Anglo-Chinese Calendar 1848

AN

ANGLO-CHINESE CALENDAR

FOR I848.

CONTENTS.

Chinese Cycle of sixty years.. Eclipses for the year

3 Chinese Government; the gover-

3

nors.

4 Chinese Government; at Canton,

&c

103

...104

5 Government of Hongkong.. .106 British Superintendent and Con- -57 suls...

17

 

    Festivals, anniversaries, &c.... Chinese astronomical terins4 Guitrom English and Chinese Chronology of the Chinese. Notices of Shanghai. Canton Lingiuste Fees... Table. for converting dollars into

     tacla und rive vērša... Steam Commification with Eu-

    rope, Unife: States, &c.. Rates of postage.

of freight

99 U. S. A. Legation.

Swedish Legation..

96

List of Foreign Consuls.

.107

.108

.108

...108

.109

Portuguese Government, Macao..108

98 Insurance offices.............

101 se Government; the Cabinet 102 Chinese Government, the Gover-

nors general..'/.

Morrison Education Society. 110

....111

100 Christian Missions in China.. Number of Roman Catholics. List of Protestant Missionaries.......[1] Commercial houses in China....114 103 | List of Foreign Residents at the

five ports....

CAKLON:

PRINTED AT The Price of T CHINESE REPOSITORY.

" 1848.

120

AN

ANGLO-CHINESE CALENDAR

FOR THE YEAR

1848,

CORRESPONDING TO THE YEAR FOR THE CHINESE CYCLE ERA

4485,

OR THE 45TH YEAR OF THE 75TH CYCLE OF SIXTY;

BEING THE 28TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF

TA'UKWAʼNG.

CANTOX:

PRINTED AT TER ÖFFICE OF THE CHINESE REPOSITORY.

1848.

AN

ANGLO-CHINESE CALENDAR

FOR THE YEAR

1848,

CORRESPONDING TO THE YEAR FOR THE CHINESE CYCLE ERA

4485,

or the 45th YEAR OF THE 75th cycle oF SIXTY;

BEING THE 28TH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF

TA'UKWA ́NG.

GANTON:

PRINTED AT TAK OFFICE OF THE CHINESE REPOSITORY.

1848.

THE CHINESE CYCLE oF SIXTY YEARS,

Commences with the 61st year of the emperor Wangtí,

2637 years, B.C.

1838

1844

乙外 7巳

1845

丙午|丙辰

丙午

1846 1856

TE 丁未

1847

戊申

1848

1857

戊午

1858

甲子

甲戌甲申

甲午

甲辰

甲寅

1804

1814

1824

1834

1854

乙丑

乙亥

乙亥乙酉

乙卡

1805

1815

1825

1835

1855

丙寅

丙子

丙子丙戊

丙申

1806

1816

1826

1936

丁卯

丁丑

丁丑 丁亥

丁酉

1807

1817

1827

1837

戊辰

戊寅

戊寅戊子

戊戌

1808

1818

1828

巳己

1809

1829

庚午

庚辰

1910

1811

1830

辛未

辛己

辛己 辛

1821

1831

壬申

壬午

壬午壬辰

壬寅

1812

1822

1832

1842

癸未

癸未癸已

癸训

金丑

1813

1823

1833

1843

1853

1819

庚辰庚寅

1820

已亥

1839

庚子

1810

辛丑

1841

已写

1849

庚戌

1850

辛亥

1851

壬子

1852

已未

1859

庚申

1860

華山

1861

壬戌

1862

癸亥

1863

The Chinese year is luni-solar, comprising twelve lunar months, to which an intercalary month is added, when requisite to preserve correspondence with the solar year. When, during a lunar month,

the sun does not enter any sign of the Zodiac, that month.is inter- calary and the year contains thirteen months.

ECLIPSES.

1. A partial eclipse of the Sun, March 5, invisible at Greenwich. 2. A total eclipse of the Moon, March 19, visible 3. A partial eclipse of the Sun, April 3, invisible

4. A partial eclipse of the Sun, August 28, invisible 5. A total eclipse of the Moon, Sept. 12, visible 6 A partial eclipse of the Sun, Sept. 26, invisible

7. A transit of Mercury, November 8-9, visible

""" ""

FESTIVALS, ANNIVERSARIES, &c.

Epiphany... Septuagesima...

Ascension day..... June

Jan. 6

Feb. 20

Whit Sunday..

Ash Wednesday.

....

March. 8

Trinity Sunday..

Good Friday,..

Easter Sunday.....

April. 21

23

""

....

1

11

+

19

Accession of Victoria, June 20 Ist Sunday in advent. Dec. 3

CHINESE TERMS.

Jan. 6.

Siáu-hán, 'little cold,'

15° in Capricorn.

Jan. 21.

Tá-hán, 'great cold,'

Feb. 4.

Lih-ch'un, 'spring begins,'

in Aquarius.

Feb. 19.

Yu-shwui, 'rain and water,'

in Pisces.

Mar. 5.

Kin-chih, 'insects excited,'

Mar. 20.

Ch'un-fan 'vernal equinox,'

in Aries.

Apr. 4.

Tsing-ming, 'clear & bright,'

Apr. 20.

May. 5.

May. 21.

Kuh-yü, 'grain-rain,'

Lib-hia, 'summer begins,'

Siáou-mwán, 'grain a lit. full,'

in Taurus.

in Gemini.

June. 5.

Mang-chung, 'grain spiked,'

June21.

* Hiá-chí, 'summer solstice,

in Cancer.

July 6.

Siáou-shú, 'little heat,'

July 23.

Tá-shú, 'great heat,'

in Leo.

Aug. 8.

Lih-tsiú, 'autumn begins,'

Aug. 24.

Chý-shú, 'cessation of heat,'

Sep. 8.

Peh-lú, 'white dew,'

Sep. 24.

Ts'iú-fan, 'autumnal equinox,'

in Virgo.

in Libra.

Oct. 9.

Hán-lú, 'cold dew,'

Oct. 24.

Shwáng kiáng, 'frost descends,'

in Scorpio.

Nov. 8.

Lih-tung, 'winter begins,'

Nov. 23.

Siau-siueh, little snow,'

in Sagittarius.

Dec. 8.

Tá-siueh, 'great snow,'

Dec. Vĩ. ‡ ‡ Tung-chí, 'winter solstice,

enters Capricorn.

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11.

Wallid round launton with Haffer, French & Brown.

30 persons at P. Worship in 1975

40 persons at P. Worship in 171 17 Breakfarted at Dr. Happers. Be Bridgman unwell- Dr. Holeson come from H. Kong & returned - 40 persons at P. Worship in 14 745

Rev. H.A. Brown saild for ohmerica in the Vanconer

5

JANUARY, 1848-XXXI DAYS.

Chinese XXVII Year, X1th and XIIth Moons.

The weather, during this month, is dry, cold, and bracing-differing but little, if at ali, from that of November and December. The wind blows ge- nerally from the north, occasionally inclining to the NE. or NW. A change to the south-which may be expected at intervals of 10 or 15 days, during the winter-causes considerable variation in the temperature of the atmosphere.

Days of Days of

month.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

19

25

** * 22

Trade at Canton reopened, 1839.

Captain Gribble seized and brought to Canton 1840.| Lin Tsihsi appointed imperial commissioner to

stop the traffic in opium, 1839.

{

{

TWELFTH MOON. Captain Dicey and his party of

the Madagascar landed in Macao, 1842. |Forts at Chuenpí taken, with great slaughter, 1841. Gunner of the Lady Hughes strangled at Canton

1785.

[in Canton, 1843. British forces visit Tunghwá 1842. I'lipú arrived.

2 S

26

3 m

27

4 t

28

5 w

29

6 t

1

7 f

2

8 s

3

9 S

10 m

Il t

12 w

13 t

8

N4 f

9

15 S

10

16 S

||

17 m

12

18 t

13

19 w

14

120

15

21 f

16

122

17

18

24 m

19

25

20

26 w

21

27

28

23

129 s

24

130 S

25

31 m

26

C. Marjoribanks, pres. E. I. C.'s left China, 1832.

Elliot and Kishen's treaty, ceding Hongkong, 1841. Mr. Davis, with his fam. sailed for England, 1835.

[Bremer. St. Paul's chu. Macao, burnt 1835. Hongkong taken possession of, 1841, by. Sir J. J. G. 22 [Interview between Kishen and Elliot, 1841.

[office of intendant 1840.

A Chinese officer arrived in Macao to fill the new

FEBRUARY, 1848,-XXIX Days.

Chinese XXVII-VIIIth Year, X11th and Ist Moons.

   During this month the thermometer continues low; but the dry bracing cold of the three preceding months is changed for a damp and chilly atmos phere; the number of fine fair days is much diminished, and cloudy and foggy oñes are more frequent in February and March than in any other months. The fog is sometimes so dense as to render objects invisible at a few yards' distance.

Days of Days of

month.

moon.

288

1 t

27

2 w

23

3 t

29

4 f

30

5 8

1

6 S

2

7 m

3

8 t

4

9 w

10 t Il f

12

13 S

14 m 15 t

10

11

16 w

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

Elliot and Gutzlaff visit the city gate Canton, 1835. Inhabitants of Hongkong declared to be [British subjects, 1841.

The Hyacinth enters the harbor of Macao, 1840.

CHINESE NEW YEAR'S DAY. Rebellion broke out

at Lienchau, 1832.

{

Capt. Halcon, Spa. envoy, arrived in Macao, 1840.

Snow fell in Canton, 1835. Shunchí died 1661.

7 Kienlung died, 1695.

12

17 t

13

18 f

14

19 s

15

16

20 S

21 m

122

123 w

24 t

(Empress of China died 1840. Elliot's second in-

terview with Kishen, 1841.

Coroner's inquest at the Opthalmic hospital at Canton, 1839. Ports of Hongkong and Ting. [hái declared free 1841. Boat of the Nemesis fired on at Wangtong, 1841.

17 Med. Missionary Society organized, Canton 1838.

19

2 343K700 2 2 2 ***

20

19 Hostilities with the English resumed, 1841.

Chusan evacuated by the British forces, 1841.

prisoners Anstruther and others restored. Rewards offered for Englishmen by Lin, 1841.

A Chinese executed before the factories, Canton,

1839. Bogue forts captured, 1841.

25 f 21

26

2

27 S

28

129

22

23

24

Mrs.

Sheer

   Beckfordi at dr. Helfair. Hes. Non foreach dosed with me. 30 h. Loomis breakfasted with

peroms

et P. agship in th A D T 5 Walk'd round banton with to Ball & Mary, the willen Peare

vidat圴和

Baby Mrs. Holston arrived at £4) All

as

me

   50 persons present at P. Worship in fa - Visited Me. This family with pattebion Ary ca Bridgi tisk ter inth wire other 50 persons it D. Worship in 2017 Walked around eity

-Visited

isited the this mason with the other. Weledre

-55 persons at P. Worship in 157 11/15

45 persons at P. Worship in T Q 4. J

Fulished reading memoir of the Sales

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wild deed on pattleton's Remains

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30 person at Biorhife 0

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starts on his return to Pokien. Finished reading. Smith's China

50 persons at P. Worship in the

Revdi

か行

f. Bridgeven walked round baston

64. persons, at P.. Warship in high f Mr. Geo. Morrison arrived at Canton Masons Happer French Spear moved to

MARCH, 1848,-XXXI Days.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, Ist and IId Moons.

       The weather in the month of March is also damp and foggy, but the tem- perature of the atmosphere becomes considerably warmer; to preserve things from damp, it is requisite to continue the use of fires and closed doors, which! the heat of the atmosphere renders very unpleasant. From March till July and August, the thermometer steadily increases in height and beat reaches its maximum degree.

Days of Days of

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

month.

moon.

1 w

26

2 t

27

3 f

28

4 s 5 S

29

6 m 2

Sir Hugh Gough arrived at Whampoa, 1841.

lipú died in Canton, 1853. SECOND MOON.

Napier's fort captured, 1831.

7 t

8 w

9 t

10 f

Il s

12 S

13

6789⇒ ·

12

Lin arrived in Canton, 1839. British in Chinhái

and Ningpo attacked, 1842.

British brig Aun lost on Formosa, 1842.

Kishen goes a state's prisoner to Peking, 1841.

Chinese forces at Tsz'kí routed, 1841.

13 Macartney's embassy leaves China 1794.

Canton under British guns, 1841.

14

10

15

11

17

14

H9 'S

15

       20 m 21 t

16

17

22 w

23 t

18

20

21

2 2382Ha6

Foreigners detained in Canton by Lin, 1839. Armistice agreed upon at Canton, 1841.

British ship Sarah, first free trader, sailed from

Whampoa, 1834.

Kíying appointed commander-in-chief, 1842.

Captain Elliot forced his way to Canton, 1839.

Friend of China commenced, 1842.

24 f

25 s

#26 S

27 m

28 t

29 w

130 t 31 f

25

Chests of opium, 20,23 surrendered 1839.

A committee for roads appointed in Hongkong 1842.

APRIL, 1848,-XXX DayS.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, 1Id and HIId Moons.

The thick fogs which begin to disappear towards the end of March are in April seldom if ever seen. The atmosphere, however, continues damp, and rainy days are not unfrequent. At the same time the thermometer gradually rises, and the nearer approach of the sun renders the heat more perceptible. In this and the summer months southerly winds generally prevail; frequently however they veer to and blow from the eastward.

Days of Days of

month.

moou.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

1 s

2 S

3 m

388

28

29

30

4 t

5 w

2

6 t

3

7 f

4

8 s

5

9'S

6

10 m

7

11 t

8

12 w

9

13 t

10

14 f

11

15 s

12

16 S

13

17 m

14

18 t

15

19 w

16

20 t

17

21 f

18

22 s

19

23 S

20

124 m

21

25 t

22

26 w

23

27 t

34

28 f

25

29 s

26

Confucius died, at 72, B. c. 429. THIRD MOON.

Kwoh Siping strangled at Macao, 1838. The emperor's amưal ploughing celebrated, 1834.

Kiying appointed imperial commissioner, 1842. H. B. M. commissiour returned to Canton, 1837.

Yishán, Lunwan, and Kí-Kung arrived in Canton,

1841.

E. I. Company ceased to trade with China, 1834.

30 S 27

Captain (now hon. major) Caine appointed chief

magistrate of Hongkong, 1841.

De & Mrs. James arrived in bangton.

qirined in 40 persons put pr. morskih in to fill forens

meeting

-rain

afternoon

- walk'd round the city with Mr. French

Finn and reacting memoir of Rev. 70 persons of which in forenoon

Fransit

50

"/

of Rev. Sam + Ayer

take

afternoon

80 persons

at F. Warship int

J\

-Finished reading 83 pp. in Eclectic & other Reviews

100.pan

50

.......

_60 at P. Warship in £7.70 45 forenom

30

afternomr

... j...

UF

60 persons at P. Wewshif in 1741 forenoon?

30' n.

afternoons

2

   Walked round the city with In Thorntong other Finished reading Jahren on

30

"L

the Bible 410ppen.

   a. persons at P. Worship in 174 forenoon) Nemishemmesespeed infpies "of tong tes

reading

Meadows Notes on

China

250.

70 persons at. P. Warship in 14 for forenoon

30.

talk with the

F

afternoon &

Ek Boy

to Macao.

Mefors Pearcy, Bridgenen & Morrison went

8

afterman fuε

9

MAY, 1848,-XXXI Days.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, IIId and IVth Moons.

       In this month the heat is fully set in, and it is-particularly in Canton often oppressive, the more so from the closeness of the atmosphere, the winds being| usually light and variable. This is the most rainy month in the year, averag- ing fifteen days and a half of heavy rain; cloudy days without rain, however, are of unfrequent occurrence, and one half of the month averages fine sunny weather.

Days of Days of month.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

1 m

28

2 t

29

3 w

1

4 t

2

5 f

3

6 s

4

7 S

5

8 m

9 t

10 w

12 f

10

13 S

11

14 S

12

15 m

13

16 t

14

17 w

15

18 t 19 f

16

17

20 s

13

21 s

19

122 m

20

23 t

21

24 w

22

25 t

23

26 f

24

127 s

128 S

129 m 30 t

27

131 w

29

( Famine in Kiángnán, Chebkiáng, and Húpeh, 1832. The Hongkong Gazette commenced, 1841.

FOURTH MOON.

British troops evacuate Ningpo, 1842.

SE. I. Co's garden demolished, by lieut-governor

Chú, 1831.

British forces arrived off Chápú 1842.

Chápú carried by storm, 1842.

British ships at Canton attacked, 1841. The de- livery of the 20,283 chests opium completed, 1839. The foreign factories pillaged, 1841.

Queen Victoria born, 1818.

Canton surrounded by British forces, 1841.

25 The city of Canton ransomed for six millions, 1841.

26

A Congregational Association formed in Canton, 1846. Chinese Repository commenced, 1832.

10

JUNE, 1848-XXX DAYS.

Chinese XXVIII Year, and Vth Moons.

The month of June is also a very wet month, although, on an average, the number of rainy days is less than in the other summer months. The ther- mometer in June rises several degrees higher than in the month of May, and falls but little at night-it is this latter circumstance chiefly which causes the exhaustion often felt in this country, from the heat of summer-no op- portunity being afforded for regaining strength.

Days of Days of

month.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

1 t

1

FIFTH MOON.

2 f

2

3 s

3

4 S

5 m 6 t 7 w

Lord J. S. Churchill died off Macao, 1840.

5 Kíying arrived in Canton, 1843.

13

Portuguese prohibited trading at Canton, 1640.

Sir Le F. Senhouse died at Hongkong, 1841.

14{

8 t

9 f

10 8

10

S

11

12 m 13 t

12

14 w

15 t 16 f

15

16

17 s

17

18 S

18

19 m

19

120 t

20

21 w

21

22 t

22

23 f

23

24 8

24

25 S

25

26 m 27

28 w

29 t

30 f

26

27

28

29

Russia and China treaty, 1728. Elliot chief sup. of B. trade, 1836. First Hongkong land sale, 1841. British troops arrived, before Wúsung, 1842. Wúsung taken, 1842.

Shinghái occupied by British forces, 1841.

Macartney's embassy arrived, 1793. Victoria's

accession, 1837.

Sir. J. J. G. Bremer arrived off Macao in the

Wellesly, 1840.

Port of Canton blockaded by English forces, 1840.

The destruction of 20,283 chests of opium com- {pleted by Lin at the Bogue.

Treaty of Nanking exchanged at Hongkong, 1843.

Queen Victoria crowned, 1838.

30 Expedition to China arrived, 1840.

Finished illedhwist In illed wist on 170 pp.

                # Dr. Hobson mand to the Fill Fan-

.....

-25 at Bowhip in 2017 P. Mr. rain

-Finished reading Madame Guyon 1 Vol. 460 pp.

Boone on 69. App.

"

"

de la Amell Rd

No meeting at t

Finished Reading willed.

3

20

fernoon

Finished reading "Interior Life 396 pp. - 10 persons XP. Wishik in. x 40 A. May

30

n

Whopper went to H. Kong.

Q.M. J

30 persons at P. Worship in F. H. M

25

Finish'd reading" 2 firendi

P.M.

20 at P. Warship in # 15 A My.

35

Dr. Leage "bo-arrived t

Fuished reading Paredes

Forshed read Chimes brast "Life of lakint" 466 pp

20 persons at P. Worship in 140 A. M...

45

11

JULY, 1848,-XXXI DAYS.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, VIth and VIIth Moons.

During July-which is the hottest month in the year-the average height of the thermometer is 88° in the shade, at noon, both at Canton and Macao."This month is subject to frequent and heavy showers of rain, and-as is also the month of August-to storms of thunder and lightning. The winds, with very little variation, blow steadily during the whole month from the south or south.

east.

Days of Days of

month.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

I s

2 S

2

3 m

..

4 t

5 w 6 t

5

7 f

00

1 Sixth Moon.

The Blonde visited Amoy, 1840.

4

(The Rev. Dr. Milne arrived in Macao, 1831.

The Morrison sailed for Japan, 1837.

Tinghái first taken, 1840.

Bark Troughton plundered by pirates, 1835.

7 | {

9

Lin Weiht killed, 1839. Queen's Road chapel

dedicated, 1842.

B. J. de S. S. Andreia, governor of Macao arrived. 1833. Riot, and several Chinese shot in Can- [ton, 1846.

The Yangtsz' kiáng blockaded, 1840. Amherst's embassy arrived 1816. |Admiral Maitland arrived, 1838.

First English ship reached China, 1635.

Lord Napier and suite arrived, 1834. British trade reöpened, 1841.

Dutch envoys arrived at Peking, 1656. Graud canal blockaded, 1842.

21 Tyfoon, 1841. Chinkiáng fú carried by storm, 1842.

-9 S

10 m

10

11 t

11

12 w

12

13 t

13

14 f

14

15 s

15

16 S

16

17 m

17

18 t

18

H9 w

19

20

20

21 f

22 8

22

23 S

24 m

125 t

26 w 127 t

128.f

29 8

25

** * 84828-

26

27'

30 S

30

31 m

A murderous attack on a party at Yütáu in Honam,

1846.

A second tyfoon, this year, 1841.

[banishment, 1841.

SEVENTH MOON. Gov. Lin and Tang sentenced to

12

AUGUST, 1848,-XXXI DAYS.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, VIIth and VIIIth Moons.

During this month the heat is as oppressive generally as in the month of July-often indeed it is more so, although the thermometer usually stands lower. Towards the close of the month, and summer begins to break up, the wind occasionally veering from southeast to north and northwest. Tyfoons |seldom occur earlier than the first of this month or later than the end of Sep.

Days of Days of

month.

1 t

2 w

3 t 4 f

5

6 S

7 m

inoon.

23456789 O

8 t

9.w

10

10 t 11 f 12 s

11

12

13

13 S

14

14 m

15

15 t

16

J6 w

17

17 t

18

18 f

19

19 s

20 S

21

21 m

22 t

23

23 w

34

24 t

25

25 f

26

26 s

27

27 S

28 m 29

29

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

Chinese Periodical commenced, by Mr. Gutzlaff, 1833. Dr. Morrison died at Canton, æt 53, 1834.

Tyfoon, barrom. 22. 10, 1832.

British ship arrived before Nanking, 1842.

A tyfoon, 1835. · Mr. Stanton made prisoner, 1840.

Batavia taken by the English, 1811. British squad-

ron ́ arrived off the Pei ho, 1840.

Sir H. Pottinger and Sir W. Parker arrived, 1841. Captain Elliot entered the Pei ho, 1840.

British prisoners executed on Formosa, 1842.

Commissioner Hí-ngan and Húsunge arrived, 1832.

Indian Oak lost on Liúchiú, 1840.

30 w

81 t

20 Barrier, Macao, attacked 1840.

28

Sir II. Pottinger landed in Hongkong, 1841.

[China 1841. Attack on the Black Joke, 1839. Capt. Elliot leaves f Brit. Cham. Com. formẹd 1835. Mr. Harvey kill-

ed on Tsungming, 1840.

British leave Maçao, 1839. Amoy taken, 1841.

[rison died 1843. Treaty of Nanking signed, 1842. Hon. J. R. Mor. EIGHTH MOON. Conference at Tientsin, 1840. 2 Three sons at one birth, Whampoa, 1832.

2

Finished reading

2 s

- 30 persons at P. Worshift in #445

لمراة

-30 persons at P. Worher in 45 yill

·40

2017

P

530 persons at P. Warship in 1977 H. 16.

25

P. 16.5

- Finished reading Abeet's Memoir 315/ 20 persons at P. Wishif in 1 4445 Albi

15

"

P. Mi

Dr. Haffers house blown down

No meeting at 15

12 persons at P. Warslik in 172 17

0%

W

Went to Honsin temple with By Pinchonbergen, Mesos Davis, Giddings & Memoll.

Mission meeting & Sucroment at $245. Mr. Bridgum]

            人和行 condnated Art

BM. Williams, returned to Canton

12 persons at P. Service in 14045 A. M.

30

"

P.M.§

25 persons at 5. Warship in 4445 A. M.

30°

Ruille

་་

13

SEPTEMBER, 1848, XXX DAYS.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, VIIIth and IXth Moons.

      In the month of September, the monsoon is entirely broken up, and north- erly winds begin to blow, but with very little alleviation of the heat. This is the period most exposed to the description of hurricanes called tyfoons, the range of which extends southwards over about one half of the Chinese sea, and northward to the coast of Japan. They have appeared with the greatest severity in the gulf of Tonquin.

Days of Days of

month.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

If

2 s

3 S

COLO

3

4

5

4 m.

6

5 t

7

6 w

8

7t

8 f

9 $

11

H0 S

12

11 m

13

4+2 t

14

43 w

15

14 t

16

15 f

17

H6 s

18

9

10

Kiáking died, 1820.

The Rev. Robt. Morrison arrived in China, 1807.

Attack on Kaulung by capt. Elliot, 1839.

Guard of Marines landed in Canton, 1834. Imogine and Andromache pass the Bogue, 1834.

News of the treaty of peace reached Hongkong 1842.

Imogine and Andromache anchored at Whampoa,

1834.

Táukwáng born, 1782. Canton Press begun, 1835.

Bilbaino burnt, 1839.

The Kite, capt. Noble, lost in the Yangtsz', 1840. Captain Anstruther seized, 1840.

17 S

19

18 m

20

19 t

21

Steamer Madagascar burnt, 1841.

20 w

22

|21 t

23

Steamer Jardine arrived, 1835.

122

24

25

124 S

26

25 m

27

26

28

Nerbudda lost on Formosa, 1841.

27 w

29

Commissioner Lin degraded, 1840:

[ed, 1836.

1

NINTH MOON. Morrison Education Society organiz-|

30 s

3

I S

2 m

5

3 t

6

4 w

7

5 t

8

6 f

9

10

S

11

12

10 t

13

11 w

14

12 t

15

13 f

16

14 s

17

15 S

18

14

OCTOBER, 1848,-XXXI DAYS.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, 1Xth and Xth Moons.

   Northerly winds prevail throughout this month, occasionally veering to north- east or nothwest; but the temperature of the atmosphere is neither so cold nor so dry as in the following months; neither does the northerly wind blow so constantly-southerly and easterly winds intervening every now and then. The winter usually sets in with three or four days of light drizzling rain.

Days of Days of

month.

789

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

4 Tinghái retaken, 1841.

|Rev. J. A. Gonçalves died, 1841.

Alexander H. Everett, U. S. A. commissioner

arrived and landed at Macao, 1847.

Supplementary Treaty signed at the Bogue, 1843.

Chinhái taken, 1841.

(Lord Napier died at Macao, 1835, and Mr. Davis

succeeded as Chief Superintendent. Halley's comet observed in Canton, 1835. Ningpo occupied by British forces, 1841.

Yukien, imperial commissioner in Chekiáng, com-

mitted suicide, 1841.

16 m

19

17 t

20

18 w

21

19 t

22

20

23

Nemesis and Phlegethon go up to Yüyau, 1841.

21 s 22 S

24

25

23 m

26

124 t

27

25 w 28

26 t 27 f

29

In Canton 1200 houses and 3 factories burnt, 1843.

30

28 s 29 S

1

30 m

31 t

234

TENTH MOON. Terranova executed by the Chinese,

[1812.

}

-30 persons at 171/5 public worship. A. M. - Wilkid round sits with vilages Allis & Bugoyren

Moved to Honam de infole _

Attended Chinese service at On Holison's Fontshed reading bhaistion Wuitive 250 f. 12.

Samp

The en fire of a

Bi.

thist

ist priest burnt at Honamate

took lunch with to Chin's brothers at E. Gate_

   W. Speer moved to Honam temple Walk'd to be. Parade ground with Me. Reynivagn ofriend

             the he Ron. W. Speed inord, to Danaher

Ji Do called it Honam temple to hasten my remover Commenced moving from temple to Site thing this

Bro. Speer moved to Lim Hing hai

Bro. Bridgman went to Hong Kong

15

NOVEMBER, 1848,-XXX DAYS,

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, Xth and XIth Moons.

The month of November and the two following are the most pleasant in the year, at least to the feelings of persons from the more northern climates. Though the thermometer is not often below 40, and seldom so low as 30 de- grees, the cold of a Chinese winter is often very severe. Ice sometimes form about one eighth of an inch thick-this is usually in December or January.

Days of Days of

inonth.

moon.

Chronicle of events in China, &c,

1 w

2 t

3 f

4 s

5 S

66699

5

7

8

6 m

10

11

8 w

12

9 t

13

10 f

14

Il s

15

12 S

16

13 m

17

14 t

18

15 w

19

16 t

20

Factories in Canton burnt, 1822. Naval engagement at Chuenpí, 1839.

Truce agreed on at Canton, 1840.

U. S. A. ship Peacock arrived, 1842.

Sir Andrew Ljungstedt died, Macao, 1835.

17 f 21

18 s 19 S

20 m

New empress succeeds, 1834.

24 Captain Elliot returned from the Pei ho, 1840.

21 t

22 w

26

23 t

27

In Canton 1400 buildings burnt, 1835.

24 f

28

25 8

29

26 S

30

27 m

28 t

29 w

30 t

3

284

ELEVENTH MOON. General Chamber of Commerce

formed in Canton, 1836.

Kishen arrived at Canton, 1841. Society D. U.

Kinowledge formed at Canton, 1834.

16

DECEMBER, 1848,-XXXI Days.

Chinese XXVIIIth Year, XIth and XIIth Moons

The months of December and January are remarkably free from rain, the average fall in each month being under one inch, and the average number of rainy days being only three and a half. On the whole, the climate of Canton (and more especially that of Macao) may be considered very superior to that of most other places situated between the tropics.

Days of Days of

month

1

2 8

3 S

4 m

inoon.

5 |{

5 6789 O=2;

10

5 t

6 w

7 t

11

8 f

12

'9 8

13

10 S

14

Il m

15

12 t

13 w

17

18

Chronicle of events in China, &c.

Confucius born, 562, B. c. Hingan's sister made

empress, 1833.

Xavier died on Sánshán, 1552. ·

Seizure of opium at Canton, 1838.

British trade stopped "forever." E. I. Co's last

servant leaves China, 1839.

British consulate, Canton, burnt in a riot 1842.

Attempted execution and riot, in Canton, 1838. The flag of France rehoisted in Canton, 1832. ·

All Catholic priests (not Portuguese) expelled

Macao, 1838.

14 t

15 f

16 s

20

17 S 21

118 m

22

23

24

* **** * RANKR

19 t

20 w

21 t

22 f

23 s

124 S

25 m

26 t

25

26

27

29

Sir Hugh Gough, and the eastern expedition, leave

China, 1842.

1

27 w

2

TWETFTH MOON.

Mr. Stanton released from prison by the Chinese.

