CHINESE REPOSITORY - 1842 | Directory

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY

VOL. XI

FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1842

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THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. XI.

FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1842.

CANTON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS.

1842.

INDEX.

  ABEEL, Rev. D., at Kúlángsú. Adams, J. Quincy's letter.. Admiral Wú visits Kearny. Alphabet of the Mantchous. Amaurosis, cases of... American ships Panama and Kos-

ciusko....

Amherst's, lord, embassy. Amherst's return from Peking.. Amherst, ship sails for the coast Amoy, the capture of the city... Amoy, the defenses of... Amoy, notice of city of. A'nhwui province, topography of. Ann, brig, particulars concerning Archives of the Mantchous. Argyle's boat, the loss of the.. Argyle, the loss of reported to the

governinent.

   Arins of the Mantchous. Army, instructions for an. Army of the Chinese... Army lists in China. Army, the British in China. Attack on British ships. Attaran schooner lost... Autumnus' boat fired on. Aviary of the late T. Beale.

355

580

470

303

505 Boats ordered from the river.. 274 Bogue forts attacked.. 333 Bogue to be blockaded.. 430 Bombay schooner, notices of. 661 Books on coast, distribution of.. 131

Books of the Mantchous...

429 578 Boone, Rev. W. J., at Kúlángsú 505

83 Boone, Death of Mrs...... 85 Bourchier, captain, report..

509

156

54,114

7||British authorities in China... 148 British factory, quarrels of.. 294 British Seamen's hospital. 504 British forces, advance of.. 307||British subjects expelled Macao. 682 British subjects banished.. 433 Brown, Rev. S. R.'s report. 81 Burial ground in Macao...

Burman envoy dies at Peking...

2

191

477 462 244

545

48

24

666 64

123 431 CABINET ministers at Peking... 53 487||Cabinet, members of the..

     296 476 Calendar for the year 1842...

52 609 Callery's Systema Phoneticum.. 358 516Campbell's sergeant, narrative... 335 582 Canal, notices of the Grand.... 564 354 Cancer, extirpation of a. 183 Cannon, manufacture of new.

59 Canton at the mercy of English. 581

Canton ransomed.

          582 431||Catholic priests expelled Macao. 21 215||Challaye, adventure of A. C............... 120 59hamber of Com. regulations of. 242 326 Chandeliers of the Mantchous... 428 42Chandoo or prepared opium... 587 676hapel for foreigners.. 289||(hiji, Mantchou Tartars of. 397Chapú, capture of city of.. Canton_2Chápu, military state of... 469||t'hápú, its situation..

BANNERS of the Mantchons..... Bath, description of a Chinese.. Beule, death of Thomas... Bean curd, mode of making. Beds of the Mantchous.. Belleisle, troop ship arrives. Belligerent parties, state of..... Bentinck, brig, alias the Plover.. Bentinck's letter to gov. of Bilbaino, the Spanish brig, burnt Birth, a triplicate. Blockade established. Blockade of the Bogue. Boats for foreigners..

10 Charhar, department of. 525|| Chan Tientsioh's memorial.

252

425

342

292

16:3

443

354

522 Chekiang, topography of ........ 101,162 255|Chief supt.'s office abolished. 189,193

iv

INDEX.

....

75

Child of the Ocean, a river...... 374 Davis' qualifications for writing. 82 Chili province, the topograply of. 438 Davis writes to Palmerston.. Chinese national character... 480 Davis becomes pres. of factory.. Chinese lang, helps to study... 38Decorations of the Mantchous.. 430 Chinese put Canton in defense.. 582 Defenses about Canton..

                                          182 Chinese schools at Penang. 176 Demands of the plenipotentiary. 512 Chinese Repository begun.

               9 Dent, Mr. Lancelot, donation... 544 Chinese thieves at Amoy,. 150 Dent, Mr. Lancelot, demanded.. 356 Chinhái, the fall of...

61 Dicey's narrative...... Chinhái, authorities at.

Chinhái, an attack on.

115 Diseases, list of cases and. 233 Dragon boats, racing of.

Chinkau, destruction of opium at 458 Dreams of the Red Chamber. Chinking, the battle of.... 512,518 Drought in Canton....

633

670

436

266

129

Chinkiảng, the department of... 220 Duties on British ships revoked.. 24 Cholera, instances of the... 130,679||Duties on the local cominerce... 183 Chrestomathy, a Chinese... 157,223

Chu's It.-gov. admonitions to people 12 EARTHQUAKE in Yunnán.. Chuenhiu, an ancient king. Chuenpi, naval battle of....... Chuenpi attacked and taken......... Churchill, death of lord John... Chusan, government of. Chusan, recapture of.. Chusan, authorities at. Chusan evacuated..........

21

520 399

616 Earthquake in Macao.... 469 Easy Lessons, notice of the. 578||Eclipses of the sun and moon... 518 525 E. I. Co.'s rights in China cease.. 24 627 Edge-tools, inode of sharpening. 326 60 Edwards A. P. scized by Chinese 586 115 Edwards, Robert, postmaster.. 579 Elliot advises gov. Tang,. 124 Elliot's remarks on going to Can- 26,287 ton..

240

196

188,198

242

592

19,524

64,397

578,644

City-gate, notices of a visit to... City gates, scene at . Coasting vessels noticed................. 15 Elliot allowed to go to the city. 245 Cochinchina, insurrection in... 20,22 Elliot's movts. regarding peace. 581 Cochinchina, king of.............. 400,675 Elliot, capt. leaves Canton...... 410 Cochinchinese langurige.

450 Elliot and Bremer leave China.. 584 Cochinchinese envoy from Hué.. 21||Elliot reported to the court, . Co-hong, the evils of the.... 351 Elliot becomes chief sup..... 189,195 Commerce, plans for extending.. 128 Elliot's interview with Kishen 579,644 Commercial houses, foreign.... 55 Ellis, roy. mar. cupt., report.... 157 Commissioners, Hi-ngan, &c.......... 10 Emperors of Ming dynasty. Com:nissioners, their conduct... 571 Emperor's birthday anniversary.. 131 Commissioners, the joint.... 515 Emperor's rescript upon treaty.. 629 Commission of H. B. Majesty... 24 Empress, death of the............... Commission of H. B. M. its policy 122 Erigone, French frigate.. Commission of H. B. M. extended 188 Evacuation of Chuenpi.. Commission, changes in H. B. M. 128 Expedition, second, its strength. 526 Committee of Correspondence.. 244 Expeditions, the three.... Committee of roads, lands, &c.. 240|| Condition of affirs in China.... Confuciu, life of... Constellation, reminiscences of.. Constellation, U. S. frigate.. Consul list of foreign. Coolidge, J. carried into city........ Coronor's inquest by the Nánhái Cradles of the Mentchous. Chines of the British. Currency, regulation of the.....

DAVIS' Sketches of China...

526

19

76 FABLES of the poet Sú Tungpú. 139 411 Factories, three, in Canton burned 687 329 Fairy, the brig, lost on coast.... 255 183 Falsehood, an instance of.... 568

55 Famine in Kiángsi.. 582 Fankwei, remarks on the term.. 325 355 Farewell, Gough's to the army..... €88 427 Fast for the inundation. 522 Fatqua's hong shut up. 129 Finance com. of E. I. C. exit of the 470 Fitzgerald, tomb of It. Edward... 81Flugs in Canton struek,.

25

128

50 355

Flags rehoisted at the faeteries.. Forces, British land and sea . Forces of the imperial army. Foreigners maligned.... Foreigners detained at Canton.. Foreigners all leave Canton.. Formosa, barbarity of officers in. Formosa, prisoners in. Formosa, rebellion in. Fortifications on the river. Forts, five new, near Canton. France, the flag of.. Franks appear in China, French ships at north.....

INDEX.

193||Hongkong, changes ut.

296

116 Hongkong Gazette published... 581 476 longkong occupied by English. 579 193 Hong-merchants go north...... 456 356 Hong-merchants go to Chekiang, "100 582 Hong-merchants, debts of............ 353 662 Horsburgii, capt., memorial to... 296 627Hospital for seainen, Whampoa. 127

12 Hospital at Marno..

659

23 Hostility against the English 521,577

6: fiowqui an Lord Napier,.. 11 Ha Chaa's eller of services. 61 Hung Lau Mung, review of. 647,670 Hape, disturbances in..

Friend of China, No. 1. &c.... 18 Huron, the American brig.

Frigates two reach Whampoa... Fuchau fit in Fukien... Fukien, topography of Fukien dialect, orthography. Fuhi, portrait of the emperor.... Funghwá, a visit to the city.

GENERAL chamber of commerce.

27 454

266

184

BI

376

139

70 Hwangti, portrait of.......... 655 Hwuichau fü, prisoners at. 651||Hwuilai, Dicey and companions at 6339

૩૯

173 ILLUSTRATIONS of men and things 180 in China..

325,434 Infanticide in Fukien, fernale.. 507 195 Ingersoll goes to Japan.

Generai Orders by Gough, 60,236,343 Innes, goods lost by,. Goncalves', pere, death.......

Gordon, G. J. visits the Wiú hills 129 Interpreters much needed. Gough's arrival.

255 187,192

585 Intercourse can be easily effected 265

223

580 Inundation at Nanking.

680

20,25

586

255

Gough, sir Hugh, dispatches 148,496||Inundation in Canton.. Gough leaves China.

 Gov. Findlay, brig visits Fukien. Grammar, Notices on Chinese.. Graves of foreigners in Macao... Great Wall, termination of... . . . Gribble, Mr. seized at Tungkú.. Gully beheaded on Formosa. Gutzlaff's visit to city gates...........

628

244 598,600

129||JANCIGNY, col, arrives. . 317 Japan, the Morrison's visit to..

49Japanese from Háinan. 93 Japanese invade China.. 522 Japanese, eight shipwrecked. 684 Jardine steamer arrives.. 12 Je hó, or the Hot Streams. Junks, the seizure of..

479,678

HAILING, death of......... Halley's comet observed. Hángchau, reinforcements at... Hangchau, its defenses. Hángchau, the defenses of.. Hángchau, the department of. Hells, schooner attacked.. Hienling, Tartar lieut.-gen.. Hingtai's bankruptcy. History of the Ming dynasty Hi Naitsi dismissed.. Hobson's report of hospital. Holgate in charge of hospital.. Honán, people at excited.. Honán temple injured by fire...... . Hongkong, land committen at.. Hongkong, the tenure of. Hongkong, the government of.. Hongkong a free port . .

.

400

130

100

119

163

466

24

BKASPU. its position.. 342 Kaulung, attack upon. 250 Kearny, arrival of commodore 183,238 63 Keating, claims against Mr..... 130 164 Khan Khoji, ruler of Kashgår.. 145 525|| Ki Kung, It.-gov. of Canton....... 679 Kingning, the ancient capital.. 214 257 Kiangsi province, tomography of. 374 592 Kiangsu, military operations in.. 397 315 Kiangsu, the topography of.. 659 Kiản Ping Siú chi reviewed. 195 Kidnappers at Chuson. 65h| Kienwan, the emperor.

210

487

614

592

23 Kinsai, the modern Hängchan 184| Kishen at Tientsin ... ....

106

17

344 Kishen, treaty with.

144) Kishen recalled to Peking.

580

119,Kia Kien, notieg of............

472

א57

VI

INDEX.

Kiying appointe) commissioner. 675||Medhurst's report of school..

Kulángsu, authorities at.

231

115 Medical Miss. Soc. 3d report... 659

Kulangsu, notice of island of 154,504|Medical Mis. Soc., meeting of... 520

Kulangsu, force at. Kusing moon, affray at Kumsing moon closed.

115,626||Med. Mis. Society's operations.. 335

23 Medical Missionary Society. 245||Militia, new levies of.

Kwan, admiral to ad. Maitland..

300 Militia, disbanding of native...

251

64

576

Military operations of the British 289 100 Military forces, lists of British.. 116 380Ming Shi reviewed............

592

LAKE of Hángchau, or Sí hú.... Lake in Kiángsi, the Poyáng. L'Artemise, capt. La Place.. Lay, G. T. review by... Lay's remarks on the Mantchous Lecture of J. Quiney Adams... 27 Morrison, death of Rev. Robt. d. d. 65

Legends, extra ordinery Leprosy in China. Lexilogus, notice of the.

Li, gov, banished to Qromntsi. Li, governor degraded.. Liâu Chui, notier of the. Light-house, one recommended.. Lan appointed commaissioner. Lin Tsesii enters Cânton. Lin and Tang bani; bod to Ili. Lin Tsesi's memorial. Lin Weihi, the death of. Lin becomes governor. Lindsay, an attack on H. H. Limtsing, temple at. Ljungstedt, death of sir A. Locusts in Kwangsi. Locusts rise in rebellion. Li, the mountains of. Lú, the death of governor.

MACAO, changes in.. Macao, Inner Harbor of. Macao, Matheson's donation to.. Macdonald, capt., his statements. Mackenzie's, K. S., narrative.... Madagascar steamer burnt. Maitland's dispatch to Elliot. Majoribanks leaves China....... Majoribanks' newyear's dinner.. Manifesto, people's rejoinder to. Manifesto of people at Canton... Manifesto by people of Tinghái.. Mantehon Tartars, account of... Mantchous, the houses of the. Mantelou ladies.... Marine police, rules for a. Marines land in Cinton. Materialisia of Chinese.

307 Minglun tang, assemblages at.... 686 487 Mission, the special, to China... 114 48 425 Morrison, the grave of Mrs.....

337

207||Morrison Ed. Soc., meeting of... 520 663 Morrison Ed. Soc.'s fourth report. 541 38 Mor. Education Soc. organized. 191

12 Mor. Ed. Society's schools. 11 Morrison's Dictionary, cost of. 388 20:2 "Mowatta's death.

130 298 Murad beg, chief of the Usbecks 145 350

214

355 NAN Sung Chichuen reviewed.. 529 584||Nanking, notices of the city....

21||Nanking, or Kiangning,

518

69

68

74

74

458 Napier net by Chinese deputies. 524 Napier suggests a chamber of com.

12 Napier retires to Macao.. 564 Napier dies at Macao. 131 ¡Napier and family arrive in China 25 21||Napier, a monument to lord ........ 127 130 Napier's commission appointed.. 25 381 Napice's letter to the governor. 131 Napier's fort occupied..........

400

Napier's second letter to Palmer-

ston.

26

580

66

188

524 Napier's fort cointaenced. 181 Narrative of sergeant Campbell. 395 81 Naval forces, list of English.......... 119 643 Navy at Chápu.. 634 Negotiations commenced. 298 Negotiations, character of Chi-

61

nese..

432

70

577 579

585

Nemesis steaner fired at. 685||Nerbudda abandoned by captain 683 630 Nerbudda transport lost. 646 Ningpo reöccupied by Chinese.. 470 425 Ningpo, an attack on. 426 Ningpo, and its subdivisions. 434 Ningpo, the fall of.

233

163

61

354 Niugno, the city of, evacunted.. 342 76 Nid Kien governor, degraded........... 681 202 Niú Kien to sir Henry Pottinger 569

Notices of the Pei ho. Notices of Hangchau..

Matheson's, Jates, donation..

18

92

McBryde, Rev. T. and family.. 50 Medals, notice of military.

101

32

Notices on Chinese granmur..

317

INDEX

VIL

Novel, the dreams in the R. Cham. 266||Porcelam, site of its inanufacture 380 Portraits of ancient Chinese 47,111, 174,323,337,452,616

OBSERVATION on natives. Officers of the U. S. squadron... Officers, provincial at Cantoa.. Official intercourse forbidden. Official papers, summary of.. Ophthalinic hospital, report of.. Opiun trade is not smuggling.. Opiun burnt in Canton. Opium to be destroyed......

54

4xoll

238 Portuguese govt, instructions from 191

53 Portuguese govt. at Macao.......... 76 Portuguese troops go to Peking 601 470 Post-office establishinent.

240 187: Potomue, U. S. frigate.

9 190 Pottinger, sir H., proclamations 119, 127|||| 179,184,233,230,342,397,510,512,514, 457

626,682,683,

Opium trade, Elliot's remarks on, 401|Pottinger, sir Henry's return .. 64

Opium to be surrendered.

Opium, mole of smoking, . Opium, sea ching for. Opium, trade in, dourishing, Opium, memorials on,.

427

356 Pottinger's, sir Henry, arrival... 584 587, Prosses and wardrobes.. 241||Prisoners of Madagascar released 642 187 Prize money, agents for... 190,191'|Proclamation against seditious

128

Opium trade begun on the coast Opium, legislation on.... Opium, opposition against. Opium, pledge not to deal in........

meetings..

115

686

47

214 Provinces, divisions of the eighteen 46 297 Pwánkú, a portrait of............ 360

Opium, 20,283 chests, surrendered 366 Quix goes to the eastern coast. 254 346 Quin, capt. in II. B. M. S. Raleigh 130 345

Opium, Elliot's notice of....... Opium, memorials against. Opium, edicts against.. Opiuin-smoking in Penang. Orthography, the new system of. Oxus, journal to the river..

.....

6

6,7 Rebellion in Kwangung. 587 Register, the commencement of. 181 28 Regulations, new and restrictive 128 142 Relation with foreigners..

Relations, British, state of.

PAGODA, the porcelain...... 215,680 Reminiscences of the U. S. frigate

Palmerston's instruction to Napier 22 Pamir, the situation of......

Parapattan, school at.

Constellation.

143 Reply to lord W. C. Bentinck... 231 Residents, lists of foreign........

78

185

329

4

55

Parker, sir William, dispatches 152,501 Retrospection.. 1,65,121,185,241,297,

Parker's, admiral, arrival.

Parsee graves in China. Passes of the Great Wall. Pay of the Mantchou officers... Peace, items of the treaty of.... Peacock, U. S. ship. Pei ho, notices of the. Pei ho, anchorage off the. Peking, notices of the city Pcking, situation of. Peking, the avenue to.

584

345,401,157,521,577,672 51 Reynolds, E. G. assist. land, offi. 240 448 Rice, importation of.

17,20

432 Riot in Canton, Dec. 12th, 1838. 307 514 Riot in Canton, Dec. 7th, 1842.. 687 11: River obstructed at Howqua's fort 586 92 Rivers in Chekiang .

168

93,99 Roads, the committee for.

210

27 Robinson, sir G. B. chief supert.. 92 Robinson, sir G. at Lintin.......... 93 Robinson, sır G.'s policy,

80

185

131

19 Roof of the world, Bain-i-Dúniah 143

24

552 548

189|

Periodical, a Chinese monthly.. Petition, superintendents not to.. Pin (petition) word disallowed.. 264 SARAH, the first free trader............... Pin. the use of the term.. ... ... ... .... 348 Scholars of the Mor. Ed. Soc.. Pinto, gov. note to Mr. Matheson 181|School-books wanted........... Pinto, gov. arrives in Macao.... Piraces near the Bogue... Plover, brig, the late Bentinck.. Plowden returns to China... Poison in springs of water. Policy of the Mantchou govt...

242 Schooners built on European mod. 525 184 Seamen's Friend Association... 350 397 Seminary at Parapattan..

231 583

11 Senhouse sir H. F.death. 464 |Serpent, H. M. brig, visit Formosa 627 121 Shantung, topograply of..

557

5711

Shanghai attacked. Shansi, topography of. Shaahau, portrait of. Shinnung, portrait of. Ships of war required. Shipwrecked Chinese. Shrines of the Mantchous. Shuntien, departinent of. Siamese tribute-bearers. Sinologues, present number of.. Sketch of Confucius' life... Sketches of Chin, by Davis. Smith, G. H. on opium sunoking. Smokers of opiun warned. Snugglers, seizure of. Smuggler killed at Whampoa. Snugglers, action against. Snow at Canton, fall of. Society, the dissensions in foreign Soldier's Manual, the.. Sovereigns, portraits of the three Spelter, export of, forbidden.... St. Paul's churchi, Macao, burnt.. St. Vincent, the ship, boat lost.. Stanton, Vincent seized.. Statesmen in China, life of... Statistics of Chekiáng. Stewart, C. E. assist. secretary.. Stronach, reports of his school.. Sú Tungpu, works of. Súchau. The statistics of.. Sung dynasty, the Southern. Summary of official papers. Sycee not to be exported. Sz'chuen, insurrection in.

INDEX.

651

480

397Topography of Fukien.. 617 Trade of the British stopped... 68,70 453 Traits of native character.. 322 Treachery, an instance of. 255 Treaty, emperor approves.

508

629

579

519

67

247 Treaty, memorial regarding the. 571 42 Treaty, manner of signing the.. 575 444 Treaty of peace broken off. 130 Treaty, signing of the.. 158 Treaty, a commercial, proposed.. 411 Trial at Hongkong, notices of a. 461

8Troughton, the English bark. 587 Tsang Wangyen, letter to. 524 Tsientang river described. 2Tsz'ki, skirmishing at..

130

389

170

496

Tsz'ki, situation and capture of. 498 263Tsz'ki, a visit to the city of.... 180 187Tsz'ki, an attack on.

234 123 Tsungming, notice of the island. 221 487 Tyfoon of Aug. 5th, 1835.. 11C Tyfoon of Aug. 3d, 1832.

12 Tyfoon at Macao &c.

130

10

583

81 Tyrant, the village, executed.... 21

355 527 UNITED Sates' ships of war.. 11,186 610

238,329,576 162 Useful Knowledge, Society for.. 131 240|

176 VESSELS on the coast.

132 Victoria, Lin's letter to queen. 216 Vincennes, U. S. sloop,.. 529

470 WANG Ting, suicide of.

21||Wang Tsinglan, letter of.... 17,128 Wanli, emperor of Ming.

TA Papan, a kidnapper. Tales of Tau priests. Tang's answer to Elliot. Tang Tingching arrives. Teishin and Tsishin degraded.. Tie-chew dialect, Lessons in. Tientsin, defenses at city of. Tientsin, the defenses of. Tientsin, the situation of. Tinghai (Chusan) a free port. Tinghái, capture of. Tinghai, manifesto Tones in Chinese. Topography of A'nhwui. Topography of Chili province.. Topography of Shánsí.

by people of.

Topography of the eighteen pro- Tovinces...

15

522

186

399,456

389

599

War with China, cause of the... 281 615|War, the cause of the....

204 Warehousing in Macao..

19 White Deer vale in Kiangsi. 187Wood, It. John's journal...

510

522

383

142

Writing, the several inodes of... 175 39 Wi's visit to the Constellation.. 333 26Wusung attacked.

631

397,676

374

16

183

685

97 YANGTSZ' kiang, course of. 119 Yihin, emperor's son.

60Yishan, an interview with. 646|Vishan, Yiking, and Wanwei de-

gruded...

4.1

307 Yuen Yuen made cabinet minister 20 433Yuen Yuen, sonnets by. . . . . . . 327 617 Yuenfusiuen, king of Cochinchina 400

Yükien commits suicide. 41||Yüyau, a visit to the city.

63,583

189

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. XI.-January, 1842.- No. 1.

Aur. 1. Retrospection, or a review of public occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to Decem- ber 31st, 1841.

Retrospection, when properly conducted, can hardly fail of being both pleasing and profitable. Most people are fond of reviewing the scenes through which they have passed, or with which they have been in any way connected. They love, in fancy, to go back and dwell on the events that have given interest and character to former days and years. Whether they have been pleasurable or the reverse, the mind, at times, almost instinctively returns to and lingers over the successive scenes that have already closed; and as it does this, in the hours of calm reflection, it observes their varied effects whether they be good or bad. Though all the acts performed, like their re- gistry on high, must for ever remain unchanged, so far as they relate to the past, yet it may be otherwise regarding their future bearing. Having had full opportunity to observe their consequences, we are prepared to repeat, reverse, or modify them, so far as they may be under our control. Errors may be corrected; and from the past, useful lessons derived for the guidance of future conduct. To aid in such a retrospect, we will bring together in this article, and in chro. nological order, notices of the principal events that have occurred within the range of our observation, during the last ten years,

  January 1st, 1832. The gentlemen of the foreign community in Canton were entertained on new-year's day, at the British factory, by Mr. Marjoribanks in a style that could hardly be surpassed. The number of guests was about one hundred. The following notice of the entertainment is from the Canton Register of that year.

YUL XL NO. 1

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

46

4

Many appropriate toasts were given. On the health of lord William Ben tinck' being proposed, the president took occasion to expatiate on the deep obli. gation which his lordship had conferred on the community by making it known to the Chinese authorities, that he will interpose with the weight of his authority tɔ shield his Britannic majesty's subjects from wrong, and that he will never allow them to be oppressed.

"Then followed 'si Edward Owen;' 'sir Charles Malcolm and the Indian Navy captains Freemantle and Hamley R. N.' then present; 'general Darling (whose indisposition unfortunately prevented his attendance,) and the colony late- ly under his commaud; 'commodore Hinc, and his brother commanders of the Indiamen; &c.

"In proposing the British merchants of Canton, Mr. Marjoribanks took the op. portunity (the last that might probably be afforded him) of paying thein a very handsome and feeling tribute of respect, complimenting them on the honorable and liberal system he had ever observed in their commercial intercourse, and thanking them for the assistance and communications which they had, on all oc- casions, so readily afforded him.

"Mr. Dent returned thanks on the part of the British merchants, and subse. quently, in proposing the health of Mr. Marjoribanks, he, in a very handsome man- ner, eulogised the moasures of the committee; at the same time, expressing the deep sense of obligation entertained by the mercantile community for the uniform attention and support which they had always received from the committee, and the members of the British factory, in their public capacity; and for the friendly feelings displayed in their private intercourse.

"Our friendly relations with France and America were not forgotten; and, in the speeches of Mr. Davis and Mr. Marjoribauks, very good feeling on the sih. ject was expressed.

"Mr. Latimer made some very happy observations, illustrative of the origin and progress of the United States. The prosperity of the American govern.

ment, and the extension of civilization,' was drank with much enthusiasın.

"Mr. Lindsay proposed the emperor of China,' and avowed his conviction that the period was not far distant when our communication with the government and people, would assume the same freedom as prevails in civilized states.

"The greatest harmony prevailed throughout the evening, and the party sepa. rated at an early hour."

An almost uninterrupted quarrel was kept up between the Chinese and the British factory from the time of its establishment till it was abolished: sometimes it was partially suspended; sometimes it was carried on without noise or display; while again it seemed about to involve the parties in open war. At the commencement of this year (1832), the quarrel was being conducted with a good deal of blus- tering. A wall and quay had been demolished, and the lieutenant- governor had turned his back towards a picture of the king; and these things had been reported to the governor-general of India, who wrote the following letter, dated Simla, 27th August, 1831.

"To his excellency the governor of Canton.-It has been represented to me that, m your carell-any's absence, measures of an inimical and insulting character have

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

been adopted, by the It..governor of Canton, towards British merchants, my conn. trymen; that the factory of the English nation at Canton has been forcibly taken possession of; the wall and quay, which your excellency previously sanctioned, demolished; and that the perpetrator of these outrages carried his insolence so far as to treat the portrait of my august sovereign with marked and intentional dis. respect. I am further informed that there was no difference or dispute of any kind at the time pending between the authorities at Canton and those who preside over the affairs and commerce of the British nation; that no act was committed by the latter which was the subject of complaint on the part of those authorities; that, in short, on either side thɩre had been no deviation from established custom or violation of law, which might justly have provoked such an act of violence.

   "Your excellency is a wise and just man. The reputation of the high qualities which adorn your excellency's character, and of the prudent and beneficent ac- tions which have distinguished your excellency's administration of affairs at Can- ton, has spread far and near, raising admiration in all classes of persons. I respect and extrem your excellency. I therefore doubt not that it has been your excellency's study to do justice to the injured merchants of my country, to punish the evil-doers, and to place the commerce of the British nation on a footing at once mutually secure and honorable, to the subjects of both empires who are en- gaged in it.

avow,

"I am sure your excellency cannot have approved, and will be ready to dis the violent, unjust, and indecent proceedings which the subordinate officers at Canton have been led into during your excellency's absence; it will give me joy to hear that your excellency's wisdom has anticipated my hopes and wishes in this respect, and your excellency's reputation will be increased a hundred fold by such a restoration of affairs. May God grant that such has been the issue!

"Your excellency knows that the customs of nations differ. When the subjects of your excellency's august sovereign go abroad to other countries, they are no longer the subjects of the paternal solicitude of the mighty ruler of China. It is not go with the ships and merchants of my sovereign's dominions. Wheresoever they go, they are the objects of his care, and he watches, with equal anxiety, their conduct and the treatment they experience. If they do what is wrong, he is ready to punish them, and to grant redress to the injured. If others commit injustice or violence towards them, he feels it as an offense against himself, and makes it his study to procure from all nations that his subjects shall be treated with res. pect, and obtain justice according to their deserts, so long as they act in confor. mity to the principles of justice and equity.

"I am the governor-general, on the part of my sovereign, of a large empire. The extent of territory and the number of provinces and islands under my rule, the resources they possess, the number and wealth of the inhabitants, the disci plined arinics maintained, and the ships and commerce which visit and enrich the various harbors and cities, cannot be unknown to your excellency. It is my duty to watch over the concerns of my country in all this part of the world, and to in- terpose with the authority and power I possess, to secure the merchants of the British nation from injustice and oppression, so far as my influence extends, and the means at my disposal may allow. It is on this accout that the members of ti British factory at Canton have represented to me the injuries and oppressions They have suffered. I entreat of your excelleney, if they should deem it necessary

4

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

to appeal to your wisdom and justice, to give to their wrongs a fair and candid consideration. You will thus confer on nie a personal obligation, and will relieve me from the anxiety, with which I should view the necessity of considering what further measures of support, the aggrieved merchants have a right to expect at my hand. I beg of your excellency to accept the assurance of my high consideration

(Signed)

W. C. BENTINCK."

2d. The Canton Register, No. 1, volume fifth, this day pub- lished, details the particulars of the presentation of lord William Bentinck's letter, which took place on the 31st of December, at the imperial landing-place, by captain Freemantle. The Register also announced the arrival off Macao, on the 29th ult., of H. B. M. sloop- of-war Wolf, captain Hamley, with dispatches from his excellency sir Edward Owen, naval commander-in-chief in the East Indies.

7th. On this day the governor of Canton, having refused to give any direct reply to lord William Bentinck's letter, issued an edict, addressed to the long merchants. This edict, elicited by an address from the chief of the British factory, contains the following indirect reply. His excellency says:

On the 28th day of the 11th month of the current year, was received an official document presented by Freemantle, a naval officer sent by the said nation, concerning the_lient.-governor of Canton breaking down and removing the landing-place and wall in front of the factory's barbarian hall. Also about insulting the picture of the untion's sovereign, earnestly craving redress, &c. At that time I, the minister and governor, issued my authoritative decisions as follows:

"On examining it is found that, outside the city of Canton, there is a factory barbarian ball. It was built by native hong-merchants, and is rented by the English chief and others, who come up to Canton, and have there a temporary lodging; it is by no means a hall that the said nation has itself placed there (or purchased). The landing-place before the factory was also built by the hong-merchants to facilitate the sending off and landing cargo. During the 7th year of Táukwáng, the hong-merchants clandestinely added to the landing-place, and surrounded it by a wall, enclosing too large a space; and did not petition government, and wait for an authoritative decision to act in obedience thereto. Then I, the minister and governor, by inquiry found out the circumstance, and sent the prefect to go and examine the place, and commanded it to be broken down and removed. After this, the hong-merchants procrastinated and did not break it up, but repeatedly presented petitions earnestly craving-so that, year after year, it still remained as before. This offense was all owing to the stupidity of the hong-merchants, and did not implicate the said nation. During the spring of this year, after I, the minister and governor, had gone forth from Canton city;-in consequence of a person stating to the emperor that the barbarian factory had clandestinely built a landing-place, a secret order from the emperor was received by the lieut.-governor to examine and act; therefore, was instantly ordered to be destroyed. And the lient.-governor stated the facts, of his going in person and destroying it, to the emperor. From this it may be seen, that it was by no means the lieut-governor's

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841

5

  intention to stir up reprehension. And, whilst he was giving orders for the destruction (of this place), he was acting in implicit obedience to a secret order. How could he previously let the said nation's chief and others know? Besides, that which was destroyed was the surrounding wall which the hong-merchants had clandestinely built. The hong-merchants alone were the parties to be punished there was no chastisement extended to the said chief and others. All you English merchants--what was there unequitable done to you? Further, at the time, the rooms in the factory and utensils were not in the least injured or knocked about; manifestly there was no unjust oppression of the nation.

4.

The hong-merchants did, at an early day, rebuild the stone steps and quay in the same manner as they formerly were, and it is convenient for landing and shipping cargo. Afterwards, also, the hong-merchants petitioned and entreated that open rails might be placed, which might be opened or shut as required. Already has the hoppo made a communication to the lieut.-governor to allow it; so that there will be a still further defense, and not the least impediment to commerce. Thus there, no doubt, may be, as formerly, mutual tranquillity.

   "As to what is said concerning insulting the picture of the sovereign of that nation; it is found that the said chief and others, some time ago presented a petition, about the cloth being violently torn down from the king's picture; and the lieut -governor immediately gave, clearly and distinctly, his authoritative reply---saying, that he would not trample even on a child unless he had offended the laws, and how then could he lightly enter into peoples' factory, and lightly insult the picture of their nation's king! &c. Thus it may be seen that nothing of the kind occurred. It is right to order the said chief and others to take the licut.-governor's authoritative reply, transcribe it entire, and send it to the said nation to read-that no doubts or suspicions may remain. To sum up all ;-the said nution has come to Canton to an open market upwards of a hundred years; and has had to look up with gratitude to the great emperor for his abundant liberality and profound benevolence in stooping down to bestow compassion; and there has been, for a long period, mutual tranquillity. It is necessary that the chief, and other supracargoes who reside at Canton, for the general management of the commerce, should be intelligent persons who understand business; implicitly ad- hering to established customs, and not listening to the insidious suggestions of Chinese traitors. The celestial empire's graciousness and politeness are con- stant. It decidedly will not despise or ill-treat any. I, also, the minister and governor, look up and imitate the great emperor's infinite tenderness to men from remote regions, and decidedly will never cease to observe their reverence and submission, so as to preserve all entire. For this purpose, these perspicuous, explicit, orders are issued. And the hong-merchants are commanded to take these orders and deliver them to the English nation's chief and others, that they may transfer the orders to the said nation's naval captain, that he may promulgate them for the information of the said nation's civil and military, every one of them, so that they all may hear and know. This will do."

   The above authoritative decisions were issued on the 1st day of the 12th month. But the said chief and others procrastinated, and would not receive them; and again petitioned that an officer might be dispatched to give a written document in return. Strange they do not know that, when the envoys of foreign nations have presented petitionary documents, it has always been the case that the hong-merchants were commanded to communicate the orders to the chief

ํา

6

Review of Puble Occurrences. During the

JAN

that he might promulgate them for obedience thereto; it has never been the case that a written document was given in return. On this occasion, I, the mi- nister and governor, have already given my authoritative decisions perspicuously. It is incumbent on the said chief and others to take the authoritative decisions which have been issued, and promulgate them for information. Why do they, again and a third time, obstinately refuse to transmit the injunctions, and dun with requests to give a written document in return? Exceedingly does it indicate refractory stupidity! Uniting the above, I again issue these orders, and require the hong-merchants to deliver them to the said chief and others, that they may transmit the orders to the said naval captain, that he may promulgate them for the information of the said nation's civil and military, and cause them all to know them fully. As to the said naval captain availing himself of the north wind that now blows, and returning on an early day-let him make haste and set sail. It is by no means the case that I, the minister and governor, have not taken the said nation's document, and clearly and fully given my authoritative decision in reply. These are the commands. Can. Reg. Jan. 16th.

13th. Dispatches for the admiral, on the Indian station, left Can- ton to be forwarded by the Wolf, and captain Freemantle at the same time proceeded to rejoin his ship (the Challenger) at Lintin.

19th. Charles Marjoribanks, esq, late president of the select com- mittee of the honorable E. I. Company's factory, sailed for England. and J. F. Davis, esq-, succeeded to the presidency.

February 2d. There being an eclipse of the sun, his excellency Chú, the lieutenant-governor, went into mourning for it this day.

5th. A rebellion broke out on the northwest frontiers of this pro- vince, among wild tribes of mountaineers.

9th. The governor published the following edict, regarding opinm, addressed to the hong merchants.

"Opium is a spreading poison,-inexhaustible ;-its injurious effects are ex- treme. Often has it been severely interdicted, as appears on record, But of late, the various ships of barbarians which bring opium, all anchor, and linger about at Lintin, in the outer ocean, and, exclusive of cargo ships, there are appointed barbarian ships, in which opium is deposited and accumulated, and there it is sold by stealth. That place is in the midst of the great ocean, and to it there are four passages and eight communications (i. e. it is accessible from every quarter). Not only do traitorous banditti of this province go thither, and in boats make clandestine purchases, but, from many places, in various provinces, vessels come by sea, under pretence of trading, to Lintin; and in the dark, bny opium dirt, which they set sail with, and carry off': as, for example, from Hiámun (or Amoy) in Fukien, Ningpò in Chèkiáng, and Tientsin in Chilí provinces &c. And there are native vagabonds, who clandestinely open opium furnaces; then traitorous merchants from outside (or other provinces) first go to Canton shops, and secretly agree about the price; next make out a bond and buy ;- proceedings which are direct and gross violations of existing prohibitions.

"At present, some one in the capital, has represented the affair to the emperor, and strict orders have been respectfully received from his majesty, to

1842.

Lust Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841

investigate, consult, and exterminate, by cutting off the source of the evil. I, the cabinet minister and governor, have met and consulted with the_lient.-governor, and we have, with veneration, reported our sentiments to the emperor.

We have, besides, written to the governments of Chilí and the other provinces, that they may search and prosecute,-

-as is on record.

    Uniting the above, an order is hereby issued to the hong-merchants, that they may forthwith obey accordingly. They are commanded to expostulate with earnestness, and persuade the barbarians of the several nations, telling them that, hereafter, when coming to Canton to trade, they must not, on any account, bring opium concealed in the ships' holds, nor appoint vessels to be opium depóts at Lintin, in the outside ocean, hoping thereby to sell it by stealth. If they dare intentionally to disobey, the moment it is discovered, positively shaft the said barbarian ships have their hatches sealed,-their selling and buying put a stop to, and an expulsion inflicted, driving them away to their own country ; and, for ever after, shall they be disallowed to come to trade; that thereby punishment may be manifested. On this affair, a strict interdict has been respectfully received from imperial authority; and the hong-merchants must honestly exert their ut- most efforts, to persuade to a total cutting off of the clandestine introduction of oprum dirt. Let there not be the least trifling or carelessness, for, if opium be again allowed to enter the interior, it will involve them in serious criminality, Oppose not! These are the commands." Can. Reg. 17th March.

   11th. A dispatch reached the governor of Canton, asking for assistance against the rebellions mountaineers.

   15th. The Indian cruiser Clive left China for Bombay, II. B. M. ship Challenger having returned to Macao from a short cruise among the neighboring islands.

   27th. The British bark lord Amherst, captain Rees, sailed for the east coast of China, II. II. Lindsay and Rev. C. Gutzlaff pas-

sengers.

   March 8th. The Canton Register of this date says, the sun has not shone on the provincial city for about thirty days.

   9th. II. B. M. ship Cruizer, captain Parker, sailed from China for Calcutta.

   18th. The following memorial, addressed to the emperor by the provincial authorities at Canton, was received at Macao this day.

   "The governor of Canton and Kwángsí, Lí; the lieut.-governor of Canton, Chú; and the commissioner of daties for the port of Canton, Chung; memori- afize, in obedience to the imperiat will, requiring them to examine and deliberate. For this, they respectfully present this memorial in reply, aud, looking upwards. pray the sacred inspection thereof. We have received from the ministers of the Privy Council, a letter stating that an imperial edict has been reccived; as follows:

**

   'A person has made a prepared memorial, concerning the accumulating ille- gality of opium smoking; and requesting the total eradication of the root of it. He states: The foreign ships which clandestinely bring opium-dirt to Canton, jave dared to station in the offing of Tâyn shan (great fish hill), near the Bogue,

Revice of Public Occurrences During the

JAN

other ships for storing up and accumulating it, which are called 'opium godowns. There are also foreign eyes (or commanders) of war vessels, called 'convoys of the merchandize,' anchored in the same place; and they connect and associate themselves with native villains, who open places under the name of money- changers' shops where they secretly keep and sell the opium-dirt. These, which are called 'great furnaces,' are numerous at the provincial capital; for instance, in the street Liuenhing kiái, by the thirteen factories. Traitorous merchants repair to these shops, and there with the foreigners, decide on the price, and make out a bond, that when they go to the 'godowns,' the opium may be deli- vered to them. This they term ' writing a chit!' Further, there are vessels called kwái-hái 'fast-shoe,' for carrying on the sinuggling in a general way, which come and go, as if flying, and are hence designated 'winged!' These vessels always move during the night; and when passing any of the custom-housee, if they hap- pen to be followed and pursued by the cruizing vessels, they have the presump- tion to fire on them with musketry and guns. The officers and the custom-houses dare not make any inquiries; nor do they report to the magistrates, for them to inflict punishment; and the smugglers therefore go on to excess without fear or dread. Of this class of 'fast-shoe' vessels, there are now from 100 to 200; and whatever cargo is sent from the 'godown' to the 'furnace' is all carried by them; all the cruizers unite together with them in committing illegalities, and have each their share of the profits, for which they protect and defend them in smuggling: so that the illegalities become still greater. The places to which the opium purchased is taken off, are Amoy in Fukien, Tientsin in Chilí; and the two departments of Luichau and Kiungchau, (Hainan and the mainland op- posite) in Canton. For all these places, opium is obtained by bonds for its deli- very, made out at the 'furnaces,' and taken to the 'godowns.' All the other provinces for which it is clandestinely purchased, have it carried into port and taken beyond the frontiers of the province by the 'fast-shoe' vessels. The passes they must go through in taking it beyong the frontiers are Tien kwánsin, Lán- shi-sin, Tsz'tung pass, and the port of Lò-tsung in Nánhái district; Hwângpú in Hiangshan district; Sínánsin, and Lúpáu fau in Sánshui district, &c. From the great furnaces,' they are taken in portions throughout the interior, and everywhere, traitorous people form connections with the money-seeking attendants of the public offices, and open private establishments called 'small fur- naces.' In all places cities, villages, market-towns, camps, and stations, these exist. On inquiry, I find that, for the one article of opium dirt clandestinely bought and sold there goes abroad of sycee silver, every year, not under several millions. This is to take the useful wealth of the country and exchange it for an The prevalence of the poison is without end, injurious article from beyond seas. the consumption of wealth extreure.

"Opium is a very prevalent poison. Already edicts have been repeatedly is- sued, giving general commands to the governors and lieut.-governors of all the provinces, each, according to the circumstances of the place, to establish regula- tions for the strict interdiction and prohibition thereof. But opium comes chiefly from beyond sea, and is accumulated at Canton; if the source whence it comes is not cut off, this would be to neglect the root, and attend only to the branches:--- though, within the country, the regulations against it be strict and severe, yet, on inquiry, it will be found, that they are no advantage to the object. A person has now presented this memorial. Whether his statements of the illegalities be

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

9

according to the real circumstances or not, let Lí and his colleagues examine truly and fully. Also let them, with their whole minds consider and deliberate how to prevent the opium dirt from being clandestinely imported, or clandestinely sold on the seas, and how to prevent the foreigners baving any other ships beside merchant ships. The source whence it comes must be decidedly cut off, in order to eradicate the evil. It must not be permitted to prevail in the country, that future calamities may be prevented. Take this edict, and enjoin it on Lí and Chú, that they may enjoin it on Chung, and all may make themselves acquaint- ed with it. Respect this."

*

    There was also received this addition in vermilion (i, e. by the imperial band). If the said governor and his colleagues can exert their whole mind and strength to remove from the centre of civilization (i. e. China) this great evil, their merit will not be small. To strenuousness let them still add strenuousness. Respect this!" Can. Reg., August 2d.

   15th. H. B. M. ship Challenger, captain Freemantle, sailed from China for Calcutta.

   20th. H. B. M. ship Cruizer sailed from China for Madras. She arrived on the 9th from Calcutta, (but did not sail for that port, as erroneously stated above on page 7.)

   April 7th. In the Canton Register, of this date, it is remarked that the rebellious mountaineers were becoming more and more for- midable. The leader styles himself the Golden Dragon.

   11th. Chung, the hoppo of Canton, issued an edict forbidding fo reign ships to remain at Lintin, and requiring those there to depart.

   May. The first number of the Chinese Repository was published on the 31st, the last day of this month It gave a detailed account of the rise and progress of the rebellion on the borders of the pro- vinces of Kwangtung, Kwangsi, and Húnán. Large numbers of the troops that had been called into the field were found unfit for service, having been enfeebled by the use of opium.

   The provinces of Chekiảng, Kiángsí, A ́nhwui, and Húpe were at that time suffering from a famine caused by inundations. See vol. I.* pp. 30, 31. Also Can. Reg., June 15th, p. 58.

   18th. The U. S. A. frigate Potomac, commodore Downes, arrived in China, having visited Qualla Batu on her way hither.

   29th. The Peking Gazette contains an account of a great victory gained over the rebels on the frontiers of Húnán. Vol. 1. p. 111.

   31st. The H. C. sloop Coote arrived in China bringing a private dispatch for the select committee. "From the tone of indifference, with which the late rupture with the Chinese bas been regarded in England, nothing can be hoped for that might rescue British subjects

   *Note. Where only the volumo and page are specified the references are under. stood to be made to the Chinese Repository.

VOL. XI. NO

10

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

in this country from the anomalous and helpless condition in which they have so long remained." Can. Reg., June 15th.

Junc. The rebellion in the highlands still continued to be the en- grossing topic of inquiry at Canton, both among natives and foreign- ers, the rebel ariny mustering 30,000 strong.

2d. The governor of Canton, Lí Hungpin, embarked, with a sınalı body of troops as an escort for Lienchau, and reached that place on the 11th,.

During this month two new hongs were established for the transac- tion of business with foreigners, one called Tungshun, the other Háng-ta-tung.

5th. The U. S. A. frigate Potomao, Cominodore Dowucs, sailed from China for the islands of the Pacific.

25th. Fighting with the mountaineers commenced on the 20th, and continued on five successive days, when 2000 of the imperial forces were left dead on the field. Vol. I. p. 78.

July 23d. A detachment of troops passed through Canton on their way to the highlands.

28th. Another body of troops passed the city on their way to join the imperial forces on the highlands.

The Canton Register of the 18th contains a translation of a cu- rious paper placarded in the streets of Ningpo, giving a brief account of English character.

August 3d. The preceding evening gave indications of an ap- proaching storm, the wind was from the northward; the thermometer stood at 92, and the barometer began to fall from about 29:60 or 70. On the morning of this day the breeze rapidly freshened, and the barometer continued to fall till it stood at 28:10, or by some instru- ments to 27:90, when the tyfoon was at its height. The destruction caused by this storm was very great. Vol. I.

p. 156.

15th. Two imperial commissioners Hi-ngan and Húsunge, arrived at Lienchau, to cooperate with governor Lí, in the war against the rebels. Vol. I. p. 208.

28th. Another small body of troops left Canton for the highlands, which would increase the imperial forces to about 15,000 fighting

men.

Vol. I.

p.

158.

30th. Two literary examiners, Ching Ngántsi and Hing Fushán arrived in Canton from Peking.

31st. A woman named Cháng, the wife of Wáng Akwai, living at Whampoa, presented her husband with three sons, in consequence of which the parents received ten taels of silver ($13.33) from the anagistrate of the district. Vol 1 p 208

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841

September 2d. The triennial examination of the young literati commenced, at Canton.

5th. The bark Lord Amherst, captain Rees, returned from her voyage of observation along the coast of China.

Mr. Plowden having returned to China, resumed his place as chief of the E. I. Company's factory, Messrs. Davis and Daniell being the other members of the select committee.

9th. A fire occurred in Canton, at the residence of one of the subordinate examiners of the literary graduates; it originated with the smoking of opium.

October. The rebellion in the highlands was reported to have been entirely subdued.

   T. R. Colledge, esq. gives a narrative of the Ophthalmic hospital, which commenced under his care in Macao in the year 1827. Vol. I1., p. 270.

15th. A dispatch was received by the two imperial commissioners, approving of their conduct, but degrading governor Lí. His excel- lency's family left Canton the same day, for their home in Kiángsí; and he himself, having delivered up the seals of his office to the chief commissioner, set out on his journey to Peking, there to be put on trial. Yang Yuchun, Yu Tepiáu, Yáng Fáng late commissioner at Canton, and Yu Púyun, late commander-in-chief in Chekiáng, were conspicuous leaders against the rebels. Vol. I. p. 247.

November 6th. Lú Kwan, late governor of the two lake provinces, Húpe and Húnán, having been appointed to the gubernatorial office in Canton, left Lienchau for the provincial city.

8th. The U. S. A. ship Peacock, captain Geisinger, arrived in China from Sumatra and Manila, having on board Mr. Edmund Roberts, diplomatic agent from the cabinet at Washington.

   20th. Rumors in Canton were current that the late governor Lí was dead, but whether he had died by his own hand or by the em- peror's order was uncertain.

27th. At ten o'clock at night was announced the decision on the forty-nine fortunate candidates, out of several thousands, who had competed for the second military order or rank, viz. that of Pro- moted men.

December 13th. The flag of France-the tricolor-was hoisted by Mr. Gernaert, the French consul, in front of the French hong, after an interval of about thirty years.

   15th. Lú Kwan, the new governor, lately from the two lake pro- vinces and Lieuchau, made his entrance into the city of Canton, with the usual formalities. Lú was then 60 years of age.

12

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

The particulars of an attack on Mr. Lindsay and others, while returning to Macao from the Lappa, are detailed in the Canton Register of the 20th December. Mr. Lindsay was very severely wounded by an ax.

A rebellion in Formosa was reported during the month, and a large body of troops from the main were sent across the channel for its suppression.

January 1st, 1833. The rumors concerning the rebellion in For- mosa continue current in Canton. About this time proclamations were issued by the provincial authorities, concerning a fleet of pirati- cal boats, which had come up from Cochinchina: two boats were taken, and the prisoners declared that the whole number of boats was more than ninety. Can. Reg., 10th Jan.

7th. The exportation of spelter, or tutenague, war iorbidden by an order from the Board of Revenue, on the recommendation of the late governor Lí. Can. Reg., 24th Jan.

18th. A report from Fukien reached Canton, that the imperial troops had been repulsed in attempting to land on Forraosa, and 1300 killed. Five thousand troops were, in consequence of this defeat, ordered from this province. Vol. I. p. 380.

February. The rebellion in Formosa produced so much concern in Peking, that the governor of Fukien, with two imperial commis- sioners, were ordered to take the field in person, and bring the war to a speedy close. The foreign ships on the coasts attract the atten- tion of the imperial government.

15th. A gazette of this date contains the decision of the emperor on the case of the late governor Lí, sending him into banishment to Orouintsi. Vol. I. 470.

March. Early in this month it was reported that the rebellion was suppressed, in Formosa, by the virtue of money, rather than by the force of arms.

14th. Chú, the lieut.-governor of Canton, member of the Military Board, of the Censorate, &c., &c., issued the following proclamation, which, while it affords a very correct idea of his own character, gives us an equally faithful view of that of the people.

 Chú, &c., &c., hereby issues proclamation for the purpose of correcting pub- lic morals; and delivering strict admonitions. In the acts of government, moral Instructions and the infliction of punishments are mutually assisting. But punishments should come after the act-instructions should go before. That neither should be neglected has long been decided. Two years have elapsed since my arrival at my official station in Canton, and I have observed the multitudinous

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Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

13

robberies and thefts therein. Streets and lanes are never tranquil. Daily, have I led the local officers to search and seize, so that we have not had strength for anything else; but the spirit of robbery has not, even till now, ceased. This has arisen from my defective virtue, the smallness of my ability, and the inequality in my conduct of majesty and mercy. I feel ashamed of myself. But, I consider, that luxury and extravagance are the causes of hunger and cold; and from thence robberies and thefts proceed. The learned gentry are at the head of the common people, and to them the villagers look up. If they do not sincerely issue educational commands, to cause the public morals to revert to regularity and economy, so that sons and younger brothers may gradually learn to be sincere and respectful : then, where is that which has long been considered the best device for a radical reform and a source-purifying process in a country? Availing myself of this doc- trine, I sball select a few of the most important topics, and proclaim them perspi- cuously below. That which I hope is that all you learned gentry, and all old men among the people, will, from this time and afterwards make a work of stirring and brushing up your spirits, to become leaders of the people; and to assist and supply that in which I am defective. When there are native vagabonds in a district, who oppose what is good, and plan with acts of disobedience, I shall order the local magistrate to punish them severely, but still scribes and policemen must not be allowed to make pretexts, and thus create disturbance. Alas! those who will not be concerned about the future, must one day have trouble near at hand. This, I, the lieutenant-governor, distinctly perceive, is the s ›urce of nefarious conduct. My mind is full of regret on the subject, and I will not be afraid to iterate instructions, and issue my commandments for the sake of the land. Ye learned gentry and elders of the people, respectfully listen to my words. Despise not! A respectful proclamation.

4.

    First. Exhortation and persuasions ought to be extensively diffused. The national family has appointed officers from provincial governors and lieute- nant-governors down to district inagistrates, who hold the station of guides and shepherds; and whose duty it is equally to renovate, and to lead the people. How can they throw their faults off on other people! Although sons and younger brothers may be deficient in respect, it is because fathers and elder brothers have not previously taught them. And how can the learned gentry in villages and hamlets, lanes and neighborhoods, shut thei- eyes or view occurrences as not concerning them! The teaching of the magistrate is interrupted by his being sometimes presentand sometimes absent. The teaching of a learned gentle- man is continuous by his constant presence. Here he was born, and grew up. He is perfectly acquainted with the public morals-what is beneficial and what is prejudicial. Moreover, he knows perfectly the roots of the mulberry, which join neighbors' houses; and the altar tree, whose shade is common to all. And, still more, he feels every pain and pleasure that is felt by any of his clan. To fathers, he can speak of tender heartedness; to sons, he can speak of filial duty. He can exhibit his instructions appropriately to every man, and convey them deli. cately in the slightest conversation. With half a word he can dissipate an intri- cate feud. It is easy for him to avail himself of his influence, and persuade to what is right.

Learned gentry read the useful books of sages and worthies; and for the na- tional family they should be useful men. If to-day they are living in the coun- try, i

v, instructors of morals and examples of propriety, another day they will fill offi-

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Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN

cial stations; following what is good, and obtaining the highest recompense. Being abroad and at home makes a temporary difference, but the incumbent duty in both stations is the sxine. At home, manifesting the principles of good government, is also being in the government, I, the lieutenant-governor in patrolling and soothing thissregion, am always toiling hither and thither about pub- lic affairs; I cannot get time to grasp the hand, and hold conversation with the learned gentry, and be always exhorting and exciting each other; but some- time, when I obtain an interview with you, I shall issue my commands, that you may enjoin those commands on other gentry; that every one may instruct his own neighborhood, and all correct their own kindred. When one village is renovated, it will exhibit beautiful morals. By union, scores of villages will exhibit the same beautiful morals. Then a whole district, will, in every house, become the same. Scores of districts will exhibit beautiful morals, and every house in the whole province will become the same. Then he who carries a heavy bur- den will only have to call, and be sure to have help, like Tsiángpi of old: and when fording a stream, and in danger, he will only have to cry out, and some friend will come to his aid.

44

He alone who has no blemish himself, can perfectly mend others. That which I hope, is that the virtuous will take the lead of the vicious. Only the good man will receive entirely the advice given him. None ought, on account of talents possessed, to reject those who are not talented. In ancient times, Yenkiun ping let fall the screen at Chingtú, and all the men of Shu were renovated. Chingtsz'mei himself ploughed at the mouth of the valley, and all the people of Kwányíú followed his example. When a scholar and good man girds up his loins, and walks firmly, he becomes the leader of all in the country. No doubt, when people look up at his gate, they will desist from their conten- tions; when they hear his name, those who are wrong will feel ashamed. In all you, learned gentry, I have substantial hopes.

