Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1952

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NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KON

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by Spenser

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COLONIAL REPORTS

HONG KONG

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1952

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1: HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

1953

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ARIES

ACC. NO.

DATE OF ACC

CLASS NO.

AUTHGA N

REFOUND

26752

2.7.63

PUBLIC

CHhK.

LIBY

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Published in Great Britain by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London

1953

Price 8s 6d Net

(Printed in Hong Kong)

This report is included in the series of Colonial Reports published for the Colonial Office

S.O. Code No. 58-1-21-52

LISK

J.

Hong Kong

Annual Report

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ONG

1952

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Photo: R. D. Gilhooley

"Towers of Commerce'

(First prize-winner in the 1952 Photographic Competition organized by the Government of Hong Kong)

KONG PUBLIC LIBR

Printed & Published by The Government Printer, Old Bailey Street Hong Kong.

Chapter

CONTENTS

Part I

Part II

Review of the year

1

Page

A

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I Population

II Occupation, Wages and Labour

Organization

III Public Finance and Taxation

IV Currency and Banking

V Commerce

VI Production :

Fisheries

Agriculture Co-operatives Forestry Industry

VII Social Services:

Education

Health

Housing

G

Social Welfare

VIII Legislation

X Public Utilities

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XI Communications and Broadcasting

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45

53

55

59

63

68

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IX Justice, Records, Police and Prisons,

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133

142

159

XIII Religion

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XIV The Arts

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166

XV Sport

170

XII Research

Part III

1

1

I Geography and Climate

II History

III Hong Kong Trees and Fauna

IV

Administration

V Weights and Measures VI The Press

Bibliography

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181

187

202

208

214

215

220

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The Government of Hong Kong wishes to express its thanks to Mr. G. B. Endacott, M.A., B. Litt. (Oxon), Mr. L. G. Young and Mr. E. A. Innes for their contributions to the History, Sport and Arts chapters respectively. Thanks are also due to all who have contributed photographs to this Report. Many of those published have been selected from entries to a Photographic Competition

the first of its kind-sponsored by the Government in the latter months of 1952 and are acknowledged as such. The title- page photograph, itself a competition entry, is by Mr. T. W. Ng. Photographs without acknowledgement were taken by Government photographers.

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ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

In 1952 two events overshadowed all others in the history of Hong Kong, as of other parts of the Commonwealth-the death of His late Majesty King George VI and the accession to the throne of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

The tragic news of the King's death, which reached Hong Kong about 7 o'clock on the evening of the sixth of February, cast a gloom on succeeding events and plunged the colony into deep and heartfelt mourn- ing. All cinemas and theatres were promptly closed and sports meetings and social functions were cancelled. During succeeding days memorial services were held by the various religious denominations and the large crowds which were unable to enter the packed churches, listened outside to services relayed by loudspeaker, signifying the very real esteem and affection in which the King was held.

Within a few months of the Queen's accession Hong Kong was privileged to receive a visit from Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent, as a representa- tive of Her Majesty, and His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent. It was the first royal visit to Hong Kong since that of His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester in 1929, and it brought the greatest pleasure and encouragement to the whole colony. The royal party arrived by air and was met at Kai Tak by His Excellency the Governor and Lady Grantham and His Excellency the Commander British Forces in Hong Kong and Lady Airey. During their four day stay in the colony, during which they were the guests of Sir Alexander Grantham and Lady Grantham at Government House, Their Royal Hignesses undertook very full and comprehensive programmes of official and

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

social engagements. The Duchess laid the foundation stones of the new Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital in Victoria and the Queen Elizabeth Recreation Centre for children in Kowloon. She visited hospitals, service clubs, and the University, accepted hospitality from various associations of local residents of all races, and attended a reception and a ball at Government House at which very many of the people of Hong Kong received the honour of being presented to Their Royal Hignesses. Meanwhile the Duke, who accompanied the Duchess to many of the principal functions, visited Service units in Hong Kong and the New Territories. and saw something of their training and efficiency. His Royal Higness also inspected sections of the Central Police Control system, and visited the Hong Kong University Students' Union. Glorious autumnal weather displayed Hong Kong at its best, and the royal tour was a success from first to last. Their Royal Highnesses impressed with their graciousness and charm the thousands of people of Hong Kong who were privileged to meet them and the hundreds of thousands who could see them only at a distance, and the visit will be remembered always with gratitude and pride.

The year 1952 reflected the troubled situation in the Far East generally.

In the absence of any further progress towards the establishment of normal diplomatic relations between Her Majesty's Government and the Central People's Government, no official relations have been developed between the Government of Hong Kong and the Chinese authorities in Kwangtung. A number of minor frontier incidents occurred during the year. Fortunately none

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

of the incidents were of a nature to give rise to serious international consequences, and there have recently been indications of a desire for better relations on the frontier.

A difficult situation, however, developed in relations. between Hong Kong and Canton in the early part of the year, as a result of misrepresentations in the Canton press of action taken by the Hong Kong authorities following a serious fire which occurred in the squatter area at Tung Tau on 21st November, 1951, in which some ten thousand persons were rendered homeless. Relief measures were at once put in hand and a generous sum was raised by public subscription in Hong Kong for the victims of the fire. Considerable relief funds were also received from various organiza- tions in Canton. The magnitude of the disaster had however been caused by the extreme congestion of the squatters' buildings, and it was necessary to prohibit rebuilding on the site while a proper layout was planned in order to avoid further serious fire risks in future. Those squatters who were displaced, and who incidently had no legal right to the land they had occupied, were offered free sites elsewhere, but the facts of the situation were persistently distorted in the mainland press and it was finally announced in February that a "comfort mission" would be sent from Canton to Hong Kong to visit the scene of the fire and to take statements from the former residents regarding their alleged sufferings. It was made clear that the Hong Kong Government were not prepared in the circumstances to admit such a mission into the Colony, although all facilities would continue to be given for distributing any frontier relief funds which might be sent from Canton. It was, never- theless, announced in Canton that the mission would

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

arrive in Hong Kong on 1st March, and extensive pre- parations to welcome the mission were made by left-wing organizations in the Colony. On the morning of the 1st March, those organizations received information from Canton that the mission's visit had been post- poned, but considerable crowds which had assembled at the Kowloon Railway Station were not given this information until the afternoon, when a welcoming party which had earlier left to meet the mission at the border returned to Hong Kong. The crowds at first. began to disperse peaceably, but a series of incidents subsequently occurred and developed into large-scale rioting, possibly owing to false rumours being spread that the mission had in fact arrived but was being held up in the border area. Thanks to the prompt and efficient action of the police, who displayed commend- able restraint in very difficult circumstances, order was restored after about two hours and casualties amounted to no more than 30, mostly with minor injuries. One Chinese demonstrator, however, died some weeks later. The incident was treated with exaggeration and mis- representation in the mainland press, but the ultimate effort of the firmness displayed by the Government and the restrained but efficient handling of the situation by the Police Force have been beneficial to the maintenance of law and order.

Further disastrous fires occurred in the squatter settled areas during the course of 1952, notably in April, when the homes of some ten thousand people were destroyed, and in November. In all there were seven serious fires in these areas during the year, as a result of which some fifteen thousand people lost their homes. These squatter areas are inhabited largely by Chinese

6

Hong Kong keeps on building.

The new Chinese Methodist

Church in Kowloon and the

13-storey Alexandra House,

in the heart of Victoria's business centre, are both striking examples of modern

architectural trends in the

Colony.

Photographic Competition Entries by Y. P. Mark

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P

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Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

Botanical Gardens (above). Hong Kong by Night.

Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

LIBRA

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Chow Kwong Ming

K. P. Yuen

:

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

who moved into the colony in the years succeeding the war, when both housing accommodation and building materials were difficult if not impossible to obtain, and while the administration of Government was in process of being re-organized, or who were driven out of China by the southward advance of the communists. On the steep mountain sides which surround Victoria and Kowloon land suitable for building is difficult to find, but these displaced persons in hundreds of thousands settled on the hillsides and in the valleys, building for themselves wooden shacks literally touching each other for hundreds of yards and separated by lanes which are often no more than a yard wide. Fire and health risks are consequently serious, and the difficulties of re-settle- ment are enhanced by the fact that there is no other suitable land and that some congestion is in consequence inevitable.

A measure of the problem is the estimated rise in population, from about one and a half million people in 1941, when conditions were even then too crowded, through a nadir of not much more than half a million in 1945, to some two and a quarter million today. The situation in China has so changed within the last two or three years that the surplus population of these unfortunate people cannot now be expected, as it was previously, to leave Hong Kong, and the situation is being met by a realistic programme of clearing the various squatter areas in turn and re-building on them, and on other reserved areas, buildings of more durable materials laid out so as to minimize the worst risks of fire and disease. The extent of this problem, for a colony the size of Hong Kong, is however enormous and a speedy and at the same time satisfactory solution.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

to it is impossible; it has been complicated too by the recent series of disastrous fires, which demand an exclusive and all out effort from those departments which would otherwise be putting into effect the longer term project for re-settlement; and a short term solution by cutting fire lanes through the crowded areas is now being considered.

A further international incident occurred in the early morning of 25th September, when the S.S. "Takshing", a passenger vessel on the ferry service to Macao, was stopped when proceeding to Macao on her normal run by machine-gun fire from a gun-boat of the Central People's Government naval forces. The "Tak- shing" was ordered to proceed to Lap Sap Mei Island, where she was boarded and searched by an armed party which eventually removed a Chinese passenger alleged to have been involved in counterfeiting activities in Kwangtung. Meanwhile, two of Her Majesty's ships sent from Hong Kong in response to the "Takshing's" radio signal reporting her interception proceeded to Lap Sap Mei Island, where they were joined by the "Takshing" which had meanwhile been released. All three ships set course to return to Hong Kong, but when within Hong Kong waters shortly afterwards they were fired upon by Chinese shore guns on Lap Sap Mei Island and Her Majesty's ships were obliged to return fire. No damage or casualties were suffered either by Her Majesty's ships or on board the S.S. "Takshing".

On a number of occasions British ships bound to and from Hong Kong were fired upon or intercepted by Chinese Nationalist armed vessels in waters in the neigh- bourhood of Formosa. The most serious incident occurred on the night of 1st December, when the S.S.

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

"Rosita" was fired upon by a Nationalist gun-boat off Foochow and the British master

the British master was killed. The "Rosita", a British registered ship of 709 gross tons owned by a Hong Kong firm, had been attacked with machine-guns and heavy automatic cannon by two gun-boats three days previously while approaching Hungwha. On that occasion she out-distanced her pursuers, but when leaving Hungwha for Foochow three days later she was again intercepted and in response to signals proceeded to stop. Two gun-boats closed on the British ship one firing bursts from machine-guns, finally at point blank range, as a result of which the captain was killed on the bridge. The "Rosita" was then boarded by armed soldiers in uniform and wearing Nationalist K.M.T. insignia, and the boarding party. took control of the ship and headed her for Matsu Island. When they discovered they had killed Captain Adams the Nationalists again brought the gun-boats alongside and left the ship, which proceeded to Hong Kong. This ruthless and unprovoked attack, like the "Takshing" incident mentioned above, is indicative of the risks which have to be faced by Hong Kong ships in the China seas at the present time.

The close and friendly relations existing between Hong Kong and Macau were maintained as in previous years. Official visits were exchanged between the Governors of the two Colonies and also between the respective Service commanders. Captain Joachim Marques Esparteiro, the new Governor of the Portugese colony, paid his first official visit early in January. He was accompanied by Madame Esparteiro. Sir Alexander Grantham's return visit, which should have been made in February, was postponed for the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

period of official mourning for the late King and finally took place on 2nd June, when His Excellency was accompanied to Macau by Lady Grantham. At the beginning of July, the Portugese Minister for Over- seas Territories, His Excellency Commander Manuel Maria Sarmento Rodrigues, accompanied by Madame Rodrigues and his personal staff, paid a short visit to Hong Kong, where they were official guests at Government House.

On 29th July, the decision of the Privy Council was announced awarding possession of forty-one former Central Air Transport Corporation Aircraft to the American company of Civil Air Transport Incorporated. Action was thereupon taken by the Hong Kong authorities to assume full control of all the disputed air- craft, including those formerly belonging to the China National Aviation Corporation, and the removal of the aircraft awarded to the American company was com- pleted early in October. On 8th October, the Supreme Court, Hong Kong, gave judgment in favour of Civil Air Transport Incorporated in regard to the aircraft and spare parts formerly belonging to the China National Aviation Corporation, thus concluding the complicated litigation of the past three years.

Elections to the Urban Council were held, for the first time since before the war, at the end of May. There were nine nominations for two vacant seats. The campaigning of the candidates followed the traditional lines of manifestos and public meetings and broadcast- ing facilities were also made available to the candidates, for the first time, on Radio Hong Kong. Mr. Brook Bernacchi of the Reform Club and Mr. S. T. Louey of the Kowloon Residents' Association were elected.

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

The question of constitutional development in Hong Kong was fully considered by the Government during the course of the year and in July the Governor went on leave and held discussions on the question with the Secretary of State for the Colonies in London. Sub- sequently, on October 20th, the Secretary of State announced in the House of Commons that he had authorized the Government to increase from two to four the number of elected representatives on the Urban Council, on which there was already a majority of un- officials. Mr. Lyttelton added that after his consulta- tion with the Governor he had decided that the time was inopportune for further constitutional changes of a major character. Two days later, addressing the Legislative Council, the Governor supplemented the Secretary of State's statement with the assurance that he was at all times ready to consider further proposals for constitutional changes provided that they were not of a major character, and a number of such proposals were under consideration at the year's end. The decisions on this question appear to have been generally accepted in Hong Kong as being wise and appropriate for the present time.

The colony continues to bear a heavy sha in the effect on trade, unemployment, and the public revenues, of the cost of the war in Korea, but the decline in trade during the year is due to other causes also. Visible trade during 1952, declined as compared with the pre- ceding year by some 13% in the tonnage handled and 28% in value, but the marked excess of imports over exports which had characterized the closing months of 1951, gradually disappeared and a more balanced rela- tionship took its place. Dealers and merchants alike, faced by an inevitable contraction in the amount of business they could undertake, learned to adjust their

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

activities to the changed conditions under which ship- ments of strategic goods to China were banned, and either found new markets overseas or concentrated on supplying the local market and local industry.

The early months of 1952 were considerably affected by a campaign carried out by the Chinese People's Government against internal corruption, during which both imports of China products and exports of such goods as could legitimately be shipped to China almost came to a standstill. This campaign was com- pleted in May, 1952, and thereafter trade with China in goods which the Governments of both sides were willing to exchange gradually picked up.

Dullness in the trade with China during the first half of 1952 coincided with unfavourable trading con- ditions elsewhere and had a generally depressing effect, with the result that for the first six months of the year trade fell away to levels last experienced in the middle of 1950. Much capital was tied up in the heavy stocks. imported during 1951 and it was not until the summer that the majority of these stocks were absorbed locally and indents for new supplies began to come in. From July onwards there was a slow but steady increase in the volume of trade, in spite of occasional fluctuations. between one month and the next, but even in December, when the highest figure for the year-£42 million-was recorded, business was still comparatively dull and depressed.

A notable feature of the year was the extent to which export trade with Indonesia, Formosa, Thailand and other territories in South East Asia developed. Indonesia for the first time in Hong Kong's history

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

became the Colony's most important customer, dis- placing China which fell to second place. A large part of this export trade was in Hong Kong manu- factures such as cotton yarn, textiles, enamelware, torches, plastic-ware and the like but there was also a considerable volume of re-export business.

Imports from Japan ran at about HK$40 million, (£2 million) a month but exports to Japan averaged less than HK$10 million, (£650,000) and Hong Kong's adverse balance coupled with the adverse balance with Japan of the sterling area as a whole made it necessary to impose progressively severe restrictions on imports from Japan. As a first step re-exports to the sterling area were stopped, then licences for cotton textiles were suspended and imports of rayon restricted to goods for local consumption. Finally in December, 1952, it became necessary to suspend the import of a number of commodities including enamelware, china- ware, toys, lighters, and bicycle parts. Hong Kong can play an important part as a distributing centre for Japanese goods and it is hoped that 'during 1953, the balance of payment problem will be resolved and make freer trade possible once more.

Import restrictions imposed by other countries had a considerable effect on Hong Kong trade during the year. Exports to Australia fell heavily and exchange regulations introduced in Indonesia during the latter part of the year, resulted in the cancellation of many orders for locally manufactured textiles and left the market seriously overstocked with yarn. The most severe restrictions were those imposed by the United States authorities on goods presumed to be of Chinese

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

origin and lengthy negotiations were necessary before agreement was reached in principle on new methods of certification to permit goods manufactured or processed in Hong Kong to be shipped to the United States. This agreement should lead to a reasonable increase in the volume of Hong Kong exports to the United States during 1953.

Accurate figures were available for the first time regarding exports of the major items of locally pro- duced goods. During 1952, the value of such exports as are recorded separately in the Colony's trade returns was in excess of HK$480 million (£30 million) or 16.7% of total exports for the year. The total value of all exports of locally manufactured or processed goods was probably in the region of 20% to 25% of total exports, and shows clearly the extent to which Hong Kong in- dustry has developed and the important part that industry now plays in the Colony's economy. Fuller information is to be found in the section later in this report dealing with Hong Kong industries.

The Japanese Consulate General in Hong Kong was re-opened on the 18th October, 1952, upon the arrival of Mr. Osamu Itagaki.

Throughout the year Hong Kong had its full quota of distinguished visitors. Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, Commissioner General for the United Kingdom in South East Asia, was a frequent visitor. Field-Marshall Viscount Alexander of Tunis, Her Majesty's Minister of Defence, stopped briefly in Hong Kong while on his way to Korea in June; he was accompanied by the Right Honourable Selwyn Lloyd, Minister of State

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

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at the Foreign Office. In September, Admiral Sir Rhoderick McGrigor, First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff, visited the naval station in the colony. Sir Esler Dening, British Ambassador to Tokyo, passed through, as did many other British and foreign diplomats proceeding to or from their posts in Peking, Tokyo, Korea or Taipei. The Mayor of Rangoon, U. Htun Tin, visited the Colony in November and inspected various installations of the Public Works Department, hospitals and clinics, reclamation areas and refugee camps; he displayed much interest in the large number of re-settlement camps, where he saw some of the modern sanitary and fire proof homes now being built.

Unofficial visitors to the colony included His Eminence Cardinal Francis Spellman, Roman Catholic Archbishop of New York, on his way from visiting United Nations troops in Korea, Lt. General Sir Otto Lund, Chief Commissioner of the St. John Ambulance Brigade in the United Kingdom and Overseas, the Countess Mountbatten of Burma, in her capacity as Chairman of St. John and Red Cross Services Hospitals Welfare Committee, Sir Stanley Unwin, Chairman of the books and publishing panel of the British Council, and Prince Axel of Denmark visiting far eastern branches of the East Asiatic Company in his capacity as a director of the firm. Other visitors included distinguished entertainers such as Miss Helen Traubel, New York Metropolitan Opera singer, and Alfredo Campoli, British violinist.

The design of the projected City Hall was discussed in the Legislative Council in February, when it was

15

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:

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

decided that the construction should be undertaken by the Public Works Department in association with Pro- fessor Gordon Brown, M.A., F.R.I.A.S., A.R.I.B.A., A.A.-Dip., Professor of Architecture at the University of Hong Kong, and that Professor Brown should in particular be entrusted with the duties of producing the sketch plans. During the course of the year Professor Brown visited the United Kingdom for consultation on various technical aspects of the project, and at the end of the year he was engaged on plans for a building or group of buildings to include, inter alia, an auditorium for two thousand people, library and reading rooms, museum and art galleries, lecture rooms and committee rooms. It is hoped that the plans for the new hall, which it is intended to build on the land provided by the central reclamation scheme, will be ready for consideration early in 1953.

Among important public works started during the year was the new reservoir at Tai Lam Chung in the New Territories, plans for which were officially approved in July. The completion of the first part of this new reservoir is expected to take about four years while the complete scheme will take about seven years. This new water reservation scheme is planned to provide an additional one thousand million gallons of water storage capacity, and it is hoped that the rationing of water, which has become a regular and unwelcome feature of the winter months, will at least be alleviated as soon as supplies from the first section of this scheme are. available.

In July also, after delays due to the late arrival of materials and plant, work was begun on the building

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

of the new Secretariat and Government offices. The construction of this building is long overdue, for the existing accommodation is inadequate and Government departments are scattered inconveniently in rented accommodation throughout the city. It is estimated that the erection of the new buildings will take about three years, but the first section is expected to be ready for occupation at the end of 1953 or early in 1954.

The increasing size and speed of modern civil aircraft have rendered the airfield at Kai Tak unsuit- able, as it is today, for the site of an international trunk route airport. Following a mission of the Ministry of Civil Aviation, headed by Mr. Broadbent, to survey the possibilities of improving the airfield so as to bring it up to acceptable international standards for all modern types of aircraft, a British firm of consulting engineers, Messrs. Scott & Wilson of London, was engaged to advise on the method and cost of putting into effect the Broadbent proposals, which were, briefly, that Kai Tak should have two new runways one of which was to be laid down partly on land to be reclaimed from the sea in Kowloon Bay. The total cost is likely to be several million pounds sterling. The preliminary report of the consulting engineers, received in September, indicated that develop- ment on the lines of the Broadbent report was feasible; and a detailed survey, which will cost over half a million Hong Kong dollars, has now been put in hand. This survey covers a thorough scientific investigation into all the engineering problems involved, the plan- ning of the future layout of the airport, the design of a new terminal building to sketch plan stage, and an estimate of overall cost. It is hoped that the project

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

report will be ready by April, 1953, when it will be possible to decide whether or not to go on with this development scheme.

Hong Kong lacks a suitable sports stadium for events at which very large crowds wish to attend, and a decision was taken in July to provide three million dollars for the erection of such a stadium at Sookunpoo. The stadium is intended to be built at the first stage for thirty thousand spectators, but has been designed so as to make expansion possible at a later stage to a total capacity of sixty-five thousand spectators. The arena is to provide a football and sports ground and a running track.

x.

Two subsidized housing schemes for the poorer sections of Hong Kong's population were completed during 1952; a block of one hundred flats on land provided free by the Government at North Point, built by the Hong Kong Model Housing Society, in April, and another of two hundred and seventy flats, subsidized in part from Colonial Development and Welfare funds, at Sheung Li Uk, built by the Hong Kong Housing Society, in September. These two housing projects are regarded as pilot schemes for more ambitious plans, now under consideration in the light of the pilot experiment, for reducing the deplorable congestion which now exists in the tenements of the city. Sites for those further plans have now been reserved, and it is proposed, in 1953, to set up some form of housing authority to put the plans into effect. Among those badly affected by the acute housing shortage in the poorer sections of the community are the lower ranks. of the Civil Service and in December, with the concur- rence of the Secretary of State for the Colonies, five million Hong Kong dollars were set aside for making housing loans at low rates of interest to junior civil

18

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His Excellency the Governor reads the Proclamation of the Accession

of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on February 9th, 1952.

THE VISIT OF

THEIR

ROYAL HIGHNESSES

THE DUCHESS OF KENT

AND

DUKE OF KENT

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26th October to 1st November

1952

There could be no doubt about the

warmth of Hong Kong's welcome.

Above, school children wave to the Duchess

and below.

Her Royal Highness

attends a dinner party given by members of the Chinese Community.

NG K

The

Royal Visitors snapped in an informal mood with their hosts the Governor and

Lady Grantham.

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PUBLIC

-J

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Above, Her Royal Highness speaks to a young patient in the Ruttonjee Sanatorium

and

below chats with

the Colony's two "Grand Old Men", Sir Shouson Chow and Sir Robert Ho Tung.

NG K

And finally, after four busy

days farewell.

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I

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Hong Kong was represented at the British Industries Fair in London

for the fifth successive year.

(Below) Her Royal

Highness the Duchess of Gloucester is seen admiring

a doll made in Hong Kong.

Photo: Barratt's, London

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REVIEW OF THE YEAR

servants, on conditions which would grant them Crown land at reduced rates provided that they organized themselves into housing societies able to make full economic use of such loans by the erection of suitable blocks of flats.

Among other development and welfare schemes under consideration at the close of the year was the proposal to build a compost factory to provide the New Territories farmers with a cheap fertilizer from a mixture of nightsoil and city garbage. The financial success of the scheme depended on the value of recover- able salvage at the factory and on a large and steady enough demand for compost to ensure that the factory's intake would absorb the whole of the collectable waste matter. Recent surveys showed that the values of the recoverable salvage were substantially less than the preliminary estimates. Moreover it was clearly estab- lished that farmers preferred the quick positive results from matured nightsoil as a surface feeder to the slow 'good heart' value of compost. The scheme may have to be abandoned owing to the heavy initial capital expenditure and the risk of incurring substantial opera- ting losses.

Development and improvement of communications in the more outlying parts of the New Territories were carried a stage further by the completion, during the summer, of two substantial public piers with adjoining reclamation at Cheung Chau Island and near Tai O in Lantau. These two projects cost HK$264,000 (£16,250) and HK$415,000 (£26,000) respectively.

The activities of the Vegetable Market Organization have been extended further by the delivery of thirteen. Diesel-engined lorries built in the United Kingdom.

19

}

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

A modern fleet of twenty-eight lorries is now available for carrying produce and livestock to the central markets at Kowloon.

Under one of the centrally administered scholar- ship schemes, Hong Kong has been allocated from Colonial Development and Welfare funds, HK$574,000 (£36,000) of which HK$335,000 (£21,000) has been expended or committed. The purpose of the scheme. is to grant scholarships to local candidates either in or outside Government Service. The scholarships are intended primarily for university education but some awards have been made for other forms of education. Twenty-three students from Hong Kong have benefited under the scheme, four of whom were not in Govern- ment Service when their scholarships were awarded. Six other candidates have been recommended for scholarships starting in the autumn of 1953. Another scholarship scheme provides for various courses for post-selection training of recruits for various branches of the Colonial Unified Services. This scheme also provides for certain standard courses such as air traffic control and advanced training for nursing sisters. Nineteen officers from Hong Kong have already benefited under this scheme. A further nineteen scholarships have been awarded for various courses of study in England. Fifteen of these awards were given to men and women who were not in Government Service and in a few cases the award took the form of free passage grants.

Part of the United Kingdom's contribution, in 1948, to the rehabilitation of the Colony was a grant of HK$4 million (£250,000) towards the reconstruction and revival of the Hong Kong University.

In 1950,

20

REVIEW OF THE YEAR

this grant was supplemented by a further HK$4 million from Colonial Development and Welfare funds to enable the University to go ahead with plans for the reconstruction of the main building and the great hall, the Duncan Sloss School of Engineering and Architec- ture, a chemistry building, a pathology building, a students' union, blocks of staff flats and the Vice- Chancellor's lodge. Work is now well advanced and the Vice-Chancellor's lodge and the Duncan Sloss school have been completed. Reconstruction of the main building and great hall is finished and one block of flats was occupied during the year, while a start has been made on the chemistry building. Plans for further flats have been drawn up and plans for the students' union and pathology building are in the course of preparation.

The tables on pages 22 and 23 give a financial summary of Colonial Development and Welfare expen- diture up to the end of December, 1952.

On New Year's Eve (December 31st, 1952), the Legislative Council passed a resolution approving the gift of eight million Hong Kong dollars (£500,000) to the United Kingdom as a practical expression of the Colony's loyalty to Her Majesty the Queen and to help to relieve the heavy expenditure being incurred by Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom on the defence of the free world and on the reinforce- ment of the garrison of the Colony. This sum is additional to the sixteen million Hong Kong dollars already contributed annually to the cost of reinforcing the Colony's garrison, making the total contribution from Hong Kong one and a half million pounds in in the current financial year.

21

Title of Scheme

COLONIAL DEVELOPMEN

Grant

£

CH

Fisheries Research

Research Schemes.

...

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University

500

-Capital Expenditure

31,200

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University

Recurrent Expenditure

6,800

38,500

Development Schemes.

Visit of Town Planning Expert

1,250

Reclamation at Aberdeen

Landing Facilities at Kennedy Town

Village Agricultural Depots-Capital Expenditure

50,000

10,000

61,250

9,000

""

-Recurrent Expenditure

9,375

Upper Air Reporting Stations

25,780

Vegetable Marketing Lorries

NG

ARI

9,375

53,530

Irrigation in the New Territories (Interim Scheme)

5,000

New Broadcasting_Studios

Mechanization of Fishing Fleet

15,625

20,000

35,625

Vegetable Marketing Lorries

Piers in the New Territories (Complete Scheme)

9.375

48,883

Hong Kong Housing Society Pilot Scheme Maintenance of Survey Party

...

13,500

5,500

Aeronautical Radio and Weather Stations

U

10,656

87,914

Interim Schemes for the Rehabilitation and Development

of certain University Buildings

50,000

University of Hong Kong

200,000

250,000

22

Title of Scheme

COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT AND WELFARE SCHEMES.

Grant

Loan

CH

Amount chargeable to C.D. & W. Funds

up to 31.12.52.

£

Remarks.

Fisheries Research

Research Schemes.

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University

-Capital Expenditure

Fisheries Research Unit in Hong Kong University

£

500

31,200

--Recurrent Expenditure

6,800

38,500

612

Scheme completed 1949.

2,148

168

2,928

Development Schemes.

ZAREKANIZMAPV,JOOGIETE JE JA KETAGER

Visit of Town Planning Expert

1,250

Reclamation at Aberdeen

50,000

1,000 49,528

Scheme completed 1950.

Landing Facilities at Kennedy Town

10.000

6,849

Scheme completed 1949.

61,250

57.377

Village Agricultural Depots-Capital Expenditure

9,000

2,924

""

""

-Recurrent Expenditure

9,375

9,375

8,950 (G)

8,950 (L)

Upper Air Reporting Stations

25,780

Vegetable Marketing Lorries

9,375

9.375

9,375 (L)

11,615

9,375 (G) Scheme completed 1949.

53,530

18,750

51,189

Irrigation in the New Territories (Interim Scheme)

5,000

2,992

New Broadcasting Studios

15,625

15,625

Scheme completed 1951.

Mechanization of Fishing Fleet

20,000

35,625

15,625

Vegetable Marketing Lorries

9.375

Piers in the New Territories (Complete Scheme)

17,057

£9,375 to be met from local funds.

48,883

46,016

Hong Kong Housing Society Pilot Scheme

13,500

8,854

Maintenance of Survey Party

5,500

2,146

Aeronautical Radio and Weather Stations

10,656

6,603

87.914

80,676

Interim Schemes for the Rehabilitation and Development

of certain University Buildings

University of Hong Kong

50,000 50,000 191,612

200,000

200,000

191,612

250.000 250,000 383,224

This is being met from Colonial and Middle

Eastern Services funds.

LIFAULEFA

22

23

D WELFARE SCHEMES.

Loan

£

CH

Amount chargeable to C.D. & W. Funds up to

31.12.52.

£

بع

612

2,148

168

2,928

1,000

49,528

6,849

57,377

2,924

Remarks.

Scheme completed 1949.

共圖書館

Scheme completed 1950. Scheme completed 1949.

11,615

9,375 (G) Scheme completed 1949.

9,375 (L)

9,375

8,950 (G)

8,950 (L)

9,375

18,750

51,189

2,992

15,625

15,625

17,057

46,016

8,854

2,146

6,603

80,676

me

Scheme completed 1951.

PUBLIC LIBRAR

£9,375 to be met from local funds.

50,000 191,612

200,000 191,612

This is being met from Colonial and Middle

Eastern Services funds.

250,000 383,224

23

1

香港公共圖書

1

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARIE

HONG KONG

共圖書磨

PART II

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

:

:

香港

共圖書参

公共圖

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

FONG KONG

I

POPULATION

No census of the population of the Colony has been held since 1931, when the population was found to be 948,751. As a result of unsettled conditions following the Japanese assault on China in 1937, the census which was to have been held in 1941 was not taken. There was a large influx of refugees into the Colony following the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese war in North China. in 1937, and their numbers were greatly increased when conflict spread to South China in 1938. An unofficial census made by the air raid wardens of the Colony in 1941, before the attack on Hong Kong by the Japanese, showed the population to be about 1,600,000, but this number was greatly reduced during the Japanese occu- pation, and it is estimated that the total amounted to about 500,000 when the Colony was liberated in 1945.

From the cessation of hostilities in August, 1945, the population increased rapidly and by the end of 1946 it was estimated at its pre-war level of 1,600,000. A year later, at the end of 1947, the estimate had risen to 1,800,000 and the Colony then received another large influx of refugees as a result of civil war in China, which spread rapidly southward in 1948 and 1949. In the spring of 1950 the population was estimated to be 2,360,000, and although some refugees left the Colony following the return of more settled conditions in China, the total population at the end of 1952 was assessed at approximately 2,250,000. While the majority are known to be Cantonese, and the next largest group is thought to be those who come from the neighbourhood of Shanghai, the total includes people from all parts of China and the racial composition is not known with any accuracy.

27

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The number of Europeans and Americans perma- nently resident in the Colony is about 14,500, including about 9,500 British subjects from the United Kingdom and Commonwealth but excluding Service personnel and their dependants. In addition there are about 2,700 aliens temporarily resident.

The population of the New Territories is composed of Cantonese and Hakka, with a sprinkling of Hoklo. The farmers are the Cantonese, mainly settled, some families for several hundred years, in the comparatively fertile western plains, and the Hakka, whose incursion into the more difficult hilly land on the eastern side of the peninsula is said to have started about two hundred years ago and may not have finished yet. Generally speaking, the Hakka appear to have occu- pied any potentially arable land disregarded by the Cantonese. Thus long fingers of Hakka penetration have been extended from the eastern side of the New Territories down into the south-west of the mainland and out on to the islands. The two sections maintain excellent relations, and although Hakka help Hakka more noticeably than Cantonese help Cantonese it is remarkable that in their penetration the Hakka have been partly guided by existing Cantonese settlement. Thus, for instance, one of the biggest New Territories villages, Wang Toi Shan, to the north-west of Taimo- shan, is populated chiefly by Hakka of the Tang clan, who undoubtedly chose that locality because of the existing predominant influence of the Cantonese Tang.

There are few exceptions to the rule that Cantonese and Hakka in the New Territories do not intermarry. There are a few recent settlements which include both Cantonese and Hakka, but in such cases the families live distinctly, and normally a village is either clearly

28

POPULATION

Cantonese or Hakka. There are however certain well-defined exceptions, notably the villages of Ting Kok and Ping Shan Tsai in the Taipo area, whose inhabitants speak Cantonese

Cantonese and Hakka almost bilingually. Such villages are nicknamed "pun kong cham", the half-filled pitcher.

