Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1953

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Hong Kong Annual Report

1953

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Hong

Kong Annual

Report

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1953

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View of South side of Hong Kong Island looking from the Peak.

NG KONG PUBLI'

Printed & Published by The Government Printer,

Old Bailey Street, Hong Kong.

Photo: E. A. Fisher

Chapter

CONTENTS

Part One

Review of the Year

1 Population

Part Two

:

:

2 Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization

3

Public Finance and Taxation

4 Currency and Banking.

5 Commerce

6

Production:

Page

3

21

25

36

41

44

Husbandry;

Forestry;

Land Utilization and Tenure; Agriculture; Animal Mining; Manufacturing Industries; Co-operative Societies

7 Social Services:

Fisheries;

49

Education; Public Health; Housing and Town Planning; Social Welfare

82

8

Legislation

9

Justice, Police, Prisons and Records

10

Public Utilities and Public Works

11

118

121

·

135

Communications

12 Press, Broadcasting, Films and Government Infor-

mation Services

147

161

13

Local Forces

+

14

General:

Research; Religion; The Arts; Sport; Hong Kong Trees and Fauna

BR

170

172

Part Three

Geography and Climate

1

2

History

3

Administration

4 Weights and Measures

5 Reading List

Appendices, I-XVIII .

Index ..

:

(Commonwealth and Foreign representation in Hong Kong

is given in Appendix XVIII)

. 193

199

212

218

219

224

261

The Government of Hong Kong wishes to express its

thanks to Mr. G. B. Endacott, M.A., B. Litt. (Oxon.),

and Mr. L. G. Young for their contributions to the

History and Sport chapters respectively. Thanks are

also due to all who have contributed photographs

and other material to this Report. All photographs

without acknowledgement were taken by

Government photographers.

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

The year was Coronation Year in Hong Kong as in other parts of the Commonwealth. The morning of Coronation Day was devoted to formal occasions. Services were held in churches of all denominations. The Governor reviewed an early parade of all branches of the regular armed forces and with these marched detachments from the Royal Hong Kong Defence Force. A Loyal Address was read to leading citizens in the Council Chamber and broadcast to the whole Colony. But it was in the afternoon that Hong Kong presented, for those who were fortunate enough to see it, her own traditional and unique spectacle of celebration. A dragon, a popular and friendly beast which Hong Kong seems to be slowly but firmly adopting as its heraldic emblem, was paraded through the crowded streets of the city. Its scales were of gold and its huge head was decorated and painted with all the emblems of ritual ferocity. It was 180 feet long and was borne by 90 energetic men. Before it and around it danced its tormentors twisting and turning their high sticks on which were impaled fanciful and highly coloured baits. These apparently have the power of leading dragons through all the contortions of the damned, and in and out of the crowds the writhing beast went, its bright tongue lolling and its kindly eyes, which had been given sight by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs at a traditional ceremony some days before, for ever seeking out the nearest of its unat- tainable desires. Behind the golden-scaled dragon came the stilt-walkers and acrobats, dressed in all the extravagant finery of the Chinese theatre, and clowns and comics in great variety. These all had their welcome but it was the dragon itself that stole the day. Perhaps a million people rejoiced in its serpen- tine progress through the wide streets and to all these it was a recognized and welcome symbol of a great occasion.

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

In the evening the people moved up into the hills surround- ing the harbour to see the illuminated ships, the searchlights and the fireworks on the water, and the floodlit buildings in the town below. The morning had been formal, the afternoon traditional and gay, but this was the time when Hong Kong illuminated the serenity of its natural beauty, and there were ringside seats, free and available to everyone who cared to witness the culmination of a long day of celebration.

These celebrations had been preceded, a few months earlier, by news which was received by all generations with great sorrow. The death of Queen Mary was seen as the passing of a well-known and well-loved lady who by her example had established for herself a unique place in the affections and loyalty of her people everywhere.

700,000 people passed through Hong Kong in the course of the year. Among these were many distinguished visitors, both official and unofficial, from all parts of the world. The Vice President of the United States of America and Mrs. Nixon spent a busy three days here in November in the course of their Eastern tour. General Mark Clark, then Supreme Com- mander of the United Nations Forces in Korea, visited the Colony in March, and in that month also Countess of Limerick, who is Vice Chairman of the Executive Committee of the British Red Cross Society, came on a tour of inspection of the Society's branch in Hong Kong-an organization which has contributed gallantly and liberally to the relief of suffering and need in the Colony. The Commissioner-General for South East Asia and the Service Commanders-in-Chief from Singapore visited the Colony from time to time during the year as is customary. In September, Sir Ivor Jennings and Dr. D. W. Logan came to study the work and problems of Hong Kong University and in October Miss F. H. Gwilliam, who is Assistant Educational Adviser to the Secretary of State, paid a short visit

4

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

and crowded into it tours of many of our schools and training colleges and an examination of social welfare schemes, particu- larly those for the benefit of women and children.

Among unofficial visitors were T. R. H. Prince and Princess Peter of Greece, Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, Cardinal Spellman and the French High Commissioner in Indo-China. The British Ambassador to Japan, Sir Esler Denning and the Governor of Singapore, Sir John Nicoll, also paid private visits. The Colony was especially fortunate in the number of world-famous musi- cians and singers who appeared before large and appreciative audiences. Miss Helen Traubel the New York Metropolitan Opera singer, paid a return visit and Louis Kentner, Maurice Clare, Solomon and Iturbi also gave recitals. In the field of sport, much interest was shown in football matches played by local teams agains the Djurgarten Club of Stockholm and the Linz-Athletic team from Vienna. The Colony continued to offer a warm welcome to ships and personnel of the United Nations forces engaged in Korea. No less than 75,000 United States servicemen visited Hong Kong on vacation during the year and some of these were brought in two battleships, the New Jersey and Wisconsin, which were too big to anchor in the harbour and gave much interest to yachtsmen and other sight-seers as they rode at anchor in Junk Bay.

Two well-known figures were the subjects of spontaneous and sincere valediction when they left the Colony on retirement. Mr. D. W. Mackintosh had completely reorganized the Colony's Police Force and he left behind him an organization which could bear comparison with any Force in the Commonwealth. He was a distinguished and popular figure to whom the Colony as a whole was not slow in admitting its indebtedness. Sir Arthur Morse retired from the position of Chief Manager of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. He was a senior member of Executive Council and had unsparingly devoted time and effort to charitable and social causes more particularly those connected with child-welfare and sport.

5

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Relations with the neighbouring Portuguese Colony of Macau remained close and friendly. The Governor of Macau, Rear-Admiral Joachim Marques Esparteiro, visited Hong Kong on several occasions and his promotion from the rank of Captain gave much pleasure here.

In the political sphere, the troubled situation throughout the Far East continued, but public confidence in Hong Kong was well-maintained. The news of the cease-fire in Korea was, of course, welcomed, but businessmen were cautious in their estimate of any immediate beneficial effects. The year closed without any palpable sign of a political settlement, without which few people expect to see any real relaxation of the artificial restrictions which continue to impede the Colony's trade. There was no change in the relations between Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Chinese People's Government. As far as Hong Kong was concerned, that Government remained cold, aloof and ambiguous. Frontier incidents, most of a minor nature, continued and in each case such action as was feasible was taken. In September, however, a serious incident occurred which caused bitter resentment. A Royal Naval Launch, on routine patrol in international waters south of the Pearl River Estuary, was fired on without provoca- tion by a Chinese naval craft. The Launch, though seriously damaged, made its way back to port, but out of a total comple- ment of 14, seven were killed and five wounded. A strong protest, including a claim for full compensation, was lodged. with the Central People's Government by Her Majesty's Govern- ment in the United Kingdom, and at the end of the year the matter was still outstanding.

As in 1952, there were several instances of interference with British Merchant shipping, bound to and from Hong Kong, by vessels under the control of the Chinese Nationalist authorities

6

HONG KONG CELEBRATES

THE CORONATION OF

HER MAJESTY QUEEN ELIZABETH II.

The Colony sent a Loyal Address

to Her Majesty.

The Loyal Address executed in tradi- tional Chinese scroll form (right) and the English ver- sion (left).

The ornate black and gold lacquer box which contained the two scrolls shown above.

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The fanciful Lion Dance.

Decorations in Statue Square.

Photo: South China Morning Post Limited

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The Golden Dragon was the highlight

of the festivities.

P

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Chinese stilt walkers.

ers.

One of the many ceremonial archways in the New Territories,

Photo: South China Morning Post Limited

Chinese maidens carrying Royal fans added a colourful touch.

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The festivities went on into the night. Buildings on both sides of the harbour were brilliantly illuminated.

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Photos: 1-T. W. Ng

2-E. A. Fisher

3-W. Lee

4-Salon Photo Supply

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RI

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

in Formosa.

These included armed attacks, but in a number of cases Her Majesty's ships, acting in their traditional role in the protection of British merchant shipping on the high seas, were able to intervene successfully.

In the economic sphere the year 1953 presented some difficulties and some anxiety. The ban on strategic exports to China, following upon the United Nations' Resolution of May, 1951, and particularly the severity of the United States' embargo on supplies which might find their way to China, curtailed trading activities as in the two previous years, for Hong Kong has in the past depended very largely on the United States for its raw materials.

Probably the best that can be said is that over the year as a whole the Colony's external trade was not much worse than in 1952. Compared with imports of $3,779 million (£236 million), exports of $2,899 million (£181 million) and an adverse balance of $880 million (£55 million) for 1952, imports and exports for 1953 were $3,871 million (£242 million) and $2,734 million (£171 million) respectively, with a deficit on visible trade of $1,137 million (£71 million). The volume of commercial cargoes fell by 1% from 5,074,674 tons in 1952 to 5,021,866 tons in 1953.

was

A closer comparison of the two years reveals that there a well-balanced and fairly steady improvement of $511 million (£32 mlilion) during the first six months of 1953. Unfortunately, the whole of this increase was off-set by a pro- gressive decline in the second half of the year. The monthly figures for imports and exports may not in themselves give an adequate guide to the course of future trade but they do indicate a disquieting trend throughout the last six months of the year. Trade figures for August, 1953, were in fact the lowest for any month since August, 1949.

7

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Trade with the mainland of China over the whole year slightly exceeded the volume of such trade for 1952 as regards both imports and exports. Although exports for the first four months of the year improved by $206 million (£13 million), they declined again from May onwards and over the year were still $1,000 million (£63 million) less than for either 1950 or 1951.

The result of this decline was that during 1953, 80% of the Colony's export trade was necessarily with countries other than China. But even these alternative markets became increasingly subject to restrictions. Indonesia and Thailand, which had been among the Colony's best customers during 1952, during 1953 felt the effect of the ending of the boom in such raw materials as rubber, tin, rice and sugar, which are their principal exports, and were forced to impose restrictions on imports from Hong Kong in order to conserve foreign exchange for the purchase of capital goods from the west. A complete ban on such imports was imposed by Indonesia in May, and only partially relaxed in November and December. Thailand also imposed extensive restrictions in November, and this position is unlikely to be altered for the better, at least until the position as regards the 1954 rice crop is clear.

The mainland of China continues to be, by a substantial margin, the Colony's chief source of supply of imports. $857 million (£54 million) worth of goods was imported from China during 1953 as compared with $474 million (£30 million) from the United Kingdom and $384 million (£24 million) from Japan. Thailand, the United States of America and Malaya in that order are the other principal sources. At the end of 1952, restrictions had to be imposed on imports from Japan as a result of mounting unfavourable trade balances throughout the year, but by the end of 1953, it was possible to lift all such restrictions except those on re-exports of Japanese goods through Hong Kong to certain parts of the sterling area.

8

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

The Colony's deficit on balance of payments with Japan then stood at only $163 million (£10 million)-substantially less than half of the figure at the end of 1952.

For the past two years a significant trend in the develop- ment of the Colony's trade has been the rapid expansion of local industries. In the year under review the average monthly exports of locally manufactured products was some $60 million (£4 million), almost one quarter of the average monthly total of all exports. More information about Hong Kong's increas- ing industrial activities is given in the chapter on Production later in this report.

The Retail Price Index for all items (with March, 1947 = 100) rose seven points between June and October, as compared with a rise of two points in the same periods of 1952 and 1951, Although food prices normally rise during the hot season, with the shortage of fresh vegetables, a considerable portion of the increase in 1953 was due to unexpected reductions in the supplies of pork, poultry and eggs from the mainland.

One of the most remarkable features of Hong Kong since the war has been its constantly changing appearance. This is partly due to the neglect which buildings of all types suffered during the Japanese occupation and partly to the enterprise of all sections of the community in overcoming the shortage of building sites by more intensive redevelopment of old sites. Changes are even more noticeable because of the quite extra- ordinary speed with which sites are formed and new buildings constructed. 1953 added its quota to the changing landscape. More large blocks of flats sprang up on both sides of the harbour and in the town itself, several blocks of Victorian office buildings were torn down to be replaced by functional buildings of modern design and construction, yielding consider- ably increased cubic capacity by the substitution of low ceilings and air-conditioning, for the high airy rooms in which compradore and taipan once wrote beneath their punkahs. As

9

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

in each of the years since 1948, building activity seemed to be everywhere. Roads were torn up, to the disgruntlement of 19,826 impatient motorists (and there were 1,535 new cars and 4,718 new drivers in 1953), improved and extended contraptions for the public utilities were laid beneath them and then, re- surfaced and widened, they accepted a full flow of traffic again. Government itself completed the first section of a huge block of Government offices which will eventually run the length of a lateral spur which once directly overlooked the central harbour area. The construction of a new Police Headquarters on the water front proceeded and by the end of the year its final outline was apparent. Work began on 99 more flats for Government officers, five new blocks of flats were built for Royal Naval families on the Peak and large numbers of married quarters for Army families at Kowloon Tsai and in the New Territories. Two new Police Stations were completed. Eleven schools of various sizes were built, of which one for 320 children was completed within seven months of work commen- cing on the site.

Evidence of the extent of this constructional development was apparent to anyone who cared to climb the Peak or the Kowloon hills on a clear day. The regular pattern of the urban area was pitted with excavations, clearances and site-formations visible even from that distance. But perhaps the most remarkable development was the two reclamations proceeding simultaneously, one off the centre of the city and one to the east at Causeway Bay. These two projects will shortly add 3 million square feet to a land-starved city. The citizen from his place in the hills might take some pride in the fact that virtually the whole of this area is to be devoted to public purposes. At Causeway Bay the reclaimed land will be devoted entirely to playing fields, recreation grounds and planned open spaces. The Central Reclamation will provide for a new City Hall, new piers, a traffic concourse for the cross-harbour ferry, and public gardens and promenades, thus continuing the design

10

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

and function of the existing Statue Square. To the east in a natural arena formed by the foothills of the Island's main feature, the observer could see the beginnings of what is to be the Colony's athletic stadium-a fine and popular conception which will be capable of seating 29,500 spectators at football and athletic contests, and which reflects the ever-increasing enthusiasm among all sections of the community for western sport in nearly all its manifestations.

Beyond the range of the Kowloon Hills to the north, and so beyond the view of the urban observer, work commenced on the Tai Lam Chung dam and reservoir. This is an $80 million, five year project of enormous importance to every man, woman and child in the Colony. In 1953, as in all recent years, no day passed without water restrictions in some degree. In the winter months, supply was at times limited to five hours a day, but worse than this, the Colony is never in those months free from the threat of a dangerous, and perhaps disastrous, water shortage. Here, in the Tai Lam Chung valley, is the answer; perhaps not all the water everyone wants all day long, but the answer to the dread prospects of a desperate water famine such as occurred in 1929 and which is much more to be feared with the inflated population of today. Tai Lam Chung is for the future, and more than any other material project of 1953 it symbolizes the confidence in Hong Kong's future of both the Government and the people.

1

So much for the big schemes, the community services and the high buildings. There is another feature of the landscape which our observer could see with great ease and, if he were a kindly man, with great regret. The slopes rising from certain, predominantly industrial, parts of the urban area, are covered with flimsy, disreputable shacks so tightly packed that they seem to elbow each other off the precarious cliffs to which they cling. They are the homes of some 250,000 people, possibly one-eighth of the Colony's whole population. This is Hong Kong's

11

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

greatest social problem. Its origin lies not in Hong Kong's callousness or indifference to the welfare of its people, but in its humanity and in its long and proud tradition as a free port to the world and a place of refuge for any Chinese who cared to step across the border. In the years since the war, many Chinese, many who had no previous connexion with the Colony, have availed themselves of this frontier without barriers. Now the barriers have had to be put up, but not before at least half a million people were safely inside. (The population increased by 390,000 between June, 1949 and December 1953). It is not unnatural that there were not enough houses to accommodate all these people and it is not unnatural that by fair means or foul many of the newcomers displaced Hong Kong's own citizens, with the result that today Hong Kong is not faced with the comparatively simple problem of an immigrant and refugee population in the squatter settlements, but with the complicated moral predicament of a squatter population which includes, perhaps to an increasing extent, Chinese British subjects, people who have lived in Hong Kong for generations and whose only home it is, people for whom the Hong Kong Government has a very special responsibility. During 1953, the Government distributed five million free meals, but the essential problem is not one of relief. Relief for an excess population for half a million would solve nothing. It is a question of rehabilitation in such a way that the people concerned can be absorbed into the economic life of the basic community. It is not therefore simply a matter of building cheap, manageable, fireproof houses. It is a matter of building these houses in areas where industry can absorb the occupants and of stimulating and assisting industry so that it is in a position to increase employment.

From some points on the hills, particularly to the south of the Island and in the foothills of the Kowloon range, an observer could see rows of neat, clean-looking cottages, regularly spaced and securely sited. These are the resettlement areas

12

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

which will in time reprovide for the grim, inflammable, pre- carious slums which now cover hill-slopes denuded of their trees during the Japanese occupation. At the end of 1953, these new settlements accommodated over 40,000 persons in humble but satisfactory conditions, free from the threat of fire and convenient to places of work. The rate of resettlement (40,000 out of 250,000) was not fast enough, and no-one would claim that it was. The problem was, however, complicated by the fact that Government was, in effect, trying to improve the standards of living of one eighth of its population in face of a slightly, but significantly, falling economy. 32% of the total budget was spent on social services alone. By the end of the year, plans had been made to increase the rate of resettlement to perhaps double this figure. On Christmas Night, however, a disastrous fire occurred in one of the largest squatter areas. From the point of view of persons rendered homeless this was unquestionably the worst catastrophe the Colony had ever suffered. The energies of large numbers of public spirited persons were devoted, for the remainder of the Christmas season and many days beyond, to relieving the immediate needs of these wretched homeless people. Contributions in money and in kind poured in to establish a very substantial relief fund for what assumed the proportions of a national disaster. Generous contributions were received from the Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and China and from the Vatican. The Hong Kong Government at once announced that it would provide free food for the homeless until they could be rehoused (the cost of food alone was nearly £4,000 a day), and sent out mobile relief teams to attend to all those who were in immediate need of help and to collect stray children, the aged and the sick into relief camps. Warm clothing was distributed and emergency sanitary and washing arrangements were made for large numbers who had no alternative to finding such shelter as they could under the verandahs of neighbouring buildings. A vast scheme for the re-housing of the homeless in the devastated area was immedia-

13

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

tely launched with Government funds and Government backing. By the end of the year, six days after the fire, army and civil bulldozers were at work on the devastated site and first plans were approved for some 10,000 domestic units, safe and sanitary, to be built at Government expense within six months. These 'would be rented to the homeless at little more than a nominal

fee.

Disaster as it undoubtedly was, the effect of the Christmas fire in terms of squatter resettlement is likely to be remarkable. Admittedly the terms which are offered in charity to the victims of a national disaster can hardly be offered to the whole mass of the under-privileged. But on a basis of figures alone, it can be seen that the emergency measures approved as a result of the disaster have reduced the general problem appreciably. It is possible that, by the beginning of the summer, between one- quarter and one-fifth of the total remaining squatter population will have been re-housed in sanitary, and fire proof quarters adjacent to their place of work, as a direct result of the Christmas fire. The cost of emergency relief on this scale is staggering-$16,000,000 perhaps. There will be some reimbur- sement from nominal permit fees. But the main consideration is that with 40,000 squatters resettled under earlier plans, and 60,000 provided for under the emergency plan, Hong Kong entered the year 1954 with its greatest social problem poten- tially reduced by one-third.

Apart from the question of squatter resettlement, there exists a further serious housing problem in the need for economical low-cost housing for white-collar workers. Two Housing Societies made valuable contributions towards this requirement during the year and a number of private schemes were initiated. In order to increase and co-ordinate these efforts, it was decided later in the year to appoint a public Housing Authority which would have power to devise, initiate, and control housing schemes with money received on loan

14

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Photo: Wah Kiu Yat Po

The Colony's newest lighthouse tender "The Lady Maurine" goes down the slipway.

An eminent visitor during the year was Mr. Richard M. Nixon,

Vice-President of the United States of America.

Photo: United States Information Service

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Victims of typhoon "Susan" get free gifts of clothing and help.

Exotic blooms are grown in Hong Kong. These are being despatched to London.

Photo: South China Morning Post Limited

PUBL

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

from the Government. This Authority would consist of all members of the Urban Council together with such additional members of the Authority as the Governor might appoint. The necessary legislation was in draft at the end of the year, but in the meantime the Urban Council, through its Select Committees, had been acquiring valuable experience by exer- cising general supervision over the resettlement programme. These functions were performed with enthusiasm and members shared between themselves responsibility for particular resettle- ment areas and were frequently to be seen at the sites investigating standards and types of construction and general amenities of the area. Earlier in the year the Council had attracted considerable public attention in that under new legislation the number of seats to be filled by election was increased from two to four. It was perhaps a reflection on Hong Kong's social consciousness that the number of persons who cast their vote formed a disappointingly small proportion of the numbers eligible. All four successful candidates were members of the Reform Club, and the Club took much encouragement from this fact. During the summer it organized a petition to Her Majesty the Queen praying for the inclusion of two elected members in the constitution of the Legislative Council. 12,000 odd signatures were obtained and the petition was duly transmitted by the Governor to London. The official view was that 12,000 represented a very small proportion of the total population of the Colony (2,250,000), and that sufficient grounds did not exist for making any change in the Govern- ment's policy on constitutional issues, namely that no changes of a major nature should be made for the time being. The franchise for the Urban Council itself was, however, consider- ably extended by legislation passed towards the end of the year. In elections which will take place in the Spring of 1954, the number of those entitled to vote will be increased from approximately 11,000 to a figure which is expected to be well in excess of 29,000.

15

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

In the field of labour and social services, the most important development was the enactment of the Workmen's Compen- sation Ordinance in September. This complicated piece of legislation had taken many months to prepare, and though it is in the nature of a basic charter for the manual worker, it did not have the revolutionary effect that might have been expected. The reason for this was that most of the larger and more conscientious employers had for some time been working to scales of compensation based on those which were actually incorporated in the new law. Its effect, therefore, was to codify and to make obligatory, practices which were generally understood and accepted rather than to confer wholesale new benefits. Nevertheless, the Ordinance was widely welcomed and was recognized as an important step forward in the sphere of social legislation.

At the end of the year, the Governor's Secretariat moved from the now crumbling classical porticos of its 19th Century home to temporary quarters in the first section of the new Government Offices; a granite-faced building of modern design flanking St. John's Cathedral compound and dominating the early slopes of Garden Road which is the main artery for traffic up the Peak. This new, though temporary, accommoda- tion provided an opportunity for reforms in the direction of working conditions and staff welfare which had long been contemplated. The whole of the building is air-conditioned, a consideration which increases efficiency to a like degree with comfort. The registries and general offices are more efficiently planned, lighter, and less congested. There are rest and recreation rooms for the staff and canteens which serve both European and Chinese-style meals at fair prices. These amenities are controlled by representatives of the staff them- selves. They are experiments which it is hoped will be confirmed and developed in other departments of Government and which will in time set an advanced standard of staff welfare and staff relationships.

16

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

At the beginning of the year, the Colony made a free gift to Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of $8 million in addition to the annual defence contribution of $16 million. This gesture was in recognition of the generous part played by the United Kingdom Government in provision for the defence of the Colony. Hong Kong itself spent $12 million on local security and $32 million on its Police Force. Assist- ance to the Colony from United Kingdom funds set aside for Colonial development and welfare continued, and the projects which were in hand or completed during the year are detailed in Appendix I. The fisheries research vessel "Alister Hardy" was launched and commissioned towards the end of the year. This was entirely paid for from Colonial Development and Welfare funds. It will be operated by the Hong Kong University, and will be manned by Marine Department crews. It will be an invaluable asset in modernizing Chinese traditional fishing methods.

Informal consultations between Government Staff-Associa- tions and Government representatives continued and a series of meetings were held under the chairmanship of the Deputy Colonial Secretary. The atmosphere at these meetings was very cordial and Government derived much benefit from the advice given by the Associations on a variety of subjects. Staff welfare received increasing attention during the year and some departments have made substantial progress in the provisions of amenities and in the sphere of welfare generally. It is the intention to coordinate these activities under the respon- sibility of a single officer as soon as the staffing position permits.

For some considerable time Government had been under pressure from various quarters to carry out piece-meal revisions of salaries. This pressure, combined with (and possibly to some extent aggravated by) the disarray into which salary scales had been thrown by the consolidation in 1951, of a part of the cost of living allowance into basic salary, and a subse-

17

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

quent revision of the method of calculating the cost of living allowance, persuaded Government that the time had come to appoint a Salaries Commission. The last Salaries Commission sat in 1947. Dr. D. J. Sloss, formerly Vice-Chancellor of the University of Hong Kong, and Chairman of the 1947 Com- mission, accepted the Governor's invitation to be Chairman of the Commissioners and arrived in the Colony on 2nd November, 1953. He is assisted by Mr. C. E. Terry and Mr. R. C. Lee. The hearings were in progress but nearing completion at the end of the year and it is expected that the Commission will report in March.

香港

<共圖書

NC KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

18

香港

PART TWO

圖書館

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

香港公共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 1

POPULATION

When the last census was taken, in 1931, the total population of the Colony was 849,751, including 9,434 Service personnel. The outbreak of hostilities between China and Japan in North China, in 1937, followed by the attack on Canton in 1938, resulted in a large influx of refugees into the Colony, and due to the unsettled conditions the census which was to have been held in 1941, was not taken. Before the Japanese attack on Hong Kong in 1941, an unofficial census made by the air raid wardens of the Colony showed the population to be about 1,600,000, but in 1945, at the end of the Japanese occupation, it was estimated that the total population was approximately 500,000.

A rapid increase in the population followed the cessation of hostilities in August, 1945, and at the end of 1947 the estimated total was 1,800,000. In 1948 and 1949, as a result of civil war in China, the Colony received another large influx of refugees, and in the spring of 1950 the total population was estimated to be 2,360,000. Some of these refugees left the Colony following the return of more settled conditions in China, but many preferred to remain in Hong Kong, and at the end of 1952 the total civilian population was estimated at 2,250,000.

In 1953, the number of persons entering and leaving the Colony by road, sea and air totalled 707,139 and 747,525, respectively, while registered births exceeded deaths by 57,244, births totalling 75,544 and deaths 18,300. At the end of the year the total population was again estimated at approximately 2,250,000.

21

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The greater part of the population is Cantonese, but there are large numbers of people from other parts of China, particularly Shanghai. Europeans and Americans permanently resident in the Colony number about 14,500, including about 9,500 British subjects from the United Kingdom and Common- wealth but excluding Service personnel and their dependants. In addition, there are about 4,200 aliens temporarily resident.

The population of the New Territories is composed of Cantonese and Hakka, with a sprinkling of Hoklo. The farmers are the Cantonese, mainly settled, (some families for several hundred years), in the comparatively fertile western plains, and the Hakka, whose incursion into the more difficult hilly land on the eastern side of the peninsula is said to have started about two hundred years ago and may not have finished yet. Generally speaking, the Hakka appear to have occupied any potentially arable land disregarded by the Cantonese. Thus long fingers of Hakka penetration have been extended from the eastern side of the New Territories down into the south-west of the mainland and out on to the islands. The two sections maintain excellent relations, and although Hakka help Hakka more noticeably than Cantonese help Cantonese, it is remark- able that in their penetration the Hakka have been partly guided by existing Cantonese settlement. Thus, for instance, one of the biggest New Territories villages, Wang Toi Shan, to the north-west of Taimoshan, is populated chiefly by Hakka of the Tang clan, who undoubtedly chose that locality because of the existing predominant influence of the Cantonese Tang.

There are few exceptions to the rule that Cantonese and Hakka in the New Territories do not intermarry. There are a few recent settlements which include both Cantonese and Hakka, but in such cases the families live distinctly, and normally a village is either clearly Cantonese or Hakka. There are however certain well-defined exceptions, notably the villages of Ting Kok

22

POPULATION

and Ping Shan Tsai in the Taipo area, whose inhabitants speak Cantonese and Hakka almost bilingually. Such villages are nicknamed "pun kong cham", the half-filled pitcher.

Certain occupations are exclusively Cantonese or Hakka; for instance, the oyster fisheries are entirely Cantonese, while the manufacture of bean-curd and the quarrying of stone are the exclusive sphere of the Hakka. Farmers of both sections, when they live on or near the sea, combine fishing with agricul- ture, though unlike the boat people their homes remain in their villages even though they may spend nights away on the water. Their women never go fishing.

In the New Territories, sailing and rowing boats, and the people who live in them, fall into three classes: the genuine Cantonese boat people (the Tanka), the genuine Hoklo boat people, and the farmers' boats and ferry boats. The boat people live entirely by fishing. The types of boats are not difficult to distinguish; Hakka boats, for instance. are largely used for ferry work in the eastern waters, being stoutly built, with hulls high out of the water along their whole length, and a single mast. The Hoklo are a small but virile minority, sailing and rowing the fastest boats; the men often speak Cantonese and Hakka in addition to their own language, and they live mostly in the eastern New Territories, in Tide Cove, Tolo Harbour, and Starling Inlet. There is also a winter incursion of Hoklo farmer-fishermen from Hoi Luk Fung, without their families, who fish along the west coast of the mainland, return- ing to Hoi Luk Fung in spring for the first sowing. The biggest fishing port is Cheung Chau, but the only place where the boat people live ashore is at Tai O, where hundreds of huts on piles cover the shores of the creeks.

Industrial expansion into the New Territories, chiefly at Tsun Wan and further along the south-west coast of the main- land, has introduced a new element of Shanghai labourers.

23

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The reopening of pre-war mines, and post-war mining activity, has attracted a heterogeneous conglomeration of men from many parts of China, including the north-west. New road construction has brought in numbers of hardy Hakka, especially from the Ng Wah District of Kwangtung Province.

香港公

共圖書榜

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

24

Chapter 2

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Employment

The principal industrial occupations in the Colony are cotton spinning, knitting, weaving, shipbuilding and ship repair- ing, printing and publishing, and the manufacture of a number of items including metalware, chemicals (including matches), hand torches, rubber footwear, rattan ware and garments as well as the processing and preserving of different kinds of food. There has been no increase in the general level of unemploy- ment during the year but neither, in many of the established trades such as shipbuilding, knitting, weaving, match and torch making, has there been full employment. Industries that have started up or developed significantly during the year include nylon knitting, silk screen printing, glove making, embroidering and the manufacture of kerosene pressure lamps and cookers, electric irons and kettles, and plastic wares. Electric clocks and gramophone records are also being made but full production has not yet been reached. The distribution of industrial under- takings remains at about one on the Island to each two in Kowloon and the New Territorries, and the following figures for employment in registered and recorded factories and workshops for the past six years show the steady rate of industrial development:

Establishments Males Females Total

Year

1948

1,266

38,783 25,090

63,873

1949

1,426

49,864

31,707 81,571

1950

1,752

57,596

34,390 91,986

1951

1,961

62,192

33,015

95,207

1952

2,088

63,093

35,033

98,126

1953

2,208

65,047

35,729

100,776

25

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

In addition to workers in registered factories and workshops there are estimated to be about the same number in small unregistered concerns scattered throughout the Colony. Agricul- ture accounts for about 150,000 of the population; fishing about 52,000 and mining about 2,000.

The bulk of the rest of the working population, apart from Government employees, is engaged in commerce and is estimated, very approximately, at 200,000. As in the previous year there were a number of applications from employers to recruit local workmen for jobs overseas. A total of 1,309 manual labourers went abroad during the year, the great majority to Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo, Brunei, Sarawak, Nauru and Ocean Island, and contracts drawn up to I.L.O. specifications were read and explained to all workmen before departure. Most in demand were carpenters, construction and textile workers, and labourers for phosphate

fields.

• and oil

The following table shows the number of registered (not including recorded) factories at the end of the year in com- parison with 1952 and five years ago.

1949

1952

1953

Factories and Workshops (registered)

991

504

1,657

Applications under consideration

284

347

468

Total: PUBL

C 1,275

1,851 2,125

Wages and Conditions of Employment

Wages. Wages, as a whole, have shown no significant change during the year, and there has been no further consolida- tion of cost of living allowances into basic pay. Wages for daily paid artisans remain approximately as follows:

Skilled Workmen

Semi Skilled Unskilled

26

$6.00 - $8.50

$5.00 - $6.50

$3.50 - $5.00

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

In many Chinese firms the majority of the workers are engaged on a day to day basis, either on a flat daily rate or on a piece-work rate, and employment fluctuates considerably. There is a wider range of wages in these firms varying from $2 ($1.50 in certain unskilled jobs for women or girls) to $14. Generally speaking men and women do different types of work, but where the job done is the same, as in the case of textile operatives, piece rates are also the same, with earnings varying in accordance with individual proficiency.

Working Hours. The 48-hour week is standard in most European concerns and in some Chinese companies of a Western character. Public utilities, such as electric generating stations, work on a system of three 8-hour shifts as do some of the spinning mills. The rest day is usually Sunday, but in certain cases other days in rotation are given instead.

Many Chinese concerns of the non-European type still favour a 7-day week together with a 9-hour day. It is, however, compulsory for young persons under 16 years of age, in industrial employment, to be given a weekly rest day and regular inspections are made to ensure that this is being carried out. It is still difficult to obtain any general support for shorter hours, even from the workers, partly on the grounds that as so many are on daily or piece-work rates, with employ- ment dependent on business fluctuations, they must make the most of their opportunities when they have work. As a result, overtime is worked willingly during periods of good business. During 1953, however, overtime, except to finish rush orders, has been the exception rather than the rule.

Cost of Living

The Government, most European and some Chinese employers running a European type business pay a variable cost of living allowance to their manual workers over and

27

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

above wages.

This allowance is based on the market prices of food and fuel. During the late summer the Chinese authorities restricted the export of pigs and the cost of pork rose sharply, reaching a peak towards the end of September. This was reflected in the Cost of Living Allowance by a rise of about 10%. Apart from this increase, which was only temporary, the cost of living remained steady during the year. Some Chinese firms pay wages at a fixed level apart from increments for increased service and skill and compensate for fluctuations in the price of food either by providing it free or by subsidizing supply above the fixed charge.

The Retail Price Index, which is used for the payment of Cost of Living Allowances to Government seats with basic monthly salaries of $200 or over, rose to for September, having stood at around 120 for the earlier part of the year. The Index is affected mostly by increases in the cost of food alone because food is weighted at approximately 50% of the total and the remainder is based on factors such as rent, transport and clothing.

Labour Department

In the field of industrial relations Labour Officers of the department mediate in disputes between employers and employed when required. The Labour Inspectorate carries out the field work involved in the routine inspection and registra- tion of a growing number of factories and workshops and is also responsible for the enforcement of health and safety precautions, the investigation of accident reports and the protec- tion of women and young persons employed in industry. The movement of labour to Borneo and countries in the South Seas continues and assistance is given to employers who take labourers out of the Colony in drawing up contracts on the lines of a model designed to fulfil the requirements of the International Labour Code. Towards the end of the year a

28

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Labour Officer visited Australia, Ocean Island and Nauru in connexion with conditions of service for Chinese workmen.

The Commissioner of Labour is also Registrar of Trade Unions and administers the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance.

Advice on trade union management, internal organization and accounting procedure is given by a Labour Officer who also organizes classes on the basic principles of trade unionism.

Mention should be made here of the Labour Advisory Board which comprises representatives of employers and workers, four from each group, two of whom are elected and two nominated by the Governor. The Commissioner of Labour is ex-officio chairman of the Board and a Labour Officer acts as secretary. The Chief of Staff, British Forces, representing the three Services, attends meetings of the Board as an observer member.

In 1953, the full Board met at the end of June to discuss the draft Workmen's Compensation Bill and to consider the report of the Committee on Apprenticeship and the draft Apprenticeship Bill, which formed part of the report.

Industrial Relations

BRA

Labour Organization. The number of trade unions con- tinues to increase and by the end of the year there were no less than 300 on the register of which 227 were workers' unions, 69 were employers' associations, and 4 were mixed unions of both employers and workers. It is obvious that for a popula- tion of approximately 24 millions this number is far higher than is necessary and it is believed that the number of trade unions per head of the population is one of the highest in the world. There have been no amalgamations during the year, and unavoidably the excess of unions in the same trades

29

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

continues and in some cases has even increased. During the year the Registrar cancelled the registration of five unions, and there were in addition five dissolutions.

Trade unions continue to be overshadowed by political groups whose activity produces no beneficial results so far as the Colony is concerned and has a very damaging effect on the amount of genuine trade union work which is accomplished. It was thought, with the breakaway of a number of members from the left-wing Federation of Trade Unions and the formation of new unions in opposition, that non-political organizations might make their appearance. However, most of these new unions have merely gravitated towards the political right, which usually implies affiliation to or sympathy with the Hong Kong & Kowloon Trades Union Council. Few of them can truthfully be described as satisfactory or efficient trade unions.

The Trades Union Council is still the most vocal of the trade union groups, and claims, mainly by way of newspaper reports, that it is ever to the fore in championing the interests of the workers of the Colony. Unfortunately the claims put up seem to be all too often a façade to cover inactivity. Apart from the handful of officials who run the organization, very few of its Executive or Standing Committee members seem to have any idea of the extravagance of some of the claims made on its behalf.

A few of the unions affiliated to the Trades Union Council have, during the past year, taken genuine and independent trade union action in the interests of their members. However, as yet, no moves have been made to sever connexion with the Council.

The left wing Federation of Trade Unions has been noticeably more active and its welfare undertakings have been enlarged. During the past two years it has taken little interest

30

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

in the wages and conditions of service of the members of its affiliated unions, its main emphasis being on such welfare projects as medical and unemployment benefits and the provi- sion of schools. Recently some of its affiliated unions have made overtures to employers to provide cash grants from profits for union welfare schemes. Offers have also been made by such unions to their right-wing counterparts to register out of work members for unemployment relief.

The Labour Department continues to regard trade union education as the most important method of raising the level of local trade unionism and in the early part of the year a four-day accountancy class for trade unions was instituted under the direction of a local authorized auditor, one of the teachers from the Evening School for Higher Chinese Studies. More than fifty unions sent two or three officials each. Later in the year the staff of the trade union section of the depart- ment was increased and it was possible to devote greater attention to the problems encountered by union officials in the keeping of their accounts. It has been noticed that the annual accounts now being received are very much improved.

Towards the end of the year classes in the basic principles of trade unionism were introduced for the rank and file members of local unions and the services of five teachers, trained by the department, were made available. Over twenty unions availed themselves of the classes, which were all attended by from fifteen to thirty members.

For the second year running the Trades Union Council sent three representatives to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions' College, in Calcutta, for a three months' study course in trade unionism.

Plans are in hand for further classes in the Colony and it is hoped that more unions can be persuaded to make use of them and that properly planned studies can be arranged for both officials and rank and file members.

31

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Collective Agreements. In general there are many agree- ments in force, but as they do not all require annual renewal or amendment they are brought to the notice of the Labour Department only in the event of either party wishing to make alterations.

Reference was made in last year's report to an agreement between the management and workers of the I-Feng Enamelling Co. and this has worked more or less without hitch.

The agreement in the lithographic industry, which has been working smoothly for many years, was again renewed for a further year without alteration.

Labour Disputes and Stoppages. It is pleasant to be able to record that this year there have been few industrial disputes resulting in stoppage of work. This may in part be due to a shift in policy by the Federation of Trade Unions and its affiliates. There has been a marked stress on welfare activities rather than the acerbation of industrial disputes. A further reason is the very practical consideration that the overstocking of the labour market precludes direct action unless this is overwhelmingly supported.

During the early part of the year adverse business con- ditions forced some textile mills to reduce their staffs or close down altogether and as a result a number of disputes arose. In most cases gratuities were paid and there were no further developments. This was also true of the large cigarette manu- facturing firm, the British-American Tobacco Co. Ltd. which was on two occasions obliged to lay off workers because of the reduction in trade with China.

In June and July, crews of fishing junks came out on strike when junk masters attempted to reduce by 5% the shares of proceeds paid to crew members from the sale of fish. This, according to the junk masters, was forced on them because numerous typhoons had resulted in poor catches being landed

32

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

and because sharks had done unusually heavy damage to fishing gear. After fourteen days most fishermen accepted a temporary reduction of 5% in their share of the takings and gradually returned to work.

1,450 men were involved and an estimated 33,000 man days were lost.

A dispute in the rattan chair manufacturing industry arose over a demand by unions in the trade (of which there are several) that manufacturers should continue to pay a piece rate of 6.8 times the pre-war rate, which had been adopted during the boom period following the war. (The average rate in the Colony is about four to four-and-a-half times that prevailing pre-war). A number of meetings between the parties concerned were held in the Labour Department and were remarkable for the uncooperative attitude adopted by officials of one of the unions concerned, which controls over 60% of the workers in the industry. There were several unproduc- tive meetings, but the dispute was eventually settled after the department had suggested that this obstruction be ignored and direct negotiations opened between employers and their workers. This had the desired effect and work was resumed within two days, the above-mentioned union announcing that it had been decided to do so "in the interests of all concerned and to bring about a quick settlement." The strike affected about 3,000 men and 114,000 man days were lost. In the early stages of the dispute some of the workers involved were responsible for acts of sabotage, such as slashing the manufactured chairs, etc., of individual employers.

Minor Disputes. The number of minor disputes has remained more or less the same as last year. However, it was noticeable that towards the end of the year, the monthly totals decreased progressively, possibly auguring a turn for the better. A total of 1,459 cases had been dealt with by the end of the year and 64 were pending.

33

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Labour Legislation. The Workmen's Compensation Ordin- ance 1953, was enacted in September, 1953, and came into force on 1st December by proclamation of the Governor. This ordinance, with modifications to suit local conditions, imple- ments the International Labour Organization Convention No. 17 (Workmen's Compensation Convention, 1925).

Safety, Health and Welfare. In addition to registered factories and workshops, approximately 200 recorded establish- ments, i.e. industrial undertakings which are outside the scope of the Factories and Workshops Ordinance, are visited by Labour Inspectors to ensure that safety, health and welfare provisions are maintained at a reasonable standard. Inspectors also visit cottage industries in domestic buildings and squatter areas to advise on health and safety precautions and to prevent, if possible, the development of hazardous trades. A total of 12,389 visits were made during the year. Of these, 963 were in connexion with industrial and occupational injuries and the payment of compensation, 472 were night visits to industrial undertakings, mainly in connexion with the illegal employment of women, young persons and children and 827 were visits to industrial undertakings employing young persons and appren- tices. The remainder were routine inspections of factories and workshops and visits to non-industrial establishments to advise on fuel oil installations to furnaces, cookers and non-pressure heaters.

During the year 671 occupational and industrial accidents (47 fatal) involving 707 persons were reported. Of these 472 (14 fatal) were in registered factories and workshops. This is a total increase of 127 (7 fatal) over last year, and, in factories and workshops, an increase of 50, with one less fatality. The frequency rate per 1,000 industrial workers increased from 4.3 to 4.6, but fatalities decreased from 0.15 to 0.13 per thousand. Seventy compensation cases were settled and compensation amounting to $84,979.21 was paid.

34

£ MILLION

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

VALUES OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN £ MILLION)

TOTAL IMPORTS

TOTAL EXPORTS

IMPORTS FROM CHINA

EXPORTS TO CHINA

R PUBLIC LIBRARI

書館

0

:

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

1951

1951

1951

1951

1952

1952

1952

1952

1953

1953

1953

1953

THOUSAND LONG TONS

600

500

400

300

200

100

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

TOTAL IMPORTS

TOTAL EXPORTS

IMPORTS FROM CHINA

EXPORTS TO CHINA

-

лиции

RIES

0

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

1951

1951

1951

1951

1952

1952

1952

1952

1953

1953

1953

1953

OCCUPATIONS, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Industrial Training

Apprenticeship and Vocational Training. Industrial train- ing in the form of apprenticeship is provided within Government service by the Kowloon-Canton Railway, by the electrical and mechanical and the waterworks branches of the Public Works Department, and by the Printing Department. Outside Government this form of training is offered by the two large commercial dockyards, the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. Ltd. and the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd., (providing two types of training for boys of different educational standards), by the Royal Naval Dockyard (here called "trade boys"), by public utilities and by a number of other private firms both European and Chinese owned. All these under- takings watch with great interest the progress of the boys, who are encouraged, and sometimes given financial help, to attend technical classes. Elsewhere, in Chinese industries there is a good deal of apprenticeship but, generally speaking, it is ill- organized; these apprentices are provided with food of good quality and are given accommodation and a small wage, but systems of training are not rationalized and there is little or no theoretical instruction. With the object of raising the standard of apprenticeship conditions, the Labour Advisory Board set up a committee to study the question of apprentice- ship. The Report of this Committee and the draft Apprentice- ship Bill, which forms part of it, were submitted to the Board in June, 1953, and are now being considered by Government.

Training as an operative in one of the manifold processes of the Colony's industry is not run on formal lines and requires a much shorter time than a genuine apprenticeship, with the exception of the spinning mills where learners receive systematic and supervised training. The learner is usually introduced by a friend who often acts as tutor, or if the job is fairly simple, he learns by watching others. Proficiency increases with experience, and remuneration, which is often by piece-rates, is stepped up in proportion.

35

Chapter 3

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Revenue and Expenditure

The revenue and expenditure figures since 1st April, 1950,

are as follows:-

1950/51 ..

1951/52 ..

1952/53 ..

Revenue

Expenditure

Surplus

$

$

$

291,728,416 251,684,523 40,043,893

32,708,297

308,564,248 275,855,951

484,590,446 411,749,658 72,840,788

1953/54 (Estimate)

348,642,700

328,169,818.