Secondly. Plainness and economy should be greatly esteemed. Since I, the soother of the people, came to my present office, I have for two years observed and investigated the state of things among the people at Canton. I have looked at their airs, and inquired about their customs. I have secretly indulged intense sorrow; and been filled with extreme regret. And for nothing more than to see useful property thrown away for useless purposes; to see limited strength wasted on projects from which no benefit could accrue. In country places, the lasting occupations of husbandry and mulberry culture are still attended to with a spirit approaching to simplicity; but, in the town of Canton, at Fuhshan, and at all the places where markets are held, and official people live, there is a strife and emula- tion to exceed in gaiety and extravagance. At every anniversary of the birthday of a god: or when plays are perforined at masses for departed shades; or thanks- givings given for divine energies exerted in behalf of any one; or grateful pro- cessions with prayers are carried round, (all of which are what propriety does not interdict,) every one wants to boast of excelling, and to fight for great ex- pense; one imitates another, and in a worse degree. Some even go the extreme of erecting lofty and variegated pavilions; and for a great distance rearing flow- ery palaces. Fire trees and silver flowers fill the streets and stop the lanes. Men and women assemble promiscuously, greatly to the detriment of the public. The sums expended must be reckoned by thousands and tens of thous. And, in a few days, the whole is of no more use than mire or sand, and

manners.

ands.

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832, to 1841.

15

is thrown away like a child's grass dog. Moreover, a blast may set on fire and cause a conflagration, which will occasion the resentments of myriads of fa- milies. It cannot be that these things emanate from the wishes of the many. They must be led into crror by "divine vagabonds" (i. e. persons who make a pretext from serving the gods to serve themselves).

41

    'Consider-the shopmen in a street all live by a little trade; their origin is not bigger than a fly's head: their end a mere trifle; and the profits they gain are small. But, in a moment, it is spent on wind and flame. and thrown away for useless regrets. Heaven's ways hate self-sufficiency; demons and gods abomiuate a plethery. To consider such services as prayers must be followed by divine reprehension. I, the lieutenant-governor, am in my own person economical and simple, that I may be an example to the people. It is my sincere desire to make my nursing to consist in giving no trouble; and to teach by my own mode of fiving. This is what you learned gentry and common people all know, and all have seen.

"Hereafter, when any anniversary of a god's birthday occurs, there is no objection to your going to a temple to suspend lanterns, and hang up ornaments, offering sacrifices with abundance and cleanliness. But, as to the street exhibi- tions, you must not listen to the divine vagabonds, who make pretexts to collect money, and gather together men and women promiscuously. If such people assemble, the district constables and street elders must be responsible. The learned gentry are permitted to proceed summarily, and report them to the local magistrate for punishment; to pull back again the people from the regions of sterile custom. As to all causes of assuming the cap (or toga), marrying wives, or burying parents, with the sacrificial rites attendant thereon-whether poor or rich-all should have a tender feeling for commodities; and a tender feeling for subsequent enjoyment (i. e. avoid all waste). The said learned gentry also should substantiate the wish of me, the lieutenant-governor, to correct the people, and instruct them in morals-should advise them to substitute plainness for ex- travagance, and by economy nourish wealth: so that the people of a year of plenty, may so hoard that plentiful year's wealth, that the people of a year of scarcity may look up to a year of plenty's accumulations. Would not this be beautiful! Ah! governmental love to the people, is not so good as the people's love to themselves! Would the people but love and compassionate their own persons and families, where would be the occasion of their waiting till other per- sons laid plans for them! And if reciprocally acting, they thus led the fashior, they might govern sweetly, and never know discomfort. Using these topics, 1 have lucidly and earnestly proclaimed them, that all might hear and knowi wishing that none will tread the steps of their former iniquities; but all practice to the utmost good morals." Can. Reg., April 13th, 1833.

   16th. A document was sent up to the emperor, regarding foreign vessels on the coast, deprecating their appearance there, and plead- ing inability to prevent it.

     · A document sent up to the emperor, on the 10th of March, contains a reca- pitulation of all that has been, and of all that can be said, upon the subject of foreign ships going on coasting expeditions. This report is drawn up by the joint labor of the governor, lient.-governor, títuh and hoppo, who (ɑs well as old go- vernor Lí) have examined the matter, and given their opinion occordingly. It was called forth by the statement of Nå-url-king ih, lieut.-governor of Shantung

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Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

province, made to the emperor in consequence of the Lord Amherst having been in his jurisdiction, and endeavoring to trade. There is nothing new in it :-we have heard the substance, in the same words, over and over again. Lí, the títuh, consider it as a matter of impossibility to prevent ships from proceeding to the northeast coast, since the ocean is so very wide, and he has found out that ves. sels may proceed thither direct, without touching in Canton province. But he is exercising the utmost vigilance to prevent ships from proceeding, by way of Can- ton, to the northern ports. He sends for that purpose cruisers to keep a sharp lookout, both on the coast and open sea, and especially at the frontier of Fukien and Canton provinces. Yet, at the same time, he acknowledges, that a ship, even when arrested in her course, can again retrace her steps. He therefore orders his officers to pursue and drive any away, and at all events to send immediate notice to all officers along the coast, that they may be enabled to arrest her pro- gress, and to send her back to Canton. If it is found out, that the vessel comes by way of Canton, the naval officers are responsible, and their neglect of duty will be reported to the emperor.

46

The hoppo has examined in the matter of trade. He finds that the hong-mer- chants are just in their dealings, according to their own statement; that the -eduction of the port duties, three years ago, has roused the barbarian merchants to gratitude, for the favor bestowed by the grea! emperor who shows compassion towards distant foreigners. In consequence of these regulations, there came more than twenty English vessels two years ago. Up to the 17th of Jan. of this year there had been already twenty-six ships. The Company's trade had been carried on as custɔmary ; the duties paid ; and everything was going on prosperous- ly, and upon a firm footing. Country and other barbarian ships participated in the trade, and bad nothing to complain of. He considers therefore the pretence of transferring the trade to other ports, on account of the injustice done to foreign merchants, as quite futile ; and as a mere cloak to open a trade with other provinces where the cominodities yield a greater profit. But, in case the hong-merchants acted unjustly, the barbarian merchants were at liberty to petition government, which would take due care to investigate the matter. They have therefore no reason to creep like rats into the seas of Chekiáng and Shantung. According to the established regulations of the celestial empire, their trade is restricted solely to Canton, and they are not allowed to go to other provinces, from whence they will return, after having toiled to no purpose, and involved themselves in guilt.

"To take away all grounds of complaint, which might give rise to similar expeditions, in opposition to the ancient laws of the celestial empire, all the above named officers will bestow their utmost care in scrutinizing, whether the nava] officers commit the least negligence in the performance of their duty; whether the hong-merchants, or any other merchants commit the slightest act of injustice in their commercial dealings ; or whether the custom-house officers take more than the reduced tariff permits; they will, if found out, be reported to the emperor, that they may serve as a warning. The barbarian merchants may thus look up with composure to the holy lord,' who cherishes the utmost compassion towards foreigners." Can. Reg., May 31st, 1833.

27th. By the Peking gazette of this date it appears that another son has been born to the emperor, who is to be named Yihin, i. e. * Great and continued joy.' Can. Reg., July 15th.

1

:;

I

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

17

 April. Peking gazettes, that reached Canton during this month, contain accounts of recent military operations against freebooters on the frontiers of Shensí.

The exposed condition of the river leading to Peking, having been pointed out to the emperor, his majesty ordered Kishen the governor of the province, to examine into the state of the defenses at Tientsin. He did so, and reported against repairs, which report was accepted. Vol. I., p. 512.

28th. A fire broke out in the city of Tientsin, and more than a thousand houses were destroyed. The houses were chiefly low, being built of mud.

May. Letters were received in Canton, reporting that an insurrec- tion had broken out in Sz'chuen.

22d. The following proclamation, regarding the importation of foreign rice, we borrow from the Canton Register.

#4

  Lú, the governor, Chú, the lieutenant-governor, and Chung, the hoppo. order the hong-merchants and others, that they make themselves acquainted with the following:-

"The population of Canton province is dense, the merchants are numerous ; there reigned formerly abundance; but now the shore and great ocean are ploughed by numerous fishermen and peasants (verbally by threefold fishing and sevenfold occupation-cultivation), and the grain is not sufficient for the annual consumption. Heretofore, we have supplied the wants from the western provinces. But if there happened to be a year of scarcity and dearth, when nothing could be imported, the price of food would rise considerably, and we would also stand in want of rice from foreign countries. We find, upon examination, that, during the reigns of Kienlung and Kiáking all foreign rice ships had to pay no duties upon their cargoes, in order to show compassion, and to invite them hither. Our predecessors, the governor Yuen, the lieut.-governor Chin, and the hoppo Tá, renewed this pri- vilege during the 4th year of the reign of Táukwáng. But the foreign rice vessels, which have hitherto entered the port to dispose of their rice cargo, avoided only the entry-port fees; but were not allowed, after they had accomplished their sales and were returning to their country, to export any cargo. Those barbarian mer- chants had on their return no goods to ballast the ship, and it was difficult for them to stand against winds and waves; moreover, they could inake very little profit.

"The local government, therefore, which cherishes compassion towards distant foreigners, has implored the holy favor (imperial favor) to grant to the barbarian ships of all nations, that if they come without any other cargo but rice, to the port of Canton, as formerly, they shall not pay the entry port duties. Let the hong-merchants report how much rice they have brought, store it up in their hongs, and sell it according to the market price. After having disposed of it, allow these ships to take in an export cargo, and levy the export duties according to the same laws as upon the other barbarian ships. This will benefit the revenues, suit the people, and bring foreign basiness upon a firm footing, and all parties will be equally benefited.

VOL. XI. NO 1

3

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Review of Public Occurrences During the

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"We have with profound respect received the imperial pleasure upon this sub- ject; the matter is granted; and we have issued accordingly our explicit commands, that they may be obeyed, as is upon record. Barbarian merchants, who bring rice to the port of Canton, will thus have an equal profit upon their return cargoes. These barbarian merchants may therefore leap for joy, and go incessantly backwards and forwards. But the number of barbarian rice vessels, which repaired this year to the port of Canton, was not very considerable, and the whole amount of their imports is scarcely a tenth part of the rice which came from the west.

"We fear that the custom-house servants, and the boatmen of the revenue boats, exercise extortions under some pretence, beyond the legal duties which are to be levied, and thus prevent the barbarians from trading.

"It is found, upon examination, that the port clearance fees upon the exports, the fees for opening the bar, the direct duties, the fees for making up the difference in scales, and the liáng-táu's fees (grain department office), are levied upon rice ships, according to a fixed rate. Every ship has to pay for opening the bar and direct duties, 420 tacls, 4 m. 2 c.; for the scale business 32 tuels, 4 m. 2 cand. 8 cash; as the fees of the grain department, 116 taels, 4 m. 2 cand. 4 cash. The duty levied upon every ship will thus amount altogether to no more than 620 and odd taels. Besides this those in office ought not to levy any fees. The governor, lieut.-governor and hoppo have however found out that the rice ships are sub- ject to extortions, made in different ways, and under sundry names, beyond the expenses incurred for payment of the above mentioned dutics. Now, these are the sordid fees of the men belonging to the custom-house, which they take to themselves.

"It is plain, that the barbarian merchants come a very long way to sell their rice at Canton, according to the ancient laws, which lessen the duties. There has since also been granted to them, upon representation, leave to return with a cargo to their country, not solely to procure subsistence for the inhabitants of the metropolis, but also to show superabundant compassion towards distant foreigners; how can you extort under any name, or in any way, more than what the customary duties and fees amount to 1 At the present moment, we give our explicit orders to those in office, in regard to the duties and fees which ought to be levied upon rice ships; all which are not in the tariff are strictly forbidden, and beyond this no extortions are permitted. In entering the port, the expenses are lessened, and on going out of the port, they have not to pay much. As soon as they have arrived here, they can dispose of their cargo, and quickly come back, and those barbarian merchants will make a very great profit. But what regards the inhabitants, who hoard up the rice, and the shopkeepers;--they know, that the foreign rice, on account of having suffered the moisture of the sea and winds, easily rots and spoils, and cannot be kept long. The shopkeepers only run after gain;-how can they then hoard it up, let the rice spoil, and suffer loss? Thus, those barbarian merchants will have no trouble in bringing it on, and the large dealers in disposing of it. Henceforth, the hong-merchants, who receive the rice, and the rice shopkeeper next, ought to give a chop that the value is paid at a stated time, and thus afford the barbarian ships opportunity of disposing soon of their cargo, and returning with- out interruption repeatedly. As soon as the rice has been taken ont, it ought to be generally made known in all quarters, and the shopkeepers ought to sell it by retail, and dispose of it in small quantities, so as it shall be most convenient for the people

It is not confined to one place, nor can any monopoly be carried on in

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

19

it. The shopkeepers ought solely to vend it in and outside the city; they cannot export it out of the province. As often as the hong-merchants receive rice, they ought to send in a chop, stating the quaatity, to the local officers, and the govern. or, lieutenant-governor, and hoppo's officers, who will examine it. and duly communicate it to the háu-kó, that he may hand it in to the said officers (the hoppo's clerks), that they are not to make money by extortion; but if they are found out, they will be reprimanded and degraded. Thus, there will be no longer any necessity for making new regulations against the growth of vile practices.

"We cominand at the same time the local officers, and the whole body of hong- merchants, to obey, whilst we add to this our explicit orders addressed to all the military belonging to the metropolis, and to all the soldiers and servants who guard the entrance, and to all the linguists of barbarian merchants of different nations- that they may duly acquaint themselves that, from the moment of this publication, every rice ship ought to pay the export duties and customs according to the es- tablished imperial tariff. The soldiers and servants of the custom-house, and the compradors, cannot by any means, or under any name, charge them by extra extortions. Yet, if they dare to disobey, they will be punished, prosecuted, and all banished.

When the rice has entered the harbor, and passed the custom-house, let it be entirely disposed of, and let the hong-merchants and shopkeepers give notice of it, for the advantage of the people. But every shopkeeper, who retails it and sells it in small quantities, ought to confine himself to this province, to dispose of it- the exportation is not permitted. Everybody ought to obey this implicitly, and not slight this special proclamation.

We have moreover issued explicit orders in addition to these, addressed to those merchants, that they immediately communicate conmmands to all the chiefs and barbarian principals of every nation, and to all the barbarian ships, that they jointly obey this. Do not oppose! A special order!" Can. Reg., June 17th, 1833. June. Rumors were still abroad concerning insurgents and re- fugees in Formosa. Vol. II., p. 95.

Large numbers of poor people, driven by famine from their homes in Kiángsí, made their appearance at Canton; and in some instances, these hungry beggars in large gangs entered the foreign factories.

10th. The death of the empress, who had long been in a state of bad health, occurred this day at Peking. The usual honorary ce- remonies were decreed. Vol. 11., p. 142.

   A Chinese Mohammedan,-a poor native of Tientsin, returned, via Bombay, from a pilgrimage to Mecca, after an absence of three years from Canton.

   17th. A young woman in Canton, aged seventeen years, received sentence of death for crime of poisoning her uncle, and was imme- diately carried out to the place of execution, and there beheaded.

23d. Prospectus for a monthly periodical in the Chinese lan- guage was issued at Canton by the Rev. Charles Gutzlaff.

July 5th. The governor of Canton issued a proclamation derlar-

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Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

ing, that all vessels trading to Canton, and bringing cargoes of rice, shall pay only the regular imperial duties on leaving the port, the measurement duties being remitted. Can. Reg., 15th July.

An insurrection broke out in Cochinchina about this time, the par ticulars of which were given a letter of this date, written by a Chinese at the city of Saigon.

9th. Captain Bernardo Joze de Souza Soares Andreia, governor of Macao, arrived from Goa, and landed with the usual honors.

10th. A very destructive inundation occurred along the river near Canton, occasioned by a succession of heavy rains; at some places the water rose more than ten feet above the ordinary mark. Thou- sands of lives were lost.

11th. The select committee of the E. I. Co.'s factory withdrew the license under which the opium receiving ship Hercules was permit- ted to resort to China. This was countermanded by a second notice, dated the 25th. Can. Reg.

27th. The mercury in the thermometer at Canton stood at 96° for five hours, a scorching wind blowing at the same time from the north and west.

A Chinese man-of-war, while cruizing off Hainan in February, having deen driven down to Cochinchina by the northerly winds and currents, was sent back by the king under convoy.

August 1st. The first number of the monthly periodical, in the Chinese language, was this day published in Canton by Mr. Gutzlaff. Under this date the governor of Canton issued an edict, forbidding the introduction of the other goods with cargoes of rice, in evasion of legal duties.

4th. Twenty-three men were beheaded this day at the usual place of public execution in Canton.

Yuen Yuen, formerly the governor of Canton, and afterwards holding the same office in Yunnan, becomes the sixth member of the cabinet. Vol. II., p. 192.

The hoppo Chung published an edict requiring all foreigners to leave Canton, and return home or go to Macao as soon as their busi- ness was finished-acting in obedience to old custom.

September 7th. Again Canton and its vicinity were inundated, the river rising far above its ordinary limits, and spreading devasta- tion through fields and villages. The water at the gates of the fo- reign factories stood four or five feet high. The number of houses demolished in the city and suburbs was, according to an official re- port to the emperor, more than four thousand. Vol. II., p. 238.

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841

21

An envoy from the court of Hué în Cochinchina was expected to reach Peking early this inonth; he was to enter the Chinese borders on the 30th of March, and pass through the provinces of Kwangsí, Húpe, &c., to the court of Táukwáng. Vol. II., p. 240.

An earthquake was experienced early this month in Yunnán; re- port said the shocks continued on several successive days, and hun- dreds of people were destroyed. Vol. II., p. 238.

Locusts appeared in Kwangsí, coming from the north, and after tra- versing that province, they made an advance towards Canton. Orders were immediately issued for their extermination. Vol. II., p. 288.

October. Hingan and other high officers at court were recently reprimanded and degraded, for presuming to break in upon the retire- ment of their sovereign while in mourning for his imperial consort, in order to propose unprecedented amendments in the ceremonies of that mournful occasion. Can. Reg., Oct. 24th.

20th. Lieutenant-governor Chú, having obtained leave to retire on the plea of illness, left Canton.

Yang, the late commissioner of justice, after residing in Canton for little more than a year, was recalled.

November 5th. H. B. M. ship Magicienne, capt. Plumridge, ar- rived in China, viâ Mauila, and soon after sailed for India.

25th. Ye Yungchi, the famous village tyrant of Tungkwán, was executed at Canton, with 15 other criminals: Ye and three others were strangled, the remaining 12 were beheaded.

December. An imperial messenger reached Canton, to announce to the provincial authorities, that the remains of the late empress had been deposited in the imperial mausoleum.

It was also reported that his majesty had raised to the rank of em- press, Chiunfi his second wife, a sister of Hingan.

A report having been made to the emperor by his officers in Che- kiáng, complaining of the exportation of sycee silver in exchange for opium, it was decreed that yellow gold and white silver should be prohibited, but that foreign money, i. e. dollars, should not be includ- ed in this interdict. Hwang Tsiótsz' protested against this, and beg- ged that the coining of dollars might be forbidden.

15th. A decree some time previous to this date was issued by the Portuguese government of Macao, requiring all Catholic priests (not Portuguese) to leave the place on or before the 15th of Decem- ber. Vol. III., p. 383.

  24th. A secret memorial was addressed to the emperor by Lin 'Tsihsiú, then lieutenant-governor of Kiángsú, concerning the non

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Review of Public Occurrences. During the

Jan.

payment of taxes. An abstract of the document was given by Dr. Morrison. Vol. III, p. 144.

January 1st, 1834. Soon after the departure of Messrs. Plowden and Davis from Canton to Macao, just before new-year holidays, the hoppo or commissioner of customs issued an edict, censuring them for not asking his excellency's permission.

8th. A report was current in Canton concerning an insurrection in Cochinchina, a person with the title of Kiálung having set himself up against the authority of Mingming, the reigning king. The par- ticulars are detailed in the Canton Register of the 14th.

26th. Under this date, viscount Palmerston addressed a letter to lord Napier, from which the following is an extract:

"Your lordship's instructions, under the royal Sign Manual, contain all that is essentially necessary for your guidance, in the general conduct of the super- intendence intrusted to your charge. But there still remain some particular points, upon which I am commanded by his majesty to convey to you, for your information and guidance, the further instructions which you will find in this dispatch, and in my others of the same date.

"Your lordship will announce your arrival at Canton by letter to the viceroy. In addition to the duty of protecting and fostering the trade of his majesty's subjects with the port of Canton, it will be one of your principal objects to ascertain, whether may not be practicable to extend that trade to other parts of the Chinese dominions. And for this end you will omit no favorable opportunity of encouraging any disposition which you may discover in the Chinese authorities, to enter into commercial relations with his majesty's government. It is obvious that, with a view to the attainment of this object, the establishment of direct communications with the imperial court at Peking would be desirable; and you will accordingly direct your attention to discover the best means of preparing the way for such communications; bearing constantly in mind, however, that peculiar caution and circumspection will be in- dispensable on this point, lest you should awaken the fears, or offend the preju dices, of the Chinese government; and thus put to hazard even the existing opportunities of intercourse, by a precipitate attempt to extend them. In conformity with this caution, you will abstain from entering into any new relations or negotiations with the Chinese authorities, except under very urgent and unforeseen circumstances. But if any opportunity for such negotiations should appear to you to present itself, you will lose no time in reporting the circumstance to his majesty's government, and in asking for instructions; but, previously to the receipt of such instructions, you will adopt no proceedings but such as may have a general tendency to convince the Chinese authorities of the sincere desire of the king to cultivate the most friendly relations with the emperor of China, and to join with him in any measures likely to promote the happiness and prosperity of their respective subjects. "I have to add, that I do not at present foresee any case in which it could be advisable that you should leave Canton to visit Peking, or any other parts of China, without having previously obtained the approbation of kis majesty's government.

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

Observing the same prudence and caution which I have inculcated above, you will avail yourself every opportunity which may present itself, for ascertaining whether it may not be possible to establish commercial intercourse with Japan, and with any other of the neighboring countries; and you will report to this department, from time to time, the results of your observation and inquiries. It is understood that a survey of the Chinese coast is much required; and your attention should, therefore, be directed to this subject, with a view to ascertain the probable expense of such an undertaking; and you will have the goodness to transmit to me an carly and full report of your opinion. But you will not take any steps for commencing such a survey, till you receive an authority from hence to do so.

46

     Your attention should also be directed to the inquiry, whether there be any, and what, places at which ships might find requisite protection in the event of hostilities in the China seas. Upon these points, I recommend to your attentive consideration the inclosed observations of capt. Horsburgh, the correctness of which your lordship will make it your duty to investigate. Peculiar will be necessary on the part of the superintendents, with regard to such ships as may attempt to explore the coast of China for purposes of traffic. It is not desirable that you should encourage such adventures; but you must never lose sight of the fact, you have no authority to interfere with, or to prevent, them. It is generally considered that the Bocca Tigris, which is marked by a fort iminediately above Anson's Bay, forms the limit of the port of Canton :* and as this appears to be the understanding of the Chinese authorities themselves, a notification to that effect has been made to the mer. chants in this country. Your lordship will, accordingly, conform to that under- standing." Correspondence relating to China, (Blue Book) puge 4.

    February 11th. About the middle of Oct., 1833, an affray occur- red at Kumsing moon, in consequence of which, and sometime sub- sequently, through the agency of one of the hong-merchants, a black man was conveyed from Macao to Canton and induced to declare himself to be the person who had accidentally killed a Chinese in the affray. This led to a spirited correspondence between the committee of the E. I. Co.'s factory and the local authorities.

The correspon- dence closed this day; and the man, not very long afterwards, was released. Vol. II., p. 515,

    26th. His excellency Lí Táikáu, the literary chancellor of Can- ton, hung himself in his own house this morning.

March. Droughts, inundations, famine, and insurrections, are ca- lamities of very frequent occurrences in all parts of the empire. At this time the provinces of Yunnán, Húuán, Húpe, Kiángsí, Shántung, and Chili, were suffering from one or other of these evils.

4th. A fire broke out in the large temple in Hónán, nearly oppo- site to the foreign factories, and one of the principal pavilions was entirely destroyed with all its images.

By instruction to sir G. B. Robinson, dated May 28th, 1836, the limits of the jurisdiction of the superintendents were extended, so as to include Lintin and

Macao.

24

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

5th. Under this date an order was passed at the court of St. James, revoking a previous order of the 9th of December, 1833, whereby certain duties were imposed on British ships, and the goods on board thereof, trading to the port of Canton.

6th. The emperor published an edict, containing his triennial opinion and decisions concerning the chief officers of the empire. Vol. III., p. 96.

22d. The first English vessel in the free trade, the ship Sarah, captain Whiteside, sailed from Whampoa for London. See Chronicle of events in the Anglo-Chinese Calender, 1839.

April 6th. The ceremonies of annual ploughing by the emperor in person were this day celebrated at Peking. Vol. II., p. 576.

22d. The honorable East India Company's exclusive rights in China ceased this day. Vol. II., p. 574.

25th. The first vessels in the free trade, laden with teas-the Camden, Frances Charlotte, and Georgiana,-sailed from China for England. Calender, p. 23.

May 1st. Among the native inhabitants of Canton a good deal of sickness prevailed; and some cases of sinail-pox * were reported in the same neighborhood. Vol. III., p. 45.

2d. The governor of Canton, and several of the other high pro- vincial officers visited the foreign factories, apparently for their mere amusement and gratification of curiosity. Vol. III., p. 45.

3d. It was rumored (and the rumor was probably according to the truth) that the lady of the hoppo went incognito to see the foreign factories.

9th. Ki Kung, during the last four years lieutenant-governor in Kwangsí, arrived in Canton to fill the same office. Vol. III., p. 47. 19th. His excellency governor Lú set out on a tour through the provinces under his jurisdiction, for the purpose of inspecting the imperial troops. Vol. III., p. 47.

22d. The remains of the late literary chancellor Lí, were carried out of the city and sent on their way to his native province Kwei- chau. The lieutenant-governor accompanied them beyond the west- crn gate. Vol. III., p. 48.

The death of a Burman envoy, at Peking, was reported about this time in Canton. He was interred at the capital, as the remains of other deceased envoys from Cochinchina and Siam have been.

*Note. Vaccination, for the prevention of this disease, has been regularly and successfully practiced, every eighth day, during many years by Hèqua, at the public hall of the houg-merchants.

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

25

June 11th. The festival of the dragon boats was celebrated this day, with great pomp and noise, notwithstanding the distressed state the people. Vol. III., p. 95.

14th. Governor Lú issued an order to the magistrates of Canton, commanding them to interdict the slaughter of animals, and to fast for three days on account of the inundation.

28th. The city and vicinity of Canton were again this month visited by an inundation, more destructive than that of last year, the water rising considerably higher. Vol. III., p. 96.

July 2d. Two young men in Canton, named Asú and Acháng, put an end their life by swallowing opium. This is one of the most common means of suicide in China. Vol. III., p. 142.

10th. A new literary chancellor, Wáng chi, made his entry into the provincial city; he came as successor to the late chancellor Lí.

   15th. The right honorable lord Napier and suite, lady Napier and family, arrived at Macao in H. M. ship Andromache, captain Chads, and landed at 3 P. M. under a salute from the Portuguese fort. Corresp. p. 7.

17th. John Francis Davis, esq., accepted the situation of second superintendent, sir G. Best Robinson, bart., accepted the situation of third superintendent, and John Harvey Astell, esq., that of secretary to the superintendents.

19th. The Rev. Dr. Morrison was appointed Chinese secretary and interpreter; captain Charles Elliot, R. N., master attendant; T. R. College, esq., surgeon; and Mr. Anderson, assistant surgeon. The Rev. G. H. Vachell, then on his way from England, was to as- sume the duties of chaplain. The office of private secretary to his lord- ship was filled by A. R. Johnston, esq. Vol. III., p. 143. Cor. p. 7.

23d. The superintendents embarked at Macao on board the ship Andromache, and proceeded to the anchorage at Chuenpi, where she anchored at midnight.

24th. This morning a Chinese war-junk came to anchor near H. B. M. ship, and fired a salute of three guns, which was returned. At noon the superintendents left the ship under a salute of 13 guns, and vent on board the cutter Louisa and proceeded to Canton. Cor- resp. p. 7.

   25th. Early this morning (2 A. M.) the superintendents arrived in Canton, and at daylight the union jack was hoisted.

26th. In the Canton Register of this date, was published by au- thority a copy of the king's commission to the superintendents. Vol.

III,

p. 143.

VOL XI. NO. 1.

4

26

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN

The following communication, having been translated into Chi- nese, and in the form of a letter, not a petition, addressed to the go- vernor, was carried to the city gates by Mr. Astell, accompanied by a deputation of gentlemen from the establishment.

"In pursuance of orders from any most gracious sovereign, William IV., king of Great Britain and Ireland, I have the honor of notifying to your excellency my urrival at the city of Canton, bearing a royal commission constituting and up- pointing me chief superintendent of British trade to the dominions of his imper- ial majesty the emperor of China. By this commission are associated with me, John Francis Davis, esq., and sir George Best Robinson, bart., late of the ho- norable East India Company's factory at this place. The object of the said royal commission is to empower us, his majesty's superintendents, to protect and promote the British trade, which, from the boundless extent of his majesty's dominions, will bear the traffic of the four quarters of the world to the shores of the emperor of China,-the exclusive privileges and trade hitherto enjoyed by the honorable East India Company of mercuants having ceased and determined, by the will and power of his majesty the king and the parliament of Great Britain. I have also the honor of acquainting your excellency, that his majesty, iny most gracious sovereign, has been pleased to invest me with powers, political and judicial, to be exercised according to circumstances.

'At present, I will only further request that your excellency will grant me, with my colleagues, the honor of a personal interview, when it will be my duty to explain more fully to your excellency the nature of the changes which have taken place, and upon which our present duties and instructions have been founded. Allow me to convey, through your excellency, to ......... imperial majesty, the high consideration of his majesty the king, my master; and with the utmost respect for your excellency, allow me to subscribe myself your excellency's very faithful and obedient servant. (Signed) NAPIER, Chief Superintendent."

In attempting to convey his lordship's letter to his excellency the governor, odd scenes, equally insulting and ridiculous, played off with more or less success a hundred times before, were reäcted at the city gates. We quote them as described in a dispatch from lord Napier to lord Palmerston.

"It may be here stated, that during the intrval employed in translating my letter, the hong-merchants, Howqua and Mowqua, arrived with the copy of an edict, ad- dressed by the viceroy to themselves, for the purpose of being enjoined on the su- perintendents by their body. Long experience having already proved to the Fast India Company the utter futility of such a medium of communication, and the compliance therewith only tending to degrade his majesty's commission and the British public in general, in the estimation of the Chinese people, and to rend- er the exertions of the superintendents to perform their various duties altogether ineffectual, the hong-merchants were courteously dismissed with an intimation, That I would communicate inmediately with the viceroy in the manner befit- ting his majesty's commission, and the honor of the British nation.' Mr. Astell was, therefore, instructed to deliver my letter to an officer, and to avoid any com munications through the hong-merchants, which might afterwards be represent- ed as an official communication, and a precedent on all other occasions.

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

27

   "On the arrival of the party at the city gates, the soldier on guard was dispatch- ed to report the circumstance to his superior. In less than a quarter of an hour, an officer of inferior rank appeared ; whereupon Mr. Astell offered my letter for transmission to the viceroy, which duty this officer declined; adding, that his su- perior was on his way to the spot. In the course of an hour several officers of nearly equal rank, arrived in succession; each refusing to deliver the letter, on the plea that "higher officers would shortly attend." After an hour's delay, during which time the party were treated with much indignity, not unusual on such occa- sions, the linguists and hong-merchants arrived, who intreated to become the bearers of the letter to the viceroy. About this time, an officer of rank higher than any of those who bad preceded him, joined the party, to whom the letter was in due form offered, and as formally refused.

   "The officers having seen the superscription on the letter, argued, 'that as it came from the superintendent of trade, the hong-merchants were the proper channel of communication;' but this obstacle appeared of minor importance in their eyes, upon ascertaining that the document was styled a letter and not a peti- tion. The linguists requested to be allowed a copy of the address, which was of course refused.

"About this time the kwáng-hie, a military officer of considerable rank, ac- companied by an officer a little inferior to himself, arrived on the spot, to whom the letter was offered three several times, and as often refused. The senior bong- merchant, Howqua, after a private conversation with the kwáng-hie, requested to be allowed to carry the letter in company with the kwáng-hie, and ascertain whether it would be received. This being considered as an insidious attempt to circumvent the directions of the superintendents, a negative was made to this and other overtures of a similar tendency.

    Suddenly, all the officers took their departure, for the purpose, as it was after. wards ascertained, of consulting with the viceroy. Nearly three hours having been thus lost within the city, Mr. Astell determined to wait a reasonable time for the return of the officers, who shortly afterwards re-assembled; whereupon Mr. As- tell respectfully offered the letter in question three separate times to the kwáng. bie, and afterwards to the other officers, all of whom distinctly refused even to touch it; upon which Mr. Astell and his party returned to the factory,"

   27th. The hong-merchants in a body waited on the superinten- dents; and after a long conversation, marked on their part by cnn- ing and duplicity, Howqua proposed that a new address should be affixed to the letter-substituting the word petition for letter, altering somewhat the designation of the governor: the first was refused, the second, being a mere matter of courtesy, was complied with How- qua having taken a copy of the same for the approval of the governor, took his departure, promising to bring a reply next day.

28th. This morning a ticket was addressed to his lordship by Howqua, announcing his intention to call with the other hong-mer- chants at one o'clock. On this ticket, instead of using the words which Dr. Morrison had selected for "lord Napier," Howqua wrote "Laboriously Vile;" and on being asked the reason, avoided expla-

28

New System of Orthography

JAN.

nation, only remarking that he had been "so instructed by the pilot." They came at the appointed hour, but Howqua only was admitted; and he, having declared that the communication would not be receiv ed unless superscribed as a petition, was at once dismissed.

31st. Howqua and Mowqua waited on the superintendents, with an edict from the governor, not addressed to lord Napier but to them, and by them to be enjoined on him. Corresp. p. 9.

(To be continued.)

ART. II.

New orthography adopted for representing the sounds of Chinese characters, by the Roman alphabet, in the national language and in the dialects of Canton and Fukien. DISSATISFACTION with the existing systems of orthography for indi- cating the sounds of Chinese characters has been repeatedly express- ed in our pages, defects have been pointed out, and improvements suggested. In volume third, page 29, was introduced a table of the Chinese significant sounds, exclusive of the variations formed by the modulation of tones and aspirates.' In volume fifth, page 22, a new system was proposed; this was somewhat modified in volume sixth, page 479 and the sequel, and with a few slight changes is now adop- ted for the pages of the Repository.

·

Note. The new orthography comprises all the syllables, alphabetically arrang- ed, contained in Morrison's Dictionary, Part 2d. In this list of syllables, all the modifications occasioned by the tones and aspirates, are disregarded-otherwise instead of 410, there would have been nearly 1600 syllables. A complete syllabic system ought to define each of these 1600 syllables, and arrange under one or other of them, every word in the language.

Morrison's orthography is that given in Part 2d of his Dictionary; the numbers, as they there stand, are here retained, but are disarranged by the new orthography. The Canton Dialect is that used in the Chinese Chrestomathy, made out from a Chinese Tonic Dictionary. The number of syllables in this Tonic Dictionary- in which all the modifications occasioned by the tones and aspirates are marked- amounts to 1582: the work comprises 8335 characters, being those most in use.

Medhurst's orthography is that in his dictionary of the Fukien dialect, in which work he has fully explained it.

In the new orthography of the Fukien dialect the sounds of the Roman letters (vowels, diphthongs, and consonants,) are the same as in the other new ortho- graphy and in the Canton dialect. The object ained at, and it is one of great im- portance, is to have but one system of orthography for all the dialects,

1842.

No.

Chi- New Or mese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton

Dialect.

1亞á

1 a

2

án

2 an

3 澳 au

3 aou

@ o

á

New System of Orthography.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

á

29

à

ón

an

án

Ò

Ò'

4 chá

4 cha

chá

chay

.ché

5閘 cháh

5 chă

cháp

chah chál,

6 chái

6 chae

chái

ch'hay ch'é

7 h chán

7 chan

8 đi cháng 9H cháu

8 chang

chám chám chám

chéung chěang cháng

9 chaou

chí

teãou tiáu2

10

chau

19 chow

chau

tēw

tíú

11 者 ché

10 chay

ché

chëá

chia

12 折 che 13 占 chen

12 chě

chít

cheet chiet,

13 chen

chím

cheem

chiem

14 ÂM chí

11 che

chí

te

15 R chi

14 chih

chik

ch'hek ch'ek,

16 真 chin

15 chin

chan

chin .chin

17 正 ching

16 ching

ching

chèng cheng'

18 k chó

17 cho

chéuk

tok

tók,

19 - chú

18 choo

chü

choó

'chú

20 竹 chu

22 chuh

chuk

tek

tek,

21

chue

20 chuě

chüt

twat twat,

22 chuen | chuen

21 chuen

chün

ch'hwan .ch'wár.

23 Ê chúi

25 chuy

chui

tuy

túi

24 春 chun

23 chun

chun

ch'hun chun

26 撾chwá

25 t chung 24 chung chung trong

26 chwa chá

tióng

ch'hwa ch'wá

27 嘬 chwái

27 chwae

chüt

chöey choé

30

Chi- New Or

New System of Orthography.

Morrison's

Canton

No. nese, thography, Orthography. Dialect.

JAN.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

28 ;t chwáng 28 choang chóng chòng

chóng

29 法 fáh

30 fă

fát

hwat hwát,

30 凡 fán

31 fan

fán

hwän hwán

31 分 fan

38 fun

fan

hwun .hún

32 方 fáng

32 fang

fóng

hong

chóng

33 否 fau

36 for

fau

hoé

'hó

34

fi

33 fe

hwuy

chúi

35 縛 fo

35 fo

fők

pók

pók,

36 ✰ fú

34 foo

hōo hú

37 弗 fu

37 fuh

fat

hwut hút,

38 風 fung

39 fung

fung

hong chóng

39 để hái

50 hae

hoi

haë

hái

40 - hán

51 han

hón

hän

hán

41 恨 han

52 hằn

han

hin

hin'

42 tr háng

53 hang

hóng

hâng

tháng

43 衡 hang

54 hãng

hang

hêng

sheng

44 好 háu

55 haou

'hò

45 後 hau

79 how

hau

hoë

hó2

46 赫 he

73 hih

hak

hek

hek,

47 希hí

56 he

he

chí

48 檄 hi

64 heth

hat

hék

hek,

49下hiá

57 hea

hay

50 狹 hiáh

53 heǎ

háp

hëep

hiep,

51 械 hiái

59 heae

hái

haë hái2

52 lầ] hoảng

60 hoang heung

hoàng háng

53 孝 hiáu 54 協 hie

61 heaou-háu

haou háu'

62 heč

híp

heep hiep.

1842.

No.

Chi- New Or- nese, thography.

New System of Orthography.

Morrison's Orthography.

31

Canton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

55 陷hien

63 heen 'hám

hām hám2

56 忻 hin

74 hin

yan

hin

chin

57 行 hing

75 hing

hang

hêng

cheng

58學 hió

65 heč

hók

hák

hák,

59 頊 hiu 60休hiú

69 houh

huk

hëuk hiok,

72 hew

yau

hew

chiú

61 穴 hiue

67 heuě

üt

hëet

hiet,

62 Źhiuen

68 heuen

üin

hëên

chien

63 hiun

70 heun

fan

hwun .hún

64hiung 71 heung

hung

heung chiung

65 火 hò

76 ho

h"ó

'h'ò

66 hó

77 hò

hòp

háp

háp,

67 湖 hú

78 hoo

ú

hoë

hò2

68 吁 hü

66 heu

he

chí

69 hung

80 hung

hung

hông

hóng

70 化 hwá

81 hwa

hwà

hwá'

71 va hwáh 82 ha

wát

kwút

kwút,

72 淮 hwai

83 hwae

wái

hwaê

shwái

73 má hwán 84 hwan

fún

hwàn hwan'

74 | hwan 85 hoàn

fan

hwun hún

75 hwáng 86 hwang 76 là hwang 87 hàng

77 活 hwó 88 hwŏ

wóng

hông

chóng

wáng

hêng

heng

út

hwat

hwát,

78 忽 hwu

89 huuh

fat

bwut

hút,

79 10 hwui

90 hwuy

úi

höêy

shoé

80í

81 m jáng 91 jung

29 €

í

e

í

yéung

jeang

jiáng

32

New System of Orthography

JAN.

Chi- New Or-

No.

nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton

Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

82 饒 jńu

92 jaou

íú

jeâu

jiáou

33 肉 jau

102 jow

yuk

jëúk

jiók,

84

93 jay

jëá

jiá

85 熱 je

94-5 jč

ít

jëët

jiet,

86 然 jen

97 jen

ín

jëên

sjien

87日ji

96 jih

yat

jit

jit2

88

90 若 jó

91 汝 ji

92

94

人仍若汝辱軟潤戎

jin

98 jin

yan

jîn

jin

89 仍 jing

99 jing

ying

jeungjióng

100 jo

yéuk

jëåk

jiák,

101 joo

ju

104 juh

yuk

jëúk

jiók,

93 軟 juen 103 juen

yün

jwán

*jwán

jui 107 juy

yui

joey

joé❜

95 潤 jun

105 jun

yun

jūn

jún2

96 戎 jung

106 jung

yung

jeungjióng

97 Er kái

108 kue

koi

kaé

'kái

98 kán

109 kan

kón

kan

kán

99 跟 kan

110 kăn

kan

kin

‹kin

100 đi káng

111 kang

kóng

không kóng

101 kang

112 kăng

kang

keng

keng

102 告 káu

113 kaou

Κύ

ko'

103 kau

138 kow

hau

k'hoé

'k'ò

1042 ke

132 kih

hák

k'hek k'ek,

105 总 kí

114 ke

106 及 ki

123 keih

kap

kip

kíp

107 âm kia

115 kea

kay

108 甲 kiûh

116 kca

káp

kap

káp.

Morrison's Orthography.

1842.

Chi- New Or No. nese. thography.

New System of Orthography.

33

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

Canton Dialect.

109 皆 kiái

117 heae

kái

kae

.kái

110

kiáng

118 keäng

kóng

kang

káng

111 P kiáu

119 keaou

kíú

keàou kiáu'

112 茄 kié

120 keay

kay

ské

113 刦 kie

121 kee

kíp

keep

kiep,

114 劍 kien

122 këen

kím

këèm

kien

 115 巾 kin 116京 king

133 kin

kan

kin

.kin

34 king

king

keng

keng

 117 角 kió 118菊 kiu

124 keč

kók

kak

kák,

128 keuh

kuk

këuk

kiuk,

119 决 kiue

126 keuč

küt

kwat kwat,

120 kiuen

127 keuen

hün

k'hëén 'k'ien

121 均 kiun

129 keun

kwan

kin

.kin.

122 kiung 130 keung kung

këông

khủng

kiung

123 九 kiú

131 kew

kau

kéw

kiú

124 個 kò

135 ko

ko'

125 各 kó

136 ko

kók

kok

kok,

126 古kú

137 koo

koé

'kó

127 kü

125 keu

k'hè

ki

128 谷 ku

139 kuh

kuk

kok

kok,

129 I kung

140 kung

kung

kong

kóng

130瓜kwá

141 kwa

kwá

kwa

.kwá

131 kwáh 142 kwa

kwát

kwat kwat,

132 快 kwái

143 kwae

fái

k'hwaè kw'áï'

133 kwán

144 kwan

kún

kwan .kwán

134

kwan 145 kwăn

kwan

khwùn kún

135 kwáng 146 lang kwóng

kong kóng

VUL XI. NO 1

5

34

No.

New System of Orthography

Morrison's

Canton

Chi- New Or- nese, thography, Orthography. Dialect.

JAN.

Medhurst's New Fukien

Orthography. Orthography.

136 H4 kwang 147 Hoàng kwang keng keng

137kwei

148 kwoci

kwai

kwuy

kwúi

138 果 kwù

149 kwo

kwó

'ko

139 國 kwú

150 kwo

kwók

kok

kok,

140 圣 kwu

151 kruh

fat

kwaè

kwai'

141 đủ là

Hlá

152 la

leep

liep,

142 喇 lúh

153 lă

la

dlá

143 để lái

154 lae

loi

laê

lái

144 濫 lán

155 lan

Jám

lam

lám2

145 浪 láng

156 lang

lóng

lông

lóng

146 冷 lang

157 lăng

lang

léng

'leng

147 để lâu

158 laou

10

148 樓 lau

177 low

lau

loê

149 勒 le

171 th

lak

lék

lek,

150 | lí

159 le

151力li

164 leih

lik

lék

lek,

152

liáng

160 leang

léung

láng

'liáng

153 liáu

161 leaou

líú

lcáou

'liáu

154 51) lie

162 lee

lít

Jëët

liet,

155 連 lien

163 lëen

lín

lëên

lien

156 lin

172 lin

lam

lîm

lim

157 命 ling

173 ling

ling

lêng

deng

158 畧 liú

165 leo

léuk

leak

liák,

159 流 liú

170 lero

lau

lêw

Jiú

160 律 liu

169 leйh

lut

lút

lút,

161 劣 liue

167 leuč

liit

Iwat

lwát,

162 $ liuen

168 leuen

lin

Iwan

lwán

1842.

Chi- New Or-

No. nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton

New System of Orthography.

Medhurst's New Fukien

35

Dialect.

Orthography. Orthography.

163 雞lò

174 lo

slò

164 洛 lú

175 18

lók

lók

lók,

165 路 lú

176 loo

loë

162

166 呂li

166 leu

167

lu

178 lĩh

luk

lëúk

liuk,

168射 wán

182 Iwan

lun

lwán

Iwán

169 電 lui

181 luy

lui

lûy

lúi

170 倫 lun

179 lun lun

lûn

‹lún

171

lung

180 lung

180 lung

lung

löng

lóng

172

183 ma

'má

173

máh

184 mă

mút

bwat

bwát,

174 H mái

185 mae

mái

maé

'mái

175 曼 mán

186 man

mán

bân

bán

176 | máng

187 mang

móng

bông

bóng

177 Ha mang

188 măng

mang

beng

beng

178 ∉ máu

189 maou

mo

mo

179 某 mau

204 mow

mau

boé

'bó

180 ₺ mé

190 may

mat

meě"gh míngh,

181 貊 me 182 妹 mei

198 mih

mak

bek bek,

195 mei

múi

möèy

moé2

183米 mí

191 me

mai

'bí

184 妙 miáu miáu

192 meaou

múí

beãou

biáu2

185 mie 186面 mien

193 mëč mút

bëët

biet,

194 mëen

mín

been

bien❜

187 密 mi

196 meih

mat

bit

bit,

188 民 min 199 min

189ming 200 ming ming

man

bîn

bin

bêng

beng

36

New System of Orthography.

JAN.

Chi- New Or-

No.

nese. thography.

190 繆 miú

Morrison's Orthography. 197 mew

Canton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

mau

béw sbíú

191 摩 mù

201 mo

mo

mo

192 * mó

202 mo

mút

bwat bwát,

193 # mú

203 moo

boo

bo

194 *mu

205 muh

muk

bók

bók,

195 門 mun

206 mun

mún

bûn

.bún

196

mung

207 mung mung

bông

bóng

197 mwán

208 mwan mún

bwán

'bwán

198 #B ná

209 na ná

'ná

199 納 núh

210 nă náp

lap

láp,

200 Th nói

211 nae

nái

naé

'nái

201 và nán

212 nan

nám

lâm

Jám

202 là năng

213 nang

nóng

lòng

lúng

203 能 nang

14 nắng nang

lêng

leng

204 H náu

215 nao

nún

laōu

láu2

205

耨 nau

230 nowo nau

noë

no?

206 ) ngái

40 gac

ngái

gnaē

gnái❜

207 j ngán

41 gan ngón

gān

gán

208 ngan

42 gắn yan

yin

yin

209 t ngáng

43 gang ngóng

gông

góng

210 thề ngang

44 găng

ngang

kêng

keng'

211 傲 ngáu

4 gam ngù

ngo'

212 ngau

49 goi

ngau

gnoé

'gnò

213nge

46 gih

ngák

gék

gck,

ngò

214 , 215 | ngô

47 go

ngó

ngó

48 go

ngók

gók

ngók,

216 E ni

216 ne

neêng

ning

1842.

New System of Orthography.

37

Chi- Neto Or-

No. nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

217

ni 221 neih

nik

lék lek,

218

218niáng

niáng 217 ncang

néung

lëâng liáng

219 niáu 218 neaou

níú

neáou 'nháu

220 攝 nie

219 nëě

shíp

leep liep,

221 年 nien

220 nëen

nín

lëên

dien

222 紉 nin

225 nin

yan

jim

jim2

223

ning

226 ning

ning

lêng deng

224 JE nió

222 nco

yéuk

gëåk giák,

225 牛 niú

224 new

ngau

gnêw

sgíú

226 挪 nù

227 no

'ná

227 và nó

228 no

nók

lók

lók,

228 訥 nu

232 nuh

nut

hút

lut,

229 奴 nú

229 noo

noê

no

230 女 ni

223 neu

231 nui

234 này

noi

löey

loé

232 嫩 nun

231 nun

nün

jūn

jún❜

233 nung

233 nung

nung

lông

slóng

234nwán 235 nwan

nün

Iwán 'Iwán

235疴ù

236 o

ó

236 惡ó

237 ŏ or go

ók

ok

ók,

237

238 pa

238 A páh

239 pă

pát

pat

pát,

239 拜 pái

240 pae pái

paè

pái'

240

pán

241 pan

pán

pân

pán2

241 pan

260 pun

pún

pún

'pún

242

páng 242 pang

póng pông

póng

243

pang 243 pặng

pang

pêng

peng

New System of Orthography

JAN

Chi- New Or

No.

nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukten

Orthography. Orthography

244

páu

244 paou

páu

paou .páu

245 剖 pau

258 pow

pau

p'hoé

246 pe

252 pih

pák

pek

pck,

247 悲pei

249 pei

pc

248 匹 pi

250 peih

pat

p'hit

p'it,

249 比 pí

245 pe

'pí

250表 piáu

246 peaou

píí

peáou 'pián

251 别 pie

247 pëč

pít

pëet piet,

252片 pien 253品 pin

248 pëen

pín

p'hëèn p'ien'

253 pin

pan

phím 'p'in

254 平 ping

254 ping

ping

pêng speng

255 彪 piû

251 pero

píú

pew

.piú

256 波 pù

255 po

pho

po

257泊 pó

256 po

pók

pók

pók,

258

257 poo

po

poè

po'

259

pu

255 puh

puk

pok puk,

260 筆 pung

261 pung

pung

phông phóng

261 4 pwán

262

pian

pún

pwàn pwán

262 fj rh

380 urh

í

263 撒 súh

263 să

sát

sat

sát,

204 HỆ sái

264 sae

soi

SOO

265 sán

265 san

sám

sam

sám

266 san

266 săn

sham

som

sóm

207 * sáng

267 sung

sóng

song

sóng

268 生 sang

268 sing

shang seng

seng

269 sau 270 đã sáu

314 sow

sau

soć

269 saou

ས0"

1842.

Chi- New Or-

Morrison's

Cauton

No. mese. thography.

Orthography.

Dialect.

271 色 se

308 sih

sik

New System of Orthography.

39

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

sek,

sek

272 沙 shá

284 sha

shá

say

273sháh

285 shă

shát

sat

sát,

274 晒 shái

286 shae

shái

saè

sái

275 shán

287 shan

shán san

sán

276 L sháng 288 shang shéung seāng sáng

277少sháu 278 手 shau 279舌she

289 shaou

shíú seáou 'siáu

299 show

shau

séw

'siú

292 she

shít

sëët

siet,

280 善 shen

293 shen

shín

sëen

sien'

281 shí 282 + shi

291 she

shí

se

‹sí

294 shih

shap

sip

sip,

283 佘 shié

290 shay

shé

sëâ

siá

284

shin

295 shin

shan

sîn

285

shing

296 shing

shing

seng

286 槊 shó

297 sho

sbók

sok

sók,

287 書 shú

298 shoo

shü

se

288 朮 shu

300 shuh

shut

sut

sut,

289 水 shúi

307 shwйy

shui

súy

'sui

290 順 shun

301 shun

shun

sün

sún

291 耍 shwá

302 shwa

shá

swá

'swá

292shwáh 303 shwa

sát

swat

swát,

293 shwái 304 shwae

294 3 shwáng305 shang shóng súng

295 說 shwó

306 shwo shüt swat

shui

söey

(soé

sóng

swát,

296 西 sí

270 sc

sai

sey

297

si

276 scih

sik

sit

sit,

40

Chi. New Or

No. nesc. Uwgraphy.

New System of Orthography.

JAN.

298 相 siáng

Morrison's Orthography. 271 seang

Cunton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

séung

seang siang

299小 siáu

272 seaou

síú

seáou 'siáu

300 些 sié

273 seay

sa

301 sie

274 sčě

sít

sëak

siák,

302 先 sien

275 scen

sín

sëen

.sien

303 sieun

280 seuen

sün

swan swán

304 心 sin

309 sin

sam

sim

sim

305 性 sing

310 sing

sing

sèng

seng'

306 削 siú

277 8e0

sćuk

sëak

siák,

307 脩 siú

283 sew

sau

sew

¿siú

308 戌 siu

281 seuh

sut

sut

sut,

309 雪 siue

279 scuč

süt

swat

swát,

310 p) siun

282 seun

tsun

sûn

sún

311 所 sò

311 80

shó

séy

'sé

312

312 sŏ sók

sek

sek,

313 素 sú

313 800

soè

so'

314 序 si

278 seu

tsü

sẽ

315 夙 su

315 suh

suk

sëuk

siuk,

316 綏 sui

318 suy

sui

suy

.sui

317 損 sun

316 sun sün

sún

'sún

318

sung

317 sung

sung

song

súng

319 算 swán

319 swan sün

swàn

swán

320 + sz'

320 sze

སྐྱ

sz'

Soō

sú2

321 ✯ tá

321 ta tái

taē

tái❜

322 塔 táh

322 tă

táp

t'hap

táp,

323 t tái

323 tae

tái

thue

tái

324 || tán

324 lun

tán

lan

tán

1842.

Chi- New Or

No. mese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton Dialect.

New System of Orthography.

Medhurst s New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

41

325 當 táng

325 tang

tóng

tong tóng

326 等 tang

396 tăng

tang

téng

*teng

327 7] táu

327 taou

to

to

328

tau

340 tow

tau

toć

329 得 te

335 tih

tak

tek

tek,

330 地 tí

323 te

tey

té2

331

ti

333 teih

tik

tek

tek,

332

tiáu

329 teaou

tíú

theaou tiáu

333 爹 tiě

330 teay

tëa

tiá

334 餸 tie

331 tee

tit

tëët

tiet,

335 天 tien

332 tëen

tín

t'hëen t'íen

336 T ting

336 ting

ting

teng

teng

337 € tiú

334 tew

tíú

tow

‹iú

338 1

to

337 to

t'ho

t'ò

339 奪 tú

338 to

tüt

twat

twát,

340則 tse

360 tsih

tsak

chek chek,

341 襍 tsáh

341 trù

tsáp

chap cháp,

342 t trái 343 殘 tsún

342 tsac

tsoi

chhaê chái

343 tsan

tsán

chân chán

344

tsáng

344 tsang

tsong

chhong chóng

345

tsang

345 tsằng

trăng

tsang

cheng cheng

346 早 tsu

346 tsaou

tso

chó

'cho

347 走 tsau

366 tsow

tsau

choé 'chò

348 妻 tsí

347 tsc

tsai

ch'hey ch'é

349 + tsi

353 tseih

tsat

ch'hit ch'it,

350

tsiáng 348 tscang

tséung

cheang chiáng

351

tsiáu

349 tscaou

tsíú

chheào" cháu

VOL XI. NO. 1.