128 t

3

29 f

130 s

5

BIS

6

E. I. Company chartered, 1690.

Chinese Teacher Way. Le big hefty ng empley

at -

of

-Visited French R. leath. Priest at Consoo House

Dr. Habson's son born at 41 1/

Bro. Speer goes

to Macao.

- 20 persons at P. Warship in Lien Wing 113

Ms. Parker leaves for Americah in the "Montauk

-

Rev. Mer Banks returns to England in "Viscant Son-

70 persons at P. Warship in Liin Hing 127

  Finished reading butters Anatang 331 ff. Br. Speer retioned from Macao_

60 persons at P. Warships in Lüntting Ker

CHINESE CHRONOLOGY',

ERA AND MODE OF RECKONING BY CYCLES,

WITH A COMPLETE SERIES OF THE SUCCESSIVE

DYNASTIES AND SOVEREIGNS,

CHRONOLOGY is so intimately connected with the record of historical events, so essential to the proper arrangement of facts, that the study of the latter cannot be pursued with pleasure, without some at- tention to the former. Without chronology, history will be dark and confused, and its study devoid of the advantages it would otherwise possess. Waving here all questions respecting the accuracy of the Chinese mode of computing time, it will suffice for our present pur- pose, if we can lay before our readers a concise account of their cycle, with a complete series of their successive dynasties and sovereigns.

     For the cycle of sixty years, which the Chinese call hwá kiáh tsz', they acknowledge themselves indebted to Náu, Náu the Great, one of the ministers of Hwang ti, or the Yellow emperor. By command of his sovereign, in the sixty-first year of his reign, Náu the Great, taking the + F shih kán, or ten borary characters,甲乙丙丁戊己庚辛壬癸

kiah, yih, ping, ting, máu, kí, hang, sin, jin, kwei, and together with them the+shik 'rh chí, twelve other horary characters, 子丑寅

       tsz, chau, yin, 辰巳午未申酉戌亥

máu, shin, sz, voi, voi, shin, giữ, sách, hai, he formed this cycle. The shih kán have been called the 'ten stems,' and the shih 'rh

chi, the 'twelve branches.' Náu commencing with the first of the

18

1744 甲子

1814

1764 甲戌

1764甲申

1805

1745 乙丑

1765 乙酉

1806

gia chau 1746 丙寅

1816

1956 丙子

1826

1766 丙戊

ping yin

ping tsz

1747

丁丑

1807

1817

·1767 丁亥

1808

ting máu 1748 戊辰

1818

1768 戊子

mau shi

ni au yin

1749

1759

1809

1819

ki

li máu

1750

1910

1820

1757 丁外

king voi

●1751 辛未

1811

sin wi

1752壬申 jin shin

1812

1753 癸酉

1813

kwei yú

ting chau

1758 戊第

1760 庚辰

kang shin 1761辛

sin

1821

1822

1762 壬午

jin wú

1763癸未

1823

kwei wi

1827

1828

ting hai

mau tsz'

1769 己丑

1829

ki chau

1760庚寅

1830

king gin

1771 辛列

1831

sin máu 1772壬辰

1832 jin shin 1773癸 1933 kwei sz

1778戊戌

1839

ki

1780 庚子

1840

káng tsz' 1781 辛丑

1841

sin chau

1782 壬寅

1842

  jin yin 1783葵外

 1843, VI loài màu

1791

* 1851 辛亥 1792 壬子

1852

stn

jin tsz?

1793 癸丑

1853

kwei chau

1861

sin

1902 壬戌 哭壬

1862

sin siuh

1803 癸亥

1863

ken khi

TABLE OF THE CHINESE CYCLE OF SIXTY YEARS, OR HWA KIAH TSZ'.

1824

kinh shin

1804

kiáh tsz

kich sinh

1755之亥

1815

gia hai

1825

yih

ping mau

1774甲午

1934

kiáh wú

1775 乙未 yih wi

1844

1794甲寅

kiah jin

1784 甲辰

1854

kich shin

1795 乙外

1855

giả máu

1785 ZE

1845

yik sz'

1786 丙午

1787 丁未

1796 丙辰

1856

ping shin

1797 Je

1835

1836

1776 丙申

1846

ping shin

ping wú

1777

丁酉

1637

1847

1857

ting yú

ting wi

ting sx'

1788

1838

1848

戊申

1798

1868

戊午

nu sinh

man shin

mau wú

1779 已亥

1789 1849

1799 已酉

1869

1850

1790 庚戌

1800

1860

káng sinh

hàng shin

1801

19

    stems and the first of the branches, formed couplets, and by repeat- ing the first series siz, and the second five times, framed the cycle- a tabular form of which stands on the opposite page. This being completed, was, according to tradition, immediately adopted by the emperor, and the 61st year of his reign thus became the first year of the first cycle,-seventy-four of which, making 4440 years, were completed a. D. 1803. The present year 1848 is the 45th year of the 75th cycle; it is called

mau shin

Besides the mode of indicating time by the cycle, the Chinese date from the commencement of each successive monarch; ́ thus the first day of the present month of March they write according to their 年二月初九日,

calendar, thus,

thus,*

* = +

Táukwang, 21st year, 2d month, 9th day.

We now proceed to give, in their order, the names of the several

dynasties with the title of the sovereigns in each.

1. The Three'August Sovereigns;

1.

SAN HWANG KI.

1Pwán kú, the first on earth.

2

Tien hwáng, the celestial sovereign.

3

4

Ti hwáng, the terrestrial sovereign.

Jin hwáng, the human sovereign.

5

有巢 Yú chu.

+

6 燧人 Sui jin.

The 2d, 3d, and 4th, in this series, are generally considered, by way of eminence as the three sovereigns. For an explanation of Pwánkú, see Chi. Rep. vol. X., page 49; for the meaning of the imperial and royal titles, see volume II., page 309.

This period, even by the Chinese, is regarded as wholly mytholo- gical. After the separation of the heavens from the earth, Pwánkú was the first that appeared in the world. Tien hwáng is sometimes regarded as a line of sovereigns, thirteen in number, reigning 18,000 years. Tí hwáng is another line, eleven in number, reiguing 18,000 years; and Jin hwáng, a third, nine in number, reigning 45,600

years.

20

2. 五帝紀 WUTI KI.

Names of the Sovereign.

1. 伏羲 Fuh-1.

2. 神農 Shinnung-

3.

Hwang tí.

4.

Shauhau.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Fishing, grazing, &c., instituted.

Agriculture commenced.

Calendar adopted.

5.顓頊 Chuenhiuh:

6. 嚳 Kuh.

7. # Yáu. 8. 舜 Shun.

Destruction by a deluge, ✯ A hung shwui wei hwán.

Fuh-1, Shinnung, Hwáng tí, Yáu, and Shun are regarded, by most historians, as the five sovereigns., During this period, from 2852 B. C. to 2204, very little can be ascertained concerning the persons who then lived, or the events that occurred; in Chinese his- tory, a few particulars are recorded, handed down by tradition. They are worthy of notice. chiefly because they are so frequently referred to by the Chinese in all their writings.

The capital of Fuh-í is reputed to have been situated on the southern bank of the Yellow river, in the province of Honán, near the present provincial capital Káifung fú, lat. 34° 52′ 5′ N., long.

1° 55′ 30′′ W., from Peking.

   Shinnung, the Divine Husbandman, known also as Yen ti Shin- nung, is chiefly renowned for his attention to agriculture.

   To Hwangtí credit is given for several useful inventions, of which that of the cycle is the most notable. The honor of inventing letters, the calendar, &c., are claimed for him and his principal ministers. He was born in Káifung the ancient capital.

Of Sháuháu called also Sháuháu Kintien, of Chuenhiuh called also Chuenbinh Kányáng, and of Kuh called also Kuh Káusin, little comparatively is recorded.

   Of Yau and Shun, volumes have been written; they are by the Chinese even to this day regarded as the illustrious patterns of all that is good in everything.

21

2. THE FIVE Sovereigns.

Cotemporary Events. -

THE CREATION 4000, or accord-

ing to Hales 5411, B. C. Adam dies, aged 930 years,

3070.

Noah born 2944.

No.

of Reign.

Length B. C.

Number and Year of Cycle.

1.

115 2852

2.

140 | 2737

3.

100 2007

Cycle

begins.

4.

84 2597

: 41

5.

782513

2:05

6.

78 2435

3:22

7.

102 2357

4:49

8.

50 2255

6:23

The universal deluge 2344, or according to Hales 3155.

The tower of Babel commenc-

led, 2230.

The Assyrian and Egyptian em- pires commenced, about 2229.

The numbers of sovereigns in each successive dynasty, given on the left hand page, in the first column, correspond to the same num- bers on the opposite or right hand page.

The cycle era is that of the Chinese, it begins with the 61st year in the reign of Hwang tí, who occupied the throne 100 years, conse- quently his successor's reign commenced in the 41st year of the 1st cycle, marked 41, the next reign, in succession, commenced on the 5th year of the 3d cycle, and is marked 2:05; and so on of the rest, as indicated in the fourth column of figures. Thus 2:05 shows two complete cycles and fire odd years, or a total 125-which number, 125 is the year in which Chuenhiuh's reign began.

In like man-

ner 6:23 indicates siz complete cycles and twenty-three odd years, or a total 383 years, this number 383 being the first year of Shun's reign, dating from the 61st of Hwáng tí, which is adopted as the commencement of the Chinese era

A few cotemporary events, on the remaining part of the page, are selected from Lempriore and Calmet, (the former following Dr.

Blair's chronology,) unless it be otherwise stated.

       The Chinese names are copied from the Káng Kien F Chí; and the Chinese chronology is selected from a native work, called the

三元甲子 Sán yuen kiah tsx.

3. 夏紀 Ha KI.

Names of the Sovereign.

1. 大禹 Tá Yü.

2. 帝啟Ti K.

1

3. Tái Káng.

太康 M

4. 仲康 Chung Káng,

5. 帝相

Tí Siáng.

6. 少康

Sháu Káng.

7. 帝杼

Tí Chú.

8. 帝槐

Tí Hwái.

9. 帝芒

Tí Máng.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

* It was in this age that

yü kin, it rained gold.

About the same time, also,

Etik tsok tsiú, Itih

made wine: Yü banished him and interdicted the use of the tsiú- a strong and alcoholic liquor, and not simple wine, since it is known that the grape is not indigenous in China.

10. 帝泄 Tí Sieh.

11. 帝不降 Ti Puhkiáng-

12. 帝局 Tí Kiung.

$

13. 帝廣

Ti Kin.

14. TK'ungkiáh.

15. 帝臯

Tí Khu.

16. 帝 17. 桀癸

Ti Fah.

Kieh Kwei.

This dynasty, commencing R. c. 2205 and terminating 1767, oc- oupied the throne 439 years, the records of which are brief and of doubtful authenticity. Of all the seventeen emperors, the first, Tá Yü, or Yü the Great, was the most celebrated for his virtues; the last, Kieh Kwei, was the most notorious for his vices. Of the other monarchs of this family, little is recorded besides their names, and these read like mere chronological characters.

No.

Reign.

1.

8 2205

2 9❘ 2197

23

3. THE HA Dream.

Year of Oycle.

Cotemporary Events.

7:13 Division of the earth, 2200; Gen. xi. 18.

7:21

+

29 2188

7:30

:13 | 2159

7:59

6.28 † 2146

8:12

6. 61 2118

7. 17 2057

9:41

26❘ 2040

8:58

8:40 The kingdom of Sicyon established,

2069, and the first pyramid built.

9. 18 2014 10:24

10. 16 1996 10:42

Abraham born 1992.

11. 59 1980 10:58

12. 21 1921 11:57 Abraham goes into Egypt, 1916.

13. 21 1900 12:18

14. 31 1879 12:39

1

15. 11 1848 | 13:10

Kingdom of Argos founded 1866.

16. 19

17. 52

1837 13:21 Memmon, the Egyptian invents letters,

1822.

13:40

      Dating the commencement of the building of Babel from about the year 2230, and presuming that the dispersion, which soon followed, drove mankind eastward to the Yellow river, it is possible, and per- haps probable, that Yii was the founder of the Chinese empire. The allusion to his draining off the waters of a deluge seems to support. this supposition. All the records extant, regarding this dynasty, are of very doubtful authenticity.

24

4. 商貎 SHANG Kı.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Chingtáng. Seven years of great drought, Táikisht tá hún ts'ih nien.

Names of the Sovereign.

1. hit th

2. 太甲

3. 沃丁

Wuhting.

4. 太庚

Táikáng.

5. 小甲

6. 雍己

Siáoukiáh.

Yungkí.

Táimau.

7. 太戊 8. 仲丁 Chungting.

Wáijin.

 9. 外主 10. 河亶曱 Horánkiáh.

11. 祖乙 12. 祖辛 13.沃甲

Tsuyih.

Tsúsin.

13. Wuhkiáh.

☆ The emperor then 醻于桑林

táu yũ sáng lin prayed in a grove of mulberries: he prayed, saying

以予一人之不敏傷民 Wú, í yũ yik jin chi puh

mền, sháng min chí ming, do not, on

account of the negligence of Ourself,

destroy the lives of the people.

With regard to his own conduct in six particulars he blamed himself, yen wí e̟, tá yũ,

*

his words were not ended, when the rain descended copiously.

In the 25th year of the 16th cy- cle (B. C. 1713), PPI Yin hung, I'′ Yin died, loaded with ho- nors. "In ancient or modern times, no one has ever used power better than I' Yių, nor any discoursed of it better than Mencius."

14. 祖丁

Tsúting.

This dynasty reigned 644 years, the throne being occupied in the meantime by twenty-eight sovereigns in succession.

   The first emperor of this line is reputed to have been a very pious, devout, discreet, and humane prince, distinguished by the worship and honor which he paid to Sháng Ti, the Supreme Ruler. In the chronological table before us, his name first appears B. C. 1783, seventeen years before he ascended the throne. He was a descendent of Hwang tí, and saw with grief and indignation the abuses that pre- vailed at court and throughout the empire. Some of the ministers of state were beheaded, others fled, and found a safe retreat at his resi- dence. Among these, was the renowned I' Yin. This minister

No.

Reign.

1.

13

2. 33

3. 29

* * *

B. C.

I

25

3. THE SHang Dynasty.

Year

of

Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1766 14:32 The deluge of Ogyges in Attica, 1764.

1753 14:45 Joseph born 1741.

1720 15:18 The shepherds, expelled from Egypt, set-

tle in Palestine, 1714,

1691

4. 25

5. 17

1666

6. 12

15:47 The seven years of famine begin in Egypt,

1740.

16:12

1649 16:29 Joseph dies, aged 110 years, 1631.

7. 75 1637 16:41 Moses born, 1571, according to Blair.

The kingdom of Athens begun under 17:56 Cecrops, who came from Egypt with

colony of Saites, 1556.

8. 13

1562

9.

15

1549

10.

9

1534

11. 19 1525

12. 16 1506

13. 25 1490

14. 32 1465

18:09 Scamander migrates from Crete, and be

gins the kingdom of Troy, 1546.

18:24

18:33 The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly

1503.

18:52 Cadmus comes into Greece, and buildə

the citadel of Thebes, 1493.

19:08

The ten plagues inflicted by Jehovah on 19:33 the Egyptians, begin 1887.

again and again remonstrated with his degenerate sovereign, but always in vain.

At last he advised Chingtáng to assume the reins of government; in this counsel, he was joined by many other high officers. With great reluctance, he yielded to their solicitations, and took the throne, 1766. Upon the fall of the Hiá dynasty, two suns were seen fighting in the firmament, the stars lost their brightness, mountains were precipitated, and the earth quaked! So deeply did all nature sympathize with the suffering state.

The wars which broke out during this dynasty were numerous ; The nearly every succession was followed by a state of anarchy. droughts, famines, and other calamities which occurred, were like- wise frequent, and were attended by dreadful omens and fearful sights. Now and then were found a few who respected virtue and

26

4. BHANG Kı, (Continued).

mes of the Sovereigns.

15.Nankang.

16.

Yángkiák.

17.

Pwáukang.

· 18.

Siǎusin.

19.

Siáuyih,

20.

TWúting.

21. 庚 Tsúkang-

22. Tsúliáh

23. 廩辛 Linsin.

24.

Kangting.

25. 武乙 Wúyih.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

The seventeenth emperor of this dynasty, Pwánkang,-having re- moved his capital to Yin,

ĐỂ KH khi lao hưu, giu gìn,

-changed the name of the nation, and called it Yin. `·

1:

The conduct of the twenty-fifth emperor is most notable: the his torian thus describes it:

武乙無道為偶人謂 天神與之博合

武之爲

天神不勝乃

<

Wúyih, devoid of reason, made

images, called them gods, and gambl

ed with them, having ordered a man

to play for them; the gods, being unable to win, he disgraced them.

26. AT Táiting.

27. Z Tiyib.

28.

Chausin.

Tanks, the infamous female

companion of Chausin.

truth, and acted the part of good men; but the great mass of the people were vicious and miserable in the extreme.

Of the rulers none could be more wicked than Wúyih. Having made his images of clay in the shape of human beings, dignified them with the name of gods, overcome them at gambling, and set them aside in disgrace, he then, in order to complete his folly, made leathern bags and filled them with blood and sent them up into the air, exclaiming, when bis arrows hit them and the blood poured down, I have shot heaven-i. e. I have killed the gods of heaven. Afterwards, when abroad hunting, he was suddenly overtaken by a storm and killed by a thunder-bolt. This is the first instance, of idolatry recorded in Kang Kien I Chí.

No.

Reign.

15 25

16

7

17 28

18 20

2 2

19 23

20

59

B. C.

27

4. The Shang Dynasty.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1433 | 20:05 Servitude of the Israelites in Egypt, under

Cushan-Rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia,

1408 20:30 eight years, 1409.

1401 20:37 Othniel delivers them, 1401.

1878 | 21:05 The Eleusinian ́mysteries introduced at Athens by Eumolpus, 1356.

1852 | 21:26!

1894 21:54 Servitude of the Israelites renewed, 1339

and 1321.

21 7 1965 22:53 The Argonautic expedition; 1208.

2 2 2 2 * *

22

23

28 | 1958 | 22:60 Gideon delivers Israel, and governs them

during nine years, commencing 1241. 6 | 1225 | 23:33, The Theban war of the seven heroes against Eteocles, 1225.

24 21

25

4

26

3

27 37

28 32

* 2 *

1219 | 23:39,

1108 | 23:60 Emens sails to Italy, 1184.

1194 24:04 The city of Troy taken, 1184.

Samuel born, 1151.

1191 |24:07 Samson marries at Timnath 1183, and 20 years afterwards kills himself under the 115424:44 ruins of the temple of Dagon...

      The last of this line of emperors was also remarkable for his érîmes and his follies. He was proud, cruel, and debauched. Pos- sessed of great strength and good natural abilities, he abandoned him- self to every species of vice, and to the most dreadful cruelties. In every thing that was base and wicked, he found a fit companion in the infamous female ́slave Tánkí. "They collected a vast concourse of people devoted to pleasure and dissipation; they had made for then a lake of wine, and surrounded it with meat suspended on trees; to this banquet naked men and women resorted, and passed long nights in drunkenness and debauchery. Profligacy to this ex- tent is more than the common sense of mankind, in the worst of times can approve. The king and court felf into contempt." Most Horrible crimes and punishment followed.

5. CHAU NI.

mes of the Sovereigns,

1. it E Wú wáng.

2. D E Ching wáng. 8. 康王Káng wáng. 4. 昭王 Cháu wáng. 5. 穆王 Muh wáng. 6. #Ĩ Kung wáng.

7. 懿王ľ wáng.

8. 孝王 Hiáu wáng.

9. ZI wáng.

10. 麗王 Lí wáng.

11.

Siuen wáng.

12. 4 - Yú wáng.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

With this line of emperors, posthumous titles commenced; and from their being inscribed on tabl- ets deposited in temples, they were called miáu háu, or temple titles. That of Wú wáng is thus

| explained, 諡法克定禍亂

shi fahkih ting ho lưán,

yueh wi, according to the rules for posthumous titles one able to settle the calamitous disorders is called martial.

周公作指南車 Chau

kung tsok chí nan chế, the duke of Chau made the compass, about 1112.

π ^ má fá jin, a horse

transformed into a man.

川竭山崩 chuerm Jct, shan

pang, rivers became dry and moun- tains fell.

18.

Ping wáng.

星隕如雨 sing yun jú yin

14. ū

Hwán wáng.

15. h t Chwáng wáng.

16, Z Lí wáng.

17. H = Hwui wáng.

stars fell like rain.

(Falling rocks and stars appear

to have been very frequent in these early times.)

Amidst all the cruel and shameful abominations that marked the elose of the Shang dynasty, a few able and 'virtuous men were con- spicuous; among these, the members of the Chau family were chief. Wan wang 'the king of letters,' or civil king as he has sometimes been called,-was born about the year 1231 B. C. and in the reign of T'áiting was raised to the rank of prime minister. He was a ta-

No

1.

Reign.

B. C.

5. THE Chau Dynasty.

Year of

Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

71122 25:16 The ark taken by the Philistines, 1112.

2. 37

111525:23 Saul made king over Israeļ, 1095.

1078 25:60 The kingdom of Athens ends in the death

of Codrus, 1070.

1052

26:26 The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and, their settlement in Asia Min- |27:17 or, 1044.

The temple of Solomon finished, 1000. 946 28:12 Visit of the queen of Sheba, 988.

934 28:24 Solomon died, 971.

3. 26

4. 51

6. 55

1001

6. 12

7. 25

8. 15

909

9. 16

!

894

10. 51

878

il. 46

827

12. 11

781

30:57 Fall of the Assyrian empire, 820.

28:49 Homer and Hesiod flourished, according

to the Marble, about 907.

29:04 Elijah the prophet taken up into heaven

Jabout 892.

29:20 Lycurgus establishes his laws; the Olym

pic games restored about 884. 30:11 Carthage built by Dido, 869

13. 51

770 31:08 Kingdom of Macedonia founded, 814.

14. 23

719

31:59 Kingdom of Lydia beings, 797,

15. 51

696

16. 5

681

17. 25 676

32:22 Isaiah beings to prophesy, 757.,

Rome built, 753.

32:37 End of the kingdom of Israel, 717.

32:42 Draco establishes his laws at Athens, 623.

lented and upright man, and for his fidelity was thrown into prison, where he completed the Yih King, or Book of Changes. From his incarceration he is said to have been liberated by the influence of his son Wu wang-the first monarch of the Chau dynasty; grieved at the imprisonment of his father, the son sent to the emperor a beautiful lady, with whom he was charmed, and by whose influence the libera- tiền of the minister was effected. Wan wáng is celebrated for erudi- tion, and for the good counsels which he gave to those who were in authority.

80

5. CHAU KI (Continued).

Names of the Sovereigns.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

18 襄王 Siang wáng.

Kwang wáng.

 19 lê I * King wáng. 20 E E

21 定王

Ting wáng.

22 簡王

Kien wáng.

23 王 24 景王 25 敬王

Ling wáng.

King wáng.

King wáng.

26 元王

Yuen wáng.

 27 真定王 28 考王

Khâu sáng.

29

Weilich wáng.

30 安王

Ngán wáng.

31 烈王

Lieh wăng.

32 顯主

Hien wáng.

shih yun, stones fell from heaven; these were probably me-

teoric stones.

Chun Ts'iú, or Spring and Autumn Annals, written by Con- fucius, and by some called the his- tory of his own times, extend through a period 242 years.

FL FK'ungisz' sang, Con- fucius bern the 21st year of Ling wáng (B. c. 519) the 11th month, 21st day. He was a native of the state of L, now a part of Shán- tung province.

Chingtingwang. 老子 Láutsz' or 老君Láu-

kinn, the founder of the

táu sz', or sect of Rationalists, was cotemporary with Confucius.

33 慎靚王 Chintsing wáng. Mencius or 孟子 Mung tsz' Hourd

34 ak = Nán wáng.

35

ished.

Tungchau wang.

感情

   His son, Wú wáng, 'the martial king,' is represented as able, and pious one who acknowledged the Supreme Ruler, to whom he of fered prayers and sacrified. His brother, known as Chau kung, or the duke of Chau, is also ranked among the worthies of antiquity. The words and actions of these great men are recorded in the Shú King, or Book of Records.

No.

Reign.

B. C.

81

5. THE CHAU DYNASTY.

Year of

Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

33:07 A canal, between the Nile and the Red

Sea begun by king Necho, 610.

61833:40

18 33

651

19 6

20

6

612 33:46|

21

21

22 14

= 2

606

The Phoenicians sail around Africa, 604.

Ezekiel, Solon, Thales, Epimenides, and 33:52 Æsop flourish about 591.

585 34:13 Jerusalem taken, 587.

34:27 Cyrus begins to reign, 559.

23 27

571

24 25

544

34:54

Babylon taken by Cyrus, 538.

2 2

25 44

519

26

7

27

28

8 28

29

35: 19 Darias Hystaspes chosen king of Persia,

521. The battle of Marathon, 490.

475 36:03

46836:10 Herodotus reads his history to the coun-

cil of Athens, 445.

15 440 36:38

24

30 26

31

32

$

33

t

425 36:51 The history of the Old Testament closes

about 430.

40137: 17 Cyrus the younger killed, 401. Socrates

put to death, 400.

375 37:43]

Plato, Damon, Pythias, flourishes about

48 368 37:50 389.

6 320 33:39 flourishes about 354.

34

35 7

Lycurgus, Eudoxus, Ephorus, Datames,

Sicily and Syracuse usurped by Agatho-

814 38:44 cles, 317.

255

39:43 Regulus defeated by Xanthippus, 256.

During this dynasty China was still divided into many little princi- palities; at one time, the number of kwah, nations or state, amounted to 125: at another time their number was 41; again there were the lich kwok, a term thought by some an equivalent to United States, as used in America.

      Confucius and Mencius, with their disciples, gave lustre and re- nown to this period; and their doctrines have influenced the charac- ter of every succeeding age.

32

6. 秦紀 TIN KI,

Names of the Sovereign.

Cotemporary Ching Events.

1

## Chwangsiáng wáng. This emperor mí Chau,

xterminated Chau.

Note. These two dynasties-if they are to be separated-may be considered as one. They are separated here because they are thus arranged in the work from which we obtain them-the History Made Easy.

7. 後泰 HAU Tsin Kı.

Names of the Sovereigns.

始皇帝 Chí Hwangti.

二世皇帝 'Rhshi Hwángly

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Đề E tác chua chung ching, Chí

built the great wall; and 焚書

fan shi, burnt the books.

fan

Parts of the Chinese history are involved in much obscurity, and few more so than that of this period. The 'unravelment of history,' has been made an object of particular attention with some of their best scholars, and one of their works bears such a name. But it forms no protion of our present object to enter upon the discussion of these entanglements, or to attempt their unravelment.

In the year 250 B. C., a prince named Hiáuman wang obtained the throne, but died a few months afterwards; in the Káng K'ien I' Chí, his name does not appear upon the list of sovereigns; it has a place however in the chronological table, Sán yuen kiáh tsz'.

Chí Hwangtí, the successor of Chwángsiáng was a remarkble person, and his acts more memorable than those of any other sover- eign who ever occupied the throne of this empire.

   With all his greatness there was much that was base and execrable in his character. His name was Ching, and his surname or the name of his family was L*: he was of mean parentage and an illegitimate son at least, our historians so affirm. He had reigned twenty-five years when he gained possession of the whole empire. Hitherto he had borne the name of Tsin wáng ching; he now, on becoming universal monarch of the whole world as he supposed, took the name

No.

Reign.

33

6. THE TSin Dynasty.

B. C.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1

3 24939:49|

The sea-figlit at Drepanum in Sicily, and the Romans defeated by Adherbal.

Note. It may be remarked here, once for all, that the object of the writers of the History Made Easy is to give, in this concise form, only what they regard as the true imperial line; conscquently, all the minor and cotemporary states are omitted; but in the body of their work they supply the details.

No.

Reign.

1

37

2

7

B. C.

7. THE After Tøin DynaSTY.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

246 | 39:52 Hamilcar passes with an army and his son Hannibal to Spain, 237. The temple

200 40:29 of Janus at Rome closed, 235.

G

Plautus, Evander, Zeno, Ennius, Epi- cydes, flourished about this time.

Chi kwángti, the First Emperor, and entertained the vain and am- bitious purpose of obliterating the names of all those who had pre- ceded him.

The building of the great wall, and the order for destroying all the sacred and classical books in the empire, are the principal acts that give character to his reign. The first was achieved at an amazing expense, and will remain among the wonders of the world down to the end of time. How far the other was executed it is impossible to determine. It was an iron rule that could draw forth men and means sufficient to erect, in the course of a few years, that immense pile which stretches along the whole northern frontier of the empire; a power that could do all this, would be able, we may suppose, to achieve almost anything in the range of possibilities. The emperq caused great numbers of the literati to be put to death; and he commanded all the sacred and classical books to be burnt, but it seems to us impossible that such a decree could be obeyed. Over so great an extent of territory thousands of copies had been multiplied; and on the promulgation of decrees, it were easy for the admirers of the classics to conceal them in secret' places, utterly beyond the reach of the public authorities. However, many of the Chinese believe that no entire copy remained undestroyed.

**

>

8. 漢紀HAN KI.

Names of the Sovereign.

Káutsú.

Wan tí.

6 Wá tí.

1 高祖

Ò惠帝 3 呂后

Hwui tí.

Lü hau.

4 文帝

5 景帝

King tí.

6武帝

Chán tí.

8宣帝

Siuen tí.

9元帝

Yuen tí.

10 成蒲

Ching tí.

11 哀帝

Ngái tổ.

12 平带

Ping tí.

18

Jútsz' ying. 14 淮陽王 Hwáiyáng wáng.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

韓信國士無雙 Hàn

Sin was without an equal.

Lyü hiuch, it rained blood.

Lii hau (i.e. the empress Lü)

the first female sovereign.

Paper said to have been invent- ed by the Chinese in this reign.

地震二十二日 earth quaked for 22 successive days.

司馬談Se'má Tán received the title of first historiographer.

Sz'má Tsien, his

son, the Herodotus of China, was born 145 B.C.

In the time Siuen tí the

Chinese empire extended to the Caspian sea.

劉向作烈女傳 Lin

Hiáng wrote the Memoirs of Dis tinguished Women.

(This dynasty down to the time of Ping tí is sometimes called the Western Hán, in contradistinc- tion to that which arose soon after.)

   Liú Páng-for this was the name of the first emperor of the new dynasty-did not gain full possession of the empire till 202 n. c., which year is marked in the tables before us, as the 5th of his reign ; by most writers, however, 202 is regarded as the 1st year of the Hán dynasty.

