884

1928 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations). Hong Kong Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, 1938.

KERSHAW, J. C.

East China.

*STARBUCK, L.

Butterflies of Hong Kong and South Hong Kong, 1905.

Statistical Survey of Hong Kong Rainfall. Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, Noronha & Co., Ltd., Hong Kong, 1950.

UGLOW, W. L. Geology and Mineral Resources of the Colony of Hong Kong. Sessional Paper, 1926.

Trade, Commerce and Industry

ARNOLD, Julean. Commercial Handbook of China.

Washington, 1919 and 1920 (2 vols.).

BEALE, Sir Louis. Report on Economic and Com-

mercial Conditions in China.

London, 1938, with

an appendix by G. Clinton Pelham-Economic · Conditions in Hong Kong.

*BOYCE, Sir Leslie. Report of the United Kingdom

Trade Mission to China, 1946.

Stationery Office, 1948.

London,

London, H.M.

British Economic Mission to the Far East, 1930-1931.

London, H.M. Stationery Office, 1931.

282

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DUNCAN. J. Commercial Development of the Port of

Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1924.

Economic Survey of the Colonial Empire (Colonial

Report No. 126). London, 1936.

*GULL, E. M. British Economic Interests in the Far

East. Humphrey Milford, London, 1943.

KANN, E. The Currencies of China. Shanghai, Kelly

and Walsh, Ltd., 1926.

*KING, F. H. H. The Monetary System of Hong

Kong. K. Weiss, Hong Kong, 1953.

LEITH-ROSS, Sir F. The Economic Outlook in the

Far East. United Empire, XXVIII, 1939.

OWEN, Sir David J. Future Control and Development of the Port of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1941.

Health and Education

BLAKE, Sir Henry Arthur. Bubonic Plague in Hong

Kong. Noronha & Co., Hong Kong, 1903.

CLARK, Dr. Francis. Far Eastern Association of Tropical Medicine. Congress held at Hong Kong. Noronha & Co., Hong Kong, 1912.

HORNELL, Sir Wm. The University of Hong Kong, 1912-1933. A Souvenir. Hong Kong, 1934.

HUNTER, Dr. W. A research into Epidemic and

Epizootic Plague. Hong Kong, 1903.

IRVING, E. A. Education in Hong Kong. Hong

Kong, 1914.

283

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

*JENNINGS, Sir I. and LOGAN, D. W. A Report on the

University of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1953.

LOWSON, Dr. J. A. Medical Report on the Epidemic of Bubonic Plague (at Hong Kong) in 1894. Hong Kong, Noronha & Co., 1895.

LUGARD, Sir F. A University for Hong Kong. The

Dublin Review, October, 1910, pp. 346-355.

LUGARD, Sir F. The Hong Kong University. The

XIX Century, October, 1910, pp. 647-654.

OLITSKY, Lieut. P. K. Report on the Investigations of the Outbreak of Epidemic Meningitis. Hong Kong, 1918.

RAIMONDI, Bishop J. T.

with the History of Hong Kong, 1877.

Dates and Events connected Education in Hong Kong.

ROBINSON, Sir W. Bubonic Plague in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong, 1896.

ROBINSON, Sir W. Report on Operations in the New

Territory during 1900. Hong Kong, 1900.

SELWYN-CLARKE, P. S. Report on Medical and Health Conditions in Hong Kong, 1st January, 1942 to 31st August, 1945. London, 1946.

SIMPSON, Dr. W. J. Report on the Plague in Hong

Kong. Hong Kong, 1903.

WELLINGTON, Dr. A. R. Public Health in Hong

Kong. The need for reorganization of the Medical and Sanitary Services and for the establishment of an up-to-date system. Hong Kong, 1935.

284

BIBLIOGRAPHY

WHITE, G.

The Organization of Trade Schools. Hong Kong, 1933.

WHITE, G. Report on a Proposed Scheme for Tech- nical Education in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1934.

Miscellaneous

* ABERCROMBIE, Sir Patrick. Hong Kong Preliminary

Planning Report. Hong, 1949.

CHADWICK, O. Report on the Water-Supply of Hong

Kong. Noronha & Co., Hong Kong, 1902.

CHATER, P. C. The Praya Reclamation Scheme.

Noronha & Co., Hong Kong, 1888.

*CHEN, Francis J. The Jaycee Movement in Hong

Kong. Hong Kong, 1954-

*COLLINS, Sir Charles. Public Administration in

Hong Kong. London, 1952.

BR

*ENDACOTT, G. B. and SHE, Mrs. D. E. The Diocese of Victoria, Hong Kong. Kelly and Walsh, Ltd., Hong Kong, 1949.

*GOODWIN, Lt. Comdr. R. B. Hong Kong Escape.

London, 1953.

GROVE, F. ed. The Canton-Kowloon Railway.

London, 1913.

*HEYWOOD, G. S. P. Rambles in Hong Kong. Kelly & Walsh, Ltd., Hong Kong, 1939, (new edition 1951).

285

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Hong Kong Almanack and Directory. (First published

1846).

Hong Kong Directory with List of Foreign Residents

at Macau, etc. (First published 1858).

Hong Kong Directory and Hong List for the Far East

for 1882.

*JEFFRIES, Sir Charles. The Colonial Police. Max

Parrish, London, 1952.

*KIPLING, R. From Sea to Sea and other Sketches.

Macmillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1910.

*MACKENZIE, Compton. All over the Place. Chatto

& Windus, London, 1948.

ORANGE, J. The Chater Collection-Pictures relating to China, Hong Kong, Macau, 1655-1860. Thornton Butterworth, Ltd., London, 1924.

OWEN, W. H. Appendix to the Housing Commis-

sion's Report. Hong Kong, 1935.

II. JOURNALS

Journal of Oriental Studies. Hong Kong University

Press, 1954-

Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station.

Vol. I No. 1 February, No. 2 September, 1940, Vol. II No. 1 March, 1949, Printed by South China Morning Post, Ltd., Hong Kong.

Hong Kong University Fisheries Journal. Hong

Kong University Press, 1954.

International Trade Journal.

286

BIBLIOGRAPHY

III. OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

Only important official publications of recent years and non-serial publications which appeared in 1954 are listed here. A price list of all Government publications. in stock can be obtained from the Government Printer, Hong Kong.

Non-serial Publications

Meteorological Information for Aviation Purposes.

1948.

A Brief General History of the Royal Observatory.

1951.

Hong Kong Meteorological Records and Climatologi-

cal Notes, 60 years 1884-1939, 1947-1950. Royal Observatory, 1952.

A Statistical Survey of Typhoons and Tropical Depres- sions in the Western Pacific and China Sea Area from Observations and Tracks Recorded at the Royal Observatory, Hong Kong from 1884 to 1947. Salaries Commission Report, 1947.

Report on Government Expenditure on Education.

1950.

Report of the Committee on Higher Education. 1952. Storm Warning Service. Royal Observatory, 1949. The Revised Edition of the Laws of Hong Kong.

1950.

Rent Control Report. 1953.

Technical Education and

Report on

Training. 1953.

Vocational

A Review of Foretry in Hong Kong, with Policy

Recommendations. 1953.

287

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Chinese Law and Custom in Hong Kong. 1953.

Surface Pressure-Patterns and Weather Around the

Year in Hong Kong. 1953.

Royal Observatory Technical Memoirs. (Nos. 1 to 6). Ordinances of Hong Kong including Proclamations,

Regulations, Orders in Council, etc.

Non-serial Publications, 1954

Inland Revenue Ordinance Committee Report. 1954. Hong Kong Salaries Commission Report, 1953/54. Papers on Development of Kai Tak Airport. 1954. Hong Kong. (Public Relations Office Pocket Guide).

Serial Publications

The Hong Kong Government Gazette. (Weekly, or

more often as required).

Hong Kong Trade Statistics. (Monthly).

Trade Bulletin. (Monthly).

Hong Kong Annual Report.

The Hong Kong Civil Service List. (Annually).

Annual Departmental Reports.

Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure. (Annually).

Hong Kong Hansard. (Annually).

Hong Kong Law Reports. (Annually).

Meteorological Results. (Annually).

C.I.F. Directory. (Annually).

288

BIBLIOGRAPHY

IV. NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES (PUBLISHED IN HONG KONG)

English Language

South China Morning Post

Building, Wyndham Street.

177, Wanchai Road.

4

Daily (Morning)

South China Morning 30 cents

Post

Hong Kong Tiger

20 cents

Standard

Daily Commodity

50 cents

510, Marina House.

Quotations

(Bi-Lingual)

China Mail

Weekly

Sunday Post Herald

40 cents

Far Eastern

$1.60

Daily (Evening) 3

20 cents

共圖

(30 cents on Saturdays)

South China Morning Post

Building, Wyndham Street.

South China Morning Post

Building, Wyndham Street.

322, Queen's Building.

Economic Review

Sunday Examiner

30 cents

King's Building.

Fortnightly

LIBRARI

Milady

$1.00

101, Victory House, Wyndham

Street.

Monthly

Orient

$2.00

139-141, King's Road, North

Point.

International Trade

$2.00

Journal

62, Printing House, 6, Duddell

Street.

Newsdom

$1.00

149, Des Voeux Road Central,

3rd floor.

Bi-monthly

The Hong Kong and

$3.00

117, Prince's Building,

Far East Builder

Ice House Street.

289

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1954

Chinese Language

Daily (Morning)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

Sing Tao Jih Pao

30 cents

110, Hollywood Road.

20 cents

Kung Sheung Yat Po

10 cents

Hong Kong Shih Pao Sing Pao

10 cents

10 cents

Ta Kung Pao

10 cents

Wen Wei Pao

Chi Yin Yat Po

Chiu Yin Po

Chun Lan Yat Po

Hong Kong Sheung

Po

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

Hung Look Yat Po Chung Ying Yat Po

Wan Kou Pao

Chung Nan Yat Po

Nan Yang Yat Po

10 cents

177, Wanchai Road.

43, Des Voeux Road Central.

64, Gloucester Road.

101, King's Road.

123, Connaught Road Central. 30, Hollywood Road.

20, Lee Yuen Street East. 48, Connaught Road Central. 35, Wing Lok Street East. 146, Connaught Road Central.

21, Bonham Strand East.

10 cents

49, Gough Street.

10 cents

25, Chiu Lung Street.

10 cents

50, Des Voeux Road Central.

10 cents

154, Des Voeux Road Central.

Daily (Evening)

Wah Kiu Man Po

Sing Tao Wan Pao Kung Sheung Man

Po

10 cents

10 cents

10 cents

Hsin Sheng Wan Pao

10 cents

Hsin Wan Pao

10 cents

Chung Sing Man Po

10 cents

Chun Pao

10 cents

110, Hollywood Road.

177, Wanchai Road.

43, Des Voeux Road Central.

14-15, Lee Yuen Street, East.

123, Connaught Road Central.

320, Queen's Road Central.

44A, Gough Street.

Alternate Days (Morning)

Tien Wen Tai

(Observatory

Review)

15 cents

33, Queen's Road Central.

290

Weekly

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Tung Fong

50 cents

141, King's Road.

(East Pictorial)

Chau Mut Pao

(Week-end News)

20 cents

65, Connaught Road Central.

Sing Tao Chau Pao

60 cents

177, Wanchai Road.

(Sing Tao Weekly)

Tse Yau Chun Hsin (Freedom Front)

20 cents

580D, Nathan Road.

Tung Sai

80 cents

330, Hennessy Road.

(East and West

Pictorial)

Sinwen Tienti

(Newsdom)

$1.00

149, Des Voeux Road Central.

Fortnightly

Kam Yat Sai Kai (World Today)

Monthly

حا

20 cents

26, Garden Road.