6

42

Chi- New Or-

No.

nese. thography.

New System of Orthography.

Morrison's Orthography.

JAN.

Canton Dialect.

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

352 H tsié

350 tseay

ché

ch'hëná 'ch'íná

353 妾 tsie

351 tsëë

tsíp

ch'heep ch'iep,

354 千 tsien

352 tsë en

tsín

ch'hëen ch'ien

355 尋 tsin

361 tsin

tsam

sîm ,sim

356

tsing

362 tsing

tsing

ch'héng 'ch'eng

357雀 tsió

354 tsco

tséuk

ch'hëak ch'iák,

358 绝 tsiue

356 tseuč

tsüt

chwát chwát,

359tsiuen 357 tseuen

tsün

chuân chwan

360 俊 tsiun

358 tseun

tsun

chùn chún❜

361 酒 tsiú

359 tsewo

tsau

chéw

'chiú

362 左 tsò

363 tso

tsó

chó

'cho

363 1

tsó

364 180

tsók

chok

chok,

364 祖 tsú

365 tsoo

tsò

choć

'chò

365 取 tsi

355 tseu

tsü

ché

'ch'í

366 足 tsu

367 tsuh

tsuk

cheuk chiok,

367 tsui

370 tsuy

tsui

chöey choć

368 + tsun

368 tsun

tsün

ch'ùn chún

369

tsung 369 tsung

tsung chong chóng

370

tswán 371 tswan

tsün

chàn chán

370

tsz 372 tszc

tsz'

choó 'chú

371 tu

373 tuh

tuk

tok

tok,

372 tú

339 too

thoé

373 f túi

376 tuy

túi

töêy

túi

374 屯 tun

374 tun

ในก

tún

tún2

375 段 twán

377 troan

tüin

tān

tán2

376 冬 tung 377 π u

375 tung

tung

tong

tóng

378 üh

igat

gwút

gwút,

483

1842

Chi- New Or

No.

nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton Dialect.

New System of Orthography.

Medhurst s New Fakion Orthography. Orthography.

378 五ú

391 woo

'ng

gnoé

'ngò

379 ung

379 ung

yung

ông

song

380 瓦 wÁ

381 wa

ngá

'wá

381 7 wán

382 wä

wát

wat

wat,

382 | wái

383 wae

ngoi

göey

goé'

383 萬 wán

384 wan

mán

bān

bán❜

384 文 wan

385 ăn

man

bûn

‹bún

385 王 wáng

386 wangwong ông

.óng

386為wei

388 wei

wai

wûy

úi

387

387 we

be

bí?

388 我 wù

389 wo

ngó

gnó

'ngó

389嚄 wó

390 wo

wók

gwa

gwá

390 4 wu

392 voth

mat

bút

bút,

391 ĭyá

393 ya

a

á

392 押 yáh

394 yǎ

áp

ǎh

áh,

393 险 yái 394 仰 yáng

395 yae

ái

ái

396 yang

395 要 yáu

397 yaou

íú

yéung giáng giáng

yaou .yáu

396 也 yé

598 yay

yëá

'yá

397 葉 ye

399 ye íp

yëép

yiep,

398 言 yen

400 yen

ín

gân

sgán

-

399 yi 400 因 yin

402 yih

yat

yit

it.

403 yin

yan

yin

.in

401 應 ying

404 ying

ying

èng

eng'

402 # yó

405 yo yéuk

yeak

yiák.

403 叉 yú

401 yew

yau

yew

404 † yü

406 yu

ê

44

Chi- New Or

No. nese. thography.

Morrison's Orthography.

Canton

Dialect.

Names of the Eighteen Provinces

JAN

Medhurst's New Fukien Orthography. Orthography.

405 玉 yu

409 yuh

yuk

gëük giok,

406 El yue

407 yuč

üt

wat

wát,

407 元 yuen

408 yuen

iin

gwân

gwán

408 云 yun 409 用 yung

410 yun

wan

yîn

in

yung

yung?

411 yung yung

Respecting the tones and aspirates a few words may here be given explanatory of their use. Mr. Medhurst has discussed this subject at considerable length, in his "Dictionary of the Hok-këèn Dialect," and has there divided them into eight kinds, according to the system adopted in the+Shi-ú Yin, taken as the basis of his own. The same eight-fold division has been adopted in the Chinese Chrestomathy, and a new method introduced for indicating these eight tones. The ease and the precision with which this method may be applied in writing the sounds of Chinese characters, will recom- mend it to notice, and, we hope, induce its universal adoption. So far as it has been made known, we believe it has inet with unqualified approbation. Without interfering with any system of orthography, it marks the exact tone of each word, as may be seen in the new Fukien orthography above given. The four tones,

                   λ, are subdivided into two series, the first comprising the upper, and the second, the lower tones; marked thus in the dialect of Cauton :

1st serics, comprising the upper tones: ‹sín, 'sin, sin' sit"; 2d series, comprising the lower tones: lin, lin, lin', lit. The spiritus lenis (') is used to denote the omission of an imper- fect vowel, as in tsz' and sz' in the preceding list; and the spiritus asper (*) indicates a rough breathing, or the omission of an h.

ART. III. Topography of China Proper: names of the eighteen provinces and their principal subdivisions; notice of a new native map of the whole empire.

GENERAL views of the topography of the Chinese empire have been given in our previous volumes. In the first volume, the work of Lí Tsingchf, was noticed, and a general outline given of the dominions

1842.

Names of the Eighteen Provinces.

45

  of the reigning dynasty. Pp. 33, 113, 170. In volume fourth was introduced a view of the political divisions of the Chinese empire, with a notice of a map of China. Pp. 49, &c. And in volumes fifth and sixth, p. 336, and p. 8, our readers were furnished with various particulars regarding the coasts. We now propose, after first giving the names of the 18 provinces with the numbers of their subdivisions, to draw the attention of our readers to each of the several provinces,

collecting our information from native sources.

PRINCIPAL ANd Subordinate Divisions oF CHINA PROPER.

省名

Sang ming,

Names of the Provinces.

|府|直隸廳|直隸州||州|縣

fú, Chilí ting, Chili chau,ting, |chau, | hien,

Dis- Dis- Dis-

Depts Departments. Departments.trictstricts\tricts.

建 Fukien,

10

if C. Chekiing,

11

直隷 Chilí,

11

6

3 17 124

山東 Shántung,

10

9

96

山西 Shánsí,

9

10

3

6

25

河南 Hònán,

9

6

97

IL

Kiángsú,

3

3

62

A ́nhwui,

8

5

西Kiingsí, 13

2 O 2 29

50

א -

2 3

75

652

76

湖北 Hiipe,

10

60

湖南 Húnán,

9

3

3

64

陝西 Shensí,

7

5

LA

5

5

73

甘肅 Kánsu,

Sz'chuen, 12

廣東

Kwangtung,

→ 26

9

7

7

51

9

6 2

6

3 11

11

2

3

7

79

廣西 Kwángí, 雲南 Yunnan,

11

14

貴州 Kweichau,

12

=12

3 16

47

ය ස

3

LA

5

27

39

3

5

13

34

18 Provinces. 182 18

67

45

143/128

   In common parlance these subdivisions may be designated depart- ments and districts-the first comprising the fù, the chili ting and

16

Portrait of Pwánkú the First Man

JAN

and the

the chili chau-the second including the ting, the cha hien-making 267 departments, and 1473 districts, according to the Ta Tsing Hwui Tien, from which the numbers are taken.

The word fù means to store up, the place for the storage of trea- sure, and the deposit of public documents. Over that place an officer is appointed and made responsible directly to the chief of the pro- vincial authorities.

The word ting anciently designated an auditory, the place where the magistrate resided and gave audience, receiving the complaints and deciding the causes of the people.

The word chau meant originally an island, or a habitable place entirely surrounded by water. According to tradition, the ancient monarch Yu, who rescued the earth from the waters of the deluge, divided the land into nine chau: since his time the word has been in constant use for a territory of indefinite extent, whether surrounded by water or not.

The word hien means bound, suspended, or what is suspended or attached, indicating that the hien is attached to something on which it is dependent. For additional information regarding these divisions, see volume fourth, page 54.

The map, from which we shall derive much of our information, is a new one, published in 1832, by Lí Yánghú, on a broad sheet, eleven feet by eight, with lines of latitude and longitude. It is the best native work we have seen, being in some respects superior to the manu- script one, by Li Tsingchí. The copy of this new map, in our pos- session, is divided into eight sheets (each being eight feet long and seventeen inches broad) which being rolled up occupy but a narrow space. The map contains the names of all the departments, districts, principal military stations, rivers, and mountains of the whole empire of the Great Pure dynasty-now stretching from Cochinchina and Burmah on the south to the Russian frontiers on the north, and from the Pacific to the frontiers of the British empire in India.

ART. IV. Portrait of Pwánkú, among the Chinese, the reputed

progenitor of the human family.

FROM a native work, called the Sún Tsúi Tú-an encyclopædia, containing a long series of portraits of distinguished persons, we have

1542.

Portrait of Pwanku, the First Man

氏古

47

 obtained a number of wooden cuts, among which and first is that of Pwánku. Of this personage we need not repcat what we have before said. See volume tenth, pp. 49, 123, &c. The Chinese are very fond of giving representations of great men and of curious objects, notwithstanding the ill success and bad taste exhibited in their exe- cution. Since the visits of the steamboats to Canton, native artists have filled the country with pictures of 'smoke-ships,' which are now seen on their cloth and paper fans in great numbers.

We think Mr. Davis is not correct, in his 'Sketches,' vol. I., p. 32, when he says it would be the highest and most criminal act of disrespect in the greatest of his subjects to possess a portrait or visible representation of the son of heaven.' We have seen two of Táukwáng; one of which was brought to Canton by an officer of no very high rank on his re- turn from court: the other was in possession of a private gentleman

48

British Burial Ground in Macao

Jax

ART. V. British burial ground in Macao; notices of the first interment there, and of the recent erection of monuments; Par- sce graves on the seashore.

Our attention has been recently called to this 'abode of the dead,' by the erection of a monument over the remains of lieut. Fitzgerald, which will be particularly noticed in the sequel. Previously to 1821, there was no burial place within the walls of Macao for foreigners. The remains of those who died here, were either carried from the settlement, or interred outside of the walls. On the hill-side, between the Campo gate and the Monte fort, several tombstones are still to be seen, some erect, and some thrown down and half buried in the earth; others are visible on Meesenburg hill, directly north of Ca- silha's bay, and likewise in the Caza, or garden, enclosing the Cave of Camoens. The inscriptions on these sepulchral stones still tell the stranger, who visits them, from what different and distant countries men came hither to traffic-from India, Persia, Arabia, and many of the states of Europe and America.

The English burial ground is situated just beyond the church of St. Antonio, eastward from the entrance to the Caza. The circum- stances which led to its selection are detailed in a letter describing the first interinent. The letter is dated Macao, June 12th, 1821, and was addressed to the parents of Mrs. Morrison by the bereaved husband, their son-in-law. After describing the particulars of their child's death, Dr. Morrison thus proceeds:

"On Monday I wished to inter Mary out at the hills, where our James was buried; but the Chinese would not let me even open the same grave. I disliked burying under the town walls, but was obliged to resolve on doing so, as the Papists refuse their burying-ground to Protestants. The want of a Pro- testant burying-ground has long been felt in Macao, and the present case brought it strongly before the committee of the English Factory, who im- mediately resolved to vote a sum sufficient to purchase a piece of ground, worth between three and four thousand dollars; and personally exerted them- selves to remove the legal impediments and local difficulties; in which they finally succeeded. This enabled me to lay the remains of my beloved wife in a place appropriated to the sepulture of Protestant Christians, being denied a place of interment by the Romanists.

Mr. Livingstone,

Mr. Pearson, the president and committee of the English factory, Mr., Urinston, sir W. Fraser, &c., bore the pall. All the gentleinen of the factory, also counsellor Percira, sir A. Lyungstedt, the Russian consul, and ther foreigners in Mação, attended the funeral. Mr. Harding, chaplain to

1842

British Burial Ground in Macao.

49

the factory, read the funeral service at the grave; and the whole detail of the funeral was conducted with decency and respectability by the English servants of the factory, Rebecca, John, and I attended their dear mamma to the tomb; we were loath to forsake her remains. Our Chinese domestics. and teachers also, voluntarily accompanied the funeral. Our Mary was much esteemed by all who ever conversed with her. She had an excellent understanding, and a well-principled heart. Mr. and Mrs. Molony have to-day joined in a letter of condolence, saying, that in their voyage out, they had an opportunity of ascertaining Mrs. Morrison's Christian disposition, and were then much comforted by her society. ** Sunday, June 17th. To- day, every person in the English society, on account of Mary's death, appear- ed in mourning at church."-Memoirs of Morrison, vol. II. page 101.

This spot, rendered sacred by the remains of many who were very dear and much loved by those who yet live, was well chosen, being sequestered, and so surrounded by a high wall as to be screened from public view. It is an oblong plat of ground, say fifty yards by thirty, and partly shaded by trees standing close to the wall, which is covered with the cereus and other flowers. Nearly two-thirds of the ground is already occupied; but over most of the graves there is no- thing to indicate even the names of their tenants. These are chiefly the graves of seamen, who have died in the hospitals. But the care of friends and relatives has here and there erected mementoes, with uscriptions to perpetuate the memory of those for whom they mourn. The whole number of these inscriptious is perhaps 75; they exhibit a variety of style even greater than what is usual in burial grounds bearing dates from June 10th, 1821 (the day of Mrs. Morrison's death), down to the present time. A few of the names, with the dates of decease, we have copied.

Charles Graham

George Cruttenden Charles J. Wheler Mrs. Jane floward

James Thomas Robarts

R. C. Plowden

Daniel Beale

Sir W. Fraser

'T. T. Forbes

S. II. Monson

Donald Mackenzie

Frederick Ibery

Robert Morrisen D. D.

Mrs Isabella Anne Templeton

VOL XI. NO

7

Oct. 3d, March 23d, 1822.

1821.

Dec. 4th, 1822.

Feb. 23d, 1823.

Jau. 28th, 1825. Sept. 21st, 1825.

Jan. 4th, 1827.

Dec. 22d, 1827.

Aug. 9th, 1829.

Aug. 9th, 1829.

Oct. 30th, 1830.

Nov. 23d, 1833.

Aug. 4th, 1834.

July 29th, 1835.

لاد

Peter Key

British Burial Ground in Macao.

Sir Andrew Ljungstedt

JAN.

Oct. 8th,

1835.

Nov. 10th, 1835.

Edmund Roberts, U. s. a. envoy Mrs. Thomas Rees -

E. M. Daniell

-

May 15th, 1836.

Com. A. S. Campbell, u. s. N.

-

June 3d,

1836.

June 12th, 1836.

Dec. 27th, 1836.

June 20th, 1837.

July 23d, 1837. Oct. 3d,

John Crockett ·

Thomas Richardson Colledge

F. P. Alleyn

Elizabeth McDougal Gillespie

Mrs. Fearon

E. G. Larkins

B. R. Leach

William Shillaber Colledge

Mrs. John Walker

Richard Turner

Roderick F. Robertson

Henry John Spencer Churchill

1837.

Dec. 6th, 1837.

March 31st, 1838.

June 15th, 1838.

Aug. 26th, 1838. Sept. 29th, 1838. Oct. 18th, 1838. March 28th, 1839. Jan. 16th, 1839. June 2d,

1840.

By particular request, we copy entire the inscription from one of the monuments erected during the last year. The choice of the design and the details of its execution were intrusted to the vigilant care of Mr. Allen, acting surgeon of H. B. M. naval hospital, Macao. That gentleman has well fulfilled his mournful task. In the words of the Canton Register: "the design of the monument is chaste, and the proportions beautiful; it is a slender square pillar, on a double basc, surmounted by a funeral urn, each side having been slightly channel- ed. It is placed close to that of capt. lord John Churchill, and is as pleasing to the eye of taste as any other in the cemetery."

                                  So we think. The following is the inscription which it bears.

Sacred

to the memory of

LIEUTENANT EDWARD FITZGERALD, Late belonging to H. M. ship Modeste : who died at Macao,

on the 22d June, 1841,

from the effects of a wound received.

while gallantly storming the enemy's battery at Canton. This monument was erected

by his numerous friends and shipmates, in the squadron in which he served,

as a tribute of respect by his memory

1842.

Calendar for the Year 1842

ان

The Parsees,* resident in Macao, have selected a site, for the in- terment of the remains of their deceased friends, near the " Gap," on the hill-side, southwest from the Guia fort, a few yards above the sca- shore. The site slopes towards the east so as to receive the first rays of the rising sun. There are there now five graves. The first con- tains the remains of Cursetjce Framjee, who died in 1829. Upon the granite slab which covers his grave, is the following text, selected from Ecclesiastes, 11:7,8.

Truly the light is sweet,

And a pleasant thing it is for the cyes to behold the sun :

But if a man live many years, and rejoice in them all,

Yet let him remember the days of darkness.

For they shall be many:

All that cometh is vanity.

    How singular and how diversified are the circumstances in which men make their exit from the scenes of life! And when gone, how undistinguished is their dust! Youth, beauty, virtue, valor, wealth, and honor, have no power against the shafts of death. Yet who heeds his admonition? Who prepares for his coming? Reader! Art thou ready? Could those, whose ashes sleep in yonder grave- yard, rise from the dead and come and speak to thee, wouldest thou heed their warnings? Is thy spirit sanctified, thy soul prepared to meet thy God? Hast thou a treasure laid up in heaven? If so, happy art thou. "For where thy treasure is there will thy heart be also."

ART. VI.

     Culender for the 1842; with lists of the members of the imperial cabinet, of the provincial officers at Canton, of the Portuguese government in Macao, of the British authori- ties, with a catalogue of the foreign residents and commercial houses.

   TAUKWANG succeeded his father Kiáking in 1820, but decreed that the date of his reign should begin with the year following, 1821; con- sequently A. D. 1842 it the twenty-second of his reign, and corres- ponds to the 3479th year of the Chinese cra. For the convenience of our readers in changing the dates according to the European ca- lendar, into those of the Chinese, we introduce here a comparative one for the current year.

In our last number, the-comquest of Persia was erroneously placed & c when it should have been a 1. 132

July.

5 m.

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34

Calendar for the Year 1942.

JAN.

13 15

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15 17

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31 m) 28

28 30 f

131

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1842.

Members of the Imperial Cabinet.

1.

Imperial Cabinet, Peking.

53

This consists of four principal and two subordinate members, who form a part of what the Chinese call the Inner Council. These "deliberate on the government of the empire, proclaim abroad the imperial pleasure, regulate the canons of state, together with the whole administration of the great balance of the power, thus aiding the emperor in directing the affairs of state. Whenever the grand solemnities are to be celebrated, they then bring forward all the of ficers to take part in the same." There are in this council a great number of other othcers, but the four tá hió sz', and the two hie pán tá hió sz', are the only ones we need here mention. These six, ac- cording to the latest accounts we have from Peking, are the follow- ing.

1. 穆彰阿 Muchángah,

a Mantchou.

2. Pwán Shingan, a Chinese.

3. 寶興

Páuhing,

a Mantchou.

4. 王

Wang Ting,

a Chinese.

5.

Hochángling,

a Mantchou.

6. iêu Ê # Táng Kinchau a Chinese.

2. PROVINCIAL OFFICERS OF CANTON.

This list contains only the names and common titles of the officers

who are at the head of the provincial government, and those subal-

Lerns who are most concerned with foreigners. Some recent changes prevent our making the list complete.

督院 governor,

It.-governor,

Tik t Ki Kung.

梁寶常 Liăng Páncháng. 將軍 gen.cominandant, 阿精阿 Ahtsingah. 左都統 1st It.-general,玉瑞 Ynsui.

24 It.-general,

學院 literary chancellor,

com. mar. customs,

水師提督 admiral, 吳

陸路提督 general,

灌司 com. administration,

運司

com. of justice,

com. of gabel,

吳張王宋

Chang Tsingyuen,

Wang Tinglán.

Sung

Yi Chungfü.

54

糧道

com. of grain,

79

List of Officers.

Si

prefect,

magistrate,

易長華 Yi Chángiwi. 梁星源 Liáng Singyuen.

magistrate,

張曦字 Cháng Hiyii.

道臺 intendant at Macao,

謝一 Sié

JAN.

#sub-prefect,

香山縣 magistrate,

香山縣左堂 stub.mag. at Macon. 張熙 Ching Hi.

3. PORTUGUESE Government at MaCAO.

Adrião Accacio de Silveira Piuto, Governor,

Jozé Maria Rodrigues de Bastos, Judge.

Pe. Candido Gonçalves e Franco, Vicar Capitular.

João Teixera de Lira,

Commandant.

Present members of the Senate.

}

Vercadores.

Joǎo Jozé Vieira, Jozé Thomas de Aquino, Judges. Manoel Pereira, Alexandrino Antonio

de Mello, Lourenço Marques, Francisco Antonio Seabra, Procurador.

Manoel Jozé Barboza, Treasurer.

Justices of Peace.

Cipriano A. Pacheco of the parishes of Sé and St. Antonio. Jozé Simão dos Remedios of the parish of St. Lourenço.

4. BRITISH AUTHORITIES IN CHINA.

H. E. sir Henry Pottinger,

Alexander R. Johnston, esq Edward Elmslie, esq. (absent) Major G. A. Malcolm,

John Robt. Morrison, esq.

Mr. A. W. Elmslie, Mr. L. d'Almada e Castro, Rev. Charles Gutzlaff, Robert Thoin, esq.

Samuel Fearon, esq.

Mr. W. H. Medhurst jr. Kaziguchi Kiukitchi, Christopher Fearon, esq., Capt. William Caine,

ordinary and chief superintendent.

Sole plenipotentiary, minister extra-

Dep. superintendent, and charged with the government of Hongkong.

Secretary and treasurer.

Secretary to the plenipotentiary. Chinese secretary and interpreter,

{and acting secretary and treasurer.

{Clerks in the secretary's office.

Joint interpreters.

Chinese interpreter and notary at Hongkong.

Clerks in the Chinese secretary's

{office.

Alexander Anderson, esq. (abs.)

Notary public residing at Macao. Chief magistrate at Hongkong. Colonial surgeon at Hongkong

182.

List of Foreign Residents.

Henry Holgate, esq. W. Woosnam, esq. Capt. George F. Mylius, Mr. D. Mullaly,

Mr. J. Paliner,

5.

Acting colonial surgeon.

55

Ass.-surgeon to the plenipotentiary. Land officer at Hongkong. Clerk in charge of post office.

Clerk in charge of letters.

FOREIGN CONSULS.

Col. A. d'B. de Jancigny, commercial agent.

French, Charles Alexander Challaye, esq.

American, P. W. Snow, esq. (W. Delano, jr., esq., act. vice-consul.) Danish,

James Matheson, esq.

6. FOREIGN Residents.

    This list is not intended to include those who are connected with the British ariny and navy. By comparing it with those of former years, it will be seen that this community rapidly changes its mem- bers. The earliest list, to which we are able to refer, was published ten years ago in the Anglochinese Calendar for 1832.

That list comprised 137 names, of which only the following are now in China (excepting a few Portuguese who were residing at Cauton); we give them in their alphabetical order; Rev. E. C. Bridgman, G. Chinnery, L. Dent, R. Edwards, C. Fearon, C. V. Gillespie, W. H. Harton, A. Heard, J. Henry, Framjee Herajee, W. C. Hunter, Jamsetjee Rustomjee, A. Jardiue, J. Matheson, A. Matheson, Pestonjee Rustomjee, Pestonjee Cowasjee, J. R. Morrison, J. P. Sturgis, and H. Wright.

The list published in the Repository for January, 1837, comprised 307 names, of whom 159 were British, 62 Parsees, 44 Americans, 28 Portuguese (in Canton), 4 Indian, 3 Dutch, 2 Swiss, 2 Prussian, 2 (ierman, I Danish, and 1 French.

The list published in our pages one year ago contained 230 names; in that, as well as in the one for this year, Portuguese are not in- cluded.

"

The subjoined list, for the current year, comprises 259 names which is probably somewhat below the actual number of residents in China, as there may be some at Chusan or other places on the coast not included in the list.

Abeel, Rev. David

am.

Almack, W.

br.

Board, Charles, Bomanjce Eduljce,

br.

par.

Baldwin, T. R.

19

Boone, Rev. W. J., and fam. am.

Bateman, J.

19

Bovet, L.

SID.

Baylis, IJ. P.

"J

[Bowman, J.

br.

Bhimjee Kanjees

mak.

Bowne,

am.

Bleukm. W.

br

Brame, George T

br.

Brown, Rev. S. R., and fam. 47.

am.

br.

Byramjee Rustomjee,

Byworth, G.

Caine, William

br.

Calder, Alexander Calder, D.

Cannan, John H. Challaye, C. A.

Chapman, Frederick

56

Bridgman, Rev. E. C.

Bull, Isaac M.

Burn, D. L., and family,

List of Foreign Residents

Fearon, Charles

Fearon, Samuel Fessenden, Henry

Framjee Jamsetjec,

br.

"

ain.

br.

ani.

hr.

par. br.

JAN

Findlay, George

Fisher, Rodney

Fletcher, Angus

Forbes, D.

Fryer, W.

19

Gibb, John D.

jr.

||Gibb, T. A.

"

hr.

Gillespie, C. V.

om.

Chicks, W.

Gilman, J. T.

am.

Chinnery, George

Gilman, Richard J.

br.

་་

Clark, W.

11

Gomajee Gordhunjee

hin.

Cleverley, Osmund

Goolam Hoseen

moh.

་,

Compton, J. B.

Goolam Hoseen Chadoo

M

Coobcar Hurjeewun,

hin.

Gray, C. H.

br.

Coolidge, J.

min.

Couper, William

am.

Gully, R.

Cowasjee Frainjee

par.

Gribble, Henry, and family,

Gutzlaff, Rev. C., und family, pr.

"1

""

Croom, A. F.

Cowasjee Shapoorjee Tabac, pur.

Cursetjee Rustomjee Dadabhoy Burjorjee, Dadabhoy Byramjee, Dale, W. W. Davidson, Walter

19

19

hr.

Hajce Dawood

moh.

br.

par.

Hajec Dawood

tfallam, Samuel I.

Hamilton,

Harker, Henry R.

Hart, C. H., and family,

"

br.

un.

br.

Harton, W. H., and family

Davidson, William

19

Davis, J. J.

""

Dawood Jetha,

moh.

Heard. Augustine

Heard, Jolin

Henderson, Williamı

Delano, Edward

am.

Henry, Joseph

Delano, Warren, jr.

am.

Henry, William

Denham, F. A.

br.

Heras, P. de las

Dent, John

*

Dent, Lancelot

19

Dent, Wilkinson

"

**

De Salis, J. H.

par.

Dhunjeebhoy Nasserwanjee, par. Dinshaw Furdoonjee, Dixwell, George Basil Dodd, Samuel

Donglass, L. P.

Douglass, Richard f1.

Dundas, Henry

Durran, A.

Durran, J. A., jr.

am.

"

br.

am.

leron, George

Hilier, C. B.

Hobson, B., M. B., and family, Holgate, H.

logg, Charles, and family, Holliday, John, and family, Horinuzjee Framjce, Howell, Augustus,

Hughesdon, C.

Hughes, W. H.

Hulvert, James A.

Hurjeewun Huntha

19

om.

br.

"

19

br.

"

*1

par.

am.

br.

11

11

br.

fr.

Humpston, G.

11

Hunter, W. C.

am.

Duus, N., and family

dan.

hin

Edger, J. F.

br.

Jafferblioy,

moh

Edwards, Robert

Eduljec Furdoonjee,

Eilis, W., and family

Elmslie, Adam W.

par.

Jancigny, A. d' B. de

fr.

br.

Jardine, Andrew

br.

Jamsetre Rustomjee,

par.

Jamsetjee Eduljer,

par.

Endicott, James B

Erskine. W 1.

Fearon. Christuplier

Jacey,

Teaméret, L. Auguste

[Johnston. A R

tr

br

1842.

List of Foreign Residents

3

57

Le Geyt, W. C.

Leighton, H. J., and family

"

Lejeé, W. R.

am.

Leslie, W.

br.

Lloyd, Charles

du.

Lyons,

br.

Jones, T.

br.

Nye, Gideon, jr.

am.

Jumoojee Nasserwanjee,

par.

Oswald, Richard

br.

Kay, Duncan J.

br.

Palmer, J.

br.

Kerr, Crawford, and family, br.

Pallanjee Dorabjee,

par.

King, Edward

am.

King, James R.

am.

King, William H.

Lane, W.

hr.

Lawrence, Wm. A.

Lay, G. T.

am. br.

Pallanjee Nasserwanjee Patell, par. Parkes, Harry

Paterson, A., and family,

Pattullo, Stewart E. Pedder, William, R. N. Pestonjee Cowasjee, Pestonjee Rustomjee, Pestonjee Merwanjee Ponder, Stephen

Pottinger, Sir Henry

Pitcher, M. W.

Poor, William

19

19

par.

99

par. br.

"

11

am.

br.

"

Lockhart, W., and family,

Proctor,

am.

"

Macculloch, A.

19

Prosli, John

br.

Macfarlane A.

Mackean, T. W. L.

19

Pybus, Henry Pyke, William

"

"

Macleod, M. A.

Ragoonath Juvan,

ind.

Mahomedbhoy Alloo,

moh.

Reynvaan, H. J.

du.

Malcolm, G. A.

br.

Rickett, John, and family

br.

Maneckjee Burjorjee,

par.

Ritchie, A. A., and family

am.

Manackjee Bomanjee,

par.

Roberts, Rev. 1. J.

Markwick, Charles

br.

Roberts, Joseph L.

Martin, H.

19

Rolfe,

am.

br.

Matheson, Alexander

Ruttonjee Hormusjee Camajee, par.

Matheson, James

"

Ryan, James

am.

McMinnis, H.

"

Saunders, Frederic

Medhurst, W. H., jr.

Melville, A.

Mercer, J. A., and family,

"

Scott, A.

"1

Scott, W.

br.

""

"

..

Shaikamod Dossboy,

moh.

Merwanjee Dadabhoy,

par.

Sherifkhan Kanjee,

moh.

Merwanjee Eduljee,

19

Shuck, Rev. J. L., and family, am.

Merwanjee Jeejeebhoy,

Silverlock, John

br.

Meufing, W.

ham.

Simpson, Joseph W.

Miles, Williain Harding

br.

Skinner, John

19

Millar, John

"

Slade, John

"1

Milne, Rev. W. C.

19

Smith, J. Mackrill

""

Mölbyr, A.

dan.

Smith, John, and family

"

Moller, Edmund

ham.

Smith, Henry

"

Moore, William

am.

Somjee Lalljee,

moh.

Monk, J.

br.

Somjee Visram,

moh.

Morgan, W., and family,

19

Sorabjee Pestonjee,

par.

Morrison, J. Robt.

Morss, W. H.

11

Spooner, Daniel N.

am.

am.

Staple, Edward A.

br.

Moul, Henry

br.

Stewart, C. E.

11

Mullaly, D.

19

Stewart, Patrick, and family

"

Muloo Doongur

moh.

Stewart, T.

"

Murrow, Y. J.

br.

Stewart, W

**

Mylius, George F.

br.

Still, C. F.

Nasserwanjee Bhicajce

par.

Strachan, Robert

Neave, Thomas D.

br.

Strachan, W.

19

Nesserwanjee Dorabjec

par.

Sturgis, James P.

am.

Nye, Clement

VOL. X1. NO. 1.

am.

Succutinul Nathmul

ذر

Journal of Occurrentes

Sword, John D., and faimly am.

Taylor, Edward

Thom, Robert

Thomson, W.

Tiedeman, jr., P. absent Townsend, P., jr. Trott, John B. Turner, Joseph L. Varnham, Warner Walker, J.

am.

br.

"

du.

am.

Wardin, Ednund Waterhouse, B. Webster, Robert Wetmore, S., jr. Williams, S. Wells Woodberry, Charles Woodward, T. W.

am.

19

Woosnam, W.

br.

Wright, Henry

19

Young, Peter

br.

JAN.

"

"

am.

am.

am. br.

"

br.

A. A. Ritchie.

7.

Foreign CoMMERCIAL HOUSES.

A. & D. Furdoonjee. Augustine Heard & Co. Bell & Co.

Bovet, Brothers, & Co C. V. Gillespie. Christopher Fearon.

D. & M. Rustomjee & Co. Dallas & Co.

Dent & Co.

Dirom & Co.

Elgar & Co.

Fergusson, Leighton, & Co. Fox, Rawson, & Co. Gibb, Livingston, & Co. Gribble, Hughes, & Co. Gideon Nye, jr. Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee Holliday, Wise, & Co. Hughesdon, Brothers.

Isaac M. Bull.

Innes, Fletcher, & Co. James Ryan.

Jamieson, How, & Co.

Jardine, Matheson, & Co. John Smith.

J. D. Sword & Co. 1. Just & Son. Lindsay & Co. Macvicar & Co. Olyphant & Co.

Pestonjee Merwanjee & Co.

Robert Webster. Russell & Co. Turner & Co. W. A. Lawrence.

W. Lane.

W. & T. Geromell & Co. Wetmore & Co.

William Scott.

ART. VIL

Journal of Occurrences: political calms; the late Thomas Beale; sir Hugh Gough's notice of the capture of Tinghai and Chinhái; series of imperial rescripts: defensive measures of the Chinese at Hángchau and Tientsin; a manu- factory of gunpowder blown up at Canton; five new forts; nu- merous cannon; heavy contributions; foreigners, dressed Chinese costume; the French ship-of-war Erigone; the return of sir Henry Pottinger from the north.

in

CALMS sometimes precede storms and tempests in the political, as they often do in the natural world. During the whole of this month, nothing of a political nature worthy of record has transpired here. Ships have sailed and arrived; dispatches have been closed and open- ed; orders given and received; troops collected; munitions of wat inspected, but no collisions have taken place at least none have been reported here, if we except some slight skirmishing near Ningpo.

1842.

Journal of Occurrences.

لان

'There are, however, indications of an approaching struggle, which, while it surely will open the empire, inay close for even the reign of the Mantchou dynasty.

      2. The late Thomas Beale left his residence in Macao about 5 o'clock, P. m., December 10th, and, as many others are in the daily habit of doing, walked across the Praya Grande and Campo towards the Barrier; and at twilight was met by gentlemen in the path near the village of Mongha, not far from Casilha's bay. From that time, all inquiries for him were fruitless till the 13th instant. On the 2d, some Portuguese lads, who were amusing themselves at the bay, discovered the top of a human skull; and part of a man's waistcoat was seen after they had scraped away a little of the sand. These lads, and another with them, saw the same on the 12th. But it was only on the 13th, that they reported thereof, when about 2 P. M., the Portuguese authorities, accompanied by several English gentlemen and two sur- geons, proceeded to the spot. It was near the north end of Casilha's bay, 20 or 30 yards above high water mark. The body was lying in rather a curved position, the lower extremities extended nearly par- allel with the earth's surface, about two feet beneath it. The clothes were identified as those of Mr. Beale, and bore the initials of his name. Scarcely a remnant of flesh was remaining on the head; the teeth had fallen out; and the truuk was much decayed. No marks of violence were discovered upon it, nor was there anything, so far as we know, that could indicate in what way, or when, the body had been there placed. After an exmaination of the corpse, it was borne in a coffin to the English cemetery in Macao. There, on the morn- ing of the next day, a further examination was made; and at 5 o'clock P. M., the funeral ceremonies were performed. His remains now lie buried close by those of Daniel Beale, nephew of the deceased, who died in 1827. We refrain from all comments, leaving it for time, or the records of the last day, to disclose the causes and particular means, by which the deceased was removed from the light of life. He arrived in China in the 17th year of his age, and had resided in this country about 50 years.

Here to turn from the inelancholy scene we have been describing, it will be neither out of place, nor unacceptable to our readers, briefly to notice the aviary and garden attached to Mr. Beale's establishment, which have given m considerable celebrity. The aviary, made of wire, was placed at the western end of the house in the garden, and by its position was excellently screened from the winds. It contained half a dozen large trees, with a few smaller shrubs, a small artificial pool of water, and perches, roosts, and cages arrang- ed in good order for the accommodation of the inmates, while ? complete view of the whole could be had froin the window of the din ing-room, without disturbing them. The gallinaceous birds, pheasants, jungle-cocks, partridges, and pigeons of various sizes and most splendid plumage formed the principa! ornaments of the collection in the aviary: the graceful and superb silver pheasant, the splendidly colored golden and medallion pheasants, together with the large

60

Journal of Occurrences.

JAN

and handsome blue crowned pigeon, and other smaller kinds, attract- ed the admiring gaze of every visitor. Mr. Beale first procured a living specimen of the bar red-tailed pheasant from the interior of China; and the Phasianus Reevesii, or Reeves' pheasant was in his possession_several years before it was carried to England by Mr. Reeves. The most distinguishing object of attraction about the house however, was the bird of paradise, from the Moluccas, whose brilliant plumage held the eye of every beholder; it was kept in a cage by itself, and more than any other of the birds drew visiters to the house. Loris, parrots, crockotoas, minas, magpies, and various Chinese singing birds, each suspended near by in its own cage, kept it com- pany in the entrance to the house, each vying with the other in the loudness of its note, and altogether forming a constant vocal concert. A magnificent Indian peacock also attracted its share of attention, and a large cage of canaries, with compartments for the quiet breed- ing of young birds, sent forth its share of music. The garden contain- ed upwards of 2500 pots of plants, most of them Chinese flowers, in the cultivation of which Mr. Beale spent much of his time. T'he collection was probably one of the richest in Chinese flowers that has ever been made by any foreigner.

3. Sir Hugh Gough's notice of the capture of Tinghái and Chin- hái, contained in "General Orders," dated Oct. 3d and 12th, we extract from the Hongkong Gazette of the 1st instant.

No. 1.

"Major-general sir Hugh Gough has again the pleasure to congratulate the troops under his command, upon their success in the recapture of the island of Chusan, and city of Tinghái, on the 1st instant. The conduct of the 55th, whose good fortune it was to land first, and who gallantly gained and cleared the heights, under a brisk and sustained fire from the enemy, was most creditable to the corps, and gave it the further advantage of being first to scale the city walls.

"That of the 18th Royal Irish, who landed next, was equally praiseworthy in driving the enemy before then, in spite of the resistance from the long line of sea batteries, until the regiment gained and re-occupied its old station upon the Pagoda Hill.

46

The well-dirccted fire of the detachments of Royal and Madras artillery on Chusan, in getting their guns over almost impracticable ground, and opening their fire from successive points,-were alike distinguished.

"The major-general was also gratified by observing the spirited manner in which the Madras Rifle Volunteers advanced, in extended order, over the hiil of the city, and the active zeal of the Madras sappers, in carrying the scaling ladders over those steep and difficult heights, and planting them against the walls.

Circumstances which it was impossible to foresee having hastened the moment of attack, the 49th regiment and Royal Marines were not landed in time to perforin all that had been allotted to them; but the major-general noticed with the utmost satisfaction the rapidity with which they moved off to support the advance.

"Sir Hugh Gough addresses himself, therefore, to all, in expressing his thanks to commanding officers of columns and corps, and to the personal staff, and directs, that his sentiments be made known to all of every rank under their respective command."

1842.

**

Journal of Occurrences.

No. 2.

61

    Major-general sir Hugh Gough having so lately thanked the troops under his command, for their conduct on the 1st of October, will only now observe, that their promptitude tand gallantry at the capture of the fortified heights and citadel of Chinhái, on the 10th instant, justified his warnest anticipations. The major-general again requests, that the commanding officers of columns and corps, and heads of departments, will communicate this expression of his satisfaction to all under their respective command, and acquaint them that he will have much gratification in bringing their praise-worthy conduct to the notice of the governor-general and cominanderin-chief in India, and to

general Lord flill. By order. (Signed) A. S. H.MOUNTAIN,

It.-col, Dep. Adj. General."

4. This series of imperial rescripts, borrowed from the Hong- kong Gazette of the 1st instant, affords additional particulars regard- ing the taking of Chusan, Chinhải and Ningpò. The abstract of these documents was made by Mr. Morrison. They are particularly valuable, inasmuch as they show the condition into which the war has brought the Chinese.

No. 1.

Liú, the governor of Chekiáng, having reported, on the 5th of October the fall of Tinghái, and requested that detachments from the best troops of the neighboring provinces might be sent for the defence of Chápu and Hángchau, received the imperial autograph reply, in these words: "Our pleasure shall im- mediately be declared." And, the same day, he received a dispatch from the Great (or Privy) Council, covering an imperial rescript, delivered to the cabinet on the 12th of October. The purport of this rescript is, to reprehend the high commissioner, Yukien, and the commander-in-chief. Yu Payun, for having been so little able, during half a year of coöperation, to provide against attack, and to command the Board of War to determine with rigor what should be the penalty inflicted on them; while the governor, Liú Yunkò, having been this year more especially charged with the defence of Hángchau alone, is declared less culpable than his predecessor (Urkungáh) was last year, and is merely placed at the bar of the Board to be judged without rigor.

In a second rescript of the same date, the emperor informs the governor, that he has already commanded the respective governors of Húpi and Kiángsí, to send for his disposal a thousand men from each of those provinces. His majesty speaks of Chápű, and another place somewhat to the westward of it (a jutting- out headland), called Tsienshán, as most important posts of defence; and ex- presses the fear, that, taking advantage of this moment of general alarni of war, the 'rebellious barbarians' will be breaking out in every direction. He urgently enjoins the governor to recruit his local forces with volunteers, and especially to collect an extensive body of 'water-braves' (seafaring men).-and to hand the people together, encouraging them with the assurance, that 'to exert themselves for their country is the sure way to defend themselves and their families; that if they will fortify themselves with oneness of determination, no enemy can stand against them. In this, the emperor is simply giving back to the governor the words of the latter's own propositions. His majesty desires that no attack be made, till the grand army be assembled.

No. 2.

On the 17th of October, the governor. Liú Yunkò, received an express from the Board of War, addressed to the late high commissioner, Yükien, which he opened, and found it to give cover to the emperor's autograph reply to the high commissioner's memorial.- -as also to an imperial rescript. of date the 11th of October, transmitted by the Great Council. The autograph reply is: Our feel- ings of indignation and wrath cannot in words be expressed Our pleasure shall forthwith be declared.' And as a marginal note on the statement that 'for six days and nights they had fought with heavy toil,' are these antograph words:

We read it with fast-falling tears.'

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Journal of Occurrences

JAN.

The imperial rescript transmitted thorugh the Council is nearly as follows:- Yükien this day reports, that Tinghái has fallen, and that he is in the first place vigorously arranging for the defence of Chinhái, at the same time preparing to send forth a force to advance offensively. From this report, it appears that, on the 27th of September, the foreigners advanced to Chúshán-inun (the channel off Forty-ninth Point), when the general Kó Yunfei (commanding the forces of the island, and having his post on Joss-house hill) opened fire on them, and strik- ing the mainmast of a foreign vessel, caused them immediately to sneak off again. That on the 28th, they landed on Forty-ninth Point, when the general Chin Kwohung (commanding a detachment, posted on the heights) opened a ginjall- fire, and killed numberless foreigners. That on the 29th, they pitched some tents on the Wükwei shán (Trumball island), when our soldiery killed more than ten of the rebels. That, finally, on the 1st of October, they advanced to the attack of Tinghái, when general Kó Yunfei himself aimed a gun, the shot from which struck in the magazine of a foreign vessel, and it was forthwith blown up. The rebels advanced in three columns. As the front ranks of our soldiery fell, the rear ranks advanced to take their place, till their ginjalls and field-pieces would no longer serve, when it was left to them only to throw away their lives on the battle-field. For six days and nights, they had fought with heavy toil, and had found success; but unfortunately the wind had been for several days contrary, and the sea violent, ―so that the reserved reinforcements were hindered from arriving from Chinhái. Our soldiery were no longer able to withstand the enemy, and on the 1st of Octo- ber, Tinghái was lost.-Yukien requests that his demerits herein may be punished with severity; let the Board with rigor determine the penalty. The generals Wang Sipang, Ching Kwohung, and Kó Yunfei and the acting magistrate of Tinghai and sub-prefect of Shipú, Shú Kungshau, who fell in the battle, are to receive the funeral honors, &c., by law established. And let Yükien ascertain and inform the Board of the names of the subordinate officers and soldiers who fell in battle. Respect this.'

No. 3.

The governor Liú, having, on the 12th of October, reported the loss of Chin- hái, the imperial autograph reply, in similar language of indignation, and his or- ders thereupon, of date the 18th of October, were received about the 24th. His ma- jesty's first orders are to the Board of War, to make an immediate financial report of what will be required for the military operations in Chekiáng. The next com. mands are to Chin Kiáiping (mentioned in a previous translation as one of the joint commissioners with Yiking), to proceed with all speed to Chekiáng, retaining still his rank of provincial commander-in-chief, Again, Yiking is appointed gener- alissimo, and Hàlángáh and Hú Cháu, joint commissioners, and they are likewise commanded to repair with haste to Chekiang, Hú Cháu's appointment, trans- ferring him from one of the most distant provinces, appears to be owing to an earnest volunteer of his sent in upon his hearing of the capture of Amoy, wherein he states that he has been for some time exercising the troops under his command with an improved discipline, and has been employing skillful artificers in the im- provement of their weapons.

His majesty's next commands are addressed to Kímingpáu, the general com- anding the Tartar garrison of Hángchau, Liú Yunko, governor of Chekiang, Ya Payun, commander-in-chief in Chekiáng, and Hanghing, lieut-general of the Tartar garrison, acquainting them with the appointment of the generalissimo and joint commissioners, directing that they remain at, and give their best attention to the defences of, Hángchau, and requiring of them the utmost exertions to collect together the scattered remnants of the Tinghái and Chinhải forces,-to show kindness to those of the people who adhere to the government,-and to use every prevention against those who traitorously abandon it, He approves of the arrangements reported to him for the defence of Shauling, in sending thither the judicial commissioner of the provinces with a body of troops,-and for the assen- bling of volunteers and militia, for which purpose an officer had been sent out with a supply of money. Yü Púyun, the emperor commands to abide at Ningpo. and there, in concert with the civil officers of the place to collect militia for offensive operations. He ends with demanding more acemiate particulars of the fall of Chinhai at the earliest possible period.

1842.

Journal of Drvurrences

No. 4.

63

     On the 22d of October, the emperor expresses his great regret on account of the death of Yakien, who gave his for file his country, casting himself into the water.' He adds to his departed servant's titular distinctions, orders him funeral honors of a high class, and remits whatever there may be recorded against him in any of his official situations. His majesty then calls to mind the death of Yükien's grandfa- ther, in the same manner, at I ́lí, during the reign of Kieulung, directs that Yakien receive subordinate sacrificial honors in the same temple of "faithful ministers" in which his ancestor had already found a place,-promises farther honors at the end of the war,-directs all the local officers to pay to his remains every honor, wher ever they may pass on the way to Peking, and sends Yükien's brother to meet the coffin, permitting him bring it within the city of Peking.

No. 5.

     An express from the Board of War was reccived at Hángchau on the 27th of October, giving cover to an imperial rescript of the 17th, in answer to the report of Yu Púyun, the commander-in chief in Chekiang, That functionary, in announ- cing the loss of Chinhái, added that he had retired to Ningpò, which was at that moment defenceless, but which he would use every exertion to save. It was then threatened by the enemy, but it might be that they were only making a seint to draw off attention from Hángchan. His majesty commands him to continue if possible at Ningpò; but, should that place also fall to the enemy, to retreat to Háng- chau, and aid in its defence: Shauhing from its neighborhood to Ningpò, might in the latter case also be found untenabile :-every exertion should, however, be made for its defence, that might be consistent with a due care for the salety of the capital of the province.

No. 6.

On the 24th of October, another imperial rescript was issued consequent on hav- ing received from the general of the Tartar garrison, and other officers at Hang- chau the announcement of Ningpò fallen. His majesty has once more to give ut- terance to 'the extremity of his wrath and indignation. By this report, it appears, that, on the 12th of October, eight foreign vessels approached the city, and com- menced a cannonade of it, when, the force therein being but " small, the place immediately fell." The emperor, in commenting upon this subject and the arrange- ments to be made in consequence of the loss of Ningpò, alludes to the impor- tance of the post of Tsáugo, a small river, having its embouchure to the northward and westward of Chiuhái, whith runs past the city of Shauhing (beyond the town, lately visited, of Yüyáu): sundry civil officers are ordered to be sent to Shau- hing, and among the rest a commissary-general to lay in a store of grain. With regard to Hángchau his majesty continues, officers and troops have already been dispatched thither; but it must require about two months for them all to arrive. Reliance must meanwhile be placed upon the exertions of the provincial officers. -It seems, that since the fall of Ningpó, nothing had been heard of the com- mander-in-chief, Yû Púyun; his majesty directs search to be made for him, and a true statement of all particulars to be forwarded to the court. It is further com- manded, upon the representation of the It.-governor, Liú Yunko, that the militia of the neighboring provinces shall not be sent till the moment of action arrive, lest they become, during a period of inactivity, mere bandits. These last orders were received at Hángchau on the 30th of October.

(True Abstract) J. R. MORRISON. Chinese Secretary and Interpreter. 5. Defensive measures of the Chinese at Hángchau and Tientsin, as detailed in letters received at Hángchau, and published in the Hongkong Gazette.

Hú Cháu, commander-in-chief in Shensi, was on his way, apparently, to Fu kien, when he received, on the 20th of Octoner, the imperial commands, appoint- ing him a joint commissioner. He was then on the frontiers of Chili, from whence he wrote to the government of Chekiáng informing it of his appointment, and stating that he was about to repair to Hángchau, in obedience to the impe- nal commands, with 2000 men. He received, at the same time, the announcement wued at Peking two days earlier) of the appointment of Yiking as generalissimo

64

Journal of Occurrences.

together with the subordinate appointments already detailed, in the translation of extracts from imperial edicts.-This communication from Hú Cháu was received at Hángchau on the 29th of October.

Shortly after, a second imperial rescript arrived, ordering Hú Cháu to change his route, and repair, with 1000 of the troops he had with hitn, to Tientsin,-for which, as a place immediately adjoining the imperial abode, the emperor began to feel alarm. The remaining 1000 of the Shensí troops under Hú Cháu's command were ordered to continue their route to Chekiáng; but of the further reinforce- ments from Shensí, advancing at a later period in that direction, 1000 were to turn aside and join their commander-in-chief at Tientsin. Hú Cháu was meanwhile to associate himself with Nárkinge, the governor-general of Chilí, in arranging the defences of Tientsin and its neighborhood. It was between the 18th and 20th Oc- tober, that Kishen was ordered to be released, that he might repair to Chekiáng. He was to leave, in the suite of the generalissimo, on the 30th of October. Two joint commissioners, and an officer of the Board of Revenue bearing a separate civil commission, had been appointed to Chekiáng;-and a noble of the first order has been sent with a detachment of the imperial guards. The civil commissioner was to leave Peking, with two subordinate officers, on the 26th Oct ; the generalissimo, with Kishen and another high officer, and ten subordinate officers, was to leave on the 30th. The officer appointed to succeed Yükien, as governor-general of Kiángsú, A'nhwui, and Kiángsí, was to leave about the same time, bringing with him 1000 of the Honán troops.

6. A manufactory of gunpowder was blown up in Canton on the 12th, at about 8 P. M., causing great destruction of life and property. 7. Five new forts have been recently built, four between Canton and Howqua's folly, and one in the Macao Passage. Another is be- ing raised midway between the foreign factories and the old western fort. These works have been raised with much more dispatch and skill than are usual among the Chinese.

8. Numerous cannon for these forts have recently been cast, weighing from 1000 to 6000 catties each.

9. Heavy contributions, for the expense of these forts and guns, and for new levies of militia, have been solicited by the rebel-quelling generalissimo, at a recent public dinner, given to all the rich men of Canton. The militia, it is said, now number 30,000 strong.

10. Forcigners, dressed in Chinese costume, are aiding in these new measures-unless rumors and reports are false.

11. The French ship of war, Erigone, has proceeded to the Bogue, and her commander to Canton, where we dare say the Chi- nese authorities will seek an interview, and perhaps ask him to be- come mediator between themselves and the English.

12. The return of Sir Henry Pottinger from the north is an- nounced in Macao: his excellency came down in the Blenheim; what may be his particular objects, and how long his stay in this neighborhood, we do not know. We do not as yet learn that he brings from the north any intelligence later than had preceded him hither. There seems to be a general belief prevalent, that the Chi. nese are preparing for a desperate and final struggle, and that cor- responding measures are in progress under the direction of the com- manders of the British military and naval forces. The fate of the greatest empire in the world is at stake, and the issue of the struggle will doubtless change the aspect of the whole eastern hemisphere.

i

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL XI.--FEBRUARY, 1842.- No. 2.

ART. I. Retrospection, or a review of public occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to December 31st, 1841. (Continued from page 28.)

In our last number, this review was brought down to the end of July 1831, sixteen days after lord Napier's arrival in China, and six after he and his suite had taken up their residence in the factories at Can- ton, to which place his government had directed him to proceed, and there to report himself to the Chincse authorities. The reader has scen already in what manner this was effected; and he has seen, too, how his lordship's most civil address was rejected by the provincial governor, and he himself stigmatized as one " Laboriously Vile." It may also be here remarked, as evidence of the hostile disposition of the government, that every possible annoyance was offered to the new commission: such as wantonly breaking open baggage-chests by the officers of the custom-house, while the keys were in their reach; by recalling the Chinese boatmen employed by Europeans on the river; and by intimidating the compradors belonging to the agents of the East India Company, so as to cause them to desert their ser vice. These aggravating circumstances contributed in some degree, no doubt, to deprive the commission of its ablest adviser, and the Christian world of ono of its best men.

  August 1st, 1834. At 10 o'clock r. m. died at Canton, the Rev. Robert Morrison, D. D., in the 531 year of his age. His remains were removed to Macao, and there interred.

4th. The superintendent of customs published a long edict to the hong-merchants, embodying others which he had received in the

VOL. XI. NO 10

9

66

Review of Public Occurrences During the

JAN.

form of communications from the governor, all of which were to be, by the hong-merchants, enjoined on the foreigners in general, and on the new commission in particular.* Chi. Rep., Vol. III., p. 190. 8th. A meeting of British merchants was held at the office of H. B. M. superintendents with the object of forming a post-office esta- blishment at Canton and Macao.

9th. Lord Napier wrote to viscount Palmerston, giving a full ac- count of the proceedings of the commission, up to this date; and clos- ed his letter with the following paragraphs, which indicate the spirit with which that nobleman came to China.

"It may be here proper to explain to your lordship, that, from private informa- tion, on which I have the most perfect reliance, I am assured that up to this date, no report, even of my expected arrival, or of the change of circumstances con- nected with the trade, has ever been forwarded by the viceroy to the court at Pe- king. At the same time, I have reason to believe that the emperor has been par- tially made acquainted with the circumstance through other channels. The viceroy. thus finding himself in a dilemma, on hearing of my arrival at Macao, dispatched Howqua and Mowqua thither by the inner channel (a branch of the river), with an order to prevent my proceeding to Canton. Previously to their arrival, we had embarked in the Andromache, as before stated; on which the hong-merchants returned with all expedition to Canton. The viceroy then dispatched the Kwang- hie, or his military aide-de-camp, by the river, to meet us on our progress, with the view of inducing me to return to Macao. This message also miscarried like the former. The viceroy, continuing to refuse the acceptance of iny letter. is thus at a loss for information on the nature and object of my instructions; and conse- quently has not the means of making his report to the emperor: thus he is desi- rous of persuading me to return to Macao, in order that when once there, he may have an opportunity of recommencing the ceremony of arriving and reporting, or perhaps of issuing an order to me to remain there altogether. Having so far the advantage, it shall be my duty to hold on for the purpose of forcing him in time to receive my letter, and not my petition; to which he must yield before he can trans- mit an authentic official report to his own government; although perhaps he may be enabled to supply the deficiency to a certain extent, from information ga- thered by his emissaries among the British merchants. My great object is to open and maintain a direct personal communication with the viceroy; so that I may be enabled to get redress from him in all commercial grievances connected with the hong-merchants, or on criminal proceedings connected with the duties of the Kwangchau fú, or the criminal judge, instead of leaving myself at the mercy of those hong-merchants, who, in fact, exercise no official powers whatever, and can never be depended upon for the transmission of complaints to the different heads of departments when circumstances require. I have reason to believe that his majesty's subjects here have several causes of complaint. I forbear to trouble your lordship with these at present, as long as a chance exists, within a moderate time, of laying the same before the viceroy, for his consideration and redress. In the meantime, I shall endeavor to maintain harmony between all parties. There

• Note Several of the governor's clicts will be found in the same volunne, on the pages immediately proceding, 187, &e

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 tư 1841.