It should be remarked here that the sovereigns of this line intro- duced what is known as the kioh háu or 'national title;' historians however have preferred to give the first place to the miáu háu, and to regard it as the proper name of each emperor; but it could be used only after the sovereign's demise ; while the other, the kwoh háu was used during his lifetime, and by some of the emperors was often changed, and frequently more than once. In this concise view, we

venture to omit the introduction of all these kwoh háu,

Reign.

No.

B. C.

1.

202

35

8. THE HAn Dynasty.

ear

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

40:96 The battle of Zaina," 202.

194 40:44

3. 8

187

4. 23

179

5. 16

156

6. 54

140

7. 13

86

8. 25

73

9. 16

48

10. 26

32

11.

6

6

40:5

40:59

The first Macedonian war, begins, 200.

The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome among the spoils of Antiochus, 189.

Numa's books found in a stone coffin at Rome, 179.

41:22 After the fall of the Macedonian empire 168, the first library was erected at Rome 41:38 with books from Macedonia, 167.

Restoration of learning at Alexandria,

42:32 137.

Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its li- 42:55 braries to Rome, 86.

The reign of the Seleucida ends in So- 43: 10 ria about 65.

Alexandria taken by Cæsar, 47. The 43:26 war of Africa, and Cato kills himself, 46.

Egypt reduced into a Roman province. 43:52 About this time flourished, Virgil, Stra-

bo, Horace, Livy, 'Ovid, &c.

12. 5 A. D. 1 43:56 JESUS CHRIST born.

13. 17

6

14. 2 23

44:03 Ovid banished to Tomos, 8.

44:20 Augustus dies at Nola, 14.

For a pretty full explanation of imperial names and titles, the reader is referred to our last✩olume, page 339; those who wish for the kwoh háu will find them in Dr. Morrison's View of China, Mr. Gutzlaff's Sketch of Chinese history, and in the introduction to the Kang Kien

Chí.

     This dynasty has been more celebrated than any other that ever occupied the throne, of China. Its heroes and its literati were nu- merous, and of high and noble character. To be called ́a Hán tsz', or a son of Hán. even at this day, is regarded as a high honor.

A remarkable coincidence is noticeable in the name of the 12th emperor, who ascended the throne in the year of Immanuel's advent, and after a reign of five years received the title of Ping tí, "prince of peace."

36

9. TUNG Han Ki.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 Kwang wú.

2明帝 Ming ti..

3

Cháng (í.

 4和帝 Hotí. 6 74 7 Sháng tí. 6 安帝 Ngán. tí

7 Shun tí.

8冲帝 Chung 11. 9 Hà Chih tí. 30 từ Hi Hwan tí.

11

Ling ti.

*12 do Hien tí.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

&

東都洛陽故曰東

(This emperor) eastward built his capital Lohyáng, (the modern Ho- nán fú) and therefore the dynasty was called the Eastern Hán.

Mingtí, a. d. 65, sent messen. gers to India to search for and bring back the religion of Budha. ·

Sháng tí becoming emperor when a child, his mother establish- led a regency, placed herself at its head, and on the demise of her son placed her nephew on the throne. She was pupil of the great authors Pán Hwuipán.

{

In the reign of Hwan tí, people came from India and other west-

•ern nations with tribute, and from that time foreign trade was carried on at Canton.

Note. It was near the close of this dy nasty that the three states-Shuh, Wei,

and Wu-arose and flourished.

後漢

HAU HAN K1.

10. ***

Names of the Sovereigns.

昭烈帝 Cháulieh tí.

2 後

Háu tí.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

A law passed by the state of Wei, viz.: From this time queens

shall not assist in the government.

The messengers of Ming tí, according to the wishes of their mas- ter, proceeded to India, where they found the doctrines and disciples of Budha; and, having obtained some of their books with shamun, they brought them to China. It is said that the emperor dreamed that he saw a golden man walking in his palace, and in the morning,

1

No.

-

2

19

Reign.

33

37

9. The Eastern Han DynasTY,

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

25 44:22 St. Paul couverted to Christianity, 36.

58

44:55 The expedition of Claudiús to Britain,

43.

45:13 Nero visits Greece.

The Jewish war begins. Joséphus and Pliny the elder

89 45:26 flourish, about 66.

Death of Vespasian, and succession of

106 | 45:53 Titus, 79. .

About 106 flourished Florus, Pliny jun., 45:54 Dion, Plutarch, &c.

Adrian visits Asia and Egypt, 126; and

126 46:03 rebuilds Jerusalem, 130.

3

13

76

4

17

5

6

19

107

7

19

8

1

9

10 21

147

11 22

12

31

145 46:22 Antonius defeats the Moors, Germans,

and Dacians, 145.

146 46:23

Lucian, Hermogenes, Appian, Justin the 46:24 martyr, flourished about 161.

Commïodus makes peace, with the Ger- 168 46:55 mans, 181. Albinus defeated in Gaul, 198. Severus conquers the Parthians, 200;

19047:07 and soon after visits Britain.

        Note. The historical novel called the Sán Kwoh Chí, extends its narrative from A. D. 170 to 317.

No.

1

Reign.

2 42

10. THE AFTER HAN DYNAY.

AD

Year

of

Cre

Cotemporary Events.

221 47:38 The age of Julius Africartus, 222. The

Goths exact tribute from Rome.

22347:40

when he received his histers at public audience, he told them of the dream; whereupon one of them gave him an account of what he had heard of Budha. The consequence was the embassy and the in- troduction of Budhism into China. The writers of the History made Easy reprobate this conduct of the emperor, and denounce both the shamun and their doctrines as being false, and wicked. Shamun is a Sanscrit word, used as an equivalent for hoshúng, priest of Budha.

38

11. 晉紀 TIN Kı.

Names of Sovereigns.

1 Wú tí.

2惠帝 Hwui tf. 3懷帝 Hwaith. 4愍帝 Min tí.

Cotemporary Chine Events,

Wú tí簒魏稱帝 tstván

Wei ching ti destroyed Wei and made himself emperor.

Min-ti's reign was

an age of wonders: a sun fell from the fir- mament; and the earth changed its course and went backwards; &c.

  Note. This dynasty is sometimes called Si Tsin, or Western Tain, in con- tradiction to the next, the Eastern Tsin.

12. 東晉 TONG Tsin Kı.

Names of Sovereigns.

1 元帝 Yuûn tí.

2 RH Holing tí.

3 Ch'ing tí

4 康帝 Káng ti

5 Muh tí.

6哀帝 Nghi ti. 7 帝奕 Ti yih. 8 簡文 kien wan. 9孝武 Hiáuwú. 10 k đi Ngân tí. 11 恭帝 Kung th.

*

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

日夜出高三丈 the sun

in the night rose 80 cubits high; and again black spots were seen upon the disk. Other strange phenomena were noticed, with jmany fearful signs. It was a dark jage.

A stamp duty,

shroui

kí, on the sale of lands and houses said to have been introduced about the year

"

"Children of concubines, priests, old women, and nurses were the administrators of government.

Among the great men of the Hán dynasty there was a good deal of the heroic and chivalrous, especially in those leaders whose ac- tions are described in the History of the Three States. With all their

No.

1

3

* Reigu.

26

11. Tue Tsin DynatTY.

Year

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

265 48:22 The Scythians and Goths defeated by

Cleodomus and Athenæus, 267.

290

307

48:47 Britain recovered, and Alexandria taken,

296.

49:04 About this time flourished Gregory and

Hermogenes, the lawyers.

313 49:10|

7

       Note. The much to be commiserated emperor,' Min tí · had griet and sorrow for his lot, while presiding over the nation.

No.

Reign.

2

3

3 17

4

2

5

17

12. The Eastern Tsin Dynasty.

AD

Year

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

Z

37 49:14 The emperor Constantine begins to favor

the Christian religion, 319.

23: 49: 20′ The first geueral council at Nice, 325.

32649:28 The seat of empire remov from Rome

to Constantinople, 328.

343 49:40.

345 49:42 An earthquake ruins 150 cities in Greece

and Asia, 358.

362 49:59,

6

366

2

371

10

24

373

22

397

-

11

50:03 Julian dies, and is succeeded by Jovian,

368. $

50:08 The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace,

on being expelled by the Huns, 376. 50:10 The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi, permit- ted to settle in Spain and France by Hon. 50:34ļorius, 406.

              Rome plundered by Alaric, king of the 12 1 | 419 50:56 Visigoths, 410.

knight-errantry there was no lack of superstition, magic, witchcraft, and the many nameless vagaries usually accompanying them. But in the time of Tsin, the heroic and chivalrous degenerated into the most pitiable weakness. Base and cruel women exercised great influ- ence at court; the religions of Budha and Liu-kiun

were in vogue; and the people suffered. Some few writers are found during this

*

2

40

13. 北宋紀 Pen SunG Kı.

Names of the Sovereigns.

₪ Káu tsú.

Sháu tí.

3文帝 Wan tí.

專武帝 Wûti.

5 廢帝 Feit.

6明帝 Ming th.

7

Cotemporary Chinese events.

宋人好譽 Sung jin háu yü, the people of Sung loved praise and commendation.

女子化為男 nù tsx' huok

wei nán, a woman transformed into Ja man.

射鬼竹林堂 she kwei

chuh lin táng (the emperor) shot

a demon in the court of the bam-

Tsangwú wáng. boo grove.

8 順帝 Shun tí.

Note. This is often called the Nán Peh Sung; it is also styled Sung Ki fá

Peh Wei, or the Sung attached to the Northern Wei.

14.. TSI KI. ›

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 高帝 Kàu th.

2 it Wú éí.

3明

Ming ti.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

篡宋卽位 tswán Sung

tsih wei, (this) is said of the

founder of the new line) he exter-

minated Sung and took the throne.

4東昏侯 Tunghwan hau. 五銖錢Wu chú tsien, five

pearl cash.

5 FP Ho tí.

period. It was about the year 286 that the literary title siúts' awas introduced.

In the reign of Sháu tí of the Sung family, Budhism was inter- dicted. Under the reign of his successor, Wan tí, learning began to revive. The prince of Wei also persecuted the Budhists, burnt their temples and put the priests to death.

41

13. THE Northern Seng Dynasty.

No.

Q

Reign.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

3

420 50:57

Cotemporary Events.

The kingdom of the French begins on the lower Rhine.

423 50:60 The Romans take leave of Britain, and

[never retion, 426.

42451:01 The Saxons settle in Britain; Attila, king of the Huns, ravagés Europe, about

454 51:31|449.

3

30

10

5

464

51:41

8

465

4

473

8

2 477

51 42 The paschal cycle of 532 years invented 51:42

by Victorius, 463.

51:50 The western empire is destroyed by the king of the Heruli, who assumes the title 51:54 of king of Italy, 476.

Note. The founder of this (the Sung, or Northern and Southern dynas ties) was Liù Yu.

#

14. THE TSI DYNASTY.

Year

¡Cycle.

No.

Reign.

A D.

of

1

4 479

2

11 483

3 5

494

5

Cotemporary Events.

51:56 Constantinople partly destroyed by an earthquake, which lasted 40 days at in- 51:60tervals, 480.

Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, con-

52:11 quers Italy, 493.

2 499 52

16 Christianity embraced in France by the

baptism of Clovis, 496.

1 501 52:18

      Siáu Tauching was the founder of the Tsí dynasty, which took its name from a dukedom of which Siáu was master.

     The Tst ki, like the Sung, and like the Liang and Chin which follow it, was called Nán Pih, Southern and Northern, there being most of the time two distinct governments, one Tartar, the other Chinese, the former occupying the northern part of the country, and the latter the southern, and hence styled Northern and Southern dynasties.

t

42

15. LIANG Ki.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 it Wú tí.

2 Kien wan.

简文

3元帝Yuen ti:

4 敬帝 King ti.

Coten porary Chinese Events.

twán tsien, short cash, were interdicted by this emperor. The depreciation amounted to 10, and sometimes 20, and even 30, in a hundred.

"The people began to sit with their legs hanging down," i. e. they used chairs!

   Note. Budhism which had been discarded, again revived. The first emperor himself, when old, bccame a přiest, and lived according to the rites of the order.

16.

Names of the Sovereigns,

1 Káo tsú.

2 * * Wáu tí. 3 廢帝 Fei ti.

4 Sturen tí.

5 t = Han chú.

*

CHIN KI.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

| Cloth, paper, and iron money had been sometime in vogue when,- wu yen ts'ien, goose-

eyed money-now come into use. Pearl money was soon used in its stead.

nu hioh sz', make

their appearance.

17. 隋靶 Suu Kı.

Names of Sovereigns.

1 高祖 Káu tsú.

Yáng tí.

2煬帝 3 恭帝侑 Kung ti yiá

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

|天下地震 tien hiú tithin,

an earthquade throughout the whole empire,

lung chau, an imperial

boat-birit.

This was 45 cubits high, 200 long, having four sto-

4 H và Kung tí tưởng.

ries.

Yang Kien was the founder of the Sui dynasty. He was fond of power and extended his rule over the whole of the empire, uniting in

No.

19

3

60

4

Reign.

48

Q

3

A. D.

43

15. The Liang Dynasty.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

502 52:19 Alaric defeated by Clovis, 507; and

Paris made the capital of the French do

550 | 53:07 minions, 510.

552

2 555

53:09 The Turkish empire in Asia begins, 545; and the manufacture of silk intro- 53: 12duced into Europe from the east, 553.

      Note. During this short dynasty, the empresses exerted great influence in the councils of state. One of them was a distinguished heroine.

No.

Reign.

16. The Chin DynasTV.

Year

A. D. of

Cycle.

55753:14|

1

3

2 7

560 53:17

567

53:24

14

569 53:26

5

6 583

53:40

Cotemporary Events.

A dreadful plague in Europe, Asia, and Africa, commences 558.

Part of Italy conquered by the Lom- bards, 568:

Latin ceases to be the language of Italy. about 581.

      Note. The capital of the empire was frequently chẳnged ; the last sovereign of Chin reigned at Nanking.

No.

Reign.

A. D.

17. THE SUi Dynasty.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

589 53:46 The Saxon heptarchy begins in England.

about 600.

605 54:02 The Persians take Jerusalem with a

slaughter of 90,000 men, 614.

1

16

13

3

1

618

4

1

619

54: 16 gira, 622.

54:15 Mohammed in his 53d year, flies to Me- |dina, and this becomes the Ist of the He-

one the northern and southern empires. Corea, which had drawn off from its allegiance, was humbled and made to sue for peace.

&

44

18. TANG Kt.

Names of Sovereigns.

Káu tsú.

2 t đi Trái trùng.

3 đôi báu trung

4 中宗 Chung tsung.

5. 睿宗 Jui tóung.

6宗 Hiven tsung-

7 肅宗 Suh taung.

·代宗 Tái tsung.

9 德宗 Teh tsung.

10 Shun tsung.

11 憲宗 Hien tsung. 12 穆宗 Muh tsung. 13 敬宗 King tsung. 14 文宗 Wan tsung.. 15 武宗 Wá tsung.

+

16 宜宗 Siuen tsung.

17 懿宗Itsung.

Hitsung.

18

19 Thả Cháu trung

20 昭宣帝 Cháusinen ti.

Cotemporary Chinese Events,

tung páu ts'ien, the

copper coin, now current, first comes into use.

The Nestorians enter China about this time, when the empress

Wú Tsihtien lived.

And books began to be bound; previously scrolls only were used.

梨弟子 theatricals com-

mence.

Koushi, the literary ex-

[aminations-instituted about this

[time.

帝聞空中神語 the em-

peror heard in the firmament di- vine words.

tra X chủ thu chi, an

impost on tea began in the 9th year of Teh tsung.

'The feast of lanterns comes into

vogue.

Hien tsung brought one of the

fingers of Budha in procession to his capital.

服金丹而崩 The emper-

for Muh, a devotee of the Ration- Jalists' school fub kin tán 'rh pang, swallowed the philosopher's stone

and died.

It

wú yú ch'ing, ascity

without sorrow.

Eunuchs exercise great infin- ence in the affairs of state.

The emperor Cháu commanded one of his prisoners to be

kü chi, sawn asunder.

Li Yuen, of the house of Liáng, was the founder of this dynasty, which is second to none except perhaps that of Hán. During this

No.

1

Reign.

t

2 23

* *

3

34

4 26

5

=

12

3

་་

A. D.

45

18. THE TANG Dynasty.

Year

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

620 54: 17 Constantinople besieged by the Persians

and Arabs, 627.

627 627|54:24 Mohammed dies, 632; Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, 634; Alexandria taken, 650 | 54:47 and its library destroyed, 637. The Sa-

racens ravage Sicily, 669.

684 55:21 The venerable Bede among the few men of learning of this age. Pepin engrosses 71055:47 the power of the French monarchy, 690...

The Saracens conquer Africa, 709; and 55:50 Spain, 713.

A market opened at Canton, and an offi- 56:33 cer appointed to receive the imperial

duties.

56:40 Bagdad built and made the capital of the caliphs of the house of Abbas, who greatly

56:57 encourage learning, 762.

Irene murders her son and reigns alone, 57:22797; Charlemagne emperor of Rome, 800; Egbert ascends the throne of En-

57:23 gland, 801.

The Arabians arrive in China, and settle

57:38in Canton prior to 805.

The Saracens of Spain take Crete, which

43

713

7

756

8

17

763

9

25

780

10

1

805

||

15

806

4

821

13 2

825

14 14

15 6

16 13

17 14

18 15

193 15

20

3 904 59:01 dies, 900.

57:42 they call Candia, 829.

827 57:44 Origin of the Russian monarchy, 839.

841 57:58

847-58:04 The Normans get possession of some

Icities in France, 853.

860 58:17 Clocks first brought to Constantinople

from Venice, 872. 874 58-31

Paris besieged by the Normans, and 889 58: 46 bravely defended by bishop Goslin, 887.

King Alfred, after a reign of 30 years

line of emperors, China stood comparatively higher than at any, other period. The darkest age of the West, was the brighest in the East.

+

46

19. HAU Liang Ki.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 * TH Trái trú.

2Liáng Chú tien. Chú tien.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

The greatest hero of this age

Tsin at one step could execute a 劉鄩一步百計 Kiú

hundred stratagems!

20. 後康紀 HAU TANG Kı.

Names of the Sovereig

1莊宗 Chwáng tsung.

Ming tf.

2

3 Min tí.

3:

4. 廢帝 Fei ti.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

「傳粉墨與優共戲

This emperor (Chwáng) painted his face and with stage players

engaged in theatricals.

每夕焚香祝天,this

emperor (Min) every evening burnt incense and paid his vows 'to heaven.

21. 後晉貎 HAU Tsin Kr.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 高祖 Kàu teú.

? Hộ

Chính tí.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

楊延政剝皮 Yang Yen-

ching flayed the poor people. He

set up his throne in Fuhkien.

22. How Han, Ki.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 Káu teú.

2隱帝 Yin tí.

Cotemporary Chine Events.

大風發屋拔本atom-

pest overturned the houses and

uprooted the trees.

These wú tái, or five dynasties-Liáng, Táng, Tsin, Hán, and

No.

Reign.

A. D.

47

19. The After Liang Dynasty,

Year of Cycle.

907 59:04

1

2

10

913 59:10

Cotemporary Events.

The Normans establish themselves un- der Rollo in France.

Romanus the First, general of the fleet {usurps the throne.

20. THE After Tang Dynasty.

No.

Reign.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

3

92359:20]

Cotemporary Events.

Fiefs established in France, 923.

2 8 92659:23

4

93459:31

2 934 59:31

Reign.

21. THE AFTER Tsin Dynasty.

Cycle.

Year

No.

A. D. of

1

8

2

3 944 59:41

93659:33

Cotemporary Events

The Saracen empire divided by usur- pation into seven kingdoms, 936.

Naples seized by the eastern emperors,

942..

THE After Han Dynasty.

No.

Reign

A. D.

of Cycle,

Cotemporary Events.

947 59,44 The sons of Romanus conspire against

their father.

948 | 50:45

Chau, occupy the throne from 907 to the close of 959, a period of fifty-three years, giving an average of little more than ten years to each house. There were other families that claimed authority, and the several monarchs had to contend moreover with foreign foes; consequently this period presents one unbroken series of disor- ders and revolutions.

48

28. 後周 HAU Cnau Kı.

Names of the Sovereigns.

★₪Н Tái tsú.

2 世宗 Shí tsung.

3 恭帝 Kung ti.

Cotemporary Chinese Events. *

佛像鑄錢 the images of

Budha were made into cash : this

was done by an imperial order issued by Shi tsung:

Note. The first and second of these three emperors exhibited wisdom; and

tsung was zealous in promoting the welfare of his people.

24 宋紀 SUNG Kı.

Name of the Sovereigns.

1太祖 Teái tsú.

-2 Ko Trái tsung.

3 眞宗 Chin tsung.

 4仁宗 Jin tsung. 5 英宗 Ying tsung.

6.

Shin tsung.

7哲宗 Chi tsung.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

| #T-E the set- ting sun reäscended for a day : this was seen and attested by the astronomer Miáu Hiun.

得天書于泰山 (one of

the emperor's ministers (obtained

celestiał books from Táishán.

Pop. 9,955,729.

In the fourth year of Ying

your

tsung, Canton was first walled in

=

H Sz má Kwang.

男人誕子

a man gave

8Hwui tsung.

birth to a child.

生嶺

a woman wore

9欽宗 Kin tsung:

la long beard.

Learning received much attention during both this reign and the next succeeding it. The first emperor was raised to the throne by military men, who were about to wage war against some northern hordes; and being unwilling to serve under the rule of a mere child, the emperor Kung being only nine years old-they determined to elevate in his stead' a servant of the deceased monarch. They im- mediately dispatched a messenger, who found him lying under the influence of wine, and in that state communicated to him their

No.

1

co Reign.

49

23. THE AFTER CHAU DYNASTY,

A. D.

Year of

I cocele.

Cycle.

951 59: 18

3

2

6

954 59:51

3

Cotemporary Events.

Romanus II., son of Constantine VII., by Helena, the daughter of Lecapenus,

960 | 59:57 succeeds, to the Eastern Empire 959.

Note. Shitsung not only destroyed the images of Budha, he also pulled down their temples, and took their sacred utensils and converted them into money, having established a mint for this specific purpose.

•u&tu ÐF

24.

Year

of Cycle.

No.

A D.

1 16

960 59:57

2

3 25

4 41

976 | 60:13

THE Sung Dynasty.

Cotemporary Events.

Italy conquered by Otho, and united to the German empire, 964.

The third or Capetian race of kings in France begins, 967; arithmetical figures 998 60:35 brought into Europe by the Saracens, 991. A general massacre of the Danes in

1023

60: 60 England, Nov. 13th, 1002.

5 4 1064 61:41

The kingdoms of Castile and Arragon begin, 1035. The Turks invade the Řo- 18 1068 61:45 man empire, 1050; take Jerusalem, 1065;

William the conquerer growned, 1066.

6

15

8

25

9

1086 62:03,

Asia Minor taken by the Turks, 1084; 1101 | 62:17 first crusade 1096; Jerusalem taken by the crusaders, 1099; learning revived at 1126 62:43 Cambridge, 1110.

     decision; and ere he had time to reply, the yellow robe of state was placed upon him. Thus he was made emperor, the exalted sire of the black-haired nation. Rude and ignorant as he himself was, learning flourished under his auspices, encouraged by the colleges he built, and the rewards he conferred.

     The number of authors given to this and the southern Sung families, by the writers of History Made Easy, is sixty-one; among this crowd of literary men, Chú Hì is the most distinguished.

50

25. NAN SUNG KI.

Name of the Sovereigns.

1 高宗 Kán tsung.

2 孝宗 Hiáu tsung.

3 Ha Kwang tsung.

4 寧宗 Ning tsung.

5

Li tsung.

6度宗 Tú tsung- 7恭宗 Kung tsung.

8 Twán tsung.

9眪Ti Ping.

3

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

A = Chú-Hí, the able critic

and historian, kuown as Chú fu- tsz', flourished early in this reigu.

白虹貫日 a white rainbow

een passing through the sun.

the heavens red

as blood.

蝗飛蔽天 flights of locusts

Jobscure the heavens.

An officer appointed by the em-

peror to reside at Canton as com- missioner of customs.

Gunpowder and fire-engines used.

Movable characters, made of burnt clay and placed in a frame for printing.

26. YUEN KI.

Names of the Sovereigns.

世祖

Shí Tsú.

Ch'ing tsung.

Wú tsung.

Jin tsung.

6 Taiting sí.

仁宗

5 英宗

Ying tsung.

7明宗 8 文宗

9 順宗

Shun tsung.

Ming tsung.

Wan tsung.

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Hwuhpihlich, or Ku-

lai, was the founder of this dy-

lasty.

Foreign trade for a time inter- rupted at Canton.

枋得不食二十餘日 不死 Fangteh lived more than

20 days without eating any food.

The Grand Canal.

周歲童子暴長四尺

a child one year old suddenly

grew to more than four cubits in height.

雨毛如線而綠 feathers

'rained down like thread of a green color.

Kublai's life and actions-especially, his attention to the Polo

ان

No.

Reign.

36

2 27

1163 | 63:20j

3

16

5

4 30

1195

LA

5

40

1225

6

10

1265

65:02

7

1275 65: 12

25. THE Southern Sung Dynasty.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1127 62:44| Accession of Stephen to the English

įcrown, 1135.

1190 | 63:47|

63:52

The Teutonic order begins, 1164; the |conquest of Egypt by the Turks, 1169.

Third crusade and siege of Acre, 1188; John succeeds to the English throne, 1499. Genghis khan's reign and conquests. The Magna Charta, 1215. Origin of the

64 : 22 Ottomans, 1240.

The uncle and father of Marco Polo the Venetian traveler in China.

Edward I. on the English throne, 1272.

2

1276 | 65: 13]

'The famous Mortmain act passes in England, 1279.

9

2

1278 65: 1.

Reign

26. The Yuen Dynasty.

Year of

Cycle.

Cotemporary Eventą.

65:17 During the Sicilian vespers, 8000 French murdered, 1283. Wales annexed to Eng- 65:32|land, 1233. Regular succession of En-

glish parliament begins, 1293.

1308 65:45|

131265:49 The mariner's compass said to be invent-

ed or improved by Flaveo, 1302.

No.

A. D.

1

15

1280

2

13

1295

3

4

4

9

5

3

5 1324

7

1

3

9

35

1321 65:58

66:01 The Swiss cantons begin 1307. Edward il. succeeds to the English crown.

1329 66:06

1330 | 66:07

Edward III. on the English throne,

1327.

       The first comet observed, whose course is 1333 66: 10 described with exactuess, in June, 1337.

family, his embassy to the pope, his predilection to Christianity,- are narrated in the travels of Marco Polo,-an historian of no mean

52

27. 明紀 MıNG Kı.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Miếu Hậu.

* TH Trái trú.

Rooh Háu.

Hungwú.

Kienwan tí. Kienwan.

2

3

T'ai tsung.

4 仁宗 Jin tsung-

5 宣宗 Siuen tsung. Ying (sung.

6

7景帝 King tí.

8憲宗 Hien tsung.

9 孝宗 Hiáu tsung-

武宗

10 ít đồ Wú tsung.

11 Shi tsung.

12 穆宗 Muh tsung-

13 Shin tsung.

14

Kháng trung.

15 熹宗 Hí tsung.

Yung loh.

Cotemporary Chinese events,

十六年戶部

二奏五六十

十戶萬十

六三口

年千千六五

戶六八千

部百百五八

Hunght. +

Siuentih.

DI

百十

五千八

In the 26th year of Hung-

{Chingtung wu, the Board of Recenne

Tienshun.

reported that the number of

Kingtai, families was 16,052,860, and the persons 60,545,811

Chinghwa.in the empire.

Hungchi.

Chingtih.

Kiáhtsing.

京師地震有聲

(in the 11th year of this reign) there was an earth-

quake at the capital ac- companied by a noise.

天豉嗚 sound of a

Langking frum in the heavens.

in the 4th year of Hung-

Wanlikhi, it was only 9,113,446 families, and 53,281,158

Taichang individuals.

Tái chúng.

In the 6th year of Man- Tienkih, the families were 10,621,436, and the persons

16 Hwái tsung. Tsungching. 50,692,856.

rank. He held his court at Peking, which was called Kambalu. The history of his ancestors, Genghis and others, and that of his own times, are full of interest. They were great men, and achieved great things. Central Asia-their theatre of action-may again erelong become a scene of interesting events, and opened and free for the European traveler.

The native historian says, 'in the beginning of the Ming dynasty, he government paid no regard to rank in the employment of its sub- 'jects. In commencing the dynasty, there was an urgent demand for

53

27. THE Ming DynasTY,

A. D.

Year

of

Cycle

Cotemporary Events.

1368 | 66:45 Timur on the throne of Samarkand.

     │William Occam, Peter Apono, Wiclif, 1399 67:15 and Chaucer flourish.

Henry V. succeeds his father Henry IV,

1403 67:20 1413.

      Constantinople is besieged by Amurath 1425 | 67 : 42 II., the Turkish emperor, 1422.

No.

Reign.

1

30

2 5

3

22

4

1

5

10

6 21

7 8

8 23

1465

1

9 18

10 16

1426

1436

Cosmo de Medici recalled from banish- 67: 43'ment, and rise of that family at Florence,

1434.

67:53 Glass first manufactured in England, 1457. The arts of engraving and etching

1457 68: 14 invented, 1459.

68:22

The Cape of Good Hope discovered. Shillings were first coined in England, 1505.

1488 68:45 Edict of Worms proscribing Luther and

his adherents, 1521. The pope take 1506 | 69:03 prisoner, 1527.

Huguenots, i. e. 'the allied by oath,' first 45 152269: 19-o called, 1560; massacre of them at

Paris, 1572.

156770:04

The Turks invade and ravage Russia, 575.

1573 70: 10 A British colony established in Virginia, 1614; and an English settlement made at 1620 70:57 Madras, 1620.

12

6

13 47

14 1

15

7 1621 70:58

16

War commenced by England against France in favor of distressed French pro-

16 1628 71: 05 testants, 1627.

talents; and the people of the empire being ronsed by the hope of rank and nobility, the human intellect at once rose above mediocri- ty'. At this time they had fire-chariots, fire umbrellas, &c.

     Again the historian says: 'In the 3d year of Kiátsing, people came in foreign vessels to Macao, and affirmed that, having encoun- tered a gale of wind, their ships were leaky: it was desired, that Macao, on the coast, might be allowed them to dry their goods.' Hence originated the foreign settlement.

54

28. TA TSING CHAU.

The Names of the Sovereigns, or Miáu Háu.