20,472,882

In making any comparison, it should be noted that the 1952/53 figures for revenue and expenditure both include $100,000,000 in respect of an initial transfer from the General Revenue Balance to a newly constituted Revenue Equalization Fund. After making this transfer the General Revenue Balance at 1st April, 1953, was $196,962,296.

Actual revenue for 1952/53 exceeded the estimate by $93,828,246. Details of the main heads of Revenue are given in Appendix III. The principal excess was on the sub-head of Earnings and Profits Tax, under Internal Revenue; this item alone was $51,664,244 over the estimate. This was the result of an increase in staff in the Inland Revenue department, which made it possible to complete an increased number of assessments and to make considerable progress in collecting arrears of tax due in respect of previous years.

Expenditure for 1952/53, excluding the initial transfer of $100,000,000 to the Revenue Equalization Fund, exceeded the estimate by $23,076,646. The gross increase, however, was $45,653,652, this figure being partially offset by savings of

36

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

$22,577,006.

Details of the main heads of Expenditure are given in Appendix IV.

The largest increase came under the head, Miscellaneous Services and amounted to $36,554,003. Of this total, a sum of $6,323,154 was charged to expenditure, having previously been charged to an advance account, pending the raising of loan money. Two contributions of $10,000,000 each were made to the Development Fund and the Revenue Equalization Fund, $5,000,000 was spent in purchasing Lai Chi Kok Coalyard and $2,050,000 was applied in loans to schools.

Among other large additional items were a special gift of $8,000,000 to Her Majesty's Government, in addition to the contribution towards the cost of reinforcing the garrison, which was charged to Defence Miscellaneous Measures; an additional contribution of $2,000,000 to the Sinking Fund for the 31% Rehabilitation Loan; and an excess of $1,152,965 in the Social Welfare vote which was the result of emergency measures and welfare work for fire victims.

Expenditure amounting to $7,489,653 was charged to the Development Fund, including $5,872,187 in respect of the Tai Lam Chung water supply scheme and a loan of $2,136,851 to the Hong Kong Housing Society.

Public Debt

The Public Debt of the Colony at the 31st March, 1953, was as follows:-

4 % Conversion Loan (raised in 1933 and repayable not later than 31st August, 1953)

34% Dollar Loan (raised in 1934)

$ 4,838,000

3,720,000

31% Dollar Loan (raised in 1940)

6,130,000

34% Rehabilitation Loan (raised in 1947/48) .

46,666,000

$61,354,000

37

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Sinking Funds exist for the redemption of the Conver- sion Loan and the Rehabilitation Loan; the market value of these funds at the 31st March, 1953, being $4,493,120.60 and $11,743,532.60 respectively. The remaining two loans are each redeemable by annual drawings of 1/25th. The balance of the 4% Conversion Loan was duly redeemed on 31st August, 1953. Loan expenditure in excess of the amount raised under the Re- habilitation Loan, amounting to $82,004,536, has been charged off to Expenditure during the three years ending 31st March, 1953, leaving $771,633 remaining in an advance account.

Two loans have been received from the Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare Corporation for the use of the Vegetable Marketing Organization. They are as follows:-

D. 994-Agricultural Village Depots Recurrent

Expenditure

D. 1066-Vegetable Market Lorries

1

$148,000

300,000

$448,000

Earnings and Profits Tax

This tax, introduced for the first time in 1947, falls short of a full income tax. It comprises four separate taxes:

Profits tax

Salaries and Annuities tax

Interest tax

Property tax

Tax is chargeable at the full standard rate (12% in 1953/54) on the Hong Kong profits of corporations and bus- inesses, and on interest payments, but in other cases there is provision for allowances or for tax to be assessed at a propor- tion or a multiple of the standard rate. An individual who is

38

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

a resident of the Colony may elect to be personally assessed on his total local income, in which case he receives the advantage of personal allowances for which he might not otherwise be eligible.

The personal allowance for an individual liable to Salaries and Annuities tax, or who elects for personal assessment, is $7,000. Allowances are also made for a wife and up to nine children. Tax on salaries and on personal income is levied at rates varying from one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of chargeable income, to twice the standard rate on chargeable income over $45,000.

Revenue derived from the four taxes in 1952/53, together with amalgamated tax under personal assessment, including arrears collected in respect of earlier years, was as follows:-

Profits k

Corporation Profits tax

$50,802,262

Business Profits tax

$35,940,990

$ 86,743,252

Salaries and Annuities tax

Interest tax

$ 10,724,684

$ 3,063,305

Property tax

Personal assessment

TOTAL .

$ 9,954,361

D

-

$ 1,178,641

$111,664,243

Estate Duty

Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines at rates varying between 2% on estates valued between $5,000 and $10,000 and 52% on estates valued at over $30,000,00. The total revenue received from this duty during 1952/53 amounted to $6,453,360.

39

.

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Import and Excise Duties

There is no general tariff and no duty is charged on exports. Five groups of commodities, either imported into or manufactured in the Colony for local consumption, attract duty under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance. These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet preparations and proprietary medicines, and table waters.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at approximately 80% of the rate for non-Empire pro- duce. Locally-produced beer is allowed a further preferential margin on Empire beer. These rates vary from $1.15 per Imperial gallon on locally-brewed beer to $55 per Imperial gallon for non-Empire brandy and liqueurs.

-je

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges from $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco to $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and manufacture.

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates vary from $104 per ton for heavy diesel oil for road vehicles, to $24 per ton for furnace oil, and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

BR

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b., prices ex-shipping port for imported goods and 25% of the selling prices ex- factory. Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per Imperial gallon.

Drawback on export is permitted on duty-paid commodities manufactured locally.

There is an adequate number of general bonded and licensed warehouses.

40

(

Chapter 4

CURRENCY AND BANKING

At the time of Hong Kong's foundation in 1841, China's currency was on a basis of uncoined silver but the usual standard unit for foreign trade was the Spanish or Mexican dollar. These coins were the first legal tender in the new Colony and apart from one unsuccessful experiment in using United Kingdom coins alongside it the Mexican dollar became and remained until 1895, the standard coin. In 1895, in pursuance of Her Majesty's Order in Council dated 2nd February of that year, a British trade dollár, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was minted and production of the Mexican dollar ceased, although it remained the standard by which others were judged. Its sterling or gold value varied with the price of silver, giving Hong Kong a variable exchange relation- ship with London and the world at large but reasonable stability with China. In 1853, the Chartered Bank of India issued the first Hong Kong banknotes, followed in 1866, by those of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Although not legal tender these notes became more and more the customary means of payment and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance passed in 1895, had the effect of restricting the right of issuing banknotes to the three banks named. In 1935 the silver standard was abandoned, and by the Currency Ordinance, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note issuing banks were obliged to surrender in exchange for Certificates of Indebtedness all silver previously deposited against their note issues. The exchange fund keeps full sterling cover against the notes issued by the banks apart from their relatively small fiduciary issues. Since

41

4

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

that date the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1/3d. sterling. At the end of 1953 its value in U.S.$ was 0.1750, and in Australian Currency 1/6 d.

Note Issues and Banks

Notes of denominations from five. dollars upwards are issued by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, and the Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd. The Government issue comprises notes of one dollar, ten cent, five cent and one cent denominations and coins of fifty cent, ten cent and five cent denominations.

The Colony is included in the sterling area. Exchange control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom and other parts of the sterling area, with modifications necessitated by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt. Twenty-five banks, including the three note-issuing banks mentioned above, are authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Some of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer world-wide comprehensive banking facilities to the public.

In addition to these incorporated banks, there are in the Colony many Chinese banks which handle a considerable volume of remittances from Chinese living overseas to their relatives in China.

Under the provisions of the Banking Ordinance, enacted in 1948, no company may carry on banking business without being licensed. At the end of the year there were 101 licensed banks, many of them small Chinese banks.

42

CURRENCY AND BANKING

The total currency in circulation on 31st December, 1953, amounted to $841,488,167, made up as follows:-

$

Bank note issue

802,211,984

Government $1 note issue

22,741,500

Subsidiary notes and coin

16,534,683

$841,488,167

X

The corresponding total for the same date in 1952 was $842,382,376. A list of the banks operating in the Colony is given at Appendix V.

43

iC LIBRARI

Chapter 5

COMMERCE

Import and export controls, which were imposed consequent on the banning of all exports to North Korea and of strategic goods to China, remained in force throughout the whole of 1953, and together with trade restrictions imposed by other countries made the year a difficult one for commercial and industrial interests. The main developments have already been referred to in the opening chapter.

The total value of merchandise imported and exported during 1953 was $6,606 million, as compared with $6,678 milion in the preceding year. Tonnage of commercial cargoes also showed little change, being 5,021,866 tons in 1953, and 5,074,674 tons in 1952. The trend of trade by value and volume from January, 1951 to December, 1953, is illustrated in the diagrams facing pages 34 and 35.

There was a small increase in the value of imports in 1953, the total being $3,872 million, as compared with $3,779 million in 1952. Little change was recorded for most countries, the principal differences being Thailand, with imports into Hong Kong valued at $289 million, as against $204 million in 1952; Pakistan, which showed a gain in value from $90 million in 1952 to $116 million in 1953; and Germany with imports of $212 million in 1953, against $119 million in the preceding year. Large decreases were recorded for imports from India, Japan and Italy.

Tables showing the principal countries from which the Colony imported goods in 1953 (see diagram facing page 46) and the principal commodities involved with comparative figures for 1952 and 1951, are at Appendices VI and VIII.

44

COMMERCE

The value of exports from Hong Kong in 1953 was $2,733 million, the total for 1952 being $2,899 million. Exports to the United Kingdom increased from $83 million in 1952 to $119 million in 1953, while exports to Japan increased from $123 million to $221 million. Marked decreases in the value of exports from Hong Kong were recorded for Malaya, $337 million in 1953, compared with $417 million in 1952; Pakistan, reduced from $55 million to $26 million; Indonesia, from $528 million to $372 million; Formosa, from $207 million to $105 million; and U. S. A. from $113 million to $62 million.

Tables showing the principal countries to which the Colony exported goods in 1953 (see diagram facing page 46) and the principal commodities involved, with comparative figures for 1952 and 1951, are at Appendices VII and IX.

Significant developments

U.S. A.

Trade with the United States continued to be difficult though there was some improvement towards the end of the year. Importers were handicapped by licensing delays, quotas and other restrictions, despite the support in many cases of certificates of essentiality issued by the Government. An officer of the Department of Commerce and Industry visited Washing- ton in May for trade consultations with U. S. officials, and various consumer goods were subsequently permitted to be exported to the Colony under open general licence. Exporters had even greater difficulties owing to the operation of the U.S. Foreign Assets Control Regulations which prohibited the entry into the U. S. A. of Chinese presumption type goods, unless proved to have been manufactured or to have originated in places other than the mainland of China. These regulations undoubtedly contributed to the Colony's unemployment problem but by the end of the year, after protracted negotiations with

45

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

the U. S. authorities, some forty different commodities had been agreed for export to the U. S. A. under Government compre- hensive certificates of origin. The total value of goods certified amounted to $21,492,576.

Indonesia

In 1952 Indonesia had replaced China as Hong Kong's best customer, but in 1953, owing to a shortage of foreign exchange, slipped back to second place. Exports to Indonesia reached a peak of $64.4 million in May, but declined con- siderably during the latter half of the year, though improving slightly in November and December. Unfortunately, as most of this trade consisted of locally made products, many factories, especially the weaving industry, had to curtail their production.

Japan

In common with the rest of the sterling area various restrictions, necessitated by Japan's substantial holdings of sterling and the Colony's mounting adverse trade balance, had to be imposed on imports from Japan during 1952 and the early part of 1953. By midsummer the position had improved sufficiently to allow all the restrictions to be pro- gressively removed, except for re-exports to other scheduled territories. In September, re-exports were permitted to Singapore.

Various Japanese trade delegations, both official and un- official, visited the Colony during the year or passed through on their way to other countries.

China (mainland)

Trade with the mainland of China continued to be difficult and compared with the previous year there was no substantial change, the figure for 1953 being $1,397.5 million, compared

46

PRINCIPAL SOURCES AND DESTINATION OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1953

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES

IMPORTS

£ MILLION

EXPORTS £ MILLION

UNITED KINGDOM 29.6

MALAYA

11.1

Ꭻ ᎪᏢ A N

24.0

CHINA

THAILAND

18.1

共圖

7.4

21.1

13.8

HONG

GERMANY

14.0

13.3

NETHERLANDS 7.4

INDONESIA 2.8

00

DE

ARIES

PUBLIC LIBRAR

FORMOSA 4.6

GRAND TOTAL

£ 242

£ 170

33.8

12.9

3.9

1.4

1.8

23.2

6.6

香港

HONG KONG FIS

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

V

HONG KONG FISHING INDUSTRY 1953

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

TUIAL

PUL. 255,515 2.19,051,344

▼PUL.256,411 D. 14,415,094 •PLL.391,448 D. ZQVYX, 116

• FUL. 472.00

เบ 10.40,7 [0,641

TUL.43), 130

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. FISHERIES & FORESTRY.

IG INDUSTRY 1953

書本

LIBRARIES

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

NG KONG PUBLIC

0 $40,713,247 • PCL.497,458 D. 56,545,UVI

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

FISHERIES & FORESTRY.

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED IN HONG KONG DURING 1953

GINGER

PAINT

CIE

PRESERVED FRUITS, JAMS, GINGER, ETC.

PAINTS, VARNISHES, ETC.

£ Sterling £ 1,302,954

679,713

COTTON YARN

AND THREAD

6,259,880

COTTON PIECE GOODS

9,846,635

TOWELS

1,064,165

ENAMEL WARE

共圖

2,762,182

ALUMINIUM WARE

246,826

TORCHES

2,245,847

TORCH BATTERIES AND BULBS.

PRESSURE LAMPS

COTTON SINGLETS

IC LIBRA

1,067,319

336,896

4,513,667

SHIRTS

3,391,665

LEATHER FOOTWEAR

1,061,605

CANVAS SHOES

1,377,102

RUBBER FOOTWEAR

825,546

VACUUM FLASKS

397,153

COMMERCE

with $1,350.2 million in 1952. Trade, however, fell away noticeably during the second half of the year due to a lack of buying interest on the part of China which, as a result of the Colony's stringent export controls on strategic materials, is placing increasing reliance on supplies from other countries. The operation of the strategic controls placed a heavy burden on the resources of the department of Commerce and Industry.

Thailand

Owing to a shortage of foreign exchange and heavy overstocking of unessential imported goods, Thailand imposed import restrictions in November, which had the effect of reducing imports from Hong Kong in December to only $7.1 million, compared with the monthly average for the year of $17.2 million.

Italy

Italian restrictions announced in March 1953, on the import through Hong Kong of Chinese origin goods, caused Hong Kong exports to Italy to slump from $24.4 million in the first half of the year, to only $1.6 million during the second half of the year.

Exports of Hong Kong products

The total value of exports of items of local manufacture (which are recorded separately in the trade classification list) amounted to $635 million in 1953. Approximately 30% of the Colony's exports consist of locally manufactured goods, among them being cotton yarn, cotton piece-goods, singlets and shirts, leather and rubber footwear, enamelware, alumini- umware, electric torches and batteries, and iron and steel.

The principal local products exported during the year are illustrated in the diagram facing this page and further details are given in chapter 6.

47

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Import licensing

On 6th November, 1953, as a result of a general improve- ment in the sterling area position, the scope of the open general import licence was considerably extended by reducing both the list of commodities and countries for which special licences were required.

Rationing

Before July, 1953, only persons who had been resident in the Colony before 1st April, 1948, could obtain ration cards which enabled them to purchase, from approved ration shops, the cheap rice imported by the Government. The rationing system was extended to the whole population during the second half of the year.

ار

Commodities in short supply

The easing of the world food situation enabled controls on the import and export of canned meats, bacon, ham, margarine and butter to be relaxed. Government remained the principal or only importer of rice, sugar, frozen meat, and coal for local consumption.

Price Control

CLIBR

Commodity prices tended to decline during the year and this coupled with their greater availability and sales at below controlled prices made it unnecessary to continue price control, which was entirely abolished on 10th April, 1953.

The Government maintains a London Office at 307/308 Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.2. and Hong Kong's interests in Japan are dealt with by the First Secretary, Head of the Hong Kong Section, British Embassy, Tokyo.

48

Chapter 6

PRODUCTION

Land Utilization and Tenure

Land Ownership. All land in the Colony is held on lease- hold tenure granted by the Crown and with one or two rare exceptions, such as some of the existing holdings of the Naval and Military authorities and the Saint John's Cathedral com- pounds, there is no freehold tenure.

In the early days of the Colony, leases were granted for 75 years, 99 years or 99 years. The present practice is for leases to be granted for a period of 75 years, renewable for one further term of 75 years at a re-assessed Crown rent. In the New Territories, in order to coincide with the period of the lease from China, which expires on 30th June, 1997, Crown leases are conventionally expressed as being for a term of 75 years from the 1st of July, 1898, renewable for a further term of 24 years, less the last three days.

In recent years, certain groups of the 75 year Crown leases granted in the early years of the Colony, such as rural building lots, in the Victoria Peak district, and Kowloon inland lots on the mainland, have reached the expiry dates. Public state- ments of Government's policy in regard to the terms and conditions upon which new Crown leases would be granted were made in 1946 and 1949. Terms and conditions for the grants of new leases have already been agreed in a large number of these cases, and other leases will become due for renewal in rapidly increasing numbers as further categories fall due. A further statement in 1952, intimated that Government would be prepared to pay ex-gratia compensation for buildings law- fully erected on certain Kowloon inland lots, the leases of

49

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

which could not be renewed owing to town planning require- ments, and provision is made for possession of such lots to be retained until the land is required by Government. During the last financial year the revenue from renewal of this type of lease was $610,495.

It is Government policy to sell leases to the highest bidder at public auction, but in certain instances land necessary for public utilities is sold by private treaty. It has also been the policy to sell land for schools, clinics and certain other charit- able purposes by private treaty at preferential rates varying from a purely nominal figure up to market value.

The revenue obtained during the financial year 1952/53 from the sale of land by auction amounted to $1,869,000 while that arising from sale by private treaty, extensions of area and grants in exchange was $2,949,000

In order to encourage home building private treaty sales, to individuals and to development companies, were introduced for a short period but the results were somewhat disappointing and have now given way to various schemes for the grant of land at roughly half the market value for the erection of workers' flats. In addition, two sites amounting to roughly five acres have so far been made available to two Housing Societies, and plans are in hand for providing considerably greater areas for the building of permanent low cost housing.

Government policy concerning the sale or grant of Crown Land is governed by the present scarcity of all types of land. In order to ensure that available Crown Land is put to the best possible use all sales or grants are subject to a covenant to develop the lot within a reasonable period, the amount of expenditure depending on location and type of development allowed. Due to the shortage of land, it has been found difficult in recent years to meet the requirements for schools,

50

PRODUCTION

clinics, children's playgrounds, and other public purposes, but Government has carried out an up-to-date survey to facilitate the distribution of available resources to the best possible use.

In addition to the covenant providing for development within a set period, leases also contain clauses controlling the use to which the land shall be put in accordance with planning requirements and providing for the payment of an annual crown rent which is, however, relatively low compared with the economic annual value. Until the lessee has fulfilled the building covenant he is not permitted to sell or mortgage property, but once he has fulfilled this convenant he is free of these particular restrictions, except where land has been sold by private treaty at preferential rates. In this instance, the lessee is required not to dispose of the property and if he ceases to use it for its authorized purpose, it reverts to the Crown.

It will be seen that the basic principle behind the disposal of Crown Land is that the maximum use shall be made of it either industrially, or for the provision of the greatest possible amount of living space. Where it is not possible to dispose of land immediately, because public services are not yet avail- able or where a site is reserved for some future purpose, which cannot be implemented until later, the land is not "held out of use" but is granted on a temporary annual licence. Some 6,000 such licences for land are in current issue and this parti- An cularly facilitates the development of small industries. annual revenue approaching $3,000,000 is obtained from these licences.

New development programmes generally involve the resumption of small agricultural lots and in general it is the policy of Government to pay cash compensation for such resumptions, although in certain circumstances other land is granted in exchange. Most of these agricultural lots are used for market gardening and are situated in the remoter parts of

51

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

In the New

the Island and on the fringe of New Kowloon. Territories, there is a considerable area of paddy fields, culti- vated largely by tenant farmers, but there is a constant trend towards the encroachment of industrial and other development on this agricultural land.

Land Utilization

Almost 16% of Hong Kong's 391 square miles of territory has been developed for agriculture and livestock raising, and cropping is being extended by terracing the gentle slopes of valleys and the lower shoulders of steeper hills. Cultivation can be further extended on the island of Lantau and elsewhere, by terracing, where water can be made available for irrigation. By improving irrigation, large areas of downlands can be made to support a second crop of rice and by drainage and the exclusion of sea water, low yielding salt water paddy varieties can be replaced by high yielding fresh water varieties and vegetables.

The limit of agricultural development will not be known with certainty until the land utilization survey is completed. The countryside consists mainly of mountains and hills, the more gradual slopes of which are covered with grass, ferns and sparse pinewood, and the rocky ravines with evergreen trees and dense thorny scrub. Forest surveys and the experience gained over a number of years on afforestation by the Forestry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, make it evident that large areas of the Colony can be satisfactorily planted up to forests. As pointed out in the forestry section, major developments in afforestation have been planned and will constitute the major form of land utilization.

There are very few farm holdings in excess of 5 acres which are owner operated. Most of the agricultural land is intensively cultivated by thousands of small holders on 1 to 5 mows (1 acre=4.8 mows) for vegetables, and from 5 to 15 mows

52

PRODUCTION

for rice. A 1952 estimate of the area under crop and orchard is set out in the following table:

Paddy Vegetables Orchard laneous Cultivation

Acres

21,700

2,400

Miscel- Abandoned Total

1,300 3,400 2,200

31,000

Latest figures indicate, however, that this will have to be revised to about 40,000 acres.

For successful farming in the New Territories every advan- tage must be taken of water supply; in some areas this is a critical factor. The average rainfall of some 80 inches falls mainly in the summer months on catchment areas, which descend steeply on to the narrow lowland farming plains. The run-off from low and sparsely covered hills amounts to as much as 70% and considerable ingenuity has been displayed by Chinese farmers in conserving and distributing water to their small holdings. Under a grant from Colonial Development and Welfare funds a special irrigation unit of the Public Works Department has been set up to investigate water supply prob- lems, following which work is proceeding to improve local conditions by strengthening and sealing irrigation channels, improving diversion channels and developing well water sup- plies. Existing dams are being strengthened and improved and new schemes for damming water supplies on the higher narrow valleys are being investigated. Of considerable importance is the new forestry policy which is designed to afforest catchment areas and steep hillsides and restrict the rapid run-off of water supplies.

Agriculture

The principal crops of the Colony, grown for local con- sumption, are rice and vegetables. Fruits, including papaya, pineapple, bananas, lychees, lung-ngan, guava and citrus, such as oranges, lemons, pomelos and the Chinese mandarin, are grown in small quantities. Fruit production suffered heavily

53

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

during the Japanese occupation of the Colony and practically all orchards were ruined by cutting out or neglect. Fruit growing is being restored and the citrus industry is capable of expansion to meet the steady demand of a large market. On land unsuited to rice other crops such as sugar cane and groundnuts may be grown and during the winter a large quan- tity of sweet potatoes are produced for pig food.

With the ban on the export of Chinese products to the American market local farmers have developed a few export crops such as water chestnuts and prepared vegetable and fruit products. In terms of available land area and the increasing demand of a large local population for home grown foods, there are obvious limits to such developments.

This new business has, however, brought ready cash to the rural areas and broadened the economy of subsistence farming.

Rice. This is the staple food of the Chinese and has been grown by settlers from early times. The Chinese are adept at the cultivation of this crop and varieties and farming techniques have been evolved to conform with the local environment. Practically all the rent of farm land is paid in terms of paddy amounting to about 1,600 lbs. of paddy per acre per annum, or about 40% of the total annual yield from the two crops. Much higher yields are obtained in more favoured areas by the use of selected seed of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Fields dependent on rain, and swamps irrigated with brackish water may produce only one crop of rice annually; irrigated fields yield two crops each year. Latest estimates show that about 23,000 short tons of milled rice are grown annually in the New Territories. This represents about one month's supply of the total annual consumption of the Colony.

Vegetables. It is estimated that vegetable farmers and rice farmers who crop vegetables following the second rice harvest produce about three fifths of the Colony's vegetable require-

54

PRODUCTION

ments. During the winter months a wide range of European type vegetables are grown bringing a much needed supply of fresh food to the local markets. During the summer months, the range of vegetables is limited and Hong Kong is then dependent to a much greater extent on imported supplies. The varieties, quantities and value of the business are set out in the marketing section.

Water Chestnuts. This crop was extended from some 84 acres in 1952, to 700 acres in 1953, and yields up to 60 piculs per dau chung (0.16 of an acre) in favoured areas.

The average yield is about 30 piculs per dau chung and the cash return $50.00 per picul. The crop is grown under the same condi- tions as paddy and has supplanted the second rice crop to the extent of the acreage recorded. The crop is grown primarily for processing and export to the United States of America.

1

Farming Methods and Organization. Farmers either raise · vegetables for the local market or grow rice for subsistence, rent and cash for surplus production. Vegetable farming is conducted on very small holdings of a few mows, cultivation is intensive and labour is from family sources.

Rice is pro- duced on somewhat larger holdings by families for subsistence, either as independent holders or as sub-lessees. farmers supplement their incomes by growing vegetables on a portion of the area after the harvesting of the second crop of rice.

Most rice

Where supplies of irrigation water are adequate two crops of rice are grown. Within recent years a portion of the area following the first rice crop is set aside for the cultivation of water chestnuts and the remainder goes down to second rice crop varieties.

Following the second crop of rice, vegetables are planted up if soil and water conditions allow; otherwise the land is eft fallow. Where water supply is inadequate, for reasons

55

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

of transport and other marketing difficulties, sweet potatoes, peanuts, soya beans and a small quantity of sugar cane are cultivated. Peanuts grow well on the red hillside and upper valley soils and certain varieties of sweet potatoes do well in sandy coastal soils during the dry period.

All farmers raise a few chickens and fatten weaners to porker weights and several cultivate the local mushrooms by time-honoured and satisfactory Chinese methods.

The intensity of cultivation with short fallow periods following a succession of crops puts a big drain on the fertility of naturally poor soils. Production is maintained by skill in the use of artificial fertilizers, nightsoil, wood ashes, bone meal, soya bean or peanut cake, duck feathers, dried animal manure and a little compost. The use of artificial fertilizers is increas- ing and the collecting of matured nightsoil from the urban areas and its distribution to the farming areas has been or- ganized on a thoroughly satisfactory basis. Investigations on the use of city garbage for the manufacture of compost are being undertaken by the Urban Services Department and Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Processing. Several factories are concerned with the processing of water chestnuts, soya bean sauce, bean curd, fruit sauces, dried vegetable products and other preparations of the Chinese dietary for local consumption or export to overseas markets.

Marketing. The marketing of vegetables is conducted by the Wholesale Vegetable Marketing Organization which is a semi-official organization under the control of the Director of Marketing. It is intended in due course that producers shall be in complete control of vegetable marketing through their co-operative societies. Co-operation and marketing are discussed in detail at the end of this Chapter.

56

PRODUCTION

Agricultural Conditions in 1953. Weather conditions were optimum in the early part of the season and yields for the first rice crop were well above the average. A drought period in the early days of the second rice crop followed by typhoon periods lowered yields a little below the average. The second rice crop and water chestnuts in exposed areas suffered damage from flooding and salt water. An outbreak of army worm, just before the harvest of the second rice crop, assumed serious proportions but was successfully controlled. The unusual weather towards the close of the year, of alternate cold and warm spells, has had some effect on vegetable and flower production but on the whole farmers have had a fair to good year with reasonable prices for most farm produce.

Animal Husbandry

All the best land is devoted to high yield per acre food crops and the hill country is too steep for grazing and too small in area to support grazing animals. In consequence, there is very little dairy farming and beef and sheep are not raised in the Colony. Local cattle are bred and used for draught purposes, for ploughing and cultivation but not for transport. The local cattle are small, compact and hardy beasts, highly suitable for work on the small terraced fields of the Colony. Considerable numbers of pigs and poultry are raised on farms or by special breeders and the breeding of ducks, geese, turkeys, rabbits and quail is on the increase. Important livestock numbers as recorded on the 31st December, 1953, were:-

Cattle

Buffalo

10,129

Pig

Poultry

Milk Production

57

983

45,500

315,000

7,530,357 lbs.

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Dairying. There is one large dairy farm and several smaller ones which keep imported dairy cattle for fresh milk production. The breeds are mainly Holstein, Ayrshire, Guern- sey and Jersey and the animals are stall fed and rarely leave their byres. Production is maintained by the feeding of im- ported food and concentrates supplemented by locally grown guinea grass.

All animals are tested for freedom from tuber- culosis and are inoculated against other bovine diseases.

Pigs. Pork is an important item in the Chinese diet and a large percentage of local requirements is met by importation. Farmers purchase weaners and rear them to porker weights but since 1947, there has been a steady and important increase in pig breeding by both farmers and specialist breeders. About 12% of the pork requirements is now produced in the Colony and despite many difficulties this can be greatly increased. Improvements in animal husbandry, particularly breeding and feeding, disease control, the provision of boar centres and or- ganized extension work among farmers have assisted these developments.

Minor Livestock Products. Large numbers of eggs are produced in the Colony by farmers and poultry breeders from both local and imported breeds of poultry, and there is a large demand for poultry meat which is being increasingly met. There is a large overseas demand for dried and smoked ducks and preserved eggs, and an extension of duck raising in the New Territories to meet this demand was an important development in 1953.

The meat consumed in the Colony is mainly imported. Beef, especially, is expensive and is in any case not a traditional item of the ordinary man's diet. Pig and poultry farmers have been affected by a rise in price of feeding stuffs during the past year but, in spite of this, pig farming remains an important industry in the Colony.

58

MONOH

I

香港

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

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CNRS GROVE

A magnificient view of Victoria and the Harbour, taken from the Peak looking East.

Photo: Asia Photo Supply, Ltd.

:

INCREASE IN PUPILS IN GOVT. GRANT-IN-AID, SUBSIDIZED AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS SINCE 1946.

MARCH

1946

1947

1948

1949

1950

1951

1952

1953

HQ

ONG

BUBLA

Primary,

ages 4 to 14

Secondary, ages 12 to 20

Post- Secondary, ages 18 and

over.

LIBRARIES

D

In Thousands.

20

40

60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

220

NOTE:

The above figures include Evening Institute students but not students at the University nor 9,500 students attending special afternoon classes.

PRODUCTION

All major animal diseases were kept firmly in check by the combined efforts of the Veterinary and Animal Husbandry staff.

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry

The Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry was formed in 1946, and its growth has been rapid and its influence has extended to all parts of the Colony. There are nine agricul- tural stations situated at Tsun Wan, Sheung Shui, Tai Po, Shatin and Sai Kung on the mainland, and at Silver Mine Bay on Lantau island. During the year, an additional small station was opened at an elevation of 1,500 feet on Mount Tai Mo Shan.

These small stations are the district headquarters of agricultural officers concerned with extension duties and the demonstration of improved agricultural and animal husbandry techniques. Regular monthly meetings are held with farmers to discuss farming problems and from these stations seed, stock, fertilizers, insecticides and farming information are distributed.

The district agricultural stations have become the centres of the district farming scene and are exerting a growing influence with farmers and educationalists. Of great importance

are the organized visits of school children and lecture sessions on local agricultural and animal husbandry topics, arranged by departmental officers.

Irrigation work is confined to the main station of some 50 acres at Ki Lun Wai, Castle Peak, and the pig and poultry station at Sheung Shui. At Ki Lun Wai most of the agronomic work, seed selection and variety trials with rice and vegetables

59

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

are conducted on eleven acres of paddy land and four acres of vegetable land. Work on pure-bred livestock and horti- cultural studies is also undertaken here.

On the pig and poultry stations, studies have been pro- gressing for some years on the crossing of various breeds of imported boars with local sows, and the crossing of imported pedigree breeds of poultry with the local Cantonese hen. This work has now reached the stage of clear cut extension pro- grammes readily acceptable to farmers.

The local swine are prolific breeders, hardy and more resistant to common diseases than imported stock. They lack, however, in other respects, but selected types bred to Berkshire and Middle White boars produce quick growing, hardy offspring of desirable characteristics acceptable to the trade.

Work is nearly complete on the production of a desirable cross with the local Cantonese hen. This work was designed to produce a fast-maturing hybrid suitable for the local market.

The animal disease control section of the division is well organized and has an outstanding record in the control of endemic diseases and major outbreaks. This work has been the dual responsibility of the Director of Agriculture and the Veterinary staff of the Urban Services Department. It is proposed, in 1954, to transfer the Veterinary staff as a separate division under the control of the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Forestry

Forestry services are organized in a separate division under the control of the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

The land area of the Colony is small and with such a large population it cannot be self supporting in timber and other forest products. The purpose of forestry in Hong Kong

60

PRODUCTION

is not, therefore, production but rather protection of the soil and water supplies. Before the war quite considerable areas of forest had been established on the Island and in various areas in the New Territories, and most of the roadsides had been planted with ornamental and shade trees. During the hostilities and Japanese occupation nearly all the forest and many of the roadside trees were destroyed and since 1945, the Forestry Division has been trying to make good the damage by replanting. Early in 1953, however, it became apparent that much of this replanting work had been completed and that the time had come to plan afforestation of new areas. At about the same time, the Tai Lam Chung Reservoir scheme was started and it was important to consider afforestation of the new catchment area of this reservoir. It was a convenient time to review forest conditions in the Colony and to make plans for the future.

Agricultural land, mining areas, towns and residential areas only account for a small area of the land area of the Colony and it has been estimated that nearly three-quarters of the land area is hill land, mostly grass covered but with occasional areas of scrub forest in the ravines and valleys. Local villagers make some use of the more accessible areas for grazing, grass cutting and, to some extent, for growing pine trees but generally the land is not fully or properly used. Grass cutting and fire gradually destroy the vegetation and lead to soil erosion, floods and silting of agricultural land and reservoirs. With insufficient cover the soil becomes hard baked and incapable of absorbing the heavy summer rainfall, so that the reservoirs become quickly filled during flood periods and much valuable water is lost over the dams. Then, in the dry season, as there is no reserve of water held in the soil, the small streams soon dry up and water shortages are common. Forestry can make use of this waste hill land and has the advantage of protecting the soil and safeguarding water supplies, in addition to producing timber and fuel for the local markets. Bearing in mind these con-

61

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

siderations a new forest policy was drafted during the year and was accepted by Government in November, as the future policy of the Forestry Division. The most important outcome of the new policy is that afforestation of the catchment areas and waste hill lands will be carried out more extensively and during the next five years it is planned to plant 1,000 acres a year. In addition help and assistance will be given to the villagers throughout the New Territories to plant and manage their forestry lots.

At the same time as these plans for future forestry work were being drawn up, actual afforestation work was being carried out and over 300 acres of new plantations were formed during the year, mostly in the water catchment areas. In the new catchment area at Tai Lam Chung the most urgent need was to establish forest on the badly eroded areas. Work had been started in 1952, by seeding pine over all the barren areas. The results of this were fairly good and millions of pine seedlings were successfully established, but they were not evenly distributed as the seed had often been blown off the barren ridges by wind, or washed away by torrential rain. During 1953, several hundred thousand pine seedlings were planted in these blank areas, but large areas still remained to be treated. In grass areas, Eucalyptus plantations were formed and have been very successful. Considerable areas were also planted in the catchment area of the Jubilee reservoir at Shing Mun. A number of subsidiary nurseries were started in several of the forest areas and very large stocks of plants raised for planting in 1954.

In the Sai Kung area the scheme of assistance to village forestry was continued. Under this scheme the villagers are helped to form plantations for their own use. Seed and plants are provided but the planting is done by the villagers themselves supervised by the staff of the Forestry Division. In this way the villagers are gradually being taught sound forestry practice.

62

PRODUCTION

The plantations, however, belong to the villagers who are responsible for their protection and maintenance. This scheme of assistance is to be extended in future years and it is hoped that it will lead to the establishment of well managed village plantations throughout the New Territories. During 1953, a number of model plantations were started in convenient centres for demonstration purposes and afforestation of the village lots was continued.

Protection of the plantations and forest areas from damage by fire and illegal wood cutting is a considerable problem. Forest guards are stationed throughout Hong Kong and the New Territories to patrol the hillsides and to prevent illegal woodcutting. It is almost impossible to prevent the outbreak of fires, but an attempt has been made to prevent the risk of fires in plantations by the construction of firebarriers. In addition, look-out posts have been established from which fires can easily be spotted, so that they can be extinguished with the least possible delay. The prevalence of illegal woodcutting is closely linked to the demand for fuel and illegal cutting is usually at its worst in the winter months when the price of fuel is high. During the year, there was a marked improve- ment in the situation as supplies of imported fuel were abundant and the price remained low. As regards fire, it was an excep- tional year, as a number of wet periods in November and December, which are usually the driest months, greatly reduced the fire risk and few serious fires occurred.

Fisheries

Fisheries technical and administrative services are organized as a separate division of the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.

Salt water fish is the main primary product of Hong Kong and the Colony's fishing fleet is probably the largest of any in the Colonial Empire. It is estimated that nearly 6,000 fishing

63

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

craft, manned by a seafaring population of 52,000, are operating from the various ports and fishing centres of the Colony.

Except for ten Japanese type trawlers, owned by fishing companies, the fishing fleet of Hong Kong is made up entirely of owner-operated Chinese junk type vessels, built locally from imported timbers.

The fishing grounds of the Hong Kong fisherman extend to 116° Longitude East and 19° Latitude North and include inshore waters along the China coast. The fishing grounds are set out in the chart depicting the Hong Kong fishing industry between pages 46 and 47.

As the majority of deep-sea fishing vessels are sailing craft, fishing operations are affected by the typhoon season from June to October. Fishermen are reluctant to venture far with sailing vessels from sheltered harbours during this season and devote much of this period to the annual overhaul and repair of vessels and gear.

The production of fish in 1953, amounted to some 31,439 tons compared with 34,448 tons in the 1952 season. This decrease of approximately 3,008 tons was due mainly to unfavourable weather conditions and an unusually bad fishing season in the second half of 1953. Statistical and other data on the Hong Kong fishing industry is detailed in the pictorial map between pages 46 and 47.

During the year, several events occurred which have an important bearing on the progress of the industry. A fisheries policy was approved for the Fisheries Division of the Depart- ment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry and the staff of the division has increased from 3 officers to 20 technical officers and professional fishermen. A 30 ft. modified junk, mechanized with a 10 h.p. diesel engine and with a power-operated deck winch, was built and is operating as a demonstration, training

64

PRODUCTION

and survey vessel. The Fisheries Research Unit, attached to the Zoological Department of the Hong Kong University, was established during the year and a 60 ft. fisheries research. vessel, the "Alister Hardy", was launched in November. Plans for a model purse seiner, to be built from Colonial Develop- ment and Welfare funds, are well advanced. It is hoped to launch this vessel during 1954 and that it will supply the need for a more modern type purse seiner which can be built in local Chinese shipyards.

shipyards. A Fishing Junk Mechanization Exhibition was held in February to demonstrate and explain the benefits of mechanization and the credit facilities available to fishermen from focal engine importers. Towards the close of the year a scheme of loans to fishermen, under the control of the Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, was approved by Government. A loan of $800,000 was made avail- able for this purpose from Colonial Development and Welfare funds.

7

All these activities have resulted in the mechanization of 116 fishing vessels, as compared with 8 in 1952. By the end of December, 1953, the number of mechanized fishing vessels in the Hong Kong fishing fleet was 254.

It is worth recording that during the year numerous inquiries were made by local fishermen concerning the possibility of replacing the traditional junk by a more efficient and modern type of vessel. The model purse seiner referred to above will partly fill this need but plans are being currently investigated for a smaller type of inshore fishing vessel to meet the demand of fishermen.

Fish Ponds, Oyster Beds and Fish Fry. Fish farming in the New Territories involves about 500 acres of fish ponds with an annual production of about 300 tons of carp and mullet. Experiments continued in an endeavour to introduce carp rear- ing in paddy fields. Fish fry export by air, which was intro-

65

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

duced by the Fisheries Division, has reached the stage when it can

now be handed over to private enterprise. Oyster farmers have increased their activities during the year, following the inclusion of oyster and oyster products of Hong Kong origin on the list of imports allowed into the United States of America.

Further statistical data on the fishing industry is included in the marketing section, later in this chapter.

Mines

Before the war mining leases were granted for 'periods up to seventy five years. Both these and prospecting licences have, however, been discontinued pending the introduction of new mining legislation and temporary licences valid for six months are being granted. Royalties are payable at the rate of 5% of the f.o.b. price Hong Kong.

Apart from one pre-war European company, mining is carried on by local Chinese companies operating principally iron, lead and wolfram mines. Their production is all exported; iron ore to Japan and Formosa, lead ore to Europe and the United Kingdom, and wolfram concentrates to the United States of America. There are no processing plants in the Colony. Marketing of products is on contract c.i.f. terms and prices are paid on United States or European metal quotations. The Mines Sub-Department of the Labour Department was started in October, 1951. It is composed of the Superintendent of Mines, Assistant Superintendent of Mines and an Assistant Inspector of Mines, under the general control of the Commis- sioner of Labour. The initial policy of the Mines Sub- Department has been to control illicit mining and prepare a modern set of mining laws and regulations. Every effort is being made to introduce machinery and mechanize existing

66

PRODUCTION

mining companies, and the importation of mining machinery has been facilitated. The following table shows the Colony's output of minerals for the year:-

Type of Mining Minerals

Production

Value

5,933.75 tons $ 356,025.00

Open cast

Clay

Open cast

Iron

123,200.00 tons

1,217,600.00

Open cast

Lead

644.60 tons

291,359.20

Underground

Graphite

200.00 tons

30,000.00

Underground

Underground

Wolfram (WO3 65%) Molybdenum

313,721.50 lbs.

2,494,827.45

3,317.20 lbs.

8,823.75

Underground

Tin

155.70 lbs.

662.80

Manufacturing Industries

General. Although there have been industries in Hong Kong for many years, notably shipbuilding and repairing, which date from the nineteenth century, the present intense industrial development of the Colony started in the nineteen thirties when the introduction of Imperial Preference offered an opportunity to local manufacturers to enter Commonwealth markets successfully. Both world wars stimulated the growth of industries and the Colony produced not only goods no longer obtainable from former sources but also goods for which there was a suddenly increased demand from overseas. Thus, in the years 1939-41 locally built ships and military equipment formed a useful contribution to the United Kingdom's war effort.

All pre-war records of industrial production were lost during the Japanese occupation, but it is estimated that in 1940 there were just over 800 registered and recorded factories and workshops, with about 30,000 workers. Some 500 of these factories were in Kowloon, the remainder on the island. The main industries were shipbuilding and repairing, rubber foot- wear, flashlights, weaving, knitting, metalware, enamelware and food products.

67

are

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The main industries from the point of view of employment cotton spinning, weaving, shipbuilding and repairing, metalware, printing and publishing, chemicals, flashlights, rubber footwear, food products, and garment making. Indus- tries established since 1945 include cotton and wool spinning, aluminium and brass rolling and stamping, egg packing, drinking straws, tapestries, woollen gloves, fire extinguishers, kerosene refining, rolled steel bars, gramophone records, electric irons, kettles and clocks, pressure lamps, plasticwares, silk screen printing, and nylon knitting.

Hong Kong's growth as an industrial centre was facilitated by the flight of both capital and skilled labour from the Chinese mainland, in 1949. An important result has been the emergence within the Colony of industries catering in particular for the large markets of South East Asia. In 1953, the products of local industry amounted to approximately 30% of the Colony's total exports, and it is now evident that with the decline in its status as an entrepôt, which has occurred since the outbreak of the war in Korea in 1950, the Colony can support its greatly swollen population only by developing its industries and finding new markets for its products overseas.

The year was marked by restrictions on trade imposed by China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan and the United States, but despite this exports of Hong Kong manufactured goods increased. Part of this increase is due to the inclusion of a wider range of local products in the recorded statistics.

Hong Kong was again represented successfully at the British Industries Fair where 560 inquiries from visitors from 53 countries were recorded at the Colony's stand. Hong Kong products were also shown by the Chinese Manufacturers' Union in exhibitions at Singapore, Djakarta and Utrecht, and in the Philippines and Formosa. A few factories participated individually in the Seattle Trade Fair.

68

PRODUCTION

The 11th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products, sponsored by the Chinese Manufacturers' Union, was opened on 14th December, by the Governor. This was the largest of the annual exhibitions so far, with 522 stall units. Notable innovations were a general display stall, a reception bureau for overseas visitors, and a competition for the best stall display, which had a marked effect in raising the standard of presentation of exhibits. A new item of special interest was electric clocks, which are now manufactured in the Colony. For the first time in the history of these exhibitions attendance exceeded one million.

The Department of Commerce and Industry is responsible for promoting industrial development and handicrafts in the Colony. A Trade Development Division was set up in the department during the year to stimulate trade promotion. Consideration is being given to the question of providing new industrial sites in the Colony, in particular in connexion with the development of new resettlement areas.

Handicrafts and home industries are not organized on a formal basis and receive no special encouragement from Government, but production is undertaken by a very large number of small concerns located in premises among wooden shacks in squatter settlements or tenament buildings. It is estimated that as many as 200,000 persons may be employed in these small domestic-type industries.

No special encouragement is given to industry by way of income tax and import duty concessions, other than that, apart from a few revenue producing duties, the Colony is a free port and that Government regulation of trade is kept to a minimum. The duty on locally manufactured beer is, however, less than that on imported beer. All businesses are required to register with the Department of Commerce and Industry under the Business Regulation Ordinance, 1952, and to pay a moderate

69

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

annual fee for registration. No financial assistance has been given by Government towards the development of industry or handicrafts.

The vast majority of industrial concerns in the Colony are Chinese-owned and operated.

Heavy Industries

The rise of the shipbuilding and repairing industry followed rapidly upon Hong Kong's development as one of the world's great ports. There is a total of twenty shipbuilding and repair- ing establishments in the Colony employing among them some 7,000 workers, but the great majority of these are small con- cerns dealing with wooden vessels, lighters, launches, ferries, and other small craft. The industry is centred mainly on the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Ltd., and the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company Ltd. Together they are capable of producing 80,000 tons of new shipping a year. Modern cranes and machinery enable them to apply the latest methods of construction to both welded and rivetted ships. Vessels up to 500 feet in length can be accommodated on the building berths. The list of vessels built in Hong Kong em- braces practically every type of craft afloat: yachts, motor launches, dumb lighters, tugs, river craft, inter-island coasters, and cargo and passenger liners of all kinds.

