Hong Kong Yearbook - Annual Report for the Year 1948

L.

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LIBRAY

"Outward Bound".

Photograph by Francis Wu.

EORGE VI BY THE GRACE·OF GOD·

THE SEAS O.THE'S

 MMIS 在線閱讀

 

DIEU

QUI

M

SE

DROIT

FAITH

F.GREAT BRITAIN.

ET

MON

HONG

· DEFENDER

KONG

• OF · THE·'

NIRELAND.

ANNUAL REPORT ON

HONG KONG FOR THE YEAR

1948

PUBLISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF HONG KONG PRINTED BY THE COMMERCIAL PRESS, LTD. HONG KONG

MARCH, 1949.

PHOTOGRAPHS PRINTED BY THE LOCAL PRINTING PRESS, HONG KONG.

MAPS PRINTED BY YE OLDE PRINTERIE LTD.,

HONG KONG,

市政局公共圖書館 UCPL

3 3288 03978907 0

ACS. NO.

14573

DATE OF ALG, 13.2.62

CLASS NO.

AUTHOR NO.

951.25 нор

BEBOUND

HKCr

The thanks of the Government of Hong Kong are due to the Photographic Society of Hong Kong for its valuable assistance in obtaining photographs for inclusion in this report, and to the following members of the Society for permission to reproduce their photographs: Messrs. Francis Wu, K. A. Watson, E. O'Neil Shaw and L. Jackson: also to Mr. R. A. Bates for designing and executing the chapter headings.

0

CONTENTS

Chapter

I

2

3

PART I.

Important matters of general interest

Population

PART II.

Occupations, Wages and Labour Organization

Public Finance and Taxation

4 Currency and Banking

5

Commerce

6 Production:

Fisheries

Agriculture Forestry

Mining and Mineral Resources Industrial Production

7 Social Services:-

Education

Health

Housing

:

8

Social Welfare

Legislation

9 Justice, Police and Prisons

Public Utilities

Communications

IO

I I

I 2

Research

13 Religion

14

The Arts

:

:

:

Page

I

...

16

19

D

30

34

36

49

52

58

:

:

:

:

:

60

62

66

700

in moo

75

83

88

92

98

CLIB

107

116

127

130

+

133

PART III.

:

I

Geography and Climate

2 Flora and Fauna

3 History

4

Administration

5 Weights and Measures

6 The Press

Bibliography

:

:

:

:

:

139

143

144

147

151

152

155

:

RAB

ILLUSTRATIONS

Outward Bound

Central Fire Station

Orient Glass Factory..

...

Tailoring class at Aberdeen Industrial School

Fishing junks in Aberdeen Harbour..

Deforestation

Spinning mill

The China Can Company.

Hawkers

Dragon Boats

Police Training School

Facing page

Frontispiece

7

20

24

49 58

63

63

75

90

ΙΟΙ

Traffic Problem on Water-front

Traffic Problem-Wardley Street

Post Office Mail van

Mails being unloaded

In a Chinese Temple

Scenes from Chinese Opera A professional letter writer

103

103

I22

I22

130

134

146

PART I

GENERAL

Relations with China and Macau.

The continuing Civil War in China has necessarily had its reactions on the Colony both as regards its economy, which is closely linked with that of China, and as regards its population, which tends to fluctuate in inverse proportion to the stability of the political, military and economic situation in China.

Such help as could be given to China in the difficulties. confronting her in the post-war period was freely rendered. The finishing touches were put to the Customs (Anti-Smuggling) Agree- ment although there was some delay in bringing the Agreement into force owing to a certain confusion over a map showing the areas where patrols by the Chinese Maritime Customs in British waters would be permitted. When this difficulty had been overcome the final agreement was marked by an exchange of notes between the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the British Embassy in Nanking on 18th October. An Ordinance bringing the Agree- ment into effect in the Colony was passed by the Hong Kong Legislative Council on the 21st October.

By the terms of this Agreement the Chinese Maritime Customs are permitted to maintain collecting stations in Hong Kong and Kowloon and to patrol specified areas in Deep Bay and Mirs Bay. These and other concessions represent a considerable derogation of sovereignty on the part of Hong Kong and are a real and con- crete gesture of goodwill towards China in her post-war difficul-

ties.

During September Government introduced a series of measures in an attempt to assist China to maintain the value of the new Gold Yuan currency which had been brought into use in August. These measures were no doubt of some assistance, but naturally the value of the Gold Yuan was governed by events within China. As a further gesture of co-operation and friendliness, Hong Kong responded to an urgent appeal in November for assistance from Shanghai by the immediate despatch on loan of 10,000 tons of

I

of rice to relieve a critical food shortage which had arisen.

In the course of the year Chinese and British officials met on the frontier at Shataukok and jointly made arrangements for replacing in their original position a number of boundary stones which had been displaced during the Japanese occupation.

Friendly relations with China were unfortunately tem- porarily marred early in the year as a result of China's repre- sentations in connection with the "Kowloon City Incident," which resulted from the eviction of unauthorized squatters from land which formerly comprised the old walled city of Kowloon. The Chinese Government considered that they had cause to intervene in this matter since according to their interpretation of the Peking Convention of 1898, under which the New Terri- tories were leased to Great Britain, jurisdiction in Kowloon City was reserved to China. His Majesty's Government have been unable to accept this interpretation.

A number of dissident Chinese political groups out of sympathy with the Chinese Government continued during the year to take asylum in Hong Kong. There was a tendency for a certain number of these to abuse the hospitality granted to them by using the privileges of freedom of press and freedom of speech enjoyed in the Colony to attack in immoderate terms the established Government of China. It was therefore necessary for warnings to be given to them that they should not abuse the privilege of asylum they enjoyed.

Relations with the Portuguese colony of Macao have remained as cordial as ever, and the close links between the two Colonies have been further strengthened by the arrangements instituted during the year for easing travel formalities between the two places for bona fide British and Portuguese residents. At the end of December a meeting was held in Macao of the Chiefs of Police of Canton, Hong Kong, and Macao respectively, to discuss general problems of liaison in combatting crime, and in improving Police co-operation generally.

The Hong Kong Defence Force.

Plans for the reconstitution of the Colony's Volunteer Forces came to fruition towards the end of the year with the passing of the Hong Kong Defence Force Ordinance. "Volunteering

has a long and honourable history in the Colony. Almost 100 years ago the first Volunteers were raised, and thereafter the Corps grew and flourished until by December, 1941 it had a strength of 2,200 distributed between Infantry and. Machine Gun Companies, Artillery Batteries and Engineering, Medical,

2

Signals and Service Corps detachments, as well as a Nursing Detachment, a Railway Detachment and an Air Arm. The Naval Volunteers are of more recent date, being formed since World War I. By December 1941 their strength was 800. Members of the Naval Volunteers and the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps acquitted themselves with great gallantry in 1941 when the Japanese attacked Hong Kong, and they earned the commendation of the Service Commanders. Casualties were high, both in battle and in the subsequent long years of internment.

Immediately after the liberation of the Colony a start was made to draw up plans for the reconstitution of the Volunteers. The Hong Kong Defence Force will be not only a new body; it is a new conception altogether. It is to combine within one organization a Navy, an Army and an Air Force on the one hand, and an Auxiliary Force (for internal security duties) on the other. An ambitious programme has been

drawn up.

Within the first 6-12 months it is the aim of the Government to enrol up to 4,500 men and women. The Hong Kong Regiment, as the military component is styled, will absorb about 1,000, the Hong Kong Naval Force 350 and the Hong Kong Air Force 100. Far the largest number will be needed for the Auxiliary Force which will require about 2,750. Further plans envisage the expansion of the Force to little less than 6,000 persons.

a

Any resident of Hong Kong, whatever his nationality, may join the Force, for the testamentary oath is worded in such manner that an alien would suffer no loss of national status by taking it.

Commissioned rank is open to persons of all nationalities, and women too may join the Force. Never before so far as is known has a force composed of such a variety of units been welded together under one command.

A force of this size will not be cheap to establish, equip and maintain. While estimates for the time being must be treated with some reserve, it is believed that the capital cost for the strength of 4,500 mentioned above will be about H.K.$3million, and an annual recurrent expense from 1 million to 1 million dollars. Expansion to 6,000 would be even more expensive in proportion as the additional equipment involved is more expensive. A new Headquarters building to house all sections of the Force and to provide suitable recreational facilities will run to about 6 million dollars. It is hoped to begin recruiting for the new Force about the middle of February 1949.

3

Lifting of the Moratorium.

The year 1948 saw the passage of the Debtor and Creditor (Occupation Period) Ordinance and the lifting of the Moratorium on pre-war and occupation period debts which had been enforced immediately after the liberation of the Colony.

The problems dealt with in the Debtor and Creditor (Occupation Period) Ordinance arose from the fact that the Japanese, during their period of occupation of the Colony, introduced an occupation currency and endeavoured to liquidate banks of the Allied Powers. The process of liquidation necessarily involved collection of pre-war debts owing to these banks and in many cases these debts were re-paid in occupation currency. It became necessary firstly to decide how far these payments to liquidators constituted valid discharges of the debts and secondly what value should be placed on occupation currency in relation to the pre-war Hong Kong dollar currency. Pending solution of these problems it was not possible to lift the

Moratorium.

The solution adopted in the Debtor and Creditor (Occupa- tion Period) Ordinance was briefly as follows:

fact

First, where a debtor re-paid his debt during the occupation period in Hong Kong currency he was regarded as having validly discharged his obligation in full regardless of the that his creditor might not have received the money. Second, where a debt incurred before the occupation fell due for re-payment either before or during the occupation period, and payment was demanded and received by the creditor himself or by his agent, the debt was deemed to have been validly discharged unless payment was made in occupation currency and was accepted under duress.

Third, where a debt incurred before the occupation was re-paid to the liquidator during the occupation in occupation currency, such re-payment was regarded as a partial discharge of the debt.

The extent to which a payment in occupation period currency of a pre-war obligation should be regarded as valid pro- vided the chief difficulty. After much research a revaluation scale was drawn up and adopted in the Schedule to the Ordinance. The amount in occupation currency which the debtor paid over to the liquidator is converted into Hong Kong dollars in accordance with this revaluation scale, and the debtor is then regarded as having discharged his debt to the extent of this

sum.

He is then liable for the difference between his original

4

debt and this amount. The Ordinance in addition dealt with a number of ancillary matters such as obligations contracted in occupation currency during the occupation, bank accounts maintained in occupation currency and the like. After con- siderable debate the Ordinance passed into law on the 18th June, 1948. Before the Ordinance could become effective it was necessary for the Moratorium to be lifted. This was delayed for some months pending consideration by the Secretary of State of a petition put forward on behalf of certain interested debtors. Ultimately the Secretary of State intimated that His Majesty would not be advised to exercise his power of disallowance of the Ordinance and the Moratorium was lifted on the 30th November, 1948.

Development and Welfare.

as

Under the terms of the Colonial Development and Welfare Act, 1945, the sum of £1,000,000 was allocated by His Majesty's Government for the development of the Colony's resources and a separate sum was set aside to enable individual Colonies to participate in approved central schemes such research projects.

A Committee composed of official and unofficial members was appointed in June, 1946, to produce a comprehensive and detailed plan for the development and welfare of the Colony during the period 1946-1956 bearing in mind the principle that the cost of such a plan should be borne partly from the £1,000,000 grant and partly from such funds as the Colony might be able to set aside for this purpose.

and

As a first step in the drawing up of this plan, Sir Patrick Abercrombie was invited to make a survey of the needs of Hong Kong in the matter of town planing and to prepare an outline plan for the development of the urban area. Until this Report has received full consideration it will not be possible to prepare projects involving the urban area, and attention was concentrated on the rural areas. It has been accepted in principle that £500,000, or half the sum allocated to Hong Kong, should be devoted to projects for the development of the fishing agricultural areas and the New Territories and a comprehensive scheme comprising twelve individual projects was transmitted to the Secretary of State. Much has already been done through the Fisheries and Vegetables Wholesale Marketing schemes to benefit the fishing and agricultural population on whose economy the enemy occupation had a progressively disastrous effect, and the proposals recommended under the Development and Welfare Act seek to extend, and to amplify beyond the means of the Colony's present finances, the existing projects for the

5

development of the natural resources of the rural areas.

Some

of these twelve schemes have already been approved and others at the request of the Secretary of State are being reconsidered by the New Territories Sub-Committee of the Development and Welfare Committee.

Among the schemes approved are the construction of four dolphins or landing piers at Kennedy Town market to facilitate the landing of fish brought for sale in the Fisheries Wholesale Market (£10,000); the reclamation of an area of approximately 46,000 square feet of land on the western side of Aberdeen harbour 50,000); the establishment of village depots in the New Territories where vegetables can be collected from the farmer, seeds, fertilizers and insecticides can be distributed, modern methods can be demonstrated and friendly liaison can be established between the farmer and the officers of the Agricultural Department (capital expenditure of £9,000 and £9,375 in respect of half the recurrent expenditure are granted under the Act and a further £9,375 has been granted as a loan for five years); the purchase of diesel engines for fitting into junks as a first step in the mechanization of the fishing fleet (grant of £10,000 and a loan of £40,000 have been approved). Projects for Fisheries and Research and Upper-air Meteorological Research have been approved under the Central Scheme.

Other schemes still under consideration include the construction of roads and piers in the New Territories; the establishment of a large factory for the conversion of city nightsoil into a safe fertilizer; the extension of irrigation in the New Territories; the development of the Kam Tin area into an agricultural station; the making of topographical land utilization and economic mineral surveys under the Central (Research) Scheme; the development and modernization of the fishing industry; and the construction of "tambaks" or salt-water fishponds.

New Agricultural Staff.

Though the Colony cannot bear comparison as to agricultural area with most other Colonies, it has long felt the need of professional officers of the Colonial Agricultural Service. Two such, a Senior Agricultural officer, and an Animal Husbandry Officer have now been appointed, and find ample scope for

their services.

Housing

In spite of the building boom which occurred during 1948 housing continued to present a major problem. Tenement

6

.

·香港公共圖書館

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRARI

Central Fire Station.

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Photograph by Francis Wu.

type housing for 160 thousand persons and European type accommodation for 7 thousand had been destroyed during the Pacific War and the high price and scarcity of building material and the high cost of labour have delayed rebuilding. Nevertheless 211 new European type dwellings, 729 new Chinese

Chinese type dwellings and 125 miscellaneous new non-domestic buildings were completed during the year. These new buildings have not sufficed to house the whole of the population which is now es- timated to be larger than it was before the war owing to the large influx of destitutes from China immediately after the war and the later influx of wealthier persons and business men who took refuge in the Colony from the unsettled economy of China. Thousands of people who in more settled times would have a house, flat or cubicle are living in small overcrowded spaces or even in crude squatters' huts and shacks without water or sanitation. Such squatters' colonies are gradually being eliminated and displaced squatters are being permitted to build for themselves on several prepared sites a hut of standard design. Furthermore, arrange- ments have been made for the alienation by private treaty of land to persons for the purpose of building on it their own homes.

As a result of the general shortage of accommodation hotels have remained full so that it is difficult for the casual guest to obtain lodging. A Committee was appointed to enquire into rates charged by hotels and to make recommendations Government regarding the control of such rates.

Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East.

to

IES

Hong Kong is an Associate Member of the United Nations' regional Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, two sessions of which were held during 1948. One of these, the third session, was held at Ootacamund in South India in May and was attended by Dr. S. N. Chau as delegate for Hong Kong, accompanied by an alternate delegate. The fourth session took place in Lapstone, Australia, in November and again Hong Kong was represented by Dr. S. N. Chau, this time accompanied by two alternate delegates. Between these

sessions the Commission arranged a meeting of experts from the countries of the region to consider financial arrangements to promote trade, and by invitation Hong Kong was represented on this expert group by the Superintendent of Imports and Exports. The meeting was held in Shanghai and presented its recommen- dations to the fourth session of the Commission at Lapstone.

The work of the Commission is of necessity still concentrated on the collection of data which will provide a complete picture of the overall needs of the region, and Hong Kong is contributing to this end to the best of her ability.

7

Disasters.

This has been a bad year for disasters in which large numbers of people lost their lives.

The worst of these, the worst perhaps in the history of the Colony, was the fire which broke out in the Wing On Company's godowns at West Point just after 8 o'clock in the morning of 22nd September in which no fewer than 173 persons lost their lives, most of them with the first few minutes. The fire itself was not under control until the afternoon of the following day and was not fully extinguished until almost a week later. Rapid action by the Fire Brigade was successful in rescuing about sixty people by means of a turntable ladder and jumping sheet. A Commission appointed to enquire into the cause and resposibility for the loss of life and damage and to make recommendations as to measures to be taken to prevent a

similar occurrence in future was still sitting at the end of the year. Another fire had occurred earlier in the year on board the river steamer 'Kwangtung' which was lying alongside a wharf. Although the fire itself was small, thirty people lost their lives and thirty six others were injured as a result of a panic in which many passengers jumped or were pushed overboard in the confusion. Other fires of varying severity occurred in groups of squatters' huts. Several lives were lost and many huts were completely destroyed.

Two major air crashes occurred during the year.

In one

a Catalina flying boat crashed into the sea en route from Macau to Hong Kong, twenty two of the twenty three passengers and all the crew of four being killed. It has been alleged that the crash was caused as a result of a frustrated attempt by a gang to rob the passengers-probably the first air piracy in history. Later in the year, a C. Ñ. A. C. Skymaster which was attempting to fly into Hong Kong from Shanghai at a very low altitude under very bad weather conditions crashed into high ground on Basalt Island. All passengers and crew, totalling 35, lost their lives. This was the first occasion in the history of Hong Kong civil aviation on which any fare paying passenger has been killed in an accident to a civil aircraft within the boundaries of the Colony.

A disaster directly affecting although not within the boundaries of the Colony occurred on 3rd September, 1948 when a train proceeding from Canton to Kowloon was derailed just north of the border, with the result that 29 people were killed.

The wounded were brought to the Colony for

treatment.

8

Statistics

From June, 1948, onwards statistics relating to economic and other subjects, compiled by the Department of Statistics in consultation with the Departments concerned, have been The published monthly in Supplement No. 4 to the Gazette. statistics for the year were summarised in the Supplement No. C. 7, Part II, to the Gazette No. 65 of the 30th December, 1948, which comprised nearly one hundred pages of figures, in 69 tables. In one of these tables 39 index figures of economic significance were presented, most of which were calculated on the basis of the monthly average figures for 1947. This table, produced on page 12 affords an extensive review, in consolidated form, of many aspects of the economic progress of the Colony during the year.

In addition the following figures, many of which further show remarkable increases as compared with those of 1947, are of interest:

People.

The population of Hong Kong is estimated to be 1,800,000 and is greater than that of New Zealand.

47,475 people were born in 1948 and only 13,434 died. In 1940 45,064 were born and 61,010 died.

The number of infants deaths per 1,000 live births was 104.7 as against 119 in 1947, 109 in 1946, 327 in 1940 and 617 in 1931. Just under two million people entered and just over two million Records people left the Colony by rail, sea and air during 1948. are not kept of those who enter or leave by road. The number is comparatively small.

Over 14

Air traffic was about 24 times that of 1947. thousand aircraft (5,486 in 1947) carrying more than a quarter of a million passengers (81,815 in 1947) and 1.7 million kilograms of freight (845,652 in 1947) arrived at and departed from Kai Tak airfield. This represents a traffic two thirds of

that of Heath Row.

1

Over 3 million people were carried on the British Section of the Kowloon Canton Railway, an increase of more than a third over 1947.

Nearly 88 million passengers travelled on the Tramway, 211⁄2 million more than in 1947 and 8 million more than in 1941.

Buses travelled for 12 million miles, a distance equal to 500 times round the word and carried 76 million passengers.

Ninety thousand people per day crossed the harbour by the Star Ferry in December 1948, three times the pre-war number. During the whole year over 28 million people were carried in 108,000 harbour crossings.

9

Trade.

The total value of the import and export trade of the Colony during 1948 exceeded 228.7 million sterling, as against only 172.9 million sterling in 1947. Total imports were over $2,000 million as against $1,500 million in 1947 and total exports were $1,500 million as against $1,200 million in 1947.

Consumption.

The average daily consumption of water is 30 million gallons. Peak daily consumption in 1948 was 40 million gallons. Existing reservoirs hold 5,970 million gallons.

During the fiscal year 1947/48 just over one million gallons of European liquor were consumed consisting in part of

of 846 thousand gallons of beer, 60 thousand gallons of whisky, 36 thousand gallons of brandy and 23 thousand gallons of gin. Nearly 1 million gallons of aerated water and 747 thousand gallons of Chinese liquor were also consumed.

3

4

About 1,400 million cigarettes were imported for local consumption during the fiscal year 1947/8 and about 2,500 million cigarettes were made locally; about of locally made cigarettes were exported.

8

Consumption of electricity increased by 60% over 1947, from 91 million units to over 150 million units.

Gas consumption increased by 25% over 1947, from 220 million cubic feet to 287 million cubic feet.

$20.5 million worth of fresh, salt or dried fish weighing about 27 thousand tons were sold in Hong Kong in 1948. This represents a catch more than three quarters as large as that of Australia.

Miscellanoeus.

The Post Office dealt with just over half a million bags of ordinary mail, nearly half as many again as in 1947, and 37 thousand bags of air mail, an increase of one third over the previous year, and sold over $9 million worth of stamps, an increase of nearly one third over 1947.

30,000 broadcast receiving licences were sold as against nearly 22 thousand in 1947.

Over $783 million worth of banknotes were in circulation in December 1948 as against $675 million in 1947, $231 million in 1940 and $147 million in 1935.

The monthly average figures of Hong Kong Clearing House were nearly $689 million, or £43 million, in 1948 as

10

compared with $549 million in 1947, and $170 million in 1939. The record total for December, $789,706,067 was the equivalent of over £49 million.

At the end of December 1948 there were 25,000 pigs, 8,000 cattle, 650 buffaloes, 200 goats and 9 sheep in the Colony as against about 10,000 pigs, 5,800 cattle, 680 buffaloes, 200 goats and no sheep at the end of the war.

Only 87 thousand man day were lost through strikes in 1948 as against 294 thousand in 1947 and 108 thousand in 1946.

com-

the

There are 21,236 employees in Government service prising 7,349 permanent, 9,520 temporary and 4,367 daily paid employees. The biggest employers are the Sanitary Department with 4,234, the Public Works Department with 3,753,

Police with 3,619 and the Medical Department with 3,136.

香港

書友

RIES

VG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

1

*

I I

I 2

Selected Indices of Economic Significance.

The following index figures, selected from those included in the tables in the Supplement C. 7/11 or calculated from figures therein, are presented as affording from different angles an indication of the economic position in the Colony at the end of the year 1948 as compared with the position in 1947. another. The base in the majority of cases is the monthly average for 1947, and indices on this base (printed in heavy type) may therefore be compared with one

Reference

No. of

relevant

table of

Supplement,

Base

Indices

on Base

C.7/II

I (i) (a)

Value of Imports

I (i) (b)

Value of Exports....

3

6

December, 1948

Monthly Average, 1948

Monthly Average, 1947 ($129,160,121)

100

>>

($101,402,797)

100

$258,248,746

199.9 $184,713,203 182.1

">

">

LIBRA

>>

100

($624,946)

100

(229)

100

Total, December, 1947 (64,499 persons)

100

Monthly Average, 1947 (43 factories)

100

777

339.3

63,873, persons

99.0

6 factories

13.9

وو

(669,424 tons)

762,423 tons

100

(125,740 persons)

113.9 178,088 persons

100

>>

(132,603 persons)

141.6

129.1

$1,056,597

169.0

171,220 persons

$173,128,218

134.0 $131,894,976

130.0

774,732 tons

115.7 166,481,persons

132.4

175,615 persons

132.4

$805,582

128.9

596

260.2

24 factories

55.8

Tonnage of Shipping

(over 60 tons net) cleared...

Immigration

Emigration

Post Office Revenue

7

ΙΟ

Arrivals of Aircraft at Kaitak.

>>

12-A

Employees in Registered

Factories and Workshops.

12-C

Registered factories

Reference

No. of

relevant

table of

Supplement,

C.7/II

Base

Indices

on Base

December, 1948

Monthly Average, 1948

modities manufactured in

Exports

29

of certain com-

Hong Kong*

(i) Preserved Ginger

(ii) Preserved (excl. Ginger)

(iii) Soy

(iv)

Boots & Shoes (Canvas and Rubber)

(v) Electric Torches & Flashlight Batteries..

Rattan Furniture

(vi)

(vii) Rope

(viii) Trunks and Suitcases

(ix) Lamps and Lampware.

(x)

Hats and Caps (Foreign Style)

(xi) Umbrellas

*

(i) - (xi) Totals

Excess of exports 1947 over imports

وو

>>

,,

وو

,,

Excess of exports 1947 over imports

R

($ 3,341,437)'

100

($ 5,655,165)

100

($ 944,863)

100

($ 9,915,147)

100

($17,374,179)

100

($ 1,892,514)

100

($ 986,908)

100

($ 3,195,095)

100

($4,356,721)

100

($1,243,668)

100

($2,985)

($51,886

100

100

$ 9,509,830 (Total, 1948) 284.6

$ 4,341,829

76.8

$ 3,091,335

327.2

$12,325,259

124.3

$19,144,475

I10.2

$ 2,134,282

112.8

$ 1,154,322

117.0

$ 3,414,803

106.9

$ 2,984,766

68.5

$2,651,126

213.2

وو

55

""

وو

$ 5,889,596 (Total, 1948)

197.6

66,641,623

128.4

>>

*Note :-These indices are not indices of production, but simply of the excess of exports over imports, and, while representative of the trend, they are incomplete, since they do not include statistics relating to textiles and clothing, in regard to which separate indices are in preparation.

13

14

Reference

No. of

relevant

table of

Supplement,

C.7/II

15

Base

NOM NOW

Ka

Indices

on Base

December, 1948

Monthly Average, 1948

(not yet available) 99,781 persons

(Jan.-Nov.)

139.7

(158,386 persons)

(not yet available) 204,734 persons

(Jan.-Nov.)

129.3

Railway: Upward and Downward

Passengers-

Local

Foreign

Railway: Upward and Downward Goods-

Monthly Average, 1947 (71,420 persons)

>>

100

100

Local

""

> "

(368,672 kgs.)

(not yet available) 211,575 kgs.

(Jan.-Nov.)

100

57.4

Foreign

""

> >

(10,646,666 kgs.)

(not yet available) | 7682,472 kgs.

(Jan.-Nov.)

100

72.2

16

Consumption of Electricity

>>

>>

(7,587,303 k.w.h.)

14,750,924 k.w.h.

12,526,000 k.w.h.

100

194.4

165.1

17

Consumption of Gas

وو

33

"5

(18,361,959 cu. ft.)

29,524,800 cu. ft.

23,955,708 cu. ft.

18

Bank Notes in Circulation, as certified

December, 1947

100

($675,162,086

100

160.8

$783,206,709 116.0

130.5

$769,154,069

(July-Dec.)

19

Animals Slaughtered

113.9

Monthly Average, 1947

(41,249 animals)

56,250 animals

49,273 animals

23

Food and Fuel-Costs of Selected Commodities

100

($12.8461)

100

136.3

119.4

$12.8844

100.3

$13.0367

101.5

24

Tonnage of Fish Market

'

(1,361.45 tons)

100

3,217.5 tons

236.3

26

Tonnage of Vegetables Marketed

Monthly Average, 1947 (1,413.5 tons)

3,426.3 tons

100

242.2

2,252.42 tons

165.4

1,582.2 tons

III.Q

Reference

No. of

relevant

table of

Supplement,

C.7/II

33

36

Base

NOH

Ka

Rice Received under Allocation.] Monthly Average, 1947 (6,774.70 met. tons)

Hong Kong Clearing House

100

"D

>>

($549,587,015)

100

(32,544 gals.)

100

(296)

100

Figures

37

Production of Fluid Milk

40

Companies Registered Numbers.

Total 1947

Capital

41

Production of Cement

47

Total Population (Estimated)

End of Year 1947

(1,750,000)

دو

''

( $494,014,500)

100

Monthly Avearge, 1947 (2,852 tons)

100

100

Indices on Base

December, 1948

Monthly Average 1948

共圖

$789,906,067

143.7

46,294 gals.

142.2

5,287 tons

185.3

9,164.39 met. tons 135.3

$688,971,976

125.3

42,987 gals.

132.1

211 (Total, 1948) 71.3

$803,506,956 (Total, 1948)

162.6

4,435 tons

155.5

1,800,000 December, 1948 102.9

15

BRAR

• POPULATION •

PART II

Chapter 1.

Until a census, at present planned for 1950, has been held any estimate of the population of Hong Kong is neces- sarily tentative. When the last official census was taken in 1931 the total * Since then violent

population was found to be 849,751. fluctuations have occurred, firstly, on the influx of refugees from Canton when the Japanese attacked that city in 1938, and later in the Japanese occupation of the Colony and after its subsequent liberation in 1945:

In 1941 an unofficial census carried out by Air Raid Wardens gave a figure of over 1,600,000, a total which is believed to have been reached again in 1946, after an estimated reduction by one million during the Japanese occupa- tion. Even after the end of 1946 the population continued to grow. So far as it is possible to estimate, the population at the close of the year 1947 may have been about 1,800,000. During the year 1948 the sum of the total number of births (47,475) and the total number of immigrants (1,997,760) was exceeded by the sum of the total number of deaths (13,434) and the total number of emigrants (2,107,378) by a margin of 75,577, but in view of the fact that these statistics are not comprehensive, in that they do not cover movements by land and by junk, no deduction that the population has decreased, or even that it has remained comparatively stable throughout the year, can be made with certainty. In the month of October the available figures of immigration and emigration approximately balanced, while during the last two months of the year, immigrants exceeded emigrants by 11,308. In an average turnover of 356,000 passengers entering and leaving the Colony per mensem throughout the year, however, this figure is insignificant. The most than can be said is that while the population appears to have remained fairly stable throughout the greater part of the year, there were indications of a slight upward trend towards the end of the year.

Of the total population the majority are of Chinese race. During the year the number of Europeans and Americans permanently resident, excluding Service personnel and their de-

*Note. In the Annual Report of the Colony for 1947 the figure of 864,117 was incorrectly given as the population in 1931.

16

some

pendents, increased to about 12,000. This total includes 7,000 British subjects from the United Kingdom and the Dominions, about 3,000 British subjects of Portuguese race and 2,037 aliens permanently resident. In addition there were some 1,500 aliens temporarily resident.

On the basis of the distribution of the population found in the 1931 census, the population of the City of Victoria and the Peak is estimated at about 767,000; while that of Kowloon and New Kowloon is estimated at 547,000. On the same basis the population of the New Territories is estimated at about 209,000, and the population afloat is estimated at 147,000, but it is probable that the proportionate distribution of the two latter groups has changed, and that the population of the New Territories exceeds the estimate.

The population of the New Territories is composed of Cantonese and Hakka, with a sprinkling of Hoklo. The farmers are the Cantonese, mainly settled, some families for several hundred years, in the comparatively fertile western plains, and the Hakka, whose incursion into the more difficult hilly land of the eastern peninsulas is said to have started about two hundred years ago and may not have finished yet. Generally speaking, the Hakka appear to have occupied any potentially arable land disregarded by the Cantonese. Thus long fingers of Hakka penetration have been extended from the eastern peninsulas over passes down into the south-west of the mainland, and out on to the islands. The two sections main- tain excellent relations, and although Hakka help Hakka more noticeably than Cantonese help Cantonese, it is remarkable that in their penetration the Hakka have been partly guided by existing Cantonese settlement. Thus, for instance, one of the biggest New Territories villages, Wang Toi Shan, to the north- west of Taimoshan, is populated chiefly by Hakka of the Tang clan, who undoubtedly chose that locality because of the existing prodominant influence of the Cantonese Tang.

There are few exceptions to the rule that Cantonese and Hakka in the New Territories do not intermarry.

There are a few recent settlements which include both Cantonese and Hakka, but in such cases the families live distinctly, and normally a village is either clearly Cantonese or Hakka. There are how- ever certain well defined exceptions, notably the villages of Ting Kok and Ping Shan Tsai in the Taipo area, whose inhabitants speak Cantonese and Hakka almost bilingually. These villages are nicknamed "pun kong cham" the half filled pitcher.

Certain occupations are exclusively Cantonese or Hakka;

17

.d

for instance, the oyster fisheries are entirely Cantonese, while the manufacture of bean-curd and the quarrying of stone are the exclusive sphere of the Hakka. Farmers of both sections, when they live on or near the sea, combine fishing with agriculture, though, unlike the boat people, their homes remain in their villages even though they may spend nights away on the water. Their women never go fishing.