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are some other points connected with the medical establishment: the more effi- cient duties of the master-attendant; improvement of the navigation, by completing the survey of the China seas; and the accommodation eventually to be occupied by the superintendents and their assistants, which, on farther experience, I shall have the honor of reporting to your lordship in a more specific manner thau I am yet prepared to do. Having now clearly explained to your lordship the po- sition in which I staud, in respect to the viceroy, up to the date hereof, (9th Aug., 1834) I beg to acquaint your lordship that all these measures have received the full concurrence and support of my two colleagues. Endeavoring also always to bear in mind the nature and spirit of H. M's. instructions, regarding my conduct towards the Chinese authorities, and enjoining respect to the laws of the empire, I conceive, in adopting the line so approved, aird which has given entire satisfaction to his majesty's faithful subjects at this port, that I have, in fact, adhered most strictly to those instructions, without compromising the honor of his majesty's commission, and without relinquishing that right or practice which has been so often exercised in times past by the presidents of the Select Committee, of enjoy. ing direct communication with the viceroy, whenever circumstances might render such communication necessary or desirable."-(Signed) NAPIER, &c. Corr. p. 9. lith. A public meeting of British merchants was convened this day by lord Napier in Canton, in consequence of an attempt made by the hong-merchants the day preceding, to obtain a meeting of the same at their own public hall. The object of the hong-inerchauts was evidently to create a schism among the British, in order to set up one party against the superintendents; but they failed entirely.

14th. Lord Napier again wrote to the foreign secretary, under this date, from which we quote, respecting opening a direct com- munication with Peking.

"I think I can have no hesitation at once in recommending his majesty's go. vernment to consult immediately on the best plan to be adopted for commanding a commercial treaty, or a treaty which shall secure the just rights, and embrace the interests, public and private, of all Europeans,-not of British alone, but of all civilized people coming to trade according to the principle of international law. I maintain, that it will be as easy to work for the civilized world as for ourselves; and that it will be as easy to open the whole coast, as any individual port. It may possibly be advisable too to Peking on the occasion, or perhaps only to send from the mouth of the Pei hò river, or from any other point upon the coast. Sending an embassador is the more courteous; but the presence of an embassy presupposes room for debates and long delays, alterations and amendments in plans proposed. Now, I should say, that we should propose nothing but what is fair and just towards all mankind; and avoid entering into minute details. De- mand the same personal privileges for all traders, that every trader enjoys in England. Having once acquired the right of settlement at every port, let the trade go on according to the established rules of the empire, good or bad,-re- serving always the common right to represent and negotiate where wrong prevails. Our first object should be to get a settlement on the same terms that every Chi- naman, Pagan, Turk, or Christian, sits down in England.'

"

*

· If your lordship should prefer making gradual propositions by an embassy

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I would recommend none of that ostentation practiced In the instances of Macart ncy and Amherst ; leave all presents behind, all musicians and idle amateur gen- tlemen, literary and scientific; and go to work in a manner determined to carry what you mean. This is a vigorous measure which might possibly 'alarm the proju - dices' of the Celestial empire, were 1 to make my ideas commonly known among the bong. They are now only thrown together for more special consideration ; and till I have your authority to proceed upon more active principles, your lord ship inay rely on my forbearance towards a government, which is too contempti ble to be viewed in any other light than that of pity or derision. What advan tage, or what point did we ever gain by negocinting or bumbling ourselves before this people, or rather before their government? The records show nothing but subsequent humiliation and disgrace. What advantage or what point, again, have we ever lost, that was just and reasonable, by acting with promptitude und vigor 1 The records again assure us that such measures have been attended with complete success."

 ·My present position is, In one point of view, a delicate one, because the trade is put in jeopardy, on account of the difference existing between the viceroy and myself. I am ordered by his majesty "to go to Canton; and there report myself by letter to the viceroy.' I use my best endeavors to do so; but the viceroy is u presumptuous savage, and will not grant the same privileges to me that have been exercised consantly by the chiefs of the committee. He rakes up obsolete orders; or, perhaps, makes them on the occasion; but the fact is, the chiefs formerly used every year to wait on the viveroy, on their returu from Macao; and continu- ed to do it until the viceroy gave them an order to wait upon him, whereupon they gave the practice up. Had I even degraded the king's commissiou so far as to pe tition through the hong-merchants for an interview, it is quite clear, by the tenor of the edicts, that it would have been refused. Were he to send an armed force, and order me to the boat, I could then retreat with honor, and he would implicate himself; but they ure are afraid to attempt such a measure. What then remains but the stoppage of the trade, or my retirement? If the trade is stopped for any length of time, the consequences to the merchants are most serious, as they are so also to the unoffending Chinese. But the viceroy cares no more for commerce, or for the comfort and happiness of the people, as long as he receives his pay and plunder, than if he did not live among them. My situation is different; I cannot bazard millions of property for any length of time, on the mere score of etiquette. If the trade shall be stopped, which is probable enough in the absence of the fri. gate, it is possible I may be obliged to retire to Macao, to let it loose again, Then has the viceroy gained his point; and the commission is degraded. Now, my lord, I argne, that whether the commission retires by force of arins, or by the in- justice practiced on the merchants, the viceroy has committed an outrage on the British crown, which should he equally chastised. The whole system of govern- ment here is that of subterfuge, and shifting the blame from the shoulders of the one to the other."-Corresp. pp. 13, 14, 15.

16th.

Another public meeting of British merchants was held in Canton, and the establishment of a Chamber of Commerce suggested by lord Napier.

The hong-merchants, in consequence of the edicts being refused acceptance by lord Napier, put a stop to the shipping off of cargoes on British account.

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69

H. B. M. ship Imogene, captain Blackwood, artived from Singa- pore; and the Audromache returned to Chuenpí from a cruize.

   17th. The following extract from a postscript by lord Napier to his government at home, will further show his views and aims, and the character of this goverument.

   "In revising my letter of the 14th inst., I find I call the subject of dispute, a point of etiquette. It is not altogether so; for it is the consequence of humilia- tion, and yielding a point which has been enjoyed by my predecessors, and the fact of not carrying his majesty's order into full execution, that I look forward to. It is a cruel and a criminal measure on the part of a petty tyrant to annoy the merchants, on the score of a dispute which does not immediately affect them. If after a fair trial of all justifiable means, I find the merchants are likely to suf- fer, I must retire to Macno, rather than bring the cities of London, Liverpool, and Glasgow upon your lordship's shoulders ; many of whose merchants care not one straw about the dignity of the crown, or the presence of a superintendent. I shalt not go, however, without publishing in Chinese und disseminating far and wide, the base conduct of the viceroy in oppressing the merchants, native as well as fo- reign; and of my having taken the step out of pure compassion to them. I can only once more implore your lordship to force them to acknowledge my autho- rity and the king's commission: and if you can do that, you will have no difficulty in opening the ports at the same time."---Corresp. page 16.

18th. The governor issues a new edict, through the hong-mer- chants, ordering lord Napier to retire to Macao, and threatening to cut off the trade in case of a refusal. Vol. 111., p. 235.

  23d. By appointinent three officers-the Kwangchau fú, the Chauchau fú, and the Kwangchau hie-waited on the superinten- dents; ordered by the governor to demand of lord Napier the cause of his arrival at Canton, the nature of the business he was instructed to perform, and when it was his intention to return to Macao. In an- swer to the first, an extract was read from an edict, dated 16th Janu- ary, 1831, "instructing the chief of the British factory to send an early letter home to his government, stating, that in case of the dis- solution of the Company, it was incumbent to deliberate and appoint a chief, who understood the business, to come to Canton for the ge- neral management of commercial dealings; by which means affairs might be prevented from going to confusion, and benefits remain to commerce." H. B. M.'s commission, constituting the new authoritics, was then shown. In reply to the second, reference was made to the letter, which they were desired to transmit to the governor.

As to retiring to Macao, that would be regulated by private convenience.

  25th. A British Chamber of Commerce of Canton was formed, according to suggestions previously given.

26th. Lord Napier published a document in Chinese, declaring

TO

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'the present sate of relations between China and Great Britain.' Vol. III., p. 237.

27th. The governor issues an edict requiring the hong-inerchants and linguists to admonish lord Napier to obey the laws, &c. Vol. III., p. 187.

30th. The governor issues an edict reprimanding the hong-mer- chants for having allowed lord Napier to come to Canton without " red permit." Vol. III.,

Vol. III., p. 189.

31st. The governor repeats his injunctions and orders the im- mediate return of the superintendent to Macao, in a new edict ad- dressed to the hong merchants. Vol. III., p. 190.

September 2d. The governor by proclamation stops the British trade, and all intercourse with British subjects. Vol. III., p. 238.

3d. The commissioner of customs issues an edict, repeating the old prohibitions of non-intercourse, &c. Vol. III., p. 191.

5th. In a letter of this date to the Brtish merchants, lord Napier intimated that the frigates had been desired to move up the river, and a guard of inarines come to the factories. Can. Reg., Sep. 9th.

At 5 P. M., H. B. M. ships Imogene and Andromache, under com- mand of captains Blackwood and Chads, cleared for action off the Bogue. Vol. III., p. 333.

6th. The cutter Louisa arrived at Chuenpí, bringing Mr. Davis and capt. Elliot from Macao.

Lieutenant Reed of the Andromache, with two midshipmen, a serjeant, and twelve marines, landed at Canton at 8 o'clock a. m. Corresp. p. 35.

7th. Soon after noon the two ships weighed anchor, moved up the river, and anchored just below Tiger island, the forts firing as they passed, and the firing was returned.

8th. Lord Napier addressed a communication to foreign merchants animadverting on the governor's edict of the 2d. Vol. III., 285.

p.

The governor addressed a long memorial to the emperor. setting forth the state of affairs in Canton. Vol. III., p. 327.

9th. The ships again moved, and again were fired on; and one man was killed in each, and others wounded.

11th. The governor issued an edict to the long-merchants excul- pating himself, blaming them, and deprecating the presence in Can- tan of the superintendents Vol. III., p. 286.

The two frigates anchored at Whampoa, the Imogene having grounded, once near the Second bar, and once near Brunswick shoal. Vol. III. p. 334.

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Last Ten Years, from 1839 to 1841.

12th. Overtures for accommodation were made by the Chinese, and a messenger dispatched to Whampoa, to stop any movement of the boats to Canton.

14th. In a letter to the secretary of the British merchants, lord Napier expressed his determination to leave Canton and retire to Macao. Vol. III., p. 339.

15th. The governor addressed a second peror, respecting the state of affairs at Canton.

memorial to the em

Vol. III., p. 335. The following correspondence contains the particulars of the ne- gotiations with the Chinese from this date till the 18th.

No. 1.

  Letter from the hong-merchants to the British merchants, dated September 15th, 1834.

   A respectful notification.-You, gentlemen, sent us, yesterday, a letter from your honorable officer to you. We immediately took the letter, and, having laid it be- fore the Kwangchau fú, received his commands, saying, that he had minutely looked over the letter,-in which is the expression "endeavors on my part to reason the viceroy," &c. As to this reasoning, it is undiscovered what is the sub- ject reasoned about. If what is spoken of approach to reason, the governor will assuredly report it to the great emperor, and perhaps it may be granted. If not reasonable, an order must also be awaited, commanding its refusal. As to what the affairs are which your honorable nation has sent your honorable officer to Canton to transact, it is neccssary and right to explain them fully,-that a report thereof may be at the same time made for the information of the emperor, and his mandate awaited, to be obeyed and put in operation. As to the ships of war entering the port--it is a thing long prohibited by the laws. All the nations know it. How is it that on this occasion the ships of war have presumed to break into the port, throwing down the forts? Let it be examined what is the cause. At the end of the letter it is said, "I therefore request you to move the proper authorities to order the British cutter up from Whainpoa, that I may carry the same into effect." It is not understood what is the meaning of the word " carrying into effect." We pray you to take the abovc, and having ascertained each point clearly, immediately to reply, that we may be enabled to report. Again, in the present letter, your honorable officer wishes the cutter to come up to Canton. When, then, will the war ships, which the other day broke in and came up to Whampoa, sot sail? Wo pray you first inform us, that we may report for you to tho Kwángchau fú, and await his orders as to what is to be done. We pray you to inform your honorable officer of everything in this letter, and then reply.

'This burden we impose &c., &c. (Subscribed by cleven hong-merchants.)

To Messrs. Jardine, Dent, Boya, Whiteman, Framjee, and other gentlemen.

No. 2.

Canton, 15th September, 1834.

To W. S. Boyd, esq., secretary to the Chamber of Commerce, Sir,-As the Kwangchau fú does not understand my letter, I have to request you will afford him the following explanation.

Istly. In respect to reasoning with the viceroy, I showed his excellency from many examples that Englishinen of rank had been admitted to private commuuni.

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cation with: hrs excellency, and it would have been but courteous in him to have placed me on a similar feeting

2dly. In reterence to the entry of the simps, it would have been but wise and politic had the authorities provided me with a 'copy' of such 'prohibition; as according to the governor's own showing I was quite ignorant of the laws of the celestial empire,'-and

3dly. As to the departure of the ships. One of them will be dispatched imme. diately to the ad uiral in the East Indies bearing the governor's reply to this letter, and who wiil act accordingly; and the other will remain at Whampoa to convey myself und suite to Macao. And 4thly, as to the nature of my business here, I have already told him that I can only communicate on that subject by let. ter or by person to the viceroy.

I hope this is plain enough for the comprehension of the Kwángchau fú.

Your very obedient servant,

No. 3.

NAPIER, &C.

Letter from the hong-merchants to the British merchants, desiring further in. onnation respecting the frigates, dated September 16th, 1834.

A respectful notification.-You, gentlemen, have to-day sent us a letter from your honorable officer to yourselves. Therein, it is said, "As to the departure of the ships, one of them will be dispatched immediately to the admiral in the East Indies, bearing the governor's reply to this letter, and who will act accord- ingly." Why not send the ships of was out to the outer sea immediately, at tho saine time giving information of the day and time of sailing, to enable us to report to the governor, that ho may issue orders to all tho military posts to let them pass? "The other will remain at Whampoa, to convey myself and suite to Macao." Why not first send this ship of war to soa outside the Bogue, and then have tho cutter up to take your honorable officer on board the ship, to return to Macao? At the end of the previous letter it was said, 'I request you to move the proper authorities to order the British cutter up from Whampoa, that I may carry the samo into effect. Do the words 'carry into effect' refer to the mode of acting mentioned in the hoppo's reply, on a former day, to Mr. Whiteman's petition, name. ly, that your honorable officer should first go to Macao. In our letter of the 13th (September 15th), it was required to examine for what cause the ships of war enter. ed the port and broke down the forts. On this point we have not received an We pray you to inform your honorable officer, and reply again to day,--

answer.

to enable us tʊ report.

For this we write, &c., &c.

To Messrs. Jardine, Dont,

(Subscribed by the cleven hong-merchants.) Boyd, Whiteman, Framjce, and other gentlemen.

No. 4.

To W. S. Boyd, esq., secretary to the Chamber of Commerce.

Sir,-In further explanation, I beg to acquaint you that the ship for India will remain at Whampoa on account of the more near communication with this place, and will sail as soon as I receive the viceroy's reply; therefore his excellency had better give orders to allow her to go out as soon as possible. The other ship will remain at Whampoa to receive me from the cutter, and will not move from thenco The words 'carrying into effect' alluð. on any account previous to my arrival. ed to the hoppo's reply to the petition of Mr. Whiteman. The frigate came up the river for the purpose of affording greater security to the prisons and property of

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British subjects, after the most barbarous and cruel edict of the 2d of September, which yet remains in operation. The authorities have to blame themselves for having acted in that base manner towards the representative of H. B. M., and if the prohibitions did actually exist, they ought to have been communicated to the superintendents officially beforehand. The frigates did not fire upon the forts until they were obliged to do so in self.defense. Your obedient scrvant, NAPIER.

Canton, September 10th, 1834.

No. 5.

Letter from the hong-merchants to Mr. Boyd, dated September 17th, 1834. A respectful notification.-We yesterday received a letter, wherein it is said, 'The ship for India will remain at Whampoa on account of the more near com- munication with this place, and will sail as soon as I receive the viceroy's reply...... The other ship will remain at Whampoa to receive me from the cutter.' It may thus be seen that the two vessels are both willing to go out of port; but that they sail at different times. But for ships of war to sail into the inner territory has long been a subject of prohibition. Now the letter says that both are willing to go out of the port. If these two ships immediately set sail and go to the outer sea at Lintin, then afterwards we can report to the great officers that they may order the cutter up to Canton, to take your honorable officer back to Macao. This method will be safe and right. As to the manner of ships of war going out, spoken of in yesterday's letter, it is indeed difficult to request the great officers to grant it. For this purpose we reply, praying you to communicate this to your honorable officer, and reply to us to-day. or this we hope.

With compliments, &c., &c. Subscribed by the eleven hong-merchants.)

To Mr. Boyd, and other gentlemen.

No. 6.

To W. S. Boyd, esq., secretary to the Chamber of Commerce,

Sir,-Lord Napier's continued indisposition rendering it desirable that his lord- ship should not be harassed by a continuance of the negotiation now going on with the Chineso authorities, and that his departure from Canton should not be delay- ed, I beg to inform you that I have undertaken, with his lordship's concurrence, to make the requisite arrangements with the hong-merchants, in reference to the communication which you yesterday received from them.

Your's obediently,

Canton, September 18th, 1834.

T. R. COLLEdge, Surgcor. to H. M. superintendents.

    19th. At the public hall of the hong-merchants, it was agreed to on their part. in behalf of the Chinese government, and by T. R. Colledge and William Jardine esquires, in behalf of lord Napier, that his lordship and suite should retire to Macao, and the two ships re- move from the river, on condition that the trade should be inmediate ly reöpened. Vol. III., p. 283.

    21st. Lord Napier addressed a letter to captain Blackwood, stating that, in consequence of an understanding come to with the Chinese authorities, H. B. M. ships Imogene and Andromache were no longer required at Whampoa; and requesting him immediately to proceed with both ships to the anchorage at Lintin; adding that the Chinese

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authorities had provided means for the conveyance of himself and suite to Macao.

At 7 o'clock P. m., his lordship and suite embarked in two boats provided by the Chinese government, and lieut. Reed and the ma- tines soon after left for Whampoa in another boat-thus opening the communication between the factories and the shipping, which had been closed for sixteen days. Can. Reg., Sep. 23d.

22d. The boats for Macao, having anchored at the fort in sight of Canton the preceding evening, proceeded slowly and tediously, under a convoy of eight armed boats. Vol. III, p. 283.

25th. The boats having arrived at Hiangshan on the 23d, remain. ed there till this morning, to the great annoyance and serious injury of his lordship's health. Vol. III., p. 284.

26th. On the morning of this day his lordship and suite arrived at Macao, his illness having been exceedingly aggravated by the con- certed annoyances of the Chinese. Corresp. p. 39.

October 11th. Died at Macao, at 10 o'clock and 20 minutes P. M., the right honorable Williant-John lord Napier, &c., in the 48th year of his age. Vol. III., pp. 272, 281.

15th. At 10 o'clock A. M., the funeral took place in Macao, and the remains of lord Napier were temporarily deposited in the English burial-ground there.* Vol. III., p. 281.

16th. H. B. M. ship Andromache, captain Chads, sailed with dis- patches for India.

19th. The governor of Canton received from Peking replies to dispatches, announcing lord Napier's departure from Canton, and the withdrawal of the ships of war. Vol. III., pp. 336, 337, 340, &c.

On the same day the governor issued the following edict, addressed to the hong-merchants.

44

 · Lú, governor of Kwangtung and Kwangsi, &c., to the hong-merchants, requiring their full acquaintance with the contents thereof.

T

In the trade of the English barbarians to Canton, the responsibility of tran- sacting all commercial affairs has hitherto rested on the said nation's taepan. This year the Company has been terminated and dispersed; and without any other appointment of & thepan having been made, a warbarian eye (lord Napier) came to Canton, saying that he came for the purpose of examining into the affairs of trade. I, the governor, commanded the merchants to inquire and investigate. The said barbarian eye did not obey the old regulations, but was throughout per- versely obstinate. Now the assistant Fú, magistrate at Macao, has reported that ford Napier has expired at Macao, in consequence of illness. For all affairs

 • Note. A short biographical sketch of lord Napier's bile was given in a funeral sermon preached at Canton before the foreign community, the next Sabbath attr his decease. See vol. II., p. 272.

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of trade it is requisite and necessary to choose a person as head and director, that there may be some one to sustain the responsibility. The merchants have already been before commanded to examine and deliberate, but have not yet made any report in answer. Uniting the circumstances, this order is issued. When the order reaches the said merchants let them immediately obey, and act according- ly; and instantly make known to all the separate merchants of the said nation, that they are, in a general body, to examine and deliberate, what person ought to be made the head for directing the said nation's trade, and forthwith to report in answer. Thereafter the responsibility of conducting public affairs shall rest on the barbarian merchant who becomes head and director. At the same time, cause the said barbarian merchants immediately to send a letter home to their country, calling for the iminediate appointment of another tarpan, to come to Canton, in order to direct and manage. In the celestial empire, responsibility in the management of commercial affairs, &c., is laid upon the hong-merchants. I is requisite that the said nation should also select a commercial man, acquainted with affairs, to come hither. It is unnecessary again to appoint a barbarian eye or superintendent, thereby causing hindrances and impediments. Let the snic hong-mercha...s take also the circumstances of their enjoining these orders, and report in answer, for thorough investigation to be made. Oppose not. These are the orders." ~Corresp. p. 47. Oct. 19th, 1834.

    28th. Mr. Davis, chief superintendent of the British trade ad- dressed a letter to viscount Palinerston, froin which the following is

an extract.

"On the 16th instant, I obtained the copy of a report from the local govern ment to Peking, relative to the circumstances connected with lord Napier's retire meat from Cauton, a translation of which is recorded on the proceedings. The passage of the river's entrance by his majesty's ships, altogether suppressed in ■ previous document already noticed, is there mentioned, but hinted very slightly and represented as a mere mistake; and, though it is stated that the fire from the forts was returned, the effect of the fire is made to appear quite trivial. The res of the paper is in the same strain of misrepresentation, A rumor, which I have fair grounds for believing, although as yet unsubstantiated in writing, siates that the viceroy has lost several steps in rank, and that he is recalled from office, on account of the late proceedings at Canton. Wha is the precise nature of the charges against him, I cannot as yet ascertain; though it has been stated generally, that his punishment was for 'deceiving the emperor.' Any correct information on this important point, I shall rot omit to forward to your wordship as soon as obtained, since it may materially influence the proceedings of his majesty's govern- ment in regard to an appeal to Peking, or otherwise. I will only observe, with reference to such an appeal, that should a measure of the kind be determined on, not through a cumbrous and expensive embassy, with its attendant difficulties of ceremonies, but simply by means of a dispatch to the mouth of the Peking river; it might be recommended by such reasons as the following. First, that no fact is better authenticated than the general ignorance in which the local government keeps the court, in regard to the Canton trade, and its treatment of Europeans; secondly, that Chinese principles sanction and invite appeals against the conduct of the distant delegates of the emperor; thirdly, that a reference of the kind was so successful in 1759, as to occasion the removal of a chief com-

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missioner of customs at Canton, though made by only a subordinate officer of the East India Company. Whatever may be the line of proceeding finally adopted by his majesty's government, I have already stated my conviction that, during the progress of the commercial transactions of individuals, and awaiting the ar- rival of further instructions from England, this commission has no other course to pursue, than that of absolute silence; unless, in the probable event, very soon to be determined, of such spontaneous advances being made by the Chinese govern- ment, as might admit of the re-commencement of negotiations. That such an event is not probable, I should surmise, from the circumstances of edicts having been issued by the local authorities (though as yet I have not obtained copies), confirming the first prohibition against the residence of the king's commission at Canton; and the Company's agents here have thereupon been requested by the hong-merchants not to sub-let any portion of their factory to the superintendents, during the continuation of their lease. It is, moreover, desired that a commercial agent, called by the Chinese a trepan, should be sent to Canton, and not a king's officer."Corresp. p. 44.

November 1st. The following supreme mandate was received from Peking by the governor of Canton.

"The English barbarians have an open market in the Inner Land, but there has hitherto been no interchange of official communications; it is, however, absolutely requisite, that there should be a person professing general control, to have the special direction of affairs. Let the said governor immediately order the hong- merchants to command the said separate merchants, that they send a letter back to their country, calling for the appointment of another person as taepan to come for the control and direction of commercial affairs, in accordance with the old regulations. Respect this."-Corresp. p. 56.

3d. The governor received an imperial mandate, forbidding all traffic in opium; this mandate was published by the governor in form of a proclamation.

6th. The governor issued an edict for the purpose of carrying the foregoing imperial mandate (received on the 1st) into effect.

10th. The superintendents of British trade issued the following public notice to the British subjects in China.

"The superintendents have during the last few weeks devoted their serious con- sideration to the state in which past occurrences have placed his majesty's com- mission in China, and think it due to the British community to afford to them the following succinct statement of their views on the subject.

"Any determination in regard to the future, which it may seem fit to his majesty in his wisdom to adopt, the superintendents will not presume to antici- pate. It has been their duty humbly to submit a full detail of all the events which have transpired since the arrival of the commission in China, and this they have faithfully performed. It is proper to add, that in accordance with instruc- tions under the royal Sign Manual, a transcript of the same report has been forwarded in duplicate to his excellency the right honorable the governor-general of India.

"Adverting then to the situation in which his majesty's servants have been placed by the denial of the Canton government to acknowledge their public cha-

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racter, or admit them to official communication, they cannot but regret the incon- veniences which may result to both English and Chinese from so strange and anomalous a state of affairs. It is manifest, that under these circumstances, no chan- nel exists for the conveyance, in an authentic shape, of any expression of the views or wishes of the Chinese government to his majesty's knowledge. The local authorities, after having from the very first arrival of the commission on their shores, persisted in rejecting the only legitimate means of communication. have no reasonable ground of complaint, should their requisitions remain un- answered.

"The superintendents are led to make the preceding reflections in conse- quence of its having come to their knowledge that several papers have been ad- dressed to the private merchants at Canton, purporting to emanate from the local government, and containing matter which it is desired inay be submitted to his majesty's knowledge. After making every allowance for the strangeness of the Chinese to external relations, it is difficult to believe that the Canton authorities, who constantly profess to act in conformity to reasonable principles, should have voluntarily placed themselves in so false a position. To judge by mere intrinsic evidence, it might be fairly inferred that the particular papers alluded to were not authentic. Any other conclusion would involve the extravagant belief that the lrigh officers of the Chinese government, enlightened men, and practiced in the proprieties of public business, would place themselves in the helpless position of attempting to convey the wishes of their own sovereign to his majesty the king of England through the incongruous medium of commercial correspondence. Such a course would be at variance with all sound principles of dignity, and a departure from every dictate of reason. It would be to derogate from the ma. jesty of their own sovereign, and to expose theinselves to the certainty of pre-

venting their communications from receiving the slightest degree of attention.

44

     Under present circumstances, the superintendents must at once declare that they cannot see the least occasion to open communication with the local autho- rities. However much they might have deemed it their duty, if suitably ap- proached, to forward a decorous communication to his majesty's government, they must repeat that in the actual state of things they consider themselves bound to await in perfect silence the final determination of the king.

46

Pending this interval, the superintendents have to submit some few sugges- tions to his majesty's subjects resident in Chiua, and they do so in a spirit of serious earnestness, and with the conviction that the vast importance of the sub- ject will insure to their remarks the most attentive consideration. They formally counsel and enjoin the king's subjects, each in his own place, and by all the influence of his example, to avoid or prevent the chance of affording a plausible ground of complaint to the Chinese, and to refrain, as much as possible, from allusions to the past, or anticipations with regard to the future. In fine, to im- press the local government and the people, by the deliberate reserve of their conduct, with a proper sense of the confidence reposed in our sovereign's wis- dom to conceive and power to execute any measures which may be deemed re- quisite for the establishment of all things on a sure and permanent foundation.

     If any well founded complaint against the conduct of the Chinese authorities towards British subjects should arise, the superintendents trust that it will be pre- ferred to them, and that the decision, as to the best course to be pursued, will be remitted to their judgment. They deem it superfluous to insist upon their desire

46

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to give to such questions the most anxious consideration; and to provide the most suitable way to a remedy,

**The superintendents will only observe, in conclusion, that these suggestions with regard to the procedure of British subjects under existing circumstances, have by no means been made because they apprehend that the advice may be practically necessary, but rather to draw attention to the subject, with a view to inducing such a temperate and judicious course of conduct during the interval of the reference to the supreme powers, as shall insure the most prosperous result. By order of the superintendents,

-Corresp. p. 56.

(Signed)

CHARLKS Elliot, secretary.

15th. The governor and commissioner of customs issued a pro- clamation against the hong-merchants conniving at and abetting vice in foreigners-which, or one siniilar, is annually sent forth among the people. Vol. III, p. 391.

17th. Military reviews took place in the vicinity of Canton, which were attended by his excellency the governor.

18th. His majesty Tankwang, who was bereaved of his imperial consort, 16th June, 1833, having made a new choice, raised her this day to be empress.

29th. A public meeting of residents in Cauton was convened by circular, for the purpose of forming a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China, which was accordingly formed.

December 9th. British merchants in Canton draw up a petition to the king's most excellent majesty in council. Vol. III., p. 354.

January 1st, 1835. The arrival of a new hoppo, or commissioner of customs, was reported: he came accompanied by about two hun- dred domestics, &c., all Mantchous, seeking profit.

2d. Mr. Davis, in a letter to viscount Palmerston, wrote, "How- ever desirable it may appear to his majesty's government to avoid, if possible, the chance of a serious rupture with this country, at the same time that every endeavor is made to ameliorate the condition of British traders at Canton, it may with the utmost safety and certainty be averred, that the similar desire, on the part of the Chinese govern- ment, is no less sincere-however carefully it may be sought to be disguised, under the absurd phraseology of its official papers." In support of this opinion, he inclosed the following supreme mandate:

"There are at Canton, merchants who have of late been in the habit of levying private duties, and incurring debts to barbarians; and it is requested that regula. tions be established to cradicate utterly such misdeineanors,

 "The ontside barbarians' commercial intercourse with the Inner Land, exists, indeed, by the compassion exercised by the celestial empire. If all the duties which are required to be paid, can, indeed, be levied according to the fixed tarifi

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    the said barbarian merchants must certainly pay them gladly, and must continual. ly remain tranquil. But if, as is now reported, the Cantou merchants have of late been in a feeble and deficient state, and have, in addition to the government duties, added also private duties, while fraudulent individuals have further taken advantage of this, to make gain out of the custom-house duties, peeling off [from

      barbarians] layer after layer; and have gone also to the extreme degree of the government merchants incurring debts to the barbarians, heaping thousands upon ten thousands, whereby arc stirred up sanguinary quarrels: if the merchants, thus falsely, and under the name of tariff duties, extort, each according to his own wishes, going even to the extreme degree of incurring dehts, amount upon amount, it is not matter of surprise if the said barbarian merchants, unable to bear their grasping, stir up disturbances. Thus, with regard to the affair this year of the English lord Napier and others, disobeying the national laws, and bringing forces into the inner river, the barbarians being naturally crafty and artful, and gain be- ing their only object, we have no assurance that it was not owing to the numerous extortions of the Canton merchants, that they, their minds being discontented, thereupon craftily thought to carry themselves with a high hand. If regulations be not plainly established, strictly prohibiting these things, how can the barbarous multitude be kept in subjection, and misdemeanors be eradicated?

"Let Lú and his colleagues, examine with sincerity and carnestness; and if of. fences of the above description exist let them immediately inflict severe punish- ments therefor; let there be not the least connivance or screening. Let them also, with their whole hearts, consult and deliberate, and report fully, and with fidelity, as to the measures they, on investigation, propose, for the secure establishment of regulations, so as to create confident hopes that the barbarians will be disposed to submit gladly, and that fraudulent merchants will not dare to indulge their desires of peeling and scraping them. Then will they (Lú and his colleagues) not have failed of accomplishing the duties of their offices. Make known this edict. Respect this."-Corresp. p. 77.

    19th. On the eve of his departure from China, Mr. Davis ad- dressed the following to viscount Palmerston.

"After the lapse of considerably more than three months since the reöpening of the trade, consequent on lord Napier's retirement from Canton, I am tempted to take a brief review of the principal occurrences of this period, as the best ground of an opinion concerning the measures which his majesty's government may deem it fit to adopt relatively to China.

     "I am aware that two courses of a very opposite nature, might have been taken by me, subsequent to lord Napier's deccase, in lieu of the one which, ac cording to the best of my own judgment, and with the entire concurrence of the Board, I have pursued; and which, considering, that a season of unusual com- inercial activity, and an increased amount of tonnage is now drawing quietly to a close with the monsoon, I see no reason to regret. I might, in the first place, have tried the effect of a measure which has not been without its advocates, and which (under very peculiar and favorable circumstances) was successful in 1814, I mean the withdrawal of the ships from the river, and the stoppage of the trade on our part. I do not deny that this might have been productive of considerable embarrasement to the local government for the time: but the ill-success of such a course m the year of 1899-3), when the Company's ships were detamed for

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about five months to little or no purpose, was a warning which I now do not regret having profited by. The effect of such detention on private shipping would have been ruinous, and a serious blow to the future trade with this country.

"I might, on the other hand, have adopted the opposite extreme measure of an iminediate submission to the dictates of the local government, and have proceeded to Canton to place myself under the management of the hong-merchants; but from this I was deterred by the conviction, stated to your lordship in my dispatch of the 11th Noveinber, that 'any adjustment ought to take place as the result of a mutual necessity; and that an unbecoming and premature act of submission on our part, under present circumstances, could not fail to prove a fruitless, if not a mischievous ineasure.' I feel persuaded that it would have been the most effectual means of preventing the emperor's favorable edict, inclosed in my dis- patch of the 2d instant.

 The proclamations of the viceroy, (copies of which I had the honor to forward under dates the 2d and 11th November,) calling for the election or appointment from home, of a 'trading chief' betrayed the difficulty which the local govern- ment had brought on itself by its refusal to acknowledge lord Napier. Transla. tions of subsequent papers (not intended for our perusal), which I had the honor to forward on the 18th November, proved the importance which the local govern- ment really attached to the trade, and its anxiety to avoid a rupture; as well as the responsibility which the emperor had fixed on the viceroy, in respect to the preservation of tranquillity.

"It was reasonably hoped by the commission, that a complete silence and abstinence from all further attempts to negotiate with the Canton government, pending the reference home, might be attended with a favorable effect. The im- perial edict, forwarded with my dispatch of the 2d instant, in which the blame of the transactions of August and September is thrown on the hong-merchants, and the late troubles attributed to their extortions on trade, must be viewed as an unequivocal sanction of that opinion. To repeat the words of my former dis patch, a species of apology is thus provided for the late occurrences, and a desire professed to remedy grievances, in expectation, perhaps, that the harsh, unreasona. blc, and unprecedented measure of rejecting lord Napier's first letter of announce- ment, and subsequent attempts at direct correspondence, may expose it to the risk of future and embarrassing discussions.

"An opportunity is afforded by this imperial document, which his majesty's government (should it be indisposed to accede to the Chinese proposition of a trading chief,') may not be inclined to neglect, in making an appeal to the court of Peking, against the conduct of its servants at Canton, whose corrupt system, in European commerce, tends nearly as much to defraud the emperor of his dues, as to oppress and discourage the foreign trader. I am at least persuad. ed to repeat the expression of my sentiments in a dispatch to the governor-ge. neral of the 24th October, that it could be only the failure of such an appeal, that the policy and justice of any coercive measures towards the local government, would be otherwise than questionable."-Corresp. p. 78.

On the same day (19th January) Mr. Davis delivered over to sir George Best Robinson, H. B M. commission to lord Napier, together with all other official documents, seals of office, &c, &c.

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21st. Mr. Davis, with his lady and family, embarked in the ship Asia, captain Wolfe, for England.

    22d. The Board assembled, and in pursuance to their instruc- tions under the royal signet and sign manual, sir George Best Robin- son assumed the office and duties of chief superintendent, John H. Astell that of the second, and captain Elliot, late secretary, that of the third superintendent. Cor. p. 80.

26th. About half past 6 o'clock P. M. a fire broke out in St. Paul's church, Macao, causing the entire destruction of the whole building. 29th. Captain Macdonald of the Argyle, this day appeared before H. B. M. chief superintendent, and deposed to the following state- ment on oath.

16

     'Appeared Alexander Macdonald, and deposed, that he is master of the British ship Argyle; states, that being bound from Bengal to Canton, the ship fetched in between Hawchime and Lieuchee Island on the 21st instant. Is quite certain that it was somewhere between these points that the ship fetched, but cannot speak with more precision, because of the state of the weather which had prevented him from observing for the four previous days. Owing to the damage the sails had sustained, the ship was anchored at this place, and, on the morning of the 22d, at day-light, deponent sent a boat on shore, then distant (two miles, with the view to seek pilot. The boat contained the second officer of the ship, an European sea- cunnie, a Manila seaçunnie, and nine lascars, twelve in number altogether. The boat was not armed, and deponent is persuaded that no outrage was offered to the natives by the boat's crew. The boat did not return to the ship at all; at about one o'clock, however, two Chinese boats came off and communicated with the ship. The people asked whether she was bound to Macao? Deponent desired them to go on shore, and send off his boat. They pretended to go, but returned,- that is to say, two men returned in a sampan (a small boat), and intimated by signs, that the boat's crew were seized. They offered, before the ship left the place, ou the 22d, to bring the people back, if deponent would give them 500 dollars. He had not the money with him, and, under all the circumstances of the case, ho thought it best to repair to this place, where he arrived to-day."-Cor. p. 81.

(To be continued.)

ART. II. Sketches of China: partly during a journey of four months between Peking, Nanking, and Canton, with notices and observations relative to the present war. BY JOHN FRAN- cis Davis, esq, F. R. 8., &c. Late his majesty's superintendent in China. 2 vols. 12mo. With a map of China proper.

MR. DAVIS, either by design or oversight. has omitted to inform his

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readers in what year his sketches were taken; though he has, and with good grace enough, told us of the qualifications and opportunities he had for their faithful execution. Having first alluded to the dif ficulty, to Europeans, of obtaining that full and accurate information which alone can afford data for our reasonings, or a clue to the ex- planation of the several anomalies-discovered by a certain political philosopher, and certainly calculated to puzzle us of the west,' he then says, our two most offcctual means of inquiry have been, a knowledge of the language, and the openings afforded by the royal missions to Peking. And he adds: "It was the good fortune of the writer of these sketches to be officially attached to an embassy from the court of London to the emperor of China: this was an event (see- ing that such English visits to Peking have been of the rarest occur- rence) worthy to form an era in any man's life, but to himself it derived an additional value from peculiar circumstances. At the early age of eighteen he had devoted himself to the investigation of all that could by any possibility be learned of that real 'terra incog- nita' to which the mission in question was destined; and about two years' close attention to the subject (including the language espe- cially) was followed by the altogether unsolicited boon-sufficiently prized by the favored few to whose lot it fell-of proceeding in per- son, under the high auspices and introduction of a public embassy, to read the sealed book." Such were his qualifications and such his opportunities.

Once upon a time-and who has not heard of the time when a British embassy went to Peking, and having reached it forthwith. came back again-a "squadron of two ships, two surveying vessels, and a brig-of-war, came to anchor, on the evening of the 10th of July, off Hongkong." Mark, the evening of the tenth of July. The omission of the year, in this instance, may however, possibly be an error of the press, or a mere oversight like that on page 86.

C

In a note he says, "the name Hongkong is a provincial corruption of Hung kiáng, the Red torrent,' from the color of the soil through which the stream flows previous to its fall over the cliff." Page ti. Somewhere we have heard the island called the "bloody stream;" but on native maps we do not find it written either "the red torrent," or "the bloody stream;" a small valley, opposite the tongue of land named Kowlung, is called

               hung hiáng lú, the red fra- grant furnace;' and a small bay on the west of the island is called As M Mang kiang, in the local pronunciation Heungkong, the

Dagrant harbor

The name long kong is probably derived from

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this last phrase. That of "Hung kiáng" is taken, we believe, from Ross's chart, to which the names were supplied by a comprador-inter- preter, not too anxious to be correct, so long as he could find an answer that would satisfy his employers.

But these are small errors-if indeed errors they be; and con- sidering the subject, and the occasion, on which it has been written no one could have produced a better book than Mr. Davis; and though it be six-and-twenty years since he made 'the inland journey,' his sketches are, on that account, none the less vivid, nor his remarks any the less accurate. Parts of the Journal we read several years ago; but the two volumes, with the map, as they now appear-correct- ed and enlivened with a variety of incidents-do no discredit to the author of "The Chinese." A more ill-judged and badly conducted mission was never, perhaps, set on foot than that in question. Of this Mr. Davis scems to have been conscious, though he does not venture to say so. His views of its general policy are plainly enough expressed in the following paragraphs.

     "It was indeed lucky that we had brought a good supply of provisions of all kinds, as those supplied to us by the emperor's ngan-tien, or bounty, were totally unworthy of the occasion. There is reason to attribute this chiefly to peculation on the part of the purveyors. Neither of the officers, or conductors, showed the least attention in visiting the embassador at our occasional places of stoppage, as we had been led to expect from the ac- counts of the former mission. From whatever cause it might arise, there seemed to exist a decided ill-will towards us; and as the authorities at Can- ton had good reason to apprehend that we went as coinplainants against them- selves, it appeared probable that their influence at Peking had prejudiced our cause there. The near approach of the mission to Tientsin was likely to bring the question of ceremonials into iminediate discussion, and there could be no doubt of its being required of the embassador that he should make the nine prostrations before the emperor's imagined presence. Among expe- rienced and well-informed people no two opinions could exist on this subject; and the most determined refusal seemed absolutely necessary, with the pre- cedent of the last mission before us. My own persuasion (founded on the import which the kotow bears among the Chinese themselves) was, that even before the emperor himself such an act of homage should be considered as impossible from the representative of our sovereign. Similar reasons led me to wish that the inscription kung-sz', "tribute-bearer," had not been allowed to be suspended from the inast of the embassador's yacht, in confor. mity with the precedent of the last embassy. The Chinese histories observe of the conduct of an emperor of the Sung dynasty, who concluded a praco with the Tartars on bumiliating terms, that he sham fully made use, in the treaty, of the word kung (tribute).' We might perhaps have required that our own flag should supply the place of the other, without making the propriety

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of the inscription a point of debate. There would have been an appearance of reason in this proposition, for our own flag was as good a mark for the boat as theirs, if not a better. Moreover, if we were not to knock head at last, it seemed more consistent with such a line of conduct, because "tribute- bearers have hardly any pretensions to such scruple.

"It seemed, however, that the embassador had received it in his instruc- tions from our government, to consider the matter entirely as a question of expediency, with full authority to comply, should compliance be calculated to attain the substantial objects of the mission. I felt persuaded that, instead of gaining any points by such a measure, we should only becoine contempti- ble in the eyes of the Chinese, and in fact do ourselves more harm than good. Witness the Dutch embassy, whose whole amount of profit consisted of a good deal of ridicule, and some half-gnawed bones from the emperor's table. As far as personal feelings were concerned, the embassador could not be otherwise than averse from compliance; but with authority, or at least per- mission, from home to yield the point rather than make it the ground of a rupture, it became necessary to proceed with circumspection. At the same time, it could never have been intended that he should comply unconditional- ly, or without securing some at least of those important points which were reserved as the subjects of negotiation. Were we to have an audience of the emperor, and do homage at once without bringing any of these subjects forward, nothing could be easier for the Peking government than to send us off immediately afterwards, saying that we had now finished all that we came about. Reserved and unfriendly, not to say rude, as the conduct of our conductors had hitherto been, one felt inclined to anticipate the worst; and there seeined so little prospect of succeeding in anything, that it became a question whether the point of ceremony might not be the best to break off upon, since it would involve no article of ulterior negotiation, but be a good mode of asserting our independence, without making other matters worse than they were before.

"It was curious to observe the difference between the instructions received from the government, and the recommendations emanating from the Court of Directors. The former implied that we went simply in search of what- ever we could pick up, and that performance of the ceremony was to be regarded in no other view than as it affected the question of profit or loss. The Company said, 'Have most regard to the effect that the embassy is to produce at Canton; complain of the conduct of the local authorities to our trade; and make no concessions, in point of ceremony or reception, which appear calculated to diminish the national respectability of the English at that place. Now as the welfare of the Company's trade was really the chief object of the embassy, it was fair to conclude that the Company was the party most likely to give the best advice, their reasonings being founded on their past knowledge and experience. Distant as Peking was from the seat of our trade, the effect of the mission at Canton was of more con- sequence than its mere nominal reception at court; and less was to be gained by a servile compliance with the deniands of the imperial government (which,

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as in the case of the Dutch, would only aggravate our ill-treatment), than by a manly appeal to the justice of the emperor against the insolence and extor- tions of his officers at Canton, and by a decent maintenance of our national independence. The Chinese are so ignorant of foreign nations, and there- fore so illiberal, that their good opinion, and consequent good offices, are not to be gained by undue concessions in essential points. These they always regard as necessary acts of deference to their immense superiority, and therefore nothing extraordinary; while a contrary line of conduct, tending to dispel their absurd illusions, causes them to consider us on a footing of great- er equality. At the same time, none but the most ignorant or wrongheaded would ever, in the first instance, withhold from them that conciliatory tone of demeanor and language, a failing in which lowers us to a level with the Chinese themselves." pp. 52-57.

C

Thus it was determined, "to consider the matter entirely as a question of expediency," to manage by hook or by crook,' as they best could. This they did; and thus, a. D. 1816, on the 28th of August, in the dead of night, the embassy found the gates of Peking shut against them; at dawn of day, on the 29th they had attained their destination;' and on the same day says our author,

                                              "C we set off on our return, at four in the afternoon, nearly in the same man- ner as we had come."

This was indeed the noble reward of expediency! No wonder the embassador and many of his companions became sick. Many of the party returned, as they went, in carts: "the motion was bearable till we came on the paved road, when the jolting became intolerable; it was a repeated dislocation of every part of the frame; each jolt seemed sufficient to have destroyed life, which yet remained to un- dergo the dreadful repetition. The elements combined with the im- perial displeasure to annoy us; the rain fell in torrents; not, however, so violently as to deter the spectators from indulging their curiosity, by thrusting lanterns into the chairs and carts to have a full view of our persons. I certainly never felt so irritated in my life. To be exposed to such indecent curiosity, while suffering considerable pain from the jolting, was too much for the best tempers to hear patiently, and produced in me something not far removed from frenzy." Such were the feelings of Mr. (now the right honorable) Henry Ellis, as described in his Journal by himself at that time. "The pomp of imperial favor no longer attended us," says Mr. Abel; "the crowd of mandarius and soldiers, that had hitherto attended us, disappeared, and were not replaced by a single responsible person.

                                     *** The carriage with the sick was obliged to stop all night on the road, near Peking, in consequence of not being supplied either with guides or

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torch-bearers. Many casualties had occurred on the journey. Several of the baggage-wagons had been upset, and much of the baggage was injured. But this was a slight grievance. One of his lordship's servants was nearly killed by the overturning of his cart, through the carelessness of his driver; receiving in the fall a severe contusion of the brain, the effect of which still incapacitates him for his usual avocations. When we were somewhat recovered from our fatigues, and looked back on the occurrences of the last two days, we seemed rather to have awaked from a dream, than to have experienced any circumstances of real existence. It was impossible to link them together in any probable chain of cause and effect. We could only conjecture that we had been hurried to and from Yuenming Yuen, and subjected to all kinds of indignity and inconvenience, to suite the will of a capricious despot." pp. 112, 113.

Mr. Davis, writing five-and-twenty years subsequent to those oc- currences, has told the story in a somewhat different mood-evident- ly showing that the scenes were not obliterated from his memory, and he has succceded in giving to the descriptions something of that ridiculous air which characterized the movement to and from Pe- king. John Gilpin's race was nothing compared with this, and we are almost surprised that Mr. Davis did not throw his narrative into verse. Even in its present shape, it is worth reading, and we quote it entire.

"August 28th.-Great exertions were made in the morning to leave Tung- chau as carly as possible, after a delayed residence of eight days from our first arrival. The baggage and presents were sent off first, and at about half- past four in the afternoon our party set out, being determined not to leave the impedimenta behind, as had been the case in coming up the Pei ho. As the two officers of the guard and myself were to ride, I had requested the mandarins overnight to let us be supplied with tolerable horses; but when these were produced, they turned out to be in a state of utter impossibility. I walked over to Kwáng, and remonstrated with him, upon which he affect- ed not to know that the animals were so bad. Cháng tájin then kindly of- fered me his own horse, saying that he should go in his chair; and I gladly accepted it, as, though bad enough, this beast was greatly superior to the former tender. The Chinese breed of horses is confessedly one of the very worst, and the same may be said of all their domestic quadrupeds, except- ing pigs and asses. Being kept alive on the smallest possible quantity of sustenance, they naturally degenerate in size; but the pig is the great save. all, and as he lives upon refuse, he pays well for his keeping about the house or cottage; while the ass likewise thrives upon what would starve a horse or cow. I seldom or never saw any donkeys in the south, but near Peking we remarked that they were a particularly fine variety, and perhaps might ac- count for the goodness of the mules, which are also a superior breed.

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"There was something diverting in the exclamation of despair with which the embassador's London coachman viewed the four Chinese Bucephali that were presented to him for the purpose of being harnessed to the carriage. He had prepared everything with as much care and pains as for a birthday at St. James's, the horses only were wanting; and when they appeared in the shape of four small rough ponies, he naturally cried out- Lord, sir, these cats will never do!' • But they must do' was the reply, for nothing better existed in the whole cumpire. The collars of the English harness hung down like mandarin necklaces, and the whole of the caparison sat like a loose gown. By dint of 'taking in' to an extent that had never been fore- seen or provided for, this unworthy team were (no doubt very much to their own surprise) attached to the handsome barouche that was destined to roll on the granite road between Tungchau and Peking. An English carriage should never be sent to China without the horses to draw it. In our pro- gress towards the great northern capital' (the literal meaning of Pe king) we first of all proceeded to the same gate of Tungchau that we had entered on the occasion of the earliest conference with duke Ho. Leaving this now upon our right without entering it, we skirted the high walls of the town, which were lined with spectators, and soon came to a broad road of hewn granite, which was evidently very old, and in so ruined a state that it might have been referred to the days of Yáu and Shun. This road, or rather causeway over the low flats, extended to the gates of Peking, and though the embassador's carriage certainly did get on by dint of the coach- inan's steadiness and skill, its strength and springs were greatly tried by the formidable cavities which the wheels occasionally encountered, and which gave it the motion of a ship in a heavy cross sea.

      "A stone bridge of three arches, at the distance of rather more than a mile from Tungchau, crossed the Pei ho, or a river running into it, in this place a very inconsiderable stream. From the centre of this bridge I re- comoitered the country round Behind us was Tungchau, with its con- spicuous pagoda, or Budhist steeple, and encircled by its high and embattled wall. On each side lay a flat country, studded here and there with woody clumps, inclosing the low dwelling-houses of the Chinese, which are sur- rounded mostly by walls, and consist of houses of all ranks, from the mansion of the high official magnate, to the country-box of the Peking cockney. Be fore us, to the north-west, lay the imperial city, the residence of the absolute monarch of a third of the human race. It is situated very nearly under the fortieth parallel of north latitude, in commoa with Naples and Madrid in Europe, and Philadelphia in North America, which last it resembles in climate.

      Peking has been the fixed capital of China ever since the reign of Yung- ló, of the Ming race, by whom the Mongols were expelled. Although situated on the northern confines of China Proper, it is centrical with re- ference to the whole empire, including Tartary. The tract in which it stands is sandy and barren, but the grand canal is admirably adapted to the purpose

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of feeding its vast population with the produce of more fertile provinces and districts. The most ancient portion of Peking is that area to the north which is now called the Tartar city, or city of nine gates, the actual number of its entrances. To the south is another inclosure, less strictly guarded, as it does not contain, like the other, the emperor's residence. The whole circumference of the two coinbined is not less than twenty-five miles within the walls and independently of suburbs. A very large portion of the centre of the northern city is occupied and monopolised by the emperor, with his palaces, gardens, &c., which are surrounded by their own wall, and form what is called 'the prohibited city.' What Rome was to Europe, Peking is, or has been, to the larger portion of Asia, especially when it became the While scat of Zenghis and Kublai Khan, the masters of the eastern world. the territory of Rome, however, has degenerated into the few square leagues that constitute the patrimony of St. Peter, Peking maintains the greater portion of its ancient sovereignty in an integral state. The former city has shrunk into a corner of the area comprised by its ancient wall; while Peking has doubled its original extent, within a new and additional wall, and pos- sesses considerable suburbs without the walls. It was naturally with feelings of considerable interest that we approached this singular place.

"At the distance of about six miles from Tungchau, our cavalcade, which like most large bodies moved slowly, halted, as it was beginning to grow dark, for refreshment. The place at which we alighted was for all the world just like the stable-yard of an inn, and the knight of La Mancha himself would never have taken it for a castle. On a table in the middle of this yard stood a most uninviting repast, which some of our party very properly deno- minated a mess of broken victuals.' The principal part of the entertain- ment consisted of half-plucked, untrussed, fowls, in a boiled state, and al- together so nasty, that few, if any, of our party could be induced to touch What them; and there was plenty of water to be had in wooden buckets. seemed to make this unseemly treat the more inexcusable was the fact, that two of our principal conductors were with us, and therefore could not plead ignorance of its nature. Some of the Chinese, however, had such elevated notions of English refinement, that they supposed, or at least said, that it was in conformity with the customs of our country.'

"As the kinchái stated that we could not arrive at Yucumming yuen before the next morning, I felt no desire to pass the whole night in the saddle, and exchanged my horse for one of the wretched little Chinesc tilted carts. But we had not procecded half a inile before I had abundant reason to regret the choice, for the convulsive throes of this primitive machine, without springs, on the ruined granite road, produced an effect little short of lingering death; Our and the only remedy was to get out as often as possible and walk. expectations had been raised by Kwang's assurance that the gates of Peking would be kept open beyond the usual hour for our reception; and when we had passed on for about half an hour through a handsome suburb, containing shops whose fronts were richly carved and gilded, we actually reached the

1842.

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eastern gate towards midnight. But what was the disappointment and in- dignation of the whole party, when the cavalcade, instead of entering the gate, turned sharp round to the right, and began skirting the city wall on the outside! I was excessively irritated at this moment by the obtrusive curiosi- ty of the people, who had provided themselves with multitudes of little paper lanterns, some of which were thrust forward very unceremoniously towards our persons. I was at length obliged to seize one or two of these and put them out, after which the annoyance in some degree ceased. The crowd, as might be expected, were by no means so orderly as at Tientsin, but partook of the licentious and blackguard character of the rabble of a great capital. The soldiers, however, treated them very cavalierly, and made good use of their staves, whips, and sheathed swords-

With many a stiff thwack, many a bang,

Stout crab-tree and old iron rang.'