The Taikoo Dockyard launched and completed a motor cargo and passenger vessel for service on the Malayan coast and a 2,000 ton deadweight motor cargo vessel for Norwegian owners, and launched a sister ship to the latter which will be completed early in 1954. In addition, this company laid the keel for a 6,500 ton motor ship which is to be followed by a similar ship in 1954.

Both companies also undertook engine building and ship- repairing. Currently under construction at Taikoo Dockyard are a 1,500 B.H.P. Taikoo-Sulzer and a 4,500 B.H.P. Taikoo-

70

PRODUCTION

Doxford diesel engine. Castings of up to 30 tons in weight can be handled in the foundries. Dry-dock facilities are now available in six granite dry-docks up to 787 feet in length, and in patent slipways capable of accommodating vessels up to 420 feet in length and 4,000 tons displacement. There are two stationary hammerhead cranes capable of lifting up to

150 tons.

Other heavy industries in Hong Kong are represented by 16 iron foundries employing 400 workers and four mills for the rolling of iron and steel bars and rounds, which employ about 800 workers. The bulk of production is utilized locally, but some is shipped to other South East Asian territories.

Arrangements are now in hand by one factory for the setting up of a steel plant, in the Colony, for the melting of steel scrap obtained locally, into mild steel reinforcing bars for building construction and other purposes in South East Asia. It is expected that this plant will provide employment for at least one thousand workers.

Light Industries

IES

A wide range of light industries exists in the Colony, manufacturing varied products of increasingly good quality. The most important of these industries are detailed below.

Textiles. The textile industry has grown enormously since 1948 and now employs the largest labour force in the Colony, estimated at over 30% of the total number of workers employed in registered and recorded factories. There are 13 cotton spin- ning mills in Hong Kong, operating at present a total of The 213,000 spindles and employing over 10,000 workers. addition of 45,000 more spindles early in 1954 is planned. The counts of yarn spun range from 10s to 42s and can be supplied in single or multiple threads. Total output is about 7,200,000 pounds weight of yarn per annum, a large part of

71

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

which is exported to Indonesia, Pakistan, Burma, South Korea, Thailand and the Philippines. Several of the mills have installed combing plants and have changed over to roller bearing spindles, in order to improve quality and to spin yarns of finer counts. Some of them are equipped for weaving, for which they utilize the latest type of automatic looms.

There are over 160 weaving factories in the Colony with a total of some 6,000 machines and 11,000 workers. The cloths produced are sheetings, shirtings, drills, matts, osnaburgs, cel- lular fabrics, checks and suitings. In addition considerable quantities of tapes, webbing, laces and other wares are also turned out. Exports are mainly to Indonesia, the Philippines, South Africa, Malaya, Thailand, Australia, the United Kingdom and East Africa. Three weaving companies are engaged in the production of brocaded silk goods for making up into house- coats, tea gowns, and other ready-made garments.

In addition to 46 finishing factories employing 1,000 workers, there are 273 knitting mills employing over 9,000 workers and producing excellent articles of underwear and outer garments, swim-suits, gloves, socks and stockings, in silk, cotton and wollen yarns.

In 1953, exports of cotton piece goods were valued at £9,846,600; of cotton yarn at £6,259,800; and of textile made- up articles at £9,912,100.

Enamelware and other metal products. There are 20 factories, employing over 2,500 workers, engaged in the production of articles of enamelware. In addition there are 25 factories making tin cans, 33 engaged in electro-plating, 4 turning out aluminium ware, 5 producing vacuum flasks, and 186 other factories making needles, nails and screws, hurricane lamps, brass and aluminium sheets, metal windows, umbrella ribs and other metalwares. The total labour force employed in this segment of local industry is over 12,000. Exports,

72

PRODUCTION

during 1953, of enamelled household utensils amounted to £2,762,100, and of household utensils of aluminium to £246,800. During the year a new stamping factory was opened for enamel utensils.

Paint and Lacquer. Eleven factories with a total of 400 workers produce high quality paints and lacquers for sale locally as well as overseas, the principal overseas markets being Malaya, Thailand, Burma and Formosa. Exports, in 1953, amounted to 8,133,047 lbs. valued at £679,700.

Foodstuffs and Beverages. There are 235 factories, with a total of over 5,000 workers, engaged in the food manufacturing industry. Of these 19 are concerned with the canning and preserving of vegetables and fruits, 8 with ginger, 56 with flour and rice milling, 30 with bean curd, 19 with soy sauce and gourmet powder, 28 with bakeries and confectionery, and the remainder with other food products. A total of 29 factories, employing over 800 workers, produce soft drinks, Chinese wine, beer and malt. Exports, in 1953, of foodstuffs and beverages were valued at £1,214,700.

Electric Torches, Batteries and Bulbs. There are 31 factories, with a total of over 4,000 workers, making electric hand torches; 8 factories, with a total of some 300 workers, making batteries; and 25 factories, with a total of some 700 workers, making bulbs. Another 7 factories, with some 200 workers, were concerned with the repair of radios, the manufacture or assembly of electrical appliances, and the assembly of neon lights. Exports, in 1953, of electric torches, batteries and bulbs amounted in value to £3,313,100.

Tobacco Manufactures. There are 5 factories employing about 1,000 workers engaged in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes. The principal factories are those of the British- American Tobacco Company (Hong Kong) Ltd., Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company Ltd., The Hong Kong Tobacco

73

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Company Ltd., and the London Tobacco Company Ltd. Cigarettes and cigars of all qualities are manufactured and the production of packaging is also carried out in the Colony. The local tobacco industry has found itself in increasing diffi- culties since the closure of the China market in 1949, and the year has been marked by a series of staff retrenchments carried out by the British-American Tobacco Company (Hong Kong) Ltd., in particular. There was some improvement in the em- ployment position in this industry towards the end of the year. Exports of cigarettes were valued at £165,600.

Footwear. The principal items of footwear manufactured locally are rubber shoes and boots. There are 51 factories engaged in the production of these items, with a total labour force of over 6,000. Exports, during 1953, amounted to 911,402 dozen pairs valued at £3,291,000. The United Kingdom is by far the largest market.

Cement. Only one factory, the Green Island Cement Co., Ltd., is engaged in the manufacture of cement in the Colony. It has a capacity of 110,000 tons a year and employs 260 workers. Apart from clay and iron ore, all the raw materials required are obtained from overseas. The great bulk of the company's output is absorbed locally, but some exports are sent to Malaya and Borneo and other South East Asian territories. Exports, in 1953, were valued at £159,054.

Cordage, Rope and Twine. There are 40 factories employ- ing some 800 workers in this section of local industry. The most important of these is the Hong Kong Rope Manufacturing Company Ltd., which produces ropes and hawsers of various kinds from raw fibre imported from the Philippines.

Matches. There are four match factories in the Colony, with a total labour force of 500. Their products are of good quality and find their largest markets in Malaya, the United Kingdom, the Philippines and Indonesia. The value of exports during the year was £72,081.

74

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Photo: Roy Tsang

Girls work under hygienic conditions in Hong Kong's modern cotton mills.

P

At the Kowloon-Canton Railway Yard major repairs and assembly work is undertaken.

Photo: Francis Wu

CO

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Cottage industries give work to many people in the Colony.

give

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I

RIES

4

PRODUCTION

Plasticwares. Thirty factories employing a total of over 800 workers are represented in this section of local industry, but only two are engaged in modern methods of production. A very wide range of products is available-toothbrushes, mugs, plates, combs, coat hangers, cigarette cases, electrical fittings, signboards, chopsticks, poker chips, toys, etc. Exports during the year were valued at £302,899, and the main markets were Malaya, Indonesia, the Philippines, Burma and Thailand.

Sugar refining. There are four sugar factories and refineries in the Colony, employing a total of over 500 workers, but the only large scale refinery is that of the Taikoo Sugar Refining Company Ltd., which was established in 1884. From raw sugar obtained principally from Mauritius it produces light quality refined sugar, granulated sugar, crystals, half cubes, brown sugar and golden syrup.

Miscellaneous. Other local industries which employ sub- stantial numbers of workers are mining and quarrying-2,000; wearing apparel, footwear (other than rubber), and made-up textiles-3,900; wood and cork manufactures (other than furniture)-1,400; printing, publishing and paper dyeing-5,800; chemicals and chemical products (other than paints and lacquers)-2,000; clay, pottery, abrasives, glass and glassware-

1,700.

Co-operative Societies

..

BLIC LIB

Fish Marketing Organization. In 1945, Government set up a Fish Marketing Organization to control the transportation and wholesale marketing of marine fish. The main aim of the Organization is the provision of orderly and efficient transport and marketing facilities so that fishermen may receive a fair return for their produce and so be encouraged to increase production. The Organization is self-supporting and has been so planned that eventually it may be taken over by the fisher- men and run as a co-operative enterprise.

75

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The main functions of the Organization are the collection and transportation of fish from the fishing villages to the four wholesale markets in the urban area and the supervision of sales and financial transactions. Fish collecting depôts have been established in the main fishing villages; fishermen who send their catch through these depôts may leave their produce in the hands of the staff of the Organization who look after it until it is sold in the Market. The majority of fishermen, however, prefer to accompany their own fish to market or have a friend or agent to look after it for them. In the wholesale markets, the fish is sorted into types and grades, weighed and put up for public auction. The proceeds of sales (less a 6% commission charge which covers the cost of services provided by the Organization) may be collected by the fishermen directly after the auction, or later from their local depôt.

The main types of fresh fish sold in the wholesale markets during the year were golden thread, lizard fish, red sea bream, conger pike, hair tail and yellow croaker. The average whole- sale and retail prices of these fish are given below:

Type of Fish

Average Wholesale Price ($ per catty)

Average Retail Price ($ per catty)

Golden Thread

1.07

1.50

Lizard Fish

.56

1.00

Red Sea Bream

1.07

1.50

Conger Pike

.87

1.35

Hair Tail

.68

1.00

Yellow Croaker

1.34

1,80

76

PRODUCTION

Prior to 1950, there was a thriving export industry in salt/dried fiish to China but, shortly after the start of the Korean war, the Chinese authorities placed an embargo on the import of salt/dried fish from Hong Kong. During the past few years, exporters have made determined and successful attempts to find new export markets. The main overseas markets are now Singapore, Formosa, Macao, Indonesia, Siam and the Philippine Islands and there is every indication that the U.S.A. will also become one of these markets.

Over the past few years, the Organization has operated a revolving loan fund which provides fishermen with credit facilities for productive purposes. At the end of 1953, 1,990 loans amounting to about $1,250,000 had been granted, of this amount, $1,037,000 has been repaid.

Education plays a large part in the welfare programme of the Organization and over 1,000 fishermen's children are receiv- ing education in schools wholly or partially financed by the Organization.

Vegetable Marketing Organization. A Vegetable Marketing Organization was established by Government in mid-September, 1946. This Organization controls the transport and wholesale marketing of vegetables produced in or imported into the New Territories. With the provision of adequate transport and marketing facilities it was expected that the local farmer, as a result of receiving a fair return for his labour, would be encouraged to increase production. That these hopes have been fulfilled may be seen from the fact that in 1953, local produce amounted to 50,401 tons, with a wholesale value of $15,565,307, as compared with 19,440 tons and $5,269,386 for 1947 (the first year in which the Organization was in operation).

The Organization is responsible for the collection and transport of vegetables from collecting points in the New Territories to a central wholesale market in Kowloon. Collect-

77

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

ing depôts have been established in the main production areas, and farmers operating through them may leave their produce in the hands of the Organization's staff, who look after the vegetables until they are sold in the market. The proceeds of sales (less a 10% commission charge) are taken back to the depôts by the same staff for distribution to the farmers.

It is Government's intention that the Organization should later be run as a co-operative enterprise by the farmers them- selves. To this end, farmers are being actively encouraged to form co-operative societies to take over the work of the Organization's depôts. By the end of the year, some 45% to 50% of all locally grown vegetables were being handled by registered Co-operative Marketing Societies, and farmer-operated Collect- ing Centres (embryo Co-operative Societies, financed by the Organization but administered by the farmers).

Л

The marketing scheme is operated under the "Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952" which provides for the appointment of the Director of Marketing as a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property. The Ordinance also provides for the appointment of a Marketing Advisory Board, consisting of the Director as chairman and four other persons nominated by Government.

For many years, one of the main problems of the local vegetable farmers was the lack of a cheap fertilizer. In 1952, the Organization started a scheme for the maturation and dis- tribution of nightsoil collected from the Kowloon area. This scheme proved to be most successful and during the year it was decided to take nightsoil collected from the urban area of Hong Kong island.

During the latter part of the year the Organization set up a revolving fund for the purpose of extending credit facilities to vegetable farmers. The loans are for productive purposes only and are made available to farmers through Co-operative

78

PRODUCTION

Societies. Although the scheme only came into operation late in November, by the end of the year over 120 farmers had received short-term loans, totalling about $25,000, through their Co-operative Societies.

The Organization continues to receive valuable financial assistance from Colonial Development and Welfare Funds. Up to the end of 1953, a total of $805,849 in grants and loans had been disbursed from this Fund and expended on the con- struction and running expenses of Vegetable Collecting Centres and Depôts and the purchase of a land transport fleet.

The main types of vegetables produced locally were white cabbage, flowering cabbage, turnips, tomatoes, water spinach and water-cress; the main types of imported vegetables were tientsin cabbage, irish potatoes, chinese melons, hairy squash, white cabbage and turnips. The average wholesale and retail prices of these vegetables during the year were:-

Locally Produced Vegetables

PIL

Type of Vegetables

Average Wholesale Price ($ per catty)

Average Retail Price ($ per catty)

White Cabbage

0.15

0.21

Flowering Cabbage

0.20

0.27

Turnips

0.10

0.18

Tomatoes

0.18

0.30

Water Spinach

0.12

0.25

...

Water-cress

0.17

0.23

79

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Type of Vegetables

Imported Vegetables

Average Wholesale Price ($ per catty)

Average Retail Price ($ per catty)

Tientsin Cabbage

Irish Potatoes

Chinese Melon

Hairy Squash

White Cabbage Turnips

Co-operatives

0.19

0.34

0.20

0.32

0.13

0.15

0.17

• •

0.27

0.12

0.20

0.07

0.17

This was a year of steady progress for the Co-operative division; during the year, 21 new Co-operative Societies were registered. The following table shows the Societies in existence as at 31st December, 1953:-

Co-operative

Members

Paid up share

Deposits

capital

Loans Loans granted repaid

Reserve Fund

as at 31.12.53.

$

69

$

$

$

11 Vegetable Marketing

Societies

1,872

15,234

24.860 5.418.80 11,948.61

5 Boar Service

Societies

121

1,980

103.36

1 Irrigation Society

23

160

11 Fishermen's Thrift

and Loan Societies

162

1,430 41,830.60

112,870 30,392.60

761.15

2 Salaried Workers

Thrift and Loan

Societies

286

1.175

4,773.00

1 Federation of

Co-operative

Societies

5*

500

31 Co-operative

Societies

2,469

20,479 46,603.60 137,730 35,811.40 12,813.12

(* Societies).

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PRODUCTION

The main work of the department since the promulgation of the Co-operative Societies Ordinance, in 1951, has been concerned with the primary producers, the fishermen and the farmers.

At first, the fostering of co-operation among the conserva- tive fishermen proved to be difficult. However, in 1952, a group of purse-seiner fishermen in the Tai Po area were per- suaded to form a credit society and the progress of this society was followed closely by fishermen of other districts. Such was the success attained by this society that soon several groups of fishermen were wanting similar societies. During the year, ten more fishermen's Credit Societies were formed.

Progress among the vegetable farmers continued steadily and it is notable that, by the end of the year, some 45% to 50% of the vegetable produce of the Colony was being handled through Co-operative Societies and farmers Collecting Centres. The Vegetable Marketing Co-operative Societies have formed a Federation; this was another important milestone in the endeavour to make the Vegetable Marketing Organization fully Co-operative.

The Boar Service Co-operative Societies are popular and the demand for such societies is steady. The formation of these societies has been greatly helped as a result of the Agricultural Department's giving a boar free of charge to each group.

Two Thrift and Loan Societies were formed among salaried workers during the year. It is expected that this type of society will become popular among Government servants and other salaried staff in the Colony.

81

Education

Chapter 7

SOCIAL SERVICES

The administration of the Education department has been considerably eased through the acquisition by Government of centrally situated premises. All sections of the department are now under one roof.

The problem of post-war educational policy has been to provide adequate facilities, not only for children of Hong Kong parentage, but also for the children of the refugees who came to the Colony as a result of unsettled conditions in China. Against the background of a very high birth rate, the acute problem of the resettlement of refugees and a trade depression, development has taken place in two directions; in the extension of primary education and in the endeavour to relate education to the environment of the children concerned.

As the large majority receive only primary education, it has been planned to make this as far as possible complete in itself, and to emphasize quality and to enlarge the scope of education. Thus children completing their education at the primary stage are able to adjust themselves more to the demands of the environment in which they will work and spend the rest of their lives.

Education in the Colony is voluntary and under the general control of the Director of Education, acting under the Educa- tion Ordinance of 1952, which gives statutory powers to the Board of Education to advise on educational matters. The Director is required to keep a register of schools, teachers and managers of schools and to ensure that satisfactory standards. are maintained in respect of structural requirements, methods of enforcing discipline, the keeping of registers and accounts, the payment of fees and the proper conduct and efficiency of schools and teachers.

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SOCIAL SERVICES

Government directly controls 22 primary schools, 10 post- primary and secondary schools, 2 technical schools and 1 technical college, 3 colleges for the training of teachers, the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies and the Evening Institute. The average age of entry and leaving government primary schools is 6.6 and 13.8 years respectively and for secondary schools 13.9 and 19 years.

Under the terms of the Grant Code (applying to schools run by missionary bodies), Government pays the difference between the approved expenditure of a school and its income from fees and other sources. Approved expenditure includes salaries, incidentals, passages and leave pay for teachers so entitled. Grants may also be made up to the cost of 50% of the cost of new buildings and major repairs. There are 4 kindergarten, 19 primary and 19 secondary departments of schools functioning under the Grant Code. In general, English is the medium of instruction in the senior classes. In Grant- aided schools, catering more for secondary grades, the average age of entry and leaving was 10.9 and 18.21 years.

Government also operates a Subsidy Code, the object of which is to encourage the establishment and expansion of vernacular primary schools with reliable committees of management, particularly in rural areas. The financial assistance given under this Code enables school managers to keep school fees at a reasonably low level and ensures more satisfactory salary scales for teachers than would otherwise be possible. The number of schools receiving subsidies varies from year to year, but is steadily increasing. During the year, 328 primary schools, with 9 secondary and 3 technical or voca- tional departments, received subsidies from the Government.

There were 664 private schools of every type, from kinder- garten to adult evening schools, maintained entirely from their own resources. Government exercises more direct supervision of grant-aided and subsidized schools than over private schools, thus ensuring adequate facilities and satisfactory standards of

83

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

tuition. Many private schools, however, are as good education- ally as those in other categories. The average are of entering and leaving private and subsidized schools was 7.5 and 13.5 years for primary, and 14.5 and 19.5 for secondary schools.

The University of Hong Kong is an independent body which receives an annual grant from Government of HK$1,500,000.

Actual government expenditure on education, during the year ending 31st July, was $26,654,869. Recurrent expenditure was $10,310,555, which included $8,279,811 on staff salaries, $552,544 on the maintenance and repair of school buildings and $1,478,200 on other charges. Capital expenditure, for the same period, on buildings, furniture and equipment was $2,096,795. Expenditure on grants-in-aid and subsidies was $12,744,047. Miscellaneous payments included $1,472 for the Amenities Fund for Colonial students in the United Kingdom, $2,000 to the Hong Kong Teachers' Association and the sum of $1,500,000 to Hong Kong University, as noted above.

Expenditure by other departments on education was $330,757. Estimated expenditure on education by voluntary organizations was just over $5,000,000, in addition to $28,000,000 fee receipts from private and subsidized schools.

The number of schools and total enrolment as at 30th June, 1953, was as follows:

(The increase in the number of children in schools since 1946 is illustrated in the diagram facing page 59)

No. of

Enrol-

Schools

ment

No. of Teachers

Government

40

15,924

516

Grant-aided

20 14,130

635

Subsidized

328

42,930

1,388

Private

664

131,181

6,658

Special Afternoon Classes

9,725

1,052 213,890

9,197

84

SOCIAL SERVICES

The number of students at the University of Hong Kong was 985, divided between the faculties of arts, science, medicine, engineering, civil engineering, architecture and education. The teaching staff included 14 professors, 2 readers, 9 senior lec- turers, 31 lecturers, 11 assistant lecturers, 40 demonstrators and tutors and some part-time staff.

A special committee recommends students wishing to go to Britain for higher study. The Director of Colonial Scholars in London arranges their placing, and a liaison officer is responsible for their general welfare. Although students are making increasing use of these facilities, there are still many who make their own arrangements. The following table shows the distribution of students by the courses they follow and the country in which they are studying.

Course followed

Agricultural Sciences

Commercial subjects Education

Country

U.K.

Eire Canada

2

16

1

• •

4

Fine Arts, Applied Arts,

Architecture

Law

Library Science

Medical Sciences

22

2

Source of payment

Private in the case of all students in Eire and Canada: private in the case of students in U.K. except as noted below:-

British Council

2 Sino-British Trust,

1 British Council

10

25

1

30

6

4

Philosophy and Humani-

ties, Arts

Science (general)

Social Sciences

Technology and Engi-

neering Sciences

Inland revenue

Meteorology

....

Colonial Development

and Welfare Scheme

6

4

18

37

1

1

93

8

1

2

208

8

60

85

2 Colonial Development

and Welfare Scheme

Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme

Colonial Development and Welfare Scheme

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

In addition to the 276 students listed in the table, there were 47 students in Britain doing preliminary courses. Four officers of the Education Department were given assistance by the Government, one who held a Unesco Fellowship to study educational administration in Britain, Switzerland, U.S.A., Japan and the Philippines; one with a Colonial Development and Welfare Scholarship to study educational method and the train- ing of primary teachers in Britain, Denmark and Sweden: one with a U.S.A. scholarship to do research on teacher training in the United States, and one with an International Labour Organization grant for a vocational training study tour in Australia, the Philippines and Japan.

Three colleges for the training of teachers have an enrol- ment of 198 student teachers. There was, however, an urgent need for more and better trained teachers. Several methods were used to meet this need. Refresher courses were arranged for qualified teachers in rural schools: 50 unqualified teachers were given a four months course of training: 160 unqualified teachers began a special two year course, while for a further similar course 120 unqualified rural teachers were enrolled: summer conferences were arranged for teachers to meet together, attend lectures and discuss their problems.

A Professional Teachers' Training Board has been con- stituted to discuss plans for the exchange of teacher training facilities between the University and Government, the organiza- tion of courses for unqualified teachers, summer refresher courses and teachers' salaries.

During the year, 116 trained teachers entered government schools, 60 entered grant schools and 530 entered private and subsidized schools. This represents 22% of the total in govern- ment schools, 9.45% in grant-aided schools and 6.6% in private and subsidized schools. The intake of trained teachers was 13% of all teachers for the year.

86

SOCIAL SERVICES

The conditions of service for qualified teachers in sub- sidized schools have been improved and they are now paid at the same rates as similarly qualified teachers in government and grant-aided schools. Teachers in urban subsidized schools are permitted to participate in the School Health service and receive medical attention at inexpensive rates.

The Education department maintains two libraries; one largely reference, but with borrowing facilities extended to teachers; the other is a textbook library at the Northcote Train- ing College. The University of Hong Kong possesses both an English and a Chinese library, but membership is restricted. The British Council and the United States Information Service libraries cover a wide range of fiction and non-fiction and are open to the general public. The Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce has a library consisting mainly of commercial publications. The Junior Chamber of Commerce has been very active in establishing libraries for children in schools and welfare centres, and is considering the question of a travelling library. It is expected that provision will be made for a public library in the new city hall when this is erected.

Government provision for technical education includes the Technical College, and two junior technical schools. Enrolment in the day department of the Technical College was 177, and in the evening department 1,993. Courses at the Technical College included building, telecommunications, navigation, mechanical engineering and commerce. The Junior Technical School enrolment was 255 and a four-year pre-apprenticeship course was offered including general subjects and woodwork, metalwork and technical drawing. The Ho Tung Technical School for girls had an enrolment of 229. The course begins with general subjects and then branches out into domestic, commercial and industrial courses, with specialist instruction as a preparation for employment.

87

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Private technical and commercial schools, with day and night classes, had a total enrolment of 4,228. Courses offered included electrical engineering, civil and mechanical engineer- ing, wireless telegraphy, aero engines, automobile engineering on the technical side, and English, book-keeping, accounting, typewriting and shorthand on the commercial side. Standards of tuition varied: among the best were those managed by the Salesian Society and the Far Eastern Flying School.

Adult education was carried out mainly through the Evening Institute classes organized by the Education depart- ment, the Technical College Evening department and by private night schools. In addition, officers of the Agricultural and Fisheries department and others visited centres of local industry to advise and lecture on agricultural, technical, industrial and special subjects. A standing committee on Technical Education and Vocational Training is to be set up, which will be concerned with adult technical classes, and an advisory committee already exists in connexion with the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies. Maximum enrolment figures for adult education in classes provided directly by Government were 1,403 in general classes, 2,600 in technical classes, and 332 in the School of Higher Chinese Studies. General courses are determined by demand; they include accountancy, commercial book-keeping and costing, shorthand, English, biology, handwork and carpentry. Additional classes in English and book-keeping have been started in rural areas, where literacy classes were also

areas organized.

The Technical College evening courses include building, electrical engineering, field surveying, mechanical engineering and naval architecture, all of which are taught in English. These are divided into a senior course, of 3 years' duration, and an advanced course of 2 years. These correspond to S1, S2 and S3, and A1, A2 respectively, of the National Certificate Courses offered in United Kingdom technical colleges. There

88

SOCIAL SERVICES

are shorter courses in shot-firing and blasting and in internal combustion engines, in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese.

There is also an engineering (preliminary) course in the evenings, which lasts for 3 years and provides a general education in English and mathematics, with some technical drawing. The aim is to enable students with a poor basic education to reach the standard necessary to enter the senior courses. Courses in arts, journalism and commerce are provided in the School of Higher Chinese Studies. Each course extends over three years, the first of which was originally intended to be common to all, and to include literature, history, English and social studies. To meet the needs of students wanting full vocational courses, however, this plan has had to be modified in regard to journalism and commerce.

Coronation celebrations covered a wide sphere of activities during the year, including a Festival of Youth, sports competi- tions, film shows and processions. A quarter of a million souvenirs were presented to school children and children not attending school.

A special effort was made to improve the standard of teachers. In addition to the normal work of the training colleges, special courses were arranged for 758 teachers, mostly unqualified. Courses ranged from short intensive periods to two year part-time courses leading to qualified status. The salaries of teachers in government-aided schools were increased.

In keeping with the development plan, enrolment increased from 168,547 in 1951, to 201,072 in 1952, and 211,041 in 1953; and expenditure from $20,840,000 in 1952, to $22,400,000 in 1953, and an estimated $31,081,918 for 1954/5.

An essential part of education policy was the provision of more and better primary education for the large number who will not go beyond that stage. Thus, 22,000 new places were provided in primary schools in the 1951-53 period.

89

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Expansion in scope and enrolment took place in technical education. A new vocational school for girls and a new government technical school for girls were built during the year, and in addition, a new trade school was started with government assistance. The Technical College day and evening departments, especially the latter, have shown remarkable in- creases. Enrolment for the Technical College Evening Classes, the School of Higher Chinese Studies and the Evening Institute, which includes adult education and literacy classes, rose from 2,072 in 1951/52 to 4,335 in 1952/53.

There was almost a fifty per cent increase in the number of entries for the Hong Kong School Certificate Examination and a further increase is anticipated in the coming year. The Chinese School Certificate Examination, recently introduced, is expected to raise the standard of education in the Chinese Middle Schools.

A syllabus and Text-books committee has been responsible for suggesting new syllabuses for the schools and encouraging the production of text-books in Chinese.

The great popularity of music, drama and art was evident in the Schools Music Festival, the Inter-School Dramatic com- petitions and in the exhibition of child art held during the year. Further, interest in extra-curricular activities can be seen in the increasing interest in physical education and sport, in schools and training colleges, in the entries for the School Garden competition and various handcraft and rural activity sections of the New Territories Agricultural Show.

Public Health

General Health. Although the Colony did not experience a major pestilence, the pattern of disease incidence reflected the insanitary environmental circumstances arising from widespread overcrowding in the urban areas, and the unhygienic conditions

90

いいいいい

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Efficient up-to-date berthing facilities are available for ocean going vessels (above), whilst

major repairs can be carried out in Hong Kong's well equipped dockyardą (below).

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IES

1

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

The new Chemistry Building at the University of Hong Kong (above) and the modern lighthouse and Weather Station at Waglan Island (right) have been made possible through grants from the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund.

Photo: Wah Kiu Yat Po

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?

SOCIAL SERVICES

obtaining in many of the squatter areas. Typhoid fever, which has shown an increasing prevalence for the past eight years, caused great concern as the number of cases recorded was higher than ever before and, at the incidence peak which occurred late in June, the number of notifications received in a week reached the high figure of 71. The resources of the infectious diseases hospitals were then strained to the limit, and unable to admit all cases, so that it became necessary to make arrangements for the accommodation of the surplus cases in the wards of the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals. )

Other intestinal infections were also of frequent occurrence but did not present such a problem as did typhoid fever.

During the colder months, in the first quarter of the year, diphtheria occurred in epidemic proportion throwing a serious additional strain on hospital resources. It was fortunate, how- ever, that following the normal pattern, incidence substantially diminished with the onset of the warmer weather just at the time when the incidence of typhoid fever was increasing rapidly.

There was a further rise in the birth rate to the figure of 33.6 per thousand population, as compared with 32.0 in the previous year. The total number of births was 75,544. Deaths numbered 18,300 and the rate per thousand was 8.1, a low rate which, in part, stems from the Colony's unusual population age distribution occasioned by the influx of young adults since the end of the war.

The maternal mortality rate was 0.97 per thousand births as compared with 1.14 per thousand births in 1952, and 1.59 and 1.7 in 1951 and 1950, respectively. There was a further drop in the infant mortality rate from 77.1 per thousand live births in 1952, to 73.6, thus continuing the trend which has been evident since 1947, when the infant mortality rate was 102.3 per thousand live births. These satisfactory figures are

91

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

certainly, in part, accounted for by the fact that 96% of the total births were attended either by a registered midwife or a medical practitioner.

The table at Appendix XA sets forth the prevalence of, and the mortality arising from, the more important infectious diseases occurring in the Colony.

Typhoid Fever. As already mentioned, this infection caused grave concern and the degree of concern may be gauged from the figures quoted below:

Year

Cases

Deaths

Case fatality rate

1946

221

115

1947

246

61

1948

311

69

1949

408

89

52%

24.8%

22.2%

21.8%

1950

907

160

17.6%

1951

1,024

134

13.1%

1952

1,230

158

12.8%

1953

1,434

128

8.9%

Consideration of these figures will leave little doubt that unless radical change is effected in the unfavourable circumstances at present prevailing in the Colony, a further increase in incidence may be expected next year, which may well necessitate special steps being taken, in the middle of the year when the peak incidence may be expected, to provide special hospital accom- modation for these cases.

Public health staff concentrated their activities on the supervision of food handling practices but the magnitude of this problem was such at to make it clear that rapidly bene- fical results from this approach could not be expected, and it was decided to resort, in addition, to protective inoculation

92

SOCIAL SERVICES

on as wide a scale as possible. Special attention was paid to employees in restaurants and other establishments concerned with the handling of food. A mass inoculation campaign among school children was also launched by the School Health Service, as there was clear evidence that the infection was occurring with relatively greater frequency in the younger population age groups. Public response was not as great as it had been to other inoculation campaigns, perhaps because of the two injections necessary to give protection and also, perhaps, because of the relatively severe reaction liable to be experienced from the injection. Nevertheless, the campaign was pursued, particularly in controlled population groups, and, by the end of the year 91,346 persons had been protected by this means.

All notified cases were treated in hospital, chloramphenicol being the therapeutic agent generally used, and results were satisfactory. The falling case fatality rate, shown in the figures above, in spite of the increased number of cases, is certainly partly accounted for by earlier diagnosis and improved methods of treatment.

J

The Dysenteries. The number of cases of bacillary dysentery notified was practically double that of the previous year, the figure being 662 as compared with 336 in 1952. There was an increase, too, in the number or notified cases of amoebic dysentery, there being 285 notifications as compared with 201 in the previous twelve months.

Diphtheria. The increasing prevalence of this infection, particularly evident since 1949, continued. The two infectious diseases hospitals again were under severe strain at the season of peak incidence, as it was the policy to hospitalise all cases whenever the diagnosis was established. The total number of cases notified was 1,116 and there were 133 deaths, giving a case fatality rate of 11.92%. Cases and deaths in the previous year numbered 987 and 157. Unfortunately, far too many

93

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

cases only come under medical care when the disease has pro- gressed so far that the effect of treatment is less certain, and very often recourse has to be had to tracheotomy to save life. Nevertheless, the falling case fatality rate is encouraging evidence of increasing appreciation of the value of available medical services.

In the first quarter of the year a vigorous immunization campaign was launched, following intensive propaganda. The response was unexpectedly good, so good that at times the supply organization was embarrassed having planned the arrival of vaccine in the Colony on the basis of past experience. At one stage, supplies of toxoid ran out and had to be re- plenished by air lift from the United States of America and the United Kingdom. The greater part of the vaccine for this campaign was supplied by the United Nations International

Children's Emergency Fund. Children in the age range 6 months to 10 years were offered protection. The total number during the year to receive the first injection of toxoid was 195,797, and the total number fully immunised was 154,377.

Cerebro-spinal meningitis. This infection, so liable to become epidemic in conditions of overcrowding, showed only endemic incidence. Preventive measures cannot claim credit for this and there is the ever present possibility of the occur- rence of cases reaching epidemic proportions, particularly in the cold weather. In present circumstances, there is no practicable action to counter this threat.

The number of cases occurring was 12 and there were 5 deaths, exactly the same figures as in 1952.

Measles. There was no major epidemic outbreak of this infection but the incidence remained not inconsiderable and, among the infectious diseases, it was a not unimportant cause of mortality. Cases notified numbered 661 and 50 deaths were attributed to this cause, giving a case fatality rate of 7.56%, as

94

SOCIAL SERVICES

compared with 674 cases and 77 deaths in the previous year. The majority of notified cases were treated in hospital. No specific preventive measures were taken against this infection.

Poliomyelitis. Cases, occurring sporadically throughout the year, numbered 22. They were all Chinese and appeared to be unconnected. Deaths numbered 3. The corresponding figures in 1952, were 19 and 4.

Tuberculosis. This is the Colony's most common com- municable disease and its major public health problem. During 1953, notifications numbered 11,900 and this disease accounted for 2,939 deaths, which constituted 16.06% of deaths from all causes. The table below sets forth tuberculosis cases and deaths since the war. war

Year

Cases

Deaths

Case fatality rate

1946

2,801

1,818

64.9%

1947

4,855

1,863

38.4%

1948

6,279

1,961

31.4%

1949

7,510

2,611

34.99

1950.

9,067

3,263

35 %

1951.

ايا

13,886

4,190

30.2%

1952

14,821

3,573

1953

11,900

2,939

LI24.1%

24.7%

The large number of notified cases suggests inadequacy of the resources and scope of the anti-tuberculosis service, and little positive improvement of the hygienic environment of the urban population. Nevertheless, strenuous efforts are being made to meet the problem although a solution is still far off. Mass B.C.G. vaccination was planned but it soon became evident that this was unprofitable as it was found that, by the age of 14 years, more than 95% of the population had incurred infection as evidenced by positive tuberculin tests. The B.C.G.

95

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

campaign was re-orientated, therefore, to deal with school children, the pre-school child and the newly born. Early in the year, vaccination of the school population was completed and thereafter, although new school entrants continued to be dealt with, efforts were mainly directed to dealing with the pre-school child and babies born in hospitals. There still remained the problem, largely administrative, of dealing with domiciliary births and babies born in private nursing homes. This problem has not yet been solved.

The total number of tuberculosis beds in the Colony is 928, a figure far below requirements. Full use of these was made but it was necessary to resort extensively to outpatient treatment, by means of chemotherapy. Results of this were not unsatisfactory and there is great scope for development of this line of attack, particularly as the Chinese have a high racial resistance to the disease and generally respond well to treatment. Nevertheless, a substantial number of additional tuberculosis beds are urgently required as is also material expansion of the tuberculosis service, objectives which are fully recognized and which will be pursued as financial resources will permit.

In spite of the magnitude of the problem and the limited resources available much is achieved, particularly in the case of defined and controllable groups. An example of this is the progress achieved in dealing with the infection among employees of Government. Since 1949, annual mass miniature radio- graphic surveys of all persons employed by Government have been carried out. Those found infected have been given generous leave on full pay and have been put under treatment with the real prospect, especially in early cases, of eventual return to full remunerative employment.

Since the initiation of these surveys, there has been a steady fall in the number of active cases of tuberculosis found each year and a substantial increase in the percentage of early

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minimal cases among those brought to light. This has been reflected in the steady fall in the number of persons it has been found necessary to invalid from the Government service on account of tuberculosis.

During the year, 24,915 Government employees were examined radiographically and the percentage found with active tuberculosis was 0.722%. The corresponding figures for the previous year were 19,611 and 0.984%. At Appendix XB is set forth an analysis showing percentages of cases of tuberculosis found in major Government Departments (employing 500 or more persons) during the past three years.

The figures therein indicate that, despite the not inconsider- able cost of the procedure, the annual radiographic survey pays material dividends in reduced commitments for sickness.

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Malaria. There was a reduction in the number of cases of this infection reported, there being 780 cases as compared with 1,010 in the previous year. It is difficult to assess accurately the incidence of malaria in the Colony as it is impossible to get exact information relating to the cases that are reported. There is little doubt, however, that the figures already quoted do not indicate that anything like that number of persons acquired their infection within the urban areas con- trolled by the Malaria Bureau. It is perhaps of interest that of 30 cases recorded from the European population of approxi- mately 25,000, it was established in only 2 such cases that infection was incurred within the area subject to malaria control.

With the commencement of construction work on the new dam at Tai Lam Chung, in the New Territories, anti-malaria measures were instituted in the vicinity to protect the labour force. The average monthly labour population in the area, throughout the year, was 600 and no cases of malaria were recorded. This is of interest in view of the fact that 20 years ago, when the Shing Mun Dam was being constructed in exactly

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similar circumstances in the New Territories, there was an average monthly labour population of 595 and the total number of malaria cases treated at the dam camp was 1,096.

Rabies. The anti-rabies campaign was continued and 14,736 dogs were inoculated during the year with avianised Flury strain virus as a condition of licensing. A total of 280 unlicensed stray dogs were caught and destroyed.

Two human cases were recorded and on three occasions the infection was diagnosed in animals. This incidence is con- sidered not unsatisfactory, but stringent measures against the importation of dogs from the mainland and restrictions on the movement of dogs within the Colony were maintained. The arrangements for the protective inoculation of persons possibly exposed to the infection were modified, as a result of the occurrence of neuro-paralytic incidents following anti-rabic treatment. This treatment is now only given when it is con- sidered that the risk of infection is material.

Administration.

Responsibility for the administration of public health measures is divided between the Medical Department, the Dis- trict Administration New Territories, and the Urban Council.

Medical Department. This department is responsible for the provision of general curative and personal health services as well as malaria control and port health administration. Under the Director of Medical and Health Services there is a staff of 3,095 which includes 220 medical personnel, 10 dental personnel, 586 nursing personnel and medical technicians in proportion. It operates 11 hospitals with a total of 1,848 beds, 21 general dispensaries providing out-patient treatment, and various special clinics providing dental, ophthalmic, social hygiene, and other services. Maternal and Child Health clinics number 17, and there is a School Health Service which covers the needs of 57,000 school children.

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Training of general nursing personnel is undertaken to a standard equivalent to that in the United Kingdom and train- ing of public health nurses is also undertaken. Laboratory assistants, dispensers, physiotherapists and radiographers are also trained locally, the latter group to a standard acceptable to the Society of Radiographers in the United Kingdom.

The Port Health Administration, as would be expected in a port such as this, provides a highly organized service and employs 8 medical officers. Their duties are not only concerned with matters relating to maritime quarantine, as the provision of preventive inoculation services to the population in general is also part of their duties.

The Pathological Institute, in Victoria, and its subsidiary institute in Kowloon Hospital, provide general laboratory facilities to the department and, in addition, is responsible for the manufacture of the greater part of the vaccines and sera in use by the department.

District Administration New Territories. The District Commissioner is statutorily responsible for public health measures in the New Territories. He is advised in this respect by a Health Officer, provided by the Medical department, and has the services of a Senior Health Inspector and 5 Health Inspectors, also provided by the Medical department.

Urban Council. The Urban Council has statutory respon- sibility for various public health measures in the Urban District, which is generally defined as the whole of Hong Kong island, Kowloon and New Kowloon. The actual performance of public health activities in the urban area is the responsibility of the Sanitary division of the Urban Services department under the Director, Urban Services, who is also Chairman of the Urban Council. The policy of the Sanitary division is governed by the instructions of the Director who is guided by policy decisions of the Urban Council in matters falling within the purview of that Council. The Sanitary division

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has a Health Inspectorate of 145 officers and a labour force of over 4,000. Professional advice on health matters is supplied by the Deputy Director of Health Services (who is also Vice- Chairman of the Urban Council), the Senior Health Officer, and 3 Health Officers, all of whom are members of the Medical department. The Sanitary division is subdivided into eleven interrelated sections each dealing with a separate aspect of public health and sanitation.

Medical Staff. Local authorities do not, as yet, employ medical personnel, who are either in the employ of Govern- ment or of private organizations. The total number of registered medical practitioners is 469, but this figure almost entirely excludes doctors employed by Government as local legislation does not demand that persons so employed should be registered. The numbers of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel officially and privately employed in the Colony is detailed in Appendix XC.

Expenditure. The estimated Medical department expendi- ture for the financial year ending 31st March, 1954, totals $23,860,262.00. However, to this figure must be added a further $5,580,100, which is paid by way of subventions to voluntary organizations in the Colony which provide hospital and other public health services. These include the Anti- Tuberculosis Association and the Mission to Lepers, Hong Kong Auxiliary. The main subvention of approximately $4,000,000 is paid to the Tung Wah Group of Hospitals which provides 1,219 beds in its three institutions. The combined estimated expenditure of the Medical department and the medical subventions represents approximately 8% of the Colony's total estimated revenue. Estimated capital expendi- ture for the Medical department was $3,352,000.

Recurrent expenditure incurred by the Sanitary division of the Urban Services department amounted to $13,343,242.43 during the year under review, of which $10,376,515.53 was

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for the payment of salaries to the staff involved. Capital expenditure on public health projects associated with the work of the division amounted to $1,191,623.45. This expenditure was incurred on such projects as the building of new markets, latrines and bathhouses, the improvement of cemetery facilities, and preparation for the construction of a modern abattoir.

Hospitals. Apart from the Medical department institutions there are a multiplicity of dispensaries and clinics operated by voluntary organizations and welfare and trade union groups.

As regards hospitals, 11 are operated by the Medical department and 14 by non-Government agencies. Of these latter, 5 receive financial assistance from Government. The total number of hospital beds in the Colony numbers 4,512, as set forth in Appendix XD.

Facilities in these institutions show considerable variation as some, such as the Government's Queen Mary Hospital and Kowloon Hospital, are institutions dealing with mainly acute cases whereas others, such as the Tung Wah Group of Hos- pitals, are to a great extent concerned with the care of more chronic cases. Nevertheless, it can be said that facilities in these hospitals are adequate to their particular function and that standards of treatment are high. In general, equipment is modern and a high standard of service is provided. The existing provision of hospital beds falls far below the needs of the Colony's present population and all medical services are subject to severe strain.

The beds in the dispensaries are maternity beds. These dispensaries provide general outpatient facilities and in addition ante-natal and other special services are provided.

Sanitary Organization. There was a major reorganization of the Health Inspectorate coupled with the introduction of a scheme for the intensive training of probationer recruits. The

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division of the urban area into health districts was revised. There were formerly 5 health areas containing 168 districts with an average of 600 floors to a district. The ultimate aim is to have one Health Inspector in charge of 2 health districts, or 1,200 floors: this aim will not be realized until 1955, when sufficient additional inspectors have been recruited, trained and employed. For the present, a system has been adopted of appointing a special reporting inspector to each of the 7 areas to deal with complaints and requests from members of the public.

Investigations are continuing into methods of improving the nightsoil collection service. Over half the houses in the urban area have no flush systems, and nightsoil is collected from these houses in buckets, which are then carried manually and by conservancy lorry to the nightsoil barges. An experi- mental vehicle has been designed which combines a large nightsoil collection closed tank with machinery for washing and disinfecting buckets; it is hoped that this vehicle may serve to reduce many of the obvious disadvantages of the present system.

In the sphere of pest control, progress has been made in two fields of particular difficulty. House flies, resistant to gamma BHC have been controlled by careful alternate use of pyrethrins (to eliminate resistant strains), and control of cockroaches has been facilitated by the introduction of spot- spraying with dieldrin solution. Investigations have been started with a view to the control of biting midges, minute insects which cause great annoyance in the spring and summer. A point of interest is that, although these midges have been previously recorded as Culicoides edwardsi (a European species), over 50 specimens recently identified at the Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, London, were all found to be Lasiohelea stimulans de Meij.-a species apparently not before known to attack man.

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Housing and Town Planning

Buildings. During 1953, 473 plans involving the construc- tion of 1,097 buildings were submitted to the Director of Public Works for approval. These included 409 European type dwellings, 399 Chinese type dwellings, 30 factories, 3 hotels, 3 cinemas or theatres, 11 schools, 6 churches, 6 blocks of staff quarters, 1 club building, 15 offices, 38 godowns and stores. There were also 2,778 plans covering rehabilitations, alterations and additions, mostly to domestic property; 40 site development schemes, and a large number of plans covering minor construc- tional work, such as garages and temporary buildings.

793 new buildings, comprising 360 European type and 240 Chinese type dwellings and 193 other structures, were completed. iR

Housing. The serious shortage of living accommodation in the Colony is still an acute problem, but the implementation of certain of the projects referred to in last year's report has made a useful contribution towards a solution.