In the New Territories sailing and rowing boats, and the people in them, fall into three classes: the genuine Cantonese boat people (The Tanka), the genuine Hoklo boat people, and the farmers' boats and ferry boats. The boat people live entirely by fishing. The types of boats are not

not difficult to distinguish, Hakka boats, for instance, are largely used for ferry work in the eastern waters, being stoutly built, with hulls high out of the water along their whole length, and a single mast. The Hoklo are a small but virile minority, sailing and rowing the fastest boats. The men often speak Cantonese and Hakka in addition to their own language. They occur mostly in the eastern New Territories, in Tide Cove, Tolo Harbour, and Starling Inlet. There is also a winter incursion of Hoklo farmer- fishermen from Hoi Luk Fung, without their families, who fish along the west coast of the mainland, returning to Hoi Luk Fung in spring for the first sowing. The biggest fishing port is Cheung Chau, but the only place where the boat people live ashore is at Tai O, where hundreds of hovels on piles cover the shores of the creeks.

Industrial expansion into the New Territories, chiefly at Tsun Wan and further along the south-west coast of the main- land, is going to introduce a new element of Shanghai labourers. When mining starts again in earnest, that industry is likely to attract again the picturesque conglomeration of races and dialects which go with it.

18

¿

71

C

3.

!

General.

OCCUPATIONS • WAGES & LABOUR

Chapter 2

!

dealt with Apart from fishing and farming, which are elsewhere in this report, the major part of the Hong Kong population is engaged in commercial pursuits and in employment such as stevedoring, shipbuilding and repairing, etc., ancillary to the Colony's position as a great port and entrepôt for South China.

a

counter-

difficult With a constantly, fluctuating population it is to estimate the proportionate distribution of employment, but it is possible to reach an approximation of the numbers employed in the three main groups of industrial undertakings. Thus it has been estimated, from returns compiled by the managements concerned, that in September, 1948 in the engineering (including shipbuilding), metal and chemical industries approximately 23,000 persons were engaged. This represents a decrease of about 1,500 on last year's employment figure for this group. Within the group there has been very big decline in employment in the shipbuilding industry, where the figures declined during the first nine months from 16,900 to approximately 10,000, but this has been balanced by a gain in employment in light metal industries. There is reason to believe that since September, employment in the shipbuilding industry is again on

In the the up-grade. same month there were employed in public utility companies nearly 3,000 persons; and in other manufacturing industries It might approximately 32,500, a small increase over 1947. have been expected that employment in the latter group would have increased substantially more as a result of the setting up of a number of new factories by employers from Shanghai and Canton and the establishment in Hong Kong of several new industries. The comparatively small increase is probably due to unsettled conditions in China and exchange restrictions driving smaller manufacturers out of business.

H

* A

19

The Labour Office and Its work.

The department which is principally concerned with the working conditions in industry in the Colony is the Labour Office, the head of department being the Commissioner of Labour. Although the department has undergone considerable expansion since its institution a few years ago additional staff are required in order to keep pace with the continually expand- ing administrative and legislative labour field and in the field of industrial health. In addition to the work done in connection with the registration and inspection of factories, the department is constantly engaged in the conciliation and settle- ment of trade disputes and minor arguments about wages (the latter averaging 30 a month); the investigation of working conditions of, for instance, women and children; enquiries regarding wages; advising trade unions on matters of organisa- tion and finance; and, in co-operation with the legal department, the constant review of labour legislation to meet local needs and to attain accepted international standards. During the current year consideration of the large number of conventions adopted at post-war International Labour Conferences, including those far-reaching ones adopted at the Seattle Maritime Conference in 1946, and their possible implementation in Hong Kong has been a constant concern of the department.

Labour Advisory Board.

In labour matters generally and particularly with regard to legislative proposals affecting labour, the Government is assisted by a Labour Advisory Board. The Board is constituted on a tripartite basis. The Labour Commissioner is ex-officio Chairman and there are nine members

members representing the interests of European Employers, Chinese Employers and Chinese Labour respectively.

Legislation.

The aim of labour legislation in Hong Kong is to imple- ment as far as practicable the standards of the International Labour Code and to give effect to al hoc measures which necessary to meet specific local needs.

are

international labour

There is legislation to give effect to conventions on the minimum age of employment in industry and at sea, on the night work of women and young persons, on underground work for women, on medical examinations of young persons before employment at sea, on minimum-wage

20

H

NG

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Shaping

a wine glass in the

Orient Glass Factory.

Photograph by Francis Wu.

i

香港公共圖書館

HONG KON

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

:

:

-

fixing machinery, on seamen's articles of agreement, and

and on unemployment indemnity in case of shipwreck. Legislative measures which affect labour directly or indirectly are contained in the Factories and Workshops Ordinance, 1937; the Employers and Servants Ordinance, 1902; the Asiatic Emigration Ordinance, 1915; the Female Domestic

Domestic Service Ordinance, 1923; the Industrial and Reformatory Schools Ordinance, 1932; and the Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, 1948.

a

Legislation in various stages of preparation includes Workmen's Compensation Ordinance, Regulations to the Boilers Ordinance, 1909, and an Ordinance to regulate special systems of recruitment and contracts for service of manual workers.

Labour Organisation.

The Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, 1948 came into operation on April 1st, 1948. While before that date there were of course many labour unions, the Ordinance has given both to them and to employers' associations a definite legal status. The change-over from the old guild system has been accelerated, and in many cases what were purely social and benevolent clubs of masters and workers combined are now labour unions and employers associations clearly distinguished, though there are still many of the old type guilds in existence. Before the Ordinance came into force, all the known

known unions were invited to send representatives to the Labour Office and the provisions of the Ordinance were fully discussed.

i

of

Registration began in June and by the end of December, 97 labour unions and 17 employers' associations had been registered, and applications from 83 labour unions and 60 employers' associations were outstanding. For a Colony, even with the large population of Hong Kong, the number of unions: is exceedingly large, but is partly attributable to the excessive duplication of small unions, jealous of their own interests. There have been however a number of amalgamations, and many the unions are now working more closely together. The in- dustrial unions are making strong progress and it is in this field that the promise of good organisation is more readily shown. It will now be possible to go ahead with plans for trade union education, the development of collective bargaining machinery, and the construction of a sound, democratic and progressive trade union movement. A series of trade union classes has already been held, and on this experience a new series is being drawn up in consultation with the Education Department. There is a long way to go before the unions can be regarded as in any way comparable to those in countries more advanced socially, but a

21

1

"

start has been made. The employers also are being asked to consider the advantages of collective bargaining machinery, and

it is hoped that during the year progress can be made in this direction.

At the end of 1948 there were registered twenty-one labour unions with a membership of 1,000 or more, and seventy-six with a smaller membership. The union with the largest membership (7,131) was the Hong Kong and Kowloon Restaurant and Cafe Workers General Union. The Chinese Engineer's Institute, a craft union and one of the longest established, retained its position during the year and, with a membership of 6,200, was second in point of size. The total membership of registered workers' unions is approximately 71,510 though this figure is probably on the high side, as there is a tendency among unions to exaggerate their

their membership. There were also at the end of 1948 seventeen employers' federations registered as trade unions.

Labour Disputes.

.. With the exception of a dispute in the taxi companies, where a combined strike and lockout which started in September was still in progress at the end of the year, the year under review has been freer than any since 1945. Only five disputes resulted in strikes, and in one case only did this involve any considerable number of workers. The adjustments of wages brought about by strikes or other means which occurred during 1946 and 1947 seemed in general to have been sufficient to provide a foundation for stable conditions in 1948. No new factors emerged during this year to necessitate any radical adjustments of wages.

The strike of the Texas Oil Co. Installation workers for instance, which, apart from the taxi strike, involved, the largest number of persons, was based primarily upon the workers' demands for improved conditions of service.

A factor of paramount importance in Hong Kong is the surplus of semi-skilled and unskilled workers, many of whom are intelligent and easily trained. This renders it simple for undertakings employing comparatively unskilled men, such

such as the Oil Installation referred to above and transport companies employing conductors and other semi-skilled staff, to replace their complete staff at short notice should it be impossible to come to a settlement in any labour dispute. This is true to a certain extent even in respect of skilled labour, as, for instance, in the taxi dispute where the employers were able to engage a considerable number of fully trained drivers to replace those with whom no settlement seemed possible.

22

-

In January, a dispute arose in the Nam Yang Spinning Factory, which had recently been established with, capital, machinery, etc., from Shanghai. The dispute which had a variety of causes concerned Cantonese women apprentices only, and terminated with the discharge of a number, of the apprentices, and a general curtailment of the scheme for training Cantonese. The dispute itself was not of great importance, but is indicative of the unrest that is likely to occur where Shanghai employers and workers are brought into contact with Cantonese workers.

A dispute in the Min Hing Weaving Factory during March illustrates a common source of trouble in the textile industry where remuneration is on a piece work basis and wages are fixed on so much per bolt of cloth. Competition with India and Japan, whose industries have been expanding during the earlier part of this year, resulted in manufacturers in Hong Kong having to reduce costs in general or work at a loss. Unfortunately, in many cases, the managements, instead of trying to reduce costs by increasing efficiency, modernising the factory, machinery, lighting, etc., almost always take the easiest and quickest way by reducing workers' wages. This is of course a short-sighted policy and happily there are signs that among the bigger factories it is being realised that whatever the labour costs the factory must be organised efficiently if it is to take its place as an exporter to other parts of the world. In the case of the Min Hing Factory, the management reduced rates for piece work and as a result 80 workers went on strike for approximately one month.

In April a dispute arose in the Texas Oil Co. Installation The at Tsun Wan, a small town in the New Territories. workers, who numbered some 300, were urged not to strike until discussions between the management and their represen- tatives had taken place, so that steps could be taken to settle their grievances. Unfortunately, the men appear to have been advised otherwise by a newly-formed so-called Federation of Unions, and two days after the matter had been reported to the Labour Office it was found that nearly all the men were on strike. After the strike had been on for a week or

so, the company decided that it would be necessary to engage new staff in order to prevent a disruption of their distribution arrange- ments, and in spite of considerable picketing, about 150 new men were engaged.

Not unnaturally after 3 weeks the workers, who lived in a small town where there was no alternative employment, began to feel the economic pinch. Approaches were therefore made to the Labour Office, but the men were still under the

r

23

disadvantage of the presence, in the background, of the Federation, which was constantly urging the workers to insist

insist on better terms, without having the means to assist them to stand out for these terms. However, at the end of the month the workers accepted the terms originally offered and were all 300 or SO reengaged, with the exception of 4 men.

During the year, there were two other minor strikes. One was concerned with public cars, and it was settled by engaging new drivers.

The other strike occurred in a match factory on Ping Chau Island and concerned the suspension of an employee. It was settled without difficulty.

Cost of Living.

a

There has been little material change during 1948 in the cost of living for the wage-earning classes. The cost of staple commodities, in particular that of rice, which had shown tendency to fall during the last few months of 1947, rose slightly during the latter part of January and in early February, 1948, and then continued to fall slowly.

More permanent causes of a slightly higher general cost of living level in 1948 were the progressive decline in the value of the Chinese National Dollar and its successor, the Gold Yuan, and the civil war in China, which tended to foster a steady influx of newcomers from China. The housing shortage, although rebuilding has made considerable progress, continues to con- tribute prominently to the cost of living.

The pressure on housing space is severe, and rents are many times higher than before the war in spite of legislation designed to prevent undue increases. The exaction of high premiums, though illegal, is also common. For many of the artizan and clerical workers. school fees, equipment and clothing are very much bigger items in family budgets than their proportionate pre-war equivalents.

At the end of the year the average retail prices of the staple foodstuffs, etc. of the wage-earning classes, as compared with pre-war and with 1946 levels are set out in the graph at the end of this Chapter.

Wages.

are

Wages for Chinese artizan and unskilled labour employed in European-owned industries and in transport concerns now largely uniform, and have been determined through a number of negotiated agreements. These rates have also been applied by the Government to its own labour of similar grades. At the end of 1948 these rates, as compared with 1946 scales, were as follows:-

24

H

Tailoring Class at Aberdeen Industrial School.

ES

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due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

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香港公共圖書館

HONG KON

3

G KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

Employed in the Dockyards, the Utility Cos., and

the Government. Skilled Tradesmen

Average Rates of Pay for Wage-Earners.

Skilled Workmen

Semi-Skilled Workmen

1946 (end)

1948 (end)

(including rehabilitation allowance)

$5.00-$6.20

$6.00-$8.00

$4.50-$5.00

$5.50-$7.00

$4.20-$4.50

$4.60-$5.80

$3.20-$3.60

$3.50-$4.00

Unskilled

These rates are based on an 8-hour day for 26 days a month, and include the rehabilitation allowance, which for artizans is on an average $3 a day and for male unskilled labour $2.40 a day. For the purpose of comparison with 1946 the following table shows the present average total earnings of certain transport workers in one month:-

Tram Drivers

1946

1948 (end)

Bus Drivers

Tram Conductors

Bus Conductors

$154-$174

$169-$184

$140-$164

$139-$159

$190-$227

$212-$227

$172-$210

$167-$185

Owing to the shortage of skilled labour many Chinese firms, which do not generally speaking have as high operating costs as the large European concerns, but which at the same time cannot offer the same security of employment, pay on a com- paratively higher scale. Thus for male labour engaged on a time work basis the following rates are general:-

Skilled Tradesmen

Skilled Workmen

Semi-skilled Workmen

Continuous Work.

$7-$14 per day.

$5-$ 7 per day.

Casual Work.

$8-$20 per day

$3-$ 5 per day.

$7-$12 per day

$4-$ 6 per day

The

These are total earnings, since Chinese firms generally do not pay a rehabilitation allowance.

In the majority of Chinese industrial establishments however, wages are paid at piece rates, which vary considerably from industry to industry. table below gives the 1947 range in some of the principal industries and operations in which piece rates prevail. has been little or no change in 1948.

Industry.

Electric Hand Torch Manufacture

Electric Hand Torch Battery Manufacture

Electric Hand Torch Bulbs

Hardware Industry

Garment Making

(a) Bobbin-winding and knitting

(b) Making up garments

(c) Hosiery

Rubber-Shoe Making

·

There

Average Daily Wage.

(9 hours)

$1.20-$3.40

$1.60-$2.20

$1.00-$2.80

$1.00-$3.15

$1.00-$5.70

$2.70-$4.00

$1.25-$7.20

$3.50-$5.00

$1.50-$7.00

25

J

Weaving (Piece rates fixed by joint negotiation.)

(a) Power-driven Machinery

(i) Bobbin-winding

(ii) Warping & Weaving Sections

(b) Hand-operated Machinery

(i) Bobbin-winding

(ii) Warping and weaving Sections

$2.00-$3.00 $4.00-$6.00

$1.00-$2.00

$3.00-$4.00

These earnings are averaged on the basis of a 9-hour day. There has been little change in these rates during the course of this year.

Working Hours

The usual hours in Chinese-owned factories are from 7 a.m. to 5 p.m. (with an hour off at mid-day) but extra work from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. at ordinary rates is not uncommon. In the latter case a further rest period between 5. p.m. and 6 p.m. is usual. In many other occupations, such as catering, transport and stevedoring, the working day may be 9 hours or longer, with a 7-day week, but the tempo of work in these occupations is proportionately slow and there are many short rest periods. European concerns the 48-hour week is now standard. Naval Dockyard a 44-hour week is worked. The usual rest- day is Sunday, though other days are allotted where work must necessarily be continuous.

Factories and Workshops.

In

In the

During the year 1,610 factories and workshops applied for registration. Of the 225 factories or workshops which are known to have closed down during the year, 12 were small rubber factories which sprang to life in tenement buildings immediately after the war and before the large factories, now in operation, were rehabilitated. The remainder were also small concerns which were unable to stand up to competition. There were at the end of the year 1,160 registered factories and work- shops. Most of the machinery and equipment in use is old and tired and until some improvement is made in the realms of production, Hong Kong industrial production must lag.

The field of inspection has expanded as there are now 121 different types of industry operating in the Colony. Nearly 10,000 visits of inspection to factories and workshops were made. during the year, including night inspections in connection with the employment of women and young persons in

in prohibited hours, visits in connection with industrial accidents, compensa- tion payment of wages during incapacitation and medical fees, and visits made to markets and retail establishments to check prices for the preparation of the monthly "food and fuel figures."

26

These latter visits were, undertaken by the Department of Statistics as from September, 1948.

Inspections for the general improvement of working con- ditions and the suppression of industrial diseases have included investigations into the lighting of factories and the extraction and removal of dust. To date the lighting of 60 factories has been thoroughly checked and the lighting re-arranged or improved to conform with recognized standards; and over 20 factories, in which abrasive or polishing dust is generated are now proceed- ing with the installation of dust exhaust systems.

This work has been delayed owing to the shortage of suitable materials and the lack of technicians capable of undertaking the construction of such apparatus.

A total of 436 accidents involving 460 per- sons were reported and subsequently investigated.

Of these 140 occurred in the shipbuilding industry where 68 were caused by falls from staging or by falling objects. Fatal accidents totalled 20 and included 12 from falls and falling objects, 2 from burns, and the remainder from a variety of causes. The apparently large increase in industrial accidents (245 more than the pre- vious year) is due rather to a tightening up of the system of reporting accidents than to an increase in the number of accidents themselves.

Prosecution is only resorted to when repeated warnings fail, but 95 successful prosecutions were undertaken during the year. The majority were for employing women in prohibited hours or in prohibited trades, the employment of children, the use of unfenced machinery, obstructing fire exits and failing to register factories or workshops.

Women and Young Persons in Industry

There has been an average of just over 23,000 women in more or less regular employment in a large variety of industries during 1948. This number does not include fairly large numbers of women who are employed as unskilled manual workers in the building trade, as earth carriers and stone breakers, etc., for road building. All these women are engaged by con- tractors on a purely casual basis and, as numbers and personnel fluctuate continually, returns are extremely difficult to obtain. Of women engaged in indstry, at least a third work in the textile trade. Hitherto textiles have been confined to weaving and knitted piece goods, but 1948 has seen the installation of several cotton spinning mills, and more are in-process of construction. Ast these are all large concerns and much of the labour female, the total number of women employed in the textile trade is likely to increase. Rather less than a third of the total number in

27

industry are employed in the metal ware, electric torch, torch battery, torch bulb and rubber shoe industries, though numbers have fluctuated throughout the year with the state of the business. The majority of the women in all trades are either on a daily or piece rate basis and can thus be laid off when business is poor.

Other industries in which a large proportion. of the labour is female, are ginger, fruit and vegetable preserving, joss sticks and fire-crackers, matches, tobacco and certain skilled and semi-skilled processes in the printing trade.

un-

Inspection and registration of juveniles between the ages of 14 and 18 years has continued throughout the year and there were at the end of the year 1,772 young persons registered with the Labour Office, an increase of about 1,400 over the numbers registered at the end of 1947. Periodic checks are made of all registered juveniles and frequent inspections of those under 16 years to see that regulations concerning their specially restricted hours and day of rest are observed. It is gratifying to note the satisfactory growth of these youngsters. Another cause for satisfaction is the allocation of ground and funds (Princess Elizabeth's wedding present) for a playing field and club house which is to be used for the recreation and training primarily of those juveniles who are employed in industry.

are still

Social amenities and welfare benefits for women. few. Some factories, both European and Chinese owned, have regular sick and maternity benefit schemes; others give a certain amount of financial assistance to maternity cases, but in the majority of cases, the women, who are nearly all regarded as casual workers, are merely granted a limited period of matenity leave. Usually there is a promise of re-employment though this may be conditional upon the woman finding a substitute for her period of absence. There is, however, a healthy and growing con- sciousness amongst the more enlightened women of the necessity for some sort of security in the way of social benefits. Evidence of this can be seen in the two purely women's unions, the Female Knitters' Association and the Metal Sisters' Union, which are actively concerned with the promotion of better working con- ditions in their respective trades.

28

REFERENCE No & 67/147.

COSTS

WEEKLY OOD AND FUE 1930 JANUARY, 1110 TO DECEMBER, 1945

DEPARTMENT OF STAT

THE FOLLOWING ARE THE COMMON

TES

ANDE THE QUANTITIES THEREOF. THE do5] CIF WHICH IS GRAPHED

COMMODITITIES.

RICEL

VEGETABLES

CAUTIES

72

29

SALT CABBAGE

TEA

SALT FISH

FISH

PORK

IFNREWOO

21

31

4

3

17:00

BEAN CURD

VVA POS

·

.

1930

1931

[1983]

(1935)

19311

14:5

JAN JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL. JAN. JUL JAN JIL JM JUL. JANEL. FAN EVLENEL FAM EIL FAN FUL FAHI JOLTAN SULFNEIL TW. JÓL JÁN. SEP TM JUL IN IN JANEL 1976

1932 JON. DEC JON DEC JON. DEC. JÚN. DEC JÓN. DỤC. LÊN DỤC, FUN. DEC JÊN DECLIN, DEC. JUN. DEC JW. DÉS, ENOL, DEC TÔN, DÉC JÓN DEC JÊN. DEC JÊN DEC. JIN DEC JUN DEC JIN DEC

'v

.

וורר חותנו

רוחות

RAB

PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION

Chapter 3.

&

J

1

Revenue and Expenditure.

British Civil Administration was resumed in the Colony as from the 1st May, 1946, and the first post-war budget covered the period of eleven months only, from the 1st May, 1946, to the March, 1947.

31st

The Revenue and Expenditure figures since the 1st May, 1946, are as follows:-

>

Revenue Expenditure Surplus

$

$

$

Deficit

$

1946/47 (11 months)

1947/48 (Actual)

1948/49 (Estimates)

82,141,556 85,624,391 164,298,310 127,701,174 36,597,136 151,407,950 150,284,105 1,123,845

3,482,835

The cumulative surplus at the 31st March, 1948, amounted to $37,063,396.

Estimates for 1948/49.

The original Estimates for the year 1948/49 provide for Revenue totalling $151,407,950 and Expenditure of $150,284,105, giving an estimated surplus of $1,123,845, but present indications. are that the surplus will be considerably higher than this.

Revenue.

The principal revenue items for 1947/48 and 1946/47 in round figures were:-

1947/48 1946/47 (11 months)

30

(a) Duties on Liquor, Hydrocarbon Oils,

Tobacco, Proprietary Medicines, etc. $50,800,000

(b) Rates (Assessed Taxes)

Internal Revenue, including Enter- tainment Tax, Estate Duty, Stamp Duties, Meals & Liquor Tax, Bet- ing & Sweeps Tax (and Earnings & Profits Tax, and Dance Hall Tax

9,900,000

$34,000,000

6,800,000

I

in 1947/48

(d). Water Revenue

(e) Postal Revenue

(f) Kowloon-Canton Railway

(£)

*

(g) Miscellaneous Fees, Payments for

38,600,000 12,000,000,

5,600,000 2,500,000

7,065,000 5,250,000.

6,300,000 4,450,000

Services and Sales of Government Property 9,080,000 4,880,000

(h) Miscellaneous Licences, Fines and

Forfeitures.

(i) Miscellaneous Receipts, including

Royalties.

(j) Grant by Imperial Government

Import and Excise Duties.

7,400,000 3,790,000

4,450,000 5,370,000 12,000,000

There is no general customs tariff in Hong Kong, import duties being confined to liquor, tobacco, hydrocarbon oils, toilet preparations, proprietary medicines and table waters. A special foreign registration fee of 15% of the value of a motor vehicle is payable in respect of any vehicle not produced within the British Empire. The duties on imported liquor range from $1.50 per gallon on beer to a minimum of $4.00 on Chinese liquor and to $44.00 on European Sparkling wines. A reduction in duty is allowed in respect of liquors manufactured or produced within the British Empire.

The duties on tobacco range from $1.95 per lb. on the lowest taxed unmanufactured tobacco to $7.00 per lb. on cigars. A reduction in duty is allowed on tobacco of Empire origin and/or of Empire manufacture. A duty of 80 cents per gallon is payable on all light oils imported into the Colony, 40 cents per gallon on all heavy hydrocarbon oils used as fuel for any heavy oil road vehicle, and 10 cents per gallon on other hydrocarbon oils. Duty. is payable on toilet preparations and proprietary medicines at 25% of ex-factory price in the case of locally manufactured goods and 25% of f.o.b. prices in the case of imported goods. A duty of 24 cents per gallon is payable on Table Waters imported into or manufactured in the Colony. Excise duty is levied at the same rates on the above dutiable commodities manufactured, in the Colony. These duties accounted for nearly $51,000,000.

Earnings and Profits Tax.

This tax, introduced for the first time in 1947, is based on the normal Income Tax Plan modified in material respects to meet local conditions and is divided into four separate taxes, Property Tax, Profits Tax, Interest Tax and Salaries and Annuities Tax. If a person so chooses he may be assessed personally and so enjoy the personal allowances obtaining under the Salaries and Annuities Tax of $7,000 for himself, $5,000 for his wife and a decreasing allowance for children up to the ninth. Tax is chargeable at a

31

ratio of the "Standard rate" (10% in 1947/48). The full rate is levied on corporations and on unincorporated businesses (with some marginal relief) earning over $7,000. Salaries and Annuities Tax, after allowances have been deducted, is levied at rates varying from a quarter of the standard rate on the first $5,000 to twice the standard rate on incomes of over $35,000.

Revenue derived from the four taxes in 1947/48 was as follows:-

Property Tax

Profits Tax

Salaries & Annuities Tax ...

Interest Tax

:

$ 2,231,500 10,793,300

742,400

374,400

Total:

$14,141,600

Assessment Tax (Rates).

There is a general rate of 15% plus a water rate of 2% on assessed rateable value. Properties in outlying districts which have unfiltered water pay a water rate of 1% only, and this rate is re- mitted altogether if no water is available. Nearly $10 million accrued from this Tax in 1947/48.

New Measures.

No new taxation measures of any importance were introduced during the year under review, but many comparatively minor licence and permit fees, which had been in force before the Pacific War, were reintroduced and in some cases the charges were increased.

Expenditure.

The major items of Expenditure during the year 1947/48 were, in round figures:-

(a) Miscellaneous Services: (Includes High Cost

of Living, Rehabilitation and Special Allow- ances $23,834,000, Settlement with H. M. Government $20,617,000, Salary Adjustments $3,823,000)

(b) Public Works

Extraordinary

Department Recurrent &

(c) Medical Department

(e) Police Force

(d) Stores Department

(f) Education Department

(g) Pensions

$60,764,000

9,608,000

8,268,000

8,176,000

6,628,000

6,445,000

5,922,000

Owing to the big rise in prices generally, considerable expen-

diture was incurred on cost of living and other related allowances

32

for all Civil servants, but particularly for those in the lower grades. Negotiations with His Majesty's Government in regard to a number of outstanding questions arising out of the enemy occupation and subsequent limited period of British Military Administration resulted in financial decisions entailing the acceptance by the Colony of various charges for pay and pensions of the local Volunteer Forces, certain repatriation passages and relief payments etc., totalling in all a little under $21 million. On the other hand, His Majesty's Government made a round sum grant of $12 million which largely offset these abnormal expenses.

Public Debt.

The Public Debt of the Colony at the 31st December, 1948, totalled $69,016,000 comprising four issues:

4% Conversion Loan raised in 1933, and repayable not later than the 1st August, 1953

The Sinking Fund of this Loan is fully invested and amounted to £214,839 on the 30th September, 1948

34% Dollar Loan raised in 1934... 31% Dollar Loan raised in 1940

These two loans are redeemable by 25 an- nual drawings. During 1948 bonds to the value of $1,030,000 were redeemed. 31% Rehabilitation Loan 1973/78 ..

$4,838,000

$6,160,000 8,018,000

$50,000,000

The first $50 million of the authorised Rehabilitation Loan of $150 million was raised in January, 1948, and the first contribu- tion to the Sinking Fund in respect of this Loan was made on the 15th July 1948. The Sinking Fund is fully invested and amounted to 15,625 on the 30th September, 1948.

The $50,000,000 had been fully expended before the end of 1947/48 and additional expenditure totalling $7,269,913 had been incurred by the 31st March, 1948, from the Colony's surplus balances pending the raising of a further portion of the full $150,000,000 authorized.

33

882892833)

CURRENCY & BANKING-

Chapter 4.

The Currency

The unit of currency in the Colony is the Hong Kong dollar, the value of which in terms of sterling fluctuated considerably until the silver standard was abandoned in December, 1935. The Currency Ordinance, 1935, set up an Exchange Fund, and provided that the note-issuing banks should surrender to the fund all silver previously deposited against note issues, and should deposit full sterling cover for all note issues thereafter. Since 1935 the value of the Hong Kong dollar has been maintained at approximately one shilling and three pence, both before and after the Japanese occupation.

Note Issue and Banks.

Notes of denominations from five dollars upwards are issued by the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, and the Mercantile Bank of India. The Government issues notes of one dollar, ten cent, five cent and one cent denominations. Before the war there were in circulation nickel 10 cent and 5 cent coins and copper 1 cent coins but these all disappeared from circulation after the outbreak of the war. It is of interest that over 70 tons of these coins, many of them badly damaged by fire, have recently been recovered from Japan. It is not proposed to re-issue these old coins, but new 10 cent and 5 cent pieces in nickel brass have been ordered from the Royal Mint and will in all probability be placed in circulation in March 1949.

The Colony is included in the sterling area and the authorised banks for dealing in foreign exchange are, in addition to the three note-issuing banks mentioned above:

34

Thomas Cook and Sons Ltd.

Chase Bank

National City Bank of New York Inc. American Express Co. Inc.

Netherlands India Commercial Bank Netherlands Trading Society

Banque Belge pour l'Etranger Banque de l'Indo-Chine

Bank of China

Bank of Communications

Bank of Canton

Shanghai Commercial and Savings Bank Bank of East Asia

Overseas Chinese Banking Corporation

Bank of Kwangsi

Chinese Postal Remittances & Savings Bank

Farmers Bank of China

China and South Seas Bank

Young Bros. Banking Corporation

National Commercial and Savings Bank Ltd. The Central Trust of China.

In addition to these incorporated banks, there are in the Colony many Chinese banks which handle a considerable volume of remittances from Chinese living overseas to their relatives in China.

In January, 1948, the Banking Ordinance, 1948, was passed according to which no company may carry on banking business without being licensed; 143 banks have been licensed under this Ordinance.

35

COMMERCE

Chapter 5

Hong Kong produces relatively little within its own borders compared with the vast quantities of products from other lands which are brought here for storage, sale and transhipment and which have made the Colony one of the world's greatest international marts and the leading entrepôt for the Far East generally.

The Colony enjoyed another boom year in trade during 1948, the total value of import and export trade exceeding £228.7 millions sterling as against 172.9 millions sterling in 1947, an increase of approximately 32%. The total value of imports of merchandise was over HK.$2,000 millions as against about HK$1,500 millions in 1947, an increase of 34%; the total value of exports was over HK$1,500 millions as against HK.$1,200 millions in 1947, an increase of approximately 30%.

It has not been possible to satisfy the demand for consumer goods, which has existed in the Far East since the close of the war, and the high level of productivity prevailing in the industrial countries has maintained a steady and effective demand for the raw materials of the Far East. Throughout the year, there has been an influx of capital from China to Hong Kong, no doubt attracted by the more stable political conditions existing here, and while much of this has continued to exist in liquid form, some of it has sought an outlet in investment in new building construction both domestic and industrial, and in new equipment for factories already established.

At the beginning of the year there were heavy imports, a large proportion of which had originally been destined for China but which could not gain entry into that country because of import restrictions, and these goods were diverted to Hong Kong for storage and ultimate disposal. Consequently, Hong Kong in the earlier months of the year had an over-bought position in com- modities which led to a fall in prices and a small recession in trade in the middle of the year. Toward the end of the year an op-

36

portunity to liquidate these stocks was presented when supplies from America fell away owing to the shipping strikes in that country. Nevertheless, a number of mushroom firms which had come into existence after the war were not able to stand the strain of the recession and faded out. The Hong Kong internal com- mercial position is rapidly reverting to its pre-war pattern in which trade is dominated by the older established and more financially secure merchant house.

A number of interesting features were prominent in the trad- ing position throughout the year. On the import side, textile fabrics led the way, followed by yarn, hydro-carbon oils, manu- factured articles, cereals, chemical elements, and vegetable oils. In exports, textile fabrics pre-dominated but there were large exports of vegetable oils, manufactured articles, and manufactures of base metals.

The main sources of imports in round figures during 1948 were China ($430 millions), United States of America ($387 millions), United Kingdom ($300 millions), and Siam ($96 millions) and the main destinations of exports were China ($280 millions), Malaya ($204 millions), U.S.A. ($152 millions), Siam ($140 millions), Philippines ($136 millions) and Macau ($136 millions). Imports from the British Commonwealth totalled $579 millions, an increase of no less than 30% over 1947, and are now 27% of the total imports. Exports to the Commonwealth totalled $411 millions, an increase of 14.7%, and are now 26% of the total exports. Imports from the United Kingdom were almost double those of the previous year and other large increases in im- ports were recorded from Italy, Japan, N.E.I., Siam, Sweden, Holland, Korea, Macau and the U.S.A. Imports from the U.S.A. in fact increased to such an extent that they almost equalled those from the whole of China. Exports to the Philippines increased over two-fold as the new Republic became Hong Kong's fifth largest customer.