Sháutsú Yuen

 1肇祖原皇 hwángti. 2腆祖直皇帝

3景祖翼皇帝 4.顯油宣皇帝 5太祖高皇帝

6

太宗文皇帝

7世祖章皇帝

8聖祖仁皇帝

◆世宗憲皇帝

Hingtsú Chih

hwángtí. Kingtsŭ Yih

hwangti. hwángti.

Hientsú Siuen

hwángti.

Táitsu Ku

hwángtu.

Táitsung Wan

Shitsu Cháng

hwángti.

hwangti.

Shingtsú Jin

Shitsú:ig Hien

hwângti

Kautsung Shun

10 高帝純皇帝 hwángth.

11 仁宗睿皇帝

Jintsung Juy

hwángti.

12 (The reigning monarch.)

Kwoh Háu.

N. B. These were mere chieftains, without na- tional titles.

Tienming.

T'ientsung.

崇德 Tsungteh.

順治 Shunchi.

康熙 Kánghi.

雍正 Yungching.

乾隆 Kienlung.

嘉慶 Kiáking.

道光Táuk wáng.

1. The three August Sovereigns reigned 81,600 years.

reigned 647 yrs., commencing B. c. 2852

2. The five Sovereigns

3. The Hia dynasty

4. The Shang dynasty

reigned 439 reigned 644

"

99

2205

- 1766

"

5. The Chau dynasty

11. The Tsin dynasty

6. The Tsin dynasty 7. The After Tsin dynasty 8. The Hán dynast'; 9. The Eastern Hán dynasty 10. The After Hán dynasty

12. The Eastern Tsin dynasty

reigned 873 reigned 3 reigned 44

T

J

1122

99

"

249

19

246

"

"

reigned 226 reigned 196

202

"

"

99

14

A. D. 25

reigned 44 reigned 52

221

"

265

99

91

reigned 103

"

"

317

13. The Northern Sung dynasty reigned

59

420

"

14. The Tsi dynasty

reigned 23

479

99

"

15. The Liang dynasty

16. The Chin dynasty

reigned 55 reigned 32

502

"9

"

557

"9

99

1

!

No.

Reign.

A. D.

1583

1616

50

THE GREAT Tsing DynaASTY.

Year

of Cycle

Cotemporary Events.

N. B. The reigning family feign to derive their origin from the gods; it is believed, how- 'ever. that the nation was formed of Tongouse tribes, situated on the banks of the Amour, north of Corea ; and during comparatively very modern times.

~

CC

1627

1636

War declared between the Turks and Venetians, 1645. Charles I., king of 1644 71:21 England, beheaded, 1649. Carolina plant-

led by English merchants, 1676.

61 1662 71:39|

13 1723 72:40

First king of Prussia crowned, 1701.

War between the Ottoman Port and Per- sia, 1730; the Russians invade Tartary,

1736 72:53 1338.

9

10

60

11

25

1796 | 73:53|

12

1821 74:18

An emigration of 500,000 Tourgouths from the Caspian to China, 1771.

      17. The Sui dynasty 18. The Tang dynasty 19. The After Liáng dynasty 20. The After Tang dynasty 21 The After Tsin dynasty 22. The After Hán dynasty

reigned 31 yrs., commencing a. d. 589 reigned 287 reigned 16

"

620

39

99

907

reigned 13

"

"

923

reigned 11

"

"

936

reigned 4

23. The After Chau dynasty

39

947

reigned 9

99

951

24. The Sung dynasty

reigned 157

960

"

25. The Southern Sang dynasty

reigned 153

"

1127

"

26. The Yuen dynasty

reigned 88

1280

27. The Ming dynasty

reigned 276

"

1368

1644

28. The Ta Tsing dynasty has reigned 201

The whole number of sovereigns in the foregoing lists, exclusive

of the mythological line. is 243.

The number of years-excluding the reign of the three august sovereigns-is 4692, which gives to each dynasty a fraction more than 173 years; and to each sovereign a period of little more than 19 years.

DESCRIPTION OF SHANGHAI.

Its position; early history: walls; gates; canals and ditches: pools and wells; streets; houses; government, offices and incum- bents; custom-houses; military forces; literary institutions; con• mon schools; religious institutions; Chinghwáng miáu; Budhists, &c.; benevolent institutions; burying grounds; the trades and handicrafts: commerce, foreign and domestic; cotton; tea; silk; woollen stuffs; manufactures; ship-building; commercial houses; suburbs; the Foreign Factories and residents; real estate; cli- mate; popu- lation; and Christian missions.

     SHANGHAI is situated near the south-eastern extreme of the great central plains of China, which are commonly spoken of as the plains of Kiangnan. The city is in latitude 31° 24′ 29 N., longitude 121° 32′ 02′′ E. and derives its name from Shanghái hien, the name of the district of which it is the capital or chief town. It stands on the western bank of the Hwáng ph, a broad deep river, and is distant from its embouchure, Wúsung, seven or eight miles in a right line nearly due south, but by the river, which, between the city and Wúsung makes a wide bend eas'ward, the distance may be twelve or fourteen miles.

-

Before proceeding to give a description of the city itself we will first glance at its relative bearing and history, as this will enable us better to understand its present importance, and to appreciate its future growing influence-especially as regards foreign intercourse.

By looking upon any correct map of the Chinese empire, it will be seen that into the "Yellow Sea,"-between the Chusan group and the promontory of Shántung-three great rivers empty their waters, drawn from an' imminense and very populous region-on the south, and north, comprising in its outlines full one half of the whole eighteen provinces of China. These rivers are the Tsien tang, the Yangtsz' kiang and Hwang ho, emptying their waters

58

into the sea between the thirtieth and thirty-fourth degrees of north Latitude: the greatest of these three, and the one that affords access to this city, is about midway between the two others. These rivers open easy communication for an inland commerce, the greatest per- haps in the whole world, giving access to at least one hundred and fifty millions of people.

For the inhabitants of this extensive region, most of it wholly unexplored by foreigners, the city of Shanghái is the great central entrepôt.

Once, no doubt,, the eastern plains of Kiángnán were partially if not wholly beneath the surface of the sea, but the earth accumula- ting has by slow degrees driven back the waves. The water-courses, however, are still very numerous and some of them deep; and the currents, moving with the rising and falling of the tides, very power- ful. Consequently, many of the channels have changed their beds. The river Wúsung is an example of this. Twelve centuries in the time of the Táng dynasty, "says the Chinese historian," the river of Wúsung was twenty l; in the time of the Sung it was nine li: afterwards it gradually lessened down to five, to three, to one li." The beds of other rivers have been gradually filled, and " are no longer to be seen." Cities, towns and markets have risen, flourished, and disappeared. To the Chinese antiquarian it can hardly be otherwise than interesting to trace these changes; but foreign rea- ders will not care to follow them in their doubtful researches. How- ever, should any wish to know what the Chinese themselves have written concerning the early history of Shánghái they may satisfy their curiosity by referring to Kiáking Shanghái hien chi - f 上海縣志 "A statistical account of the district of Shanghai, in the reign of the Emperor Kiáking."

   Centuries before the Christian era, when Confucius lived and wrote, this region of country belonged to Wu, and afterwards be- came one of the Three States, so celebrated in Chinese "Historical Romance." In the time of the Tsin dynasty, about two centuries before our era, it was first raised to the rank of a hien, and was called Lau; ; it then belonged to the princedom of Hwui kí, where the great Yii is said to have died.

The first mention of its present name is found in the time of the Sung dynasty, which rose A. D. 960. The city was then called Shánghái chin, or the market of Shángh`i, which literally means upper sea," or the "high sea.' The account which seems most

66

""

89

    probable, as it is the most natural, is that there were two regions or rivers, one designated the Lower and the other the Upper sea; aud hence it is said, was derived the name. Others say there were eigh- teen great rivers, among which one was called the Lower sea and another the upper sea, and hence the modern name. We also find the characters reversed Hải Sháng, "Upon the sea," indicating that the city or district was situated contiguous to, or upon the sea.

The modern Shanghai hien is one of the eight districts which form the department "Pine River," or Sungkiáng fu, which again is one of the twelve departments that make up the province of the modern Kiángsú, the capital of which is Suchau. The district is bounded on the north by Páushán, on the north-east by Chuenshú, on the east and south by Nánhwái, on the west by Hwáting, Lau and Kiáting. In this whole region of country, as far as the eye can see, there is not a hillock to obstract the range of vision and it is exceedingly rich and productive. Excepting some slight undufa- tions, it is all one wide levél płain. Mr. Fortuné, in his " Wander- ings," has given a charming, and as far as we have had opportunitý to judge, a faithful description of this region. "As an agriculturæt country," he says, "the plain of Shánghái is by far the richest 1 have seen in China, and is perhaps unequalled by any district of like extent in the world. It is one vast beautiful garden. The soil is a rich deep loam, producing cotton, wheat, barley, rice, peaches, with great varieties of vegetables."

      'The district is not one of great extent, being from north tở south onty 90 14, and from east to west 96 1),* In the imperial statistical accodat of the Empire, it is 84 from north to south and 54′ from east to west. In a work before us we have the following statement of distances: from the city of Shanghár.

      * We are indebted to a gentleman connected with the British consulate at Shanghai for the Chinese measures :

The Chinese Lanď measure is 66 inches, or 54′ English feet to the pẩ, and two pú to a cháng. The custom-house cháng is 141 inches; the Land measure cháng is 132 inches :

As also, 7260 square English feet to one square máu;

Asaldo, 4,3560 English square feet to one English square acre ;

six square mẩu to one English square acre;

Say,

Or,

940 square pú to a' square mău±15 into 16'pù;

At,

304 English square feet to one squæré pú,

one square på being 54, feet itt length by 54 feet'in breadth.

The pú✈is six chik

long: i. e. the Le pán chih,

ER, also called

· 60

To Chuenshá the distance is 30 lí, To the sea coast the distance is 50 li, To Nán hwái the distance is 72 li, To Tsing pú the distance is 36 lt, To Páushan the distance is 12 li, To Sungkiáng the distance is 90 lt, To Suchau the distance is 244 li, To Nanking the distance is 880 it, To Peking the distance is 2889 li,

   Like the rest of the Empire this district is cut up into numerous subdivisions; thus there are

Hiáng, or townships;

Páu, or tythings;

Tú, or wards.

These divisions, and subdivisions are all named and numbered.

The townships are called Chứng jin, Ế A, and Káu chúng,

    , the first contain three, and the second nine Páu, or Tythings. The twelve are numbered, thus, Nos. 16, 18, 21, and so on up to 30. The names of the tythings and wards often indicate the nature of the places they designate. Thus ward No. 15, of the tything No. 25, is called Ching hưáng miáu, which is the name of the tem- ple dedicated to the god who presides over the city, standing upon that site. So in another case we find Tien chú táng tsien hau, "Front and rear of the Lord of Heaven's temple," which is the name of ward No. 22, in tything No. 26, situated some miles west- ward from this city.

   There are also market towns, or villages at which there are re- gular markets, which are called chin, and shiπ. Among these, some thirty or forty in number, is the Lung hwá, the site of a pagoda, three or four miles up the river above Shánghái.

In the Statistical Work, published in the reign of Kiáking, allud- ed to above, there is a chart of the rivers, canals, creeks, etc. of this district, showing how completely the whole country is intersected

the púk tsun chih, AR, or eight inch chih, being equal to eight inches of the Tsai,, chih, or Tailor's chih. The Hai kwán chih,

AR, (or custom-house chih) is call the kiú tsun,

†,

or nine

inch chih, being equal to nine inches of the Tani í or Tailors chih. Of the Taíi í chih there are two kinds, one three tenths longer than the other. The Lú pán chih originated in the Sung dynasty. [N. B. Five kwản chih,

R. or official chih make a pú.

61

in all directions by water-courses. So extensive are the ramifica- tions of these, that apparently there is no parcel of ground, of any considerable extent, that cannot be reached by water in boats. With the exception of the Hwing pú and the Wúsung, however, they are all too small and unimportant to require any particular notice in this general description of the district.

      The Hwang pú,, in breadth and depth is not very unlike the Chúkiáng, or Pearl Kiver, at its entrance near the Bogue. But as you ascend the two, they are found to be very different, that being shallow at Canton, and this deep enough for large vessels many miles above the city of Shanghái. Historians say the river derived its name from one Hwúng hich, who first opened out this channel. affords an easy communication with the northern districts of Cheh- kiáng, so as to secure intercourse between this and the city of Hángchau, &c. "At Shánghái the river is as wide as the Thames at. London Bridge."

The Wusung,, though very far inferior to what it once was, is still navigable for the imperial grain junks destined from hence, to the Grand Canal at Sachau. How the outer anchorage of this river leading up to Shanghái hien, and the little village near it above Páushán, have come to be called Wüsung we do not know. Neither of them is within the jurisdiction of Shanghái hien. On the map, this river from the point where it unites with the Yángtsz', kiáng and all the way up to this city is called Hwang pú. The river of Wúsung is marked with equal plainness, coming in from the westward, as a small tributary, and uniting its waters with those of the Hwang pú so near this city that it forms the northern boun- dary of the British consul's grounds now occupied by the foreign factories. In common parlance, however, the Wúsung is the main river, and the Hwáng pú the tributary.

Keeping in mind these brief preliminary notices, regarding its geographical situation, the reader will now be prepared to take up the description of the city more in detail.

MAP

of

Shanghái

W

Lát 31 24 29

Lon.12137 02

The River

Wang-ri

Foreign

iFactories

Foreign anchorag

Wing-pú

63

The walls of Shinghai were first built about three centuries ago. There is extant a memorial addressed to the emperor Kiátsing, re- questing permission ching chí, "to city it," that is, to surround the place with walls. The principal reason assigned for this measure, was the exposed position of its inhabitants, they being constantly liable to suffer depredations from robbers and pirates, who then infested the country. Shánghii had long been a market place of some importance; its population and commerce were increasing, and it had been repeatedly mentioned in the histories of preceding .dynasties. But in those early days it was not the principal mart for the inhabitants of these regions. In the lapse of time, however, the course of the rivers had changed, and the tide of population and of business had set in this direction. Being still unprotected by any walls, the inhabitants were continually in jeopardy from free-booters. So late as in the time of the Yuen dynasty the town was repeatedly over-run by Japanese pirates. The memorial, setting forth these circumstances had the desired effect. The emperor gave his con- sent and the necessary directions through the proper channel, the Board of Public Works. The walls soon went up, the good people freely making large contributions to the public chest for that

purpose.

      Their circumference, in the Chinese account of the city, is estimat- ed to be nine li. By engineers connected with the British expedition under Sir Hugh Gough, in 1842, their entire circuit is put down at three miles and three quarters (32 miles). The form of the site enclosed is neither square nor round; nor does it exhibit any per- fect figure. The longest line drawn from side to side through the centre, would run from the north-west to the south-east; and said line would exceed by one third a second drawn due cast and west and by one quarter a third running from south-west to north-east, both the latter passing through the same central point. Indeed, no cousi- derable portion of the wall on either side, presents a right line, or an exact curve, and the whole structure is but a poor specimen of engineering.

      Their original height was eighteen or twenty feet, and in some parts at present it does not exceed that limit, though five feet were added about the close of the Ming dynasty, a little more than two centuries ago.

     Their breadth varies more than their height. At first there was but a single outer wall raised, and the earth thrown up against it on the inner side. Subsequently, however, an inner wall was raised on

64

the east and south-east sides, nearest to the river, giving the whole a much more substantial form, its breadth being, say fifteen feet. The entire wall, as it now stands, is surrounded, on the outer face, by a bulwark, about two feet broad and six high, with embrasures or loop-holes at the distance from each other of nine feet. Behind this bulwark on that part of the wall nearest to the river, having both an inner and outer face, there is a terre-plein, fifteen or more feet broad.

arrows.

These loop-holes the Chinese calls tich, They are three thou- sand six hundred and odd in number. They are two feet broad and about the same deep, but so far above the terre-plein that they would be unserviceable except in the use of the musket and the bow and At the interval of every few rods, there are what the Chi- nese call tsien tái,

             "arrow towers." These are square projections of the main wall, so as to allow on each side of the pro- jecting part two loop-holes and one in front, being five in all, on each tower. The whole number of these arrow towers, in the en- tire circuit of the walls is twenty.

  On the north-east side of the city wall are two tih lau, . "battle halls," and three tsang tái;, "elevated terraces." What these may once have been does not now appear. Others of a similar kind have fallen to ruins, and these are fast going to decay, and at present serve merely or mainly as retreats for beggarly priests and reptiles.

The structure and material of the entire walls are such as to ren- der them but a poor defense against a modern foe. In some places the foundation and lower parts of the walls are of stone, but the main body and upper part, including the bulwark or parapet is built of brick and mud, and might be very easily demolished. Indeed the walls have been repeatedly breached by the action of the ele- ments, the wind and rain. In the 17th year of Kánghí, several rods of the walls and one of the gates fell. The parapet at the same place, fell' again' in the 26th year of Kienlung, and they must, if wé may judge from the present appearance, very often need repairs in time to come:

  The gates of the city are six-one at each of the four cardinal points, east, west, north, and south, with one at the south-east and another at the north-east. The gates all have double entrances- an outer wall, in every respect like the main wall of the city, being thrown out and around the inner gate in shape of a crescent or

65

semicircle-with one exception, where the projecting part is square or nearly so. The arches of both the inner and outer gates are low and narrow perhaps twelve feet broad and ten or twelve high. The gates themselves are in good keeping with the walls of which they form part and parcel. Their names are the following.

1. Cháutsung mun,, generally called the great east- ern gate: tsung is the point to which men and things turu; cháu is the morning; it also means to visit, to wait upon. This gate opens to the east, and is the principal thoroughfare to the eastern suburbs and the river, and this perhaps the name was designed to indicate. 2. Kwá lung mun,, lung is the dragon; and kwá means to pass over, to sit astride, or to ride in that attitude. This is the great south gate, and leads to a military parade and on into the country.

3. I′ fung mun,

                  , the gate of í fung : fung is a crea- ture of the Chinese imagination, described as a divine bird, and is regarded as a felicitous omen, appearing when virtue is in the as- cendant and prosperous times are about to be enjoyed : í means what is right and proper, also a rule and pattern: what the two, i fung, when combined, are intended to indicate, it is not easy for the stranger to conjecture. We only know that this gate opens westward and leads forth to the wide and fertile plains of Kiangnan, where at no great distance you find Súchau, Nánking, and many other celebrated cities.

literally the "tranquil sea gate,"

4. Ngánhái mun, possibly has reference to the smooth and tranquil waters of the Wú- sung kiáng, which ebb and flow at no great distance, forming, when this city was built, the great high way to the delightful regions on

the west.

Cháu yang mun,

stands near the south-east ex- treme of the city, and is commonly called the "little south gate :" yang means the sun, and cháu the morning; intending perhaps to designate is as the gate of the morning sun.

6. Páu tái mun, P. "Precious girdle gate" or the gate of the precious girdle, stands distant from the great eastern gate northwards perhaps sixty rods, and is some twenty or thirty rods

· distant from the rivel.

      Watchinen or guards are stationed at each of these six gates. They stand open by day, but are closed at an early hour at night, and it is there sometimes difficult for the native to find either in-

66

gress or egres, and he must usually pay two or three cash to the keeper for permission to pass. To the foreigner however, no`such key is needed to secure that freedom which is denied to the Chinese.

The water gates,-Shwui mun, as they are called are four in num- ber, opening a water communication, with the moat surrounding the city, by ditches passing under the walls. Three of these water gates are on the east side of the city, one near each of the three gates al- ready described; and the fourth is on the west close by the gate on that side. Originally they were evidently so constructed that they could be opened and closed with facility. Such is not their present condition, being now made fast in the mud that has accumulated around thein and half filled the several ditches.

The canals, ditches, moats, etc, which surround the walls, pass under them through the four water gates and thence to the principal quarters of the city, could hardly exist at all, and be in a worse con- dition than that in which we now see them. Indeed some of them are filled with mud and refuse matter, so that you may pass over high stone bridges, under which were once deep channels filled with water sufficient for large boats, but where now there is nothing but earth and filth piled up to the very key-stones. One might naturally expect that these water-courses would all be keptin the best possible condition, as in that case they would contribute so much to the health and comfort of the inhabitants, istead of being left to becoine, as many of them are, intolerable nuisances,-at least so they would be considered in any other than Chinese cities. Once doubtless theywere, or at least some of them, in a much better condition than at present; and historians speak of them as being sixty feet broad; but at present they are not more than fifteen or twenty feet, and in some places not more than twelve.

  The moat which surrounds the city, outside of the walls, was pro- bably opened out by human industry, at the time when the walls were erected, the excavated earth being used to form the rampart. The others, for the most part, appear to have been natural channels, and the shape of the city so formed as to take advantage of them for artificial purposes. That such has been the case is made very evident by a reference to some of the old maps of Shinghái as it existed when it was merely a chin or market town, prior to the building of the walls. These channels were then called pång, HL, and among them where the following; first on the south sieh kiú páng,

 A second chứa kia ping in fang pang

and third, on the north.

all these communicating distinctly with the great

67

river, the Hwang pú. Now, at the present time, the three channels which pass under the walls of the city near the three eastern gates, bear these same names, and are no doubt all that remain of those once broad water-courses,

These three páng, as they are laid down on the old maps, ran near- ly parallel to each other, from east to west. The central one, the cháu kiá púng, is now between the river and the wall nearly filled with mud, but at the eastern gate, where it enters the city, it is sup- plied with water from the moat, that surrounds the wall, and runs thence due west, and passing out, by the western gate, intersects the moat outside of the wall, and there branches off into the country. The southern, the ich kiá páng, at present comes in from the Hwáng pú in a south-easterly direction; and as already stated, passing under the wall near the little southern gate, runs from thence westward almost parallel with the wall and not many yards from it, until it comes near to the western gate; then it divides, and one part turns round and extends off due east half way through the city; the other part, by a circuitous course northward, unites with the central channel, the cháu kia pâng. On the north, the fung ping, with full supplies of water from the Hwắng pú, first fills up the moat that goes round the city, and them pissing under the wall, near the north-east gate runs like the two others due west, and when almost reaching the wall, it divides, one branch going off first to the north, and then to the east; while the other branch, after nearing the wall, turns south- wards and unites with the central channel, near the western water- gate, through which the united water of the three ebb and flow, ris- ing and falling with the water in the Hwang pú, from which they are all supplied. At low tide all the channels are quite dry, except- ing when they are dammed up so as to prevent a free current. From the moat round the wall, there are several branches running off into the country; likewise from the main channels in the city there are numerous smaller ones.

      Judging from the action of the water in all these, the entire sur- face of the city must be a dead level, and the beds of the channel be- low the surface, of the water in the river at low tides.

      Over these canals are numerous bridges many of them built of granite blocks and slabs, often presenting a very handsome turned arch. Most of these stone bridges, however, are very old, and some of them are more or less dilapidated.

      On the western and northern sides of the city, within the walls, are some stagnant pools. Wells abound in every part of both the

63

 city and suburbs. There are also here and there, tanką or reservoirs, sunk beneath the surface of the ground. Of pure spring water there is none here, nor in this vicinity, there not being a hill or mound visible in any direction from the city. The water of the river is ge; nerally preferred for culinary purposes, it being first rendered pure by the application of alum.

  The streets of Shanghái are narrow and very irregular, only one, we believe, running quite through the city from side to side; this leaves from the great eastern to the western gate, carrying you close along on the north side of the cháu kia páng. Generally, a street will be found near each side of the several canals. The water-courses have evidently given direction to most of the streets in the city; for be- sides those that run near to and parallel with them, all the others, with few exceptions, will be found either to fall in with these main streets, as secondary parallels, or they cross or branch off from them at nearly right angles. The exceptions must be extended, to a street which is just within the wall and nearly parallel with it, passing from the south around to the north-west; to some streets along the minor branches of the canals; and to a few other short and winding ways in various parts of the city.

The main streets,or those which arec hief places of business and concourse, are that which leads quite through the city, from the great eastern to the western gate; that from the little north-eastern gate, running near the north side of the Fáng pang; and the one next to it on the northern side of the northern branch of the samẹ Fáng pang; these three run from east to west. Entering the city at the great southern gate you go along one of the main streets from south to north, till you are in front of the Chi-hieu's, office. The othermain street, running in this direction, from north to south, will be found in the central and eastern part of the city.

The names of these streets, as in all other Chinese cities, are sufficiently expressive, the names being intended to characterize the several places, or something belonging to them. Sometimes the name. is derived from a family; sometimes from a trade, or a temple, a ditch, &c. One has been named after the Liú family; another after the Sun, and so of many others. We have also the Great and Peaceful street. Though kiái, . is the common term corresponding to our word street, and is in fact but a mere alley, yet the Chinese, like Eu- ropeans, have their avenues, squares, places, alleys, lanes, and also their gardens and terraces.

}

The breadth of the streets may be on an average, six feet; some

69

are narrower, and a few may be twelve or fifteen. The principal ones are flagged or paved with stone, or laid with brick or broken tiles. The latter are placed with their edges upwards; and, thongb having a rough appearance, make a very good and substantial road and withal cheaply constructed.

Narrow as the streets are, they serve all manner of purposes, and at times are rendered nearly impassable on account of the messes of of goods and chattels, the various handicrafts, retailers, fortune- tellers, and other nameless riffraff that crowd into them. Besides, like the ditches and canals, they are the receptacles of rubbish offul and, and serve other purposes, of which it were a shame to speak ; and useful as they may be, are in all other countries thrown into the back ground, and concealed from public view.

      The houses vary in size and quality from beggarly hovels, only a few feet square, covered with tiles and thatch, to large and commo- dious habitations, extending over several acres. The general cha- racter of the architecture is purely Chinese, in which the tent form is most clearly preserved, and much more conspicuously in Shánghái, than in some of the southern cities of the empire. The style is unique, and whether the building be great or small, the same model serves equally well for all and for each. An inferior dwelling of one story may be taken as a sample of the general character of the whole. A small site of ground is cleared and leveled, say eighteen feet deep from the street and twelve broad. For each of the long sides, or ends of the proposed house, seven poles are erected, one in the center projecting up to support the ridge; then, at the distance of three feet on either side, two more, and then at another equal in- terval, two more, and again two more, giving seven erect poles, three on each side of the central; at the other end of the house, seven more are placed, corresponding to the first seven.

The ridge pole is then laid on, and parallel to six more beams three on each side, their ends resting on the tops of the erect poles, the beams on either side of the ridge being laid so as to support the roof. Upon these, cleats or slender rafters are nailed, and tile placed without line, cement or fastenings, and thus the roof is completed. Between the poles, at each end, a double layer of bricks, cemented with mud and lime, goes up, no space for windows being left open. Some panels are then put up in front and rear, with partitions inside, and the house is completed. Such is a sketch of the architecture of Shang- hái. From this single room of one story, you must go on to add and multiply, till you can count them by scores, and have them also a

and sometima

third storu hich

70

A house lot of the better kind will cover a site two hundred feet square, or a hundred feet upon the the street, with a depth back of two or three hundred feet, more or less. Within these outlines, you will see a variety of courts, halls, corridors, tanks, &c., and perhaps a part, one third or one fourth of the space shut up by a high and massive wall, like those of a nunnery. Sometimes, as in the case of the pawn-broker's establishments, the massive wall encircles the whole plot of ground, and rises twenty five or thirty feet in hight. This high wall is intended to serve as a protection not only, nor so much against robbers, as a safeguard against fire, (there being here no'Insurance offices) and is so constructed that the enclosed build- ings cannot easily be set on fire from without, all the entrances be- ing made secure by having the doors plated with tile. These high walls stand independently of the main buildings within, or serve only in part for the same, as they are raised subsequently, and are con、 structed like all the others which have no surrounding walls.

Compared with what is modern European, or what is to be found in all modern Christendom, in every quarter of the globe where Christian civilization has reached, the streets and the buildings of a Chinese city present most striking contrasts. When Victoria town, or whatever they may please to call that quarter of Shánghái which has been assigned to Europeans shall have had a few years growth and become matured in its houses and streets, these contrasts will be very conspicuous, and cannot fail to make an impression on the most prejudiced minds. In one place you see what is Christian, in the other what is pagan. Instead of spacious, clean and airy streets, as seen in London, Liverpool, or Paris, you have the most miserable substitutes, narrow, filthy and close, to a degree that cannot adequately be conceived of, from any description. They must be s en in order to be fully known. The contrast in the houses is not less remarkable. A few there are, spacious, neat, and com- fortable, and would be so esteemed by any people. But the great majority, say nine tenths of the whole, are such as few Europeans would like to inhabit. They are low, damp and dark, and so con- tracted and close, as to be both very hot and very unhealthy. In summer they are poorly ventilated, and in winter equally unfitted to render their inmates comfortable. One might suppose that many of the arrangements were designed to set at defiance all attempts 10 secure health or comfort. The order of things, in their construc- tion, is the European reversed. Instead of having a dwelling two or three stories high, light, dry, and well ventilated in summer and

71

warm in winter, these houses are made on the opposite plan; conse- quently foreigners who come to reside in this city, must build their own houses, or must suffer severely by occupying such as the Chi- nese have erected for themselves. The very exterior of these dwellings, with dark walls, unglazed windows, and heavy roofs sur- mounted by a long line of tiles piled with their edges upwards, pre- sents a forbidding aspect; their interior with tiled or mud floors be- low, and little or no ceilings above, is equally cheerless; and on trial, if any one from choice or necessity makes it, they will be found no less unsuitable for all the purposes of health and comfort, than their first appearance warranted us to expect.

     The Chinese have been reproached as being a nation without shirts, streets, or table linen." In their habitations, whether regard be had to health, convenience or taste, there is very little that is worthy of commendation. None but a pagan people, half-civilized, would or ought to be contented with such. Depend upon it, that a moral renovation, following in this country, will be succeeded by a corresponding change in their domestic habits.

     The government of Shánghái though on a small scale, is an exact model of the supreme and provincial courts. The magistracy of China is a wheel, within a wheel, his imperial majesty, the son of heaven, being the mainspring, the center of the whole. In the capi- tal, around him, are the six Boards, ect. The same machinery is found in each of the provinces, departments, and districts. Accord- ingly, in this city, we may see a miniature picture of the imperial court with all its essential features. The modern government aspires to be both theoretically and practically, what it was in the days of those great emperors who lived sonre fifteen hundred years before Confucius. Hence, by acquiring a knowledge of any local magis- tracy, we supply ourselves with data for ascertaining what now ex- ists in the higher spheres, as we go upwards to the seat of the one man, who sits alone, as the vicegerent of tne bright azure heavens.

The several offices and their incumbents, as they now exist in Shánghái, staud thus :

1.