In addition, private housing schemes by the Yau Yat Chun Development Company, on an area north of Boundary Street, and by Mr. H. Braga, at Kau Lung Tsai and Jardine Lookout, are proceeding and many houses have been completed. Further flats by the Hong Kong Model Housing Society are in the course of erection at North Point and proposals for more flats by the Hong Kong Housing Society, to be financed by the Colony's Development Fund, are under consideration. These schemes are planned to provide accommodation for families with a limited income.

Valuable contribution has also been made to the housing situation as a result of the provision, by some of the larger industrial undertakings, of dormitories and quarters for their workers on land granted by Government at a special low price.

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All this is on the credit side of the ledger. On the debit side, it must be recorded that many hundreds of old, dark, ill-ventilated Chinese type tenement houses are still over- crowded-which means that there is one family to every 64 sq. ft. or so of floor area, each living space being defined by the erection of flimsy partitions forming cubicles. One kitchen and one latrine may be shared by six and even eight or more families. Of these buildings, many are extremely dilapidated due to neglect of maintenance, and the number of statutory notices which have to be served on the owners of these properties, to carry out essential repairs, is lamentably high.

The problem of the squatter areas has been given special consideration and a very great deal has been done in the resettlement of the occupants in properly controlled sites. Reference to this work occurs on pages 12 and 106. In a number of cases the areas formerly occupied by the squatters' huts are now scenes of activity in connexion with permanent building development.

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Excluding the New Territories, buildings in the Colony are controlled by the Buildings Ordinance. This was first enacted in 1903 (Public Health & Buildings Ordinance 1903) and was revised in 1935. This Ordinance is now being re-written and it is hoped that the revised edition will be introduced in the near future.

In an attempt to speed up the provision of permanent housing, Government is considering the creation of a Housing Authority. It is also sponsoring schemes for housing groups of locally recruited civil servants on a co-operative basis. These limited adventures into the field of low cost housing have not, however, had any appreciable effect on the housing. shortage or on general rental levels but they are providing

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valuable and encouraging experience on which to base an expansion of effort in the field of Government sponsored housing.

Town Planning. A preliminary planning report for Hong Kong was prepared by Sir Patrick Abercrombie in 1948, and this sets out the main lines along which long term development should proceed. The main intentions of this report have been followed but in view of the great increase in population beyond the limit of 2,000,000 envisaged in the report, and such major projects as the proposed new airfield and reclamations, some quite substantial divergencies have been necessary. The main changes at present contemplated are large industrial centres at Tsun Wan and on the east side of Kowloon Bay, which will amount to new towns. If the present tendency for the popula- tion to increase is kept up, it may be necessary to build a new settlement in the beautiful and fertile valley of Shatin.

Within the preliminary pattern the preparation of outline. development plans is undertaken in the Public Works depart- ment by a small unit co-ordinating the work of the various branches of the department on planning problems. The plans set out the principles to be followed in the improvement of the district concerned and are then broken down into greater detail on layout plans.

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As the Government owns the free-hold of virtually all land in the Colony, it is in a position to implement most of its planning provisions by direct covenants with the lessees, in so far as undeveloped land is concerned. In the case of developed land, the application of any planning requirements to which a property does not already conform is carried out either by including new covenants in a lease when it comes up for renewal or, if necessary, by re-entering upon the land and paying compensation. Up to the present, however, planning control of the type exercised in the United Kingdom is not applied in Hong Kong.

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Resettlement Areas

These areas are now divided into two grades:-

(a) Grade A, are those areas in which all structures must be of approved fire-proof materials which are not of a lower quality than the approved minimum standard. The cheapest and most popular material is the sand brick, which is made from a mixture of sand or decomposed granite and cement in the proportion of 1 part cement to 16 parts sand. Many cottages are built of the more conventional materials such as red blocks, hollow blocks or granite blocks. All are built on cement concrete foundations and have cement floors. The minimum permitted height is 9′' from floor to eaves, and outside walls are a minimum of 41" thick. Most cottages have a pitched roof or corrugated asbestos sheets, but some, of a better grade of material and construction, incorporate a flat roof.

(b) Grade B, are those areas in which domestic dwellings may be constructed of any suitable material available to the settler. In the majority of cases the settler re-uses the material from his squatter hut and since this is generally timber and roofing felt, a rigid control is maintained on the spacing of these dwellings in order to minimize fire risks.

No resettlement area occupies levelled ground; all the areas are hilly and often severely eroded and involve extensive site formation with retaining walls for cottage terracing. The majority of this work has been done by the builders concerned but some has been done at Government expense. The provision of road access, main water supply and sanitation for all areas has also involved a heavy charge on Government funds.

Of the twenty areas set aside for resettlement, fifteen are now in use and one more is in the planning stage. In these fifteen areas there were, at the end of November 1953, a total of 43,015 persons housed in 8,732 cottages, of which 4,399 are of the approved type and 4,343 of Grade B construction. In

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addition to these domestic dwellings, 143 shops and 42 factories or workshops have been built. The principle of cottage industry is encouraged; 270 cottages are used for this purpose and over 600 persons gain a means of livelihood thereby. These cottage industries comprise a variety of trades but embroidery, rattan- work and hand weaving predominate.

Further progress has been made in the provision of educa- tion for the children in these areas and there are now twelve schools operating. There are also eight welfare centres and thirteen churches of various denominations.

Since January of this year, as a result of organized clearances of squatter colonies, 2,379 squatter huts have been removed. Squatter patrols removed a further 9,292 huts or shacks, mostly from roof-tops or previously cleared areas. Many of these illegal structures were of stone or brick con- struction. These huts or shacks housed an average of nearly 5 persons each.

Gardens

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The Gardens division of the department of Urban Services consists of two sections, one of which is concerned with prac- tical horticulture, and the other with botanical work throughout the Colony.

The horticultural section, in adition to serving in a public advisory capacity, is responsible for the maintenance and development work of the Botanic Gardens and Government House Grounds; all public recreation areas; children's play- grounds; most grounds attached to Government schools, offices, hospitals and quarters; the Protestant cemetery, and the grassed areas of the airport. In the upkeep and development work of these areas, which now total more than 370 acres, a staff of 133 skilled gardeners and groundsmen is engaged, with the services of a further 167 unskilled workers.

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During the year under review the responsibilities of the division have further increased by the addition of three Govern- ment compounds, and one large public playground, which was opened in September. This playground, like all others in the Colony, is being used to its fullest extent. It has been provided with a miniature football pitch and stand accommodation for 1,200 spectators, two basketball courts, and a section for chil- dren with a sand pit, swings and a seesaw. Two new public recreation schemes are in course of layout and construction, and will be completed shortly. These are the King George V Memorial Parks at Kowloon and Hong Kong which have been designed to cater for the needs of the older visitors as well as the ever increasing demands of the more active sections of the community.

Until recently the Colony possessed no public grass-covered recreation grounds where teams could hire pitches as required. Recent development of a 'Pool' scheme of thirty acres of playing-fields at the Wongneichong race course and a part of the King's Park Recreation Grounds, comprising in all some 30 acres, has proved to be most successful. From the inception of the scheme, in the autumn of 1952, 4,698 games have been played on the grounds. The value of the scheme to the sporting public is shown by the formation of several new competition leagues which use only these grounds, and which are composed of the lesser privileged groups unable to maintain their own pitches. A scheme is in hand for the construction of additional playing-fields, recreational areas and a swimming pool, within a new area of about fifty acres, now in the course of reclama- tion for use as the main city park.

The horticultural section has three main nurseries for the propagation of ornamental plants to supply the needs of the division and for sale to the public. Several thousand plants are grown each year for official purposes, and for outdoor decoration. In the training and culture of these plants an

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exceedingly high standard of skill is attained by the Chinese gardeners. An inspection service of live plants and plant products leaving the Colony is maintained by this section. All these inspections are undertaken at the voluntary request of the exporter.

The botanical section is primarily concerned with the care of the Colonial Herbarium which is now housed in the Uni- versity. This collection comprises some 26,400 specimens and is largely the work of such prominent botanists and plant explorers as A. Henry, E. H. Wilson, G. Forest, F. H. Ridley and others, over the years 1904-1918, when the botanical activity of the Colony was probably at its peak. Considerable revision and remounting of old and fragmentary sheets has had to be undertaken as a result of neglected and inadequate storage during the Pacific war. Specimens and data are continually being added as new localities are botanically surveyed. One little known activity of the Herbarium is the identification of drugs and medicinal plants for the Police, the Government Chemist, research institutions and members of the general public. Over the past year, the botanical section has been actively engaged in acquiring specimens of several local plant species for local and foreign studies into the alkaloidal proper- ties they are said to contain.

The library of the division now contains a collection of local and foreign books of reference. It is regularly supplied with reports and publications from institutions abroad.

Social Welfare

Social Welfare work in Hong Kong is remarkable for the large contribution which has always been made by voluntary organizations. Following its foundation in 1947, the Social Welfare Office has served not only as Government's link with

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the 79 charitable societies alreadly in existence, but also as the pioneer in developing new kinds of welfare work to which voluntary organizations may later be attracted.

The Social Welfare Advisory Committee, under the Chair- manship of the Social Welfare Officer and composed entirely of unofficial members either representing voluntary societies or chosen for their experience in social work, chiefly confined its activities during the year to examining applications for financial grants from individual organizations. A number of sub-com- mittees were set up to examine and report on blind welfare, moral welfare, child care, juvenile offenders and Public Assis-

tance.

During 1953, the Hong Kong Council of Social Service, of which most of the prominent western-style voluntary organ- izations are members, published booklets in the English and Chinese languages describing the work of the Government and private welfare agencies.

There has been an increase in destitution chiefly amongst the aged, the physically weak or unskilled members of the community who are now unable to return to their native villages in China. Some of these people are juvenile vagrants, the subjects of expulsion or banishment orders; while others are physically or mentally handicapped from competing in the Colony's limited employment markets. There has thus been every incentive for increasing the extent of both official and private welfare work throughout the Colony.

Two events during 1953 have illustrated the enthusiastic collaboration of The Social Welfare Office and the voluntary societies. The first was the organization of special free cinema shows before the Coronation and the holding of parties on the Coronation holidays for over 30,000 poor children not at school; and the second the disastrous fire in Shek Kip Mei squatter

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area on Christmas night, after which Government officials and members of voluntary organizations worked to bring immediate and effective relief to the 59,000 fire victims.

Community Development. This is undertaken by district associations known as Kaifongs, a Cantonese word meaning "neighbour" "responsible citizen" or "elder". In South China, Kaifongs have had a long tradition of providing not only charitable services such as free schools and clinics, but also other community services which elsewhere are usually the responsibility of local authorities.

Since 1949, the Kaifong movement in Hong Kong has developed rapidly along fairly regular lines. There are now 18 approved Kaifong Welfare Associations with a total mem- bership of 222,771 persons, each having a written constitution and formed with the aim of furthering welfare activities in its own district. These associations, which have their own elected committees, are not official bodies and their relationship with the Social Welfare Office is purely advisory, every encourage- ment being given to their work.

In addition to running free schools and clinics-and the sponsoring of several local divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, the Kaifongs in Hong Kong have performed many other kinds of social work. They have interested themselves in the leisure activities of poor people in their districts, have sponsored free ball games, equipped children's playgrounds, and provided simple theatrical performances with educational themes. After each big squatter fire, a relief committee has been organized by the various Kaifong Welfare Associations, in conjunction with other Chinese charitable organizations, in order not only to subscribe generously themselves but also to receive donations from the public and to coordinate distribution of non-government relief. Special mention must also be made of the women's section of the Kaifongs. Their work has been

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most valuable in the after care of individual fire victims, in giving loans, in arbitrating in family disputes caused by squatter fires, by admitting pregnant women into their own maternity homes, giving general advice and providing a free letter writing service. The women members have lately taken on a new task of health-visiting on behalf of Kaifong Association clinics, and also the running of sewing classes for the education of young mothers in their districts. During the Coronation celebrations, the Kaifong Associations helped the Social Welfare Office and the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations to organize entertainments for over 30,000 under-privileged children.

Child Welfare. Protection of women and children especially by preventing trafficking, by investigating suspected cases of ill-treatment, and by suppressing the "muitsai" system is handled by the Social Welfare Officer on behalf of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. This work is carried out under statutory provisions which are mainly embodied in the Protec- tion of Women and Juveniles Ordinance, 1951. This Ordinance also brings under the control of the Social Welfare Officer those girls who have been parted permanently from their parents or who, as adopted daughters, are ipso facto wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The total number of children whose welfare is being thus supervised (including boys whose adoptions have been voluntarily registered) is about 4,000. Plans are now being made to provide for a rapid expansion in this work and also to foster the increasing cooperation with the 35 children's institutions in the Colony. A survey of many of these voluntary institutions has been made by a Children's Officer, who in January returned from training in Child Care in the United Kingdom. '

Moral Welfare. This work which has developed from the carrying out of responsibilities under the Protection of Women and Juveniles Ordinance 1951, is concerned primarily with the

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care of juvenile prostitutes and children who are in moral danger. A home for the girls, which was established in 1952 by Catholic sisters who have had long experience in such work, is now looking after 40 girls, placed in the Sisters' care by the Moral Welfare Officer. The Good Shepherd Sisters are now planning to erect a building which will accommodate 100 girls, and the new home is expected to be ready in 1954.

Youth Organizations. In Hong Kong, where the majority of boys and girls have to start earning their own living on reaching adolescence, youth organizations direct their attention mainly to children between the ages of nine and sixteen. The Colony has 75 clubs for children from poor homes and these have a total membership of about 3,000. They are either run by the Boys and Girls Clubs Association or are affiliated to it, as in the case of six clubs managed by the Social Welfare Office. Club children learn handicrafts as part of their training and specimens of articles they have made were exhibited at UNESCO's second Information and Study Seminar, held in Japan this year, at which Hong Kong was represented by two delegates.

The co-ordinating body for all youth welfare activities in Hong Kong is the Standing Conference of Youth Organizations. The Conference runs a Youth Leadership Training Course, first started in 1951 as a course of 12 months duration, and now lengthened to 20 months. The Conference also runs the Silvermine Bay Holiday Camp, whose building was a gift from the Rotary Club of Hong Kong last year; this camp is proving an unqualified success. Over 2,000 children from poor families and orphanages have spent a week's holiday there during the past 12 months. Moreover, the opening during the summer of The Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre in Kowloon has provided very fine premises for the expansion of youth activities and of many other kinds of welfare work in Kowloon.

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Juvenile Delinquency. Marked progress has been made in the treatment of young delinquents. In the Juvenile Courts, besides making inquiries for the magistrates and supervising probationers, the Probation Officers have taken on the respon- sibility for the placement and follow-up of a number of juvenile vagrants, whom it has not been possible to send back to their homes in China and who are now being looked after by various private agencies. The opening, at the beginning of 1953, of a Children's Centre to which probationers could be referred for help has been of much assistance to the Probation Officers. One hundred probationers participate in the club activities which include elementary schooling, handicrafts and games; and thirty of them, previously street sleepers, are now resident on the Club premises. Attendance is regular and enthusiastic, and recidivism among the members has been small.

Institutional care is forging ahead with the setting up at Castle Peak of the first approved school for boys. Like the approved school for girls, this Home is being run on behalf of Government by the Salvation Army and it has already taken over inmates of the former Reformatory School at Stanley. The old Raformatory is now being used by the Prisons Depart- ment as a Training Centre for young prisoners. Sketch plans are being prepared for a remand home for juveniles and it is hoped that this building will be ready in 1954. So far, pro- bation as a form of treatment has been largely confined to juveniles, but this year draft legislation is being considered by Government which will, if approved, extend the use of probation to adult offenders.

Public Assistance. The effects of increasing poverty due to a decline in trade, have been somewhat alleviated by generous gifts from abroad. Substantial shipments of used clothing have been received from the Women's Voluntary Service in the United Kingdom, the Australian Red Cross and American

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Photo: E. A. Fisher

Much progress has been made in resettling the Colony's squatter population in approved-type cottages such as these.

The resettlement areas are miniature villages equipped with schools, such as that below,

as well as other essential services.

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Free anti- tuberculosis treatment is provided.

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School children have their teeth examined periodically.

Cobalt treatment

is available

for those

requiring it.

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Squatters are interviewed prior to resettlement.

Under-privileged children are well looked after at Social Welfare Clubs.

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In these Clubs the elder children are taught a trade.

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Photo: South China Morning Post Limited

The Chinese are natural cooks. These young girls are being trained in the culinary art.

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Children of Service personnel keep fit between classes.

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Sewing classes are also part of a

Chinese girl's education.

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SOCIAL SERVICES

Church organizations. Part of this clothing has been reserved for use in emergencies while the rest has been handed over to voluntary organizations for distribution throughout the Colony. The Church World Service has provided large quantities of powdered milk for regular distribution to children attending clubs and free schools, and for other welfare activities. J

Outdoor relief is administered by the Social Welfare Office on a casework basis, through seven welfare centres. Provided they satisfy the usual criteria for relief, applicants who were born in Hong Kong or who have lived in the Colony for many years are given preference. Assistance which can be given includes the issue of free meals and clothing and the placing of children in free schools, clubs or institutions. The number of free meals provided daily at these centres averages about 1,800. Cases which require more flexible forms of help are handled largely by the Hong Kong Family Welfare Society which makes monetary grants or loans for setting up in business as hawkers or for other purposes. Other voluntary societies such as the well-established Chinese charities, the Kaifongs and various religious groups are also engaged in large scale public assistance work.

Institutional relief is provided in three camps run by the Social Welfare Office. The Camp at North Point contains a wide variety of inmates including orphans, blind boys, cripples and mental defectives, while the second camp at Morrison Hill provides free communal accommodation but no food. The third camp, which is at Rennie's Mill, was started in the middle of 1950 for about 6,000 Chinese refugees who had fled from the civl war in China. By the beginning of 1953, free food was only being provided for less than 1,000 inmates consisting of the blind, disabled, and their families.

In recent months, much attention has been directed to the question of the future care of the blind and disabled inhabitants of Hong Kong. One result so far has been the announcement

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

by Government of a plan to set up a camp on Lantao Island to house not only the blind, disabled and their families from Rennie's Mill Camp and North Point Camp, but also persons with these handicaps found destitute in the streets. It is in- tended to provide the inmates of the new Camp with vocational training adapted to their individual disabilities.

Emergency Relief. Apart from the fire on Christmas night, to which reference is made in Chapter 1, a number of lesser squatter fires and two tropical storms took heavy toll of the homes and possessions of many poor families. After the first fire of the year, a large conflagration which swept through Homuntin Valley in January, 1953, a matshed camp was quickly erected to house some 2,000 of the victims. This number rose to nearly 3,000 following a second large fire which broke out in another squatter district a fortnight later. Free feeding of the victims was organized by the Social Welfare Office immediately after each disaster, and was continued until the families were able to fend for themselves. Including meals provided for victims of the Christmas night blaze, the number of free meals distributed during the year amounted to over 4 million. In all these emergencies valuable assistance was given by the voluntary societies in carrying out relief work. Workers from the Hong Kong Branch of the British Red Cross Society and other agencies distributed relief clothing, while the Kaifong Welfare Associations gave other forms of assistance, and or- ganized campaigns for public subscriptions.

+

Squatter Screening. The interviewing of squatters in con- nexion with resettlement continued during the year, but the main work of the team of interviewers from the Social Welfare Office has been the screening, after squatter fires or tropical storms, of the applicants for emergency relief. Considerable ingenuity has often been needed to weed out the genuine victims from imposters whose only aim was to obtain cheap accommodation for which they were ineligible under the resettlement scheme.

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SOCIAL SERVICES

Shek Kip Mei Fire. At about 9.30 p.m. on Christmas ngiht a fire broke out in an illegal factory in the heart of the Colony's largest squatter area, and fanned by a strong dry wind burnt for five hours before being extinguished. When dawn came on Boxing Day some 59,000 people had lost their homes in Hong Kong's largest fire, and immediate measures for their relief were necessary.

In this emergency everybody worked together, and grateful acknowledgment is here made of the help given by the Military Authorities, all the voluntary charitable organizations, and by other Government departments.

Within a few hours of the fire, registration of the fire victims was under way, hot meals had been prepared, a relief com- mittee had been set up, and plans for early resettlement_were being carried out.

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

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Chapter 8

LEGISLATION

During the year 1953, forty-four Ordinances were enacted, and reference to some of the more important of them is made below. Two pieces of subsidiary legislation reflect the pattern of international events in 1953; in January, by an order under the Trading with the Enemy Ordinance, Japan ceased to be enemy territory for the purpose of that Ordinance; and, in c March, the United Nations embargo was carried a stage further by the Control of Trade by Sea (China and North Korea) Order made by the Minister of Transport whereby all British ships over 500 gross tons are required to have licences before proceeding to sea. The licences may specify the cargoes per- mitted to be carried to China and North Korea.

The District Court: Ordinance No. 1 is dealt with more fully under the head Justice, Police and Prisons. It is sufficient to record here that the new court was given the civil jurisdiction formerly exercised by the Supreme Court in its summary jurisdiction, and criminal jurisdiction to try all but the most serious cases. In the exercise of its criminal jurisdic- tion, the sentence which the Court can impose is limited to one of five years imprisonment. In all cases there is an appeal to the Full Court and the judges sit without a jury. In criminal cases, they are required to place on record a statement of the reasons for the verdict.

Training Centres: Ordinance No. 5 provides another medium for the training and reform of the young offender. In this instance the age group catered for is from 14 to 18 years. The institution is modelled on the Borstal system in Great Britain which is designed for those between the ages of 16 and 21. The difference in age group is attributable to the earlier age of maturity of the Hong Kong boy. Unlike the

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LEGISLATION

Juvenile Offenders Ordinance, where the maximum period of detention that can be ordered is six months, this Ordinance provides for a sentence of detention in a training centre for a period not exceeding three years.

Urban Council: Ordinance No. 6 was enacted in time to enable an increased electorate to vote for an additional two members in the Urban Council elections in February. In the increased electorate women were given an equal right to be placed on the register. Ordinance No. 44 has made a further increase in the electorate so that, in the 1954 elections, there will be roughly an extra 20,000 potential voters.

Merchant Shipping: Ordinance No. 14, the longest of the year with 118 sections, is a work of amendment and consolidation. Some of the amendments are consequent upon the application to Hong Kong during the year of the Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act, 1949, which dealt, inter alia, with life-saving appliances, fire-fighting and radiocommunica- tion equipment.

Landlord and Tenant: Ordinance No. 22 gave legis- lative effect to those recommendations of the McNeill Report on Rent Control which had been accepted by Government. The permitted increases in rent are increases on the "standard rent" (in most cases that of 1941), and are less than would be supposed from a consideration of the rents actually being paid. A landlord or tenant may apply to the Rating and Valuation Department for a certificate which is prima facie evidence of the "standard rent". A principal tenant may charge a sub-tenant a sum equivalent to 30% above the "standard rent" of premises occupied by the sub-tenant in addition to the amount the principal tenant must pay his landlord. The Tenancy Tribunal may raise a "standard rent" where it is shown to be too low. Protection against eviction is given to the tenant, for example, where the landlord is

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unable to show the rent he demanded was a lawful one. Provisions was made for a re-print of the Ordinance as amended, and a 1953 re-print was issued.

Workmen's Compensation: Ordinance No. 28 affects all persons, with certain specified exceptions, engaged in the scheduled employments who are manual workers, or non- manual workers earning less than $700 per month. Compen- sation is for death (payable to dependants) or for personal injury by accident arising out of and in the course of the workmen's employment. It is payable by the employer. With the exception of periodical payments for temporary incapacity, which may by direction of the Commissioner of Labour be paid direct to the workman, all distribution of compensation is effected through the Courts. Except in the case of death the amount of compensation may be agreed between the workman and his employer subject to the agreement being approved by the Commissioner of Labour. If agreement is not reached the workman may enforce his claim in the District Court, where the procedure to be followed is designed to help the litigant in person. The workman retains his right to sue for damages any person whose wrongful act was the cause of his injury, but he may not recover both damages and compensation under the Ordinance. Insurance is not compulsory under the Ordin- ance, but it is an offence to make deductions from wages for the purpose of paying insurance premiums. The Ordinance came into operation on the 1st December, 1953.

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Justice

Chapter 9

JUSTICE, POLICE, PRISONS AND RECORDS

The Courts of the Colony consist of the Supreme Court, the District Courts, the Magistrates' Courts, and the Tenancy Tribunals.

The Supreme Court. The Supreme Court consisted through- out the year of the Chief Justice and three Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases before a jury and to deliver convicts to gaol. The judges also have jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. It is also a Court of Equity with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

The practice of the English Courts is in force in the Colony except where, being inapplicable to local circumstances, it has been modified by Hong Kong legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, which modified, and in some instances excluded, provisions made in the English Rules of Practice. The laws of England, as they existed in that country on 5th April, 1843, are in force in the Colony except where such laws are inapplicable to local circumstances or have been subject to local modification.

All civil claims above the sum of $5,000 are heard in the Court's Original Jurisdiction as well as all miscellaneous

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proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appoint- ments of trustees and company matters.

Cases in the Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy Jurisdictions of the Court are usually heard by the Chief Justice. Indictable offences are first heard before magistrates and are committed to the criminal sessions which are held once a month.

A right of appeal exists in all these cases. Appeals are heard by a Full Court consisting of two or more judges. Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge who may reserve the appeal, or any point in it, for consideration by the Full Court, or may direct_the_appeal, or the point to be argued, before the Full

Court.

H

During the year, 597 actions, consisting of 497 Original Jurisdiction claims and 100 Miscellaneous Proceedings Actions were instituted in this division.

In its criminal jurisdiction it is once more gratifying to note a decrease in serious crime, although this can be partly accounted for by the fact that some of the cases were tried before the District Courts. In 1953, 89 persons were convicted as against 108 in 1952, 219 in 1951, and 402 in 1950.

Analysing the convictions in 1953, it is apparent that the most serious form of crime was armed robbery, which account- ed for 34 convictions.

The District Courts. This Court came into being on the 18th February, 1953. One branch was instituted in the Supreme Court Building, and the other in the Kowloon Magistracy. The District Court assumed the jurisdiction of the old Summary Court, wherein civil claims up to and including $5,000 were heard by Puisne Judges. The District Judges have powers in

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JUSTICE, POLICE, PRISONS AND RECORDS

criminal jurisdiction greater than those of Magistrates; these powers enable them to try certain cases which would otherwise have to be committed to the Sessions.

There were 243 cases instituted in the Summary Court from the beginning of the year up to the time it was superceded, on the 18th February, by the District Court. From that date, until the end of the year, 897 cases were instituted in the Hong Kong Court and 1,119 in Kowloon. The number of actions instituted in the District Court and old Summary Court for the year was 2,259. This constitutes a record for the post-war period.

The establishment of a District Court in Kowloon was an innovation, as facilities had never been provided before in the Colony for litigants to seek legal redress in civil proceedings in Kowloon. That this has proved of benefit to the public is shown by the fact that the Kowloon Court instituted over 1,100 actions during the year, 222 more than the Hong Kong Court for the same period.

In its criminal jurisdiction the Hong Kong Court tried 140 and convicted 100 persons, while the figures for the Kowloon Court were 83 persons tried and 78 convicted.

The Lower Courts. There are four magistrate's courts on the Island and three in Kowloon. The latter hear cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. There is also a Justices of the Peace Court, composed of two unofficial Justices of the Peace sitting together five afternoons a week, one of whom is usually a solicitor. This court, inaugurated in 1948, continues to be a great success and of great help to the Magistrates by relieving them of much extra work. For in- stance, during 1953 most of the 31,906 summonses issued by the Hong Kong Magistracy were heard by the Justices, consisting of eleven solicitors and thirty-eight laymen.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The work done by the Magistracies in the year under review shows a large increase over previous years. The total number of prosecutions and summonses came to 266,819 as against 206,233 for 1952.

In last year's annual report, the satisfactory feature emer- ging from the figures supplied by the Magistracies was the decrease in the number of juvenile offences. For 1953, the same gratifying decrease is maintained as can be seen from the following figures:-

Convictions against juveniles

In 1951

In 1952

In 1953

54,372

34,920

29.068.

Civil jurisdiction in the New Territories

exercised by

the District Commissioner and his District Officers, who have powers similar to those of the Supreme Court. Most of the litigation concerns land. The respective District Officers sit in the market towns of Yuen Long and Taipo. They also hear debts cases.

Tenancy Tribunals. During 1953, there was a great increase in the number of cases as compared to previous years. In 1951, 659 were filed and in 1952 there were 1,466. In 1953, however, this figure had risen to 2,098. This increase was mainly due to certain amendments introduced during the year into the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, whereby certain Tenancy Enquiry Bureaux were set up under the direction of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. These bureaux are designed to help the public to find out what rents are properly payable. As a consequence, many applications have been filed with the Tenancy Tribunal not only to determine the rents payable but also to adjust other differences and compose the quarrels which the Enquiry Bureaux are unable to resolve.

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Police

JUSTICE, POLICE, PRISONS AND RECORDS

Law and order throughout the Colony is maintained by the Police who turned out in force twice during the year. The first occasion was for the Coronation celebrations and the second for the large fire on the mainland which occurred on Christmas night.

The Coronation celebrations, of which the main feature was a mile-long procession through the urban areas, were two days of duty for the whole Force. Crowd control was the main problem and strained resources to the utmost, but the crowds were orderly and the whole programme was carried through satisfactorily.

On Christmas night, a disastrous fire broke out in the densely populated squatter area on the fringe of New Kowloon. Fortunately, only two lives were lost but approximately 59,000 persons were rendered homeless. It was the worst fire disaster in the history of the Colony.

Strength. At the end of the year the strength of the Force was 5,194, an increase of 172 during the year. It consisted of 42 Gazetted Officers and 432 Inspectors of different grades, of whom 280 were expatriate. In the rank and file there were 581 Northern Chinese, 184 Pakistanis and 3,922 Cantonese, There were two women Inspectors and 31 women N.C.Os and Constables. The Force was relieved of all but strictly police duties by a civilian staff of 827.

Organization. This consists of a Headquarters and two main branches, the Uniform Branch and the Criminal Investi- gation Department. The Uniform Branch operates throughout the Colony and is divided into two territorial divisions and the divisions dealing with traffic, transport and communications. The Marine Division is responsible for the policing of the harbour and the waters of the Colony. It has a fleet of twenty

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

craft ranging from ocean going tugs to motor boats and all except two of these are fitted with radio telephony or wireless telegraphy. One craft is fitted with radar. The organization also includes task forces such as the Emergency Units, Railway Police Unit, Airport Police Unit, Waterfront Searching Unit, village penetration patrols and squad vehicles equipped with radio, and hawker squads.

The Criminal Investigation Division comprises the Detective Branch, which is responsible for the detection of crime and the coordination of special measures for its prevention, and the Special Branch which is responsible for the prevention and detection of subversive activities. It also controls and operates the Immigration department, the Registry of Aliens and the Registry of Approved Societies.

Recruitment and Training. There is no lack of suitable local recruits for the rank and file, and a high educational and physical standard is obtained. All ranks undergo a period of six months training at the Police Training School. The syllabus includes law and police duties, drill and weapon train- ing (including the use of tear smoke), unarmed combat and first aid. Additional volunteers are trained in life saving, and the Marine Police recruits in seamanship, port regulations and signalling. All Chinese recruits are taught basic English at the School and this is followed by more advanced lessons during subsequent service. All non-Chinese members of the Force have to qualify in Chinese as part of their efficiency tests.

A total of 656 recruits of all ranks completed their training during the year.

Crime. As in recent years, the problems of the police were aggravated by the increased population, economic distress, and export restrictions, which created evasion and corruption. But crime has been kept in check and the quality of both preventive and detective work has been high.

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The total number of reports made to the police rose from 314,438 to 416,024, of which 173,837 disclosed no criminal offence. The balance of 242,187 included 19,053 reports of serious offences (18,306 in 1952) of which 9,543 (50.09%) resulted in the arrest and prosecution of 9,726 persons, of whom 419 (4.3%) were juveniles, mainly implicated in cases of minor larceny. The remaining reports were of miscellaneous offences (169,777 in 1952), of which 174,956 resulted in the arrest and prosecution of 186,674 persons. The figures for the various classifications of serious offences are given in Appendix XI.

The increase in serious crime consisted mainly of petty larcenies, arising from the economic conditions and uncertainty of employment prevailing in the Colony.

An encouraging feature of the year was the continued assistance given to the police by members of the public, who were responsible for the arrest of 923 persons perpetrating serious crimes. Twenty-four letters of appreciation

and monetary awards were presented to members of the public for outstanding services to the community.

Traffic. The comparative figures for accidents are as follows:

Fatal

Serious Injury Slight Injury Damage Only

1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953

132 96 119 129 104 106 72

226 462 618 603 490 466 448 1,738 1,952 2,786 2,976 2,328 2,698 3,124 3,233 3,871 4,923 4,619 3,937 4,787 4,892

5,329 6,380 8,446 8,327 6,859 8,057 8,536

There was an increase of 479 in the number of accidents reported, but the number of fatal accidents decreased by nearly one third, the lowest since 1945. Similarly, accidents involving serious injury decreased and the lowest figure since 1947 was recorded.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The increase in accidents involving slight injury and damage is attributable to the increasing traffic congestion and the more punctilious reporting of minor accidents by members of the public.

Immigration. The Force is responsible for the control and operation of the Immigration department. During the year this department issued 17,512 visas, 1,236 British passports and 1,076 renewals, 7,727 Chinese entry permits and 1,388 emer- gency travel certificates.

In addition to their statutory duties the police render a variety of services to the public, and the increasing confidence displayed in the Force is reflected by the large number of reports requesting advice and help. On many occasions the police conveyed parties of the St. John Ambulance Brigade to outlying areas to render simple treatment, dentistry, inocula- tions and vaccinations. In addition, births and deaths were registered, mail delivered, urgent cases of illness conveyed to hospital, and cinema shows provided in schools and villages.

Prisons

The Prisons department consists of a headquarters, which adjoins a central Remand and Reception Prison in Victoria, a large main prison at Stanley, a Training Centre (also at Stanley) for boys and a prison for women at Lai Chi Kok. The male staff consists of Europeans, Pakistanis and Sikhs and local Chinese, and Portuguese. The local staff is now in the majority and all Pakistani and Sikh warders who retired during the year have been replaced by local men. The female staff are all local Portuguese or Chinese.

Headquarters. Until this year, the departmental head- quarters were accommodated in a flat in the married quarters at Stanley. This arrangement was inefficient and undesirable, as the office was ten miles from the centre of Government and occupied scarce living space. Early in the year the head-

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quarters was moved to offices over the main gate of Victoria Prison, but detached from the prison and having a separate

entrance.

Stanley Prison. This prison received 7,396 prisoners during the year and had a daily average of 2,692 occupants. The prison is divided into Stars (first offenders, or those treated as such) and Ordinaries (old offenders, or those treated as such.) There are further sub-divisions into short-term and long-term within each group, and separate sections for young prisoners (Stars) and young prisoners (Ordinaries).

The section for young

Stars is outside the prison walls and is gradually being made independent of the prison.

Victoria Prison. This building is situated in the central district of the city, and although the buildings are old the site is convenient for the Courts. All remands, debtors, destitutes and vagrants are housed here, and also men who have com- pleted a sentence of imprisonment and are awaiting deportation. The prison received 13,455 prisoners during the year and had a daily average of 803 occupants. It is also used as a reception and classification centre and all male prisoners remain here for the first two weeks of their sentence.

Training Centre. The Training Centre at Stanley was established by Ordinance in February. It occupies the buildings formerly used by the Reformatory School, which has been transferred to the Social Welfare Office. The site, on the slopes of a small hill overlooking Stanley and Tai Tam bays, is of exceptional beauty. The Ordinance is based on the Borstal sections of the United Kingdom Criminal Justice Act 1948, and provides for selection of boys after a report by the Commissioner, an indeterminate sentence from nine months to three years and supervision on discharge. The Centre can take a maximum of 120 boys and 41 have been accepted this year. The staff of the Reformatory School remained for this new work, and the Centre has made a very promising start.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Lai Chi Kok Prison. A total of 1,539 women were received into Lai Chi Kok Prison and there was a daily average of 120 occupants. The prison is on the outskirts of Kowloon. There is a forestry plantation close to the walls and a number of women are employed on this work.

Discipline, Health, Education and Training. The standard of discipline, both of staff and prisoners, is high. There was very little faction fighting in the prisons compared with previous years; No epidemics and few cases of disease were contracted in prison. The physical standard on admission is often pitiful, but medical services are efficient and much work has been done to combat the three main scourges of tuberculosis, venereal disease and drug addiction.

The number of schoolmasters in the department has reached the authorized strength of seven and educational facilities are now available for all in the younger age groups, whether prisoners or Training Centre boys. There is great keenness and very good progress has been made. Trade train- ing facilities are available to all prisoners.

Long-term prisoners are employed on industrial work including the making of rattan articles, carpentry, tailoring, laundering, bootmaking, tinsmithing and cooking. Short-term prisoners work outside the walls on reclamation projects and in the gardens.

An Earnings Scheme was introduced on 1st May, which is open to all prisoners who have more than two weeks to serve. Rates are fixed according to skill and industry. A canteen system has been provided as an outlet for earnings; in addition, prisoners may remit money to their families. There is no scheme for extra-mural work.

All prison sentences over one month are subject to a maximum remission of one-third.

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After-Care. The Salvation Army and the Family Welfare Society continued the good work they have been doing in providing after-care for prisoners on discharge.

Records

The Registrar General's department comprises the Land Office and Deeds Registry, the Registry of Marriages, and the offices of the Official Trustee, the Official Solicitor in Lunacy and the Judicial Trustee. In addition, the department dis- charges functions corresponding to certain activities of the Board of Trade in the United Kingdom. These are the Companies Registry, the office of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding-Up, and the Trade Marks and Patents Office.

Land Office. The function of the Land Office is primarily that of registration of deeds, not registration of title, but by common practice and usage, and due to the form in which Land Office records have been maintained, the system has grown into and become recognized in practice as equivalent to a system of registration of title.

With the continued very heavy demand for land, houses and office accommodation, the Land Office had another busy year, a total of 6,539 instruments affecting land being registered. The total consideration expressed in instruments registered in the financial year 1952/53 was $325,884,172, which is nearly $8,000,000 greater than the comparable figure for 1951/52 and is the highest figure yet recorded.

In the year under review, the Land Office issued 258 new Crown leases and dealt with a large number of sales, grants, exchanges, surrenders and resumptions of land.

Companies. The number of new Companies incorporated in the Colony during 1953 was 204. The number of companies going into voluntary liquidation increased from 43 in 1952,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

to 53 in 1953, and the number struck off the register as defunct, decreased from 95 in 1952, to 53 in 1953. A total of 35 com- panies completed winding-up and were dissolved, leaving 2,605 companies on the register, a net increase of 116 over the figure for 1952.

Registration in Hong Kong is a relatively inexpensive. process, the maximum fee payable in respect of a company being $500. The local Companies Ordinance is based on the repealed United Kingdom Companies Act, 1929, and the question of the revision of Company Law in Hong Kong, to incorporate the extensive amendments effected in the United Kingdom by the Companies Act, 1948, is under consideration.

Fifteen foreign corporations, companies incorporated outside the Colony but which filed the prescribed documents here in order to carry on business in the Colony, were registered in 1953. The total number of foreign companies registered (439) showed a slight increase over the total for the previous year, nine foreign companies having ceased to carry on business in the Colony during the year.

RIE

Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and Companies Winding-Up. There were altogether six bankruptcy petitions during the year under review but one of these was withdrawn, a com- position having been agreed upon before the receiving order was made. These, added to the fifteen outstanding bank- ruptcies of previous years made a total of twenty cases, with the Official Receiver acting as trustee in fourteen cases and supervising the administration of the other six. Two prosecu- tions were brought against bankrupt debtors who were found by the Official Receiver to have committed offences under the Bankruptcy Ordinance. During the year three bankruptcies were completed, one by the Official Receiver and two by outside trustees.

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JUSTICE, POLICE, PRISONS AND RECORDS

Compulsory Winding-Up Orders were made by the Court in respect of six companies, out of a total of eight petitions presented during the year. There were six cases from previous years, bringing the total of outstanding cases to twelve. The Official Receiver acted as liquidator in seven of these, the remaining five cases being conducted under his supervision.

Trade Marks & Patents. In view of the rapid and constant growth of manufacturing industries in Hong Kong since the war, the registration of Trade Marks is of increasing importance in the protection of commercial rights and interests. During the year, 1,006 new Trade Marks were placed on the register, as against 915 in 1952. In addition, 57 marks that had been on the pre-war register (which was lost during the Japanese occupation) were registered in the new register under the Trade Marks Register (Reconstruction) Ordinance. The registration of 308 Trade Marks (valid for 14 years) was renewed during the year. There were 9,552 Trade Marks on the Register on the 31st December, 1953.

A new Trade Marks Bill, based generally on the United Kingdom Trade Marks Act 1938, is in the course of preparation, and it is expected that it will be enacted about the middle of 1954.

There is no provision in the law of Hong Kong for the original grant of patent rights. United Kingdom patents are, however, registrable in the Colony on application by the grantee, or any person deriving his rights from him, under the Registration of United Kingdom Patents Ordinance. During the year, 33 such registrations were effected.

Marriage Registry

The Ordinances providing for the preliminaries to and the solemnization of marriages are the Marriage Ordinance and the Foreign Marriage Ordinance.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The Foreign Marriage Ordinance (applicable where one at least of the parties to the intended marriage is a British subject) enables a person residing in the Colony to give notice of intended marriage with a person residing in a foreign country. The Marriage Ordinance applies to all marriages solemnized in the Colony, except non-Christian customary marriages. There is no legal obligation requiring banns to be published but the publication of notice, normally for a period of 15 days, is required. In exceptional circumstances the Governor may, by special licence, authorize the marriage to take place before the expiration of the normal period of notice. Marriages may be solemnized in any Church or place of worship licensed for that purpose, or may take place as civil marriages at the Registry. The total number of licensed places of worship is now 52.

The validity of Chinese customary marriages which are not registered at the Registry remains, of course, unaffected by the Marriage Ordinance. It has become apparent, however, that all classes of the Chinese community are becoming increasingly aware of the advantages of marriages properly recorded in accordance with the provisions of the Ordinance, as is evidenced by the fact that out of a total of 2,660 marriages registered in 1953 (an increase of 443 over 1952's total), 2,376 were between persons of Chinese race, 264 of these taking place in licensed places of worship, and 2,112 in the Registry, an unusual feature being that two of these were marriages between deaf mutes. Of the remaining 284 marriages, 158 took place in licensed places of worship and 126 in the Registry.

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Chapter 10

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

Public Utilities

Waterworks

The supply of water to the Colony is undertaken by the Public Works department of the Government.

As

the

The Colony receives the majority of its rainfall during the summer months when the south west monsoon blows. there are no large rivers or underground sources of water, population is entirely dependent for its water supply during the winter months on the storage in impounding reservoirs of rain water which has fallen during the wet months. In all, there are thirteen reservoirs with a capacity of 5,970 million gallons. These are usually fillled during the wet season but the storage is inadequate to meet the demand of the Colony's large popu- lation and annual water shortages are experienced. Some of the reservoirs are situated on the Island and others in the New Territories. On the mainland a total of 3,618 million gallons can be stored. Of this total 2,921 million gallons can be contained in the Jubilee reservoir at Shingmun. This reservoir is the largest in the Colony with a dam 275 feet in height. There are thirty-five miles of catchwater channels, running along the mid-levels of various hillsides, which divert the rain water from its natural channels of fall into one or other of the reservoirs.

The Island receives approximately 40% of its water from the mainland and this is conveyed across the harbour in two 21" diameter concrete lined steel submarine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a large proportion of the water supply has to be pumped, and in some areas repumped, neces- sitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The water supply to the urban areas in both Hong Kong and Kowloon is filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment and a high standard of purity is maintained. Practically all the water is supplied to consumers through meters, the charge being based on the total cost of provision, including capital costs. The average daily consumption for the year was 34.43 million gallons per day, and the peak figure was 51.77 million gallons per day, even though the water was available only for sixteen hours in the day. Restrictions on the hours of supply have to be imposed the whole year round to keep the consump- tion within the available resources and capacity of the filters but during the dry season the hours of supply have to be reduced to as few as five per day.

In the rural areas of the New Territories independent supplies from stream intakes in the locality are provided for some of the larger villages. The supply to the Un Long district was improved and extended to include the Ping Shan group of villages. Five wells were sunk to improve conditions on the island of Ping Chau, and pipes and pumps were ordered to provide a supply from Lantao to the neigbouring island of Cheung Chau, which is estimated to have a population of over 20,000 people.

Work on the construction of the first section of the Tai Lam Chung dam was continued. Orders were placed for a filtration and pumping plant required to deal with a maximum of 20 million gallons per day, the quantity which will be available on completion of the first and second stages of this scheme. The large pipes required for the trunk main were ordered and about half were received.

Two rapid gravity filtration plants were ordered. The first will have a capacity of 7 million gallons and will be installed at Taipo Road, replacing existing slow sand filters.

It will,

136

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

however, be capable of filtering some three million gallons per day more than the existing sand beds, the yield of the combined mainland reservoirs being more than sufficient to utilize this extra capacity during the summer months. The second plant has a capacity of three million gallons and will be installed at Chai Wan, where it will deal with water from the Tytam group of reservoirs and supply new development which is It rapidly taking place in the Shaukiwan and Chai Wan areas. will replace the old sand beds at Stubbs Road.

The replacement of old encrusted water mains by new and larger pipes and the extension of supplies to meet new develop- ment were continued. Limited supplies through standpipes from the existing distribution mains and from stream intakes Work on the were provided for numerous resettlement areas. new five million gallon filtered water service reservoir at Bowen Road was completed and roofing of the Albany service reser- voir, previously uncovered, was commenced. The realignment of part of the two 21" cross harbour mains, necessitated by the central reclamation scheme, and the laying of a new 27" diameter steel main from the reclamation to the Gardens service reservoir were commenced.

Deep well boring equipment was received half way through the year and work was commenced on sinking a trial bore well near Castle Peak, in the New Territories.

Electricity

Electricity on the island of Hong Kong is supplied by the Hong Kong Electric Co., Ltd. The supply is alternating current, distributed at 6,600 volts, 3 phase 50 cycles, 346/200 volts. The amount of electricity generated during 1953 was 234,271,780 Kilowatt hours, an increase of 7.8% over the previous year's output.