T'ien-Hsia

80 cents

Illustrated

Yah Chow

80 cents

(Asia Pictorial)

84, Yee Wo Street, Causeway

Bay.

88, Yee Wo Street, Causeway

Bay.

Kar Ting Sang Wood

60 cents

324, Jaffe Road.

(Home Life

Journal)

King Chai Dao Pao

40 cents

102, Jervois Street.

(Economic

Bulletin)

Sze Hoi

60 cents

P.O. Box 814, Hong Kong.

(Four Seas

Pictorial)

Tsing Nin Man Yau

30 cents

20, Ice House Street.

(Literary Youth)

291

i

;

**

香港公共圖書良

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARY

:

4.

1

香港centres書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KON

1

香港

共圖書参

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Appendix I

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The weights and measures in use in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom and of the following Chinese weights and measures:

I fan (candareen)

.0133 ounces avoirdupois

1 ts'in (mace)

.133

ounces avoirdupois

I leung (tael)

1.33

ounces avoirdupois

I kan (catty)

1.33

pounds avoirdupois

1 tam (picul)

133.33 pounds avoirdupois

I ch'ek (foot)

Statutory equivalent 149 inches. The ch'ek is

divided into 10 ts'un (inches) and each ts'un into ten fan or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length of a ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14ğ inches to 11 inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

295

APPENDICES

Appendix II

COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT

LOCALLY

Scheme No.

Title of Scheme

Grant

RESEARCH SCHEMES

£

RRR

R.

94

R. 282 R.

Fisheries Research. Fisheries Research Station.

500

135,000

480

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University:

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

31,200

6,800

R. 480A

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University:

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

33,975

11,000

R.

594

Study of Currency & monetary problems of Malaya

by Mr. F. H. King.

160

DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES

D. 759 D. 924

Visit of Town Planning Expert.

Reclamation at Aberdeen.

D.

925

Landing facilities at Kennedy Town.

D.

988

Mechanization of Hong Kong Fishing Fleet.

D. 994

Village Agricultural Depots:

Capital Expenditure.

Recurrent Expenditure.

D. 1060

Upper Air Reporting Stations.

D. 1066

Vegetable Marketing Lorries.

1,250

50,000

10,000

10,000

9,000

9,375

25,780

9,375

D. 1066A

do

D. 1242

Irrigation in the New Territories (Interim Scheme).

5,000

D. 1243

D. 1243A

Piers in the New Territories (Interim Scheme). Piers in the New Territories.

5,000

48,883

D. 1362

New Broadcasting Studios.

15,625

D. 1435

Mechanization of Fishing Fleet.

20,000

D. 1557 &

Rehabilitation and Development of certain

D. 1557A

University buildings:

Grant from Colonial Development & Welfare funds. Grant from Colonial & Middle Eastern Services votes.

250,000

250,000

D. 1602

Hong Kong Housing Society Pilot Scheme.

13,500

D. 1661 & A·

Survey Party in the New Territories in connexion

with construction of piers.

10,550

D. 1764

Aeronautical Radio and Weather Stations.

10,656

D. 1952 & A

Irrigation in the New Territories.

38,750

D. 1967

Loans to Fishermen.

D. 2061 D. 2073

Site development for low-cost housing.

125,000

Construction of a pier on Ping Chau Island.

8,750

1,145,129

296

APPENDICES

(See page 39)

AND WELFARE SCHEMES

ADMINISTERED

Estimated Expenditure

Remarks

Loan

up to 31.12.54.

£

£

498 114

Scheme completed in 1949.

32,983 2,433

117

Replaced by revised scheme (R. 480) in 1951.

Superseded by Scheme R. 480A in 1953.

Grants made under Scheme R. 480 were increased in

August, 1953 and the Scheme No.

Scheme No. was subsequently changed to R. 480A.

Approved in May, 1954 completed in September, 1954.

1,250 49,528

6,849

40,000

6,369

9,375

18,746

20,012

18,750

9,375 18,750

3,449

46,094 15,625

5,000

250,000

250,000

9,078

6,037

10,656

26,055

Scheme completed in 1948. Scheme completed in 1950. Scheme completed in 1949.

Cancelled in 1949 and replaced by Scheme No. D. 1435.

Approved in September, 1948. Recurrent Expenditure

1953. ceased in January,

The Loan of £9,375 is interest-free until end of 1954.

Approved in January, 1949. £1,800 of this grant to

be used for Scheme No. D. 1764. Completed in 1949.

The Scheme comprises two loans of £9,375

each

are

being made originally under Scheme No. D. 1066. Both loans are free of interest until the end of 1955. Completed in March, 1953. Work is being continued

under Scheme No. D. 1952.

Cancelled in 1951 and replaced by Scheme No. D. 1661. Completed in March, 1953.

Completed in 1951.

Approved in August, 1950.

Approved in June, 1950. Completed in June, 1954. Approved in May, 1951. No further expenditure is expected. Grant of £5,500 approved under Scheme No. D. 1661 in September, 1951. Supplementary grant of £5,050 approved under Scheme No. D. 1651A in March, 1954. Grant includes £1,800 transferred from Scheme No.

D. 1060.

Grant of £12,500 approved under Scheme No. D. 1952 in March, 1953. Supplementary grant of £26,250 approved under Scheme No. D. 1952A in May, 1954. Approved in April, 1953.

Loan is free of interest. Repayments of capital to commence in 1958 by annual instalments of £5,000.

50,000

19,154

16,456

Approved in September, 1953.

8,699

Approved in October, 1953.

118,125

833,327

297

LIABILITIES:

APPENDICES

Appendix III

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND

DEPOSITS:-

$

¢

Colonial Development & Welfare Schemes

...

$ 466,114.31

Contribution towards reinforcing garrison

...

8,000,000.00

Control of Publications

620,000.00

Custodian of Property-Abandoned Property

11,313,949.67

Interest on Trust

Bank Account

1,081,515.21

-Surplus Fund

3,252,360.26

Government Servants

366,140.24

Miscellaneous

15,893,457.08

Motor Vehicles Insurance-Third Party Risks...

200,000.00

Other Administrations

121,330.28

Public Works Department-Private Works

Account

1,105,650.11

Settlement with H.M.G.

15,991,111.08

Water Deposits

4,358,423.27

62,770,051.51

SUSPENSE :-(a)

Kowloon-Canton Railway

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Education Scholarships Fund

Trading Reserve Fund

Carried forward

298

31,261.62

95,648.85

31,415,485.40

94,312,447.38

APPENDICES

(See page 37)

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1954

CASH:-

At Bank

In Hand

ASSETS:

$

$ 25,455,228.71

1,460,087.54

BA

In Hand (Kowloon-Canton Railway)

At Bank (Postmaster General)

In Hand (

""

Sub Total:

Л

With Crown Agents (£121.15.6)

D

7,179.00

9.439.07

13,083.93

27,095,038.21

1,948.40

Joint Colonial Fund (£3,745,000)

59,920,000.00

87,016,986.65

FIXED DEPOSIT

IMPRESTS

NG

SUSPENSE:- (b)

20,000,000.00

7,937.37

ONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

Commerce & Industry Department

(Supplies Branch)

Kowloon-Canton Railway

87,889,684.35

239.38

87,889,923.73

ADVANCES:--

Other Administrations

Personal

Miscellaneous

Carried forward

299

1,065,667.98

1,456,701.67

68,796.34

2,591,165.99

197,506,013.74

LIABILITIES:

APPENDICES

Appendix III

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND

Brought forward

.....

DEVELOPMENT FUND

$

$

94,312,447.38

96,822,529.95

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

共圖

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:-

Balance as at 1st April, 1953

Add Surplus from 1st April, 1953

to 31st March, 1954

Add appreciation on Investments

$196,962,295.53

137,414,760.94

41,474,196.30

$ 4,000,101.97

242,436,593.80

KONG PUB

TOTAL:

$570,986,332.07

Notes: (a) Represents total of credit balance on Kowloon-Canton (b) Represents total of debit balance on Kowloon-Canton

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal value of $100 per

Amounts due from Colonial Development and Welfare Fund Scheme D. 994-Village Agricultural Depots,

D. 994-Village Agricultural Depots, R. 480A-Fisheries Research Unit, D. 2073-Construction of a pier on

THE TREASURY,

Hong Kong, 1st July, 1954.

300

APPENDICES

-Contd.

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1954

ASSETS:

Brought forward

....

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Investments:-

Education Scholarships Fund:-

Fixed Deposit

Hong Kong Government Loan

Sterling Investments (£4,388.1.5)

Trading Reserve Fund:-

Fixed Deposit

Sterling Investments (£1,546,099.18.0)

......

DEVELOPMENT FUND

SURPLUS BALANCES:-

Investments:

Federation of Malaya 43% Registered

Stock 1964/74 (M$5,000,000)

Hong Kong Government 31% Dollar Loan 1940

Sterling Investments (£14,618,270.9.5)

$

$

197,506,013.74

6,000.00

14,720.00

70,209.13

90,929.13

6,000,000.00

24,737,598.40 ̄ ̄30,737,598.40

96,822,529.95

ARIFS

BRA

9,333,333.33

2,603,600.00

$233,892,327.

P

TOTAL:

Railway account under this Head.

Railway account and Supplies Branch account under this Head.

share in Associated Properties Limited.

are as follows:-

Recurrent Expenditure (Grant)

...

$21,088.51

Recurrent Expenditure (Loan)

...

$ 1,968.52

Capital Expenditure

Ping Chau Island

!

245,829,260.85

$570,986,332.07

$30,556.67 $19,849.66

R. C. LEMMON, Accountant General.

301

APPENDICES

Appendix IV (See page 38)

REVENUE

(Collections for 1953/54 showing the main heads of Revenue compared with the two preceding years. The estimate for 1954/55 is also given).

HEAD OF REVENUE

Actual Revenue for 1951-52

$

Actual Revenue for 1952-53

$

Actual Approved Revenue Estimate

for 1953-54

$

for

1954-55

$

1

Duties

2

Rates

3

Internal Revenue

77,640,725 74,209,795 74,883,463 69,900,000

30,074,598 33,891,832 37,614,897 39,080,000

99,894,644 161,284,243 160,461,736 156,800,000

4 Licences, Fines and Forfeitures

5

Fees of Court or Office

6 Water Revenue

8,338,958

7

Post Office

15,996,996 18,129,236 17,456,699 15,745,000

20,251,590 26,645,986 28,055,781 30,387,000

8,264,419 8,853,250 8,012,000

13,435,903 15,534,868 19,946,543 18,127,000

8 Kowloon Canton Railway

5,432,096

6,023,417 5,369,489 5,926,000

9 Revenue from Land, Rents, etc.

17,012,794

10 Miscellaneous Receipts

18,917,279 22,798,707 19,139,000

15,122,709 15,082,269 14,642,635 17,692,000

303,201,013 377,983,344 390,083,200 380,808,000 380,808,000

11

Land Sales

4,573,828 5,446,707 6,058,573 3,305,000

12 Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

789,407 1,160,395

740,193 3,367,000

13

Loans from United Kingdom

Government

Total Revenue

Withdrawal from General

Revenue Balance

Total:

2,000,000

308,564,248 384,590,446 396,881,966 389,480,000

100,000,000

308,564,248 484,590,446 396,881,966 389,480,000

302

APPENDICES

Appendix V (See page 38)

EXPENDITURE

(Expenditure for 1953/54 showing the main Heads compared with the two preceding years. The estimate for 1954/55 is also given).