Kin ming, Kang si, Kien-tuh, hái kwin fan sion Sú, Sung,

Tii, ping pi taus簌命江蘇監

鉄命江蘇監督海關分巡蘇松

Hien ling 咸齡:

太兵備

2. Hûi fóng tung chi 海防同知, Tsin Ping luoón 沈炳垣;

3. Shang hái hiện chi hin

上海縣知縣

Lau Wei wan 藍蔚雯:

4. Kiiu yù教諭 5. Hien ching*, 6. Chú pú ti,

7. Tien sz H.

8. Hwáng pú sz', siun ki‹n

黄浦司巡檢,

72

植邦彥

Cháu Pảng yen | #K

Lin Kooh tung 劉

Liú Ming i 劉名義;

Yuen Wan chi 袁文 治;

Chin Chung 陳中;

Of the incumbents, in these several offices, we know nothing, ex- cepting of Hienling, whose name has become familiar to foreigners. He has resided at Canton and has once or twice visited Hongkong. He was present at the sigiring of the treaty in Nanking; and from that time has been a steady supporter of the new and more liberal policy that has been adopted, by the Chinese, in their intercourse with for- eigners.

   The offices, eight in number, as they stand above shall be here briefly noticed.

I. This officer's long title, literally translated runs thus: " By imperial authority superintendent of the maratime customs in Kiángsú and joint director of the military in the departments of Súchau, Sungkiáng and Táitsang. "The office of tautai, or Superintendent, though the highest in Shinghái and having the most to do with for- eigners, does not properly form a part of the local magistracy, but belongs rather to the provincial government, the head quarters of which are at Súchau, and is designed to exercise a general surveil- lance over the local magistracy.

   It is one of considerable importance, yielding large emoluments. It was first established in the ninth year of Yuugching; is situated not far from the walls, half way between the great eastern and little south gates; and occupies a l'arge suite of apartments, corresponding in number to the departments of business that come under the táutái's superintendency. To this office appeals may be brought up from the subordinate courts. Before the principal gate, warrants written upon boards are daily placed; and any individual by taking in hand one of these, according to the nature of the case, is authorised thereby to enter personally and appear before the presiding functionary. So the law ordains. The practice is not so. That is áll a sham.

   Who has not heard of the drum placed at the outer gate of the imperial paface? The like is to be found at the entrance of each local office' throughout the empire. There is such an one at the tautai's gate.

It is of generous dimensions, and was once furnished with a fine painted head. But timne, akas, quite dostroyed this beau-

1

73

     tiful drum-head. Yet there it stands all tattered and torn, a silent. but truthful index of the modern executive in all this land. The truth is, the better half of the provisions of Chinese law, has gone into disuse, and grievous usages and abuses have grown up in their stead. The local courts have become, in instances not a few, dens of robbers, fattening on the life-blood of the people. We have seen gangs of gamblers sitting in the courts of this establishment, there playing at cards, and for money.

04

2. Haifang tungchi, "the marine protectorate and joint knower,' is a sub-prefect, whose chief or principal is resident at Sungkiáng fú. Shanghái being an important post, and much exposed on ac- count of its position to attacks from robbers and pirates, and withal- at the long distance of thirty miles from the seat of the prefect at 'Pine River," this assistant has been placed here for the better defense and control of the people. His authority is both civil and military, extending alike to the common people and the soldiery. In rank and jurisdiction, he is superior to the Chí-hien or proper magistrate, and matters of importance must be reported up through him to the high provincial officers.

3. Shánghái hiện chi hien, "the knower of the business of the district of Shinghái," is the local magistrate of this city. The principal duties of his office are, to control the people, to punish offenders, to arrest disturbers of the peace, to admonish the lawless, to encourage the good and industrious, to collect the revenue, and forward it to the provincial treasury, to act as territorial arbiter and settle all disputes regarding the tenure and boundaries of land, to oversee all the agricultural pursuits of the district, to replenish the public granaries in times of plenty, and in seasons of drought, and famine to obtain from his superiors permission to deal out from the same stores supplies as the exigencies of the people may demand. In short, his person is the true representative of majesty, and like bia imperial master, he ought and assumes to be father and mother to the people. In the capacity of judge, he examines into all lawsuits, can if he please use all manner of torture; but can act as final arbiter. only in minor concerns, it being incumbent on him to report all weighty matters to his superiors for their approval and sanction. To his superiors, moreover, he is accountable for the entire safe-keeping of his trust. If fire, sword, famine, or inundation, or ought else of evil, come upon the people, it must be through his negligence and be must answer for the same.

His usual term of holding office is three years.

When it expires,

74

  the people are generally anxious for a change; the reverse of this, however, sometimes happens and at their especial request his period of service may be extended, or by imperial permission renewed for another three years. The business of his office is divided after the manner of the imperial court, into six departments, and each of these six is subdivided into three or more branches, according to the amount and kind of business they have to manage. To each of the six there is a chief clerk and a great number of assistants, all supported by salaries from the public chest. The magistrate has also his private secretaries.

   All these subordinates constitute his household, and are, or ought to be, men of letters. They are liable to degradation by the magis trate, who has power also to promote them if they are found merito- rious. Persons thus employed, are permitted by law or usage, after a period of five years,to go to the governor's palace for examination, where they are required to write essays and forms of proclamation; and if found able and expert, the governor is authorised to give them rank and office, subject however to the approval of the emperor through the proper Board. If in this way they are successful, they are not required to attend the ordinary examination for de- grees. If on the other hand, when they come before the governor, they are found deficient in ability, they must either take a new name or retire from the magistrate's, employment, and give place to others. --

The "knower of the district of Shánghái" has his residence very near the centre of the city, at the head of the main street, leading up from the great southern gate. With all its departments it covers a large area, and around it are congregated a mass of leeches that live on the vitals of the people. Jails and houses of confinement, etc., are also there to be seen. The present incumbent, Lán Weiwan, has no good reputation; what may be his real merits, however, we have not the means to determine.

4. Kiáu yü is commonly, but very improperly called by foreigners, the "literary mandarin." He is charged, by the constitution of the government, with the control of the public schools, and more will be said of this office under that head.

  5. The hien ching is a sub-magistrate, second to the chí-hien, ap- pointed by high authority, and acts as an assistant in the chief mag- istracy. In case of need he becomes the deputy of his superior, to whose residence, his own is contiguous.

6. The chi pú," lord-registrar," or registrar general, and originally

75

keeper of the public records, of the office where he was appointed to reside. At present, however, his duties are those of Chief thief- catcher, a sort of constable, appointed to look after those whose bus- iness it is to see that the streets and public ways are kept in order.

     7. The Tien-Shi, "Ruler of history," was originally appointed as historiographer, to keep up the historical narrative of the district. Now his functions are chiefly concerned with malefactors, having to oversee the jails. Both this, and the one next above in office, are al- lowed, usually for their profit, to manage small cases, and may be appointed, by the magistrate, as his assistant or substitute, in any cases in which he may please to call them to act.

1

     8. Hưáng pú sz' suen kien, is an officer whose jurisdiction would seem to be limited to the river, to manage and regulate the sea-going population. He is a sort of harbor-master, or marine magistrate, subordinate to the chief magistrate, but is expected to manage all minor cases without reference to his superior.

     The custom-houses of China, like ancient nunneries, are not only difficult of access, but when reached, their interior is involved in inexplicable labyrinths,if the reports of those best capable of knowing the truth are to be credited. Every attempt we have made to gain knowledge of the custom-house duties &c., has been unavailing. These establishments are under the care of those who know how to turn them to good account for themselves, and prevent any facts regarding the true amount of receipts from being known to their masters or the public.

     The military forces, though subject to the general control of the táu tải, have their own officers, appointed to train and discipline, to feed, oversee, aud direct, &c., &c.

The Yú ying yú kik, ⇓⇓, "right battalion's pa- troling assailant," as his title literally translated means, is the coin- mander-in-chief of the military forces in the district, he being char- ged immediately with the military defences thereof. He has to see that all the subordinate officers, in the army, properly perform their duty, receive and distribute rations, pay, &c., and also take care that all the military stores are in safe and proper keeping.

The Yu ying shau pi,

"right battalion's guardian "protector," is a subordinate officer, whose especial duty it is to prevent outrage, and to keep the body politic safe, and securely provided against assaults from without and outbreaks from within The Ching shau tsien toung,,"city protector and leader of the thousand," is charged with the particular care of

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the city, to prevent robberies, fires, &c., and has to join in more general operations, when occasion and the orders of his superiors require. The men uuder his command are only a few hundred and seldom a thousand, as his title seems to indicate. His post is near the south-west quarter of the city. In ordinary times, or such as we now see, little is heard or known of the imperial troops. They have barracks and parade grounds, with arsenals, and the ect. for

martial service.

   Besides the above, there are sacrificial officers, priests, usually of the Budhistic schools, who are appointed to aid in offering sacrifices, on certain occasions, to heaven, earth, sun, moon, stars, &c. When an emperor, or empress dies, or when there is an eclipse, and local officers are required to offer sacrifices, the services of the priesthood are then sometimes put in requisition. No pay, however, so far as we can learn, is ever given to them, beyond what the civil officers please to grant on their own account, and they must seek their live- lihood, consequently, chiefly from other sources.

+

The literary institutions of Shanghái are respectable, but not of a high order. The city being the residence of commercial rather than literary men, and withal of comparatively recent origin, we should not expect to find here schools of a very high order, nor those that do exist very extensively patronized. A governmental college, some public and private institutions, with numerous day-schools complete the whole list.

The Kiún yü,

            already mentioned in the list of officials, is the chief in the literary department of the district. His duty is to govern and instruct the young literati, who have

obtained the rank

Both those who

of siú tsái, the first collegiate degree in China. hold, this degree, and those who have purchased for themselves the kien sang degree, are privileged to attend the district college, if they please, and there to enjoy the tuition of this functionary. At his discretion he can issue themes, and the students bring in their essays for his inspection and correction. Having special charge of this class of the people he is able to call them to account for their con- duct, and in all minor cases, can proceed to administer justice by way of correction. In case of high offences, when the magistrate wishes to arrest them, he must first have the consent of this officer. In special criminal cases this officer and the magistrate, before they can punish the literati, must first report them to the kioh yuen, e, 院,

or literary chancellor, at the capital of the province, and then after the offenders have been by him deprived of their rank and degraded,

**

these two acting jointly, can deal with them as with the com........ people. This officer, in point of rank, is equal with the Chi-hien.

The hien high,

                 is the highest school in the city, and is the governmental college of the district of Shánghái; and over it, the last named officer presides. It stands on the east of the magis- trate's office, half way between it and the wall. It dates its origin as far back as the thirteenth century, when a private gentleman Tàng shitsúpurchased an estate of the Hán family, built a temple thereon, and dedicated it to Wancháng, the god of the literati, and requested the magistrate to make it a seat of learn- ing for the benefit of the people. This was accordingly done. In the year 1230 a. D. the magistrate changed the temple and dedicated it to Confucius, and made it the place for the public examination of the students, where they might pursue their studies under the direc- tion aud patronage of the government.

The college buildings stand on the northern side of the street, are spacious and tastefully laid out. These and the temple of Confucius

· are built side by side, each having its own portals, and its own in- scriptions, and both together present a broad front, having a pool before it. Over the college gate, in broad capitals are the charac- ters jü hiok mun,

"the gate of the school of those who are needful and necessary to the existence of the state". Within this outer gate, there is a long and spacious open court; then comes the i mun,

or "gate of ceremonies," where there is à large

pg

square hall filled with inscriptions. Advancing farther onwards, there are other halls and courts; such as the ming lun túng, MỊ K 堂 "hall for illustrating the social duties of life," &c. The kwei sing køk, three stories high, stands within these walls, and close to the street. The whole suite of buildings, when in good repair, must have presented an imposing appearance.

      The college has been endowed, having received numerous gifts, and some of them from the emperors of the Mánchú family. There is a library containing forty-four setts of books, large imperial editions. There are also several hundred máu of land, say 459, in two lots, the annual products of which are appropriated to the repairs of the buildings and the benefit of the students.

      At the annual examination the number eligible to the rank of siútyái, in this district and this place, is twenty-one, twelve on the civil and nine on the military list. Of those thus advanced, anuu- ally, there are long catalogues, and from these there are to be select- ́ed, first 12 of the best to receive a sınal·l bounty, and then 12 more

78

  to receive a smaller sum; and then, once in four years, one is to be selected to go into the higher courts of the province.

The King nich Shú yuen,

                   is a richly endowed collegiate institution, and the principal is appointed by the magis trate. It is situated in the north-east quarter of the city, not far from

the Chinghwáng máu.

The Ki mung Shúi yuen,

K, has an extensive range

  of buildings, and is said to be well endowed. It stands in the rear of the governmental college.

The Júi chú kung,, which stands near the great southern gate, is the seat of a public school or college. The build- ings are somewhat dilapidated. Once however, when in good re- pair, they must have formed a delightful academical retreat.

A lofty turret, surmounted by a stork, or some other bird points to the site. Other schools, of various ranks, and variously endowed, are men- tioned in the histories of this city; but many of them, now cease to exist. It is difficult to estimate the literary attainments of this peo- ple, so exclusive are they, and so incommunicative. To inquiries regarding the number of readers, one will tell you that among the males, above the age of ten, one half can read; a second says, one third; another says, one fourth; while some will not allow that one man in five, or one woman in fifty, can read and write their own lan- guage. With such diversities of opinion, among those who have been long on the spot, we shall not venture any opinion further than to say, that from what has come under our own observation, we should not suppose the readers could exceed one half among the nien, and not one in fifty among the women.

Common schools exist in and about the city, where boys are taught to read and write. The number of pupils in these varies from ten to thirty. They are supported by individuals, the government having nothing to do with primary education.

Religious institutions here, as everywhere else, in the world, have a powerful and permanent effect upon the whole character of the people, influencing their social intercourse and all their habits, manners and customs. The demoralizing and destroying effects of paganisın are dreadful, a hundred times more so, than can easily be conceived by those who have always lived in Christian lands. Pa- ganism lowers the standard of truth, and excludes man from the most powerful and most salutary influences enjoyed by those who have in their hands the inspired records of Holy Writ. Paganism is a yoke of bondage, enslaving the best feelings of the human soul,

     and turuing to utter ruin, or converting to evil purposes, a rast amount of the rich bounties of the great Creator. Paganism, the worship of false gods, the maintenance of expensive and tedious rites and ceremonies, all based on false systems of opinion, is the greatest scourge that can afflict any nation-blighting the fairest prospects of the life that now is, and sowing thick the seeds of eternal sorrow for that which is to come. No description, no words, that we can use, will give the reader a perfect picture of all the religious institu- tions of a pagan people. A sketch of some of the principal in Sháng- hái, with brief notices of their most prominent features and leading characteristics, must suffice for this article. What we give will be derived partly from books and partly from personal observation.

1. Shi tsik tán,

; this is an altar dedicated to "local divinities," that preside over the land and over the grain, supposed to control the destiny of the existing government. So long as their favor is sccured, it stands, but when that is lost, it must fall! Ac- cording to the ancient ritual, it was the prerogative of the emperor, impiously styled the son of heaven, to worship the celestial and ter- restrial gods, the gods of the hills and rivers, of the land and grain, with the manes of his ancestor. So his princes and ministers, go- vernors and magistrates, were severally required to pay religious homage to all the local gods, supposed to exist within the territory over which their jurisdiction extended. And thus it is at present. "The great august ruler" takes the lead, and "the hundred officers" follow, each local magistrate being by law required to pay religious honors to the local divinities, of which the Shí t›ik are chief. In Shánghái their principal altar stands near the north-west corner of the city, not far from the field of Mars, or the grounds used for mili- tary parades.

2. Shin kí tán,

                 these are altars dedicated both to the celestial, and terrestrial divinities,-the gods of the winds, thun- der, lightning, rain; of the hills, rivers &c. Their principal altar stands in the southern part of the city.

        An altar dedicated to the god of agriculture stands outside of the northern gate of the city, to which place the chief magistrate, on a certain day every spring, must go; and like his imperial master, commence the agricultural labors of the year. There you may see him, in his official robes, holding the plough, standing forth an ex-

ample to all the people of the surrounding country.

4. On the northern side of the city, within the walls, there is an altar dedicated to those divinities who preside over plague, pestilence,

$0

5. Other altars, consecrated to the local gods, of grain, have been erected, and some of them are still standing, in town and country, scattered in every direction, at the distance of each Chi- nese mile.

For these altars, a slab of granite, or aught else large enough to contain the short inscription tú kuh shin,, "earth grain gods," will suffice.

6. Wan misu,, the temple dedicated to the god of litera- ture, is connected with and forms a part of the buildings in which the governmental college has its seat. In this temple there is a tá shin sien,, a hall dedicated to one, of whom the em- peror Yung ching said.

Sang min wi yú:

* * * *

"Of those of women born, there never was the like."

The hall is spacious, and has a great number of other inscriptions,

giving honor to their sage. Among them you will see the two fol- lowing:

Wan shi sz' piáu;

萬世師表

"Ten thousand ages master pattern ;"

Yü tien ti tsán;

與天地參

"With heaven and earth equal."

In the same hall you will see images, one of which is dedicated to

chi shing sien sz' Kung tsz,

JL, "The most

holy master, Confucius." Arranged around him, there is a host of disciples and followers, and among them are Mencius and Chú Hí, or Chú fú tsz, as he is commonly called.

   7. Behind this hall there is another, which is dedicated to the great sage for five generations. This hall is called Tsung shing tsz", 崇聖祠: and there you may see an image of the father or head

of each of those five generations, and each is styled shing wáng, E "holy king," this being part of the title given them by the emperor Yung-ching.

   8. In the same collection of buildings, directly before you after passing on beyond the ming lun túng,

the god of

has a court

literature styled, Wan chúng ti kiun, called Tsun king koh, the honorable classical pavilion.' But at present this god of literature receives his homage in a small

81

64

court behind the pavilion. This court is called king yih ting,

-, "the court in which one is adored," or literally adore one's court." To whom the one here refers, the Chinese are not agreed. It may be Tien, F, Heaven; it may be li, P, "order" or "Eternal Reason ;" or it may be tái kih,

"the great

extreme." By itself, it seems to indicate the existence of monotheism : but this interpretation is canceled by the many divinities, placed in juxtaposition with this one. There are in the city and district of Shanghái, several other temples dedicated to the god of literature.

9 On the right or east side of the gate as the principal entrance of the college is the lofty three storied pavilion, mentioned above, the residence of another god and patron of letters, who is styled kwei sing, The paviliou is built in the style of the pagodas.

10. Wu miau,, "the martial temple," is dedicated to the god of war. It stands near the north-eastern part of the city. Ori- ginally it was the private residence of the celebrated Pwán Ngan. Afterwards it became t'ien chú táng,

, "a temple of the

Lord of heaven." In the 8th year of Yungching, when the Roman Catholic churches were confiscated, it was converted into a temple and dedicated to the god of war Kwántí, also styled hich tien Shangti,, "assisting heaven high ruler." Other

恊天上帝 temples and shrines are dedicated to him in this city, where he is honored with the same lofty title. Sometimes also he is styled Fuh mo tá tí,★,"prostrating the devil great Ruler," or "the high ruler, who overcomes and vanquishes the devil."

11. Tien hau kung, F, "palace of the Queen of hea- ven;" also, and often styled the holy mother Shing wu, . She has in Shánghái several palaces, three at least of which are in the eastern suburbs. One of these is connected with a commercial hall belonging to people from Fuhkien; and another belongs to a mercantile company, from Ningpo, styled, Ning cheh hưui kwán, "the Ningpo Chehkiáng's hall of assembly. This latter stands to the south of the great eastern gate, not far from the landing called Wáng-kiá mátáu, or, in the local dialect, Wong ká moda, "the landing place of the Wang family." The buildings are spacious and in good repair. Like most of the other temples, it has a theatre: this one is very large and furnished with two side galleries, the whole capable of containing probably not less than two thousand auditors.

12. The god of fire, ho shin,, has a temple in the north

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eastern part of the city; and a second in the suburbs, near which is another temple consecrated to the god of water, shwui shin, ✯. 水神. 13. Ching hwáng miau

mentioned on a preceding page, "is the temple of the god of the city." The word hwang seems originally to have denoted the fosse or ditch around the imperial city. Afterwards it became the name of an illustrious individual charged with the protection of the city, and thence was used as the designa- tion of the patron divinity of the city. This use of the phrase has become general, so that the chief city in each district of the empire has its patron god, and his residence is called Ching hưáng miáu. His rank and office correspond to those of the chief magistrate of the city, the chi-hien, "the one rules over the visible world, the people; the jurisdiction of the other is limited to those of the invisible." The divinity at present supposed to preside over Shánghái, and his residence, are both deserving of notice,

His title is Hien yú peh,. illustrious protector and superior. "This is said to have been conferred on him by the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, previously to his canonization, and while he was yet living. His family name was Tsin, ; his grandfather, at first came to Shanghái as a visitor, at the time of the Yuen dynasty, and subsequently became a resident. His name is recorded in the annals of Shánghái as one of its illustrious visiting residents, Liú yü, M. His son, the father of the hero-god called Liáng hau,, went abroad to study the language of the Mongols, in which he made great proficiency and became an author. Afterwards he held high office in the imperial court, then established in the southern capital, Nanking. His son, whose name was Yüpeh,

1, accompanied his father both when a student and when in office, and in due time was promoted and sent into the province of Fuhkien. At length, when disorders arose, he withdrew from public life; and when summoned by one of those usurpers who had fixed his residence at Súchau, he declined, first because it would prove himself unfaithful to his late imperial master; and in the second place, because he was then mourning for his mother.

When subsequently Hungwú had established a new dynasty, and seated himself securely on the throne, he sent for Yüpeh, who declin- ed going to court, on account of ill health. The emperor, then with his own hand, wrote after the following tenor: "The people on the seacoast are fond of fighting; Yüpeh is a man of wisdom and genius; now residing there, and refusing to come to court, we fear he will

have cause to repent." Thus no alternative was left to the poor man. Accordingly he went to court; was there repeatedly promoted, and often extolled by his master. His career, however, was not long. He became sick; obtained leave to retire; went home; soon died ; and his remains were buried in Shánghái.

We find no further notice of him, in history, till the tenth year of Shunchi, the first monarch of the Mánchú family. In the spring of the year, bands of pirates invested the city. The commander of the Chinese forces was defeated. The people, in great numbers assem- bled, and inveighed against the conduct of the general.

Thereupon the governor of the province came to investigate the matter; and the general whose name was Wángking, turned round and accused the people of being in league with the pirates, fearing that their complaints against him would prove his overthrow. The governor was deceived, and resolved instantly to exterminate the people far and near. The magistrate and his friends tried to interfere in their behalf. But the governor was inexorable. That night; a few hours before the bloody decree was to be executed, a god descended and went to the court of the governor. was agitated. Still at the late hour of midnight he was bent on slaugh- ter when again and again the god appeared before him, shaking his head and admonishing him. This at last had the desired effect. His cruel purpose was given up. The happy effects of that interposi- tion continue to this day, and tradition says, "the god who appeared was Tsin Yüpeh."

His heart

      An image of this hero-god, with the title above given, also an image of his spouse, with images of their retiuue, are now to be seen in the Ching hwáng miáu, and there he is worshiped, not only by multitudes of the common people, but especially on the 1st and 15th of each month, by the chief magistrate and other local officers, who come in state and do homage. This we have seen. The semi-monthly read- ing of the sacred edict usually takes place at the same time.

The temple of the god of the city was originally of small extent. At first the god received his divine honors in, what was called the "Fresh water wel! temple." Subsequently the magistrate took a temporary pavilion of Hoh kwáng and changed it into a temple, standing in the north-west corner of the city, not very far from the north gate. From that small beginning it has risen and become spa- cious and splendid, so as to be scarcely if at all inferior to any of its kind in all the provinces. In the summer of 1842, it was for a time

84

the head quarters of the British army, and the major-general, with his staff and four battalions, found there spacious and airy lodgings, and the buildings " would have afforded accommodation to twice that number, had such been needed.

  The site of the temple is on the north side of the street that runs from the small eastern gate parallel with the fång páng. Going due westward from said eastern gate, half way through the city, you ar- rive at a lofty vestibule, and over it is this inscription:

Páu chứng Hải gi

保障海隅

"Protectors and defenders of the sea-coast."

  In front of this, in an open area, on the opposite side of the street, are two "drum towers." Entering through this outer gate, you pass under a spacious loft, a theatre, enter an open court, sixty or more feet broad and a hundred, more or less, long: going on through this court, you enter the temple of the chief local divinity, styled Hien Yüpeh. Entering the rear of the same building you find his lady; and on state occasions you will see them decorated, bearing all the insignia of their high station. In and about this temple are many small hails and courts, in which are idols, inscriptions, &c.

The extent of grounds covered by the temple is said to be twelve mau and six tenths, such it was when first built; but there have since been made to it two additions consisting of two gardens--one called the Eastern and the other the Western-making both together more than seventy Chinese acres. The Eastern garden was built in the 40th year of Kánghí. Its pavilions, terraces, pools, alleys, bridges, &c., are elegant, and some of them have been extolled in verse. The western garden was once the possession of an im- perial minister, the above mentioned Pwán Ngan,

                        : after his decease, the people of the city purchased his estate, repaired and rebuilt parts that had become dilapidated, and added the whole to the temple of the city divinity. This was in the 25th year of Kien- lúng. From the original temple, the Ching hưáng miáu, you pass directly north into these gardens, which on the north side front upon a street running along on the northern bend of the Fáng páng on the north side of and parallel to it. The western garden, like the other, has many pavilions, terraces, with miniature mountains-rude imitations of nature,--where you see rocks piled upon rocks. There too is an almond tree, said to have been planted by Pwán Ngan's own hand. In this great temple and its gardens, and contiguous to them,

85

are many minor temples, some of them rich and spacious, all dedicat- ed to gods and demi-gods.

We will now turn to other classes of religious establishments, the monasteries, nunneries, etc. The religious houses or temples of the Budhist priests are commonly called sz', #, "a place measured

寺 and subject to fixed laws; chambers for officers at court; the first priest of Budha, invited from India to China, was lodged in one of of these, and hence the Budhistic_temples have been so called." Their nunneries are called ngán,, literally meaning "a small thached cottage." The kwán,, to look, to observe, to manifest, is the common name of those temples that belong to the Táu sect, the rationalists of China. So far as we have seen, all these three classes of religious house and the habits and manners of their in- mates-Budhists, Tauists and Nuns-are quite the same in all parts of the empire, so that what is true of either class in one quarter, will be found universally applicable to all of that class, from Mán- chú to Háinán, from the yellow sea to Thibet.

The Budhists, taking them all in all, as a class, are the most beg- garly, the most ignorant, the most wicked, the most devout, the most idle, and the most popular. Many of their establishments are richly endowed, but in case of need all the priests can beg, and not a few live solely as mendicants. The majority of them know no- thing more of letters, than enough to enable them to read their prayers. Generally they have the reputation of being loose in morals, addicted to the grossest vices. The reigning Mánchú family has the reputation of being partial to Budhism.

The priests of the Tau sect enjoyed special favor of the court during the reign of the Sung dynasty, its first sovereign feigning descent from the founder of this sect. These priests are often seen here in the capacity of fortune-tellers, quack doctors, and some. times acting as private tutors; but are ever ready to perform the appropriate duties of their profession. Their profession, and their property passes down from father to son, the children following in the footsteps of their fathers.

     The nunneries of Shánghái, if no very doubtful reports can be credited, are very sinks of pollution, being even more vile than the monasteries; the members of these sisterhoods, dull-visaged and stupid, with shaved heads, and gray attire, may be seen waddling through the streets, sometimes alone, and sometimes two or three in

a company.

86

Connected with the several religious establishments, above enum- erated and with others of the same sort, there is a very large amount - of property, a voluntary tax not less probably than that usually paid in Christian countries for religious purposes-we say perhaps, be- cause, having no statistics, and judging from appearances, we may, in this matter, be far from the truth. Besides the Sz', Kwán, and Ngan, numbering more than thirty in Shanghái, there are a great many others, having different names, such as Táng, ; Yuen, ; Kung, Koh, Tsz', ; ete. Taking into account the whole of these religious houses, both great and small, with the priesthood and their current expenditure, the sum total would be very large.

The Tung jin táng,

"Hall of United Benevolence," stands conspicuously, and quite alone as it regards the extent of its operations. In volume fourteenth of the Repository, one of its Re- ports, kindly translated by a friend in Shanghái, was published, and will furnish the reader with ample details regarding both its origin and its present scale of expenditures. A full developement of the motives that have given rise to and sustain such an establishment, among such a people as the Chinese, would be a very curious and interesting document. To write such, however, would require the ablest pen of one most intimately acquainted with the philosophy of the Chinese and with their religious and social habits.

>

The Hall of United Benevolence is situated about equally distant from the two southern gates of Shánghái, and not far from the walls of the city. It comprises a large collection of spacious and commodi- ous buildings. Connected with it are numerous burying grounds and other property, all voluntary contributions. The Report, above referred to, will show the various methods that have been adopted both to secure aid, and to distribute these public charities.

   One thing, in the mangement of this institution, has struck us as being especially worthy of notice; we refer to the small amount of good accomplished, considering the capital invested. There never was a people more greedy of gain, or more indefatigable in its pur- suit than the Chinese. Even in their religious acts, the strictest regard is had to profit; and this is estimated, not by the net return, but by the expenditure, little or no regard being had to the methods or motives that regulate the same. On examination of their charita- ble schemes, it will be found that a large part of the accumulated charity is consumed by the distributing agents. This is especially remarkable with the imperial bounties. We have known, instances

87

where individuals entitled to such, have relinquished their claims, because the cost of obtaining them would exceed their intrinsic value. From all we know of the Hall of United Benevolence, it is, for a Chinese charitable institution, admirably well managed, great regard being had to economy. And yet, considering the amount of means, the sum total of good accomplished, estimating it according to most manifest results, is not one tenth so much as we see in a neigh- bouring institution, directed by Christian principles, Christain feel. ing, and Christain hands. This disparity in results is easily ac counted for, when all the facts of the case are brought into account, and we see how much in the one instance is comsumed for naught, on idols, offerings, processions, etc. In many of these charitable in- stitutions, there is a specific fund for gathering paper, having on it written and printed characters, and committing it to the flames. This is a very popular method of investing charitable funds, for it is supposed that such investments will yield great profits, by securing that favor and interposition from the gods which are necessary in order to obtain literary rank, and to open the high way to the bon- ours and emoluments of office.

A Foundling Hospital exists in this city, as in most other large cities in the empire. It is situated on the east side of the main street that leads from the great southern gate. Its resources are said to be small, and most of the infants supported by its funds are placed out under the of care wet nurses in the country.