137

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The number of consumers at the end of the year was 62,513, an increase of 2,095, or 3.5% over the figure of 60,418, for 1952; total sales for the years were as follows:

Lighting

67,509,943 Units

Public Lighting

1,148,993 Units

Bulk Power

39,218,928 Units

Power and Water Heating

·

86,831,508 Units

Miscellaneous

536,973 Units

Total

195,246,345 Units

This total is an increase of 8%, or 14,500,231 units over the 1952 figure of 180,746,114 units sold.

During the year the peak load reached a maximum of 49,500 Kilowatts on 11th December, the previous maximum load being 47,000 Kilowatts on 19th February, 1952.

Continued delay in the manufacture and delivery of essen- tial plant has retarded the company's programme of expansion. Two boilers ordered in June 1950, for delivery in December 1952 and December 1953, have not yet been commissioned and a 20,000 Kilowatt turbine ordered in November 1950, for June 1952, is not yet on load. The total capacity of the generating station, therefore, remains at 72,500 Kilowatts and the steaming capacity at 687,000 lbs/hour.

On the distribution side, however, it has been possible to commence work on an extension of the 22 Kilovolt cable from the North Point generating station to the Hospital Road Sub- Station, to serve the western side of the Island, and it is expected that this cable will be in operation during the Spring of 1954.

138

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

Charges for current range from 29¢ per unit to 15.95¢ for lighting, and from 12 to 11.4¢ for power, with special rates quoted for bulk supply consumers, but all are subject to a 10¢ fuel surcharge due to the increased cost of oil fuel. This surcharge was first imposed on 1st April, 1952, the rate at that time being 22%.

In Kowloon and the New Territories electricity is supplied by the China Light & Power Co., Ltd. This company's load continued to grow steadily, as a result of the extensive building activility in this area, which continued unabated. Despite this heavy demand, the requirements of all classes of consumers were met in full. During the year, 345 factories were connected to the supply, as well as a large number of non-industrial premises.

The present total generating capacity of the power station is 67,500 Kolowatts and the boiler plant capacity is 865,000 lbs/hr. During 1954, the new 20,000 Kilowatt turbo-alternator, and the 200,000 lbs. boiler will be put into commission, and the capacity of the generating plant will be 87,500 Kilowatts, and that of the steam plant 1,065 lbs/hr.

Approximately 270,000,000 units of electricity were pro- duced during the year 1952/53 of which 231,404,493 units were sold. Total sales were as follows:-

Lighting

Power

Bulk Supply

Public Lighting

51,233,166 Units

75,591,127 Units

103,292,785 Units

1,287,415 Units

Total ..

231,404,493 Units

On 30th September, 1953, the Company had 52,171 con- sumers, and this number continues to increase each month.

139

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Charges for electricity are at present:-

Lighting

Power

Kowloon New Territories

$.30 per unit $0.39 per unit

0.14

0.15

99

""

0.13

0.13

99

Domestic Power

These rates are subject to a variable fuel surcharge which is at present 10%. Special rates are available for industrial

users.

Gas

Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by the Hong Kong and China Gas Co., Ltd., which was first established in the Colony in 1861. The demand for gas, both in Hong Kong and Kowloon, is still increasing and a start has been made on the installation of a new plant to replace the existing one in Kowloon.

The total quantity of gas sold during 1953 was 584 million cubic feet, an increase of 2.1% over the previous year.

The number of consumers was 7,300, forty-seven of which are industrial.

BR

The capacity of the plant in Hong Kong is 14 million cubic feet of gas per day, and in Kowloon it is 1 million cubic feet per day.

Tramways

The electric tramway service is operated by Hong Kong Tramways Limited. The track, which is about 19 miles in length, in single track, extends from Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan passing through the city of Victoria. There is also a branch line which passes round the race course in Happy Valley. The

140

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

tramcars are of the double-deck, single staircase type intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The gauge is 3′ 6′′ and the operating voltage is 500 volts direct

current.

A daily service of 118 cars is operated providing a car every two minutes or less in each direction. Through the city area, in the centre of the system, the minimum service provided is a car every forty seconds in each direction.

The total number of passengers carried during the year was 137 million and the total mileage run was nearly six million.

共區

Fares are charged at a flat-rate for any distance over any route (the maximum route length being 63 miles) of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (1 d.) 3rd class. The company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, scholars and Service personnel.

The Peak Tramway, operated by the Peak Tramway Co., Ltd., was opened for traffic in May, 1888, and was then known as the Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With the lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and the Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant, and incorporate safety features which make it possible for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track.

During 1950 and 1951, the company replaced its former wooden cars with new cars of improved design and all-metal construction, lighter and stronger than the old ones, and capable of carrying a greater number of passengers.

141

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

For the fourth year in succession the service carried more than one and a half million passengers, traffic again being heavier than the previous year.

Bus Services

Bus services on the Island are maintained by the China Motor Bus Company Limited operating a fleet of 172 vehicles.

The number of buses in daily service increased steadily during the year and the total mileage covered was 7.3 million miles, an increase of more than 7% over the previous year. There was not, however, a corresponding increase in the number of passengers carried, which remained approximately constant at 49.7 millions.

The peak hour service on routes operating through the city of Victoria, between the Monument, Happy Valley and Possession Street, now provides for one bus a minute in each direction.

After lengthy negotiations with United Kingdom manu- facturers, arrangements have been made for the production of a special short-wheelbase chassis suitable for operation on the steep, winding roads which are a feature of many suburban routes, and an order has been placed for twenty of these vehicles.

During the year, the Kowloon Motor Bus Co., (1933) Ltd., which operates in Kowloon and the New Territories, has carried 1682 million passengers as compared with 148 million in 1952. The distance covered by this company's vehicles was 16 million miles, an increase of more than a million miles over the year 1952.

A new service was started on 1st April, between Un Long and Tai Po, via Lam Kam Road, and the service which formerly ran between Sham Shui Po Ferry and Kowloon City was ex- tended to Ngau Tau Kok.

142

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

The company has ordered twenty new double-decker buses, but these have not yet been delivered owing to delay in delivery.

Ferries

The Star Ferry Co., Ltd., operates a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern extremity of the Kowloon Peninsula. Six vessels are in service and operate daily for 19 hours. A five-minute service is maintained during the day, and a regular service until well past midnight, the duration of the crossing being eight minutes. Approximately 36 million passengers were carried in 131,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 98,000 persons.

A heavy increase in both passenger and vehicular traffic marked the 30th year of operation of the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Co., Ltd., which now maintains five ferry services inside the harbour, and five services to outlying dis- tricts. Over 75,000,000 passengers and 1,076,000 vehicles were carried across the harbour during 1953, an increase over the previous year of nearly 3,900,000 passengers and 61,600 vehicles. Considerable improvements in the services were also made during the year by the addition of new and more efficient vessels and by renovations to ferry terminals.

The Jordan Road-Wanchai service is now maintained by a double-ended diesel ferry of the largest type, built in 1952, which carries 750 passengers, and by five new Scottish diesel ferries built by Messrs. Yarrows, of Glasgow. These vessels were launched, engined and fully completed by the Hong Kong Shipyard Ltd., during the year and each is designed to carry 650 passengers. They have Crossley 5-cylinder H.R.N. diesel engines giving 425 H.P. at 340 R.P.M. and a speed of over 10 knots, which enables them to complete the trip from Jordan Road to Wanchai in under 12 minutes.

143

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

During the year it was found necessary to extend the operation of the Wanchai services up to 1 a.m. every morning. The demand for the Shamshuipo service to the Western district has grown considerably and double-ended ferries are now

necessary.

The company operates early morning ferries which carry fish and vegetables from the islands of Cheung Chau and Tai O to Aberdeen, and thus enable the fishermen and farmers to send their products direct to market. The New Territories services, which carry over a million passengers per annum, have also been increased during the year, and on Sundays and public holidays, during the summer, there are now fifteen sailings to Cheung Chau, twelve to Silvermine Bay, four to Ping Chau and three to Kap Sui Mun, Castle Peak, Tung Chung and Tai O. It was found necessary to hold extra vessels in reserve to carry excess passengers on these routes.

The visit, in August, of the U.S.S. battleship "New Jersey", which anchored in Junk Bay, was the occasion for special excursion services to the ship. During the three days she was here, over 38,000 passengers were carried by the ten ferries in use for this purpose. In December, a visit from a sister ship the U.S.S. "Wisconsin" also attracted large numbers, and kept the excursion service busy.

A total of thirty-nine ferries are now in service. Another new double-ended diesel ferry, of the largest type, arrived from Scotland towards the end of the year and is being reassembled locally. A smaller 400 passenger steel ferry is also under construction by the same firm and both these vessels are expected to be completed for service in 1954.

Public Works

To accommodate the proposed new City Hall, and provide an adequate concourse area for new passenger ferry piers, to be constructed in the near future, some nine acres of land are

144

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND PUBLIC WORKS

being reclaimed from the sea in a central position on the city of Victoria's waterfront. The preparatory tasks of dredging and dumping sand for the foundations to the seawalls, diverting cross harbour telephone lines and other underwater works have proceeded quietly since 1951, and this year the seawalls rose above water level. The area is being filled with dredged material dumped from special hopper barges and by the public dumping of debris and spoil from building sites. Depending upon the satisfactory delivery of pipes necessary for the diver- sion of the cross harbour water mains, the reclamation should be completed by the middle of 1954.

The reclamation of the old Causeway Bay typhoon shelter and the construction of a new typhoon shelter to replace the one reclaimed, proceeded satisfactorily and was completed by the end of the year. This area of 57 acres has been especially developed to provide playing fields and other public recreational facilities and should go far towards satisfying the requirements of the community in that part of the city.

A modern stadium is being built by Government at Soo- kunpoo to fill a need long felt in Hong Kong. This stadium has been designed to accommodate nearly 30,000 persons and is capable of expansion to a capacity of 65,000. Here, every advantage is being taken of the existing features of a valley which is almost a natural amphitheatre. The stadium's main use will be as a football ground, but the requirements of field athletics have not been overlooked and a first class running track is being provided.

The majority of new Government buildings, commenced or completed during 1953, were designed to meet the requirements of the Police, Education and Medical departments.

Those for the Police Department included a block of 369 flats for married personnel, two new Police Stations in the New Territories, and extensions to the Sham Shui Po Police Station,

145

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

a Marine Police Station in Hong Kong and a new Police Headquarters with administrative offices.

Four new Government primary schools were completed. Three primary schools were commenced and also a secondary school in Kowloon. In addition, major extensions to the Hong Kong Technical College were completed.

For the Medical Department a start was made with the building of the new Tsan Yuk maternity hospital and a dispensary and maternity hospital at Tsun Wan, in the New Territories. A blood bank attached to the Queen Mary Hospital was completed and the Wanchai tuberculosis and dental clinic was nearing completion.

Other major Government buildings completed or under construction during the year included the first stage of the central Government offices in Hong Kong, new headquarters for the Civil Aid Services, and the new Kowloon fire station. A start was also made on site works in connection with the erection of 99 flats for expatriate staff. The programme of rebuilding markets and latrines throughout the Colony was continued.

--

Also in hand was the design of a new City Hall which is to be sited on the new central reclamation facing the harbour.

In some of the western areas of Kowloon unsatisfactory fouling conditions in the harbour exist at the sewer outfalls and no new installations are permitted. A scheme is now under consideration for laying an intercepting sewer and constructing a new outfall to deep water, where the tidal currents are conducive to the effective removal of the sewage from the harbour, so that the use of water borne sanitation can be extended without pollution of the harbour.

Several schemes for the improvement and extension of Kai Tak Airport were under consideration. Some of these schemes involve extensive reclamation work in the harbour.

146

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Along the waterfront of the Central District a long-term reclamation scheme has begun. The extent of the first stage can be clearly seen from the above aerial photo.

The city of Victoria taken from Causeway Bay,

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AR!

Photo: E. A. Fisher

香港公共圖

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Looking across Hong Kon

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Photo: E. A. Fisher

Looking across Hong Kong harbour from Central Kowloon.

IV

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Photo: E. A. Fisher

harbour from Central Kowloon.

HONG

#

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GP

·RARIES

The tightly packed city of Victoria taken from the air.

Chapter 11

COMMUNICATIONS

Marine

The waterways of the Colony form one of the most magnificent harbours in the world with excellent facilities capable of accommodating the largest vessels which visit the Colony. The port continues to maintain its reputation for efficient cargo-handling and the speedy turn-round of ships. There are twelve modern deep water berths on the Kowloon side of the harbour for vessels drawing up to 32 feet, with adjoining storage space in modern godowns for approximately 770,000 tons of cargo. On the Hong Kong side of the harbour, there is storage space in modern godowns for 130,000 tons.

The No. 5 Wharf at Kowloon has been completely recon- structed. It is 800 feet long with a beam of 60 feet, and a depth of 32 feet alongside.

Government maintains for public hire, 17 "A" Class moorings suitable for vessels up to 600 feet in length and 29 "B" Class moorings for vessels up to 450 feet in length. Twelve of the "A" Class moorings are classed as typhoon moorings.

Victoria harbour extending over an area of some 17 square miles, surrounded by its beautiful granite hills, affords a safe and protected anchorage under all weather conditions.

During the year ending 31st March, 1953, (the figures for 1952 are shown in brackets) 6,166 (5,536) ocean going vessels of 18,197,763 (15,664,278) net tons, 3,250 (4,071) river steamers of 2,593,268 (3,354,075) net tons and 23,873 (33,010) junks and launches of 1,473,819 (3,462,276, the method of computation for this figure differs from that used this year) net tons entered and cleared the port.

147

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

A total of 1,060,580 (969,871) passengers was embarked and disembarked, of whom 49,291 (76,660) passengers were carried by ocean going vessels, 1,011,289 (893,077) by river steamers and none (134) by junks.

Ocean going vessels discharged 3,043,990 (2,979,874) weight tons and loaded 1,372,669 (1,481,900) weight tons of cargo.

River steamers discharged 25,663 (34,841) weight tons and loaded 34,519 (75,870) weight tons of cargo.

Junks and launches discharged 406,568 (510,100) weight tons and loaded 115,610 (123,341) weight tons of cargo.

There was an increase in ocean going vessels and tonnage of cargo over the previous year, but the figures for river steamers, launches and junks continued to drop. The decrease in the latter figures is attributed solely to the restrictions imposed by international tension which curtailed trade with the mainland of China.

Sea communications with North and South America, Europe, Australia, the Philippines, Japan and South Africa operated regularly. During the year German vessels engaged on international routes resumed their regular services to Hong Kong.

In addition to the various signal stations which maintain a 24-hour ship-shore visual signal system for the convenience of shipowners and agents, greater use was made of radio telephones by stevedoring companies. This greatly reduces time in handling tugs and lighters.

Aids to navigation are of the latest type, a new direction- finding system for shipping and aircraft and a new meteor- ological station have now been installed at Waglan Island.

148

COMMUNICATIONS

There are two large commercial shipbuilding, ship repairing and engineering establishments in the Colony, the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company and the Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company. These companies are equipped to undertake new building up to 500 feet length and, for dry docking, ocean-going ships up to 750 feet length. Of particular interest is the Government firefloat "Alexander Grantham" which was built in the course of this year and put into service by the latter company. Of its type, this craft is one of the most powerful in the world and will be a valuable contribution to the safety of the port. The establishments referred to can carry out repairs to all kinds of hulls and to every type of machinery, and both are equipped with heavy lift cranes able to handle weights up to 150 tons. Many of the ships which came to them left their normal trading routes for the purpose of repair and overhaul, being attracted by the keen prices and the speed at which they are able to carry out repairs. During the year, at these two establishments alone, over 400 ships of an aggregate of 1,304,000 gross tons were docked for repairs and overhaul, while an additional 887 ships of 5,751,000 gross tons were serviced afloat. They were of various types and many nationalities. There are a few smaller establishments capable of slipping and carrying out repairs to hull and machinery to vessels up to about 200 feet in length, as well as about 200 other establishments which build and repair the numerous harbour craft and the host of native junks and boats. All the major Classification Societies are represented in the Colony by Resident Surveyors, and Government Surveyors, under the Director of Marine, are appointed to deal with matters arising from International Maritime Conventions and Safety of Life at Sea.

A list of the principal shipping companies using the port is given in Appendix XII.

149

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Railways

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow with connexions to North and East China. The British section of the line, which is owned by the Hong Kong Government, is operated between Kowloon and the frontier, a distance of 22 miles. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the north, but since October, 1949, when the Chinese People's Government took over the administration of China, through passenger train services have been suspended. All passengers proceeding to and from China are now obliged to change trains at the frontier. For a time, it was also necessary to off-load all goods traffic, but since the latter half of 1950, goods traffic in wagon loads has been passing to and from Chinese territory without transhipment.

Total revenue for the year 1953 amounted to $5,982,540, operating expenditure being $4,260,040, leaving a net operating revenue of $1,722,500. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $5,601,419, $4,563,579 and $1,037,840 respectively. Capital expenditure was $886,241.

Passengers carried within the territory of Hong Kong were 3,457,835 or 86.57% of the total carried. Passengers to and from the frontier station of Lowu numbered 535,167, the greater proportion of whom travelled between Hong Kong and China.

PUBL

The future prosperity of the railway depends on a relaxa- tion of the trade and travel restrictions now in force between the Colony and China, but an increased profit could be made as a result of the post-war development and increase in popula- tion of the Colony and New Territories if operating costs could be reduced. These are high owing to the large increase in the price of fuel, materials, wages, etc., which are, in many cases, five to six times those prevailing before the War, while fares are only twice those in force in 1939.

150

COMMUNICATIONS

The use of Austerity 2-8-0 steam locomotives for the short run to the border and back is also uneconomical as the time spent standing in steam is unfortunately high in proportion to the actual mileage run. The remedy lies in the provision of Diesels and an order has been placed in Australia for two Diesel Electric locomotives with a view to a gradual change from steam to Diesel traction.

Orders placed in Britain in 1948 for passenger rolling stock were still not fulfilled by the end of 1953. In consequence, considerable inconvenience and overcrowding of passengers continued through the year.

The following statistics for the year under review concern the general operation of the railway: -

Length of lines

Main points of call

Total freight carried

Total passengers carried:

Passenger miles travelled:

Roads

: Main Line-22 miles

Total length of lines---35 miles.

New Territories, Hong Kong.

3,993,002.

:

233,536 tons.

49,312,492

The density of traffic has increased steadily since the war and, although more than 90% of the roads are all-weather, the old waterbound construction has deteriorated under present day conditions and its replacement by modern vibrated concrete surfaces has continued in accordance with the five year Road Reconstruction Plan. In addition to the reconstruction work, road maintenance work was undertaken by directly employed labour. Extensive new work was undertaken in connexion with the provision of access roads and paths to areas for the resettle- ment of persons cleared from the squatter areas.

151

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Roads and Vehicles

The Colony is served with a total of 431.63 miles of roadway as follows:

Туре

Island Kowloon N.T. Total

Concrete

65.96 30.51

15.18

111.65

Bituminous Macadam. 69.48

20.59

68.02

158.09

Waterbound Macadam

35.49

56.33

42.75

134.57

Earth

10.08

4.11

12.62

26.81

Steps, concrete or stone 0.51

0.51

Total ...... 181.52

111.54

138.57

431.63

During the year, 19,826 vehicles (see below) were registered in the Colony. This is an increase of 1,535 vehicles over the previous year and represents a density of 46 vehicles per mile of roadway.

Private Cars

Motor Cycles

Taxicabs

4

Public Hire Cars

Buses

Public Commercial Lorries

Private Commercial Lorries

Government Vehicles

Private Rickshaws

Public Rickshaws

Private Tricycles

Total ....

·

12.371

1,109

344

282

520

1,398

1,240

838

83

853

788

19,826

In the New Territories the districts of Tsun Wan, Un Long, Taipo and Shatin have become centres of small scale industry in addition to being market centres for the farming community.

152

COMMUNICATIONS

The original roads averaging 18 feet in width, with no footpaths, have had to be widened wherever possible and dangerous corners removed. At Un Long and Tsun Wan plans for major road widening and reconstruction have been completed. The construction of a new bridge at Tai Wan near Shatin, approxi- mately eight miles from Kowloon, was started during the year. The scheme is part of a plan to replace weak bridges by new ones more in keeping with modern requirements.

The two Government Quarries situated in Hong Kong and Kowloon employing a staff of 550 men, produced 190,000 tons of stone and 60,000 tons of premixed bitumen coated macadam for the road and building projects of the Public Works Depart- ment. Detailed surveys and plans were prepared for a new quarry in Hong Kong, as the existing quarry, situated in the ever growing residential and industrial area of North Point, was the cause of complaint by the public regarding the noise and dust nuisance from the quarry workings which, coupled with inferior stone and an uneconomical working face, made it necessary to consider an alternative site.

Important improvements and steady progress have been made with street lighting. Experiments with various types of lamps have been carried out and, with the erection of 700 new lamps, the total number installed at the end of the year was approximately 4,500.

Civil Aviation

Hong Kong Airport is situated on the mainland about four miles from Kowloon. Its operation is under the control of the Director of Civil Aviation. The airport is suitable for both landplanes and seaplanes as Kai Tak Bay is immediately adjacent to the runways, and both types of air traffic operate under a centralized control. In addition to the two runways, 13/31 (5,418′ × 330′) and 07/25 (4,756′ × 230′), both of which

153

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

are surfaced with asphalt layer on concrete bases, the following facilities and services are provided in accordance with Inter- national Civil Aviation commitments:

Air Traffic Control.

Telecommunications and Air Navigation Aids. Meteorological and Aeronautical Information.

Air Sea Rescue and Fire, Crash and Safety Services. Air Registration Board.

Customs, Health and Immigration.

The Airport normally operates on a dawn to dusk basis, but facilities are always available in an emergency. There were no major accidents to civil aircraft in the year under review.

A constructional engineering firm has completed a detailed survey on, and prepared estimates for, a plan drawn up by the Department of Civil Aviation to develop the existing airport to International standards. This project is now being con- sidered by Government.

Facilities provided in Hong Kong by private firms include first class aircraft maintenance and overhaul at the workshops of the Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited, training of pilots, aircraft maintenance and aircraft radio engineers, at the Far East Flying Training School, and numerous up to date tourist organizations for the benefit of the air travellers.

Details of the airlines which operated regular Inter- national services into Hong Kong during the year are given in Appendix XIII.

Post Office

The programme of structural alterations came to an end with the official opening, in May, by the Governor, of the new public hall and counters. These improvements enabled all public business to be co-ordinated at ground floor level.

154

:

1953.

January

February

AIRPORT STATISTICS - ARRIVALS.

ONOH

Freight (in short TONS) Passengers (Multiply figure at foot of sheet by 10)

Aircraft

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

1953.

January

February

AIRPORT STATISTICS DEPARTURES.

Freight (in short TONS) Passengers (Multiply figure at foot of sheet by 10)

Aircraft

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

[RIES

December 2

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

COMMUNICATIONS

The year has been one of continued expansion in all phases and the provision of additional accommodation and Branch Post Offices has become a matter of urgent necessity. It is hoped to commence building four new Branch Post Offices next year.

On 1st May, 1953, it became necessary to increase the air postage rate to the United Kingdom and countries in Zone 2 owing to the inclusion of B.O.A.C. conveyance rates into the I.A.T.A. framework, as a result of the Universal Postal Conven- tion of Brussels, 1952.

The heaviest increase felt during the year was in posted traffic, the number of items rising from 37,845,993 in 1952, to 47,289,554 in 1953. Items received showed only a slight increase from 31,590,508 to 31,667,740. These figures exclude items posted locally for local delivery which totalled well over 3,000,000.

Registered items rose from 2,083,469 in 1952, to 2,192,118 in 1953, and there was an increase of over 50% in parcel traffic from 370,935 to 554,337 items.

Local Christmas postings again provided an all time record of 2,100,000 as against the previous year's record total of 1,506,673.

Remittance services increased, with a slight tendency to use Postal Orders in preference to Money Orders. The relative value of Money Orders and Postal Orders issued and paid was $1,978,415 and $1,258,436, a total of $3,236,851 as against the previous year's total of $3,038,122.

Sales of postage and revenue stamps also provided a record, being valued at $20,972,759 as against $16,887,087 in 1952.

155

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Licensing

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, under the control of the Postmaster General, issues all types of radio licences ranging from domestic broadcast receiving licences to amateur wireless stations' and radio dealers' licences.

This office also conducts examinations for the Postmaster General's Certificate for Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy, and in addition undertakes the survey and inspection of ships and aircraft wireless stations. Another function of this office is the enforcement of the regulations made under the Inter- national Telecommunication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecommunications Ordinance.

A close liaison is maintained between the Hong Kong Communications Board, the Hong Kong Frequency Assignment Committee and the Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external tele- communications.

Many commercial firms, particularly stevedoring concerns, have been licensed to operate very high frequency radio- telephone circuits between their offices and harbour craft.

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office continues to assist the Department of Commerce and Industry in regulating the import and export of telecommunications equipment.

Telecommuncations

Cable and Wireless Limited is responsible for all telegraph and radiotelephone services between Hong Kong and overseas countries, in addition to local ship/shore radio services and the internal telegraph service of the Colony. The Company is also responsible for the technical maintenance and development of the Colony's broadcasting and aeradio services, meteorological radio services and the V.H.F. communications of various Government departments.

156

COMMUNICATIONS:

During 1953, new equipment was provided for the Com- pany's main wireless Receiving Station at Mount Butler and transmitting station at Cape D'Aguilar. At both stations the new equipment was used to establish additional overseas telecommunication services and to expand existing services. The aeradio services were further increased by the addition of new equipment at the Peak and Waglan Island stations, includ- ing automatic direction finding and

finding and distance measuring equipment.

The despatch and reception of telegrams is the Company's main business, and the average number of telegrams handled daily is approximately 8,500. This figure varies directly with the Colony's trade, and would increase by several thousand telegrams daily if trading conditions were restored to former levels.

The telegraphic communications of the Colony are well served by several deep sea cables linked to the Company's world-wide system, in addition to a network of 14 wireless circuits working with other centres in the Far Eastern area and beyond.

The overseas radiotelephone services, worked in collabora- tion with the Hong Kong Telephone Company, continue to expand, and during 1953, new services were opened to Djakarta, Bangkok and Bombay. Up to ten radiotelephone services can be handled simultaneously to bring twenty people, separated by thousands of miles, into direct conversation. On occasions, over 1,700 paid minutes of overseas telephone traffic are handled in a single day. The short-range ship/shore radio- telephone service, through which ships at sea can be connected to subscribers on the Hong Kong Telephone Exchange, is slowly growing in popularity as more ships are fitted with suitable equipment. Excellent results have been obtained up to 500 miles from Hong Kong.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The Company's new "Harborfone" scheme is in full operation, and facilities are now available for any ship moored within the harbour to be fitted with a V.H.F. radiotelephone installation on hire, giving direct connexion to subscribers by normal duplex operation. This service is proving very popular, and is in advance of facilities provided for ships in most ports of the world.

The Company's radio facsimile service, already available to and from Singapore and London, has been extended to include Japan. During 1953, radio press pictures covering notable events in the Colony were transmitted for publication in newspapers abroad and pictures of world events, notably the Coronation, were received in the Colony.

Sufficient use was made of the local telegram service to prove that this facility fulfills a public need. Telegrams handed in at the Company's acceptance counters, in Hong Kong or Kowloon, are delivered to any address in Hong Kong and the mainland New Territories.

The traffic figures for the year ending 31st December, 1953, were as follows:

Telegrams forwarded

Telegrams delivered

Radiotelephone,

Radiotelephone,

paid minutes inwards

1,393,243

1,387,720

paid minutes outwards

644,434

1,274,256

66

137

68 (18,373 sq. cms.)

Radio Pictures, inwards

16 (3,459 sq. cms.)

Ship/shore radiotelephone, paid minutes outwards Ship/shore radiotelephone,

paid minutes inwards

Radio Pictures, outwards

158

COMMUNICATIONS

Telephones

The public service for the Colony, including Kowloon and the New Territories, is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, Limited.

At the end of the fiscal year the total number of direct exchange lines working was 29,779 and the number of exten- sions was 14,550, a total of 44,329 stations.

Considerable progress in the development of the Company's plant to meet the continued demand for telephone service has been made since the production of the last annual report.

New telephone exchanges have been installed in the eastern area of Victoria, Cand at Shaukiwan. A rural exchange has been re-opened at Fanling, and Repulse Bay and Stanley exchanges have been replaced by modern equipment with increased capacity.

The installation of new underground cables, for both imminent and future development, has made considerable

progress.

Meteorological Services

BRARI

Weather services for the general public, shipping, aviation and the armed forces are provided by the Royal Observatory, which maintains a forecasting office at Kai Tak Airport and outstations on Waglan and Cheung Chau Islands in the approaches to the harbour. The Observatory itself remains the centre for the provision of storm warnings, which has been one of its most important functions since its foundation in 1884. Warnings are distributed by radio to shipping and aircraft whenever a tropical storm or typhoon is located in the Hong Kong area of responsibility, i.e., the northern part of the China Sea and the coastal waters of China as far north as

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Shanghai. When the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use, and warnings are distributed as widely as possible by means of visual signals, telephone, Radio Hong Kong and Rediffusion.

area.

Forecasting in Hong Kong is a difficult task, for there is a lack of weather information from much of the surrounding Valuable co-operation is, however, given by ships at sea and aircraft in flight, which transmit on the average about one hundred weather reports to the forecasting office each day. This year, for the first, time regular pilot-balloon observations of upper winds have been carried out on board a Hong Kong merchant ship at sea.

共區

Upper-air soundings to great heights are made daily at the radio-sonde station, attached to the Observatory, in order to provide data on winds and temperatures aloft for high-flying aircraft.

Climatological observations have been maintained at the Observatory for nearly 70 years, the only break in the series being during the Japanese occupation. Large numbers of inquiries on climate and weather are dealt with, and research is carried out on various meteorological problems. The pressing demands for weather services, particularly to meet the needs of aviation, have led to a great expansion in the work of the department since the war, and there has been little opportunity for purely scientific activities. It has been possible, however, to re-equip the Observatory as a seismological station.

160

Chapter 12

THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND

GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

The Press

There are approximately eighty-eight newspapers and magazines published in Hong Kong and details of the main ones are given in Appendix XIV. In addition, four of the big international news agencies maintain permanent correspondents in Hong Kong; they are the Associated Press of America, Agence-France Presse, United Press and Reuter, the latter in association with the Australian Associated Press.

the

Offices in Hong Kong are also maintained by the Inde- pendent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency, the official agency of the Chinese People's Govern- ment, and the Central News Agency of Nationalist China. The resident foreign correspondents' corps numbers about twenty persons and is made up mostly of British, American and Japanese writers. Permanent representatives of the New York Times, the Time and Life magazine organization, and various other foreign publicity houses are based in the Colony. The Times (London) resident staff correspondent moved earlier in the year to make his headquarters in Singapore.

English language newspapers published in Hong Kong include the South China Morning Post (weekday mornings), the China Mail (weekday afternoons), the South China Sunday Post Herald (Sundays) and the Hong Kong "Tiger" Standard (mornings). The South China Morning Post, and the China Mail, are published by the South China Morning Post Limited. The daily Hong Kong "Tiger" Standard is the only Chinese owned English-language newspaper operating in the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The South China Sunday Post Herald, which is also published by the South China Morning Post Limited, contains much feature material and a picture supplement.

The trade journal, Daily Commodity Quotations, is published on weekdays in English and Chinese. It serves a useful function in providing up-to-date trade news as well as commodity quotations.

Altogether, over sixty Chinese language papers and periodicals are published in the Colony. The leading ones are the morning dailies, the Wah Kiu Yat Po, the Kung Sheung Yat Po, the Sing Tao Jih Pao, all of which have evening editions, the Hong Kong Times, the Chi Yin Daily News, the Sing Pao and the New Life Evening Post. The left-wing press is represented by the Ta Kung Pao, the Wen Wei Pao and the New Evening Post.

Among periodicals, the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review and the monthly magazine Orient have a wide circula- tion outside the Colony. The Far Eastern Economic Review is, as its name implies, a publication devoted to Eastern economic affairs, and the Orient, founded in 1950, specializes in Asian political and cultural affairs. Another monthly is the cultural publication, Outlook. The Sunday Examiner is a weekly, devoted to religious matters. The China Economic Review is a weekly and the International Trade Journal a monthly paper. The Hong Kong and Far East Builder is a bi-monthly, devoted to news concerning engineering and build- ing construction projects in Hong Kong.

The leading Chinese pictorial publications are the weekly East Pictorial, the T'ien Hsia and the Asia Pictorial, the two latter, both monthly illustrated magazines, having a special appeal to overseas Chinese communities in South-East Asia. Another monthly illustrated is the Four Seas Pictorial, published with the support of the United States Information Service.

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THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

Broadcasting

Radio Hong Kong provides daily programmes in English and Chinese to serve the entire Colony. In July, for an experi- mental period, broadcasting was separated from the Public Relations Office, though the latter continued to supply the news bulletins. Thus, for the first time, broadcasting assumed the status of an independent department.

The programmes are planned and produced by a small permanent staff, the strength of which remained unchanged during the year. Announcing and presentation duties are carried out by a group of trained part-time personnel and all technical operations are undertaken by engineers of Cable and Wireless Limited, who work in close co-operation with the staff of Radio Hong Kong.

Radio Hong Kong comprises three separate stations which radiate programmes simultaneously. The English language station (ZBW; 2 kw. on 854 kilocycles) includes special daily and week-end broadcasts for the Forces. In addition, weekly programmes in French and Portuguese are broadcast. The Chinese language station (ZEK; 2 kw. on 640 kilocycles) broad- casts mainly in Cantonese, Swatowese and Mandarin., All news bulletins are broadcast in the three principal dialects. Short- wave transmissions radiate from the third station (ZBW3; 24 kw. on 9.52 megacycles) and reception on this frequency is heard all over the world. There were 42,298 wireless licence holders at the end of the year.

There was no change in the pattern of the day's broad- casting. An early morning session on both stations is followed by the lunchtime broadcasts. The main evening transmissions begin at 6 p.m. and last until 11.30 p.m. On Saturdays, the programmes carry on through the afternoon (with special

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

features for the Forces), while Sunday's broadcasts are con- tinuous, starting at 10 a.m. in the morning. On public holidays, Radio Hong Kong transmits all day, starting at 8 a.m.

The highlight of the broadcasting year was, of course, the Coronation. Coverage fell into two distinct parts: the prepara- tory programmes and the great events of June 2nd itself. No less than forty explanatory programmes were put out before the Coronation, which included a special series in Chinese to illustrate the history and the special meaning of the occasion. As the day approached a number of feature programmes with full actuality were broadcast on local celebrations. These included the Youth Festival and the two Chinese features "Hong Kong Prepares to Celebrate" and "The Birth of the Dragon". Coverage of local events on June 2nd, from early morning to late afternoon, achieved a record in the number of outside broadcasts produced during any single day. Moreover, most of these were "double broadcasts" put over simultaneously in English and Chinese. In the evening, Radio Hong Kong went over to the BBC and for over seven hours relayed the whole of the Coronation Ceremonies from London. After June

2nd Radio Hong Kong continued to broadcast programmes on celebrations in the New Territories. It is also of interest to note that, at the request of the BBC, four special items were sent to London as Hong Kong's contribution to the Coronation programmes. One of these was transmitted by radiotelephone on June 2nd which meant that the sounds of Hong Kong's celebrations were heard throughout the world on the evening of Coronation Day.

It is a basic aim of Radio Hong Kong to increase the number of programmes which reflect the varied activities of all sections of the community. This plan was vigorously pursued during the year, with the result that the volume of locally originated broadcasts in 1953 was a record. The rise

164

THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

in the number of outside broadcasts (remarkable in the case of the Chinese station) is a good illustration of this trend:

ZBW (English) ZEK (Chinese)

1952

1953

1952 1953

Number of Outside

Broadcasts

11

18

6

41

The rise in the number of locally-produced radio plays and 'live' music programmes is equally noteworthy:

Plays

Music Recitals

1952

1953

8

28

49

125

Important yearly events in Hong Kong's calendar, such as the Queen's Birthday Parade, the Hong Kong Product's Exhibition and the Remembrance Day ceremony (broadcast for the first time in Chinese) were given full coverage in both languages. Notable programmes included a "double" broadcast on the New Territories Agricultural Show; three features of the new series "In Your Service" (ZBW & ZEK); a magazine pro- gramme for youth "Contact" (ZBW); a popular request programme "Sincerely Yours" (ZEK); two separate British Council programmes (ZBW & ZEK); and weekly religious services from the Chinese studios. At the request of the Police and Medical Departments, a number of dramatized features were broadcast in Chinese which gave point and punch to seasonal "drives".

1953 was an exceptionally busy and stimulating year for broadcasters, and the experience gained will act as a spur to future expansion. A plan to increase programme hours was under close study at the end of the year.

165

Rediffusion

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Rediffusion (Hong Kong), Limited, under a franchise granted in 1948, operates a wired broadcasting system in the Colony. Under the terms of this franchise, Rediffusion relays programmes from Radio Hong Kong for a minimum period of 21 hours a week. The Company pays to the Government $1 a month, in respect of each subscriber, in the form of a Radio Licence Fee. Programmes comprising relays of Radio Hong Kong, B:B.C., and other broadcast programmes, but mainly originated in the Company's studios, are distributed over a network which now covers the whole of the urban area and parts of the Peak.

There are three amplifying stations, two on the Island and one in Kowloon. Each subscriber has a loudspeaker and selector switch installed in the house, and pays a service rental charge of $10 per month and may pay an additional $5 a month for an extra point. Altogether 53,300 loudspeakers have been installed. Two programmes are provided, one in English and one in Chinese, and the service operates from 7 a.m. to mid- night. The English programme consists mainly of musical items, but the Chinese programme includes plays, stories, con- certs and other features originated in the studio and gives regular relays of Cantonese Operas. News Bulletins in three dialects are broadcast several times a day.

Films

LIB

The number of cinemas in the Colony has grown rapidly during recent years, and at present fifty-nine are in operation, with three more under construction.

Film production has steadily been gaining momentum since the war, and has considerably increased since 1950, when certain studios, formerly located in Shanghai, came to Hong Kong. Chinese film production is, therefore, now an established and

166

THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

flourishing industry, with no less than seven Chinese studios. Films in both the Cantonese and Mandarin dialects are pro- duced, and the Colony now ranks third highest in the world as a producer of films, the two largest producers being the United States and Japan.

Government does not possess a film section, though certain technical films are produced by the Director of Medical and Health Services in connexion with health propaganda work, and other campaigns for which film strips are needed.

All foreign films imported into the Colony are distributed through commercial agencies. A quota system has been established, which requires first-run theatres to show British films for seven days out of every seventy. All films, whether locally produced or imported, are subject to censorship before release for exhibition by one of a panel of three censors, appointed by Government.

Film censorship is governed by regulations, but the question as to whether or not a film should be passed for exhibition is entirely a matter for the censor to determine. Any owner or hirer who is aggrieved at the decision of the censor may appeal to a Board of Review. The decision of this Board is final. Films passed for exhibition are released for viewing by all audiences and there is no special certificate that excludes child audiences or requires a limited audience for a horror film, as is the practice in the United Kingdom. In any one quarter of the year under review, an average of approximately 15 British, 104 American, 56 locally made Chinese films, and 20 other feature films were presented for censorship.

Information Services

The Public Relations department is divided into a number of separate but interlocking units or sections under the control of the Public Relations Officer. There are the Press section,

167

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

headed by the Press Officer, a Display and Distribution section and an Administrative section, the latter two controlled by the same Assistant Public Relations Officer. There is also a Film Censorship section consisting of a panel of three film censors. Eventually, it is envisaged that there will be a small Films and Photographic section under a specialist officer. Meanwhile, the department's limited activity in the field of films is handled by the Display and Distribution section, and photographs by either Display and Distribution or the Press section, according to the circumstances.

Although the primary concern is to publicise the affairs of the Hong Kong Government, United Kingdom and Common- wealth happenings are also given equal attention and maximum use is made of much of the material supplied by the Central Office of Information, in London.

Press Section

The two most important functions of the press section are the preparation of the daily information bulletin, which gives news of Government affairs and the preparation and editing of news bulletins for broadcast by Radio Hong Kong. In addi- tion, items from the London Press Service, prepared by the editorial department of the Central Office of Information, are edited and distributed daily to the local press. These three services are produced in English and Chinese. Also prepared in the press room is a daily press summary in English of items of interest from the vernacular press. Photographs supplied through the Central Office of Information, and also taken by local photographers, commissioned by the department, are dis- tributed to the press. In addition to photographs, simplified plans, sketch maps and scale drawings, to amplify and explain the text of various stories, are prepared for press use.

168

..

THE PRESS, BROADCASTING, FILMS AND GOVERNMENT INFORMATION SERVICES

The department's system of distribution of material to the press is made available to the Public Relations Officers of the three arms of Her Majesty's Forces stationed in the Colony, with whom the press officer works in close liaison.

Display and Distribution Section

It

This section undertakes a wide variety of work. supervises and places all Government advertising, adapts display material produced by the Central Office of Information to local needs, and is now producing a certain amount of original dis- play material. It also maintains a film library and distributes films.

Relations with the Public

四幕

In addition to handling an ever-increasing volume of inquiries from persons in the Colony, more and more is being done to assist visitors other than journalists, broadcasters, writers, and photographers, who have always been a first responsibility of the department.

UBI IC LIBRAR

169

Chapter 13

LOCAL FORCES

History. Volunteer service in Hong Kong began with the formation on 30th May, 1854, of the Hong Kong Volunteers. Between 1854 and 1920 volunteering fluctuated considerably, chiefly in relation to the personality and enthusiasm of succes- sive Commanding Officers. In 1878, the Hong Kong Volunteers were re-christened the "Hong Kong Volunteer Corps"; in 1917 their name was changed to the "Hong Kong Defence Corps"; and in 1920 the title was changed once more to "The Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps".

ins

War Record. The Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps mobilized about 1,400 men to meet the Japanese attack on the Colony on 8th December, 1941, and fought with the Regular Forces against overwhelming odds until ordered to surrender on 25th December, 1941. For their gallantry in battle and subsequent escapes from Japanese prison camps members of the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps were awarded one D.S.O., five M.C., two M.B.E., one D.C.M., six M.M. and eighteen "Mentioned in Despatches".

BR

After the war the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps was reconstituted on 1st March, 1949, as "The Hong Kong Defence Force." Two years later the prefix "Royal" was awarded to the Force by His Late Majesty King George VI in recognition of the gallant defence of Hong Kong by the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps.

Present Constitution. The Royal Hong Defence Force is constituted by Ordinance and is a combined force comprising a naval, an army and an air force element. Men and women of different races and nationalities serve side by side in each

170

LOCAL FORCES

unit. The Force is composed partly of volunteers and partly of conscripts enrolled after the introduction of compulsory service in 1951. The main units of the Force are:-

Force Headquarter Units consisting of an Artillery

Battery and various specialist units and officers.

The Hong Kong Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. The Hong Kong Regiment.

The Home Guard.

The Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force.

The Hong Kong Women's Naval Volunteer Reserve. The Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Army Corps. The Hong Kong Women's Auxiliary Air Force.

Training obligations vary in the different units. In most units members must attend annually, as a minimum require- ment, sixty instructional parades of one hour duration, six full days training and fifteen days training at camp. An instructional allowance is granted in respect of every instructional parade. For full days training and for attendance at Camp officers and members are paid at the appropriate rate for regular officers and men of equivalent rank. The Force is financed from funds voted annually by the Legislative Council.

Most of the officers of the Force are found from amongst amongst the members, but a few regular officers and N.C.Os are attached for the purpose of training.

The Force provides an excellent illustration of men and women of different races, both volunteers and conscripts, working together in all three Services in the common interests of the Colony.

171

Chapter 14

GENERAL

Research

The research programme at the University of Hong Kong has been greatly extended in the past year.

In the Arts departments, new research projects have been started. The history of Hong Kong and various aspects of Anglo-Chinese relations in the 19th century are being studied, and work on the economic and sociological problems of con- temporary China and Hong Kong is carried on. Books on the economic history of China and the monetary system of Hong Kong have already been published. A linguistic analysis of characteristic features of moral situations is being made with reference to confusions in subjectivist theories of ethics, under the general heading of "Moral Situations and Approach", also a psychological study of reading aptitude. Further studies include the place of English in Hong Kong schools, a survey of Chinese adolescents' attitudes, and the reading ability of University students. Research is also being made into the Spanish element and influence in the Philippine Islands. Books and articles published include translations from or into English by the Modern Languages department, and books in Chinese on aspects of literature, the arts, history and philosophy by the Institute of Oriental Studies. To facilitate research, the University Library is now equipped with a microcard and microfilm reader.

Research is being continued in the department of Geography in the distribution, occurrence, and paragenesis of the tungsten minerals in the New Territories, a report on which was read at the Eighth Pacific Science Congress in Manila; a coloured distribution map of vegetation types will soon be published; and an inquiry into the geographical environment of Aberdeen is being conducted.

172

GENERAL - RELIGION

Research in the department of Chemistry is in progress on the mechanism of chemical reactions, and on the chemistry of various plants of the Colony and other parts of South East Asia which have reputed medicinal or other value.

The Fisheries Research Unit is now well established and a Director, Chief Scientific Officer, and three Assistant Scientific Officers have been appointed. The Unit's premises in the department of Biology are now adequately equipped and the research vessel "Alister Hardy" was launched on November 27, 1953. A hydrological survey programme has been designed and will be initiated early in January, 1954, following the vessel's sea-trials and the installation of scientific equipment. A programme of investigation on fish biology, pond culture, and algology has been started.

The department of Surgery is concerned with the surgery of liver disease, particularly cirrhosis and cholangitis.

Work is continuing in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology on the treatment of eclampsia by sodium pentothal and an investigation has been undertaken, in conjunction with the department of Pathology, on the incidence and pathogenesis of hydatidiform mole and chorion-epithelioma, conditions. which are relatively more frequent in this part of the world than in the West. The department of Medicine is conducting research on the pathogenesis and incidence of disease of the liver in Hong Kong, with special reference to the disturbance of intra-hepatic circulation produced and their relationship to the occurrence of ascites. Study is made also of the haematological findings in tropical splenomegaly and of the mechanism involved.