A lively trade sprang up with Korea which has become an imporant source of supply and an equally important market for Hong Kong. Before the war when Korea was a Japanese posses- sion, trade between that country and Hong Kong was negligible. As political conditions improved in South-East Asia, trade began to move in larger volume. In particular, trade with Indonesia showed marked gains as imports were nearly twice the amount for the previous year while exports also increased considerably.

The most disturbing feature of Hong Kong's trade was the general decrease in the trade with China. While some increase was recorded in trade with North China, trade with South China fell away rapidly. Before the war, about 40% of Hong Kong's

37

38

trade was with China, and this has now been reduced to less than 20%. Imports from China generally were about equal to those of 1947, while exports showed a slight improvement. The disturbed political conditions in China and the stringent import controls were responsible for the grave reduction in Hong Kong's trade with her great neighbour. It had been hoped that there would be some improvement in the internal situation in China, but these hopes did not materialise and it would appear that no improvement in the China trade can be expected in the near future.

In contrast, trade with Japan, in spite of the many admini- strative difficulties, went from strength to strength. Imports totalled almost $79 millions while exports were nearly $50 millions. Imports from U.S.A. showed a considerable increase. This was to be expected since the Far East continues to make heavy demands on America for manufactured goods of all kinds. Trade with Australia and Canada also showed big increases both in im- ports and exports particularly of manufactured products. There is still a shortage in many lines of manufactured goods, particularly capital equipment. While there is a growing tendency to look to the sterling area for such commodities, nevertheless, it would appear that the Far East will continue to lean on the United States for some time to come. The freedom of movement of commodities and the absence of restrictions on trade with the sterling area are proving a big attraction in increasing the trade in the Colony with the Commonwealth, and sales of local products in the Middle East, British Africa and the West Indies have been an encouraging feature of the trade during 1948.

Profits have remained good throughout the year, and there has been, in local trading circles, an easy-money position. There is much capital in the Colony awaiting investment but disturbed political conditions throughout the Far East have tended to dis- courage long term investment in favour of holding funds in a more liquid condition.

At the end of this chapter are a number of diagrams illustrating in greater detail the trade movements briefly described above not only in the year under review but also during the period 1933-47 with the exception of the years of Japanese occupation 1941-45.

$

MILLIEN

420

got

$60

$40

280

$260

VOLUME OF TRADE. HONG KONG

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS IN $ 1948

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTIS REFERENCE NOG 28153

YOLUM OF TRADE

IMPORTS

EXPORTS

JAN.

FEB

MAR.

APR.

MAY

JUNE

JULY.

AUG.

SEPT.

OCT.

NOV,

DEC

39

t

40

KA MILION 2400

VALUE OF THE COLONY'S IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 1937/48

PERIOD OF JAPANESE JOCCUPATION

2dot

1400

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS REFERENCE NO G 28/150

IMPORTS

EXPORTS

1937

1938

1949

1940

1941

1948

1943

1944

1949

1974

192

1948

4 I

SMILJON

500

300

COLONY'S PRINCIPAL IMPORTS AND EXPORTS DURING 1948. BY VALUE

PIECE GOODS.

AND

TEXTILES

IMPORTS

FOODSTUFFS

100

QILS.

AND

FATS

PIECEGOODS

AND

TEXTILES

METALSI

PAPER AND

PAPERWARE

DYEING AND TANNING

MATERIALS

EXPORTS

FOODS TUKES

QILS

AND

METALS

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS REFERENCE No. G. 28/148

CLOTHING

AND

FOOTWEAR

PAPER

-AND PAREA WARE

HEE

42

}

BRITISH

BRITISH

EMPIRE

EMPRE

VOTAL

TOTAL

VMPORTS

WON-

EXPORTS

EM-

¡PIRE |

721

|COUN~

TRIES

ALL

PTHER

NON-EMP

BMILLION

•*

200

PRINCIPAL SOURCES AND DE

CHINA

UNITED

STATES

DIRITT

DESTIN

ATIONS OF GOODS, 1948

IMPORTS

EXPORTS

DEPARTMENT OF STATIS REFERENCE No. 6. K

UNITED

KINGDOM

SIAM

MACAO

BRITISH

MALAYA

PHOTPANES

AUSTRALIA

KXW

#MILLION 1,300

1200

1,100

COLONY'S PRINCIPAL IMPORTS DURING 1933 TO 1948

BY VALUE.

1,000

PAFER AND

PAPERWARE

OILS AND

FATS

PIECEGOODS FOODSTUFFS AND

AND PROVISIONS TEXTILES

METALS

900

cal

630

500

400

300

DEPARTMENT OF TACTICS

REFERENCE NG 28/12

*

共圖

HONG KONG PUBLIC

200

100

M

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1439

1940

LIBRARIES

1946

1947

1913

43

}

44

$MILLION

1,100

COLONY'S PRINCIPAL EXPORTS DURING 1933 TO 1948.

BY VALUE.

1,000

900

800

700

600

500

100

300

200

100

PAPER AND OILS AND

PAPERWARE

FATS

GOODSTUFFS

AND PROVISIONS

PIECEGOODS

AND TEXTILES

METALS

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

REFERENCE No. G. 28151

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

8946

1947

1949

$MILLION

2,200

1,000-

1,800

PRINCIPAL SOURCES OF GOODS, HONG KONG

1933 TO 1948

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

REFERENCE No G 28/154

1,600-

1,400

1,200+

4000-

800-

boot.

400-

200

BRITISH

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

UNITED

S

ALL OTHER

COUNTRIES

OSSESSIONG

INGDOM

1930

1939

19:40

1946

1947

45

$MILLION

1,000

PRINCIPAL DESTINATIONS OF GOODS, HONG KONG 1933 TO 1948.

1,800

1,600

1.400

1200-

4000

800

600

400

200

46

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

REFERENCE No. G. 28/153.

MOTHER

COUNTRIES

CHINA

BRITISH POSSESSIONS

UNITED INGDOM

1933

1934

1935

1936

1937

1938

1939

1940

1946

1977

1948

SUMMARY OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

BY MAIN SOURCES AND DESTINATIONS

With indices on base Monthly Average 1947 = 100 (shown in brackets)

SOURCES

DESTINATIONS

Sources & Destinations

1947

Monthly Average Total Jan.-Dec. 1948

Monthly Average Monthly Average 1948

1947

Total

Jan.-Dec.

1948

Monthly Average

1948

HK $

HK $

United Kingdom

Malaya

Other British Possessions Burma

China, North

Middle

South

Macao

Total China and Macao French Indo China

Siam

U.S.A.

All Other Countries

HK $

13,704,225 (100.0)

8,534,001 (100.0) 13,358,405 (100.0) 1,427,523 (100.0) 5,310,683 (100.0) 2,597,543 (100.0) 23,931,742 (100.0) 6,854,966 (100.0) 38,694,934 (100.0) 1,674,540 (100.0) 4,991,873 (100.0) 24,889,943 (100.0) 21,884,677 (100.0)

HK $ HK $ HK $ 300,928,202 25,077,350 (183.0) 3,184,005 (100.0) 84,654,834 7,054,569 (82.6) 17,853,510 (100.0) 193,605,446| 16,133,787 (120.7) 8,279,238 (100.0)

34,241,261| 2,853,438 (199.8) 597,931 (100.0) 135,618,239 11,301,520 (212.8) 4,585,360 (100.0) 41,372,093 3,447,074 (132.7)| 3,591,381 (100.0) 253,610,857 21,134,238 ( 88,3) 14,063,133 (100.0)

89,088,642 7,424,053 (108.3) 5,905,691 (100.0) 519,689,831 43,307,486 (111.9) 28,145,565 (100.0)

30,179,253 2,514,938 (150.1) 1,484,638 (100.0) 96,223,503| 8,018,625 (160.6) 7,212,966 (100.0) 387,466,139|32,288,845 (129.7)| 12,646,924 (100.0) 430,550,144 35,879,178 (163.9) 21,998,020 (100.0)

Total

129,160,121 (100.0)

2,077,538,615 173,128,217 (134.0) 101,402,797 (100.0)

75,092,0156,257,668 (196.5) 204,748,623 17,062,385 (95.5) 131,986,051| 10,998,837 (132.8)

12,092,635 1,007,719 (168.5) 118,450,990 9,870,916 (215.2) 58,178,569 4,848,214 (134.9) 103,848,534 8,654,044 ( 61.5) 136,405,610|11,367,134 (192.4) 416,883,703 34,740,308 (123.4)

19,199,533 1,599,961 (107.7) 140,153,461|11,679,455 (161.9) 152,451,940 12,704,328 (100.4) 430,131,749 35,844,312 (162.9)

1,582,739,710 131,894,975 (130.0)

47

KIES

48

SUMMARY OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS

By Main Section With Indices On Base Monthly Average 1947 100 (shown in brackets)

Imports

Export

Sections

1947

Monthly Average Total Jan.-Dec. Monthly Average 1948 1948

Monthly Average Total Jan.-Dec. 1947

1948

Monthly Average 1948

Tobacco

I. Food Products,

II. Fatty Substances & waxes, animals & vegetable

Beverages,

HK $ 28,550,352 (100.0)

14,744,037 (100.0)

III. Chemicals and Allied

Products

IV. Rubber

V. Wood, Cork

VI. Paper

VII. Hides Skins and Leather and Manufactures thereof

n.e.s.

VIII. Textiles

IX. Articles of Clothing of all Materials and Misc. made-up Textile Goods

X. Products for Heating, Lighting

1,285,067 (100.0) 18,475,534 (100.0)

8,818,254 (100.0) 4,420,363 (100.0) 2,970,514 (100.0)

4,727,697 (100.0)

HK $ HK $ HK $ 483,239,285 40,269,940 (141.0) 15,179,544 (100.0) 133,028,986 11,085,748 (75.1) 9,384,052 (100.0)

209,268,038 17,439,003 (197.7) 9,958,712 (100.0) 36,683,644 3,056,970 (69.1) 3,246,501 (100.0) 38551,488 3,212,624 (108.1) 381,607 (100.0) 100,839,751 8,403,312 (177.7) 3,212,253 (100.0)

17,630,812 1,469,234 (114.3) 1,254,969 (100.0) 379,392,516 31,616,043 (171.1) 14,434,145 (100.0)

HK $ HK $ 245,859,171 20,488,264 (134.9)

143,413,483 11,951,123 (127.3)

131,307,125 10,942,260 (109.8) 32,427,044 2,702,254 (83.2) 8,251,159 687,596 (180.2) 66,460,913 5,538,409 (172.4)

20,751,728 1,729,311 (137.7) 325,683,569 27,140,297 (188.0)

4,412,128 (100.0)

51,755,182 4,312,931 (97.7) 7,960,646 (100.0)

143,395,979 11,949,665 (150.1)

and

Lubricants

and

Power,

Related

Products, n.e.s.

8,510,621 (100.0)

118,934,174 9,911,181 (116.4)| 6,764,512 (100.0)

71,579,220 5,964,935 (89.3)

2,007,532 (100.0)

41,007,156 3,417,263 (170.2) 1,461,723 (100.0)

23,054,523 1,921,210 (131.4)

XI. Non-Metallic Minerals and Manufactures thereof,

n.e.s

XII. Precious Metals & Precious Stones Pearls and Articles made of these materials

XIII. Base Metals and Manu- factures thereof n.e.s. XIV. Machinery, Apparatus and Appliances, n.e.s. and Vehicles

XV.

n.e.s.

Misc. Commodities,

714,353 (100.0)

10,370,614 (100.0)

Total

11,138,429 928,202 (129.9) 47,310 (100.0) 170,151,040 14,179,253 (136.7) 9,565,929 (100.0)

5,515,705 (100.0)

5,956,742 (100.0)

129,160,121 (100.0)

120,531,696 10,044,308 (182.1) 2,181,885 (100.0) 165,386,418 13,782,201 (231.3)| 6,150,517 (100.0) 2,077,538,615 173,128,217 (134.0) 101,402,797 (100.0)

4,768,162 397,346 (839.8) 163,930,846|13,660,904 (142.8)

44,608,087 3,717,340 (170.3)

157,248,701 13,104,058 (213.0) 1,582,739,710 131,894,975 (130.0)

!

香港公共圖書及

NG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

10

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

Larger fishing junks in Aberdeen Harbour.

.

Photograph by Francis Wu.

PRODUCTION

Chapter 6.

FISHERIES.

Before the war the fishing industry was under the control of groups of wholesale dealers called "laans". To understand the manner in which this control was exercised, it is necessary to re- member that the income of the fishermen varies greatly with the season and they have never learned to save in prosperous times enough money to carry them over the harder periods. When fish- ing was bad and money was scarce fishermen would obtain a loan from the "laans", a loan which was rarely repaid and on which interest was rarely charged, the only condition being that the fishermen's entire catch would be handed over to the middleman for marketing. The result of this system was that the fisherman wast always in debt and was never in a position to better his condition or to experiment with new gear and methods.

The condition of the industry was in no way improved by its experiences during the Japanese war. Even before the occupation of Hong Kong the piratical tendencies of the Japanese in local waters effectively dissuaded some fishermen from following their trade. During the Japanese occupation the industry came almost to a standstill; many of the larger fishing junks left the Colony and others took to trading. By the end of the war few of the remaining junks were sea-worthy and most of the gear required overhauling. A survey revealed that there were 26,000 fisherfolk in the Colony as compared with 77,451 in 1938 and that most of them were im- poverished and without boats.

The time was therefore opportune for the institution of a scheme, devised in Stanley internment camp, for the establishment of a Fisheries Department and under its control a Fish Marketing Organisation which would finally become self-supporting, with the object of ensuring that the profits of the industry would go to the fishermen and not to the middleman.

Under this scheme a Wholesale Fish Market was established at Kennedy Town and later another at Taipo in which all marine fish

49

have to be sold. In the main fishing villages, organisations called "fisheries syndicates" were established. The primary function of these syndicates is the collection of fish from fishermen and its transportation to market, but they also discharge other functions. such as the sale of rice, flour, salt, ice, sugar, ramie, hooks and tung oil at low prices to the fisherfolk. They also act as centres for social welfare and education where advice can be given to the fisherman on the numerous problems with which he is confronted. At the wholesale markets fish are bought by registered buyers in public auction and the fisherman immediately receives the amount bid less 8% on which commission the scheme is run.

To take the place of the loans formerly granted by the fish "laans", the Government lent $250,000 to the Fish Marketing Organisation, plus a further amount of $20,000 earmarked for the Yellow Croaker fishermen at Tai O who repaid the sum within. six months. The Government loan is used as a revolving fund, $622,360 having so far been lent and $396,287 repaid. A small rate of interest is charged and the loan is repaid by the deduction of a small increased percentage commission on the sale of fish.

Although there still exist some small "laans" which organize the collection of fish, sell it in the Market and also undertake salt- ing or drying, fishermen are forming small co-operative associations to perform these functions. Already each main fishing village has at least one of these associations.

To meet the ardent desire of fisherfolk for education, schools for fishermen's children have been opened in all the main fishing villages and a Fisheries Senior Class is held in Aberdeen where fisheries, navigation, meteorology and kindred subjects are added to the normal syllabus.

Possibilities of mechanizing the fleet are being explored and seven junks have now been equipped with diesel engines. The advantages of being able to reach the fishing ground and return to port quickly with fresh fish and of not being so completely depend- ent on the weather are evident, but the initial cost of mechaniza- tion is great and it is not yet clear whether it will be an economic proposition.

In the main 1948 has been a good average year for the indus- try, better than any year since the end of the war. Bumper catches in November provided a record when over 56,000 piculs of fish were handled by the markets. Severe storms in July sank over 70 vessels and rendered homeless more than 240 people. Relief sup- plies from the Social Welfare Office were distributed through the Fisheries Department, new work was found for those put out of employment and by the end of August further assistance was.

unnecessary.

50

A large number of applications have been received from companies wishing to base modern fishing vessels in the Colony. Two Japanese-type trawlers were successful in operating in the fishing grounds of Tonkin Bay and obtained good prices for fish while sail-driven craft were laid up for the typhoon season. Unfortunately the vessels were caught by a late typhoon off the Paracel Islands and one of them is presumed sunk. Undeterred, the owners intend to increase their fleet in Hong Kong.

The following are the figures for the weights and values of fresh and salt/dried fish sold in the Wholesale Markets at Taipo and Kennedy Town:

Fresh Fish.

Piculs

$

1946 32,000 3,120,457

Salt/dried Fish.

Piculs

$

Total.

Piculs

$

211,558 18,476,432 243,558 21,596,889 1947 44,418 3,355,512 189,273 11,166,577 233,691 14,522 089 1948 121,818 8,651,356 246,368 11,941,514 368,186 20,592,870

The considerable increase in quantity of fish handled by the Markets in 1948 is noticeable immediately. This is only partly due to the improved fishing conditions of this year. In previous years, the former fresh fish "laans" had been able to exercise influence to force fishermen who owed them money to sell their catch through them in the illegal "free" market. Strict police action against the fresh fish "laans" and their accomplices did much to remedy this and a considerable increase in quantities of fresh fish sent to Government-operated Markets was effected.

There has been a steady decrease in the prices of both fresh and salt/dried fish over the past three years. On the average, in 1946 fresh fish fetched $97 a picul and salt/dried fish $87 and in 1948 fresh fish $71 and salt/dried fish $48.

Before the war the proportion of salt/dried to fresh fish sold in the market was 3:2. After the war little fresh fish was landed and the proportion was of the order 8:1, but during 1948 the ratio closed to 2:1 . There are two main reasons for less fresh fish being marketed since the re-occupation. In the first place, no Japanese trawlers are now bringing fresh fish into the Colony. Secondly, the number of long-liners-these are the vessels that bring in most of the fresh fish to the Colony-is now only one third as great as before the war. Finally, there is the lack of adequate cold storage facilities in the Markets. Rather than take the chance of their fish spoiling if the fresh fish market is bad, many fishermen prefer to salt their catch.

The Export trade is the life blood of the Industry. Although the amount of fresh fish landed at present scarcely meets the needs of the local population there is always a substantial exportable sur-

51

plus of salt/dried fish. Normally the best buyer of Hong Kong fish is China but unstable conditions in that country and the rapid devaluation of the Chinese currency had an unfavourable effect on this trade. At times, instead of the greater part of the exports going to China, most of the fish exported from the Colony went to Chinese populations in America, Australia, Canada, the Philippines and Malaya. Some 40% of the total quantity of salt/dried fish marketed in 1948 was exported and the average value of monthly exports was a little under $400,000.

AGRICULTURE

Most of the 391 square miles within the boundaries of the Colony consists of mountains and hills, the more gradual slopes being clothed with grass, ferns and sparse pine-wood, the rocky ravines with evergreen trees and dense thorny shrubs. Practically none of this land is suitable for cultivation. The level land includes the alluvial plain north of the mountain of Tai Mo Shan but much. of this, bordering Deep Bay, is mangrove swamp and salt marsh. The more gentle slopes of the valleys are intensively cultivated and the lower shoulders of the hills have also been terraced where practicable and where water is available for irrigation. The terraces and irrigation channels may date back many years; some fell into disuse during the Japanese occupation but have since been taken back into cultivation.

Before the war about one-tenth of the Colony's population lived on the land. The Chinese farmer of the New Territories is primarily a rice producer; any other crop that may be grown is subsidiary to rice. Rice from the Sha Tin area is of a very high quality, and is much too valuable for the farmers and villagers to eat; they are content with cheaper rices of poorer quality imported from Indo-China, Burma and Siam. In the time of the Manchus, Sha Tin rice was sent to the Emperor, so fine was the quality; in the years before the war it used to find its way to New York. Now that the export of rice is prohibited the local produce is consumed in the Colony; most finds its way to the city where it is bought at a high price in the open market by the more wealthy Chinese. Many farmers do not benefit greatly by this enhanced value of their produce because, as in so many places in the East, a large proportion of the wealth of the land goes to landlords, who may or may not live in the vicinity, and the amount of paddy handed over as interest on debts, perhaps of many years' standing, is not inconsiderable.

Except for the salt lands, which yield but one crop, most of the paddy fields of the Territories produce two crops a year,

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the water supply being the limiting factor. The straw is short, and the grains are small and narrow, and of an excellent quality. It is estimated that some 20,000 short tons of milled rice are pro- duced annually, but this quantity is sufficient to supply the Colony's needs for only a little over a month.

The farmers save their own seeds from year to year both for the first and second sowings, for different kinds of seeds are used for each sowing. Annually they select their best paddy for seed, and a consequence of this selection is that from district to district, even from farm to farm, the varieties grown differ noticeably from one another. In July and again in October-November when the farmers spread out their paddy to dry on the smooth tarred sur- face of the roads, the different colours and shapes of the varieties can be noticed even from a passing car.

Fertilisers used in the rice field are groundnut cake mixed perhaps with ashes from burnt rice-husk or from the home, nightsoil and sulphate of ammonia. Groundnut cake, the residue from the groundnut after the oil has been expressed, is rich in pro- teins which gradually decompose when the cake is soaked in water, yielding nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; but it is also a valuable source of vitamins of the B Complex which have an effect, at present largely unexplained, on the vigour of growth of roots. There is much to be said, therefore, for the traditional use of this valuable fertiliser. But the last word has not been said. The main reason why the remarkably infertile soil of the New Terri- tories produces such excellent crops of rice is that with the first heavy rains of summer thousands of tons of worm-casts which have accumulated on the mountain slopes since the end of the pre- vious rainy seasons are washed down to the rice fields. Consider- able areas of land are almost completely covered with these worm- casts which are often inches high. In this manner very fine silt, enriched with salts of potassium and nitrogen, is deposited annually in the rice fields. Another factor which affects the fertility of these fields is the annual period of winter fallow which is the nor- mal practice, but this practice is being upset by the needs of the city for vegetables.

On land unsuited to rice, other crops may be grown including sugar cane and groundnuts. Vegetables are also cultivated sparing- ly in the summer for the needs of the pigs and of the family, but more plentifully in winter. Fruit trees are grown, not so much by the farmer, as by the more wealthy landlord or returned emi- grant. These include lichee, lungan, wong pei, carambola, Chin- ese olive, guava, loquat and citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons and pomelos. The lichees are of excellent quality but lichee and lungan timber is valuable, being used in junk building, and many

53

of these slow-growing trees were cut down during the Japanese occupation. Lemons and grape-fruit do well and it is hoped to extend their cultivation. The local pomelo is of poor quality but the trees are worth growing if only for the fragrance of their large flowers.

Before the war it was estimated that only about one-fifth of the vegetables consumed in the cities of Kowloon and Hong Kong was grown in the Territories. It has been the primary ob- ject of the Agricultural Department to increase this fraction. That the methods adopted have not been without success may be judged from the fact that even though the population of the Colony is vastly greater than in the Autumn of 1937-when the war between China and Japan first affected Hong Kong and refugees poured across the border-the fraction of home-grown vegetables is now probably nearer half the total consumption.

The Agricultural Department.

Before the war there was no Agricultural Department, though plans had been prepared in 1941 for such a venture. The De- partment was eventually formed in 1946 and consisted of one tem- porary Agricultural Officer (expatriate), two qualified Chinese Assistant Agricultural Officers and one unqualified Agricultural Assistant. The Department now consists of two expatriate Agricultural Officers, eight qualified Chinese Assistant Agricultural Officers and a clerical staff. The Department is divided into two divisions namely (a) Agricultural Division (b) Animal Husband- ary Division, which although they have their own staff naturally have to work in very close co-operation.

In the life of the poor Chinese, comprising the bulk of the population, the first factor is rice, which is mainly imported; the second firewood, again almost entirely imported; and the third vegetables. Before the war probably four-fifths of the vegetables consumed in the Colony were imported. Those responsible for planning the new department considered that if the first object of the department were to increase vegetable production both in quantity and quality, to facilitate its collection, marketing and sale and to keep the price low, then the people would benefit greatly.

Wholesale Vegetable Market.

With these objects in view the Wholesale Vegetable Market was opened in Kowloon in mid-September 1946 and remained an activity of the Agricultural Department until September 1948 when the scheme was incorporated into a separate government department. All vegetables produced in the New Territories and

54

those imported into Kowloon from China have to pass through this Market, where they are auctioned. The success of the market has been due in no small measure to the provision of adequate transport and prompt payment to the farmer. A summary of the sales for 1947 and 1948 is given in the table below.

Average price per

1947 Weight

(in piculs) Value

Local 326,374

Imported 128,666

Total Picul.

455,040

(H.K. $)

1948 Weight

(in piculs) Value

(H.K. $)

$5,269,385 $2,079,305 $7,348,690 $16.1

369,610 167,005 536,615

$5,411,491 $2,444,930 $7,856,422 $14.64

(16.8 piculs

I ton)

Efforts have been made to obtain close contact with the farmers, and vegetable collecting depots have been established in The the main vegetable growing areas of the New Territories. primary function of these depots is the collection of vegetables from farmers and their transportation to the market, but other functions are also discharged, such as sale of fertiliser and seeds to farmers. They also act as social centres for the farmer where it is possible for him to obtain advice on the many problems with which he is confronted.

Fertiliser

Raw nightsoil is the common fertiliser used in the New Territories and the danger of contamination of vegetables is considerable. The Japanese built at Castle Peak a battery of con- crete tanks for the maturation of nightsoil from the urban area. for use as a fertiliser. These tanks fell into disuse during the later period of Japanese occupation. In 1946 the department put these tanks again into commission and during 1948 about 78,000 pairs of tubs of nightsoil were sold to farmers (about 3,250 tons). This is only a very small fraction of the demand and efforts are being made to increase the supply of matured nightsoil so as to be able effectively to prevent the use of the raw product. The nightsoil is matured under anerobic conditions for 28 days by which time all pathogenic bacteria have been destroyed.

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Sheung Shui Agricultural Station

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Before the war there was a small station at Sheung Shui of 4 acres devoted to rice, vegetables, a few fruit trees, tree seedlings for roadside planting and tung oil trees. In the summer of 1946, this area, which lay derelict during the Japanese occupation, was reconditioned and about two acres set aside for intensive vegetable trials. Several hundred varieties of European and to a lesser extent Chinese vegetables have been grown under standard conditions of spacing, fertiliser etc. Data are being collected and an idea gained which varieties of many important crops are most suited to the Colony. An area is also devoted to fruit trees and bananas, and papayas have been planted. It is hoped to concentrate on citrus at this Station, as there is great scope for such fruits in the Colony.

Kam Tin Agricultural Station

Situated in the heart of the New Territories in the centre of Pat Heung plain, north of Tai Mo Shan, is an area which was purchased and levelled in 1936 to serve as an airfield. It consists of 277 acres with a regular slope of 1/60 from East to West. This area was never used as an airfield; it is too small for modern aircraft and is in a pocket in the hills. Early in 1947 it was taken over by the Agricultural Department to be developed as an experimental and demonstration station. Much of the ground was in poor con- dition, bulldozers having removed the silt from the top and exposed the gravels which lay beneath. During the war a small part was cultivated by landless people or by neighbouring farmers, but it was difficult for them to obtain adequate water supplies and the soil was very infertile.

The department is only using a small portion of this area at present, the balance being rented to villagers on a yearly tenancy. Early activities of the department included the building of a dam and the digging and cleaning of water channels. During 1948 observations were made on local and imported rices using different quantities of fertilisers and different mixtures. Rice seed selection is being done each year and seed paddy is available to the farmers on an exchange basis. The possibility of growing a third crop of rice is also being investigated. A survey of the yields of various local varieties of rice is being conducted with a view to obtaining more accurate data on the local average yield in the outlying districts.

A fish pond was constructed and stocked with carp of several species; and experiments are being conducted in conjunction with the Fisheries Department in the growing of common carp in paddy fields together with the growing rice.

56

Vegetable cultivation is also being studied and many varieties of both Chinese and European vegetables are being tried out on a field scale. Fertiliser trials are being conducted and also experi- ments in the pruning and staking of tomatoes. In order to encourage the growing of vegetables more than 100,000 tomato seedlings have been sold to the local farmers at a nominal price.

Sheung Shui Pig Station.

A census carried out just before the war showed that there were 40,000 pigs in the New Territories; one carried out im- mediately after the war showed but 8,000 including only nine boars. In order to improve the type and number of pigs, the Agricultural Department obtained the use of Sir Robert Ho Tung's piggery in 1946, repaired it and established a stud with crossbred boars obtained from the Dairy Farm. The stud farm, which now possesses four boars, has proved popular with the farmers who are able to have their sows serviced there on payment of a small fee. Figures taken during the present census which is only half com- pleted show a distribution of 14 boars and a noticeable improve- ment in the conformation of pigs being raised.

Experiments in breeding have also been carried out and reveal that the Berkshire boar crossed with local sow is the type which appeals most to the people. Colour is a factor which has to be considered, the black and white spotted or black with a white underline being preferred.

Accommodation at the Sheung Shui Piggery is being ex- tended as the demand for pure-bred boars and improved gilts is far greater than can at present be supplied.

Rinderpest.

Annual financial loss and inconvenience caused by this disease cannot be too greatly stressed and a survey to deter- mine its extent is at present being carried out. It has been the practice of farmers, immediately the disease is noticed amongst their cattle to dispose of them to the local butcher.

Valuable assistance has been given by the Veterinary Officer of the Dairy Farm in supplying serum and vaccine to deal with outbreaks as they have occurred, but until measures controlling the introduction of cattle from China and a general inoculation of all the cattle in the Colony are carried out, no change in the existing state can be expected.

Regulations in connection with disease control and a full scale inoculation campaign are under consideration for combat- ing the disease in the near future.

57

Hog Cholera.

As with rinderpest, this disease causes severe loss each year, but it is pleasing to note that swine breeders are realizing more and more that preventive measures are available, and if notified in time, government officers will give every assistance in controlling and combating this disease.

Poultry Section.

A poultry section has been started at Sheung Shui with a view to producing suitable birds for distribution amongst the villagers to improve the local type.

By using the breed Rhode Island Red, efforts will be made to increase the weight of the local Cantonese fowls and to stimulate egg production.

FORESTRY

Afforestation of the Colony's hillsides and protection of the trees and scrub re-growth remaining after the Japanese occupation are among the responsibilities of the Forestry Department. Before the war forestry and the supervision of the Botanical Gardens and Government grounds fell within the sphere of a Botanical and Forestry Department, but after the liberation of Hong Kong the opportunity was taken to form separate departments.

From 1937 onwards, severe inroads had been made into the Colony's wood reserves, at first by illicit tree-cutting activities. on the part of the swarms of refugees who fled into the Colony after the Japanese occupation of Canton, then by the fellings to make good the deficiency in supplies of firewood caused by the Sino-Japanese war, later by the Japanese to provide fuel during the occupation period, and finally by the British Military Administration immediately afterwards. The result was that the Colony's hillsides were almost entirely denuded of trees and the catchment areas exposed to the evils of soil erosion. Consequently a great part of the Department's activities in the past three years. has been concentrated upon the re-afforestation of these areas. Other activities included the removal of under-growth as an anti- malarial measure, the clearance of brushwood from the vicinity of bathing beaches, the clearing of trees from newly acquired building sites, and the planting of roadside trees both on the Island and in Kowloon.

In order to step up the production of tree seedlings for afforestation, a new method of raising seedlings was introduced to the Colony during 1947. In this method the seedlings, after being raised to about 1" in height in seed boxes, are transferred

58

4

5.

:

F:

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A STUDY IN CONTRASTS.

The lower photograph serves to emphasise the deforestation (depicted above) which resulted from the Japanese occupation. Photograph by L. Jackson

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to small metal tubes packed with earth and about 8" high, which are fastened by a clip. They remain in these tubes for six to eight months by which time they are ready for planting on the hillsides. During this period the seedlings have grown to about two to three feet in height and have effectively bound the earth with which the tubes are filled. On planting, the tube is unclipped and the seedling allowed to drop into a small hole made by a pick. The advantages of the system lie not only in the rapidity with which tubing can be done (one man can tube about 300 seedlings per day) but also in the ease with which the seedlings can be transported for planting with the minimum disturbance of the roots. Approximately 100,000 young trees

100,000 young trees were raised and planted by this method during 1948, and as was expected the mortality has been reduced to about 10% by this method.

In accordance with the policy of giving priority to the re- afforestation of catchment areas, extensive planting was carried out around Kowloon and Shing Mun reservoirs. In 1947 a nursery at Shing Mun was established producing 10,000 seedlings annually of the paperbark tree (Melaleuca leucadendron) for planting in the resumed padi fields around the reservoir. This tree is extremely tolerant and grows best on waterlogged soils. There is further the advantage that no part of it is wasted; cajeput oil, used for liniments, is obtained from its leaves, its bark is used for caulking and its stem for poles. A similar nursery was made at Fanling to provide tree seedlings for the denuded hills in that area. In addition to the afforestation by broadleaved species, approximately 4,000 lbs of seeds of Pinus Massoniana are broadcast each year on grass covered hillsides deliberately burnt over for this purpose. Attention is paid at an early stage to the tending of all areas afforested as a means of reducing failures to a minimum.