HEAD OF EXPENDITURE

Actual

Actual

Actual Approved Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure Estimate

1952-53

1953-54

1954-55

$

1951-52

$

$

$$

1 H. E. the Governor

236,223

302,375

377,421

332,058

2

Agriculture, Fisheries and

Forestry Department

2,095,904

2,470,395

2,031,194

3,256,532

3

Audit Department

347,422

472,256

557,836

620,250

4

Broadcasting Department

475,171

514,853

657,607

757,325

5

Civil Aviation Department

869,105

1,362,335

2,061

2,139,108

6

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

1,465,393

2,079,539

2,612,288 2,958,561

7

Commerce and Industry

Department

2,266,291

3,341,395

3,903,831 4,250,808

9

8 Cooperatives and Marketing

Department

Defence

A-R.H.K.D.F. Headquarters

& Hong Kong Regiment B-Hong Kong Royal Naval

Volunteer Reserve

219,535

333,589

390,538

504,527

1,129,064 1,850,960

1,984,977

2,422,820

290,800

445,382

444,992

617,040

C-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

371,814

694,733

614,448

726,594

D-Essential Services Corps ..

113,991

108,177

152,596

142,664

E-Auxiliary Fire Service

196,900

...

F-Auxiliary Medical Service

721,374

G-Civil Aid Services

104,414

281,232

540,475

810,018

H-Registration of Persons

422,976

298,205

318,095

346,097

I-Directorate of Manpower.

56,154

J-Miscellaneous Measures

29,943,531

27,586,248

20,762,000

10

Education Department

6,371,260

9,125,906 11,336,113

14,187,789

11

Fire Brigade

2,529,322

.....

2,067,934

2,431,115

2,856,916

12

Inland Revenue Department

1,140,487

1,805,432 2,350,248

2,476,792

13

Judiciary

972,944 1,419,125

1,938,811

2,108,517

14 Kowloon Canton Railway

4,743,188

4,576,096

4,154,838

12,156,708

15

Labour Department

384,467

543,019

688,322

806,926

16 Legal Department

621,570

520,743

669,641

760,282

17 Marine Department

7,746,701

9,328,169

9,512,264

11,089,237

18

Medical Department

15,761,891

21,338,770

23,704,484

27,843,553

19

Miscellaneous Services

88,576,029

42,776,171

64,941,839

12,022,200

20 New Territories, District

Administration

573,433

21

Pensions

8,637,761

816,281 9,423,957

624,190

10,909,466

652,110 12,196,000

22

Police Force

A-Hong Kong Police

B-Hong Kong Police

20,076,745

29,026,514

31,802,576

(Auxiliaries)

{

37,750,179

1,664,804

303

APPENDICES

Appendix V-Contd.

EXPENDITURE

HEAD OF expendITURE

1951-52

1952-53

Actual

Actual

Actual Approved Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure Estimate

1953-54

1954-55

$

$

$

$

23

24

Post Office

Printing Department

7,102,415

8,098,358

11,420,212

9,017,386

133,710

1,345,770

1,399,617

1,500,041

25

Prisons Department

4,551,697

5,546,444

5,693,933

6,640,543

26

Public Debt

9,010,839

5,785,353

3,766,043

3,363,110

27

Public Relations Office

197,877

431,411

506,979

484,687

28

Public Services Commission

...

24,610

28.924

32,768

29 Public Works Department

..

8,114,396

13,307,577

17,480,063

20,354,137

30 Public Works Recurrent

14,936,189

17,886,200

19,628,634 21,031,000

31

Public Works Non-Recurrent

...

21,430,043

37,113,074

30,607,359

32 Quartering..

186,825

201,399

68,921,350 1,921,415 2,055,833

33 Rating and Valuation

Department

209,608

249,281

327,349

466,878

34

Registrar General's

Department

278,696

487,928

580,093

623,871

35 Royal Observatory

526,025

744,223

919,591

1,174,836

36

Secretariat for Chinese Affairs

A-Secretariat for Chinese

Affairs

187,725

304,933

384,144

469,269

B-Social Welfare Office

.....

2,642,469

3,658,889

2,529,908

2,231,945

C-District

Watch Force

37

Stores Department

38

Subventions

263,097

9,784,222

16,713,748

260,362

5,034,977 1,265,085 17,670,179 27,639,261

258,556

276,642

6,364,521

36,960,325

39

Treasury

A-Treasury

B-Custodian of Property

40 Urban Services & Urban Council

A-Head Office and Sanitary

1,102,490 37,732

1,544,312 46,623

1,734,489 50,273

1,862,009

53,418

Division

.....

B-Resettlement Division

.....

C-Gardens Division

D-Housing Division

Statistical Department

9,049,076

11,192,198 2,309,376

12,829,225

15,224,302

3,824,283

4,716,334

649,807

824,088

149,963

52,914

275,152,743 310,510,551 354,742,813 384,895,050

41

Colonial Development and

Welfare Schemes

703,208

1,239,108

664,958 3,367,000

275,855,951

311,749,659 355,407,771 388,262,050

Total:

Transfer of Surplus Balances

to Revenue Equalization Fund

Total:

100,000,000

275,855,951 411,749,659

304

388,262,050

APPENDICES

Appendix VI (See page 49)

Direction of Trade-Imports into Hong Kong

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three years:

United Kingdom

Malaya

1952 H.K.$

1953 H.K.$

1954

H.K.$

470,383,589 474,353,929 369,370,054

163,898,046 177,485,292 161,609,904

India

Pakistan

Canada

100,890,058

53,452,419

53,359,614

ت

90,050,596

116,396,534

67,752,131

78,537,160

58,582,539

55,148,962

Australia

54,778,457

55,688,825

63,028,360

Other Commonwealth Countries

115,208,518 114,644,471 113,370,161

China

Japan

830,265,921

857,136,042 691,845,761

482,207,870 384,079,187 464,537,320

U. S. A.

221,063,994 224,909,213 281,051,186

Thailand

Italy

Germany

Switzerland

Netherlands

204,657,603 289,797,495 131,174,127

125,611,504

77,542,231

31,829,455

118,897,323 212,744,708 155,572,923

109,876,733 105,205,291 104,550,499

108,180,743 119,191,463

84,436,429

Other Countries

....

Total

305

504,979,369 551,460,001 606,782,339

3,779,487,484 3,872,669,640 3,435,419,225

APPENDICES

Appendix VII (See page 49)

Direction of Trade-Exports from Hong Kong

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past three years were as follows:

United Kingdom

1952

H.K.$

1953

H.K.$

1954

H.K.$

83,365,573 119,255,160 162,165,696

Malaya

417,553,708

337,188,222 330,540,133

X

Other Commonwealth Countries

198,045,853

262,365,305 315,347,845

Indonesia

China

Thailand

Formosa

ko

Japan

South Korea

U. S. A.

Macao

528,004,683

371,995,621 224,642,245

520,032,173 540,348,259 390,786,609

243,089,963 206,719,599 130,182,846

207,434,504

123,628,482

105,779,717

79,864,733

BR

221,586,463

114,649,954

22,570,635

52,458,084

14

170,133,476

113,489,875

62,369,410

70,000,948

88,854,587

88,197,739

63,796,056

Other Countries

352,940,028 365,457,635 364,905,060

Total

306

2,899,010,064 2,733,721,224 2,417,015,601

APPENDICES

Appendix VIII (See page 49)

Principal Commodities Imported

Principal commodities imported, with quantities and values, during 1954, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1952

1953

1954

Unit Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

No.

Lb.

Swine

Poultry

Fresh

Vegetables

Milk, tinned

Eggs

Rice

Flour

Beans & peas Cwt.

Sugar

Tea

Tobacco

H.K.$

H.K.$

H.K.$

620,201 97,267,867 400,871 69,722,385 487,130 89,761,070 19,715,324 36,842,165 20,915,339 34,262,288 21,648,459 39,343,822

2,113,853 86,973,521

894,918 28,789,405

704,882 26,245,510

2,030,310 58,430,630

Cwt. 2,032,590 40,575,939 1,894,285 24,593,547 2,248,605 34,820,288 Lb. 23,918,253 28,175,836 27,606,817 33,458,849 21,177,705 23,997,355 Gross 2,924,788 51,733,561 3,072,995 56,739,668 2,788,051 50,460,492

Cwt. 4,659,052 217,983,592 6,139,121 318,907,436 Cwt. 929,129 40,134,815 719,784 28,991,303 1,520,783 55,063,527 1,645,160 53,083,124 Cwt. 1,443,519 54,705,405 3,314,424 107,461,653

Lb. 16,203,125 32,433,205 12,996,221 28,188,813 14,523,208 33,170,707 Lb. 9,920,644 55,222,583 11,941,454 58,091,058 12,152,530 51,509,393 Soya Beans ... Cwt.

Raw Cotton.. Cwt.

Coal

Furnace Fuel

Oils

Cotton yarn and thread

Cotton piece-

goods (un-

Cwt.

650,492 31,545,797

571,746 169,310,469

6,111,887 33,118,747

246,754 10,139,372 753,353 155,192,471 4,137,662 18,441,606

820,328 33,263,374 1,074,166 227,550,511 4,092,384 16,819,299

Ton

326,149 43,956,040 447,896 45,265,670

533,642 51,725,815

Lb.

27,473,922 114,926,501 10,892,176 41,246,012 13,133,443 44,883,763

bleached)... Sq. Yd. 39,484,977 51,177,763 33,232,302 33,005,499 52,639,084 43,728,123

Cotton piece-

goods

(bleached). Sq. Yd. 51,379,722 84,724,799 68,112,700 92,464,661 53,769,605 81,241,545 Tung oil ...... Cwt.

Watches

and Watch

No.

movements

Artificial

....

321,105 59,108,283 265,945 33,126,517 115,388 10,911,046

1,969,920 90,078,748 2,734,272 96,384,121 2,357,044 85,146,795

textiles Sq. Yd. 51,821,413 83,679,001 55,420,371 80,886,061 75,942,678 98,982,900

Woollen

piecegoods. Sq. Yd.

Groundnut

oil

Cwt.

2,184,605 37,079,088 2,024,588 31,456,171 6,355,365 74,746,067

334,227 37,445,732 329,778 38,186,463 167,480 18,775,508

Plants, seeds

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery

Cwt.

342,412 47,497,841 475,475 59,826,228

Sulphate of

Ammonia

Cwt.

...

624,471 64,426,452

3,131,888 87,497,066 2,163,695 40,821,277 6,137,839 110,540,295

307

APPENDICES

Eggs

Gross

Cuttle fish ... Cwt.

Flour

Beans, peas.. Cwt.

Fresh

Cwt.

H.K.$

748,447 16,900,751

180,065 21,592,852

323,539 15,911,655

1,365,069 56,142,773

Appendix IX (See page 49)

Principal Commodities Exported

Principal commodities exported, with quantities and values, during 1954, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1952

1953

1954

Unit Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

H.K.$

463,996 10,750,853

26,570 4,522,173 170,495 5,664,134

531,968 23,764,532

H.K.$

815,419 18,194,268

49,986 6,515,782

140,432 6,174,692

1,337,132 45,967,663

Vegetables

Cwt.

Sugar

Cwt.

Tea

Lb.

Soya Beans.. Cwt.

Sesamum seed Cwt.

559,639 23,919,256

863,012 39,352,285

12,427,967 33,826,343

405,785 17,855,268

417,625 24,188,973

400,442 14,421,575

2,780,095 96,716,116

8,680,812 24,885,854

540,283 22,057,732

466,590 25,638,855

Tung oil

Cwt.

294,722 50,979,293

257,789 33,238,838

612,957 22,828,654

1,090,397 36,743,199

9,543,986 25,744,790

408,716 17,705,520

217,562 18,023,786

86,304 8,937,949

Coal-tar

dyestuffs

Cwt.

38,644 34,414,779

66,672 61,181,230

83,238 99,866,136

Cotton yarn

and thread.. Lb. 36,433,640 159,937,070 35,118,077 114,413,678 32,348,506 102,608,472

Cotton piece-

goods (un-

bleached). Sq. Yd. 38,904,191 54,846,717 36,974,999 38,267,488 43,630,693 46,000,873

Cotton piece-

goods

(bleached). Sq. Yd. 126,076,848 184,574,948 143,276,939 174,828,561 138,560,816 160,977,855

Enamelware ..