  After a tedious passage round the north side of Peking, we reached one of the western gates, and came upon the high road to Yuenming yuen. The distance was quite inconsiderable, but our average progress was a foot pace, and day began to dawn before we had attained our destination. During the darkness I and several others were separated from the embassador and com- missioners; but after a wretched night we were glad to find ourselves about daybreak at Háilien, close to Yuenming yuen, in the extensive range of buildings intended for our residence.

"August 29th.-On issuing from my Scythian plaustrum, more dead than alive, I found two of the gentlemen of the embassy pacing up and down in the open court or inclosure before the building, while a number of mandarins were staring at them. Some of these at length showed us the range of apartments destined for us, and, tired with the night's journey, we threw ourselves down to sleep, as it happened, in the embassador's room. We were presently, however, awakened by the arrival of his lordship, accompanied by a number of the suite, and listened with surprise to the history of their most unexpected adventures at the emperor's palace. It had evidently been the intention of the mandarins to separate as many of the party as possible from the einbassador and the commissioners, in order to effect what now, for the first time, appeared to be the object of hurrying us forward during the whole night. The carriage was conducted beyond Haitien to the immediate vicinity of the imperial residence, and, as soon as it stopped, (which was be. fore five o'clock in the morning,) Kwáng tájin made his appearance and requested the inmates to alight. The embassador naturally desired to be conducted to his hotel, or lodging; but, to the astonishment of all the English assembled, several of whom had by this time collected round the carriage, the mandarins very carnestly urged their immediately proceeding, for a short time, to a conference with duke Ho. The party then were conducted to an apartment on the other side of the court before which the carriage had stop- ped. Here the whole truth broke upon them at once.

From the great number of mandarins in their full dresses of ceremony, including princes of

VUL. XI. NO. 11.

1

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the blood, wearing their circular badges, it became evident that this was the moment of an imperial audience; and that the embassador and commissioners had been inveigled by the most unworthy artifices, and the most in- decent haste, to be carried before the emperor in their present unprepared state. They were presently informed that his majesty had changed the day of audience from to-morrow to this day, and that duke Ho was waiting to conduct them at once into his presence!

"The embassador pleaded that, without his credentials, and the letter he was charged with from his sovereign, this was impossible; requesting at the same time that it might be stated he was ill froin the effects of the journey, and required some rest. Duke Ho presently appeared in person, and urged his lordship to proceed direct to the emperor, who was waiting to give him audience. It was in vain that every argument was repeated; the duke's carnestness only seemed to increase with opposition, until he at length forgot himself so far as to gripe his lordship's arm violently, while one of the lads of Moukden stopped up at the same time. The embassador inmediately shook them off, and behaved with great dignity and composure at this trying moment; telling the officer of the guard, who, like Gregory in the play, seemed inclined to remember his swashing blow,' that no swords must be drawn. The highest indignation was naturally expressed, and a fixed deterinination to proceed to no audience in such a manner. The party at length retired, with the appearance of an understanding that the audience should take place on the morrow, as before agreed upon. The emperor's physician was soon after dispatched to see his excellency.

.

"The crowd of mandarins had in the meanwhile displayed a very indif ferent specimen of their court breeding, by crowding upon the English party, and examining their persons and dress with the most unceremonious curi- osity; and another strange scene took place as the embassador was quitting the room, for, when the crowd of idlers, spurred on by their inquisitiveness, pressed on in such a manner as to impede the doorway, duke Ho snatched a whip, with which he belabored them handsomely on all sides.

The courtly appanage (some of them with yellow girdles) dispersed like a flock of sheep. When his excellency reached our intended dwelling, they crowded in like inanner into the large room, and peeped through the windows of his private apartinent, making holes with their fingers in the colored paper windows; but when the embassador intreated some of our party to clear the place of these intruders, they fled out at the entrance the moment they perceived in what a summary mode the writ of ejectment was about to be served on them. "On first returning to us at Háitien, his excellency told us that he had successfully resisted the violent conduct of the Chinese, but it was impossi- ble to say what they might do next. Shortly afterwards, it was intimated to us by Cháng, that the emperor was in a towering passion, and that we were to go back directly to Tungchau. This certainly was a barbarous, not to

say

brutal, measure, considering that we had only just arrived from a most fatigung might journey; but I was not altogether sorry to hear the announce-

1942

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Whatever might have been the opinion of one or two persons on the subject of the ceremony, there could be no difference of sentiment on the present occasion. The insult offered had been so gross, and so completely developed the disposition of the Peking court, as to make it evident that we were to expect nothing in the way of favors. In the meanwhile, a most elegant repast was served up by way of breakfast, consisting of the greatest delicacies, and some really fine grapes and other fruit, !~id out on porcelain of the richest description. This formed a singular contrast with our bait of the preceding night in the stable-yard, and the difference between our treat- ment, when in and out of favor, was remarkable. A mandarin from the *general of the nine gates,' (a sort of prætorian prefect,) came to hasten our

departure, saying that 'a million of men obeyed his orders.'

1

"When the baggage, of which very little had been unloaded, was ready, we set off on our return at four in the afternoon, ncarly in the same manner as we had come, except that the embassador's carriage was given up to the sick, and chairs used instead. The daylight in the early part of our journey enabled us to take a good view of the lofty walls of Peking as we skirted them, and some of the party provided themselves with fragments of the blue bricks which compose it. When darkness came on our miserics conmen- ced, and I may safely say that I never passed so wretched a night, except perhaps the one immediately preceding. We were rattled and jolted in a horrible manner, along the old granite road, which was harder, if possible, than the emperor's heart. To be placed in one of these Chinesc carts, and obliged to sit just over the axle-tree, without the intervention of a spring, was the next thing to being pounded in a mortar. We had scarcely the alternative of a walk by the side of these infernal machines,' for it rained most violently soon after dark, and the road was inundated. Rather, how. ever, than be shaken the whole way, I jumped out and attempted to walk or rather wade through the holes and puddles, which from the darkness were not easily avoided. Some of our party returned by the way they came, on the outside of the walls of Tungchau; but my charioteer stopped at the gate until it was opened, and after driving through a considerable portion of the town, carried me out at another gate. Nothing was to be seen, for it was nearly dark, and the inhabitants were at rest. The day soon afterwards began to dawn, and at half past four I reached our boats, where only a few of the party had arrived." Vol. I. pp. 141-158.

"

Never before did "royal embassy move in such a plight; and we cannot wonder that Mr. Davis should desire that the year of such ignominy should be forgotten. However much of discomfort and chagrin it may have caused the embassador and gentlemen who came direct from the court of London, to the members of the factory the mission certainly did afford an agreeable change from the dull mono- tony of Canton, and a very excellent opportunity for reading "the sealed book." Mr. Davis has done well in sending out, at this time, these two volumes. We have read them, and no doubt inany others

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will read them, with much pleasure and advantage. We recommend them to all who desire to gain accurate information of this country. We may have occasion to refer to them again, but will not extend this notice further than to add two short observations. The first is one that had often struck our friend, Mr. Davis, and we give it in his own words. "On looking forward to accompanying an embassy to Peking from the neighborhood of Canton, which lies at the im- mense distance of seventeen degrees (the difference between Edin- burgh and Madrid), it was natural to expect a considerable disparity between China to the north, and China to the south. What was our surprise, therefore, to find that there really exists scarcely the least dissimilarity in the character of the people, in their customs, in their dress, or in any single circumstance whatever," not "even in their complexion." Vol. I., p. 185. Our second observation is in the form of a request, that he will be kind enough in future to substitute the plain English word officer, for mandarin, and his excellency, or some equivalent, for the little understood tujin.

ART. III.

Notices of the Pei ho, from Tientsin to the vicinity of Peking, of the avenue to the capital, and of the road to Je ho, or the Hot stream.

PEKING the northern capital, so called in contradistinction to Nan- king, or southern capital-is situated near the western extremity of an immense plain, distant to the northwest, say one hundred and fifty miles from the anchorage for ships, at the mouth of the Pei ho. Bar- row says the distance is 170 miles from the entrance of the river to the city of Tungchau; but measuring in a right line, on the chart accompanying Staunton's Account of Macartney's embassy, the dis- tance is only 108 common English miles. From Tungchau to Pe- king the distance is twelve miles.

On the 9th of August, 1840, the Wellesley anchored off the mouth of this river, in lat. 38° 55′ 30′′ N., and long. 118° E., with six fa- thoms at low tides.

H. B. M. ship Alceste, captain Murray Maxwell, bearing the right honorable lord Amherst, embassador extraordinary, minister

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   plenipotentiary, &c., anchored off the mouth of this river on the 28th of July, 1816, in five fathoms, about lat. 38° 58′ N., and long. 117" 57' E.

H. B. M. ship Lion, captain sir Erasmus Gower, having on board the earl of Macartney, embassador extraordinary, minister plenipo- tentiary, &c., anchored near the same place on the 25th of July,

1793.

    From the writings of those who were connected with these three missions, and from native maps, we shall bring together such infor- mation as seems most likely to interest our readers, at a moment when another visit to the north may be expected. Staunton, Barrow, Ellis, Davis, and Abel are the authors from whom most of our infor- mation is derived.

"The rise and fall of the tides, at the Lion's anchorage were about eight or nine feet. They ebbed and flowed irregularly and from every point of the compass; but the strength of the food tide was from the southeast, and of the ebb from the northwest. On the sixth of August (being the day of the new moon), the flood tide made at nine hours and forty minutes in the morning; it rose ten feet, and was high water at one o'clock; aud remained without turning till four in the afternoon. The wind was then east, and moderate. There was no perceptible difference in the observation of the tide on the following day." Staunton, vol. II., p. 79.

The line of coast, from that point where the Great Wall terminates in the sea, lat. 40° 4′ N., long. 120° 2′ E., runs southwest till to the south of the river, where it trends first southward and then eastward. In clear weather the forts and a pagoda, near the river's mouth, are visible from the anchorage 12 or 14 miles due east. At the mouth of the river is a bar, stretching north-northeast and south-southwest, over which, at low water, the depth is not more than three or four feet, and which in many places is nearly or quite dry. The Mada- gascar, on the 11th of August, 1840, had twelve feet at spring tides. Lieutenant Campbell, in 1793, found "that a course of west by north, according to the compass, led up the best channel, in a line with the fort which stands on the southwest side of the entrance into the river, which at its mouth was about one-third of a mile in width, and three fathoms in depth at low water." Upon the bar, and within it, Staun- ton says the water is thick and sandy, although outside it is remarka- bly green and clear.

He found the bar divided into a number of sandy banks, lying in various directions, but so high and so close to each other as to prevent the passage, even of small vessels, except ai

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high water. Immediately within the bar, the water deepened to three or four fathoms. The river was there about five hundred yards in width. Mr. Gutzlaff, who visited Tientsin in a Chinese vessel, in Sep., 1831, says "the river has no regular tides, but constantly flows into the sea with more or less rapidity." Chi. Rep., vol. I., p. 136.

 On its southern bank, or the left of the entrance, is the small vil- lage of Tungkú. Its situation is low and swampy, and the ground in its vicinity is covered, in summer, with the Arundo phragmites, a long and not altogether useless reed.

From this village the vessels first move almost due north for three or four miles, then turning westward and southward, 'making a com- plete elbow,' they move against the current, till nearly due west from Tungkú they reach Síkú (Seekoo); thence turning again westward and northward, and making another elbow, they arrive at Tákú; and thus on, in a zigzag course, they wind their way to Tientsin, a dis- tance of forty miles in a right line, but more than twice that follow- ing the river's channel.

Dr. Abel says, no country in the world can afford fewer objects of interest to the traveler, than the banks of the river between the sea and Tientsin the land is marshy and sterile, the inhabitants are poor and squalid, their habitations mean, dirty, and dilapidated; and the native productions of the soil are few and unattractive. The banks of the river, during his first day's journey, were not much above its level; the country beyond them was low, exhibiting a dreary waste, unbroken by marks of cultivation. Patches of millet, inter- spersed with a species of bean, occasionally surrounded mud-huts, on the immediate margin of the river. During the second day's journey, the country gradually, though slowly, improved. The land along the banks, bears the strongest marks of recent formation; consisting of clay and sand, in nearly equal propertions, and being free from the smallest pebble. The beds and shells, alternating with strata of carth, of unequal thickness, mark its periodical and unequal acen- mulation by the soil, which is brought down by the river at different The debris of the mountains (situated on the north * and west) afford, no doubt, the materials of its accumulation. Amherst's Embassy, pp. 76, 79.

seasons.

Referring to this part of the river, Staunton says its banks are higher than the adjacent plains; accordingly, large quantities of earth were placed along its sides, in order immediately to fill up any

.

  The Pei bo takes its rise in two branches, about lat. 41° 30′ on the north of the Great Wall; one due north from Peking the other more to the westward

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  breach which from time to time might be made m them by inunda- tions. In his second day's traveling, a considerable inclosure was, for the first time, perceived, resembling a gentleman's park. This was the residence of the chief of a district. His dwelling was dis- tinguished by treble gates, and by two poles erected near them, each forty feet high, destined to bear ensigns of dignity by day, and lan- terns by night. Within his inclosures were seen several buildings, a variety of trees, and some sheep and horses. Hitherto he had seen few cattle of any kind. To his view the fields exhibited "a high state of cultivation," generally covered with Barbadoes millet, grow- ing ten or twelve feet high, and the lowest calculation of its increase was an hundred fold. The houses had the appearance of being built of mud, as at the mouth of the river; but, on a closer inspection, the walls were found to be made of bricks ill-burnt, or dried in the sun. On one side of the river was a large grove of high and wide spread- ing pines; near and amongst which were inonuments of stone, erect- ed to the memory of persons buried underneath. On the opposite bank were the stacks of salt, estimated at six hundred millions of pounds in weight, and of which every body has heard. This salt was in bags. Similar masses were seen by Abel, which in most in- stances, however, was loose, covered with bamboo matting. These stacks were in sight at Tientsin, the general emporium of the north- cru provinces, 'built,' says Staunton, 'at the confluence of two ri- vers, from which it rises in a gentle slope.' One of these two flows down from near Peking, the other comes from a more southern re- gion. A third flows in from the south, forming a communication between Tientsin and the Grand canal.

The practicability of marching from the coast to Tientsin, we are unable to determine from any information in our possession. Infantry no doubt could easily move across the plain, but artillery probably could not-for we suppose (from what we know of other parts of the country) that ditches and small canals run in almost every direction, and that the only roads are narrow foot-paths. Staunton says, the governor of the province, who awaited the arrival of the embassador at Tákú, came to Tientsin from thence, over land, by a shorter route than was described by the windings of the river. Ellis mentions, in his Journal, while at Síkú, the carts on two wheels,' as justifying the complaints that have been made of them. He says also, that he was surprised with the size of the Chinese horses, having been led to ex- pect that their height did not exceed that of small ponies; on the con- trary, they were not inferior in that respect to the generality of Arab

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horses. they are, however, coarse and ill-shaped, and promise neither strength nor action.' Davis has given quite a different sketch. Vol. I., pp. 124, 142.

The reader must decide which of the two, Ellis

or Davis, is the most correct in description.

Judging from all that we have read of Tientsin, we presume it is, in its general features, not unlike the other great cities of China. The present city appears to be built on a rising ground, though on every side the country falls into a perfect flat, like the sea, presenting one extensive plain terminated only by the horizon. 'If fine build- ings and striking localities are required to give interest to a scene, this has no claims; but, on the other hand, if the gradual crowding of junks till they become innumerable, a vast population, buildings though not elegant, yet regular and peculiar, careful and successful cultivation, can supply those deficiencies, the entrance to Tientsin will not be without attractions to the traveler.' So writes Mr. Ellis. Barrow describes the same scene in similar terms: "the crowds of large vessels, lying close together along the sides of the river; the various kinds of craft passing and repassing; the town, manufacto- ries, and warehouses, extending on each bank, as far as the eye could reach, indicated a spirit of commerce, far beyond anything we had hitherto met with. The large vessels, the small craft, the boats, the shores, the walls surrounding the houses, the roofs, were all covered with spectators. Our barges, being retarded in the narrow passages among the shipping, were at least two hours in reaching the head of the town. During the whole time the population stood in the water, the front rank up to the middle, to get a peep at the strangers. Hitherto, among the spectators, there had generally appeared full as many of the fair sex as of the other; and the elderly dames, in par- ticular, had been so curious as to dip their little stumps into the water, in order to have a peep into the barges, as they glided slowly along; but here, among the whole crowd, not a single female was visible. Although the day was exceedingly sultry, the thermoincter of Fahrenheit being 88° in the shade, as a mutual accommodation, their heads were all uncovered, and their bald pates exposed to the scorching rays of the sun. It was an uncommon spectacle, to see so many bonze-like heads, stuck as close together, tier above tier, as in Hogarth's group, intended to display the difference between charac- ter and caricature; but it lacked the variety of countenance which this artist has, in an inimitable manner, displayed in his picture."

Tientsin, and the ground between it and the anchorage for foreign ships, may soon become a scene of great interest.

For many

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inonths past the Chinese have been directing their attention to that spot; have thrown up numerous and strong defenses; and have there assembled large bodies of troops. The scale, on which these works have been conducted, may be conjectured from what has been found at Canton, Amoy, Chusan, and Chinhái. The site being nearer the capital than the above named places, it becomes naturally a source of deeper interest, and ere it can be reached by the invading forces, will have been made very strong. Battery after battery will have been erected, and a variety of means devised to render the channel of the river impracticable. If attacked, however, we know what must be the fate of all these defenses. The lines once broken, and consterna- tion excited, the capital will become the next object.

    Above Tientsin the river is gradually contracted in its dimensions, and the stream becomes more powerful. The tide, of which the flood had aided the progress of the yachts conveying Macartney's embassy, ceased about thirty miles beyond the city. The embassy was six days in passing from Ticutsin to Tungchau; and it was not until the ourth day that "some high blue mountains were seen rising from the Jorthwest." On this small branch of the river, within a distance of ninety miles, Barrow estimated that there were floating not less than 100,000 souls. As the embassy advanced, the country began to assume a less uniform appearance, being now broken into hill and dale. Few trees appeared, except large willows on the banks, and knots of elins or firs before the houses of distinguished men, and the temples-both of which were generally found at the head of each village. More grain was cultivated here than on the plains near the mouth of the river. Different sorts of kidney-beaus, and some patches of buck-wheat, also, were observed, and a species of nettle, the Urtica nivea, of which cloth is manufactured. Considerable tracts of pas ture or meadow land intervened between the villages, on which were seen a few small cattle, and some of the broad-tailed sheep.

    Here may be noted-what all the travelers seem to have omitted, that the Pei ho enters the sea, or gulf, through two channels. The embassies ascended the southern one. The norther is marked on native maps as being broader than the other, and runs nearly parallel to it, until some miles above Tientsin, where the two unite. On one of our Chinese maps this northern channel is forked, one branch coming from the Pei ho, say thirty miles below Tungchau, and the other twenty miles lower down. This northern channel (probably a marshy expanse) is impracticable for boats of any considerable size.

The city of Tungchau stands on the southera side of the river by

Yol XI NO JI.

13

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Notices of the Pei Ho.

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the water of which one of its sides is washed, the others are defend- ed by a broad wet ditch. The principal streets are straight, paved with broad flag-stones, having a raised foot-path on each side. The buildings are such as are common in other cities of similar size. The suburbs are extensive; and the adjacent country for several miles around, is level and fertile. Mr. Davis seems to represent the city as being a mile and a half distant from the river, which he describes as being very inferior to Tientsin.

+6

'The avenue, or great road to the capital, lies across an open coun- try, perfectly level, sandy, and ill-cultivated. The middle part of the road, for the width of fifteen to twenty feet, is paved with granite slabs from six to sixteen feet in length, and about four feet broad. Each one of these enormous flag-stones must have been brought at least sixty miles: the nearest mountains," says Barrow, "where quarries of granite are found, being those that divide China Proper from Mantchou Tartary, near the Great wall." On each side of this granite pavement is a road unpaved, wide enough for carriages to pass upon it. In many places the road is bordered with trees, par- ticularly willows of a very uncommon growth. A temple, on the right side of the road, and a bridge of white marble, having the ba- lustrade ornamented with figures, meant to represent lions or other animals, cut out of the same material, were the only objects that at- tracted any notice, until the walls and lofty gates of the capital ap- peared in view. Barrow's account of Macartney's advance to the capital is amusing, differing wholly from that given by Mr. Davis of Amherst and his suite. With the first embassy everything was 'grand and magnificent," wearing a pleasing aspect; with the other all was

    mean and villanous," disgusting and detestable, in the ex- treme. Compare an extract in the preceding article with the follow- ing from Barrow's pen:

66

"According to the arrangement, on the 21st of August, about 3 o'clock in the morning, we were prepared to set out, but could scarcely be said to be fairly in motion till five; and before we had cleared the city of Tungchau, it was past six o'clock. From this city to the capital, I may venture to say, the road never before exhibited so motley a group. In front marched about three thousand porters, carrying six hundred packages; some of which were so large and heavy, as to require thirty-two bearers.

                                  With these were mixed a proportionate number of inferior officers, each having the charge and superintendence of a division. Next followed eighty-five wagons, and thirty- nine hand-carts, each with one wheel, loaded with wine, porter, and other European provisions, & inmunition, and such heavy articles as were not lia- ble to be broken Eight light field picces, which were among the presents

1812

Nutices of the Pet Ho

!!

After these paraded the

for the eniperor, c' sed this part of the processION. Tartar legale, and several officers from the court, with their numerous atten- dants; some on horseback, some ir chairs, and others on foot. Then follow- ed the embassador's guard in wagons, the servants, musicians, and mechan. ics, also in wagons; the gentlemen of the suite on horseback, the embas- sador, the minister plenipotentiary, hi son, and the interpreter, in four ornamented chairs; the rest of the suite in small covered carriages on two wheels, not unlike, in appearance, to our funeral hearses, but only about half the length; and, last of all, Wang and Chau, with their attendants, closed üns motley procession. Though the distance was only twoive mues, it was Thought advisable, by our conductors, to halt for breakfast, about half-way; for, as heavy bodics move slowly, what with the delay and confusion in first getting into order, and the frequent stoppages on the road, we found it was right o'clock before the whole of the cavalcade had reached the half-way house. Here we had a most sumptuous breakfast of roast pɔrk and venison, rice and made dishes, eggs, tea, milk, and a variety of fruits served up on masses of ice. The porters and the heavy baggage moved forward, without halting; and having ended our comfortable repast, we followed without loss of time. We had scarcely procceded three miles, till we found the sides of the road lined with spectators on horseback, on foot, in small carriages sinilar to those we rode in, in carts, wagons, and chairs. In the last were Chinese ladies; but, having gauze curtains at the sides and front, we could see little of them. Several well-looking women, in long silken robes, with a great number, of children were in the small carriages. These we understood to be Tartars. A file of soldiers now moved along with the procession, on each side of the road, armed with whips, which they continually exercised, in order to keep off the crowd, that increased as we approached the capital, and, at length, was so great as to obstruct the rond. We observed, however, that though the soldiers were very active and noisy in brandishing their whips, they only struck them against the ground, and never let them fall upon the people. Indeed, a Chinese crowd is not so tumultuous and unruly as it generally is elsewhere. The excessive heat of the weather, the dustiness of the road, the closeness of the carriages, and the slow manner in which we moved along, would have made this short journey almost insupportable, bu↑ from the novelty of the scere, the smiles, the grins, the gestures of the mul- titude, and, above all, the momentary expectation of entering the greatest city on the surface of the globe." Pages 59-61.

    Du Halde places Peking in lat. 39° 55′ N.; and long. 116° 25′ E., about 3° 30′ east of Canton. For a full account of 'the northern capital,' the reader is referred to vol. II., pages 433-443, and 481- 499. That account is accompanied by a map, on which are indicat- ed the most notable places and objects in anu about the city, and of the garden of Yuenming yuen, distant eight or ten miles west and northwest from the city. One of the rivulets, called the Tunghwni, by which the city is supplied with water, is also marked on the map.

100

Notices of the Pei Ho

On the 3d of September, 1793, Macartney and his suite set off from Peking to Jeho or the Ilot stream, the embassador traveling in their European carriages. From the mouth of the Pei ho, the course to the capital is northwest; from thence to Jeho it is northeasterly, the last place being nearly due north from the first, say 170 miles. The road and adjoining scenery on the first part of the route, were quite similar to what had before been seen between Tungchau and Peking. Early in the first day's journey, a river was crossed, narrow, but deep enough to be navigated by small boats, of which a conside- rable number was seen upon it. Its course was to the south and east, uniting with the Pei ho not far from Tungchau. Most of the hills passed by in the second day's journey had something peculiar in their form and position, each standing on its own base and rising singly from the plain, in which they were scattered about in disorder. Tobacco was growing on the low grounds. In the third day's jour- ney, the population diminished a little, and the roads were so steep in some places that it was necessary to haul the carriage empty over them. The scenery was romantic and pleasing, wild goats and wild horses were seen scampering along the hills. Lowest down in the beds of the rivers were seen, first sandstone, then coarse grained limestone, then indurated clay, and inasses of granite on the highest mountain tops. Perpendicular veins of white spar, and sometimes blue and white, were seen. Over the narrow rivers, bridges had been thrown upon caissons of wattles, filled with stones. In the morning of the fourth day's journey, the Great wall was in view, and approached by a steep ascent, where the road passed over the suminit of a range of hills, in most parts inaccessible. In many places the walls were de cayed and dilapidated. On the north of the wall, in Mantchouria, the travelers found themselves in the region of wild beasts, tigers, wolves, hares, &c. During the seventh or last day's journey, the cm- bassador and suite passed a perpendicular rock, more than two hun- dred feet high, and wider at the top than at the base. "The ascent to Tartary is such, that some parts of it have been ascertained to be fifteen thousand feet above the surface of the Yellow sea." Amidst these high grounds, and a little beyond the perpendicular rock the mountains receding somewhat from each other, is the valley of Jeho, the summer residence of his imperial majesty. Between thus and Pe- king, and uearly at equal distances, are six palaces with gardens for the emperor's accommodation, when traveling from one residence to The other

1842.

Topography of Chekiung

101

ART. IV. Topography of Chekiúng; extent of the province, its population, subdivisions, rivers, lakes, mountains, produc- tions, &c.

    SEVERAL considerations conspire, at the present moment, to render this province one of the most interesting portions of the empire. Rich, populous, and very productive, it has recently become the scene of contest between two great empires, and many of its islands and some of its strongest military positions have already been wrested from the jurisdiction of their old master. And yet this is but the opening scene. Chekiáng too, in olden times, was the theatre of great events. In or near one of its chief cities, the modern traveler is pointed to the tomb of that king who, according to tradition, drained off the waters from the earth after the deluge. Near its modern capital, terminates the Grand canal, which crosses sevon degrees of latitude, affording one of the greatest inland channels of navigation ever formed by the hands of man. It is not, however, to the history, but to the topography of the province that we have now to invite the attention of our readers; and we commence with this, rather than with the province of Chilí, because it is at present the point to which the public mind is so much directed.

     The name Che-kiúng means the winding or crooked river~or the country of the meandering stream; such, at least, is the signification given by some Chinese authors, which seems to indicate that they imagine the course of this river to be unusually crooked.

The province of Chekiáng, as laid down on native maps, presents a circular form, extending froin latitude 27° 20′ to 31° 20′ N., and from long. 1° 40′ to 6° 30′ E. of Peking, and includes the principal islands of the Chusan archipelago. These limits correspond nearly to those given by Du Halde. On the north it is bounded by the province of Kiángsú; on the east, by the sea; on the south, by Fukien; and on the west, by Kiángsí and A'nhwui.

By Macartney, the province was computed to contain 39,150 square miles, and 25,056,000 Eng. acres. Its area is a little less than that of the state of Tennessec or of Kentucky in the United States. a little more than that of Portugal, one third larger than Scotland or Ireland, and nearly twice the size of Denmark, or of the island of Ceylon.

    Its population, according to the last census, taken by imperial authority, amounts to 26,256,784 souls, or 671 inhabitants to a square mile.

102

Topography of Chokiáng

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It is subdivided into eleven departments, and seventy-eight dis- tricts, the names of which are comprised in the following list. The latitudes and longitudes are from Du Halde, and indicate the situa- tion of the chief city in each department.

1. I.

Húngchau fú; or the Department of Hángchau, includes nine districts.

Lat. 30° 20′ 20′′ N., and long. 3° 39′ 4′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 4′ 4′′ E. of Greenwich.

Tsientáng,

6

Linán,

Jiuha,

7

Yütsien,

3

Táining,

8

Sinching,

4

Bi Fúyáng,

9昌化 Chánghwa.

5 Tân đôi

Yiiháng,

II.

Kiúhing fú; or the

Department of Kiáhing, includes seven districts.

Lat. 30° 52′ 48′′ N., long. 4° 5′ 11′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 30′ 11′′

E. of Greenwich.

Kiáhing,

2

Siúshui,

3

Kiáshen,

4

Háiyen,

III.

P

5 Shimun,

6平湖 Pinghú, 7th Tunghiêng,

Húchau fú; or the

Department of Húchau, includes seven districts.

Lat. 30° 52′ 48′′ N., long. 3° 27′ 54′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 52′

54" E. of Greenwich.

1

2

Wúching, Kwei án,

5 it

6

3 ∉ Hà Chánghing,

7

康吉豐

t

Wúháng,

M4

Anki chun,

Hiáufung.

4 德清 Tetsing,

IV.

Ningpò fú; or the

Department of Ningpò, includes six districts.

Lat. 29° 55′ 12′′ N., long. 4° 57′ 19′′ E. of Peking, and 121° 22

19′′ E of Greenwich.

1842

1 B

Kim,

2慈谿 Tszki,

Topography of Chikiang-

4鎭海

Chihin.

5

|

Tsáng hán,

103

31 Funghwa, 6 Tinghái.

V. Shuuhing fú; or the

Department of Sháuhing, includes eight districts.

Lat. 30° 6′ N., -long. 4° 4′ 11′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 29′ 11′′ E.

of Greenwich.

【山陰 Shànyin,

5餘姚 Yiyiu, 6上虞 Shángyii,

2

Hwuiki,

3

Siáushán,

7 Wete

4 Clki,

VI.

Shing,

8 # = Sincháng.

Túichau fú; or the

Department of Táichau, includes six districts.

Litt. 25° 54′ N., long. 4° 40′ 54′′ E. of Peking, and 121° 5′ 54′′

E. of Greenwich.

Linhái,

Wángyen,

4仙居 Sienki, 5寧海 Ninghái,

Tientá',

6

Taiping.

VII.

Kinhwú fú; or the

Department of Kinhwá, includes eight district.

Lal. 29° 10′ 48' N., long. 3° 22′ 27′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 47'

27′′ E. of Greenwich.

1

Kinhwa,

2 蘭谿

Lánki,

 :3 # Tungyang, 1 義烏 Kwű,

VIII.

5

Yungláng,

6武義 Wiii, 7 }I Púking,

8

Tángki,

Küchau fú; or the

Department of Küchau, includes five districts.

Lat. 29° 2′ 23′′ N., kng. 2° 35′ 12′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 0′ 12′′

E. of Greenwich.

·西安 Eän 2龍游 Lungyára,

Krogshán,

1

thi Chúngshan,

R Káihwá.

5

101

Topography of Chekiáng

IX. Yenchau fú; or the Department of Yenchau, includes six districts.

FEL

Lat. 29° 37′ 12′′ N., loug. 3° 4′′ 17′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 27 17" E. of Greenwich.

Kiente,

2淳安 Shun'án,

3

Tunglú,

X.

4遂安 Suiřán,

5

Shaucháng,

6 Fanshui.

Wanchau fú; or the

Department of Wanchau, includes six districts.

Lat. 98° 2′ 15′′ N., long. 1° 21′ 7′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 46′ 7

玉環

2 R B

3瑞安

E. of Greenwich.

Yuwan ting,4樂清 Lótsing,

Yungkiá,

Sui'án,

5

6

Pingyang,

Táishun.

X1. BEHIŷ Chúchau fá; or the

Department of Chúchau, includes ten districts.

Lai. 29′ 25′ 30′′ N., long, 3' 27° bi" E. of Peking, and 1:0 64

•麗水 Lishui,

2

3

142

51′′ E. vi Greenwich.

Tsingtien,

Tsinyun,

Sungying,

5, các E Suichung,

6

7

9

10

龍雲

Lungtscuen

Kingyuen,

Yundò,

Sucmping,

Kingning,

Each of the departments, with some of the principal districts, may be separately described, in the order in which they stand above.

The department of Hángchau, being that in which the pro vincial capital is situated, constitutes the most important portiou of the province. Its form is rhomboidal, the northern line running nearly duc cast and west, from the sea to the frontiers of A ́nhwui, a distance of perhaps uinety miles, and separating this from the depart ments of Kiáhing and Húchau. From its northeast extreme, the seacoast forms the boundary line, which runs in a southwesterly di- rection ; and, after crossing the river Tsienting, divides this from the On the south is Yenchau, and department of Shaubing on the cast The province of A nbwoi on the west.

1842.

Topography of Chekrang

105

   The city of Hangchau, the capital of the province, is of an oblong form, its length from north to south being one third more than its breadth from east to west. It is surrounded by a high wall, having on the north two gates; on the east, four; on the south, one; on the west, three-or, according to some maps, three on the east and two on the south. When visited by Macartney's embassy in 1793, its population was 'imineuse,' scarcely inferior to that of Peking, and the number of inhabitants in the suburbs, with those constantly resid- ing on the water, were considered as nearly equal to those within the walls. The houses were low, none exceeding two stories; the strects were narrow, paved with large smooth flags in the middle, and with small smooth stones on each side. Ilángchau is famed for its trade in silk; and its shops and warehouses, in point of size and stock of goods contained in them, might, says Barrow, vie with the best in London: "in every shop were exposed to view silk and different ma- nufactures, dyed cottons and Nankeens, a great variety of English broadcloths, chiefly however blue and scarlet, used for winter cloaks, for chair-covers and for carpets; and also a quantity of peltry, in- tended for the northern markets. The rest of the houses, in the public streets through which we passed, consisted of butchers' and bakers' shops, fishmongers, dealers in rice and other grain, ivory-cut- ters, dealers in lacquered ware, tea-houses, cooks' shops, and coffin-

makers."

Hángchau is situated on a plain, and distant perhaps two miles from the northern bank of the river Tsientáng, which falls into the sea forty or fifty miles to the eastward. The river opposite the city is about four miles wide, at high water; but the ebb leaves a fine level strand about two miles broad, extending eastward as far as the eye can see. Barrow says this part of the river might probably be called an estuary, 'the tide falling six or seven feet, at the place of embar- kation.' In the northern suburbs is situated an irregular basin, which forms the southern extreme of the Grand canal, and is suppli- ed with water from the lake on the west of the city. A copious stream from this lake also fills the channel round the walls, in which are turned several small arches for the small canals to enter the city. Staunton says (in his Embassy, vol. H., page 439), "between the river and the basin of the Grand canal, there is no water communication ; all merchandize, therefore, brought by sea into the river from the southward, as well as whatever comes from the lakes and rivers of Chekiáng and Fukien, must be landed at this city, in their way to The northward :-a circumstance which renders Hangchau the gene-

VOL

་་ NO

11

106

Topography of Chekiang.

FEB

ral emporium for all articles that pass between the northern and southern provinces." According to one of our Chinese maps, waters taken from the north side of the lake, are carried-

|-some around and some through the city, and thence across the plain to the Tsientáng. Du Halde's work gives a similar representation, evidently borrowed from native authority. The southwest corner of the wall of the city runs over high ground, and includes the Wú (1) hills, on which are tem- ples and public buildings, similar to those on the hills near the city of Canton. The Wú hills are, apparently, overlooked by others over against them on the south. These latter are called the Wánsung

ling (萬松嶺), or the heights of Wánsung, and may serve as a

position for the artillery of an invading force.

4

Within the northernmost gate on the west, there is a Mantchou city, in which is the residence of the Mantchou garrison and its commander-commonly called the 'T'artar general.' This little city has two gates on the north, two on the east, and one on the south, and is supplied by a canal with water from the western lake. Near the southeast corner of the city, just within the Hauhú gate is a resi- donce for the governor of Fukien and Chekiáng-for his accommo- dation when in this province. The residence of the lieut.-governor of the province is situated not far from it, due north. Besides the temples, which are numerous, there is a Mohammedan mosque, standing near the southeast corner of the Mantchou city.

Marco Polo, when he held the office of lieutenant-governor in Kiángnán, near the end of the thirteenth century, repeatedly visited Hángchau or Kinsai, [Kings'] as he called it, a name, he says, "which signifies the celestial city, and which it merits from its preëminence to all others in the world, in point of granduer and beauty, as well as from its abundant delights, which might lead an inhabitant to imagine himself in paradise." (See his Travels, page 508.) Polo says, "the city is situated between a lake of fresh and very clear water on the one side, and a river of great magnitude on the other, the waters of which, by a number of canals, large and small, are made to run through every quarter of the city." And he adds, that cold baths were numerous in some parts of city, having apartments for strangers, with servants in attendance.

The Si hú, or Western lake, judging from Du Halde's map, as well as from those of the Chinese, covers an area, nearly or quite equal to that inclosed by the walls of the city. "The natural and artificial beauties of this lake says Barrow, far exceeded anything we had hitherto had an opportunity of scemg in China The mountains sur

"

"

1842

Topography of Chelsang

107

rounding it were lofty, and broken into a variety of forms that were highly picturesque; and the valleys were richly clothed with trees of different kinds, among which three species were remarkably striking, not only by their intrinsic beauty, but also by the contrast they formed with themselves and the rest of the trees of the forest. These were the camphor tree, the tallow tree, and the arbor vitæ. The bright shining green foliage of the first, mingled with the purple leaves of the second, and overtopped by the tall and stately tree of life, of the deepest green, produced a pleasing effect to the eye; and the landscape was rendered still more interesting to the mind, by the very singular and diversified appearance of several repositories of the dead, upon the sloping sides of the inferior hills. Here, as well as elsewhere, the sombre and upright cypress was destined to be the melancholy companion of the tombs. Higher still among the woods, avenues had been opened to admit of rows of small blue houses, ex- posed on white colonnades, which, on examination, were also found to be mansions of the dead. Naked coffins, of extraordinay thick- ness, were everywhere lying on the surface of the ground. The lake, which extended from the walls of the city to the feet of the mountains, and threw its numerous arms into the wooded valleys, was the seat of pleasure, as well as profit, to the inhabitants of Háug- chau. * * * Vast numbers of barges were sailing to and fro, all gaily decorated with paint and gilding and streaming colors; the parties in them all apparently in pursuit of pleasure.

  "The margins of the lake were studded with light aërial buildings, among

which one of more solidity and of greater extent than the rest was said to belong to the emperor. The grounds were inclosed with brick walls, and mostly planted with vegetables and fruit trees; but in some there appeared to be collections of such shrubs and flowers as are most esteemed in the country. Among the fruits we got at this place was the Jambo or rose apple; and, for the first time, fresh from the tree, but not yet perfectly ripe, two species of oranges, the cominon China, and the small one usually called the Mandar'u or- ange; pomegranates, bananas very indifferent, and melous equally. bad; apricots far from being equal to those in our own country; a large plum, resembing the egg plum, also indifferent, and peaches that might have been much improved by judicious culture; apples and pears that in England we should have no hesitation in pronouncing execrably bad; and a species of fruit, unknown to all of us, which the Chinese called zee-tsc, of a sweet sickly taste when ripe, other- wise most insufferably astringent. Some of the gentlemen thought

108

Topography of Cheking

FEB

they saw hazel-nuts among the shrubbery, but it is more than proba- ble that they were mistaken. A few bad grapes were sometimes brought to us; but the party who went from hence to Chusan niet with abundance of this fruit, and of very good quality, growing upon standards erected in the several canals, and forming a shade, under which the barges could pass. Among the most conspicuous of the shrubs, on the borders of the lake was the Hibiscus mutabilis, the Hibiscus Syriacus, the Syringa vulgaris or common lilac, and the paper mulberry; we observed also a species of Mimosa, a Crotularia, Cratagus, Rosa, Rhamnus, Sambucus, juniper, and the cotton plant. Of flowers, we particularly noticed a large purple-colored double poppy, which, with the Nelumbium that grew here in all the ponds, and a species of Paonia, appear most frequently on the large sheets of paper used for covering the walls of their apartments. A great variety of balsams were also in flower, a species of Amaranthus, a Xeranthemum, and Gnaphalium. I mention only such plants as caught the eye in passing for our Chinese companions, who had a much better appetite for the eels of the lake, and other good things they had taken care to provide, than for botany, had no notion of being detained by a bush or a flower." Barrow, page 355.

Staunton says, it is a beautiful sheet of water, about three or four miles in diameter, perfectly pellucid, full of fish, in most places shal- low, with a gravelly bottom. A great number of light and fanciful stone bridges are thrown across the arins of the lake, as it runs up into the deep glens, to meet the rills which ooze from the sides of the mountain, on the summit of which were erected inany temples and pagodas, one of which attracted particular attention. It was situated on the verge of a bold peninsula that juts into the lake, and was call- ed the temple of the Thundering Winds. The style of architecture, he adds, "is different from that generally used throughout the coun-

try.

  Four stories were yet standing, but the top was in ruins. Something like a regular order was yet discernable in the mouldering cornices, that projected in a kind of double curve. Grass, shrubs, and mosses were growing upon them. The arches and mouldings were of red, the upright walls of yellow, stone. Its present height does not exceed one hundred and twenty feet." There were, within the woods, on the brow of the hills, and in the vallies, several thou- sand tombs, generally built in the form of small houses, about six or eight feet high, mostly painted as already described by Barrow. were situated apart, on the slope

blue, and fronted with white pillars, The tombs of persons of high rank of hills or terraces of a semicircular

1842.

Topography of Chekiáng

 marble, with inscriptions. races. There was a vast

109

form, and supported by breast-walls of stone, and doors of black Obelisks were often erected upon the ter- variety of other tombs of every formı, in (Travels, vol. II., p. 445.)

earth, stone, and wood.

  1. Tsientáng is the first district in the department; its magistrate resides in Hángchau, his jurisdiction extending over the eastern part of the city and the adjacent country.

  2. Jinhð is the second district, and includes the western half of the city and country adjacent. Its magistrate, like that of Tsien- tang, resides in Hangchau.

  3. Háining is the chief town of a district of the same name, standing near the sea, northeast from Hángchau, distant perhaps forty miles, surrounded by a wall. It is nearly square, and has one gate on the north, two on the east, one on the south, and one on the west, and is entirely surrounded by a moat, entering the city at three different places-one on the west and two on the north.

  4. Fúyáng* stands on the north bank of the river, and is surround- ed by a wall, of an irregular oblong shape, having its southern part resting on Kwan shán, or Prospect hill. It has one gate

on the north; one at the southeast; and one on the south. A small rivulet, or channel of water, which enters the Tsientáng near the southeast corner of the city, runs along its southern side, coming down from the west and northwest.

  5. Yühúng is delineated on the map in the form of a parabola, its longest diameter running from east to west, with a gate opening at each of the cardinal points. It stands on the north bank of a small river, nearly due west from Hángchau, and north from Fúyáng. It

has no moat.

  6. Lin'án is similar to Yiiháng in its appearance, having however two gates on its southern side, and standing on the same side of the same river, about twice its distance from Hángchau, a little south of

west.

7. Yütsien stands nearly in a line with the last two mentioned towns, still further westward and southward, forming the fourth stage from the provincial city. It is of a square form, its southwest angle resting on rising ground. It has three gates; one on the south, one A small stream flows near it, pa- on the west, and one on the north.

rallel with its western wall.

Fúyáng hien is the district of Fúyáng, and Fúyáng is the chief town, and the residence of its magistracy. So of all, or nearly all the other districts: both district and chief town have one and the same name.

100

Portraits of the Three Sovereigns.

FEB

8. Sinshing, or the New-city, is of a circular form, having two gates on the west, and one at each of the other cardinal points. It is situated directly south from Lin'án and west from Fúyáng, a few miles distant northward from the Tsientáng river, between two little rivulets, one on the east and one on the west, uniting on the south of the town, and then flowing on together to the Tsientáng.

9. Chánghwá stands about midway between Yiitsien and the west- ern frontier of the province, and makes the fifth stage from the pro- vincial city, Hángchau,-Yüháng, Lin'an, Yiitsien, and Chánghwá, all standing nearly in a right line with regard to each other and at equal distances on that line.

(To be continued).

ART. V. Portraits of the Three Sovereigns, the immediate succes- sors of Pwánkú, among the Chinese the reputed progenitor of the human family.

THE portraits of these three sovereigns are the best commentaries upon their characters-evincing clearly enough that they are of a fabulous origin. Admitting that such is their origin, as all Chinese historians do, it becomes as easy as it is useless, to descant upon their genealogies and deeds and physiognomies. They form a trio, and are the representatives of the three great powers, so often spoken of by the Chinese.

三才 者 天地人

Three powers the heaven, earth, man.

On this a commentator remarks: "That which was light and pure, in the exhalations of chaos, floated upward, and formed heaven; that which was heavy and impure settled downward and formed earth. In the midst of heaven and earth, all things multifariously sprung forth; but man was the most excellent, man being the divine part thereof. Breath he received from the combined influences in nature; gave renovation and nourishment by his conduct; and the produc- tions (thence resulting) were unceasing,-he being associated with heaven and earth; and therefore they were called the three powers." From these ideas regarding the three powers, the phrase becomes an equivalent for encyclopedia--bringing into one system whatever is found and understood in heaven, on the earth, and among mankind.

1842

Portraits of the Three Sovereigns

氏皇

110

1.

Tien hwang shi, the Celestial Sovereign, or the An- gust one of Heaven, stands first in the trio, the immediate successor of Pwánkú, noticed in our last number, page 47. This being was born on one of the mountains of Kwanlun, "in a region beyond which there is nothing." His deeds, like the place of his birth, are more easily conceived than described. Most historians allow him, or his family, to have existed through thirteen generations, during a period of 18,000 years. Some Chinese historians have attempted to correct the above, and have proposed to read 1800 years instead of eighteen thousand.

By some writers, also, the invention of the horary characters, now in common use is attributed to the celestial sovereign.

112

Portraits of the Three Sovereigns

FEE

2

Ti hwáng shí existed, so the historians say, for cleven generations, filling up another period of 18,000 years. By some writers, a period of eighteen thousand years is allowed to each of the above generations, making a total of 432,000 years.

                                        It was during this second period that the sun, moon, and stars-the three great lights-werc fixed in their spheres; day and night divided; and months of thirty days ordained. The picture shows a strange com- bination of features.

From the head of this terrestial sovereign, Chinese phrenologists have labored to develop the qualities of his mind, and hence have attempted to infer the actions of his life But we shall not attempt to follow them m these speculatioNS,

1842.

Portraits of the Three Sovereigns

N3

天皇

3.人皇氏 Jin knoáng shí, evidently more brute than human, existed during nine generations, filling a period of 45,600 years. Un- der this long administration, the race of mortals was made to assume a somewhat rational and civilized state, and government was introduc- ed with its ordinary accompaniments.

Professor Kidd, in his work on China, considers these three sove- reigns as three dynasties: the first was heaven's dynasty; the second, carth's dynasty; and the third man's dynasty; that is the imperial fanilics of heaven, earth, and man.

VOL AL ソロ |

114

List of British Authorities in China.

FEB.

ART. VI. List of British authorities in China; details of the various regiments and corps now in service; and number of H. M.'s vessels, corrected to February, 1842.

We are under obligations to several gentlemen in her majesty's em- ploy for the the following lists of officers and others engaged in the expedition, to whom our best thanks are here given. Every care has been taken to make the whole as correct as possible, although we can hardly hope, from the constant changes going on, that it will be found altogether free from errors.

British authorities in China.-Some confusion having arisen from at- tempting, in the list of British authorities given on page 54 of the number for last month, to commingle all in one list,-and some omissions having also been made,-we take occasion now to insert a new and more correct list, with amendments to the present date.

1. The Special Mission to China.

Colonel sir Henry Pottinger, bart.

Major G. A. Malcolm, 3d it. Drag. G. Tradescant Lay, esq.

W. Woosnam, esq. Bombay medi.

cal service,

Envoy extraordinary, and minister ple-

nipotentiary. Secretary of legation. Interpreter.

Surgeon attached to the mission.

For conducting the detail business of the mission, the superintendent's establish. ment is placed at the disposal of the plenipotentiary.

2. The Superintendents of Trade.

Colonel sir Henry Pottinger, bart. Alexander R. Johnston, esq. Edward Elmslie, esq. (absent) J. Robt. Morrison, esq.

Mr. L. d'Alinada e Castro, Mr. A. W. Elsmlie,

Mr. J. M. d'Almada e Castro,

J. Robt. Morrison, esq.

Rev. Charles Gutzlaff,

Robert Thom, esq.

{

Chief superintendent. Deputy superintendent. Secretary and treasurer.

Acting secretary and treasurer.

Clerks in the secretary's offico.

Chinese secretary and interpreter. Joint interpreters, at present attached to the naval and military forces.

Mr. S. Fearon (attached to the Hongkong gov

Mr. J. B. Rodriguez,

Mr. W. Il Medhurst, junior, Kazigachi Kiukitchi,

John Rickett, esq.

Mr. J. Palmer,

Christopher Fearon, esq.

3.

Clerks in the Chinese

secretary's office.

Agent for the superintendents, Macao.* Clerk in charge of letters, Macao. Authorized notary public, Macao.

Government of Hongkong.

Pending the pleasure of H. M.'s government, the chief superintendent, and in his absence the deputy superintendent, of trade is charged with the government of the island; and the entire establishment of the superintendents is therefore at the disposal of the government. The absence of the chief superintendent with the expedition has ordinarily left-

Appointed on the removal of the superintendents' establishment from Ma cao to Hongkong, 26th February, 1842.

1842.

List of British Authorities in China.

Alexander R. Johnston, esq.,

115

$ Deputy superintendent, in charge of the governinent of Hongkong.

in addition to those of the superin.

Chief magistrate.

Under whom, the following appointments, tendents' establishment, have been made. Captain W. Caine, 26th regt.

Samuel Fearon, esq.

Lieutenant W. Pedder, 2. N.

Mr. Alexander Lena,

Captain G. F. Mylius, 26th regt. Lieutenant Sargent, 18th regt.

The present senior naval officer at

Interpreter and clerk to the court, coroner, and authorized notary pub. Harbor-master & marine magistrate. Assistant to the harbor-master. Land officer.

Surveyor.

Hongkong is captain air Thomas Her.

bert, x. c. B., H. M. ship Blenheim. The officer commanding the land forces there is major-general Burrell, c. B., H. M.'s 18th regt. Captain Mitford, 18th regt., brigade-major.

4. Authorities at Kúlangsí (Amoy).

Captain Henry Smith, c. B. Major Cooper, 18th regt.

5.

H. M. S. Druid, senior naval officer Commandant of the island

Authorities at Chusan.

Head-quarters of the naval force.

Rear-admiral sir W. Parker, K. C. B., Captain T. Richards, H. M. S. Cornwallis, Benjamin Chimmo, esq,, Lieut. Tennant,

G. Tradescant Lay, esq., Lieut-colonel Craigie, 55th regt. Captain J. Dennis, 49th regt. Mr. W. H. Medhurst, jr.

G. H. Skend, esq., R. N.

6.

Commander-in-chief. Flag captain.

Naval secretary. Flag lieutenant.

Interpreter (pro tem.) Commandant of Chusan. Military magistrate. Interpreter.

Harbor master and marine ma -

gistrate.

Authorities at

Chinhái.

Captain Bourchier, c. B., H. M. S. Blonde, Lieut.-colonel Schoedde, 55th regt. Robert Thoin, esq.

Senior naval officer. Commandant brigade-major. Interpreter.

     7. Authorities at Ningpo. Head-quarters of the land forces. Lacut.-general sir Hugh Gough, K. G. C. B. Lient-colonel Mountain, c. B., 26th regt. Lient-colonel Wilson, B. N. I. Lieut.-colonel Hawkins, B. N. I.

Major John Gough,

J. French, ■. ", 49th regt.

Captain Whittingham,

Licut. lcatley,

Rev. Charles Gutzlaff,

Commander-in-chief. Deputy adjutant-general. Paymaster general. Commissary-general. Quarter-master general. Superintending surgeon.

Aides-de-camp.

Interpreter.

Commander Watson, f1. M. S. Modeste, Senior naval officer.

8. Public agents for prize.

on behalf of government.

{on behalf of the army.

Captain C. Campbell, 55th regt. Captain J. Ware, 49th regt. Br.-captain G. Balfour, M. A. B. Chimmo, esq., naval secretary ROM_Whichelo, esq., 11, M. S. Blenheim

}

on behalf of the navy.

116

Detail of the Regiments.

9. List of H. B. M. Military Forces in China. Lt-general, sir Hugh Gough, x. G. C. B., commander-in-chief.

STAFF.

Lt-col. A. 8. H. Mountain, c. B. H. M. 26th, Major J. B. Gough, 3d Light Dragoons, Lt. W. Gabbett, Madras Horse Artillery, · Capt. F. Whittingham, H. M. 26th regt. Lieut. John Heatley, H. M. 49th, Lt..col. Wilson, 65th regt. B. N. I. Lt.col. F. S. Hawkins, 38th regt. B. N. I. Capt. J. Ramsay, 35th regt. B. N. 1.

Lt. W. W. Davidson, 18th regt. B. N. I. Lt. A. G. Moorhead, H. M. 26th regt. Capt. H. Moore, 34th regt. B. N. I. Surgeon J. French, H. M. 49th regt. W. W. Graham, assistant surgeon, B. E.

}

Deputy adjutant-general.

FER.

Deputy quarter-master general. Aid-de-camp, absent to Calcutta. Aids-de-camp.

Paymaster.

Deputy commissary general. Dep. assist. commissary-general. Sub-assistant commissary-general,

and assistant paymaster. Acting sub-assist. com.general. Deputy judge advocate-general. Superintending surgeon. Medical storekeeper.

ROYAL ARTILLERY.

Capt. J. Knowles, brevet lieut..col. com-¡ Lt. the honorable C. Spencer.

manding.

Rank and File, 40.

MADRAS ARTILLERY.

Lieut. col. P. Montgomerie, c. B., com-

manding artillery, and senior officer Madras troops.

Capt. P. Anstruther, brevet major.

R. C. Moore.

91

Br capt. G. Balfour, staff officer Madras

troops.

Lt. Gabbett, H. A., Aid-de-camp.

"

Lt. A. T. Cadell, H. a.

**

W. C. Baker.

Second-lt. H. Molesworth.

E. S. Elliot, H. A.

**

Surgeon J. P. Grant.

Assist. surgeon, J. Middlemass.

W. C Maclean, doing duty H. M. 18th R. I.

J. Barrow, Deputy commissary of Act. ass. sur. W. C. Coles, doing duty.

ordnance.

A. Foulis, H. A.

Rank and file, Europeans 260,

Natives 200.

MADRAS SAPPERS AND MINERS.

Capt. J. J. Pears, Commanding.

F. C. Cotton, engineers.

Lt. J. W. Rundall,

Bt.-capt. W. Birdwood,

"

J. Ouchterlony,

H. M. 18TH

Second-lt. J. G. Johnston,

Lieut. Robert Gordon, 32d regt. M. N.

I. doing duty.

Assist. surgeon J. Williams, in charge. Rank and file, 230.

ROYAL IRISH.

Colonel, Matthew, Lord Alymer, G. c. B.

Lieutenant-colonel, George Burrell, c. B.,

 Brigadier commanding, Hongkong. Lt..col. H. W. Adains, c. B., absent, sick. Major N. R. Tomlinson,

**

J. Cooper.

Brevet-major F. W. Dillon.

Capt. T. Moore,

J. Grattan, brevet major.

J. J. Sargent, do. absent sick,

Charles J. R. Collinson,

..

"

F. Wigston,

"

"

"

T. S. Moyle,

..