Certain occupations are exclusively Cantonese or Hakka; for instance, the oyster fisheries are entirely Cantonese, while the manufacture of bean-curd and quarrying of stone are the exclusive sphere of the Hakka. Farmers of both sections, when they live on or near the sea, combine fishing with agriculture, though unlike the boat people their homes remain in their villages even though they may spend nights away on the water. Their women never go fishing.

In the New Territories sailing and rowing boats, and the people who live in them, fall into three classes: the genuine Cantonese boat people (the Tanka), the genuine Hoklo boat people, and the farmers' boats and ferry boats. The boat people live entirely by fishing. The types of boats are not difficult to distinguish; Hakka boats, for instance, are largely used for ferry work in the eastern waters, being stoutly built, with hulls high out of the water along their whole length, and a single mast. The Hoklo are a small but virile minority, sailing and rowing the fastest boats; the men often speak Cantonese and Hakka in addition to their own language, and they live mostly in the eastern New Territories, in Tide Cove, Tolo Harbour, and Starling Inlet. There is also a winter incursion of Hoklo farmer- fishermen from Hoi Luk Fung, without their families, who fish along the west coast of the mainland, returning to Hoi Luk Fung in spring for the first sowing. The biggest fishing port is Cheung Chau, but the only place

29

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

where the boat people live ashore is at Tai O, where hundreds of huts on piles cover the shores of the creeks.

Industrial expansion into the New Territories, chiefly at Tsun Wan and further along the south-west coast of the mainland, has introduced a new element of Shanghai labourers. The reopening of pre-war mines, and post-war mining activity, has attracted a heterogeneous conglomeration of men from many parts of China, including the north-west. New road construction has brought in numbers of hardy Hakka, especially from the Ng Wah District of Kwangtung Province.

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

30

II

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

In spite of remarkable industrial development since the war the Colony still remains primarily an entrepôt with the majority of wage earners dependent either directly or indirectly upon commerce. In industry, of which there are now over 170 types, nearly 100,000 workers are employed in registered factories while an estimated 150,000 workers are employed in small con- cerns which do not require registration.

A comparatively small number are engaged in agriculture, in the New Territories, and only about 50,000 in fishing.

The depression in trade, mentioned in Chapter I, resulted in many workers becoming unemployed as small concerns had to close. Restaurants and shops have also had a bad year. There was however some improvement in the textile industry in the autumn

+

Labour Department

LIRR

In the sphere of industrial relations Labour Officers deal with disputes between employers and workers or assist, if the parties so wish, in the preparation of agree- ments, while the inspectorate is fully occupied in the registration and inspection of factories and workshops, enforcing health and safety precautions and controlling the working conditions of women and young persons. The scope of the department's work (which had already been enlarged by the establishment of the mines sub- department near the end of 1951) has been further extended by a new movement of workers to Brunei,

31

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Sarawak and North Borneo. The Protector of Labour, Sarawak, visited the Colony early in the year to arrange co-operation over recruitment. Model contracts based on the requirements of the International Labour Office Conventions have been drawn up for the guidance of employers.

The Commissioner of Labour as Registrar of Trade Unions is responsible for the enforcement of the Trade Union Ordinance; one of the Labour Officers advises trade unions on management and internal organization.

Labour Advisory Board

The Labour Advisory Board comprises representa- tives of employers and workers: four in each group, two of whom are elected and two nominated by the Governor. The Commissioner of Labour is ex-officio chairman of the Board and a Labour Officer acts as secretary. The Chief of Staff, British Forces, represent- ing the three Services, attends meetings of the Board as an observer.

In 1952 the full Board met on two occasions only. At the first meeting it considered the problem of apprenticeship in Hong Kong and decided that this question required detailed investigation which could best be carried out by a sub-committee of the Board. The sub-committee met on six occasions during the year and has made considerable progress towards formulating its final recommendations, which will probably be put forward in the form of a draft bill to regulate apprentice- ship in designated trades. The second meeting of the full Board considered two progress reports: one from the sub-committee on apprenticeship and one from the Commissioner of Labour on Workmen's Compensation. Work on the draft bill on Workmen's Compensation was completed by the end of the year.

32

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

Legislation

In addition to the Trade Union and Trade Disputes Ordinance the department is responsible for the enforce- ment of the Factory and Workshops Ordinance govern- ing the maintenance of health, safety and welfare in workplaces, and of the Control of Minerals Regulations.

As far as is practicable in local conditions legisla- tion gives effect to the provisions of international labour conventions covering many aspects of labour; for example the minimum age of employment at sea and in industry, and night work by women and young persons. Reports on the application of conventions in the Colony are sent to the International Labour Organization exe year.

Labour Organization

Although Hong Kong is one of the smallest of the Colonies the year opened with no less than 284 organizations on the register of trade unions, 206 being workers' unions. Whereas in 1951 twelve new organ- izations were registered during the entire year, an equal number were registered during the first half of 1952 alone. At the end of the year twenty-four new organizations (twenty-one of which were of workers and three of merchants or employers) had been regis- tered.

Some registered trade unions had at various times become registered also as societies although unions are legally outside the scope of the Societies Ordinance. This anomaly was cleared up by their deregistration as societies. A few other organizations, whose interests are purely commercial or social, were transferred from the trade union register to that of the Societies Ordin-

ance.

33

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The increase in the number of registrations was caused partly by the growth of the breakaway move- ment from unions previously affiliated to the Federation of Trade Unions, which had begun last year. The cause of the breakaway was still the same, the extremely political nature of unions dominated by the left-wing Federation. More unionists became aware of the need, at least in theory, for developing trade unionism on non-political lines. In practice many of the new organizations have merely exchanged one patron of the extreme left for another of the far right, partly because they see in the Trades Union Council the only effective opposition to the Federation. A few unions. are endeavouring to remain independent of either fac- tion but they are weak and inexperienced and political pressures are strong.

The Federation has suffered severe setbacks during the past year by losing a considerable number of mem- bers from its affiliated unions. The attempt to whip up enthusiasm on the purely political issue of a visit to the Colony by a Canton "comfort mission" on behalf of the victims of a large squatter fire, which led to riots in Kowloon on March 1st, (See p. 5) caused a large number of the more conservative workers to break with the Federation and the Trades Union Council has profited by this, not only in membership but in prestige.

The development of trade unionism is still hinder- ed, not only by politics and the multiplicity of unions within the same trade or industry but also by the failure of the unions to adopt recognized union methods, to frame a clear union policy, by extravagance in the use of union funds and by repeated disregard by the unions. of their own rules. During the year the Labour Department again tried to counteract these failings by

34

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Squatter resettlement is a major problem. These photographs show both original congested settlements, with their fire and health risks, and planned resettled sections.

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Photographic Competition Entry by David Yang

NG KONG BLIC VIBR

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Whether it's

a new sea-wall

to be built or a

locomotive boiler

to be repaired,

Hong Kong has

the technicians

and engineers

for the job.

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Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

All kinds of skills are possessed by Hong Kong's workers. (Above) Iron workers in a foundry. (Below) Deft-fingered embroiderers produce beautiful linen-work.

Tom Chan

Photo: Mandarin Textiles Ltd.

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Photo: Chung King Pui

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The old-style Hong Kong

policeman (circa 1910)

would marvel at the

smartness and efficiency

of the Colony's present

well-trained Force.

BRARIES

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OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

advice and help. Every union treasurer was seen and advised on a simple method of accounting, suitable for the unions, and model account forms were printed and distributed to all unions. The model trade union rules of the department were revised in the light of experience and given to all new applicants for registration as a guide. The trade union course at Hong Kong Univer- sity last year was followed by meetings with students. of that course and others with a view to starting trade union education in the vernacular, and it is hoped that a planned course may be organized early next year. Several good trade union films were received during the year, and these were shown regularly in the department to trade union officials and members.

The Asian Trade Union College, recently estab- lished in Calcutta by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, opened its first course in November. The Hong Kong Trades Union Council selected its English Secretary and an executive com- mittee member to attend.

Several important trade union visitors came through the Colony during the year and made themselves ac- quainted with local trade union and industrial problems. Among these were Dr. V. S. Mathur, the I. C. F. T.U. Director of Education for Asia, Mr. F. Gmür, Secretary of the Postal, Telegraph and Telephone International, and Mr. T. C. Winter, Federal Secretary of the Muni- cipal Employees' Union of Australia. Mr. Richard Deverall of the American Federation of Labour and Mr. Tom Colismo of the American Congress for Industrial Organization each spent a few days in the Colony and had talks with the Trades Union Council.

35

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Labour Disputes and Stoppages

As indicated in the preceding section the influence of Chinese politics was strongly felt in the Colony, particularly during the first half of the year. This influence was exerted in labour matters through the left-wing Federation of Trade Unions and their affiliated unions. Its effect was clearly marked on the labour disputes in which these unions were concerned and in every case proved disastrous to the interests of the workers involved in these disputes. This was particu- larly unfortunate because in certain cases there was some substance in the initial complaints which led to the dispute, and had these been made the subject of a proper trade union approach the result could well have been not only a removal of these grievances and a general improvement in terms and conditions of service, but also the establishment of a sound employer/worker relationship based on mutual respect which would have been of the greatest value to the future of the industries concerned. As it was, the technique adopted, which was on the lines set out in the 1951 report, succeeded not only in completely obscuring the original points of difference and preventing any settlement on those points but also, in at least two cases (the Wah Keong Rubber Factory and the I-Feng Enamel Factory), so disrupted the functioning of the factories that the managements were led to suspend operations and institute what amounted to a lockout of the workers. Retaliatory action was instituted by the unions who picketed the factories, but after a lapse of time, amount- ing to three months in one case and about a fortnight in the other, a substantial proportion of the workers formed new unions and negotiated a return to work. In the case of the enamel workers the new union has

36

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

since negotiated a comprehensive agreement with the management securing considerable improvement in wages, hours, holidays and piece-work rates.

The above two cases were the only major disputes which resulted in stoppages of work during the year, but the same pattern was clearly discernible in numerous other disputes which were not pushed quite so far. In almost every instance the mediation of the Labour Department was not sought until the dispute had reached a point at which very little could be done, and even when the department was called in earlier it was usually found that negotiations were frustrated because the union representatives made no attempt to arrive at an agreement but used the joint meetings as a forum for the parrot-like repetition of a certain set of catch- words which bore little or no relation to the matter under discussion. The similarity of the phraseology used and its constant repetition by young, paid union secretaries who took a disproportionate part in the con- duct of all discussions left little doubt that the tactics adopted on these occasions formed part of a carefully prepared general strategy, which was designed not to further the interests of the workers but to exploit and widen every breach between workers and employers. This object was further pursued by calculated distortion and misrepresentation of the facts in certain sections of the vernacular press, and there is reason to believe that similar methods were used by representatives in report- ing to their members at union meetings. In one case negotiations, which had covered a period of four to five months and which had resulted in acquiescence by the management in a new agreement embodying about 98% of the workers' demands, appeared to be on the point. of breaking down completely when the management decided to call a general meeting of their workers and

37

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

to lay the position directly before them. The result was an immediate and unanimous decision to accept the new conditions on which the workers up till then had been kept in complete ignorance.

It will be appreciated that the use of such methods cannot fail to have a most damaging effect on employer/, worker relations generally. Fortunately they bear within themselves the seeds of their own destruction and it became increasingly evident as the year progressed that a considerable proportion of the workers was becoming thoroughly disgusted with the callous indifference shown by their leaders towards their real interests. Reference has already been made to the continued formation of break-away unions, most of which we set up with the avowed intention of devoting themselves solely to the safeguarding and improvement of their members' economic and social conditions. It may be that the warning light of these defections had some influence. on general policy, though it is probable that the main influence came from factors not directly connected with labour problems but, at any rate, the latter half of the year witnessed an almost complete cessation of the type of dispute described above. There is, of course, a danger that the reaction from the unsuccessful violence of the ideological campaign may be a relapse into acquiescent apathy by the bulk of the workers, but there is so much that needs to be done and so much that honest unionism could do that it is hard to believe that this, if indeed it exists, will endure.

Collective Agreements

During the year agreements which had been work- ing satisfactorily in the fishing industry and rattan trade were renewed for a further period of one year. A new agreement was made between the management and

38

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

workers of the Hop Yick Company, a firm responsible for the distribution of ice cream made by the Dairy Farm, Ice and Cold Storage Co., Ltd., and the agreement already referred to in the I-Feng Enamel Company was virtually completed, although the actual signing did not take place until January, 1953.

Minor Wage Disputes

The increasing business depression is reflected in the record number (1,532) of minor disputes which were brought to the department for settlement. These disputes nearly always relate to claims for arrears of wages or to failure to pay wages in lieu of notice and the evidence produced by both sides is usually conflicting and extremely inconclusive.

This may

perhaps partially account for the fact that the Chinese worker prefers to bring his case to the Labour Depart- ment for mediation rather than to have recourse to his legal remedy in the Magistracies.

The Labour Department has no legal powers, but in spite of this, approximately 50% of these cases were settled in the department to the satisfaction of both parties, while about 400 of the remainder were advised to take action in the Magistracies.

Cost of Living

The Government and most of the big European concerns pay a cost of living allowance to wage earners, which is related to a food and fuel index based upon certain essential items of food together with firewood. The cost of these commodities remained fairly stable. during the year, the maximum variation in the allow- ances being less than 10%. Allowances for salaried Government Servants with basic salaries of $200 or over are calculated on a retail price index, which also remained fairly steady throughout the year.

39

Wages

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Overall wages have remained steady in Government and the larger concerns, though the general business. recession has undoubtedly led to some reductions among employees of the smaller business and industrial firms. At the end of 1951 and the beginning of 1952 Govern- ment and most of the big European employers decided to increase basic wages by consolidating approximately two-thirds of the variable high cost of living allowance, while retaining one-third of the allowance as a variable factor to meet temporary increases in the cost of living. Although this scheme did not make any increase in the overall wage it was of considerable benefit to the wage- earners because it not only accepted a permanently higher basic standard but also materially increased overtime rates and retiring gratuities or allowances which are calculated on basic wages only. In spite of this, the consolidation scheme was made the target for a most virulent attack by the left-wing unions who, by deliberate distortion and misrepresentation, suc- ceeded in temporarily convincing their members that the scheme was intended to exploit them. As a result of this campaign the introduction of the scheme was held up in some of the companies while one large company (the Hong Kong Tramways Limited) operated two sets of accounts for workers on consolidated and uncon- solidated rates for over nine months until the cold logic of facts gradually penetrated the fog of propaganda.

The following may be taken as average daily rates paid to workers during the year :-

Skilled Workmen

$6.00-$8.50

Semi-skilled

""

Unskilled

$5.00-$6.50

$3.50-$5.00

40

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

It must, however, be appreciated that particularly among the smaller Chinese firms most workers are engaged on a day to day basis and employment fluc- tuates considerably. There is a wider range of wages in these firms, varying from $2-$14 a day.

Working Hours

In most European concerns and Chinese companies of a Western character the 48-hour week is standard. The rest day is usually Sunday, although in under- takings such as electric-generating stations and public transport, other days in rotation are given instead. More spinning factories are adopting a system of three 8-hour shifts in order to reduce overheads.

Non-European types of Chinese concerns still favour a 7-day week together with a 9-hour day. It is more than doubtful whether these long hours produce any appreciable increase in output per man-week because the tempo of the work is considerably slower and there are numerous breaks for tea and conversation during the day. It is, however, very difficult to obtain any support for shorter hours even from the workers, and overtime is often worked and may become regular during periods of good business.

Factories and Workshops

At the beginning of the year there were 402 outstanding applications for registration under the Factories & Workshops Ordinance and during the year 284 further applications for registration were received.

41

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Of these So were from manufacturers on Hong Kong Island and 204 were from Kowloon and the New Territories. Three hundred and fifteen registration certificates were issued and 24 applications were refused. Forty six registered factories ceased operating and surrendered their certificates for cancellation; 46 illegal factories, found operating in unsuitable premises, were closed down. The number of applications for registra- tion was the lowest since 1946.

At the end of 1952 there were 1,504 registered factories and workshops and 347 applications under consideration as against 1,344 and 402 at the end of 1951. In addition, there has been an increase in the number of recorded establishments, i.e. cottage indus- tries or "small" manufacturers employing up to 18 manual workers, which the department keeps under observation to ensure that health and safety provisions are maintained at a reasonable standard. Many of these concerns are operated by refugees in or adjacent to squatter areas and are tolerated, if reasonably safe and healthy, for humanitarian reasons.

Despite an increase in the number of registered factories there was a fall in production during the year. Many factories, some newly established, were closed down for as long as 6 months or worked for only a few weeks at a time. The lifting of the restriction on the shipment of American raw cotton to Hong Kong early in the year gave the textile industry temporary relief but this was soon offset by the imposition of restrictions in Australia, which forced many weaving sheds to close down. Keen Japanese competition in the textile, needle and enamelware industries and poor markets in India and Africa have caused considerable unemploy- ment in Hong Kong.

42

OCCUPATION, WAGES AND LABOUR ORGANIZATION

The inspectorate made a total of 12,683 visits during the year. Of these 516 were visits to young persons employed in industry, 512 were night visits to factories and workshops and 1,226 were in connexion with industrial and occupational accidents and injuries and compensation. The remainder were routine inspections of factories and workshops.

During the year 566 accidents (40 fatal) involving 580 persons were reported, 422 (15 fatal) being in factories and workshops. This shows an overall decrease of 99 (12 fatal) and in factories and workshops a decrease of 2 accidents and 8 fatalities. Payment of compensation for fatalities and permanent disabilities amounted to $112,503.89.

Women and Young Persons

On 30th September, 1952, there were 33,685 women. recorded as employed in registered factories and work- shops as against 34,025 on 30th September, 1951, and 31,945 on 30th September, 1950. Women are employed in most industries, with large numbers engaged in the textile trades and in the manufacture of rubber shoes, hand torches and other metal wares; the majority are paid on a daily or piece-work rate. Most of the work done is semi-skilled but some women achieve a high speed and output; moreover Chinese women are adaptable and many can work at several different trades, which is an asset when business is fluctuating.

Women are also employed as coal and earth carriers, as general workers on building sites, as stone breakers and on other casual work of an unskilled

nature.

43

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

During the year 516 visits were made to young persons between the ages of 14 years and 18 years. employed in industry to ensure that regulations regard- ing their employment were being observed. Five hundred and ninety eight young persons already registered reached the age of 18 years and their names were consequently removed from the register; 721 were newly registered bringing the total on 31st December, 1952, to 1,045.

In September, October and November, through the kind offices of the Principal Youth Welfare Officer, Social Welfare Office, an opportunity was given to a number of young persons in industrial employment to have a holiday at the Boys & Girls

Association

permanent camp at Silver Mine Bay, Lantao Island. One group of girls and three groups of boys spent a week at the camp and their enjoyment and the benefit to their health, shown in increased weight and generally improved looks, is a source of much satisfaction.

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

44

III

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

The Revenue and Expenditure figures since Ist May, 1946, are as follows:-

Revenue Expenditure Surplus Deficit

$

$

$

1946/47 (11 months) 82,141,556

85,624,391

3,482,835

1947/48

1948/49

164,298,310 127,701,174 36,597,136 194,933,955 159,954,023 34,979,932

1949/50

264,250,543 182,121,726 82,128,817

1950/51

1951/52

291,728,416 251,684,523 40,043,893 308,564,248 275,855,951 32,708,297

1952/53 (Estimate) 290,762,200 288,673,012

2,089,188

The cumulative surplus at 31st March, 1952, amounted to $221,975,240.

It is anticipated, on present indications, that the actual surplus for 1952/53, will be well in excess of the estimated figure given above.

Revenue

IBR

The principal revenue items for 1950/51 and 1951/52 in round figures were :-

(a) Duties on Liquor, Hydrocarbon Oils, Tobacco, Proprietary Medicines, etc.

.....

(b) Rates (Assessed Taxes) (c) Internal Revenue, including

Entertainment Tax, Estate Duty, Stamp Duties, Meals and Liquor Tax, Betting and Sweeps Tax, Earnings and Profits Tax and Dance Hall Tax

...

1951/52

CA

1950/51

$

71,653,000

77,641,000 27,253,000 30,075,000

85,552,000 99,895,000

45

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

$

$

(d) Water Revenue

8,155,000

8,339,000

(e) Postal Revenue

14,547,000

13,436,000

(f) Kowloon Canton Railway

10,251,000

5,432,000

......

for

(g) Miscellaneous Fees, Payments Services and Sales of

Government Property

22,065,000

20,252,000

(h) Miscellaneous Licences, Fines

and Forfeitures

16,453,000

15,997,000

(i) Miscellaneous Receipts includ-

ing Royalties

16,482,000

15,123,000

(j) Revenue from Land Rents, etc. 13,011,654 17,013,000

In 1951/52 revenue exceeded the estimate by a substantial margin of $60,764,398 although this amount was not as great as the previous year's excess of $87,588,936.

K

The main reasons for the excess remain. It is difficult to estimate with any degree of accuracy in view of the large increase in the population of the Colony and the corresponding enlargement of the sources of the Colony's revenue. Further, the general- ly unsettled conditions in the Far East, operating adversely on the trade of Hong Kong make it inadvisable to budget on anything but a most conservative estimate.

Expenditure

G PUBLIC LIB

The major items of expenditure during the year 1951/52 were in round figures :-

(a) Miscellaneous Services (including con- tributions towards the cost of reinforcing the garrison, $15,000,000, loan expenditure $25,793,925 and cost of living allowance $22,640,078)

(b) Education Department

(c) Fire Brigade

(d) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(e) Marine Department

$88,576,028

$ 6,371,260 $ 2,529,322

$ 4,743,188 $ 7,746,701

46

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

(f) Medical Department

(g) Pensions

(h) Police Force

(j) Prisons Department

(i) Post Office

(k) Public Debt

(1) Public Works Department, Recurrent and

Non-Recurrent

(m) Sanitary Department and Urban Council

(n) Social Welfare Office

(0) Stores Department (p) Subventions

The total

expenditure

$15,761,891 $ 8,637,761 $20,076,745 $ 7,102,415 $ 4,551,697

$ 9,010,839

$44,480,629

$ 9,049,076 $ 2,642,469 $ 9,784,221 $16,713,748

for the

year was

$275,855,951, a net increase on the estimate of $41,186,901. The gross

The gross increase, however, was $60,688,094 which figure was partially offset by savings of $19,501,192.→

The $88,576,028 shown against Miscellaneous Services was in excess of the estimate to the extent of $38,496,172. The main items responsible for this excess were:-$25,793,925 being expenditure previous- ly charged to Advances, Pending Raising of Loans: $6,500,000 paid to H.M. Government, which was additional to the sum provided in the estimates, as the Colony's contribution towards the cost of re-inforcing the garrison, and $5,000,000 advanced to the University of Hong Kong to be recovered from the proceeds of the sale of Japanese assets.

Y

Other excesses over the estimates figures were: Public Debt $5,147,283, Sanitary Department and Urban Council $2,195,260 and Medical Department $1,754,637. The increase in respect of the Public Debt was due to an additional contribution of $5,000,000 to the Sinking Fund. The excess on the Stores Department vote was largely due to the fact that, although purchases were kept within the

47

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

authorized limits, issues to departments were low, as stores paid for by the Crown Agents were not received. in Hong Kong until after the close of the financial year. The

excess in the Sanitary Department- Urban Council expenditure was, in the main, due to increases in the establishment to cope with additional Sanitary and Health services, while large sums were spent on the resettlement of squatters. An increase in staff was also responsible for the excess in the case of the Medical Department.

Public Debt

The Public debt of the Colony at the 31st March, 1952, was as follows:-

4 % Conversion Loan, raised in 1933 and repayable not later than the 31st August 1953

....

31% Dollar Loan raised in 1934

31% Dollar Loan raised in 1940 31% Rehabilitation Loan raised in 1947/48

...

...

$ 4,838,000

$ 4,280,000

$ 6,602,000

$46,983,000

$62,703,000

Sinking Funds exist for the Ee of two

out of the four loans issued and the market value of these funds at the 31st March, 1952, was $12,948,307. The remaining two loans are each redeemable by annual drawings of 1/25th. The largest of the four loans is the 31% Rehabilitation Loan under which $50,000,000 was raised in 1947/48 and which is redeemable by Sinking Fund. Of this sum, $46,983,000 was outstanding on the 31st March, 1952. The difference of $3,017,000 is represented by cash. purchases by Government when favourable opportuni- ties occurred. Loan expenditure in

Loan expenditure in excess of the 'amount raised under the Rehabilitation Loan,

48

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

amounting to $75,681,382, has been charged off during the two years ending 31st March, 1952, to the expenditure head "Miscellaneous Services" and the balance of $4,323, 154 remains charged to an advance account pending the raising of further funds.

Two other loans, in respect

of Colonial Development and Welfare Schemes, although not strictly Public Debt, were met in the first instance from expenditure, re-imbursements by the Colonial Development Fund being credited to the Colony's general revenue. These loans are as follows

D. 994-Agricultural Village Depots Recurrent

Expenditure

D.1066-Vegetable Market Lorries

Earnings and Profits Tax

$132,000

$300,000

$432,000

This tax, introduced for the first time in 1947, falls short of a full income tax. It comprises four separate

taxes:

Profits Tax

Salaries & Annuities Tax

Interest Tax

Property Tax

Tax is chargeable at the full standard rate (12% in 1952/53) on the Hong Kong profits of corporations and businesses and on interest payments, but in other cases there is provision for allowances or for tax to be assessed at a proportion or a multiple of the standard. rate. An individual who is a resident of the Colony may elect to be personally assessed on his total local income, in which case he receives the advantage of personal allowances for which he might not otherwise be eligible.

49

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The personal allowance for an individual liable to Salaries and Annuities Tax, or who elects for personal assessment, is $7,000. Allowances are also made for a wife and up to nine children. Tax on salaries and on personal income is levied at rates varying from one-fifth of the standard rate on the first $5,000 of chargeable income to twice the standard rate on chargeable income over $45,000.

Revenue derived from the four taxes in 1951/52, together with amalgamated tax under personal assess- ment, was as follows:

Profits tax:

}

Corporation profits tax Business profits tax

$20,850,652 $12,154,016

HKM

Salaries and Annuities tax

Interest tax

Property tax

...

Personal assessment

ONG

$33,004,668 $ 7,083,509

$ 2,520,204

$ 8,870,782

$ 383,704

TOTAL

$ 51,862,867

T

Estate Duty

Estate Duty is levied on conventional lines at rates varying between:

2% in the case of estates valued between $5,000 and $10,000

and

52% in the case of estates valued at over $30,000,000.

The total revenue received from this duty during 1951/52 amounted to $10,066,230.

50

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Hong Kong's wharf and warehouse facilities are second to none. Seventeen square miles of land-locked harbour afford safe anchorage to great ocean-going liners and tiny sampans alike.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

The Port of Hong Kong prides itself on efficient cargo-handling and speedy turn-round of shipping.

С

Photo: South China Morning Post Ltd.

m

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Tom Chan

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Hung Hing Cheung

Photo: South China Morning Post Ltd.

Just across the way from the Kowloon terminal-where rail, omnibus and trans-harbour ferry services meet-lie the busy wharves.

Photographic Competition Entry.

NG KONG PÅ BL

IBRAR

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PUBLIC LIBRA

Photo: Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd.

Shipbuilding and repairing is a major industry. A modern fire float, named after the Colony's Governor, takes the water.

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Import and Excise Duties

Hong Kong has no general tariff and no duty is charged on exports of any kind. Five groups of commodities imported into the Colony for local con- sumption attract duty, under the Dutiable Commodities Ordinance (Cap. 109). These are liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet preparations and proprietary medicines, and table waters. Where these commo- dities are produced in the Colony they also attract duty at similar rates provided they are consumed in the Colony.

A preferential rate of duty for liquor of Empire origin is levied at approximately 80% of the rate for non-Empire produce. Locally-produced beer is allow- ed a further preferential margin on Empire beer. These rates vary from $1.15 per Imperial gallon on locally-brewed beer to $55 per Imperial gallon for non- Empire brandy and liqueurs.

The scale of duties on imported tobacco ranges. from $3 per lb. on Chinese prepared tobacco to $7 per lb. on cigars of non-Empire origin. Preferential rates are granted to tobacco of Empire origin and

manufacture.

Duty on light oils is 80 cents per gallon. For heavy oils the rates vary from $104 per ton for heavy diesel oil for road vehicles, to $24 per ton for furnace oil and 10 cents per gallon for other kinds of heavy oils.

Duty is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at the rate of 25% of the f.o.b. prices ex shipping port for imported goods and 25% of the selling prices ex factory.

Table waters attract duty at 48 cents per Imperial gallon.

51

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Drawback on export is permitted on duty-paid commodities manufactured locally.

There is an adequate number of general bonded and licensed warehouses.

New Measures

The duties on liquor, which had applied since 29th November, 1946, were varied by resolution of the Legislative Council on 18th March, 1952, and subsequently amended slightly by a further resolution on 29th April, 1952. The higher rates were levied in order to raise additional revenue.

On 3rd December, 1952, a resolution of Legislative Council changed the rates of duty on hydrocarbon oils which had been current from 16th January, 1941. The purpose of this variation was to change the basis of assessment on the main types of heavy oil from gallon- age to tonnage in order to simplify the keeping of records. The new rates were calculated to produce the same revenue as the old rates.

'NG PUBLIC LIBR

52

IV

CURRENCY AND BANKING

At the time of Hong Kong's foundation in 1841, China's currency was on a basis of uncoined silver but the usual standard unit for foreign trade was the Spanish or Mexican dollar. These coins were the first legal tender in the new Colony and apart from one unsuc- cessful experiment in using United Kingdom coins alongside it the Mexican dollar became and remained. until 1895, the standard coin. In 1895, in pursuance of Her Majesty's Order in Council dated 2nd February of that year, a British trade dollar, equivalent to the Mexican dollar, was minted and production of the Mexican dollar ceased, although it remained the stan- dard by which others were judged. Its sterling or gold value varied with the price of silver, giving Hong Kong a variable exchange relationship with London and the world at large but reasonable stability with China. In 1853, the Chartered Bank of India issued the first Hong Kong banknotes, followed in 1866, by those of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Although not legal tender these notes became more and more the customary means of payment and from 1890 onwards they were established by convention as practically the sole medium of exchange apart from subsidiary coinage. An Ordinance passed in 1895, had the effect of restricting the right of issuing banknotes to the three banks named. In 1935 the silver standard was abandoned, and by the Currency Ordinance, later renamed the Exchange Fund Ordinance, an exchange fund was set up to which note issuing banks were obliged to surrender in exchange for Certificates of Indebtedness all silver previously deposited against their note issues. The exchange fund keeps full sterling cover against the notes issued by the banks

53

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

apart from their relatively small fiduciary issues. Since that date the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately 1/3d. sterling. At the end of 1951 its value in U.S.$ was 0.1750, and in Australian Currency 1/7d.

Note Issues and Banks

Notes of denominations from five dollars upwards are issued by the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, and the Mercantile Bank of India, Ltd: The Government issue comprises notes of one dollar, ten cent, five cent and one cent denominations and coins of fifty cent, ten cent and five cent denominations.

The Colony is included in the sterling area.

Ex- change control is administered under powers conferred by the Defence (Finance) Regulations, 1940. The system of control is based on that in force in the United Kingdom and other parts of the sterling area, with modifications necessitated by the position of Hong Kong as an entrepôt. Twenty-four banks including the three note-issuing banks mentioned above, are authorized to deal in foreign exchange. Some of these banks have branches or correspondents throughout the world and are thus able to offer world-wide comprehensive banking facilities to the public.

In addition to these incorporated banks, there are in the Colony many Chinese banks which handle a considerable volume of remittances from Chinese living overseas to their relatives in China.

Under the provisions of the Banking Ordinance, enacted in 1948, no company may carry on banking business without being licensed. At the end of the year there were 111 licensed banks, many of them small Chinese banks.

54

£MILLION

40

VALUES OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN £ MILLION)

35

TOTAL IMPORTS

TOTAL EXPORTS =

30

25

20

15

· 10

IMPORTS FROM CHINA:

5

EXPORTS TO CHINA:

G PUBLIC

BRA

$

MAR

JUN

DEC

1950

1950

SEP 1950 1950 1951

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

1951

1951

1951

1952

1952

1952

1952

THOUSAND

LONG TONS

600

500

TT

דיזזזזזזזזזז

VOLUME OF HONG KONG'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

(IN THOUSAND LONG TONS)

TOTAL IMPORTS =

TOTAL EXPORTS

IMPORTS FROM CHINA

EXPORTS TO CHINA

400

300

200

100

LIBRA

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

MAR

JUN

SEP

DEC

1950

1950

1950

1950 1951

1951

1951

1951

1952

1952

1952

1952

V

COMMERCE

The serious decline in the external trade of the Colony noted in the latter part of 1951, continued throughout the year 1952, and in terms of both value and volume the past year's import and export totals reflect the depressing effect of world economic and political conditions. All exports to North Korea have been prohibited since 8th July, 1950, and restrictions. on the movement of strategic goods to China which necessitated stringent import and export controls, re- mained in force during 1952. These restrictions have been one of the main factors in reducing the trade of the Colony to its present level but the continued short- ages of certain commodities, and import and export restrictions imposed by other countries have been con- tributory causes.

The total value of imports and exports of merchandise was reduced from $9,303 million in 1951, to $6.678 million in 1952, a fall of 28%, while the tonnage of commercial cargoes declined by 13.2% from 5,845,486 tons in 1951, to 5,074,674 tons in 1952. The value of exports represented 43% of the value of total trade in 1952, as compared with 48% in 1951. There was, however, a considerable increase in the value of exports in the period July to December, 1952, as com- pared with January to June, the totals being $1,310 million for the first six months and $1,589 million for the second half of the year. The value of imports also increased in the second half of the year, but to a lesser extent. The trend of trade by value and by volume from January, 1950, to December, 1952, is illustrated in the diagrams facing pages 54 and 55.

55

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The value of imports declined by 22% from $4,870 million in 1951, to $3,779 million in 1952. Countries. showing considerably reduced value in imports were. Malaya from $394 million to $164 million; U.S.A. from $374 million to $221 million; United Kingdom from $619 million to $470 million; Germany from $214 million to $119 million; Indonesia from $90 million to $28 million; France from $123 million to $64 million ; India from $159 million to $10 million; Pakistan from $144 million to $90 million; and Belgium from $123 million to $70 million.