Religion

The Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macao, covers nine organized parish churches and eight mission chapels, of which three worship in English and the remainder

173

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

in Chinese. Its Cathedral, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was built in 1847 and established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. In addition to its work in Hong Kong University, and in secondary and primary education, the Anglican Church has taken an active part in the affairs of Chung Chi College (a Christian College of post Secondary School Education in Arts and Science, and in Theology) and in the development of primary Education especially among the children of manual workers.

The English-speaking Free Churches are represented by the Methodists who have their own church on the Island, whereas the other denominations have established Union Churches on the Island and in Kowloon. More and more Chinese attend the services in these churches. The Union Church in Hong Kong plans to erect a new Church building to replace the one destroyed during the Japanese occupation.

The Chinese-speaking Free Churches continue to develop. The Chinese Methodist Church has expanded its educational and evangelistic activities and the Hong Kong district of the Kwangtung Synod of the Church of Christ in China has sixteen churches in the colony. Owing to the great number of Chinese Christians that have come to the colony from the mainland in recent years a large number of non-Cantonese speaking Chinese Churches have been established. The most prominent of these are the Swatow and Mandarin speaking Churches.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong was originally under the administration of a Missionary with the ecclesiastical title of Prefect Apostolic. In 1874, as a result of the increasing number of adherents to the Roman Catholic faith, a Bishop was appointed to the territory with the title of Vicar Apostolic, and in 1946 the status of the Church was raised to that of a Diocese, extending into China. There are twelve Roman

174

GENERAL - RELIGION

Catholic parishes with public churches on Hong Kong island and in Kowloon, and about twenty churches in different parts of the New Territories. The Church also administers over 76 schools, some with an English programme of studies, others with a Chinese curriculum.

The work of the Roman Catholic Church is carried on by priests of many nationalities some engaged in parish work, others working in schools and at the University. There are about 400 nuns belonging to various religious orders engaged in charitable and educational work in hospitals, schools and homes for orphans, blind girls, cripples and the aged. Many of the principal missions have their Far Eastern administrative headquarters in the Colony. There are a number of important Catholic seminaries on Hong Kong island.

Buddhist activities in the Colony have expanded in recent years. Free schools, free medical centres and other social welfare work have been sponsored by the Buddhist community. The branch of Buddhism chiefly followed is the Mahayana. Today, there are in Hong Kong about ten Buddhist Monasteries and over two hundred Buddhist "Ching Suts", i.e. hermitages, mostly situated on the mainland and Lantao Island. There are no large Taoist Monasteries.

IBR

The non-Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong are Pakistanis and Indians and number about 1,500. There are about 5,000 Chinese Muslims. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915 when the original mosque was entirely rebuilt. In 1870, the Muslims founded their own cemetery in Happy Valley, their dead having until then been buried in the Breezy Point area above the Western district of Victoria. A second mosque was built in 1896, in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 it was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

175

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

The Sikh community and followers of the Sikh faith, numbering about 1,000, have had a temple in Hong Kong since 1870. The building was demolished

demolished during the Japanese occupation but it has since been rebuilt on a site in Queen's Road East.

The Parsis were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. They had, in 1829, established a prayer-house and cemetery in Macao, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong, in Happy Valley. In 1874, they established a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Hill Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, whose community numbers about 250, were also established in Macao prior to the foundation of Hong Kong where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street, Staunton Street area of the Central district of Victoria. The present Synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The first Hindu temple to be built in the Colony was com- pleted in September and opened by the President of the Hindu Association. Followers of Guru Nanak have their temple known as the Sikh Temple at the Gurudwara Gap Road. Apart from this there is only private worship.

The Russian Orthodox congregation, which is about 150 strong is divided between those who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and those who do not. The former founded their Church in 1934 and have a current membership of about 85. The latter hold their services in the Church Hall of St. Andrew's, Kowloon, by arrangement with the -Anglican Church authorities. They are known as the Orthodox Church and formed a separate organization in 1949.

176

共圖

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

म्

Photo: E. A. Fisher

Developments in the North Point area of the Island include a big reclamation project at Causeway Bay (centre) and the partial completion of a sports stadium at Happy Valley, which can be seen in the foreground.

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Photo: Alfredo Valente

Music lovers were enthusiastic about the artistry and technique of Solomon (above) and Campoli (below), two of several eminent musicians who gave recitals during the year.

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GENERAL-THE ARTS

The Arts

A lively interest in the arts in 1953 was maintained in a wide variety of clubs and societies devoted to music, painting, the drama and photography. In music and in drama Radio Hong Kong encouraged local talent by broadcasting the performances of some of these societies, and in addition, con- tinued to offer at studio quality the finest performances of music, drama and other features of the B.B.C.

Musical appreciation in the Colony has been stimulated by the performances of such visiting celebrities as Helen Traubel, Louis Kentner, Isaac Stern, Solomon and Iturbi. The recitals given by these distinguished musicians excited the enthusiasm of the young and brought satisfaction to lovers of music.

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The Sino-British Orchestra, although faced with the perennial problem of changing personnel, continued to set a very high standard in its concerts. The entry of players from the Police Band has been very encouraging, as hitherto the orchestra had to rely for wind players on the help of service personnel who were constantly changing and were frequently stationed in remote parts of the Colony. Programmes of Chamber Music were presented from time to time and the Grantham Training College Hall proved to be an ideal concert hall.

The Hong Kong Concert Orchestra pleased its audiences wide with regular programmes of music selected from a repertoire which might merit the term "Palm Court".

Mr. Peter Burges, visiting the Colony as the examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, gave several recitals and broadcasts, including performances of his own compositions. Examination results for the Colony were encouraging with over 90% passes.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Choral singing was as popular as ever. In addition to the three leading societies, the Hong Kong Singers, the Choral Group and the Crescendo Choral Society, there were many smaller private groups. The churches also played their part in encouraging choral music, St. John's Cathedral and the Roman Catholic Cathedral maintained first class choirs. Some of the church choirs presented such works as The Messiah, Elijah and The Creation, and others gave varied recital programmes.

The Schools Music Association is fulfilling its purpose of inspiring the young people to play and sing, and has provided them with many opportunities of listening to good music. The Association had a record year. Nearly 4,000 children took part in the competitions of the Fifth Annual Musical Festival and it is evident that music is in a very healthy state in Hong Kong Schools.

It is pleasant to note the greatly improved efficiency of local music shops. The wide selection of recordings, especially of long playing records and high fidelity record players, has led to a great increase in the number of records purchased.

The Hong Kong Stage Club, The Kai Tak Players and the Garrison Players (the two latter drawing their casts largely from service personnel) in public performances and in the "Theatre on the Air", reflected the intense interest in dramatic art. Nothing but praise is due to the Stage Club for their variety of productions year by year, in spite of the fact that they have no theatre. The Kai Tak Amateur Dramatic Society ably demonstrated their versatility and determination by staging three plays during the heat of the Hong Kong summer in addition to their normal programme. In a natural meeting place of east and west, two items are of special interest. The first was the production by the Wah Yan Dramatic Society of Chinese Opera in English and the second the production, in Cantonese, of "Lady Windermere's Fan," by the student-

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GENERAL - THE ARTS

teachers of Grantham Training College. Interest in dramatics in the schools is seen in the Inter-School Dramatic Competitions in which some 34 schools presented plays. Trophies presented by the Stage Club and the Hong Kong Teachers' Association provided a stimulus to the schools in the English-speaking sections and two local newspapers presented trophies for the Cantonese sections.

The unobtrusive but effective work of the British Council touched many spheres of cultural interest. In addition to the library with its turnover of over 3,000 volumes per month, the Council maintained a film and film strip library, a library of records and a library of prints and pictures, including some of the famous Ganymede prints. The programme of activities included lectures by experts on Art, Literature and Science. Two exhibitions this year attracted much attention. The first was the exhibition of the Law and Sayer Collections of pictures purchased by the Government. The second was of the model of the proposed design of the new City Hall. The model showed a design in contemporary style, but caused considerable interest in the press from groups and associations whose needs in the new civic building had not, apparently, been satisfied..

The Hong Kong Art Club arranged monthly exhibitions and a special Summer Exhibition. A small private gallery, the Cathay Art Gallery, was opened for the display of works of art of contemporary, historical and local styles. Although only recently opened, the gallery has displayed a show of auto- lithographs signed by the artists, (including Henry Moore, Graham Sutherland and Alan Reynolds), examples of English 18th and 19th century engraving, and a special French repro- duction series called "Pochoirs", of Utrillo, Flaminck and other famous French artists.

A selection of children's art from Hong Kong schools occupied a prominent place in the Children's International Art Exhibition held at Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Press reports from Australia indicate that the Hong Kong display occupied first place in the Exhibition and described some of the entries as having "the maturity and serene, exquisite simplicity of the art of China".

Hong Kong has made a name for itself in the world of international photography. "The Times", reported that "once again the most interesting works in the annual exhibition of the London Salon of Photography are by Chinese contributors".

The enlivened and growing interest in the arts in Hong Kong has stimulated interest and criticism in the local press and worthy of particular mention is "Outlook", a local magazine designed to cultivate interest in current events and cultural activities, which has maintained a high standard of criticism of music, plays and art exhibitions during its first year of publication.

Sport

The year 1953 saw further progress being made by Hong Kong sports organizations. The Amateur Sports Federation and Olympic Committee of Hong Kong, in the light of experience gained, remodelled its constitution and included in its rules provision for special committees for Olympic, Asian and Empire games. The Hong Kong Football Association became incorporated and provision was made in the constitu- tion for professional football. The Hong Kong Amateur Boxing Association was revived and it is hoped that it will be possible to hold championships early in 1954.

The year was particularly notable for the progress made in the facilities available for sport. The Children's Playground Association's stadium in Kowloon, the Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre, was opened by the Governor. This centre provides exercise and entertainment for four to five thousand people. The reclamation at Causeway Bay was completed and a minia-

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Archery is a popular sport with Hong Kong ladies.

Chinese are great soccer fans. Visitors during the year included a representative Austrian team.

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Swimming from the beaches and in the clubs-is enthusiastically supported. The Australian swimmer Jon Henricks (foreground) gave several exhibitions.

Visiting Fijians gave the Colony's rugby team some good games.

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D

GENERAL - SPORT

ture football pitch put into use. The Pool Grounds scheme, which was started in 1952, has proved most successful and the grounds available are being utilized to the utmost.

The Hong Kong Football Club and the South China Athletic Association completed new stadia and now provide concrete seating accommodation for 16,000 and 18,000 people, respectively. A further increase is planned for next year to the Work former, when it is hoped to add 2,000 additional seats. was commenced on the Government stadium at Sookunpoo, which will provide a football pitch of international size and a mile running track, with accommodation for 29,500 spectators, some of it under cover.

Association Football. This sport still maintains its position as the most popular game in the Colony and the Hong Kong Football Association continued its policy of encouraging interest in the game by bringing visiting teams to the Colony. The first Central European team to visit Hong Kong, the Linz Athletic Club from Vienna, came at Chinese New Year. Their standard of football was not as high as that of the previous visitors from Scandinavia and Hong Kong was able to win the middle game. In April, the first team from Indonesia to visit the Colony succeeded in winning all three games. The Aw Hoe Cup interport competition with Singapore was played in the same month and won by Hong Kong after a replay. This was followed up by a win against Macao. In November, the Djurgarten team came from Stockholm, and beat Hong Kong in all three games played.

Cricket. Cricket continues to flourish but fails to attract the Chinese except at the University. This is in direct contrast to Singapore where many Chinese play the game. Attempts are being made to popularize the game by teaching it in the schools, and steps are being taken to recommence the interport series with Singapore. It is hoped that club cricketers will be able to visit Bangkok in 1954.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Badminton. The Badminton leagues run by the Hong Kong Association continue to be successful, and it is only the lack of courts which prevents a more rapid growth in the popularity of the game. In order to encourage the game, the Badminton Association again invited Wong Peng Soon, the unofficial world champion, and his team. The public response was disappointing, but much experience was gained.

Athletics. Athletics, under the auspices of the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association, is making great headway, and twelve athletic meetings were held, including a cross country event, a road race and a 'ladies' competition. In addition, affiliated clubs held their own meetings. In spite of the lack of track and field facilities, practically every 1951-52 Colony record was beaten, twenty-eight new records being achieved, including one of 9.9 seconds for the men's 100 yards. This Association intends to send athletes to the Asian and Empire Games next year.

Yachting and Rowing. The Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club held its opening regatta for the winter season in October, 1952, with an interport event in Redwings against the Club Nautico de Macao, which was won by the visitors. They won again in Macao at Chinese New Year. At Easter, Hong Kong was represented at Singapore in the Far East interport and also at Manila. In Singapore, the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club won the Firefly event and tied for second place in the Dragons, a creditable performance in strange waters. At Manila, the races were sailed in Stars (110's) and Hurricanes, and after some excellent sailing Manila were the victors in this second interport. It is hoped that this regatta will become a regular

event.

The main event of the rowing year was the successful interport regatta held in November, between the Royal Singa- pore Yacht Club, Miri Belait Rowing Club, Club Nautique de Saigon and the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.

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GENERAL - SPORT

Swimming. During 1953, the usual high standard of swimming was seen in the Colony Championships organized by the Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association.

Cheung Kin Man and Cynthia Eager, two of Hong Kong's representatives in the 1952 Olympics, maintained their leader- ship in the Men's and Women's sections respectively, by winning all the free style events and the harbour race. For the first time the harbour race finished at the new sea-wall, the shorter distance being apprxoimately 1,660 yards. This was due to the reclamation in the harbour area adjoining the Victoria Recrea- tion Club, which has also resulted in the demolition of that club, the traditional venue of the Colony's championships.

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At the height of the season, the Australian swimmers, Jon Henricks and Mr. W. Berge Phillips visited Hong Kong on their return from Japan. Henricks is recognized as being in the world class of top sprinters and exhibitions given by him were much appreciated by local swimming enthusiasts.

Hockey. The men's and women's hockey leagues continue to flourish and the usual interports between the Colony and Macao were held.

The women's section invited the Japanese ladies hockey team to the Colony, early in 1954.

Golf. Max Faulkner, one of the leading English profes- sionals, and the British open champion in 1951, came to the Colony for the second time at the invitation of the Royal Hong Kong Golf Club. His visits have been much appreciated by local golfers, and have aroused considerable interest.

Hong Kong School Sports. School sport activity has increased, particularly in athletics and table tennis, and minia- ture football is becoming extremely popular. Badminton is well established, although it is played only in a few schools.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Perhaps the greatest improvement is in the New Territories, where athletics and basketball are flourishing, and a New Territories Schools Sports Association has been established.

Association football continues in popularity, but further growth is limited by the lack of pitches.

Hockey has started again and an unofficial schoolboy interport was played with Macao.

Racing. This sport continued to flourish and attendances to increase.

The annual meeting was held in January, and 'the Pearce Memorial Cup, the first big race for 1953 subscription ponies, was won Exhibition Day.

The previous year's Griffins Champion won the Sassoon Challenge Cup at the Easter meeting, but failed in the Corona- tion Cup.

In March, Sir Authur Morse, the Chairman, who had done much for racing in the Colony, left on retirement to England. He was succeeded as Chairman by Mr. D. Benson.

Two notable features of the season's riding were the fine average of Mr. J. Pote-Hunt, who rode 9 winners in 27 mounts, and the advent of a promising novice rider in Flt. Lt. Plumbly, who since his arrival in the Colony has ridden four winners in thirty-four mounts. Mr. M. Samarcq was the jockey with the greatest number of winning mounts.

Table Tennis. A representative team took part at the second Asian Table Tennis Championships held in Japan, and Hong Kong was placed third. As a result of this defeat players were encouraged to undertake additional training and their standard improved considerably. The subsequent success achieved in other matches during the year was sufficient evi- dence of the wisdom of this policy.

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GENERAL

HONG KONG TREES

Rugby Football. A successful and encouraging season closed last year with a victory for the Army fifteen in the Pentangular Tournament. The Royal Navy side remain un- beaten, and has every chance of beating the Army this year.

The seven-a-side tournament has again proved popular, thirty four teams competing for the championship.

Motoring. The Hong Kong Automoble Association organ- ized an annual rally again and repeated the success achieved in 1952.

The Motor Sports Club organized a variety of events These included a designed to suit all types of motorists. reliability run, a treasure hunt, a concours d'élégance, and a series of hill climbs; the latter have proved most popular.

Hong Kong Trees

Ivy Tree (Schefflera octophylla)

A very common native tree with dense foliage and a smooth brown bark. It is a small tree which is widely distri- buted in the southern part of China. The leaves are large, palmately divided into eight leaflets and smell strongly of ivy when crushed. The flowers which are white, are borne in large clusters and open in November, often attracting large numbers of butterflies, bees and flies. The fruits are small berries, dark purple in colour and contain 6 to 8 seeds. The sticky sap that exudes from the bark of the tree is sometimes used by Chinese women to dress their hair. The wood is grayish white, soft and light and is used in the match industry.

Brisbane Box (Tristania conferta)

This tall handsome Australian tree with dense foliage and rounded crown is commonly planted as a roadside tree or used for reforesting in this Colony. Its smooth, shiny leaves are

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

3 to 6 inches long, oval in shape, tapering at both ends, usually crowded at the ends of the branches. The flowers are white, borne three to seven together on short, flattened stems well below the leaf clusters. They have a short, downy calyx tube with five short lobes, and many stamens in five bundles opposite the five fringed petals. The fruiting capsules are cup-shaped, three-parted, a little less than half an inch in diameter. This tree attains a great height in its native habitat and is suitable for hot dry regions, as it withstands great drought. It yields an excellent timber valued for its strenghth and durability.

Yellow Poinciana (Peltophorum inerme)

This summer-flowering tree is a native of Malaya and northern Australia. It is a tall tree, often reaching a height of 50 feet or more with a smooth gray bark and a fairly spreading crown. The fern-like leaves are large and much divided, being 1 to 2 feet long, with 8 to 10 pairs of pinnae each bearing 10 to 12 pairs of oval leaflets. The flowering period is long and variable. In early summer, big erect panicles of round, rust-red buds appear at the branch ends, developing into orange-yellow flowers, each about an inch in diameter with crumpled and twisted petals. These lovely fragrant blossoms each last but a short time, falling while still fresh and daily carpeting the ground with gold. The dark red, flat, winged pods persist on the trees until the next flowering season and are an attractive feature after the leaves have dropped.

Sterculia (Sterculia lanceolata)

This is one of the most conspicuous of the smaller wild trees in the Colony on account of its large vivid scarlet fruits which are borne in abundance in June, July and August. These fruits are of a kind called follicles, as are the pods of peas and beans, and like them split along the lower side, when ripe, to disclose the jet black seed. It is normal for five fruits to develop from a single flower and these radiate from the centre

186

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HONG KONG

TREES

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Brisbane Box

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Yellow Poinciana

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Sterculia

5

Looking-glass Tree

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Tutcheria

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PUP

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Reevesia

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Golden Shower

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GENERAL - HONG KONG TREES

like the spokes of a wheel. There are several other species in the genus but it is doubtful whether any can be compared with the Hong Kong species for the size and brilliance of its fruits. The flowers which appear at the end of March, are small, greenish or pale pink in colour, and are borne in profusion, making the tree easy to recognize. The young follicles are green but on reaching maturity they change to yellow, orange- scarlet; and when ripe to a brilliant scarlet. Each follicle then splits on the lower side to expose two rows of jet black seeds a little larger than peas. The tree is commonly found in the ravines of Hong Kong island and the New Territories.

Looking-glass Tree (Heritiera littoralis)

A slow growing, spreading, evergreen tree which is of very distinct and ornamental appearance. It has a wide range of distribution, occurring from eastern Africa eastward to the islands of the Pacific. The large, thick leaves are smooth above, and silvery scaly beneath. Shadows strike clearly upon them; hence its common name, the Looking-glass Tree. The small, unisexual flowers, which have no petals, are borne in downy panicles 3 to 6 inches long. The calyx is yellowish green, bell- shaped, five-toothed and the stamens are united into a column, bearing five anthers at the top. Clusters of smooth, brown, woody fruits, each the size of a large walnut are developed after flowering. The wood which is dark brown and exceed- ingly hard, is used for boats, bridges, and poles.

Tutcheria (Tutcheria spectabilis)

This is a very beautiful evergreen tree attaining 30 feet in height and closely related to the Camellia. It was named by S. T. Dunn in 1908, in honour of W. J. Tutcher who succeeded him as Superintendent of the Botanical and Forestry Depart- ment. The tree grows wild in a valley above Little Hong Kong, on Mount Nicholson and elsewhere, and is cultivated in the Botanic Gardens and the Tai Po Kau forest reserve. The large

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

solitary flower buds which open in May and June are borne in the axil of the leaves but often appear to be terminal. They are covered with overlapping pale green scales and sepals and are about 11⁄2 inches in diameter. The open flowers with five or six white petals tinged yellowish and greenish at their tip may be four inches across. The great mass of stamens are a tangerine-orange colour which adds great beauty to the flower.

Golden Shower (Cassia fistula)

This is one of the loveliest summer flowering trees and is a native of the drier forests of Ceylon and India. It is a handsome tree of moderate size, with glossy, dark green leaves composed of about four to eight pairs of ovate leaflets each 3 to 4 inches long. During the hot season, the drooping sprays of bright yellow flowers, one foot or more in length, hang from the slender branches in quantity. The stamens drop early, the petals remaining fresh for a considerable time, and the tree, when in flower in June and July, is very beautiful. The dark brown cylindrical pods are one to two feet long and are divided into numerous compartments each containing one seed embed- ded in a brown sticky pulp of characteristic odour, and of medicinal value for its laxative properties. med

Reevesia (Reevesia thyrsoidea)

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A beautiful native flowering tree, 10 to 30 feet high, with thick, glossy green, elliptical leaves. The flowers appear from April to May and have a pleasant scent. They are white and borne in hemispherical clusters at the ends of the branches, with the staminal tubes protruding out like pins on a cushion. The woody fruits are five-angled, pear shaped, about an inch long, and gradually turn brown and scatter the winged seeds in winter. The tree is commonly seen in the Peak District especially by the side of Lugard Road overlooking the harbour. Reevesia is named after John Reeves, an English resident of Canton, China, who introduced many Chinese plants to England.

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GENERAL-FAUNA

Fauna

The year 1953 has held considerable interest in several branches of zoology. Although there have been no discoveries of animals new to science, various mammals, birds and insects, previously rare or unrecorded from the Colony, have been reported by reliable observers.

Investigation following the report of a large cat-like animal with two cubs seen in June, on a hill north east of Kai Tak, left little doubt that these were Indian Panthers (Leopards), the rarest of the felines known to occur in the Colony. Monkeys, although rare now, may still be seen occasionally on Hong Kong island, and the otter which is protected by law and one of the rarest mammals in the Colony, was observed during the year.

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Birds hitherto unrecorded but seen during 1953 include the Red Avadavat, Chinese Herpornis, David's Grasshopper- Warbler, Eastern Great Reed-Warbler, Arctic Willow-Warbler, Pale-legged Willow-Warbler, Eastern Terek Sandpiper, Eastern Broad-billed Sandpiper, Long-toed Stint, Swinhoe's Egret, Glossy Ibis and Tibetan Tern. The record of outstanding interest is the unexpected migratory visit of the Glossy Ibis.

A small frog from Lamma Island, mentioned in last year's report as being new to science, has been described as Philautus

as romeri by Dr. Malcolm Smith of the British Museum.

Various butterflies have been recorded in the Colony for the first time during 1953, details of which may be found in a paper by Major J. N. Eliot (see Reading List).

Information on the wild life of the Colony can be obtained by reference to various publications included in the Reading List, and a general idea of the local fauna (especially the vertebrates) may be gained from the Annual Reports for 1947 and 1949. Readers desiring further information may seek this from either the University's Department of Biology or the Hong Kong Biological Circle.

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港公共圖書角

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

1

香港

PART THREE

圖書館

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

共圖書

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Chapter 1

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Geography

Hong Kong lies just within the tropics on the south-eastern coast of the Chinese province of Kwangtung, and east of the Pearl River estuary. The Colony includes:-

(a) Hong Kong Island (area 32 square miles) on which is situated the capital city of Victoria, with an estimated population of 1 million.

(b) The ceded territory of Kowloon (area 34 square miles) with an estimated population of just under 1 million. (c) Stonecutters Island (area 4 square mile).

(d) The New Territories, with an estimated population of 225,000, lying behind Kowloon which, together with numerous islands (a total area of 355 square miles) comprises the territory leased from China on 1st July, 1898, for 99 years.

The total area of the Colony is thus roughly 391 square miles, a large proportion of which is steep and unproductive hillside. The leased territories include also the waters of Deep Bay to the west and Mirs Bay to the east. (The population figures given above include the floating population, but it should be noted that the figures are only approximate and are not based on statistical evidence).

Hong Kong Island is eleven miles long from east to west and varies in width from two to five miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,809 ft.) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The oldest part of the urban area runs up the steep hillside for hundreds of yards in narrow

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

stepped streets and terraces, but the modern town stands mostly on a strip of reclaimed land averaging 200-400 yards wide which extends 9 miles along the southern shore of the harbour from Sulphur Channel to Lyemun Pass.

Between the island and the mainland of Kowloon lies the harbour, a natural and almost landlocked anchorage about 17 square miles in area, and of a width varying from one to three miles. The entrance from the east is by a deep-water channel through Lyemun Pass, five to nine hundred yards wide. On the western side the harbour is protected by a group of islands pierced by channels of various depths. The largest of these islands is Lantao which is nearly twice the size of Hong Kong Island. This harbour, lying midway between the main ports of Haiphong in Indo-China and Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtse River, has become the gateway to South China and has grown to be one of the greatest seaports in the world.

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low dry foothills running southward from the escarpment of the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula two miles long and nowhere more than two miles wide. Most of these foothills have now been levelled and the soil used to extend the area by reclamation. The town of Kowloon now covers the whole of this peninsula and a part of the leased territory to the north of it. It contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal commercial dockyards, wharves for ocean-going ships, and a large residential suburb. Its population in 1941 threatened to overtake that of Victoria and this trend appears to be continuing to-day in view of the additional space that is available for development as compared with Hong Kong. Accurate figures are not available, however, to substantiate this contention. The terminus of the Kowloon- Canton Railway, which connects at Canton with the network of the Chinese railways, is at the extreme southern tip of the

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In fertile valleys, such as this at Shatin (above), rice of the finest quality is grown.

The farmer and his ox at work in the rice fields.

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Photo: E. A. Fisher

Photo: Chan Wing Hung

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Fishing is a major industry, the centre of which is at Aberdeen (above). The modern Co-operative Marketing Organization's building can be seen on the left.

Catches are disposed of by auction (below).

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Photo: Willies Studio

A demonstration of life saving from a 'damaged building' by

Volunteer Wardens of the Colony's Civil Aid Service.

Safe playing facilities are provided for the children of Chinese Police families in new quarters such as those shown below.

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Photo: E. A. Fisher

Members of the Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force include

many nationalities.

They

train together at their Annual Camp.

1

7

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Similarly, members of the Hong Kong Regiment practise under active service conditions.

Photo: J. Albert Smith

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

peninsula. The Unicorn range of hills, even more precipitous though less high than those on the island, forms a barrier between Kowloon and the leased territory lying behind these hills.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is steep and barren. Before the war considerable areas were afforested, but one of the unfortunate results of the occupation of the Colony by the Japanese was the felling of the vast majority of the trees for firewood, with the consequence that only a few isolated woods remained, principally in the vicinity of villages. Systematic re-afforestation has been going on steadily since the end of the war. The highest point is the mountain called Taimoshan (3,141 feet) which lies seven miles north-west of Kowloon. To the north-west of this mountain and extending to the marshes on the verge of Deep Bay The stretches the Colony's largest area of cultivable land. eastern half of the New Territories mainland is covered by irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Wherever cultivation is made possible by the presence of flat land and water, villages exist and crops are raised. Intricate terracing brings the maximum of land under cultivation and the Chinese farmers, though ready to adopt any modern methods which are suited to local conditions and whose value has been demonstrated to them by practical tests, find in fact that there are few directions in which their traditional methods can be improved.

The New Territories include 75 adjacent islands many of which are uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland and the island population includes many fisherfolk living aboard their boats. Lantao, the largest island, is well watered, but the gradients are such that there is little cultivation. Wild boar and barking deer abound among the well-wooded ravines and scrub-covered spurs of this lonely

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

island. The rest of the islands are much smaller, and range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau with its large fishing community, soy factory and junk-building yards, to an island only 81 acres large (Ngai Ying Chau) until recently occupied by a single family.

Climate

Although Hong Kong lies just within the tropics, it enjoys a variety of weather unusual in tropical regions. Seasonal changes are well-marked owing to the influence of the monsoons. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists until April, and in early winter the weather is generally cool, dry and sunny. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains slight; dull overcast days with a chilly wind are frequent. From time to time in early spring warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-east monsoon; fog is likely under these conditions.

Although the south-west monsoon of summer is not so persistent as the north-easterlies of winter, from May until September the air reaching Hong Kong has generally travelled from warm tropical seas to the east and south of the Colony. The weather is persistently hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms. The rainy season lasts from May to September, three-quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches occurring during this period.

The mean monthly temperature varies from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature rarely rises above 95°F, or falls below 40°F. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in the early winter it may fall as low as 20%. The average monthly duration of sunshine ranges from 95 hours in March to 217 hours in October.

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Typhoons are liable to affect Hong Kong from July to October, though they have occasionally been experienced as early as June and as late as November. Spells of bad weather, with strong winds and heavy rain, normally occur several times in each summer owing to the passage of typhoons or tropical storms at varying distances from the Colony. It is only rarely that the centre of a fully-developed typhoon passes sufficiently close to Hong Kong to produce winds of hurricane force; the last disaster of this kind occurred on 2nd September, 1937, when the wind speed reached 145 knots in a gust, and 28 steamships were stranded in and around the harbour.

Weather

共區

The year 1953 was rather cloudier and wetter than usual, although the average temperature for the year was approxi- mately normal. March, usually a dry month, was unusually rainy, with nearly double the normal amount of rainfall. Frequent low cloud and poor visibility during April caused a certain amount of interference with air traffic. Rainfall was again above the average in May and June, but July was excep- tionally sunny and dry. The fine weather was favourable for the first rice harvest, but delayed the replenishment of the reservoirs, and anxiety was felt over the possibility of a water shortage during the coming dry season. Fortunately, the deficit was made up during a very wet September, and the total rain- fall for the year was some 10% above normal.

As is usual during the summer and autumn there were several spells of strong winds and bad weather owing to the passage of typhoons or tropical storms at varying distances from the Colony. The strong wind signal was hoisted on five occasions during the period June to November, and local typhoon warnings were issued three times in August and Sep- tember. On only one of these occasions were sustained gales

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recorded at the Royal Observatory; this was on 18th Septem- ber, when the centre of typhoon "Susan"passed 20 to 30 miles to the south of the Colony. A gust of 75 knots occurred

during this typhoon, but prolonged warning had been given of the approach of the storm, and damage was not extensive. Strong westerly winds associated with the passage of typhoon "Rita" to the north of the Colony caused some damage to lighters and small craft on 2nd September.

香港公共圖章

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

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Chapter 2

HISTORY

The Colony of Hong Kong dates from the second quarter of the 19th century, having been ceded by the Treaty of Nanking in August, 1842. It had been occupied some time earlier, on January 26th, 1841, as a result of an agreement between Keshen and Captain Charles Elliot, and though this agreement was subsequently disavowed by both British and Chinese, the latter date is the one usually taken as the starting point of the Colony. Hong Kong is a product of history, the history of the relations between East and West; for it was out of the nature of those relations, and out of their commercial nature in particular, that Hong Kong came into being. It is part of the very fabric of historical conditions as they existed at the time of its birth. Before this Hong Kong had no history. The island is barren, and exposed to attack, and therefore never had any large population; there were indeed a few villages, in which peasants got a bare living from the scanty soil available, eked out with fishing. Archaeological work shows that settlements existed here from early times but there is no evidence to show that there was ever before any important centre of population or commerce. The only ancient monu- ment in the district was a large granite boulder on a hill by Ma'tau Chung called the Sung Wong Toi and inscribed with those three characters; it commemorated the last of the Sung Emperors, the boy Ti-ping, who was driven to Kowloon in the fighting against invading Mongols, was defeated at Tsun Wan, It is therefore difficult and driven further west to his death.

not to agree with the view expressed by Eitel, who wrote "and men had to come from the Far West to give it a name in the history of the East".

The founding of the Colony of Hong Kong, and with it, the city of Victoria, arose out of the very special nature of the relations between East and West in China, which were

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centred in Canton and Macao. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive off the China Coast in 1517, and they were followed by the Spanish, Dutch, English, French and, after the close of the American War of Independence in 1783, by the Americans. It is, however, unnecessary to follow this intercourse in detail.

By the early 19th century, western trade with China had been centred on Canton, which had had a monopoly since 1755, despite the fact that the English had tried desperately hard to break that monopoly and establish themselves at Ningpo. The trade was governed by monopoly on both sides. On the Chinese side, the Canton monopoly was reinforced by that of the co-hong. The co-hong was an association of Chinese merchants who had secured by purchase the monopoly of trade with the west, and who were held responsible for the foreign traders, and had to act as security for them. On the British side, the East India Company held a monopoly of the trade until 1833, although in fact it had been breaking down for some time before it was abolished in that year. By this time, the trade had fallen predominantly into the hands of the British, and was increasing rapidly. Personal relations with the co-hong merchants were cordial; there were no written contracts, and all undertakings were given and accepted verbally. "We found them honourable and reliable in all their dealings, faithful to their contracts and large-minded" wrote one observer, W. C. Hunter. But in spite of the flourishing and lucrative nature of the trade, there were many complaints of the conditions under which it had to be carried on.

There were eight regulations limiting the freedom of the foreigners at Canton; and if these regulations were not consistently applied, they were always liable to be enforced and were regarded as vexatious. Briefly, they did not allow traders to reside at Canton all the year round, but only during the actual trading season; women were not allowed to reside

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in the factories, that is, the trading posts; foreigners were not allowed entry into the city of Canton, or allowed freedom of movement, except across the river to the Fati Gardens three times a month; they were not allowed to ride in sedan chairs, or to have Chinese servants. Learning the Chinese language was discouraged, at least to the extent that only Chinese were No direct recognized as interpreters in any negotiations. communication with the local Canton provincial officials was allowed except by way of petition presented through the co- hong. These restrictions on personal freedom were regarded as humiliating, and the sense of grievance they gave rise to was increased by the commercial restrictions of the co-hong monopoly, which prevented the institution

the institution of anything approaching a free market, and by the absence of any right In addition there were to own property such as godowns. constantly varying port charges and customs dues, which though not heavy, were arbitrary and indefinite. Added to all this, the foreigners were referred to as barbarians, treated as such, and regarded as standing in need of occasional correction.

When the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade in 1833, Lord Napier was sent out as Chief Superintendent of Trade to act as the official representative of British commercial interests. His mission was quite un- successful, partly due to the fact that his instructions were in conflict with the Chinese regulations governing the trade, and partly due to the refusal of the Chinese to treat with any foreign official on a footing of equality. Napier ran into trouble, and he was eventually forced to retire to Macao where he died. The Headquarters of the Superintendent of Trade never were established in Canton, and remained in Macao The failure of until transferred to Hong Kong, in 1842. Napier, and the ending of the East India Company's monopoly stimulated much heart-searching and led to attempts to find a solution of the difficulties at Canton. 'Captain Charles Elliot,

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who became chief Superintendent in December 1836, and who pursued a conciliatory policy, also completely failed in an attempt to secure recognition by the Chinese of his official position.

The removal of the centre of British trade from Canton to an island off the Chinese Coast, which had often formed the subject of discussion, was now advocated more seriously. Four arguments were put forward in support of the advantages of such an island as a solution to the difficulties at Canton. Some argued that an island should be secured by negotiation, so as to remove the trade from the caprice of the officials at Canton: many argued from the analogy of Bombay and Singapore, that such an island would very soon become a great emporium of British trade: others thought of such an island in terms of strategic requirements. It was also argued that the Chinese would never make the necessary concessions in Canton unless the threat of force were applied; this of course meant naval demonstrations and the possession of a naval base would naturally have considerable utility. Finally there was the important "law and order" argument. The British constitu- tional system demands that executive action can be taken only in accordance with law, and in case of dispute, can be enforced only in a court of law. The weakness of the Superintendents of Trade was that they had little executive authority over the merchants, and no method of making that little effective. It was therefore argued that it would be to the advantage of both Britain and China that a British law court should be set up to control the British merchants. It could not of course be established on foreign soil, and therefore an island should be secured for this purpose.

The situation between 1834 and the outbreak of hostilities in 1839, which was already strained, was made worse by the opium trade. Opium smoking had become a Chinese habit, in spite of its being forbidden, and the import of opium from India increased enormously. The contraband trade in opium

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HISTORY

therefore flourished, with the connivance of the local Chinese officials. The British merchants tended to defend themselves by saying that if they did not import the drug, the merchants of other nations would, and by declaring it to be a purely commercial matter, subject to the usual economic laws of supply and demand which needed no interference or defence; the moral aspects being not their concern. The British Government adopted a very correct policy. The Chinese Government was entitled to pass any edicts it chose, and it was no part of the British Government's business to interfere, or to make Chinese laws effective. The Superintendents were told that they had no authority over the British merchants who, if they engaged in the opium trade, did so at their own risk. The British Government wanted to establish official diplomatic relations, by which it was hoped all differences would be settled, and since the Chinese Government would not recognize the British Superintendent, it could not expect the British Government to interfere or take the matter up until this recognition was given. On the Chinese side an attempt to stamp out the opium trade, made by Commissioner Lin Tse Su in 1839, led to the incarceration of British personnel in the factories, and this action brought about hostilities.

By this time the question of occupying an island or islands off the Coast had long been mooted. The claims of the Bonin Islands, Formosa, Lantao, Chusan and Hong Kong had all been canvassed. Elliot was swayed in favour of Hong Kong because the whole British community had taken refuge on board ship in the harbour of Hong Kong late in 1839, when their continued residence at Macao proved dangerous to the Portuguese. During a pause in the hostilities, he negotiated with Kishen the Convention of Chuenpi, by which Hong Kong was ceded, though under such conditions that neither side ultimately accepted the convention. By virtue of this Conven- tion, Hong Kong was occupied on January 26th 1841, and this date is generally regarded as the date of the founding of the

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Colony. Both British and Chinese governments however refused to agree to the terms of the convention, and Captain Charles Elliot was recalled for not carrying out the letter of his instructions, and for not insisting on the British Govern- ments's full demands.

A new plenipotentiary, Sir Henry Pottinger, was sent out with instructions to adhere to the original demands. It is interesting to note that the cession of Hong Kong was one of these. The instructions were to secure either the cession of one or more islands on the coast or, if the Chinese Government preferred, instead of making such a cession, to obtain by treaty security and freedom of commerce to Her Majesty's subjects resident in China. That is, the essential demand was security, not the cession of territory. In September 1841, the Whig Government in Great Britain fell from office, and in the new Tory administration, Lord Aberdeen was the Foreign Secretary. He issued modified instructions to the plenipotentiary which had the effect of stressing this emphasis on security. Lord Aberdeen expressed the view that the permanent acquisition of territory in China was undesirable for various reasons. "A secure and well regulated trade is all we desire" he said. He considered that this security could best be obtained by a treaty opening four or five Chinese ports, with the right to station consular agents in each. Any islands seized were to be regarded as military bases, and perhaps useful pawns, in the negotiations. Before the new instructions could arrive, however, Sir Henry Pottinger had probably already made up his mind to secure Hong Kong. He moved the Headquarters of the Superintendent of Trade from Macao to Hong Kong in February 1842, and energetically pushed on with hostilities. The successes of the spring and summer of 1842 no doubt led him to feel that he could gain the desired security both by a treaty and by the cessation of an island. In this, he was encouraged by the Governor-General of India, Lord Auckland, the man who initiated in India the advance to the North West frontier.

D

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HISTORY

Eventually the Treaty of Nanking was negotiated, both Chinese and British, afraid of the consequences of prolonging the war, being anxious to bring the hostilities to an end. By the Treaty, four additional Chinese ports were to be opened to foreign trade, and it was agreed that a commercial treaty should be subsequently negotiated laying down the general con- ditions under which the foreigners should live and pursue their commercial activities. In addition, Article III provided for the cession of Hong Kong, in the following terms. "It being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships This when required, and keep stores for that purpose. . . . phrasing reflects the reality underlying the founding of the Colony, for Hong Kong is a product of its harbour and of the ships that use it and which became, and still are, its life- blood. The home government had adopted a correct policy with regard to Hong Kong. The 1841 cession was not recognized and the island was regarded as being under a military occupation; it ordered

ordered all building except that necessary for military purposes to cease, and leases of land already made were not recognized, so that the annual rents could not legally be collected. The news of the Treaty of Nanking was received with enthusiasm in London, which feared the prospect of a long war. The Tory Government still showed some reluctance, until the Treaty had been ratified, to make permanent arrangements for the administration of the island, and as a temporary measure the government of the island was placed in the hands of the Superintendent of Trade, responsible to the Foreign Office. On June 26th, 1843, the ratifications were exchanged at Hong Kong, with great ceremony, and the way was now clear for the Colonial Office (it was at this time an adjunct of the War Office) to assume responsibility. Sir Henry Pottinger was appointed the First Governor of the Colony, though as Superintendent of Trade he remained subject to the Foreign Office. The Governors of Hong Kong retained this dual role and served two masters until 1857, when events

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demanded the sending to China of a special mission, which took over the powers of the Superintendent of Trade, leaving Hong Kong the Governor's sole responsibility.

The first phase of the Colony's history, that of its founda- tion, lasted nearly 20 years, from 1841 to the Treaty of Tientsin, 1858, and covered the governorships of Sir Henry Pottinger, Sir John Davis, Sir George Bonham and Sir John Bowring. Captain Charles Elliot had taken over the island on January 26th, 1841 and he issued a proclamation on February 2nd, 1841, which proclaimed that "pending Her Hajesty's further pleasure, the natives of the island of Hong Kong, and all natives of China thereto resorting, shall be governed according to the laws and customs of China, every description of torture excepted", a declaration that was exactly in keeping with the liberal colonial policy of the period. The difficulties confronting the infant colony were enormous. Two severe typhoons in 1841 were an early foretaste of climatic difficulties; fever was a serious problem and led to considerable mortality. General insecurity resulting from robberies and burglaries, and the difficulty of organizing an efficient police force, remained during the whole of this early period. Similarly on the neighbouring waters piracy was endemic and defied all attempts at suppres- sion; indeed it remained something of a danger for the rest of the century and is not stamped out even today. The allot- ments of land made in the early days of the Colony, which were not given legal recognition because the home government refused to recognize the cession until the Treaty was definitely ratified, were attended, as a result of this delay of two and a half years, by great confusion and complication in the matter of titles to land. Another and very serious difficulty was the failure to define the nature of the relations between the Colony and China. Since trade with China continued at Canton just as in the old days, and now began at four additional open ports, it is difficult to see how the hopes that Hong Kong would become a great emporium of trade could be realized.

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These hopes were based on the declaration of the freedom of the port and the belief that it would become the centre of the coastal junk trade. This was precisely what the Chinese were determined to prevent, and there can be little doubt that as A sort the treaties were worded, they were quite justified.

of economic blockade was therefore instituted and remained a constant hindrance to the local junk trade until an agree- ment was reached, in

in 1886,

1886, with the Imperial Maritime Customs.

Another great difficulty was the attempt on the part of the early governors to make the infant Colony self-supporting, except for defence. Taxation aroused, perhaps not unnaturally, opposition and complaint, and a demand for a measure of self- government. A parliamentary committee in England debated the Colony, and recommended, amongst other things, a measure of municipal self-government. But the proposal came to nothing because the merchant community objected to the payment of municipal rates, which Bonham insisted was the It is im- necessary corollary of municipal self-government. possible to give an exhaustive account of all these early difficulties, but another must be mentioned. It was difficult to find the right men to fill the government posts, and there was much inefficiency because competent men left the govern- ment service for more lucrative careers outside. To this was added personal animosities, even to the extent of libel actions, so that "The Times" wrote of the Colony, on March 15th, 1859, that it "is always connected with some fatal pestilence,

So much so that the some discreditable internal squabble. name of this noisy, bustling, quarrelsome, discontented and insalubrious little island may not unaptly be used for an euphonious synonym for a place not mentionable in polite society."

or

After the Treaties of Tientsin, 1858, and Peking, 1860, a new and more hopeful era dawned. Diplomatic relations were now established at Peking, and the opening of China to

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western influence was now accepted. Kowloon as far as Boundary Street became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters Island, in 1860. Missonary activity was definitely allowed, with the right of residence, to the various Christian churches. The chief result of these more settled conditions, as far as Hong Kong was concerned, was the increasing migra- tion of Chinese families into the Colony, and during this formative period, 1858-1882, Hong Kong became two communities, Chinese and foreign, each making an essential contribution to the Colony's development, and yet each hold- ing studiously aloof from the other. There followed naturally new problems in the organization of the social life of the Colony. The attempt to give the Chinese their own administra- tion based on respect for Chinese customs broke down, and gradually the principle was adopted that the law must be equally binding on all. Under Western influence the Chinese themselves took the initiative in changing their customs. Thus in connexion with the much criticised Muitsai custom, the Chinese in 1878 formed the Po Leung Kuk to combat the kidnapping of women and girls. Again in 1872 the Tung Wah Hospital was established by the Chinese to care for the indigent sick and dying and to meet criticism that they were left to die without attention. Much care was now given to the question of seeing that the Chinese population was accurately informed of the steps taken by Government, and that Government should be similarly informed of the views of the Chinese. The issue, in Chinese, of the Hong Kong Government Gazette was started in 1862, and efforts made to secure accuracy in translation culminated in the establishment of the Cadet Scheme, which provided for the appointment of student-interpreters who would eventually be marked out for the most responsible administrative posts. At the same time, the office of the Registrar-General was made responsible for all questions relating to the Chinese. The problem of public gaming houses was tackled, and after some attempt at control by licensing they were abolished, chiefly at the

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HISTORY

insistence of religious opinion at home and in the Colony, though the immediate result was merely to drive them over to the Chinese side of the border in Kowloon City. There was also the great social problem of overcrowding, with associated problems of water supply and sanitation. In 1882, Oswald Chadwick was sent out to the Colony as Special Sanitary Commissioner, and as a result of his report a Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, its powers and duties being defined by a Sanitary Ordinance, though in fact it was not until the plague of 1894 that the problem of overcrowding was seriously tackled.