The Tung Oil (Aleurites Montana) plantation established near Sha Tin in 1947 was extended with the addition of 10,000 trees raised in the nursery on the site. Trees planted both this year and last

year have made excellent progress and in some instances two year old trees flowered and bore fruit a year prematurely.

During 1947, for the first time, roadside trees were planted along many of the thoroughfares of Kowloon, but the absence of tree guards and the wilful damage caused by passers-by in breaking off the leaves and uprooting the stakes caused many of the trees to fail. In 1948, larger trees were planted and protected by tree guards which were constructed from angle-iron pickets obtained from the Military Authorities. As a result the failures have been. reduced to about 20%.

During 1947 hill fires occurred very frequently, especially on the hills behind Kowloon, during the latter part of the year as a

59

result of a period of drought. These hills were broadcast with pine seeds as part of the afforestation programme for 1948 and it became necessary to establish a fire lookout post on Kowloon Peak from where fires occurring on localities as far apart as Lyemun and Tai Mo Shan can be spotted. This post is manned during the dry season only and is equipped to report outbreaks of fire both by field telephone and signalling lamps.

MINING AND MINERAL RESOURCES

There are few places in the world comparable in area to Hong Kong (391 square miles) which have such a varied geological record. Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are all represented, but it is the igneous rocks, ranging from granites to rhyolites, which are the most widespread. A wide range of economic minerals has been formed. Not all have been located in sufficiently large deposits to be worth working but it is possible that modern prospecting methods may reveal valuable finds in the future. Unfortunately, much of the Colony is covered by a thick lateritic type of decomposed rock which effectively masks the solid geology below.

The principal minerals so far identified in the Colony are: kaolinite, argentiferous galena, wolframite, molybdenite, garnet, pyrite, mica, magnetite, haematite, cassiterite, fluorspar and quartz. However, the chief minerals mined to date, either by modern European methods or traditional Chinese surface scratchings, are kaolin, lead, iron and wolfram.

Lead deposits are widely scattered throughout the Colony. The lead is usually associated with silver as argentiferous galena. There are fair deposits to be found at Silver Mine Bay, Lead Mine Pass and Lin Ma Hang. The mines at Lin Ma Hang were easily the largest and most modern before the war began. They were forced to close down in 1940 when the Japanese sealed off deliveries to China. At one time they were producing roughly 250 tons of lead ore (concentrated) and 7,000 ounces of silver monthly. The Japanese opened the mine again during the occupation.

Iron is everywhere in evidence but the only deposit which so far has attracted a major commercial exploitation is the lenticular magnetite mass at Ma On Shan. Its production is regulated by its chief customer the Green Island Cement Company. Surface scratchings for ochre, a hydrated oxide of iron, are worked on and off. The ochre is used by small local paint companies.

Wolfram, which is loosely called tungsten, occurs in several places. It is mined officially and unofficially at Shing Mun, Castle Peak, Ho Chung and on Lantau Island. By far the largest workings

60

are at Shing Mun where a European company has the lease. The Japanese kept up a steady production during the occupation. To-day there are a hundred or so miners from these mines, which are temporarily closed, panning for placer wolfram in the bed of the Shing Mun River. Their output is presumably sold on the local market.

Kaolin, not excluding the great reserves of building stones and the sand and gravel deposits, is certainly the most valuable of the proved deposits in the Colony both in quantity and quality. It occurs everywhere in varying degrees of purity ranging from the best ball clay to the coarser varieties. Of the many deposits now being worked, the pit at Cha Kwo Ling is the most valuable and productive. Much of the clay from this pit is exported to Japan but some is used locally in the ceramic industry. Elsewhere other deposits are mined for the various brick, face powder, tooth powder and rubber companies.

The

There are stone quarries sited all round the coast. ornamental grey Hong Kong granite is most usually worked for building stone.

Sands and gravels are available in large quantities mainly from the raised beaches along the coasts.

During the year a few permits were issued, on a month to month basis, to small family concerns wishing to mine small amounts of ochres and clays.

Dr. F. Dixey, Geological Adviser to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, visited the Colony in June to discuss various aspects of the local mining and mineral problems, and to advise on the possibilities of underground water supplies. In his report he recommended the appointment of an Inspector of Mines and staff to regulate and control mining, and urged that legitimate mining should be actively encouraged.

In January, the Prospecting and Mining Regulations (1948) of the Colony were published in the Gazette.

A manuscript copy of the findings of the team of geologists, of the University of British Columbia, who, under the direction of the late Dean R. W. Brock, surveyed the Colony between 1923 and 1935 has now been received. After some editing, it is proposed to publish these findings as a Hong Kong Government Memoir. To accompany this memoir it is also proposed to print a geological map of the Colony, based on the 1935 edition of the 1/84,480 geological map. All efforts to trace the pre-war geological base maps in Japan have failed.

61

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

The majority of Hong Kong's working population is engaged in occupations connected with commerce, fishing and farming rather than with industrial production but enterprise and capital are forthcoming when an economic demand for goods arises which can be satisfied by the expansion of local industry. There are local industries in ship building, ship repairing and engineering, and a wide range of light industries the main products of which are textiles, rubber goods, buttons, leather goods, cigarettes, matches, preserved ginger, tinned goods, glass ware and paint. Nearly all these light industries are Chinese-owned and managed.

While shortages of raw materials were for the most part over- come during the year (with a few exceptions, notably ship steel), increased competition in foreign markets and the change from a seller's to a buyer's market in most products made the year a difficult one for all but the more modern and efficient industries which have been able to bring their costs of production more into line with world prices and to maintain the standard of their product. At the same time the development of new industries, some transplanted from Shanghai, has continued apace. Cotton spinning has now fully established itself while metallurgical industries have considerably expanded, with the assistance in particular of machine tools delivered under the Japanese Re- paration scheme. Film production is now a major industry with seven companies in operation, although Hong Kong cannot yet claim to be the Far Eastern Hollywood. New in- dustries introduced during the year include plastics and the manu- facture of textile machinery and electric irons. Industries are tend- ing to develop on a larger scale than pre-war, and to be housed in orthodox factory type buildings rather than, as before, in

tenements.

The Chinese Manufacturers Union have shown enterprise and a close sense of co-operation during the year. A delegation was sent to the British Industries Fair at which Hong Kong exhibited for the first time and aroused much interest. A local Industrial Exhibition on an ambitious scale was held towards the end of the year with notable success. Over 600,000 persons visited the stalls during the fortnight, the record day's attendance being 41,000. While the spirit of the manufacturers augurs well for the future, and much has been done in the last year to modernise equipment, Hong Kong industry as a whole continues to suffer from its general obsolescence. Costs of raw materials, of labour and of power have remained stubbornly high and the long term future of industry in Hong Kong must continue to be regard- ed as obscure.

62

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The China Can Company:

another ovample of Hong Kong's

Photograph by Courtesy of the proprietors.

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One of Hong Kong's Modern Spinning Mills.-The Nanyang Factory.

:

:

Cotton Spinning.

Of the twelve mills so far planned for Hong Kong seven came into production in 1948 with a total of 90,000 spindles. By the end of the year they were producing at a rate of 9.6 million pounds of yarn per year or rather less than 50% of potential local con- sumption by weavers and knitters. Whereas in the first half of the year the greater part of yarn produced was used in local textile production, the relatively plentiful local supply of Chinese and other yarns and the comparatively better prices in foreign markets. led to a considerable volume of export sales later in the year. The principal markets were Pakistan, Saigon, Batavia and Bangkok; small quantities went even further west. Mills have concentrated on the lower counts but are also equipped to produce medium

counts.

Weaving and Knitting.

These industries have had to meet difficult times and keen competition throughout the year. The return of Japanese textiles in quantity to Far Eastern and African markets has had a particularly depressing effect. There have been a few brighter periods to relieve the general gloom, but on the whole the industry has lost money on the year's operations. The larger mills have at times been forced to accept orders at below cost in order to keep running. A few mills affiliated with spinning mills are putting in modern automatic looms, but on the whole the industry suffers from the handicap of outmoded machinery. Its other major handicap, the relatively high cost of yarn in non-producing areas, may however have been solved with the local introduction of spinning.

Building Materials.

It had been feared that the building programme would be seriously impeded by shortage of building steel, which had been obtained only in negligible quantities since the end of the war, but a Hong Kong firm evolved a process for rolling building bars from old ship's plates (of which a plentiful supply was available from sunken vessels in Hong Kong waters) and improvised the necessary machinery. During 1948 they were producing at a rate of 18,000 tons a year and hoped to increase this to 28,000 tons in 1949. Two other producers started on a small scale towards the end of the year.

Brick production has been considerably increased with the installation of a tunnel kiln, while cement production has been maintained at 4,000 tons per month.

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Hardware.

Producers of builder's hardware (locks, hinges, nails, screws, etc.) did well during the year Hurricane or pressure lamp factories continued to find ready markets, although their profits were considerably reduced. Stainless steel spoons and forks enjoyed a steady demand. Holloware factories had an increasing successful year and at the end of the year were fully booked ahead to July, 1949. Prices are low enough to meet world competition and the industry appears to have taken over a large part of the demand previously met by German, Czech and Japanese producers. The industry has a big expansion programme on hand.

Paint

Paint manufacturers had another successful year and they too have large expansion projects in view. Sales in 1948 amounted to HK$11 million and exports were made to South-East Asia, India, Mediterranean countries and Belgium.

Ship Repair and Ship Building.

Shortage of ship steel was the industry's major preoccupation in 1948. As postwar reconversions and overhauls are completed, the industry can only continue at full operation if it is in a position to undertake new construction. Orders are available, but it has not even been possible to obtain adequate steel for all repair work on hand and the prospects for 1949 are not bright. The industry has already had to lay off 30% of its labour force.

Miscellaneous.

Good business was enjoyed by the vacuum flask industry during the first half of the year but competition from Japan began to affect export markets later in the year. The seventeen factories making torch-cases have had a good year. There is as yet little sign of foreign competition in their export markets. Supplies of raw materials, particularily brass sheets, have improved and less reliance has had to be placed on salvaged material. "Everready" torches are made in Hong Kong for the American parent company's Far Eastern markets, including India. Torch-bulb and torch-battery factories, on the other hand, have not done well. The large rubber shoe factories are maintaining production and extending their ex- port connections which have benefited considerably from contacts made at the British Industries Fair, but import quotas into the United Kingdom, the biggest pre-war market, are still only a frac- tion of the pre-war level. This industry, along with the match

64

industry, is also beginning to suffer from the protectionist policy apparently being pursued by the Government of the Federation of Malaya. The import quota of preserved ginger into the United Kingdom was increased from 2,000 tons in 1947/8 to 3,000 tons in 1948/9, while markets are being actively developed in other countries, notably U.S.A. and Canada.

香港公共圖書館

VG KONG PUBLIC LIBRAR

65

HEALTH

SOCIAL SERVICES

Chapter 7.

EDUCATION

The Education System and the Schools

Education in Hong Kong is voluntary and is in the hands of Government, missionary bodies and private individuals. The present system may be said to have started in 1913 when the Education Ordinance from which the Director of Education derives his legal powers came into operation. Under this Ordinance. all schools unless specifically exempted are required to register with the Director of Education and must comply with the regulations made under the Ordinance governing staff, buildings, number of pupils and health. In 1920 Government set up the Board of Education of which the Director of Education is the ex officio chairman. The present constitution of the Board

is seven official and ten unofficial members.

The schools in the Colony may be classified as follows:- (1) Government Schools, which are staffed and maintained

by the Education Department;

(2) Grant Schools, which

are schools run mainly by missionary bodies with the assistance of a grant from Govern- ment under the provisions of the Grant Code;

(3) Subsidized Schools, which are those schools in receipt

of a subsidy from Government under the Subsidy Code;

are

(4) The military Schools and certain others which exempted from the provisions of the Education Ordinance, 1913;

(5) All other private schools.

1941

Under the terms of the Grant Code introduced in and modified slightly in 1946 Government pays the difference between approved expenditure and income of the grant-aided schools. Approved expenditure includes all salaries, incidentals, other charges, passages and leave pay for teachers entitled to them, and the rent of school premises. In the case of a

66

:

grant-aided school which owns its own building the approved expenditure may include a percentage, not exceeding 3 per cent. of the capital value of the building, to be used solely for the purpose of a rebuilding fund. Grants may also be made up to 50 per cent. of the cost of new buildings and of major repairs. Local teachers in grant-aided schools receive the same salaries as those in equivalent grades in Government schools, and those with approved British or American qualifications receive the Burnham scale of salaries, irrespective of race or nationality. Five per cent. of their salary is deducted and paid into

a pro- vident fund, to which Government contributes another 5%, since these teachers do not come under a Government pension scheme.

The objects of the Subsidy Code under which subsidized schools operate are three-fold: (a) to enable properly qualified teachers to open schools without running into debt: (b) to keep fees at a reasonable level; and (c) to ensure proper salaries for teachers. Were it not for the subsidy many of these schools. would be compelled either to charge high school fees in order to pay their teachers or to balance their budget by paying un- reasonably low salaries and consequently lowering the standard of their tuition. The number of schools receiving subsidy varies from year to year; the size of each subsidy is determined by the school's deficit and is in any case not less than half the difference between expenditure and income. There is more control and direct supervision of subsidized schools than is possible in private schools and in order that they may the services of better teachers the amount allocated to subsidies has been greatly increased and a revised Subsidy Code is under consideration.

secure

Private schools are those which are not in need of or do not merit Government assistance. A school may at any time. apply for Government subsidy or the Director of Education may approach the school manager and propose a subsidy if it appears that it is in the interests of the children or of the children's parents that this should be done. The private schools vary considerably both in size and character. Education may be conducted in these schools either in English or in Chinese and their enrolments vary from 100 pupils or less to large schools with an attendance of about 1,600 children.

The medium of instruction in schools varies from one

category to another. In some English is the sole language, in others, Chinese, and a number of schools have classes in both languages. The grant-aided schools mainly use English although in one school the bulk of the teaching is in Chinese. Teaching in subsidized and private schools is usually carried out in Chinese.

67

"Chinese" in this context means in the vast

majority of cases Cantonese, although there are a few schools whose language of instruction is Hakka, and a very few which use Kuo Yu. Kuo Yu is, however, taught as a language in many schools and is compulsory in Government schools.

The military schools cater for serving officers' and soldiers' children under the age of eleven. The staff of these schools is recruited from the Army Education Corps and the Queen's Army Schoolmistresses. They are exempted from the provision of the Education Ordinance.

Normally, secondary education in English is to a great extent in the hands of Government and grant-aided schools, while subsidized schools and private schools are largely concerned with, though not confined to, the field of primary education.

no

Within the urban area in 1941 there were 649 schools. The vast majority of these-529 in number-were private schools: 91 were subsidized, and of the remainder 9 were Government and 20 grant-aided schools. The Government schools gave education to 1,500 primary and 1,199 secondary pupils, and the Grant Schools to 6,346 primary and 3,274 secondary pupils. Owing to the destruction of records accurate information is available as to the number of pupils being instructed in subsidized and private schools in the urban before the war, but in the whole Colony subsidized schools accounted for 16,353 primary and 6,931 secondary pupils, while the private schools had an enrolment of 50,814 primary and 25,951 secondary pupils. The Grant Schools had no part in the field of rural education but two Government primary schools catered for 400 pupils in the rural areas.

area

It has not been possible to give priority in the heavy reconstruction programme to the restoration of the Government schools destroyed during the war. As a result only 19 build-

ings are available to house 27 Government schools, and the two- session system has had to be adopted. This lack of accommoda- tion, which has made it difficult to provide adequately for Government secondary education, no longer applies to the

grant- aided schools, all of which are now working only one session a day.

The most marked progress has been in the sphere of primary education. This was so even in 1946 and the trend has con- tinued throughout the year under review. Government schools now cater for 3,867 pupils, a total more than twice as great as in 1941.

Grant schools show a slight increase during the year under review but it is in the subsidized schools and private schools that the most notable increase has been observed.

68

The

Subsidized schools, which in 1946 catered for only 8,909 puils, now provide education for 22,231, and private schools show an enrolment of 62,923 as compared with 32,366 in 1946. last two categories include night schools with enrolments of 1,716 and 15,062 respectively.

Secondary education, while showing some progress during the year, has not revived to the same extent. Although the Government and Grant schools reached their pre-war enrolment, neither the subsidized nor the private schools have re-established themselves on anything like the same scale. The total result is that, as compared with 37,355 who were receiving secondary education in 1941, there were at the end of the year under review 20,802 pupils, an increase of 3,913 over 1947.

A

The King George Vth School (previously called the Central British) a secondary-grammar school, formerly restricted. to children of pure European parentage, has now been thrown open to children of any nationality provided they have the requisite standards of English. Many Chinese, Portuguese and Indian children have availed themselves of this opportunity. remarkable feature of the post-war years is the large increase in the number of British children in the Colony. In 1940 the Central British School contained 250 British children taking a secondary course and there were in addition three junior schools. with an enrolment of 150 British children in all. At the present time there are over 450 children in the King George Vth School and there are four junior schools with over 300 children. It is proposed to make King George Vth School bi-lateral with a grammar and a modern secondary side.

Rural education continues to be mainly in the hands of private and subsidized schools, although Government maintains three primary schools, one at Taipo, one at Yuen Long and one on the island of Cheung Chau. Private schools have not yet resumed on anything like the same scale as in 1941 when there were in the rural areas as many as 48 schools; but there are now nearly twice as many subsidized schools as there were in 1941, giving primary education to 11,891 pupils.

A sphere of education which has been entered since the liberation of the Colony is the education of the children of the fishing community. Even in 1946, considerable progress had been made in this direction but during the years 1947 and 1948 the number of schools of this nature provided for the children of fishing folk was increased from four to ten; five of these receive subsidies from the Education Department.

In almost all these schools the curriculum is the normal curriculum of the primary vernacular school, but in one classes of a vocational

69

nature are also conducted. these schools.

Altogether, 953 are enrolled in

The Hong Kong Technical College is still not able to re- open all the classes conducted before the war. One class was re-opened in November 1947 and others are added from time to time. Evening classes with an enrolment of 851 students are conducted and at present include instruction in preliminary engineering and ship-building and in wireless telegraphy. Many of the pupils who attend these classes are apprentices from the Royal Naval, Kowloon and Taikoo Dockyards. The Junior Technical School was re-opened in September, 1948.

The Evening Institute which re-opened in 1946 has now an enrolment of 912 students. Classes include instruction in book-keeping, short hand and English for commercial students, instruction in pharmacy and instruction for the supplementary training of teachers in general subjects and in physical education. Classes for adult education in the rural areas depend considerably on seasonal occupations and their numbers consequently fluctuate. There are now five centres for the education of adults who are for the most part engaged in farming and fishing. The syllabus includes reading, writing and simple arithmetic, and the ment of subjects is designed to meet the special requirements of adults rather than normal school pupils.

treat-

The Northcote Training College for teachers was re-opened in March 1946 and now has 125 students. Owing to lack of training during the war years and the consequent acute shortage of trained teachers, it has been found necessary to introduce classes for the training of teachers who have several years of experience. A further step in the training of teachers was the establishment in September 1946 of a Rural Training College at Fanling, in the New Territories. This is a residential training centre for those who intend to take up teaching in the rural schools. In addition to educational subjects the students receive instruction in rural occupations and spend a considerable part of their time in practical agriculture. In 1946 there were 25 students at the College, including men and women, but during 1948 the number rose to 50. The intention is that the students graduating from the Rural Training College should take the place of teachers at present engaged in rural schools whose training and qualifications are on the whole scanty. The teachers thus released will be given oourses in the Rural Training College and by the time they have qualified it is expected that there will be sufficient schools. in the rural areas to absorb them. The entire process is expected to take six to ten years.

70

The expenditure on education during the year 1948 was H.K.$13,500,000, nearly four million dollars greater than in 1947. The increase was largely due to salary revision not only in Goverment but also in grant-aided schools and of the total amount over seven million dollars were allotted to grants and subsidies.

5

In the

In the absence of any census it is difficult to estimate the number of children of school age in Hong Kong who are not receiving any education. On the basis of the figures given in the last census and assuming the population of the Colony to be 1,800,000 there should be about 225,000 children between the ages of and 12 of whom 120,000 are at present in school. present conditions it is likely that the number of temporary residents will increase. It is probable, however, that of the bona-fide residents of Hong Kong there are not many whose children are not receiving education. In Government and subsidized schools preference is given to the children of such citizens but it is not possible to enforce such a rule in the private schools.

Following reports from the Medical Officer of Schools and the Heads of schools and having regard to the supply of food available to the Colony, it was decided to discontinue the supply of free milk to children between the ages of 5 and 8. The manufacture of vitaminized biscuits however was continued and these can still be obtained on payment.

The

The

less

Education in Hong Kong is generally not free, but 10% of the pupils in Government schools are awarded free places, and scholarships are awarded to the top pupil in each class. fees in Government schools are $5 per month for primary and $10 per month for secondary classes. This is approximately on the same level as the charge for instruction in the grant-aided schools where fees are generally on the scale $6-$12 per month. subsidized schools charge $8 per month; rural schools are expensive, fees ranging from $1 to $5. The highest fees in the Colony are charged in the private schools where the average is $15 per month, but this does not in all cases necessarily represent the total cost of education, as additional charges are also often made for "extras". One unhappy result of the great demand for education which is evident among all classes of the population is that it has opened a way for the charging of exhorbitant fees because the number of applicants exceeds the school accommoda- tion available. This has to some extent been counteracted by the opening of free evening classes and by keeping the fees of Government, grant-aided and subsidized schools as near to their pre-war level as is economically possible. A further step towards

71

the prevention of these abuses was the amendment of the Education Ordinance and the framing of new regulations con- trolling the payment of fees. The effect of the amendment was

to provide that tuition fees and all extras should be paid monthly as an inclusive monthly fee and that this inclusive monthly fee, which is the maximum amount which the parent pays, must be shown in returns to the Director of Education for publication in the Government Gazette. Assistance to pupils to continue their education after leaving school is given by Government in the form of annual scholarships to Hong Kong University. Many holders. of these scholarships take up teaching as a career.

The University.

The University of Hong Kong was incorporated in 1911 and formally opened in 1912. The supreme governing body of the University is the Court, which comprises life members, ex officio members and nominated members, with the Governor as chairman. The Council, which is the executive body, is composed of the Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the Treasurer, certain Government officials, Government officials, the Legislative Council, the Deans of the sentative of the commercial community, members appointed by the Governor. of the Vice-Chancellor, the Director of Education, and the Professors and Readers. There are in existence four faculties, medical, engineering, arts and science.

Chinese members of Faculties, two repre- and two additional The Senate is composed

The invasion of the Colony by the Japanese in December, 1941 abruptly dispelled the prospects of a very successful session. A new science building had just been opened and plans had been approved for a temporary annex to house a number of new students many of whom had come from Malaya. There was classroom accommodation for about 500 students, six hostels, laboratories, staff residences, a Students'

Students' Union, gymnasium, workshops and playing fields. Wholesale looting during the war resulted in the loss of all scientific equip- ment and fittings and the serious damage of all buildings except the main floor of the University, in which is housed the main Library, the Fung Ping Shan Chinese Library and the Tang Chi Ngong School of Chinese Studies.

On December 31st, 1945, the Secretary of State appointed a Committee to advise whether the University of Hong Kong, as such, should continue to exist and if so to indicate the policy which should govern its resuscitation, and in addition to advise on what steps were necessary to re-start such of the work hitherto

72

undertaken by the University as was essential for the needs of Hong Kong, whatever the decision arrived at as to the University's future. Discussion and examination of the Committee's report which was submitted in July, 1946, continued throughout the year of 1947, particularly in regard to the financial aspects of the proposals, and it was not until early in 1948 that a decision was finally reached that the University should continue to function. as a University. The Court, Council, Senate and Boards. of Faculties were then reconstituted, and in February and March of 1948 the first postwar meetings of these bodies. were held.

Classes begun in 1946 and increased in 1947, were in the autumn of 1948 augmented by the resumption of third year classes. In a Matriculation Examination held in June, 181 candidates out of 289 were successful. Entrance to the Univer- sity is not restricted to those who pass the University Matriculation Examination, and a large proportion of

those who were admitted entered on other qualifications, many coming from Malaya. Eligible applications for entry into the Faculty of Medicine far exceeded the number of vacancies, and it was necessary to restrict entry. In accordance with the recommenda- tions of the Cohen Report on Medical Education, entrants into the Medical Faculty were chosen from amongst those eligible by a Selection Committee, which interviewed applicants in Hong Kong, Singapore, Penang and Kuala Lumpur. At the end of 1948 the following was the total enrolment:

Medicine Engineering Arts

Science

Totals

-Com- bined

Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women

1st year.

82

16

41

1

22

50

23

9

168

76

244

2nd year. 57

13

16

13

16

3

5

89

34

123

3rd year. 59

11

9

8

13

4

2

80

26

108

5th year. 22

1

6 h year.

17

co

3

27

22

1

23

17

3

20

1

Totals 237 44

66

1

43

79

30 16 376 140

516

The re-establishment of the University, its grounds, build- ings, equipment, and recruiting of staff, continued throughout

73

IES

the

the year. Eight further staff residences, staff garages, School of Commerce, quarters for University coolies, Lugard Hall, St. John's Hall and Morrison Hall were completed, and work was begun on the Pathology building, Students' Pavilion and Sports Ground (with money donated in a generous response to an appeal by the Vice Chancellor), the provision of a testing laboratory in the Peel Laboratory, a small temporary Hostel for women students, and the completion of the Eu Tong Sen Gymnasium, for which the family of the late Mr. Eu Tong Sen munificently gave $50,000. One hundred and fifty nine cases of books were recovered from Japan and returned to the Library, from which they had been removed during the occupation. The ground floor of the Ho Tung Workshop was released by the Royal Naval Medical Depot. Progress was slow but steady in re-equipping the Library and the Laboratories.

For the financing of the re-establishment programme, the Government of Hong Kong has made available a special fund of $4,000,000, and to meet the inflated running expenses, has increased its annual grant from $455,000 to $1,500,000 per annum. In late summer the Chancellor announced the magnificent gift of $1,000,000 from Sir Robert Ho Tung for the construction of the long-needed Women's Hostel. measure of relief to the urgent need for funds specifically for development, the Treasury has made an ex gratia grant of £250,000, which will make possible a portion of the develop- ment recommended by the Committee appointed at the end of 1945 by the Secretary of State.

As a

The staff has been increased by the appointmnet of new Professors in Surgery, Medicine, Pathology and Mathematics; by the return after retirement of the Professor of Civil Engineer- ing, at the invitation of the University; and by the appointment of new Lecturers in Physiology, Chemistry, Economics and Psychology, and Junior Lecturers in English and in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering; Part-time Lecturers and some temporary Lecturers were also appointed, in addition to an Adviser to Women Students and a Registrar to succeed Mr. S. V. Boxer who retired. The Lecturers in Physics and Chemistry resigned during the summer vacation. To succeed the present Vice Chancellor, Dr. D. J. Sloss, C.BE., who will retire early in 1949, Professor L. T. Ride, C.B.E. Professor of Physiology, has been elected by the Court of the University.

At the beginning of the year, a University Salaries Com- mittee made its recommendations, and increased scales of pay were announced.

74

共圖

港公共

HONG KON

PUBLIC LIBRARI

This image is unavailable for access via the Network

due to copyright restrictions. To view the image, please contact library staff for a printed copy of the copyright work.

PBI

AR

HAWKERS

About 75,000 persons make their

living in this way.

Photograph by K. A. Watson.

است است

انیت

HEALTH.

Public Health.

Matters of public health are the responsibility of the Medical Department, the functions of which are separated into different divisions, e.g. hospitals, health, investigation and dental. These divisions are by no means self contained units and there is consider- able overlapping. The hospitals division, which includes out- patient departments and public dispensaries, cares for the sick and injured in 12 separate hospitals, 17 dispensaries and three poly- clinics. The hospitals provide 1,837 beds for accidents, maternity cases, infectious diseases (including tuberculosis), mental and general diseases. In addition the Tung Wah group of hospitals, which receive a large grant from Government, number slightly over 1,000 beds. The other charitable and private hospitals total between them approximately 650 beds thus making a grand total of approximately 3,500 beds for the Colony. Roughly two thirds of the hospital accommodation is on Hong Kong Island and the remainder on the Kowloon Peninsula with the exception of about 100 beds in the New Territories and on Cheung Chau Island. The incidence of the main infectious diseases in 1948 is shown in the graphs included in this chapter.

The health division has a variety of functions. Besides the supervision of the cleanliness of houses, streets and open spaces, these include the control of anti-epidemic measures such as vac- cination, inoculation, disinfection, the care of expectant and parturient mothers, and neo-natal care of infants, the inspection and treatment of school children and malaria control. Successful results have been obtained by the use D.D.T. kerosene solution on war damaged buildings and huts in squatters' settlements. This division is also responsible for port health work, food and drug control, public health propaganda, the treatment and preven- tion of social diseases, the supervision of markets and slaughter houses and the registration of births and deaths. Vital statistics for the year under review are given in Appendix I to this section. Dental services are provided at three clinics, two on the Island and one on the Mainland.

The investigation division is subdivided into pathological laboratories (one on each side of the harbour) a chemical and bio- chemical laboratory, and public mortuaries where autopsies are carried out on all bodies of persons where the cause of death is in doubt.

On 31st December, 1948, the staff of the Medical Depart- ment consisted of 116 Doctors, of whom 87 were Chinese, 438

75

Nurses and Hospital Dressers, of whom 328 were Chinese, 109 Health Inspectors, of whom 77 were Chinese, 2,112 others (including technicians, subordinate and menial staff) most of whom were Chinese.

Health Inspection.

The Urban District comprises the whole of the Island of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon and is divided into five areas. A Health Officer of the Urban Council is responsible in each area for health and sanitation and for supervising and directing the work of the health inspectors employed in his area. Each area is divided into health districts in charge of each of which is a health inspector. Other health inspectors are employed in special duties connected with the control of hawkers, anti-epidemic measures, scavenging, etc. Altogether there are 43 health districts in the urban district of which 25 are on the Island and 18 in Kowloon and New Kowloon.

General Health.

The standard of public health during the year has once again been high and compares favourably with any previous year. The actual number of deaths recorded is slightly higher than in 1947 but the figure is considerably less than a quarter of that in the years 1940 and 1941 while most of the evidence suggests that the population is not markedly less.

Maternity Services.

The maternal mortality figure of 1.5 is lower than might have been expected and is undoubtedly due to the well organised mater- nity services that exist throughout the Colony. Taking all hospitals together, Government and private, there are approximately 350 maternity beds, some in private maternity hospitals and others in wings and blocks of general hospitals. In addition there are 99 private maternity homes with the number of beds in each ranging usually from 2 to 6 and totalling between them 324 beds. There are 740 midwives on the register which is controlled by the Midwives Board and no unregistered midwife is permitted to practice. All private maternity homes have to be registered and frequent visits of inspection are made by the Supervisor of Mid- wives who is also the Secretary of the Midwives Board. Of the 47,475 births recorded during the year 36,264 took place in a hospital or private home and 10,120 were attended in their homes by a registered midwife.

Child Health.

76

The infant mortality figure of 104.7 is the lowest yet

3

RETURN OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES NOTIFIED, 1918.

LEGEND

CASES NOTIFIED

THICK RES

DEATHS

THIN LINES.

CEREBROSPINAL MENINGIS

DIPHTHERIA

ENTERIC (FEVER

CASES

70

S

:

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

REFERENCE No G 71156.

+

JAN

FER

MAR

APR

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUG

SEPT

Φατ

NOVI

DEC

77

78

CASES

goo

706

500

RETURN OF TUBERCULOSIS NOTIFIED. 1048

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

REFERENCE No. 6. 71/155

Gda

P-1

ASES

300

DEATHS

AN

BL

- FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY

AUG.

SEPT. OCT

NOV

DEC.

recorded for the Colony but, as in 1947, the number of infant deaths comprises over one third of all the deaths recorded. Investigations made into the causes of this high proportion of infant deaths showed that in only 2% of the cases had the child been seen by a doctor for longer than 24 hours before death. This rather unexpected finding has resulted in plans being made for a considerable reorganisation of the child health facilities which it is hoped to put into effect early in 1949.

Infectious Diseases.

Once again the Colony has been free of any major epidemics. Apart from tuberculosis the highest number of cases reported of any single disease was 311 cases of enteric fever.

Tuberculosis.

As in 1947 tuberculosis was the greatest single cause of adult mortality and morbidity. It presents a very serious menace to the health of the Colony and its control will tax the Colony's resources in men and money to the limit. An extensive programme de- signed to reduce the number of new cases arising has been started, but staff have to be trained, beds provided and clinics built before the programme gets into full swing. The Hong Kong Anti- tuberculosis Association has been very active during the year and has nearly completed the rehabilitation and staffing of the old Naval Hospital which has been put at their disposal by the Gov- ernment. It is hoped to open this hospital of 100 beds early in 1949. The possibility of research funds being made available for the production locally of B.C.G. vaccine is being explored. All these measures are, however, likely to meet with only very partial success while the many overcrowded and ill-ventilated tenement buildings exist.