C. A. Edwards,

William T. Payne, in England

Lieut. G. F. Call,

19

C. Dunbar,

"

W. T. Bruce,

"

J. J. Wood,

G. Hilliard,

11

F. Martin,

11

S. Bernard,

11

J. Cochrane,

19

"T

Charles Rogers,

Isaac Hewitt,

*

11

do.

[Hongkong.

J. P. Mitford, brigade.major at

"

Sir H. Darrell, bart.

Lieut. Hon. C. H. Stratford,

"

Sir W. Macgregor, bart.

E. Joddrell,

J W Graves, Adjutant,

Alexander Murray,

David Edwards,

Anthony W. F. S. Armstrong,

William P. Cockburn,

H. D. Burrell,

C. Woodwright,

Ensign S. W. Kirk, in Engand.

J. P. Mayo,

"

"

E. W. Sargent,

John Elliot. in England.

..

1842.

Detail of the Regiments.

117

Ensign M. Hayman, in England.

**

H. Ward,

Paymaster, G. I. Call,

do.

Adjutant, lieut. J. W. Graves, Quarter-master, J. Carroll,

Surgeon, D. M'Kinlay, M. D.

Ass. surgeon, C. Cowen,

"

"

**

"

11

ing duty.

J. Baker,

James Stewart,

W. C. Maclean, M. A. do.

Rank and file, 800.

H. M. 26TH (Cameronian) REGIMENT OF FOOT.

Colonel, John, Lord Scaton, G. C. B., G. C. H.

Lt.-colonel, W. James, absent sick.

   A. S. H. Mountain, c. ■., Deputy adjutant-general.

Major T. S. Pratt, c. B., Br. It.-colonel,

commanding.

**

William Johnstone.

Capt. George Hogarth, brevet major.

|Lieut. A. G. Moorhead, acting sub-as sistant commissary-general, abson

"

W. B. Park,

"

W. T. Betts,

**

John Cumming, absent.

R. P. Sharp.

do.

**

H. B. Phipps,

do.

"

H. F. Strange,

**

Alexander Miller,

W. Caine, chicf magistrate, Hong.

"

A. F. Wallace,

*

kong.

J. Paterson,

"

**

J. Piggott, absent sick.

**

"

D. Young, in Bengal.

"

"

Robert C. Jones,

Patrick Duff, do.

Ensign Charles H. Rhys,

Robert Synge,

John Piper, absent.

E. G. Whitty,

George F. Mylius, Land officer,

Hongkong.

John num,

Thomas French,

"

"1

R. Et De Montmorencia,

"

"

C. Duperier,

"1

F. Whittingham, A. D. C. to sir Hugh Gough,

W. Turner,

"

10

H. De Quincey, absent

R. Dickens,

I. Bredin,

"

Lieut. R. Thompson, in India.

11

"

"

"

19

  E. R. Greig, brevet capt. Thomas Seccombe,

E. W. Sibley, in England.

Alexander McDonald, in England. Henry Edgar,

John W. Johnstone, Adjutant. Charles Cameron,

   Hon. W. G. Osborne, military sec. to governor-general, India.

John Rodgers,

George Sweeney, in England.

"

Paymaster, R. H. Strong, absent. Adjutant, J. W. Johnstone,

| Quartermaster, Joseph Goodfellow,

Surgeon, W. Bell, M. D.

Assistant sur. Chilley Pine,

W. G. Bace, absent. W. Brush,

"

"

..

"

"

"

G. Coman, B. E. doing

duty.

Rank and file, 600.

H. M. 49TH REGIMENT.

Colonel, Sir Gordon Drummond, G. c. B.

Lt.-colonel R. Bartley, absent sick.

"

        E. Morris, c. 8., commanding. Major Thomas Stephens, br. It..col.

"

S. Blythe, absent sick,

Capt. G. J. Paisley, at depôt, England.

T. S. Reignolds,

Charles Gregory,

Lieut. John Heatley, aid-dc-camp.

James Ramsay,

"

11

G. F. Bartley,

"

Hugh Pearson, absent sick,

*

J. H. Daniell,

..

"

L. H. G. Maclean,

H. S. Michell,

Samuel B. D. Anderson, abt. sick.

Arthur R. Shakespeare,

Lieut. T. P. Gibbons, acting sub-asst

commissary general.

"

W. R. Faber,

"

M. G. Sparkes, Hongkong,

D. McAndrew,

"

W. Johnston,

"

11

R. Campbell,

"

D. McAdam,

"

James P. Meik, Hongkong.

Lient. J. T. Grant.

R. Blackall,

J. Dennis, mil. magistrate, Chusan.Į

"

F. W. Lane,

11

"1

H. G. Hart, in England,

"

J. M. Montgomery,

"

31

W. P. Browne, Adjutant,

Henry G. Rainey,

Walter T. Bartley, George Rand,

C. A. Halfhide,

Ensign Charles Faunt,

*

William H. C. Baddeley,

און

Ensign G. D. Prettojohn,

Detail of the Regiments

FER

Surgeon, J. Frunch, M. D., superintending

surgeon.

Assisting surgeon, C. Flyter, in charge.

R. H. Garrett, M. D. J. M. Duff, M. D.

*

George Weir, Hongkong.

John G. Bolton, du.

"

"

J. Wilkinson,

John Campbell,

not joined.

"

19

"

*

G. Scaley, B. P.,

"

G. Smith, . E.

Paymaster, R. Ware,

Adjutant, William P. Browne, Quartermaster, H. Mayne,

H. M. 55TH

Rank and file, 800.

REGINENT OF FOOT.

Colonel, Sir W. Henry Clinton, G. C. B.

Lt.-col. J. H. Schoeddo, commanding.

"

P. E. Craigic,

Major C. Warren, at Hongkong.

D. L. Fawcett,

Capt. N. Maclean,

Licut. W. H. Fairtlough,

Henry H. Warren, acting inter E. Pitman,

W. Snowe,

D. M' Coy, in England.

George King,

"

"

C. Campbell, act. paymaster.

11

J. Horner, in England.

*

C. A. Daniell,

"?

Arthur O'Leary.

S

J. K. Wedderburn,

H. C. B. Daubeney,

"

J. G. Schaw,

"

A. H. S. Young,

19

"

J. B. Rose, in England.

"

带瞥

J. Coats,

H. Grimes, at Hongkong.

H. M'Caskill,

Lieut. A. H. Chaproniere,

*

".

??

"

W. T. Colman, in England T. A. Heriot,

do.

T. de Havilland, Hongkong.

Edward Warren, in England.

G. T. Brooke,

Hume Edwards,

do.

do.

William H. L. D. Cuddy,

H. T. Butler, acting adjutant.

J. R. Magrath, adjutant, in Eng.

"

"

"

"1

G. Hamilton, at Hongkong.

19

..

E. G. Daniell,

""

M. Barbauld,

MADRAS RIFLE

Capt. J. Simpson, commanding,

Lieut. F. Cox Bishop,

"9

A. L. Tweedie,

John Freind,

Ensign John R. Wilton, at Hongkong.

"

"

11

*

Henry J. W. Egan,

J. Maguire,

F. S. Daubency, at Hongkong James Campbell,qr-mast.to detach. Payınaster, Cyrus Daniell, sick leave. Adjutant, J. R. Magrath,

do.

Quartermaster, Jaines W. Grigg,

Surgeon, A. Shank, M. D.

Assist. surgeon J. H. Sinclair, m. n., ab).

11

J. S. Smith, M. D. abs.

""

T. G. Traquair, M. D.

"

H. Hutchinson, B. B.

"

doing duty.

F. Grant, B. E. doing

Rank and file, 1100.

duty.

COMPANY, 36TH REGT. N. 1.

Assisting surgeon, W. Jolinson. Rank and file, 110.

37TH REGIMENT MADRAS NATIVE INFANTRY.

Lt.-colonel J. Campbell, (not joined)

Major Clarke, detached on civil employ|

in India.

Capt. P. Bedingfield, commanding.

Simpson,

"

"

E. Wardroper, absent sick.

"

R. Gordon, absent sick,

J. Hadfield, absent sick.

Lieut. W. Marcer,

R. Colton, absent sick.

**

"

W. Bayley,

W. H. Freeze,

"

DETACHMENT BENGAL

Capt. G. A. Mee, 58th B NI, com

manding

I' Boulton 48th BNI

Lieut. C. J. Power,

Goldsmid, acting adjutant,

W. M. Berkeley, absent sick. W. W. Coote,

11

"

"

"

R. Mayne.

do,

Lt. W. Devereux, 2d Eur. reg.

Acting quartermaster & interpreter. Assistant surgeon D. Macpherson, in me.

dical charge.

Act. as. surgeon J. Bryden doing duty, Act. assist. surgeon Lunn, doing duty, Rank and file, 400.

VOLUNTEER REGIMENT.

Assisting surgeon G. S. Mann, in me.

dical charge.

Rank and file. 136

1-12

Journal of Occurrences

i0 List of H. B. M. naval force in China.

72 captain sir Thomas Herbert, K. CB.

26, captain Joseph Nias, c. B.

Blenheim,

Herald, Nimrod,

Cruizer,

18, commander J. Pearse.

18, commander Gilasse.

Royalist, 10, lieutenant Chetwood.

Young Ilebe, schooner, Wood.

II. Co.'s Arined steamer Hoogly, master-commanding Ross.

Druid,

11

Ariadne, Roberts, 1 N.

44, captain Henry Smith, c. B.

   Pylndes, 18, commander L. S. Tindal. Chanielcon, 10, licutenant Hunter.

Starling, 6, commander H. Kellett.

Cornwallis, 72, capt. T. Richards, bearing the flag of Rear- Admiral sir W. Parker, K. C. R., commander-in-chief.

16, commander T. Tronbridge.

Clio,

Troop ship Jupiter, master-commanding Fulton.

Blonde,

Modeste,

Hyacinth,

Pelican,

44, captain Thomas Bourchier, C. R.

18, commander Watson.

18, commander G. Goldsmith.

18, commander Napier.

Columbine, 18, commander W. II. A. Morshead.

Algerine,

10, commander W. H. Maitland.

Lady Bentinck, surveying vessel, commander R. Collinson. II. Č. Arined steainer Neinesis, lieut. W. II. Hall, r. n.

"

"

Queen, master-commanding W. Warden. Sesostris, commander Ormsby, 1. N. Phlegethon. lieut. McCleverty, R. N.

Squadron off Canton River

119

Squadron at Amoy

Squadron at Chusan.

Squadron at Chinhái and Ningpo.

ART. VII. Journal of Occurrences: H. M. special mission to China; Hongkong and Chusan declared to be free ports; Mr. Challaye's adventure.

No important item of news from the north has reached us during the month. On sir Henry Pottinger's arrival on the 1st, the seizure of Chinese junks was immediately stopped, and such as had not been sold were returned to the owners. Much ill-will has been occasion- ed among the Chinese by the capture of their vessels by order of the senior naval officer, as they deemed it to be an infraction of captain Elliot's promise made last summer. His excellency arrived in Macao on the 15th, and returned to Hongkong on the 27th, removing thi ther the whole of the superintendents' establishment. The following proclamation we extract from the Hongkong Gazette of the 26th instant, in which it was published in both English and Chinese.

PROCLAMATION.

    Her Britannic majesty's plenipotentiary, minister extraordinary, and chief super. intendent of the trade of British subjects in China, deems it advisable to notify, that pending the receipt of the queen's gracious and royal pleasure, the harbors of Hongkong and Tinghái (Chiusan) and their dependencies, shall be considered Free Ports, and that no manner of customs, port duties, or any other charges, shall be levied in the said ports, on any ships or vessels of whatever nation, or sailing under

120

Journal of Occurrences

whatever flag, that may enter these ports, or on their cargoes. Her Britanie ma. jesty's minister plenipotentiary, &c., further notifies, that every facility for landing and disposing of merchandize, as well as ample protection under all ordinary circum. stances, will be afforded to all ships and vessels, of whatever flag or nation, that may visit the anchorage of Kúlangsú in the harbor of Amoy, aud likewise that, in the improbable event of her majesty's forces being withdrawn from the island in question, a sufficient period will be allowed for all merchants and others to remove their goods, as well as to adjust their accounts.

God save the Queen of England.

Dated at Hongkong, the 16th day of February, 1842.

HENRY POTTINGER, Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary. Adventure of Mr. Challaye.-As Mr. C. A. Challaye, the French consul, and Messrs. Monge and Jeanneret, were going from Canton to Whampoa on the 13th instant, in a native boat, the boatmen turn- ed out of the main channel to go through a small creek (commonly known as Lob creek), to avoid the tide, and as the boat passed near the Halfway pagoda, they improved the occasion to land and visit it, though against the advice of the boatmen. While engaged in inspect- ing the building, the people began to collect, and in such numbers that the party soon deemed it best to return; but by the time they reached the boat, the crowd was increased by many arined soldiers, who showed evident signs of a disposition to molest them, by laying hold of the boat, and becoming very clamorous. At this juncture, unable to make themselves understood, they were relieved by the arrival of two petty officers, who restrained the mob, and suffered them to embark; but scarcely had they began to move before the clamor revived, and shots were fired at the boat, but providentially without wounding any one. It was again seized by some of the soldiers, and the officers then requested the gentlemen to land and accompany them to their dwelling in order to escape from the enraged crowd; as soon as they left the boat it was pillaged of nearly all its contents. On arriving at the officers' dwelling, they repeatedly assured them that they were French, at the same time demanding to be sent to Canton, and requesting that no harm might befall the boatmen. Mr. Challaye informed the officers, that he was agent of the French government, but the crowd without could hardly be made to believe they were not English. At last, other officers arriving, they all left on foot for Canton, under a guard of five officers, and upwards of a hundred and fifty armed soldiers, the boatmen carrying what was saved from the boat. On reaching Canton, the company entered the city about 9 o'clock P. M., and were kept standing in the streets until the authorities, apprised of their arrival, made their appearance with two of the hong-merchants and linguists to identify them. Other officers came to the place, and at last the Tartar general and Yishán, with a crowd of attendants all in full dress also arrived, to whom a- pologies were made for the trouble caused them, which they returned by shaking hands à l'Européenne all round, when the two parties separated, and the gentlemen were conducted to the linguists' houses and then to their factories, where they arrived about 2 o'clock a. m. The guard of soldiers who had accompanied thein to Canton in hopes of a reward took their disappointment very quietly, but it would seemi that the officers did not possess much control over their troops.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. XI.-MARCH, 1842.- No. 3.

ART. I. Retrospection, or a Review of public occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to December 31st, 1841. (Continued from page 81.)

SOME of the best informed politicians in India-not to speak of those in Europe and the far west--have been led to see, by the occur- rences of the last year, "that the resources of China, whether for warlike or peaceful undertakings, are far greater than they had anti- cipated;" at the same time they admit, "that the desirableness of bringing this magnificent country within the pale of civilized rela- tions, and of introducing the largest mass of men in the world to the European family, has been inade more evident the more we have been enabled to lift up the veil which has hitherto concealed it from our view. How the expedition is to bring about the result, which we know it is destined to accomplish, cannot be foreseen." The conduct of the shrewd dame of Padua and her suitor (if great things may be compared with small) was not altogether unlike what has been ex- hibited in China.

If she be cursed, it is for policy;

For she's not froward, but modest as a dove.

Many used to affirm, and some still maintain, that the Chinese go- vernment is just and mild, though weak and timid. At a mere show of force, it was supposed, that these three hundred and sixty millions would cower, and at once yield everything. The measures pursued by the E. I. Company's supercargoes in China, were varied in cha- racter almost as much as were those of the Gentleman of Verona. Sometimes they frowned; sometimes they flattered; "French and German liqueurs," says Mr. Davis in his new book. "

were among

VOL

NO |||

16

122

Review of Public Occurrences During the MARCH,

the presents which they annually sent to Canton for the mandarins." Auber, somewhere, speaks of large sums of money as having been paid with a view to an extension of privileges; and we ourselves can remember the time when the whole of their shipping was kept out of the port till past midwinter, in order to bring the provincial authori- ties to terms; for the same object, we have seen heavy cannon brought from Whampoa and placed in their factory at Canton, and scores of blue jackets in marshaled bands drilled in the East India Company's garden. Lord Napier's course was dignified and straightforward. when just privileges were denied, he remonstrated; when indignities were offered and rights infringed, he threatened ;-but he had not the power to execute, and when he was dead, his government did not see fit, either to demand reparation, or to maintain the high ground he had rightly taken. Mr. Davis, who seems to have been in a mea- sure pledged to a firm course, seeing this, withdrew, and the policy of the Commission was changed. This was on the 22d January, 1835. On the same day, a boat's crew belonging to the ship Argyle fell into the hands of the Chinese, and thereupon the action of that new policy began to be developed. The deposition of captain Mac- donald was given in our last; we now record the sequel, borrowing our information from the Blue Book.

"As there appeared to be no doubt that these unfortunate men had fallen into the hands of some of the notoriously lawless people upon the part of the coast indicated in the deposition, the superintendents determined to lose no time in formally and respectfully reporting the circumstances to the direct knowledge of the principal authorities at Canton. With this view, they caused the following note to be tran slated into Chinese by Mr. Gutzlaff, and its sentiments to be render- ed in a manner conformable to the genius of the language, and in accordance with those respectful modes of communication adopted by public officers in their reports to cach other.

"To his excellency the governor of the two provinces of Kwangtung and Kwangsi.

***The undersigned have the honor respectfully to represent to your ex- cellency, that, &c. [here was recited a succinct statement of the circumstances. [

"The undersigned are very conscious that your excellency will hear of the violent outrage committed by these evil-disposed people upon his majesty the king of England's subjects, driven by distress upon the coast, with feelings of sincere regret ; and they have a firm confidence in the earnestness of your excellency's efforts to deliver these unfortunate innocent men from their perilous condition with the utmost promptitude In the discharge of a soleum duty to the king their gracious sovereign and in a sense of respect

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 to your excellency, it has been judged right to submit. This imporisnt repre. sentation in the most direct manner, by the hands of a member of his mia. jesty's commission, who is accompanied by the captain of the ship, and is authorized to carry on any official communications which may be needful. It has also been considered decorous and reasonable to refrain from taking any urgent steps for the recovery of the people, until your excellency shall be made acquainted with the disastrous transaction.

  "4 The undersigned avail themselves of this occasion to offer to your ex- cellency the expression of their highest consideration and respect.

(Signed)

1st

*G. B. ROBINSON, "J. {]. ASTELL,

Charles Elliot, 3d

2dSuperintendent.

"The version in Chinese of this document, as prepared by Mr. Gutzlaff, is as follows:-

444

** La, Ah, and E, by British royal commission superintendents of their country's affairs, communicate jointly and respectfully to your excellency, the governor of the two Kwáng, Lú. That on the first day of the first month, the 15th year of Tankwang (January 29th, 1835), Ma (Alexander Macdonald), a captain of their nation, reported: That his ship called the Argyle, whilst on her voyage from Bengal, met unfortunately with storms, and made St. John's, when she anchored in a harbor on the east coast, near to New-keo chan. That, on the 23d of the 12th month of the 14th year of Táukwáng (January 21st, 1835), he sent his mate, two helmsmen, and nine sailors in his boat on shore, with the intention of procuring a pilot, who might guide his ship over the shonls to Ma- CHO. That the inhabitants of St. John's being unfortunately ruffians, seized on × sudden upon our people, twelve in number, taking them prisoners, and forcibly possessing theinselves of their boat. That, although the said captain strenuously exhorted them to liberate his sailors, those ruffians demanded by way of extortion, 500 dollars, for which they would set them at liberty. That two of the in- habitants of St. John's came here in his ship to receive that unjust bribe. This coming before us the superiutendents, we prepared previously this document to represent to your excellency, that according to decorum, we should not our- selves arbitrarily endeavor to get back our countrymen, but we beseech your ex- cellency most earnestly to issue immediate orders to those ruffians of St. John's commanding them to give up our countrymen without delay. The superin- tendents being extremely desirous to fulfill the duties of their office, which they hold by royal commission, could not sit down with indifference, and see their people in the utmost danger, without succoring and assisting them. They therefore deputed the superintendent E, to repair with the said captain Ma, to the provincial city, that he might with his own hand present this docu- ment, and wait for an official reply from your excellency. Respectfully wish- ing your excellency the enjoyment of peace and happiness, we communicate in this document a true statement of the case. Done, January 30th, 1835.

"Charles Gutzlaff,'

"

(Signed)

   January 30, 1835.-It was considered to be desirable that the three superintendents should sign this paper to the governor, as it appeared to be possible that this circumstance might give it rather

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the character of a report than a letter (and it will be remembered that the pretext for refusing lord Napier's first communication was, because it was a letter); at all events it was thought probable that the Chinese authorities might be disposed to avail themselves of any change in the forin, as a reason for receiving the statement.

                                    The seals of the three superintendents were affixed to their signatures, but it was determined merely to attach a fly seal to the envelop, because it was hoped, that to afford the officer who might be deputed to communicate with us the facility of reading it, would remove every rational ground of objection. Upon the address was super- scribed a short sentence to the cffect, that the report related to mat- ter concerning human life. These precautions being taken, it was arranged that the third superintendent (captain Elliot) should be the bearer of the paper, and with a view to prevent excitement, or any pretension that the communication was tumultuously presented, it was resolved that the intention should be kept perfectly secret, and that only two persons should accompany captain Elliot, viz., Mr. Gutzlaff and the captain of the Argyle. It was also decided

that these gentlemen should not go to the factories at all, but should repair direct to the water gate, (about a mile to the eastward of the factories,) at which point an officer in the navy, of captain Elliot's rank (captain Freemantle in 1831) had recently delivered a letter from the governor-general to the viceroy. The result of this attempt it described in the following papers.

"February 4th, 1835.-The annexed minute is from the third superintendent.

44

Immediately upon the conclusion of our recent visit to the water-gate, i rc- quested Mr. Gutzlaff to take a note of the circumstances which had occurred there, because I rather preferred that the statement should be made by another hand than my own. I have read his paper which is annexed to this minute, with great attention, and I should say, that it contains a complete and exact account of the transaction. There can be little doubt that the person by whoin I was principally beset, acted only in the performance of his duty in resisting the entrance of any foreigner into the city. It need hardly be observed, however, that he was unne- cessarily carnest and violent, because there was not the least disposition on my part to force my way into the city, but simply to maintain a position within the first wicket, as is usual on these occasions, and to wait there for the arrival of any officers deputed by the governor, with whom I might confer. The two mandarins of rank who did eventually come, stayed only to declare that they could receive nothing but a petition, and therefore no opportunity was afforded to me formally to complain of the unbecoming treatment I had experienced. But I confess 1 cannot regret this circumstance, for it is very obvious that the true responsibility of this, and all other conduct of the same nature, attaches entirely to the govern. ment, and is by no means to be set aside by the imputation of blame to their sub

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 altern officers. It belongs generally to that spirit of unreasonable and dangerous impracticability with relation to the point of direct intercourse between the public. officers of the two countries, which is so completely a subject for the considera- tion and disposal of his majcsty's government. The awakening of cager solicitude upon the part of the highest authorities, for the rescue of the king's subjecta, and the inducing a serious determination vigorously to pursue the offenders, were the great objects of immediate concern to the Coinmission, and to this extent there can be no doubt that our mission was completely successful.

(Signed)

***CHARLES ELLIOT, Third superintendent.'

  "• Mr. Gutzlaff's report.-Sunday morning, 1st Feb., 1835, his majesty's third superintendent, captain Elliot, R. N., the master of the British ship Argyle, Alex- ander Macdonald, and myself, arrived opposite the third pagoda in Canton river. We went in a three-oared boat to a landing-place near the Yíúlán gate, which leads to the governor's palace, in order to present a document from his majesty's superintendents, addressed to his excellency the governor, wherein they request ed him to give orders for the liberation of twelve British subjects who had been forcibly seized upon by some natives of St. John's, and belonged to the British ship Argyle.

"His majesty's third superintendent, captain Elliot, wore the uniform of a post captain of his majesty's navy, and directed us both to behave towards himself, in the presence of the mandarins, with the greatest respect, to give an additional proof that he was a king's officer. He also requested me to be courteons in the ex- treme, when engaged in conversation with the mandarins, and not to offer any resistance, should violence be used towards us

We entered, accordingly, the Yíúlán gate, and had proceeded a few houses farther, when all on a sudden, the soldiers fell upon captain Elliot, one of them, a second lieutenant, with a brass kuob, grasping the hilt of his sword and struggling with bim for several minutes, until captain Elliot fell on the ground. In the meanwhile, I addressed the soldiers in a loud voice, that the gentleman whom they maltreated was an officer of his Britannic majesty, and caine here upon a inost urgent affair, which concerned the lives of twelve British subjects, but they did not listen, and pushed him very hard. Ithen placed myself near a pillar, and endeavored to reason with these violent men, which had the desired effect, for, upon hearing that we came in the service of his Britannic majesty, they desisted from offering violence to me; nevertheless, they continued to treat captain Elliot with the greatest indignity, whilst 1 myself went up the street to find out, if pos- sible, an officer of rank ; but not succeeding, I turned back, and saw captain Elliot, and afterwards Macdonald, forcibly dragged and pushed through two wicket gates. Hereupon, 1 most solemuly, in the hearing of all bystanders, protested, that captain Elliot, being an officer of his Britannic majesty, had come hither with a document addressed to his excellency the viceroy, concerning the lives of twelve British subjects, and was on no account to be ill-treated. I exhorted them to ab- stain from this outrage, but the lieutenant, as well as the other soldiers, answered me with a sneer, took hold of me, aud threw me out of the gate.

   ·We stood now between the Yiúlán and the two wicket gates, when we were met by a military mandariu, in his uniform, wearing a blue knob, and being pre- crded by several men who carried chairs. To him captain Elliot addressed himself and presented the document, which he refused to receive; and I was then request od to late to the said mandarin in plain termą that this washis Britannie majesty's

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officer, who had come bere upon a most important affair which concerned the lives of British subjects, and was anxious to hand this document to a mandarin of rank, that he might transınit it to his excellency the governor. He treated this appeal with contempt. I therefore showed him the outside of the document, where it was stated, that this matter was of the highest importance, and concerned the Jives of British subjects. He read it and sneered contemptuously. Captain Elliot then requested, through me, that the lieutenant who had treated him, a British officer, with such indignity, should be punished. The mandarin fanghed, saying, You nu officer!' We pointed, therefore, to the epaulets and the other insignia of rank, and the bystanding soldiers remarked, that gold naturally indicates rank, whilst the officer silenced them and snccred. He then took off his upper robes, and captain Elliot declined any farther conversation.

"Whilst the mandarin withdrew, we were exposed to a great mob, drawn hither by curiosity, in witnessing so extraordinary a scene. The soldiers now collected in greater numbers, and placed themselves before the wicket gate where we stood, some of them having whips in their hands, whilst others appeared on the opposite side, and drove the multitude away. Shortly afterwards some linguists came, and desired to converse with us. Captain Elliot requested me to tell them, that we wished to communicate our affairs to a messenger from the viceroy, a man- darin of rank. This I told them in Chinese; and farther refused to hold any con- versation with any man who was not an officer of government.

***We had waited half an hour longer, when several mandarins, all in their state uniform, arrived; and amongst them we observed Mowqna, a senior hong-mer- chant, who wore a peacock's feather and a crystal globe. The same linguist ad. dressed us again, and desired that we might communicate the affair, and give hini the document. As he, however, met with a refusal, the gates were thrown open, and we were brought into the presence of two general officers, who wore red but- tons, and had seated themselves in the watch-house. As soon as captain Elliot tried to sit down, they rose, and he presented, most respectfully, the document to one of them ; but the mandarin refused to receive it. These officers, as we were told, had been deputed by the governor, and I therefore again stated in a loud voice, that captain Elliot was a British officer, who had come here to represent a Imost urgent case which concerned the lives of twelve British subjects; but he re- plied, 'We only receive petitions.' I showed him the cover of the document, upon which the above words were written, which he read. After this both left us abruptly, and repeated, 'We only receive petitions.' We therefore withdrew, and returned to our boat. (Signed) Charles Gutzlaff, Joint interpreter. ' The following memoranda, made at the foreign office, affords all the comment we need offer on the foregoing extracts.

61

· [Mem.: F. O., 1840.-It is not necessary to state all that subsequently passed between the superintendents and the Chinese authorities relating to this case: suffice it to say, that the authorities are represented to have exerted themselves zealously; that on the 20th of February, intelligence was received at Macao, that the officer and boat's crew of the Argyle had arrived at Canton on the 18th; that they were restored to their ship on the 19th ; That the ship was secured in the usual way; and that the first part of her cargo reached Canton on the 23d |*- Corresp. pp 9286.

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127

Mh. A R. Johnston, esq., sceretary and treasurer to H. B.¡M Commission, issued a public notice, intimating that-in conformity with the provisions of an Act of Parliament, 6 Gɛo. IV., cap. 87,- James Matheson, esq., had been duly authorized to convene a meet- ing of all British subjects in Canton, for the purpose of instituting a British hospital at Whampoa, or elsewhere, for the reception of Brit- ish subjects, needing medical care and relief

14th. Mr. Matheson, by public notice, requested a meeting for the aforesaid purpose, to be convened on the 23d.

     The law above referred to provides, that where voluntary contri- butions towards erecting churches, hospitals, or providing burial- grounds, in any place where consuls are resident, such consuls are authorized to advance sums of money equal to the amount of such contributions. Can. Reg., Feb. 17th.

13th. The British residents in Canton were convened for the pur- pose of adopting measures in order to secure the erection of a monu- ment in honor of Lord Napier: it was proposed to raise a sum not exceeding £500; and the design of the monument was to be left to the judgment of J. F. Davis, and James Matheson, esqs. The remainder of the subscriptions, should they exceed £500, were to be employed in the foundation of some benevolent and useful institution m China, connected with the name of Napier. The sum of $2200 was immediately subscribed, and a monument bearing the following epitaph ordered from England.

To the memory of

The right honorable WILLIAM-John, Lord Napier,

of Merchistuon,

Captain in the Royal Navy,

His Majesty's Chief Superintendent of the British trade in China; who died at Macno, October 11th, 1834. Aged 48 years.

As a Naval Officer, he was able and distinguished, In Parliament, his conduct was liberal and decided. Attached to the pursuit of science, and the duties of religion, He was

Faithful, Charitable, Affectionate and Kind.

He was the First Public Functionary chosen by our Sovereign, On the Opening of the Trade in China to British enterprise; And his valuable life

Was sacrificed to the zeal with which he endeavored to discharge The arduous duties of the Situation.

This monument is erected by the British Community in China, 237. The magistrates of Canton, in company with his honor, the prefect, went to the military parade ground on the east of the city, and there witnessed the burning of several tens of chests of opium, that had been scized and taken from the smugglers Vol III, p. 188.

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A comunittee appointed to frame regulations for a British hospital at Whainpoa.

 27th. Under this date, sır G. B. Robinson wrote to viscount Pal- merston regarding facilities of extending British commerce to other ports in China.

The following is an extract from the letter.

"From the period when the first ship, the Merope, captain Parkyns, 1820- 21, commenced the system of delivering opium at various places, I have closely questioned intelligent men, who have had opportunities of making observations; and the result of my inquiries is the conviction, that the peo- ple arc intensely desirous to engage in traffic, certain to prove alike advan. tageous to themselves and to foreigners; that the mandarins are anxious to benefit thereby, but are, reluctantly perhaps, compelled to enforce th prohibitions regarding trade; and that an opening for almost unbounded commercial operations would be the desirable effect of little more than a demonstration on the part of our government of a determination to establish a proper understanding in the political and commercial relations of the two countries." Corresp. p. 87.

March 8th. Their excellencies the governor, lieut.-governor, and commissioner of customs, having framed a new code of restrictive regulations, addressed the same to his majesty for approval: these restrictive regulations commenced in 1760; were revised in 1810 and in 1831, and again on the present occasion. For a translation of the eight regulations forwarded to Peking under this date, sce vol. III., p. 580.

24th. A report was current in Canton that an insurrection had broken out in Sz'chuen, having commenced near the close of the last year.

26th. Fatqua's hong, said to be debtor to the local government for arrears of duties to upwards of 200,000 taels, was this day closed by the magistrates of Canton, in obedience to an order from the com- missioner of customs.

April 1st. Under this date the following official notification was published in the Canton Register.

N..

Pursuant to instructions under the royal sign manual, captain Charles Elliot, R.

has this day succeeded to the office of second superintendent of the trade of British subjects in China, vacant by the resignation of John Harvey Astell, esq., and Alexander Robert Johnston, esq., late secretary to the Commission, has sitc- ceeded to the oflice of third superintendent. Edward Elmslic, esq., senior clerk on the chief superintendents' establishment, has been charged provisionally with the duties of secretary and treasurer, and it is requested that all public commu nications may be addressed to that gentleınan.

Macau. It April, 1835.

By order of the Superintendents,

Epward ElmSLIE,

Acting secretary and treasurer

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Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

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     11th. The magistrates of Canton issued an order for the purpose of regulating the exchange of dollars, Mexican, Spanish, Bolivian, Peruvian, &c. Can. Reg. April 21st.

     13th. Sir G. B. Robinson wrote to viscount Palmerston, expressing "his unfeigned regret at the dissensions and violent party spirit that so fearfully prevailed among the mercantile community of Canton," calling his "attention to this dangerous state of society." He then adds:

"Without reverting to the past, I wish strongly to point out the absolute neces- sity of placing the officers of government as much beyond these influences as prac- ticable; their most strenuous efforts and best exertions must be in vain, if counter. acted by a strong under-current, if I may so express it. To prevent an evil of this nature is perhaps impossible, but I conceive it might be in a degree lessened, were every British subject, every British ship, removed from the river previous to the commencement of any sort of communication with the local authorities. Timely and reasonable notice being given, I should not anticipate remonstrance on an occasion where personal apprehensions would have their duc weight. A retire. ment to Macao would hardly have the desired effect, and probably lead to many difficulties; to avoid which I would venture to recominend the cmbarkation of all British families and subjects resident at that place, until political arrangements were perfectly concluded, on board the merchant ships, which might then take their station in some of the beautiful harbors in the neighborhood of Lantao or Hongkong. How far the latter measure is practicable, I am uncertain, but think, if accomplished, it would make a greater impression on the Chinese than any expedients hitherto resorted to."-Corresp. p. 95.

14th. The Governor Findlay, captain McKay, sailed for Fukien, carrying G. J. Gordon, agent of the Bengal government, to visit the Bohea (Wúí) hills. Mr. G. had visited the Ngánkí hills in Novem- ber of the preceding year. Vol. III., p. 72.

21st. The prefect of Canton, in consequence of continued drought, having previously forbidden the slaughter of animals, published an edict prohibiting the catching of fish as well as the killing of animals. Cun. Reg., 21st April.

    28t. The prefect, having erected an altar and engaged the ser- vices of a Budhist priest, offered prayers for rain.

May 1st.

          No rain having fallen after three successive days devot- ed to prayers by the priest and prefect, the former proposed to the latter to enter on another engagement for three days, but the prefect at once bid him begone. Vol. IV., p. 46.

8th. After an uninterrupted drought of eight or nine months in Canton and its vicinity, there were copious showers of rain.

11th.

        Mr. Gordon and his party, while proceeding up the river Min. were fired on by the Chinese soldiers. Vol IV., p. 89

YOL XI NO. 111

17

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25th. Several cases of sickness and death occurred during this mouth, generally believed to be instances of the malignant cholera. Vol. IV., p. 49.

June 2d. The funeral rites for the late Mowqua, who died on the 7th ult. at his ¡esidence in Hònâu, were celebrated.

4th. Siamese tribute-bearers, after an absence of six or eight months on a visit to the capital, returned to Canton.

Vol. IV., P. 103.

7th. His excellency governor Lú returned from a military tour of the two provinces, said to be thinner in person, darker in complex ion, and more than $50,000 richer in purse, than when he left the city six or eight weeks previously.

20th. Disturbances in Shansi, recently reported, were still unset- tled. Those in Sz'chuen were said to be at an end. Vol. IV., p. 104. July 1st. The chief superintendent had the honor to transmit to viscount Palmerston sundry papers relative to a claim of Messrs. Turner & Co. upon Mr. Keating, for the sum of 300 dollars;" the case was "only interesting as showing the necessity there was for the superintendents being armed with efficient powers to control British subjects in their intercourse and dealings with each other." This power they did not possess.

9th. The English bark Troughton arrived in distress, having on the 6th been boarded and robbed by Chinese pirates, Vol. IV., p. 151. 19th. An edict was issued by the provincial authorities, declaring war of extermination against some insurrectionary grasshoppers or lo- custs, the same as had been done in 1833. Can. Reg., Sep. 22d.

August 5th & 6th. One of the severest storms ever known on the coast of China was experienced in the vicinity of Macao and Cauton. Vol. IV., p. 197, and Vol. VIII., pp. 232-236.

11th. Arrived H. B. M. sloop Raleigh, Michael Quin, esq., com- mander, under jury masts, having sustained a very heavy gale on the 4th and 5th, by which she was compelled to throw overboard 13 of her guns, and to cut away her quarter boats. Vol. IV., p. 193.

September 1st. Of the money and goods taken from the bark Troughton, and estimated to be $74,380.45, the sum of $24,435.50 was returned by order of the government. Vol. IV., p. 248.

20th. The steamer Jardine arrived in the Chinese waters, under canvas from Aberdeen. Vol. IV., p. 439.

22. The Footae hong was admitted to the cohong; a new lin- guist Yánghien was appointed in place of Hopin who was banished

last year

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Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

BI

  23d. An edict was issued by the governor, complaining of the distribution of foreign books on the coasts of Fukien and Chekiáng. Can. Reg., Oct. 6th.

  25th. The death of governor Lú was announced in the evening. He died after an illness of only a few hours, aged sixty-six years. He was a native of Chill.

  October 1st was the 54th anniversary of the emperor's birthday : it was then said that during his reign, there had not been one pros- perous and happy year. Vol. IV., p. 295.

  12th. Halley's comet was observed by residents in Canton, form- ing with the last two stars of Ursa major, the points of a right-angled triangle, nearly. Vol. IV., p. 296.

  19th. The first annual meeting of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China was held in Canton. Vol. IV., p. 354.

  31st. The American brig Huron, captain Thomas Winsor, and the Rev. Messrs. Medhurst and Stevens passengers, returned from a voyage northward of two months and five days, during which time several places in Shantung, Keángsú, Chekiáng, and Fukien were visited, and about 20,000 volumes of Christian books distribut- ed. Vol. IV., pp. 308-335.

November 5th. In obedience to orders from Peking, the acting governor of the province issued an edict relative to the voyage of the Huron and other foreign vessels on the coasts, "for the distribution of books and opiuni." Vol. IV., p. 343.

  10th. Died at his residence in Macao, sir Andrew Ljungstedt, knight of the Swedish royal order of Waza, and author of "An his- torical sketch of the Portuguese settlements in China; and of the Roman Catholic church and mission in China." An enlarged edition of this was published in Boston, by James Munroe & Co. in 1836.

22d. A fire broke out in the city of Canton and continued to rage till the next day, when more than three hundred families were left houseless. Vol. LV., p. 390.

25th. In pursuance of public notice given on the 21st, sir G. B. Robinson, chief superintendent of British trade in China, removed from Macao to Lintin, accompanied by Mr. Elmslie, secretary.

December 10th. The "quiescent policy" maintained by H. B. M. superintendent, and the "extreme delicacy and difficulty," of his po- sition, are best indicated in his own words, on which it is unneces- sary to comment. The following is an extract from a dispatch, dated

་་

  His majesty's cutter Louisa, Lintin, December 10th, 1835," ad- dressed to viscount Palmerston

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"I shall not iutrude so far on your lordship's time, as to enter at length into a defence, if such be requisite, of the course of quiescent policy, in which I flatter myself I have successfully persevered to the present moment, when 1 rejoice to say everything in this country manifests a state of uninterrupted tranquillity and peace, which I could hardly have ventured to anticipate from the very discordant state of society, the virulent party spirit and default of unanimity and good-will existing among the British cominunity in China, while the important trade of the season is in active, and I trust, successful progress under a tacit and mutual under- standin gand total abstinence and forbearance from communication, on the part of The Chinese and myself. My position has been one of extreme delicacy and difficulty. Succeeding, in pursuance of the instructions under his majesty's royal signet and sign manual, to the high and important office I have the honor to hold, at a crisis when a false step or error in judgment might not only have led to extreme hesita- tion and difficulty in the arrangements which his majesty's government may deem it proper to make for the adjustment of affairs here, and their suture ma- nagement and control, but have plunged the whole of his majesty's Commission, all British subjects, and the valuable trade in which they are engaged, as well as perhaps life and property, in great jeopardy, or into an utterly hopeless and inex- tricable state of confusion and discord; my best efforts have been directed to maintain the precise position in which I found myself placed on the departure of Mr. Davis, whose recommendation to that effect bas had duc weight with me." Corresp. p. 106.

(To be continued.)

ART. II. Notices of the complete works of Si Tungpo, comprised

in twenty-six volumes. 8vo. By a Correspondent.

THERE was once a period in Chinese history, when the spirit of com- piling and of commentating, had so completely taken possession of the nation, that the whole tribe of literati was at once absorbed in the contemplation of the real and imaginary beauties, which they had discovered in the ancient writings. Almost every nation takes the

same turn as soon as the talent for begetting original ideas becomes extinct, of which the Greek scholiasts are proof. But the literary sous of Han are exceedingly unwearied in their researches, bringing together everything they can lay their hands on; no matter whether they be scraps of poetry, rhapsodies, or absordities, if they contain a phrase or even a single character which will elucidate their own opi. nions, they are sure to quote it. And so it happens, that volumes after volumes are filled with nothing, so that one is at a loss to imagine what could possibly have been the intention of such compilations. In this grand science of hook-making, however, no race ainong thei

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Notice of the Works of Si Tungpo

133

 was so diligent as the scholars under the Sung dynasty, and among them, the commentaries of Chú Hí, or Chú fútsz', are remarkable for their clearness, and the distinctness with which they elucidate the text. They have therefore been reprinted a thousand times, and are even in this age, regarded as the orthodox explanations of the classics.

  The reasonings of these giants in compilation took a very perverse turn, for it was their wisdom, that finally proved the mortality of the soul. The sitnile by which, instead of argument, they illustrated this pernicious opinion, is unique in its kind, and deserves mention. They said, the relation of the soul to the body is like the sharpness of a knife compared to the knife itself; now as soon as the knife is destroyed, its sharpness also vanishes. So on the death of the body, the soul ceases to exist. This is just like another famous argument; viz., water is a fluid, and a fluid is not a compact body; therefore water can never appear in a compact form, and all the fables about ice, snow, and hail are unworthy of credit. Thus reasoned the king of Siam, and nobody dared to contradict. These sentiments of the philosophers of the age of Sung have in the meanwhile been repeat- ed by all the self wise of the race of Han, who imagine they have found the philosopher's stone by denying the future existence of man's most precious part. Theoretically they believe firmly in an. nihilation, but really they are afraid of the sufferings in hell, and very frequently call in the assistance of a priest of Budha to smooth their last moments. But during life, they proceed, as if there was no life to come, and commit every vile and atrocious crime, because there is no restraint upon their deeds, which always will influence mankind, if they are imbued with a fear of everlasting punishment.

  Amongst the number of clever scholars, who lived during the tine preceding the latter emperors of the southern Sung, when the Tar- tars occupied all the country to the north of the Yángtsz' kiáng, Sú Tungpo was distinguished. He early studied letters, in order to ad- vance himself, and so far succeeded in his ambitious views, that he became a minister of state, and lived a life of splendor at Hángchau, which was then the capital. He highly had a discursive mind, and whether he applied himself to letters, or devoted his mind to affairs of state, he alike excelled.

As a scholar, he fairly came up to the beau ideal of what a Chinese author ought to be;-that is a poet, a prose writer, a framer of epigrams, of ditties, and unmeaning classi- cal aspirations; while he also composed state papers, and coin- plaints upon the corruption of the age. As a minister, he was bigoted,

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upholding the opinions of the ancients, and considering them still ap- plicable in the present day. Ile worries his sovereign with memorials, points out to him how he may raise himself to the glorious state of faultless antiquity, and stickles at every improvement, because he can- not trace it in the classics. He hates foreigners, on account of their being beyond the transforming influence of the celestial empire, and argues against the trade with Corea, because it would contaminate the purity of the sons of Han.

But this writer is a paragon of literary accomplishments, and whoever wishes to become a first rate scholar must imitate him in every particular. His works therefore stand very high in the estima- tion of the learned, and a single quotation from him is better than a Jong argument. His writings are short, the twenty-six volumes before us being a complete miscellany. We have first an eulogy in praise of a city, followed by a ditty upon wine; and shortly afterwards a trea- tise upon punishment and rewards, quite in the style of Yau and Shun, with a reference to whom he commences the lucubration. those golden times, virtue was promoted by immediate rewards, and praises sung in its favor; whilst vice was repressed by the punish- ment it received, and the wailings with which it was accompanied. In fact public opinion then did everything in support of the good morals of the country.

upon

In

Sú Tungpo likewise writes essays upon the examinations, which at that period were held nearly in the same manner as they are now; he makes Confucius a pattern, whom every candidate for govern- mental honors must resemble and whose fitness must be judged according to this great model. We have also some touches the Chun Tsau, which our author considers the most perfect and excel- lent production, perhaps for not containing a single remark, and merely giving us the names of ancient kings and princes both real and fictitious. But the publication of this work wrought wonderful changes, and the times immediately succeeding were quite different from what they afterwards have been. The reason was,

                               that every body seeing this long series of names laid open for public perusal, began to fear, that he would likewise be immortalized for his crimes, and rendered infamous throughout all ages. He therefore straight. way became virtuous, and to this shamefacedness the growth of virtue at that time is to be ascribed. Listen to this, ye legislators of the west, and especially ye agitators of Spain and Ireland! If you wish to render the people virtuous, publish chronological tables, and then the whole nation will be renovated

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  There is also a great deal concerning ceremonies, and not a little about my lord Chau, that very pink of ministers, who restrained a vicious court, and introduced order throughout the empire. At that time the celestials were often sorely pressed by the Tartars, an enciny that never gave up the contest; and this circumstance suggested to the author, to write an essay upon bravery, according to the model of the ancient kings. Their principle was to interfere in all quarrels of their neighbors, but to do so merely from motives of benevolence. It was their endeavor to soothe the people, and therefore they went about to kill them, a process similar to that of Napoleon's, who waged war for the pacification of the world.

After much miscellaneous matter, we have a treatise against here- sies, and Si recapitulates all the heresiarchs, that lived about or near the time of Confucius, two of whom Shángyáng and Hánfi asserted, that the empire ought to be ruled by the fear of punishment-a the- ory afterwards fully adopted by Tsin Chí hwángtí. When the mi- nister discourses upon the government of the state, he forgets the present exigencies of the times, and reverts to the happy periods of which Confucius gives a charming account. He was constantly liv- ing in the golden age, and forgot his country's woes; for notwith- standing the excellency of his treatises, the Tartars encroached upon the imperial domains and ravaged the whole frontier. And when at last he proposed a grand stratagem according to the treatises of Yáu and Shun, the enemy would not attack the Chinese where they had prepared the ambush, and therefore all these contrivances succeeded very ill. But still he would revert to the same plans and urge the adoption of the whole Confucian system; in fact Yau and Shun were always in his mouth, and if he could have resuscitated them, he would indeed have made them field marshals.

It was a remarkable circunstance that whilst the rude Tartars in the north kept the country in good order by exercising a vigorous government, the Chinese emperors lived for their own pleasure. Sú Tungpo upbraids them in a series of well written papers, in the strictly classical style, long before the division took place; not so much for being inferior to their fierce neighbors, as for neglecting to imitate their ancestors. The fault of government, he says, is not so much in the constitution, as in the administration. There are laws enacted which are quite inapplicable to circumstances, and officers are appointed to fulfill duties for which they are totally unfit. To the sovereign ought to be intrusted the whole power of levying duties, and bestowing rewards: one man ought to control the whole,

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but in our times every body exercises these functions. The number of magistrates is too large; there are three candidates for one ap- pointment, and all must be maintained from the public treasury. Another error was not equalizing the land tax, so that a deficit in the revenue ensued.

        In ancient times one tenth of the produce was raised; in Sú's time the regular impost did not amount to so much, and even this was felt a great hardship, because the collectors took so much for their own share. In ancient times trained bands were al- ways maintained, and the people were accustomed to the sound of the bugle and the roll of the gong; but under the prescut administra- tion the soldiers were disbanded, and the defenses of the country became of no avail. When bands of robbers traversed the land, the few soldiers that were collected in a hurry, ran away without fight- ing. After having dwelt upon the administration in detail, he swins up the whole in a spirited address to his sovereign, (Híning, about 1080,) in which he urges him to strive towards perfection, and to model all his actions according to the bright pattern of the ancients. These essays are perhaps the best in the whole work, and though not free from the charge of pedantic reasoning, still there is very much in them, which is really applicable to all ages.

A collection of prefaces, which Sú wrote at the request of friends, scarcely deserve reinark, but it is worthy of notice, that Chinese au- thors endeavor to show their greatest talents in such lucubrations, and to be as unintelligible as the subject will admit. After the pre- faces comes a volume of descriptive pieces, upon man, manuers, temples, idols, rivers, &c.; some would bear trauslating as specimens of Chinese literature, and we shall perhaps quote a few of them on a future occasion.

Sú's funeral eulogies hold a high place in our estimation. With great facility he collects all the meritorious deeds of his heroes, and places them in a very strong light; he then makes some allusion to the ages long gone by, and traces their resemblance to celebrated personages, concluding with his own panegyrics. These eloquent pieces were not only printed, but also engraven on solid stone, and placed near the tombs of the illustrious dead, that every one might become acquainted with their exploits. Our literary minister more- over composed a great number of inscriptions, for no object was be- neath his notice; and when realities were wanting, he had recourse to poetry, and never failed to clothe his thoughts in beautiful lan- His works contain many sounets in praise of the numerous objects, that struck the statesman's faucy, and as his fame increased

guage.

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the applications for a few lines from his elegant pencil, became also more numerous. He indited several stanzas upon the large Budhist temples in the neighborhood of the capital, descriptive of the great happiness conferred by the prospect of felicity promised to the vota- ries of that superstition. There are, however, more praiseworthy traits. in his character, and his appeals in behalf of suffering humanity deserve attention. With all the eloquence he could command, he intreated his sovereign to order an investigation of the prisons, and to free the innocent men, immured for many years in these pestilen- tial dungeons, from their fetters, and restore them to their families. He undoubtedly speaks the language of his heart, and pathetically appeals to every noble feeling in the human breast.

     We now come to his menorials, the greater part of which were written towards the end of the eleventh century, when the state was in the uttermost danger, and the government reduced to every mean shift. The Tartar foe had been braved, irritated by faithless con- duct, offended beyond conciliation by haughty officers, and when the hordes commenced advancing to the frontiers, the heart of the emperor began to quail. Sí, however, was firm in his principles, and with bitter hatred to the terrible enemy, recommends the extermination of these robbers. But these men never for a moment considered the impracticability of their scheme, thinking all the while that the thun- der of their edicts would settle the matter. If the command for ex- termination has once gone forth, the enemy will certainly be annihilat- ed, because it is the celestial empire, which, in obeying the sacred decrees of heaven, issues these orders. The ancients did the same and were successful, and why should not their illustrious posterity carry their point in a similar manner? Amongst other scourges under which the country at this juncture smarted was a long drought, while swarms of grasshoppers also devoured what grain there was left. With true patriotism, Sú, after enumerating all the misfortunes and showing the great difficulties in removing them, sets boldly to work to indicate the remedies; this however was not quite enough to re- move the evil, and they grew every day. But his mind was not diverted from minor matters, whilst engaged in discussing these na- tional concerns: there had existed for a considerable time a very brisk trade between Corea and China, fishermen from Fukien, espe- cially natives of Chinchew, engaged largely in this traffic, and repair- ed to the coasts of that country to catch fish, which they salted and brought to the Nanking market. To promote this amicable inter- course, the king used to send a tribute bearer, who devoid of all

VOL. XI. NO, HIL.

18

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pride most willingly performed every kotum required of him. The matter soon attracted Sú's notice, and on consideration, it occurred to him, that there could be no necessity for such commerce and fish- eries, as the emperor himself derived no profit from them. Why then should rude barbarians be benefited by the merchandize carried from the stores of China? In consequence of this, an order was straightway issued prohibiting all intercourse between China and Corea. The Chinchew men however thought differently; and away they went with their junks, brought back large cargoes, and in order to put a fair face upon their proceedings, took with them an envoy, a priest of Budha, as plenipotentiary from the august monarch of Corea. This daring act highly irritated the minister; he exclaimed, "This man has come hither to spy out the land, he has deceived us, and the whole object of his mission is to obtain maps of this country to pre- sent to our enemics the Ketans, who will then invade the southern provinces." The clamor of such an influential man incensed the whole cabinet against the poor priest, who had lost his life if Sú had not bethought himself to avoid provoking hostilities, and sent him back, with orders never to return. The act of non-intercourse which was thus passed has never been revoked. Some traitorous natives, however, continued still to hover amongst the islands, but the whole trade was changed into smuggling, and Sú flattered himself that he had achieved a very good object.

After these memorials, we have commissions sent to the different military and civil authorities under the seal of the minister. Then follows a whole series of documents in praise of meritorious officers, who were conspicuous for their loyalty, under the most trying cir- cumstances. These productions are written in a very lively style, and are rich in comparisons. We have also a collection of the mi- nister's official correspondence; his letters are extremely short and much to the point, and the long discourses in the memorials are here condensed to a few sentences. It was thus he managed to keep up his interchange of letters with the principal functionaries, and to im- part his pithy orders for their obedience.

In whatsoever point we view Sú Tungpo, he seems to have been a sort of universal genius; whilst he writes an episode in honor of Budha, he also draws up a prayer for the emperor, to use on special occasions. There are also petitions for rain, supplications in time of danger, and other ejaculations, but all so very short, that devotion can find no resting point. Even the slightest allusions to the Supreme Being do not occur, materialism had taken too deep a root, to allow anything but the grossest idol worship

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There are also a number of his private letters, divested of much of the peculiar slang with which these productions in Chinese begin and end, containing much solid information upon the state of affairs dur- ing his administration. An address to the inspector of salt is really worthy of perusal, and proves how stationary China has remained for the last seven centuries. If the minister should rise again at the present moment, and re-pen his letters to the same department, his remarks would be as applicable now as they were then. What changes has not the West undergone since the eleventh century, and how rapid and irresistible have they been, whilst generation upon generation has passed away in the Central empire, and one horde of foreigners after the other have obtained sovereign sway over the realm, but still it has for the most part remained what it was. Sú Tungpo however apprehended changes, and therefore adhered closely to the old regime. Though possessing great foresight, he was mis- taken in this particular, for though the victories of the barbarians brought a large portion of the empire under their sway, they never succeeded in changing the customs, but were on the contrary obliged to adopt them, in order to conciliate the goodwill of the conquered. The reason is found in the rudeness of the Tartars, who had to learn the arts of civilized life, and had nothing of their own to benefit the conquered. Hence the facility with which they yielded to their su- periors in every useful science, and amalgamated with thein after a few generations.

On turning to the essays, the first which attracts attention is one on musical bands. Now the ancients had an idea, that the fiercer passions of man, which remained after his civilization, could only be subdued by ceremonies and music. This latter art therefore held a high rank in the estimation of government, and was carefully promot- ed. But like many things in this world, it has not always answered the purpose for which it was invented, and its sweet harmony has in vain reëchoed in the ears of the hearers. They have still remained rude, and up to the present day the shrill notes of the tabret and fise, with the peals of the gong, soften few hearts and seldom restrain the boisterous passions

   Sú Tungpo is the only Chinese author we have yet met, who uses fables to convey instruction. His best essay in this species of writ- ing, is the piece entitled the Raven, in which there is considerable wit and humor, but the comparisons are rather farfetched. Our au- thor has likewise attempted to write the life of Sz'má Tsien the histo- rian, and what he says respecting his style and his other qualities is

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much to the purpose. Yet it is really to be regretted, that the best writers never remember, that in order to do good by their lucubra- tions, they ought to write intelligibly. Instead of descriptions and careful relations of things as they happened, we have nothing but a sorry exposition of the most uninteresting events. Could not the astute Sú discover these defects in the historian ?