      History gives us the names of other charitable institutions; and among them one, the Hall of United Goodness, which once had large funds and spacious buildings; but the former have been all exhausted, and the latter are quite dilapidated. The site where they once stood is pointed out on the map, situated eastward from the Found- ling Hospital.

      Charitable Burying Grounds, besides those connected with the Hall of United Benevolence, exist in and about the city, not to such an extent, however, as to prevent the frequent and unseemly exhibi- tion of tenanted coffins. Both within and without the walls, far and near, receptacles of the dead are very numerous; they are seen in almost every garden and field, and in a great variety of forms. But over and above all these, thousands of tenanted coffins meet the

eye, sometimes wrapped about with straw and mats, and sometimes with- out a shred of covering. They form, in the landscape of Shánghái a remarkable feature, throwing a pensive sombre air around many a scene, which otherwise would be most charming and bright. In the

88

neighborhood of the city; clusters of the pine or the cypress will often point you to hallowed retreats, where rest the remains of mul- titudes, once so busy here, now gone to " that undiscovered country,

from whose bourn no traveler returns."

  The trades and handicrafts of the city are numerous and thrifty, and sometimes extensive. Our means of obtaining accurate informa- tion concerning all these are, however, exceedingly few and limited. Of general statistics the Chinese know very little; especially are they ignorant of the modern systems of collecting and publishing such facts as are now to be found in the commercial dictionaries of the West regarding its cities, trades, &c. They know that their fa- thers and the fathers of their fathers, from time immemorial, produc- ed, manufactured, bought or bartered, such and such articles at such and such times, and after a certain fashion; and they do, or endeavor to do, the same. Judging from such data as a short residence has brought within our reach, we infer that for sometime previously to the termination of the late war, the general commerce of Shánghái had been at a stand, or on the decline. Dilapidated dwellings and ware- houses, and a mass of unserviceable shipping lead to this conclusion. The restoration of peace, and the extension of intercourse however, have changed the course of events, and the flood-tide of prosperity is now strongly set in, and it must be a very powerful disturbing in- fluence that can prevent the gradual increase and extension of com-

merce.

If the inhabitants of Christendom do their duty, and spread abroad in the land, among all its inhabitants, the gospel of peace, so that the empire may be preserved from war, both foreign and domestic, and speedily rescued from the degrading yoke of idolatry and its evil ac- companiments, commerce cannot but go on here increasing. Chi- na is not, as some would have us believe, overstocked with human kind. With proper culture, the soil is capable of supporting a much greater population than at present, which, when influenced by the principles of pure religion, will become much more industrious, and their labors much more productive.

Without dwelling on the future, we will glance at some of the principal scenes of activity, as they present themselves to the thou- sand eager spectators, who, with intense interest, from every high place in Christendom, are looking to see what is to be found in this long secluded empire,-just waking up from the dream of ages, opening a new world for their enterprise.

  The most important article in the domestic if not in the foreign commerce of Shánghái, is cotton. The cultivation and manufac-

89

ture of this, was introduced into these regions in the Yuen dynasty, by a lady, so historians say, whose name was Hwáng. On her return from the south, from the provinces of Fuhkien and Canton by sea, she brought the seeds of the cotton with her. These being planted, grew thriftily; and the cultivation and manufacture of cot- con spread so rapidly, and became such an important article, that at her death thousands and teng of thousands, benefited by her enter- prise; mourned with deep lamentation, followed her to the grave, erected monuments to her memory, and now pay her divine honors. At this moment, while we write, the streets and suburbs of Shing- hái are whitened with the products of the plentiful harvest, pouring in from every quarter of the surrounding plains. Warehouses are filling up, and ships are loading. Multitudes of the poor cottagers are busily employed in separating the cotton from the seed, or in other manipulation's preparatory for the market. What may be the total amount that is brought into or carried out of this city, or con- sumed here, we can no more conjecture than we could the quantity of waters that roll down the Child of the Ocean, in its way to the yellow sea. Regarding the cultivation of cotton, the reader will find much valuable information' in the "Wanderings" of Mr. For- tune. All the branches of this great business-cultivating, spin- ning, weaving, &c., are conducted in the simplest manner. There are no immense farms, nor any great manufacturing establishments. The work is all done single-handed; a few plants here, and a few threads there are seen; and from these dribblets, comes the grand total of this valuable product.

Tea, as an article of export from this market, is already an im- portant item; and considering the proximity of Shanghái to the most fertile districts of Ngánhwúti and Chehkiáng, where any quan- tities of the best qualities can be produced, the merchant here may very naturally anticipate a large increase in this branch of his busi-

ness.

     Silks, ir like' manner, can be thrown into this market, quickly at a very cheap'rate, by those who gain a livelihood by their home trade-purchasing of the grower and selling to the foreign exporter.

     Woollen stuffs, brought from beyond sea, and the products of the combined workings of modern machinery and steam-power, will no doubt be furnished here at such moderate prices, wholesale and re- tail, as to secure a steadily increasing demand for them, both among the inhabitants on the plains of Kianguán and among those in the

90

colder provinces of Shantung Chillí, Honín, Shansi, Shensi, and regions beyond them in Mánchú and Mongolia.

The product of furs, we suppose, will decrease; but the demand for warm clothing, in these northern latitudes, wilt not soon cease; and it is natural to suppose that the demand for woollens will, in due time, be greatly augmented, to the mutual advantage of both the consumer in this hemisphere and the manufacturer at our antipodes. The power of steam has not yet accomplished the half it is evidently designed to effect, in bringing into closer proximity the whole fami- ly of man, by facilitating inter-communication among nations now remote from each other. Besides, as China and central Asia are opened, a thousand new productions will be discovered, and new demands not a few will be created, all tending to swell the tide of eastern commerce, especially at this point, where the great rivers from the west and north-west converge, and bring together the vari- ous products of immense and densely populated regions.

   The domestic commerce-the retail business of Shanghái-will be best understood by a stroll through some of the principal streets. Pass then, if you please, from the foreign factories, over the Yang- king páng, and keep on southward between the rivers and wall, through the most busy parts of the easterns suburbs, surveying on the left as your go, all the shipping, first the foreign, then the native; having reached the extreine southern point, turn about, come half way back, enter the great easterir gate, and proceed right on west- ward to the center of the city; there turn northward; make your way through two or three streets, enter and survey the great temple the Chinghwáng miáu and its gardens and shops, and from thence, by the north gate, return to the place of your departure; and you will have had under your eye the best specimens of all there is to be seen of the home trade of Shánghái.

   Off the foreign factories, and contiguous to each other, are now at anchor fourteen foreign merchantmen and one small ship of war. From this anchorage, for the distance of more than a mile up the river, rows of junks are moored, more than you would undertake to count. To and from these and the warehouses close along upon the river's bank, goods are easily transferred; and in your stroll you will have seen the manner in which these are stored, bought and sold. A few large warehouses are to be seen; but most of these esta- blishments, and nearly all the shops, are small and the competition is evidently very sharp. A catalogue of the articles on sale would include almost every product of China and of Chinese consumps

91

tion-a description or even an enumeration of which we cannot undertake to give.

      The manufactures of Shánghái are few in number, very limited in quantity, aud of no superior quality-if perhaps we except the products of the bamboo. Household furniture, clothing, ect., are manufactured, but not to any great extent.

""

      Ship-building, and smiths and the rope manufactures connected therewith, are conspicuous, and at present driven with more spirit and euterprise than any other work we have seen in Shanghái. The junks are all small flat-bottomed vessels, built chiefly of pine timber, of very light construction and designed for inland navigation.

The hwi kwan,, or "Houses of assembly, are nu- But neither the hwui-kwán, nor the kung-so, is properly an "exchange," as they have sometimes been called. They are indeed places of meeting for the transaction of business; but so far as we know, they are always, as houses of assembly, or places of meeting, open only to particular companies or bodies of men, each trade, and each commercial company, having its own place of meet- ing, into which the public and the stranger have no right to intrude.

merous.

      The suburbs of Shánghái are built principally between the river and the walls, extending some distance beyond them, however, both to the north and to the south.

     The Foreign Factories and residents. Not far from the north- east corner of the city, the Hwángpú makes a short bend: flowing down from the south and east to this point, it here turns and runs nearly due east. At the southern point of this bend, a small creek branches off to the westward: this is the Yang-king-páng, ☀ ☀ 浜: near the other extreme of the beud, the Wúsung kiang

comes in from the north or north-west, and is here called by foreign- ers the "Súchau creck." On this bend, bounded by the Yáng-king páng on the south, and by the Wúsung kiáng on the north, and ex- tending back from the river as far as may be required, are the con- sular grounds-the centre of a new world of influence, where, as if by magic, European houses, streets &c., have come into existence. Some thirty of these houses are already completed, and as many more, and among them a church, are in course of erection. 'The whole number of foreign residents is now more than one hundred; and every month adds to their number.

The value of real estate, in this neighborhood, in the eastern suburbs, and indeed in the whole city, has been greatly enhanced by the opening of this port, and the establishment of a European

92

town and it has not yet perhaps reached its maximum value, though it has more than doubled, and trebled, in some instances.

The climate, contrary to what was predicted by many, is found to be healthy, the extremes of heat and cold varying fom 120° in summer to 12° in winter. Among the foreigners there has been very Jittle sickness. Up to the present time, there is in the cemetery only one grave covering the remains of a foreign resident.

The population of Shánghái has been supposed to range between three and four hundred thousand. This is doubtless as near the truth as it is possible for the foreigner at present to arrive. The character of these people has been variously described, extolled by some, depreciated by others. That they are true Chinese, in all the leading features of character-physical, intellectual, moral, &c. is plain enough. But whether, taking them all in all, they are superior or inferior to their countrymen in other parts of the empire, we are not prepared to say. The population here is a mixed, migratory one, perhaps not one half of those now resident having been born and bred in this city, The indigenous part of the community seem gentle, industrious, and, some would add, stupid. "When a fo- reigner at any of the northern ports goes into a shop," says Mr. Fortune, "the whole place inside and outside is immediately crowd- ed with Chinese, who gaze at him with a sort of stupid dreaming eye; and it is difficult to say whether they really see him or not, or whether they have been drawn there by some strange mesmeric in- fluence, over which they have no control: and I am quite sure that, were it possible for the stranger to slip out of his clothes and leave a block standing in his place, the Chinese would still continue to gaze on and never know the difference." He adds however that there are some very different from those here described, some that are active and energetic. They are indeed so; and yet the picture he has given answers perfectly to what we have often witnessed. Nor is it strange they do appear thus dull and dreamy, shut up and shut out as they have been, bound down to things sensual and devilish by all the thousand deadly influences of paganism immemorial. His picture is not over-drawn; nor in fact does it give us the whole truth, or shades so dark as the reality. The truth is, the whole na- tion is asleep; morally dead; the emperor, ministers, the governors, the magistrates, and the people are all spell-bound by the deadening and soul-destroying reign of Paganism.

  As a missionary field Shánghái has very strong claims on the in- habitants of Christendom: a field that will give unbounded scope

93

for the exercise of their strongest faith and their best action; claims which will not soon be cancelled, and which, we fear, will not be soon acknowledged. Unheeded now, they certainly are in a great degree by all, wholly by not a few. But the dawn of better days has appeared. Since the opening of the port in 1842, Christian missions have been established here, by missionaries from the London and Church missionary Societies-from the Episcopal Church in the United States- and also from two of the Baptist Boards in the same country. A large mission likewise from the Romish Church has its head quarters in Shánghái.

CANTON LINGUISTS' FEES.

The following SCALE oF LINGUISTS' FEES, adopted at a GENERAL MEETING of the CANTON BRITISH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, held on 16th September, 1847, and agreed to by the Linguists' Establishments, CHING-HO, KWAN-HO, TAE-HO, HO-SANG, and SuUn-wo, came into operation at Canton on 17th September, 1847.

The FEES on IMPORTS to be paid by CONSIGNEES; on EXPORTS, by the ACTUAL SHIPPERS, whether Foreigners or Chinese, and on SHIPS by the AGENT for the VESSEL.

94

IMPORTS.

EXPORTS.

ARTICLES.

Fee.

Per Chop of

ARTICLES.

| Fee. Per Chop of

Raw-Cotton, Bombay...

....

$6

100 Bales

Tea.

$6

300 chests

99

Bengal....

Madras.

$6

110

"

$6

110

"

"

Raw Silk andSilk Piece Goods. Nankeens, Brown and Blue........

$6

100 piculs

$6 20,000 pieces

Cotton Yarn

86

80 bls. of 400 lbs

Alum, Cassia Lignea, Buds and Oil,

Shirtings and other Cotton Goods.

86

4,000 pcs. 40 yds

Bombazetts, Camlets, Lastings, and

China and Galangal Root, Bam- boo and Rattan ware, Camphor,

Long Ells

$6 1,400 pieces

China ware, Copper ware, Fire

$6

300 piculs

Spanish Stripes & other Broad Cloths

$6

840

Metals,-Iron, Lead, Spelter, Steel,

works, Hartall, Lacquered ware, Paper, Rhubarb, Star Aniseed &

Copper, Tin Plates, and all

$6

300 piculs

Aniseed Oil, Tobacco, Vermillion

Other Articles in proportion.......

other Metals

Agar-Agar, Betel-nut, Bicho de

MarCloves, Cutch, Cochineal,

Ebony, Flints, Fishmaws, Gam-

SHIPS.

bier, Gums, Hides, Pepper,

#6

300

Putchuck, Rattans, Saltpetre,

Sandalwood, Sapan and Red-

On each Ship reporting Inwards, exceeding 150 tons Register

$10

wood, Smalts, Window and

Broken Glass.

Rice.

$6 600

""

BRITISH CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, Canton, 17th September, 1847.

W. H. WARDLEY, Acting Secretary.

Other Articles in proportion...............

95

96

TABLE FOR CONVERTING DOLLARS INTO TAELS AND VICE VERSA.

"DOLLARS "TURNED INTO TAELS-

717 tele per 1720 taela per Amount. 1000 dollars. 1000 dollars)

TAELS - TURNED INTO DOLLARS.

715 taels per 71. acis per

1000 dollars.

740 tarla per

1000 dollars.

715 taels per

Amount.

Dollars.

1000 lollars.

1000 dollars.

T. m. c. c.

T. m. c c.

T. m. c.

T. m.

D.

C.

D. c.

D. c.

,25

0.173

0.179

0.18

0.10

0.139

0.189

0.138

,50'

0.357

0.358

0.36

0.20

0.279

0.278

0.277

,75

0 537

0 536

0.54

0.30

0.419

0.413

0.416

0.715

0.717

0.72

0.40

0.559

0.557

0.555

2

1.340

1.434 1.44

0.50

0.699

0.697

0.694

2.145 2.151

2.16]

0.72

1.006

1.004

1.000

2.869 2.868 2.88

360

3.575 3.585 4.290 4.302 4.32 5.005 5.019 5.04 5.720 5:736. 5.76 6.435) 6:453 6.48

1

1.398

1.394

1.588

10

7.150 7.170 7.20

7.865 7887 7.92

12

8.580 8.604 8.64

13

9.295 9.321 9:36 10

14 10.00 10.038 10.08

11

16

17

15 10.725 10.755-1060 12 11.440 Tf.472 11.52 13 12.155 12.189 12.24 14

HAGIOGOLAGA CO 10.

2.797

2.789

2.777

3

4.195

4.184! 4.166

5 594

5.578 5.555

6.993

6.973

6.944

8.391

8.368

8.333

9.799

9.762 8.722

8

11.1881

11.157

11.11

9

12.587

12.552

12.500)

13.936

13.947

13.883

15.384

15.341|

15.277

16.7831

16.736

16.666

18.191 18,131|

18.055

19.580

19.525 19.443

18 12.870, 12.906| 12.96) 15

20.979

20.920 20.833

19

13.585 13.623] 13.68

16

22.377

22.315

22.222

20 14.300 14.340 14.40]

17

23.776 23.709 23.611|

21

15.015 15:057 15.12

18

25.174

25.104 25.000)

15.730 15:774| 15 84

19

26.573

26.499 26.388

23

24

25

30

16.445 16 491| 16.56||

7.160 17.208 17.27 21 17.875 17.925 18.00) 22 2.450 21.510 21.60

20

27.972

27.894 27.777

40 25.690 28.680 28.80

50' 35.750 35.350 36:00 25

60

42.930 43.020 43.20

30

75 80 57.20 57.36 57.60 99 64.35 64.53 | 64.80 100 71.500 71.70 | 72° 150 107.250 107.55′ 108

53.625 53.775 54.00

40

50

75

90

100

200 143.000 143.40 144

200

300 214.500215.10 246

300

400 286.000286.80 288

400

500 357.500358.59 360

500

600 429.000 430.20 432

600

700 500.500501.99-594

700

800 572.000573.60 576

800

900 643.500645.30 648

900

1000 715.000717.00 (720) 11000

20.370 29.288 29.166 30.769 30.693 30.555 32.167 32.078 31.944 33.566 33.472 33.333 34.965 34.867 34.722

41.95

41.840 41.666 55.944 55.783 55.555 69.930 69.735 69.444 104.895 104.602), 104.166| 125.874 125.520| 125.000) 139.860|| 139.470|| 138.888] 279.720 278.940| 277.777| 419.580 418.410| 416.666| 559.440| 557.880| 555.555 699.300|697.350| 694.444| 838.16 | 836.820 833.333| 979.020 976.290 972.222 |TT18.8801145.760,1111.1F |1258.741|1255:320 1250.000| |1398.601 1394:700:1385.888

97

The table on the opposite page and the following notices of Chinese weights and measures are from the Commercial Guide.

In China most unmanufactured articles are sold by weight, not excepting liquide, wood, silk, cloth, grain, and live stock. Grain is however retailed by measure. The minor decimal weights are used in weighing bullion, pearls, precious stones, valuable drugs, &c. There are three instruments for weighing, viz., the balances, steel- yards, and money scales. Balances are used for weighing large sums of money; standard weights are furnished by the Board of Revenue at Peking, from 100 taels down to one cash, made of brass. The steelyard is made of wood, marked off into catties, mace, &c.; the largest of them will weight two or three peculs; it is called dotch- in by foreigners, a word corrupted from tok-ching, to weigh. The counterpoise is usually a piece of stone, and so common is its use, that no one goes to market without carrying a dotchin. The money scales are merely a small ivory yard like the dotchin, used to weigh money, pearls, and small things. p. 208.

The chih (cubit, covid, or Chinese foot) fixed by the Mathematical Board at Peking is 13-125 English inches; that used by tradesmen at Canton varies from 14-625 to 14.81 inches; that employed by the engineers of public works is 12.7 inches, and that by which distance is usually measured is 12.1 nearly. At Canton, an English yard or má is reckoned at 2 chih 4 tsun, which makes the English foot equal to 8 tsun. The chih is reckoned in the new tariff at 14.1 English inches, which is about the average length of this measure in Canton ; this rate makes the chúng to be 141 inches, or 3†1 yds.; the usual length of a cháng in Canton, is a very little over 4 yds, though some of them are but a little over 11 feet. The foot-rule of tailors is called pái tsien chih, and the, shorter one of masons chau tung chih. The chúng varies according to the chih, p. 210.

=l catty.

N. B. 16 taels

100 catties=1 pecul.

The pecul is usually reckoned equal to 1334lbs. avoirdupois.

STEAM COMMUNICATION FROM EUROPE

AND AMERICA TO CHINA.

  DECEMBER 26th, 1844, an agreement, was formed between the Pe- ninsular and Oriental Steam Company and the British Lords of the Admiralty, respecting the conveyance of mails between Suez and Calcutta, and between Point de Galle (Ceylon) and China.

   The mails are to come on from Suez to Aden in 144 hours, and to remain there 48 hours; thence to Galle in 247 hours, or (if they do not touch at Galle) to Trincomalee in 292 hours, and to remain 48 hours and thence in 35 to Madras,-or to remain at Galle 48 hours, and in 60 reach Madras; or, if they touch at both places, they are to reach Trincomalee in 34 hours from Galle, remain 12, and be at Madras in 35 hours. To reach Penang, 140 hours from Galle, or 137 from Trincomalee; in 45 to go on to Singapore; stop there 48, and reach Hongkong in 170 hours.

Thus if by de. Galle, from Suez to Hongkong, running 144+ 247+140+45+170=746' hours; stopping 48-+48+48=144 hours, or in all 37 days and 2 hours,

  The contract is to be in force for seven years from the 1st January 1845, and then twelve months' notice of discontinuance to be given before the contract shall cease. Between Ceylon and China the communication commenced on the 1st of August, 1845, with vessels of 250 horse power. The steamers are to be of 250 horse power till June 1846, and then 400 horse power, and are to leave Hongkong on the 1st of every month, except in May, June and July, then 5 days

earlier.

List of the rates of POSTAGE BETWEEN HONGKONG

AND FOREIGN COUNTRIÉS, &e. vIA " SOUTHAMPTON."

On a

netos

Portugal, Madeira, The Azores,

The Canary Islands,.

Brazil,..

Buenos Ayres and Monte Video,.

United States of America,

Panama, Chili, Peru and Honduras,..

Countries to which prepayment in Hongkong is compulsory. letter. | paper.

Spain,.....

J27B7BCO

8. d. 3 2

letter rate

2 7

do.

do.

do.

do.

do.

2 0

do.

Foreign West Indies, Viz, Guadaloupe. Martinique, Harti, Por- to Rico, St. Croix, St. Eustatius, St. Martin and St. Thomas Mexico, New Granada, Cuba,.

2 3

do.

3 1

do.

Venezuela,

2 0

free

Austria and the Austrian dominions,

5

do.

Sardinia and Southern Italy.........Foreign

British 18. 5d.

Sd.} Total

10

Countries to which the prepayment is optional.

Canada, New Brunswick, Prince Edwards I., and Nova Scotia,|

(Port and town of Halifax excepted).

Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the port and town of Halifax in

Nova Scotia,..

British West Indies, Viz., Antigua, Barbadoes, Bahainas, Deme- rara. Dominica, Essequibo, Grenada, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, St. Vincent, Tobago. Tortola, Trinidad, and the port and town of Kingston in Jamaica,.. Jamaica, (Port and town of Kingston excepted,) and Berbice, Heligoland,

Hamburg, Lubec, and the Duchy of Oldenburg, Bremen,....

Q

free

2 0

do.

2 0

do.

2 2

do.

2 0

do.

1

6

JCHET IDE

1

do.

2

free

Denmark, Russia, Prussia. Baden, Wurtemburg, and Bavaria, 28 Belgium, t..

letter rate

0

free

British 1s. 5d.

France,......

{Foreign

5d. } Total

I 10

Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick,.

1 9

Id.

Holland,

The United Kingdom via. Southampton, prepayment optional. Charges upon a letter not exceeding half an ounce,.

do.

do.

one ounce,

do. (And so on in proportion according to weight.)

free

2 0

do.

* The British rate of la. 5d. is chargeable on a letter not exceeding a half ounce in weight, and so on according to the scale for charging British rates of postage, but the foreign rate of 5d. is chargeable on a letter under one quarter ounce in weight, and an additional rate of five must be charged for each one quarter oz.

+ This rate comprises the British postage of 1s. 8d., and the Belgim postage of 48.

The latter increases by the one quarter oz. as in the case of Freuch Letters. Letters and newspapers via Marseilles, cannot be prepaid in Hongkong.

The intercolonial correspondence, by the steamers, for the present, conveyed free.

100

GENERAL RATES OF PASSAGE.

  General rates of passage. Steam communication for passengers, goods, and parcels between Hongkong and Singapore, Penang, Ceylon, Madras, and Calcutta, also via Egypt, Malta, and England, by the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers.

Description or class of

accommodation.

For ladies and gentlemen

traveling singly,

A berth in the general cabine

throughout,

For a gentlemen and his

  wife traveling together, Occupying one of the general cabins to or from Suez, & a berth each separately, in the general cabins be- tween Alexan. and Eng., or Ceylon and Calcutta. Children with their parents, Not exceeding, two years. Free (except expense of transit through Egypt and Stewards' Fees).

Above 2 and not exceeding

6 years

From Hongkong to

Binga. Pe- Cey- Ma- Cal. dras. eutta.

pore.

Sues.

nang.

lod.

Alex- Mal- Eng. andria. ta. land:

8

173

$ $ $

000 322 370

$ $

400

$

$

$

643

716

768 898

346

444 644 740

800 1286 1432 1536 1796

1

60

Above 6 and not exceeding 88

10 years

Servants of passengers,

113

1

10 12 15 53

55 62

112 130 142 224

267

285

334

165

190 306 329

375

401 466

270 310

56

280

320

42 55 79 90

97

42

55 79 90

97

157 199 157 209

211 243

221

253

117

150 217 250

272

434 482 519 606

First Deck Victualled by ship.

84 110 158 180 194

314

Victualling 56

72 105 120 130

210

European Male

Do. Female

Native Male

Do. Female..

56 72 105 120 130 210 253 72 105 120 130 210 263

8 8 **** EX 8

F 2 2288 32 2

Second class & deck passengers, Second class passengers..

Second Do.

themselves.

Payment to be made in Spanish dollars. For extra accommodation an ad- ditional sun will be charged Passengers to England desirous of remaining a month in Egypt, or at any of the ports en route, at which the Company's Steamers touch, will be allowed to proceed in the following steamers without additional payment, provided they give notice of their intention at the time of engaging their passage.

The above rates include stewards' fees, and table, wines, &c., &c., for cabin passengers, with 3 owt. of personal baggage. For servants, and 2d class passengers, provisions without wines, and 1 cwt. of baggage. Bedding, linen and all requisite furniture are provided at the Company's expense, together with the attendance of experienced male and female servants. The expense of transit through Egypt is also included in the passage money, with the ex- ception of wines, spirits, beer, soda water, hotel expenses, and extra baggage, all of which will be charged for separately by the Egyptian Transit Company.

101

Passengers will have to pay to the Egyptian Transit Company 16s, per cwt. for the conveyance through Egypt (for first class passengers) of all baggage exceeding 2 cwt., and (for children, servants, and 2d class passengers) of all exceeding 1 cwt. No package of baggage should exceed 80lb in weight. The dimensions most convenient for transporting across the desert on the breadth camels and therefore strongly recommended, are, length 2 feet 3 in., 1 foot 2 in.. depth 1 foot 2 in.

All heavy or bulky baggage must be shipped on the day previous to sail- ing. Passengers taking articles of merchandise in their baggage will incur the risk of seizure by the customs authorities in Egypt; and as the allowance of baggage is on a liberal scale, and the freight on parcels moderate, it is hoped that none will convey parcels or packages belonging to other persons, to the prejudice of the Company's interests.

The Company do not hold themselves liable for damage or loss of baggage nor for delays arising from accident, from extraordinary or unavoidable cir. cumstances, or from the employment of the vessels in H. M. Mail Service.

N.B. Passengers not proceeding after securing berths, to forfeit half pas- suge money.

Hongkong, October 20th, 1846.

HENRY GRIBBLE, H. C. S. Superintendent, Bombay and China department.

RATES OF FREIGHT.

Rates of freight for Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company's Steamers, from Hongkong, including half per cent Egyptian transit duty on cargo shipped to Malta or England.

Description

of goods.

How charged. England.

Rate to

Madrus,

Malta. Suez. Calcutta, Ceylon, Straits.

Bombay.

8

$

Measurement goods, per ton 40}

cubic feet

Measuring 1 foot & under pr. parcel Do. above 1 ft. not exce'g, 2, do.

Do.

2

n

Do.

"

3

Jewellery, Musk, and Ad valorem

valuable articles of

a similar description

Treasure,

Silk Piece Goods,.

Quicksilver, Gold Leaf, China Cash,

120

105

85.00 40.00 30.00 20.00*

5

5

8

4.00 3.00 2.50 2.00 7 5.50 4.00 3.25

2.75

3, do.

19

"9

4, do.

At the rate speci-

fied per ton.

4.75

4.00

3.00

5.00

4.50 4.00

3 3 2.50 2.25

2.00 1.00

per cent.

ggggg

do.

do.

1.50

1.25

75+

do. do.

per Measurement

as above.

}

3.00

2.50

1.50

do.

do.

3.00

2.50

1.50

do.

do.

1.00 .75

.50

do.

do.

,90

Payment to be made in Spanish Dollars.

* Goods shipped to England or Malta must be packed in non-susceptible covering as wood, tarpaulin, &c., and the value and contents declared at time of shipment.

      A reduction of half per cent allowed on Gold. The within mentioned rates to the Straits, Ceylon, and India, apply only to the period from November 1st to March 31st.

Hongkong, October 20th, 1846.

HENRY GRIBBEE, H. C. S. ~Superintendent, Bombay and China department,

C.

CHINESE GOVERNMENT.

LIST OF OFFICERS

From the

大清縉紳

Tá Tsing Tsin Shin, or

Governmental Red Book. We select only the names of the principal

persons and of those who are likely to come to the notice of for eigners.

HIS IMPERIAL MAJESTY,

道光

TAU-KWANG,

the present emperor of China, was born the 10th of the 8th moon a. d. 1781, and succeeded his father Kiáking 24th of August 1821.

The leading members of the Cabinet,

Or NUI KOH, 内閣

are

Muhchángáh, a Manchu;

Pwán Shingan, a Chinese;

1.

2.

3. 寶興

4.

5. 耆英

Kíying, a Manchu;

Pauhing a Mancha;

Choh Pingtien, a Chinese;

6. Chin Kwantsiun, a Chinese.

PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENTS,

in the eighteen Provinces of China Porper.

Tsung tuh, or

Governors-general. These are eight in number, and below we give

103

their names and the names of the provinces over which their jurisdic-

tion extends.

vinces.

Some have rule over two, and one over three pro

1. 訥爾經額 Nithkingah,

2.

李星沅

Li Singyuen,

3. 劉韻珂

4. 裕泰

5. 布彥泰

Liú Yunko,

Yütái,

Pú Yentái,

Kishen,

直隸 Chihli;

plá Liáng-Kiáng ;

閩浙 Min-Cheh;

兩湖 Liáng-hú;

陝甘 Shen.kán; 四川 Sz'chuen ;

Liang-kwáng ;

6. It te 7. 耆英

Kiying,

8. 賀長齡

Ho Chángling,

雲貴 Yun-Kwei;

巡 撫

Siun fú, or

Governors of provinces. These are fifteen in number. We give the names of the incumbents, with the names of the provinces over which

they exercise their "patroling and soothing functions," as his inajes-

ty's ministers, and shepherds, or fathers and mothers of the people.