In the graph opposite this page showing the number of cases reported, the minimum in August and the maximum in October were due to the fact that the X-ray plant at the Queen Mary hospital, where many cases are examined, was out of commission. for August and the first half of September, and in the latter half of September and in October the accumulated cases were examined and many new cases of tuberculosis diagnosed.

Nutrition

The standard of nutrition while still capable of improvement was higher than it has been in the past. One hundred and forty deaths from beri beri were recorded as against 312 in 1947 and 7,229 in 1940, the last year before local hostilities for which figures are available. It is possible that this improved standard was due to

79

the rice shortage which has forced the mass of the population to eat a more mixed diet, but the great increase in wages among the lower wage groups as compared wtih 1941 is probably in part responsible.

Food

There was a small improvement in rice supplies during the year, which made it possible to increase the ration in August from 7ozs. per day (the level which it reached. in August 1947) to 9 ozs. Rations were issued to only 63% of the population (largely those with pre-war residential qualifications), the remainder subsisting on local rice, of which supplies were rather better than in 1946 and 1947, and substitute foods. The increase in the rice ration made it possible to de-ration flour from September, but the sugar ration (2 lbs. per month) and butter ration (1 lb. per month to non-rice ration card holders) were continued.

Local sup- plies of fish and vegetables improved, and, while supplies of local meat were rather irregular, it was possible to make up temporary shortages from stocks of imported Australian meat.

The increase in rice supplies was again associated with a con- tinued rise in export prices in the producing territories, and it was necessary to raise the retail price, which had risen from 25 cents. per catty (2.8d. per lb.) in 1946 to 48 cents (5.4d. per lb.) in October 1947, to 54 cents per catty (6.1d. per lb.) in April 1948. Free market prices continued about 10% above the rationed price.

Water.

The water supply gave some cause for anxiety towards the end of the dry season, and the hours of supply were restricted to IO hours per day from the middle of March until the end of the May. The Water Authority succeeded in delivering water of an excellent chemical and biological purity, although during the year difficulty was caused by a shortage of Chlorine Gas and resort was made to the use of Chloride of Lime. Heavy falls of rain in the summer relieved the Water Authority of the necessity of applying water restrictions during the autumn, and a full supply continued until the end of November.

Sewage.

Most of the human wastes in Hong Kong and Kowloon are still dealt with by a pan-conservancy system, whereby the pan con- tents are deposited in sewage barges along the bunds. Although a proportion of this is taken by barge to the New Territories, ren- dered relatively innocuous in

innocuous in maturing tanks before being

80

distributed to farmers as fertiliser, the greater part is dumped at sea.

en-

A scheme is, however, in course of preparation which visages the introduction of a double pail system for the removal of human wastes. This entails the replacement of used pans in pre- mises by clean sterilised pails, and the treatment of human wastes in maturation tanks for ultimate use as fertiliser on the farms and market gardens in the New Territories.

APPENDIX I

VITAL STATISTICS FOR 1948.

A. BIRTHS.

Records for births are incomplete owing to the hostilities in December, 1941, and the subsequent lack of interest in birth registration manifested by the Japanese during the period 1942- 1945 (August).

Year.

1940...

1941...

:

Births

45,064

45,000 (est.)

10,343

1942...

1943...

1944... 1945... 1946...

1947... 1948...

:

:

:

:

20,732

13,687

3,712 (to 31st August only)

31,098

42,473

47,475

B. DEATHS

While death registration was equally unsatisfactory throughout the occupation and many thousands of bodies never received burial in recognized cemeteries, such records as are available are given in the following table with those for 1940, 1941, and 1946-1948.

Year.

1940... 1941.. 1942... 1943...

1944...

1945.. 1946...

1947...

1948...

:

:

Deaths

61,010

61,324

83,435

40,117

24,936

23,098 (to 31st August) 16,653

...

13,231

13,434

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C. INFANT MORTALITY.

Although the deaths of infants under one year of age formed over a third of deaths for all ages, the number of infant deaths per thousand live births was only 104.7. This figure com- pares with 617 for 1931, 327 for 1940, 109 for 1946, and 119 for 1947.

PRE-NATAL MORTALITY.

There were 1,251 still-births recorded in 1948, i.e. 26.4 per 1,000 live births.

D. MATERNAL MORTALITY

The maternal mortality rate for 1948 was 1.5 as compared with 1.64 for 1947.

E. NOTIFIABLE DISEASES

(a), Smallpox

Eight cases only of smallpox occurred with 2 deaths. This is the smallest number of cases that has occurred in any year since. records were kept, and was due undoubtedly to the fact that 889,342 vaccinations were performed during the year making a total of 3,272,607 since the reoccupation of the Colony in August, 1945.

(b)

Cholera.

No cases of cholera occurred during the year.

(c) Enteric Fever.

There were 311 cases of enteric fever with 69 deaths giving a mortality rate of 22.2%. The cases appeared to be a sporadic nature but as might be expected the majority of them occurred during the hot weather.

(d) Cerebro-spinal meningitis.

Sixty nine cases occurred with 19 deaths giving a mortality rate of 27.5%. The greatest number of cases in any one month occurred in March (23).

(e) Diphtheria.

140 cases occurred with 49 deaths, a deaths rate of 35%. Of these cases 10 occurred during the first year of life, 36 in the age group 1-3 years and 59 in the 3-7 years group. 23,703 anti- diphtheria inoculations were performed during the year.

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·

(f) Dysentery.

183 cases were reported with 25 deaths. These figures do not give an accurate picture of the disease as many cases recorded as enteritis are in all probability dysentery. Of the reported cases 118 were amoebic, 62 bacillary and 3 not specified.

(g) Rabies.

Two cases of human rabies occurred both being fatal, and 3 cases of animal rabies.

(h) Measles.

190 cases of measles were reported with 6 deaths giving a mortality of 3.2%. 82 of these cases occurred during the first 3

months of the year and 46 in December.

(i) Puerperal Fever.

Ten cases of puerperal fever were reported with 5 deaths. (j) Tuberculosis.

6,279 cases were reported during the year with 1961 deaths giving a mortality rate of 31.2%. This disease is by far the most important of the notifiable diseases and is the subject of fuller comment on an earlier page.

HOUSING

Urban Housing.

The majority of the Chinese population lives in the older Chinese tenement houses of Victoria City and of Kowloon. These houses, originally built back to back, have since been provided with small yards and kitchens behind. In most cases there are no scavenging lanes although legislation passed after the houses were originally built makes the provision of scavenging lanes obligatory. The buildings vary in height from two to four storeys, the poorer section of the population being housed mainly in the upper floors. The ground floors are used mainly as shops or workplaces. Each floor is sub-divided into rooms or cubicles of 64 square feet and usually accommodates not less than three or four families. communal kitchen is provided but in the old type of building no provision is made for latrines or ablution accommodation. this reason, public latrines and bath houses have been erected in

A

For

the poorer class districts. Buildings of this type are very gradual- ly disappearing, to be replaced by more modern structures, Virtually all such tenement houses are owned by Chinese land- lords, though some of the larger industrial undertakings, both

83

Chinese and European, provide satisfactory living accommodation for their employees. A large proportion of the city of Victoria, particularly in the central districts, was built in the early days of the Colony when town planning was little practised, even in Eu- rope, and the major defects of housing are due to the absence at that time of planning and of modern legislation. The Public Health and Buildings Ordinance of 1903 was framed to conform with the standards of structure and hygiene which were then accepted. In the light of modern practice, many of these provisions and many of the buildings originally construct- ed in accordance with these provisions, are now out of date. Control of domestic buildings is now effected by the operation of a newer Buildings Ordinance introduced in 1935, which provides also for the improvement of lighting and ventilation in buildings originally made to conform with the less advanced legislation. Yards and scavenging lanes are statutory requirements which have resulted in gradually improved standards and have rendered possible the provision of latrines and bathrooms. The absence of statutory powers for compulsory demolition of buildings except those condemned as dangerous is responsible for the dis- appointingly slow disappearance of the tenement houses built before 1903.

It is gratifying to record that excellent progress has been made with re-construction of property damaged or destroyed as the result of the Pacific War. From a health viewpoint, the newly- built tenement shows great advance on its predecessor. It has larger windows, and being provided with a yard and a scavenging lane has greatly improved lighting and ventilation; the kitchen is more spacious and bright; a concrete stairway of easy gradient has re- placed the former narrow, ladder-like stairways of wooden construction; and, in most cases, the water carriage system has replaced the former conservancy system. Although there has been a well-remarked tendency to lessen building costs by constructing storeys of lesser height, this disadvantage has been offset by the better lighting and ventilation already described.

An important feature of the normal work of the health inspec- tor, whose other duties are described in the section on "Health", is the inspection of tenement buildings and the cleansing of premises. Houses are dealt with in rotation and the residents are required by law to cleanse their premises under the direction of the health inspector and his staff. Tanks of approximately 200 gallons capacity containing a one per cent. solution of water and kerosene emulson (soft soap and kerosene) are provided for cleansing pur-

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poses generally and for complete immersion of bed boards and the smaller articles of furniture. Altogether, it takes about three to four months to cleanse the whole of the urban district.

con-

Continued political instability in China has caused a slow but steady influx of refugees from the hinterland. As a result despite the excellent progress achieved in the reconstruction and rehabilitation of war-damaged property, the housing shortage remains acute. Squatters' colonies comprising crudely structed huts and shacks without sanitation of any kind, have arisen on the more accessible and conveniently situated open In order to spaces, even in the heart of the city itself. eliminate conditions which seriously menace the health of the Colony, measures have been adopted which provide not only for demolition of these dangerously insanitary squatters hovels but also for re-settlement of the displaced squatter on a prepared site where he may build for himself and his family, at low cost, a hut of standard design.

Rural Housing.

The housing of the village population in the New Territories is somewhat different, though in some of the market towns and suburban areas there is housing of a type similar to that found in the urban area. In these market towns, which are supplied with water and electricity and adjacent to roads, there have been con- siderable increases in population, particularly noticeable on Cheung Chau Island and in the town of Yuen Long on the north-western plain.

In the rural villages, where the population has remained stable, or even dwindled in numbers during the past twenty years, the original houses still stand. The population varies from 20 to 30 people for a small village to 2,000 in the case of the biggest village. The houses are huddled together and a few old villages are still surrounded by wall and moat, a reminder of more unsettled times. Some of the walled villages still retain their heavy gates, though the routine of bolting the gates against bandits at sunset has lapsed with time.

Village houses, which have passed from father to son through the years, are rarely sublet by the owner, who pays generally about 50 cents a year Crown rent. These houses are constructed of locally made blue brick or roughly cut granite blocks with a tiled roof and, of recent years, cement floors. The less permanent houses in the poorer villages are built of sun-dried mud-brick faced with plaster; these houses deteriorate after a few years, the owner again rebuilding in similar style. A typical village dwelling consists of one ground floor room, entrance being made through the front

85

door-there is no back door-into a partially roofed-over space, one side of which is reserved for cooking, and the other side for storage of dried grass, the principal fuel. An inner door gives entrance to the single room, the rear portion of which is screened off with wooden partitions for use as a bedroom. Over this rear portion, raised some 8 feet above the floor level, is a wooden plat- form or gallery known as the "cockloft" which is used for storage purposes or for extra sleeping accommodation if the family is large. The house has no ceiling, except the rafters and tiles, and no chimney.

Windows are few.

Dwellings are sometimes built in rows of a dozen or so in the large villages, with the front of one row facing the back of another row; whilst at other times they are built irregularly to conform with "Fung Shui" ("wind and water"), a form of Chinese geomancy which traditionally governs the siting of dwellings and graves. The streets between the dwellings are usually not more than six to eight feet wide, and the drainage is primitive. Latrines. are erected apart from the dwellings, and are similar, though inferior, to those still found attached to some rural cottages in the United Kingdom. The houses are for the most part kept in reason- able repair and the structural design is never altered Furnishings consist usually of trestle beds, perhaps a table, and a few small stools.

European-Type Housing.

Within the City of Victoria and in Kowloon the European resident lives chiefly in blocks of flats about four storeys in height. These flats are very similar to those in large towns in the United Kingdom, with the addition of servants quarters In the suburbs of both the City and Kowloon the European residence is a detached or semi-detached two or three storeys building not unlike those in suburban areas in the United Kingdom, but usually with verandahs attached to meet the requirements of the semi-tropical climate. Many permanent Chinese residents also favour the European type of residence. A system of roads cut into the steep hillsides has opened up the rural districts of Hong Kong including the Peak, and many large houses of European type have been erected the fine sites thus developed.

on

In spite of the numbers of buildings which had been erected. or repaired since the end of the war, the shortage of European-type houses and offices remained acute during 1948 as a result of the immigration of wealthy business men from unsettled parts of China and also an increase in the number of business men from overseas, many of whom were accompanied by their families. Fair progress was made in the erection of large blocks of flats both by Government and private enterprise. The rehabilitaton of hotels and

86

boarding houses which existed before the war was completed but the booking in such establishments was very heavy and in the ordinary way it was difficult to obtain a reservation

very short periods.

for

The number of premises held under requisition at the begin- ning of 1948 was 131; at the end of the year this had been reduced to eighty-nine. Although the powers to requisition property were still extant it has been the policy of Government to de-requisition premises wherever possible and return them to their registered owners.

Rebuilding.

Tenement type housing for 160,000 persons and European type housing for 7,000 persons suffered destruction or serious damage during the years 1941-1945. A large amount of this damage was made good by the end of 1947, but the great influx of persons to the Colony largely nullified the effect of this. During 1948, the erection of new buildings, and the rehabilitation or repair of those damaged during the war, continued to make good progress. Residents returning to the Colony in the latter months of the year noticed a considerable change in the aspect of the slopes above the harbour caused by the erection, during their absence, of many buildings ranging from bungalows to large blocks of flats.

In streets where the width permitted, it was formerly the practice to erect verandahs at the fronts of buildings. These veran- dahs, which were a blessing to the pedestrian in the alternate heavy rain and hot sunshine of the summer, extended over the footpaths and were supported at their outer edges by brick piers or reinforced concrete columns. This practice has ceased and it is now the rule to erect balconies cantilevered out from the buildings. This does away with the supporting columns, allows more light and air to the ground floor and gives the streets an appearance of much greater width, but affords less protection to the pedestrian on the payment, who suffers quietly in the interest of progress. In the rural areas many new sites have been carved out of the hillsides and large European type houses have been or are being erected on them.

Chinese Tenements.

But

More buildings of the Chinese tenement type than any other were erected during the year. In addition a

In addition a large number of those damaged during the war were repaired or rehabilitated. serious over-crowding still exists, with the result that many build- ings in urgent need of repair are occupied. This probably contributed to the number of collapses of buildings which occurred during the year causing eleven deaths and injury to thirty-six persons.

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New Buildings, Rehabilitation and Repairs.

During the year, 3,041 plans were submitted for approval for work on 4,824 buildings. This number included 513 European type dwellings, 1,119 Chinese type, 52 factories, 4 hotels, 5 theatres, 6 schools, 66 godowns and stores, 45 site formations and 2,909 rehabilitation and alterations and additions to various property. The balance was for minor construction work such as garages, temporary sheds and kiosks. Completion permits which are only issued in respect of new buildings were given for 211 European type dwellings, 729 Chinese type dwellings and 125 miscellaneous non-domestic buildings.

Town Planning.

Great progress was made with Town Planning during the year. Pending the publication of Sir Patrick Abercrombie's Report, work proceeded along the lines suggested by him during his visit in the late autumn of 1947. Among the important aspects of general planning to which attention was directed were the placing of industry in its correct industrial zones, the preservation of open spaces, the correct siting of housing and the checking of densities of population. Obviously, the work of replanning the Colony is one which cannot show results except over a great number of years, but during the course of 1948 a good start has been made.

SOCIAL WELFARE.

Throughout 1948 Hong Kong's most pressing welfare pro- blems on the material side continued to be caused by gross over- crowding and the consequent very grave housing shortage. It was estimated that the population density in the most crowded tenement area was as high as 2,000 persons to the acre, and that up to 30,000 people, including Government servants and employees of large public utilities, had to live as squatters in crude primitive shacks in bombed areas or on the hillsides. But a still more important factor is that the overwhelming majority of the Colony's residents, of whatever nationality, does not regard Hong Kong as its home; most of them come here solely to seek a living, more money, recreation or a political asylum, and strike no roots. Hence the Colony's interest in social welfare has tended to be focussed more on short- term and sometimes unproductive relief work, than on the goal of enabling every resident to become a reliable neighbour and a useful and informed fellow-citizen.

A Social Welfare Officer had been appointed in August 1947, and a Social Welfare Office with its own financial vote was establish-

88

ed as a specialised sub-department of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs at the beginning of the financial year on the 1st April 1948. This new office's principal activities included public assistance, child welfare, responsibility for the probation service, schemes for the further training of local social workers, liaison with all voluntary welfare organisations, and the development of long and short term welfare policies for the Colony.

Infant welfare activities were carried out mainly by the Medical Department and by the voluntary Society for the Protection of Children at their clinics and centres. Five orphanages also ac- cepted and cared for abandoned infants; these infants were nearly all girls, and all five orphanages were full to overflowing.

Child welfare, other than official and voluntary medical or educational work which is dealt with eleswhere in this Report, was mainly shared between the official Social Welfare Office and ten voluntary institutions most of which were subsidised by the Gov- ernment. Transfers of children from destitute or broken families, often for only a nominal consideration and by strangers who had only been in the Colony for a short period, continued to present a serious social problem, especially on account of the opportunities. which thus multiplied for traffickers in children. Both in order to check these abuses, and in order to carry still further the fight against clandestine remnants of the illegal mui tsai system, all adopted daughters who have not been adopted under the order of a competent court are automatically the statutory wards of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and have to be registered as such; thereafter they are periodically visited by child welfare workers until they contract an approved marriage or reach the age of 21. The voluntary registration of adopted boys was also actively encouraged, and any child who was known to be in potential phy- sical or moral danger was regularly visited by official welfare workers. By the end of 1948 there were altogether 1,133 children on this visiting list.

Youth work for non-delinquent boys and girls was carried out for two thousand destitute or near-destitute street arabs by over 20 Youth Clubs affiliated to the Boys and Girls Clubs Association, and in six welfare centres administered by the Social Welfare Officer. In addition the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Associations. made great and successful strides forward in their struggles to expand under extremely difficult financial conditions.

There were two great advances during the year in the facili- ties for dealing with delinquent and "difficult" children and young persons. The first was the opening of a Girls' Approved School, largely financed by the Government but under the management of the Salvation Army. The second was the appointment late in

89

the year of a psychiatrist in the Medical Department to whom child and juvenile welfare workers were able to turn for advice. In April the administration of the probation service was trans- ferred to the Social Welfare Office, but further practical develop- ment of this service was held back pending the arrival of a qualified Probation Officer from Great Britain.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs and his Assistants arbi- trated in 1,334 cases involving family troubles; the Social Welfare Officer of that Department received 1,644 requests by stranded destitutes to arrange free repatriation for them and offered help or guidance to 336 persons who had unsuccessfully attempted to commit suicide.

51

Public Assistance work for adult destitutes was carried out independently by ten voluntary organisations as well as by the Social Welfare Officer; the principal voluntary organisation in this field was the long-established Chinese Tung Wah Hospital. Most of the assistance was given in the form of free meals, admission to official camps, loans in cash or kind by voluntary associations, street sleepers' shelters in cold months, and the free repatriation scheme mentioned above. The hardest requests for any social worker to meet were those for employment, the supply of all kinds of unskilled labour being far greater than the demand. It was only the still strong Chinese tradition of family responsibility for unemployed or unlucky relations which saved hundreds if not thousands from utter destitution.

In

A Buddhist, a Protestant and a Roman Catholic agency each maintained a Home for the Aged, and a few old and indigent persons were also accommodated free in a Government camp. addition, seventeen persons received a monthly grant from the charitable Brewin Fund administered by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. Welfare for the blind was still restricted to two non- Government homes run for girls or unmarried women. A new school for the deaf and dumb was built by a voluntary agency with some government assistance, and will be under the management. of a highly qualified expert.

The training of social workers was a matter of very consider- able enquiry and planning during the year; the schemes considered were of three kinds. The first was the possible establishment of a social science diploma course, and later even of a degree course, at the University; the second was a two year Evening Institute course under the auspices of the Director of Education; and the third included the development of more specialised training on the job by certain official and voluntary agencies.

In all there were nearly sixty active voluntary welfare organi- sations in the Colony, in addition to the churches, and each of

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these organisations had its own separate Committee or Board. One of the functions of the new Social Welfare Advisory Com- mittee was to promote co-ordination between the activities of all these agencies, the work of government departments concerned with social welfare, and the work of other agencies such as the International Relief Organisation whose headquarters were outside Hong Kong; but such co-ordination is not done in a year if at the same time the traditional and immensely valuable spirit of in- dependent initiative amongst the voluntary organsiations is to be preserved and not blunted.

During 1948 Hong Kong was fortunate to have the benefit of visits from expert representatives of the International Children's Emergency fund and of the Rockefeller Institute, as well as from some of the delegates to the International Y.W.C.A. Conference. Although Miss Helen Keller's visit unfortunately had to be cancelled, two representatives of the John Milton Society for the Blind were nevertheless able to come in her place. Finally, in September the Social Welfare Advisor to the Secretary of State for the Colonies spent a crowded sixteen days' visit to the very con- siderable benefit and pleasure of official and unofficial social welfare agencies, and of the individual workers in those agencies.

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Chapter 8

During the year 1948 a total of 65 Ordinances was enacted. As in the previous year a number of these Ordin- ances were consequential on the Japanese Occupation of the Colony. A number of the 1948 Ordinances have also been enacted to provide legislation to meet changed conditions and new problems confronting the Colony in the post-war period. In the former category Ordinance of particular importance in LEGISLATION this Colony and of unusual type was

an

enacted under the title of "The Debtor and Creditor (Occupation Period) Ordinance." The introduction during the occupation by the Japanese of the military yen cur- rency and the compulsory liquidation of firms in the Colony having the nationality of countries which were at war with Japan caused a serious and far-reaching disruption in the business life of the Colony exemplified by the difficulty of determining after the occupation the degree of validity to be accorded to money payments made and debts incurred during enemy occupation. A Moratorium was, however, imposed on all debts incurred prior to the 13th September, 1945 by Proclamation (No. 6) of the Military Administration which assumed control on termination. of hostilities.

The Moratorium afforded a breathing space within which those sections of the community most interested in the debtor and creditor problem could consider and make representations to Government as to its solution. It was ultimately decided that before the Moratorium could be lifted legislation should be enacted to determine the degree of such validity. The Ordinance under discussion provided the required legislation and its enactment was followed by the lifting of the Moratorium.

Another legacy of the Japanese Occupation was presented by the problem of the effect of the occupation on contractual relationship between landlord and tenant particularly with reference to the payment of rent in respect of the period of the occupation. In solution of this problem the Rent (War Period) Relief Ordinance, 1948, was enacted containing legislation designed to relieve tenants from payment of rent in respect of the period of the Japanese Occupation and to adjust the rights of the landlords and tenants. The legislation has reflected prior agreement of property owners that, provided they were not called upon to

92

pay Crown rent, they were prepared to waive all claims for "war rent" accruing due in the period from the commencement of local hostilities until the liberation of the Colony.

A further difficulty arising out of the Japanese Occupation has been dealt with by the enactment of the Enforcement of Rights (Extension of Time) Ordinance, 1948, which is an Ordinance to extend the period during which legal proceedings may be instituted and rights may be exercised. Applications of the principle of law inherent in the Latin maxim "vigilantibus et non dor- mientibus lex succurrit" would have resulted in grave injustice where the passage of time corresponded with a period of hostilities, enforced absence, internment and other similar circumstances. including the existence of a Moratorium which rendered it impossible to have recourse to the Courts. The Ordinance, therefore, excludes the principle of law in so far as the occupation period is concerned and modifies its applicability in relation to the period between the close of the period of Japanese Occupation and the enactment of the Ordinance.

Another difficulty which the Japanese Occupation produced has also been dealt with by the Occupation Marriages (Validity) Ordinance, 1948, which is an Ordinance designed to remove doubts as to the validity of certain marriages celebrated after the Japanese capture of the Colony.

Legislation enacted during 1948 which was necessary by reason of changed conditions and new problems confronting the Colony in the post-war period has been of substantial volume. In this category may be included the Banking Ordinance, 1948. The Ordinance provides for the regulation and licensing of the business of banking consequent on altered conditions prevailing in the commercial life of the Colony and conditions in China entailing a large increase in the number of persons or organisations in the Colony doing business in the nature of banking business. Among such organisations were "banks" having inadequate capital or conducting banking business of no value to the Colony since they were engaged in speculation or in the infringement of trade or exchange control regulations both of the Chinese Government and of the Colony. The Ordinance is designed to counter such tendencies by imposing control and licensing upon the business of banking.

The Smuggling into China (Control) Ordinance, 1948, is an Ordinance which gives effect to a Customs agreement negotiated by His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom and the Chinese National Government on behalf of the Hong Kong Government and the Chinese Maritime Customs respectively. For many years owing to the high customs duties prevailing and, in

93

recent years, to the restrictions on imports imposed by China the incentive to smuggle goods from abroad into China has greatly increased.

The Hong Kong Government has always looked with disfavour on this illegal traffic. At the end of the last century negotiations were opened with the Chinese Government with a view to creating machinery whereby smuggling, at least as affecting Hong Kong, could be reduced to a minimum, if not wholly eliminated. These negotiations were not successful nor were later attempts made in 1911 and 1929 to reach an agreement between the two Governments on this very difficult question. Shortly after the defeat of Japan negotiations were again re-opened and a Customs Agreement was finally concluded in January, 1948. The Ordinance is designed to limit in three ways the possibilities of smuggling from Hong Kong into China:----

(1) It limits the loading of vessels under 200 tons net to two designated points within the harbour, except that vessels under 200 tons may also load at another designated point, but there they will be cleared only to a Chinese port at which a Chinese Maritime Customs Station is in operation. At the same time the Chinese Maritime. Customs are permitted to set up stations in close proximity to the first two designated points in the harbour and there persons exporting goods into China may, if they so choose, pay customs duty. At these harbour stations the Chinese Maritime Customs are permitted to maintain officers who tally on to ships. under 200 tons any cargo which has paid Chinese duty in Hong Kong. Exporters shipping on ships over 200 tons are also permitted to pay Chinese duty in Hong Kong and the Chinese Maritime Customs are permitted to keep a number of officers on board ocean going ships for the purpose of tallying this cargo..

(2) The Chinese Maritime Customs are given permission to patrol certain waters in Hong Kong in Mirs Bay and Deep Bay. In these areas known as prohibited areas any vessel which has no proper clearance papers issued in Hong Kong may be detained by the Chinese Maritime Customs and handed over to the Hong Kong authorities for prosecution in the Courts of Hong Kong.

(3) The transportation of commodities from Hong Kong to China across the land frontier is limited to 4 points

i

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!

opposite Chinese Customs Stations on the Chinese side. This means that goods crossing the Colony frontier are directed on to Chinese Customs Stations where the Chinese Authorities will be able to control them.

The Ordinance thus institutes a system of control sufficiently compatible with the Colony's sovereignty while limiting the move- ment of commodities from the Colony to China to those channels of which Hong Kong has control at one end while China has control at the other.

The necessity has long been seen in the United Kingdom and elsewhere within the Empire for legislation for the regulation and guidance of Trade Unions and also for legislation providing machinery for the settlement of Trade Disputes. The Trade Unions and Trade Disputes Ordinance, enacted in 1948, is designed to meet this necessity and provides for the Colony legislation which had been prepared for enactment before the outbreak of war.

An effect of the war which has been experienced in the Colony, as elsewhere in the world, has been an increase in corrupt practice. A strengthening and clarification of the law of the Colony to counter this offence became necessary and was effected by the enactment of the Prevention of Corruption Ordinance, 1948. The Ordinance has assimilated the law of the Colony in relation to corruption to the law in force in the United Kingdom and, further, in view of the prevalence of offences in the Colony, has aimed at a lightening of the task of proving offences. The legislation seeks to achieve this object in three main ways-

(1) The Attorney General may order investigation of a suspect's bank account, share account or purchase

account;

(2) The Court is authorised to receive in evidence the fact that the accused has suddenly become much richer than he should be or that he has been expending unusually large sums of money;

(3) A Judge is relieved of obligation to warn the jury in express terms that it is dangerous to convict on the evidence of an accomplice without corroboration in a material particular implicating the accused.

An Ordinance of domestic importance is exemplified by the Police Force Ordinance, 1948. Prior to the enactment of this Ordinance the legislation governing the establishment and control of the Hong Kong Police Force lay in the Police Force Ordinance,

95

1932, as amended between that year and 1941. Experience gained in the operation of the 1932 Police Force Ordinance and the need for general reconstitution and reorganisation of the Police Force consequent on the period of enemy occupation of the Colony showed the necessity for substantial amendment and consolidation of the law. The Ordinance, inter alia, makes precise definition of the control of the Force and pays particular attention to the method of enforcing discipline within the Force. The main feature in regard to discipline is that officers other than gazetted officers are now dealt with exclusively under the Ordinance and the Commis- sioner of Police has power to dismiss such officers other than Inspectors. An innovation is made in that there is now provision for the establishment, definition and control of a Police Welfare Fund.

The principal object of good Government must necessarily be not only to provide means to deal rapidly and effectively with serious threats to law and order but also so far as possible to forestall the development of any such serious threat. The Public Order Ordinance, 1948, an Ordinance to facilitate the maintenance of public order and safety, was enacted this year and seeks to achieve the objective described in the Colony of Hong Kong. The legislation is designed to curb the activities of political organisations which seek to advance their views by force while at the same time. preserving and strengthening the right of public meeting of ordin- ary peaceful citizens. Furthermore with the object of ensuring that the

person and property of inhabitants of the Colony will receive the maximum protection in an emergency the Ordinance bestows wide

powers on the Governor to-

(a) declare a curfew within a specified area;

(b) close an area to all persons not having the requisite

permit;

(c) order the evacuation of any area or place;

(d) prohibit the movement or anchorage of any craft or use of any waters of the Colony by craft of any specified class.

The Hong Kong Defence Force Ordinance, 1948, contains legislation the effect of which is to revive and extend the pre-war Volunteer Forces. The organisation to be set up under the Ordinance is to be known as the Hong Kong Defence Force and it will embrace all three armed services, i.e. Navy, Army and Air Force. Enrolment in the Force is voluntary and is open to persons of all nationalities, the oath being so worded that non-British citizens may join without endangering their own national status. A member of the Force may be required to serve outside the

96

territorial limits of the Colony only if such member has previously declared his consent in writing to such service. The legislation further provides that an alien as well as a British subject may hold the Governor's commission in the Force. In the case of an emergency the Governor may call out the Force or any part of it by Proclamation.

A revised edition of the laws of the Colony when last effected carried revision to the beginning of 1932. The need for a new revised edition is therefore manifest and the need is all the greater since war legislation and legislation enacted during the period of Military Administration have inevitably complicated the position. In these circumstances the Revised Edition of the Laws Ordinance, 1948, has been enacted which makes provision for the prepara- tion and publication of a revised edition of the laws of Hong Kong in force on the 31st December, 1948, by commissioners appointed by the Ordinance. In accordance with what is now the usual practice in the Colonies, the new revised edition of the laws will be grouped in relation to subject matter and not in chronological order, the method hitherto in vogue in the Colony.

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*

Whereas....

JUSTICE, POLICE & PRISONS

Chapter 9.

The Supreme Court,

The Supreme Court consisted throughout the year of the Chief Justice, the Puisne Judge and an Acting Additional Judge. The appointment of a Second Substantive Puisne Judge has now been approved.

The Supreme Court has the same jurisdiction as His Majesty's Courts of King's Bench, Common Pleas and Exchequer lawfully have or had in England and is a Court of Oyer and Terminer and Gaol Delivery, Assize and Nisi Prius, with jurisdiction in Probate, Divorce, Admiralty, Bankruptcy and Criminal Matters. It is also a Court of Equity with such and the like jurisdiction as the Court of Chancery has or had in England, and has and executes the powers and authorities of the Lord High Chancellor of England with full liberty to appoint and control guardians of infants and their estates and also keepers of persons and estates of idiots, lunatics and such as, being of unsound mind, are unable to govern themselves and their estates.

The practice for the time being of the English Courts is in force in the Colony, except where, being inapplicable to the local circumstances, it has been modified by local legislation. The civil procedure of the courts was codified by the Code of Civil Procedure, Ordinance No. 3 of 1901, which modified and, in some instances, excluded some of the provisions of the English Rules of Practice. Such of the laws of England as existed in the Colony on 5th April, 1843, are also in force in the Colony except so far as the laws are inapplicable to local circumstances and sub- ject to legislative modifications thereto.