Textile

machinery

...

Electric

torches

Watches

65,116,266

23,646,051

46,468,246

14,472,856

61,437,309

8,961,648

and watch movements..

Bristles

Doz. 1,973,987 40,060,995 2,347,186 35,933,549 3,033,383 45,264,319

Feathers

No. 678,732 33,693,585 751,762 32,548,411 206,904 6,942,993

Lb. 1,465,661 35,164,898 771,462 13,090,537 1,121,941 19,804,245

Lb. 3,984,731 30,195,207 3,673,210 11,649,428 6,458,746 18,873,321

Plants, seeds

flowers, for

medicines,

...

Cwt.

perfumery Cwt. 276,390 55,402,072 Sulphate of Ammonia

303,630 50,771,056

480,493 53,973,310

2,867,825 94,827,676 2,752,128 52,073,556 5,876,975 109,405,473

Artificial

Textiles Sq. Yd. 18,806,015 29,947,462 9,564,207 15,871,306 23,993,777 35,866,053

...

308

APPENDICES

Appendix X (See page 47)

BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG

American Express Co. Inc.

Banco Nacional Ultramarino

Bangkok Bank Ltd.

Bank of Canton Ltd.

Bank of China (Hong Kong Branch)

Bank of Communications

(Hong Kong Branch)

Bank of East Asia Ltd.

Bank of Korea

IV

Bank of Kwangsi Ltd.

Bank of Tokyo Ltd.

Banque Belge Pour L'Etranger

(Extreme-Orient)

Banque de L'Indo-Chine

Canton Trust and Commercial

Bank Ltd.

Central Trust of China (Hong Kong Branch)

Chan Man Fat Bank Ltd.

Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China.

Chekiang First Bank of

Commerce (Hong Kong) Ltd.

Cheong Kee Bank

Cheuk Kee Bank

Chi Yu Banking Corp. Ltd.

China and South Sea Bank Ltd.

(Hong Kong Branch)

China State Bank Ltd.

(Hong Kong Branch)

Chinese Postal Remittances and

Savings Bank.

Chiu Tai Bank Ltd.

Choi Kee Bank

Dah Sing Bank Ltd.

Dao Heng Bank

E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ltd.

E. D. Sassoon Banking Co., Ltd.

(Incorporated in the Bahama Island)

Farmers Bank of China

Fat Cheong Bank Ltd.

Fengtien Co. Ltd.

Foo Kee Bank

Fook Wa Banking and Insurance Co. Ltd.

Hang Lung Bank Ltd.

Hang Seng Bank Ltd.

Hang Shun Gold Dealer.

Hang Tai Bank

Ho Cheng Bank Ltd

IBRARY

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation.

Hong Kong and Swatow Commercial Bank Ltd.

Hong Kong Trust Corporation Ltd.

Hong Nin Savings Bank Ltd.

Ka Wah Bank Ltd.

Kan Koam Tsing and Co.

Kar Cheung Chong Bank

Kingcheng Banking Corporation.

Kung Yue Bank

309

APPENDICES

Appendix X-Contd.

BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG

Kwai Kee Bank.

Kwangtung Provincial Bank

(Hong Kong Branch)

Kwong On Bank

Lee Shing Bank

Liu Chong Hing Savings Bank

Lui Hing Hop Cheung Kee Bank Ltd.

Man Cheong Bank

Mercantile Bank of India Ltd.

Ming Tai Bank

Ming Tak Bank

Mun Fat Bank Hing Kee

Nanyang Commercial Bank Ltd.

National City Bank of New York

National Commercial Bank (Hong Kong Branch)

National and Commercial Savings

Bank Limited.

National Industrial Bank of China.

Nationale Handelsbank N. V.

Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij N. V. (Netherlands Trading Society Limited).

Ngau Kee Bank

On Tai Bank

Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation Ltd.

Po Sang Bank

Shanghai Commercial Bank Ltd.

Sin Hua Trust, Savings, and

Commercial Bank Ltd. (Hong Kong Branch)

Sze Hai Tong Banking and

Insurance Co. Ltd.

Tai Sang Bank Ltd.

Tai Yau Bank Ltd.

Thos. Cook and Son (Continental

and Overseas) Ltd.

Underwriters Bank Inc.

United Chinese Bank Ltd.

United Commercial Bank Ltd.

Wing Cheung Bank

Wing Hang Cheong Kee Bank

Wing Lung Bank

Wing Ming Bank

Wing On Bank Ltd.

Wing On Co. Ltd.

'IES

Wing On Fire and Marine

Insurance Co. Ltd.

Wo Cheung Bank

Yau Tak Bank

Yau Wing Bank

Yau Yue Commercial Bank Ltd.

Yien Yieh Commercial Bank Ltd. (Hong Kong Branch)

Young Brothers Banking

Corporation (Hong Kong Branch)

Yue Man Banking Co. Ltd.

Yue Tak Shing Kee Bank

310

APPENDICES

Appendix XI (See page 161)

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Class 1- Offences against the Person

For the period, January to December, 1954

Crime

Number of Cases Reported

Number of Cases cleared up by Charge

or

Summons

Number of Persons Charged or Summoned

16 & under 17 & over

Juvenile

Adult

1. Murder

36

30

1

47

2.

Murder-Attempted

16

16

12

3. Manslaughter

2

1

1

4. Assaults-Serious

329

241

10

255

5. Throwing Corrosive Fluids

7

6

6. Abortion

2

2

7. Unnatural Offences (Buggery,

etc.)

00

8

7

8. Criminal Intimidation ..

5

LO

4

9. Kidnapping

10. Rape

11. Indecent Assault

12. All Other Offences Against

Women & Girls

LBLIC

LIBE

RITS

2

ลง

10

6

4

3

1

2

59

49

4

44

co

6

5

Сл

Į

· 6

13. All Other Offences Against

the Person

1

Total Serious Offences Against the

Person

I

475

364

16

391

311

APPENDICES

Appendix XI-Contd.

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Class 2A Offences against Property-Preventable

Crime

Number of Cases Reported

Number of Cases cleared up by Charge

or Summons

Number of Persons Charged or Summoned

16 & under 17 & over

Juvenile

Adult

BREAKAGES

14. Breaking-House

698

168

4

171

15. Breaking-Shop, Store etc.

118

23

сл

5

32

16. Breakings, All Attempted

41

7

1

11

17. Burglary

290

94

99

Sub-Total

1,147

292

10

313

LARCENIES

18. Receiving

135

135

4

131

19. Demanding with Manaces

78

57

5

49

20. Unlawful Possession

324

324

1

329

21. Robbery & Assaults w.i. to Rob

109

53

4

100

22. Larceny from Dwelling

1,408

176

13

150

23. Larceny from Person

(Pickpocket)

858

415

10

421

24. Larceny from Person

(Snatching)

1,468

359

18

341

25. Larceny from Ship & Wharf

52

23

32

26. Larceny of Bicycles

874

103

4

108

27. Larceny from Vehicles.

989

90

4

78

28. Miscellaneous Simple Larcenies

8,186

3,107

228

2,834

29. All Other Offences Against Property-Preventable

206

206

4

141

Sub-Total

14,687

5,048

295

4,714

312

APPENDICES

Appendix XI-Contd.

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Class 2B Offences against Property-Non-Preventable

Crime

Number of Cases Reported

Number of Cases cleared up by Charge

or

Summons

Number of Persons Charged or Summoned

16 & under Juvenile

17 & over Adult

30. Embezzlement & Larceny by

Servant

252

197

4

147

31. Larceny by Bailee

180

69

4

58

32. Larceny by Trick

348

57

2

48

33. Forgery (incl. Uttg. & Poss'n)

42

37

27

34.

Fraudulent Conversion

61

42

32

35. Malicious Damage

153

109

9

104

36. Obtaining by False Pretences

1,466

1,332

6

Co

213

37. All Other Offences Against

Property Non-Preventable ...

Sub-Total

3

2

1

2,505

1,845

25

630

Total Serious Offences Against

Property

18,339

7,185

330

5,657

BRA

Class 3-Other Serious Offences not included in Classes 1 or 2

38. Possession of Arms and/or

Ammunition

62

62

39. Bribery and Corruption

25

22 253

4

87

25

40. Conspiracies

16

16

37

41. Deportation-Breach of

8,776

8,776

7

8,769

42. Deportation-Others

19

19

19

43. All Other Serious Offences

Not Classified

164

·145

1

98

Sub-Total

9,062

9,043

12

9,035

Total All Serious Crime

27,876

16,592

358

15,083

313

APPENDICES

Appendix XII (See page 90)

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES

1954

Paid

Type of Co- operative Society

Num- Member- up

Loan ber

Share Granted ship

Capital

Loan Repaid

Deposits

Reserve fund

as at 31.12.54.

$

$5

$

$

$

Vegetable Marketing.. 14

2,528

23,635 438,664 16,609.95

73,031.99

Fishermen's Thrift

& Loan

367

2,535 555,855 224,043.84 100,432.45

1,554.71

Pig Raising

6

177

2,465

Pig Feed Purchasing..

4

133

1,670

5,280

392.04

Salaried Workers'

Thrift & Loan

2

334

1,675

34,232 18,134.00 22,101.00

59.91

Housing

1

336

33,600

Irrigation ......

1

32

160

500

43.00

Draft Animal

1

14

140

1,600

300.00

Fish Pond

1

110

550

Federation of Vege-

table Marketing

Societies

1

14 (Societies)

1,400

Federation of Pig

Raising Societies

1

...

6 (Societies)

300

Totals

52

1,756.31

4,051 68,130|1,036,131| 259,130.79 122,533.45 76,794.96

314

APPENDICES

Appendix XIII-A (See page 115)

Hospital Beds in Hong Kong-1954

Institutions

Number of Hospital Beds.

Government Hospitals & Dispensaries:

(i)

Hospitals.

Queen Mary Hospital

(ii)

Kowloon Hospital

Mental

Sai Ying Pun Hospital

Tsan Yuk Hospital

Lai Chi Kok Hospital ....

Eastern Maternity Hospital

Wanchai Social Hygiene Hospital

St. John Hospital

Stanley Prison Hospital

Lai Chi Kok Female Prison Hospital

Dispensaries.

Stanley

Tai Po

Un Long

Sha Tau Kok

Ho Tung

Sai Kung

Tai O

San Hui

Shatin Maternity Home

Silver Mine Bay Maternity Hospital

Maurine Grantham Health Centre Tai Lam Chung Hospital

(iii) Grant-in-aid Hospitals.

Tung Wah Hospital

589

233

140

88

85

484

24

28

102

70

14

6

8

7

3

13

4

9

3

6

6

-

12

6

IBR

495

.......

Tung Wah Eastern Hospital

320

Kwong Wah Hospital

440

Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital

240

Hong Kong Anti-T.B. Association Ruttonjee Sanatorium

230

Pok Oi Hospital

36

(iv)

Private Hospitals.

Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital

239

Tai Wo Hospital

40

...

Precious Blood Hospital

90

St. Teresa's Hospital

73

St. Francis Hospital

72

St. Paul Hospital

172

Hong Kong Central Hospital

103

Ling Yuet Sin Infants Hospital

125

Matilda & War Memorial Hospital

80

TOTAL

315

4,695

APPENDICES

Appendix XIII-B (See page 116)

Registered Medical Personnel - 1954

Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding Government Personnel) Provisionally registered Medical Practitioners

460

...