We have now come to his pieces of poetry, upon which a few general remarks will suffice. We have never yet met a single fo- reigner, who has studied this branch of literature, and we have never been acquainted with a single native scholar who could not write poetry. But there exist great difficulties in learning to under- stand Chinese poetry, and many sinologues vote all the rhyming of a whole poetical nation, to be bare nonsense, not worth a moment's consideration. This is a very summary way of settling matters, to which one or two remarks may be appended. Granting that there is much absurdity in Chinese poetry, yet though hundreds of their poets have been fools, there must have been a few amongst the myriads this country has produced, that now and then indited verses not devoid of all meaning. There is one region of realities and another of fancy, the latter exclusively the sphere in which the poet moves, and unless one can follow him to his own domains, he cannot comprehend the things of which he speaks. Our author is by no means remarkable for his high genius in this department, on the contrary he sinks often to the level of prose, and seldom ascends high up on Parnassus. Still he maintains that the proper accompaniment of the harp is wine, and when he can taste a drop of this liquid, it proves to him a nectar that fires his thoughts to soar sublimely, and traverse the empire of the ideal world with an eagle's wing.

Some of the descriptive pieces are tolerably well, but too short, so much so that one regrets, that the author showed no greater ingenui- ty and patience. A few treatises upon the events of his times would have been worth volumes of his miscellaneous lore. Who would think, that a man who had to look after such various affairs, should have found time to study medicine? Such however was the case; and not merely satisfied with a general outline of the science, he enters into minute detail respecting various remedies, especially one for stopping the ravages of dysentery, of which green ginger is the principal ingredient. There occurs also a passage relating to the healing art, which much resembles an explanation of the effects of animal magnetism upon the human body. When all the natural functions are at a stand, and the body has been reduced to a state of

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quiescence, like a clod of earth, then the remedy becomes of avail, and the patient prescribes for himself. From this discussion, we must revert to Sú's small treatises upon plants and fruits, and sundry scraps of poetry.

     The last three volumes are of poetry, and some pieces are of the best description. They were composed in his younger years, when he was not accustomed to repress his feelings. They are therefore live- ly pieces, and full of good ideas, though usually rather prosaic. Yet they are deserving of perusal, and a tyro in the art ought to com- mence with this collection.

There is only one volume more, and that too one of the best, of which we have not yet spoken; this is an account of his literary life, and a biography taken from the history of the Sung dynasty, descriptive of his official character. Sú was born about the middle of the eleventh century, of poor parentage at Meichú, but being a clever boy, his mother took pleasure in instructing him. Having obtained the histories of Táng, he perused them with great avidity, and thence formed the determination of serving his country. But the road to honor was not very easy; he had to serve for many years in the most humble capacity and was driven from one place to ano- ther, before he could attract the attention of the court. Once how- ever made a doctor in the national college, he soon contrived to make this a stepping stone to the ministry, in which he passed a large part of his life. At the age of sixty, he wrote his last effusions, and henceforth was dead to the world. The praises which the biographer bestows upon him are well earned; he was indeed a worthy states- man. But he had also to undergo great troubles, and the court prov- ed to him an abode of wretchedness. He was of a very elastic spirit, could bear a great many reverses without repining in the least, and like an experienced politician stood favor as well as disgrace with equal firmness.

     To those sinologues who are satisfied with the bare perusal of the Four Books, Sú Tungpo will prove very valuable. He is decidedly a classical writer, though a servile imitator of the ancients, and is in every respect one of the best Chinese authors. Many a native student has striven to emulate him, but few have reached his height. When youth proceed to the examinations, they betake themselves to these books, and search after well turned sentences.

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Wood's Journal to the River Ous.

March

ART. III. A personal narrative of a Journal to the river Orus, by the route of the Indus, Kabul, and Badakshan, &c., &c.; by lieutenant John Wood, of the E. 1. Co.'s navy.

WHEN the traveler has ascended up the valley of the Oxus to its fountain-head, he stands upon the 'Roof of the World,' or the Bam-i- Dúniah. There lies the lake called by the natives Sir-i-kol, in the form of a crescent, abont fourteen miles long from east to west, by an average breadth of one mile, from whose western end issues the Oxus or Jihun, This point-the western end of the lake our traveler found to be in latitude 37° 27′ N., by meridian altitude of the sun, and longitude 73° 40′ E. by protraction from Langer Kish, where his last set of chronometric observations had heen obtained. Its elevation, measured by the temperature of boiling water, is 15,600 feet. On three sides it is bordered by swelling hills, about 500 feet high, while along its southern bank they rise into mountains 3,500 feet above the lake, or 19,000 above the sea, and are covered with perpetual snow, from which never-failing source the lake is supplied.

It was on the 19th of February, 1838, that lieut. Wood reached this elevated site; the next day, the 20th "after getting a clear and beautiful meridian altitude of the sun," and casting a last look at the lake, he entered the defile leading to Wakhan. The hills and moun- tains encircling this lake give rise to some of the principal rivers in Asia. Our author says:

"In walking over the lake, I could not but reflect how many countries owe their importance and their wealth to rivers the sources of which can be traced to the lonely mountains which are piled up on its southern u argin. This elevated chain is common to India, China and Turkistan; and from it, as from a central point, their several streams diverge, each augmenting as it rolls onwards, until the ocean and the lake of Aral receive the swollen tribute, again to be given up, and in a circuit as endless as it is wonderful to be swept back by the winds of heaven, and showered down in snowy flakes upon the self-same mountains from which it flowed. How strange and how interesting a group would be formed if an individual from each nation whose rivers have their first source in Pamir were to meet upon its summit; what varieties would there be in person, language, and manners; what contrasts between the rough, untamed, and fierce mountaineer and the more civilized and effeminate dweller on the plain; how much of virtue and of vice, under a thousand different aspects, would be met with among all; and how strongly would the conviction press upon the mind that the me- horation of the whole could result only from the diffusion of early education and a purer religion '

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 "Painir is not only a radiating point in the hydrographical system of Cen- tral Asia, but it is the focus from which originate its principal mountain chains. The plain along the southern side of which the lake is situated bas a width of about three miles; and viewed from this elevated plateau the moun. tains seem to have no great elevation. The table land of Pamir is, as I have already stated, 15,600 feet high, or sixty-two feet lower than the summit of Mont Blanc; but the height of 3400 feet, which I have assigned to the mountains that rise from this elevated basin, is a matter of assumption only. Where nothing but snow meets the eye it is not easy to appreciate heights and distances correctly; and it is therefore not improbable that the dimen- sions thus assigned to Sir-i-kol may be subsequently found incorrect. Co- vered as both the land and water were with snow, it was impossible to tell the exact size; the measurements given were obtained from the Kirghiz, who were familiar with the spot, assisted by my own eye. I regret that I omitted to take the necessary trigonometrical observations for determining the altitude of the southern range of mountains. I estimated their height on the spot, and noted down the impression at the moment; but though I had fully intended to have made the measurements on the morrow, it quite escaped me in my anxiety to fix the geographical position of the lake, nor did I discover the omission until our arrival in Wakhan.

 "The Wakhanis name this plain Bam-i-Dúniah, or Roof of the World,' and it would indeed appear to be the highest table-land in Asia, and probably in any part of our globe. From Pamir the ground sinks in every direction ex- cept to the south-east, where similar plateaux extend along the northern face of the Himalaya into Tibet. An individual who had seen the region between Wakhan and Kashmir informed me that the Kuner river had its principal source in a lake resembling that in which the Oxus has its rise, and that the whole of this country, comprehending the districts of Gilgit, Gunjit, and Chitral, is a series of mountain defiles that act as water-courses to drain Pamir.

 "As early in the morning of Tuesday, the 20th February, as the cold per- initted, we walked out about 600 yards upon the lake, and having cleared the snow from a portion of its surface, commenced breaking the ice to ascer- tain its depth. This was a matter of greater difficulty than it at first sight appeared, for the water was frozen to the depth of two feet and a half, and, owing to the great rarity of the atmosphere, a few strokes of the pick-ax produced an exhaustion that stretched us upon the snow to recruit our breath. By dint, however, of unwearied exertions and frequent reliefs, we had all but carried the shaft through, when an imprudent stroke fractured its bottom, and up the water jetted to the height of a man, sending us scampering off in all directions. This opening was too small to admit our sounding-lead, and had of necessity to be abandoned; besides, a wet jacket where the ther- moineter is at zero is a much more serious affair than where it is at summer. heat. We resolved to be more circumspect in our next attempt, and diligent search having revealed to us a large stone upon an islet in the lake, it was

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forthwith transported to the scene of our labors. When judging by the depth of the first shaft, we concluded the second to be nearly through, the stone was raised and upheld by four men immediately above the hole. A fifth man continued to ply the ax, and at the first appearance of water the stone was dropped in and went clean through the ice, leaving an aperture its own size, and from this larger orifice there was no rush of water. The sounding-lead was immediately thrown in, when, much to my surprise and disappointment, it struck bottom at nine feet, for we had prepared and brought with us from Langer Kish a hundred fathoms of line for the experi-

ment.

'The water emitted a slightly fetid smell and was of a reddish tinge. The bottom was oozy and tangled with grassy weeds. I tried to measure the breadth of the lake by sound, but was baffled by the rarity of the air. A musket, loaded with blank cartridge, sounded as if the charge had been poured into the barrel, and neither wads nor ramrod used. When a ball was introduced the report was louder, but possessed none of the sharpness that marks a similar charge in denser atmospheres. The ball, however, could be distinctly heard whizzing through the air. The human voice was sensibly affected, and conversation, especially if in a loud tone, could not be kept up without exhaustion: the slightest muscular exertion was attended with a similar result. Half a dozen strokes with an ax brought the workman to the ground; and though a few minutes' respite sufficed to restore the breath, anything like contiuued exertion was impossible. A run of fifty yards at full speed made the runner gasp for breath. Indeed, this exercise produced a pain in the lungs and a general prostration of strength which was not got rid of for many hours. Some of the party complained of dizziness and hoad- aches; but except the effects above described, I neither felt myself, nor per- ceived in others, any of those painful results of great elevation which travelers have suffered in ascending Mont Blanc. This might have been anticipated, for where the transition from a dense to a highly-rarified atmosphere is so sud- den, as in the case of ascending that mountain, the circulation cannot be expected to accommodate itself at once to the difference of pressure, and violerce must accrue to some of the more sensitive organs of the body. The ascent to Pamir was on the contrary, so gradual that some extrinsic circum- stances were necessary to remind us of the altitude we had attained. The effect of great elevation upon the general system had indeed been proved to me some time before in a manner for which I was not prepared. One even- ing in Badakhshan, while sitting in a brown study over the fire, I chanced to touch my pulse, and the galloping rate at which it was throbbing roused my attention. I at once took it for granted that I was in a raging fever, and after perusing some hints on the preservation of health which Dr. Lord, at parting, had kindly drawn out for me, I forthwith prescribed for myself most liberally. Next morning my pulse was as brisk as ever, but still my feelings denoted health. I now thought of examining the wrists of all our party, and to iny surprise found that the pulses of my companions beat yet

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faster than my own. The cause of this increased circulation immediately occurred to me; and when we afterwards commenced marching towards Wakhan, I felt the pulses of the party whenever I registered the boiling point of water. The motion of the blood is in fact a sort of living barometer, by which a man acquainted with his own habit of body can, in great altitudes, roughly calculate his height above the sea." Pages 359-363.

The proximity of the valley of the Oxus to the frontiers of the Chi- nese empire, the fact of its having been, and of its now being, one of the routes frequented by travelers in passing to and from China through Central Asia, together with the interest attaching to the country itself and its inhabitants, have induced us to call the atten- tion of our readers to lieutenant Wood's exceedingly interesting nar- rative. But it would be incompatible with the object of our work to dwell long on its details. The course of the river from its source, Sir-i-kol, is to the west or northwest, till it falls into the sea of Aral, after traversing a distance of upwards of one thousand miles. "West of Khulin, the valley of the Oxus, except on the immediate banks of the stream, appears to be a desert; but in an opposite direction, east- ward to the rocky barriers of Darwaz, all the high-lying portion of the valley is at this season (20th March) a wild prairie of sweets, a verdant carpet enameled with flowers. *** The low swelling out- lines of Kunduz are as soft to the eye as the verdant sod which car- pets them, is to the foot." Kunduz is the capital of Murad Beg, the head of the Usbek state, who holds dominion, nominal at least, over the whole, or nearly the whole of the valley eastward to the 'Roof of the World.' Concerning the Usbeks, the Tajiks, the Kirghis, and the Kaffirs, lieut. Wood has added most valuable information, to the little hitherto known of them and their country.

In chapter sixteen, page 249, he notices Khan Khojá, a Moham- medan ruler of Kashgár and Yárkand, who having been drive nfrom his dominions, about a century back, took shelter in Badakshan, bringing with him 40,000 followers. The Khoja was killed at

Reishkhan.

The mines of lapis-lazuli were visited, and are minutely described, by lieut. Wood. They are situated to the southward from Jerm. The ruby mines, on the north or right bank of the Oxus, he failed to reach; but he gives some account of them, derived from native sources. Of the animal and vegetable productions of the valley, his work contains many interesting notices, coinciding with those given by Marco Polo. See Marsden's edition, pp. 129, 141, &c.

Kaffirstan is situated south from Badakshan, and west from Chitral,

VOL XI. NO. TIL.

19

116

Wool's Journal to the River Qrus.

Maret,

The Musselmen say, that its inhabitants resemble Europeans, in be- ing possessed of great intelligence; and lieut. Wood adds, that from all he has seen aud heard of them, he conceives that "they offer a fairer field for missionary exertion than is to be found anywhere elsc on the continent of Asia. They pride themselves on being, to use their own words, brothers of the feringi; and this opinion, of itself, may hereafter smooth the road for the zealous pioneers of the gospel. Unlike the Hindús and Mohammedans, they have no creed purport- ing to be a revelation; but, as far as I could discover, simply believe in the supremacy of a denty, and that men who have been good and hospitable on earth will be rewarded in heaven." Pag c237.

On newyear's day, 1838, our traveler visited Ahmed Shah, the pír, for head inullah of Jerm, who, after emigrating from Hindustan in 1809, had traveled much and made a long abode in China. He enter- ed this country by the way of Wakhan, and left it by that of Kokan. The difficulties of the first of these routes he described as great, aris- ing chiefly from the height of Pamir, the severity of its climate, and the almost total absence of inhabitants. Of that of Kokan he spoke more favorably. Ile was in China when the lamented Moorcroft's messenger arrived in Yárkand to request permission for his master to visit that city, on which occasion, an officer of Ahmed Shah's acquaintance, told him that the Chinese had determined not to admit Moorcroft, "for," added the officer, "we are persuaded were a feriu- gi to enter the country some dreadful evil would befall us." He told many anecdotes of the Chinese, illustrating their distrust and jealousy with regard to foreigners; "while," so writes lieut. Wood, "like every other native of these countries, with whom I conversed on the subject, he praised their probity and good faith." Yárkand, he said, was neutral ground, where neighboring nations are privileged to meet the subjects of the Celestial empire for purposes of traffic; and "no onc except its governor is permitted to enter China, and he visits the frontier town of Ecla once a year. Before Kashgar and Yarkand were wrested from the Mohammedan family, their inhabitants traded with Ecla, or I'lí. The occasion of their expulsion, and the subse- quent advance of the commercial entrepôt to Yárkand, was thus related to lieut. Wood by his friend Ahmed Shah.

"A foreign merchant informed the magistrates of Ecla that he had lost his Forgeen, or saddic-bags. The man was required minutely to describe them, and to make oath to their contents. He swore to the value of one hundred silver yambos, and was then dismissed after being told to come back on a given day, when, if the saddle-bags were not recovered, the state would

1842

Wood's Journal to the River Orus

147

nake good his loss. On the appointed day the merchant prosented innseif, when, to his great chagrin, the koorgeen was produced. It had not been opened, and much to the crafty man's annoyance, this was now done by the authorities; when, instead of the sun he had sworn to, the articles it con- tained were found not to exceed a few yambos in value. A circumstantial detail of the whole affair was transmitted to Peking, and the emperor decided it to be for the benefit of his exchequer, and the moral good of his subjects, that the admission into the country of barbarous and unprincipled foreigners should forthwith be prohibited. This may, or it may not, have been the case; but from the story, we learn the high estimation in which the Chinese cha- racter is held among those most intimate with them." Page 280).

One more short extract is all that our limits will allow us to bor- row from the personal narrative before us: it is a notice of a Jewish traveler- -a Russian by birth. Our author is speaking of those who

had visited Yárkand.

66

·All our visitors spoke in high terms of Yárkand, and appeared delighted with its climate, and its inhabitants. They expatiated on the peculiarities of the Chinese, and the contrast which they exhibit when compared with other nations. Many accounts of their customs and habits, winch 1 received when at Jerm, were afterwards confirmed by a traveling Jew, who had tried, but failed, to accomplish a journey through their territories. This man was a Russian by birth, and had been for many years a traveler in the countries bordering the Caspian and the lake of Aral. Hearing that records of tire missing tribes were to be obtained in Kashmir, or Tibet, he was journeying thither when my múnshí, Gholam Hussein fell in with him at Balkh. This man's original plan was, to penetrate by the ruote of Kokan, Kashgar, and Yárkand; but, though skilled in the various languages of central Asia, and conforming to the dress and habits of its people, the cunning of his nation was no match for the honest, zeal with which the public functionaries of Kashgar executed the orders of their emperor. Suspicion attached to his character; and after proceeding as far as that town, he was forced to retrace his steps. A large guard, he said, was stationed in a tower above the city gate, from which all caravans could be seen, while yet distant.

Before they are permitted to enter the city, each individual is strictly examined; their personal appearance is noted down in writing, and it any are suspected, an artist is at hand to take their likenesses. Interpreters for every current dialect are also present. To each of the persons subjected to this vexations investigation the Chinese make a present of a few tangas (or copper cash). The Jew traveler mentioned a singular, and I should infer, an efficient pushiment for the crime of theft, inflicted in the Chinese cities through which he had passed. The critninal is not incarcerated, but made to walk the street with a clog attached to his feet, or a wooden coilar suspended about ins neck. of a size, and for a time, proportional to the offeneo " Page

148

Official Reports of Capture of Amoy.

MARCH,

ART. IV. Capture of Amoy: Official Reports of their excellencies, the military and naval commanders-in-chief, lt.-general sir Hugh Gough, G. C. B., and rear-admiral sir William Parker, к. c. ". Published by cominand of the governor-general at Calcutta.

        Head-quarters, ship Marion, Amoy Harbor, Sept. 5th, 1841. To the Rt.-hon. the Earl of Auckland, G. c. B.,

Governor-general, &c., &c.

}

 MY LORD,-I am happy to be enabled to report to your lordship the complete success of the operation against Amoy with very trifling loss-my anticipations in regard to the enemy have been fully realized, but I did not calculate on so fee- ble a resistance.

 1. The expedition left Hongkong on Saturday, the 21st August, but in conse- quence of light winds, the fleet did not clear the Lemma passage until Monday the 23d, and on the evening of the 25th we arrived in the outward anchorage of Amoy, a few shots only having been fired, as we were running through a chain of islands, which form the mouth of this anchorage, and most of which the Chinese had fortified. As it was blowing very fresh, I could not get on board the flag ship until the following morning, when I accompanied their excellencies sir Henry Pot- tinger and admiral sir William Parker, in the Phlegethon steamer, to reconnoitre the defences, with a view to the commencement of immediate operations. The enemy allowed us to do so without firing a shot, and the plan of attack wasat once decided upon, a summons having been previously sent in requiring the surrender of the town and island of Amoy to her majesty's forces.

 2. The enemy's defences were evidently of great strength, and the country by nature difficult of access. Every island, every protecting headland, from whence guns could hear upon the harbor, was occupied and strongly armed. Commencing from the point of entrance, into the Inner harbor on the Amoy side, the principal sea-line of defence, after a succession of batteries and bastions in front of the out. er town, extended for upwards of a mile in one continuous battery of stone, with embrasures roofed by large slabs, thickly covered with clods of earth, so as to form a sort of casement, and afford perfect shelter to the men in working thir guns. Between some of the embrasures were embankments to protect the masonry, and 96 guns were mounted in this work, which terminated in a castellated wall, con- necting it with a range of precipitous rocky heights, that run nearly parallel to the beach at a distance varying from one fourth to half a mile. Several smaller works were apparent at intervals amid the rocks.

 3. The entrance to the Inner harbor is by a chanuel about 600 yards across be- tween Amoy and the island of Kúláng sú, upon which several strong batteries were visible, and some of those flanked the sea-line and stone battery. It ap- peared expedient therefore to make a simultaneous attack on these prominent lines of defence.

 4. It was proposed that the two line-of-battle ships with the two large steamers, should attack the sea defences on the island of Amoy nearest the town, and that some of the smaller vessels of war should open their fire to protect the landing of the troops, which was to be effected below the angle formed by the junction of

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the castellated wall with the sea-line, while the remaining vessels should engage

several flanking batteries that extended byond these works.

5. At the same, the two heavy frigates and the Modeste were to run in and open their fire upon the works of Kúláng sú, where I instructed major Johnstone, with a company of artillery, and the three companics of the 26th regiment, support- ed by 170 marines under major Ellis, to land in a small bay to the left of the bat- teries, which they were to take in reverse.

6. About hast past one o'clock, the attack commenced, the enemy having pre- viously fired at the ships as they proceeded to their statious. Sir William Parker will no doubt communicate to your lordship, the very conspicuous part taken by her ma. jesty's ships on this occasion. From the difficulty of getting the boats collected in tow of the steamers, the troops did not land quite so soon as I could have wish- ed, notwithstanding the judicious arrangements of captain Giffard of H. M. sloop Cruizer, who conducted the disembarkation. The 18th and 49th regiments however landed about 3 o'clock, with very little opposition. The former regiment I directed to escalade the castellated wall, while the 49th were to move along the beach and get over the sea face, or through the embrasures. These two operations were performed to my entire satisfaction, and the greater part of these corps were soon in position within the works, and rapidly moved along the whole line of sea- defence, the enemy flying before them. Upon reaching the outskirts of the onter town, they were joined by a party of marines and seamen, whom sir Willian Parker had most judiciously landed in support, and whom I directed to occupy a rocky hill in our front in the neighborhood of which firing was still heard. This duty was promptly and ably performed by empt. Fletcher, of H. M. S. Wellesley, and captain Whitcomb of the Royal Marines.

7. While these operations were going on upon the Amoy side, the island of Ku- làng sú was ably attacked by the frigates, and the troops landed. Major Ellis, with some of the marines and Cameronians who first landed, climbed up the rucks to the left of the easternmost baŭery, and, gallantly driving the enemy from the works on the heights, which were defended with some spirit, continued his progress to the north side of the istand, while major Johastone, who closely followed up with the rest of the troops, proceeded across ?! tad carried the remaining works, thus putting us in possession of this very important position. Major Johnstone reports that brevet-captain Grigg had an opportunity of distinguishing himself in driving a Jarge body of the enemy from a battery, upon which he came unexpectedly with a detachment of 12 men.

8. On Amoy, a chain of steep rocky hills running from the range already men- tioned, transversely to the beach, still intercepted our view of the city, though the outer town lay beneath my advanced post. The guns having been landed by the exertions of the Artillery and Sappers, and brought on far enough for support, had a strong force opposed our advance, I decided upon forcing the position in my front ̧ which appeared extremely strong, and well calculated to be held during the night. Having made the necessary disposition, I directed the 18th regiment to advance up a precipitous gorge, where the enemy had two small works, while the 49th were to pass through the outer town by the road to the same hills, extending their left, after gaining the pass, to the works above the breach, so as to open communication with the shipping. This movement was also executed with spirit, the enemy merely firing off their guns and flying; and at dusk, I found myself in position close above the city, and perfectly commanding it.

150

Offeral Reports of Capture of Amoy

March

 9. Owing to the boisterous state of the weather, and the delay in the return of the steamers, the 55th regiment had not yet landed, but this was effected at daylight the following morning, I regret to say not without loss, a boat having been swamp- ed, and 5 men aufortunately drowned. Thus reinforced, I pushed strong parties of the 18th and 49th regiments down to the outskirts of the city, in the northeastern quarter of which, upon irregularly rising ground, and closely surrounded by dense mass of buildings, appeared the walled town or citadel. Having carefully reconnoitered the place, I satisfied myself that, although there was a concourse of people passing and repassing at the northern gate, the walls were not manned; 1 therefore thought it advisable to take advantage of the prevailing panic, and having sent a sinali party with captain Cutton, the commanding engineer, to' reconnoître the approach to the eastern gate, which he promptly effected, I directed, upon his return, the 18th to advance, having the 49th in support, and the 55th in reserve. The advanced party of the 18th escaladed the wall by the aid of ladders found on the spot, and opened the castern gate, which was barred and barricaded from with- in by sacks filled with earth and stones. The remainder of the regiment passed through it and manned the other gates, the enemy having previously abandoned the place, leaving it in possession of the mob, which had already begun to plunder the public establishments.

 10. I occupied the citadel with the 18th and Sappers, placing the 49th regi- ment in an extensive building without the public office of the intendant of circuit. from whence they could give protection to the northern suburb and command the communication to the interior by the only road on this side the island. The Artil- lery, I placed in a commanding position upon the top of the pass between the city and the outer town, with the 55th in support, occupying a range of public buildings, in which the sub-prefect of Amoy held his court.

 11. Amoy is a principal third class city of China, and from its excellent harbor and situation appears to be well calculated for commerce. The outer town is divided from the chain of rocks I have mentioned, over which a paved road leads through a pass, that has a covered gateway at its summit. The outer harbor skirts the outer town, while the city is bounded in nearly its whole length by the Inner harbor and an estuary, which deeply indent the island. Including the onter town and the northeastern suburb, the city cannot be much less than ten miles in circumference; and that of the citadel, which entirely commands this suburb. and the inner town, though commanded itself by the hills within shot range, is nearly one mile. The walls are castellated, and vary with the inequality of the ground from 20 to 30 feet in height; and there are four gates, each having, in an outwork, a second or exterior gate at right angles to the inner gate. The citadel contained five arsenals, in which we found a large quantity of powder, with store of materials for making it; ginjals, wall-pieces, matchlocks, and a variety of fire. arms of singular construction; military clothing, swords of all descriptions. Shields, bows and arrows, and spears, were also in such quantity, as to lead to the conclu- sion, that these must have been the chief magazines of the province. Within the sea-defences first taken, there was a foundry, with moulds and material for casting heavy ordnance.

 12. All these bave been destroyed, and this so much occupied my time, consider- ing too how much the troops were harassed by patroles to keep off Chinese plun- derers, and by other duties incident to the peculiarity of our situation, that I aban- doned my intention of visting the interior of the island. Thes plunderers flocked

1842.

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Official Reports of Capture of Amoy.

151

into the city and suburbs, to the extent, as the Chinese themselves reported, ot many thousands, and I regret to say, that several gangs penetrated into the citadel and committed much devastation. Indeed with the prospect of leaving Amoy so I doubt that our marching through the island might rather have frighten- ed away the peaceable householders, and led to further plunder by the mob, than have been of any advantage. Such indeed was the audacity of these mis- creants, that I was in some cases obliged to fire, in order to disperse them; but I am glad to say but little loss of life occurred.

13. I am most happy to be enabled to state that the conduct of the troops has been excmplary; some instances of misconduct have no doubt occurred; but when it is considered that they were in the midst of temptation, many of the houses being open with valuable property strewed about, and many shops in every street deserted, but full of samshoo-it is matter of great satisfaction that these instances were so few.

14. During our stay upon the island. I did all in my power to prevail upon the respectable merchants and householders, who had so much at stake, to aid me in protecting property, which they readily promised-but their apprehension of appearing to be on friendly terms with us was so great, that I could obtain no effectual assistance from thein, and was unable even to get a Chinese to remain with the guards at the gates, and point out the real owners of houses within the citadel, for the purpose of granting them free egress and ingress.

15. Our departure being determined upon, I could take no measures for per- manent occupation, and as the wind was strong against us, we were kept on shore four days in a state of constant watchfulness, until yesterday at half past 2 P. M.. when the preconcerted signal for embarkation was given by the admiral. By half past G, every soldier and every follower had been embarked (without a single instance of inebriety occurring) on board the steamers, which transferred the troops ou board their respective transports during the night.

16. The three companies of the 26th regiment have remained upon the island of Kú láng sú, which her majesty's plenipotentiary has determined to hold for the present-and I have strengthened major Johnstone, who is in command, with a wing of the 18th regiment and a small detachment of artillery. This little force amounting to 550 men, will, I trust, together with the ships of war also left behind, be sufficient to hold this small but important possession.

17. To the commanding officers of corps and detachments, lieut.-col. Craigie, 55th regiment; lieut.-col. Morris, 49th regiment; and lieut.-col. Adams, 18th regi- ment; major Johnstone, 26th regiinent; major Ellis, royal marines; capt. Knowles, royal artillery; capt. Anstruther, Madras artillery, and capt. Cotton, commanding engineers, my best thanks are due; and I have received the most cordial and active support from the officers of the general and my personal staff, lieut.-col. Mountain, deputy adjutant-general, capt. Gough, acting deputy quarter master- general, major Hawkins, deputy commissary-general, Dr. French, superintending surgeon, and lieut. Gabbett, any aid-de-camp.

18. I cannot too strongly express to your lordship, in conclusion, my sense of obligation to his excellency rear-admiral sir William Parker, for his ready sup- port and judicious arrangements upon every occasion, as well as for having given me, at the disembarkation and embarkation, and during the whole period of our stay at Amoy, the able assistance of capt. Giffard, to whom my best thanks are duo

152

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19. I have the honor to inclose a list of ordnance captured, and a return of the wounded on our side upon the 26th ultimo, and have no means of correctly estimating the killed and wounded of the enemy, but it must have been severe, and we know that several mandarins were amongst the former.

I have the honor to be, my lord,

(Signed)

Your lordship's most obedient humble sernant, H. Gougн, major-general, commanding expeditionary force.

[INCLOSURE. ]

Return of ordnance mounted on the defences at Amoy, when stormed and captured on the 26th August, 1841.

Island of Amoy,

211

Island of Kúláng sú,

-

76

Total mounted,

343

Batteries on S. W. side of bay, 41

Little Gouve,

15

S

Guns not mounted,

157

Grand Total,

500

(Signed)

J. KNOWLES, captain, Royal Artillery.

N. B. Fifty pieces of ordnance of small calibre captured in the citadel, not included in the above. (Signed) A. S. H. Mountain, Lt.-col., D. A. G. Expeditionary force, Head-quarters, Amoy castle, 1st Sep., 1841. Return of killed and wounded of the force under the command of major-gene- ral sir Hugh Gough, K. c/B.. &c., on the 26th of August, 1841, at the capture of the batteries, heights, city, and citadel of Amoy.

18th Royal Irish regiment, rank and file wounded 2 49th regiment,

(Signed)

7

""

Total wounded

9

A. S. H. Mountain, Lt.-col., D. A G.

Major-general sir Hugh Gough, K. C. R., commander-in-chief,

Wellesley, in the bay of Amoy, 31st August, 1841.

To the Rt. Hon. the Earl of Auckland, G. c. n.. &c., &c., &c.

MY LORD-It is with much gratification that I have the honor of announcing to your lordship, the capture of the city of Amoy, and the island of Kúláng sú, (which forms the wast side of the harbor,) together with their strong lines of batterics and sca defences matmung above 223 guns, by the combined forces of her ma. jesty, afjár a hort, but vigorous attack, on the 26th instant, with very trifling loss on our pari.

The expedition, comprising the ships of war hereafter named, and 21 transports containing the land forces, military and victualing stores, &c., under the coin. mand of his excellency major-general sir Hugh Gough, sailed from the anchorage at Hongkong on the 21st, and fortunately arrived off the islands at the entrance of Amoy by sunset on the 25th; it was then beginning to blow strong, but favored by a fair wind, and good moonlight, with the advantage of the local knowledge of cap- tain Bourchier of the Blonde, the fleet were pushed into the bay, and anchored in security for the night. A few shots were discharged at her majesty's ships as they passed between the fortified islands, but no mischief was done. It blew too hard during the night to admit of any boats leaving the ships to sound, or make obser- vations; but no time was lost after daylight in reconnoitering the Chinese positions, in which the general, and sir Henry Pottinger did me the favor to accompany me, in the Phlegethon steam vessel.

1842.

Official Reports of Capture of Amoy.

153

      We found the batteries and works of defence on the entire sca face, strength. ened by every means that the art of these active people could devise; presenting a succession of batteries and outworks, from the extreme outward points of this ex- tensive bay, until within about three quarters of a mile of the entrance of the bar- bor, where a high barrier wall was constructed from the foot of a steep and rocky mountain, to a sandy beach on the sea; and from this latter point, a strong casemat. ed work of granite, faced with occasional small bastions with parapets of stone, to afford flanking defences, was continued to the very suburbs and entrance of the harbor, from whence were masked batteries with sand bags, until opposite the northeastern point of Kúláng sú island, altogether 152 guns. On the island of Kúláng sú, which is the key of Amoy, strong batteries, mounting in all 76 guns, were also placed in every commanding position for flanking the approach to the harbor (which is scarcely half a mile wide at the entrance), and protecting the accessible points of landing.

As it was of the utmost importance with a view to ulterior operations, and the ad- vanced period of the present monsoon, that we should be delayed as short a time as possible at Amoy, it was determined that the batteries within the barrier wall, and on the island of Kúláng sú, should be immediately attacked by the squadron, and the troops landed within the barrier as soon as it might be practicable to take the batterics in the rear; for this object the Wellesley and Blenheim were ordered to anchor against the strongest batteries on Amoy, and as near the entrance of the harbor as possible, leaving the Cruizer, Pylades, Columbine, and Algerine, to engage the extreme point of the line, and cover the landing of the troops, flanked by the heavy guns of the Scsostris and Queen steam vessels; the Phlegethon and Nem- csis being appointed to receive the troops, and tow in the boats for landing them. The attack of the island of Kúláng sũ, where we had reason to apprehend the water was shoaler, was assigned to captain Bourchier of the Blonde with the Druid and Modesto, 150 marines under captain Ellis, and a detachment of the 26th regiment under major Johnston. Pending the necessary preparations for disembarking the troops, and mɔving the ships into their appointed positions, a communication was received from the shore, requesting to know the object of our visit, to which the answer No. 1 was returned. About a quarter past onc, a steady and favorable breeze having set in, the squadron weighed and proceeded to their stations. The Scsostris being the most advanced received a heavy fire before any return was made; she was soon joined by the Queen, and both commenced action with good effect. The Wellesley and Blenheim, after ranging along the line of works on Amoy under a smart fire, were anchored by the stern about half-past 2 r. M., admirably placed by captains Maitland and Herbert in 40 fathoms water, within 400 yards of the prin. cipal battery, precisely in the position allotted them: and the Cruizer, Pylades, Co- lumbine, and Algerine, took their stations with equal judgment. The Blonde, Druid, and Modeste reached their positions against the batteries on Kúláng sú, a few minutes earlier, but their captains found such difficulty from the shallowness of thic water in placing them satisfactorily, that, to effect this object they very spiritedly carried their ships into almost their own draft. The Bentinck had been appointed to sound the channel ahead of the Wollesley as we ran in, which lieutenant Collin. son very skillfully performed, and then gallantly anchored the brig within the entrance of the harbor, where she was joined by the Sesostris, which was placed by captain Ormsby, in a very judicious situation for relieving her, and the other shups from a flanking fire. The tire of the Chinese soon slackered under the ex

VOL. XI. NO. III

20

151

Official Reports of Capture of Amoy.

MARCH,

cellent gun practice of the squadron. At half past 3, 1 had the satisfaction of see- ing the marines and 26th regiment land on the island of Kúláng sfi, and the British colors planted on the batteries. The Modeste and Blonde then weighed and stood into the Inner harbor, and after silencing as they passed the town batteries which were out of our reach, they anchored completely inside, and abreast of the city, taking possession of 26 war junks, with 128 guns on board, in a state of prepa- ration for sca, but deserted by their crews.

WELLESLEY.

Act. licut. Carmichael, Lt. White, royal ınar. Lord A. W. Beauclerk,

S. S. L. Crofton,

About the same time, the first division of troops was landed under the able direc- tion of commander Giffard of the Cruizer; and headed by their gallant general sir Hugh Gough, escaladed and took possession of the works, at the Barrier wall. An outwork beyond this point, (which had been previously silenced,) was also entered, and the British colors hoisted by the crew of a boat from the Phlegethon : and the batteries immediately opposite the Wellesley and Blenheim being nearly demolished, a party of seamen and marines were landed from those ships L. G. Halsted, Mates, muder the command of commander Fletcher and the of W. F. F. Jackson, ficers named in the margin; by whom the Chinese who Midshipman, had taken shelter in adjoining buildings were put to flight, Blenheim, Capt. Whitcomb, R. M.

         after discharging their matchlocks, and possession taken R. C. Revern,

         of the works. The general having cleared the interne T. A. St. Leger, Mates, dinte space of such of the Chinese as remained, pushed forward, and occupied the heights immediately above the town for the night; every point being thus completely in our power. In detailing this service to your lordship, I have the highest satisfaction in reporting the gallantry, zeal, and energy, which has been manifested by every officer and man of her majesty's navy and royal marines, as well as those of the Indian navy under my cominand; they have vied with each other in the desire to anticipate and meet every object for the public service, and are fully entitled to my best acknowledgments; and the favorable consideration of the Board of Adiniralty and the Indian government. I have no less pleasure in witnessing the anxiety which pervades all ranks, to go hand in hand with our gallant companions of the army. His excellency sir Henry Pottinger and suite were with me on board the Wellesley during the operations of the 26th.

Captain Bourchier's own report will best describe the proceedings of the little squadron placed under his orders for the attack of Kúláng sú, which was admirably executed, and I can only add my meed of praise on this additional instance of the gallantry of captain Ellis, and the officers and men of the royal marines under his command, as well as of major Jolm. ston, and the detachment of the 26th acting with them.* The accounts we have

Inclosure,

No. 2.

* An officer of one of the regiments, writing to the editor of the Calcutta Courier, thus briefly describes the island of Kú1⁄4áng sú:

"The island of Káláng sú is of an irregular oval form, stretching east and west, or nearly in such direction; it is about 2 miles long and twice that distance in cireum. ference. It consists of a mass of granite, which protrudes to a great height in seve. ral places in the form of immense rounded blocks. Among the rocks, under their shelter, were discovered a number of stone jars, with covers luted on.

These jars contained perfect human skeletons disarticulated, cach bone carefully packed and numbered or marked with red paint. The island is naturally barren, but most ex. cellent water abounds at a few fect from the surface, a circumstance which Chinese industry has taken advantage of in every situation at all suited for any kind of eul. tivation. The sweet potato and a sort of dhall are the principal products. In the

1842.

Official Reports of Capturi, of Amoy.

159

received of the force of the Chinese for the defence of Amoy, vary from 5,000 to 10,000 troops; and it is with sincere pleasure I am enabled to transmit your lordship so small a list of casualties amongst the crews, and the masts and rigging of the squadron. The resistance made by our opponents would have justified the apprehension of greater injury. Under the protection of their well constructed casemated works, they stood on soine points firmly to their guns. We have no knowledge of their actual loss, inore than 60 dead bodies were I believe found in the batteries; but nearly all the wounded, and many of the slain, were carried off by their countrymen. His excellency the commander of the forces will probably givo your lordship an account of the munitions of war and government stores which have fallen into our hands, including a large quantity of gunpowder, and a foundry for cannon, where some guns of very large calibre, newly cast, have been

discovered.

   We have been constantly employed in destroying the guns; and as far as it has been practicable the batteries taken on the 26th. The last two days, cominander Fletcher with a party of seamen and marines has been also detached in the Nemesis, and with very commendable zeal, has completely disabled the northeast and southwest sides of the bay; and the fortified islands at the entrance, of which your lordship will find official returns inclosed. The superiority of the bay and Inner harbor of Amoy has much exceeded our expectations. The anchorage in the former appears excellent; and the latter, as far as our hasty surveys have gone, affords perfect security for ships of any class and to a great extent, with a reasonable prospect of proving a healthy situation. Sir Hugh Gough and myself have therefore entirely concurred with his excellency sir Henry Pottinger, in the expediency of retaining possession of the island of Kúláng sú, which will at any time give us the command of Amoy, until your lordship's wishes, or the pleasure of her majesty's government is known. For this purpose, a sufficient garrison will be placed on the island by the general, and I propose to leave captain Sinith of the Druid, with the Pylades and Algerine for their support.

   The wind is unfortunately at present adverse, but your lordship may be assured that the expedition will proceed to the northward the moment it is practicable in the further execution of our instructions. I have the honor to be,

My lord,

Your lordship's most obedient servant, W. PARKER, Rear admiral.

[INCLOSURE No. 1.]

On board H. M. S. Wellesley, Off Amoy, Aug. 26th, 1841.

To his excellency the admiral, commanding in chief

of the naval forces of the province of Fukien.

}

   The undersigned, sir Heury Pottinger, bart., her Britannic majesty's plenipoten- tiary, sir William Parker, commanding in chief the naval forces, and sir Hugh Gough, commanding in chief the land forces of the British nation in these parts.

   There being certain differences subsisting between the two nations of Great Britain and China, which have not been cleared up, the undersigned plenipoten-

villages, of which there are five, two of them large, trees are to be seen preserved apparently for the shade which they afford. The guava flourishes in the gardens, and the vine trained over trellis, is occasionally met with.

44

    In the maps, the city of Amoy is placed on a kind of blind passage creck, but the fact is very different ; it occupies the whole breadth of the northern extremity of the island of the same name, round which there is apparently a passage, so that large

156

Official Reports of Capture of Amoy.

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tiary, and the commanders-in-chief have received the instructions of their so. vereign, that unless these be completely removed, and secure arrangements made, by accession to the demands last year presented at Tientsin, they shall regard it as their duty to resort to hostile measures for the enforcement of those demands. But the undersigned plenipotentiary and commanders-in-chief moved by compassionate feelings, are averse to causing the death of so many officers and soldiers as must perish, and urgently request the admiral commanding in chief in this province forthwith to deliver the town and all the fortifications of Amoy into the hands of the British forces, to be held for the present by them. Upon his so doing, all the officers and troops therein will be allowed to retire with their personal arms and baggage, and the people shall receive no hurt: and whenever these difficulties shall be settled, and the demands of Great Britain fully granted, the whole shall be restored to the hands of the Chinese.

If these terms be acceded to, let a white flag be displayed from the fortifications. HENRY POTTINGER, her majesty's plenipotentiary.

(Signed)

His excellency rear-admiral

William ParKER,-rear admira).

HUGH GOUGH,-major general.

[INCLOSURE, No. 2.]

E. I. station, H. M. S. Blonde, Inner Harbor of Amoy, 27th Aug., 1841.

Sir William Parker, K. C. B., commander-in-chief, &c., &c.

SIR,-The operations of the force you did me the honor to place under my com- mand for the attack of the island of Kúláng sú, were so immediately under your observation, that little remains to me beyond the agreeable duty of bringing to your excellency's notice the admirable conduct of every officer and man I had the honor to command. The squadron was led into action by captain Eyres, com- manding her majesty's sloop Modeste, with the most perfect skill and gallantry; the Blonde and Druid followed, and were placed as near as the shoalness of the water would admit to the three principal batteries, which they succceded in silenc- ing after a fire of one hour and twenty minutes, when the marines, under the gallant captain Ellis were landed, and carried the heights with their accustomed bravery. The distance of the transports prevented the 26th Cameronian regiment from being on shore at the same moment with the marines, but they were prompt- ly after them; and the detachment of that distinguished corps, under major Johnston, assisted in clearing the remaining batteries, and dispersing the enemy. From captain Smith of H. M. ship Druid, I received the most able support ; that ship was placed with excellent judgment, and her conduct such as was to be ex- pected from her high state of discipline. This island being now completely in our possession, I left the Druid to protect it; and pushed the Modeste and Blonde into the Inner harbor, silencing their war junks and batterics on the opposite shore as we passed; and I have herewith the honor to inclose a return of the vessels cap- tured, and ordnance destroyed. The officers and crew of this ship merit my highest praise, as well as the party of royal artillery serving on board under the command of lieutenant, the honorable R. E. Spencer. I should be wanting in justice were

vessels can anchor off those parts of the town near the water. The Blonde, Modesto, Pylades, and a steamer, anchored off the town on the night after the action, and are still lying there in 10 fins. water-naval men consider the harbor of Amoy to be much super.or to that of Hongkong." Cal Cour. Nov. 24th, 1841.

1842.

A Chinese Chrestomathy.

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I to close this letter without bringing to your notice the merits of lieutenant sir Frederick Nicolson, first of the ship, to whose valuable assistance I am much in- debted, and I must also beg to name to your excellency the senior mates of this ship, Messrs. Walker, Rolland, and Anderson, young officers of much promise. I have great pleasure in adding that the service was performed without loss of life on our part, although the ships have suffered considerable in their masts, sails and rigging. The captains of the Druid and Modeste speak in the highest terms of their officers and ships' companies. I inclose the report of captain Ellis of the royal marines.

(Signed) T. Bourchier,-captain.

Inclosure in Capt. Bourchier's letter.

To Capt. Bourchier, R. N.,

H. M. S. Blonde,

Military quarters, Royal Marincs, Island of

Kúláng sú near Amoy, 27th Aug., 1841.

SIR-Having yesterday received your directions to land from her majesty's ships Blonde and Druid, under your orders, the detachments of royal marines, of the

Wellesley,

      ships named in the margin, and drive the enemy from the strong Blenheim, battery of Kúláng sú you had previously engaged, I have the honor Blonde,

       to acquaint you, for the information of rear-admiral sir William Druid,

       Parker, ¡K. c. ■., commander-in-chief, that, in furtherance of that Modeste,

object, I landed with them on a sandy beach to the right of the battery; and after some difficulty in climbing rocks and other impediments, succeeded in gaining the ridge, and the flank of the Chinese position. The enemy, before we had gained the level, opposed us courageously, attacking us with matchlocks, spears, and stones, but we soon drove them before us, cleared the battery, and dispersed them; the garrison retreating to the rear, many of whom offected their escape by boats on the beach to Amoy opposite; several men were killed in and about the battery. In following the retreating party (some of whom also were wounded), I made a detour of this large and populous island, and discovered at its western extremity a sand-bag battery of 9 guns, and a few gin. jals; they were all loaded but did not appear to have been recently discharged: no other armed party of the enemy was fallen in with. I am happy to add that in these operations no casualty happened to the detachment I have the honor to command; moreover, I have great pride in reporting to you, that all the officers, rank and file, throughout the day, conducted themselves individually, as well as collectively, with a courage, zcal, and perseverance far beyond my power to ex- press.

(Signed) J. B. ELLIS,-captain, royal marines.

ART. V. A Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect. By E. C. Bridgman. Macao, S. Wells Williams. 1841. Super-royal octavo, pp. 728.

FROM us our readers cannot expect a review of this Chrestomathy ; they will, however, surely excuse our giving a brief account of what

-

A Chinese Chrestomathy

MARCH,

the work is provided that, in so doing, the occasion be improved renewedly to draw attention to the study of the Chinese language. An officer, connected with the present expedition to China, coming suddenly one day in contact with a body of the people, was heard to exclaim-in imitation of Richard when sorely pressed for a horse-

An interpreter! An interpreter !

My regiment for an interpreter !

During the long intercourse which has existed between foreigners and the Chinese, immense damages, and even the loss of human life, have no doubt been caused by their mutual ignorance of each other's speech. Half a century ago it was difficult to find any man who could speak both English and Chinese. When Macartnay's embassy was about to leave the shores of Britain, in 1792,

                           " one office was still vacant, which was as necessary, as it was difficult to fill up-that of Chinese interpreter-and translator: no man capable of that employ- ment, then existed throughout the British dominions." Four Chi- nese secretaries' were attached to the embassy of lord Amherst in 1816: viz. "F. Hastings Toone, esq.; J. F. Davis, esq.; Thomas Manning, esq.; and Rev. Robert (the late Dr.) Morrison." At pre- sent there are connected with the British authorities in China the fol- lowing gentlemen; John Robert Morrison, esq.; Rev. Charles Gutz- laff; Robert Thom, G. Tradescant Lay, Samuel Fearon, and Wal- ter H. Medhurst, junior, esquires. No foreigner living has enjoy ed better opportunities for obtaining a knowledge of Chinese than the son of Dr. Morrison; and the office he has long held and now holds, as Chinese secretary and interpreter, is good evidence of the high estimation in which his acquirements are held by those best able to appreciate the same. In August, 1831, immediately after the death of his father, he was appointed to this office, one of no ordi- nary difficulty and responsibility, and the constant and faithful dis- charge of its duties justly claims, we think, some honorable acknow- ledgment from the government of his country, in these its palmy days. of honors. Of Mr. Gutzlaff's acquireinents, as a Chinese scholar, it is unnecessary for us to say one word: his writings are his truest and best testimonials. It reflects much honor on both Mr. Thom and Mr. Fearon, that they gained nearly all their knowledge of this lan- guage, while engaged in commercial and other business, and since they entered on the offices they now hold; and the success of these gentlemen may be held up for others-an example worthy alike of commendation and imitation. As a general linguist, and naturalist, Mr. Lay has earned for himself a good reputation : the field here before

1842.

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him-acting in either of these capacities-is broad and rich enough to gratify his highest anticipations; and both he and his friends will be disappointed if his labors here are not distinguished beyond those of most men who have to earn their bread and their honors in forci¿n lands.-A reference to the last number, page 114, will show the read. er how Mr. Morrison, and the others connected with the British government, are now employed.

    Besides these gentlemen-and we beg they will excuse our passing notices of them as sinologues-the names of several others deserve to be mentioned. The Rev. Walter II. Medhurst-whose son we have mentioned above, emulons of his father-is the author of a Chinese dictionary of the Fukien dialect; of China, its State and Prospects; &c. lle commenced the study of the Chinese language, we think, in 1816; and his acquisitions, in this department of learning are such (taking them all in all) as to make him second to no foreigner now living. Mr. Medhurst still continues the study of the language at Batavia, and is at present employed in preparing and printing a new dictionary of this language. He has written much in Chinese, and has labored long on the revision of the Bible in this language.

With Mr. Dyer, formerly of Penang, who has recently returned from a visit to Europe, we have no personal acquaintance, nor have we with but few of the many who are now engaged in studying Chi- nese at the Straits of Malacca and in Siam. Mr. Dyer has been much and very successfully employed in manufacturing Chinese me- tallic types, and his knowledge of the language, we suppose, is second only to that of Mr. Medhurst. The Rev. A. Stronach, now at Pe- nang, has not been long engaged in the study. So with others, at Malacca, Singapore, Batavia, Bangkok, &c. In addition to his at- tention to the study of the language, Mr. Stronach has taught a school of Chinese boys, a report of which he has kindly sent to us, and we shall take an early opportunity to lay the same before our readers.

At Malacca, the Rev. James Legge, n. D., now at the head of the Anglo-Chinese college there, has been about two years engaged in studying the Chinese language, and for a part of the time directing the education of the students in the college. Since Dr. Milne's death at Malacca about twenty years ago, that school and the others about it have not enjoyed the degree of prosperity which that good man so anxiously sought for. As a Chinese scholar, his success was emi- Of his successor, some have returned to Europe : professor Kidd is among this number : others have died. Under the care of

neut.

160

1 Chinese Chrestomathy

MARCH.

the present principal, we hope to see the college soon flourishing and Chinese learning revived. Whether there be any other Europeans at Malacca, besides Dr. Legge, engaged in the study of Chinese, we do not know; nor have we the least acquaintance with, or knowledge of, any of the students who have left the college-excepting that one, who, on his return to China, was appointed many years ago to be in- terpreter at the court of Peking. This man, who reads Latin and English equally bad-being barely able to gain the general import of what is plain and easy-has been on a visit at Canton during the last four years; but the recent disturbances northward have o sioned his recall. He left Canton sometime during the last 1. .0. It was said that he would probably be retained by Yiking, the im- perial commissioner in Chekiáng. Shaute, (for this is the name by which the man of whom we have been writing is best known to foreigners,) when at Peking, used to be employed in carrying on communication with the Russians resident there; and it is not im- probable that his services inay now be required for the same purpose. At Singapore, a seminary of learning was projected by sir Stamford Raffles, soon after that place became a British settlement; and the cultivation of Chinese literature was to be one of its principal objects. It was not, however, until within a very few years that the " Singa- pore Institution Free School," came into operation. It has published, we believe, seven annual reports the last being that for the year 1840-41. These reports, most of which are noticed in our pages, show that the school is flourishing and doing good; on the score of Chi- nese learning, however, it seems not to have accomplished very much; and in this respect we wish there might be a change in the institu- tion, and the teaching of the Chinese language made more promi- Not long since, his excellency sir Henry Pottinger sent to the British resident at Singapore for interpreters, to join the expedition in China. We fear the number of eligible candidates, at Singapore, Malacca, Penang, and Calcutta-and at all of those places inquiries are to be made-will not be large; nor do we expect that any who may be obtained will possess very distinguished qualifications for their office. As Christian missionaries, a large number of foreigners have studied the Chinese language at Singapore; but the number at present there is small, the Rev. Messrs. Tracy, Wood and Orr being now in America, and the Rev. Messrs. Ball and McBryde in Macao, leaving, so far as we know, only the Rev. J. Stronach and Dr. Hep- burn now there, engaged in this study.

nent.

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A Chinese Chrestomathy.

161

At Bangkok are the Rev. Messrs. Johnson, Dean, Goddard, Peet, and perhaps one or two more.

     At Batavia, besides Mr. Medhurst, there are Mr. Young and a few others who have made more or less proficiency in acquiring the lan- guage of the celestial empire.

On Borneo, are the Rev. Messrs. Doty, Pohlman, and perhaps one or two others, engaged in studying it among the Chinese colonists on the island.

At Rhio, likewise, there is at least one individual, the Rev. Mr. Röttger, who has given some attention to the study of Chinese.

In China, there are, as students in Chinese, the Rev. Messrs. Abeel, Brown, Boone, Bridgmau, Milne, Parker, Roberts, Shuck; and Messrs. Williams, Lockhart, and Hobson. These are all con- nected with the protestant missions. Of those in connection with the Catholic establishments, no one has gained more celebrity than the late Pe. Gonzalves. Mr. Callery, by his new work, "Systema Phoneticum Scripturæ Sinicæ," recently published, will secure for himself a name among those who have written learnedly on this lan- guage; and if the work doos not expose its author to criticism, surely he will be more fortunate than any of his predecessors. To what ex- tent other Catholic missionaries in this country may be acquainted with the Chinese language, we have not the means of knowing. Two or three Portuguese gentlemen, connected with the government of Macao, speak and write the language with much fluency and cor- rectness. Last, but not least in his attainments, must be named the veteran editor of the Canton Register, longer, we believe, a student of Chinese, than any other European in China; and, we think, he is the only gentleman who has prosecuted the study of this language for any considerable length of time without the patronage of government or that of any public institution. Mr. Slade's translations have been very numerous, widely circulated, and often quoted.

Less we

     So much for the students of Chinese now in the east. could not say, and the limits of this article forbid us to go further into detail-for already these desultory remarks have run on to such length, that our notice of the Chrestomathy must be postponed till the next number.

Vol. XI NO. HII

21

162

Topography of Chekrang

MARCH,

ART. VI. Topography of Chekiúng; extent of the province, its population, subdivisions, rivers, lakes, mountains, productions, &c. (Continued from page 109.)