All civil claims above the sum of $1,000 are heard in the Court's Original Jurisdiction as well as all miscellaneous proceedings

98

1

estates, appointments of Civil claims from $5.00 up to

concerning questions arising on trustees, company matters, etc. and including $1,000 are heard in the Court's Summary Jurisdic- tion by the Puisne Judge as are all matters arising out of distraints for non-payment of rent. Cases in the Probate, Divorce, Ad- miralty and Bankruptcy Jurisdictions of the court are usually heard by the Chief Justice. Indictable offences are first heard before magistrates and are committed to the criminal sessions which are held once every month; these cases are usually divided between two judges.

A right of appeal exists in all the above

cases. Appeals are heard by a Full Court consisting of two or more judges. Under the Magistrates Ordinance, 1932, as amended by Ordin- ance No. 19 of 1935, any person aggrieved may appeal to a judge from the decision of a magistrate in a summary way. This form of appeal is heard by a single judge who may reserve the appeal or any point in it for consideration by the Full Court, or may direct the appeal or the point to be argued before the Full Court.

The business of the Courts during 1948 was again restricted by the continuance in force of the Moratorium which was not lifted until the 1st December, 1948. No ceremony in connection with the opening of the Assizes was held during the year since it was decided that the ceremony might more suitably be held at the First Assize of the new year.

Women jurors, who were first appointed in 1947, continued to serve in Assize cases.

The Registrar of the Supreme Court in addition to dis- charging the functions with which the title of his office connects him, also acts in the capacity of Official Trustee, Official Ad- ministrator and Registrar of Companies, administering trust estates and deceased persons' estates and registering companies under the Companies Ordinance, 1932. Bills of Sale are also registered with the Registrar.

Work done in the Supreme Court.

During the year 1948, 357 actions were instituted in the Original Jurisdiction and 411 in the Summary Jurisdiction as compared with 340 and 229 respectively in 1947. There were also 372 Distraints for Rent. In the Probate Jurisdiction 749 grants (160 probates and 589 Letters of Administration) were made by the Court, and 208 Grants by other British Courts were sealed making a total of 957 grants during the year as against 888 grants and 232 grants by other British Courts in 1947. Out

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of 286 persons indicted at the Criminal Sessions 261 were con- victed, 5 are being tried in January, 1949, the correspond- ing figures for the year 1947 being 366 and 277. Appeals against conviction or sentence at Criminal Sessions rose from 11 to 41 and appeals against magisterial decisions were the same ast last year-24. Of 22 appeals in respect of Civil Actions (com- pared again with 17 in 1947) 17 were heard, I settled and 3 abandoned; I is pending. There were 42 appeals against the decisions of the Tenancy Tribunals of which 25 were heard (28 in 1947); 2 actions were filed in the Admiralty Jurisdiction and 16 Petitions in the Divorce Jurisdiction (1947: 8 and 32 respectively). Eight Trust Estates were in the hands of the Official Trustee at the end of the year. The estates of 41 deceased persons were taken into custody of the Official Administrator (32 in 1947) and the administration of 60 was completed. 215 Hong Kong Companies and 57 foreign corporations were registered and 10 Hong Kong companies were dissolved during the year bringing the total number of Hong Kong companies on the Register 1891 (1686 at the end of 1947) and the total number of registered foreign corporations to 459 (418 at the end of 1947). The number of foreign corporations which were removed from the register during the year was 16. 141 Bills of Sale were registered during the year of which 43 were satisfied. (In 1947 the number of Bills of Sale registered was 128).

to

During the year 1948, 464 cases were heard before Tenancy Tribunals by no less than 141 persons on the panel, comprising 5 barristers 14 solictors, 101 non-professional men and 21 women.

The Lower Courts.

There are three magistrates' courts on the Island and two in Kowloon. The latter hear cases from the whole mainland area south of the Kowloon Hills and from the harbour. An innovation was instituted during the year with the appointment on 12th October, 1948, of a new court known as the Justices' court which is composed of two unofficial Justices of the Peace sitting together, one of whom is a solicitor. This court has proved a success and is of great value in relieving the Magistrates of a good deal of work.

Civil jurisdiction in the New Territories is exercised by the District Commissioner and his District Officers, who have powers similar to the Supreme Court. Most of the litigation concerns land, in which the number of disputes is particularly heavy in the Taipo District. The District Officers Yuen Long and Taipo sit each three days a week, on alternate days, as Magistrates. They also hear debts cases.

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Police Training School.

Cases Heard in the Lower Courts.

The figures below show the penalties which were awarded at the Hong Kong and Kowloon Magistracies in respect of cases heard during the whole year 1948. Corresponding totals for the year 1947 are also given.

Prosecutions against

Hong Kong Kowloon Total for Total for

1948

1947

adults and juveniles 77,889 55,112 133,001 103,847

Convictions against

adults & juveniles

73,174

47,719

120,893

82,227

Adult Offenders

Fined

37,425

26,173

63,598

46,808

Imprisoned in default

of payment of fine

9,980

9,791

19,771

9,266

Imprisoned without

option

2,688

2,665

5,353

5,765

Bound over

587

536

1,123

1,114

Cautioned or discharged 3,175

5,466

8,641

6,998

Defendants fined and

allowed time to pay fine

425

425

304

Expelled from the

Colony

934

846

1,780

1,755

Juvenile Offenders

Fined

19,914

2,591

22,505

7,317

Sent to Reformatory

24

33

57

151

Committed to approved

institution

57

13

70

106

Bound over

229

179

408

571

Placed on probation

21

21

70

Cautioned or discharged

564

1,708

2,272

18,514

Whipped

234

4,297

4,53 I

1,307

Imprisoned

424

53

477

94

Expelled from the

Colony

1,225

114

1,339

545

Maintenance Cases

Orders made

II

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21

18

The Magistrates at Taipo and Yuen Long decided between them 2,634 criminal cases during the year.

War Crimes Trials.

At the beginning of 1948, two War Crimes Courts, which had been appointed by Royal Warrant with authority to try Japanese war criminals in respect of any war crime committed in the

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Far East Command area, were still established. One closed in early February having dealt with seventeen cases in Hong Kong involving fifty-two accused, of whom twelve received the death sentence, six were acquitted, and thirty-four were sentenced to terms of imprison- ment ranging from one to twenty years. The other Court closed on the 1st April, 1948, having tried during 1948 five on charges of ill treatment of civilians in the New Territories.

accused

Two fresh Courts, assembled on instructions from the Secretary of State for War, were established in October and December, 1948, with authority to try those Japanese suspects who were traceable for the atrocities committed against Europeans and Asiatics in the notorious Bridge House in Shanghai. Lieutenant-General Kinoshita Eiichi, Sergeant Yoshido Bunzo and Sergeant-Major Yokohata Toshiro of the Japanese Kempeitai were charged before these courts with being concerned in the torture of civilians and internees in Shanghai, and with having caused the death of one internee, while trying to extort confessions from them that they were agents of foreign powers. They were all found guilty and the proceedings of the trial are now under review prior to confirmation of sentence.

The Australian War Crimes Court continued to function throughout the year and by December had heard all cases that were listed to be brought before it.

POLICE

Duties of the Police.

Police duties range from skilled traffic control in the sophis- ticated city centre to operations of a military and naval character in the rugged, almost roadless New Territories and the surround- ing territorial waters. In addition to keeping watch and ward, both civil and semi-military, the Police control immigration, en- force the ban on narcotics and perform the registration and control of vehicles and drivers.

Organisation and Composition of the Police Force.

The basic organisation of the Force follows the standard pattern of Uniformed Branch and C.I.D., including a Special Branch. There are certain additions, such as Emergency Units and Task Forces, required because of the peculiar problems of the Colony, and the speed with which minor incidents are inflamed. The C.I.D. also contain special additions, such as an Anti-Corrup- tion Unit and a unit specialising in commmercial crime.

The authorised establishment of the Police Force was 3,182, the actual strength at the end of 1948 being 2,957. There was

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Another congested car park-Wardley Street.

Photograph by E. O'Neil Shaw.

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One aspect of Hong Kong's traffic problem-cars parked

lines on the water front.

in

three

.

Photograph by E. O'Neil Shaw.

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also an auxiliary. unit of 250 Water Police, which is gradually being transformed into a Marine Unit for amphibious duties. The Force is composed of 227 Europeans, 400 Shantung Chinese, who are recruited because of their superior physique, 2,140 Cantonese and 180 Indians, and is relieved of all but strictly Police duties by a civilian staff of 600.

Training and Education.

The European officers are engaged with some previous train- ing, but undergo a further period on arrival. Locally recruited Sub-Inspectors receive 6 months' training and the Rank and File 3 months. There is a special course of training for the Marine Police. Detectives are recruited from the Uniformed Branch, and are given C.I.D. training. The syllabus includes law and Police duties, first aid, unarmed combat and weapon training, including the use of tear smoke. Six hundred and sixty-nine men were pass- ed out of the Police Training School during the year, and continu- ed training by regular weekly instruction after posting.

All ranks are literate in their own language when recruited. Chinese is compulsory for non-Chinese, and Basic English is taught to Chinese at the Police Training School.

Traffic.

The city area was built in the last century for a small popula- tion, and is not easily converted to provide for the increase of vehicles and inhabitants. Sir Patrick Abercrombie, the Town Planning expert, was invited to survey the problem and has com- piled a comprehensive report which is now being considered. In the circumstances, the accident rate was better than might have been expected:

*

Fatal Accidents Serious Accidents

Slight Accidents

1947

1948

131

97

216

474

1,805

1,945

There were 9,266 vehicles of all kinds in use in 1947, and 11,757 in 1948, on 410 miles of roads and streets.

Crime.

The figure of serious crime dropped from 13,704 cases to 11,008 cases. There was a marked decrease in robberies of all kinds, from 375 to 227. Burglary and larceny cases were still at an abnormal figure of 1,198, but it is an improvement over the 1,651 cases in the previous year. Property stolen amounted to

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4

31 million dollars, of which just over million was recovered. There were 5,233 prosecutions for serious offences, against 6,303 in 1947. There were 98,150 persons prosecuted for minor offences, compared with 99,166 in 1947.

The year was one of steady improvement in man-power and material. The peculiar geographical position of Hong Kong, and its land and sea frontiers, with turbulent and unsettled China, posed political and other problems which frequently added to the difficulties of police action. On the whole, despite the abnormality of the situation, the Colony had a year of comparative serenity, and the general results compare favourably with more settled territories.

PRISONS

1

The Prison Buildings.

There are three prisons in Hong Kong, Stanley Prison, Victoria Gaol and Lai Chi Kok Female Prison.

Stanley Prison, the main gaol in the Colony, is a modern. building built in 1937 amid rural surroundings which was intend- ed to provide for all male prisoners in the Colony. It is an ex- cellent building with well appointed administrative offices, stores, hospital and kitchens, but no facilities for proper clasification of prisoners nor means of employment for more than 1,000 men. It has been overcrowded since the day it was opened when the muster was 2,215. There were 2,672 prisoners in the gaol at the end of 1948 in accommodation suitable for only 1,578. In one of the cell blocks 40 cells have double-sized windows to provide a good supply of air for prisoners suffering from tuberculosis who do not need to be admitted to hospital. The building which originally housed the printery has been adapted to provide as- sociation wards, workshops, and schoolrooms for up to 200 young prisoners between the ages of 16 and 21 years.

Victoria Gaol, which was the Colony's first prison, has been adapted to form a fairly satisfactory building. Most of the old dungeon-like cells have been demolished and new cells and association rooms have been built which enable the various classes of prisoners to be segregated. At the beginning of 1948 there were 150 cells for all purposes but by the end of the year the first , stage of the programme of adaptation and restoration had been completed so that there are now 252 cells and 13 association rooms, each of which rooms accommodates from four to twenty five prisoners. Without placing more than one prisoner in a cell there is room now for 416 prisoners. In fact, 437 persons comprising

104

prisoners serving sentences of one month or less, persons held in custody pending deportation, persons on remand, vagrants and debtors were housed there at the end of 1948. It is hoped that dormitory accommodation for a further 200 convicted prisoners with workshops and assembly hall will be provided in 1949.

Lai Chi Kok female prison has two large dormitories with accommodation for 80 prisoners in each, 24 cells for convicted prisoners, and separate accommodation for 22 persons on remand or awaiting deportation. Flower and vegetable gardens have been laid out and industries include laundry work, sewing and weaving. There were 287 persons in the prison at the end of the

year.

A Boys' Reformatory has been opened at Maryknoll in build- ings which were adapted from four food storage huts to house 100 boys. A schoolroom, workshops, dormitory, recreation room, kitchen, dining room and sick bay are provided. There are at pre- sent 72 boys in the Reformatory.

Considerable progress has been made generally during the year in providing more accommodation and greater facilities for classification of prisoners. It is planned to construct a penal labour camp in 1949 to provide accommodation for 700 prisoners.

Prisoners.

The total number of prisoners committed during the year was 24,941, including 3,596 women and 64 Reformatory boys as compared with a total of 14,743 last year. The daily average population was 3,165 including 224 women and 75 Reformatory boys. The majority of the prisoners, 13,964, served sentences of less than a month. Out of a total number of 3,468 prisoners at the end of the year, 3,346 were Chinese, 95 were Japanese, 23 were Europeans and 4 were Indians. Definite progress has been made during the latter part of the year in finding increasing means of putting prisoners to industrial and unskilled labour by which they contribute to the cost of their maintenance.

Staff.

The European establishment of 76 Prison Officers is still 18 below strength and several officers are due to retire during 1949. Many of the old Indian staff have retired on account of age or infirmity and the total remaining at the end of the year was 74. There has been a definite improvement, owing to the increased pay now offered, in the type of man now applying for employment, and a higher standard of efficiency in the locally recruited staff. All recruits are now required to take a course of

105

training before assuming their duties and there are signs that it will be possible in due course to create an efficient and reliable local staff.

Discipline

10

Prison discipline has generally been good though marred at times by fights between different factions using improvised weapons made out of bamboo, tin, pieces of scrap metal found in the workshops and tools in the course of labour. For such offences corporal punishment has been permitted with a markedly deterrent effect. Several attempts to escape from prison have been frustrated, but one man succeeded in running away from an outside working party. Five boys escaped from the Reforma- tory, an open institution, but three of them were brought back by the Police.

106

;

711

127 7

PUBLIC UTILITIES

Chapter 10.

"

The supply of water to the Colony is undertaken by the Public Works Department of the Government. The generation of electric power is in the hands of two private companies one of which operates on the Island of Hong Kong and one in Kowloon and the New Territories. Domestic gas is supplied on both sides of the Harbour by the Hong Kong and China Gas Co., Ltd. Bus, tramway and ferry services are in the hands of private companies. Broadcasting is a Government undertaking under the control of

the Postmaster General.

Waterworks.

There are no large rivers or underground sources of water and the Colony has to depend for its water supply on the collection in impounding reservoirs of the rains falling on upland gathering grounds. These reservoirs are thirteen in number and collect the heavy south-west monsoon

south-west monsoon rains between May and September. Little rain falls in the remaining months of the year, so that the storage necessary to provide for an all-the-year round supply is relatively heavy. The total capacity of existing reservoirs is 5,970 million gallons, only 2,362 million of which are on the Island. Of the 3,608 million gallons on the main- land 2,921 million are contained in the Jubilee Reservoir Shing Mun.

This reservoir is the largest in the Colony and the 275 foot dam forming it is one of the tallest in the Empire. To augment the run-off from areas draining directly into the re- servoirs, about 35 miles of catch-water channels have been constructed on the hillsides to lead the water from other areas, normally draining elsewhere, into the reservoirs.

at

Despite the completion of the Shing Mun Valley Scheme in 1941, the increased growth of the population resulted in a demand

107

still in excess of the available resources, and investigations were begun for a new source of supply in Tai Lam Chung Valley on the mainland. This work, consisting of extensive drilling and a geophysical survery was completed during the year, and it is hoped that it will be possible to make an early start on this new scheme which will approximately double the Colony's water resources within the next ten years.

Slightly over 40% of the Island's consumption is supplied from the mainland reservoirs, the water being conveyed across the harbour in two 21" diameter submarine pipes. On account of the hilly nature of the Island a big proportion of the water has to be pumped and in some areas re-pumped, necessitating a large number of pumps and service reservoirs. Most of the water sup- plied is both filtered and sterilised by chemical treatment and a satisfactory standard of purity is maintained, but sterilising of the filtered water has suffered somewhat owing to the failure of supplies of Chlorine Gas which necessitated a reversion to the use of Chloride of Lime. All water is supplied to consumers through meters, and the charge is based on the total cost of provision in- cluding capital charges. Severe restrictions in the hours of supply were imposed between January and June to make the available storage last out until the summer rains, and daily consumption. reached record figures both on the island and mainland during August. The average daily consumption for the year was over 30 million gallons, while peak consumption was over 40 million gallons.

Delivery of piping ordered was still slow throughout the year, but good progress was nevertheless made with the relaying and extension of water mains both for the city and for outlying villages. All pre-war ground and pedestal hydrants have now been repaired, and the replacement of the ground hydrants by pedestal ones was continued. It has not yet been possible to operate the waste detection system, although good progress has been made with the replacement or repair of the waste detection meters. improvement in the delivery of water meters and spares has enabled the replacement of defective meters to be speeded up, and during the year most of the services were fitted with meters in good working order. At the end of March about 25,000 meters were in use. A new meter repair workshop for the Island was completed.

An

The erection of the new 8 million gallons per day rapid gravity Filtration plant at Stubbs Road was begun during the year and good progress was made. A new 400,000 gallon covered concrete Service Reservoir was constructed above West Point. Plans were prepared for new slow sand Filters at Wong Nei

108

Chong to improve the Shou Son Hill supply, but work was not started. Plans for a new workshop and Depôt for Kowloon were also prepared. Serious rainstorm damage occurred to the Shing Mun Catch-water on July 27th, when about 14 inches of rain fell, and extensive repair work had to be undertaken. Consideration was given to the question of modernising some of the older pump- ing plants, and orders for new plant were placed through the Crown Agents.

Electricity.

Electricity on the Island of Hong Kong is supplied by the Hong Kong Electric Company, Ltd., which has made so much progress in rehabilitating the generating station and distribution system that by the middle of 1948 the pre-war peak load of 20,500 k.w. had been exceeded and at the end of the year output was run- ning at about 15% in excess of that generated in 1941. This satisfactory result had been achieved despite the fact that the undertaking is still operating with such of its pre-war generating plant as remained at the time of the re-occupation of the Colony in 1945. The boilers, turbo-alternators and other plant had suffered severely from neglect and misuse during the Japanese occupation, and the boiler plant in particular has been subject to frequent breakdowns due to undermaintenance which in turn was due to shortage of plant and consequent overloading. It was frequently necessary to bring additional plant on load at very short notice and to effect emergency repairs to maintain plant in service with its attendant strain on the station personnel. Limitations on output were imposed by the inadequacy of the effective steam-raising plant. In spite of these practical difficulties which limited the effective capacity of the Station to 25,000 k.w., a continuous supply was maintained during 1948. The position will be eased to some extent around the autumn of 1949, when plant ordered in the United Kingdom in 1945/6 consisting of a 15,000 k.w. turbo alternator, and a high pressure boiler will be installed and placed in commission.

During 1948 7,261 additional meters were connected. A total of 366 street lamps were replaced and lit during the year. The number of consumers at 31st December, 1948 was 44,587 and meters connected totalled 51,886. A total of 82,993,274 units was sold by the Company during 1948, an

increase of

19,009,873 over 1947.

The charges for electric current were reduced in January, 1948, from 37 cents per unit to 35 cents per unit for lighting while the discount rate of 5% for consumption over 1,000 units was

109

re-introduced for domestic power making the charge 14 cents/13.3 cents per unit. The charges for meter rents were reduced on 1st July, 1948 to their pre-war scales. Special rates are quoted for bulk supply of power to industrial users. It is anticipated that the demand for light and power will be increased during 1949, owing to the high level of factory and residential building activity in the Colony. Costs of coal and other materials and services remain extremely high being from 300% to 500% above pre-war levels.

Electricity in Kowloon and the New Territories is supplied by the China Light and Power Co., Ltd. Throughout the past year there has been an expansion in the industrial use of electricity when no less than 279 additional factories were connected to the Company's mains. Domestic consumption of current has increased, street lighting has been repaired in many places and large scale building operations are in progress which will raise still higher the demands for electricity. Plan have therefore been made for a wide extension of the Company's distribution system including the construction of at least two new sub-stations.

Erection of a new 20,000 k.w. high grade pressure turbo alternator has enabled the total generating capacity of the station to be raised from 30,500 k.w. at the end of 1947 to 50,500 k.w. by the end of 1948. The boiler plant capacity is 460,000 lbs. per hour, most of the boilers being operated on oil fuel. Some of the equipment for a new oil-fired high pressure boiler has arrived which it is hoped will be in operation by the end of 1949 and will raise the boiler plant capacity to 660,000 lbs.

per hour. An additional 20,000 k.w. turbo alternator and an additional 200,000 lbs. oil-fired boiler are on order but are not expected until the second half of 1952.

reduced

The price of the Company's lighting current was from 40 cents at the end of 1947 to 32 cents at the end of 1948 while the price of power was reduced from 18 cents to 16 cents. The price of current for cooking and heating remained steady at 13 cents. Rents for meters have been reduced.

Gas.

Gas is supplied on both sides of the harbour by the Hong Kong and China Gas Co., which was first established in the Colony in 1861.

The repair of plant and mains damaged and neglected during the Japanese occupation will, it is anticipated, be completed within the next year if materials can be supplied by manufacturers in the United Kingdom. The rapid expansion of the population since the re-occupation of the Colony has put a considerable strain on the company's resources, and the demand for gas is still in-

IIO

creasing, but the whole of Kowloon and most of Victoria and the Peak are now supplied with gas. New appliances, such as cookers. and geysers, have been imported to the value of $700,000 and $97,000 has been spent on new meters.

Tramways.

The electric tramcar services operated by Hong Kong Tram- ways Limited serve the industrial, city and main residential areas over routes, totalling 10 miles upon the northern shore of the Island, almost entirely laid as double permanent-way and exceed- ing 19 miles of track.

The main task of rehabilitation which faced the Company, with only 15 cars of its rolling-stock fleet left in a mobile condition upon the re-occupation of the Colony in September, 1945, has been completed. At the close of 1948 a daily operation of 100 tramcars (all of saloon-top double-deck construction) were in regular service against a normal daily service of 92 passengers cars in the year 1941. In the progress of rehabilitation various tech- nical, constructional and traffic-safety improvements have been incorporated. The more pressing problems of procurement of equipment and material supplies which hitherto retarded full recovery of pre-war standards were substantially overcome towards the end of the year.

With one or two specific exceptions such as electric traction motors of improved specification, long awaited equipment is now reaching the undertaking. New and additional tramcars are approaching completion in the Company's workshops and will be in public service during the early months of 1949. In conjunction with the Public Works Department construction of a raised and widened roadway between Causeway Bay terminus and King's Road, an entirely new and realigned double-track permanent-way has been laid down, with foundations of the former track line abandoned at the old levels .The Company now has in project the completion of double-tracking certain remaining short sections of single-track at the eastern end of Shaukiwan Road. Since 1945 the permanent-way of the Tramways has been restored to very high overall standards of condition and maintainance.

1

An average of 96 tramcars was operated throughout the year against an average of 80 for 1947. Nearly 88 million passengers were carried by the company's services being 21 million more than in the previous year. This represents a traffic of some eight millions greater than in 1941.

Very considerable expansion throughout the operational, works and maintenance departments has followed these develop-

ments.

An example is that a car-crew of four men including

III

two conductors is now standard practice. The total labour force employed is numerically 70% greater than in 1941. Total wages costs are twelve times higher than at the close of 1941, with individual earnings from 500% to over 600% above pre-war rates. The fare structure is upon a flat-rate basis for

any distance over any route-the maximum of which is 63 miles of 20 cents (3 pence) 1st class, and 10 cents (1 pence) 3rd class. With increased service accommodation available, the former practice of concession fare tickets for regular passenger groups was re-introduced by the Company during the year by the issue of Monthly Tickets and Half-Fare Children's Tickets in addition to a 1st-class Half-Fare Military Ticket. A total of 13 million passengers was carried at these reduced rates.

pas

The Peak Tramway, or as it was then known, the Hong Kong High Level Tramway, was first opened for traffic in May 1888, and has provided almost without interruption for over sixty years one of the fastest and most efficient funicular services in the world. The winding gear was originally steam driven and the cars were attached to each end of a single rope, but this obsolete system was replaced in 1926 by modern electric haulage gear consisting of two drums in tandem with separate ropes of 5,000 feet. The steepest gradient (at May Road) is 1 in 2. Until motor roads were opened in 1924, it was the only means of trans- port to the Peak.

At the outbreak of hostilities in 1941, the engine room and track suffered extensive damage from shell fire. After the fall of the Colony, the Japanese operated a limited service, which ceased altogether in August 1944. The liberation of the Colony in 1945 found the workshop stripped of equipment and tools, and reconstruction of the entire organization became a monumental task, but on Christmas Day of that year a service of 25 cars was re-inaugurated. Before the war, an average service of 97 cars per day was maintained from 6 a.m. to 12.15 a.m. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining tools and machinery replacements, resuscita- tion of the Company's former standard of service has been gradual; nevertheless, it catered successfully for 732,000 passengers in 1946 and 876,000 in 1947 with the figures reaching close to a million in 1948. Full scale rehabilitation of the plant and rolling stock has been completed. A minimum service of 51 cars per day is being operated and more cars are run as and when traffic demands.

Bus Services.

Bus services are maintained in Kowloon and the New Ter- ritories by the Kowloon Motor Bus Company and on Hong Kong

II2

Island by the China Motor Bus Company. Both companies have succeeded in increasing the number of buses in service during the year, in spite of difficulties of supply, and there are now 108 buses on the Island, the same number as there were before the war, and 152 on the Mainland. The Kowloon Motor Bus Company took delivery of 79 new buses during 1948 and was able from the middle of the year to reduce gradually the number of converted lorries, seventy of which had been used as buses since the libera- tion. Twenty double decker buses have also been received for service in Kowloon and the New Territories. Only one pre-war route on the Mainland and one on the Island have not yet been reopened; two new routes have been started serving Sai Kung and Clear Water Bay.

Operating costs for both Companies remained high, but some fares on the Island were reduced during 1948 and the Kow- loon Motor Bus Company plans a lower scale of fares which is to be introduced in February, 1949. Buses on the Mainland travel- led 9,650,000 miles and carried about 56.5 million passengers. On the Island buses carried over 20 million passengers over a total distance of nearly 3 million miles.

Ferries

The Star Ferry Co., operates a passenger ferry across the shortest crossing of the harbour from a point in the centre of Victoria to Tsim Sha Tsui at the Southern extremity of Kowloon Peninsula. Five launches are now in service and operate daily for 194 hours, a five-minute service being maintained over the rush periods, a ten-minute service at normal times and a fifteen- minute service in the early morning and late evening. . Over 28 million passengers were carried in 108,800 crossings during the year. In December 90,000 persons were transported daily which is three times the number carried before the war. Fares remained unchanged throughout the year.

The Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Co., Ltd., which operates the vehicular ferry with three vessels was able during the year to resume its pre-war schedule by which ferries sail at twelve minute intervals. Before the resumption of the full service there used to be as many as 150 vehicles waiting in queues after a vessel had left her berth. This improved service was made possible by refloating and re-conditioning the third vessel which was sunk in December 1941. Alterations made to all three vessels now enable an extra 12 small cars to be carried in side compartments if

necessary.

This company also provides a passenger ferry every ten minutes to Mongkok and Shamshuipo, but it has not yet proved

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possible for lack of ferry piers to re-open the pre-war services to Kowloon City and Hung Hom. The ferry piers at Tsun Wan, Tsing I Island and Castle Peak are still to be reconstructed. As a result the existing ferry and bus services remain overcrowded. Passenger ferry services provided by the Hong Kong and Yaumati Ferry Company to Cheung Chau Island, Silvermine Bay in Lantau and to Ping Chau Island have been well patronized especially during week ends and holidays in the summer months by people who wish to bathe from the clean and beautiful beaches on these Islands. Other visitors visit Lantau to climb to the Summer Rest Camp or the monastery at Ngong Ping which are situated at about 2,000 feet above sea level.

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Salvage operations have been begun on the sunken passenger ferry vessel "Man Tak" and the vehicular ferry "Man Gok" both of which were sunk during the war by Allied bombers in the West. River about 150 miles from Hong Kong. It is hoped that both vessels may be back in Hong Kong by the end of 1949.

Operating costs of all services have remained high.

Broadcasting.

Radio Hong Kong is a sub-department under the control of the Postmaster General. Transmissions are made from two stations, ZBW (845 k/cs.) which is an English language station and ZEK (640 k/cs.) from which broadcasts are made in Chinese. Short-wave transmissions are also made from ZBW on a frequency of 9.525 megacycles. Broadcasting programme hours have been increased during the year under review to cover the introduction of religious services and French, Portuguese and Indian pro- grammes. Before this year, there had been no programmes before 12.30 p.m. (10.30 a.m. on Sundays) but on 17th June, an experiment was made in broadcasting from 7.30 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. This early broadcast proved extremely popular and on Christmas. Day, Boxing Day and New Year's Eve, continuous broadcasting was provided from 8.00 a.m. to midnight. The question of making early morning broadcasts a regular daily feature is under consideration.

X

The Chinese Section of Radio Hong Kong continues to be hampered by the acute shortage of Chinese gramophone records and the expense of engaging suitable 'live' talent. The European Section of Radio Hong Kong has made use of the BBC Transcrip- tion Service, the plays and features of which have proved very popular. In this comparatively small European community local talent is necessarily limited but it has, nevertheless, been possible. to form a radio repertory company and valuable contributions have been made by the local Stage Club and the Garrison Players. The

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Colony is also fortunate in having two playwright-producers of considerable merit who have made frequent and outstanding con- tributions to local broadcasting. News bulletins are issued at lunchtime on the short-wave transmitters in English and the Cantonese, Mandarin and Swatow dialects. In the evening the station relays the BBC news in Cantonese and the English news and News Summary in the overseas service.

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The Port.

COMMUNICATIONS

Chapter 11.

The prosperity of Hong Kong as a great commercial entrepôt depends to a large extent on the efficiency of its port facilities. In addition to ocean-going ships under a wide variety of flags, large numbers of sailing and motor junks and river steamers which sail from Hong Kong along the China coast can be seen daily in the harbour. There are also numbers of steam launches and junks and sampans which serve the port as ancillary craft for the larger shipping.

As may be seen from the Table at the end of this section the total net tonnage of vessels entering and leaving the Colony has shown an increase during the year. The total tonnage of vessels of over 60 tons has increased by approximately 10% and the tonnage for river steamers by about 25% over 1947 although during the last quarter of the year the number of American vessels using the port declined as a result of the shipping strike in America. Services between Hong Kong and Europe and the United Kingdom have been improved by the placing in service of a second P. & O. liner, the R.M.S. "Carthage", a sister ship to the R.M.S. "Canton", and by an increase in the number of cargo vessels carrying up to

twelve passengers. The congestion of passenger traffic to Europe though still serious has been eased by these measures.

The trend of fitting junks with mechanical means of power has persisted although such vessels are now limited to the of heavy oil engines.

use

The repair and improvement of port facilities have continued throughout the year and local docking, repair and overhaul facilities of any magnitude for all types of vessels are now available. Vessels up to 750 feet in length can be dry-docked and the con- struction of ships up to 10,000 tons, subject only to the limitations. imposed by shortage of supplies, is again possible.

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The port communication system has been extended to

include a wireless telephone to Waglan Lighthouse to enable early information of a vessel's arrival to be passed to those interested. A new navigation light has been set up during the year on the south point of the Kowloon Peninsula on Blackhead Hill to assist vessels using the Eastern entrance to the port, and navigation lights on all points are now up to the pre-war standard with the exception of Waglan, for which modern lighting apparatus is on order, and Gap Rock, the future of which is under discussion.

As described in the chapter on Legislation permission has been granted to officers of the Chinese Maritime Customs to search certain types of vessels in prescribed areas of British waters. in order to assist the Chinese Government to eradicate smuggling.

During the year a Marine Court was held to enquire into the circumstances surrounding the fire which occurred on board the river steamer "Kwangtung" while the vessel was berthed at her wharf in the harbour. Although the fire was of negligible proportions, panic was the cause of heavy loss of life. Steps have been taken to minimise the risk of such a disaster occurring in the future. Enquiries were also held into the loss of a local ferry by an explosion, presumed to be a mine, while on a trip from Cheung Chau to Hong Kong, a fire on board the S.S. "Hsing Kong So' while bound to Hong Kong from Macau, and a collision which occurred within the Harbour limits between the British S.S. "Eumaeus" and the Russian S.S. "Poltava":

The following tables give the comparative figures for 1947 and 1948 for vessels engaged in foreign trade:-

G KU

Class of Vessel British ocean-going

Foreign ocean-going

British river steamers

Foreign river steamers

Foreign Trade.