The growth of the Chinese population led in this period to great changes, and advances, in the field of education. A Board of Education had been established as early as 1845, composed chiefly of Protestant missionaries, and the establish- ment of schools with Christian teaching was one of its main objects. In 1865, there was a reversal of policy and a reorganization; the Board was abolished, and Christian teaching was excluded from all government schools which became secular. A central school was established, the Headmaster of which became the head of the Education Department. In 1873, a grant-in-aid scheme was introduced to help the religious bodies; at first the grants were based on secular subjects only, but in 1879, more liberal treatment was given.

The next period in the Colony's history, 1882-1914, may be defined as the period of steady administration and growing prosperity. The main lines of policy had now been laid down, and the period was one of allround steady growth and progress. The coming of the bubonic plague, in 1894, shook the Colony's complacency, and there was a serious exodus of Chinese from the Colony to the mainland. Drastic measures were necessary, involving house visitation, limewashing, and treatment of infected premises. This created opposition among the Chinese who still evinced a complete lack of faith in the efficacy of western medicine.

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In 1899, the area of the Colony was increased by the leasing from China of the New Territories and surrounding islands, and here again the policy was to bring

to bring orderly administration; for example, detailed land surveys were made in an attempt to ascertain ownership of land, with the minimum of interference with local customs. The pre-war years were remarkable for two great advances in education. In 1903, a new education code was drawn up, abolishing the system of basing the payment of grants to the voluntary schools on annual examinations, and substituting annual inspections as the basis. Payment by results had been abolished in England in 1890, and the Colony therefore was coming into line with developments at home. The other great advance was the founding of Hong Kong University, following discussions held by Sir Frederick Lugard with prominent local inhabitants soon after his arrival.

In 1908, H. N. Mody offered to bear the cost of the building, and a committee was formed to organize a public subscription. The foundation stone of the new building was laid in 1910, and the University opened in 1912. Henceforward the Hong Kong student was to be able to receive his profes- sional training and higher education in the Colony.

The last period, since the war of 1914-18, is yet difficult to evaluate. The Chinese scene has been completely changed by the Chinese Revolution, and the coming of the Nationalist Government, and later by the Japanese War against China and the war in the Pacific in 1941, and even more recently by the conclusion of the civil war and the establishment of a Communist Government in Peking.

After Japan invaded China in 1937, the Colony became a refuge for many Chinese and the population grew to over one and a half million. Until the fall of Canton at the end of 1938 valuable supplies were able to reach China through Hong Kong. With the outbreak of war in Europe, in

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September 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on December 8th, 1941, the blow fell. Powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, struck at the Colony. The first attempt of the Japanese to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of December 15th-16th, but a second attempt on the night of the 18th-19th could not be held. After some bloody fighting on the Island, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese forces on Christmas day. The isolated brigade on Stanley peninsula held out for a further day before capitulating on superior orders.

Hong Kong remained in Japanese hands for over three and a half years. The population fell from more than one and a half million to a third of that number.

The Colony was liberated when units of the British Pacific Fleet entered the harbour on August 30th, 1945, about two weeks after the capitulation of Japan. A brief period of military administration was followed by the re-establishment of civil government on May 1st, 1946.

The Colony made an astonishing recovery in the years that followed. Thousands of Chinese returned to Hong Kong from the mainland and the population quickly reached and surpassed its pre-war level, producing a housing problem which became acute when, as the result of the success of the Communist armies in the Chinese civil war, thousands more Chinese, particularly from Shanghai and other centres of Chinese commerce, started entering the Colony as refugees. This second phase in the Colony's increase of population began in 1947, and reached its height in May 1950, when the Colony had an estimated population of 2,360,000, the highest in its history. During the last three years the population, partly due to immigration restrictions enforced in 1950 both by the Colonial Authorities and by the Chinese Government, has became more or less stable and remained unchanged at approximately two and a quarter million.

211

T

Chapter 3

ADMINISTRATION

The Government of Hong Kong derives its constitutional authority from Letters Patent and Royal Instructions and is administered by a Governor, an Executive Council * and a Legislative Council.* The Executive Council, which is consult- ed by the Governor on all important administrative matters, consists of the Commander of British Forces in Hong Kong, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Financial Secretary (who are members ex-officio), and such other members, both official and unofficial, as may be appointed. At the end of 1953, there were six official members (including the five ex-officio members men- tioned above) and six unofficial members, three of whom were Chinese, and one Portuguese.

The Legislative Council consists of nine official members, including the same five ex-officio members listed above, and eight unofficial members. At the end of 1953 the unofficial members included four Chinese and one Portuguese member. The laws of the Colony are enacted with the advice and consent of this Council which also approves all expenditure from public funds. Procedure is based on that of the House of Commons. There are three Standing Committees: the Finance Committee, the Law Committee and the Public Works Committee; and Select Committees are set up from time to time to advise on matters before the Council.

The English Common Law, together with such United Kingdom statutes as were in force on 5th April, 1843, or have since that date been expressly made applicable to Hong Kong,

* See Appendices XV and XVI.

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forms the basis of the legal system, modified by Hong Kong Ordinances of which a new edition, revised to 1950, was published in 1951. The constitution of the Supreme Court of the Colony is set out in the Supreme Court Ordinance No. 3 of 1873. The law as to civil procedure was codified by Ordinance No. 3 of 1901. The Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890, regulates the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Admiralty cases.

The system of administration is briefly as follows:

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. The Colonial Secretariat, under the control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of all the departments and takes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions.

The Government has a Public Relations Officer whose duties are to transmit news and explain government policy to the public and to keep Government informed of public opinion. Radio Hong Kong has broadcasting services in English and Chinese. During the latter half of the year it was placed experimentally under the control of the Controller of Broadcasting. Formerly, it was under the Control of the Public Relations Officer.

The Public Services Commission, which was appointed under the authority of the Public Services Commission Ordin- ance, 1950, with a view to improving the standard of efficiency of officers in the public service and ensuring that the claims of local candidates for appointment to the service receive full consideration, is responsible for advising the Governor on appointments and promotions to the great majority of vacancies on the pensionable Government establishment.

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Trade, Finance and Development. Since 1938 the Financial Secretary has assumed a purely administrative function in the Colonial Secretariat and under his direction the Accountant General is responsible for the public accounts, all of which are subject to the supervision of the Director of Audit. The Accountant General is also responsible for the control of enemy property and property abandoned during the war. The assess- ment and collection of rates are the responsibility of the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation; and the collection of miscellaneous indirect taxation and of the direct taxation levied under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947, and the Estate Duty Ordinance, 1932, are the responsibility of the Commis- sioner of Inland Revenue.

K

The Director of Commerce and Industry is responsible for Government bulk purchases of essential foodstuffs, trade promotion, price control, rationing, the collection of import and excise duties, the direction of preventive work and for the production of any statistical matter required by any department of Government. Procurement of Government requirements other than essential foodstuffs is the responsibility of the Controller of Stores.

IBR

The Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is administratively responsible for the Government's services in agriculture, fisheries and forestry, each of these divisions being under the supervision of professional officers.

The Registrar of Co-operatives and Director of Marketing is responsible for fostering the development of co-operative societies, chiefly among fishermen and farmers, and also con- trols the Government Wholesale Fish and Vegetable Markets.

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Social Services. The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is a senior administrative officer and has a wide and general responsibility in all matters affecting the Chinese community. The Commissioner of Labour is responsible for ensuring that the conditions in factories and workshops, particularly with regard to health and safety, are in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation, for providing conciliation machinery for the settlement of disputes about wages and other terms of service, for encouraging modern trade unionism, and for implementing such International Labour Conventions as can be applied to the Colony. The Social Welfare Officer operates under the general direction of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and among his duties are included the protection of women and girls, the inspection of emigrant ships, the supervision of child and juvenile welfare and the general co-ordination of all welfare activities in the Colony.

The Director of Medical and Health Services, whose department is divided into the hospital, health and investiga- tion divisions, together with the Head of the Urban Services Department is responsible for the general health of the Colony. The Head of the Urban Services Department is ex-officio the Chairman of the Urban Council which has certain powers, subject to confirmation by the Legislative Council, to originate subsidiary legislation in matters concerning public health. The maintenance of public gardens was taken over by this depart- ment during the year.

Education is in the hands of the Director of Education who controls government schools and supervises all private schools in the Colony.

Communications. The Director of Marine, the Director of Civil Aviation and the General Manager of the Kowloon- Canton Railway are responsible for sea, air and rail traffic

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respectively, while the Director of Public Works, in addition to his duties in connexion with the construction and maintenance of government buildings, the supervision of other buildings, waterworks, piers and government transport, is responsible for the construction and maintenance of the Colony's roads.

The Postmaster General is responsible for the collection and delivery of mail. The Royal Observatory, under a Director, provides meteorological services for use by aircraft and ship- ping, issues regular weather forecasts and is responsible for giving typhoon warnings.

共0

Law and Order. The Attorney General is the adviser to Government on all legal matters and is also the public pro- secutor. The Registrar General is the officer responsible for the registration of companies, trade marks, marriages and land deals and is also the Official Receiver and Official Trustee. Watch and ward in the Colony is kept by the Commissioner of Police, while the Colony's prisons are the responsibility of the Commissioner of Prisons. The Chief Officer of the Fire Brigade has an efficient and up-to-date force under his command.

New Territories. The administration of the New Territories is in the charge of a District Commissioner, assisted by a District Officer for each of the three districts: Yuen Long in the west, Taipo in the north and east, and the Southern District. In addi- tion to general administrative duties, District Officers sit as Police Court Magistrates, and can also hold Small Debt Courts and Land Courts under the New Territories Ordinance. They carry out the functions of the Public Works Department in controlling Crown Land and building development, and of the Registrar General in regard to records and deeds concerning private land.

216

ADMINISTRATION

With the help of the Medical and Health Officer, the Depart- ment is responsible in the New Territories for much of the work done in the city by the Urban Council.

Other Departments. The Commissioner of Registration is responsible for the registration of persons and the issue of identity cards under the Registration of Persons Ordinance, 1949. The main work of registering the population was com- pleted in the autumn of 1951.

The Quartering Authority is responsible generally for the allocation of accommodation within government and for the requisition of premises.

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

217

Chapter 4

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The weights and measures in use in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom and of the following Chinese weights and measures:-

1 fan (candareen)

1 ts'in (mace)

1 leung (tael)

|| || ||

.0133 ounces avoirdupois

.133

ounces avoirdupois

1.33

ounces avoirdupois

1 kan (catty)

1.33

pounds avoirdupois

1 tam (picul)

133.33

pounds avoirdupois

Л

1 ch'ek (foot)

Statutory equivalent 14

inches. The ch'ek is divided into 10 ts'un (inches) and each ts'un into ten fan or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length of a ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 143 inches to 111⁄2 inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

IBLIC

218

Chapter 5

READING LIST

Although there is a considerable amount of published material dealing with the Colony, only a small amount of this is likely to be obtainable from sources other than research libraries. This year, only those publications published during the last twenty years have been listed. A more complete list will be found in the report for 1952.

ABERCROMBIE, SIR PATRICK-Preliminary Planning Report,

Hong Kong, 1949.

BALFOUR, S. F.-Hong Kong before the British. Being a local history of the region of Hong Kong and the New Territories before the British occupation, Shanghai, 1941.

BOYCE, SIR L.-Report of the United Kingdom Trade Mission

to China, 1946. London, 1948.

BREEN, M. J.-Hong Kong Trade Commission Inquiry.

Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1935.

British Dependencies in the Far East, 1945-1949. London, 1949. BUTTERS, H. R.-Report on Labour and Labour Conditions in

Hong Kong. Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1939.

CANTLIE, N. AND SEAVER, G.-Sir James Cantlie. London, 1939.

CLEMENTI, SIR CECIL-The Future of Hong Kong. 1936.

ELIOT, J. N.-New Records and a Check List of Butterflies from Hong Kong. Memoirs of the Hong Kong Biological Circle, No. 2. Hong Kong, 1953.

FOSTER, L.-Echoes of Hong Kong and Beyond. Hong Kong,

1933.

219

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

Fox, MISS GRACE-British Admirals and Chinese Pirates

(1832-1869). London, 1940.

GULL, E. M.-British Economic Interests in the Far East.

London, 1943.

HERKLOTS, G. A. C.-1937: Flowering Shrubs and Trees- (First Twenty) Hong Kong Newspaper Enterprise. (Second Twenty) South China Morning Post, 1938. Orchids, (First Twenty) Hong Kong Newspaper Enterprise.

1941: Vegetable Cultivation in Hong Kong, South China Morning Post. 2nd edition, 1947.

1946: The Birds of Hong Kong-Field Identification. ' South China Morning Post.

South China Morning Post.

1948: Food and Flowers. 1953 Hong Kong Birds. South China Morning Post.

HERKLOTS, G. A. C. AND LIN, S. Y.-1940: Common Marine Food-Fishes of Hong Kong: 2nd edition Enl. South China Morning Post.

HEYWOOD, G. S. P.-Upper Temperatures and the Properties of Air Masses Over Hong Kong (Appendix B. to Hong Kong Met. Results 1940).

1941: Hong Kong Typhoons, Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, 1950.

HINTON, W. J.-Hong Kong's Place in the British Empire.

London, 1941.

JEFFERIES, C. W.-Meteorological Records, 1884-1928 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations). Hong Kong Royal Obser- vatory, 1938.

KEETON, GEORGE W.-China, The Far East and The Future.

London, 1949.

LOBDELL, H. E., AND HOPKINS, A. E.-Hong Kong and the Treaty Ports: Postal History and Postal Markings. 1949.

220

READING LIST

NORTHCOTE, SIR GEOFFREY-Hong Kong: The Story of a Century. "The Crown Colonist", London, January, 1941.

OWEN, SIR D. J.-Future Control and Development of the Port

of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, 1941.

SCHOFIELD, W.-Hong Kong's New Territory. "Asiatic Review",

October, 1938.

SELWYN-CLARKE, P. S.-Hong Kong Faces the Future. "Health

Horizon", July, 1946, pages 13-18.

Report on Medical and Health Conditions in Hong Kong, 1st January, 1942, to 31st August, 1945. London, 1946.

STARBUCK, L.-Statistical Survey of Hong Kong Rainfall. Royal

Observatory, Hong Kong, 1950.

WILLIAMS, M. Y.-The Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Transactions of the Royal

Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXVII, 1943, pages 93-117).

WILLIAMS, M. Y. AND OTHERS-The Physiography and Igneous Geology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Tran- sactions of the Royal Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXIX, 1945, pages 91-119).

WOOD, A. E.-Report of the Committee regarding Marketing in the New Territories. Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1934.

WOODWARD, A. R.-Report on the Water Suply of Hong Kong.

Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1937.

The following are recent publications on the Colony which are more likely to be available to the general reader:-

CARRINGTON, C. E.-The British Overseas: Cambridge Univer-

sity, 1950.

COLLINS, C.-Public Administration in Hong Kong, 1952.

221

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1953

DAVIS, S. G.-Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting: Collins,

London, 1949. The Geology of Hong Kong, 1952.

ENDACOTT, GEORGE B., AND SHE, DOROTHY E.-The Diocese of Victoria, Hong Kong; Kelly and Walsh, Hong Kong, 1949.

INGRAMS, H.-Hong Kong; H.M.S.O., London, 1952.

MILLS, LENNOX A.-British Rule in Eastern Asia, a Study of Contemporary Government and Economic Development in British Malaya and Hong Kong; London, 1942.

RAND, CHRISTOPHER-Hong Kong-The Island Between.

SAYER, G. R.-Hong Kong:

Birth, Adolescence and Coming

of Age; Oxford University Press, 1937.

STERICKER, JOHN AND VERONICA-Hong Kong in Picture and Story; Tai Wah Press & Co., Ltd., Hong Kong, 1953.

WOOD, WINIFRED A.-A Brief History of Hong Kong; South

China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 1940.

Periodicals

Asiatic Review. Quarterly, London.

RARIES

Far Eastern Economic Review. Weekly, Hong Kong.

Hong Kong Chamber of Commerce Report. Annual.

Hong Kong Dollar Directory. Annual.

Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station. Vol. I, No. 1, February, No. 2, September, 1940, Vol. II, No. 1, March, 1949. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong.

The Hong Kong Naturalist. Illustrated Quarterly. Vols. I-X. Hong Kong, Newspaper Enterprise and South China Morning Post, 1930 to 1941.

(For a list of official publications see Appendix XVII).

222

=

APPENDICES

RIC 共

書館

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

APPENDICES

Appendix 1

COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT

LOCALLY

Scheme No.

Title of Scheme

Grant

RESEARCH SCHEMES

£

R. 94

R. 282

Fisheries Research.

Fisheries Research Station.

500

135,000

R. 480

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University :

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

31,200

6,800

R. 480A

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University:

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

33.975

11,000

DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES

D. 759

Visit of Town Planning Expert.

1,250

D. 924

Reclamation at Aberdeen.

50,000

D. 925

Landing facilities at Kennedy Town.

10,000

D. 988

Mechanization of the Hong Kong Fishing Fleet.

10.000

D. 994

Village Agricultural Depots: Capital Expenditure.

9,000

Recurrent Expenditure.

9,375

D. 1060

Upper Air Reporting Stations.

D. 1066

D. 1066A

Vegetable Marketing Lorries.

Vegetable Marketing Lorries.

D. 1242

Irrigation in the New Territories (Interim Scheme)

Piers in the New Territories (Interim Scheme). Piers in the New Territories.

RA

RIES

25,780

9,375

3,450

D. 1243

5.000

D. 1243A

48,883

D. 1362

New Broadcasting Studios.

15,625

D. 1435

Mechanization of fishing fleet.

20,000

D. 1557 &

Rehabilitation and development of certain University

D. 1557A

Buildings:

Grant from Colonial Development and

Welfare Funds.

250,000

Grant from Colonial and Middle

Eastern Services Votes.

250,000

D. 1602

Hong Kong Housing Society Pilot Scheme

13,500

D. 1661

Maintenance of a Survey Party in the New Territories.

5,500

D. 1764

Aeronautical Radio and Weather Stations.

10,656

D. 1952

Irrigation in the New Territories.

12,500

D. 1967

Loans to Fishermen.

224

978,369

APPENDICES

Appendix I

(See page 17)

COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT

LOCALLY

AND WELFARE SCHEMES

ADMINISTERED

Scheme No.

Title of Scheme

Grant

Loan

Estimated Expenditure

up to

RESEARCH SCHEMES

£

£

31.12.53.

£

R. 94

Fisheries Research.

500

R. 282

Fisheries Research Station.

135,000

498

114

R. 480

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University :

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

31,200

6,800

R. 480A

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University:

Capital Expenditure. Recurrent Expenditure.

33.975

11,000

31.887 886

APPENDICES

Remarks

Scheme completed in 1949.

This Scheme was substituted by a revised scheme,

R. 480 in 1951.

Superceded by Scheme R. 480A in 1953.

The grants made under Scheme R. 480 were increased in August, 1953, and the Scheme No was subsequently changed to R. 480A.

DEVELOPMENT SCHEMES

D. 759

Visit of Town Planning Expert.

1,250

1,250

Scheme completed in 1948.

D. 924

Reclamation at Aberdeen.

50,000

49,528

Scheme completed in 1950.

D. 925

Landing facilities at Kennedy Town.

10,000

6,849

Scheme completed in 1949.

D. 988

D. 994

Mechanization of the Hong Kong Fishing Fleet. Village Agricultural Depots: Capital Expenditure.

10.000

40,000

9,000

4,242

Recurrent Expenditure.

9,375

9,375

18,746

D. 1060

Upper Air Reporting Stations.

25,780

20,495

D. 1066

Vegetable Marketing Lorries.

9,375

D. 1066A

Vegetable Marketing Lorries.

18.750

9.375

18,750

Cancelled in 1949 and replaced by Scheme No. D. 1435. Approved in September 1948. Recurrent expenditure ceased in March 1953. The loan of £9,375 is interest free until end of 1954.

Approved in January 1949. £1,800 of this grant is

to be used for Scheme D. 1764. Completed in 1949.

This Scheme, which was completed in March 1953. consists of two loans of £9,375 each, one of which was originally made under Scheme D. 1066. Both loans are free of interest until end of 1955. Completed in March 1953. Work is being continued

under Scheme D. 1952.

D. 1242

Irrigation in the New Territories (Interim Scheme)

3,450

3.449

D. 1243

D. 1243A

Piers in the New Territories (Interim Scheme). Piers in the New Territories.

5,000

48,883

D. 1362

New Broadcasting Studios.

15,625

D. 1435

Mechanization of fishing fleet.

20,000

D. 1557 &

D. 1557A

Rehabilitation and development of certain University

Buildings:

Grant from Colonial Development and

Welfare Funds.

250,000

Grant from Colonial and Middle

Eastern Services Votes.

250,000

D. 1602

Hong Kong Housing Society Pilot Scheme

13.500

D. 1661

Maintenance of a Survey Party in the New Territories.

5,500

46,094

Cancelled in 1951 and substituted by Scheme D. 1661. Completed in March 1953.

15,625

Completed in 1951.

Approved in August, 1950.

243.293

Approved in June, 1950.

243,293

9.078

4,002

Approved in May 1951. No further expenditure is expected. Approved in September, 1951.

D. 1764

Aeronautical Radio and Weather Stations.

10,656

10,656 Completed in June, 1953.

D. 1952

Irrigation in the New Territories.

12,500

6,913

Approved in March, 1953.

D. 1967

Loans to Fishermen.

50.000

3,750

Approved in April, 1953.

978,369

118,125

748,773

224

225

(See page 17)

AND WELFARE SCHEMES

ADMINISTERED

Loan

£

Estimated Expenditure up to

31.12.53.

40,000

9,375

18,750

50.000

118,125

APPENDICES

Remarks

£

498

114

31,887 886

1,250

6,849

Scheme completed in 1949.

This Scheme was substituted by a revised scheme,

R. 480 in 1951.

Superceded by Scheme R. 480A in 1953.

The grants made under Scheme R. 480 were increased in August, 1953, and the Scheme No was subsequently changed to R. 480A.

.

Scheme completed in 1948.

49,528 Scheme completed in 1950. Scheme completed in 1949.

4,242 18,746

20,495

HONG

9.375

18,750

3.449

Cancelled in 1949 and replaced by Scheme No. D. 1435. Approved in September 1948. Recurrent expenditure ceased in March 1953. The loan of £9,375 is interest free until end of 1954.

Approved in January 1949. £1,800 of this grant is

to be used for Scheme D. 1764. Completed in 1949.

This Scheme, which was completed in March 1953,

consists of two loans of £9,375 each, one of which was originally made under Scheme D. 1066. Both loans are free of interest until end of 1955. Completed in March 1953. Work is being continued

under Scheme D. 1952.

Cancelled in 1951 and substituted by Scheme D. 1661.

46,094 Completed in March 1953.

15,625 Completed in 1951.

Approved in August, 1950.

243,293 Approved in June, 1950.

243.293

9.078 Approved in May 1951. No further expenditure is expected. 4,002 Approved in September, 1951.

10,656 Completed in June, 1953.

6.913

Approved in March, 1953. 3.750 Approved in April, 1953.

748,773

225

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES:

DEPOSITS:-

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

Contractors

Custodian of Property Surplus Fund

-Abandoned Property

Government Servants

Other Administrations

Settlement with H.M.G.

Water Deposits Deposits

Miscellaneous

SUSPENSE:-(a)

Kowloon-Canton Railway

SPECIAL FUNDS:

Education Scholarships Fund

Grant Schools Building Depreciation Fund

Grant Schools Provident Fund

S.C.A.-Chinese Public Dispensaries Fund

Trading Reserve Fund

Sub Total:

DEVELOPMENT FUND:-Fund Account

Deposit Hong Kong

Government

Appendix II

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND

$ ¢

$

$ 224,123.80

82,000.00

6,158,050.75

11,055,266.10

328,355.73

92,067.76

15,987,695.10

·

3,927,179.06

13,338,332.10 51,193,070.40

IBRAR

Expenditure on Local Investments

Expenditure on Loans

Sub Total: Carried forward

226

80,444,402.03

29.207.13

92,014.47

494,713.53

1,692,846.43

20.029.17

30,162,393.73

83,684,274.86

417,016.13

32,562.50

2,132,639.05

83,026,619.71

166,710,894.57

DEPOSITS:

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES:

Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes Contractors

Custodian of Property Surplus Fund

-Abandoned Property

Government Servants

Other Administrations

Settlement with H.M.G.

Water Deposits

Miscellaneous

SUSPENSE :-(a)

Kowloon-Canton Railway

Appendix II

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND

(See pages 36-38)

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1953

$

CASH:

At Bank

$ 224,123.80

82,000.00

6,158,050.75

11,055,266.10

328,355.73

92,067.76

15,987,695.10

3,927,179.06

13,338,332.10 51,193,070.40

ASSETS:

In Hand

In Hand (Kowloon-Canton Railway)

At Bank (Postmaster General) In Hand (

>

Sub Total:

$ 17,684,759.46

1,997,840.27

19,507.31

65,596.04

With Crown Agents (£54-11-8:)

Joint Colonial Fund (£616,000:)

FIXED DEPOSIT

SUSPENSE :-(b)

Commerce and Industry Department (Supplies Branch)

ADVANCES:

69

$

13,796.65

19,781,499.73

873.33

9,856,000.00

29,638,373.06

20,000,000.00

106,953,091.32

29,207.13

Other Administrations

2,042,494.58

Personal

1,449,061.59

Netherland Harbour Works Company Limited Miscellaneous

2,768,000.00

950,388.59

SPECIAL FUNDS:

Sub Total:

7,209,944.76

Education Scholarships Fund

92,014.47

Pending Raising of Loan

771,632.73

7,981,577.49

Grant Schools Building Depreciation Fund

494,713.53

Grant Schools Provident Fund

SPECIAL FUNDS:

1,692,846.43

Investments:

S.C.A.-Chinese Public Dispensaries Fund Trading Reserve Fund

20.029.17

30,162,393.73

Education Scholarships Fund-

Fixed Deposits

Sub Total:

Hong Kong Government Loan Sterling Investments (£1,827-12-11 :)

83,684,274.86

DEVELOPMENT FUND:-Fund Account

Deposit Hong Kong

Government

Expenditure on Local Investments

Expenditure on Loans

Sub Total: Carried forward

80,444.402.03

417,016.13

32,562.50

2,132,639.05 83,026,619.71

166,710,894.57

Grant Schools Building Depreciation Fund-

Sterling Investments (£30,729-18-2:)

Grant Schools Provident Fund-

Sterling Investments (£100,327-4-8 :)

S.C.A.--Chinese Public Dispensaries Fund-

Hong Kong Government Loan

Trading Reserve Fund-

Fixed Deposits

Sterling Investments (£1,456,950-13-0 :)

Sub Total: Carried forward

6,000.00 50,575.00 29,242.33

85,817.33

491,678.53

1,605,235.74

6,000.00

6,000,000.00

23,311,210.40 29.311,210.40

196,072,983.87

226

227

APPENDICES

(See pages 36-38)

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1953

ASSETS:

CASH:-

At Bank

In Hand

In Hand (Kowloon-Canton Railway)

At Bank (Postmaster General)

$ ¢

$ 17,684,759.46 1,997,840.27

19,507.31

In Hand (

>

Sub Total:

With Crown Agents (£54-11-8:)

Joint Colonial Fund (£616,000:)

FIXED DEPOSIT

SUSPENSE:-(b)

-ik

Commerce and Industry Department (Supplies Branch)

ADVANCES:

69

65,596.04

13,796.65

19,781,499.73

873.33

9,856,000.00

29,638,373.06

20,000,000.00

Other Administrations

2,042,494.58

Personal

1,449,061.59

Netherland Harbour Works Company Limited Miscellaneous

2,768,000.00

950,388.59

Sub Total:

Pending Raising of Loan

SPECIAL FUNDS:-

Investments:

Education Scholarships Fund-

Fixed Deposits

Hong Kong Government Loan

Sterling Investments (£1,827-12-11 :)

Grant Schools Building Depreciation Fund-

Sterling Investments (£30,729-18-2:)

Grant Schools Provident Fund-

Sterling Investments (£100,327-4-8 :)

S.C.A.-Chinese Public Dispensaries Fund-

Hong Kong Government Loan

Trading Reserve Fund-

Fixed Deposits

·

Sterling Investments (£1,456,950-13-0 :)

Sub Total: Carried forward

227

106,953,091.32

7,209,944.76

San

771,632.73 7,981,577.49

CLIBR

6,000.00 50,575.00 29,242.33

85,817.33

491.678.53

1,605,235.74

6,000.00

6,000,000.00

23,311,210.40 29.311,210.40

196,072,983.87

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES:

Brought forward

Appendix I

STATEMENT OF ASSETS ANI

$

69

¢

$ ¢

166,710,894.57

111,414,760.94

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:-

Balance as at 1st April, 1952

Add Surplus from 1st April, 1952,

to 31st March, 1953

Add appreciation on Investments

Less:

*

Amount appropriated to Revenue Equalization Fund

$219,232,413.80

72,840,788.01

4,889,093.72

962,295.53

$100,000,000.00 196,962,295.53

с

THE TREASURY,

UBI

Hong Kong, 22nd July, 1953.

TOTAL:

228

$475,087,951.04

Notes:-(a) Represents total of credit balance o (b) Represents total of debit balances o

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal valu Amounts due from Colonial Development

and

Scheme D. 994-Village Agriculture Depot D. 994-Village Agriculture Depot D. 1242-Irrigation in the Nev D. 1952-Irrigation in the Nev D. 1602-Hong Kong Housing D. 1661-Survey Party in the Nev R. 480-Fisheries Research Uni

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES:

Brought forward

REVENUE EQUALIZATION FUND

Appendix II

STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND

-Contd.

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1953

$

$

ASSETS:

69

$

$

166,710,894.57

111,414,760.94

Brought forward

196,072,983.87

DEVELOPMENT FUND:

Cash:

At Bank

With Crown Agents (£44-7-8 :) Joint Colonial Fund (£1,492,000:)

8,037,937.43

710.13

23,872,000.00

Sub Total:

Advance Hong Kong Government Sterling Investments (£3,056,098-4-2:)

Local Investments

Loans

31,910,647.56

40,695.27 48,897,571.33

45,066.50 2,132,639.05

Sub Total:

83,026,619.71

279,099,603.58

GENERAL REVENUE BALANCE ACCOUNT:-

Balance as at 1st April, 1952

Add Surplus from 1st April, 1952,

to 31st March, 1953

Add appreciation on Investments

$219,232,413.80

72,840,788.01

4,889,093.72

296,962,295.53

Less:

Amount appropriated to Revenue Equalization Fund

....

$100,000,000.00 196,962,295.53

THE TREASURY,

1

Hong Kong, 22nd July, 1953.

228

TOTAL:

$475,087,951.04

SURPLUS BALANCES-

Investments:

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan Sterling Investments (£12,075,710-9-4 :)

Notes:-(a) Represents total of credit balance on (b) Represents total of debit balances on

Government holds 16,290 shares at a nominal value Amounts due from Colonial Development and

Scheme D. 994-Village Agriculture Depots 994-Village Agriculture Depots

D.

D. 1242-Irrigation in the New D. 1952-Irrigation in the New D. 1602-Hong Kong Housing D. 1661-Survey Party in the New R. 480-Fisheries Research Unit

Kowloon-Canton Railway account under this Head. various accounts under this Head.

of $100 per share in Associated Properties Limited.

Welfare Fund are as follows:

(Recurrent, Grant)

(Recurrent, Loan)

Territories (Interim Scheme) Territories

Society Pilot Scheme Territories

(Capital)

EXAMINED,

Sd. P. H. JENNINGS,

Director of Audit.

$30,688.51

$ 1,968.52

$ 1,827.24

$ 1,055.52

$15,866.81

$ 1,867.90 $95,423.57

10th September, 1953.

TOTAL:

229

2,776,980.00

$193,211,367.46 195,988,347.46

$475,087,951.04

R. C. LEMMON, Accountant General

-Contd.

APPENDICES

LIABILITIES AS AT 31ST MARCH, 1953

DEVELOPMENT FUND:

Cash:

ASSETS:

Brought forward

69

$ ¢

196,072,983.87

At Bank

8,037,937.43

With Crown Agents (£44-7-8:)

710.13

Joint Colonial Fund (£1,492,000:)

23,872,000.00

Sub Total:

31,910,647.56

Advance Hong Kong Government

40.695.27

Sterling Investments (£3,056,098-4-2) Local Investments

48,897,571.33

Loans

45.066.50 2,132,639.05

83,026,619.71

279,099603.58

Sub Total:

SURPLUS BALANCES-

Investments:-

Hong Kong Government 34% Dollar Loan Sterling Investments (£12,075,710-9-4 :)

Kowloon-Canton Railway account under this Head. various accounts under this Head.

of $100 per share in Associated Properties Limited.

Welfare Fund are as follows:

(Recurrent, Grant)

$30,688.51

$ 1,968.52

(Recurrent, Loan)

Territories (Interim Scheme)

$ 1,827.24

Territories

TOTAL:

2,776,980.00

$193,211,367.46 195,988,347.46

$475,087,951.04

LIC LIBRE

Society Pilot Scheme

Territories

(Capital)

$ 1,055.52

$15,866.81

$ 1,867.90 $95,423.57

EXAMINED,

Sd. P. H. JENNINGS,

Director of Audit.

10th September, 1953.

229

R. C. LEMMON, Accountant General

APPENDICES

Appendix III (See page 36)

REVENUE

(Revenue collections for 1952/53 showing the main heads of Revenue compared with the two preceding years and the estimate for 1953/54).

HEAD OF REVENUE

Actual

Actual

Actual

Approved

Revenue

Revenue

for

for

1950-51

1951-52

$

$

Revenue

for

1952-53

$

Estimate

for

1953-54

$

71,653,473

1. Duties

2. Rates

3. Internal Revenue

4. Licences, Fines, and

Förfeitures

5. Fees of Court or Office

6. Water Revenue

7. Post Office

77,640,725 74,209,796 68,400,000

27,253,352 30,074,598 33,891,832 33,878,000

85,552,247 99,894,644 161,284,243 144,100,000

16,452,752 15,996,996 18,129,235

15,332,600

22,064,832 20,251,590 26,645,986

24,937,200

8,154,718 8,338,958 8,264,419 7,631,400

14,546,838 13,435,903 15,534,868 15,121,000

8. Kowloon Canton Railway

*

10,250,827 5,432,096 6,023,417

5,000,900

:

9. Revenue from Land,

Rents, etc.

10. Miscellaneous

Miscellaneous

Receipts

13,011,654 17,012,794 18,917,279 13,740,900

16,482,396 15,122,709 15,082,269 13,478,000

11. Land Sales A

12. Colonial Development and

Welfare Grants

13. Loans from United Kingdom

Government

Total Revenue

Withdrawal from General

Revenue Balance

Total

285,423,089 303,201,013 377,983,344 341,620,000

5,973,389 4,573,828 5,446,707 2,710,000

TD

331,938

789,407 1,160,395 2,312,700

2,000,000

291,728,416 308,564,248 384,590,446 348,642,700

100,000,000

291,728,416 308,564,248 484,590,446 348,642,700

230

APPENDICES

Appendix IV (See page 37)

EXPENDITURE

(The Expenditure for 1952/53 with the two preceding years.

HEAD Of expenDITURE

showing the main heads and compared The estimate for The estimate for 1953/54 is also given).

Actual

Actual

Expenditure Expenditure

Actual Expenditure

Approved

Estimate

1950-51

1951-52

1952-53

1953-54

$

$

$

$

1.

H. E. the Governor

244,794

236,223

302,375

276,250

2.

Agriculture, Fisheries, and

Forestry Department

656,705

2,095,904

2,470,395

1,978,947

3.

Audit Department

246,046

347,422

472,255

492,170

4.

Civil Aviation Department

971,592

869,105

1,362,335

2,023,817

5.

Colonial Secretariat and

Legislature

1,193,847

1,465,393

2,079,539

2,352,005

6. Commerce and Industry

Department

1,086,564

2,266,291

3,341,395 3,619,740

7. Co-operatives and Marketing

Department

98,997

219,535

333,589

372,952

8. Defence L

A-R.H.K.D.F. Head-

quarters and Hong Kong

Regiment

572,807

1,129,064

1,850,960 2,680,465

B-Hong Kong Royal Naval

Volunteer Reserve

...

304,636

290,800

445,382

554,059

C-Hong Kong Auxiliary

Air Force

107,127

371,814

694,733

788,880

D-Essential Services Corps

151,060

113,991

108,177

201,789

E-Civil Aid Services

104,414

281,232

784,292

F-Registration of Persons

551,507

422,976

298,205

302,079

G--Miscellaneous Measures

29,943,531 22,988,000

9.

Education Department

4,739,488

6,371,260

9,125,906✪ 10,665,838

10.

Fire Brigade

1,231,284

2,529,322

2,067,934

2,479,830

11. Inland Revenue Department

823,841 1,140,487

1,805,432 2,017,017

12. Judiciary

P

13. Kowloon Canton Railway

··

717,892 972,944 4,442,260 4,743,188

1,419,125 4,576,096

1,687,146

8,411,888

20.

Pensions

22. Post Office

23.

14. Labour Department

15. Legal Department

16. Marine Department

17. Medical Department

18.

Miscellaneous Services

19. New Territories, District

Administration

21. Police Force

Printing Department 24. Prisons Department 25. Public Debt

264,928

384,467

543,019

643,133

444,655

621,570

520,743

694,759

5,177,469 11,974,333 109,873,948

7,746,701 15,761,891 21,338,770 23,860,262 42,776,171 88,576,029

14,810,500

9,328,169

12,601,410

377,269 7,996,909 14,149,970 6,065,067

573,433 816,281 8,637,761 9,423,957 20,076,745 29,026,514

599,427

11,988,000

33,801,391

7,102,415

8,098,358

8,294,319

133,710 1,345,770

1,689,608

3,379,485 4,551,697 5,546,444 3,908,169

6,341,443

9,010,839

5,785,353

4,004,141

231

APPENDICES

HEAD OF EXPENDiture

Appendix IV-Contd.

EXPENDITURE

Actual

Actual

Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure

1950-51

1951-52 1952-53

Actual

Approved

Estimate 1953-54

$

$

$

$

26. Public Relations Office:

A-Public Relations

31.

Division

B-Broadcasting Division

27. Public Services

Commission

28. Public Works Department

29. Public Works Recurrent

30. Public Works

Non-Recurrent

Quartering

32. Rating and Valuation

Department

33. Registrar General's

Department

134,025

197,877

431,411

451,424

318,915

475,171

514,853

646,500

24,610

27,746

4,377,486

8,114,396 13,307,577

17,670,966

• ·

14,692,377

14,936,189

17,886,200

18,673,000

19,268,718

21,430,043

37,113,074

47,602,500

176,934

186,825

201,399 1,167,661

181,391

209,608

249,281

301,433

183,998

278,696

487,928

480,800

34. Royal Observatory

395,868

526,025

744,223

946,003

35.

Sanitary Department and

Urban Council:

A-Sanitary Department

7,047,233

9,049,076

11,192,198

13,533,387

B-Resettlement of

Squatters

C-Gardens

36. Secretariat for Chinese

Affairs:

A-Secretariat for Chinese

2,309,376

4,764,484

Division

654,322

Affairs

177,027

187,725

304,933

B-Social Welfare Office

2,191,004

2,642,469

3,658,889

290,524 2,326,167

C-District Watch Force .

151,128

37.

Stores Department

3,192,151

38.

Subventions

14,254,864

263,097 9,784,222 16,713,748 - 17,670,179

260,362

262,557

5,034,977

5,235,117

25,176,790

39. Treasury:

A-Treasury

796,727

B-Custodian of

of Property

38,937

1,102,490 37,732

1,544,312 46,623

1,594,877

45,303

Statistical Department Vegetable Marketing

125,827

149,963

Organization

53,734

Fisheries Department

117.954

Forestry Department

377,646

Gardens Department

Supplies and Distribution

Department

Telecommunications

40. Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes

Total

Transfer of Surplus Balances to

Revenue Equalization Fund

Total

251,264,580 275,152,743 310,510,550 325,857,118

419,941

251,684,521

703,208

275,855,951

1,239,108

311,749,658 328,169,818

2,312,700

100,000,000

251,684,521 275,855,951 411,749,658 328,169.818

314,946

804,421

138,620

232

APPENDICES

Appendix V (See page 43)

BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG

American Express Co. Inc.

Banco Nacional Ultramarino

Bank of Canton Ltd.

Bank of China (Hong Kong

Branch)

Bank of Communications (Hong Kong Branch)

Bank of East Asia Ltd.

Bank of Korea

Bank of Tokyo Ltd.

Bank of Kwangsi Ltd.

Banque Belge Pour L'Etranger

(Extreme-Orient)

Banque de L'Indo-Chine

Canton Trust and Commercial

Bank Ltd.

Central Trust of China

(Hong Kong Branch)

Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China.

Chekiang First Bank of

Commerce (Hong Kong) Ltd.

Cheong Kee Bank

Cheuk Kee Bank

Chi Yu Banking Corp. Ltd.

China and South Sea Bank Ltd.

(Hong Kong Branch)

China State Bank Ltd.

(Hong Kong Branch)

China Trade Bank Ltd.

Chinese Postal Remittances and

Savings Bank.

Chiu Tai Bank Ltd.

Choi Kee Bank

Dah Sing Bank Ltd.

Dao Heng Bank

#

E. D. Sassoon Banking Co. Ltd.

E.D. Sassoon Banking Co. Ltd

(Incorporated in the Bahama Island)

Farmers Bank of China

Fat Cheong Bank Ltd.

Fengtien Co. Ltd.

Foo Kee Bank

RIES

BR

Fook Wa Banking and Insurance

Co. Ltd.

Hang Lung Bank Ltd.

Hang Seng Bank Ltd.

Hang Shun Gold Dealer.

Hang Tai Bank

Ho Cheng Bank Ltd.

Hongkong and Shanghai Banking

Corporation.

233

APPENDICES

Appendix V-Contd.

BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG

Hong Kong and Swatow

Commercial Bank Ltd.

Hong Kong Trust Corporation

Ltd.

Hong Nin Savings Bank Ltd.

Ka Wah Bank Ltd.

Kan Koam Tsing and Co.

Kar Cheung Chong Bank

Kingcheng Banking Corporation.

Kung Yue Bank

Kwai Kee Bank.

Kwangtung Provincial Bank

(Hong Kong Branch)

Kwong On Bank

Lee Shing Bank

Liu Chong Hing Savings Bank

Lui Hing Hop Cheung Kee

Bank Ltd.

Man Cheong Bank

Man Fat Bank

Mercantile Bank of India Ltd.

Ming Tai Bank

Ming Tak Bank

Mun Fat Bank Hing Kee

Nanyang Commercial Bank Ltd.

National City Bank of New York

National Commercial Bank

(Hong Kong Branch)

National and Commercial Savings

Bank Limited.

National Industrial Bank of

China.

Nationale Handelsbank N. V.

Nederlandsche Handel-

Maatschappij N.V.

(Netherlands Trading

Society Limited).

Ngau Kee Bank

On Tai Bank

Overseas Chinese Banking

Corporation Ltd.

Po Sang Bank

Shanghai Commercial Bank Ltd.

Shun Foo Banking and Investment Co. Ltd.

Sin Hua Trust, Savings, and

Commercial Bank Ltd.

(Hong Kong Branch)

Sing Hang Bank.

South West Development Bank

Ltd.

Sze Hai Tong Banking and

Insurance Co. Ltd.

Tai Sang Bank

234

APPENDICES

Appendix V-Contd.

BANKS OPERATING IN HONG KONG

Tai Yau Bank Ltd.

Tak Cheung Bank

Tak Yuen Bank

Thos. Cook and Son (Continental

and Overseas) Ltd.

Tong Ho and Co. Ltd.

Underwriters Bank Inc.

United Chinese Bank Ltd.

United Commercial Bank Ltd.

Wing Cheung Bank

Wing Hang Cheong Kee Bank

Wing Lung Bank

Wing Ming Bank

Wing On Bank Ltd.

Wing On Co. Ltd.

Wing On Fire and Marine

Insurance Co. Ltd

Wo Cheung Bank

Yau Tak Bank

Yau Wing Bank

Yien Yieh Commercial Bank

Ltd. (Hong Kong Branch)

Yau Yue Commercial Bank Ltd.

Ying Shun Bank

Young Brothers Banking

Corporation (Hong Kong Branch)

Yue Man Banking Co. Ltd.

Yue Tak Shing Kee Bank

KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

235

APPENDICES

Appendix VI (See page 44)

Direction of Trade-Imports into Hong Kong

The principal countries from which goods were imported into Hong Kong are shown below, with total values for the past three years:

United Kingdom

Malaya

1951

H.K.S

1952

H.K.S

1953

H.K.$

619,056,609

470,383,589 474,353,929

394,069,156 163,898,046 177,485,292

India

158,834,129

100,890,058

53,452,419

Pakistan

143,649,617

90,050,596

116,396,534

-Tre

Canada

87,886,623

78,537,160

58,582,539

Australia

88,685,672

54,778,457

55,688,825

Other Commonwealth Countries

138,908,365

115,208,518

114,644,471

China

863,099,818

830,265,921

857,136,042

Japan

392,262,340

482,207,870 384,079,187

U. S. A.

373,523,601

221,063,994

224,909,213

Thailand

Italy

155,597,339

204,657,603

289,797,495

125,894,855

125,611,504

77,542,231

Germany

214,278,034

118,897,323

212,744,708

Switzerland

Netherlands

Other Countries

130,861,275

109,876,733

105,205,291

125,152,979

108,180,743

119,191,463

858,554,124 504,979,369 551,460,001

Total

236

4,870,314,536 3,779,487,484 3,872,669,640

APPENDICES

Appendix VII (See page 45)

Direction of Trade-Exports into Hong Kong

The principal markets for the Colony's exports during the past three years were as follows:

United Kingdom

Malaya

Pakistan

Other Commonwealth Countries

Indonesia

China

Thailand

Formosa

1951

H.K.$

1952

H.K.$

1953

H.K.$

214,598,413

83,365,573

119,255,160

740,623,416

417,553,708

337,188,222

117

L

187,652,837

54,952,078

26,441,969

227,175,394

143,093,775 235,923,346

244,820,675 528,004,683 371,995,621

1,603,795,359 520,032,173 540,348,259

89,771,310

243,089,963

206,719,599

139,379,130

207,434,504

105,779,717

Japan

192,526,923

123,628,482 221,586,463

U. S. A.

162,546,601

113,489,875

62,369,410

Macao

228,353,320

88,854,587

88,197,739

Other Countries

401,784.327

375,510,663

417,915,719

Total

237

4,433,027,705 2,899,010,064 2,733,721,224

APPENDICES

Swine

No.