The following were the principal sources of the Colony's imports in 1952, with comparative figures for

1951:

Commonwealth Countries:

1952

Imports

% of Total

1951 Imports

% of

Total

HK$

HK$

United Kingdom

470,383,589 12.5%

619,056,609 12.7%

Malaya

163,898.046 4.3%

394,069,156

8.1%

India

100,890,058 2.7%

158,834,129

3.2%

Pakistan

90,050,596 2.4%

143,649,617

3.0%

Canada

78,537,160 2.1%

87,886,623

1.8%

Australia

54,778,457 1.4%

88,685,672

1.8%

Others

115,208,518

3.0%

138,908,365

2.9%

Other Countries:,

China

830,265,921 22.0%

863,099,818 17.7%

(excluding Formosa)

Japan

482,207,870 12.8%

392,262,340

8.1%

U. S. A.

Thailand

Italy

Germany

Switzerland

221,063,994 5.8% 204,657,603 5.4% 125,611,504 3.3% 118,897,323 3.1% 109,876,733 2.9%

373,523,601 7.7% 155,597,339 3.2% 125,894,855 2.6%

214,278,034 4.4%

Netherlands

Others

TOTAL Common-

108,180,743 2.9%

130,861,275 2.7% 125,152,979

2.5%

504,979,369 13.4%

858,554,124 17.6%

wealth Countries. 1,073,746,424 28.4% 1,631,090,171 33.5%

TOTAL other

Countries

2,705,741,060 71.6% 3,239,224,365 66.5%

56

COMMERCE

Of these countries, only Thailand and Japan recorded marked increases in value for 1952. Imports of rice accounted for the greater part of Thailand's total, while the principal imports from Japan were fish, fruits and vegetables, textiles, manufactures of non-metallic minerals and metals and metal manufactures.

Exports of merchandise from Hong Kong declined in value by 35% from $4,433 million in 1951, to $2,899 million in 1952, heavy reductions being recorded for China, excluding Formosa, from $1,604 million to $520 million; Malaya from $741 million to $418 million; Macao from $228 million to $89 million; Pakistan from $188 million to $55 million; and United Kingdom from $215 million to $83 million. The main destinations of Hong Kong's exports are shown below, and the value of exports for each country is expressed as a percentage of the total value for 1951, and 1952 :

Commonwealth

Countries:

1952 Exports

% of Total

1951 Exports

% of Total

HK$

HK$

United Kingdom

83,365,573 2.9%

214,598,413 4.8%

Malaya

417,553,708 14.4%

740,623,416 16.7%

Pakistan

54,952,078 1.9%

187,652,837 4.2%

Others

143,093,775

4.9%

227,175,394 5.2%

Other Countries:

Indonesia

528,004,683 18.2%

244,820,675 5.5%

China

(excluding Formosa)

Thailand

243,089,963 8.4%

520,032,173 18.0% 1,603,795,359 36.2%

2.0%

Formosa

207,434,504 7.1%

89,771,310 139,379,130 3.1%

Japan

123,628,482 4.3%

192,526,923 4.3%

U. S. A.

113,489,875 3.9%

Others

464,365,250 16.0%

162,546,601 3.7% 630,137,647 14.3%

wealth Countries.

698,965,134 24.1% 1,370,050,060 30.9%

TOTAL Common-

TOTAL other

Countries

2,200,044,930 75.9% 3,062,977,645 69.1%

Big increases in exports were recorded for Indonesia, Thailand and Formosa, exports to all other countries

57

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

being reduced in greater or lesser degree. (The largest reduction was in respect of exports to China, which totalled less than one-third of the previous year's figure). A diagram showing Hong Kong's principal trading partners for the year will be found facing this page.

I I I

In order of value the main items of import in 1952 were foodstuffs and beverages $1,041 million; textile fibres, yarns and fabrics $729 million; chemicals in- cluding pharmaceuticals, dyeing materials, essential oils, etc. $410 million; machinery and transport equipment $199 million; animal and vegetable oils $151 million; mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials $131 million; base metals $11 million; and paper and paperware $100 million. Principal items of export, also in order of value, were textile fibres, yarns and fabrics $609 million; chemicals including pharma- ceuticals, dyeing materials, essential oils, etc. $479 million; foodstuffs and beverages $454 million; clothing and footwear $250 million; manufactures of metals, not elsewhere specified, $122 million; machinery and transport equipment $116 million; and animal and vegetable oils $106 million.

The principal local products exported during the year together with their respective values are shown in the diagram facing page 59. The total value of exports of those items of local produce which are separately recorded in the Trade Classification List for the year amounted to $486 million, or 16.7% of the total exports for 1952. Separate records are not kept for all items. of local produce exported but the overall total is probably between 20% and 25% of total exports. Markets for locally manufactured goods were found principally in Indonesia, Malaya, Thailand, Formosa and Pakistan. Burma, British Africa and the United Kingdom were also important outlets.

58

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES

PRINCIPAL SOURCES AND DESTINATION

OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1952

IMPORTS

EXPORTS

•L

MILLION

MILLION(r)

UNITED KINGDOM 29.4

MALAYA 10.2

JAPAN 30.1

51.9

5.2

26.1

7.7

32.5

THA

SON

ND 12.8

G1

ANY 7.4

WONG

PUBLIC PUBI

LIBRARIE

RIES

15.2

7.1

2.1

2.3

NET ENDS 6.7

33.0

INDONISIA

1.7

12.9

FOR OSA 2.8

GRAND TOTAL

£236 MILLION

£181 MILLION

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURED IN HONG KONG DURING 1952

PRESERVED

FRUITS, JAMS,

GINGER, ETC

PAINTS,

VARNISHES,

ETC.

COTTON YARN

AND THREAD

£ STERLING

£1.150,831

612,548

8.594,774

UNBLEACHED

PIECE GOODS

IRON AND

STEEL BARS

ENAMELL

WARE

共圖

ALUMINIUM

WARE

TORCH BATTERIES

AND BULBS

ELECTRIC

TORCHES

METAL PRESSURE

LAMPS

COTTON

SINGLETS

SHIRTS

CANVAS SHOES

RUBBER

FOOTWEAR

G PUBLIC LIBE

1.630,531

339.336

2,764.953

375,796

1,124,120

502,718

415,246

5.953.460

3,077,540

722,650

394.797

PLASTIC

WARE

320.983

VACUUM

FLASKS

361.812

Fisheries

VI

PRODUCTION

Fish is the main primary product of Hong Kong and the Colony's fishing fleet is probably the largest of any fishing port in the Colonial Empire. It is estimated that a seafaring population of 60,000 is engaged in this industry and the figures given below, showing the quantities marketed, indicate the extent of the opera- tions.

The fishing fleet is made up almost entirely of owner-operated junks of the Chinese type, constructed locally from imported China fir and other hardwoods.

~

During Hong Kong's typhoon season, from July to October, off-shore sailing craft such as trawlers and large long-liners are often forced to tie up or to limit their operations. Because of this, Hong Kong fisher- men have recently begun to appreciate the importance of mechanization so that they may be less dependent on weather conditions. Additionally, it may enable them to spend more time in actual fishing and to land fish of better quality. At the end of 1951, the fishing fleet had 148 mechanized vessels; these included trawlers, long-liners, purse-seiners and fish carriers. Except for ten Japanese-type trawlers owned by fishing companies, the mechanized vessels are owner-operated junks.

Junks are, of course, essentially sailing craft and are not entirely suitable for mechanization. Efforts are therefore being made by Government, with the help of the Colonial Development and Welfare Fund, to design a vessel which is not only acceptable to the fishermen, but which can also be easily constructed by the local Chinese boat-builders.

59

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The main types of fish landed are mackerel, scad, golden thread, golden sardine, lizard fish and croakers.

The quantity and value of fish marketed in Hong Kong for the years 1946/52 are as follows:-

Fresh Fish

Quantity

Wholesale Value

1946

1,904.05 tons

1947

2,653.79 tons

$3,120,457

3,355,513

1948

7,251.07 tons

8,651,356

1949

10,822.38 tons

17,689,028

1950

!! x..

16,425.48 tons

24,414,750

1951

22,138.33 tons

30,424,549

1952

26,380.95 tons

30,980,434

Salt/Dried Fish

HO

Quantity

Wholesale Value

1946 .....

12,592.79 tons

1947

11,266.19 tons

$18,476,431

11,166,576

I-1,941,515

1948

14,644.76 tons

1949

17

16,108.63 tons

1950

..16,304.28 tons

1951

8,016.79 tons

1952

8,067.49 tons

IB

18,740,370

13,873,411

8,687,688

7,537,428

Fish Ponds, Oyster Beds and Fish Fry

Pond fish farming is becoming quite popular in the New Territories and there are some 584 acres of fresh and brackish-water fish ponds in the Ping Shan, Deep Bay area. The main products of these ponds are carp and mullet, most of which are consumed in Un Long and the neighbouring villages.

60

PRODUCTION

The oyster beds of Deep Bay have lost some of their former importance, but nevertheless it is estimated that the 7,420 acres of oyster beds yield 95 tons of dried oysters and some 24 tons of oyster sauce annually; a large proportion is exported to the U.S.A.

Considerable quantities of fish fry are exported by sea and air to Thailand, Malaya and Formosa. Some of this trade is carried on by the Fisheries Division which exported over $85,000 worth by air during 1952. The main types of fish fry exported are silver carp, grass carp and big head carp.

Fish Marketing Organization

The wholesale marketing of marine fish in the Colony is carried out by the Fish Marketing Organiza- tion in accordance with legislation which was introduced in 1945. During the past 7 years it has proved to be an effective means of handling fish between producer and retailer at a minimum cost to both parties.

The Organization has established fish collecting depots and posts in the main fishing villages of the Colony, from which fish is brought to the four whole- sale markets in the Urban area. Fishermen who operate through these depots and posts may either leave their produce in the hands of the Organization's staff who look after it until it is sold, or accompany their own fish to the markets. In the wholesale markets, the fish is sorted and put up for public auction. Fishermen may collect the proceeds of sale directly after the auction, if they are present at the market, or from their local depot on the next day.

61

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Since 1950, there has been a marked increase in the quantity of fresh fish for sale and a reduction by half of the quantity of salt/dried fish landed. This change is, in the main, due to two factors. Formerly, at least 60% of the fish landed by the Hong Kong fleet was salted and dried and sent to China where there was a con- siderable demand for it at good prices. In 1950, however, the Kwangtung authorities placed restrictions on the importation of salt/dried fish from Hong Kong and consequently the bulk of the salt/dried fish now landed in the Colony is for local consumption and not export. Additionally, the increased mechanization of the fleet has meant that fish may be transported more quickly from the fishing grounds and it is now not necessary to salt it on board the junks.

During the Summer, the main fish wholesale market of the Colony was moved from Kennedy Town to a new, modern market in Aberdeen. This move has proved most successful and there has been a noted increase in the number of fishermen bringing their own catches direct to the market.

The Organization has, over the past few years, operated a loan fund which provides fishermen with cheap credit facilities. Most of the loans are short- term, mainly for the repair of gear and boats, but a few loans of larger amounts have been granted for the mechanization of craft. The Organization also sub- sidizes schools which have been established for fisher- men's children and awards scholarships to recognized. schools. At the collecting depots fishermen's requisites are sold at wholesale prices. The whole Organization is self-supporting and has been planned so that it may eventually be taken over by fishermen and run as a co-operative enterprise.

62

PRODUCTION

Agriculture

The Colony's countryside consists mainly of moun- tains and hills, the more gradual slopes being covered. with grass, ferns and sparse pinewood, the rocky ravines with evergreen trees and dense, thorny scrub. Very little of Hong Kong's 391 square miles is suitable for cultivation and practically all that is suitable has already been brought under cultivation. The main gentle slopes of the valleys are intensely cultivated, and where water is available for irrigation the lower shoulders of the hills have also been terraced. Some of these terraces and irrigation channels date back many years. On the higher slopes of mountains such as Tai Mo Shan there are the remains of terraces which were used for tea cultivation but which have long since been deserted, probably owing to high winds in summer and the cold experienced during winter.

Rice, the staple food of the Chinese, has been grown by settlers from early times. It was and still is the main crop of the Chinese farmers of the New Territories. Practically all the rent of farm land is paid in terms of rice. The average rental per acre is 1,600 pounds which is about 40% of the total annual rice yield per acre. Fields dependent on rain and swamps irrigated with brackish water may produce only one crop of rice annually, while irrigated fields yield two crops each year. It is difficult to estimate the amount of milled rice produced annually but the figure of approxi- mately 20,000 short tons is considered to be a fair estimate of annual production. This represents a very small proportion of the total annual consumption of the Colony.

63

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

On land unsuited to rice other crops may be grown, such as sugar-cane and ground-nuts. Vegetables are grown extensively during the winter. A great quantity of sweet potatoes is also grown during the winter for pig food. During the summer, vegetables are cultivated on a limited scale and Hong Kong is dependent to a greater extent on imported vegetables during this

season.

During the Japanese occupation of the Colony practically all the fruit orchards suffered heavily, being either cut down or badly neglected. Most of the fruit trees planted are lychee, lung-ngan, papaya, guava and citrus fruit such as oranges, lemons and pomelos.

There is very little dairy farming. Local cattle and buffalo are used purely for draught purposes, for ploughing and harrowing, but not for transport. They are small and hardy beasts, eminently suitable for work in the small terraced fields of the Colony.

Meat consumed in the Colony is mainly imported. Beef, especially, is expensive and is in any case not a traditional item of the ordinary man's diet. Pig farmers have been affected by a rise in the price of feeding stuffs during the past year but, in spite of this, pig farming ,remains an important industry in the Colony. Poultry keepers, too, have had a difficult year owing to the high cost of production, and some of them are raising quail, rabbits and pigeons in addition.

Agricultural Department

The Agricultural Department was formed in 1946, and its growth and development have been rapid. There are six agricultural stations in the Colony. These are situated at Tsun Wan, Sheung Shui, Tai Po, Sha Tin and Sai Kung on the mainland, and at Silver Mine

64

PRODUCTION

Bay on Lantao Island. The demonstration of new and improved agricultural and animal husbandry techniques is undertaken, and also the distribution of improved seed and stock. Regular monthly meetings are held with farmers to discuss farming problems.

The fifty-acre research station at Ki Lun Wei, Castle Peak, contains approximately eleven acres of paddy land and four acres of vegetable land, the remainder being used for pigs, poultry and orchards. At this station experiments are carried out in the grow- ing of rice, vegetables and citrus fruits.

The animal husbandry section is studying the effects of crossing various breeds of imported boars with the local sows. It is hoped that, in time, a more definite breeding programme may be started. Local swine are hardy and prolific breeders, and appear to be more resistant to common diseases than imported stock.

At the poultry station, pedigree birds of imported breeds are kept. Work is being done on the crossing of these breeds with local Cantonese hens in an attempt to produce a fast-maturing hybrid suitable for the local market. It has been found that the New Hampshire crossed with the local Cantonese bird makes an excellent hybrid for meat production. Feed trials are also being undertaken.

Inoculation of all cattle against rinderpest, using lapinised vaccine, is another activity undertaken by the division and these inoculations are now compulsory.

Vegetable Marketing Organization

In September, 1946, a vegetable marketing scheme, similar to that started for the marketing of fish, was introduced on the mainland. All vegetables produced in the New Territories mainland or imported into that

65

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

area are sold wholesale by a Vegetable Marketing Organization, the aim of which is to ensure that the vegetable grower receives a fair return for his labour. It is intended that in due course this organization, like the Fish Marketing Organization, will become co-operative enterprise.

a

The Organization undertakes the collection and transport of vegetables from collecting points in the New Territories to a central wholesale market in Kowloon. In the main production areas collecting depots have been established, and farmers operating through them may leave their vegetables in the hands of the Organiza- tion's staff who look after the vegetables until they are sold in the market. The proceeds of sales (less a 10% commission charge) are taken back to the depots and collecting points by the same staff for distribution to the farmers.

The marketing scheme was originally instituted under the Defence Regulations. As the scheme has proved of such benefit to both the producer and con- sumer it was considered desirable to enact permanent legislation, and during the year the "Agricultural Products (Marketing) Ordinance, 1952" was brought into operation. This Ordinance provides for the appointment of the Director of Marketing who is made. a corporation sole with power to acquire and dispose of property. A feature of the Ordinance is the appoint- ment of a Marketing Advisory Board, consisting of the Director as chairman and four other persons nominated by Government who have wide and practical experience of the difficulties and needs of the farmers.

The quantity of vegetables handled by the Organ- ization continue to increase steadily. In 1951, it dealt with 39,775 tons of local vegetables and 13,639 tons of imported, with a total wholesale value of $18,960,670.

66

PRODUCTION

The corresponding figures for 1952 were 46,043 tons of local and 12,071 tons of imported with a total wholesale value of $17,082, 103.

The Scheme for the establishment of collecting centres run entirely by farmers progresses satisfactorily. Five new centres at Fanling, Ta Ku Ling, Ngau Tam Mei, Hung Shui Kiu and Tsun Wan were started during the year. The collecting centre in Fanling, which is the second to be established in this district, and the collecting centre at Kutung which was started in 1951, have subsequently been registered as co- operative vegetable marketing societies. By the end of 1952, about 35% of all locally grown vegetables were being handled by registered co-operative marketing societies and farmer-operated collecting centres.

One of the main problems of the local farmers in recent years has been the lack of a cheap fertilizer. This problem has now been solved to a certain extent by the inauguration of a scheme for the maturation and distribution of night-soil (human excreta).

The Organization has continued to receive valuable financial assistance from Colonial Development and Welfare funds. Grants and loans from this fund have been used to purchase a fleet of 29 diesel engined lorries and helped in the establishment and running of village vegetable collecting centres and depots in the main agricultural districts in the New Territories. Up to the end of 1952, a total sum of $756,057 had been disbursed from Colonial Development and Welfare funds and expended on the construction and running expenses of vegetable collecting centres and depots and the purchase of a land transport fleet.

67 -

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Co-operatives

The main work of the Co-operative Division, which started operation in 1951, has been concentrated on the primary producer, the fishermen and the farmers. During the year, 7 new co-operative societies were registered. Progress has been mainly with the vegetable farmers and it is worthy of note that over 35% of the total vegetable produce of the Colony is now handled through the Co-operative Societies and Collecting Centres (embryo co-operative societies). Other societies registered include three boar service societies, an irrigation society and a fishermen's thrift and loan society.

The boar service societies are proving to be quite popular and many other groups of local pig breeders. have shown interest in forming societies of their own. The Agricultural Department helped by supplying boars free of charge.

The irrigation society, which has been started by Fanling farmers, is expected to be the forerunner of many such societies but its value to the farming popula- tion will not be apparent until the arrival of the usual drought period in the Spring. C

The fostering of co-operation among the fishermen is proving to be difficult. This is chiefly because, at the moment, the fishing community is far from stable and not until international conditions settle down can any large scale improvement be expected. A credit society, however, has been registered and it is expected that groups of fishermen in other fishing villages will follow closely the progress of this society which the Taipo purse-seiner fishermen have formed.

68

PRODUCTION

Forestry

Hong Kong is not a timber producing territory and it is necessary to import timber for building purposes and fuel to meet the requirements of the large popula- tion. The Colony's hills are for the most part covered with grass but in some places, particularly in the more remote river valleys, there is a dense cover of wild tree growth. Elsewhere, New Territories villagers have established small plantations of pine trees for their own use. The cutting of wild tree wood is strictly prohibited and villagers are largely dependent on grass for fuel. In some areas the natural grass cover has been com- pletely destroyed, probably due to repeated fires or excessive grass cutting by villagers in the past. these areas the surface soil has been completely washed away by heavy rains and the sub-soil is eroding seriously. Gullies are forming and the soil is being washed down to the plains below, where it is causing much damage by silting up irrigation channels and paddy fields.

In

It is the aim of the Forestry Division to establish forests on the Colony's hills to protect the water supplies; to prevent erosion; to produce firewood and small timber for the future; and to enhance the beauty of Hong Kong. During the summer months the rain- fall in Hong Kong is extremely heavy and, where there is insufficient vegetation, rain beats directly on the soil, breaking it up and washing it down the slopes. Where, however, there is a proper forest cover, the foliage of the trees breaks the force of the rain and, as forest soil is extremely porous, the rain sinks into the soil to re-appear later in the form of small streams. Thus the water is held in the soil and does not run directly down the slopes, and the flow of water into the reservoirs is extended into the dry season.

69

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Afforestation for the protection of water supplies. may be seen in the Kowloon Reservoir area where severe erosion took place after the destruction of trees during the Japanese occupation. Extensive sowing of pine and the planting of eucalyptus have been carried. out since the re-occupation and, at present, nearly the whole of the catchment area has been afforested.

In some parts of the Tai Lam valley, which is to be developed by Government as a catchment area for a new reservoir, there has been severe erosion but in other parts there is a considerable amount of wild tree growth and large numbers of pine trees have been planted by the villagers. The Forestry Division has established an outpost in this area to protect the natural growth, and the villagers are to be compensated for their pine plantations which are to be taken over by Government as a nucleus for afforestation. In addition, pine seed has been distributed over all badly eroded areas and towards the end of the year a nursery was started and plans were drawn up for extensive affores- tation work in 1953.

+

Another important area is the catchment around the Jubilee Reservoir at Shing Mun. This area is not at present affected by erosion to any extent but afforestation is being carried out. The catchment area above Tsun Wan has also been planted.

Afforestation may only be successfully carried out where vegetation is carefully protected from fires and from illegal woodcutters. Protection against illegal cutting is a difficult problem in Hong Kong because of the great demand for fuel and the high price of firewood. Forest Guards are stationed throughout the Island and the New Territories to patrol the hillsides and to prevent illegal woodcutting. It is almost impossible

70

PRODUCTION

to prevent the outbreak of fires, but an attempt has been made to lessen the risk of fires in plantations by the construction of fire-barriers. In addition, look-out posts have been established from which fires may easily be spotted so that they may be extinguished with the least possible delay.

In some rural areas of the New Territories the villagers have been encouraged to do their own affores- tation and protection work. In the Sai Kung area, for example, the Forestry Division, the district authorities and the village communities work together: the Forestry Division provides seeds and young trees and helps with afforestation, but the villagers do most of the planting themselves and are responsible for pro- tecting the new forests. The whole of Sai Kung village is benefiting from this scheme and the Sai Kung peninsula is rapidly becoming one of the most beautiful and productive forest areas of the Colony.

Industry

GENERAL

1

LIBRA

Shipbuilding is perhaps the oldest industry in Hong Kong, although several light industries were established in the early days of this century. The 1914-1918 war encouraged the establishment of light industries to pro- duce for local consumption some of the goods which could not then be obtained from Europe, but it was the introduction of Imperial Preference, in the nineteen- thirties, which gave the first major stimulus to industry and induced local manufacturers to compete in world markets. This process of expansion was accelerated during the first two years of the second world war

71

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

when Hong Kong was able to make a substantial con- tribution in the form of locally built ships, webbing equipment and various other supplies for military and The most spectacular expansion

civilian purposes. occurred between 1946 and 1950, when unsettled eco- nomic and political conditions in the surrounding territories in the Far East led to large scale investment in the Colony and the establishment of a large number of factories equipped with the most modern machinery for the production of a wide variety of commodities. To-day local industry is responsible for approximately 25% of all Hong Kong's exports and it now plays a most important part in the Colony's economy. There are at present some 1,500 registered factories manufac- turing a wide variety of articles from rubber shoes to rattanware and firecrackers.

Since 1948 Hong Kong has had a stand at the British Industries Fair (Commonwealth Section) where examples of these commodities have been on display. Although attendance at the 1952 Fair was below aver- age, the Hong Kong stand proved a major source of attraction and no less than 550 inquiries from 57 countries were recorded.

HEAVY INDUSTRIES

Owing to Hong Kong's splendid harbour and the inexpensive port facilities, many international shipping lines have made Hong Kong their terminal port. Large and well equipped shiprepairing and shipbuild- ing yards were established to meet this requirement and today, Hong Kong can cater for all demands for repairs and overhauls, and can in addition build vessels up to 10,000 tons.

72

PRODUCTION

The two main shipyards in the Colony are the Hong Kong & Whampoa Dock Co. Ltd. and the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong Ltd. As an illustration of the volume of business undertaken one company, during 1952, drydocked over 300 vessels with an aggregate of over 800,000 gross tons and carried out repairs to some 400 other vessels alongside its wharves and seawalls or at anchor in the harbour.

Included in the category of heavy industries are the factories rolling iron and steel bars and rounds, four of which have been set up in the past few years. These mills employ over 700 workers and while the bulk of their production is intended for local consump- tion, to meet the Colony's extensive building projects, a proportion is available for export. During 1952, over 6,500 tons valued at approximately £350,000 were exported to countries in the Far East, the most impor- tant customer being Thailand.

LIGHT INDUSTRIES

BRARI

It has been mentioned, that Hong Kong manufac- tures a large variety of good quality products; these are too varied to mention in detail, but the most important are :-

Sugar refining

Although a number of small factories are engaged in the manufacture of various sugar products, the only large scale refinery in the Colony is that estab- lished in 1884, by the Taikoo Sugar Refining Co. Ltd. During the Japanese occupation the plant sus- tained considerable damage and had to be completely

73

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

re-equipped with new machinery. It re-opened. in September, 1950, and nearly 500 workers are employed in producing light quality refined sugar, crystals, granulated, half cubes, golden syrup and brown sugar. Raw sugar is usually imported from Mauritius and efforts are being made to develop the pre-war markets of Malaya, Singapore, Thailand, British North Borneo, Burma, Ceylon and Pakistan.

Rope

One factory, established over 67 years ago, the Hong Kong Rope Manufacturing Co. Ltd., employs 170 workers. Its production includes lifeboat falls, flag lines, point lines, driving ropes, drilling cables and hawsers, which are manufactured from raw fibre imported from the Philippines. In 1947, the monthly production was approximately 300,000 lbs. but in 1952, this figure was increased to 1,961,347 lbs.

Cement

ARIES

The only manufacturers of cement in the Colony are the Green Island Cement Co. Ltd. This old estab- lished Hong Kong concern opened its first works in Macao, on Green Island, in 1889 and ten years later built a second factory in Kowloon, on the site of its present works. It operated successfully for many years and its product became widely known in the Far East until, in the 1920's, it became clear that a modern plant was needed to ensure economic manufacture and to meet growing competition. The new plant was com- pleted in 1930 with a capacity of 110,000 tons of cement

per annum.

74

PRODUCTION

The Company suffered severely during the occu- pation and half its machinery was removed by the Japanese. Since 1945, this equipment has nearly all been replaced from England, and the Company's manufacturing capacity is now back to the pre-war

level.

The manufacture of cement in Hong Kong is an exepensive process, as none of the raw materials are available locally, with the exception of clay and iron ore. Limestone is imported from Indo-China, China and Japan; coal from Japan, China, Indo-China, Indonesia, India; gypsum from America and the Mediterranean, and paper bags from Europe.

The Company's principal market is Hong Kong, but exports are made to Malaya and Borneo and occasionally other neighbouring territories.

Cigarette Manufacture

The Colony has four cigarette factories. Of these, the factories of the British-American Tobacco Company (Hong Kong) Ltd., the largest, and Nanyang Brothers Tobacco Company Ltd. have been established for more than twenty years. The Hong Kong Tobacco Company Ltd. and the London Tobacco Company Ltd. were established after the war. The industry employs over 1,250 persons and operates modern machinery which produces cigarettes of all qualities at competitive prices. A large part of the wrapping material used in the manufacture is printed in Hong Kong, providing work for the Colony's several modern colour-printing works and, here again, a very high standard has been reached. The tobacco and cigarette industry is of considerable importance to the Colony.

75

BT

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Whilst locally manufactured cigarettes form the bulk of consumption, considerable quantities of ciga- rettes are imported from the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

Textiles

This is undoubtedly one of Hong Kong's more important industries and covers all processes including cotton, silk and wool spinning, weaving, knitting, dyeing, finishing and printing. It also includes the manufacture of made-up garments such as shirts, pyjamas and underclothing and provides employment for 30,000 workers.

Of the twenty-five factories engaged in various types of spinning, thirteen cotton mills operating approximately 205,000 spindles have a monthly produc- tion of 14,000 to 15,000 400-lbs. bales of cotton yarn. Production covers a range of counts from tens to forty- twos singles but a number of mills are equipped for manufacturing twofold yarns. In addition there are three factories producing satisfactory qualities of sewing threads. Of the total output about 40 to 50% is taken up by local consumption in the Colony's weaving and knitting mills, the balance being exported to markets in the Far East; the most important being Indonesia, Pakistan, Formosa, Burma, Thailand and South Korea. During 1952, exports exceeded 80,000 bales valued at approximately £8,600,000.

Some of the spinning mills are also equipped for weaving, but in addition there are nearly 130 weaving factories operating 4,000 power looms. There are also a considerable number of hand looms in both factories and private houses. The capacity for cloth production, based on 36′′ wide sheeting and calculated on full time.

76

PRODUCTION

working, is approximately 9,000,000 yards a month, a substantial quantity being used in the local made-up garments industry. Exports are fairly considerable, exceeding 17,000,000 square yards in 1952 and valued at £1,630,000. The main markets include Indonesia, Formosa, Philippines, Malaya, and the United King- dom.

There are about 200 knitting mills manufacturing a wide range of made-up garments, principally of the T-shirt and sleeve vest variety. The main markets for cotton singlets are Indonesia, Malaya and Thailand and during 1952 a total of 4,845,688 dozens, valued at nearly £6,000,000, were exported; while for shirts a total of 1,086,574 dozens valued at over £3,000,000 were shipped to such markets as Indonesia, British Africa and Malaya.

Footwear

Rubber shoes and boots are the main items of foot- wear manufactured and nearly 60 factories employing 8,000 workers are involved. Exports are seasonal and at times restricted by import controls but the United Kingdom is by far the most important market, since imports into that country are on open general licence. Total exports during 1952 were 417,463 dozen pairs valued at approximately £1,100,000.

Enamelware

There are 16 factories operating 64 muffle furnaces and employing over 3,500 workers engaged in the manufacture of enamelled household utensils. Despite the severe Japanese competition in 1952, the exports of local enamelware were valued at nearly £3,000,000. The main markets were Indonesia, Thailand, British Africa, Malaya, Burma, Formosa and Pakistan.

77

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Vacuum flasks and jugs

The combined output of six factories employing over 700 workers is in the region of 10,000 dozens per month but, due to increased competition in over- seas markets and a rise in the cost of raw materials, exports during 1952 did not exceed 88,054 dozens, valued at about £360,000. The main markets were Malaya and Thailand.

Plastics

There has been a gradual expansion of business. for this new industry and exports in 1952, were valued at over £300,000, the main markets being Indonesia. and Malaya. Twenty factories are engaged in making plastic articles but only two of these have adapted them- selves to modern methods of production. They can produce almost any article required.

Foodstuffs

2

Nearly 80 factories, employing 5,000 workers, pre- serve and can for export various types of foodstuffs including fruits, water chestnuts, salted vegetables and soya beans. Malaya, Thailand, the United States and Burma are the most important markets and exports during 1952 were valued at nearly £1,000,000.

Paint

Eight modern paint factories, employing over 300 workers, produce high quality paints for local sale ast well as for export to such markets as Malaya, Thailand and Burma. Exports in 1952 were in the region of 5,500,000 pounds and valued at £600,000.

78

PRODUCTION

Aluminiumware

Exports in 1952, of household utensils made of aluminium reached the figure of nearly £400,000. The main markets were Indonesia and Malaya. Ten factories are engaged in the manufacture of these utensils and many of the local torch factories have now produced models made from aluminium. A few enter- prising rolling mills are turning out good quality aluminium sheets which are in great local demand.

Electric torches

There are 22 factories engaged in this work and nearly 4,000 labourers are employed. The standard of workmanship is excellent and Hong Kong's torches have a world wide reputation. Exports in 1952 were approximately 2,000,000 dozens with a total value of £2,500,000. The main markets included India, Indonesia, South America, the United Kingdom, British Africa, Central America, the United States, Burma, Malaya, and Thailand.

Torch batteries

LIBR

In 1952, 17 factories employing 900 workers pro- duced more than 60,000,000 torch batteries, nearly 55,000,000 of which went

went overseas to markets in Indonesia, Thailand, Formosa, Malaya, Pakistan and Burma. The export value exceeded £875,000.

Torch bulbs

Over 6,000,000 dozens were produced in 1952 by approximately 20 factories employing 1,500 labourers. This industry holds a world wide market, especially in Indonesia, India, the United Kingdom and South

- 79

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

America, and its products are regarded as first class. Exports in 1952 were over 5,600,000 dozens valued at £250,000.

Metal lanterns

This is another industry which has a wide overseas market, including Indonesia and Malaya. Several types are produced but the most popular is the hurricane lamp. Hong Kong has six main factories employing 1,000 workers and exports in 1952 were valued at over £400,000. Tinplate is normally used for hurricane lamps, but brass is an essential material for pressure lanterns. Brass is also used for torches and several rolling mills have met immediate demands by producing high grade brass sheets for local needs.

Matches

There is one other light industry which enjoys a reasonably good market and deserves particular mention. Three large factories, with nearly 1,300 employees, are producing high quality matches for various Far Eastern markets such as Pakistan, Malaya, Thailand, and Indonesia. Exports in 1952 were valued at approximately £160,000.

80

Education

VII

SOCIAL SERVICES

Government expenditure on education has risen from $9 million for the financial year 1947-48 to an estimated $25 million for 1952-53, a total which in- cludes a grant of $1,550,000 to the University.

Fees payable in government and grant-aided pri- mary schools were reduced in order that primary education might be less expensive to parents. At the same time, fees for some secondary classes were raised so that these classes should pay a higher proportion of the actual running costs. An increase in the number of free places in government and grant secondary schools, up to 30% of total enrolment, ensures that needy students shall not be penalized.

Schools and Colleges

Changes in the educational system of the Colony are reflected in the Education Ordinance1952. During the previous forty years all schools, unless specifically exempted, were required to do little more than register with the Director of Education, to be open to his inspection and to comply with regulations con- cerning staff, buildings, number of pupils, syllabuses, text books and health. A number of improvements based on experience are incorporated in the new ordin- ance. These include statutory recognition of the repre- sentative Board of Education which has existed since 1920, the specification of the particular grounds upon which registration of schools, teachers and managers may be refused or cancelled and the provision of an appeals board to deal with disputed decisions in such

81

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

cases. All schools must be administered by a respon- sible supervisor and, in addition, a clear distinction has been drawn between the fully trained teacher and the teacher academically qualified but without professional training. Further details on the effects of this Ordin- ance are given in the chapter on Legislation on page 115.

The schools in the Colony may be classified as follows:-

(1) Government schools which are staffed and maintained by the Education Department: in this cate- gory may be placed the three teacher training colleges. and the Technical College.

(2) Grant schools which are run by missionary bodies with the financial assistance of Government under the provisions of the Grant Code.

(3) Subsidized schools which receive a subsidy from Government under the Subsidy Code.

(4) Schools financed by the Government of the United Kingdom for children of service personel and those entirely non-secular in character, which are exempt from the provisions of the Education Ordinance, 1952.

(5) Private schools.