Steam launches (Under 60 tons) Junks, Foreign Trade

1947.

1948

RAR

No. Tons. No.l'ons.

2,245 6,049,000 2,359 5,902,675 3,031 8,317,940 3,289 9,829,048 2,815 1,463,477 4,104 2,299,851

1,314 261,452 3,083 4,152 93,771 4,413 100,401 24,589 2,318,099 24,813 2,598,852

654,243

38,146 18,503,739 42,061 21,385,070

Local Trade.

Powered launches Junks

5,835 249,592 7,980

261,150 7,444 237,134 15,720 754,531

Grand Total

51,425 18,990,415 65,761 22,400,751

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Civil Aviation.

Hong Kong has taken its place in the world wide system of civil aviation and from all parts of the globe airlines meet at Hong Kong to diverge again over the Far East. The network of routes from the airport at Kai Tak, near Kowloon, goes southward to Hanoi, Saigon, Bangkok, Singapore, Rangoon, and on to Australia, or to India and Europe; eastward to Manila and to the United States or South America; northward to Japan and north and west to all parts of China. To carry traffic which at the end. or the year amounted to 25,000 passengers per month and large quantities of mail and freight, aircraft of the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, China, Philippines, Siam, U.S.A., France and Norway arrive at the rate of 25 per day. In under 10 years the number of people flying in and out of the Colony has risen from about 6,000 to nearly a quarter of a million a year; 75% of the travellers. pass to and from China.

The topography of Hong Kong makes the location of a modern airport a most difficult problem. Kai Tak is recognised as unsuitable for the aircraft which will be flying the routes within the next few years. A careful survey of possible sites has been made and one which conforms with international standards has been found. Kai Tak will necessarily be used for some time to come and consequently certain essential new buildings were constructed during the course of the year. These included one to house air traffic control, meteorological and signals sections, a new airfield control tower which affords a full view of the run-ways and offices, workshops and one hangar constructed by operating companies. There is now very little land left for further expansion. Other improvements are the installation of runway electric lighting for emergency night landings, direction finding equipment on Victoria Peak and much increased facilities for communication with aircraft and airports.

In order to meet some of the cost of the extensive service now available to aircraft the landing fees, which had not been changed since 1937, were increased and revenue derived from all sources rose to $557,230. Rates for fares and air cargo have shown a slight tendency upwards over the year. The average rate for passengers in this area is 46 cents per mile for a flight to Shanghai; a journey of similar length in Europe would cost about 38 cents per mile. Although no really modern landplanes are yet operating, the comfort of the Dakotas and Skymasters has been much im- proved and careful attention is given to passenger requirements in the air and on the ground. On some airlines travellers while in the air are now able to send private telegrams.

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The flying boat base adjacent to the airfield is used by British Overseas Airways Corporation services to the United Kingdom, Singapore and Japan. The latter is a new service inaugurated in March. Amphibian aircraft used on a ferry service to Macau and one private aircraft also occasionally operate from the water. Control of the alighting area is maintained by a launch carrying radio telephony and fire fighting equipment.

The excellent record of freedom of fare-paying passengers from accidents within the Colony, which has stood since flying began in 1930, was marred at the end of the year by a disaster to a foreign airliner which resulted in the death of 28 passengers. An attempt at piracy in the air, probably the first against a com- mercial air service, led to the destruction of a locally registered aircraft and the death of 26 people. This accident occurred near Macau.

Although Hong Kong is a free port and duties are levied on only a few classes of goods, the movement of currency and bullion is controlled. The profits made on gold lead to attempts at evasion of regulations and many valuable seizures have been made by the airport customs officials. It is the aim to make immigration for- malities as simple as possible and the unrestricted movement of An agree- Chinese between China and Hong Kong continued. ment between the neighbouring. Portuguese colony and Hong Kong made it easier for residents to travel between these two places. A bilateral air agreement with the Philippines was signed during the year. Hong Kong was represented at a conference in New Delhi of the International Civil Aviation Organization.

Meteorological Services.

Meteorological services are provided by the Royal Observatory for the general public, merchant shipping, civil aviation and the armed forces. The main forecasting office is located at Hong Kong airport, and is linked to the Observatory by teleprinter and telephone. The Observatory remains the administrative centre, and its work includes the typhoon warning service, marine weather service, meteorological observations, climatology, training and research.

As a great seaport, Hong Kong is responsible for providing a weather service and typhoon warnings to ships in the northern part of the China Sea and along the China coast. Close co-operation is maintained between the Observatory and ships of all nationalities, and the large number of weather reports now received from ships. at sea is of great value in the forecasting work.

Civil Aviation, which requires a weather service of great efficiency, has made ever increasing demands on the Royal Obser-

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vatory and absorbs so large a proportion of its activities that the Observatory has been obliged to neglect important but less urgent tasks such as research into the many problems of meteorology and geophysics which await solution. Equipment is on order for re- establishing the time service and seismological work, interrupted by the war, and it is planned to establish a radiosonde and radar wind-finding station for investigation of the upper atmosphere.

The Rallway.

Kowloon is the southern terminal of a railway system extend- ing to the north as far as Hankow in central China. From Shum- chun on the border of the New Territories northward to Canton the route is now operated by the Canton-Hankow Railway, and is referred to as the southern section of that Line. From Shumchun south to Kowloon, a distance representing 36 kilometres out of a total of 183 kilometres from Kowloon to Canton, the railway is operated by the Hong Kong Government and is known as the British Section of the Kowloon-Canton Railway. As the railway is operated in two sections an agreement was in force before the war whereby each section collected its own local fares, while the rates for through traffic between Kowloon and Canton were divided in the proportion of 28 per cent to the British Section and 72 per cent to the Chinese Section. At the present time, pending the conclusion of a new agreement, the British Section is receiving a share of 20 per cent of the receipts and a terminal charge of 20 cents per ton on all traffic originating at Kowloon.

The Railway suffered severely during the Japanese occupa- tion, machinery, rolling stock and equipment of all kinds being either looted or destroyed. In consequence, heavy rehabilitation has been necessary and it is satisfactory to record that with the arrival of new machinery and materials considerable progress was made during 1948 towards a restoration of pre-war facilities and services. The arrival of new 95-lb. rails and accessories enabled an extensive programme of re-railing the whole of the mainline to be begun, special priority being devoted to the curved sections. Progress was also made towards the restoration of sidings removed during the war with the best of the rails removed from the main line.

The shortage of machines and tools, which since the reoccupa- tion has affected both the cost and speed with which repairs and rehabilitation could be carried out, was remedied to a certain extent during the year as the arrival of new supplies resulted in an improved workshops outturn. Repair costs per engine, carriage and wagon were lower, and the better maintenance of rolling stock also led to a reduced consumption of lubricating oil.

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Another major work undertaken during the year was the lowering of the coupler heights of all British Section locomotives, carriages and wagons from 43′′ to 351". This change was necessary in order to facilitate the interchange of rolling stock with that of the Chinese Administration. The Chinese Government Railways decided to standardize the coupler heights of all their rolling stocks at 35" since the Japanese had converted so large a proportion of the available stock in China to this height during the war.

The British Section perforce had to follow suit.

The total revenue for the period January-December 1948 amounted to approximately $6,953,596,67 while expenditure was approximately $3,658,651.35. The main source of income was from passenger traffic which was the heaviest in the history of the Line, the total numbers carried and revenue earned over the British Section being 3,683,621 and $5,966,796.40 respectively. This was an increase of 33.58 per cent over the numbers conveyed in 1947 and 30.66 per cent above the previous highest of 2,826,867 in 1936. These figures however do not represent the results of any one financial year as the Railway financial year dates from 1st April to 31st March.

Through passengers carried were 2,446,895, revenue earned being $4,894,090.10. This was an increase of 546,255 passengers and $952,582.28 in revenue compared with the previous year and is attributed to the growth in population of the Colony and Canton coupled with the improvements achieved in the economic position of the Colony. Traffic was particularly heavy over the Easter Holidays and the Ching Ming or Chinese Spring Festival, 95 special trains being run between March 26th and April 21st necessitating special police arrangements at Kowloon Station to control the crowds. The number of local passengers rose from 857,036 to 1,236,726, revenue earned being $1,072,706.30 an increase of $280,914.85 due to improvements in the local train service and the rise in population of the New Territories in the neighbourhood of the Railway.

There was a decrease in through goods traffic by comparison with 1947, as the following figures illustrate:

Up Down

Total

1948.

1947.

123,548 tons

55,784 tons.

4,212 tons

31,100 tons.

127,760 tons

86,884 tons.

The decrease is explained by the gradual cessation of UNRRA supplies and the reduction in imports and exports passing to and from the interior via Hong Kong owing to the very stringent re- strictions imposed by the Chinese Government.

At the close of the year the train services amounted to four

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through passengers trains daily to and from Canton, three fast, one slow and two goods trains. There were six local passenger trains each way daily.

The rolling stock consisted of 32 coaches, 92 wagons and 16 locomotives. More coaches are urgently required and 24 are on order but delivery cannot be completed before 1952. The delivery of

192 wagons on order is expected to commence sometime in the coming year. A loss which could ill be afforded occurred when a second class coach was totally destroyed in a serious accident at Pu Kut in Chinese Territories on September 3rd, 1948, in which 29 persons lost their lives. Compensation for its loss has been paid. Assistance was rendered by the British Section especially in the removal of the injured who were treated in Kowloon.

It was decided to replace railway watchmen by Police during the

year and the change produced immediate results in a reduction in the number of black-market ticket sellers, pilferers, loiterers and other undesirables who were in the habit of frequenting and entering by stealth the enclosed areas of the railway.

Roads.

The building and maintainance of roads in Hong Kong are subject to unusual topographical and climatic difficulties. Most of the the Colony is hilly and the construction of a new road usually involves considerable blasting operations, but fortunately the rock thus blasted is suitable for use as road metal. Heavy downpours of rain in the Summer months are sufficient to cause grave damage to any road surface which falls short of a high standard of maintenance and further rains are liable

to make repairs difficult and expensive. A sum of $320,000 was spent in 1948 in making good damage caused by rains to road cuttings and embankments. In spite of these difficulties the populated areas of the Colony are reasonably well served with roads. Within the 391 square miles of the Colony there are over 400 miles of roads, 173 miles being on the island, 106 miles in Kowloon and the remainder in the New Territories. About 90% of these roads are of modern metalled construction.

The output of stone from Hok Un Quarry has been in- creased, a new quarry has been opened at Hung Shui Kui in the New Territories and many private quarries have been opened. A contract had been let for the production of graded crushed stone from Morrison Hill with the intention that Government should take over the quarry when the contract is completed, but the new quarry plant has not arrived and the contract has been renewed.

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1

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One of the Post Office's new Austin mail vans recently intro- duced to speed up collection of mails.

1.

Photograph by Francis Wu.

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Mails being unloaded at Kowloon Wharf.

Photograph by Francis Wu.

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Many of the roads deteriorated badly as a result of neglect during the Japanese occupation and the large number of vechicles at present in the Colony, about double the pre-war number, pro- The vides an added burden on the already weakened surfaces. urgent necessity of repairing these roads has precluded the construction of any new roads during the year. The delivery of road rollers and of some spares for quarry plant has enabled satisfactory progress in repair work to be made especially on main roads carrying the greatest volume of traffic. Some of these repairs, when completed, will permit buses to revert to their original routes thus relieving congestion on other routes; one bus route has already been re-opened. Other repairs have re-opened, a shorter route to Kai Tak airfield. Several minor roads have been re-surfaced. The shortage of steel still prevails and major works were done on bridges during the year.

The Post Office.

no

The Postmaster General is responsible for the Postal Services, within the Colony and for the Government broadcasting organisation "Radio Hong Kong" which is dealt with in Part II, Chapter 10 of this Report. On the 1st November, 1948, the non-commercial Telecommunications services which, had hitherto been under the control of the Postmaster General were transferred to Cable & Wireless, Ltd.

Postal Services are provided through the General Post Office in Victoria, the Central Post Office in Kowloon and eight branch offices of which four are on the Island and four on the mainland. There is also a small post office on Cheung Chau Island and an office for the reception of air mails at Kai Tak Airport. Special arrangements have been made for the delivery and collection of correspondence at Sha Tau Kok and Sai Kung, There is still a two out-lying towns in the New Territories.

pressing need for a considerably larger General Post Office, the present building having been erected 37 years ago, and for more branch post offices. It is expected that the building of four of the latter will be begun in the course of next year.

The total number of bags of mail received and despatched was 374,414 or over 1,000 per day, and in addition there were 164,146 bags of transit mail or over 400 bags per day. The handling of transit mail is one of the greatest problems since there is no available storage accommodation near to the principal wharves. As all transit mail has to be stored in the General Post Office, most of it has to perform a double journey across the harbour and very serious congestion is caused in the General Post Office. The public space in the General Post Office needs

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There are

to be doubled to meet present day requirements. 3,000 applicants on the waiting list for Post Office boxes and lack of space prevents the installation of new boxes.

Additions to the Department's transport have now

made

it possible to effect pillar box collections by motor van and to improve the cross harbour mail services. The Colony continues to be well served by air lines and most parts of the world can be reached by air direct from Hong Kong. In April, 1948, an arrangement was made with Hong Kong Airways by which all first class mail for Canton was carried by air at the surface rate. There are three services to and from Canton each way daily and the transit time is one hour. An air parcel service between Hong Kong and the United States was inaugurated in October, 1948, and has exceeded expectations in the volume of mail it has attracted. The direct Money Order service with Pakistan was opened in September, 1948.

The Silver Wedding Commemorative Stamps were placed on sale on the 22nd December, 1948, and first day sales amounted to over $88,000.

The year was noteworthy for a very large increase in business transacted by the Post Office. Just over half a million mail bags of ordinary mail were handled, an increase of more than 44% over 1947 while over 37,000 bags of air mail were dealt with, an increase of one third over the previous year. Nearly $10 million worth of stamps were sold, an increase of nearly 30%, and the total value of money orders issued and paid amounted to over one million dollars, an increase of 58% over the 1947 value. Postal Orders to the value of $286,077 were issued and paid.

Telecommunications.

All the communications services, including marine, meteorological and aeradio services and the engineering side of broadcasting, which had hitherto been directly administered by Government, were transferred to Cable & Wireless, Ltd. on 1st November, 1948. Certain technical developments were necessarily deferred pending completion of the transfer, but several improvements were nevertheless effected during the year. The main transmitter building at the Cape d'Aguilar transmit- ting station has been extended and additional transmitters for commercial services are being installed.

New and higher power transmitters for the marine medium-wave services have been installed.

The main expansion during the past year has been in con- nection with air services. The aeradio station at Kai Tak Airport

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has been re-designed, enlarged and installed in a new administra- tion building, and the addition of wide-band-amplifiers for reception has given greatly improved results. New frequencies have been brought into use for aeradio and operation extended throughout the 24 hours. A new control tower has

been

Air

out

equipped with complete radio facilities and controls. navigational aids in various parts of the Colony have been expanded and improved. Meteorological facilities and traffic, both transmitted and received, have been increased. Improve- ments and re-installation of equipment have been carried at the Peak Radio Station, and the addition of wide-band- amplifier equipment here also has resulted in a marked improve- ment. Further extensive tests have been carried out in connec- tion with the proposed expansion of police V.H.F. radiotelephone services, fixed and mobile, but their establishment has been held up pending the procurement of equipment. V.H.F. has been installed on Marine and Health department launches, and has also been used experimentally by Excise Preventive Officers. new medium-wave broadcasting transmitter has been installed and brought into use to allow for improved maintenance. Com- plete new aerial and earth systems have been constructed, giving a valuable increase in field strength and service area. Public address equipment has been installed and operated for official requirements, either fixed for ceremonies, or on mobile vans for traffic control, health campaigns, etc. Radiotelephone services, operated by Cable & Wireless, Ltd. in conjunction with the Hong Kong Telephone Co., Ltd., are now in operation between Hong Kong and Manila, Canton and Macao and have attracted a very considerable volume of traffic.

route

A

Rehabilitation of the Government system of lines-sub- marine, cable and overhead-has continued, particularly for Police services in the New Territories, but this is not yet complete. A new control cable is being laid to the Cape d'Aguilar radio station along a new

to avoid the frequent Various interruptions due to cutting of the cable by thieves. tele-printer circuits have been installed to replace manual telegraphy. Preparatory work has been done towards the installation of a comprehensive new public alarm system for the Fire Brigade.

The Licensing Section of the Telecommunications branch has not been transferred to Cable & Wireless, Ltd. but has remained under the Post Office. A feature of licensing business during 1948 has been the remarkable increase in the number of Broadcast Receiving Licences which now stand at over 30,000. There have been a number of successful prosecutions

125

for illegal transmitters in the course of the year as well as prose- cutions for the use of unlicensed Wireless Broadcast Receivers.

Telephones.

:

The Public Telephone Service is provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Co., Ltd. Before the war the Company was serving 14,000 lines on the island and 5,100 on the mainland besides a system of 500 Government and military lines on a separate automatic exchange. In spite of the grave damage caused by neglect and under-maintenance during the occupation the Telephone Company succeeded in maintaining a continuous, though restricted service from the moment of the re-occupation in spite of the fear of imminent breakdown during the years 1945 and 1946, and has now made good most of the damage.

Concurrently with this work of rehabilitation, preparations for the expansion of the Company's plant have proceeded apace and an ambitious programme is in hand to cope with the ever increasing demand for telephone service. Exchange equipment, cable and telephones have already been received which it is hoped will enable the Company to increase the number of working lines in Central and Kowloon Exchanges by 2,000 lines by May, 1949. Further equipment is on order with the aid of which it is proposed to increase Central Exchange to 17,000 lines and Kowloon to 7,000 lines A new peak Exchange for 400 lines is in course of construction. Two new submarine cables were laid across the harbour during the year. Buildings are under construction to house additional telephone exchanges in Hong Kong and Kowloon.

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BAB

!

RESEARCH

Chapter 12

During the years before the war a good deal of research was carried out in fisheries and marine biology, in natural history and in archaeology. A summary is given below. with references to the more important publications in these fields.

Fisheries and Marine Biology.

:

Research in these subjects began in 1930. Large collections of fish and other marine organisms were made and studied by experts in several countries. Many papers were published in the "Hong Kong Naturalist" on the results of this work, including more than 200 pages on the fishes of the China Seas and a similar number of pages on other marine fauna and flora. These papers provide a useful background for present and future fisheries research.

Early in 1938 Government made a small grant to the Hong Kong University which enabled the salary and expenses of Mr. S. Y. Lin, a Chinese research worker, to be met. Mr. Lin carried out a very careful and thorough survey of the marine fishing industries of Hong Kong and also of fish culture in fresh-water and brackish water ponds in the New Territories. Papers on this work and on other aspects of local marine biology were published in the first two numbers of the "Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station", in February and September, 1940. A book on the "Common Marine Food Fishes of Hong Kong" was published and was sold out; a second enlarged edition, in which 50 species were described, appeared in March, 1940. Another book was in the press dealing with the crabs, prawns and shell-fish of the Colony but the manuscripts and proofs were lost as a result of the war. A small fisheries research staff was appointed and plans were prepared for the building by Government of a Fisheries Research Station on Hong Kong Island. Research meantime continued at

4

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a temporary field station and in the Biology Department of the University. Unfortunately in the subsequent hostilities all preserved specimens, records and books were completely destroyed. In 1941 the Hong Kong Government voted the sum of $220,000 to cover the cost of the building of a Fisheries Research Station, and building was commenced on a site near the village of Aberdeen in the Autumn. This was interrupted by the Japanese attack on the Colony. During the months immediately preceding the Japanese attack research was carried out on the tanning of nets and on the extraction of oil from the livers of different local fish. This work showed that it was possible to increase greatly the efficiency of the Chinese method of tanning by a small and easily grasped modifica- tion, and, secondly, that the livers of large sharks yielded oil very rich in vitamin A. Enough livers were obtained to yield a quantity of valuable oil suitable for hospital use and a small reserve of this oil was built up against an emergency. Mr. Lin, who during the Japanese occupation remained in Hong Kong, was able to continue the manufacture of this oil and to supply Stanley Internment Camp with it through the medium of the International Red Cross. Thousands of internees received the oil as a prophylactic against vitamin A deficiency and it proved of great value in the treatment of tropical ulcers and eye troubles caused by the deficiency of this vitamin in the camp diet.

Natural History.

The flora of Hong Kong has been very fully, though not completely, described in the "Flora Honkongensis" by G. B. Bentham, published in 1861 and in the "Flora of Kwangtung and Hong Kong" by S. T. Dunn and W. J. Tutcher, published in 1912. Attention has in particular been paid in recent years to the flowering shrubs and trees and the orchids; numerous papers in the "Hong Kong Naturalist" and three small books have been published on these plants. "Food and Flowers," edited by Dr. G. A. C. Herklots and issued by the Agricultural Department and the Gardens Department in June, 1948, gives, amongst other in- formation, an account of rice cultivation and of trials carried out with various vegetables and details of some flowering shrubs, melastoma and related genera. The only book published on the fauna of the Colony was one on the "Butterflies of Hong Kong" by Mr. J. C. Kershaw in 1905. This book has been out of print for many years and is extremely scarce. Attention has been paid in particular to the snakes, birds, mammals and butterflies, and many papers have been published. There is a need for a com- prehensive natural history book dealing with the more conspicuous flowers and trees, the commoner insects and the larger animals.

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Archaeology.

Prior to 1932, Dr. C. M. Heanley, Mr. W. Schofield and Professor J. L. Shellshear, D.S.O., had made some investigations. into local archaeology, and in that year Father D. J. Finn, S.J., began an intensive study of the subject. Between 1932 and 1936 he published in the "Hong Kong Naturalist" thirteen detailed and very fully illustrated articles (245 pages) on his own discoveries which he correlated with archaeological work on the Chinese mainland. Serious research on this subject suffered a set-back in 1936 with the death of Father Finn, but his work had drawn the attention of archaeologists in all parts of the world to this corner of East Asia. Father Finn's conclusion as to the date of the sites which he excavated was that they were representative of the middle of the first millenium B.C., and extended over the third quarter of that period. Since Father Finn's death, Father R. Maglioni has done some work in Hong Kong and considerably more in Kwang- tung province, and has correlated the archaeology of Hong Kong with that of the mainland. His most recent paper appeared in the "Proceedings of the Third Congress of Prehistorians of the Far East", Singapore, January, 1938.

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Religion

الحالاا

Chapter 13

In religion as in other aspects of life Hong Kong presents a wide variety. The majority of the Chinese besides the traditional family observances usually described by foreigners as "ancestor worship", follow the ancient Buddhist, Taoist or Confucian creeds, although about 20,000 of them are Protestants and about 40,000 are Roman Catholics. Each of the three creeds is to a certain extent the complement of the other two and has reacted on the other two during their long history. Confucianism which is entirely unmystical and aims purely at providing a code of behaviour for this world, is represented in the Colony by the Confucian Hall and the Confucian Society which provides a number of free schools for boys and girls. Taoism, the oldest of the three creeds, includes an ele- ment of mysticism and aims at inculcating that resignation and contentment which its followers believe to be essential require- ments of longevity. There are nearly fifty Taoist monasteries in the Colony, Buddhism to the Chinese is a foreign creed having been introduced into China from India-the traditional date being 61 A.D. During the centuries while reacting on the Chinese way of life Chinese Buddhism has itself been changed into a creed con- siderably different from the original Buddhism. There are some seventy Buddhist monasteries and nunneries in the Colony, All Chinese temples (which term under the Chinese Temples Ordinance, 1928, includes, besides temples proper, Taoist and Buddhist monasteries and nunneries but does not include ancestral halls of which there is one in nearly every village) must by law be registered with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.

Hong Kong forms part of the Diocese of Hong Kong and South China which celebrates this year its centenary upon the hundredth anniversary of the consecration of the first Bishop of Hong Kong on 29th May, 1849. The building which is now St. John's Cathedral was built in 1847 and was established as a Cathe- dral Church by Letter Patent from Queen Victoria in 1850. Most of the essential Diocesan and Cathedral records were preserved during the occupation, in spite of the grave damage done to the building, and will prove invaluable as a basis for a Diocesan history which is now being prepared.

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Anglican Church services are maintained in three English

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In a Chinese Temple.

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speaking parochial centres, in three chapels for the three Armed Services and also at the Missions to Seamen in Wanchai. There are five parochial centres where Services in Cantonese are maintained and also two Church centres in the New Territories and several preaching halls with schools in the city area. There is still a short- of clergy due largely to the war years when there was age provision for the training of ordinands. The interior repairs to the Cathedral are continuing and an electronic organ has been ordered from London. Plans for the future include the rebuilding of St. Stephen's Church and Vicarage, the oldest Chinese Anglican church in Colony, and the construction of a new parish with church, vicarage, school and play-ground in Shaukiwan.

The Free Churches, which also suffered heavy damage, are gradually recovering from the effects of the occupation. The re- storation of the Church Hall of the Union Church, Kowloon, has been completed and it is hoped to begin rebuilding the Church Hall of Union Church, Hong Kong, during the coming year.

The Roman Catholic Church maintains 12 public Churches. in Hong Kong and Kowloon and many Chapels in different villages in the New Territories, and now is staffed by 150 priests, 40 lay brothers and 370 sisters which is substantially more than before the war. In the Church of China the Diocese of the Catholic Bishop of Hong Kong extends far beyond the borders of the Colony to cover the provinces of Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Kweichow and Yunnan. Due to the increase in work in the western parts of the Diocese, a sub-division has been made whereby the latter two provinces have been formed into a district known as the Yun-Kwei District. A post war development is that, instead of each parish being responsible for the payment of the stipend of its clergy, the responsibility devolves on the Diocesan Office, although each parish contributes 60% of its weekly collections and yearly donations.

There is also a Russian Orthodox Church in the Colony. The Indian Community has four places of worship, the Sikh Temple, two Mosques and a Parsee Temple. The greater part

of the Indian population of Hong Kong is Muslim (about 1,100); Sikhs and Sindhis with about 300 each are also well represented. The Sikh temple which was standing before the war was destroyed during hostilities, but has now been replaced. There is a Jewish Community of about 150 mainly composed of merchants. The community is very old, dating back to the foundation of the Colony. One synagogue is maintained.

The Churches play a very full part in the educational, social and charitable work of the Colony. Many charitable institutions and much relief work are undertaken by them, but, as social welfare is the subject of another Chapter in this report, no detailed men-

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of particular activities is included in this section. Among the charitable ventures are numbered the Salvation Army Child- ren's Home and the special relief work for the poor and destitute. carried out by the Society of St. Vincent de Paul. The educational work is done mainly in the Grant-in-Aid Schools, which are re- ferred to elsewhere in this report. The social activities of the Churches are too numerous to mention but among them two of the most active are the Catholic Centre, which houses a chapel, library, reading room, lecture halls, etc., and the Sailors' and Sold- iers' Home run under the auspices of the English Methodist Church.

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.

THE ARTS

Chapter 14.

The casual visitor to Hong Kong may easily believe that the citizens of Hong Kong are not devotees of the Arts, since he finds in the Colony no art gallery, no English-language theatre, no public concert-hall, no museum, no public library and few ways therefore in which during his stay in the Colony he can engage in that particular artistic activity in which he is most interested. Such an indictment would not be wholly fair to the Colony, since although there is little public patronage of the Arts there is a wide variety of clubs and societies, too numerous to chronicle in detail in this Report, whose members follow with enthusiasm one or other of the Arts, whether it be music or painting, photography, dancing or the drama. Most of these

societies from time to time provide public performances of plays or concerts or exhibitions of paintings or photographs.

Music

new

The year 1948 has been a year of greater musical activity in Hong Kong than any year since the war. The regular concerts sponsored by the Sino-British Club have brought several musicians before the public, and these concerts have been con- sistently well attended. The efforts of the Club to produce a local orchestra were rewarded finally by the appearance of a Sino-British Symphony Orchestra, which made a good impression by its initial performances. A parallel venture was the promo- tion of a Light Orchestra, which caters for more popular tastes and has won considerable favour with the public. The efforts of these two organizations were greatly stimulated by a visit from the Municipal Symphony Orchestra of Manila in July, which was the first large orchestra to come to Hong Kong for many years. The visit of the Band of the Royal Artillery, which took part in the Remembrance Day parade, also aroused considerable interest,

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the

and, by attracting attention to military band music, helped the public to realise that Hong Kong had a band of a very high standard, that of the 2nd Battalion The Buffs. The perfor- mances of that band were thenceforward listened to with greatly increased interest. An important musical revival was resuscitation of the Chamber Music Club, which flourished in Hong Kong before the war. A large audience attended its first concert, which was held in the ball-room of Government House.

Interest in choral music has also increased. Several local choirs were introduced to the public at the concerts of the Sino- British Club. All were of good standard and most of them showed a refreshing originality in their choice of items for per- formance. The Hong Kong Singers maintained their usual good standard and another welcome musical revival was that of the Choral Group, which was responsible for many concerts of operatic music in pre-war days. The Colony is fortunate in having some individual singers and instrumentalists who were always heard with pleasure. Their number was increased by a few passing visitors. Radio Hong Kong was watchful to enlist the services of every performer of worth, and it made the fullest use of local talent in providing 'live" musical items from the Hong Kong studio, besides running a series of interest- ing talks on orchestral music.

An assurance of increased musical activity in Hong Kong was provided by the development of interest in music in the University and schools. There is a flourishing Musical Society in the University, and the concert of carols given by the students was outstanding among Christmas functions. For the younger students of the Colony there is the Schools' Musical Association which holds monthly concerts and recitals both in Hong Kong and in Kowloon. Its success was so considerable that it had to cease enrolling new members since there was no hall capable of holding all who wished to join.

Drama.

The Hong Kong Stage Club which was founded in February, 1946, primarily as an organisation to provide some cultural activity for some of the men and women of the Services stationed in the Colony, has since then much increased its membership and its activity, and in its short history has presented seventeen full-length plays and scores of radio

radio programmes. The year 1948 saw the conclusion of a very successful season at the little theatre in the Missions to Seamen which

which offered hospitality to the Club and enabled it to present a varied series.

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Scenes from Chinese Opera

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of six plays including "Dangerous Corner", "The Man Who Came to Dinner", "An Inspector Calls" and "Hay Fever". The Club also staged a moving production of the Medieval Morality play "Everyman" in St. John's Cathedral in aid of the Organ Fund. In October, 1948, the third season opened with "Blithe Spirit" in the much larger and more convenient Theatre of the China Fleet Club, where the Club has since then produced a recently written "thriller" called "Grand National Night" and an elaborate and colourful dramatisation of "Treasure Island".

The Club is gradually building up a library of plays and technical books, and also a stock of costumes and equipment which has been gladly lent to other groups in the Colony who are producing plays, and there has also been some useful contact with the A.D.C. in Shanghai and with the Stage Club in Singapore. The original purpose of the Club, although less pressing now that the number of Services men and women in the Colony is smaller, has been ensured by the constitution which insists that the Committee shall include representatives from the Forces.

Another dramatic society in the Colony is the Arts Associa- tion of the University of Hong Kong which produced G.B. Shaw's "Arms and the Man" which ran for two successful nights in April.

For those who are interested in Chinese drama but find it hard to follow in Mandarin, the Wah Yan Dramatic Society produced some Chinese plays both ancient and modern in English language. Regular performances of Chinese plays may be seen in the Colony at various theatres.

Painting.

The Hong Kong Art Club, founded in pre-war days, was revived in May, 1948. Five monthly exhibitions of the work of the members were organized and at the first Annual Exhibi- tion, held in November, 88 entries by 36 members, selected from the large total of 224 entries were shown.

The main objectives of the Club are the encouragement of art and the assistance of artists, and amongst the practical measures adopted with these objectives in view were the organisa- tion of weekly sketching parties; arrangement of art classes three times a week at the Northcote Training College; procurement of materials for members; arrangement of a course of lectures in art; and the organisation of an annual exhibition of the work of children in the schools in the Colony, which will be opened on 3rd January, 1949, and for which 955 entries were received from 82 schools. There were 105 active members of the Club

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at the end of the year, including the best-known artists in Hong Kong,

Many exhibitions of the work of contemprary Chinese painters, engravers and wood-cutters were held during the year, chiefly in the Hotel Cecil.

Photography

The Photographic Society, which is affiliated to the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, was formed a few years before the war by amateur photographers who met from time to time to exchange notes and exhibit their best prints and who shared a darkroom and studio. In 1941 the Society blossomed forth by arranging for an International Salon of Pictorial Photo- graphy to be held in Hong Kong and about 400 entries were received from all over the world. The Pacific War intervened to postpone the Salon but the prints were rescued by an enthusiastic member and the Salon was eventually opened by the Governor in December 1946. Since that date an International

Salon has been held every year.

There are now about 140 active members of the Society who meet monthly in an informal dinner when prints are normally exhibited in competitions for which challenge cups and trophies are awarded.