Poultry

Lb.

Fresh

Vegetables

Cwt.

Milk, tinned

*

Eggs

Rice

Flour

Cwt.

Beans & Peas

Cwt.

Lb.

Gross 3,075,016 53,743,789

Cwt. 3,645,195 162,497,883

950,634 35,497,466

1,101,069 43,636,147

Appendix VIII (See page 44)

Principal Commodities Imported

values, during 1953,

Principal commodities imported, with quantities and

and values, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1951

1952

Unit Quantity Value Quantity Value H.K.$

H.K.$

1953

Quantity Value H.K.S

299,523 37,471,930 620,201 97,267,867 400,871 69,722,385

16,114,694 19,715,324 36,842,165 20,915,339 34,262,288

*

2,077,947 50,777,381 2,032,590 40,575,939 1,894,285 24,593,547

41,031,050 23,918,253 28,175,836 27,606,817 33,458,849

2,924,788 51,733,561

4,659,052 217,983,592

3,072,995 56,739,668

6,139,121 318,907,436

929,129 40,134,815

719,784 28,991,303

1,520,783 55,063,527

1,645,160 53,083,124

Sugar

Cwt.

Tea

Lb.

Tobacco

Lb.

1,710,130 84,464,285 1,443,519 54,705,405

16,489,932 28,633,260 16,203,125 32,433,205 12,996,221 28,188,813

32,552,611 83,390,196

3,314,424 107,461,653

9,920,644 55,222,583 11,941,454 58,091,058

Soya Beans

Cwt.

538,193 27,711,240

·

Raw Cotton

Coal

Cwt.

Cwt.

616,049 232,126,974

5,552,460 29,264,288

650,492 31,545,797

571,746 169,310,469

6,111,887 33,118,747

246,754 10,139,372

753,353 155,192,471

4,137,662 18,441,606

Furnace Fuel

oils

Ton

495,070 73,944,114

Cotton yarn

and thread ..

Lb.

Cotton piece-

goods

326,149 43,956,040 447,896 45,265,670

16,837,212 77,312,188 27,473,922 114,926,501 10,892,176 41,246,012

(unbleached).. Sq. Yd. 29,765,391 40,910,014 39,484,977 51,177,763 33,232,302 33,005,499 Cotton piece-

goods

(bleached)

Tung Oil

Sq. Yd. 66,679,477 125,145,153 51,379,722

Cwt.

476,722 84,816,688

84,724,799 68,112,700 92,464,661 321,105 59,108,283 265,945 33,126,517

Watches

and Watch

movements

Artificial

No.

87,791,875 1,969,920 90,078,748 2,734,272 96,384,121

Sq. Yd. 55,722,820 118,782,441 51,821,413 83,679,001 55,420,371 80,886,061

Sq. Yd. 2,080,350 43,999,258

204,559 33,217,890

2,184,605 37,079,088 2,024,588 31,456,171 334,227 37,445.732 329,778 38,186,463

textiles

Woollen

piecegoods

Groundnut oil.

Cwt.

Plants, seeds

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery

Cwt.

Sulphate of

Ammonia

Cwt.

77,935,507

*

342,412 47,497,841

3,131,888 87,497,066

475,475 59,826,228

2,163,695 40,821,277

*

not available.

238

APPENDICES

Appendix IX (See page 45)

Principal Commodities Exported

Principal commodities exported, with quantities and values, during 1953, and comparative figures for the two preceding years:

1951

1952

1953

Unit Quantity

Eggs

Gross 1,306,812

Cuttle fish

Cwt.

Flour

Cwt.

Beans, peas

Cwt.

Value Quantity Value H.K.S

H.K.S

27,439,905 748,447 16,900,751

158,724 18,501,451 180,065 21,592,852

432,017 17,610,637 323,539 15,911,655

1,069,643 42,108,368 1,365,069 56,142,773

Quantity

Value H.K.S

815,419 18,194,268

49,986 6,515,782

140,432 6,174,692

1,337,132 45,967,663

Fresh

vegetables

Cwt.

Sugar

Cwt.

Tea

Lb.

Soya Beans

Cwt.

Sesamum seed. Cwt.

903,632 44,062,004

1,293,336 67,106,246

13,056,345 31,130,665

361,360 19,284,834

172,495 15,022,022

559,639 23,919,256

863,012 39,352,285

12,427,967 33,826,343

400,442 14,421,575

2,780,095 96,716,116

8,680,812 24,885,854

Tung oil

Cwt.

511,698 101,607,024

405,785 17,855,268

417,625 24,188,973

294,722 50,979,293

540,283 22,057,732

466,590 25,638,855

257,789 33,238,838

..

Coal-tar

dyestuffs

Cwt.

104,470 100,648,939

38,644 34,414,779

66,672 61,181,230

Cotton yarn

and thread ..

Lb.

45,832,793 259,898,038 36,433,640 159,937,070 35,118,077 114,413,678

Cotton piece-

goods

(unbleached) .. Sq. Yd. 61,058,418 103,524,579 38,904,191 54,846.717 36,974,999 38,267,488

Cotton piece-

goods

(bleached)

·

Enamelware

Textile

machinery

36,129,515

34,860,118

Electric torches Doz.

Watches

Sq. Yd. 98,927,896 193,093,082 126,076,848 184,574,948 143,276,939 174,828,563

46,468,245

14,472,856

1,784,333 43,281,563 1,973,987 40,060,995 2,347,186 35,933,549

65,116,266

23,646,051

BR

and watch

movements

No.

Bristles

Feathers

Lb.

Lb.

83,139,001 678,732 33,693,585 751,762 32,548,411 1,030,617 29,203,925 1,465,661 35,164,898 771,462 13,090,537

57,234,060 3,984,731 30,195,207 3,673,210 11,649,428

Plants, seeds

flowers, for

medicines,

perfumery

Cwt.

Sulphate of

Ammonia

Cwt.

77,935,507

276,390 55,402,072

303,630 50,771,056

2,867,825 94,827,676

2,752,128 52,073,556

Artificial

textiles

Sq. Yd. 34,416,170 69,520,505 18,806,015 29,947,462 9,564,207 15,871,306

*

not available.

239

APPENDICES

Appendix X A (See page 92)

CASES

Case

DISEASES

Total

Deaths

fatality

Non-

rate

Chinese

Chinese

Typhoid Fever

1,413

21

1,434

128

8.92%

Amoebiasis

191

94

285

7

2.46%

Dysentery {

{

Bacillary

594

67

661

25

3.78%

Clinical..

1

1

100.00%

Diphtheria

1,109

7

1,1

133

11.92%

Cerebro-spinal meningitis

(Meningococcal)

11

1

12

41.67%

Measles

507

154

661

50

7.56%

Poliomyelitis

17

5

22

3

13.64%

Tuberculosis

11,854

46

11,900

2,939

24.70%

Malaria

730

50

780

46

5.90%

Rabies

{

Human

2

0

Animal

23

2 3

100.00%

Puerperal Fever

2

0

2

Chickenpox

223

75

298

8

2.68%

Scarlet Fever

8

4

12

Whooping Cough

122

9

131

1

0.76%

240

APPENDICES

Appendix X B (See page 97)

Department

1949/50

1951/52

1952/53

Stores

Public Works

2.38

1.36

1.69

2.2

1.11

0.80

General Post Office

1.74

1.11

1.20

Medical

1.4

0.9

0.76

Urban Services

0.9

0.78

0.56

Railway

0.7

1.83

0.89

Police

0.66

0.56

0.52

Education

0.18

1.32

0.36

*Agriculture, Fisheries and

- Forestry

2.003

0.63

*Marine

0.90

0.92

* Not included in 1949/50 figures.

Appendix X C (See page 100)

Registered Medical Practitioners (excluding Government

Personnel)

433

Government Medical Officers

220

Registered Dentists (excluding Government Dental Surgeon

& Service Dentists)

331

Government Dental Surgeons

10

Service Dentists

9

Registered Pharmacists (excluding Government Pharmacist)..

61

Government Pharmacists

4

Registered Nurses (excluding Government Nurses)

752

Government Nurses

586

Registered Dressers (excluding Government Dressers)

11

Government Dressers

75

Registered Midwives (excluding Government Midwives) Government Midwives

783

75

241

APPENDICES

Appendix X D (See page 101)

Institutions

Number of Hospital

Beds.

Government Hospitals & Dispensaries :

A. Hospitals.

Queen Mary Hospital Kowloon Hospital Mental

Sai Ying Pun Hospital Tsan Yuk

Lai Chi Kok

""

""

• •

Eastern Maternity Hospital

Wanchai Social Hygiene Hospital

St. John Hospital

Stanley Prison Hospital

Lai Chi Kok Female Prison Hospital

B. Dispensaries.

Stanley

Tai Po

Un Long

Shau Tau Kok

• •

580

• •

233

140

88

85

490

24

28

102

66

12

6

8

7

3

Ho Tung

Sai Kung

Tai O

San Hui

13

3

• •

·

9

• •

• • + D • · •

3

Shatin Maternity Home

Silver Mine Bay Maternity Hospital

C. Grant-in-aid Hospitals

Tung Wah Hospital

Tung Wah Eastern Hospital

4

6

495

320

Kwong Wah Hospital

► •

404

Nethersole Hospital

178

Hong Kong Anti-T.B. Association Ruttonjee Sanatorium.

215

D. Private Hospitals

Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital

233

Tai Wo Hospital

38

Precious Blood Hospital

90

St. Teresa's Hospital

73

St. Francis Hospital

70

St. Paul Hospital

172

101

Hong Kong Central Hospital

Ling Yuet Sin Infants Hospital

• ·

Matilda and War Memorial Hospital

1

GRAND TOTAL

242

125

88

4,512

APPENDICES

Appendix XI (See page 127)

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Offences against the person for the year 1953

Crime

Number of Cases Reported

Murder

Murder-Attempted

Manslaughter

Number of Cases cleared by charge

or

summons

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed

Number of Cases under Investiga-

tion

Juv.

Adults

J......

24

19-

27

5

18

16

16

2

4

4

Assaults-Serious

192

161

3

194

Throwing Corrosive Fluids

2

2

2

Abortion

4

4

10

Unnatural Offences

Criminal Intimidation.

Kidnapping

Rape

Indecent Assault

KONG PU

7

6

2

ARIES

3

2

1

1

2

2

1

39

35

5

30

All Other Offences Against Women

and Girls

10

10

12

All Other Offences Against the Person

1

1

1

Total Serious Offences Against the

Person

308

262

10

304

46

243

APPENDICES

Appendix XI-Contd.

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Offences against Property-Preventable

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed

Crime

Number of Cases Reported

Number of Cases cleared by charge

or

summons

Juv.

Adults

Number

of Cases

under Investiga-

tion

BREAKINGS

Breaking-House

677

115

1

116

562

Breaking-Shop, Store, etc.

92

17

3

20

75

Breakings, All Attempted

38

9

1

8

29

Burglary

•iR

269

76

83

193

Sub-Total

1,076

217

5

227

859

LARCENIES

Receiving

179

179

Demanding with Menaces

67

51

Unlawful Possession

433

433

2 2 a

2

165

77

16

460

Robbery and Assaults, with intent to

Rob

102

45

Larceny from Dwelling

1,327

160

Larceny from Person (Pickpocket)

798

371

IBRA

87

57

154

1,167

15

364

427

Larceny from Person (Snatching)

923

284

23

264

639

Larceny from Ship and Wharf

52

25

28

27

Larceny of Bicycles

837

91

1

90

746

Larceny from Vehicles

586

54

6

50

532

Miscellaneous Simple Larcenies

7,343

3.130

299

3,002

4,213

All Other Offences Against

Property-Preventable

135

135

1

96

Sub-Total

12,782

4,958

369

4,837

7,824

244

APPENDICES

Appendix XI-Contd.

RETURN OF SERIOUS OFFENCES

Offences against Property-Non-Preventable

Number

Crime

of Cases Reported

Number of Cases cleared by charge

Number of Persons Charged or Summonsed

Number

of Cases

under Investiga

or

summons

tion

Juv.

Adults

Embezzlement and Larceny by Servant

498

392

7

254

106

Larceny by Bailee

233

98

5

97

135

Larceny by Trick

317

57

65

260

Forgery including Uttering and

Possession

73

47

40

26

Fraudulent Conversion

57

40

1

37

17

Malicious Damage

79

41

3

54

38

Л

Obtaining by False Pretences

396

218

3

160

178

All Other Offences Aganst Property,

Non-Preventable

Sub-Total

...

Total Serious Offences Against

Property

1

1

1

1,654

894

18

708

760

15,512

6,069

392

5,772

9,443

Possession of Arms and/or

Ammunition

Other Serious Offences

Bribery and Corruption

Conspiracies

Deportation-Breach of

Deportation-Others

All Other Serious Offences Not

Classified

Sub-Total

Total All Serious Crime

BRAR

84

84

4

117

·

37

36

38

1

11

10

31

1

2,945

2,945

13

2,932

6

6

6

150

131

107

19

c

3,233

3.212

17

3.231

21

19,053

9,543

419

9,307

9,510

245

APPENDICES

Appendix XII (See page 149)

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies Using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

America

(North)

American Mail Passenger

Fortnightly

22 days

Pacific Coast Ports

Line

Cargo

Ku

HON

American

Pioneer Line

American

Pres. Line

Bank Line

Barber Fern

Line

Barber

Wilhelmsen

Line

De la Rama

Lines

East Asiatic

Co., Ltd.

Ivaran Lines

Isbrandtsen

Lines

Isthmian Lines

Klaveness

Line

Maersk Line

Pacific Far

42 days

Atlantic Coast

Ports

16 days

Atlantic & Pacific

Coast Ports

Every 3 months

Monthly

42 days

Atlantic Coast

Ports

60 days

Atlantic Coast

Ports

1

16-20 days Atlantic & Pacific

18 days

Coast Ports

K

17-19 days

Pacific Coast Ports

Fortnightly

35-40 days 40 days

19

Atlantic & Pacific

Coast Ports

Monthly

20 days

17 days

Pacific Coast Ports

Fortnightly 26-28 days Atlantic & Pacific

East Line

Pacific Orient

Weekly

Fortnightly

18 days

Coast Ports Pacific Coast Ports

Express Line

Prince Line

Pacific

Monthly

Fortnightly 30 days

21 days

30 days

Atlantic & Pacific

Coast Ports Pacific Coast Ports

Transport

Line

U. S. Lines

38 days

Atlantic Coast

Ports

Canadian

Cargo

Monthly

23 days

Pacific

Canada West

Coast

America

(South)

Royal

Interocean

Passenger Cargo

Every 2 months

75 days

Lines

Australia

Australia

China

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

18 days

Line Ltd.

246

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies Using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Australia

Australia

Passenger

Oriental

Cargo

Line Ltd.

Monthly

15 days

China Nav.

Co.

(Joint

Service)

Australia

Passenger

15 days

West

Cargo

Pacific Line

Eastern &

Australian

days

S. S. Co.

Ltd.

Borneo

Indo China

Cargo

Fortnightly

5 days

S. N. Co. Ltd.

Burma

B. I. S. N.

Co.

Passenger Cargo

Everett

3 weekly

Fortnightly

10 days

10 days

Orient

Canton

China Nav.

Co.

H. K. &

Co.

Daily

One day

Suspended

S

China

Central &

Northern

Ports

Europe

Macao S. B.

Ming Sung

Co.

Lo San Co.

American

Pres. Lines

British India

S. N. Co.

China

Merchants

S. N. Co.

China Nav.

Co.

Indo China S. N. Co.

Isbrandtsen

Lines

American

Pres. Lines

Irregular Weekly

3 days

3 weekly

3 days

Irregular

4 days

ARIES

These services are either

suspended or irregular owing to existing

political

conditions.

Tientsin

Weekly

6 days

Fortnightly

5 days

Tientsin & Tsingtao

3 days

1.

247

39-45 days

Round-the-World

Southern

European Ports

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies Using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to

Remarks

First Port

Europe

Ben Line

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly 35-42 days

Northern

O. S. K. Line

,,

Monthly

35 days

European Ports Northern

European Ports

Co.

N. Y. K. Line

Lloyd

Triestino

East Asiatic

Ellerman Line

28 days

South & North

39

26 days

European Ports

South Europe

50 days

9:5

North European

Ports

45 days

99

Glen Line

Fortnightly

40 days

3

Holland East

Cargo

Monthly

35 days

Asia Line

Messageries

Maritimes

Swedish East

Asia Co.

Nord

Deutscher

Passenger Cargo

26 days

93

32 days

South European

Ports

35-49 days

South & North

European Ports

50 days

North European

Ports

Formosa

Lloyd China Nav.

Co.

,,

Every 6 days

2 days

India

B. I. S. N.

Indo China

S. N. Co.

American

Pres. Lines

Every

2 days

,,

8 days Fortnightly

26 days

Karachi

3 weekly

15 days

Calcutta

Co.

B. I./P. & O.

Joint

Cargo B 3 weekly

T

19 days

Bombay &

Karachi

Service

Everett

Orient

Everett Star

Line

Indo China

S. N. Co.

Mitsui Line

O. S. K. Line

Indo China China Nav.

Co.

Indo China

S. N. Co.

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

20 days

Calcutta

3 weekly

20 days

Bombay

Fortnightly

16 days

Calcutta

59

20 days

Bombay

18 days

Calcutta

,,

39

Irregular

3-4 days

95

Monthly

4 days

248

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies Using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Indo China Wo Fat Sing

Passenger Cargo

Fortnightly

4 days

Japan

American

Mail Line

American

5-6 days

99

5 days

Pioneer

Line

American

39

Pres. Lines

Australia

4 days

6 days

China Line

B. I. S. N. Co.

Blue Funnel

Line

N. Y. K. Line

O. S. K. Line

Mitsui Line

China Nav.

Co.

Everett Orient

Line

Everett Star

Line

Holland East

Asia Line

Indo China

S. N. Co. Isbrandtsen

Lines

Messageries

3 weekly

5 days

95

Fortnightly

5 days

5 days

"

93

5 days

99

99

5 days

5-6 days

5-6 days

5-6 days

Monthly

5 days

"

Fortnightly

6 days

8 days

99

Cargo

Monthly

5-6 days

Maritimes

Pacific

Transport

Passenger Cargo

9-10 days

Lines

Prince Line

Cargo

5 days

Royal Inter-

Passenger

Ocean Lines

Cargo

Every 2 months

5 days

East

Monthly

5 days

Swedish

Asia Co.

Ltd.

China Siam

5 days

Line

Macao

H. K. Macao

Daily

One day

& Canton

S. B. Co.

249

IBRARIES

APPENDICES

Appendix XII-Contd.

SEA COMMUNICATIONS

List of Principal Shipping Companies Using Hong Kong

Destination

Shipping Company

Service

Approx. Sailing

Approx. Time of Transit to First Port

Remarks

Macao

Wo Cheung

Fat

Shiu On

Passenger Cargo

Daily

One day

+

North

African

Ports

Blue Funnel

East Asiatic

Co.

American

Pres. Lines

Glen Line

Messageries

Fortnightly Monthly

Fortnightly 30-34 days

Maritimes

South

Bank Line

African Ports

Royal Inter-

Oceon Lines

Persian

B. I./P. & O.

Gulf

:

27-30 days

Monthly

28 days

30 days

19-22 days

23 days

Every 2 months

30 days

Fortnightly

28 days

Joint Service

Everett Star

Line

Philippines American

Pioneer

Line

American

Pres. Lines

Eastern &

Australian

Monthly

28 days

Fortnightly

2-3 days

J

2-3 days

Monthly

2-3 days

S. S. Co. Ltd.

Everett Star

Line

Fortnightly

2-3 days

Messageries

Monthly

2-3 days

Maritimes

Pacific

2-3 days

Transport Lines

Royal Inter-

Ocean Lines

Ben Line

Every

2 months

2-3 days

Fortnightly 35-42 days

United

Kingdom

Blue Funnel

Line

35-42 days

Ellerman Line Glen Line

Monthly

45 days

J

"

Fortnightly

40 days

London

P. & O. S. N.

Co.

Monthly

30 days

250

APPENDICES

Appendix XIII (See page 154)

Airlines operating regular International services into Hong Kong

Company and

Country of

Route via Hong Kong to

Type of Aircraft

Registration

Weekly Frequency

Air France

France

Paris (via Saigon)

1

Constellation

Air Vietnam

France

Saigon via Hanoi

1

DC-4

Saigon via Haiphong

1

Braathens

Norway

Oslo

1

(fortnightly)

B.O.A.C. Canadair

United

London via Bangkok

3

(C4M)

Kingdom

Tokyo

3

Singapore

2

Civil Air Transport Nationalist

Bangkok

1

DC-4, C-46, C47

China

Taipei-Pusan via Okinawa,

2

Cathay Pacific

Airways, Ltd.

DC-4, C-47

Canadian Pacific

Canada

Iwakuni, Tokyo

Taipei-Iwakuni via

Okinawa

Taipei-Pusan via Tokyo

Hong Kong Singapore via Bangkok

Singapore via Saigon Hanoi via Haiphong Calcutta via Bangkok Labuan via Manila Vancouver

Airlines Ltd.

DC-4

Northwest Airlines

(Charters by Hong

Kong Airways) DC-4

Pan American

World Airways

DC-4, DC-6B

U. S. A.

ON

Taipei and connecting

with Northwest Airlines to Minneapolis, U.S.A Taipei

RA

2

1

1

1

2

1

RIES

U.S.A..

U. S. A. via Pacific London via Bangkok

53

Philippine Air Lines Philippines

Manila and thence to

3

DC-6, DC-6B,

Europe

C-47

1

Qantas Empire

Australia

Tokyo

1

Airways

Sydney

DC-4

Thai Airways Co. Thailand

DC-4, C-47, PBY

(In addition to the above, there were many charter operations of different

nationalities from and to all parts of the world).

Bangkok

22

Tokyo

251

APPENDICES

Appendix XIV (See page 161)

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED

IN HONG KONG

English Language

Daily (Morning Papers)

South China Morning

Post

30 cents

South China Morning Post Building,

Wyndham Street.

Hong Kong Tiger

Standard

20 cents

177, Wanchai Road.

Daily Commodity

50 cents

510, Marina House.

Quotations (Bi-Lingual)

Daily (Evening Papers)

China Mail

20 cents

(30 cents on Saturdays)

South China Morning Post Building,

Wyndham Street.

Weekly

Sunday Post Herald

40 cents

Far Eastern Economic

Review

Sunday Examiner

$1.60

South China Morning Post Building,

Wyndham Street.

322, Queen's Building

30 cents

King's Building.

BRAD

Fortnightly

Milady

$1.00

101, Victory House, Wyndham Street.

Monthly

Orient

$2.00

Outlook

$1.00

139-141, King's Road, North Point. P.O. Box 3411, Kowloon.

International Trade

$2.00

62, Printing House, 6, Duddell Street.

Journal

Newsdom

$1.00

149, Des Voeux Road Central,

3rd floor.

Bi-monthly

The Hong Kong and Far East Builder

$3.00

117, Prince's Building,

Ice House Street.

252

APPENDICES

Appendix XIV-Contd.

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED

IN HONG KONG

Principal Vernacular Newspapers and Magazines

Daily (Morning Papers)

Wah Kiu Yat Po

30 cents

110, Hollywood Road.

Sing Tao Jih Pao

20 cents

177, Wanchai Road.

Kung Sheung Yat Po

10 cents

43, Des Voeux Road Central.

Hong Kong Shih Pao

10 cents

64, Gloucester Road.

Sing Pao

10 cents

10, Wellington Street.

Ta Kung Pao

10 cents

123, Connaught Road Central.

Wen Wei Pao

10 cents

30, Hollywood Road.

Chi Yin Yat Po

10 cents

20, Lee Yuen Street East.

Chiu Yin Po

10 cents

Chun Lan Yat Po

10 cents

Hong Kong Sheung Po

10 cents

48, Connaught Road Central.

35, Wing Lok Street East. 146, Connaught Road Central.

Hung Look Yat Po

10 cents

21, Bonham Strand East.

Chung Ying Yat Po

10 cents

49, Gough Street.

Wan Kou Pao

10 cents

25, Chiu Lung Street.

Chung Nan Yat Po

10 cents

50, Des Voeux Road Central.

Nan Yang Yat Po

10 cents

39, Hennessy Road

Daily (Evening Papers)

Wah Kiu Man Po

10 cents

Sing Tao Wan Pao

10 cents

Kung Sheung Man Po

10 cents

}

Hsin Sheng Wan Pao

10 cents

Hsin Wan Pao

10 cents

Chung Sing Man Po

10 cents

Chun Pao

10 cents

110, Hollywood Road. 177, Wanchai Road.

43, Des Voeux Road Central.

14-15, Lee Yuen Street, East. 123, Connaught Road Central. 320, Queen's Road Central. 44A, Gough Street.

253

APPENDICES

Appendix XIV-Contd.

NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES PUBLISHED IN HONG KONG

Principal Vernacular Newspapers and Magazines

Alternate Days (Morning)

Tien Wen Tai

(Observatory Review)

15 cents

33, Queen's Road Central.

Weekly

Tung Fong

50 cents

(East Pictorial)

Chau Mut Pao

20 cents

463 Queen's Road West.

B

7

65, Connaught Road Central.

(Week-end News)

Sing Tao Chau Pao

60 cents

177, Wanchai Road.

(Sing Tao Weekly)

Tse Yau Chun Hsin

20 cents

580D, Nathan Road

(Freedom Front)

Tung Sai

80 cents

330, Hennessy Road.

(East and West Pictorial)

Sinwen Tienti

$1.00

149, Des Voeux Road Central.

(Newsdom)

Fortnightly

Kam Yat Sai Kai

20 cents

26, Garden Road.

(World Today)

Monthly

T'ien-Hsia Illustrated

Yah Chow

(Asia Pictorial)

PUBLIC LI

80 cents

80 cents

84, Yee Wo Street, Causeway Bay. 88, Yee Wo Street, Causeway Bay.

Kar Ting Sang Wood

60 cents

324, Jaffe Road.

(Home Life Journal)

King Chai Dao Pao

(Economic Bulletin)

40 cents

102, Jervois Street.

Sze Hoi

60 cents

P.O. Box 814, Hong Kong.

(Four Seas Pictorial) Tsing Nin Man Yau (Literary Youth)

30 cents

20, Ice House Street.

254

Type of appointment

APPENDICES

Appendix XV (See page 212)

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

Names of members on 1.1.53

Changes in composition during the year

Ex-officio

""

""

Nominated

""

""

(Presided over by the Governor)

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Commander British Forces,

Lieutenant General Sir Terence

Airey, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.B.E.

The Colonial Secretary,

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E.

The Attorney General,

Mr. A. Ridehalgh, Q.C.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. R. R. Todd

The Financial Secretary,

Mr. A. G. Clarke, C.M.G.

Mr. B. C. K. Hawkins,

C.M.G., O.B.E. (Commissioner of Labour)

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Sir Arthur Morse, C.B.e.

Mr. CHAU Tsun-nin, C.B.E.

Sir Man-Kam Lo, C.B.E.

Dr. CHAU Sik-nin, C.B.E.

Mr. Leo D'ALMADA e Castro,

C.B.E., Q.c.

Mr. J. Keswick, C.M.G.

Mr. J. J. Cowperthwaite appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Clarke from 24.4.53 to 27.12.53.

Mr. Q. A. A. Macfayden

appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Hawkins from 17.11.53.

IBR

Succeeded by Mr. C. Blaker, M.C., E.D. with effect from 13.3.53.

Mr. M. W. Turner appoint- ed provisionally during the absence of Mr. Keswick from 12.9.53.

255

+

APPENDICES

Type of appointment

Appendix XVI (See page 212)

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

Names of members on 1.1.53

Changes in composition

during the year

PRESIDENT:

Ex-officio

The Governor,

"

""

Nominated

Sir Alexander W. G. H.

Grantham, G.C.M.G.

OFFICIAL MEMBERS:

The Commander British Forces,

Lieutenant General Sir Terence

Airey, K.C.M.G., C.B., C.B.E.

The Colonial Secretary,

Mr. R. B. Black, C.M.G., O.B.E.

The Attorney General,

Mr. A. Ridehalgh, Q.C.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs,

Mr. R. R. Todd

The Financial Secretary,

Mr. A. G. Clarke, C.M.G.

Mr. T. L. Bowring, O.B.E.

(Director of Public Works)

Mr. J. J. Cowperthwaite appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Clarke from 24.4.53 to 27.12.53.

Mr. A. P. Weir appointed provisionally, during the absence of Mr. Bowring from 14.3.53 to 17.11.53.

""

""

14

Mr. D. J. S. Crozier

(Director of Education)

Dr. YEO Kok Cheang

(Director of Medical and Health Services)

Mr. K. M. A. Barnett, e.d.

(Director of Urban Services)

Dr. J. M. Liston appointed provisionally, during the absence of Dr. YEO from 29.6.53.

256

Type of appointment

APPENDICES

Appendix XVI-Contd.

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

Names of members on 1.1.53

Changes in composition during the year

UNOFFICIAL MEMBERS:

Nominated Mr. CHAU Tsun-nin, C.B.e.

Succeeded by Mr. KwOK Chan, O.B.E., with effect from 1.5.53.

"

33

وو

39

:

Dr. CHAU Sik-nin, C.B.E.

Mr. Leo D'ALMADA e Castro,

C.B.E., Q.C.

Mr. M. M. Watson

تحبط

E.D.

Succeeded by Dr. A. M.

Rodrigues, M.B.E., with effect

effect from 1.5.53.

Succeeded by Mr. Dhun J. Ruttonjee with effect from 20.3.53.

Mr. C. E. M. Terry

Mr. Lo Man Wai, O.B.E.

Mr. NGAN Shing Kwan

Mr. H. J. Collar, C.B.E.

Succeeded by Mr. C. Blaker, M.C., E.D. with effect from 1.5.53.

KONG PUBLIC

JB

257

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII (See page 222)

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

British Trade in Hong Kong,

1896.

Census Reports of Hong Kong.

1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1941.

Financial and Other Statistics

showing Development of Hong Kong. 1897-1926. Colonial Office, London.

Historical and Statistical Abstract of the Colony of Hong Kong. Published in 1906, 1911, 1922, 1932.

Meteorological Information for Aviation Purposes, Royal Observatory, 1948.

Meteorological Records and

Climatological Notes, 1884-1938, Royal Observatory, 1939.

A Brief General History of the

Royal Observatory, May, 1951.

Hong Kong Meteorological

Records and Climatological Notes, 60 years 1884-1939, 1947-1950.

A Statistical Survey of Typhoons and Tropical Depressions in the Western Pacific and China Sea Area from Observations and Tracks Recorded at the Royal Observatory Hong Kong from 1884 to 1947.

Report by Governor of Hong

Kong on the Mui Tsai Question, 1930.

Salaries Commission Report,

1947.

Report on Government

Expenditure on Education,

1950.

Report of the Committee on

Higher Education, 1952.

Storm Warning Service, Royal

Observatory, 1949.

The 1937 Edition of the

Ordinances and Regulations of Hong Kong. Edited by the late J. A. Fraser, G.C., M.C., published 1938.

The Revised Edition of the

Laws of Hong Kong, 1950.

Rent Control Report, 1953.

Report on Technical Education

and Vocational Training, 1953.

A Review of Forestry in Hong

Kong, with Policy Recommendations, 1953.

Chinese Law and Custom in

Hong Kong, 1953.

Surface Pressure-Patterns and

Weather Around the Year in Hong Kong, 1953.

Extract of Meteorological

Observations. Monthly.

Government Gazette. Weekly,

or more often as required.

Hong Kong Trade Returns.

Monthly.

258

APPENDICES

Appendix XVII-Contd.

OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS

Annual Publications

Administration Reports. (Until

1940).

Blue Book. (Until 1940).

Annual Report on Hong Kong.

Civil Service List.

Commercial Guide to Hong

Kong. (From 1949.)

Departmental Reports.

Estimates of Revenue and

Expenditure.

Hong Kong Hansard.

Law Reports.

Meteorological Results.

Ordinances of Hong Kong

including Proclamations,

Regulations, Orders in Council, etc.

Sessional Papers.

Typhoon Tracks.

ARIES

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

259

APPENDICES

Appendix XVIII

Commonwealth and Foreign representation in Hong Kong

Argentina

Austria

Belgium

Brazil

Burma

Canada

Commonwealth of Australia

Czechoslovakia

Denmark

Consulate

Honorary Consul

Consulate

Consulate-General

Honorary Consul

Trade Commissioner

Trade Commissioner

Consulate-General (residence in London)

Honorary Consul

Dominica

Honorary Consul

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Guatemala

India

Indonesia

Israel

Italy

Japan

Korea

Mexico

Netherlands

Nicaragua

Norway

Panama

G PI

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Thailand

Turkey

United States of America

Honorary Consul Consulate-General Consulate-General

Honorary Consul Honorary Consul Commissioner

Consulate-General

Trade Commissioner

Consulate-General

Consulate-General

Consulate-General

ES

Consulate-General (residence in London) Consulate-General

Representative

Consulate

IBR

Consulate-General

Consulate

Consulate-General (residence in London)

Consulate

Consulate-General (residence in London)

and Honorary Consul

Honorary Consul-General

Consulate

Consulate-General

Consulate-General (residence in London) Consulate-General

(A United Kingdom Trade Commissioner is resident in the Colony)

260

香港

5港公

INDEX

圖書館

LIBRAR

NG KONG PUBLIC

香港公共圖書

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

INDEX

ACCIDENTS, Labour and Industrial

· •

Road

ADMINISTRATION

AGRICULTURE

AIR,

·

Page

34

127

98, 212-217 53-60

Crops

Crop acreage Crop prices

Livestock

Airlines

Civil Aviation

• •

• •

·

+

Aircraft Freight and Passenger Movements,

53-56

53, 58

54, 55, 79, 80 57-58, 60

Appendix XIII

153

See Chart, Opposite page 154.

AIRPORT, Runways

ALUMINIUM WARE

+

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, Livestock

·· ལོན

Epidemics

,,。。,,,

ARBITRATION

ARGENTINA

ARTS, The

ATHLETICS

AUSTRALIA

AUSTRIA

BADMINTON

BANKS,

Note Issue

BANKRUPTCY

BEER

BELGIUM

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIRTH RATE

Books, Reading List

BORSTAL, Type of Institution

BOTANICAL GARDENS

BRAZIL

BROADCASTING

BUILDING, Activity

BURMA

CANADA

CATHEDRAL, St. John's

CEMENT

·E:

153 57-60 57-58, 60

60

33

Appendix XVIII

5, 177-180

11, 182

72, 183, Appendix XVIII

181, Appendix XVIII

182

42, Appendix V

42

132

40

Appendix XVIII

212, 222, Appendix XVII

91

212-222, Appendix XVII

114, 118, 129

>

107, 109

Appendix XVIII

163-165

9, 10, 50, 103, 145, 146 72, 73, 75, Appendix XVIII

Appendix XVIII

CENSUS

Certificates, of Origin and Essential Supplies CHILDREN, Protection of

CHINA, Trade with (See also History)

CHURCHES

263

174

74

*

·

21

45

112

7, 8, 46, 68

174

INDEX

CIGARETTES

CLIMATE

CLUBS, Boys' and Girls'

COLONIAL Development and Welfare

COMMERCE

COMMODITIES

COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

COMPANIES, Registration

CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM

·

Page

73, 74

196, 197

113

17, 38, 53, 65, 79, 85, 86, Appendix I 7, 8, 44-48

48, Appendices VIII and IX

111

131, 132 15

CONSULS

CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES CORONATION

CORRESPONDENTS, Foreign

COST OF LIVING

COURTS, Supreme

District

Magistrates'

CRICKET

CRIME

CURRENCY

CUSTOMS, Tariff and Excise

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

DAIRY FARMING

DEATHS, causes of,

death rate

DEBT, Government

DEFENCE (See Local Forces)

DENMARK

DEVELOPMENT, Housing

Planning

(See also Colonial Development)

DOLLAR, Hong Kong, Value of

DOMINICA

DRAMA

DUTIES

༼..

ECONOMIC, Review of the Year

EDUCATION, Adult

Cost

Estimates

Government

Grants

Grant-in-Aid Schools

Schools

Teachers

Technical

ELECTIONS, Urban Council

264

Appendix XVIII

75-81

3, 89, 112, 125

161 27, 28 121-122

118, 122-123 123-124 181

126, 127, Appendix XI

41-43 40

Appendix XVIII

58 92-98

91 37, 38

Appendix XVIII

LIBR

50, 51 52

42

Appendix XVIII

178

40

7, 8

88

84

84

82-89

83

83, 84

83,87 86, 89 35, 87, 88, 90

15, 119

INDEX

Page

ELECTRICITY, Hong Kong

Kowloon

EMPLOYMENT

ENAMEL WARE

ESTATE DUTY

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

EXCHANGE RATE

EXCISE, (See also Duties) Excise,

EXPENDITURE

EXPORTS, from Hong Kong,

Principal Areas of,

FACTORIES, Inspection

FARMING, Methods and Organization

FAUNA

FERRIES

FILMS

FINANCE, Assets

137-138

139-140

25, 26

72

39

212, Appendix XV

42

40

36, 100, 150, Appendix IV 7, 8, 44, 45, Appendix IX 45-47, Appendix VII

34 55, 56

189

143-144

166, 167

Appendix II

Income Tax

FINLAND

Liabilities

Revenue and Expenditure Sinking Funds

FISHING, Industry

FLOWERS

Fish Marketing Organization

FOODSTUFFS, Manufactured

FOOTBALL, Association

Rugby

FORESTRY

FORMOSA

FRANCE

FRUIT

GARDENS

GAS

GEOGRAPHY

GERMANY

GOLD

GOLF

GOVERNMENT, Administration

38

Appendix II

36, 37, Appendices III and IV

38

Appendix XVIII

63-66

75-77

109

73

181

85

60-63

D

7, 45, 66, 73, 77

Appendix XVIII

53, 54

107, 109 140 193-196

44, Appendix XVIII

41

183

98, 212-217

212, Appendix XV 212, Appendix XVI

83

Appendix XVIII Appendix XVIII

69 90-102

Executive Council Legislative Council

GRANT CODE

GREECE

GUATEMALA

HANDICRAFTS

HEALTH

HIGHWAYS (See Roads)

265

HISTORY

HOCKEY

INDEX

HONG KONG, Representation in London and Tokyo

HOSPITALS

HOUSING, Societies

Resettlement

IMMIGRATION

IMPORTS

Licensing

INCOME TAX

INDIA

INDONESIA

• ·

Page

199-211

183

48

101

"

14, 50, 103

12, 13, 104, 106-107

4, 21, 128

7, 8, 44, 45, Appendices VI and VII

48

38

• •

+

44, Appendix XVIII

8, 45, 46, 68, 72, 74, 75, 77, Appendix XVIII

INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

INDUSTRIES, Heavy

Light

INFORMATION SERVICES, Government

IRON

IRRIGATION

ISRAEL

ITALY

29 9, 70-71

9, 71-75 167, 168

66

59

Appendix XVIII

44, 47, Appendix XVIII

JAPAN

8, 9, 44-46, 66, Appendix XVIII

JOURNALISTS (See Foreign Correspondents) JUDICIARY

JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

KOREA

LABOUR, Department

Industrial Disputes and Stoppages, International Labour Organization Safety Provisions etc.

LAND, Area

Ownership

Tenure

Utilization

LANTERNS, Metal

LEGISLATION

LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

LETTERS (See Postal)

LICENCES, Broadcasting,

LIVESTOCK

Driving

LOCAL FORCES

MACAO (See also History)

MALAYA

MANUFACTURES, General

MAPS (See inside front and back covers)

• •

121-124 114

72, Appendix XVIII

IBE

تل

28

32, 33

26, 28, 34

34

10, 52, 193

49

131

51, 52

72

34, 118-120

212, Appendix XVI

156, 163 10

57-58, 60 170, 171

6, 77, 181, 182, 184

8, 45, 72, 73, 74, 75

47, 67-74

266

MARINE, Harbour

Passengers by sea

MARRIAGE

MATCHES

MEDICAL

METAL, Products

METEOROLOGY, Observations

MEXICO

MINING

MOTORING

MUSIC

·

NETHERLANDS

NEWSPAPERS

NICARAGUA

NORWAY

OBSERVATORY, Royal

OCCUPATIONS

OLYMPIC GAMES

OYSTERS

PAINT

PAKISTAN

PANAMA

• ·

INDEX

公共

·

Page

147-149

147, 148 133-134 74

91-98

72

159, 160

Appendix XVIII

66

185

5, 90, 177, 178

Appendix XVIII

Appendix XIV

• •

Appendix XVIII

Appendix XVIII

159, 198

23, 25, 26, 64, 69, 71-75

180

23, 65

73

44, 45, 68, 72 Appendix XVIII

PARCELS (See Postal)

PARKS

PERIODICALS (See also Newspapers)

PEST CONTROL

PHILIPPINES

PLASTICS

POLAND

POLICE

· •

10, 108

222

102

68, 72, 74, 75, 77, 182, Appendix XVIII

75 Appendix XVIII 125-128 6

ར་ ་ ི་ ་

12, 21-24, 64, 193, 211

POLITICAL, Review of the Year

POPULATION

PORT, Facilities

PORTUGAL

POSTAL, Letters

Parcels

• •

Postage Stamps Radio Telephone

Telegrams

Telephones (See Telephone Co.)

POULTRY PRESS, The

PRISONS

PROFITS TAX

• •

PUBLIC UTILITIES

PUBLIC WORKS

147, 149, 158 Appendix XVIII

155

155

155

148, 157, 158

158

57, 60

161, 162, 168 128-130

39

138-144

144-146

267

RACING

RADIO,

Licences

RAILWAY

Telephones

RATIONING

RECLAMATION

REDIFFUSION

REFORM (See Constitutional)

REGISTERED MAIL (See Postal)

RELIEF, Emergency

RELIGION

RENT (See Tenancy)

RESEARCH

ResettlemenT (See Housing)

RETAIL PRICE INDEX

REVENUE

RICE

ROADS, Accidents

Rope

Mileage

ROWING

SALARIES COMMISSION

SANITATION (See Health)

SCHOLARS

SCHOOL, Sports. SCHOOLS

SCIENCE (See Research)

SHIPBUILDING

INDEX

· •

• •

Page

184

156, 163 148, 157, 158

150

48

10, 145 166

13, 14, 115, 116 173-176

17, 102, 109, 172, 173

9, 28

36, 50, 150, Appendix III

54

127

152

74

182

17

85

183

• •

. 83, 97

SHIPREPAIRING

SHIPPING

SHOES, Rubber

SOCIAL WELFARE

SPAIN

SPORTS

SQUATTERS

STAMPS (See Postal) STRIKES

SUGAR, Products

SWEDEN

SWIMMING

SWITZERLAND

TABLE TENNIS

TARRIFS (See Duties)

TAXATION, Main Heads of

TEACHERS

TECHNICAL EDUCATION

TELECOMMUNICATIONS

67, 70, 149

67, 70, 149 119, 147, 148

74 109-117

Appendix XVIII

5, 11, 180-185

11, 12, 13, 104, 106-107, 116

32, 33 75

Appendix XVIII 183

Appendix XVIII

• •

184

38, 39

86, 89

35, 87, 88, 90

156, 157

268

INDEX

Page

TELEGRAMS

TELEPHONE COMPANY

TENANCY

TEXTILES

THAILAND

TOBACCO, Manufactured TORCHES, Electric

TOWN PLANNING

TRADE COMMISSIONERS

TRADE MARKS

TRADE STATISTICS

TRADE UNIONS

TRAINING, Industrial TRANSPORT Air

F Ferries

Peak Tram Roads

Shipping Lines

Tramways

TREES, Hong Kong

TURKEY ...

TYPHOONS

158

159

119, 124 71

8, 44, 47, 68, 72, 73, 75, 77, Appendix XVIII

UNITED KINGDOM, Trade with UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG URBAN COUNCIL

VACUUM FLASKS AND JUGS VEGETABLES

Trade with

VEGETABLE MARKETING ORGANIZATION VISITORS, to the Colony

VOTING, Urban Council Election B

WAGES

WATER, Supply of

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

WELFARE, staff (See also Social)

WIRELESS LICENCES

WOMEN AND GIRLS, Employment of, WORKING HOURS

WORKMENS' COMPENSATION

YACHTING

YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS

73, 74 73

103-106

Appendix XVIII 133

44, 45, Appendices VI-IX

29-31

35

153

143-144

141

142, 151, 152

Appendix XII

140

185-188

Appendix XVIII 197, 198

8, 45, 66, 72, 74 Appendix XVIII 7, 8, 45, 54, 55, 68

84, 85, 87 15, 99, 119

72

54, 77, 79, 80

56, 77-79

4, 5

15, 119

26, 27

11, 53, 61, 135-137

218 16, 18

156, 163

34

27

16, 34, 120

182

113

269

香港公共圖書

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

City All Library Hong Kong

Reference Library

15

BC

113° E

CROWN COPYRIGHT RESERVED.

2:

zy

N

113 E

15'

30

香港

KEY MAP OF HONG KONG

45

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NG KONG PUBLI

15'

30'

12

IS

30

45

23 N

113 E

KEY MAP

OF

HONG KONG

IS

30

45

5

с

RELATIVE TO CANTON AND MACAO

·

114 E OF GREENWICH

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SOUTH

Ladrone IS

"CHINA

15'

30

45'

*brary

15

Rater

¿brary

5

о

SCALE OF MILES

5

10

15 MILES

LAND UP TO 300 FT

SEA

BETWEEN 300 & 1000 FT.

1000 & 1500 FT..

OVER 1500 FT.

114° E OF GREENWICH

15

30

00

ZN

45

DRAWN BY CROWN LANDS & SURVEY OFFICE HONG KONG.

VE TO

CANTON

!

E OF GREENWICH

H

IS

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30

45

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HON

ΛΟΝ ON

L

City

Refer

1

5

brary

"brary

SCALE

OF MILES

5

10

15

MILES

LAND UP TO 300 FT.

"

BETWEEN 300 & 1000 FT.

"

CHINA

SEA

114° E OF GREENWICH

15'

30

1000 & 1500 FT...

OVER 1500 FT..

1000

-15

22 IN

45

DRAWN BY CROWN LANDS & SURVEY OFFICE, HONG KONG.

OVT.

RESS

BONG KONG