1. 陸建瀛 Luh kienying,

2.王植 Wang Chih,

3. 吳文鎔 wú Wanyung,

4. 梁寶常 Liáng Paucháng,

5. 徐繼畬 Sü Kiyii,

趙炳

6. Chau Pingyen,

7. 陸費瑔 Luh Fitsiuen,

8. 鄂順安 Ngoh Shunngán,

9. 崇恩 Tsungngan,

10. 王兆琛 Wáng Chauchin,

11.

12.

13.

12.11

Yáng l′tsang,

Su Kwángtsin,

Ching Tsuchin,

14. 程矞采 Ching Yubtsái,

15. Kiú Yungtsien,

江蘇 Kiángsú;

安徽Ngànhwui;

江西Kiángs ;

Chehkiáng ;

Fuhkien;

湖北 Hûpeh;

湖南 Hûnán;

河南 Honán;

山東 Shántung;

Hi Shánsí; 陝西 Shens ;

廣東 Kwángtung;

廣西 Kwangsi; 雲南 Yunnáni

貴州 Kweichau.

104

PRINCIPAL OFFICERS AT CANTON,

1. 耆英 Kiying,

  Governor-general of the two provinces of Kwángtung and Kwángsí, and imperial commissioner charged with the management of foreign affairs at the five ports, Canton, Amoy, Fuchau, Ningpo, and Sháng. hái. Salary, as governor, 15.000 taels per annum.

2. 1↑, Sü Kưángtsin.

Governor of the province of Kwangtung.

3.

Cháng Tsingyun.

  Commander-in-chief of the military forces, and is called in Chinese luh lú tí-tuh.

4. F, Lái Ngantsioh,

Admiral Commander-in-chief of the naval forces, and is called in Chinese shui sz' tí-tub.

5., Muh Tehngan.

General of the Munchu garrison, and commander of the troops of the eight standards; he is called in Chinese tsiáng kinn.

6.

Yeh Mingchin.

Commissioner of finance, and superintendent of the territorial de- partment, or púching sz'.

7.

J, Li Chậngyuh.

Commissioner of justice, or ngánch'áh sz'.

8., Yang Pei.

Commissary general, or liángtáu.

9. đôi khi, Chau Chingling,

Commissioner for salt, or yenyunsz'.

10., Ts inen King.

Literary chancellor, superintendent of education, called the hioh tái.

11., Ki Pan.

Commissioner of customs, or the "Grand hoppo,'

105

12. Đ, Yih Táng.

Prefect of Canton, or chífú of Kwángchau fú. This officer has some- times been called the mayor of Canton, and his functions correspond very nearly to those of that officer in European cities.

13., King Yin.

Commander of the troops and armed police of Canton city. He is called the kwánghieh.

14., Chang Kítsau.

     Magistrate of the district of Nánhái. In the local dialect he is called the námhoi. He is the chief magistrate of the district of Nánhái (or Námhoi) which comprises the western division of the city of Canton and the surrounding country westward including the "Fáti," or Flower Gardens, and the town of Fuhshán, or Hills of Budha.

15. Là h Tiêu, Lá Yenfun.

     Magistrate of the district of Pwányü, which comprises the eastern part of Canton city, and the adjacent country as far as Whampoa.

16., Chin Ichí.

Sub-magistrate under the Nánhái, and the first or lowest magistrate accessible to foreigners residing at the provincial city.

17., Luh Sunting.

     Magistrate of the district of Hiángshán: his residence is a few miles north from Macao, which is under his jurisdiction.

18. 吉泰,Kih Tűi.

     Assistant magistrate, or sub-prefect, to the prefect of Canton. He resides at Caza Branca, near Macao, and acts there as the deputy for his superior the prefect of Canton.

19. 3 đo, Chúng Yi.

Sub-magistrate of Hiángshán. He resides in Macao, and acts as an assistant for his superior at Hiángshán.

GOVERNMENT OF HONGKONG.

Governor, Commander in Chief|

and Vice-Admiral

His Excellency Sir John Franci

Davis, Baronet.

Lieutenant-Governor. The Hon. Major General, George

D'Aguilar, C. B.

(Acting) Chief Justice. The Hon. C. M. Campbell, Esq. Attorney General. absent The Hon. Paul Ivy Sterling Esq. Colonial Secretary and Auditor| General.

The Hon. Major William Caine.

Colonial Chaplain.

The Rev. Vincent John Stanton.

Aid-de-camp to H. E. the

Governor

Audit and Council Office. W. Morgan, Clerk.

Land Office.

Charles St. George Cleverly, Esq.

Surveyor General, John Pope, Clerk of Works, &c. J. C. Power, Book-keeper. G. E. Harrison, Clerk. Keoketch, Chinese do William Bowden Insp. of Roads Antonio Mattheus, Overseer of

Convicts.

W. Pincaca, Sexton.

Supreme Court.

N. d' E. Parker Esq.

(acting) Criminal Crown Pro-

secutor.

R. D. Cay, Registrar.

Captain Sargent, H. M. 18th R. I. F. Smith, Deputy Registrar.

Executive Council.

H. E. the Governor.

The Hon. the Licut.-Governor.

The Hon. the Colonial Secretary.

W. Alexander, Clerk of Court.

|G. A. Trotter, Clerk of C. J.

John Brooksbank, Usher.

Police Magistrate's Office.

The Hon, the Secretary to H. M. C. B. Hillier, Chief Magistrate.

Plenipotentiary.

Legislative Council.

H. E. the Governor.

The Hon, the Lieut-Governor, The Hon. the Chief Justice.

Colonial Office.

L. d'Almada e Castro, Chief Clerk. Joze d'Almada e Castro 2nd do. H. J. Hance,

3rd do.

A. Granpré,

4th do.

Treasury Office. W. T. Mercer Esq. Colonial Trea-

surer.

J. G. Comelate, Chief Clerk. Robert Reinacher, 2nd do. W. H. Mi'es,

3rd do.

C. G. Io'dforth, Asst. Magistrate. James Collins 1st Clerk.

James Collins, Gaoler.

Marine Magistrate's Office.

Lieut. W. Pedder, R. N.

W. H. Fittock, Clerk.

Harbor Master's Office. Lieut. W. Pedder, R. Ñ., Harbor

Master.

E. R. Michell, Clerk. Ibrahim, Interpreter.

Sheriff's Office.

C. G. Holdforth,

Registrar General's Office. A. L. Inglis, Registrar general, (J. M. Marques, Interpreter.

107

James Stevenson, Clerk.

[W. H. Marsh, Chief Clerk.

Police Rate Assessment Offices. J. B. dos Remedios,

Joint Asses-

Charles May,

G. E. Harrisson,

sors and Collectors.

Colonial Surgeon.

J. G. Morrison, Esq.

Post Office.

Coroner.

Police Office.

24 do.

Charles May, Superintendent. T. Smithers, Inspector.

Justices of the Peace.

The Hon. A. R. Johnston, Esq. J. F. Edger, Esq.

R. H. Crakanthorp, (Acting) Post A. Fletcher, Esq. (absent)

Master.

N. D' E. Parker, Esq

Donald Matheson, Esq.

W. T. Mercer, Esq.

HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SuperintendenCY AND CONSULAR

ESTABLISHMENTS IN CHINA.

At Hongkong.

His Excellency Sir John Francis

Davis, Baronet.

The Hon. A. R. Johnston, The Rev. Charles Gutzlaff, T. Wade Esq.

Mr. William Connor, Mr. C. T. Watkins.

     F. C. Macgregor, E-q. Adam W. Elinslie, Esq. T. T. Meadows, Esq. Mr. E. F. Giles, Mr. Oakley, Alexander Bird, Esq.

T. H. Layton, Esq. W. R. Gingell, Esq. Mr. F. L. Hertslet,

Mr. C. A Winchester,

R. B. Jackson, Esq. M. C. Morrison, Esq. Mr. J. T. Walker, Mr. W. S. Meredith,

G. G. Sullivan, Esq. C. A. Sinclair, Esq. Mr. P. Hague, Mr. F. Parish,

Her Britannic Majesty's Pleni- potentiary and Chief Super- intendent of Trade.

Secretary and Registrar.

Chinese Secretary.

Assistant Chinese Secretary.

Second Assistant.

Third ditto.

At Canton

Consul. Vice-Consul. Interpreter.

Senior Assistant.

Junior ditto.

Consular Agent, Whampoa.

At Amoy.

{

Consul. Interpreter.

Senior Assistant.

Junior Asssistant and Medical

Attendant.

At Fulchau fi.

Consul.

Interpreter.

Senior Assistant.

Junior ditto.

At Ningpo.

Acting Consul.

Interpreter.

Senior Assistant-

Junior dillo.

 R. Alcock, Esq. D. B. Robertson, Esq. W. H. Medhurst, Esq. H. S. Parkes, Esq.

Mr. F. H. Hale,

Mr. F. Harvey,

108

At Shánghái.

Consul.

Vice-Consul.

Interpreter. (absent.)

Acting Interpreter.

Senior Assistant and Medical

Attendant.

Second Assistant. Third ditto.

U. S. A. LEGATION.

Mr. F. Roberston,

Rev. Peter Parker, M. D.

SWEDISH

HON: C. F. Liljevalch,

Chevalier l'ordre de Wasa.

{

FOREIGN

Paul S. Forbes, Esq. Gideon Nye junior, Esq. Clement D. Nye, Esq. W. W. Parkin, Esq. F. T. Bush, Esq. Henry G. Wolcott, Esq. D. Jardine, Esq.

Ch. Lefebré de Bécour, Esq. M. J. Senn Van Basel, Esq. Alexander Calder, Esq. Ricard de Carlowitz, Esq.

Chargé d'affaires.

LEGATION.

Minister Plenipotentiary, &c.

CONSULS.

U. S. A. Consul Canton. S Consul for the Republic of Chili

S. A. (absent).

(acting Consul for same) Can. Consul for the Republic of Peru.

S. A. Canton.

U. S. A. Consul, Hongkong. U. S. A. Consul, Shanghái. Danish Consul, Canton. Consul of the first class, acting

as French Consul Canton. Netherlands Consul, Cantón. Acting Danish Consul, Shanghái. Consul for Prussia and Saxony,

Canton.

PROTUGUESE GOVERNMENT IN MACAO.

H. E. João M. Ferreira do Amaral, Joaquim A. de Moraes Carneiro,

Bernardo de Araujo Roza.

D. Geronimo Pereira de Matta,

Governor. Judge.

Act. Commandant, Bishop.

109

INSURANCE OFFICES IN CHINA.

Offices.

Limits.

Agents.

Calcutta Insurance Office,....

$40,000

Asiatic Marine Insurance Office..

50,000

Macvicar & Co.

Bombay Commercial Insur. Society.

45,000

Imperial Fire Insur. Office London.

Canton Insurance Office.......

100,000

Bombay Insurance Society.

60,000

Bengal Insurance Society.

60,000

Reliance Marine Insurance Office..

30,000

Jardine, Matheson & Co.

Hope Insurance Company..

25,000

Alliance Fire Assurance Company of

London...........first class risk

second do,

£10,000

8,000

India Insurance Company of Calcutta India and China Marine Insurance

$45,000

Dirom, Gray & Co.

Gilman & Co.

Office of Calcutta.

Sun Insurance Office of Calcutta.. Bombay Royal Exchange Insurance

Company

Western India Insurance Society... Amicable Insurance Office of Calcutta Phoenix Marine Insurance Company Union Insurance Society of Canton Tropic Insurance Company..

D.&M. Rustomjee & Co.

30,000

Murrow & Co.

40 000

75,000

50,000

Calcutta Insurance Company.

50,000

Dent & Co.

Bombay Insurance Company.

40,000

Forbes & Co.'s C. Insur. Fund..

20,000

Universal Marine Insur. of Calcutta.

25,000

Wetmore & Cc.

Alliance Insurance Company of Cal-

cutta....

Russell & Co.

Oriental Insur. Company of Calcutta.

Atlas Insurance Office of Calcutta..

75,000

Bell & Co.

London Assurance House...

Dent, Beale & Co.

Hindostan Insurance Society.

Equitable Insurance Society.

Agabeg & Co.

Lindsay & Co.

Imperial Marine Insurance Co. of

Bombay.

}

Augustine Heard & Co.

110

MORRISON EDUCATION SOCIETY.

Office-bearers for the year ending September 1848.

H. E. Sir John F. Davis, bart, &c., &c., Patron.

Rev. E. C. Bridgman, D. D. President.

A Campbell, Esq. D. Matheson, Esq. Colonel Phillpotts. H. P. Burn, Esq. C. B. Hillier, Esq. J. Stewart, Esq. J. Dent, Esq. W. H. Morss, Esq.

Vice-presidents.

Treasurer.

Corresponding Secretary. Recording Secretary.

} Auditors.

A. H. Balfour, Esq, surg.

W. A. Harland, Esq.

Rev. S. W. Steedman.

Examining Cammittee.

The following are the Minutes of its last general meeting, held in Hongkong, Sep. 1847.

   THE NINTH ANNUAL Meeting of the MEMBERS and FRIENDS of the MOR- RISON EDUCATION SOCIETY was held at 7 P. M. on the 25th of October,

1817.

   Present, Rev. Messrs. Stanton, Dean, and Cleland, Colonel Phillpotts, Captain Burton, Lieutenant Tod, Messrs. D. Matheson, Mackean, Strachan, Hillier, Scrymgeour, Framjee, Holdforth, Crakanthorp, Inglis Shortrede, Bird, Balfour, Dill, Marsh, Tozer, Mathews, Drinker, Meigs, Miles, Went- worth, and others.

   The President and Vice-President being both absent, the Treasurer, D. Matheson, Esq., took the chair. After a few remarks by the Chairman, the Reports of the Trustees, Mr. Macy, and the Treasurer were read to the Meeting; and the following resolutions were passed unanimously :-

1. Proposed by the Rev. Mr. Dean, and seconded by R. Strachan, Esq.,- That the Reports just read be adopted and printed under the direction of the proper Officers.

2. Proposed by Dr. Balfour, and seconded by A. Shortrede, Esq.,-That the number of Vice-Presidents be, as a provisional measure, increased from one to three.

   Proposed by Dr. Dill, and seconded by A. L. Inglis, Esq.,―That this Meet- ing is satisfied of the beneficial effects that resulted during the year before last from the services of an Examining Committee; and they therefore resolve to continue this measure and adopt it as a standing rule of the Society-the Examining Committee of three to be appointed annually in the saine manner as the other Officers of the Society.

4. Proposed by the Rev. Mr. Stanton, and seconded by T. Mackean, Esq.,- That the thanks of the Society be accorded to Mr. Macy for the satisfactory manner in which he has discharged his duties during the absence of Mr. Brown.

The Society then proceeded to the election of Officers, and at the suggestion of the Chairman the same course was adopted as at the last Meeting-of elect- ing them by a show of hands, subject to the appeal of any Member present who should prefer a ballot. The following gentlemen were then unanimously

[11

elected :-Patron, H. E Sir J. F. Davis, Bart; President - Rev. E. C. Bridg. zan, D. D.; Vice-Presidents, A. Campbell, Esq., D. Matheson, Esq., Colonel Phillpotts; Treasurer, 11. P. Burn, Esq; Corresponding Secretary, C. B. Hillier, Esq.; Record ng Secretary, J. Stewart, Esq.; Auditors J. Dent, Esq., W, H. Morss, Esq; Examining Committee, A. II. Balfour Esq., Surgeon, W. A. Harland, M. D., Rev. S. W. Steedman.

A vote of thanks having been accorded to Mr. Matheson for his conduct in the Chair, the Meeting adjourned to attend an Examination of the pupils which immediately followed.

CHRISTIAN MISSONS IN CHINA.

      The Roman Catholics have missions in nearly all the provinces : but we have not the means of giving the exact number of those con- nected with them; as an approximation to the truth, it may be stated, that they have (See Chi. Rep. June, 1846.)

12 Bishops;

8 Coadjutors;

60 European priests; 9) Native priests;

350,000 Baptized members.

      The Protestant Missions are comparatively of recent origin and of very limited extent, as the subjoined statements will show they have been undertaken by the following societies.

1. The London Missionary Society;

2.

Netherlands Missionary Society;

3. The Rhenish Missionary Society;

4.

5.

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions ; The American Baptist Board of Foreign Mission ;

6. The American Episcopal Board of Foreign Missions;

7. The London Church Missionary Society;

8. The American Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions;

The English General Baptist Missionary Society. 10. The American Methodist Episcopal Board of Missions.

9.

A list of the Protestant Missionaries to the Chinese.

Names;

       Rev. Robert Morrison, Þ. v. Rev. William Milne, D. D. Rev. W. H. Medhurst, ". D.

Entered; Retired; Died;

1807

Sovietice;

Stations.

1834

1813

1821

London mis soc london mis soc

Canton.

Malacca.

1817

london mis soc

Shanghai.

Rev. John Slater,

1-17 1823

london mis soc

Batavia.

Rev. John Ince,

1818

1825 lond n mis soc

Perang.

Rev. Samuel Milton,

1818 1825

london mis soc

Singapore.

Rev. Robert Fleming,

1~20 1823

london mis soc

Malacca.

Rev. James Humphreys,

1822 1830

london mis soc

Malacca.

Rev. David Colhe,

1-22

1828 london mis soc

Malacca.

Rev. Samuel Kidd,

Kev. John Smith,

Rev Jacob Tomlin,

1824 1832

london mis soc

Malacca.

1-26 1829

london mis soc

Malacca.

1826 1836

london mis soc

Rev. Samuel Dyer, Rev. Charles Gützlaff,

1827

1827 1835

1843 london mis soc

Neth mis soc

Singapore.

Penang. Chris

Rev. E. C. Bridgman, D. D.

1829

Rev. David Abeel,

1830

Rev. Herman Rottger,

1832

Rev. John Evans,

1833

Rev. Ira. Tracy, Mr. S. W. Williams,

1833 1846

a b c f mis

1833

a b c f mis

Rev. Stephen Johnson,

1833

a b c f inis

Rev. Samuel Munson,

1833

1834

a b c f mis

Rev. Peter Parker, M. D.

1834

a b c f mis

Rev. William Dean,

1834

a b c f mis

Rev. Edwin Stevens,

1835

1837

a b c f mis

112

A b c f mis a b c f mis Rhen mis soc london mis SOC

Canton. A moy. Rhio. Malacca. Singapore. Canton. Fuhchau India Archi. Canton. Hongkong. Canton.

Rev. Henry Lockwood,

1835 1838

a e bf mis

Batavia.

Rev. F. R. Hanson,

1835 1837

a cbf mis

Batavia.

Rev. Evan Davies,

I835 1839

london mis soc

Penang.

Rev. Samuel Wolfe,

1835

1837 london mis soc

Singapore.

Rev. William Young,

1835

london mis soc

Amoy.

Rev. J. L. Shuck,

1836

a b b f mis

Canton.

Rev. Alanson Reed,

1836

1839

a b b f mis

Rep. I. J. Roberts,

1836

Rey. J. T. Dickinson,

1837 1840

Ret. M. B. Hope, M. D.

1837 1838

a b c f mis

Rev. Stephen Tracy, M. D.

1837 1839.

a b c f mis

Rev Elihu Doty,

1837

a b c f mis

Rev. Elbert Nevius,

1837 1843

a b c f mis

Rt. Rev. Bp. W. J. Boone, D. D. 1837

a e bf mis

Rev. Alexander S'ronach,

Mr. E. B Squire,

Rev. Dver Ball, M D.

1838

1838 1840

1838

a b c f mis

Rev. George W. Wood,

1:38 1840

a b c f mis

Rev. Williato J. Pohlman,

1:33

a b c f mis

a b b f mis a b c f mis

london mis soc church mis soe

Bangkok. Canton, Singapore. Singapore. Siam. Amoy. Borneo. Shanghai Amoy. Macao.

Canton. Singapore. Amoy.

William Lockhart, M. R. C. S.

1833

london mis soc

Shanghai.

Rev. Robert W.Orr,

183 1841

ame prcsb bd

Singapore.

Rev. John A. Mitchell, ·

1838

1838

ame presb bd

Singapore.

Rev..S. R. Brown.

1839

mor ed society

Hongkong.

Rev. Josiah T. Goddard,

1839

a b b finis

Bangkok.

Rev. Nathan S. Benham,

18 19

1840

a b c f mis

Bangkok.

Rev. Lyınan B. Pect,

1839

a b c f mis

William Diver, M. D.

1839

1841

Rev. James Legge, D. D.

1839

Rev. William C. Milne, Benjamin Hobson, m. d.

1839

1839

a b c f mis london mis soc london mis soc

london mis soc

   Rev. Thomas L. McBryde, James Hepburn, M. D.

1840 1813

ame presb bd

1841 7545

ame presb bd

Canton. Macao. Hongkong. Shanghai.

Hongkong. Amoy. Amoy.

Rev. W. M. Lowric,

1842

1847

ame presb bd

Ningpo.

W. H. Cumming, M. D.

1842

Amoy,

Daniel J. Macgowan, M. D,

1843

Rev. James G. Bridgman,

1844

Mr. Richard Colc,

1844 1847

D. B. M'Cartec, M. D.

1844

Rev. R. Q. Way,

1814

Rev. T. T. Devan M. D.

1844 / 54

Rev. W. Gillespie,

1844

Rev. John Lloyd,

18441

a b bf mis a b c f mis ame presb bd ame presb bd ame presb bd

..a b b f mis

london mis soc ame presb bd

Ningpo. Canton. Hongkong.

Ningpo. Ningpo. Hongkong. Hongkong.

Amoy.

Rev. A. P Happer, M. D.

1844

amo presb bd

Canton,

Rev. M. S. Culbertson,

1714

ame presh bd

Ningpo.

Rev. A. W. Loomis,

1844

amc presb bd

Ningpo.

Rev. George Smith,

1814 1846

Rev. Thomas M'Clatebic,

1844

church mis soc church mis soc

Hongkong.

Shanghai.

Rev. H. W. Woods,

1845 1846

a cbf mis

Shanghai,

Rev. R. Graham,

IS15 1847

a cbf mis

Shanghai.

Rev. Edward W. Svle.

1845

Rev. Hugh A. Brown

1845

103

a cbf mis

sme presb hd

Shanghai, Amoy,

Rev. Thoinas H, Hudson,

1845

eng gen b m s

Ningpo,

Rev. William Jarrom,

1845

eng gen b in s

Ningno,

Mr. S. W. Bonney,

1845

a b c f mis

Rev. E. N. Jencks,

1846 184

abbf mis

Rev. S. C. Clopton,

1816

Rev. George Pearcy,

1846

Rev. John Cleland,

* 1840

Rev. B Southwell,

1817

a b b f mis a b b f mis lon mis soc lon mis soc

Canton, Bangkok, Canton, Canton Hongkong, Shanghai,

Shangha

Rev. W. Muirhead,

1847

lon mis soc

Shanghai,

Mr. A. Wylie,

1847

lon mis soc

Shanghai,

Rev. P. D. Spalding,

1847

Rev. T. W. Tobey,

1847-1848

a e bf mis

Shanghai,

a b b f mis

Shanghai,

Rev. M. T. Yates,

1847

a b b f mis

Shanghai,

Rev. F. C. Johnson,

1847

a b b f mis

Rev. J. V. N. Talmage,

1847

a b c f mis

Rev. M. C White,

1847

Rev J. D. Collins,

1847

Dr Heirschberg,

1847

om bf mis amb f mis lon mis soc

Rev.

Lord.

1847

abb f mis

Rev.

Rev.

Carpenter, Wardner,

1847

1847

#

**

74

bdel S. Baldwin. 1848

Seneca bummings.

Non Richard

Dr. J. Sapton Jamro

Miss Pohlman.

"L

abb f mis a b b f mis

Canton, Amoy. Fuhchau, Fulchau, Hongkong, Hongkong, Shanghai, Shanghai,

a.b.c.fm Tuhchan

Shanghai

Hans Fallnden Smith Schrender - Snway

G

L. Loomis 1848

Whan

17th Lobscheid - 1848. Rhamish Sor4 - H. K

"

n-

Rev. Gilfillan

Faylor "A South " Metht. Jenkins the Genacher

"

"

Hamburg Leichlan

"

"

She

COMMERCIAL HOUSES, &c.

WITH NAMES OF PARTNERS, ASSISTANTS, &C.

Adnams, J., Hongkong.

Aga Mirza Boozrug,

Aga Mohomed.

Agabeg, & Co., C.

1

Agabeg

A. L. Agabeg.

Ardaseer Furd"›njee.

Agassiz, Arthur.

Ammerodcen & Shik Davood.

Angrodeen Abdullatiff,

Shark Dawood Shikumed.

Jamosjee Rustomjee Havuldar, Framjee Burjorjee, Nujoodeen Shojautally.

Andergon, D., Hongkong

Joseph Wise.

W. Hutchinson, Shángh. W C. Farquhar.

Edward Burton.

Bovet, Brothers & Co.,

Louis Bovet.

Fritz Bovet.

Bowra, Humphrays & Co., Hongkong,

C. W. Bowra.

Alfred Humphreys.

W. Bowra. "

drd

F. Thompson.

|B1hanging. I

Buckler, iam

Bacton, C., rampous Bull, Isaac M.

Basingkuh, P., Ha

Balfour, A. H.

Hongkong.

Birma D. J..

Barnet, Georg

Burd, Lange &

William F.Robinson.

Hygkon

William Barnet.

H. Wiltshire.

Bell & Co.

Within Bell, Bubbles

Sir G. Larpent,

11

Alfred Wilkinson. Canton.

J. Mackrill Smith,

;

Birley, F. B.

""

T. Dale, Richard, Gibbs. Francis Wilkinson

Marciano da Silva.

Blenkin, Rawson & Co. Hon. Can. * T. S. Rawson, England.

William Blenkin,

.99

Arthur J. Empson, England, Samuel Rawson, Alexander F. Croom, h

C. Empson, Shinghái, William Kay,

Fraser Sinclair, h

19

Boustead & Co. Canton and Shingh'ải,

Edward Boustead

Benjamin Butler, Manila. Adam Sykes, Singapore. Gustav C Schwabe, Liverpool.

Marten Wilhelmy.

John Burd.

D. L. Proctor, jr.

Burjorjee Sorabjee. Bush & Co, Hongkong. F. T. Bush.

Rofino Rangel.

HH. Abercrombie. Miguel de Souza, jr.

Caesar, C. A., Canton. Carlowitz, Harkort & Co. Richard Carlowitz. Bernhard Harkort.

Chalmers & Co., Canton.

Patrick Chatmers.

James Dickson Park, Canton British Chamber of Commerce W. H. Wardley, act. secretary. China Mail, Newsṛaper, Hongkong,

Andrew Shortrede, Editor,

Andrew Dickson. Francisco Barradas, Jo è da Silva, Manoel Roza Braga, ** João Garçon,

Athanazio de Fonceca, Vicente Barradas,

Belabkitouse, Hongkong.

        Francis Spring, secretary. Compton & Co., C. S.,

Charles S. Compton.

Charles Sanders. A. E. H. Campbell.

Cowosjee Palunjee.

115

Cooverjee Bomanjee. Cowasjee Framjee. Cowasjee Sapoorjee Langrana.

Cowasjee Sapoorjee Langrana. Pestonjee Byramjee Colah. Framjee Sapoorjee Lungrana. Pestonjee Jemsetjee Motiwalla Rustomjee Pestonjee Motiwalla. Dossabhoy Hormusjee. Shingh.|| Framjee Hormusjee. Burjorjce Pestonjee. Ruttunjee Framjee Vatcha. Dadabhoy Jemsetjec.

 Ruttonjer Dossabhoy Modie. Framjee Hormusjce, Merwanjee Eduljee,

Hormusjee Jamasjee Nauhders."

Cursetjee Pestonjee Cauna.

Rustomjee Ruttonjee, Dhunjeebhoy Ruttonjee,

Dadabhoy Burjorjee.

Rustomjee Burjorjee.

Sorabjee Byramjee Colah.

Dallas & Co., Canton.

William Dallas, Englang,

George Coles,

Stephen Ponder.

John Butt.

"

Dadabhoy Nusserwanjee Mody & Co.

Dadabhoy Hormusjee Camajec,

Muncherjee Hor. Camalee, Nusserwanjee Bomanjce Mody Muncher'ce Nusserwanjce, Dhunjeebhoy Hormurjee H.

David Sassoon Sons & Co,

Abdalah David Sassoon, Eliaoo David Sassoon.

Jebenion Framjee Buxey Isaac Ruban, Shángh Benjamin Eliah. Solomon David. Jacob Ruben. Muncherjee Pestonjee.

Dearie, Calvert, & Co.

Robert Enlinton. England. Charles Dearic

Hugh McEwen, Ma chester. R. R. Culvert

HC. Read,

RP. Thorburn, J. L Maclean, Quentiliano da Silva

Dehon, Thōmas M. J.

Dent & Co, Hongkong and Canton.

Lancelot Dent, Europe. Walkinson Dent, Hongkong. Archibald Campbell, John Dent. c Charles J. Braine. Edward Pereira. h.

Henry Dickinson. h M. W. Pitcher,

G. H. Schumacher. A James Bowman, h J. C. Smith, Sk'nghải, D. Johnson. c

Francis C. Chomley, h James Trabshaw. Á Joaquim P. Caldas. A Antonio Gonsolves, A

Dent, Beale & Co., Shinghii. Lancelot Dent, Europe. Thomas Chay Beale.

John Bowman.

Dorabjee Pestonjee Patell. Pallanjee Dorabjec,

Dossabhoy & Co., P. & D.

Dhunjeebhoy Dossabhoy, Nowrojee Cursetjer, Dadabhoy Sorabjee,

Dirom, Gray & Co., Canton,Shángkái

R. Dirom England.

W. F. Gray,

W. W. Dale

19

W. F Hunter, Bombay.

T. F. Gray,

"

D. Potter, Shinghái,

C. Ryder.

J. Hodgson.

Alexander Gray,

D. W. Mackenzie,

D D. Lewin,

E. A Pereira,

D. Sillar, Shángk.íi,

G Vinson.

99

Drinker & Heyl, Hongkong.

W. Drinker. W. S. Heyl. Duddell, George, Hongkong, Dunjeebhoy Framjec Cama.

Shapoorjee Sorabjee. Durran, Jr., J. A., Marno,

Adhemar Darran. Duns, Rawle & Co., Shanghai. Alexander Calder.

¡Eduljec Framjee Sons & Co.

Framjee Eduljee. Bomanjee Eduljee.

Emery & Fraser, Hongkong,

W Emery,

N. Fraser,

G. Perkins,

A. Chapman,

1

Farncomb, E., Hongkong, Notary pub-

   lic, attorney, etc. Fischer & Co., Maximilian,

James Whitall.

Fletcher & Co., Hongkong,

Angus Fletcher, England, Duncan Fletcher,

George Findlay,

Antonio M. Cortella,

A. Campbell,

Friend of China, Newspaper, Hong.