Cultural Organisations

Apart from clubs and societies devoted to the patronage of one particular muse there are organisations which aim at promo- ting generally the cultural activity of the Colony. Prominent amongst these is the Sino-British Club, formed during the period of Military Administration, with the object of providing a common' meeting place for British, Chinese and other communities in the Colony for intellectual, musical and other activities. During the past year lectures on a variety of subjects have been delivered, a debate, a quiz, six orchestral concerts and various meetings of the Gramophone Group of the Club have been held. Within the Club various Groups have been formed. whose members are interested in such subjects as history, philately, drama, literature and music.

The Y.W.C.A. and Y.M.C.A. have also had an active year and have included amongst their varied activities talks on a wide variety of subjects, classical gramophone recitals, "Brains Trust" sessions, orchestral concerts, Cantonese Classes, debates, the showing of travelogue films, folk dancing and production of full length and one-act plays.

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A notable addition to the cultural organizations of the Colony is the British Council, an Office of which was opened in Hong Kong in September. Even before the establishment of the local office facilities provided by the London headquarters of the Council had been available to the Colony. Books had been presented to the University; gramophone records had been supplied to Radio Hong Kong; British Council publications had been distributed to schools; scholarships tenable at Universities in the United Kingdom had been awarded to a doctor, a social welfare worker and an engineer; and four persons were sent on visits to the United Kingdom. Much of the local British Council's work up to the present has been preparatory but it has succeeded in spite of cramped accommodation in illustrating the character and scope of its future plans. A library is being established; an exhibition of 18th and 19th century paintings is being prepared; lecture courses on painting and the British Constitution and a series of weekly documentary film shows accompanied by lectures are being arranged. Films on education,

nursing, industries etc. have been shown to schools, societies and other groups; arrangements have been made for the publication of feature articles in leading Chinese newspapers; two scholar- ships are being awarded for the academic year 1949/50; these illustrate some of the many activities of the British Council.

Broadcasting.

Broadcasting has now established itself in every country in the world, as an integral part of community life, and has had far-reaching influences on entertainment, on culture, on politics, on social habits, on religion and on morals. In a small colony such as Hong Kong the value of radio is doubly enhanced by the lack of an adequate community centre and the absence of a legitimate professional European theatre and of

a professional musical community. Since the war the interest amongst the educated Chinese in Western culture and particularly Western music has increased by leaps and bounds and Radio Hong Kong has done its utmost to foster this interest.

The B.B.C. Transcription Service has made it possible for listeners in the Colony to enjoy, at studio quality, the finest performances of drama and music from the B.B.C. Third and Home Programmes; to appreciate features dealing with the widest range of subjects from atomic energy to the Trade Union move- ment; and to hear talks by leading men of our time distinguished historians, philosophers and men of letters.

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During the year Radio Hong Kong has also been used to promote Sino-British relations, a noteworthy contribution to which has been the University Talk series, given by a galaxy of brilliant lecturers, describing the work of British Universities; "Cantonese by Radio", lessons in Cantonese for English listeners, and "English by Radio", English lessons for Cantonese listeners.

END OF PART II

香港:

HONG

GKONG PUZA

PART III

HONG KONG

Deep

Frontie

Casho Peak

Landau

Ram Jin

Tolo

Tai Mo Shan

Kowloon

Victoria

3 stanicy

Scale

GEOGRAPHY

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Mirs Bay

Chapter 1.

Hong Kong lies just within the tropics, on the south- eastern coast of the Chinese Province of Kwangtung, and east of the Pearl River estuary. The Colony includes Hong Kong Island (32 square miles), on which is situated the capital city of Victoria, the ceded territory of Kowloon (34 square miles) Stonecutters Island (square mile) and the New Territories which consist of the remainder of the mountainous peninsula of Kowloon together with numerous islands (355 square miles) leased from China on 1st July, 1898, for 99 years. The total of the Colony is thus roughly 391 square miles, a large proportion of which is steep and unproductive hillside. leased territories include also the waters of Deep Bay to the West and Mirs Bay to the East.

area

The

Hong Kong Island is eleven miles long from East to West and varies in width from two to five miles. It rises steeply from the northern shore to a range of treeless hills of volcanic rock of which the highest point is Victoria Peak (1,823 feet) near the western end. Between these hills and the harbour lies the city of Victoria. The oldest part of the urban area ran up the steep hillside for hundreds of yards in narrow stepped streets and terraces, but the modern town stands mostly on a strip of reclaimed land averaging 200-400 yards wide which extends 9 miles along the southern shore of the harbour from Sulphur Channel to Lyemun Pass.

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Between the island and the mainland of Kowloon lies the harbour, a natural and almost landlocked anchorage about 17 square miles in area, and of a width varying from one to three miles. The entrance from the East is by a deep water channel through Lyemun Pass, five to nine hundred yards wide. On the western side the harbour is protected by a group of islands pierced by channels of various depths. The largest of these islands is Lantau which is more than twice the size of Hong Kong Island. This harbour, lying midway between the main ports of Haiphong in Indo-China and Shanghai at the mouth of the Yangtze River, has become the gateway to South China and has grown to be one of the greatest seaports in the world.

The ceded territory of Kowloon originally consisted of a number of low dry foothills running southward from

from the escarpment of the Kowloon hills in a V-shaped peninsula two miles long and nowhere more than two miles wide. Most of these foothills have now been levelled and the spoil used to ex- tend the area by reclamation. The town of Kowloon now covers the whole of this peninsula and a part of the leased ter- ritory to the north of it. It contains the Colony's main in- dustrial area, one of the two principal commercial dockyards, wharves for ocean-going ships, and a large residential suburb. Its population in 1941 threatened to overtake that of Victoria. The terminus of the Kowloon-Canton Railway, which connects at Canton with the network of the Chinese railways, is at the extreme southern tip of the peninsula. The Unicorn range of hills, even more precipitous though less high than those on the island, forms a barrier between Kowloon and the remainder of the Kowloon Peninsula.

A large part of the New Territories, both islands and mainland, is steep and barren. Before the war considerable areas were afforested, but one of the unfortunate results of the occupation of the Colony by the Japanese was the felling of the vast majority of the trees for firewood, with the consequence that now only a few isolated woods remain, principally in the vicinity of villages. The highest point is the mountain called Taimoshan (3,130 feet) which lies seven miles northwest of Kowloon. To the northwest of this mountain, and extending to the marshes on the verge of Deep Bay stretches the Colony's largest area of cultivable land. The eastern half of the New Territories mainland is covered by irregular mountain masses deeply indented by arms of the sea and narrow valleys. Wherever cultivation is made possible by the presence of flat land and water, villages exist and crops are raised. Intricate terracing brings the maximum land under cultivation and the Chinese farmers, though ready to adopt any

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modern methods which are suited to local conditions and whose value has been demonstrated to them by practical tests, find in fact that there are few directions in which their traditional methods can be improved upon.

The New Territories include 75 adjacent islands many of which are uninhabited. Productive land is even scarcer than on the mainland and the estimated island population of 60,000 includes many fisherfolk living aboard their boats. Lantau, the largest island, is well watered, but the gradients are such that even the patient Chinese farmer has been able to secure only a few precarious footholds and there is little cultivation. Well- wooded ravines and scrub-covered spurs, where wild boar and barking deer are plentiful, slope steeply upwards to a bold and lonely skyline. The island of Cheung Chau, although quite small in area, maintains a thriving community and is an important fishing centre. Another still smaller island, Ping Chau, is the site of a match factory. The rest of the islands are much smaller, one (Ngai Ying Chau) measuring only 8 acres having been inhabited until recently by a single family.

The climate is sub-tropical and is governed to a large extent by the monsoons, the winter being normally cool and dry and the summer hot and humid. The north-east monsoon sets in during October and persists until April. The early winter is the most pleasant time of the year, the weather being generally sunny and the atmosphere dry. Later in the winter cloud is more fre- quent, though rainfall remains slight; in March and April long spells of dull overcast weather may occur. Warm southerly winds may temporarily displace the cool north-east monsoon during this period and under these conditions fog and low cloud are common. From May until August, the prevailing wind is the "south-west" monsoon, a warm damp southerly wind blowing from equatorial regions. Winds are more variable in summer than in winter, for the monsoon is frequently interrupted. The weather is persistently hot and humid and is often cloudy and showery with frequent thunderstorms. The summer is the rainy season, three quarters of the annual rainfall falling between the months of May and September. The mean annual rainfall is 84.26 inches (2140.2 mm.)

From June to October Hong Kong is most liable to be affected by typhoons, although they are sometimes experienced before and after this period. A typhoon whose centre passes over or near the Colony may be accompanied by winds of hurricane force, resulting in widespread damage on sea and land. Although the loss of life on such occasions among the boat people is now minimized by an elaborate system of warnings, there are always

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a number of boats which fail to reach the specially constructed typhoon shelters in time. Sixteen such disasters have occurred in the last sixty-five years. Spells of bad weather, heavy rain and strong winds, are normally experienced several times in each summer owing to the passage of typhoons at varying distances from the Colony.

The mean monthly

monthly temperature varies from 59°F in February to 82°F in July, the average for the year being 72°F. The temperature does not frequently rise above 95°F, and very seldom falls below 40°F. In spring and summer the humidity is persistently high, at times exceeding 95%, while in the early winter it may fall as low as 20%. The mean monthly duration of sunshine varies from 94 hours in March to 217 hours in October.

During the year rainfall was 13.48 inches above normal despite monthly totals above average only in April, June, July and September. Heavy falls during these last two months were mainly responsible for the year's excess.

Ón the whole the year was warmer than average with a mean temperature of 73.0°F as against the normal 71.9°F. Three 'new records were established. A maximum daily tem- perature of 84.3°F occurring on two days in March was the highest ever recorded for that month. In May the previous highest daily maximum was exceeded on three occasions, the new record being 91.9°F. Unusually warm weather was experienced in December when the mean temperature for the month was the highest since observation commenced in 1884.

Hong Kong was affected with gales for 7 hours in July when a small typhoon passed inland about 20 miles east of the Colony. In September another typhoon passing to the south caused sustained gales for 14 hours, the maximum hourly wind speed being 46 knots and the maximum gust 75 knots.

The total duration of sunshine was 85.9. hours, below normal.

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FLORA & FAUNA

Chapter 2.

An account of the flora and fauna of Hong Kong was published in the Annual Report of the Colony for 1947 and there is little that can be added this year.

The Herbarium which was fortunately saved from destruction. by the timely sending of it to Malaya in 1940 was recalled from Singapore during the course of the year. That this valuable collec- tion came through unscathed is in no small part due to the efforts. of the Director and staff of the Botanic Gardens, Singapore. The work of reassembly of over 40,000 specimens was completed and made available for reference at the close of the year. Much still requires to be done to overhaul the collection, and some time must elapse before the greater part in need of remounting is accom- plished.

The library has had to be built up again from the beginning, and as a result of purchase and a generous response to appeals made to Institutions abroad for technical publications, it now assumes the working proportions of a reasonable reference collection.

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HISTORY

Chapter 3.

The area which now forms the Crown Colony of Hong Kong is first mentioned in Chinese histories as part of the territories of the Maan Tribes, who then inhabited the greater part of China south of the River Yangtse. About this early culture little is known, though pottery of the prehistoric period unearthed on the islands of Lamma and Lantau, south and west of Hong Kong Island, indicates the existence of trade with the South at a remote period. The Maan tribes of Kwangtung gradually accepted Chinese culture from the close of the Han dynasty (3rd century A.D.) onwards, and by the end of the Sung dynasty (13th century A.D.) the local people, whatever their racial origin, evidently regarded themselves as Chinese. The last Sung emperor, Ti-ping, in flight from the invading Mongols, made his capital at Kowloon on the mainland just opposite the Island of Hong Kong for a few months before his death in 1278 A.D., and a small hill crowned with prominent boulders was held sacred to his memory until 1943 when the Japanese demolished it.

The Arabs were already known in Canton in the seventh century A.D., but European intercourse with China dates from the sixteenth century when expeditions from the maritime states of Europe-Portugal, Spain, Holland and England-penetrated into Far Eastern waters in the hope of establishing a direct trade by sea with the Moluccas or Spice Islands. At the end of the century, Queen Elizabeth herself addressed a letter to the Emperor of China. Though this letter was probably never delivered it marks the beginning of official support for a whole series of adventurous attempts to share in the trade of the Eastern countries. At the beginning of the next century a monopoly of the East Indian trade. was created in favour of "The Governor and merchants of London

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trading in the East Indies." An early trading station at Bantam in Java soon led to the extension of the sphere of action to Japan and China.

The Portuguese had already founded the settlement of Macao from Malacca. In 1681 the East India Company secured a house in Macao and a little later an approach was made to Canton itself. By 1715 a regular seasonal trade had been commenced with a shorestaff residing during the season in the Canton "Factories" and, during the summer months, in the Company's premises at Macao. The French, Dutch and Americans were not long in following the Company's lead, and, by the end of the eighteenth century, Englishmen trading on their own account were beginning to share the benefits of this precarious intercourse.

Two attempts had been made to establish normal official relations with China-by Lord Macartney in 1793 and by Lord Amherst in 1816, but these were rebuffed by the Manchu Court at Peking. The separate trends which British intercourse with China had hitherto taken the activity of the East India Company, whose monopoly expired in 1831, and the unsuccessful official missions were united in 1834 by the arrival of Lord Napier in Canton as His Majesty's Chief Superintendent of Trade. Lord Napier's efforts at improving relations with the Chinese authorities failed and he died in Macao in October, 1834. Captain Elliot, R.N., succeeded him as Chief Superintendent and for five years. negotiations were intermittently continued while the position of the British merchants became more and more difficult. The ultimate result of this protracted period of undeclared hostilities was the withdrawal of British merchant ships to Hong Kong, a blockade of the Canton River in 1840 and the peaceful occupation in January, 1841, of Hong Kong Island, which was then inhabited by a few fishermen, stone-cutters and farmers and provided a notorious retreat for smugglers and pirates.

The cession of the Island to the British Crown was confirmed by the Treaty of Nanking in August, 1842. The Convention of Peking of 1860 added the Kowloon Peninsula and Stonecutters' Island to the Crown Colony and under a further Convention of Peking, signed in 1898, the area known as the New Territories, including Mirs Bay and Deep Bay, was leased to Great Britain for a period of ninety-nine years.

Almost a century of uninterrupted peaceful development followed the Treaty of Nanking. Hong Kong as a free port became one of the world's greatest harbours and entrepôts; freedom of the port and freedom of entrance and egress for all persons of Chinese race were permitted in accordance with a policy which ensured for the Colony the rôle of entrepôt both for the trade and

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for the labour of China's southern provinces. Reclamation and afforestation were carried out; a network of motor roads was cut into the hills; public health administration and antimalarial measures combined with the steady and natural growth of the city itself to present in 1941 a picture very different from that of a century earlier. The rich interior of China was connected by railway with the wharves and warehouses built for the world's shipping; schools and a university were established; Chinese, European and American air lines met in the Colony's airport; shipyards which could build the hulls of 10,000 ton ships and docks able to accommodate the world's largest liners were constructed and light industries were born and thrived.

After Japan invaded China in 1937 the Colony became a refuge for many Chinese and the population grew to over one million and a half. Until the fall of Canton at the end of 1938 valuable war supplies were able to reach China through Hong Kong. With the outbreak of war in Europe in September, 1939, the position of the Colony became precarious, and on 8th December, 1941, the blow fell. Powerful units of the Japanese Army, supported by the Japanese Air Force based on Canton, struck at the Colony. The first attempt of the Japanese to land on Hong Kong Island was repulsed on the night of December 15th- 16th, but a second attempt on the night of the 18th-19th was successful. After some bloody fighting on the Island, the Colony was surrendered to the Japanese forces on Christmas Day. The isolated brigade on Stanley peninsula held out for a further day before capitulating on superior orders.

Hong Kong remained in Japanese hands for over three and a half years. The population fell from more than one and a half million to less than half that number, largely as a result of the ruthless Japanese policy of compulsorily repatriating Chinese to their original homes in Kwangtung.

The Colony was liberated when units of the British Pacific Fleet entered the harbour on 30th August, 1945, about two weeks after the capitulation of Japan. A brief period of Military Administration was followed by the re-establishment of Civil Government on 1st May, 1946.

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C

A professional letter-writer at work.

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ADMINISTRATION

Chapter 4.

The Government of Hong Kong derives its constitutional authority from Letters Patent and Royal Instructions issued from time to time and is administered by a Governor assisted by an Executive Council

and a Legislative Council. The Executive

Council, which is consulted by the Governor on all important ad- ministrative matters, includes the senior Military Officer, the Colon- ial Secretary, the Attorney General, the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Financial Secretary (who are members ex officio) and such other members, both official and unofficial, as may be appointed. At the end of 1948 there were six official members (including the five ex officio members mentioned above) and six unofficial members, three of whom were Chinese.

The Legislative Council consists of not more than nine official members, including the same five ex officio members listed above, and not more than eight unofficial members. At the end of 1948 there were eight official members and seven unofficial members. The procedure of this Council, with the advice and consent of which all legislation is enacted and by which all expenditure from public funds has to be approved, is based on that of the House of Commons. There are three standing Committees of the Legislative Council-the Finance Committee, the Law Committee and the Public Works Committee-and select committees are from time to time set up to advise on matters before the Council.

The English Common Law, together with such United Kingdom statutes as were in force on April 5th, 1843, or have since that date been expressly made applicable to Hong Kong, forms the basis of the legal system, modified by Hong Kong Ordinances of which an edition revised to 1931 was published in 1938. The constitution of the Supreme Court of the Colony is set out in the Supreme Court Ordinance No. 3 of 1873. The law as to civil procedure was codified by Ordinance No. 3 of 1901. The Colonial Courts of Admiralty Act, 1890, regulates the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in Admiralty cases.

The system of administration is briefly as follows:

Under the general direction of the Colonial Secretariat the administrative functions of Government are discharged by some thirty departments, all the officers of which are members of the

147

Civil Service. There are five legal sub-departments, excluding the judiciary. Since 1938 the Financial Secretary has assumed a purely administrative function in the Secretariat and under his direction the Treasury is responsible for the public accounts. The Rating and Valuation Department deals with the assessment and collection of rates, and the Department of Inland Revenue is concerned with the collection of direct taxation levied under the Inland Revenue Ordinance, 1947. The Superintendent of Imports and Exports is charged with the collection of imports and excise duties and with the direction of preventive work.

The Secretary for Chinese Affairs is a senior administrative officer and has a wide and general responsibility in all matters affecting the Chinese community. The Commissioner of Labour is responsible, inter alia, for ensuring that conditions in factories and workshops, particularly with regard to health and safety, are in accordance with the requirements of existing legislation. In cases of trade disputes the Commissioner does not actually arbitrate but provides a channel for the pursuit of negotiations between the parties involved. The Social Welfare Officer operates under the general direction of the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. Among his functions are included protection of women and girls, the inspection of emigrant ships, supervision of child and juvenile welfare and the general co-ordination of all welfare activities in the Colony. The Medical Department and the Sanitary Department deal with public health, and the Public Works Department is concerned with roads, buildings, waterworks, piers, Government transport and similar matters.

The Head of the Sanitary Department is, ex officio, the chairman of the Urban Council. This Council's functions and authority are more restricted than its title suggests, and are subordinate in many respects to the executive authority of Government. The Council's power to originate subsidiary legislation in matters concerning public health and conservancy is subject to confirmation by the Legislative Council.

The administration of the New Territories is in the charge of a District Commissioner, assisted by a District Officer for each of the three districts: Yuen Long in the west, Taipo in the north and east, and the Southern District. The District Officers Yuen Long and Taipo each sit as Magistrates three days a week, on alternate days, and hear debts cases. Much of the time of District Officers is occupied in hearing disputes concerning land, in which sphere they have powers similar to those of the Supreme Court. With the help of the Medical and Health Officer, the Department is responsible in the New Territories for much of the work done in the city by the. Urban Council.

148

Other permanent departments are: the Audit Department, the Education Department, which controls the Government schools and supervises all private schools within the Colony, the Fire Brigade, the Marine Department, the Department of Civil Aviation, the Police Department, the Railway Department, the Post Office (which also controls Radio Hong Kong), the Prisons Department, and the Royal Observatory.

Since the war a Public Relations Office has been set up. The functions of this office are not to act merely as a Government news agency for the distribution to official communiqués, but to interpret Government policy to the public where necessary, and to keep Government well informed of public opinion. Á public reading room is maintained, and is well patronised. Daily press conferences are held by the Public Relations Officer who also arranges periodical press conferences for Heads of Department. Four departments, originally set up under the Development Secretariat, deal with fisheries, agriculture, forestry and public gardens respectively. The pre-war Botanical and Forestry Depart- ment has been abolished and its functions absorbed by these post- war departments.

The Department of Statistics, a post-war office established originally as the Statistical Branch of the Colonial Secretariat, is equipped with a Hollerith installation for the tabulation of information and is responsible for the production of statistical matter of a specific or general nature required by any department of

Government.

Several temporary departments were set up during the Military Administration and continued to function during the year under review. The Department of Supplies, Trade and Industry was established primarily to handle the large volume of supplies imported by Government after the re-occupation. By the end of 1946, normal procurement for Government requirements had already been taken over by the Stores Department. Importation of a decreasing range of bulk foodstuffs and controlled commodities on Government account was continued throughout the year and by the end of 1948 was limited to coal, rice, sugar, flour, fresh meat and cotton yarn. The administration of an elementary rationing system and a system of price control remained throughout 1948 in the hands of the Director of Supplies, Trade and Industry.

The Custodian of Property is responsible for the control of both enemy and abandoned property. The major task of this department has been completed, but responsibility for the maintenance and disposal of enemy property will not terminate until all peace treaties are signed. The Quartering Authority is

149

responsible for such improvisation as is possible to meet the serious shortage of European-type accommodation which still exists in the Colony.

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WEIGHTS & MEASURES

Chapter 5.

The weights and measures in use in the Colony consist of the standards in use in the United Kingdom and of the following Chinese weights and measures:

I fan (candareen)

1 ts'in (picul)

1 leung (tael) I kan (catty) I t'am (mace) I ch'ek (foot)

.0133 ounces avoirdupois ounces avoirdupois ounces avoirdupois

.133

= 1.33 = 1.33

5

pounds avoirdupois

133.33 pounds avoirdupois Statutory equivalent 14 inches, but in actual practice it varies according to trade from 14 inches to II inches. The commonest value is 14.14 inches. The ch'ek is divided into 10 ts'ün (inches) and each ts'ün into ten fan or tenths.

ΙΟ

H.K. $I

I

1/3 (stg.) = 1/63d. (Aust.)

U.S.$0.25.

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151

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ONIALA,

Chapter 6.

PRESS

The English-language newspapers at present published in Hong Kong are the "China Mail" (daily, excluding Sundays), the Sunday Herald" which is published by the same company as the "China Mail"; the "South China Morning Post" (daily, including Sundays); and the "Hong Kong Telegraph", an afternoon paper published daily excluding Sundays. The last two papers are produced by one company. There are thirteen morning and eight afternoon papers, representing all shades of opinion, published daily in Chinese. Of these, the leading morning paper is the "Wah Kiu Yat Po" (***). This paper, the "Sing Tao Jih Pao" (H) and the "Kung Sheung Daily News" (I) form the backbone of the local vernacular press and it is in these three newspapers that Government notices are published.

During the year two Chinese papers, the "Wen Wei Pao" ( * * )and the "Ta Kung Pao", ( ★ 4 # ) both of Shanghai migrated to Hong Kong. Both these papers carried considerable weight in China, and their transfer to Hong Kong will undoubtedly add to the literary and reporting standard of the vernacular press.

The history of the English newspapers in Hong Kong is a long one, dating back to the earliest days of the Colony. The earliest paper "The Hong Kong Register" was a development of the "Canton Register" which was printed in Canton about 1827 and was the first English newspaper to be produced in the Far East. In 1850 a daily edition was being produced in Gage Street, but three years later publication ceased.

The oldest publication still being produced in Hong Kong is the Government Gazette whose history goes back to the earliest

years of the Colony. The Gazette was started in 1841 in Macao for the purpose of publishing such proclamations as the British authorities desired to issue to their merchants who had left Canton. When

152

Hong Kong was ceded, printing presses were imported and a weekly newspaper entitled "The Friend of China and the Hong Kong Gazette" began publication on 17th March, 1842. In 1845 the newly-founded "China Mail" became the vehicle for Govern- ment Notifications and the name "Hong Kong Gazette", was dropped by the "Friend of China" which carried on until 1860 before ceasing publication. The first separately issued Government Gazette appeared on 24th September, 1853, and the first Chinese issue of the Gazette on 1st March, 1862.

The oldest English newspaper still in publication is the "China Mail" which began as a four-page weekly on 20th February, 1845. In the '50's the paper became a daily publication specialising in shipping. In 1863 the "China Mail" moved to Wyndham Street behind the old Hong Kong Club (now the King's Theatre) where it remained until 1940 in which year it moved to Windsor House. The same company publishes the "Sunday Herald".

The first Chinese paper to be published in the Colony was the "Wah Tsz Yat Po" (H) which was established very soon after the cession of the Colony, and continued to appear until very recently. Another very old paper, also now out of publication, was the "Ts'un Wan Yat Po" (RH).

Another early newspaper was the "Daily Press" which only ceased publication in 1941. This was the first daily morning paper in the history of the Colony and its four pages in the early days were mainly concerned with ships and shipping. The paper appears to have led a somewhat itinerant existence and changes of premises are frequently recorded. The printing establishment in 1941 was near Jardine's Godown at the corner of Hennessy Road and Percival Street, Wanchai. During the Japanese attack on Hong Kong in that year, it was severely damaged by shell fire and burned out. The paper has not been re-established since the reoccupation of the Colony.

The "Hong Kong Telegraph" was first issued on 15th June, 1881 and from its inception was noted for its fearless criticism. This policy led on occasion to serious consequences but it made the paper an organ of more than ordinary value to the public. No worthy cause was unchampioned. The "Telegraph" has changed hands on several occasions and like the "Daily Press", though not to the same extent, has led a nomadic existence. Its latest move was in 1925 to the newly erected Morning Post Building in Wyndham Street (which, incidentally, used to be termed "The Fleet Street of Hong Kong"), its interests having in 1916 been merged with the "South China Morning Post."

153

"The South China Morning Post" first made its appearance on 7th November, 1903. The paper was originally founded with considerable support from among prominent local residents to support the Reform Movement in China. The "South China Morning Post" has been less subject to moves than its contem- poraries and predecessors. Originally situated in Connaught Road Central, the offices were moved first to Des Voeux Road and then in 1913 to Wyndham Street. There they have remained since, although the offices originally occupied were demolished to make room for the new Morning Post Building which was completed in 1926.

The English newspapers continued to appear throughout the fighting in December, 1941, in spite of bombing and increasing technical difficulties due to the hostilities. During the Japanese occupation of the Colony the Morning Post Building was taken over by the Japanese Propaganda Department and for 44 months housed three newspapers, Japanese, Chinese and English. On the re-occupation of the Colony in 1945, no time was lost in begin- ning publication again and the leading units to disembark from the relieving fleet were surprised to find that a British newspaper was already being distributed; this was a single sheet "extra" edition of the "South China Morning Post" announcing the impending arrival of the relieving forces.

154

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Official Publications.

Administration Reports Annual Report

Blue Book (until 1940)

Civil Service List

:

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual

Annual

:

Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure

Government Gazette

.Weekly, or more often as required.

Hong Kong Hansard

Annual

Hong Kong Trade and Shipping Return

Annual

:

Hong Kong Trade and Shipping Return

Monthly

Meteorological Results...

Annual

Ordinances of Hong Kong including Proclamations, Regulations Orders in Council etc...

Annual

Annual

Sessional Papers

Historical and Statistical Abstract of the Colony of Hong

Kong, Published in 1906, 1911, 1922, 1932.

Street Index. Printed in 1936 by Noronha & Company. The 1937 Edition of the Ordinances and Regulations of

Hong Kong, Edited by the late J. A. Fraser, M.C., and published in 1938.

G.C.,

Journal of the Hong Kong Fisheries Research Station. Vol. 1 No. 1 February, No. 2, September, 1940 Printed by South China Morning Post, Hong Kong.

All the above are published by the Government of Hong

Kong.

Other Publications of General Interest.

Balfour, S. F.

1941

Hong Kong before the British. Being a local history of the region of Hong Kong and the New Territories before the British occupation. Reprinted from T'ien Hsia Monthly, Shanghai.

155

:

Bentham, G. B.

Flora Hongkongensis London, Lovell Reeve.

1861

Bunbury, G. A.

1909

¿

Notes on Wild Life in Hong Kong and South China.

Chater Collection, The

1924

Pictures relating to China, Hong Kong, Macao, 1655-1860; with Historical and Descriptive Letterpress by James Orange. London, Thorn- ton Butterworth.

Des Voeux, Sir G. William

1889

Report on the Condition and Prospects of Hong Kong and on Recent Events in the Colony. Hong Kong, Noronha and Co.

Des Voeux, Sir G. William

1903

ཐས

My Colonial Service in British Guiana, St. Lucia, Trinidad, Fiji, Australia, Newfoundland, and Hongkong. 2 Vols. London, John Murray.

Dunn, S. T. and Tutcher, W. J.

1912

Eitel, E. J..

1896

Forster, L.

1933

Gibbs, L.

1927

Gull, E. M.

1943

1941

Flora of Kwangtung and Hongkong. London H. M. Stationery Office.

Europe in Asia (History of Hong Kong). Hong Kong, Kelly and Walsh.

?

Echoes of Hong Kong and Beyond. Hong Kong, Ye Olde Printerie.

Common Hong Kong ferns. Hong Kong Kelly & Walsh.

British Economic Interests in the Far East, Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs. Oxford University Press. London; Humphrey Milford.

Hong Kong Centenary Commemorative Talks.

156

Heanley, C. M. and Shellshear, J. L.

1932

A contribution to the Prehistory of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Communication faite au

Premier Congrès des Préhistoriens d'Extrême-Orient, le 27 janvier, 1932, Hanoi).

Herklots, G. A. C.

1937

1941

1946

1930

to

1941 1948

Flowering Shrubs and Trees (First Twenty) Hong Kong, The Newspaper Enterprise. (Second Twenty) South China Morning Post, 1938.

Orchids. (First Twenty) Hong Kong, The Newspaper Enterprise.

Vegetable Cultivation in Hong Kong. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post. 2nd Ed. 1947.

The Birds of Hong Kong-Field Identification. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post. The Hong Kong Naturalist. Illustrated Quar- terly. Vols. I-X. Hong Kong, The News- paper Enterprise and South China Morning Post. Food and Flowers. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post.

Herklots, G. A. C. and Lin, S. Y.

1940

Common Marine Food-Fishes of Hong Kong. 2nd Ed. Enl. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post.

Hurley, R. C.

1925

Picturesque Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Com- mercial Press.

Kershaw, J. C.

1905

Butterflies of Hong Kong and South-East China, Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh.

Mayers, W. F., Dennys, N. B. and King, C.

1867

0

The Treaty Ports of China and Japan.

A com-

plete Guide to the Open Ports of those Coun- tries, together with Peking, Yedo, Hong Kong and Macao. London: Trubner & Co., and Hong Kong, L. A. Shortrede & Co.

157

158

Mills, Lennox A.

1942 British Rule in Eastern Asia. A Study of Con- temporary Government and Economic Develop- ment in British Malaya and Hong Kong. Oxford University Press. London: Humphrey Milford.

Moran H. N.,

1947

Police Law Finder (Guide to Legislation of Hong Kong). Hong Kong, Local Printing

Press.

Norton-Kyshe, J. W.

1898

The History of the Laws and Courts of Hong Kong. 2 Vols. London:, T. Fisher Unwin; Hong Kong, Noronha.

Owen, Sir D. J.

1941

Future Control and Development of the Port of Hong Kong. Noronha.

Peplow, S. H. and Barker, M.

1931

Sayer, G. R.

1937

Hong Kong, Around and About. 2nd Ed. Rev. and Enl. Hong Kong, Ye Olde Printerie.

Hong Kong: Birth, Adolescence and Coming of Age. Oxford, The University Press.

Thorbecke, Ellen

(N.D.) Hong Kong, Shanghai, Hong Kong, and

Singapore. Kelly & Walsh.

Tutcher, W. J.

1913

Gardening for Hong Kong. 2nd Ed. Hong Kong, Kelly & Walsh.

Williams, M. Y.

1943

The Stratigraphy and Palaeontology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXVII, 1943-pp. 93-117).

Williams, M. Y. et al

1945

The Physiography and Igneous Geology of Hong Kong and the New Territories. (Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. Third Series, Section IV, Vol. XXXIX 1945-pp. 91-119)

Wood, Winifred A.

1940

A Brief History of Hong Kong. Hong Kong, South China Morning Post.

Wright, Arnold (Editor) and Cartwright (H. A.)

1908

Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong, Shanghai, and other Treaty Ports of China. London, Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd.

NOTE: Publications which were printed before 1941 have

not been reprinted since the War.

FINIS

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