47

Government Medical Officers

193

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeons & Service

Dentists)

341

Government Dental Surgeons

12

Service Dentists

9

Government Pharmacists

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacists)

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

56

7

805

Government Nurses

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers) Government Dressers

606

9

84

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) Government Midwives

867

89

Appendix XIII-C (See page 109)

Returns of Infectious Diseases

1954

Diseases

Chinese

Non- Chinese

Yearly Total

Deaths

Amoebiasis

188

48

236

6

Bacillary

509

23

532

34

Dysentery

Clinical

3

3

3

Enteric Fever

1,076

23

1,099

83

Chickenpox

186

47

233

1

C.S.M. (Meningococcal)

14

14

3

Diphtheria

1,095

9

1,104

116

Measles

570

27

597

126

Poliomyelitis, acute

20

29

49

9

Scarlet Fever

18

2

20

Whooping Cough

123

7

130

Human

Rabies

Animal

9

Puerperal Fever

8

8

3

Malaria

452

23

475

16

Tuberculosis

12,447

61

12,508

2,876

Grand Total:

16,709

299

17,017

3,276

316

Type of appointment

Ex-officio

APPENDICES

Appendix XIV (See page 269)

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

Names of members

on 1.1.54.

Changes in composition during the year

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Commander British Forces,

Lieutenant-General Sir Terence Airey, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.B.E.

The Colonial Secretary,

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E.

Succeeded by Lieutenant General C. S. Sugden, C.B., C.B.E., w.e.f. 31.5.54.

Mr. C. B. Burgess, O.B.E., acted as Colonial Secretary during the absence of the Governor from 3.7.54 to 11.11.54, when Mr. Black assumed the office of O. A. G.

"

Nominated

The Attorney General,

Mr. A. Ridehalgh, Q.C.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. R. R. Todd

The Financial Secretary,

Mr. A. G. Clarke, C.M.G.

Mr. B. C. K. Hawkins, C.M.G.,

O.B.E. (Commissioner of Labour)

Mr. Q. A. A. Macfadyen appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Hawkins from 17.11.53 to 28.7.54.

""

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Mr. CHAU Tsun Nin, C.B.E.

Sir Man Kam Lo, C.B.E.

Dr. CHAU Sik-nin, C.B.E.

Mr. Leo D'Almada e Castro,

C.B.E., Q.C.

Mr. C. Blaker. M.C., E.D.

Mr. J. Keswick, C.M.G.

Mr. Lawrence Kadoorie appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. D'Almada from 13.7.54 to 25.10.54.

Resigned on 27.5.54 and succeeded by Mr. M. W. Turner w.e.f. 30.5.54. Mr. Kadoorie appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Turner from 26.10.54 to 11.12.54.

Mr. M. W. Turner

appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Keswick from 12.9.53 to 29.5.54.

317

APPENDICES

1

Type of appointment

Ex-officio

Nominated

39

99

Appendix XIV (See page 269)

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

Names of members on 1.1.54.

PRESIDENT:

The Governor,

Sir Alexander W. G. H. Grantham, G.C.M.G.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Commander British Forces, Lieutenant-General Sir Terence Airey, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.B.E. The Colonial Secretary,

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E.

The Attorney General,

Mr. A. Ridehalgh, Q.C.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. R. R. Todd

The Financial Secretary,

Mr. A. G. Clarke, C.M.G. Mr. T. L. Bowring, O.B.E.

(Director of Public Works) Mr. D. J. S. Crozier

(Director of Education)

Mr. K. M. A. Barnett, E.D.

(Director of Urban Services)

Dr. YEO Kok Cheang,

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS: Dr. CHAU Sik-nin, C.B.E. Mr. C. Blaker, M.C., E.D.

Mr. C. E. M. Terry.

Mr. Lo Man Wai, O.B.E. Mr. NGAN Shing Kwan. Mr. Dhun J. Ruttonjee.

Mr. Kwok Chan, O.B.E.

Dr. A. M. Rodrigues, M.B.E., E.D.

Changes in composition during the year

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E., assumed the office of O.A.G. during the absence of the Governor from 3.7.54 to 11.11.54.

Succeeded by Lieutenant General C. S. Sugden, C.B., C.B.E., w.e.f. 31.5.54.

Mr. C. B. Burgess, O.B.E., acted as Colonial Secretary during the absence of the Governor from 3.7.54 to 11.11.54.

Mr. L. G. Morgan appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Crozier from 13.3.54 to 24.11.54.

Resigned and succeeded by Mr. H. G. Richards, O.B.E., w.e.f. 1.4.54.

Dr. J. M. Liston appointed provisionally, during the absence of Dr. YEO from 29.6.53 to 29.3.54.

Mr. J. A.

A. Blackwood appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Blaker from 9.6.54 to 6.10.54.

Mr. Lawrence Kadoorie appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Terry from 30.3.54 to 24.11.54.

318

APPENDICES

Appendix XV

Commonwealth and Foreign representation in Hong Kong

Argentina

Consulate

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Honorary Consul

Consulate-General

Consulate-General

Burma

Canada

Honorary Consul

Trade Commissioner

Commonwealth of Australia

Trade Commissioner

Czechoslovakia

Denmark

Dominica

Finland

France

Consulate-General (Consul-General resident in

London)

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul

Consulate-General

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

India

Indonesia

Israel

Italy

Japan

Consulate-General

Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul Commissioner

Consulate-General

Trade Commissioner

Consulate-General

Consulate-General

Korea

Mexico

Netherlands

Nicaragua

Consulate-General

Consulate-General (Consul-General resident in

Consulate-General

London)

Representative

Norway

Consulate

Panama

Consulate-General

Philippines

Poland

Consulate

Portugal Spain

Consulate

Consulate-General (Consul-General resident in

London)

Consulate-General (Consul-General resident in

London) and Honorary Consul

Sweden

Switzerland

Consulate

Consulate

Thailand

Turkey

United States of America

Vietnam

Consulate-General

Consulate-General (Consul-General resident in

London)

Consulate-General

Consulate

(A United Kingdom Trade Commissioner is resident in the Colony)

319

APPENDICES

Appendix XVI (See page 192)

Airlines Operating Regular International Services

into Hong Kong

Company and

Type of Aircraft

Country of Registration

Route via Hong Kong to

Weekly Frequency

Air France

France

Tokyo

1

Constellation

Paris via Saigon

1

Air Vietnam

France

DC-4

Saigon via Hanoi Saigon

1

1

Air India

India

Bombay via Bangkok

1

International

Constellation

B.O.A.C.

United Kingdom

Canadair

London via Bangkok Tokyo

3

3

"Argonaut"

London via Singapore Singapore

1

1

Civil Air Transport

Nationalist China

DC-4, C-46, C-47

Bangkok Taipei

1

3

Cathay Pacific

Hong Kong

Airways Ltd. DC-4, C-47

Seoul via Taipei-Tokyo

Labuan via Manila Singapore via Saigon Singapore via Bangkok Calcutta via Bangkok Haiphong

1

1

2

2

1

1

Canadian Pacific

Canada

Vancouver via Tokyo

1

Airlines Ltd.

Lima via Tokyo

1

DC-6B

Japan Airways

Japan

Tokyo

2

DC-6B

Korean National

Korea

Seoul

1

Airways

DC-4

Northwest Airlines

U. S. A.

(charters by Hong

Kong Airways)

Pan American

DC-4

World Airways

DC-4, DC-6B

Philippines

Air Lines Convair 340

U. S. A.

London via Bangkok

Tokyo via Taipei and con-

necting with Northwest Airlines to U.S.A.

Tokyo via Taipei

San Francisco via Pacific New York via Bangkok Manila

Bangkok

2

1

311

3

7

Philippines

5

1

Qantas Empire

Australia

Airways-DC4

Tokyo via Iwakuni Sydney via Manila

1

1

Scandinavian

Norway

Tokyo

1

Airline System

Stockholm via Bangkok

1

DC-6

Thai Airways Co.

Thailand

Bangkok

DC-4

Tokyo via Taipei

Calcutta via Bangkok

127d

1

2

1

320

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII (See page 188)

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Days

Adriatic

Yugoslav Line

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

30 (Trieste)

Transhipment Trieste & Rijeka for

Mediterranean

& European ports.

Africa

(North)

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

26

Port Said.

H. O. A. L.

Passenger Cargo

3-Weekly

40

P. & O. S.N.

Co.

Passenger

Monthly

25

Cargo

Messageries

Cargo

Monthly

Via Saigon.

Maritimes

Africa

Bank Line

Cargo

Monthly

35/40

Via Borneo, Siam,

(East)

Ltd.

Straits,

Mauritius.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

23

Thence S.

R. I. L.

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

27

Includes

America.

Laurenço

Marques.

Africa

(West)

Blue Funnel

Line

Passenger Cargo

4 sailings

35/41

each month

Transhipment at

Liverpool.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

30

America,

A. P. L.

Passenger

North

Every 54 days

33

(First

Via Mediterranean

Ports.

(East

Mediter-

Coast)

ranean

Port)

A. P. L.

Cargo

Fortnightly

35 (First

Via Mediterranean

Ports.

Mediter-

ranean

Port)

A. P. L.

Cargo

Monthly

16 (Panama)

Via Panama.

A. P. L.

Cargo

Monthly

31 (East Coast)

Via Panama.

321

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Days

America,

Daido Kaiun

Cargo

Monthly

North

Kaisha Ltd.

4 (Japan)

(East Coast)

De La Rama

(contd.)

Line

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

Via Pacific Coast

Via Japan &

Los Angeles.

of N. America.

Invaran

Line

Cargo

Monthly

2 (Philippines)

Via Philippines.

Maersk Line

(Copenhagen)

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

Via Pacific

coast of N. America and Panama.

KII

Maersk Line

(Copenhagen)

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

66

Via Suez.

America,

North

American

Mail Line

Passenger

2 sailings

21

Via Japan.

Cargo

per month

(West

Coast)

American

Mail Line

Passenger Cargo

1 sailing

56

Californian ports

per month

via Philippine

Is. & Straits.

A. P. L.

Passenger

1 sailing

18

Pacific coast

ev. 23 days

ports.

A. P. L.

Cargo

Weekly

22

Pacific coast

ports.

Daido Kaiun

Cargo

Monthly

Kaisha Ltd.

4 (Japan)

Los Angeles via

Japan thence to east coast of N.

America

(U. S. A.)

Pacific ports

De La Rama Passenger

Line

Cargo

Fortnightly

22 (San Francisco)

thence via Panama to Atlantic ports of N. America.

Isbrandtsen

Line

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

22

Pacific coast

Klaveness

Line

Passenger Monthly

Cargo

16

Pacific coast of

(Los

Angeles)

ports. S.

European ports.

U. S. A. &

Canada.

Sails 30th of

each month.

322

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx.

Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

America,

North

Knutsen Line Passenger

Cargo

Monthly

24

Seattle, Longview,

(West

Coast)

(contd.)

Maersk Line Passenger (Copenhagen) Cargo

Fortnightly

23

Thence Via

Portland, Los

Angeles, San Francisco.

Panama to

Atlantic coast

of N. America.

Nitto Shosen

Cargo

Monthly

30

Co., Ltd.

(Japan)

Pacific

Cargo

Monthly

Orient

4 (Japan)

Express Line

Pacific Coast

Ports.

Northern ports

via Japan.

(incl.

Vancouver).

Pacific

Cargo

Monthly

23

Direct to

-

Orient

Southern ports.

Express Line

Pacific

Transport

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

20

California.

Lines Inc.

America,

South

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

Via S. Africa.

R. I. L.

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

44

Brazil, Uruguay,

Argentine.

America,

Latin

Invaran

Line

Cargo

Monthly

2 (Philippines)

Via Philippines

& thence east coast of U.S.A.

Arabia

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

22

Aden.

Australia

A. O. Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

13

Sydney-Joint

Service.