John Carr, Editor,

5

Luiz M. de Azevedo,

Joze Sanchez,

Antonio de Vidigal,

Antonio de Fonceca,

Gibb, Livingston & Co. Canton, Hon

T. A. Gibb. absent,

W. P. Livingston, absent,

J. Gibbons Livingston, absent, John Skinner,

Thomas Jones, Hongkong,

John Gibb.

William Ellis.

James M. Wright,

Richard Aspinall, jr. s

George Gibb,

Candido J. Ozorio,

Lino de Almeida, h

Gilbert, J., surgeon, Hongkong,

116

Gilman & Co., Canton and Hongkong

R. J. Gilman,

Levin Joseph,

W. H. Vacher,

J. Williams,

A. J. Young,

George de St. Croix,

Aug. Hudson, Hongkong A. A. da Rocha,

Gilman, Bowman & Ca., Shanghai,

R. J. Gilman, Canton, Abram Bowman,

R. J. Wildman,

G. F. Smith,

Griswold, John N. Alsop, absent,

Heard & Co., Augustine Canton,

Augustine Heard, Boston, George B. Dixwell.

John Heard.

Joseph L. Roberts.

John G. Ward.

J. H. Everett,

W. Gilbert, C. G. Clark, A. Heard, jr.

Domingos P. Marques. C Fearon, Shánghái, C. H. Brinley, E Deacen.

Heejeebhoy Ardaseer & Co,

"1

Heejeebhoy Hormusjee. Ardaseer Rustomjee. Cursetjee Hosenjee. Eduljee Cursetjee.

Heerjeebhoy Hormusjee,

Ardaseer Pestoujee, absent, Cursetjee Hosunjee,

Eduljee Cursetjee,

Hegan & Co., Hongkong and Canton.

Joshph Hegan, England. William Gillman,

Augustus Carter.

""

William Ward Brown.

Ferdinand Blass.

Samuel Hill.

O, E. Muller. Joze de Britto.

Henderson, Watson & Co.

C. P. Henderson, Manchester. J. P. Watson, absent

S. Mackenzie.

S. Maitland,

A. Thorne.

Holgate, H., surgeon, Whampoa. Holliday, Wise & Co., Hongk and C.

R. J. Farbridge, England. John Holliday. John Wise.

Roger Jackson. .......

J. Shepard.

Charles E. Bateson. S. K. Brabner. Williain Pyke. h

Thomas Pyke. s Charles Waters.

Holmes. John, Hongkong.

Holmes & Bigham, Hongkong,

Hongkong Register, newspaper Hong.

John Cairns. Editor,

Antonio H. Carvalho, Joze H. Carvalho, Cipriano do Rozario,

Hongkong Dispensary,

Peer Young, K. M. Kennedy,

James H. Young,

Jozina da Roza.

Florencio de Souza,

Hormusjee Franjec,

Rustomjee Byramjee,

Cursetjee Rustomjee Daver,

Dhunjeebboy Framjee,

Shapoorjee Sorabjee,

Pestonjee Dinshaw,

Hormusjee, B. & N.

Burorjee Hormojee,

Charles Hughesdon,

Hunt, T.,

Whampoa.

Hughesdon & Co..

Henry Rutter,

James Crooke & Massey, Canton.

James Crooke,

George Massey, Calcutta. John Y. Cuvillier,

William K Snodgrass,

Jamieson, How & Co., Hon and C.

J. F. Edger,

  G. Jamieson, Glasgow. John Gifford, Calcutta.

Alexander Walker, Richard Rothwell, R. B Sherard, k

117

Jardine Matheson & Co., Hong C.

Alexander Matheson, England, Donald Matheson, Hongkong, David Jardine, Canton, Joseph Jardine, k

A. Grant Dallas, Shánghái

J. C. Bowring, h

J. B. Compton, k John Currie, k Duncan Forbes, Am y. John A. Goddard, h

James Grant,

Augustus Howell, h

William W. Maciver, h

Alex. W. McPherson,

Mcgregor, R.

Angelo Barradas, B. dos Remedios,

Mackay & Co.. Canton and Hongkong

Hugh Mackay,

Andrew Dixson, k

J. R Prattent, k C. Wilkinson,

MacKnigh', T., Hongkong, MacMurray & Co., Hongkong, Jame MacMurray,

Frederick Woods,

MacSwyney, P. C, Hongkong, barris-

ter at law,

||Macvicar & Co., Hongkong and Can.

John Macvicar, England, D L. Burn, Gilbert Smith, A Thomas D. Neave, WC. LeGeyt, k

11. H. Kennedy, Shan. Thomas S. Smith, A ↑ C. Piccope, John Fergusson, å E. Gibson. Shanghai, Joaquim de Campos, Franciseo Grandpre,

C Matheson, Shẳnghái¦¦MacEwen & Co.. Hongkong,

W. F. Matheson, A

John T Mounsey, c Joze M. d'Outeiro, h Floriano A. Rangel, k R H. Rolfe, Albino P. Silveira c C. F. Still, h

C

M. A. McLeod, c C. Wills, Shinghải,

Just, Jr. L. absent. Hongkong,

Douglass Lapraik,

Just, I... Canton,

John Muney,

Alexander Wilson, W. F. Ross,

Man & Co., James L. James L. Man, |Meadows, John A. T.

Moses, A. R. B. Moul & Co., Henry Henry Moul, John Silverlock,

Alfred Moul,

Y. J. Marrow,

W. N. Piccope,

L. E. Murrow,

Nosserwanjec Camajee & Co., P. & D. Pastonjee Nowrojec Pochowjre, Porabjec NesserwanjeeCamajee Hormusjee Nesser. Pochajee.

Munsell, J. E.

Murrow & Co.

Kennedy Macgregor & Co.

David Kennedy,

Alexander Macgregor, England,

George C. Bruce.

II. R. Hardie,

A. F. Kich,

Florencio do Rozario,

Joze J. Rocha

I. H. Linday, England,

Kenny, B, surgeon, Caston,

Nessorwanjee Byramjed Fackeerajee. Nesserwanjce Framjee,

Aspendarjee Tamoojee,

Lindsay & Co., Hongking and Capton |Noor Mahomet Dhatoobhoy,

Crawford Kerr, absent,

Walter Davidson,

W. Fryer,

R. Dundas,

T. Buxton. Cayfun,

F. Chapman,

W Hogg, s

G. F. Green,

Mulloobhoy Doonjersee, Hajeebhoy Dowood, Nonjecbhoy Hassum Goolamhusan Camall,

Nye, Parkin & Co.

Gidion Nye, jr. absent W. W. Parkin, Clement D. Nyo, T. S. II. Nye,

J. P. Van Loffelt, Timothy Durrell, Julius Kreynhagen, E C. H. Nye, Francisco A. Seabra,

Olyphant & Co.

118

N. Duus,

John Willaume, Candido Gutierres,

Joao de Jesus.

Reiss & Co.

Thomas Everard,

W. H. Morss,

R. P. Dana,

Jaines A. Bancker,

F. A. King,

W. P. Bokee,

David O. King,

Oriental Bank, Hongkong

C. J. F. Stewart, H. P. Burn,

David Scrymgeour,

Jaines MacEwen,

F. J. Augier,

Joze M. de Noronha,

Archibald Dunlop, Canton, Samuel Gray,

Francisco de Silveira, do

Oswald, & Co., Richard, Hongkong,

Richard Oswald, absent

James White, Shinghia,

Henry Lind,

Patullo, 8 E.

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navi-

gation Company, Hongkong,

J. A Olding, Agent.

Pestonjee Framjee Cama & Co.

Dossabhoy Framjee Cama,

Manackjee Nanabhoy,

Jamsetjee Rustoinjee,

Rustomjee Framjee,

Limjeebhoy Jemsetjee,

Bomanjee Muncherjee,

Sopoorjee Nowrojee,

Cainasjee Pestonjee,

Merwanjce Pest››njee,

Pestonjee & Co.. D. P. & M.

Dadabhoy Peston'ee,

Manuck ce Pestonjee,

Manuckice Cowasjee,

Pustau & Co, W., Canton & Hong.

William Pustau,

S. Delevie, h

Edmund Cramer,

H Hilekes, h

Rathbones, Worthington & Co.

William Rathbones, jr. England S. G. Rathbonez,

James Worthington,

Thomas Moncreiff, Shanghai,

F. Duval,

C. Maltby,

G Dent,

Shanghai,

W. Broughall,

""

S. B. Rawle,

Rawle, Dans, &• Co, Hongkong,

M. Sichel.

Reynvaan & Co.

H. G. I. Reynvaan,

L. Carvalho,

Henrique Hyndınan.

Rickett, John, Hongkong,

Ripley, Smith & Co.

Timothy Smith, England, Philips W. Ripley, H. H. Smith, Robert Ellice,

Ritchie. & Co. A A. A. A. Ritchie,

Henry M. Olmsted, J. Manual Mur,

Charles Platt,

Ripley & Co., Thomas, Shanghai,

Thomas Ripley, England, Charles Shaw,

J. H. Winch,

James Lomax, Hon. ‚}

Russell & Co.

Paul S. Forbes,

William H. King,

George Perking,

S. J. Hallam,

E. A. Low,

G Meredith, S. T Baldwin, C. W. Spooner, F. Reiche, Segismundo Rangel, Jayme Rangel, William P. Pierce, s R. S. Sturgis, s Jamas Crompton, s E. Cunningham, s

Rustomjee & Co., D. & M.

Dadabhoy Rustomjee, Bombay, Maneckjee Rustomjee, Culcutta Meerwanjee Jeejeebhoy, Bom. Dadabhoy Byramjee,

Jamoojee Nusserwanjee, Dadabhoy Hosunjee,

Fortunato Marqnes.

Muncherjee Eduljee,

Muncherjee Framjee,

Pestonjee Rustomjee

Merwanjee Dadabhoy.

Ardaseer Byramjee,

Ruttonjce Hormosjee Camajee & Co. P. H. Camajee, Bombay,

D. H. Camajee, R. H. Camajee,

3

Burjonjec Hormusjee. Moneckjee Cooverjee,

Sayre, Jr., John, Canton.

Scott, & Co., William, Hongkong,

William Scott, absent, Adam Scott.

Seare & Co, Benjamin, Canton,

Benjaman Seare,

Schwemann, D. W.

William Dryer,

Smith, John, Mario.

Marcellino de Souza,

Braz de Almeida,

Honorio Marcal,

Smith & Brimelow, Hongkong,

James Smith,

Jame W. Brimelow,

Joseph Thomas Glew,

119

John H. Connan h C Wilson, Shanghai, E H. Levin, k E. N. Snow,

h

W. Walkinshaw, h Charles Anderson, J. Scarth,

Mamuel V. Marques,

Van Basel, M. J. Senn,

Vander Burg Roinswinekel & Co.,

P. Tiedeman jr.

F. H. Tiedeman,

D. Vander Burg,

Vaucher, Fritz., Canton,

Victoria Dispensary, Hongkong.

Thomas Hunter,

George K. Barton,

Lauriano F. V. Riberiro,Viega, A.

Strachan, George, Hongkong,

Strachan, Robert,

Stewart, Patrick, Macao,

Sturgis, James, P. Micno,

Sword & Co., John D, Canton,

John D. Sword,

John B. Trott. absent,

Ash,

Tiers, Bourne & Co., Canton,

H. F. Bourne,

R. P. Desilver,

H. T. De Silver,

Turner & Co., Hongkong and Canton,

Thomas W. L.. Mackeau,

Patrick Dudgeon,

John Stewart s

Alexander McCulloch, s

Duncan J. Kay, h

João Roza Braga,

Watson T. Boswell, Surgeon, Macao,

Francisco Soares,

Weiss, Charles, Hongkong,

Welth & Stocker, druggists, Hong.

D. Barnard,

H. Tyndale.

Wetmore & Co., Canton,

S. Wetmore, jr. absent. William Moore,

G. H. Lamson.

Thomas Gittins, O. E. Roberts, Henry Davis, Manoel S moens, Querino Gutierres,, R. Powell Saul, Shang, William H. Gilman, Samuel P. Go dale,

"

· LIST OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS IN CHINA.

N. B. It has been found impossible to note, with perfect accuracy, the place of residence of all the foreigners in China; in the following list care has beon taken to inculde the names of all except those connected with the British army and nuty; if any have been omitted, it has been vnintentional.

Abercrombie, H. H. Abdalah David Sassoon,

Admson, J.

Adnums, J.,

Aga Mirza Boozrug, Aga Mohomed.

Agabeg, C.

Agabeg, A. L.

Brabner. S. K.

C

Baga, João Roza

Braga, Manoel Roza

h

Braine, Charles J.

c

C

с

Bridgman, Rev. Dr. E. C. and fam ș

Bridgman, Rev. James G.

Brimelow. Janie W.

Broom, Alexander F.

[Brinley, C. N.

Agassiz, Arthur

Brinley, C. H.

Albino P. Silveira

Brine, R. W.

Almeida, Braz de

m

Britto, Joze de

Alcock, R. and family

Almeida, Lino de

Aine rodeen Abdullatiff,

Anderson, Charles

Anderson, D.

Andrew Shortrede,

Ardaseer Rustomjee.

Ardaseer Byramjee,

Ardaseer Pestoujee, absent,

Ardaseer Furdonjee. Ash,

Aspendarjee Tamoojee, Aspinall, W. G.

Broughall, W.

Brown, W. W.

Brown, William Ward

Bruce. George C.

Bokee, W.

Bomanjee Eduljee.

Bomanjee Muncherjee,

с

Boone, St. Rev. W. J. and fam. ■

Bourne, H. F.

Bonstead, Edward

Bowman, John

|Bowman, James

Bowinan. A.

|Bowman, Abram

Bowra, C. W.

C

Aspinall, jr. Richard

Augier, F. J.

Azevedo, Luiz M. de

h

Badenoch, P.

Bowra, W. A.

Baldwin, S. T.

C

Bowring, J. C.

Balfour, A. H. surgeon,

Bovet, Louis

Ball, Rev. Dyer, and family,

c

Bovet, Fritz

Bancker, James A.

C

Buchanan, J. C.

Barnard, D.

Buckler, William

Barnes, D. J.

Bucton, C.

Barnet, George,

C

Bull, Isaac M.

absent

C.

Barnet, William

c

Burd, John

Barradas, Francisco

Burjorjee Hormusjee,

C

Barradas, Angelo

Burjorjee Hormojee,

C

Barradas, Vicente

Burjorjee Pestonjec.

*

Barton, George K.

Burjorjee Sorabjee.

Bates. E. W.

*

Burn. N. and family,

Bateson, Charles E.

C

Burn, H, P.

}

Beale. Thomas Chay

Benjamin Eliah.

Bilhelmy, Marten

Blass, Ferdinand

S

Burton, E.

6

C

Burton, Edward

C

Bush, F T. and family

}

C

Butt. John

12:2

Buxton. T.

Caesra, C. A.

Cairns, John

Caldas, Joaquim P.

Calder, Alexander Camasjec Pestcinjee, Campbell. A. E. Ï.

Davis, Henry

Davy, H.

[Deacon, J.

Dehon, Thomas M. J.

Delevie, S.

c

Dent, G,

c

Dent, Laucelot

ab.

Campbell, Archibald

Dent, Walkinson

ab.

Campbell, A.

Dent, John

Campos, Joaquim

de

Carlowitz, Richard

Carpenter, Rev. and family

Carr, John

Carter, Augustus

C

Carvalho, L.

C

Desilver, R. P.

Dhunjeebhoy Dossabhoy. Dhunjeebhoy Framjee Čama. Dhunjeebhoy Ruttonjee, Dhunjeebhoy Horimurjee H. Dhunjeebhoy Framjee,

c

C

C

C

Carvalho, Joze H.

h

Dickson, Andrew

Carvalho, Antonio H.

h

Dickinson, Henry

Chalmers, Patrick

c

Dixson, Andrew

Charles Hughesdon,

c

Chapman, A.

c

Chapman, F.

Chomley. Francis C.

h

Clark, Ċ. G.

c

Clark, I.

Cohen,

Compton, Charles S.

Dixwell, George B.

h

c

c

Dorabjee Pestonjee Patell. Dorabjee NesserwanjeeCamajec c Dossabhoy Framjee Cama, Dossabhoy Hormusjee.

Drinker, W.

Dryer, William

Duddell, George,

C

Compton, J. B.

Connan, John H.

Cooper, J.

Cooverjee Bomanjee.

Cortella, Antonio M.

Cowasjee Framjee.

Cowasjee Sapoorjee Langrana. e

Cowasjee Palunjee.

Cramer, Edmund

Crampton, J.

Crompton, Jamas

Croix, George de St.

Crooke, Jamies

C

C

Culbertson, Rev. M. S. and fam.

Culvert, R. R.

C

Cunningham,

E.

3

Empson, C.

Currie, John

Everard, Thomas

Cursetjee Rustomjee Daver,

C

Everett, J. H.

Cursetjee Hosunjee,

C

Farquhar, W C.

Cursetjee Hosenjee.

Cursetjee Pestonjce Cama.

c

Findlay, George

Cuvillier, John Ÿ.

Fergusson, John

Fincham, A.

Dadabhoy Byramjce

Fischer, Maximilian, and fain

*

Dadabhoy Hosunjee,

Fletcher, Angus,

h

Dadabhoy Pestonjee,

C

Fletcher, Duncan

h

Dadabhoy Sorabjee,

C

Florencio de Souza,

jh

Dadabhoy Jemsetjee.

C

Fogg, H.

Dadabhoy Hormusjee Camajee, c

{Fonceca, Antonio de

h

Dadabhoy Burjorjee.

[Fonceca, Athanazio de

h

Dale, T.

Forbes, Duncan

&

Dale, W. W.

C

Framjee Hormusjer.

Dallos, A. Grant

S

Franjce Sapoorjee Lungrana.

C

Dana, R. P.

C

Framjee Burjorjee,

t

Davidson, Walter ·

arncomb, E.,

h

Dudgeon, Patrick

Dundas, H.

8

Dunlop, Archibald

c

c

Durran, Jr., J. A.,

In

h

Durran, Adhemar

in

Durrell, Timothy

C

Duus, N.

Duval, F.

Eduljee Cursetjee.

Edger, J. F.

Eduljee Cursetjee,

Eliaoo David Sassoon.

Ellice. Robert

n Ellis, William

Emery, W.

Framjee Hormusjee, Frederick Woods, Fryer, W. Framjee Eduljee. Fraser, N.

Gibb. T. A. absent,

Gibb, John Gibb, George

Gibbs Richard

Gibson, E.

Gilbert, W. Gilbert, J. Gilman, R. J.

Gilman, William H.

123

Hubertson, G. F. Hudson, Aug. Hudson. Rev. T. H. Hume, G. knd family Humphreys, Alfred

Hunt, T. Hunter, Thomas Hutchinson, W. Hutchinson. W. Hyndman, Henrique Isaac Ruban, Jackson. Roger Jacob Ruben.

Jamsetjee Rustomjee,

Jamoojee Nusserwanjee

n

h

W

W

h

Jamosjee Rustomjee Havuldar, e Jardine, David

Jardine. Joseph

Jarroom. Rev. W. and family n

Jehenjee Framjee Buxey.

Jesus, Joao de

Gittins, Thomas

Glew, Joseph Thomas

Goodale, Samuel P.

Gonsolves. Antonio

h

Goolambusan Camall,

C

Grant Jamies

&

Gray, Alexander

C

Gray, Samuel

C

||João Garçon,

Gray, H. M. M.

Johnson D.

Graves. P. W.

8

Joseph, Levin

c

Goddard, John A.

Jozina da Roza,

Grant, James

h

Grandpre, Francisco

|Just, L.

C

Green, G. F.

Kay, Duncan J.

Kay. W.

Griswold, John N. Alsop, absent, e

Kenny, B. and family

Gutierres, Querino

c

Kennedy, David

absent

Gutierres, Candido

h

Kennedy, H. H.

h

Hajeebhoy Dowood,

C

Karr, Crawford absent,

Hale, F. H.

Kich. A. F.

c

Hallam, S. J.

King, William H.

c

King,

F. A.

Hall, G. R.

Happer, Rev. A. P. and family c

Hardie, II. R.

Hargreaves, W.

Harkort. Bernhard

Harvey, F. C.

King, David O.

Kennedy, K. M.

Kreyenhagen, Julius

Lanison. G. H.

Lapraik. Douglass

Hleard John,

Heard, jr. A.

Heerjeebhoy Hormusjee. Heerjeebhoy Hormusjee, Henry Rutter,

Hetherington,

Hey!. Drinker &

Heyl, W. S.

Hilekes, H.

Hill, Samuel

Hodgson, J.

Hogg, William

Holgate, H.

Holliday, John Holmes. John,

Hormusjee Jamasjee Nauhders. c Hormusjee Framjee,

C

Layton, F.

LeGeyt, W C.

c

Leivin, E. H.

Lewin, D. D.

Lewis, A.

Lewis, J.

|Limjeebhoy Jemsetjee,

C

Lind. Henry

Livingston, W. P. absent,

Livingston, J. Gibbons absent, c

Lockhart, William and family

Lomax, James

Low, E. A.

Lord. Rev. E. C. and family Loomis Rev. A. W. and fam Macgregor, R.

c

Mackay, Hugh

Hormusjee Neaser. Pochajee. Howell, Augustas

C

McClatchie, Rev. T. and family

McCarter, M. D.,

MacDonald, J.

D. B.

C

n

n

MacEwen, Sumes

Macgowan. D. J., м v. and fam. Mackean, Thomas W. L.

MacKenzie, K. R.

MacKenzie, C. D.

Mackenzie, D. W.

MacKnigh, T., Mackenzie, S.

  Maclean, J. L. McLeod, M. A. MacMurray, Jame McPherson, Alex. W. MacSwyney, P. C. Maciver, William W. Maitland, W. Maitland, S. Malthy, C.

Manackjee Nanabhoy, Manuckjee Pestonjee, Manuckjee Cowasjer, Maneckjee Cooverjee, Man. -James L. Mareal, Honorio Marjoribanks, Samuel Marques, Mamuel V. Marqnes. Fortunato Marques, Domingos P. Matheson, W. F. Matheson, C.

h

n

C

124

Nanjeebhoy Hassum Neave, Thomas D.

Nesserwanjce Byramjee Fackeerajee. Nesserwanjee Framjee,

Noronha, Joze M. de

Norton, W.

Nowrojee Cursetjee,

Nusserwanjee Bomanjee Mody, Nujmoodeen Shojautally. Nye, E C. H.

Nye, T. S. H. and family Nye, Clement D.

Nye, jr. Gidion absent Olding, J. A. Olmated, Henry M.

Oswald, Richard absent

Ozorio, Candido J.

Outeiro, Joze M. d'

Pallanjec Dorabjee,

Parrish, P.

Parker, Rev. P., M. D. and fam

Parkes, H. S.

Parkin, W. W.

m

Park, James Dickson

Patullo, S. E.

Paul S. Forbes, and family

Pearon, Charles

Pereira, B. A.

Pereira, Edward

Perkins, George

Pestonjee Byramjee Colah.

C

Perkins, G.

Medhurst. Rev. Dr. W. H. and fam s Pestonjee Jemsetjee Motiwalla.

Pestonjee Dinshaw,

C

C

n

C

Matheson, Donald

McCulloch, Alexander

Meadows, John A. T.

Meredith, K. and family

Meredith, G.

C

Merwanjee Eduljee,

Pestonjee Rustomjee

Pestonjee Nowrojee Pochowjee, c

Merwanjee Pest ›njee,

Merwanjee Dadabhoy.

Milne, Rev. W. C. and family

Mitchell, J.

Piccope, W. N.

Piccope, T. C.

Pierce, William P. and family

Pitcher, M. W.

Moncreiff, Thomas

Platt, Charles

Moore, William

Platt, T.

Moras, W. H.

B

Ponder, Stephen

Mounsey, John T.

Moul, Alfred

Moul, Henry

Moses, A. R. B.

Muirhead, Rev. and family

Muncherjee Nusserwanjee,

Muncherjee Hor. Camaice,

Potter, D.

Potter, W.

Prattent, J. R.

Proctor, jr. D. L. Pustau, William

Pyke. Williamn

Pyke, Thomas

Quarterman, Rev. J. W.

Muncherjee Pestonjec.

Muncherjee Eduljee,

+

R. H. Camajee,

Muncherjee Framjeo,

C

Rangel, Segismundo

Muller, Ö. E.

Mulloobhoy Doonjersee,

C

Rangel. Rofino

Muney, John

C

Munsell, J. E.

Mur, J. Manual

Murrow, Y. J.

Murrow, L. F.

C

Rangel, Jayme

Rangel, Floriano A.

Rawson, Samuel

Read, H C.

Reiche, F.

Rawle, S. B. and family

Remedios, B. dos Reynvaan, H. G. I. Ribeiro, Lauriano F. V. Richards P. F.

Ritchie, A. A.

absent

Rickett, John, and family

Ripley, Philips W.

Rirley, F. B.

Robertson, D. B.

Robertson, F.

Roberts, O. E.

Robinson. William F.

Rocha. Joze J. Rolfe, R. H. Rocha, A. A. da Ross, J. B.

Ross, W. F.

Rothwell, Richard

Rozario, Cipriano do. Rozario, Florencio do Roberts, Joseph L.

    Rustomjee Pestonjee Motiwalla. Ruttunjee Framjee Vatcha. Ruttonjee Dossabhoy Modie, Rustomjee Ruttonjee, Rustomjee Burjorjee.

Rustomjee Byramjee,

Rustomjee Framjee, Ryder, C.

Sanchez, Joze Sanders. Charles

Saul, R. Powell

Sayre, Jr., John, Scar th, J.

Schumacher. G. H. Schwemann, D. W. Scott, William absent, Scott, Adam

Scrymgeour, David Seabra, Francisco A. Seare, Benjaman and family Shaik Dawood Shaikammed. Shapoorjee Sorabjee. Shapoorjee Sorabjee, Shaw, Charles

Shaw, Charles

Shepard. J.

Sherard. R. B.

Shuch, Rev. J. L. and family Sichel, M.

Sillar, D.

Sillar, D.

Silva, Marciano da Silva, Joze da

Silva, Quentiliano da

Silveira, Francisco de Silveira, Albino P. Silver, H. T. De

Silverlock, John

Simoens, Manoel

125

Sinclair,

Fraser

|Binchir, C. A. Skinner, John Smith, J. Mackrin Smith, Gilbert Smith, Thomas §. Smith, J. C. Smith, H. H.

|Smith, G. P.

Smith, J. C.

Smith. John, Smith, James

|Snodgrass, William K.

Snow, E. N.

Soares, Francisco

|Solomon David.

[Sopoòrjee Nowrojee,

M

Sorabjee Byramjee Colah. Southwell, Rev. B. and family " Souza, Athanazio đe ¡Souza, jr. Miguel de

Souza, Marcellino de Spalding, Rev. P. 8. Spooner, C. W. Spring, Francis Stewart, J. Stewart, C. J. F. Stewart, Patrick, Still, C. F.

Strachan, George,

Strachan, Robert,

Sturgis, James, P.

Sturgis. R. S.

Sullivan, G. G. and family Sword, John D.

Syle. Rev. E. 8. and family Taylor, E.

Thorburn. R. P. Thomas Jones, Thompson, F. Thorne. A. Thorburn, W.

Toby Rev. T. W. and family Trabshaw. James

|Trott, John B. absent,

Tyndale. H.

Ullet, R. B. Umson, G.

Urmson, G.

Van Basel, M. J. Senn, Van Loffelt, J. P. Vander Burg D.

Vacher, W. H.

Vaucher, Fritz.,

Vidigal. Antonio de Viega, A.

Wade, J. and family Walker, Alexander Walkinshaw, W.

[Ward, John G.

m

h

h

m

C

Wardley, W. H.

Wardnes, Rev. N. and family Waters, Charles

Watson, J. P.

absent

Watson, T. Boswell

Waterhouse, B.

Watson, J. P.

Way, Rev. R. Q. and family

n

Webb, E.

Welch, J.

Weiss, Charles,

Wetmore, jr. S. absent.

Whitall, James,

White, James

Wildman, R. J.

Willaume, John

Wills, C.

Wilson,

Wilkinson, C.

Wilkinson, Francis

126

Wilkinson, Alfred

Wilson, Alexander

Wilson, C.

Williams, S. W. absent

Williams, J.

Wills, C. Wiltshire, H.

Winch, J. H.

Wise, Joseph

Wise, John

Winch, J. H. Woodberry, C. Worthington, James Wright, James M. Wylie, A.

Yates, Rev. M. T. and family

Young, A. J.

Young, Peter

Young, James H.

*

h

1

AN

ANGLO-CHINESE CALENDAR

FOR 1849.

CONTENTS.

Chinese Cycle of Sixty Years... Festivals and anniversaries. Chinese Astronomical Terms. Eclipses of Sun and Moon.... Chinese Chronological characters Average of thermometer, &c. ... Calendar, English, Chinese and

Parsee..

Parsee Chronology and æra..... List of Officers in the Chinese

government..

List of Officers in Canton province Grades of the Nine Ranks.. Act conferring judicial powers on ministers and consuls of U. S. A. Weights used by Chinese..... Canton Linguists' Fees. Table forerting Dollars into

Tacks

Table for converting Taels into

Dollars...

Chinese festivals and anniversaries

3 Rates of freight in steamers... 4 Rates of Postage from China. 4 Overland route viâ Trieste..

64

65

66

5 Members and Committee of British

Chamber of Commerce, Canton 67

5

7 Insurance Offices in China

Officers of Royal Sussex Lodge,

Canton...

8

20 Scale of Storage in Le-Tsune

packhouse...

69

70

138 68 8 8RKKENR. 8 388

20 List of Residents at Canton.. 40 List of Residents at Whampoa.. 76 46 Portuguese government at Macao 76 Agents and Residents at Macao. 77 48 List of Residents at Amoy.. 53 List of Residents at Shanghái... 78 55 Consular establishments in China 80

Government of Hongkong.

77

.....

81

56 List of Protestant missionaries in

China.

83

85

86

92

57 Roman Catholic Establishments 58 at Hongkong..

Steam communication overland Commercial Houses in China.

and prices of passage.......

62 List of Foreign Residents..

ERRATA. Page 3, bottom line, for fifth read fourth.

Page 5, line 6. for visible read invisible.

Page 16, the 24th day of the Chinese moon is omitted, making the comparative

calendar wrong to the end of the year ; the tabular calendar is correct.

CANTON.

PRINTED AT THE OFFICE OF THE CHINESE REPOSITORY,

No.. 16 Danish Hong.

1849.