There are twenty grant schools, some of which are boarding schools. All of them give secondary education and the majority have primary classes as well. Under the terms of the grant code, Government pays the difference between approved expenditure and the income. of the schools from tuition fees. Approved expenditure includes all salaries, most of the running costs, and the rent of school premises; a grant-aided school which owns its own building may be given an annual building depreciation grant to be used solely as a rebuilding

82

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Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

Hong Kong is striving to bring the benefits

of education to all the children of the Colony.

Tom Chan

Photo: E. C. Powles

NG PUBLIC LI

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Practical training supplements

text book theor

#

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In the Government and Government-Aided Schools of the Colony a high standard of education is maintained.

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E

More playgrounds and open spaces are planned.

ARIES

NogappoopPORIUYRIACODEPO_YORDULVEVEN.

SYA KUUBA

Photo: Tsau Tsor Yan

?

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Official and voluntary bodies co-operate to run Boys' and Girls' Clubs. The young carol singers (above) were heard in the B.B.C.'s round-the-world broadcast on Christmas Day; the youthful players in the nativity tableau are members of another club.

NO

WAKAZININ SESTRA KHOAKANGETRESOLVERENDE PRENDEZETTENROSTE

1

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I

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fund. Grants may also be made to cover 50% of the cost of new buildings, and major repairs and interest free loans may also be advanced for new buildings. All the grant-aided schools are linked with particular missions or religious orders and a strong tradition of Christian service is maintained.

The objects of the Subsidy Code are to enable properly qualified teachers to open schools without running into debt and to keep fees at a reasonable level. It also ensures that teachers are paid adequate salaries. Most of the 316 subsidized schools are situated in rural areas. They provide primary education for boys and girls and use Chinese as the language of instruction. Without a subsidy many would be compelled either to charge high tuition fees in order to pay their staffs or to balance their budgets by paying inadequate salaries, thus lowering the standard of teaching. The amount of each subsidy varies from year to year but it is never less than half the difference between expenditure and income. A Subsidized Schools Council, whose members represent the various types of schools and the various districts in the new territories, is helping to overcome the isolation of many of the schools and facilitate the diffusion of modern educational ideas.

Private schools provide education for more than 60% of the children at school, and form an integral part of the educational system. There are now 693 such schools, and enrolment increased by almost 10,000, to 130,184, during 1952. The majority of these schools supply primary education in Chinese but 31 are com- plete Chinese secondary schools and many more have secondary classes. An increasing number offer Anglo- Chinese education and many cater especially for adults who wish to take technical, vocational or commercial subjects.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The increasing responsibility of Government in education is indicated by the extension of the activities of the Education Department and the greater financial assistance given to schools. In 1941, government schools. catered for 2,700 pupils, in 1952 the figure was 15,579. In the same period enrolment in grant schools rose from 10,000 to 14,409, and in subsidized schools from 23,000 to 40,976. In addition, visits by inspectors to all types of schools are more frequent and schools have learned to welcome and value the advice given. Educational standards are gradually being raised.

In Chinese schools Cantonese is most commonly used as the language of instruction, but a small number of schools teach in Hakka and Mandarin. In Anglo- Chinese and English schools the medium of instruction. is English. Chinese schools in which English may be studied as a language subject have divided a twelve year course into 6 years of primary and six years of secondary or middle school. In 1952, a Chinese School Leaving Certificate Examination was held for the the first time and the total number of entries was 961. Post secondary education in Chinese is given at the teacher training colleges and at the Evening School of Higher Chinese Studies where in September, 1952, there were 14 classes and 455 students.

The reorganization of Anglo-Chinese Schools, which formerly gave an eight year course, after either 4 or 6 years of primary school education, has com- menced and eventually they will conform to a system of a 6 year primary course followed by 5 years of secondary education leading to the Hong Kong English School Certificate Examination. The 1953 entry for this certificate will exceed 1,500. The Hong Kong University Matriculation Course will be extended to a

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two year course as from 1954, when candidates must take selected subjects at an advanced level; a change which will bring the examination into line with require- ments for United Kingdom Universities.

English schools are similar to those in the United Kingdom. Junior schools accept children from the age of 5 and give infant and primary school education, but children under 11, whose parents are in one of the three Services, normally attend military schools. King George V School provides secondary education up to the level of the General Certificate of Education.

Education in the colony has not only meant expansion of existing establishments and an increase in expenditure but has also evolved a more complete under- standing of the implications of setting up certain definite standards of educational practice and methods.

The Committee on Higher Education, under the chairmanship of Mr. J. Keswick, C.M.G., has recom- mended changes advisable in post-secondary education other than that given at the teacher training colleges and the University of Hong Kong. Among the main projects recommended are:

(a) The institution of pass degree courses at the University in Arts, Commerce and Science in the medium of Chinese.

(b) Increased allocations by Government for scholarships, and expansion of facilities for aiding needy students.

(c) The establishment of a Government Institute of English to meet the urgent demand for organized courses in English, leading to recognized certificates or diplomas.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

(d) Grants of interest free loans to students wishing to enter the teaching profession, and the extension of the existing teacher training colleges so as to provide 300 non graduate teachers each year. This proposal is designed to attract graduates to the teaching profession.

(e) The establishment by the University of a Department of Extra-Mural Studies.

Besides giving generous subsistence for students at the training colleges Government provides scholarships to the University of Hong Kong where 55 students are entirely or partially maintained. One scholarship tenable at any British or Commonwealth University is awarded every three years; scholarships are also provided under the Colonial Development and Welfare Act, by the British Council and by the Federation of British Industries.

Progress can be seen in the endeavour to improve. education for citizenship. It is the policy of the Government to link the rural schools more closely to the life of the community, not only by giving a rural bias to the syllabus but by encouraging the schools to become centres of community life. Civics is a subject in the English School Certificate Examination, new pamphlets on this subject have been issued in Chinese and English, and students and teachers in training are encouraged to appreciate the practical aspects as well as the ideals of social service. Planned visits to factories, newspaper offices and government institutions. have proved to be of special interest and value. Educa- tion Week enabled the public to see the schools, and a U.N.E.S.C.O. Science Exhibition, with teachers and senior students demonstrating some of the basic prin- ciples of scientific knowledge, attracted nearly 10,000 visitors a day. A smaller exhibition on Human Rights. was included in this United Nations project.

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SOCIAL SERVICES

A Text-book and Syllabuses Committee has been established to draw up model syllabuses and advise on text-books and publications. An Advisory Committee has also been formed to make recommendations regard- ing the general principles which should govern Chinese studies and the content of Chinese language, literature and history courses.

The Hong Kong Schools Sports Association ex- tended its activities to include organized competitions in badminton, lawn tennis and table tennis, in addition to school football and basketball leagues, and inter- school swimming and athletic sports. A Pool Grounds Scheme has been in operation for the equitable allocation of grounds for football, hockey and cricket. Teachers are tending to move away from formal periods of exer- cises in schools as a result of the increased interest in athletics.

The visit of Dr. Lofthouse, examiner of the Asso- ciated Board of the Royal School of Music, did much to stimulate interest in music; enthusiasm for dramatic art was maintained in the annual inter-school dramatic competition when both Cantonese and English plays were presented.

Adult education is carried out mainly through the Evening Institute classes organized by the Education Department and by private night schools. The Insti- tute provides courses in English and in commercial and technical subjects. Adult classes in the New Territories aim principally at the removal of illiteracy.

Mr. F. H. Reid, the Principal of South East London Technical College, visited the Colony at the invitation of Government to advise on the framing of a far-sighted and comprehensive policy for the develop- ment of technical education in the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

For the first time since 1941 students, who left both the Junior Technical School and the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Technical College, completed four and three year courses respectively. Close contact was maintained with local employers and representatives of organized labour, and successful students were very rapidly absorbed by local industry. Full time day courses are given in building, wireless telegraphy and mechanical engineering, and evening courses in building, engineering, surveying, shipbuild- ing, diesel fitting and wireless operating. Enrolment. in the evening department of the Technical College reached the record figure of 2,600. The Technical Education Investigating Committee, in the process of preparing its report, has issued an interim recommen- dation urging financial provision for extensions to the Technical College in the financial year 1953-54.

The Salesian Society, with the help of government subsidies, already operates two trade schools on the island of Hong Kong, and it is expected that auto- mobile repairing, carpentry, shoemaking and tailoring will be taught in their new school which is being built in Kowloon. Early in 1953, a new Technical School for girls will be opened at Causeway Bay. In the first year there will be a common curriculum for all; the second year will have three courses, domestic, commercial and industrial. The third year will have. five courses, domestic, nursing, commercial, art and industrial.

Full time training for students and refresher courses for practising teachers are given at three colleges. Ninety six students are enrolled at the Grantham Training College receiving a one year course for teach- ing in urban Chinese primary schools, 62 at Northcote

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Training College and 44 at the Rural Training College, both of which offer two year training courses. During vacations, refresher courses and conferences took place at all three colleges, including a special course for un- qualified teachers which commenced with an enrolment of 50. The Rural Training College has undertaken a number of extra-mural activities for the benefit of the locality; students, and some of the pupils of attached schools produced varied programmes of plays, singing and physical training activities and past students opened a third free evening school.

A new venture in voluntary service is the periodic visits of teachers from schools and training colleges to give talks to the prisoners at Stanley gaol.

Health

The statutory responsibility for the health of the Colony is shared by the Medical Department, the Urban Council and the District Commissioner, New Territories.

The Urban Council is the responsible authority for administering the public health laws governing sanita- tion, food inspection, food establishments and offensive trades within the Urban District of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and New Kowloon. The District Commis- sioner, New Territories, is responsible for administering these laws in the New Territories. They are both advised by the Director of Medical and Health Services and assisted by Health Officers and Inspectors.

URBAN COUNCIL

The Urban Council, as constituted under the Urban Council Ordinance, consists of a Chairman, the Deputy Director of Health Services, who is the Vice-Chairman,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Director of Public Works, the Commissioner of Police, and eight unofficial members, two of whom are elected. The remaining six, of whom three must be Chinese, are appointed by the Governor. All unofficial members hold office for one

year.

The Deputy Director of Health Services co-ordinates the work of the Medical Department and the Urban Council. He is the professional medical adviser to the Council.

The Chairman of the Urban Council is also the administrative head of the Sanitary Department, com- prising a staff of nearly 200 professional and technical officers and over five thousand skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers.

Health Inspection

The Urban District is divided into five health areas and each area is sub-divided into districts, numbering sixty-two, of which thirty-seven are on the Island and twenty-five in Kowloon and New Kowloon. The average population of each health district is estimated to be 27,500 persons. In charge of each health district is a Health Inspector, a Senior Health Officer and three Health Officers.

The New Territories are divided into five health districts of which three are on the mainland and two on the islands. The District Commissioner of the New Territories is assisted by a Health Officer and Health Inspectors, who are seconded from the Sanitary Department.

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Health Inspectors not engaged in district work are employed on special duties connected with food inspection, squatters, hawkers, anti-epidemic measures, conservancy, scavenging and cemeteries.

A total of 4,428 licences and permits have been issued by the Urban Council, of which 737 were applications approved during the year. All premises holding licences or permits undergo a weekly or bi- weekly inspection by Health Inspectors.

A total of 41,859 nuisances were dealt with by statutory notice during the year.

Refuse Disposal

Approximately 1,140 cubic yards of domestic and trade refuse are removed daily from the Urban District. This refuse is carried in special barges and used as filling for reclamation on the north-east side of the harbour at Sham Wan.

Conservancy

A daily average of 223 cubic yards of excremental wastes is removed from 47,331 domestic floors in the Urban District. About half the nightsoil collected is made available to the Department of Agriculture for use 'as fertilizer by farmers in the New Territories; before release for distribution all nightsoil is subject to maturation, under strict control, to ensure destruction of harmful pathogenic organisms. The remainder is jettisoned well out to sea in order to ensure that it is carried away from the land by the tides.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Personal Hygiene

The Urban Council maintains four bath-houses in Hong Kong and three in Kowloon and New Kowloon. Each year, approximately 500,000 baths are provided free of charge for men, 250,000 for women and 250,000 for children. The seven existing bath-houses were built when the urban population was one quarter of its present figure, and long queues form at the end of a day's work. A programme for the provision of more public bath-houses and latrines is under consideration.

Markets

Apart from wholesale markets, there are 18 retail markets on the Island of Hong Kong and 13 in Kowloon and New Kowloon, two additional markets, one on each side, having been built since last year. war years resulted in the destruction of seven markets, only two of which have been rebuilt to date. A programme has been drawn up in the construction of new markets.

The markets contain a total of 1,857 stalls for the sale of fresh meat, fresh fish, poultry fruit and vegetables. In addition there are nearly 483 food shops licensed for the sale of fresh food. Licensed hawkers may sell fruit and vegetables, but fresh meat, fresh fish and poultry must be sold either at a market stall or at a licensed food shop. These restrictions are necessary to ensure that supplies are wholesome. Only meat slaughtered in one of the two government abattoirs may be sold in the urban area. It bears an official mark to show that it has been examined both before and after slaughter. During the year these abattoirs handled 623,571 pigs, 3,235 cattle and 9,561 sheep or goats; during the same period the carcases of 6,242 pigs, 178 cattle and sheep were destroyed as unfit for human consumption.

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Veterinary

The veterinary work of the Urban Council is supervised by a Senior Veterinary Officer. The Council is responsible for the Colony's two abattoirs and the animal quarantine stations. In addition, it has statutory powers for the control of rabies and other animal diseases within the Colony.

During the year the campaign to eradicate rabies was pursued with continued vigour. Altogether 15,919 dogs were licensed and inoculated with a new type of vaccine, avianised Flury strain virus; and 247 unlicensed dogs were caught and destroyed. As a result, the urban area remained completely free of rabies although six isolated cases occurred in the frontier villages of the New Territories where there was one human death from rabies.

The work of inoculating farmstock against certain diseases was carried out by the staff of the Agricultural Department under the supervision of the Council's Senior Veterinary Officer. Inoculation against rinder- pest was provided for 10,800 cattle and buffaloes. No case of this disease occurred during the year. Although livestock diseases are widespread throughout the Colony, none assumed serious proportions.

A total of 695,658 swine, 3,976 cattle and buffaloes and 11,042 goats were handled at the Council's animal depots and abattoirs and of these over 95% were imported.

Pest Control

The Pest Control Section has a total strength of seventy three employees, under a Pest Control Officer.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Its work consists of control of the domestic rodent and insect pests, and the maintenance of public health through the prevention of various animal-borne diseases. It also gives advice and assistance, and provides training for pest control duties in the Services and in private undertakings.

Squatters

Government's resettlement policy was announced in January, 1952, and is concerned with the gradual elimination of the unhealthy squatter colonies in the urban area of Hong Kong which, by the end of 1951, contained over 300,000 persons, and with resettling the occupants in twenty resettlement areas in the Urban District The responsibility for carrying out the re- settlement policy is vested in the Urban Council.

Within the twenty resettlement areas are seven in which some resettlement had taken place over the previous three or four years. Of the 20 areas, 14 are now in use and by the end of December, 1952, the total resettled population was 34,550 persons living in 4,520 wooden huts and 2,200 houses or bungalows of various approved designs. There are also 130 shops, and conveniences in the form of water supply, roads, and latrines have been provided. Electricity is avail- able in several areas.

Provision has been made for the resettlement of industrial workshops formerly located in squatter areas and by December, 26 factories were operating or under construction. The majority of them are two- storey weaving and rattan establishments employing settlers living in the vicinity. Within all areas scope. is offered for the development of cottage or home in- dustries, and there are now 282 houses used as pre- mises for hand-loom weaving, embroidery, basket-

94

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making, rattan furniture making, cobbling and tailor- ing. About 720 persons are employed in these under- takings.

Good progress has been made during the year in providing schools for certain resettlement areas and there are now five small schools in operation, with a further three, of six classrooms, under construction by the Maryknoll Mission. The Mission has also estab- lished three welfare centres in the King's Park, Chai Wan and Tung Tau Resettlement areas.

During the year, as a result of organized clearances of squatter colonies, some 2,900 huts housing about 3,900 families were removed. Some 15,000 persons who were involved in seven outbreaks of fire in various squatter areas were given the opportunity of resettle-

ment.

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT

This Department, under the control of the Director of Medical and Health Services, has a staff of 3,051. Its responsibility is the provision of general curative and public health services with the exception of those relating to sanitation in the Urban areas. There are three main sub-divisions of the department, hospital, public health and investigation.

General curative services are provided by eleven hospitals, with a total of 1,905 beds, and nineteen dis- pensaries, three polyclinics and three dental clinics. These are augmented by five private hospitals which are partially financed by Government and which provide an additional 1,494 beds. There are in addition various private and charitable hospitals providing a further 938 beds. The total hospital bed space in the Colony amounts to 4,337 beds.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The public health services include Port Health administration, preventive inoculations, maternal and child health, school health, malaria control, tuberculosis and general health education. An anti-venereal diseases service is also operated.

The investigation division consists of a pathological institute in Victoria and another in Kowloon, a clinical laboratory at the Queen Mary Hospital, the chemical and bio-chemical laboratories and the public mortuaries.

General Health

With the exception of one isolated case of smallpox, early the year, no major disease occurred which required quarantine provisions. There was, however, a considerable increase in the incidence of such notifiable infectious diseases as enteric fever, diphtheria and tuber- culosis. There was also an increase in the number of cases of malaria. These increases can be attributed in part to the general overcrowding in the urban areas and the unsatisfactory sanitary conditions in the squatter colonies. There was, however, a reduced incidence of cerebrospinal meningitis, poliomyelitis, chickenpox, whooping cough and bacillary dysentery.

Maternity Services

Certain beds in Government hospitals are set aside for maternity cases and additional facilities are provided. by private maternity homes, the number of which increased during the year. The total number of maternity beds in the Colony had increased from 940 in 1951, to 1,023 at the end of 1952. Private maternity homes are registered and supervised in accordance with the provisions of the Nursing and Maternity Homes

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Registration Ordinance. The number of trained mid- wives qualified to practise, and registered with the Midwives Board, increased from 903 to 980.

The figure for maternal mortality showed a further satisfactory drop during the year to the low level of 1.14 per thousand births as compared with the figures of 1.59 in 1951, and 1.7 in 1950.

Child Health

There was a further decline in the infant mortality rate, the figure for the year being 77.1 per thousand live births as compared with 91.8 in 1951. Although the facilities available for the treatment of sick children were only slightly increased during the year there was a substantial increase in attendances, the total for 1952, 277,999, being some 82,000 greater than in the previous year. Children's clinics are provided at 17 places throughout the Colony.

Infant Mortality

BRARI

Died under

Year

1 year of

age

Mortality rate per 1,000 live births

1946

2,770

89.I

1947

4,346

102.3

1948

4,324

91.1

1949

5,444

99.4

1950

6,037

99.6

1951

6,285

91.8

1952

5,546

77.1

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Pre-Natal Mortality

Year

Stillbirths

Stillbirth rate

1946

685

21.6

1947

1,348

30.8

1948

...

1,251

25.7

1949

1,321

23.5

1950

1,343

22.2

1951

I, 180

17.2

1952

1,157

16.1

Neo-Natal Mortality

The numbers of deaths of children under 4 weeks.

have been as follows:

J

Number of

Year

deaths

Neo-natal mortality rate

1946

1,001

32.2

1947

1,463

34.4

1948

1,433

30.2

1949

1,609

29.4

1950

1,819

30.0

1951

2,141

31.3

1952

1,890

26.3

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Notifiable Diseases

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The following table sets forth the more important causes of death from communicable diseases :

Cases

Case

Diseases

Chinese

Non- Chinese

Total Deaths fatality

rate

Smallpox

1

2

3

Typhus Fever

(Scrub)

0

6

6

Amoebiasis

125

76

201

7

3.5%

Dysentery

(Bacillary) ....

269

66

335

21

6.3%

(Clinical)

1

0

1

1

Enteric Fever

1,211

19

1,230

158

12.8%

Chickenpox

123

53

176

4

2.3%

C.S.M.

(Meningococcal) ..

12

0

12

LO

5

41.7%

Diphtheria

979

8

987

157

15.9%

Measles

647

27

674

77

11.4%

Poliomyelitis, acute

14

LO

5

19

21.1%

Scarlet Fever

4

4

......

Whooping cough

442

10

452

LO

5

1.1%

Rabies (Human) ..

1

0

1

1

100 %

(Animal) ..

6

6

100 %

Puerperal Fever

6

0

6

1

16.7%

- Malaria

962

48

1,010

46

4.6%

Tuberculosis

14,778

43 14,821 3,573

24.1%

There was a nil return for cholera, bubonic plague, epidemic typhus, yellow fever and relapsing fever.

99

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

(a) Enteric Fever.

There was a further increase in the number of cases of this disease reported during the year. The incidence has risen steadily since 1946, as shown below:--

Year

Cases

Deaths

Case fatality rate

1946

221

115

50%

1947

246

61

25%

1948

311

69

22.2%

1949

408

89

21.8%

1950

907

1951

1,024

160

17.6%

134

13.1%

1952

1,230

158

12.8%

The reason for this increase is related to the poor sanitation and general overcrowding that prevails in parts of the Colony. It is, however, of interest to note that cases reported from the squatter areas formed only 16% of the total. The infection was widespread throught the Colony but, naturally, occurred with the greatest frequence in the areas of the highest population density. As in previous years the highest incidence. was recorded during the summer months, while during the cooler months there was a drop.

Anti-typhoid inoculation was provided on a wide scale and the public health staff concentrated their efforts. on the supervision of the restaurants and the handling of food.

(b) The Dysenteries.

Although there was an increase of 30.5% in the cases of amoebic dysentery recognized, cases of bacil- lary dysentery showed a decrease of 10.2% as compared

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with 1951. Of the 201 cases of amoebic dysentery, 76 or 37.8% were non-Chinese, and of the 336 cases of bacillary dysentery, 66 or 19.6% were non-Chinese.

(c) Diphtheria.

The incidence of this infection has risen steadily since 1949 and was accentuated during 1952, as shown in the following table :-

Year

Cases

Deaths

Case fatality rate

1946

161

62

38.5%

1947

122

42.6%

1948

49

194

261

75

28.7%

1950

524.

135

25.8%

ww

1951

574

121

21.1%

1952

987

157

15.9%

RIES

In spite of the increased case incidence there has been a substantial drop in the case fatality rate which reflects an awakening of the public to the importance of seeking early and proper medical treatment. Never- theless, only too often, cases brought to the clinics and hospitals are in extremis and treatment in such cases is not always successful.

Throughout the year immunization of infants and children against this infection continued steadily and some 65,000 children received a first injection, but only 33,332 returned for the necessary second injection. At the end of the year plans were well advanced for an intensive campaign to encourage immunization during the first quarter of 1953.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

(d) Cerebro-spinal meningitis.

In spite of the conditions of overcrowding the falling incidence of this infection, which was noted in 1951, continued in 1952. During the year there were 12 cases with 5 deaths as compared with 26 cases and 13 deaths in 1951.

(e) Measles.

During 1952, 25% more cases of this infection occurred than in the previous year. Infections num- bered 674 and there were 77 deaths, the majority of which resulted from the pulmonary complications of the disease.

Kur Chickenpox.

This infection was less prevalent with 176 cases notified and 4 deaths as compared with 281 cases and 3 deaths in 1951.

(g) Poliomyelitis.

ARI

There were 19 cases with 4 deaths as compared with 28 cases and 3 deaths in the previous year.

(h) Tuberculosis.

The following table shows the number of cases and deaths occurring each year during the past 7 years. It is interesting to note the decrease in the fatality rate from 64.9% in 1946, to 24.1% in 1952.

This may perhaps mean that the impetus given to the disease by the influx of refugees is partially losing momentum. In April, a B.C.G. campaign was commenced with the

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initial aim of vaccinating all school children. Excellent progress was made with this work and very few school children remained to be vaccinated by December, 1952.

Year

Cases

Deaths Case fatality rate

1946

2,801

1,818

64.9%

1947

4,855

1,863

38.4%

1948

6,279

1,961

31.2%

1949

7,510

2,611

34.7%

1950

9,067

3,263

36.0%

1951

13,886

4, 190

30.2%

1952

14,821

3,573

24.1%

(i) Malaria.

During 1952, there was a considerable increase in the number of cases of this disease, there being 1,010 cases with 46 deaths as compared with 526 cases and 35 deaths in the previous year. The increased incidence could not be taken to indicate inadequate control measures in the urban areas as in the majority of cases there was a history of exposure to infection in the New Territories, which are outside the controlled

areas.

(j) Rabies.

The recorded incidence of this infection, both in humans and in animals, was much the same

as in the previous year. One human and 6 animal cases, all of which were fatal, were notified. The cases all occurred in the New Territories.

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Housing

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New Buildings and Repairs

During 1952, 524 plans involving the construction of 1,356 buildings were submitted to the Director of Public Works for approval. These included 603 European type dwellings, 587 Chinese type dwellings, 48 factories, I hotel, 4 cinemas or theatres, 13 schools, 4 churches, 10 dormitories, 6 club buildings, 12 offices, 1 temple, 1 Girl Guide headquarters and 65 godowns and stores. There were also 3,379 plans covering rehabilitation, alteration and additions, mostly to domestic property, 38 site development schemes, and a large number of plans covering minor constructional work, such as garages and temporary buildings.

Housing

The serious shortage of living accommodation in the Colony is still an acute problem, but by carrying out the projects referred to in last year's report Govern- ment is actively assisting in solving the problem.

During the year under review, 100 flats at North Point, Hong Kong, and 270 flats at Sham Shui Po, Kowloon, have been completed, and are now occupied by families with a limited income, who would otherwise be housed in cubicles in Chinese tenement houses or in one of the squatter colonies. The North Point scheme was carried out by the Hong Kong Model Housing Society, financed by the Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation, and the Shum Shui Po project by the Hong Kong Housing Scheme, financed by the Colony's Development Fund. Further similar. schemes are now under consideration.

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SOCIAL SERVICES

Private enterprise has again been active in building construction, and 555 Chinese and 373 European type domestic buildings have been completed and occupied during the year. As the majority of these buildings contain three or more separate floors of flats, this comprises a substantial addition to the Colony's housing accommodation.

Other valuable contributions have been made by certain of the larger industrial undertakings, which have provided dormitories or quarters for their workers, and further undertakings have indicated their intention. of following this lead.

There are, however, many hundreds of old, and ill-ventilated tenement houses, containing approximately one family to every 64 sq. ft. of floor area, the different living spaces being divided into cubicles by the erection of flimsy partitions. One kitchen and one latrine may be shared by eight or more families. Many of these buildings are extremely dilapidated, and many statutory notices have to be served on the owners of these properties to carry out essential repairs.

However, at the end of 1952 the housing position was improved, and there is every sign that this progress will continue during the coming year.

The special problem of the squatter colonies has been vigorously attacked, and a good deal has been done to resettle occupants of these areas in properly controlled sites. Reference to this work is made on page 94. In a number of cases permanent buildings are being erected on the sites formerly occupied by the squatter huts.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Except in the New Territories, buildings in the Colony are controlled by the provisions of the Buildings Ordinance. This was first enacted in 1903, and later revised in 1935. The work of redrafting this ordinance. is now nearing completion.

Social Welfare

Before the war, social welfare work in Hong Kong was largely in the hands of voluntary associations and the Colony has always been fortunate in the number of organizations which have interested themselves in practical and constructive work in this field. The setting up, in 1947, of the Social Welfare Office of the Hong Kong Government did not create a ponderous official organization for the control of the voluntary associations which have served the Colony so well; on the contrary, as the link between Government and the voluntary organizations, this office serves to assist each to continue to play its full part in its particular sphere and to encourage all to achieve the necessary co-ordination by means of consultation and constant liaison.

During 1952 there was considerable expansion in the work undertaken by voluntary agencies as well as in official welfare work by the Social Welfare Office. Economic conditions deteriorated and poverty became more extensive. This factor, together with effective. restrictions on travel to and from China, has within the last few years brought the Colony social problems which have either never previously existed, or have hitherto been insignificant. In the past, free travel in and out. of the Colony increased the population in times of prosperity and led to a drop as trade declined and work became difficult to find. Today poverty is an insufficient reason to warrant return to the villages as in former

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SOCIAL SERVICES

years. The closed frontier has meant that the aged and the physically and mentally handicapped have not returned to their native places when they have become incapable of earning a living. Private homes for the aged are crowded and have long waiting lists and it has become necessary for the Social Welfare Office to under- take the care of blind boys, and crippled and mentally defective persons, under makeshift conditions while long-term plans are being considered.

Community Development

Community Development in Hong Kong, with its large urban population, has naturally progressed along different lines from those in Colonies with a pre- The ancient Chinese dominately rural population. tradition of communal service undertaken by the "Kaifong"

has provided a sound foundation for modern development. The Cantonese word "kaifong'

"responsible citizens" means "neighbours",

or

"elders", and the kaifongs for centuries played a significant part in urban society in South China. They undertook not only the responsibility for charitable and other similar services, such as the provision of free schools and medical attention for the poor, but also for local public works and other community services which are normally the direct responsibility of the adminis- tration.

In the middle of 1949 there began a striking modern development of the Kaifong movement along more formal lines than those described above. Kaifong Welfare Associations, with a written constitution, were formed for carrying out the local development of welfare

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

measures in each urban district. By the end of 1952 there were twenty associations. The following figures show their sustained growth :-

Number of Associations.

Number of

Members.

December 1949

4

Not recorded

December 1950

14

53,800

18

105,400

20

209,400

December 1951

December 1952 ...

These associations are not official bodies, and there is no official representation on the controlling committees which are elected by the members. The function of the Social Welfare Office is purely advisory, and the remarkable achievements of these associations are a tribute not only to the energy and resourcefulness of the members, but to the hard work of the chairmen and committee members.

The main work of the Kaifongs has been to organize free schools and free clinics, sponsor the recruitment and equipment of local divisions of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, provide and equip children's playgrounds and other recreational facilities, and make lively and well-documented representation to Government on such local matters as water supply, street lighting, markets, hawkers and squatters. During 1952, two new valuable lines of work were started. The first was a widespread mass education campaign in matters of public hygiene and orderly and considerate behaviour towards neighbours. The second was the inception of the ladies sections of the Kaifongs which have organized free maternity services, sewing classes. and "Little Mothers Clubs" for the education of young

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SOCIAL SERVICES

mothers. In 1952 the Kaifongs, at the request of a committee appointed to investigate rent control, success- fully undertook a survey of conditions in a large number of premises. These associations have also undertaken the collection and distribution of funds contributed by the public for the relief of the victims of the fire and flood disasters which occurred during the year.

Youth and Child Welfare

In Hong Kong, early economic and social maturity is forced on the majority of the community and youth welfare work is carried out mainly for boys and girls between the ages of nine and sixteen.

The Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association, a volun- tary association, engages in this work among the poorer children who have homes. It runs 20 clubs with 650 members and has 59 affiliated clubs with a membership of 2,637 children, among which are the 12 clubs run by the Social Welfare Office. Other branches of youth welfare work are represented on the Standing Con- ference of Youth Organizations. During the year this Conference completed its first course in youth leadership and five trained social workers qualified in this field. The Conference was presented by the Rotary Club of Hong Kong with a building on an island holiday resort, where children could spend camping holidays. This camp has proved extremely popular, and has been of great benefit to poor children who live most of their lives in slums or shack districts, as well as to those in orphanages.

Considerable progress has been made during the year in the provision of playgrounds. On her visit to the Colony, H.R.H. the Duchess of Kent laid the

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

foundation stone of the new youth centre which Her Majesty the Queen has graciously allowed to be named the 'Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre'. This building, which has plentiful accommodation for a number of social agencies, has large covered and open playgrounds attached to it. It will be run under the supervision of the Children's Playground Association, and will be the Kowloon counterpart to the War Memorial Centre and Southorn Playground on Hong Kong Island.

At the end of the year there were between 3,000 and 3,500 orphans and deprived children being cared for in 21 voluntary orphanages, many of which received grants from Government. The largest organization in the Colony undertaking this work is the Christian Children's Fund Incorporated which is financed by local donations, and by funds raised by the organization in the United States. It cares for 2,300 children in its own orphan- ages, besides giving financial aid to other local orphanages.

The Social Welfare Office, together with the Police, undertake the enforcement of laws which have abolished the "muitsai" system and prevented trafficking in and ill-treatment of women and children. Girls adopted in the Colony are statutory wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and the welfare of these girls is the responsibility of the Social Welfare Office.

A welcome addition to the voluntary work in the Colony is the establishment of a home for the rehabilita- tion of juvenile prostitutes. It is run by the Catholic Sisters of the Good Shepherd who are qualified social workers, with many years experience in moral welfare work. They came to the Colony from Shanghai when

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SOCIAL SERVICES

it became impossible for them to continue there. The home is running in temporary accommodation at the moment, but plans for a permanent building are well under way.

Public Assistance

The Social Welfare Office operates seven welfare centres to which application for direct assistance can be made. The circumstances of applicants are investigated by caseworkers, and preference is given to persons who were born in Hong Kong or who have lived in the Colony for many years. The assistance which can be given includes the issue of free meals and clothing and the placing of children in free schools. During the year an average of 1,284 free meals daily were supplied at welfare centres.

The Social Welfare Office continued to run three camps throughout 1952. The one at North Point is a public assistance institution which has had to take in a number of persons who are unable to look after them- selves and for whom there is no appropriate institution in the Colony. This is an unsatisfactory feature of the camp and proposals for giving specialized care to blind· boys, cripples, and mental defectives are under con- sideration. The second camp at Morrision Hill is a settlement where free communal accommodation, with- out food, is made available to selected applicants. The third camp at Rennie's Mill was started in the middle of 1950, as a partial solution to the problem of refugees fleeing from the civil war in China. This camp includes a large number of blind and disabled persons who are

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

anxious to settle in Formosa but who have been unable to gain admission. By the end of the year, very little. headway had been made with the reception of refugees in Formosa and some 2,600, including 500 disabled or blind persons, were still in the camp.

In addition to the work of Government and the Kaifong associations a number of religious and secular welfare organizations continued their public assistance. on a casework basis, which was rendered increasingly difficult by the economic conditions in the Colony.

Probation Work

The work of the probation officers was further extended in 1952. Work among juvenile offenders continued to be the most important, but the courts also showed a growing tendency to place young adults on probation. Government decided to bring this work up-to-date by abolishing the reformatory run by the Prisons Department and establishing an approved school. The building was ready for occupation at the end of the year and the school will, for the time being, be run by the Salvation Army who will train local staff to take over from them. The first experimental all day club for juvenile first offenders on probation was nearly finished at the end of the year. It is designed to fill in the gaps in the social life of a child which have started him on the road to a criminal life. The proposed Remand Home and Juvenile Court is still only in the planning stage, owing to the difficulty of finding a suitable site.