C. N. Co. Ltd.

Eastern &

Australian

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

20

Via N. Borneo

& New Guinea.

S. S. Co.

Ltd.

323

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Australia

(contd.)

Indo-China

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

21

Also occasionally

New Zealand.

Japan/

Australia

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

21 (Melbourne)

Mitsui Line

Yamashito

Line

S.S. Co. Kawasaki

Kisen

Joint Service

Kaisha Ltd.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

П

9 sailings per annum

12

Australia

William

Cargo

Irregular

Charlick

Ltd.

Borneo

China Siam

Line

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

5

New Zealand.

South Europe,

Far East, South Australia.

British N.

Borneo

Brunei Ports.

China Siam

Line

Indo-China

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

6

Sarawak ports.

Weekly

5

British N.

Borneo.

Newland

Cargo

Monthly

7

S. S. Co. Ltd.

Shell Tankers

Ltd.. London

Carriage of bulk

Fortnightly

LO

5

Petroleum

Via Saigon,

Bangkok &

Malaya Ports.

Own and

chartered tankers.

Products

Burma

B. I. S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger 3-Weekly

Cargo

10

Straits,

Rangoon.

China Siam

Line

Indo-China

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

3-Weekly

14

Rangoon.

Monthly

12

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

12

324

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Canada

Knutsen

(See also

Line

N.

America)

Prince Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

18

Vancouver.

Monthly

80

Halifax, Nova

Scotia.

Ceylon

B. I. S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

10/14

Joint Service.

P. & O.

S. N. Co

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

15

P. & O. S. N.

Passenger

Monthly

10

Co.

Cargo

China

C. N.

(Central &

Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Weekly

4

Shanghai,

Tientsin.

(N. Ports) ¦

B. I. S. N. Co.

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

3

Service are

either

suspended or

E. & A. S. S. Co. Ltd.

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

3

irregular

owing to

existing

Monthly

3

political

conditions.

Tai Ping

Cargo

Weekly

1

Shun Cheong

S. N.

Co. Ltd.

S. N. Co., Ltd.

as owners

agents.

China Sea

(General)

Security

Cargo

Fortnightly

7

French Indo-

Shipping Co. Ltd.

China Ports.

Europe

Blue Funnel

Line

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

41

Genoa, Marseilles,

London,

Cia Nacional

de

Passenger Irregular

Cargo

Rotterdam, Amsterdam,

Hamburg.

Northern

European Ports.

Navegação

Ellerman &

Bucknell

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

42

London & N.

Continent.

S. S.

Co. Ltd.

325

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Days

Europe

(contd.)

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

38 (London)

U. K. & Europe.

Hamburg

Passenger

3-Weekly

32

1st Med. Port.

Amerika Linie

Cargo

Hamburg

Amerika Linie

Passenger Cargo

3-Weekly

43

1st N. Europe

Port.

Holland

East Asia Line

Passenger Cargo

3-Weekly

35

Isbrandtsen

Co., Inc.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

15

Messageries

Passenger

Monthly

24

Marseilles.

Maritimes

Cargo

Messageries

Cargo

Monthly

35

Maritimes

(Marseilles)

LO LO

Mediterranean & European Continental Ports.

U. S. A. West

Coast & S. European ports.

Norddeutscher Passenger

Lloyd,

Bremen

Cargo

3-Weekly

BLIC

Norddeutscher Passenger

IBR

32

Saigon, N. Africa,

Marseilles, &

N. European ports.

1st Med. Port.

Lloyd,

Cargo

3-Weekly

43

1st N. European

Port.

Bremen

O. S. K. Line

Passenger Cargo

6 sailings

41

Northern

per annum

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

35

European Ports.

Mediterranean,

U. K., S. & N. Europe ports.

Swedish

Passenger

Monthly

East Asia Co., Ltd.

Cargo

41 (Genoa)

Europe excluding

U. K.

Wilhelmsen

Lines

Passenger Cargo

3-Weekly

30/45

Mediterranean,

Continental & Scandinavian

ports.

326

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

General Far

East Trading.

Far East Ports

Karsten

Larssen & Co., (H.K.)

Passenger Cargo

Ltd.

Williamson

Cargo

Indefinite

Indefinite General Far

& Co., Ltd.

East Trading.

Formosa

(Taiwan)

C. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Weekly

36 hrs.

Keelung.

Far Eastern

Nav. Co.

Cargo

Weekly

2

China Coast.

Indo-China

S. N.

Passenger Cargo

Weekly

2

Chilung.

Co. Ltd.

Ta Cheng

Cargo

Weekly

2

Kaohsiung.

S. S. Co.

Taiwan Nav.

Cargo

Weekly

2

Kaohsiung.

Co.

Teh An

Cargo

Weekly

7

Kaohsiung.

Shipping

Co.

Hawaii

Pacific

Transport Lines, Inc.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

14

Honolulu.

India/

Pakistan

B. I. S. N.

Co. Ltd.

B. I. S. N.

Co. Ltd.

B. I. S. N. Co. Ltd

P. & O.

S.N. Co.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

20

Chittagong E.

Pakistan.

3-Weekly

15

Calcutta.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

21

Bombay. Joint

Service.

B. I. S. N. Co. Ltd.

P. & O.

S. N. Co

Karachi, W.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

25

Pakistan.

Joint Service.

Eastern

Shipping Corpn. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

6-Weekly

12

Bay of Bengal.

327

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Days

India/

Pakistan (contd.)

Everett

Orient Line

Passenger Cargo

1 sailing

20

every 3 weeks

Indo-China

Passenger

Fortnightly

16

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Cargo

Calcutta via

Straits, & Burma.

Bay of Bengal

ports.

Kokusai

Passenger

Monthly

20

First India

Kaiun

Cargo

Kaisha Ltd.

Mitsui S. S.

Cargo

Monthly

24

Co., Ltd.

Nitto Shosen

Cargo

Monthly

4

Co., Ltd.

Japan

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

222222

port-Kozhikode

Bombay/Karachi.

Via Straits

Settlements.

Bombay/Karachi.

21

Calcutta.

Prince Line

Passenger

Monthly

55

Malabar.

Ltd.

Cargo

Indian

Great

Cargo

Monthly

10

Japan, Indonesia,

Ocean

Southern

Far East Pacific

S. S.

Co. Ltd.

Straits, French

Indo-China,

Indian Ports.

(H.K.)

South Sea

Cargo

Monthly

10

Persian Gulf,

Shipping

India, Straits.

Co., (H.K.)

Ltd.

Indo-China

Messageries

Cargo

Monthly

4

Saigon.

Maritimes

Nanyang

Cargo

1 sailing

6

Pnom Penh

S. S. Co.

ev. 20 days

North bound via Macau.

Shun Cheong

Cargo

Weekly

2

S. N.

Co. Ltd.

Tai On S. N.

Cargo

Weekly

Co., Ltd.

(Saigon)

6 (Phnom- Penh)

4

Shun Cheong

S. N. Co., Ltd.

as owners'

agents.

Wo Fat Sing

Ltd.

Cargo

Fortnightly

5

Far East

Coast ports.

328

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Indonesia

C. N. Co., Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

2 sailings

6

Maersk Line

Passenger

per month Fortnightly

Djakarta &

ports.

6

(Copenhagen)

Newland

Cargo

(Djakarta)

Cargo

Monthly

7

Via Saigon,

S. S.

Co. Ltd.

Bangkok, &

Malaya ports.

Prince Line

Passenger

Monthly

18

Via Japan.

Ltd.

R. I. L.

R. I. L.

Shell Tankers

of bulk

Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo Carriage

Weekly

7

Java ports, Bali

and Makassar.

Monthly

7

Sumatra Ports.

Fortnightly

}

Own and

chartered tankers.

U. S. A./Fär.

East Service.

Ltd.. London

Petroleum Products

Japan

Barber Line

Passenger Cargo

B. I. S. N.

Co. Ltd.

Passenger

Every 10 days

Fortnightly

4

5

LO

Cargo

C. N.

Co. Ltd.

China Siam

Line

Passenger Cargo

4 sailings

5

Moji/Yokohama

per month

range.

Passenger Cargo

Sailing ev.

4

10 days

E. & A. S. S.

Ltd.

Eastern

Shipping Corpn., Ltd.

Everett

Passenger

Monthly

5

Cargo

Passenger Cargo

6-Weekly

5

Passenger

1 sailing

6

Direct.

Orient

Line

Cargo ev. 3 weeks

Everett

Star Line

Passenger

1 sailing

4

Direct.

Cargo

ev. 3 weeks

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger

Fortnightly

4

Cargo

H. O. A. L.

Passenger

3-Weekly

5

Indo-China

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Cargo Passenger Fortnightly

Cargo

4/5

329

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination Shipping

Service

Approx.

Company

Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Japan

(contd.)

Messageries

Cargo

Monthly

4

Formosa

Maritimes

(Taiwan)/ Japan.

Messageries

Maritimes

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

4

Yokohama/Kobe.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

3 sailings

5

per month

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Pacific

Transport Line, Inc.

Passenger Cargo Passenger Cargo

Monthly

4

Fortnightly

4

Prince Line

Ltd.

Passenger

Monthly

5

Cargo

R. I. L.

Korea

HON

Passenger Cargo

3 sailings

10

per month

Tai Chang

Line (Seoul)

Cargo

Monthly

5

Also Korea.

C. N.

Passenger

Monthly

5

Pusan.

Co. Ltd.

Cargo

Tai Chang

Cargo

Monthly

6

Japanese ports.

Line

(Pusan)

(Seoul)

Taiwan Nav.

Cargo

Fortnightly

6

Pusan.

Co.

Teh An

Cargo

Monthly

25

Pusan via

Shipping

Kaohsiung

Co.

(Inchon) if inducement offers.

Kaohsiung (Inchon) if inducement

offers.

Teh Hu

Cargo

Monthly

25

Pusan via

S. S. Co.

Macau

Tradeships

Ltd.

Shiu On

Cargo

3-Weekly

5/6

Pursan.

S. S. Co.

Passenger Cargo

Daily

4/5 hours

Vessel at

present

Ltd.

laid up.

Tak Kee

Shipping & Trading Co., Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Daily

3

River trading.

hours

330

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Approx.

Service

Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Macau

(contd.)

Tai Yip

Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Daily

4/5 hours

Hong Kong/

Macau.

Yuen On

S. S. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Daily

4/5 hours

Vessel at

present

laid up.

Malaya &

Straits Settle- ments

B. I. S. N.

Co. Ltd.

C. N. Co.

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

4

Fortnightly

5

Singapore, Port

Swettenham,

Penang, Belawan.

China Siam

Line

Passenger Cargo

ev. 21 days

5

Singapore.

Eastern

Shipping Corp. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

6-Weekly

10

5

Straits ports.

Glen Line

Ltd.

Indo-China

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

4

Fortnightly

5

Singapore/

Malaya.

Knutsen Line

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

4

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Twice per month

5

Straits ports.

P. & O.

S. N. Co.

R. I. L.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

31/

Passenger Cargo

5 sailings per month

4/5

Straits,

Singapore.

Shell Tankers

Ltd., London

Tai Ping

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Carriage of bulk

Fortnightly

Own and

Petroleum

Products

Cargo

Fortnightly

4

chartered tankers.

Via Pnom Penh. Shun Cheong

S. N. Co. Ltd. as owners'

agents.

New Guinea

& Papua

Indo-China

S. N.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

12

Co. Ltd.

331

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

New

Zealand

Nitto Shosen Co., Ltd. (Japan)

Cargo

Monthly

20

New Zealand

ports.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

9 sailings

12

Australia, New

per annum

Zealand.

Persian

Gulf

B. I. S. N.

Co.

S. N.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

28

Joint Service.

P. & O.

Co. Ltd.