112

Emergency Relief

SOCIAL SERVICES

A flood and a number of squatter fires occurred during the year, rendering many thousands homeless. Government and voluntary agencies undertook the burden of emergency relief for the victims and the Social Welfare Office cooked and distributed nearly 2,000,000 free meals.

The first disaster occurred at the end of April, when a fire destroyed the huts of some 10,000 persons, and immediate measures for temporary relief were in hand. Within 6 hours of the outbreak of the fire, 3,000 persons were receiving free meals, and in fourteen days a fully equipped camp was built and running. Fire victims stayed in the camp until they were able to make their own arrangements for accommodation. In September exceptionally heavy rainfall, culminating in a cloudburst, made a breach in a large catchment channel and caused extensive flooding in a village in the New Territories. Coming, as it did, when the news of the Lynmouth disaster was fresh in the minds of the public the donations for the relief of these flood victims were exceptionally generous. These persons also received temporary aid in the form of free food and accommodation. In November a second large fire destroyed a comparatively prosperous section of a squatter settlement. Again large quantities of free food were distributed but accommodation was found to be In all these and other lesser disasters magnificent work was done by relief workers from the Kaifongs and other voluntary associations.

unnecessary.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Social Survey and Screening

During the year 60,000 squatters were questioned in connexion with the Squatter Resettlement Scheme described on page 94. The answers given by some 70,000 squatters were anlysed, and an analysis of the figures obtained is of interest. There is a large number of children (a quarter of the squatters are under 10), and young men and women aged 25-40, but there is an exceptionally low proportion of youths and old people. Few of the squatters claim to be completely without work, but about half the men have no regular employ- ment and earn their living by undertaking casual jobs. The average income of a squatter family of 3-4 persons was found to be little more than $160-$240 (£10-£15) a month, which is sufficient to support them at a bare subsistence level. Over 90% of these squatters origin- ally came from the province of Kwangtung and the balance from other parts of China during the three or four years following the war, though a substantial number are old Hong Kong residents.

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+

LIBR

VIII

LEGISLATION

During the year 1952, thirty-three Ordinances were enacted, and reference is made below to the more important of them.

Agricultural Products Marketing. Ordinance No. II places on a permanent footing a marketing scheme originally instituted under the Defence Regulations. The general purpose of that scheme was to afford. material help to vegetable farmers, and to encourage the increased production of vegetables by ensuring that the price at which they were sold to the public was a fair one, and that the profits of middlemen were con- trolled. The scheme proved beneficial to both producers and the community, and the Ordinance is designed to provide, in more permanent form, legislation which may be extended to cover other agricultural products. An Advisory Board has been created, and wide powers of inspection and enforcement vested in the Director of Marketing. A considerable part of the scheme is effected by subsidiary legislation, under which wholesale vegetable markets are established in Kowloon and the New Territories, and restrictions placed on the sale and movement of produce outside the markets.

Criminal law. Ordinance No. 13 makes further and better provision touching offences in relation to passports. Ordinance No. 29 brings the law of the Colony into conformity with that of the United King- dom regarding the age under which a person cannot be sentenced to death. No person under the age of eighteen years at the time when the offence was com- mitted may now be sentenced to death; he may instead be detained during Her Majesty's pleasure.

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URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Registration of Business. Ordinance No. 14 was enacted to give effect to certain recommendations of a committee appointed by the Governor in 1946, to review taxation. Persons carrying on business in the Colony, with certain exceptions, are required to pay an annual fee of $200 in respect of each place of business, subject to a maximum of $600 yearly from any one person. The opportunity was also taken to make provision for the registration of all businesses covered by the Ordinance. Failure to register imposes certain dis- abilities in such matters as the recovery by legal action. of debts, fees and costs.

LE

Import and Export. The consolidation of a number of Ordinances and rules concerning this important

L subject is effected by Ordinance No. 21. Certain new provisions concerning forfeitures are added. The law on this subject, previously scattered in different Ordinances and Defence and Emergency Regulations, is embodied in this Ordinance and the regulations.

AR

Companies. The method of appointing auditors for companies had been the subject of criticism and, to deal with this, Ordinance No. 23 was enacted to amend the Companies Ordinance. Admission to the list of authorized auditors is now controlled by a public Board appointed by the Governor. The Board, which has disciplinary powers, is under the Chairmanship of the Registrar of Companies.

Land. The reclamation works at present being undertaken at Kennedy Town and Causeway Bay are authorized by Ordinances Nos. 28 and 30.

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LEGISLATION

Education. Ordinance No. 33 consolidates and amends the law relating to supervision, teaching and control at schools. The objects of this Ordinance include the provision of official status for a representative Board of Education and specification of the grounds. upon which the registration of schools, teachers and managers may be refused or cancelled. Provision is also made for an appeals board in respect of decisions regarding registration, and the appointment of a supervisor, from among the managers of each school, who will be the authority responsible to the education. department.

Subsidiary legislation. A great deal of subsidiary legislation has been enacted, but there is nothing which calls for special mention in this field.

एष

RIES

VG KONG PBLIC LIBRAR

HONG KONG

117

IX

JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

The Supreme Court

The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice and three Puisne Judges. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction similar to that of Her Majesty's Courts of Queen's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer in England, the Judges having the power to hear and determine criminal and civil cases before a jury and to deliver convicts to gaol. The Judges also have jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy. It is also a Court of Equity with jurisdiction similar to that of the Court of Chancery in England, and has the same authority as the Lord High Chancellor of England to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates, and keepers of persons of unsound mind who are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

The practice of the English Courts is in force in the Colony except where, being inapplicable to local circumstances, it has been modified by Hong Kong legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, Ordinance No. 3 of 1901, which modified, and in some instances excluded, provisions made in the English Rules of Practice. The laws of England as they existed in that country on 5th April, 1843, are in force in the Colony except where such laws are inapplicable to local cir- cumstances or have been subject to local modification.

All civil claims above the sum of $5,000 are heard in the Court's Original Jurisdiction as well as all mis- cellaneous proceedings concerning questions arising on estates, appointments of trustees and company matters.

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+

JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

Civil claims up to and including $5,000 are heard in the Court's Summary Jurisdiction by the Puisne, Judges as are all matters arising out of distraints for non-payment of rent.

Cases in the Probate, Divorce, Admiralty and Bankruptcy Jurisdictions of the Court are usually heard by the Chief Justice. Indictable offences are first heard before magistrates and are committed to the criminal sessions which are held once a month; these cases are usually divided among three judges.

A right of appeal exists in all these cases. Appeals are heard by a Full Court consisting of two or more judges. Under the Magistrates Ordinance, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge who may reserve the appeal or any point in it for consideration by the Full Court, or may direct the appeal or the point to be argued before the Full Court.

During the year, 704 Original Jurisdiction actions were instituted as compared with 679 in 1951. In the Summary Jurisdiction, the number of actions rose from 915 in 1951, to 1,506 in 1952. This phenomenal rise may be due partly to adverse business conditions and partly to the fact that whereas formerly there was a time lag in hearing from four to six months, it was possible, through assigning one judge exclusively to the Summary Court, to have a case heard within three weeks of the issue of a Writ of Summons.

The Assizes were formally opened on the 21st January, 1952. The usual service was held at St. John's Cathedral, and was well attended by the members of both branches of the legal profession, as well as by prominent citizens and heads of the Services.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Following the church ceremony there was an inspec- tion of a Guard of Honour supplied by the Royal Ulster Rifles accompanied by the Pipes and Bugles of the same Regiment. Addresses were then delivered. in the Central Court by the acting Attorney General and by the Chief Justice.

It is gratifying to be able to report once more a notable decrease in serious crime. The following figures for the last three years speak for themselves:-

1950

1951

1952

402

219

108

The Lower Courts

There are four magistrate's courts on the Island and three in Kowloon. The latter hear cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon hills. There is also a Justices of the Peace Court composed of two unofficial Justices of the Peace sitting together, one of whom is usually a solicitor. This court, in- augurated in 1948, continues to be a great success and of great help to the Magistrates by relieving them of much extra work.

Civil Jurisdiction in the New Territories is exer- cised by the District Commissioner and his District Officers, who have powers similar to those of the Supreme Court. Most of the litigation concerns land. The respective District Officers sit in the market towns of Yuen Long and Taipo. They also hear debts cases.

The work in the Magistracies shows an increase. in Hong Kong for 1952 as compared with 1951, and a decrease in Kowloon. On the whole, there were fewer convictions than in 1951. One satisfactory feature was the considerable falling-off in the number of

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JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

juvenile offences. In 1951, the overall figure for Hong Kong and Kowloon was 54,372 while in 1952 the cor- responding figure was 34,920.

In the Tenancy Tribunal, which hears applications under the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance, there was a great increase in the number of cases. In 1951, 659 cases were filed while in 1952 there were 1,466.

Public Records

The Registrar General's Department comprises the Land Office and Deeds Registry, the Registries of Marriages, Companies, Trade Marks and Patents and the offices of the Official Receiver in Bankruptcy and the Official Trustee.

Land Office

All instruments affecting land in Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon are registered in the Land Office. Legally the system prescribed by the Land Registration Ordinance provides for registration of deeds, not of title, but in practice the Land Office re- gisters also serve as a complete record of the title to each lot and have in fact become regarded as registers of title.

The form of land tenure throughout the Colony is leasehold, all land being held under lease from the Crown. In the early days of the Colony the normal lease term granted was 999 years, and much of the most valuable land in the central district of Victoria is held under long term leases of this kind. Later, between 1875 and 1898, there was a change in policy, and numerous leases of lots in Kowloon were granted for one term of 75 years only: in these leases the option for renewal for a second period of 75 years, which is

121

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

a feature of the more modern Crown Leases, was not included. At the present time, except in New Kowloon and the New Territories, the normal lease term is 75 years but with the option for renewal for a further 75. In New Kowloon and the New Territories, however, being those portions of the Colony which are held under lease from China for 99 years from the 1st July, 1898, the lease term cannot of course extend beyond that period, and the practice is therefore, to express the lease term as being for the residue of the period of 75 years commencing from 1st July, 1898, with the right of renewal for a further period of 24 years, less the last three days.

After the War it became necessary to consider the position in relation to the continuation of the tenancies of a large number of properties held under Crown Leases about to expire, (being the first of the non-renewable Crown Leases granted during the last century for terms of 75 years without provision for renewal) and a public statement of Government policy in regard to the terms. upon which new Crown Leases of these properties would be granted was made in 1949. In this announcement the public was advised that the premium payable for the renewal of these leases would be confined to the full value of the land only, according to the rates prevailing in the particular locality at the time of application for renewal of the lease, and exclusive of the value of any buildings on the land. A further announcement, made in May, 1952, intimated that Government would be prepared to pay ex gratia compensation for buildings. lawfully erected on certain Kowloon lots, the leases of which could not be renewed because of town planning requirements, and that owners would be permitted wherever possible to remain in possession of such lots until possession of the land was actually required by Government.

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JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

Nothwithstanding the fact that property values remained at a very high level a very large number of transactions in land were registered during the year, the total being 6,579 as against 6,600 in the previous year. The total money consideration expressed in the various documents registered in the Land Office during the financial year 1951/52 amounted to $317,974,403.96, an all-time record and a figure which is 30% higher than the total for 1950/51. The average rate of interest on mortgages registered remained at the high level of between 15-20% per annum.

All new grants of land are made by means of Crown lease and the Land Office of the Colony is responsible for the preparation and issue of all such leases, and for attending to the legal formalities in connexion with the surrender of land to Government, and advising Government generally on matters relating to the sale, exchange and resumption of land.

Marriage Registry

The Marriage Ordinance applies to all marriages solemnized in the Colony, except non-Christian Custom- ary marriages. The period of notice normally required is 15 days, but in exceptional circumstances the Governor may, by special licence, authorize the marriage to take place before the expiration of the normal period of notice. Marriages may be solemnized in any Church or place of worship licensed for that purpose, or may take place as civil marriages at the Registry. Two new Churches were licensed for marriages during the year, bringing the total of licensed places of worship to 49.

The validity of Chinese customary marriages not registered at the Registry remains, of course, unaffected by the Marriage Ordinance, but of late all classes of

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

the Chinese community have become increasingly aware of the advantages of marriages properly recorded in accordance with the provisions of the Ordinance, as is evidenced by the fact that out of the total of 2,217 marriages registered in 1952, 1,867 were between persons of Chinese race, 245 taking place in licensed places of worship and 1,622 in the Registry. Of the remaining 351 marriages, which included 135 marriages of service- men, 197 took place in licensed places of worship and 154 in the Registry.

Companies, Trade Marks and Patents

New registrations of Hong Kong companies in 1952 totalled 244, or 17 more than in the previous year. Registration in Hong Kong is a simple and relatively inexpensive process, the maximum fee payable in respect of a company with a nominal share capital being $500. The local Companies Ordinance is based on the repealed United Kingdom Companies Act, 1929, but the ques- tion of the revision of Company Law in Hong Kong to incorporate the amendments effected in the United Kingdom by the Companies Act, 1948, is receiving consideration.

There was also an increase in the number of foreign corporations registered, i.e., companies incorporated outside the Colony but which registered the prescribed documents here in order to carry on business in the Colony; 32 such companies having registered in 1952 as against 19 in 1951. Notwithstanding this the total number of foreign companies (433) showed no increase over the aggregate for the previous year, due to the fact that 32 foreign companies ceased to carry on business in the Colony.

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JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

The number of companies going into voluntary liquidation in 1952 was 43 as compared with 64 in 1951, and 95 companies were struck off the register as defunct, as against 42 in 1951. Fifty six companies completed winding up and were dissolved, leaving 2,489 companies on the register, a net increase of 93 over the figure for the previous year.

Trade Marks are naturally of much importance in a great trading centre like Hong Kong, and the Trade Marks Registry had its usual busy year. 1,130 appli- cations for registration were received in 1952, and 915 new Marks were registered. In addition 106 pre-war Trade Marks were re-registered.

As regards Patents, there is no provision in the law of this Colony for the initial grant of patent rights, but only for the re-registration of patents granted in the United Kingdom, and 5 such registrations were effected during the year.

Official Receiver

Six receiving orders in bankruptcy were made during the year and compulsory winding up orders. were made by the Court in respect of 5 companies, one of them a bank with estimated liabilities of over $6,000,000.

Police

The Police had a trying and busy year. In the first three quarters various labour disputes required constant surveillance, including a sit down strike out- side one factory which lasted for forty-one weeks.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The riots on March 1st, mentioned earlier in this report, necessitated the use of emergency forces and similar measures were required on October 10th, the anniversary of the founding of the Chinese Republic, when there were minor political disorders.

The 71 aircraft which had lain at Kai Tak Airport for ever two years, pending the result of a legal dispute as to ownership, required adequate surveillance until they were removed at the end of the year when the case was finally settled. The visit, in October, of Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent and her son the Duke of Kent was necessarily a period of constant vigilance.

Strength

At the end of the year the strength of the Force was 5,022, an increase of over 500 during the year. The composition of the Force was 38 Gazetted Officers and 436 Inspectors of different grades, of whom 286 were expatriate. In the rank and file there were 675 Northern Chinese, 212 Pakistanis and 450 Hakkas; the remainder were Cantonese. There were 30 uniform- ed women in the Force of whom one was an Inspector. The Force was relieved of all but strictly Police duties by a civilian staff of 775.

Duties

In addition to its normal duties of watch and ward and the prevention and detection of crime, the Force was responsible for the control and operation of the Immigration Department, all licensing in connexion with vehicles, and a number of other extraneous duties.

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JUSTICE, RECORDS, POLICE AND PRISONS

Apart from their statutory duties the Police rendered a variety of services to the public. Over 126,000 reports were investigated in which no criminal offence was disclosed. These ranged from the notifi- cation of lost children and property to requests for settlement of domestic disputes, in which the good offices of the Police do much to restore harmony. This figure is indicative of the high degree of public confidence in the Force and for this reason the reports are welcomed.

On twenty seven occasions the Police organized and conveyed parties of the St. John Ambulance. Brigade to the rural areas to give medical and dental treatment, and inoculations and vaccinations. Assis- tance was also rendered by transporting the sick to clinics and hospitals, especially in maternity and other urgent cases, by delivering mail and by registering births and deaths. Cinema shows were also given to outlying schools and villages. This spirit of co-opera- tion was reciprocated by various members of the public. who were responsible for arresting over 1,000 offenders. during the year, in cases ranging from petty assault to murder.

The Force consists of a Headquarters and two main branches, the Uniformed Branch and the Criminal Investigation Department. The Uniformed Branch operates throughout the Colony in two territorial dis- tricts, sub divided into 7 divisions. It also deals with traffic, transport, communications, and Marine Police duties. Within this organization are various units; they are the Emergency, Railway, Airport, Hawker There are Squad and Waterfront Searching Units.

also radio equipped village penetration patrols and squad vehicles.

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23

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The Marine Police have a fleet of 21 vessels rang- ing from ocean going tugs to motor boats, all fitted with radio telephony and in some cases with wireless telegraphy.

The Criminal Investigation Department comprises the Detective Branch, which handles all crime and special measures for its prevention, and the Special Branch which is responsible for the prevention and detection of all activities subversive to peace and good order. It also controls and operates the Immigration Department, the Registry of Aliens, and the Registry of approved Societies.

Training

The

On first appointment all ranks undergo a period of training at the Police School, six months in the case of officers of the rank of Sub-Inspector and above, and four months in the case of other ranks. syllabus includes law and police duties, first aid, drill, weapon training, unarmed combat and a voluntary course in life saving. The weapon training course includes the use of tear smoke. During the year, 783 recruits passed these training courses.

There is no difficulty in obtaining suitable local recruits for the rank and file even though a high mental and physical standard is required. All recruits are taught English during their training and this basic knowledge is broadened by further classes during subsequent service. All non-Chinese members of the Force are compelled to study Chinese and pass ex- aminations of a required standard.

Traffic

The number of vehicles registered, excluding Service vehicles, increased from 16,746 to 18,291.

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Accidents involving serious injury showed a slight decrease, but there was an increase in the number of accidents reported which may be attributed, in part, to the extensive road construction throughout the Colony during the year, causing increased traffic con- gestion, and the exceptionally heavy rainfall which led to a number of minor accidents due to bad visibility and dangerous road surfaces. A further cause of the increase in the number of reports was the introduction on the 1st June, 1952, of third party risk insurance. This led to the notification of very minor accidents. which were not reported before the introduction of this legislation.

Fatal

Comparative figures for previous years

1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 132 95 119 129 104 106 Serious Injury .

226 462 618 603 490 466 Slight Injury 1,738 1,952 2,786 2,976 2,328 2,698 Damage Only .. 3,222 3,871 4,923 4,619 3,937 4,787

...

5,329 6,380 8,446 8,327 6,859 8,057

Developments

A new telephone system was installed throughout the New Territories and the Frontier posts. Work was also begun at the end of the year on the installation of a teleprinter service between all Police Stations.

Crime

The total number of crime reports rose from 289,377 to 314,438, of which no fewer than 126,355 were of a criminal nature. There were 18,306 reports of serious

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offences compared with 13,903 in 1951, and 169,777 reports of miscellaneous offences as compared with 197,705 in the previous year. The main increase in crime was in the number of small larcenies, often of articles which were of little or no value. Prosecutions

were made in 47.66% of the cases reported.

Prisons

There are three prisons in the Colony of which the largest is at Stanley, a village on a peninsula about ten miles outside the city. The nearest other buildings, also on the peninsula, are Stanley Fort, a military barracks, and St. Stephen's College. There is, how- ever, an increasing amount of residential building in the Stanley area.

The main prison buildings consist of six separate cell blocks each containing 246 cells. Smaller buildings contain punishment and condemned cells, a young prisoners' block, a hospital, workshops and ancillary services. The first cell block houses long-term habitual criminals, three blocks contain long-term first offenders, and the last two house short-term prisoners of both groups. Plans are at present under consideration for the removal of the short-term prisoners from the prison to a camp site where work will be available in the open air.

Young prisoners who are first offenders, regardless of length of sentence, are housed in huts outside the perimeter of the prison grounds. The age limit for. this group is at present 25. It will be reduced in numbers when the Training Centres Ordinance, which provides for the indeterminate "Borstal" sentence, becomes law.

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Inside the prison a further step has been taken with the segregation, for the first time, of young recidivists in a separate hall containing 72 cells. Both groups of young prisoners receive educational and trade training. The recidivists or "ordinary" group is under prison discipline, but the first offender or "star" group has been placed for an experimental period under two Chinese schoolmasters, the senior of whom returned during the year from a Colonial Development and Welfare course in England.

Prison industries for long-term prisoners are still expanding, and are being modernized with machinery ordered from home. Workshop space is fully utilized, and further expansion is limited.

Victoria Prison

The old Victoria Prison continues to cater for a medley of groups, including debtors, deportees, desti- tutes and prisoners sentenced to very short terms. Remand cases are housed in a separate wing. The buildings are antiquated and unsuitable, but the site is a valuable one and its proximity to the Central Magistracy and Central Police Station is convenient. Next door to the Remand Prison is a block of offices which have been completely modernized to form the Headquarters of the Department. These Headquarters. were formerly located in one of the residential flats at Stanley.

Lai Chi Kok Prison

At Lai Chi Kok, on the mainland, is the Female. Prison. This is located in an area which is rapidly becoming industrialized. The prison is a small self- contained institution which is run on modern lines by an entirely local staff.

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Stanley Reformatory School

The boys of Stanley Reformatory School are being placed under the charge of the Social Welfare Officer in a new home for boys at Castle Peak. This home will be run by the Salvation Army. The staff of the existing school can look back on six years of sustained effort which has been rewarded with much success. They will now be responsible for a different and older group of boys, as the Reformatory school will be brought into use as the first of the new training centres for Borstal-age boys.

After-Care

After-care work has been in the hands of the Salvation Army and the Family Welfare Society. All prisoners who are to be discharged in Hong Kong are given the opportunity of seeing the after-care officer, but these prisoners form less than 5% of the prison population and for the vast majority, who are to be deported, no after-care is possible.

Population

During the year 21,726 persons (20,179 men, 1,547 women) were committed to the prisons of the Colony, as compared with 20,409 (19,124 men, 1,285 women) during 1951. Of this number 19,399 (18,015 men and 1,384 women) were sentenced to serve terms of im- prisonment, of which 8,740 (men) and 824 (women) were for periods of under a month. In addition, 44 boys were admitted to the Reformatory, as compared with 51 during 1951. The daily average population was 3,495 (3,285 men, 109 women and 101 reformatory boys). The approved accommodation is for a total of 2,341 persons.

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PUBLIC UTILITIES

Waterworks

The supply of water to the Colony is undertaken by the Public Works Department of the Government.

As there are no large rivers or underground sources of water in the Colony, the population is entirely depend- ent for its water supply on the collection of rainwater. There are altogether thirteen impounding reservoirs which store the water from the Colony's many uplands and which are usually filled during the summer months when the south-west monsoon blows. As the rainfall for the rest of the year is low a very large amount of storage would be necessary to provide a 24-hour supply of water throughout the dry season for Hong Kong's big population. The not inconsiderable existing storage capacity of the reservoirs, 5,970 million gallons, is in- adequate to meet the demand and serious annual water shortages, during which water is turned off for a number of hours every day, are experienced. Of the total storage only 2,362 million gallons can be stored on the Island, the remainder being held in the New Territories area of the Mainland, chiefly in the Jubilee Reservoir at Shing Mun which can contain 2,921 million gallons. This reservoir is the largest in the Colony and its 275 foot dam is one of the tallest in the Empire. In addition to these works, there are 35 miles of catchwater channels running along the mid-levels of various hillsides to divert rainwater from its natural channels of fall into one or other of the reservoirs.

Approximately 40% of the Island's consumption is supplied from the Mainland reservoirs, the water being

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conveyed across the harbour in two 20" diameter sub- marine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a large proportion of its water supply has to be pumped, and in some areas re-pumped, necessitating numerous pumping stations and service reservoirs.

Most of the water supplied is both filtered and sterilized by chemical treatment and a satisfactory standard of purity is maintained. All water is supplied to consumers through meters, with a charge based on the total cost of provision including capital costs. The average daily consumption for the year was 31.31 million gallons; peak consumption was 44.43 milliọn gallons in one day and this was during a period when water was made available for 16 hours only per day. For a considerable part of the dry season a supply could be given for only 5 hours per day.

During November a 3-year contract was let to a local firm of contractors for the construction of the first section of the new Tai Lam Chung Dam, and work commenced towards the end of the year. Preliminary work on the design of the tunnels, pipe lines, filters, pumping station and service reservoirs for the Tai Lam Chung Scheme is well advanced. It is hoped that when this project it completed about 7 million gallons per day will be added to the Colony's water supply.

The replacement of old encrusted water mains by new and larger mains, and the extension of the supply to meet new building development continued. Work on the new Service Reservoir at Bowen Road which will hold 5-million gallons of filtered water is nearing completion, and the modernization of the pumping stations by the installation of electrically or diesel driven pumps to replace the old steam pumping sets is practically completed.

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The salt water fire fighting system, intended to conserve fresh water and provide a readily available source of water for fire fighting during periods when the fresh water supply is shut off, is complete, and preliminary work is in hand to investigate the possibil- ity of obtaining water from deep well bores in certain parts of the New Territories in order to augment the local village supplies.

Electricity

Electricity on the Island of Hong Kong is supplied by the Hong Kong Electric Co., Ltd. The amount of electricity generated by this company in 1952 increased by 11.359% over the previous year's output> This is due to continued development in industry and in residential and business properties.

The peak load reached a maximum of 47,000 K.W. in February, 1952, the maximum in 1951 being 42,000 K.W.

The company's programme of expansion continues to be retarded by delays in the manufacture of essential plant. The total capacity of the generating station re- mains at 72,500 K.W., but the total steaming capacity was increased to 644,000 lbs. per hour by the installation, in July, 1952, of a new boiler.

The number of consumers at the end of the year was 60,418, an increase of 3,781 over 1951. A total of 180,746,114 units was sold by the company during 1952, an increase of 17,055,022 units over 1951.

Electricity in Kowloon and the New Territories is supplied by the China Light & Power Co., Ltd. The demand on the Company's services both domestic and industrial, grew steadily during the year. 276 factories were connected, in addition to a considerable number

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of cinemas, hotels and residences. Building activity still continues, and it is apparent that the growth which has been experienced in the past can be reasonably expected to continue.

It is anticipated that the new turbine and boiler at present in the course of manufacture in the United Kingdom will be erected and in operation during 1953/54.

At the present moment the total generating capacity of the Power Station is 67,500 K.W. and the boiler plant capacity is 865,000 lbs. per hour.

Gas

共區

Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by the Hong Kong & China Gas Co. Ltd., which was first established in the Colony in 1861. The demand for Gas, both in Hong Kong and Kowloon is still increasing, and it is expected that a start will be made. on the installation of a new plant to replace the existing one in Kowloon towards the end of this year.

The total quantity of Gas sold during 1952 was 3.5% above that for the year 1951.

Tramways

The electric tramway service is operated by Hong Kong Tramways Ltd. The track extends from Kennedy Town to Shaukiwan passing through the city of Victoria. There is in addition a branch line which passes round the Race Course in Happy Valley. The tramcars are of the double-deck, single staircase type intended for single-ended working, the termini having turning circles. The gauge is 3′6′′ and the operating voltage is 500 volts direct current.

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PUBLIC UTILITIES

A daily service of 117 cars is operated providing a car every two minutes or less in each direction. Through the city area, in the centre of the system, the minimum service provided is a car every forty seconds in each direction.

The total number of passengers carried during the year 1952 was 134 million, the total mileage run being 5 million.

Fares are charged at a flat-rate for any distance over any route-the maximum route length being 6 miles of 20 cents (3d.) 1st class, and 10 cents (1 d.) 3rd class. The Company also issues monthly tickets, and concession fares are given to children, scholars and Service personnel.

The Peak Tramway was opened for traffic in May, 1888 and was then known as the Hong Kong High Level Tramway. With the lower terminus situated at the lower portion of Garden Road and the Peak terminus at Victoria Gap, this means of transport has provided, almost without interruption for over sixty years, a reliable funicular service. Until motor roads were opened in 1924 it was the only means of transport to the Peak. The cars are operated by a modern electric haulage plant, and incorporate safety features which make it possible for a car to come to a halt within eight feet on the steepest part of the track.

During 1950 and 1951 the company replaced its former wooden cars with new cars of improved design and all-metal construction, lighter and stronger than the old ones, and capable of carrying a greater number of passengers.

For the third year in succession the service carried more than one and a half million passengers.

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Bus Services

Bus services on the island are maintained by the China Motor Bus Company Limited operating a fleet of 170 vehicles. During the year buses on the island ran approximately 6.8 million miles, an increase of about 11% on the figure for 1951, and carried over 49.2 million passengers, an increase of about 6.7%. A new city service was started between Tai Hang and West Point, and concession fare monthly tickets for school-children were introduced in September.

The services established by the Kowloon Motor Bus Co. in 1933 operate in Kowloon and the New Territories. There was considerable improvement during the year and the Company now has 355 buses in service, of which 125 are double-decker, and 230 single-decker buses.

A new bus route, from Shamshuipo Ferry to Kowloon City was added to the service, thus bringing the total number of bus service routes to 23. During the year the company carried approximately 148 million passengers and covered 15 million miles.

The delivery of a large fleet of new buses has made possible the withdrawal of all the temporary vehicles that were in use.

Ferries

The "Star" Ferry Co., Ltd., operates a passenger ferry service across the narrowest part of the harbour, a distance of approximately one mile, from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsim Sha Tsui at the southern extremity of Kowloon Peninsula. Six vessels are in service and operate daily for 19 hours. A five-minute

138

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

HONG

Photographic Competition Entry.

ARIES

Hung Man Lee

Typical of Hong Kong waters and favourite subject of photographers-the junk.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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IB

Egg-merchant, fruit stall and kerb-side cobbler

re characteristic of

the Hong Kong street scene.

Photographic Competition Entries by A. A. Chase, Robert C. Y. Wan and C. L. Chow

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PUBLIC UTILITIES

service is maintained during the day and a regular service is maintained till well past midnight, the duration of the crossing being eight minutes. Approx- imately 36 million passengers were carried in 136,000 crossings during the year, the average daily load being 100,000.

It was a very interesting year for the Hongkong & Yaumati Ferry Co., Ltd. The first all-night passen- ger and vehicular ferry service ever to be operated in Hong Kong came into service on a trial basis between the 24th December, 1952, and the 1st January, 1953. A 20-minute schedule was maintained up to 3.00 a.m., followed by an hourly service thereafter. The normal daytime rates were charged to encourage traffic. This was heavy over Christmas but comparatively light on the other dates. There was no commercial traffic.

On the 19th December, 1952, at the request of Government, an emergency ferry service was operated between the Central and Wanchai districts of the Island which will only be maintained whilst the portion of Queen's Road between Arsenal Street and Garden Road is under reconstruction. A ten-minute service was operated between 8.00 and 9.30 a.m., and from 4.00 to 6.00 p.m. daily. The highest number of passengers carried in one day was about 2,000, and this service was much appreciated by the public. Passengers could be carried from one pier to the other and landed in just under 8 minutes.

On the 1st December, 1952, the "MAN FUNG" was launched. This is the first of the steel passenger ferries to be built in the United Kingdom, and was shipped out to Hong Kong for reassembly and comple- tion. Five sister vessels each capable of carrying 650 passengers were ordered, and these vessels with all their

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

machinery and fittings have now arrived in the Colony and are being assembled for service during 1953. The launching of the new Ferry "MAN FUNG" brings the number of ferries in service to 35 for 1952.

The number of vehicles carried on the vehicular ferry exceeded the one million mark in December, 1952. By the end of the year a total of over 1,014,000 vehicles. had been carried.

Another record was established during the year when the number of passengers carried on all services exceeded 71 million.

共區

The establishment of a new bus service between Shamshuipo Pier and Kowloon City has brought forward the importance of the Shamshuipo ferry terminal which is now being served by two urban bus services, both of which are already running with capacity loads. The new Kowloon City bus service commenced operation on 22nd December, 1952.

The vehicular ferry now operates from 6.20 a.m. to 1.00 a.m. daily, and during the major part of the day a regular 9-minute service is maintained. The new double-ended diesel ferry vessel "MAN WING" which is capable of carrying 800 passengers was launched on 15th April, 1952. This addition has enabled great improvements to be made in the Mongkok service, which now operates on a ten-minute schedule.

With the steady growth in the volume of passenger traffic the ferry service to Wanchai from Jordan Road has been increased from a 10-minute service to an 8- minute service by the operation of an extra ferry. The time needed for the crossing is now reduced to 12 minutes.

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PUBLIC UTILITIES

The five Yaumati ferry services working inside the harbour now operate no less than 1,046 sailings daily and the vessels travel over 780,000 miles per annum. The fares are 20 cents for first class and 10 cents for third class and are the cheapest in the world. The lowest rate is .545 of a penny per mile.

The passenger traffic on the ferry services to the outlying islands, namely the important fishing centres at Cheung Chau and Tai O, has shown a considerable increase as many people are now visiting these fishing centres as well as Silvermine Bay, Ping Chau Island, Tung Chung and Castle Peak. There are 11 sailings daily to Cheung Chau, 4 to Silvermine Bay, 4 to Ping Chau and 2 to Castle Peak, Tung Chung and Tai O.

During the summer season it became necessary to run extra ferries to Silvermine Bay which has become one of the most popular bathing beaches in the Colony. It is also the centre for a number of walks to such places as Pui O, the beaches on the southern side of Lantao Island, the summer rest camp on Lantao Ridge (2,500 ft.), Pak Mong and Tung Chung on the northern side of the Island overlooking Castle Peak, and the new Trappist monastry to the north east, which is about an hour's walk from Silvermine Bay. Visitors to the monastry at Ngong Ping, which is 1,600 feet above sea level, are now able to visit the area from either Tung Chung or Tai O.

The new pier at Tai O has considerably improved the landing facilities and it is now no longer necessary to land passengers and cargo by sampan. A modern roadway, 20 feet wide, has also been constructed to connect the pier with the village of Tai O.

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Marine

Victoria, the principal port of the Colony, is world famed for the beauty and magnificence of its harbour. Extending over an area of some 17 square miles and surrounded by granite hills it presents a most impres- sive scene. Vessels drawing up to 34 feet can enter by the eastern entrance and vessels drawing up to 24 feet by the western entrance. The facilities for dealing with passengers and cargo are most efficient, and the turn-round of shipping compares favourably with other major ports of the world. There are twelve deep water berths on the Kowloon side of the harbour for vessels drawing up to 32 feet, whilst on the Hong Kong side there is a deep water berth 1,223 feet in length for vessels drawing up to 30 feet. Space for storing approximately 770,000 tons of cargo is available in the modern godowns adjoining the Kowloon berths. At the Hong Kong berth there is space for 20,000 tons of cargo alongside, and further storage space of 110,000 tons is available in other godowns operated by the same company.

In addition to the above berths Government main- tain, for public hire, 17 'A' Class moorings suitable for vessels up to 600 feet in length and 29 'B' Class moorings for vessels up to 450 feet in length. Twelve of the 'A' Class moorings are available for vessels during typhoons.

During the year ending 31st March, 1952, (the figures for 1951 are shown in brackets) 5,536 (6,687) ocean going vessels of 15,664,278 (17,773,362) net tons,

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4,071 (6,024) river steamers of 3,354,075 (4,655,428) net tons and 33,010 (29,753) junks and launches of 3,462,276 (3,026,337) net tons entered and cleared the port.

A total of 969,871 (1,679,658) passengers were embarked and disembarked, of whom 76,660 (140,960) passengers were carried by ocean going vessels, 893,077 (1,517,442) by river steamers and 134 (21,256) by junks.

Ocean going vessels discharged 2,979,874 (3,578,031) weight tons and loaded 1,481,900 (2,298,137) weight tons of cargo.

River steamers discharged 34,841 (84,036) weight tons and loaded 75,870 (89,410) weight tons of cargo.

Maunches

Junks and launches discharged 510,100 (435,382) weight tons and loaded 123,341 (167,461) weight tons of cargo.

The decrease in the above figures over 1951 can be attributed to the economic conditions prevailing in the Colony and already described in Part I.

Local shipping is still restricted by international tension and only a few services to neighbouring coastal and river ports are being maintained. Sea communica- tions with North and South America, Europe, Australia, the Philippines, Japan and South Africa are operating regularly and one of the outstanding features of the year is the increasing number of Japanese vessels engaged on international routes.

For the convenience of ship-owners and agents, a 24 hour ship-shore visual signal system, covering all the berths in the harbour, is maintained. The signal stations at Waglan and at Green Island are equipped with radio telephones, and ample warning can be given of expected arrivals.

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Aids to navigation are of the latest type and are constantly being improved. A new direction-finding system for shipping and aircraft is being installed on Waglan Island and it is hoped that it will be in opera- tion in the near future.

There are two large commercial shipbuilding and ship repairing yards in the Colony, and these are. equipped to undertake new building up to 500 feet length, and the docking of ocean-going ships up to 750 feet length. Repairs of all kinds to hulls and machinery can be undertaken, and the yards are equipped to handle heavy lifts up to 150 tons. During the year an aggre- gate of 1,350,000 gross tons of shipping were docked for repair and overhaul; an additional 5,000,000 gross tons was serviced afloat. There are a few smaller establishments capable of slipping vessels up to 200 feet or so in length, as well as about 200 other establishments which provide similar facilities for small harbour craft, junks and other boats. All the major classification societies are represented in the Colony by resident surveyors, and Government surveyors are appointed to deal with matters arising from the inter- national convention for the safety of life at sea.

Civil Aviation

Hong Kong airport is situated on the mainland at Kai Tak, about four miles from the centre of Kowloon City. This airport is suitable for both land and seadrome operations under a centralized control. The Department of Civil Aviation provides facilities for air traffic control, telecommunications, air navigational, safety and air/sea rescue services. An Air Advisory Board, with the Director of Civil Aviation as chairman, advises the Governor on matters of policy, and an Air Transport Licensing Authority deals with the issue of

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COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING

air transport service licences. Customs and Immigration facilities are available from dawn to dusk and at other times if required. Operations at the airport are normally restricted to daylight hours owing to the geographical and constructional limitations of the airfield.

The report of the Ministry of Civil Aviation on the observations by the team of experts who visited the airport in 1951, was studied by Government early in 1952, and it was decided to invite a constructional engineering firm to make a preliminary survey of the proposed developments. This firm submitted a report in August, 1952, and has now been instructed to carry out a detailed survey and prepare estimates and recommendations for developments along the lines. proposed in the Ministry of Civil Aviation's scheme.

Thirteen airlines operated through Hong Kong during the year and there were many charter operations of other airlines from all parts of the world.

Hong Kong Airways continues to operate three flights a week to Formosa which connect with associated airlines to the United States; Cathay Pacific Airways operate services to Bangkok, Saigon, Singapore, Manila and airports in North Borneo. B.O.A.C. operate five services a week to the United Kingdom via Bangkok, and two services to the United Kingdom via Singapore. Other international Air operators carrying traffic to and from Hong Kong are Pan American World Airways, Canadian Pacific Air Lines, Qantas Empire Airways (Australia), Braathens S.A.F.E. Airtransport (Norway), Air France, Philippine Air Lines, Thai Airways and Civil Air Transport (based in Formosa). Survey flights were made by Trans-World Airways and Bharat Airways.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Air traffic showed no marked change from 1951, and the number of aircraft on international flights in 1952 was about 5,197, carrying 86,775 passengers to and from the Colony. Local civil flying showed no increase over 1951, and military aircraft movements were probably smaller.

The Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Co., Ltd. continues to provide air maintenance to aircraft from India, Pakistan, Burma, Indo-China and the United Kingdom. It has fully equipped workshops and a staff of qualified aeronautical engineers and mechanics. the Far East Flying Training School provides training for pilots and aeronautical engineers.

The Department of Civil Aviation was strengthened by the appointment of an Air Registration Board Sur- veyor, seconded from the United Kingdom, and the effect of this appointment is evident in the increased efficiency of aeronautical engineers in the Colony.

No major accidents to civil aircraft occurred during the year.

Meteorological Services

BRA

The Hong Kong Observatory, which became the Royal Observatory in June, 1912, was founded in 1883, on a recommendation that the "Colony was favourably situated for the study of meteorology in general and typhoons in particular". The provision of typhoon warnings still remains one of its more important func- tions. Whenever a tropical storm is located within the area bounded by longitudes 105 degrees east and 125 degrees east and latitudes 10 degrees north and 30 degrees north, namely the northern part of the China Sea and the China coast, storm warning bulletins are distributed by radio to shipping and aircraft. When

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the Colony itself is threatened, the local storm warning system is brought into use and local warnings are given wide distribution by means of visual signals, radio, telephone and Rediffusion.

The Observatory also provides all meteorological services for the general public, shipping, aviation and the armed forces. The main forecasting office and aviation weather centre are located at Kai Tak Airport which is linked by teleprinter with the Observatory. Hong Kong's area of responsibility for the dissemina- tion of weather information is extensive. Excellent co-operation by crews of ships and aircraft in sending regular and frequent weather messages have alone made it possible to carry out this task.

Meteorological soundings of the upper atmosphere are carried out daily at the Observatory's radiosonde station at King's Park.

Weather observing stations were established during the year on Waglan and Cheung Chau Islands, lying in the south-eastern and south-western approaches to Hong Kong harbour and the airport. Prior to the establishment of the station at Waglan, meteorological observations were carried out by the lighthouse keepers on the island.

The Railway

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extending to Hankow with connexions to North China. The British section of the line, which is owned by the Hong Kong Government, is operated between Kowloon and the frontier, a distance of 36 kilometres. Through services were formerly operated to Canton and to the north, but since October, 1949, when the People's Government took over the administration of China,

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

through passenger train services have been suspended. All passengers proceeding to and from China are now obliged to change trains at the frontier. For a time it was also necessary to off-load all goods traffic, but since the latter half of 1950, goods traffic in wagon loads has been passing to and from Chinese Territory without transhipment.

Total revenue for the year 1952 amounted to $5,601,419, operating expenditure being $4,563,579, leaving a nett operating revenue of $1,037,840. The corresponding figures for the previous year were $5,505, 103, $4,313,569 and $1,191,533 respectively. Passengers carried numbered 3,554,202, a decrease of 342,830 over 1951, while goods traffic amounted to 225,659 tons, a decrease of 51,010 tons.

Passengers carried between stations, within the territory of Hong Kong, were 3,282,897 or 92.37% of the total. Passengers to the border numbered 271,305, the greater proportion of whom were travellers between Hong Kong and the interior of China.

Exports from the Colony by goods-train amounted to 20,462 tons and imports to 158,738 tons, a total of 179,200 tons. The balance of goods traffic was largely farm produce and military equipment carried within. the Colony.

Capital expenditure amounted to approximately $2,073,487. This was mainly incurred on new rolling stock (20 goods wagons being received during the year), on station quarters, track and plant.

Rehabilitation work which was necessary as a result of the war was practically finished during the year. The railway still suffered from a shortage of

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coaches, orders placed after the war being still out- standing at the end of the year. There is, however, every prospect of them arriving during the next few months, and when they do the railway will be in a better position than pre-war as regards rolling stock, equipment, plant and buildings.

Roads

There are approximately 429 miles of roads in the Colony, 181 miles being on Hong Kong Island, 109 miles in Kowloon and 139 miles in the New Territories. About 90% of these roads are of fairly modern cons- truction with a bitumen sealed surface.

11.

The dens

of road traffic has continued to in- crease, and the growth of new industrial and residential areas has called for a heavy increase in the number and capacity of utility services carried under the roadways. This factor together with the increasing demands of traffic have necessitated an increasing programme of road reconstruction. Approximately 40% of the increased expenditure on roads was spent on the reconstruction of bus routes, usually with 8 inches of vibrated concrete and a one inch black-top wearing carpet. The balance was spent on mainten- ance and improvement of street lighting.

The Public Works Department operates two quarries with crushing and central mixing plants for bituminous macadam. Some 160,000 tons of stone are crushed annually and of this amount 50,000 tons is treated with bitumen for road surfacing.

In the New Territories the programme of improve- ments continued. At Au Tau work was completed on the Colony's longest bridge, 275 feet long with a 22 feet carriageway and two 7 feet footways of reinforced

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

At Ma Niu Shui, on the Taipo arterial Road, a 93 feet bridge, built by the Japanese on the wreck of the original one demolished by British Forces in 1941, was replaced by a large box culvert. This effected a considerable improvement in the road ap- proaches, and was completed without interruption to military and civilian traffic.

3

4

In Kowloon, the bus route to Kai Tak Airport was extended nearly mile by the construction of a new road, with a 22 feet carriageway and two 7 feet footways, beyond the airport to the river Jordan. The construction is in progress of a 45 feet long bridge over this river with a new 14 feet wide jeep road of 11 miles to Kung Tong Bay.

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Post Office

Structural alterations to the Post Office Building commenced last year were in their final stages of completion, but despite the inevitable disruption mails were dealt with in the normal manner.

Two new special launches were put into service in place of obsolete ex-War Department landing barges, for the conveyance of mails to and from ships in the harbour.

There has been no improvement in the handling of mails at the border; mails were still being man-handled in the section between the British and the Chinese portions of the Hong Kong-Canton Railway.

Postage rates on surface and airmails were revised on 1st June, 1952, to bring them up to international standards, necessary as a result of the devaluation of sterling and the general increase in mail freight rates.

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COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING

The opportunity was taken to introduce the zoning system in airmail rates, which reduces the number of different postage rates from eight to four. The service for second class airmails and parcel airmails was ex- tended to include most of the more important countries in the world.

The number of mail items handled during the year showed an overall increase, though substantial decreases were recorded for some countries. The total number of items posted in the letter mails was 37,845,993, of which about 32% were for delivery within the Colony; 46% for overseas destinations forwarded by surface means, and 22% by air. The total number of items received from other countries was 31,590,508 of which about 68% were for delivery in Hong Kong and 32% for Kowloon and the New Territories. A total of 2,083,469 registered items were handled during the year. The total for parcels was 370,935, this was 6,095 more than in 1951.

Local Christmas postings between December 15th and 24th, 1952, reached an all-time record of 1,506,673 letters, of which 538,195 were posted on December 22nd and 23rd. Parcels for Christmas delivery in Great Britain, despatched from Hong Kong during October, totalled 11,524.

Business in both money orders and postal orders again showed a substantial increase; money orders issued and paid during the year amounted to $2,025,877 as compared with $1,742,615 in 1951, and postal orders to $1,012,245 compared with $769,037 last year, an approximate overall increase of 20%.

The sale of postage and revenue stamps during 1952 amounted to $16,887,087, an increase of $1,540,948 over 1951.

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Licensing

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The Radio Licensing and Inspection Office, under the control of the Postmaster General, issues all types of radio licences ranging from domestic broadcast receiving licences to amateur wireless stations' and radio dealers' licences.

This office also conducts examinations for the Postmaster General's Certificate of Proficiency in Wireless Telegraphy and in addition undertakes the survey and inspection of ship and aircraft wireless stations. Another function of this office is the enforce- ment of the regulations made under the International Telecommunication Convention (Atlantic City, 1947) and the Hong Kong Telecommunications Ordinance.

A close liaison is maintained between the Hong Kong Communications Board, the Hong Kong Fre- quency Assignment Committee and the Radio Licensing and Inspection Office on all matters affecting the Colony's internal and external telecommunications.

Many commercial firms, particularly stevedoring concerns, have been licensed to operate very high frequency radiotelephone circuits between their offices and harbour craft. A similar scheme connecting several mobile units with three fixed stations in the New Territories was approved for the China Light & Power Co., Ltd.

The Radio Licensing and Inspection office has also assisted the Department of Commerce and Industry in regulating the import and export of telecommunications equipment.

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COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING

Telecommunications

Cable and Wireless Ltd. is responsible for all telegraph and radiotelephone services between Hong Kong and overseas countries, in addition to ship/shore radio services. The Company is also responsible for the technical maintenance and development of the Colony's broadcasting and aeradio services. During 1952, the Company's postwar rehabilitation programme was completed and the extension and development of existing services continues.

The new wireless receiving station at Mount Butler came into operation during the later part of the year, and it is now handling the reception of all long distance telegraph, radiotelephone and broadcasting services. The Peak receiving station is used for short distance and local V.H.F. services in addition to air navigation aids, of which one of the modern types is being installed.

New buildings at Cape D'Aguilar transmitting station were completed early in 1952, and several new wireless transmitters have been installed, including one of the most powerful in the Company's service. The new transmitters have made possible a considerable extension of overseas telegraph and telephone services.

The existing radiotelephone services to the main- land of China and many overseas countries continue in full operation. Extension services were opened to Nauru, via Sydney, and to Jamaica, via New York. It is hoped to open new services to Djakarta, Bombay and Bangkok early in 1953. A short-range ship/shore radiophone service was provided in April, 1952, and this is now available between ships, suitably equipped, and subscribers of the Hong Kong Telephone Com-

pany.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

A radio facsimile service is available to and from Singapore and London. During the year radio pictures covering notable events in the Colony, particularly the Royal Visit in October, were sent to newspapers in Singapore and the United Kingdom.

Modernization of the Colony's aeradio commu- nications system continued and the Company was responsible for the installation of seven new, modern transmitters at Hung Hom aeradio transmitting station. In addition a new aeradio beacon was installed at Cheung Chau Island and was opened for service in December. The aeradio V.H.F. communications system is being refitted with modern equipment.

V.H.F. equipment, especially designed for a Harbour radiophone/exchange scheme, has arrived and is being tested. By means of this equipment it will be possible for ships anchored in the Harbour, or small craft on mobile services, to be connected to the public telephone exchange or to any private fixed station.

The inland telegram service which was opened between Cheung Chau Inland and Hong Kong in 1951, was extended for operation to any destination in Hong Kong, Kowloon and the mainland New Territories on the 21st July, 1952. This new service is growing in popularity, and 1,646 inland telegrams were handled from the opening of the full service in July until the end of the year.

During 1952 several new facilities for the despatch of telegrams were made available. A new sub-office was opened at Hennessy Road, Wanchai, bringing the total number of sub-offices to seven. A phonogram service has been provided whereby telegrams for transmission may be telephoned to Electra House after business hours. A pre-war service was revived

154

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photographic Competition Entry.

Shi Kwan Shun

Although Government is encouraging the mechanization of fishing vessels, many fishermen still practise these picturesque methods.

Photographic Competition Entry.

KONG PUBLIC LIBRA

C. L. Chow

This image is unavailable for access via the Network due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please

contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

S

7

Photographic Competition Entry.

Yung Yi Yin

Near Castle Peak in the New Territories.

COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING

when arrangements were made for a Cable and Wireless representative to meet incoming liners for the acceptance of telegrams from passengers before disembarking.

The traffic figures for the year ending 31st Decem- ber, 1952, were as follows:

Telegrams forwarded

1,347,778

Telegrams delivered

1,279,906

Radiotelephone paid minutes outwards... Radiotelephone paid minutes inwards

689,450

880,685

Telephones

The public telephone service is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Company, Ltd. On the 31st December, 1952, the total number of direct lines working on the Company's system was 25,147, and the number of extensions 12,743, a total of 37,890.

Telephone equipment for nearly 8,000 additional lines has arrived in the Colony, and is now being installed. These lines will be brought into service during 1953.

Broadcasting

IBRA

Radio Hong Kong is the broadcasting station which serves the whole of the Colony. It is a division of the Public Relations Office.

This broadcasting service is run by a small per- manent staff responsible for programme organizing, aided by a

by a group of part-time announcers. The technical side is entirely professional and is carried out by Cable and Wireless Ltd. Apart from operating the transmitters and the receiving station for relays, the engineers deal with activities which range from complicated outside broadcasts to routine studio control work.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Two programmes are broadcast simultaneously over ZBW (845 k/cs) the European Station, and ZEK (640 k/cs) the Chinese Station. ZBW's transmission includes special daily broadcasts for the Forces; in addition, there are weekly programmes in French and Portuguese. ZEK broadcasts in Cantonese, Swatowese, and Mandarin and all news bulletins are broadcast in these three dialects. Shortwave transmissions radiate from a third station, ZBW3, on a frequency of 9.52 m/cs and reception on this wavelength is world wide.

There was no change in the hours of broadcasting during the year. The two stations have three daily periods on the air: an early morning session, during the lunch hour, and the main evening transmission which lasts between 6 and 11.30 p.m. On Saturdays the programmes continue through the afternoon, while on Sundays there is a non-stop transmission between ΙΟ a.m. and 11.30 p.m. On public holidays the programmes begin at 8 a.m. and continue throughout the day.

The year 1952 was an exceptionally heavy and varied one in regard to local broadcasting. Outstanding events relayed to radio listeners included commentaries on the death of King George VI, the parade in honour of the Queen's Birthday, various ceremonies connected with the visit of Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent, and the opening by His Excellency the Governor of the 10th Exhibition of Hong Kong Products. All these programmes were broadcast in English and Chinese, which, in some cases, meant a simultaneous commentary in both languages. . For the first time in the history of the Colony, a number of candidates who were contesting vacant seats on the Urban Council were each allowed an air-platform of five minutes-in English and Chinese. One other interesting sidelight was that

156

COMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING

at the invitation of the BBC, with whom Radio Hong Kong works in close co-operation, a contribution was arranged for inclusion in the BBC's Christmas Round- Up programme. This comprised carol singing from a Chinese Youth Club in one of Hong Kong's poorer districts.

A development of importance, and one which proved immediately successful, was the introduction on the Chinese service of dramatized features designed to put over Government publicity. These included a series of radio plays on the prevention of petty crime, and a number of actuality features on the importance of dialling "999" in an emergency.

10,

D

As a result of a small increase in staff it was possible to introduce a greater proportion of 'live' programmes, both as studio productions and outside broadcasts. One of the main aims of Radio Hong Kong is the gradual replacement of programmes on gramophone records by broadcasts which come either from the studio or the open air.

Rediffusion

IBR

Rediffusion (Hong Kong) Limited, under a fran- chise granted in 1948, operates a wired broadcasting system in the Colony. Under the terms of this franchise, Rediffusion relays programmes from Radio Hong Kong for a minimum period of 21 hours a week. The Company pays to the Government $1 a month, in respect of each subscriber, in the form of a Radio Licence Fee. Programmes comprising relays of Radio Hong Kong, B.B.C., and other broadcast programmes, but mainly originated in the Company's studios, are distributed over a network which now covers the whole of the urban area and parts of the Peak.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

There are three amplifying stations, two on the Island and one in Kowloon. Each subscriber has a loudspeaker and selector switch installed in the house, and pays a service rental charge of $10 per month and may pay an additional $5 a month for an extra point. Altogether 52,400 loudspeakers have been installed. Two programmes are provided-one in English and one in Chinese and the service operates from 7 a.m. to midnight. The English programme consists mainly of musical items, but the Chinese programme includes plays, stories, concerts and other features originated in the studio and gives regular relays of Cantonese Operas; news bulletins in three dialects are broadcast several times a day.

K

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RIES

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XII

RESEARCH

At the University of Hong Kong, several new projects have been undertaken in addition to the work outlined in the last Annual Report.

Investigations are being made in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology on the early diagnosis of cancer of the cervix and uterus by means of the Papanicolaou Smear method, and an evaluation of the combined radiotherapeutic and surgical approach to carcinoma of the cervix is in progress. The treatment of eclampsia by means of sodium pentothal is also under investigation, and a series of over forty cases has shown a striking diminution in the mortality rate. In the Department of Chemistry researches are in progress on various organic chemical compounds.

A government subsidized Fisheries Research Unit was established in September to undertake_marine biological research, with a view to improving the Colony's fisheries industry by placing it on a sound scientific basis. The keel of a research vessel designed for the Unit was laid in Hong Kong in November, and she will be in commission next year.

The official memoir of the Geology of Hong Kong and the New Territories was published during the year. Several detailed surveys were carried out in relation to the economic minerals present. Mapping preparation. was also well under way to begin a geographical inquiry into the agricultural, forest and badland areas of the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

An investigation was commenced and is still in progress of the factors influencing the properties of concrete made from local materials.

In the economic and social fields, subjects of con- tinuing research include problems of industrialization in Asia, social studies in Hong Kong, and the economic history of China.

During 1952, the network of rainfall recording stations maintained by the Royal Observatory was considerably extended. After the completion of a year's measurements of evapotranspiration of water from grass, an investigation of the water needs of the more common winter vegetables was begun in October. A critical survey is being made of the possibility of a significant relationship between the ionosphere and the weather, based on three years' observations.

The following papers by members of the Observa- tory staff were published during the year :-

A Brief General History of the Royal Observatory

by L. Starbuck.

IB

Diurnal Variations of Summer Rainfall over East

China, Korea and Japan.

Variations of Rainfall over South China during

the Wet Season.

Relationship of the General Circulation to Normal Weather over Southern Asia and the Western Pacific during the Cool Season, by C. S. Ramage (American Journal of Meteorology and the Bulletin of the American Meteoro- logical Society).

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RESEARCH

Fogs at Waglan, and their Relationship to Fogs. in Hong Kong Harbour, by K. R. Hung (Royal Observatory Technical Note).

Frequency Distribution of Summer Rain Durations.

at Hong Kong, by George Ma (Royal Obser- vatory Technical Note).

For further details of research and research litera- ture in Hong Kong the reader is directed to previous

issues of the Colony's Annual Report.

共圖書本

ONG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

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XIII

RELIGION

The Anglican Diocese of Hong Kong, which includes Macao, covers nine organized parish churches and eight mission chapels, of which three worship in English and the remainder in Chinese. Its Cathedral, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was built in 1847 and established as a Cathedral Church by Letters Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. In addition to its work in Hong Kong University, and in secondary and primary education, the Anglican Church has this year taken an active part in the establishment of Chung Chi College (a Christian College of post Secondary School Education in Arts and Science, and in Theology) and in the development of primary Education especially among the children of manual workers.

The Union Church in Hong Kong plans to erect a new Church building to replace the one destroyed during the Japanese occupation of the Colony. The Chinese Churches continue to develop. The Hop Yat Church has plans for a branch church in Kowloon, and the Chinese Methodist Church is expanding its educa- tional and evangelistic activities,

The Nethersole Hospital, associated with the London Missionary Society, hopes to rebuild its maternity block in the near future.

The Roman Catholic Church in Hong Kong was originally under the administration of a Missionary with the ecclesiastical title of Prefect Apostolic. In 1874, as a result of the increasing number of adherents to the Roman Catholic faith, a Bishop was appointed to the territory with the title of Vicar Apostolic, and in 1946 the status of the Church was raised to that of a Diocese,

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RELIGION

extending into China. There are twelve Roman Catholic parishes with public churches on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon, and about twenty churches in different parts of the New Territories. The Church also administers over 76 schools, some with an English pro- gramme of studies, others with a Chinese curriculum.

The work of the Roman Catholic Church is carried on by priests of many nationalities some engaged in parish work, others working in schools and at the University. There are about 400 nuns belonging to various religious orders engaged in charitable and educational work in hospitals, schools and homes for orphans, blind girls, cripples and the aged. Many of the principal missions have their Far Eastern adminis- trative headquarters in the Colony. There are a number of important Catholic seminaries on Hong Kong Island.

Buddhist activities in the Colony have expanded in recent years. Free schools, free medical centres and other social welfare work have been sponsored by the Buddhist community. The branch of Buddhism chiefly followed is the Mahayana. Today, there are in Hong Kong about ten Buddhist Monasteries and over two hundred Buddhist "Ching Suts", i.e. hermitages, mostly situated on the mainland and Lantao Island. There are no large Taoist Monasteries.

The non-Chinese Muslims in Hong Kong are Pakistanis and Indians and number about 1,500. There are about 5,000 Chinese Muslims. The first mosque was built in 1850 on the present mosque site in Shelley Street; the existing construction dates from 1915 when the original mosque was entirely rebuilt. In 1870 the Muslims founded their own cemetery in Happy Valley, their dead having until then been buried in the Breezy Point area above the Western district of Victoria.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

second mosque was built in 1896, in Nathan Road, Kowloon, but in 1902 it was transferred to the care of the military authorities for use by Indian troops.

The Sikh community and followers of the Sikh faith, numbering about 1,000, have had a temple in Hong Kong since 1870. The building was demolished during the Japanese occupation but it has since been rebuilt on a site in Queen's Road East.

The Parsis were among the foreign communities which arrived with the British in 1841. They had in 1829 established a prayer-house and cemetery in Macao, and in 1852 they established their first cemetery in Hong Kong in Happy Valley. In 1874 they estab- lished a prayer-hall in Elgin Street, which was moved in 1931 to a new site on Leighton Hill Road. There is no Fire Temple or Tower of Silence.

The Jews, whose community numbers about 250, were also established in Macao prior to the foundation of Hong Kong where they were among the earliest residents. Their cemetery, on the slopes of Happy Valley, was founded in 1855, and their religious services were originally held in premises rented in the Peel Street, Staunton Street area of the Central district of Victoria. The present Synagogue, built in 1901, is the gift of the late Sir Jacob Sassoon.

The Hindus have no temple in the Colony at present; but plans for a new building in Happy Valley are at present under consideration. It is hoped to start construction in 1953. At present they use the Sikh temple for their observances. Followers of Guru Nanak have their temple known as Sikh Temple at the Gurudwara Gap Road. Apart from this there is only private worship.

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RELIGION

The Russian Orthodox congregation, which is about 150 strong is divided between those who recognize the present Patriarch of Moscow and those who do not. The former founded their Church in 1934 and have a current membership of about 85. The latter hold their services in the Church Hall of St. Andrew's, Kowloon, by arrangement with the Anglican Church authorities. They are known as the Orthodox Church and formed a separate organization in 1949.

香港

圖書

公共圖

NG KONG PUBI IC LIBRAR

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XIV

THE ARTS

In many countries in recent years interest in music has been increasing. Hong Kong, although it is com- paratively inaccessible, has kept in step with this trend. Visits by musicians of note have not been frequent, but those who have come have excited enthusiasm, have inspired higher standards of accomplishment, and given a new depth and breadth to musical appreciation. Thus Germaine Mounier played a wide range of piano pieces with much distinction, Helen Traubel left a deep impression on those who were privileged to listen to her singing, while Alfredo Campoli, the violinist, both by the brilliance of his playing and by his charm of manner on the platform, left his audiences with happy memories of his visit.

Musical circles discussed the question of a sym- phony orchestra for the Colony and thought that the time had arrived to have at least a nucleus of profes- sional musicians whose first obligation would be to the orchestra. This proposal was far from being a criticism of the Sino-British Orchestra which has set a very high standard, particularly as it faced the difficulty of arrang- ing rehearsals for players whose services were voluntary, and leave and transfer from the Colony made it impossible to retain the same personnel for any length of time. The Hong Kong Orchestra, which is faced with similar difficulties, pleased its audiences with regular programmes of light classical music.

Dr. Thornton Lofthouse spent three weeks in Hong Kong as Examiner for the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. In addition to the exacting work of examining, he found time to give several

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THE ARTS

recitals and three broadcasts. Rarely has a visiting pianist been accepted with more enthusiasm. Dr. Lofthouse is an acknowledged authority on the study and interpretation of Bach, and his lecture-concerts with explanation and comment were a model that should stimulate further experiments in this technique. They should go far to develop a more informed appreciation of music in a community where enthusiasm is wide- spread.

The ballet has its adherents, choral singing is popular and madrigal groups flourish in private circles. Of the larger societies, three were prominent. The Hong Kong Singers sang "The Messiah" early in the year and later presented "Elijah" both in Kowloon and at the University. The Choral Group attained a very high standard in its production of "La Traviata" sung in Italian; the Crescendo Choral Society gave several concert performances.

'Increased interest in music was revealed in the rapidity with which the Schools Music Association expanded in its annual music festival, and two schools combined to give a creditable production of "The Pirates of Penzance". The Police Band made their first and very successful public appearance. Other activities included a number of gramophone circles and the frequent playing of chamber music by interested groups in private homes.

A dearth of professional productions in English combined with intense amateur interest could be seen in the dramatic activities of the Colony. It is true that amateurs are able to profit from the professional per- formances of Chinese operas and plays at public theatres, but English drama in Hong Kong is entirely the province of amateurs. The Kai Tak Players and

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Garrison Players draw their castes largely from service personnel; "Toad of Toad's Hall" was perhaps the most ambitious achievement of the former, while the latter scored an undoubted success with "Before the Party", a dramatized version of a Somerset Maugham short story. Although the Hong Kong Stage Club is sadly handicapped by the lack of a theatre, five stage and a greater number of radio plays were presented. The club's most notable productions

productions were "The Paragon" and "The Holly and The Ivy"; the enthusiasm of its members is such that successive castes rarely contain the same actors.

The 7th International Salon of the Photographic Society of Hong Kong fully justified its title with entries from thirty five countries. The Bronze Medal was awarded to Hong Kong-the first occasion on which such an award has gone to a local photographer. From thirteen hundred prints submitted to the judges, two hundred and thirty were exhibited. With entries coming from all parts of the world these figures are eloquent, for they show that the Photographic Society can attract, exhibit and produce photographs of an international standard.

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IB

The Public Relations Office organized a com- petition for both amateur and professional photographers which included four categories of pictures each dealing with an aspect of Hong Kong-Scenery and Architec- ture, Hong Kong at Work, People and their Activities, and Curiosities, Fauna and Flora of Hong Kong-and the competition attracted work of outstanding quality.

The Hong Kong Art Club was active with discussions, classes and monthly exhibitions. Its two main shows are the Annual Exhibition held in January and the Summer Exhibition. At the former the

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THE ARTS

emphasis was on water colours, while oils and parti- cularly portraits were prominent in the Summer Exhibition. Work in the extreme modern manner was in evidence. Wallasse Ting's exhibition at the Hotel Cecil contained a number of abstract pictures which stimulated a good deal of correspondence in the press, as did also the Art Club's exhibitions, and demonstrated the fact that there is a lively interest in painting even if that interest is not yet widely diffused.

A new monthly magazine "Outlook" which came out in July is designed chiefly for Hong Kong. It contains, in addition to stories and articles on social problems, critical notes on music, plays and art exhibi- tions in the Colony.

The Government continued its unobtrusive task of assembling material suitable for inclusion in the museum which may occupy part of the proposed City Hall. Two collections including oil paintings, prints and drawings-all dealing with the China Coast-which were purchased from Mr. Whyndam O. Law and Mr. G. R. Sayer in the previous year, have now arrived in the Colony and should be available for exhibition in the near future.

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XV

SPORT

The year 1952 was a vintage year for sport in the Colony. The highlight was the participation for the first time of Hong Kong athletes in an Olympiad. Four swimmers, two men and two women, were sent to Helsinki, and although the achievements of the Colony's athletes were not outstanding much valuable knowledge was gained.

The Children's Playground Association with the financial help of the Jockey Club commenced building a new centre in Kowloon. The Association was honoured by H.R.H. The Duchess of Kent who laid the foundation stone. The centre will be called the 'Queen Elizabeth Youth Centre' and will be situated in one of Kowloon's most crowded areas, facilities being available for miniature football, basket ball, volley ball and any game which needs a small covered stadium.

A new sports stadium will be built by Govern- ment at Sookunpo. The stadium has been designed to seat 35,000 with provision for expansion later. It will solve many of the present problems of accommodating spectators at large sporting functions.

The scheme for pooling playing-grounds, whereby any club or organization can hire from Government a well-equipped pitch for a reasonable sum, was inaugurated in the autumn and has proved very success- ful. When this scheme is finally completed, facilities. will be available for most organized league games, Association and Rugby football, hockey and cricket, to be run without congestion of fixture.

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SPORT

Association Football

This is still the most popular game in the Colony and next to horse racing is the sport patronized by the largest numbers. During the season crowds in excess of 14,000 watched many local competitions. The Football Association entertained the following touring teams during the season; "All India", "Halsingborg" of Sweden, "Akademisk Boldklub" of Denmark and the "Athenian Football League" from England. Inter- port matches were played in Macao and Singapore, and a schoolboys' interport was played in Manila.

Basket Ball

The world-famous Harlem Globetrotters Basket ball team visited the Colony in September, and a series of exhibition games were played by floodlight on the Hong Kong Football Club ground. The highlight of this visit was an exhibition, or 'clinic' as the Americans called it, where a demonstration of the finer points of the game was given to nearly 9,000 school children. The proceeds of the afternoon were donated to the "Boys and Girls Clubs Association". This visit increased interest in one of the Colony's most popular

games.

Badminton

The Badminton leagues continue to be successful, particularly the junior section. Representatives from Hong Kong, both men and women, were invited to watch the semi-final and the final of the Thomas Cup competition in Malaya, and they participated in the unofficial world championships staged in Kuala Lumpur. A fine display was put up by Miss Ulian Khoo and Miss Helen Kwong, and by the Colony champion Ramon Young.

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Cricket

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The Hong Kong Cricket League sponsored the visit of an Australian Cricket team to the Colony. The team, captained by Jack Chegwin, included past and present Test players amongst its members, and the delights of cricket were ably demonstrated by such favourites as Bill O'Reilly, Keith Miller, Arthur Morris, Don Tallon, Colin McCool and three promising younger players Alan Davidson, Sid Carroll and Jimmy De Courcey.