Everett

Passenger

1 sailing

30

Persian Gulf via

Star Line

Kokusai

Cargo Passenger

ev. 3 weeks

Straits, India.

Monthly

20

Via India.

Kaiun

Cargo

(India)

Kaisha

Ltd.

Maersk Line

Cargo

Monthly

31

Copenhagen

Philippines China Siam

Line

Passenger Cargo

Ev. 6 days

63

2

E. & A. S. S. Co. Ltd.

Passenger

Monthly

2/3

Cargo

Fern-Ville

Lines

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

1 to 2 U. S. A./Far

East Service.

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Upon Inducement

11

Prince Line

Ltd.

R. I. L.

Passenger

Monthly

15

Via Japan.

Cargo

Passenger

Monthly

2

Cargo

Wilhelmsen

Passenger 2/3 sailings

11/2

Lines

Cargo

ev. month

Round The

World

Mitsui S. S.

Co., Ltd.

Cargo

Fortnightly

4

Via Japan.

Thailand

C. N.

Passenger

Co., Ltd.

China Siam

Line

Cargo

Twice Monthly

6

Bangkok.

Passenger

Ev. 21

5

Bangkok,

Cargo

days

Iino Kaiun

Kaisha Ltd.

Passenger

Monthly

6

Bangkok.

Kawasaki

Kisen

Cargo Passenger Cargo

Monthly

6

Bangkok.

Kaisha Ltd.

332

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Days

Thailand

(contd.)

Mitsui S. S. Co., Ltd.

Cargo

Monthly

5

Via Singapore.

Nanyang

Cargo

1 sailing

6

Bangkok.

S. S. Co.

ev. 20

days

Nitto Shosen

Cargo

Monthly

4

Bangkok.

Co., Ltd.

(Japan)

O. S. K. Line

Cargo

Monthly

6

Bangkok.

United

Blue Funnel

Kingdom &

Line

Passenger Cargo

4 sailings each month

35/41

Liverpool,

Glasgow,

W.

Europe

(See also

Europe)

Blue Funnel

Line

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

41 (London)

Dublin,

Avonmouth.

London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Hamburg.

London & N.

Continent.

Genoa, Marseilles,

Ellerman

& Bucknell

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

42

S. S.

Co. Ltd.

Glen Line

Ltd.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

BR

38

London.

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Passenger

Monthly

30

London.

Cargo

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Passenger Cargo

Monthly

35

General

Eastern

Cargo

Traders

S. S.

Co. Ltd.

Island

Cargo

Navigation

Corpn. Ltd.

Wheelock,

Cargo

Marden &

Co., Ltd.

333

Į

1

Mediterranean,

U. K., Southern & Northern

European

Ports.

U. S. A., Japan,

Australia, South-east

Asia etc.

香港公

共圖

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIE

..

T

I

香港

) Index

圖書名

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

共圖書證

獲港公共

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

.

Index

Abattoirs, 120, 122

A

Abercrombie, Sir Patrick, 135

Accidents

industrial, 33-35

traffic, 162

Administration, 269-275

Adoption, 139, 140

Aeradio, 196

Agriculture, 57-67, 237

animal husbandry, 63-65

crops, 60-62, 63

crop acreage, 58

Department of, 57, 61, 63, 66-67, 70

101, 271

Air Force, 230

Airlines, 320

Airport, 192-193

new airport, 8, 183, 193 Aluminium Ware, 9, 74, 81 Animal

diseases, 65, 67, 121-122 husbandry, 63-65

population, 64

Apprentices, 35-36, 100, 143

Armed Services, 113, 114, 124, 205

volunteer services, 184, 229-231

Arts, 102, 220-223

Art Club, 222

Assheton, Rt. Hon. R., 14

Athletics, 225

Attlee, Rt. Hon. C.R., 14

Australia, 190, 227

trade with, 51, 81

Aviation, 192-193

airlines, 320

B

Baden Powell, Lord, 14 Badminton, 224 Banking, 44, 45, 46-47

note issue, 46

list of banks, 309-310

Bankruptcy, 167

Belgium, trade with, 48 Bevan, Mr. Aneurin, 14 .

337

B-Contd.

Bibliography, 276-291 Birds, 150, 250-251 Birth, 110

rate of, 7, 16, 127 Black, Mr. R.B., 15

Blind, 144, 145

Boar, 249

Boats, 19, 71

Books, 243, 276-286

Boothby, Sir Robert, 14

Botany, 122, 123, 124, 243-248

Botanic Gardens, 122, 250

Colonial Herbarium, 123, 124, 247, 248 Bowls, 228

Boxing, 226

Boy Scouts Association, 143

Boys, Girls' Clubs, Association, 142

British Council, 98, 222

British Trade Mission, 14

Broadcasting 196, 204-209, 210, 270

Brunei, 22, 27, 152

Buddhism, 215

Building, 130-131, 133, 166, 183-184

school, 101, 183

Businesses, registration of, 78 Burke, Mr. W., 14 Burma, 80, 82, 84 Buses, 177-178

LIB

C

Cable & Wireless Ltd., 195-198, 204, 205 Cantonese, 17, 18, 19, 158

Cathay Pacific Airways, incident, 13

Cathedral, St. John's, 212

Cement, 82

Cemeteries, 124-125

Centipedes, 121

Central Government Offices, 9, 184 Central Peoples' Government, 12, 13, 28,

29, 188

Certificates

of origin and essential supplies, 76 immigration, 162

Cheung Chau, 19, 87, 172, 237 Chief Justice, 153, 154, 156

INDEX

C--Contd.

Children, protection of, 138-140

health of, 114

Society for Protection of, 139

Children's Playground Association, 143

China, trade with, 48, 49, 50, 187

relations with, 12, 13

Nationalist, 13, 28, 203

Chinese Affairs,

Secretary for, 138 140, 272

Chinese Manufacturers Union, 76

Chinn, Mr. W.H., 15

Churches, 212-216

Chou-en-Lai, 14

Church World Service, 139

Cinemas, 130, 211

City Hall, 98

Civil Defence, 231-233

Civil Aid Services, 184, 233

Climate, 199, 240-243

Clinics, 109

Clubs, 142, 143, 144

Coins, 46

>

Colonial Development and Welfare, 39,

88, 130, 182, 200, 296-297

Colonial Secretariat, 9, 270

Commerce, 48-52

Department of Commerce and

Industry, 77, 195, 271

Chambers of, 98, 143, 259

Commonwealth Parliamentary

Association, 14

Commonwealth Representation, 319

Community Development, 145-146 Companies, 167

Consular Representation, 319

Co-operatives, 88, 90, 272, 314 Cordage, 83

Correspondents,

foreign, 201-202

Corruption, 159

Cost of Living 25-26

Cotton

piece goods, 10, 81

spinning, 21, 26, 74, 75, 80

Courts

Supreme, 153-154 District, 155

Magistrates', 156-157 Cricket, 224

Crime, 154-156, 159, 161

statistics, 311-313 Currency, 44-46

D

Dairy Farming, 63, 64 Davis, Sir John Francis, 9 Deaf, 145

Death, 110

D-Contd.

rate, 7, 105

Deer, 237, 248-249 Defence, 229-233

Diptheria, 105, 106, 107 Diseases, 6, 105-109

contagious, 6, 105

animal, 65, 67, 121-2 statistics of, 316

District Officers, 156, 274, 275 Dockyards 78-79, 188, 259

Employment in, 23, 259

Dollar

silver, 44

Drainage, 182

Drama, 102, 221, 222

Ducks, 60, 63

Dutch, 18 Duties

estate, 42

import and excise, 42-43

Dysentry, 105, 107.

East Africa, 81

E

Ebenezer Home, 145

Economic Position, 10-11

Education, 7, 91-104, 259, 273

adult, 100, 101

evening classes, 99, 100, 101 examinations, 97, 102

fishermen's 86, 87

Government schools, 92

grants, 7

Grant-in-Aid Schools, 93

private schools, 93, 100

research, 217

schools, 7, 91, 92, 94, 101

teachers, 7, 95, 97, 98

technical and vocational, 35, 36, 99,

144

trade union, 29, 30

University, 7, 8, 94, 95

Electricity, 172-175

Electric Torches, 10, 21, 74, 82

Elinor, the yacht, 12

Employment, 21-23, 75

conditions of, 26, 27, 33-34

Government, 270-271

Enamel Ware, 9, 10, 74, 81 Enteric Fever, 106, 107 Executive Council, 269, 317

Exchange Control, 46

Expenditure, 37-38, 303-304

Exports, 10, 48-52, 306, 308

Local products, 48, 51, 75, 81, 82, 83 restrictions on, 48

338

INDEX

F

Factories, 81, 82, 130, 174

Hong Kong owned abroad, 10, 11, 22

inspection, 33-34

number of, 9, 23, 74

workers in, 9, 21, 74

Family Welfare Society, 142, 148

Farming, 58-66

techniques, 60

tenant farmers, 59

tools, 59, 60

Fauna, 150, 237, 248-253

Ferries, 178-180, 181, 182

Fertilizers, 59, 60, 62, 63, 88

Films, 204, 210-211, 222

censorship of, 211

Finance, 35-43, 271

assets, 298-301

currency, 44-47

exchange control, 46

liabilities, 298-301

revenue and expenditure, 37, 302-304.

Fire

breaks, 3

brigade, 151, 232

forest, 69, 70

squatter, 2-4, 105, 114, 119, 131, 132,

Fish

147, 157-158, 161

catches of, 71, 85, 86 Fishing, 70-72

Department of Fisheries, 66

exhibition, 72

fish marketing, 84-87

population, 70

Research Unit, 218

ports, 19, 185

training, 36

Flora, 243-248

Flour Mills, 21, 74

Flowers, 243-248

Food and Fuel Index, 25

Foodstuffs, 74, 82

hygiene and inspection of, 111, 120

imported, 89

rationing of, 52

supply of, 11

Foot and Mouth Disease, 121-2

Football, 223

Forestry, 57, 58, 66, 67-69, 236, 238

Formosa, 85

Frontier, 188, 189

incidents at, 12 Fruits, wild, 246

Gable, Clark, 15 Gardens, 122-124 Gardner, Ava, 15

G

Gas, 175

G-Contd.

Geneva Conference, 12, 13, 14 Geography, 234-253

Geology, 217, 237-240 Germany, trade with, 48 Ginger, 89

Girl Guides Association, 143 Government,

administration, 269-278 Executive Council, 269 Legislative Council, 269

Government House, 122

Governor, 15, 76, 169, 269 Graphite, 73

Hakka, 18, 19, 20 Harbour, 185, 235

H

facilities, 185-188, 197 Hawkers, 156

Hay Ling Chau, 109 Health, 6, 105-109, 272

cost of health services, 112 education, 115

in industry, 27

in schools, 103, 115

maternal and child, 114, 115

Hindus, 216

History, 254-268

Hockey, 226

Hoklo, 18

Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, 45, 259

Hong Kong

area of, 234

London office, 52

Tokyo representative, 52

Horticulture, 122, 123

Hospitals, 115, 116

beds in, 315

maternity, 114, 115, 116

Tung Wah, 112, 260

Housing

Authority, 55, 126-130, 150-151 land for, 54, 127, 128, 129, 182 low cost, 55, 129, 132, 133, 134 private, 130

societies, 54, 127, 130

I

Immigration, 159, 162

Imperial Preference, 74

Imperial War Graves Commission, 124

Imports, 10, 48-52, 305, 307

restrictions on, 10

Income Tax, 40-41

339

INDEX

Indians, 215

Indonesia,

I-Contd.

trade with, 49, 50, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85 Industrial Relations, 27-35

Industry,

cottage industry, 78

Department of Commerce and Industry,

77

expansion of, 20, 21, 48, 168

heavy, 78-79, 80

labour for, 75

light, 80-84

manufacturing, 8

sites for, 8, 9, 26-27, 56, 77, 135

training for, 35-36

International Labour Organization, 22, 26

Iron, 73

Irrigation, 58

Japan,

J

trade with, 10, 48, 49, 50 Japanese Occupation, 267 Jennings, Sir Ivor, 7

Jews, 216

Journals, 286

Judges, 153-155

Judiciary, 153-157 Junks, 71

Land

area, 234

L-Contd.

control of, 55, 136

for housing, 127, 128, 129

ownership and tenure, 53-57, 136, 165,

166

use, 56, 57, 59, 217

Lantao Island, 58, 144, 215, 217, 235, 237,

254

Law and Order, 153-169, 270, 274

courts, 153-156

police, 157-163

Lead, 73

Leased Territory, 234-236

Legislation, 150-152

labour, 33

Legislative Council, 269, 318

Lepers, 6, 7, 109

Li Cheng Uk, 130, 147

Libraries, 98, 143, 146, 222, 276 Licences,

mining, 166

radio, 194, 195

Livestock, 64-65, 67, 122

Lloyd, Sir Thomas, 15

Lo Wu, 188, 189

Local Forces, 229-233

Logan, Dr. D. W., 7

M

K

Kai Fongs, 145-146, 148 Kai Tak, 183, 192, 193 Kaolin, 73

Kaye, Danny, 15

Knitting, 74, 81

Korea, trade with, 49, 50, 51, 80

Kowloon, 234-236, 259

Kun Tong, 9, 135

reclamation at, 8, 56

Kwangtung, 137, 234

Labour,

agreements, 30

L

apprenticeship,,35, 36

emigrant, 22, 26, 75

Department 26-27

disputes and stoppages, 11, 12, 26, 31-33

I.L.O. 22, 26

legislation, 33

supply of, 75

Labour Party Delegation, 14

Lamma Island, 217, 254

Macau, 13

Magazines, 203, 289-291 Magistrates, 156, 157

Malaria, 105, 111, 113, 114 Malaya, 81, 82, 83, 84, 152 Mammals, 150, 248, 250

Manufactures, 9, 51, 74-77

Marine, 185-188

Marketing, 84-89, 272

Markets, 120

Marriage, 168, 169

Martin, Sir John, 15

Matches, 83

Measles, 107

Meat, 120

Medical,

Auxiliary Services, 232

Department, 108, 111-116, 142, 183, 232,

272

personnel, 116, 316

research, 218, 219

Members of Parliament, 14

Metal Products, 74, 81

Meteorology, 199-200

Mining, 72-73, 151, 166, 217

Money, 44-47

Moral Welfare, 140

Morris, Mr. Percy, 14

Mosquitos, 113

340

INDEX

M-Contd.

Mount Butler, 196

Music, 102, 162, 208, 220, 221 Muslims, 215

N

Newspapers, 201-203, 289-291

New Territories, 68, 87, 102, 103, 106, 111, 113, 114, 121, 131, 156, 160, 170, 172, 174, 191, 195, 198, 210, 213-4, 217, 218, 234-237, 264, 266, 274-275

banks, 47

ferry services, 179

land tenure, 53, 57 population of, 18, 19 Nicholl, Sir John, 15 Noel-Buxton, Lord, 14

North Borneo, 22, 27, 83, 152, 209 Nurseries, 139 Nylon, 74

Port,

P-Contd.

facilities, 185-188 health service, 112 Portuguese, 18, 255, 261 Post Office, 194 Poultry, 60, 63

Press, The, 201-203, 204 Prisons, 163-164

Department, 141, 163 legislation, 150

prisoners, 142, 163, 164 Probation, 140, 141, 142

Profits Tax, 40

Public Debt, 39

Public Relations, 203-204, 270

Public Utilities, 170-180

employment in, 23, 24

Public Works, 180-184

Department, 124, 128, 133, 136, 170,

184, 191, 273, 274

reclamations, 180, 182, 183

Publications,

official, 286-288

Q

Observatory, Royal, 196, 199-200, 274

Occupations, 21-23 Old People, 145, 149 Oriental Studies, 217

Quarries, 191

Quartering Authority, 275 Queen's Pier, 8, 180, 181

P

Paddy, 61, 239

Rabbits, 63

Paint, 82

Rabies, 108

R

Pakistan,

trade with, 51, 80 Pakistanis, 215

Parks, 122-124

Parsis, 216

Peak, The, 176, 235, 262

Pest Control, 120, 121 Philippines, 80, 81, 83, 85 Photography, 222-223 Pigs, 60, 63, 64 Ping-Chau, 182

Ping-Shan, 156

Plastics, 9, 84

Playing Fields, 143

Po Leung Kuk, 260

Police, 103, 157-163, 183, 184, 274

communications, 160

immigration, 159, 162

marine, 158, 159

organization, 158, 159

strength, 158

traffic, 158, 162

training, 159-160

Population, 7, 16-20, 126, 135, 137, 234,

236, 257

341

Racing, 108, 226, 227

Radio, 204-209

licences, 194, 195, 205

Radio Hong Kong, 204-209, 210, 270

hours of broadcasting, 204-205

programmes, 205, 206-209

equipment, 206

Railway, 188-190

Rainfall, 5, 67, 170, 183, 238, 240-242 Rats, 249

Receiver, Official, 167

Reclamation, 8, 180, 182, 183, 235, 259,

261

Records, 165

Red Cross Society, 104, 148

Rediffusion, 209-210

Reformatories, 141, 164

Refugees, 2, 16, 91, 126, 137, 138, 268 Relief Work, 147-149

Religion, 212-216

Rennies Mill Camp, 144, 145, 149

Research, 121, 217-219

Resettlement, 1-5, 55, 119, 131-134, 158,

172, 214, 273 Department of, 132

INDEX

R-Contd.

Reservoirs, 5, 6, 68, 69, 170-172, 242 Retail Price Index, 11, 25, 26

Revenue, 37-38

Equalization Fund, 37, 38

from taxes, 41-43

Inland Revenue Department, 37

Rice,

cultivation of, 59, 61, 62, 63

Roads, 190-192

rationing of, 52

Robinson, Sir Roland, 14

Roman Catholics, 213-215

Rowallen, Lord, 14

Rowing, 225

Royal Hong Kong Defence Force, 229-231 Rubber Shoes, 9, 74, 83

Russian Orthodox Church, 216

S

Saikung, 67, 69, 172

Salaries Commission, 24

Saiwan Bay, 125

Salvation Army, 141, 143

Sanitation (See Urban Services)

Sarawak, 22, 27, 152, 209

Scholars and Scholarships, 94, 95, 96,

102, 221

Schools, 7, 91-94, 130, 183

approved, 141

for the blind, 145

for the deaf, 145

health in, 111, 115

Kaifong, 146

reformatory, 141

religious, 212, 214-215

Shanghainese, 18, 20, 114

Shatin, 136, 172, 199

Shek Kip Mei 131, 147, 157

Shing Mun, 68, 69, 170

Shipbuilding and Repairing, 74, 78-80,

179, 180

Shipping, 186-187

companies, 321, 333

facilities for, 184-186, 199-200

Shirts, 10

Sikhs, 215

Silver, 44, 45

Singapore, 22, 85, 152

Sisters of the Good Shepherd, 140

Smallpox, 105, 113

Snakes, 251-253

Social Welfare, 137-149

blind, 144, 145

exhibition, 139

infant and child welfare, 139

Office, 138-142, 145, 146, 147, 164

protection of women and children, 138,

140

S-Contd.

Social Welfare, (contd.) relief work, 147-149

religious organizations, 148, 149, 213,

214

voluntary agencies, 137, 138, 139, 142,

145

youth organizations, 142-144

Soil Erosion, 67, 238

Sookun Poo, 123, 180, 181

Sorenson, Rev. R., 14

South Africa, 81

South America,

trade with, 51

Spinning, 74

Sport, 102, 146, 223-228

grounds, 123, 180, 181, 223 Squatters, 3-5, 114, 119, 134, 273

resettlement of, 1-5, 119, 131-134 areas, 78, 126, 148, 214

Stanley, 125, 164

Storm Warning, 200

Students, 94-101

Sugar, 84

Summerskill, Dr. Edith, 14 Swimming 225, 226

T

Table Tennis, 227-228

Tai Hang Tung, 147

Tai Lam Chung Reservoir, 5, 6, 38, 68,

69, 172

Tai Mo Shan, 236, 238

Tai O, 19

Tai Po, 156

Tanka, 19

Taxation, 37, 40-43

earnings and profits tax, 40-41

estate duty, 42

import and excise duty, 42-43

interest tax, 41

property tax, 41

Teachers, 7, 95, 97, 98

Technical and Vocational Training, 35-36,

99

committee on, 100

Telecommunications, 195-199

Telegrams, 196, 197, 198

Telephone, 198-199

Company, 197, 198, 199

exchanges, 199

radio, 196, 197

Textiles, 9, 80-81

Thailand, trade with, 48, 49, 51, 81, 82,

85

Tobacco, 82, 83

Topography, 234-137, 238 Tourism, 15

Town Planning, 135-136 Toya Maru, 143

342

INDEX

T-Contd.

Trade, 10, 13, 14, 48-52, 271, 305, 306

bulletin, 76

decline of, 75

delegations, 13, 14, 77

fairs and exhibitions, 76, 77

restrictions on, 48, 49, 52, 72, 76, 85,

138, 189

Trade Marks, 151-152, 167-168

Trade Unions, 26-33

F. T. U., 29

I. C. F. T. U., 29, 30

register of, 27, 29

T. U. C., 28, 29

Traffic, 162, 180, 183, 192

Tramways, 175-177

Company, 11, 31-33

Peak, 176, 262

strike, 11, 12, 31-33, 158

Union, 11, 31-33

Trees, 248

Tsun Wan, 20, 21, 56, 106, 114, 131, 135,

191

>

Tuberculosis, 105, 106, 108, 109, 111

Anti-T.B. Association, 112

Tung Wah Hospitals, 112, 260

Typhoid, 105

Typhoons, 71, 148, 185, 200, 238, 241-243

Umbrellas, 9

U

U.N.I.C.E.F., 15, 106, 107, 115

United Kingdom,

trade with, 10, 48, 49, 51, 81

United Nations, 138

United States of America, 196, 211

citizens of, 18

trade with, 48, 49, 85

United States Information Service, 98

University of Hong Kong, 7, 8, 94, 95,

98, 123, 124, 212, 213, 250

research at, 217-219

Urban Council, 111, 116, 127, 132, 273 Urban Services, 116-125

bathhouses, 119

Department, 63, 106, 111, 116, 128, 272 drainage, 182

food inspection, 120

house and street cleaning, 118

parks and gardens, 122-124, 261

U-Contd.

Urban Services, (contd.)

pest control, 120, 121 rubbish disposal, 118

sanitary organization, 117, 118

Vegetables,

V

production of, 59, 62, 87-89

varieties and prices of, 89

Vegetable Marketing Organization, 87-89,

272

loans to, 39

Vehicles, 192

Visitors to the Colony, 14

Volunteer Forces, 229-231

Wages, 23-24

W

cost of living, 25

Water,

shortage of, 5, 105, 146, 170, 171

supply, 5, 67, 68, 170-172

Water Chestnuts, 62

Weather, 240-243

forecasting, 199-200

Weaving, 74, 81

Weights and Measures, 295

Wolfram, 73

Women and Girls, protection of, 138, 139,

Work,

140

conditions of, 33-34

hours of, 24-25

Workmen's Compensation, 26, 27, 34-35,

155

World Health Organization, 103, 112

JBI'

X

X Ray, 109

Y

Yachting, 225

Y.W.C.A., 139, 143

Youth Organizations, 142-144

343

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