Although the Colony was finally beaten it was not. disgraced, and many local players enhanced their reputations. This visit showed that by co-operation on the part of all clubs a project which had seemed financially beyond the means of the league could be arranged and very successfully, concluded.

Golf

At the invitation of the Royal Hong Kong Golf Club Mr. Max Faulkner, the British Open Golf Cham- pion of 1951, visited the Colony. He played in a series. of matches against leading local players, and his skill, sportsmanship and willingness to answer questions on many aspects of the game gained him many friends.

Hockey

During the 1952 Hockey Season, 20 men's and 9 ladies' teams competed in the league games organized by the Hockey Association. A school girls' league competition between eight teams was also played.

The annual interport match with Macao was played in Hong Kong, Macao winning by 3 goals to 1. A match between the second teams also resulted in a victory for Macao.

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SPORT

Hong Kong School Sports Association

The Association was formed during the year to organize and control all school sports, and excellent results were achieved. A definite improvement was reported by the chairman in the sportsmanship of the contestants. Sporting associations have offered their help to the schools, and it is hoped that the best coaches in each sport will be made available to the association.

Lawn Bowls

The Colony lawn bowlers on leave in England retained the "Esplin" Cup which they won from the Wanstead Club in 1951. Lawn Bowls is included among the scheduled games for the 1954 Empire Games, and it is hoped that Hong Kong will be represented. The game is a very popular summer pastime, and there are more than a dozen excellent greens in the Colony.

Lawn Tennis

The Association took advantage of every oppor- tunity to invite players of world repute to visit the Colony, and during the year visitors from Japan, Indonesia and Malaya gave exhibition matches. Hong Kong was represented at Wimbledon by the Colony champion Ip Koon Hung and by Edwin Tsai, both of whom put up good performances.

The Chinese Recreation Club made history by installing floodlights and tennis was played at night for the first time in the Colony. These courts are proving a great boon to tennis enthusiasts in the shorter evenings.

Motoring

The Hong Kong Automobile Association again organized an annual motor-rally.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

In May, 1952, the Motor Sports Club of Hong Kong was also instituted as an organization to promote motor sports.

A number of competitive meetings have been held including a combined treasure hunt, and a regularity run. A Hill Climbing Championship has been instituted for which there is keen competition, and the Club has been lucky in being able to use a very suitable hill in the New Territories.

Rugby Union

The Hong Kong Rugby Union was formed during the year and affiliated to the English Rugby Union.

The Union, with the aid of the Combined Services, sent a team to Japan to play against the Japanese

universities.

In October, the Colony played one game against an Oxford University side which was passing through the Colony on its return from a tour of Japan. Although well beaten, the Colony side played well before the largest crowd ever to watch a rugby match in Hong Kong. A French Air Force team from Saigon also visited the Colony.

An interesting and encouraging event took place in the entry of a Chinese team in the Rugby seven-a-side tournament. It is hoped that this may be the fore- runner of a Chinese fifteen.

Racing

The Jockey Club was honoured by the presence of Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Kent and her son the Duke of Kent at the race meeting on 29th October. Their Royal Highnesses visited the paddock and took a great interest in the racing.

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SPORT

During the second half of the year there was a decline in the amounts which were invested in sweep- stakes and through the totalisator. This can be attributed to the recession in the Colony's trade, but nevertheless very considerable sums of money continue to be attracted.

Some 400 ponies are stabled in the Club's stables and trained and raced on the tracks. The two out- standing performers amongst them were "Firefly" and "Knock-down"; the latter was the champion griffin, and won six races in succession before being overtaken by "Firefly". Ninety new ponies arrived from Aus- tralia in August, and are being trained to compete at the annual meeting in January.

Mr. Kwok was the leading rider for the first half of the season, but in the autumn Monsieur Samarcq rose to prominence and achieved the remarkable feat of riding four winners in succession. Other riders who continued to ride successfully are Messrs. Ostroumoff, Chaung and Pote-Hunt. The greatest keenness is

shown by novice riders.

Swimming

BRAR

The Colony's Olympic representatives Miss Cynthia Eager, Miss Irene Kwok-Kam Ngor, Cheung Kin Man and F. X. Monteiro continue to hold their own, but they are being pressed by many promising younger swimmers.

The annual cross-harbour race was swum in June, and it was probably the last time that the course will be used, for it may be changed by land reclamation next year. In the absence of the Olympic representa- tives times were slower than usual. At the Olympic games Hong Kong had the fastest swimmers from the Far East, with the exception of the Japanese.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Table Tennis

Hong Kong table tennis players are now up to world championship standard. In December, they made almost a clean sweep of the Asian champion- ships, in Singapore, beating the present world champion, J. Satoh of Japan.

Johnny Leach and Richard Bergman visited the Colony, and local players proved their superiority over these two former world champions. Johnny Leach paid our players many compliments, and expressed the opinion that they should visit Bucharest for the next world championships, where they could be expected to acquit themselves well. Marty Reisman and Douglas Courtland of America and also Japanese and Indian first-class players visited the Colony, and lent encour- agement and interest to the game.

Track and Field

The Track and Field Association renamed itself the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association during the year. The Association has had a most successful year and done much towards reviving athletics. Numerous meetings on tracks, roads and fields were held and many local records fell.

The highlight of the athletic year was the short visit during October of Miss Marjorie Jackson, the Australian Olympic games champion, accompanied by Mrs. D. Magee, Hon. Secretary of the Australian Women's Amateur Athletic Union. They gave many useful hints on training and starting to a very enthu- siastic gathering at the King George V school.

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SPORT

Yachting and Rowing

Week-end weather was favourable for sailing and rowing and the various clubs enjoyed a successful season. At the Easter regatta of the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club teams from the following clubs participat- ed:

Miri Belait Boat Club; Royal Singapore Yacht Club; R.A.F. Yacht Club, Changi; R.A.F. Yacht Club, Seletar; R.A.F. Yacht Club, Kai Tak; Naval Base Sailing Club, Hong Kong; Club Nautique de Macau. There was also an interport sailing regatta between Manila, Macau, which won the Redwing class, and Hong Kong, which won the Dragon and Star class events.

The Autumn rowing regatta between the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club and the Victoria Recreation Club was won by the former. A quadrangular rowing interport regatta attracted teams from the Royal Singa- pore Yacht Club, which won most of the races, the Miri Belait Boat Club, the Club Nautique de Saigon and the Royal Hong Kong Yacht Club.

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i:

港公

香港

-共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

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Photographic Competition Prize Winner.

Morning street scene in the old fishing village of Shaukiwan, now developing rapidly into a thriving suburb of Victoria.

Tom Chan

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

RIES

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NGLONG

Happy Valley, with the Colony's Race Course in the centre, is surrounded by modern blocks of flats. The Valley is a popular recreational area with playing

fields inside the race tracks. Across the

harbour lie the hills of Kowloon.

CE

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Happy Valley, with the Colony's Race Course in the centre,

is surrounded by modern blocks of flats. The Valley

is a popular recreational area with playing fields inside the race tracks. Across the harbour lie the hills of Kowloon.

No-one nowadays knows precisely how Happy Valley came to be

so called. The original Chinese name is Wong Nei Chong, or Yellow Mud Creek, for a little stream which becomes a torrent in the rainy season and brings down great quantities of tawny silt from the hills.

Photo: Gainsborough Studio

í

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PL

RI

No-one nowadays knows precisely how Happy Valley came to be so called. The original Chinese name is Wong Nei Chong, or Yellow Mud Creek, for a little stream which becomes a torrent in the rainy season and brings down great quantities of tawny silt from the hills.

Photo: Gainsborough Studio

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Tsau Tsor Yan

Photographic Competition Entry.

Shek O is one of the Colony's many fine bathing beaches. Sharks very rarely come inshore, but fishing for them in the deep water is an exhilarating pastime. Photographic Competition Entry.

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Leung Hing Lau :

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香港

公共圖

PART III

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

香港

V

共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

I

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Geography

Hong Kong lies just within the tropics, on the south-eastern coast of the Chinese Province of Kwang- tung, and east of the Pearl River estuary. The Colony includes Hong Kong Island (32 square miles), on which is situated the capital city of Victoria, the ceded territory of Kowloon (3 square miles), Stonecutters Island (square mile) and the New Territories which consist of the remainder of the mountainous peninsula of Kowloon together with numerous islands (355 square miles) leased from China on 1st July, 1898 for 99 years. The total area of the Colony is thus roughly 391 square miles, a large proportion of which is steep and unpro- ductive hillside. The leased territories include also the waters of Deep Bay to the west and Mirs Bay to the

east.

Hong Kong Island is eleven miles long from east to west and varies in width from two to five miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,809 feet) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The oldest part of the urban area runs up the steep hillside for hundreds of yards in narrow stepped streets and terraces, but the modern stands mostly on a strip of reclaimed land averaging 200-400 yards wide which extends 9 miles along the southern shore of the harbour from Sulphur Channel to Lyemun Pass.

town

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Between the island and the mainland of Kowloon lies the harbour, a natural and almost landlocked anchorage about 17 square miles in area, and of a width varying from one to three miles. The entrance from the east is by a deep-water channel through Lyemun Pass, five to nine hundred yards wide. On the western side the harbour is protected by a group of islands pierced by channels of various depths. The largest of these islands is Lantao which is nearly twice. the size of Hong Kong Island. This harbour, lying midway between the main ports of Haiphong in Indo- China and Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtse River, has become the gateway to South China and has grown to be one of the greatest seaports in the world.

Л

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low dry foothills running southward from the escarpment of the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula two miles long and nowhere more than two miles wide. Most of these foothills have now been levelled and the soil used to extend the area by reclamation. The town of Kowloon now covers the whole of this peninsula and a part of the leased territory to the north of it. It contains the Colony's main industrial area, one of the two principal com- mercial dockyards, wharves for ocean-going ships, and a large residential suburb. Its population in 1941 threatened to overtake that of Victoria. The terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which connects at Canton with the network of the Chinese railways, is at the extreme southern tip of the peninsula. The Unicorn range of hills, even more precipitous though less high than those on the island, forms a barrier between Kowloon and the remainder of the Kowloon Peninsula.

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GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is steep and barren. Before the war considerable areas were afforested, but one of the unfortunate results of the occupation of the Colony by the Japanese was the felling of the vast majority of the trees for firewood, with the consequence that now only a few isolated woods remain, principally in the vicinity of villages. Systematic re-afforestation has been going on steadily since the end of the war. The highest point is the mountain called Taimoshan (3,141 feet) which lies seven miles north-west of Kowloon. To the North-west of this mountain and extending to the marshes on the verge of Deep Bay stretches the Colony's largest area of cultivable land. The eastern half of the New Territories mainland is covered by irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Wherever cultivation is made possible by the presence of flat land and water, villages exist and crops are raised. Intricate terracing brings the maximum of land under cultivation and the Chinese farmers, though ready to adopt any modern methods which are suited to local conditions and whose value has been demonstrated to them by practical tests, find in fact that there are few directions in which their traditional methods can be improved.

The New Territories include 75 adjacent islands many of which are uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland and the island population includes many fisherfolk living aboard their boats. Lantao, the largest island, is well watered, but the gradients are such that there is little cultivation. Wild boar and barking deer abound among the well- wooded ravines and scrub-covered spurs of this lonely island. The rest of the islands are much smaller, and

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range in character from the thickly-populated Cheung Chau with its large fishing community, soy factory and junk-building yards, to an island ony 8 acres large (Ngai Ying Chau) until recently occupied by a single family.

Climate

The climate is sub-tropical and is governed to a large extent by the monsoons, the winter being nor- mally cool and dry and the summer hot and humid. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists until April. The early winter is the most pleasant time of the year, the weather being generally sunny and the atmosphere dry. After the New Year the sky is more often clouded, though rainfall remains. slight; in March and April long spells of dull overcast weather may occur. Warm south-easterly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-east monsoon during this period, and under these conditions fog and low cloud are common. From May until September the air reaching Hong Kong has generally travelled from warm tropical seas to the east and south of the Colony; the weather is persistently hot and humid, and often cloudy and showery with occasional thunderstorms. The summer is the rainy season, three-quarters of the average annual rainfall of 84.76 inches (2152.8 mm.) falling during the period May to September.

The mean monthly temperature varies from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature rarely rises above 95°F, or falls below 40°F. The mean relative humidity exceeds 80% from March until August, but in the early winter it may fall as low as 20%. The average monthly duration of sunshine ranges from 95 hours. in March to 217 hours in October.

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Hong Kong is liable to be affected by typhoons from July to October, although they are sometimes experienced before and after this period. Spells of bad weather, heavy rain and strong winds normally occur several times in each summer owing to the passage of typhoons or tropical storms at varying distances from the Colony. A typhoon whose centre passes over or near Hong Kong may be accompanied by winds of hurricane force, resulting in widespread damage; sixteen such disasters have occurred in the last 67 years, one of the worst being on 2nd September, 1937 when the wind speed reached 145 knots in a gust, and 28 steamships were stranded in and around the harbour. Although the loss of life on such occa- sions is now minimized by an elaborate system of warnings, there are always a number of junks and small craft which fail to reach the typhoon shelters in time.

Temperatures were generally above normal during the first six months of 1952, May being particularly warm and sunny. In the second half of the year Midsummer was rather temperatures were normal. cloudier than usual, the three months July to Septem- ber showing a sunshine duration deficit of nearly 76 hours.

Accumulated total rainfall remained below average from the end of January to the beginning of April. It again fell considerably below normal throughout the summer except for a brief spell from late June to early July, but a record-breaking fall in September more than made good the deficit. Against a normal amount of 10.4 inches for the month, 33.3 inches fell in Septem- ber, 1952, breaking the previous record of 30.6 inches which had stood since 1906. September was also the

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wettest of any of the months since 1923. At the end of December the accumulated total rainfall amounted to 100.17 inches, or 15.41 inches above average.

Gales during the year never constituted a major danger to the Colony, although a few intense storms passed close to the south. The strong wind signal was hoisted seven times between June and September and other storm signals on two additional occasions. On three occasions the maximum gust velocity of the wind exceed 60 knots. Gales blew for five hours on June 11th, and the wind remained strong for more than a day and a half. A total of 35 hours of strong winds. occurred on 11th, 19th and 26th of August, as a result of three disturbances which passed to the south of the Colony on westerly tracks. The last storm eventu- ally attained typhoon intensity. Tropical storms on September 5th, 13th and 17th, gave a total of about 36 hours of strong winds, but the mean wind velocity never reached gale force.

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II

HISTORY

The Colony of Hong Kong dates from the second quarter of the 19th century, having been ceded by the Treaty of Nanking in August, 1842. It had been occupied some time earlier, on January 26th, 1841, as a result of an agreement between Keshen and Captain Charles Elliot, and though this agreement was subse- quently disavowed by both British and Chinese, the latter date is the one usually taken as the starting point of the Colony. Hong Kong is a product of history, the history of the relations between East and West; for it was out of the nature of those relations, and out of their commercial nature in particular, that Hong Kong came into being. It is part of the very fabric of historical conditions as they existed at the time of its birth. Before this Hong Kong had no history. The island is barren, and exposed to attack, and therefore never had any large population; there were indeed a few villages, in which peasants got a bare living from the scanty soil available, eked out with fishing. Archaeological work shows that settlements. existed here from early times but there is no evidence to show that there was ever before any important centre of population or commerce. The only ancient monument in the district was a large granite boulder on a hill by Ma'tau Chung called the Sung Wong Toi and inscribed with those three characters; it commemorated the last of the Sung Emperors, the boy Ti-ping, who was driven to Kowloon in the fight- ing against invading Mongols, was defeated at Tsun Wan, and driven further west to his death. It is therefore difficult not to agree with the view expressed by Eitel, who wrote "and men had to come from the Far West to give it a name in the history of the East".

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The founding of the Colony of Hong Kong, and with it, the city of Victoria, arose out of the very special nature of the relations between East and West in China, which were centred in Canton and Macao. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to arrive off the China Coast in 1517, and they were followed by the Spanish, Dutch, English, French and, after the close of the American War of Independence in 1783, by the Americans. It is, however, unnecessary to follow this intercourse in detail.

By the early 19th century, western trade with China had been centred on Canton, which had had a monopoly since 1755, despite the fact that the English had tried desperately hard to break that monopoly and establish themselves at Ningpo. The trade was governed by monopoly on both sides. On the Chinese side, the Canton monopoly was reinforced by that of the co-hong. The co-hong was an association of Chinese merchants who had secured by purchase the monopoly of trade with the west, and who were held. responsible for the foreign traders, and had to act as security for them. On the British side, the East India Company held a monopoly of the trade until 1833, although in fact it had been breaking down for some time before it was abolished in that year.

By this time, the trade had fallen predominantly into the hands of the British, and was increasing rapidly. Personal relations with the co-hong merchants were cordial; there were no written contracts, and all undertakings were given and accepted verbally. "We found them honourable and reliable in all their dealings, faithful to their contracts and large-minded" wrote one observer, W. C. Hunter. But in spite of the flourishing and

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lucrative nature of the trade, there were many com- plaints of the conditions under which it had to be carried on.

There were eight regulations limiting the freedom of the foreigners at Canton; and if these regulations were not consistently applied, they were always liable to be enforced and were regarded as vexatious Briefly, they did not allow traders to reside at Canton all the year round, but only during the actual trading season; women were not allowed to reside in the factories, that is, the trading posts; foreigners were not allowed entry into the city of Canton, or allowed freedom of move- ment, except across the river to the Fati Gardens three times a month; they were not allowed to ride in sedan chairs, or to have Chinese servants. Learning the Chinese language was discouraged, at least to the extent that only Chinese were recognized as interpreters in any negotiations. No direct communication with the local Canton provincial officials was allowed except by way of petition presented through the co-hong. These restrictions on personal freedom

personal freedom were regarded as humiliating, and the sense of grievance they gave rise to was increased by the commercial restrictions of the co-hong monopoly, which prevented the institution of anything approaching a free market, and by the absence of any right to own property such as godowns. In addition there were constantly varying port charges and customs dues, which though not heavy, were arbi- trary and indefinite. Added to all this, the foreigners. were referred to as barbarians, treated as such, and regarded as standing in need of occasional correction.

When the East India Company lost its monopoly of the China trade in 1833, Lord Napier was sent out as Chief Superintendent of Trade to act as the official representative of British commercial interests. His

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mission was quite unsuccessful, partly due to the fact that his instructions were in conflict with the Chinese regulations governing the trade, and partly due to the refusal of the Chinese to treat with any foreign official on a footing of equality. Napier ran into trouble, and he was eventually forced to retire to Macao where he died. The Headquarters of the Superintendent .of Trade never were established in Canton, and remained in Macao until transferred to Hong Kong, in 1842. The failure of Napier, and the ending of the East India Company's monopoly stimulated much heart-searching and led to attempts to find a solution of the difficulties at Canton. Captain Charles Elliot, who became chief Superintendent in December 1836, and who pursued a conciliatory policy, also completely failed in an attempt to secure recognition by the Chinese of his official position.

The removal of the centre of British trade from Canton to an island off the Chinese Coast, which had often formed the subject of discussion, was now advocated more seriously. Four arguments were put forward in support of the advantages of such an island. as a solution to the difficulties at Canton. Some argued that an island should be secured by negotiation, so as to remove the trade from the caprice of the officials at Canton: many argued from the analogy of Bombay and Singapore, that such an island would very soon become a great emporium of British trade: others thought of such an island in terms of strategic requirements. It was also argued that the Chinese would never make the necessary concessions in Canton unless the threat of force were applied; this of course meant naval demonstrations and the possession of a naval base would naturally have considerable utility.

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Finally there was the important "law and order" argument. The British constitutional system demands that executive action can be taken only in accordance with law, and in case of dispute, can be enforced only in a court of law. The weakness of the Superintendents of Trade was that they had little executive authority over the merchants, and no method of making that little effective. It was therefore argued that it would be to the advantage of both Britain and China that a British law court should be set up to control the British merchants. It could not of course be established on foreign soil, and therefore an island should be secured for this purpose.

The situation between 1834 and the outbreak of hostilities in 1839, which was already strained, was made worse by the opium trade. Opium smoking had become a Chinese habit, in spite of its being forbidden, and the import of opium from India increased enor- mously. The contraband trade in opium therefore flourished, with the connivance of the local Chinese officials. The British merchants tended to defend themselves by saying that if they did not import the drug, the merchants of other nations would, and by declaring it to be a purely commercial matter, subject to the usual economic laws of supply and demand which needed no interference or defence; the moral aspects being not their concern. The British Govern- ment adopted a very correct policy. The Chinese Government was entitled to pass any edicts it chose, and it was no part of the British Government's business to interfere, or to make Chinese laws effective. The Superintendents were told that they had no authority over the British merchants who, if they engaged in the opium trade, did so at their own risk. The British

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Government wanted to establish official diplomatic relations, by which it was hoped all differences would be settled, and since the Chinese Government would not recognize the British Superintendent, it could not expect the British Government to interfere or take the matter up until this recognition was given. On the Chinese side an attempt to stamp out the opium trade, made by Commissioner Lin Tse Su in 1839, led to the incarceration of British personnel in the factories, and this action brought about hostilities.

By this time the question of occupying an island or islands off the Coast had long been mooted. The claims of the Bonin Islands, Formosa, Lantao, Chusan and Hong Kong had all been canvassed. Elliot was swayed in favour of Hong Kong because the whole British community had taken refuge on board ship in the harbour of Hong Kong late in 1839, when their con- tinued residence at Macao proved dangerous to the Portuguese. During a pause in the hostilities, he negotiated with Kishen the Convention of Chuenpi, by which Hong Kong was ceded, though under such conditions that neither side ultimately accepted the convention. By virtue of this Convention, Hong Kong was occupied on January 26th 1841, and this date is generally regarded as the date of the founding of the Colony. Both British and Chinese governments how- ever refused to agree to the terms of the convention, and Captain Charles Elliot was recalled for not carrying out the letter of his instructions, and for not insisting on the British Government's full demands.

A new plenipotentiary, Sir Henry Pottinger, was sent out with instructions to adhere to the original demands. It is interesting to note that the cession of Hong Kong was not one of these. The instructions were to secure either the cession of one or more islands

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on the coast or, if the Chinese Government preferred, instead of making such a cession, to obtain by treaty security and freedom of commerce to Her Majesty's subjects resident in China. That is, the essential demand was security, not the cession of territory. In September 1841, the Whig Government in Great Britain fell from office, and in the new Tory administration, Lord Aberdeen was the Foreign Secretary. He issued modified instructions to the plenipotentiary which had the effect of stressing this emphasis on security. Lord Aberdeen expressed the view that the permanent acquisi- tion of territory in China was undesirable for various reasons. "A secure and well regulated trade is all we desire" he said. He considered that this security could best be obtained by a treaty opening four or five Chinese ports, with the right to station consular agents in each. Any islands seized were to be regarded as military bases, and perhaps useful pawns, in the negotiations. Before the new instructions could arrive, however, Sir Henry Pottinger had probably already made up his mind to secure Hong Kong. He moved the Head- quarters of the Superintendent of Trade from Macao to Hong Kong in February 1842, and energetically pushed on with hostilities. The successes of the spring and summer of 1842 no doubt led him to feel that he could gain the desired security both by a treaty and by the cessation of an island. In this, he was encouraged by the Governor-General of India, Lord Auckland, the man who initiated in India the advance to the North West frontier.

Eventually the Treaty of Nanking was negotiated, both Chinese and British, afraid of the consequences of prolonging the war, being anxious to bring the hos- tilities to an end. By the Treaty, four additional Chinese ports were to be opened to foreign trade, and

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it was agreed that a commercial treaty should be subsequently negotiated laying down the general con- ditions under which the foreigners should live and pursue their commercial activities. In addition, Article III provided for the cession of Hong Kong, in the following terms. "It being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port whereat they may careen and refit their ships when required, and keep stores for that purpose.

This phrasing reflects the reality underlying the founding of the Colony, for Hong Kong is a product of its harbour and of the ships that use it and which became, and still are, its life-blood. The home government had adopted a correct policy with regard to Hong Kong. The 1841 cession was not recognized, and the island was regarded. as being under a military occupation; it ordered all building except that necessary for military purposes to cease, and leases of land already made were not recognized, so that the annual rents could not legally be collected. The news of the Treaty of Nanking was received with enthusiasm in London, which feared the prospect of a long war. The Tory Government still showed some reluctance, until the Treaty had been ratified, to make permanent arrangements for the administration of the island, and as a temporary measure the government of the island was placed in the hands of the Superintendent of Trade, responsible to the Foreign Office. On June 26th, 1843, the ratifications were exchanged at Hong Kong, with great ceremony, and the way was now clear for the Colonial Office (it was at this time an adjunct of the War Office) to assume responsibility. Sir Henry Pottinger was appointed the First Governor of the Colony, though as Superintendent of Trade he remained subject to the Foreign Office. The Governors of Hong Kong retained this dual role

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and served two masters until 1857, when events demanded the sending to China of a special mission, which took over the powers of the Superintendent of Trade, leaving Hong Kong the Governor's sole responsibility.

The first phase of the Colony's history, that of its foundation, lasted nearly 20 years, from 1841 to the Treaty of Tientsin, 1858, and covered the governorships of Sir Henry Pottinger, Sir John Davis, Sir George Bonham and Sir John Bowring. Captain Charles Elliot had taken over the island on January 26th, 1841 and he issued a proclamation on February 2nd, 1841, which proclaimed that "pending Her Hajesty's further pleasure, the natives of the island of Hong Kong, and all natives of China thereto resorting, shall be governed according to the laws and customs of China, every description of torture excepted", a declaration that was exactly in keeping with the liberal colonial policy of the period. The difficulties confronting the infant colony were enormous. Two severe typhoons in 1841 were an early foretaste of climatic difficulties; fever was a serious problem and led to considerable mortality. General insecurity resulting from robberies and burglaries, and the difficulty of organizing an efficient police force, remained during the whole of this early period. Similarly on the neighbouring waters piracy was endemic and defied all attempts at suppression; indeed it remained something of a danger for the rest of the century and is not stamped out even today. The allot- ments of land made in the early days of the Colony, which were not given legal recognition because the home government refused to recognize the cession until the Treaty was definitely ratified, were attended, as a result of this delay of two and a half years, by great confusion and complication in the matter of titles to

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land. Another and very serious difficulty was the failure to define the nature of the relations between the Colony and China. Since trade with China continued at Canton just as in the old days, and now began at four additional open ports, it is difficult to see how the hopes that Hong Kong would become a great emporium. of trade could be realized. These hopes were based on the declaration of the freedom of the port and the belief that it would become the centre of the coastal junk trade. This was precisely what the Chinese were deter- mined to prevent, and there can be little doubt that as the treaties were worded, they were quite justified. A sort of economic blockade was therefore instituted and remained a constant hindrance to the local junk trade until an agreement was reached, in86, with the Imperial Maritime Customs.

Another great difficulty was the attempt on the part of the early governors to make the infant Colony self- supporting, except for defence. Taxation aroused, perhaps not unnaturally, opposition and complaint, and a demand for a measure of self-government. A parlia- mentary committee in England debated the Colony, and recommended, amongst other things, a measure of municipal self-government. But the proposal came to nothing because the merchant community objected to the payment of municipal rates, which Bonham insisted was the necessary corollary of municipal self-govern- ment. It is impossible to give an exhaustive account of all these early difficulties, but another must be mentioned. It was difficult to find the right men to fill the government posts, and there was much inefficiency because competent men left the government service for more lucrative careers outside. To this was added personal animosities, even to the extent of libel actions, so that "The Times" wrote of the Colony, on March

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15th, 1859, that it "is always connected with some fatal pestilence,

or some discreditable internal squab- ble. So much so that the name of this noisy, bustling, quarrelsome, discontended and insalubrious little island may not unaptly be used for an euphonious synonym for a place not mentionable in polite society."

After the Treaties of Tientsin, 1858, and Peking, 1860, a new and more hopeful era dawned. Diplomatic relations were now established at Peking, and the open- ing of China to western influence was now accepted. Kowloon as far as Boundary Street became part of the Colony, together with Stonecutters Island, in 1860. Missonary activity was definitely allowed, with the right of residence, to the various Christian churches. The chief result of these more settled conditions, as far as Hong Kong was concerned, was the increasing migra- tion of Chinese families into the Colony, and during this formative period, 1858-1882, Hong Kong became two communities, Chinese and foreign, each making an essential contribution to the Colony's development, and yet each holding studiously aloof from the other. There followed naturally new problems in the organiza- tion of the social life of the Colony. The attempt to give the Chinese their own administration based on respect for Chinese customs broke down, and gradually the principle was adopted that the law must be equally binding on all. Under Western influence the Chinese themselves took the initiative in changing their customs. Thus in connexion with the much criticised Muitsai custom, the Chinese in 1878 formed the Po Leung Kuk to combat the kidnapping of women and girls. Again in 1872 the Tung Wah Hospital was established by the Chinese to care for the indigent sick and dying and to meet criticism that they were left to die without attention. Much care was now given to the question

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

of seeing that the Chinese population was accurately informed of the steps taken by Government, and that Government should be similarly informed of the views of the Chinese. The issue, in Chinese, of the Hong Kong Government Gazette was started in 1862, and efforts made to secure accuracy in translation culminated in the establishment of the Cadet Scheme, which pro- vided for the appointment of student-interpreters who would eventually be marked out for the most responsible administrative posts. At the same time, the office of the Registrar-General was made responsible for all questions relating to the Chinese. The problem of

public gaming houses was tackled, and after some attempt at control by licensing they were abolished, chiefly at the insistence of religious opinion at home and in the Colony, though the immediate result was merely to drive them over to the Chinese side of the border in Kowloon City. There was also the great social problem of overcrowding, with associated prob- lems of water supply and sanitation. In 1882, Oswald Chadwick was sent out to the Colony as Special Sanitary Commissioner, and as a result of his report a Sanitary Board was set up in 1883, its powers and duties being defined by a Sanitary Ordinance, though in fact it was not until the plague of 1894 that the problem of overcrowding was seriously tackled.

The growth of the Chinese population led in this period to great changes, and advances, in the field of education. A Board of Education had been estab- lished as early as 1845, composed chiefly of Protestant missionaries, and the establishment of schools with Christian teaching was one of its main objects. In 1865, there was a reversal of policy and a reorganiza- tion; the Board was abolished, and Christian teaching

198

HISTORY

was excluded from all government schools which be- came secular. A central school was established, the Headmaster of which became the head of the Education Department. In 1873, a grant-in-aid scheme was introduced to help the religious bodies; at first the grants were based on secular subjects only, but in 1879, more liberal treatment was given.

The next period in the Colony's history, 1882-1914, may be defined as the period of steady administration and growing prosperity. The main lines of policy had now been laid down, and the period was one of all- round steady growth and progress. The coming of the bubonic plague, in 1894, shook the Colony's com- placency, and there was a serious exodus of Chinese from the Colony to the mainland. Drastic measures were necessary, involving house visitation, lime- washing, and treatment of infected premises. This created opposition among the Chinese who still evinced a complete lack of faith in the efficacy of western medicine.

In 1899, the area of the Colony was increased by the leasing from China of the new Territories and surrounding islands, and here again the policy was to bring orderly administration; for example, detailed land surveys were made in an attempt to ascertain ownership of land, with the minimum of interference with local customs. The pre-war years were remarkable for two great advances in education. In 1903, a new education code was drawn up, abolishing the system of basing the payment of grants to the voluntary schools on annual examinations, and substituting annual ins- pections as the basis. Payment by results had been abolished in England in 1890, and the Colony therefore was coming into line with developments at home. The other great advance was the founding of Hong Kong

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

University, following discussions held by Sir Frederick Lugard with prominent local inhabitants soon after hist arrival.

In 1908, H. N. Mody offered to bear the cost of the building, and a committee was formed to organize a public subscription. The foundation stone of the new building was laid in 1910, and the University. opened in 1912. Henceforward the Hong Kong student was to be able to receive his professional training and higher education in the Colony.

The last period, since the war of 1914-18, is yet difficult to evaluate. The Chinese scene has been completely changed by the Chinese Revolution, and the coming of the Nationalist Government, and later by the Japanese War against China and the war in the Pacific in 1941, and even more recently by the conclusion of the civil war and the establishment of a Communist Government in Peking.

SE

After Japan invaded China in 1937, the Colony became a refuge for many Chinese and the population grew to over one and a half million. Until the fall of Canton at the end of 1938 valuable supplies were able to reach China through Hong Kong. With the outbreak of war in Europe, in September, 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on December 8th, 1941, the blow fell. Powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, struck at the Colony. The first attempt of the Japenese to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of December 15th- 16th, but a second attempt on the night of the 18th-19th could not be held. After some bloody fighting on the Island, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese

200

HISTORY

forces on Christmas Day. The isolated brigade on Stanley peninsula held out for a further day before capitulating on superior orders.

Hong Kong remained in Japanese hands for over three and a half years. The population fell from more than one and a half million to a third of that number.

The Colony was liberated when units of the British Pacific Fleet entered the harbour on August 30th, 1945, about two weeks after the capitulation of Japan. A brief period of military administration was followed by the re-establishment of civil government on May Ist, 1946.

·

The Colony made an astonishing recovery in the years that followed. Thousands of Chinese returned to Hong Kong from the mainland and the population quickly reached and surpassed its pre-war level, pro- ducing a housing problem which became acute when, as the result of the success of the Communist armies in the Chinese civil war, thousands more Chinese, particularly from Shanghai and other centres of Chinese commerce, started entering the Colony as refugees. This second phase in the Colony's increase of population began in 1947, and reached its height in May 1950, when the Colony had an estimated popula- tion of 2,360,000, the highest in its history. In 1952 the population, partly due to immigration restrictions imposed in 1950 both by the Colonial authorities and by the Chinese Government, had become more or less stable at approximately two and a quarter million.

201

Trees

III

HONG KONG TREES AND FAUNA

The most common trees native to Hong Kong and the New Territories are camphor, laichee, chinese banyan and pine.

At the time of its foundation as a Colony, Hong Kong Island was sparsely wooded except for an area around Happy Valley. Since this time many trees have been imported and the Colony may now boast of a wide variety.

--

In the Annual Reports for the past two years descriptions and photographs have been given of some of the trees of Hong Kong, and this series is continued here.

Foxglove Tree (Paulownia Fortunei)

This is a Chinese tree introduced into the Colony in 1905, for roadside planting. It is a rapidly growing ornamental tree, usually reaching a height of 30 feet. The large bell-shaped flowers which bloom in March are creamy white, heavily marked with deep purple in- side, and flushed with lilac on the outside surface. The beautiful flowers are produced in great profusion when the tree is usually bare of foliage. A great number grow along Stubbs Road and near to Repulse Bay. There are several fine specimens to be seen in the Botanic Gardens. The wood is used for making sandals, boxes, furniture and musical instruments, and is also suitable for making charcoal for gunpowder. The bark, leaf and flower are used as medicine by the Chinese.

202

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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RIES

1.

LIBRter Banyan.

HONG KONG

TREES.

2.

Mango.

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3.

Horse tail.

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RAR

-[

for access via the Network

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4.

Lung-an.

5.

Foxglove.

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6.

Jacaranda.

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7.

Paper-bark.

8.

Tung-Oil.

PLIC LIB

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HONG KONG TREES AND FAUNA

Horsetail Tree (Casuarina equisetifolia)

This quick-growing, leafless tree, from Australia, thrives well in Hong Kong. It looks somewhat like a pine on account of its slender needlelike branchlets. It is a long-lived, hardy tree which thrives in dry situa- tions and near the sea, and may be kept back to form a hedge or windbreak in dry windy places where few other plants grow. The flowers are brown, hanging on the tip of the needles as small reddish tufts, and later forming green cones about one inch long that turn brown on ripening. The wood is difficult to work and polish. It is rarely attacked by insects and has various uses, such as railroad ties, paving blocks, beams of houses and tool handles. The bark is used for tanning and dyeing and also in medicine as an astringent.

Paper-bark Tree (Melaleuca leucadendron)

This

A large tree from Australia which is planted in large numbers along the roadside in the New Territories. It is easily recognizable by its many layers of peeling, spongy bark and pendulous branch- lets, smooth and silky when young. The narrow, hard leaves, two to four inches long, are medium to dark green, and are very fragrant when crushed. hardy evergreen tree is extremely tolerant, being adaptable to both wet and dry soils. The aromatic cajeput oil extracted from the leaves has many medicinal uses, such as external application for rheumatism and skin diseases. The wood serves for fuel, posts, and ship-building; the bark for caulking, packing and torches.

Tung-oil Tree (Aleurites montana)

A deciduous tree which comes into flower early in April. This is the South China species, grown chiefly

203

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

in Kwangsi province for the valuable oil extracted from the seeds. Its leaves are large, heart-shaped and lobed, with two stalked and cup-like glands at the base of the blade. It produces large clusters of white, showy, unisexual flowers and has egg-shaped fruits, sharply pointed and unevenly ridged on the outside. There is a plantation in the valley leading down from the Kowloon Reservoir to Shatin and many are planted as roadside trees in the Fanling district. (A more common tree closely related with the Tung-oil tree is the Candlenut Tree (Aleurites moluccana), introduced from the Malayan region). The wood of the Tung oil tree is white, soft and not resistant to insects, and is of little use except as fuel.

2

Mango Tree (Mangilera indica)

This well-known fruit tree is a native of India, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years and has been widely introduced into tropical countries all over the world. It reaches a height of about 70 feet, and all the year its heavy luxuriant foliage forms a dense crown, which casts one of the heaviest shades of any of our common trees. The rather thick, narrow leaves are five to ten inches long and have a turpentine odour when crushed. In spring, large panicles of tiny, yellowish, hairy flowers appear from the ends of the branches. The trees in this Colony flower freely yet. seldom do fruits develop, and these are rather poor, being stringy and having a pronounced turpentine flavour. The luscious fruits commonly found in the market are imported from the Philippines or Malaya. Locally, this tree is chiefly planted for ornamental and shade purposes.

The wood is of little use, as it is easily attacked by wood-boring insects and is not durable.

>

204

HONG KONG TREES AND FAUNA

Water Banyan (Cleistocalyx operculatus)

a

A large, spreading, evergreen tree, common near watercourses on the island and the mainland. A few specimens are to be found in the Botanic Gardens. They are identified and distinguished from the Banyan, to which they are not related, by their large, oppositely arranged leaves. Since the leaves frequently turn red, this tree has a distinct place in landscape work, whereas

few trees have in Hong Kong comparatively few foliage colour other than green. The flowers are borne on short stems, developed from buds under the bark of the twigs and branches. After the flowers mature and the fruit ripens, these twigs fall off, leaving scars in the form of holes or pits in the bark. The small, white flowers, with numerous stamens, appear in May and the edible fruits ripen in September. Besides adding to the attractiveness of the countryside, this tree is highly valued for medicinal purposes. In early summer, when the flowering branchlets protrude through the bark, they are picked by the villagers and dried in the sun and later made into a drink, which is said to have a cooling effect. The wood is good, though of little commercial value.

Lung-aan Tree (Euphoria longana)

A native tree of China which grows to about 30 feet and is cultivated for ornamental purposes and for its fruit. It is a beautiful tree with a round or oval crown which casts a pleasant shade. It looks much like the laichee tree, but can be distinguished by its larger leaves and rougher and more corky bark. The leaves are compound, with two to five pairs of leaflets which are two to six inches long, dark green above and usually whitish beneath. In spring, small, yellow flowers

205

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

blossom at the branch tips and leaf bases. The well- known fruit, called in Chinese "Lung-aan" (Dragon's Eye), begins to ripen in July. It is rounded, about inch in diameter, of a yellowish-brown colour, contain- ing a white, fleshy, edible pulp surrounding a dark brown seed. There are many varieties of Lung-aan for which Kwangtung is famous. The fruits are commonly eaten raw, but in recent years the pulp has been canned, or the fruit dried, in the same way as that of the laichee.

Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosaefolia)

A highly ornamental tree both on account of its leaves and flowers; it is a native of Brazil, but has been introduced into many tropical and sub-tropical countries. It reaches a height of 30 to 40 feet and has a round or spreading crown. The big, elegant leaves are divided into tiny segments, which give it the appearance of a fern. Large, loose clusters of bluish- purple flowers, sometimes as many as ninety in one glorious spray, appear in April and May. At the height of the season these flowers fall in great numbers and form a bluish carpet on the ground. The fruit, which seldom develops, is brown and oval.

1

Fauna

Hong Kong has a varied fauna to interest the naturalist and there is much scope for original work by zoologists. A general idea of the mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and other wild life of the Colony may be gained by reference to the Annual Reports for the years 1947 and 1949, and mention of certain birds was made in the report for 1950; some publications on natural history are included in the bibliography.

206

HONG KONG TREES AND FAUNA

More detailed information on local fauna can be obtained from the University's Department of Biology or through the Hong Kong Biological Circle. The latter, having a membership of about 30, is primarily concerned in encouraging the study of biology, parti- cularly in respect of the Colony. Regular lectures and field outings are arranged, and those interested in natural history are especially encouraged.

Animals recorded for the first time during 1952 include 10 species or subspecies of birds, a blind snake (Typhlops albiceps), and approximately 20 butterflies. The birds are: the Turnstone, Eastern Grey Sandpiper, Little Whimbrel, Temminck's Stint, Grey Lapwing, Eastern Little Ringed Plover, Gull-billed Tern, Lesser Chinese Cuckoo, Eastern Great Grey Shrike and Eastern Merlin. A small frog, belonging to the genus Philautus and discovered by Mr. J. D. Romer during the year, is new to Science.

A butterfly of particular interest is a form of Papilio œacus, first recorded by Mr. J. L. P. Wallis, who took a specimen in April, 1952, following which several more. were taken during the summer. The wing-span of this magnificent insect is over 5 inches.

207

IV

ADMINISTRATION

The Government of Hong Kong derives its cons- titutional authority from Letters Patent and Royal Instructions and is administered by a Governor, an Executive Council and a Legislative Council. The Executive Council, which is consulted by the Governor on all important administrative matters, consists of the Commander, British Forces in Hong Kong, the Colonial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Financial Secretary (who are members ex-officio), and such other members, both official and unofficial, as may be appointed. At the end of 1952, there were six official members (including the five ex-officio members mentioned above) and six unofficial members, three of whom were Chinese.

The Legislative Council consists of nine official members, including the same five ex-officio members listed above, and eight unofficial members. The pro- cedure of this Council, with the advice and consent. of which all legislation is enacted and by which all expenditure from public funds has to be approved, is based on that of the House of Commons. There are three standing Committees of the Legislative Council- the Finance Committee, the Law Committee and the Public Works Committee-and select committees are from time to time set up to advise on matters before the Council.

The English Common Law, together with such United Kingdom statutes as were in force on April 5th, 1843, or have since that date been expressly made applicable to Hong Kong, forms the basis of the legal system, modified by Hong Kong Ordinances of which a new edition, revised to 1950, was published in 1951.

208

ADMINISTRATION

The constitution of the Supreme Court of the Colony is set out in the Supreme Court Ordinance No. 3 of 1873. The law as to civil procedure was codified by Ordinance No. 3 of 1901. The Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890, regulates the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Admiralty cases.

The system of administration is briefly as follows:

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretary the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the Civil Service. The Colonial Secretariat, under the control of the Deputy Colonial Secretary, co-ordinates the work of all the departments and takes, or transmits from the Governor or Colonial Secretary, all general policy decisions.

The Government has a Public Relations Officer whose duties are to transmit news and explain govern- ment policy to the public and to keep Government informed of public opinion. Radio Hong Kong, with its broadcasting services in English and Chinese, is also under the control of the Public Relations Officer.

was

The Public Services Commission, which appointed under the authority of the Public Services Commission Ordinance, 1950, with a view to improving the standard of efficiency of officers in the public service and ensuring that the claims of local candidates for appointment to the service receive full consideration, is responsible for advising the Governor on appoint- ments and promotions to the great majority of vacancies on the pensionable Government establishment.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Trade, Finance and Development

Since 1938 the Financial Secretary has assumed a purely administrative function in the Colonial Secre- tariat and under his direction the Accountant-General is responsible for the public accounts, all of which are subject to the supervision of the Director of Audit. The Accountant-General is also responsible for the control of enemy property and property abandoned during the war. The assessment and collection of rates are the responsibility of the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation; and the collection of miscel- laneous indirect taxation and of the direct taxation levied under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947, and the Estate Duty Ordinance, 1932, are the respon- sibility of the Commissioner of Inland Revenue.

L

The Director of Commerce and Industry is res- ponsible for Government bulk purchases of essential foodstuffs, price control, rationing, the collection of import and excise duties, the direction of preventive work and for the production of any statistical matter required by any department of government. Procure- ment of Government requirements other than essential foodstuffs is the responsibility of the Controller of Stores.

The Director of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is administratively responsible for the Government's services in agriculture, fisheries, forestry and the main- tenance of public gardens, each of these divisions being under the supervision of professional officers.

The Registrar of Co-operatives and Director of Marketing is responsible for fostering the development. of co-operative societies, chiefly among fishermen and farmers, and also controls the Government Wholesale Fish and Vegetable Markets.

210

ADMINISTRATION

Social Services

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is a senior administrative officer and has a wide and general responsibility in all matters affecting the Chinese community. The Commissioner of Labour is respon- sible for ensuring that the conditions in factories and workshops, particularly with regard to health and safety, are in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation, for providing conciliation machin- ery for the settlement of disputes about wages and other terms of service, for encouraging modern trade unionism, and for implementing such International Labour Conventions as can be applied to the Colony. The Social Welfare Officer operates under the general direction of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, and among his duties are included the protection of women and girls, the inspection of emigrant ships, the super- vision of child and juvenile welfare and the general co-ordination of all welfare activities in the Colony.

The Director of Medical and Health Services, whose department is divided into the hospital, health and investigation divisions, together with the Head of the Sanitary Department is responsible for the general health of the Colony. The Head of the Sanitary Department is ex-officio the Chairman of the Urban Council which has certain powers, subject to confirma- tion by the Legislative Council, to originate subsidiary legislation in matters concerning public health.

and

Education is in the hands of the Director of Education who controls government schools supervises all private schools in the Colony.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

Communications

The Director of Marine, the Director of Civil Aviation and the General Manager of the Kowloon- Canton Railway are responsible for sea, air and rail traffic respectively, while the Director of Public Works, in addition to his duties in connexion with the construc- tion and maintenance of government buildings, the supervision of other buildings, waterworks, piers and government transport, is responsible for the construc- tion and maintenance of the Colony's roads.

The Postmaster General is responsible for the collection and delivery of mail. The Royal Observa- tory, under a Director, provides meteorological services for use by aircraft and shipping, issues regular weather forecasts and is responsible for giving typhoon warnings.

Law and Order

The Attorney General is the adviser to Govern- ment on all legal matters and is also the public prosecutor. The Registrar General is the officer responsible for the registration of companies, trade marks, marriages and land deals and is also the Official Receiver and Official Trustee. Watch and ward in the Colony is kept by the Commissioner of Police, while the Colony's prisons are the responsibility of the Com- missioner of Prisons. The Chief Officer of the Fire Brigade has an efficient and up-to-date force under his command.

New Territories

The administration of the New Territories is in the charge of a District Commissioner, assisted by a District Officer for each of the three districts: Yuen Long in

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ADMINISTRATION

the west, Taipo in the north and east, and the Southern District. In addition to general administrative duties, District Officers sit as Police Court Magistrates, and can also hold Small Debt Courts and Land Courts under the New Territories Ordinance. They carry out the func- tions of the Public Works Department in controlling Crown Land and building development, and of the Registrar General in regard to records and deeds con- cerning private land. With the help of the Medical and Health Officer, the Department is responsible in the New Territories for much of the work done in the city by the Urban Council.

Other Departments

The Commissioner of Registration is responsible for the registration of persons and the issue of identity cards. under the Registration of Persons Ordinance, 1949. The main work of registering the population was com- pleted in the autumn of 1951.

The Quartering Authority is responsible generally for the allocation of accommodation within government and for the requisition of premises.

213

V

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The weights and measures in use in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom and of the following Chinese weights and measures :-

I fan (candareen)

I ts'in (mace)

.0133 ounces avoirdupois

.133 ounces avoirdupois

I leung (tael)

1.33

ounces avoirdupois

1 kan (catty)

1.33

pounds avoirdupois

1 tam (picul)

133.33

pounds avoirdupois

1 ch'ek (foot)

Statutory equivalent 149

inches. The ch'ek is

divided into 10 ts'un

(inches) and each ts'un

into ten fan or tenths.

In practice the equivalent length of a ch'ek varies according to the trade in which it is used from 14 inches to 11 inches, the commonest equivalent being 14.14 inches.

BLIC

LIB

214

•}

VI

THE PRESS

The most interesting event in the Hong Kong press world during 1952 was undoubtedly the Crown's action in bringing criminal charges of publishing seditious publications against the editors, publishers, proprietors and printers of three Hong Kong news- papers. The newspapers concerned were the Ta Kung Pao, New Evening Post and Wen Wei Pao.

The charges arose out of the publication by those newspapers of what the Crown claimed to be untrue accounts of the disturbance which occurred in Kowloon on March 1st. It was the Crown's case that the articles were calculated to bring the Hong Kong Government into contempt and to raise discontent and disaffection amongst the inhabitants of the Colony.

The hearing of the charges against the proprietor and publisher, the editor, and the printer of the Ta Kung Pao began on April 16th, before the Senior Puisne Judge and a Special Jury. The trial lasted until May 5th when verdicts of 'guilty' against the publisher and editor and of 'not guilty' against the printer were returned.

Fei Yi-Ming, the proprietor and publisher, was fined $4,000 or nine months imprisonment in default and Lee Tsung-Ying, the editor, was fined $3,000 or six months imprisonment in default. Fei Yi-Ming was ordered to pay $1,500, and Lee Tsung-Ying $1,000, towards the cost of the prosecution. The Court also ordered the suppression of the Ta Kung Pao for six months.

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URBAN COUNCIL PUBLIC LIBRARIES

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

An application for a stay of execution of the sup- pression order pending appeal was granted on May 17th. On June 28th, the Full Court dismissed appeals against conviction by the proprietor and publisher and by the editor, but on June 30th varied the suppression order against the Ta Kung Pao to the period during which the newspaper had actually been suppressed (i.e. May 5th to May 17th).

The Solicitor General did not oppose the variation of the suppression order. He stated that the Attorney General would enter a "nolle prosequi" in the cases against the Wen Wei Pao and New Evening Post. The Crown, said the Solicitor General, having achieved its objects in showing that it would not tolerate the publication of seditious matter in Hong Kong without taking action, was not vindictive and considered that it was not necessary in the public interest to continue this series of prosecutions. The further prosecutions. were stayed.

Hong Kong Newspapers and Periodicals

There were few changes of any importance in the general pattern of newspaper publishing during the

year.

The South China Morning Post Ltd. continues to publish the main English-language newspapers of the Colony, the South China Morning Post (weekday mornings), China Mail (weekday evenings) and the South China Sunday Post-Herald (Sundays). At the year's end the South China Morning Post was busy with preparations for the celebration of its 50th anni- versary in March, 1953.

216

THE PRESS

Despite three changes of editorship in little over 12 months, the Hong Kong (Tiger) Standard, founded in 1949 by Mr. Au Boon Haw, who owns a group of English and Chinese newspapers throughout South- East Asia, continues to make good progress and remains the sole rival to the South China Morning Post group.

The trade journal Daily Commodity Quotations published on weekdays, in English and Chinese, serves the useful function of giving up-to-date trade news.

The Chinese newspaper world showed fewer changes than usual during the year. The enactment of the Control of Publications Ordinance, 1951, may be to some degree responsible for this greater steadi- ness, since under the provisions of this Ordinance it is necessary for all newspapers and publications to register and to put up a deposit of $10,000, or name two sureties for that amount, who are acceptable to the Registrar of Publications. These regulations have undoubtedly discouraged a number of the highly speculative and ill-financed publishing ventures whose short-lived existences made the "Mosquito Press" an unhappy characteristic of Chinese journalism.

The Wah Kiu Yat Pao remains the acknowledged leader of the Colony's Chinese press. It has a large morning circulation and also publishes an evening edition; its aim is to report news independently and it is a generally reliable newspaper. Right wing papers giving reliable news include the Sing Tao Jih Pao, run by the proprietors of the Hong Kong Standard, and the Kung Sheung Daily News, both of which publish evening editions. The Sing Pao, with a circu- lation rivalling, if not exceeding, that of the Wah Kiu Yat Po, has little political significance and is largely a gossip paper.

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HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

The Hong Kong Times is an extreme right wing paper in Chinese, expressing the views of the Nationalist Government in Formosa. The Chi Yin Daily News and New Life Evening Post are popular, though some- what sensational newspapers. Since the sedition trial last May the newspapers of the extreme left have adopted a more moderate tone; they are the Ta Kung Pao, the New Evening Post and the Wen Wei Pao.

In the periodical field the weekly Far Eastern Economic Review has a public beyond the confines of the Colony. The Orient, a monthly magazine specializing in Asian political and cultural affairs, also has a wide circulation outside the Colony. Founded in 1950, it is deservedly growing in popularity, and both the contents and appearance are steadily impro- ving. Orient began to appear in a full colour cover during the year. A newcomer, more parochial in appeal, but of high quality of content, is Outlook, the first number of which was published in July.

Outstanding among Chinese periodicals are the weekly East Pictorial, an independent journal, and the monthly Four Seas Pictorial published with the back- ing of the United States Information Service. Both are popular picture magazines in the modern manner and both are designed to appeal to the overseas Chinese communities of South-East Asia.

The visit of Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Kent and her son the Duke of Kent, at the end of October, gave the press of the Colony the single biggest local news story of the year. Elaborate arrangements were made to enable the press to cover Her Royal Highness' many public arrangements and, for the first time in the Colony's press history, leading newspapers and news agencies co-operated with the Public Relations Office in the operation of a photographic 'pool'. This

218

THE PRESS

pool, of about half-a-dozen photographers, covered those events where lack of space and other considera- tions made it impossible for all photographers to be present. The pictures taken by the pool were made freely available to all newspapers. These and other arrangements proved highly satisfactory and the Royal Visit to Hong Kong received maximum publicity in both the Colony's own newspapers and the overseas

press.

News Agencies and Foreign Correspondents

Four great international news agencies maintain permanent correspondents in Hong Kong and sell their news services to the local newspapers. They are the Associated Press of America, Agence-France Presse, Reuter, in association with the Australian Associated Press, and United Press. The independent Pan-Asia Newspaper Alliance, the New China News Agency, the official agency of the Chinese People's Government, and the Central News Agency of Nationalist China also maintain offices in Hong Kong. Since the begin- ning of 1952 two Japanese agencies, Kyodo and Jiji Press, have had correspondents in the Colony. The resident foreign correspondents corps numbers about 15 persons. In addition to the news agency corres- pondents, The Times, New York Times, the Time and Life magazine organization and various other foreign publishing houses have permanent representatives in Hong Kong.

Hong Kong is a popular centre for visiting corres- pondents and more than one hundred passed through the Colony in 1952. Distinguished press visitors, other than correspondents, included Mr. Henry R. Luce, publisher of Time, Life and associated Magazines and Mr. Gardner Cowles, publisher of Look magazine.

219

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Official Publications

ADMINISTRATION REPORTS. Annual (Until 1939).

BLUE BOOK. Annual (Until 1940).

ANNUAL REPORT ON HONG KONG. Annual.

CIVIL SERVICE LIST. Annual.

COMMERCIAL GUIDE TO HONG KONG. Annual from 1949.

DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS. Annual.

ESTIMATES OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. Annual.

EXTRACT OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. Monthly.

GOVERNMENT GAZETTE. Weekly, or more often as

required.

HONG KONG HANSARD. Annual.

RIES

HONG KONG TRADE AND SHIPPING RETURNS. Annual.

HONG KONG TRADE AND SHIPPING RETURNS. Monthly.

LAW REPORTS. Annual.

METEOROLOGICAL RESULTS. Annual.

ORDINANCES OF HONG KONG INCLUDING PROCLAMATIONS,

REGULATIONS, ORDERS IN COUNCIL, ETC. Annual.

SESSIONAL PAPERS. Annual.

TYPHOON TRACKS. Annual,

BRITISH TRADE IN HONG KONG, 1896.

220

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CENSUS REPORTS OF HONG KONG. 1901, 1911, 1921,

1931, 1941.

FINANCIAL AND OTHER STATISTICS SHOWING DEVELOP- MENT OF HONG KONG. 1897-1926. Colonial Office, London.

HISTORICAL AND STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE COLONY OF HONG KONG. Published in 1906, 1911, 1922,

1932.

METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION FOR AVIATION PURPOSES,

Royal Observatory, 1948.

METEOROLOGICAL RECORDS AND CLIMATOLOGICAL NOTES,

1884-1938, Royal Observatory, 1939.

A BRIEF GENERAL HISTORY OF THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY,

May, 1951.

HONG KONG MeteoroloGICAL RECORDS AND CLIMATO-

LOGICAL NOTES, 60 years 1884-1939, 1947-1950.

A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF TYPHOONS AND TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC AND CHINA SEA AREA FROM OBSERVATIONS AND TRACKS RE- CORDED AT THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY HONG KONG from 1884 to 1947.

REPORT BY GOVERNOR OF HONG KONG ON THE MUI TSAI

QUESTION, 1930.

SALARIES COMMISSION REPORT, 1947.

REPORT ON GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION,

1950.

REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON HIGHER EDUCATION,

1952.

STORM WARNING SERVICE, Royal Observatory, 1949.

221

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

THE 1937 EDITION OF THE ORDINANCES AND REGULA- TIONS OF HONG KONG. Edited by the late J. A. Fraser, G.C., M.C., published 1938.

THE REVISED EDITION OF THE LAWS OF HONG KONG,

1950.

Periodicals

ASIATIC REVIEW. Quarterly, London.

FAR EASTERN ECONOMIC REVIEW. Weekly, Hong Kong.

HONG KONG CHAMBER OF COMMERCE REPORT.

HONG KONG DOLLAR DIRECTORY. Annual.

Annual.

JOURNAL OF THE HONG KONG FISHERIES RESEARCH STATION. Vol. I No. 1 February, No. 2 September, 1940, Vol. II No. 1 March, 1949, Printed by South China Morning Post, Hong Kong.

THE HONG KONG NATURALIST. Illustrated Quarterly. Vols. I-X Hong Kong, Newspaper Enterprise and South China Morning Post, 1930 to 1941.

ONG PUBLIC LIBRA

222

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Although there is a considerable amount of pub- lished material dealing with the Colony, only a small amount of this is likely to be obtainable from sources other than research libraries.

ABERCROMBIE,

SIR PATRICK-Preliminary Planning

Report, Hong Kong, 1949.

ANGIER, A. G.-The Far East Revisited, London, 1908.

ARNOLD, JULEAN-Commercial Handbook of China,

Washington, 1919.

IL

E

BALFOUR, S. F.-Hong Kong before the British. Being a local history of the region of Hong Kong and the New Territories before the British occupation, Shanghai, 1941.

BEACH, REV. W. R.-Visit of H. R. H. the Duke of

Edinburgh to Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1869.

BENTHAM, G. B.--Flora Hongkongensis-London, 1861.

BERESFORD, LORD CHARLES-The Break-up of China,

London, 1899.

BLAKE, SIR HENRY A.-China, London, 1909.

Blockade of THE PORT AND HARBOUR OF HONG KONG,

London, 1875.

BOWEN, SIR GEORGE F.-Thirty Years of Colonial

Government, London, 1889, 2 vols.

BOYCE, SIR L.-Report of the United Kingdom Trade

Mission to China, 1946, London, 1948.

BRAGA, J. P.-Sir C. P. Chater: The Grand Old Man

of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

223

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

BREEN, M. J.-Hong Kong Trade Commission Inquiry,

Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1935.

BRITISH DEPENDENCIES IN THE FAR EAST, 1945-1949,

London, 1949.

BRUCE, M.-Hong Kong Illustrated in a Series of

Views, London, 1849.

BUNBURY, REV. G. A.-Notes on Wild Life in Hong

Kong and South China, Hong Kong, 1909.

BUTTERS, H. R.-Report on Labour and Labour Conditions in Hong Kong, Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1939.

CANTLIE, N. AND SEAVER, G.-Sir James Cantlie,

ondon, 1939.

CHATER, C. P.-The Praya Reclamation Scheme, Hong

Kong, 1888.

CLAVERY, M. EDOUARD-Hong Kong: Le Passé et le

Présent, Paris, 1905.

CLAXTON, T. F.-Isotyphs showing Prevalence of

Typhoons, Hong Kong Royal Observatory, 1932. The Climate of Hong Kong, 1884-1919 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations) Hong Kong Royal Observatory, 1931.

CLEMENTI, SIR CECIL-The Future of Hong Kong, 1936.

DES VOEUX, SIR G. W.-Report on the Condition and

Prospects of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1889.

My Colonial Service, London, 1903.

DILKE, SIR CHARLES-Greater Britain, with Additional

Chapters on Hong Kong, London, 1885.

224

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

DUNCAN, J.-Commercial Development of the Port of

Hong Kong, 1924.

DUNN, S. T. AND TUTCHER, W. J.-Flora of Kwangtung

and Hong Kong, London, 1912.

EITEL, E. J.-Europe in Asia (History of Hong Kong),

Hong Kong, 1895.

"F.F."-Account of the Visit of the Duke and Duchess

of Connaught, Hong Kong, 1890.

FOSTER, L.-Echoes of Hong Kong and Beyond, Hong

Kong, 1933.

共有

Fox, MISS GRACE-British Admirals and Chise Pirates

(1832-1869), London, .1940.

GIBBS, L.-Common Hong Kong Ferns-Hong Kong,

1927.

GIVEN, SURGEON COMDR. D. H. C.-Malaria in Hong Kong and the Summer Mosquito Pest in Hong Kong, 2 vols. Hong Kong, 1928.

GULL, E. M.-British Economic Interests in the Far

East, London, 1943.

HEANLEY, C. M. AND SHELLSHEAR, J. L.-A Contribu- tion to the Prehistory of Hong Kong and the New Territories, Hanoi, 1932.

HERKLOTS, G. A. C.-1937: Flowering Shrubs and Trees (First Twenty) Hong Kong, Newspaper Enterprise. (Second Twenty) South China Morning Post, 1938. Orchids, (First Twenty) Hong Kong, Newspaper Enterprise.

1941: Vegetable Cultivation in Hong Kong, South China Morning Post. 2nd edition 1947.

225

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

1946: The Birds of Hong Kong-Field Identifica- tion. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post.

1948: Food and Flowers. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post.

HERKLOTS, G. A. C. AND LIN, S. Y.-1940: Common Marine Food-Fishes of Hong Kong: 2nd edition Enl. South China Morning Post.

HEWETT, E. A.-Brief History of the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Hong Kong, 1911.

HEYWOOD, G. S. P.-Upper Temperatures and the Properties of Air Masses Over Hong Kong (Appendix B. to Hong Kong Met. Results 1940),

1941. Hong Kong Typhoons, Royal Observatory, */Hong Kong, 1950.

HINTON, W. J.-Hong Kong's Place in the British

Empire, London, 1941.

HONG KONG: Events in Hong Kong and the Far East,

1875 to 1884, Hong Kong, 1885.

HONG KONG: FIFTY YEARS OF PROGRESS-The Jubilee of Hong Kong as a British Crown Colony, being an Historical Sketch, Hong Kong, 1891.

HONG KONG: HANDBOOK TO HONG KONG, Hong Kong,

1893.

HONG KONG: A Guide to Hong Kong, with a Short Account of Canton and Macao, and embracing many chapters of interest relating to the Far East, Hong Kong, 1895.

HONG KONG ECONOMIC RESOURCES COMMITTEE: Factory, and Home and Cottage Industries Sub- Committee Report, Hong Kong, 1920.

226

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

HURLEY, R. C.-Tourists' Guide to Hong Kong, with

short trips to the Mainland, Hong Kong, 1925. Picturesque Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1925. JEFFERIES, C. W.-Meteorological Records, 1884-1928 (Appendix to Hong Kong Observations). Hong Kong Royal Observatory, 1938.

KEETON, GEORGE W.-China, The Far East and The

Future, London, 1949.

KERSHAW, J. C.-Butterflies of Hong Kong and South-

East China, Hong Kong, 1905.

LOBDELL, H. E., AND HOPKINS, A. E.-Hong Kong and the Treaty Ports: Postal History and Postal Markings, 1949.

MAYERS, W. F., DENNYS, N. B. AND KING, C.-The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, London, 1867.

MEATH, EARL OF CORNWELL, LEGH, M. H. AND JACKSON, EDITH:-"Hong Kong and Wei-hai-wei" being Chapter XXVII of Vol. II of OUR EMPIRE PAST AND PRESENT, London, 1905.

MERCER, WILLIAM T.-Under the Peak: written during a lengthened residence in the Colony of Hong Kong-London, 1869.

MIDDLETON SMITH, C. A.-The British in China and

Far Eastern Trade, London, 1920.

MITFORD, MAJOR-GENERAL R. C. W. REVELEY-Orient and Occident: A Journey East from Lahore to Liverpool, London, 1888.

MODY, SIR H. N.-Souvenir to Commemorate the Laying of the Foundation Stone of the Hong Kong University Building, 1910.

227

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

MONTGOMERY MARTIN, R.-China: Political, Commer-

cial, and Social-London, 1847.

NOTHCOTE, SIR GEOFFREY-Hong Kong: The Story of a Century, "The Crown Colonist", London, January, 1941.

NORTON-KYSHE, J. W.-The History of the Laws and

Courts of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1898, 2 vols.

NUNN, J. H.-Analysis of Hong Kong Trade 1924 and 1930, Washington Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Washington, 1931.

II

G

OWEN, SIR D. J.-Future Control and Development of

the Port of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1941

PARTINGTON, T. B.-British Trade Possibilities in Hong Kong and South China, in "United Empire", May, 1921, pages 340-352.

PEPLOW, S. H. AND BARKER, M.-Hong Kong_Around

and About, Hong Kong, 1931.

RIDGEWAY, A. R.-Letters from Hong Kong and

Macao, London, 1843.

B

ROBERT, REV. LEON-La Greve Maritime de Hong Kong, in "Revue du Pacifique", October, 1922,

pages 10-19.

Schofield, W.-Hong Kong's New Territory, "Asiatic

Review", October, 1938.

SELWYN-CLARKE, P. S.-Hong Kong Faces the Future, "Health Horizon", July, 1946, pages 13-18.

Report on Medical and Health Conditions in Hong Kong, 1st January, 1942 to 31st August, 1945, London, 1946.

228

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

SKETCHLY, S. B. J.-OUR Island, Hong Kong, 1896.

SMITH, REV. G.-A Narrative of an Exploratory Visit to each of the Consular Cities of China, and to the Island of Hong Kong and Chusan-London, 1847. Report on Hong Kong, more especially in reference

to missionary facilities there, London, 1845.

STARBUCK, L.-Statistical Survey of Hong Kong Rain-

fall, Royal Observatory, Hong Kong, 1950.

TARRANT, W.-Hong Kong Part I: 1839 to 1844,

Canton, 1861:

THORBECKE, ELLEN-Hong Kong, Kelly and Walsh,

Shanghai (no date).

TUTCHER, W. J.-Gardening for Hong Kong, Kelly

and Walsh, Hong Kong, 1913.

UGLOW, W. L.-Geology and Mineral Resources of the Colony of Hong Kong, Sessional Paper, 1926.

WILLIAMS, M. Y.-The Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Transac- tions of the Royal Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXVII, 1943, pages 93-117.). WILLIAMS, M. Y. AND OTHERS-The Physiography and Igneous Geology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXIX, 1945, pages 91-119.).

WINGROVE COCKE, G.-China: being "The Times" Special Correspondence from China, London, 1858. WOOD, A. E.-Report of the Committee regarding Marketing in the New Territories, Sessional Paper No. 1 of 1934.

229

HONG KONG ANNUAL REPORT, 1952

WOODWARD, A. R.-Report on the Water Supply of Hong Kong, Sessional Paper No. 3 of 1937. Woolf, Bella SIDNEY-Chips of China, Hong Kong,

1930.

WRIGHT, A. AND CARTWRIGHT, H. A.-Twentieth

Century Impressions, etc., London, 1908.

The following are the more recent publications on the Colony which are most likely to be available to the general reader :-

CARRINGTON, C. E.-The British Overseas: Cambridge

University, 1950.

COLLINS, C.-Public Administration in Hong Kong,

1952.

C

DAVIS, S. G.-Hong Kong in its Geographical Setting:

Collins, London, 1949.

The Geology of Hong Kong, 1952.

ENDACOTT, GEORGE B. AND SHE, DOROTHY E.-The Diocese of Victoria, Hong Kong; Kelly & Walsh, Hong Kong, 1949.

INGRAMS, H.-Hong Kong; H. M. S., London,

1952.

MILLS, LENNOX A.-British Rule in Eastern Asia, a Study of Contemporary Government and Economic Development in British Malaya and Hong Kong; London, 1942.

RAND, CHRISTOPHER-Hong Kong-The Island Be-

tween.

SAYER, G. R.-Hong Kong: Birth, Adolescence and Coming of Age; Oxford University Press, 1937.

WOOD, WINIFRED A.-A Brief History of Hong Kong;

South China Morning Post, Hong Kong, 1940.

City Hall Library Hong Kong

Reference Library

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