NOTICES of Hángchau, with a description of the department of which it is the chief city, were given in the last number. Before proceed- ing with the description of the other departments, we will here inti- mate the principal native sources from whence our information is derived for it is on these that we chiefly rely for the knowledge we have to communicate. The first authority is the

Chekiáng Tung Chi, a " Complete Historical and Statistical Account of Chekiáng." This is comprised in forty octavo volumes, and was published in the reign of Kánghí. Another authority is the 府廳州縣

Kienlung fú ting chau hien Tú Chi, or Kienlung's Maps and Account of the departments and districts" of the provinces. A third is the, Kin ting Tá Tsing Hui Tien Tú, or "Maps accompanying the Collection of Statutes of the Great Pure dynasty, published by Imperial Authori- ty." In one important particular these maps are more servicable to us than that of Lí Yánghú, noticed on page 46; they present us in detail each of the departments of the empire, separately mapped, with its boundaries and rivers all described. 'The distances of the chief town in each department from Peking, and from the provincial city, are also given.

II. The department of Kiáhing, second to that of Hángchau, is situated north and northeast from it; having Húchau fú on the west; Súchau fú on the north, and Sungkiáng fú (both in Kiángsú) on the northeast and east; and the seacoast on the southeast. Its form is rhomboidal, one of its longest sides being the line of coast, running from the northeast to the southwest, with its shortest sides running north and south. Excepting a few hills near the coast, the whole sur- face of the department is level, and intersected by numerous rivers and canals. One of these hills is Tea hill.

Two of the seven districts, into which the department is divided, have the residences of their chief magistrates at the city of Kiáhing, from which city Kiáshen is situated to the northeast; Pinghú and Háiyen to the east and south; and Shimun and Tunghiảng to the west and northwest. The district of Kiahing includes the castern part of the city of Krahing; and that of Srishni, the western

The

1842.

Topography of Chekiúng.

163

city has four gates, and is surrounded by a ditch filled with water. The chief city in each of the other districts is in like inauner sur- rounded both by a wall and a ditch.

Near the extreme northeast of this department is Chápu, (E

a place of considerable importance, on account of the trade which it carries on with Japan-Chápú being the only port from which Chinese vessels sail to Nagasaki. It is within the district of Pinghú. It has been repeatedly visited by foreign ships, and its fortifications will pro- bably soon be demolished, if they are still standing. For a nautical view of Chápú, see volume X., page 386.

N. B. We hope special pains will be taken, on visiting the place, to purchase and bring off whatever Japanese books and maps may be found there.

Kúnpú, supposed by some authors to be the same Canfu spoken of and described by the Arabian travelers of the ninth century-as noticed in volume III., pages 115-118,-is situated on the coast further to the southwest, in the district of IIáiyen. In one of the old Chinese books, the town is represented as standing on the north bank of a small river, which forms a communication with Hángchau. In an official paper of a recent date, we have seen an allusion to this channel, or to another near it, "as a channel of communication that may be sought out by the rebellious foreigners, and afford them ac- cess to the provincial capital."

III. The department of Húchau is situated due west from Kishing fú, having Hángchau fú on the south, the province of A ́nhwui on the west, and that of Kiángsú on the north. The Tải hú, or Great Jake, lies partly within this department; and hence, perhaps, is de- rived the name Húchau, or Lake-department, i. e., the department of the Lake. The chief town in this department is situated near the southern shore of the lake, and contains the residences of the chief magistrates of the districts Wúching and Kwei'án; these two dis. tricts include the northeast portion of the department. The district of Tetsing is situated so as to form its southeast extreme; Wúháng is on the south; Hiáufung includes the extreme southwest; while A ́nki chau and Chánghing fill up the west and northwest portions.

  IV. The department of Ningpo includes six districts, compris- ing the easternmost parts of the province, which have been oftener visited and are better known by foreigners, than any other places in the empire, north of Canton. It is bounded, on the west by Sháu- hing; on the southwest, by Táichau; and by the sea on the other sides The chief city of this department, Ningpò, stands near its

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Topography of Chekiúng.

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centre on the mainland, at the confluence of two rivers;-one of which runs from the northwest and passes a few miles south of Tsz'- kí, flowing down from Yüyáu; the other comes from the southwest, taking its rise in two different places beyond Funghwa. The magis- trate of the district Kin resides at Ningpd, which is wholly within his jurisdiction. The district of Chinhái, known by the defenses of its chief town, includes the headlands to the northeast of Ningpd. The district of Tsiangshan is situated directly south from Chinhái, and, according to one of our maps, forms a peninsula. Tinghái, both the city and district, with their dependencies, have been described at great length in former volumes. Most of the department of Ning- pò is now under British rule, and the city may again become, at no very distant day, a place of resort for the merchants of Europe. As a place of trade, Ningpò possesses great advantages. The extent of the city is supposed to be, by those who have recently visited it, two thirds that of Canton. Some of those now resident there will, we hope, send us full accounts of both the city and adjacent country. The climate is delightful.

V. The department of Sháuhing is bounded, on the east by Ning- pò; on the south, by the departments of Táichau and Kinhwá; on the west, by that of Yenchau; on the northwest by Hángchau; and by the sea on the north. The two principal districts, Shányin and Hwuiki, have the residences of their magistrates in Sháuhing;-the first district including the western part of the city with the adjacent country; the second, the eastern and its vicinity. It is here, in the district of Hwuiki, that the Chinese point out the grave of the ancient monarch Yü, over which a temple has been erected and made sacred to perpetuate his memory. About midway between Shauhing and Ningpd is the district of Yüyáu with the town of the same name, recently twice visited by the British forces. The com- munication by water is continued from Yüyáu on the westward to Sháuhing, but part of the way it is, apparently, merely a canal. The district of Shangyü is situated west and south from Yüyáu, and the channel of communication, noticed above, passes by its chief town. The district of Sinchang forms the southeast portion of the depart- ment; its chief town is situated on the south bank of a river of the same naine. Descending this river a few miles, towards the north- west, to a point where it is joined by a small stream coming from the southwest and with their united waters flow duc north, you there find the chief town of the district called Shing. From this town the river rnus north to the sea: near its mouth a large Chinese encampment

1842.

Topography of Chekiáng.

165

 has recently been formed, with a view to prevent an advance from Ningpo on the cities of Shauling and Hángchau. The river, near its embouchure, is called Tsáu-ngờ kiáng. Chúkí is near the south- west, and Siáushán near the northwest of the department.

VI. The department of Táichau forms an amphitheatre, opening towards the sea on the east. On the north, it is bounded by Ningpd and Sháuhing; on the west, by Kinhwá; on the southwest, by Chú- chau; and on the south, by Wanchau. The chief town of the depart- ment is the residence of the magistrate of the district Linhái, which occupies a central position in regard to the other districts. That of Taiping is situated at the southeast of the department; the chief town of the district Wángyen stands about midway between Taiping and Liuhái; Sienkü is a little to the southwest, Tientái to the north- west, and Ninghái to the north, from the chief town of the depart-

ment.

  VII. The department of Kinhwá is a rich and beautiful tract of land, if we may form an estimate of its qualities from the name it bears. Literally translated, Kinhwá fú means the region of Golden- flowers or the richly adorned country. It occupies the central por- tion of the province, and includes that region from whence descend the numerous little streams, which joining their accumulated waters glide through a beautiful vale, passing westward, on the south side of the city Kinhwa, to the city Lánkí, where they are met by another river flowing in from the southwest: these two channels united con- stitute the principal river of the province, which rolls its swift current close by the provincial city, and then disembogues some forty or fifty miles to the eastward. It is bounded on the north by Sháuhing; on the east, by Táichau; on the south, by Chúchau; and on the west, by the department of Küchau and Yenchau. The chief city of the department is the residence of the magistrate of the district Kinhwá. Taking Kinhwa for a centre, the chief towns of the other districts form almost a complete circle: Púkiáng being on the north; I wú on the northeast; Tungyáng on the east; Yungháng on the southeast; Wúí on the south; Tángkí on the southwest; and Lánkí on the west. The city of Kinhwa is very irregular in its form, and has eight gates.

VIII. The department of Küchau is bounded on the north by Yenchau; on the east, by Kinhwá; on the southeast by Chúchau; on the south by the province of Fukien; on the southwest by the province of Kiangsí; and on the northwest by A ́nhwui. It comprises that region of country from whence spring the several streams which,

166

Topography of Chekiang

MARCH

after uniting their waters, flow down the valley, towards the east or northeast, till they unite with those which come from the opposite valley, above described, forming the "region of golden flowers." The chief city of the department is the residence of the magistrate of the district Si'án, situated near its eastern side. Between this district and the department of Kinhwá is the district of Lungyáu. Kiáng- shan and Changshán are near the southwest side, and Káihwá is near the northwest side, of the department. Macartney and his suite, on their return from Peking to Canton in 1793, ascended in boats from Hángchau to the town of Changshán, where, says Staunton, "the river ceased entirely to be navigable." The principal observa- tions made by the members of that embassy shall be given in the sequel, when we come to speak of the rivers.

IX. The department of Yenchau is bounded, on the north by Hángchau; on the east by Sháuhing and Kinhwá; on the south by Kiichau; and on the west by the province of A'nhwui. The great river, which is formed by the waters of Kinhwa and Küchau, ap- pears to be the eastern boundary of this department. Its capital city, which is the residence of the magistrate of the district Kiente, stands on the western bank of this river. Directly north, and on the same side of the river, is the chief town of the district Tunglú; the district of Shauching and its chief town are on the south; Sui'án and Shun'án are situated on the southwest; and Fanshui on the north side of the department.

X. The department of Wanchau is of a triangular shape, and oc- cupies the extreme southeast portion of the province, having the sea on the east, Fukien on the south, and the departments of Chúchau and Táichau on its third side. The capital city stands on the south- ern bank of a river, on the northern side of the department, and is the residence of the magistrate of the district Yungkiá; Lótsing in- cludes the mainland on the north; Yu-hwán ting is an insular posi- tion, east of Lotsing; Sui'án and Pingyáng are on the south, and Táishun on the extreme west, of the department. The capital city has two gates on the north side; three on the south; with one each on the east and west side.

XI. The department of Chúchau, one of the largest in the pro- vince, occupies the southwest portion of the province; it is bound- ed by Küchau and Kinhwa on the north; by Táichau on the east ; by Wanchau on the southeast; and by Fukien on the south and west. It is the upper valley from whose surrounding hills, forming almost a setnicircle, spring a dozen rivulets, which descending into

1842

Topography of Chokiang.

167

the low lands umte and from the river Ngau. Upon the north bank of this river, and a little northward from the centre of the depart ment, stands its capital, which is also the residence of the magistrate of the district Lishui. Northeast from this site, is the town and dis- trict of Tsinyun; on the southeast is Tsingtien; on the south and southwest, are Kingning, Yunhò, and Lungtseuen; far beyond them, towards the southwest, is Kingyuen; on the north and northwest, arc Suenping, Sungyáng and Suicháng.

     The eleven departments and seventy-eight districts, into which the province of Chekiáng is divided and subdivided, have now been all enumerated and their situations indicated. On the north are Wúchau, Kihing, and Hángchau; on the east Shauhing, Ningpo, and Tái chau; on the south Wanchau and Chúchau; on the west Küchau and Yenchau; leaving Kinhwá in the centre.

     The rivers of the province are next to be described; in doing this the principal mountains and hills will be named, and the general features of the country indicated. On the maps before us, published by imperial authority, the rivers are drawn with great minuteness and apparent accuracy. They do not, in their number and courses, dif- fer much from those given in Du Halde's work. We intend to follow that published by imperial authority, it being the most recent, and probably the most accurate. According to Du Halde, not one of the numerous rivers takes its rise beyond the boundaries of the province : according to the other map, one does, and only one-the Sin'án kiáng. And only three rivers of Fukien, and one in Kiángsí have branches which take their rise in Chekiáng. Hence the boundary of the province must, for the most part, be formed by elevated ground, from whence the streams flow in each direction. By a glance at the map it will be seen that must of the rivers of Chekiáng flow in an easterly direction.

     In the following list, the principal rivers are indicated by their names being placed the space of one type further to the left of the page than the names of the tributary and lesser streams. The word kiáng usually means a large river, and hò a smaller one; the two, however, are used interchangeably. The word ki generally signifies a rivulet. It sometimes happens that one and the same river is known by two, three, or even more names, different parts of it being named from the hills, vallies, &c., near or through which it passes. Thus the great river of the province, called Tsientáng at Hángchau, is known by se- veral other names in its winding course from the western frontier of the province

168

Topography of Chekiang.

MARCH,

NAMES OF THE PRINCIPAL AND TRIBUTARY RIVERS AND THE LAKES OF CHEKIÁ ́NG.

横陽溪 IIwángyáng kt. 飛雲江 Fiyun kiûng. 百丈溪 Pecháng ki. 莒岡Yking ki. 甌江 Ngau kiáng.

楠溪

會昌河 IIwuicháng hi.

Nan ki.

外卸溪 Waisié ki.

大洋溪 Tayáng ki.

好溪

Háu ki.

Kiêu kí.

Si kí.

姚江

Yêu kiếng.

雨 1 Yung kiing. 東剡溪 Tungyen ki. 北渡江 Petú kiáng. 曹娥江 Tsáu-ngd kiûng. 剡1 Yen kiêng. 新昌港 Sincháng kiáng. 西港

Sí kiáng.

長潭港 Chángtán kiáng. 三豐口 Sán hin kau. 錢塘江 Tsientáng kiüng.

湘湖

Siáng hû.

Tung ki.

大1

Taki

錢请江 Tsientsing kiûng. 東溪

Tung kí.

後 1

Hau ki.

西1

Sí kí.

新河 Sin hò.

泌湖

Pí hu.

落馬港 Lóma kiáng.

椒江 Tsiáu kiáng.

永寧江 Yunguing kiáng. 義成溪 Iching ki. 大溪

Táki.

永安溪 Yungán ki. 馬嶺溪 Maling ki, 大横溪 Tahwáng ki.

白渚1 Pechú ki 石瑜 瑜| Shiyi kt.

浮溪

Fau ki.

大浹江 Tahiáh rang

新江

Sin kiáng.

玉溪 Yusie ki. 浦陽江 Púyáng kiáng. 大橋浦河 Takiáups hd. 富春江 Fúchun kiáng. 東溪

Tung kí.

日東西桐桐紫

桐溪

1

Sí ki.

Tung kiüng.

Tung kí.

Tsz' ki

1842.

柳溪

Liú ki.

Topography of Chekiang

文溪

169

Wan ki.

蘭1

Lán kí.

信安江 Sin'an kiáng.

艾 1

Ngái kí.

金溪

Kin ki.

東溪

Tung kí.

運河 Yun hò.

武強溪 Wúkiáng ks.

1 to 7 tháng tiếng hộ.

龍溪 Lung ki.

下塘河 Hiátáng hò.

龍溪 Siáulung ki.

西湖

Sí hú.

脉溪

Mi ki.

南溪

Nán kí.

Mei kt.

北1

Pe ki.

# 1

Táu ki.

阜1

Fau ki.

熟 1

Shu ki.

封1

Wú háng.

雙溪

Sháng kí.

荆浦溪 Kingpú ki

Fung ki.

東苕溪 Tungchiu ki. 大錢湖 Tatsien hi.

金沙河 Kinshá hò.

東陽江 Tungyáng kiáng.

合溪

Hó ki.

衢港

Kü kiáng.

南1

Nán ki.

筍籜溪 Suntse Ki.

tài ít từ Iwangkí hồ.

桃溪

Táu ki.

苕溪

Cháu kí.

柘上溪 Cheshing ki.

#1

Tung ki.

   Hwángyáng is the first rivulet on the the southern coast; and is formed of two branches, a northern and a southern. On some maps this rivulet is called a kiáng. It flows close by the south side of Pingyáng, and is connected with the river Fiyun, by what scems au artificial channel, running north and south from the town of Ping- yang to that of Sui'án.

   Fiyun rises on the hills of the celestial barrier, called Tienkwán shán, beyond which, a little to the westward, are the golden hills. South of these last, the rivulet Kiáu rises in two branches, and flows southward into Fukien. On this rivulet stands the town Táishun.

The river Ngau, mentioned when describing the department of Chúchau, and its dozen tributary streams, spring from as many dif- ferent mountains and hills. One of its principal tributaries takes its rise on the Little Plumb range, near the southwest of Chúchau

いし

NE FIL

170

Topography of Chekiang

MARCH

fú. Beyond this range, two other rivulets, gushing from the hills, flow south into Fukien. On one of these stands the town Kinyuen.

66

Tábiáh is the next river worthy of notice. This name seems to be applied only to that part of the river which is between Ningpd and Chinhái. One of its principal branches is the Yau, a river of the breadth of the Thames between London and Woolwich, mean- dering through the most fertile vallies, bounded by hills of various forms and heights, and some stupendous mountains. Nothing can be more pleasing and romantic."

The branches of the Tsiungo spring from several ranges of hills on the south of Sháuhing fú.

On the imperial map, instead of Sânhin kau we have Sánkiáng kan, i. c. mouth of the three rivers. This communicates, if we may trust to our maps, dircetly with Sháuhing, and there with other streams, and with Mirror lake or Kien hú. Steamers probably will find their way up both this and the Tsáungò.

The Tsientang is the great river of the province, and the only one known to have been visited by Europeans in modern times, previously to the late expedition. From Hingchau to the sea it has never been examined. Its branches, and the canals that run into it, are very numerous. On one of those which come in from the south, colonel Benson and captain Mackintosh procceded, in small barges, to Yü- yan. A party of gentlemen, going to visit these barges, 'rode round the eastern part of Hángchau city, and over a pleasant plain to the bank of the river. There they mounted wagons, drawn each by Three buffaloes abreast, the wagoner riding on the middle one. Coming to the water they plunged in without hesitation, and proceed- ed till within their depth, when a small boat took the travelers to the opposite side of the river, from whence they went in chairs to the canal about a mile distant.' Captain Mackintosh and the others, as they procceded in their first day's course, passed through a cham- paign country, richly and completely cultivated like the garden grounds near London, though perhaps more fertile. He observed a solid hill of rock, at least three hundred feet high, which was hewn mto plain sides or faces, from whence were cut blocks of any shape or size. "This stupendous rock was in the neighborhood of a large city, to whose best buildings it must have, no doubt, contributed." This city must have been Sháuhing. The grape vine was seen, along the sides of the canal, in great quantities, "cultivated for food," not for wine. In three days the party "arrived at the city of Loo-chung. when they changed then inland barges for punks of about sixty ton-

1842.

Topography of Chekiung

171

burden each." This Loo-chung, we suppose, was the old city of Yüyáu.

Macartney and his suite,-proceeding in flat bottomed barges, sharp fore and aft, about twelve feet broad and seventy long, having cotton sails,-were seven days in reaching Changshán. As they ad. vanced the river soon became contracted, running down through a defile between ranges of high hills, whose sides were indented by deep glens, separated from each other by narrow and paralic! ridges of naked rock. "The succeeding scene exhibited the contrast of an extensive plain richly and variously cultivated on one side of the river, and on the other, mountains rising suddenly from the water, and apparently higher than any in Great Britain." They saw the excavations made in extracting the pr-tun-tse, a species of fine gra- nite, used in the manufactory of porcelain, "the same as the growan- stone of the Cornish mines."

   Near their town was an unwalled villa, said to contain three thou- sand furnaces for baking porcelain, which, when all lighted at one time, gave the place the appearance of a town on fire. Along this great river, a course of less than two hundred miles traveled by the embassy, "there was no want of trees, ainong which the most com- mon were the tallow tree and the camphor, cedars, firs, and the tail and majestic arbor vitæ. Groves of oranges, citrons and lemons were abundautly interspersed in the little vales that sloped down to the brink of the river; aud but few of the huts were without a small garden and plantation of tobacco. The large plains were planted with the sugar-cane. We had thus far passed through the country without having seen a single plant of the tea-shrub; but here we found it as a common plant, used for hedge-rows to divide the gardens and fruit groves, but not particularly cultivated for its leaves."

  North of the Tsientáng the rivers are indeed many, but scarcely deserve particular notice, excepting the Yun hò, or Grand canal ̧ which will be described in a separate article. The hills also, in the northern part of the province, so far as we know, are nowise remarkable.

The productions of Chekiing are very abundant and rich, the cli- mate being mild, and the soil fertile and well-watered.

  Of forest trees, there are the cypress, fir, willow, tallow tree, elm, ash, banian fig, camphor, cassia tree, ebony, maple, dryandra, mulber- ry, palm, paper tree, pine, sandalwood, varnish, &c.

Of fruit trees, there are the almond, arbutus or strawberry tree, loquat, chestnut, grapes, dates, papaya, hazle nut, orange, peach,' pear, persimmon, plum, &c

172

Topography of Chekiung

MARCH,

 Of grains and vegetables, there are barley, beans, chives, cresses, gentian, ginger, hemp, millet, mustard, onions, pumpkins, rice, wheat, sesamum, melons of various sorts, &c.

Of ornamental flowers there are the white lily, small pœony (Pæmia albiflora), mowtan (Pœonia mautan), cinnamon rose, camellia, Hibiscus, flowering prunus, day lily, Daphne ordora, Narcissus, &c.

Of animals, there are the antelope, ape, ass, chamois, deer, dog, fox, goat, hog, horse, leopard, otter, ox, porcupine, rabbit, sheep, squirrel, weasel, pangolin, &c.

Of birds, besides common fowls, ducks, and geese, there are pheasants, quails, thrushes, cormorants, mandarin ducks, long legged water fowl, kingfishers, passerine birds of various sorts, and many ac- cipitrine birds.

There are also many mineral productions such as silver, iron, brass, tin, white lead, coal, and salt. This last named article is a very rich source of gain to the government.

The animal, vegetable, and mineral productions obtained for medicinal purposes, are very numerous, but need not be separately enumerated.

The manufactured articles are rich in quality and plentiful. The silks,-damasks, senshaws, etc.,-probably are not surpassed by any in the empire. The so called Nanking raw silk, which is produced in the department of Húchau, affords some of the finest samples that can be found in any part of the world. The pencils of Shauhing are held in esteem all over the empire. The hams of Kinhwá are among the articles sent annually as tribute to Peking.

In closing this decription of Chekiáng, a few words may be said regarding the character of the people. Those in the northern de- partments, for their wealth, learning, and refinements, are generally considered as being in no degree inferior to those of any other parts of the empire. But those on the frontiers of Fukien and Kiángsí are probably among the most rude and savage that can be found in any of the provinces. By an edict published in 1836-a translation of which was given in this work for February of that year-it appears that extensive tracts of land on the southern and southwestern fron- tiers are interdicted-for reasons of state the people are not allowed to cultivate or occupy them. These are wild lands, and on their borders the people are as rude and wild as the hills they inhabit. Our means for studying the character of the people of this province are very meagre. Our native authorities are full and explicit enough; but it is not always easy to determine their meaning. What the Chi-

1842.

Portrait of Fuhi

173

nese themselves call elegant and refined in manners, Europeans might, and often do, pronounce coarse and barbarous. Hence, as we are compelled to infer the quality of the soil from its productions, and the inclination of the earth's surface from the course of the rivers; so, in like manner, we must derive our ideas of the character of the inhabitants from their institutions, civil, social, and religious, and from the productions of their hands and their genius.

    From the foreigners now resident in Chekiáng we hope to receive valuable information, as well regarding the character and man- ners of the people, as respecting the productions of their soil and their manufactories. Our pages will always be open for original communi- cations; and faithful descriptions, especially of men and things in those parts hitherto but little frequented by foreigners, will surely be acceptable to all our readers.

ART. VII.

Portrait of Fuhi, the first of the Five Sovereigns, whose reign commenced two thousand eight hundred and fifty- 1100 years before Christ.

IMMEDIATELY after the Three Sovereigns, whose portraits were given

in the last number, some authors introduce two other monarchs,

whose names are 有巢 Yücháu and 途人 Suijin.

                                       Next in the series, all agree in placing Fuhí, or, with the name more fully written,

            Tái Háu Fuhi, the Great Illustrious Fuhí, who was born in the province of Shensí. He was renowned for his virtues; and hence the appellations Great and Illustrions were given to him. He built his capital in the province of Honán, in the depart- ment of Kaifung, its modern capital. And it is there, on the banks of the Yellow river, that the Chinese look for the site of that first set- tlement, from whence have sprung all the successive dynasties and all the countless multitudes of the black-haired people, which, during a period of forty-seven centuries, have ruled and cultivated the hills and vallies of the celestial empire. But if the time of Fuhi's ap- pearance on earth be correctly indicated, and the commenceineut of his reign be placed 2852 B. c., he must of course have lived an- terior to the deluge of Noah; and consequently at a period when there may have been no Hwáng hò to overflow its banks, and distress the peaceful inhabitants of the land.

174

Portrait of Pula

MARCH

民羲

赇暴克

The portrait represents him in a rude state, but yet engaged, with pencil in haud, pondering over the eight diagrams, of which the Chi- nese write and talk much, and know little.

Grave historians consider Fuhí as the founder of their empire. They say that at the commencement of our race, men differed not from the brutes. They were rude in manners, without arts and sciences. and made no provision for life. When hungry, they sought food; when satiated, they abandoned that which they had not eaten. They devoured their meat raw and undressed, drank blood, and wore the skins of wild beasts. In this uncultivated state was the human race, when Fuhi appeared. He made nets to catch fish, and snares to entrap wild beasts and birds, to supply the wants of the people. fle Laught them how to feed domestic animals, and those required for sa- crificial purposes

1812

Portrait of Pain

175

So great were his virtues, that he comprehended all things, understanding their qualities, their powers, and the ends for which they were best fitted. When he first drew the eight diagrams, each had three strokes. He increased their whole number to sixty-four. From this commencement, he proceeded to invent written charac- ters, which were substituted for knotted cords. The sources from whence the language was formed, were the six following:

-

CBR

characters resembling objects or things;

characters having borrowed meanings;

characters pointing out objects;

by inverting their significations;

those formed by combining ideas;

and by uniting sound to the object.

We quote these six classes from the History Made Easy, and will add an example or two under each, as we there find them givers.

1. The sun and the moon are denoted by the following characters, which in their original shape were thought to resemble those two objects: ji, the sun; yue, the moon.

2. This includes characters that have two meanings, one literal and the other borrowed; thus ling, an ensign of authority, is used to denote the exercise of authority, i. e. to rule.

3. Those under this class point out their meaning, by their form &c.; they say, ▲ E - ERE jin tsái yi sháng, wei sháng, the character man () standing () above (†) one (-), makes () the character sháng (E) above, or to ascend.

4. This class comprises such characters as are composed of two or more parts, the meaning of which, when combined, form a new word having a meaning derived from those two parts: thus they say, jin yen wei sin, man and words make truth, verity, or good-faith; i. e. a man who keeps his word is truthful, and may be trusted.

5. The characters Etsò, the left hand, and

yiú, the right

hand, are examples adduced under this class; the first inverted

forms the second.

6. The characters

kiáng and ju hò, both meaning a river, are given to illustrate this class: in each case one part of the charac- ter undicates the form, and the other the sound of ruming water.

176

Report of Chinese School:

March.

Such, the Chinese would have us believe, was Fuhi's knowledge of lexicography. Modern writers have improved on this system, re- taining the six classes, subdividing and arranging under them all the characters of the language. The regulation of times and seasons, the rites and usages of domestic and social life, the administration of government, and the cultivation of music, all engaged the attention of this illustrious patriarch-this son of heaven. His reign was 115 years. Some writers say that his immediate successors were fifteen in number, and reigned 17,787 years.

ART. VIII. Report of Chinese schools for boys and girls under the care of the Rev. Alexander Stronach and Mr. R. T. Grylls, at Penang.

"OUR boys are all under engagements for a definite number of years, five, six, or seven,-according to their ages on entering school. The penalty for leaving before their terms expire is to refund $2 for every month the boys shall have been supported here. This penalty has been enforced in two cases, so they all feel that their engage- ments are binding.

"The boys all read Chinese. The first class of them read througli two books of Confucius; but I then thought that, in future, all their reading should be Christian, for I saw them but too ready to fall into the Chinese notion, that all wisdom rested with their heathen sages. Since that time, they have read through Collie's Shing King, Med- hurst's Shin Lun, &c., and now they are reading the New Testament in Chinese. The boys of the second class are now reading in the gospel harmony; those of the third class is Medhurst's Lun Yü; and the fourth class in his three character book. All that the boys read in Chinese is explained to them both in the colloquial Fukien and in English. Twenty of the boys daily write in the Chinese character; their autographs are herewith sent.

"Daily, at our morning worship, the more advanced boys read and translate into Chinese some part of the English Old Testament; and all the others, except one newly come, read in the New Testament, render the verses they read into Chinese; while the whole is ex- plained to the boys assembled in the English and Chinese language

1842.

Report of Chinese Schools

177

of

At our evening worship, also, each boy repeats a verse, or verses, Scripture, which he has previously committed to memory; and the truths in these verses are explained to them, and are endeavored to be brought home to their hearts in their own language. All the boys, and also all the girls in our female school, attend the English service at the mission chapel every Lord's day evening. There are in our girl's school, at present, twenty daughters of Chinese; and their progress in acquaintance with divine truth is very encouraging.

     "Mr. R. T. Grylls, the English teacher, has furnished the accom- panying statement of the progress which the boys have been making in their English studies.

Reading. The 1st class, consisting of six boys, are now reading Marshman's Brief Survey of History. They have read the first two volumes through, and are now going through it again in short lessons: they first read the lesson, then go over it again, giving a kind of paraphrase: afterwards, they spell the principal words; and occa- sionally are required to write, without referring to their books, an abridgment of what they have read for some days past. This class has read, in the same way, except the writing, English instructor No. 3, of the Calcutta School-book Society; Scripture Lessons of the Brit- ish and Foreign School Society; Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, Pike's Persuasives to Early Piety, and the Traveler, all of the Religious Tract Society. The 2d class, of eleven boys, are now reading the Scripture Lessons of the B. and F. School Society. These boys first read their lesson; then explain it, as well as they can in English and in Chinese, and afterwards spell it. now in use by the 3d and 4th classes.

They have read the lessons The 3d class, of eight boys,

3, in the same way as the

    is now reading English Instructor No. 2d, excepting the English explanation. The 4th class, of four boys, are reading Select lessons from Scripture, published by the B. and F. S. S. on sheets.

Their

    "Grammar. The first class, of six boys, have gone through Len- nie's Grammar, learning the rules and writing the exercises. These boys can parse any sentence at first sight with ease. The 2d class, of four boys, can parse any simple sentence. been chiefly oral, having used no book but Cobbin's. of seven boys, know the parts of speech, and after the holidays, will commence either Lennie or McCulloch.

instruction has The 3d class,

    "Writing. All the boys, excepting the four of the last reading class, are writing English; and to give you a better opportunity of judging of their progress, I inclose with this some loose leaves taken from their copies.

178

Report of Chinese Schools

MARCH,

"Arithmetic. The 1st class, of five boys, has advanced, in Con- versations on Arithmetic, by Mrs. G. R. Porter, to Application of Decimals; when, having only one copy of that work, and requiring it for a junior class, Walkinghame was substituted; in which they have advanced to Alligation. Although they take their sums from this book, and are expected to understand its rules, they are not confined to them-for instance they freely use cancelling, at which they are very expert; and when it is advantageous, they substitute vulgar or decimal fractions for the common notation. The 2d class, of two boys, now use the Intellectual Calculator of the B. and F. S. S. These boys were formerly in the 1st class, but not being able to keep up with it, they have been employed alternately as monitors to the 3d class, and consequently have not advanced as they otherwise would have done. Those of the 3d class, eleven boys, are in Division, and those of the 4th, of seven boys, in Addition.

 Geography. The six boys of this class have gone through, with mc-having only one copy-Guy's geography; and can answer most questions without hesitation. Their chief information has been gained from oral instruction, combined with the use of the maps-of which we have a fine set, about four feet square. One of these boys, with another who has left school, has worked all the problems on the globes in Guy's Geography, and with his class is now going through the more extended work of Keith. Several other boys are able to point out all the principal places on the maps, and possess much information about geography.

66

 'Drawing. Eight of the boys are copying the drawing exercises from the work published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Three or four have a decided taste for drawing. After holidays a new class will be formed.

"Miscellaneous. The boys of the 1st reading class know all the natural figures, both planes and solids. They have also read three or four of the first Conversations on Natural Philosophy by Dr. Johns of the Franklin Institute, America. We have an orrery and tellurium, by which the motions of the heavenly bodies have been explained to them, and apparently with some success in removing their prejudices in favor of Chinese knowledge.

"I have spoken only of boys actually present, for there are many of the 2d and 3d reading classes absent, through sickness, this island having been visited by some very severe epidemics, cholera, dysen- tery, influenza, fever, &c. Most of these boys have been long absent. and their return would greatly retard our progress."

1842

Journal of Occurrences

179

Note. The conductors of the school at Penang, for Chinese children, have our best thanks for the foregoing report, with which our readers cannot but be much pleased. The autographs sent to us are fair specimens; and most of the copies are adinirable. The length of time the children have been under tuition, if specified, would have enabled us to judge more accurately of their merits. We always like to see intellectual and moral culture carried on simultaneously; be- cause, when rightly so conducted, both will proceed more rapidly than either could, isolated and alone. In the education of Chinese youths we would not restrict them, in the reading of their own language, to books composed by fo reigners. To become thorough Chinese scholars, they must not only read, but they must also study, many and the best native authors. We hope Mr. Stro- nach, and others who are in charge of Chinese schools, will regularly furnish us with reports of the same. It is high time that the education of Chinese in Eu- ropeau sciences, literature. &c., be prosecuted with greater vigor, and on a bronder scale

Aær. 1X. Journal of Occurrences: military visits to the cities of Yuyau, Tsz'kí, and Funghwá; donation to the Portuguese of Macao, by James Matheson, esq.; notice of the defenses on the river at and below Canton; stoppage of the trade threatened; the commercial grievances at Canton; capture of a boat's crew and death from a shot; the flags of France, and of the U. S. A.; an interview with Yishan; the U. S. frigate Constellation and sloop-of-war Boston; piracies; the settlement of Hongkong; the Friend of China; disturbances in Húpe; the English expe-

dition.

WANT of space in our last number prevented the appearance of the following

CIRCULAR To Her BritANNIC MAJESTY'S SUBJECTS IN CHINA.

Her majesty's plenipotentiary in China has the pleasure to announce to ber majesty's subjects in China, that the district cities of Yüyáu, Tsz'kí, and Funghwá. distant respectively 40, 20, and 30 miles, from Niugpò, have been Intely visited and temporarily occupied by detachments of her majesty's combined forces.

   The Chinese government having thrown garrisons into the cities in question, and given out that the object in so doing was to encourage (or, perhaps, more cor- ectly speaking, to tniimidate) the inhabitants of Ningpo and the surrounding dis- triels, to withhold obedience to the British authorities, and likewise, to deter them, as far as possible, from furnishing provisions and supplies, it was resolved by their excellencies, the naval and military commanders-in-chief, to take an early oppor- tunity of dislodging those garrisons, and, on the weather (which had been ex- tremely wet in the early part of December) becoming frosty and favorable for operations, the necessary arrangements were completed for carrying that reso- Jution into effect.

The Sesostris, Nemesis, and Phlegethon, steamers, carrying about 700 men of all arins, and towing a number of boats, weighed from their positions at Ningpò on the morning of the 27th Dec., and proceeded up the river. The former ship, owing to her greater dratt of water, was obliged to bring up about two thirds of the way to can, off which place the two smaller vessel - anchored late in the "ternoon

180

Journal of Occurrences.

MARCH,

when the troops landed immediately, under the personal direction of his excellen- cy lieut.-general, sir Hugh Gough, K.c. ■., and, having taken possession of a small battery mounting four guns (which the Chinese had thrown up to enfilade the ap- proaching reach of the river, but which they did not venture to defend), were lodg- ed for the night in a large temple or joss-house, situated on a hill which overlook- ed the town at the distance of less than half a mile. At daylight on the morning of the 28th, his excellency, the naval commander-in-chief, disembarked with the seainen and marines, and preparations were made for escalading, when some of the people came out and declared, that the garrison (stated to have consisted of 1200 regulars, and an equal number of militia) had quitted the town during the night, and that the gates were open. Our troops in one division, and the seamen and marines in another, accordingly_marched in, and separated at the southern gate, to go round the town, along the ramparts. When the naval division had advanced part of the way, a fire of jinjails and matchlocks was opened on it, by a considerable body of Chinese soldiers, which had taken post outside the walls at a spot near the N. W. angle, where they were covered by a deep canal. It unavoid- ably occupied some little time for her majesty's forces to gain egress from the town by the northern gate, leading over the canal, and in the interim the enemy had decamped across the country. They were hotly pursued for 7 or 8 miles, during which, numbers of them threw away their arms and heavy clothes. A mili- tary position on which they retreated, about 5 miles from Yūyau, was burned, and a very extensive barrack (temple) close to that town, containing a magazine of gunpowder, and great quantities of arms, clothing, and other munitions of war was subsequently set fire to and utterly destroyed. Twenty-eight prisoners were taken, amongst whom were several subordinate officers; and it is believed that from 75 to 100 of the enemy were killed and wounded duiring the affair. Had they only stood to allow H. M. forces to close with them, not a man could have escaped; but their local knowledge of the roads, combined with the fact of the whole country being knee-deep with frozen snow (which covered up and concealed the paths), gave them a decided advantage over their pursuers in their flight.

On the 29th, the city was examined, and an immense public granary of rice dis- covered, and given to the inhabitants to carry away. On the 13th, the small steam- ers descended the river, and rejoined the Sesostris; the three vessels anchored that afternoon on the nearest point to the city of Tsz'kí, which lies between 4 and 5 miles from the left bank, and which was found on the following morning (the 31×1) to be deserted by the Chinese troops, and all the civil authorities. The public buildings were here destroyed, as far as that could be done without endangering the town; the population allowed to take the grain from the government granary, which was very large and quite full of rice; and the combined forces having reëm- barked, the steamers returned to Ningpò on the evening of the 31st of December. It affords her majesty's plenipotentiary extreme gratification to add, that not a single casualty occurred during these movements. Mr. midshipman Loch of H. M. ship Blenheim, was struck on the foot by a spent jinjall ball, but fortunately escaped with a slight contusion. The cold was intense during the whole period; the thermometer ranging at night 10 and 13 degrees below the freezing point ; but notwithstanding this fact and the unavoidable exposure, the troops all came back in the highest health and spirits.

An unfavorable break in the weather prevented the intended movement on Fung- hwá being put into execution until the 10th instant. On that morning, the Phle- gethon and Nemesis started from Ningpò, and were brought up by a bridge across the river about noon. The land forces, with the lieut.-general commanding, here landed, whilst the seamen and marines, under his excellency the admiral, went some iniles further up the river in boats. The two divisions arrived simultaneous- ly at the city of Funghwá about dusk, and found it deserted by the Chinese au- thorities and troops. The same steps as were adopted at Tsz'kí with regard to the public buildings and granaries, were, next morning, adopted here, and the com bined forces returned to the steamers, on the afternoon of the 11th, and to Ningpo early on the 12th instant.

Although these operations are of no moment considered in a military point of view, yet their moral and political effect is highly important, and on that account ber majesty's plenipotentiary deems it expedient to make the result of them pub

1812.

Journal of Occurrences

181

     lic. They evince our irresistible power, as well as extraordinary forbearance so far as the people are concerned; and it has been ascertained, that such was the consternation, on the news of the descent on Yüyáu reaching the provincial ca. pital of Hangchau fú (distant above 100 miles), that the imperial commissioners, and other high Chinese officers, fed from that city to Súchau, ninety miles fur- ther north.

The Phlegethon steamer, and Bentinck brig-of-war, have just proceeded to ex- amine and reconnoitre the bay of Hángchau fú and the port of Chápú.

GOD SAVE The Queen.

Dated on board her majesty's ship Blenheim, at sea, on the 21st of January, 1842.

(Signed)

HENRY POTTINGER, H. M. Plenipotentiary.

     2. The donation specified in the following notes, (which we publish with much pleasure at the request of the secretary to govern- inent, Mr. de Siqueira,) is substantial testimony of the estimation in which the government of Macao is held by some of the foreign re- sidents. By the departure of Mr. J. Matheson, who sailed from Macao in the clipper bark Tartar, captain Luce, on the 10th instant, the foreign community has lost one of its most enterprising, able, and liberal members. Mr. Matheson, we believe, has the honor of being the founder of the British press in China-having commenced the Canton Register in 1827. See that paper for March 3d, 1835. To H. E. Adrião Accacio da Silveira Pinto, Macao, 9th March, 1842.

Governor of Macao, &c., &c.

      Sir,-Being about to depart from China after a residence of many years. though not without the hope of returning, I am desirous of leaving some memorial to testify my grateful sense of the protection afforded to me, in common with the rest of my countrymen at Macao, more especially under the enlightened govern- ment of your excellency, by whose able manageaient all the evils of a state of war have been averted from this important settlement, and circumstances of complicated perplexity and danger converted into elements of peace and increas ed prosperity. I therefore take the liberty of placing at your excellency's dispo- sal the sum of five thousand ($5,000) dollars, with a request that you will have the goodness to appropriate it to some permanent purpose of public benevolence, bearing an inscription that it is an offering of gratitude from a British subject to the government of which your excellency is the head, and to the Portuguese in- habitants generally of Macao.

I have the honor to remain, with cordial wishes for the welfare of your excel- lency and family, Sir, your excellency's very faithful and grateful servant,

JAMES MATHESON.

HIS EXCELLENCY'S REPLY.

Macáo, 10 de Março, de 1842. Illmo. Sr. Em a carta de V. S. desta datta cuja recepção eu tenho a bonra d'accuzar não dezejando que V. S. parta sein huma resposta, participa-me a sua retirada para a Europa, e os dezejos que tem de deixar perpetuada a sua memoria neste estabellecimento por algum acto de publica beneficencia para o que poè á minha disposição a somma de sinco mil ($5,000) patacas Espanholas." Eu seria criminozo ou pelo menos merecedor de grande censura se recuzasse huma offer- ta que tem por fim hum bem publico, ou se deixasse d'agradecer não obstante ver em V. 8. dezejos de que o não fizesse, com a expressão da mais bem merecida gratidão. Estimaria eu, que V. S. houvesse prefixado a applicação da somma offerecida, mas pois o não quiz fazer talvez pela sua extremada delicadeza, ea conjunctamente com o Leal Senado desta cidade procuraremos satisfazer a esse encargo de hum modo satisfactorio, a para o offerente e para o publico a quem o dom he offerecido. As expressoès que eu encontro em a sua carta, amim parti. cularmente dirigidas, ainda que eu as attribuo mais devidas, a ja bem reconhecida generozidade de V. S do que no men proprio merecimento, não posso deixal

182

Jonenal of Occurrences

MARCH

d'agradecer llins com tadas as minhas forças. Resta-me pois dezejar a V. S. a mais prospera viagem, e que ci o sen paiz natal possa encontrar tantas venturas quan- tas tem direito a esperar.

Sou com os sentimentos da mais perfeita consideração,

Ilmo. Sr. James Matheson

() mais attento venerador obediente servo,

ADRIAŬ ACCACIO DA SILVEIRA PINTO

(Translation)

Macao, 10th March, 1842.

Sir,-In your letter of this date, of which I now have the honor to acknow- ledge the receipt, and desirous that you should not leave without a reply, you inform me of your departure for Europe, and your wish to perpetuate your memory in this settlement by some act of public beneficence, to do which you have placed at my disposal the sum of five thousand dollars. It would be criminal, or at least very censurable, in me, to refuse a gift which is designed for the public good, or to fail to express, notwithstanding your wishes to the contrary, my sincerest gratitude. I could have wished that you had designated the mode of applying this sum, but since your extreme delicacy has perhaps prevented this, I, in conjunction with the loyal senate of the city, well endeavor to fulfill the trust in a manner satisfactory both to the donor and the public to whom it is presented. As to the sentiments in your letter addressed to me personally, though I attribute them more to your partiality than to my merits, you will please accept my best thanks. It remains only to wish you a very pleasant voyage, and that in your native land, you may meet all that good fortune

                   with sentiments of highest esteem, you have a right to expect.

Sir, your humble and ob'dt servant, ADRIAŎ ACCACIO DA SILVEIRA PINTO.

TO JAMES MATHESON, ESQ.

I am,

The defenses at and below Canton are noticed in the follow- ing Circular, addressed to "the mercantile community of Ilong- kong, Macao, &c., &c.," dated "Government House, Hongkong, March 22d, 1842."

Gentlemen,-You are aware that some of the hong-merchants lately paid a visit to Macao, and it is probably by this time known to most of you that that the object of that visit was to find out whether the provincial government of Canton would be allowed to rebuild the Bogue and other dismantled forts, or to erect new ones, on this side of the Whampoa anchorage.

Although I of course declised having any sort of intercourse with the hong-mer- chants, I took advantage of the kindness of a friend to let these individuals Know, in distinct terms, that orders had been long issued to prevent the repair of the old, or the erection of any new forts, lower down than Whampoa, and that the conse. querce of any attempt of the sort would be the renewal of hostilities in the Canton river, the stoppage of trade, and consequent distress to the provincial city,

I trust this warning will have the desired effect, and that matters will be allowed to go on in their present tranquil course; but I nevertheless think it my duty to ac- quaint you with what has passed, as well as with my resolution, which has been fully approved and confirmed by the experienced judgment of the scuior officer of H. M's navy in the Canton river; and in doing so I would request you indivi- dually and collectively to give me the earlest possible notice of any collecting of materials, assemblage of workmen, or other apparently defensive (though in reality offensive) preparations that yourselves or your agents may perceive on the river below Whampoa. It is superfluous for me to observe that the safety of the ship- ping and their crews at that anchorage imperatively demand every precaution and vigilance, and I feel assured you will cheerfully aid me in the manner I bave pointed out.

I am, Gentlemen,

Your most obedient and faithful servant,

Henry PoytiNGER I M Plenipotentiary.

1842

Journal of Occurrences.

183

4. The stoppage of trade, threatened in the second paragraplı of the preceding circular, deserves most particular attention.

Ac- cording to public notice, given by captain Elliot last June, it was agreed between the high contracting parties, English and Chinese, that none of the fortified places within the river should be reärmed, nor any additional preparations made. See vol. X. p. 343. At the time when Yishan entered into this engagement, he told the emperor, that, "as soon as the ships of war have retired, beginning with the river in front of the city, and continuing the work down to the Bogue, they would block it up with piles of stones at every important pass, and there erect forts and place guns." - Vol. X., p. 404. On sir Henry's arrival, he took an early opportunity to signify to the provincial au- thorities that he was willing, for the time being, to respect the then existing truce, but, declaring at the same time, that the slightest in- fringement of its terms would lead to an instant renewal of hostilities in this province. Vol. X., p. 478. Old forts above Whampoa have been reärmed and many new ones built, and guns placed in them; and yet hostilities have not been renewed-unless the destruction of the works on Wangtong and the late seizure of junks outside, be so considered. For the exercise of this indulgence, on the part of H. B. M. plenipotentiary, there must have been good reasons; but can such reasons operate in the coming season? And will Yishán fail to attempt to keep his promise with his master? It is to be much regretted that the forts at Canton have been rebuilt; once opened, the river to Canton and the Macao Passage, ought to have remained so-and this could have been easily effected, had captain Elliot's measure, of visiting the river at short intervals, to see that no repairs were going on, been persisted in. And unless this is done in future, we fear repairs will go on below Whampoa.

5.

       The commercial grievances at Canton, in the shape of legal duties, have of late been greatly augmented. Those on tea alone for the last 12 months, amount to six millions of dollars!

C

    6. Capture of a boat's crew and death from a shot. A boat from the British ship Autumnus was proceeding to Canton from Whampoa, when by mistake she went up Junk river, was fired on, the crew seiz- ed, carried to Canton, and there liberated. Soon after this, on the 9th instant, at Whampoa, a well-known Chinese smuggler was ap- proaching one of the opium ships in a sinall boat, to make a purchase of the drug; he was hailed, but did not answer; and the person on the deck of the English vessel fired his musket, and shot him dead on the spot." Canton Register -All inquiry seems hushed. How un- like the case of poor Lin Weihí!

7. The flags of France, and of U. S. A., have been re-hoisted in Canton, for the first time since they were struck in Dec. 1838. 8. An interview with Yishan, and his colleagues was held, on the 221, by colonel de Jancigny and Mr. Challaye, in Canton.

9. The U.S. A. frigate Constellation, commodore Kearney, and the sloop-of-war Boston, commander Long, arrived off Macao on the same day

Will the commodore inquire after the death of the young

184

Journal of Decurrences.

man in the boat of the ship Morrison, and the other losses and da mages sustained by his countrymen? We hope the ships will proceed up the river, and likewise go to Chusan and other northern ports.

10. Piracies have recently been very frequent on the river near the Bogue, and large numbers of these outlaws have been seized and executed by the Chinese government.

11. The settlement of Hongkong, as may be inferred from the following circular, continues to increase.

CIRCULAR TO H. B. M. SUBJECTS IN CHINA.

His excellency, sir Henry Pottinger, bart, her Britannic majesty's plenipoten- tinry,&c., &c., deems it expedient to intimate to all persons interested in the sub- ject, that it is his intention to appoint very shortly a committee, consisting of not less than three members, to investigate any claims that may yet be pending re- garding allotted locations of ground, of whatever description; and to finally define and mark off the limits of all locations that have yet been sold or granted on any

other terms.

The committee will likewise definitively fix the direction, breadth, &c., &c., of the Queen's and all other existing public roads within the settlement, and will be empowered to order the immediate removal of any encroachments that may be found to have been unauthorizedly made upon them, the expense of such remo- val being chargable to the individuals to whom the locations, in which they have been made, belong. The committee will further be instructed to turn its attention to the examination of the best points for laying down new lines of roads, beyond those that have already been marked off, with a view of providing locations, to meet the demands for them that may be expected from the rapidly increasing po- pulation of the colony, both European and native; and any suggestions that indi- viduals may wish to offer on this part of the committee's proceedings, will receive from it the fullest consideration ; but it is at the same time expressly notified that no purchases, or renting of ground from the natives formerly, or now, in posses- sion, will be recognized or confirmed, unless the previous sanction of the constitut- ed authorities shall have been obtained, it being the basis of the footing on which the island of Hongkong has been taken possession of, and is to be held pending the queen's royal and gracious commands, that the proprietary of the soil is vest. ed in, and appertains solely to, the crown; on the same principle, the reclaim- ing of land beyond high water mark must be deemed an infringement on the ro- yalties of her majesty, and it is therefore positively prohibited by any private per-

GOD SAVE The Queen of England.

Jons.

Dated at Hongkong Government House, this 22d day of March, 1842.

HENRY POTTINGER, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary. 12. "The Friend of China," No. 1, of the 17th, and "the Friend of China, and Hongkong Gazette," No. 1, of the 24th instant, have reached us. The first, being in an incomplete form is to be consi- dered as a Prospectus merely to the other; into which, as may be inferred from the name, the Hongkong Gazette is to be in future merged.

13. Disturbances in Húpe have been reported, but they do not seem to be very extensive. The military preparations of the Chinese, at the north are progressing.

14. The English expedition, according to our latest accounts, was remaining in statu quo, at the north; but we suppose operations will commence, probably on the Yángtsz' kiáng, as soon as the rc. inforcements arrive.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. XI.-April, 1842.- No. 4.

ART. 1.

   Retrospection, or a Review of Public Occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to December 31st, 1841. (Continued from page 132.)

JANUARY 1st, 1836, the steamer Jardine left Lintin, at half past seven o'clock, A. M.; in three hours she arrived off Chuenpí, and a cannonading immediately commenced from the forts at the Bogue.

3d. The US. A. sloop-of-war Vincennes, captain Aulick, arrived from South America, the Sandwich and the Pellew islands.

10th. Public religious worship, which had been discontinued in the chapel of the E. I. Company, since the dissolution of the factory in 1834, was this day resumed. Can. Reg., 12th Jan.

29th. Sir G. B. Robinson, chief superintendent, wrote a long letter to viscount Palmerston, in which he admits the desirableness of establishing the Commission in Canton, but believes it impossible to do so in an honorable and satisfactory manner, except by force of arms. He then proceeds to say:

   'The events of some years past militate in no small degree against any rational hope that, without intimidation, and, I fear, ultimate resort to hostilities, a proper understanding could be established, although uot a doubt can be entertained of the perfect success that must attend the adoption of vigorous and efficient measures on the part of the British government. The destruction of one or two forts, and the occupation of one of the islands in this neighborhood, so singularly adapted by nature, in every respect, for commercial purposes, would, I am positive, promptly produce upon this barbarous nation, arrogant in proportion to their ignorance, every effect we could desire, and at once and for ever place our trade and poli- tical relations with the empire on a respectable, safe, and becoming footing. But it is by no means my duty or intention to offer suggestions of this nature, save as the means of conveying my opinion of the perfect certainly of Surcess, and the

VOL XI NO IV.

#

186

Review of Public Ancurrences During the

APRIL.

innmense advantages that would emanate therefrom, in the event of his majesty's government at any time deeming such a course advisable. On the contrary, my object is to point out the little necessity that exists for so total a change of policy, by the adoption of an alternative which now presents itself, for the almost imper ceptible adjustment of existing difficulties, and the future management of affairs, as well as reduction in expense consequent upon this change in the nature of ou establishment.

"The Chinese seein to have but one object; that is, to prevent our establish ing ourselves permanently at Canton. It appears to me, then, injudicious and vain to persist in the endeavor to place ourselves completely in their power, and entirely under their control and thraldom, when the very locality of that place alone, renders our residence there almost incompatible with the duties we have to discharge, and exposes British merchants in a tenfold degree, to inconvenience and danger, arising from our collision with the mandarins. I conccive the principal object of maintaining a British authority in this country, is to exercise a salutary control over the safety, conduct, and perhaps property, of the king's subjects in China; to arbitrate and assist in the adjustment of disputes and differences ; and to prevent the occurrence of actions or proceedings, whereby the natives of China may be wronged or aggrieved; or to the prejudice of that high national character aud reputation, which it is so desirable to uphold and maintain, even for policy and interest alone.

"To these ends, a full and efficient control over the shipping is the main point ; little else seems requisite. While that power is retained in our hands, and exer- cised when necessary, with judgment and discretion, little difficulty will exist in the management of other matters. No man can quit the country, or evade the fulfill- ment of just claims against him; and it cannot be doubted that the knowledge of our ability effectually to interpose our lawful authority, will check those evils which might be expected to result from the total absence of any officer of his majesty's government, unconnected with trade, unbiased by party feelings, and ever vigilant over the safety, welfare, and bearing of the king's subjects. Feeling somewhat doubtful how far my residence at this anchorage, on board this little vessel of seventy-four tons, in conformity to the public notice under date Novem- ber 21, would answer the expectations I had long since formed of its utility and ad- vantage, and being uncertain in what manner the Chinese would view the change of position I had assumed, trifling as it is, I delayed this dispatch until the present period when the season is well advanced, and I am competent to speak with con- fidence and truth on the efficient means I here possess to discharge at least a niost important part of my duty. In this place I shall not enter into any argument ou the mischiefs attendant upon that disunion and opposition which I fear inevitably results from the existence of a Council or Board of three or more persons, but under the impression that the management of affairs would devolve infinitely bet - ter on a single individual, whose views and proceedings, not liable to opposition and counteraction, could be carried into effect on his whole and sole responsibili ty, I submit, with all due deference, that he should reside on board some vessel in the vicinity of the shipping, completely out of the power, and free from the restraints, of the Chinese. His situation should be centrical, for general commu- nication, and his mears of locomotion entirely unshackled. To effect this, and to afford him a comfortable habitation, I would suggest the purchase or hire of a small merchant vessel (about 200 tons.) rapable of accommodation for the

1842.

Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

187

chief superintendent, a secretary to his office in the event of death or absence, and one or two clerks; sufficient room for a master and crew of about twelve good steady seamen, two of whom might be sworn in as constables, to act as occasion required. Room might also be found for a medical man, whose presence in a large fleet is of the greatest advantage, and a space for the reception of a person under arrest, or whom it may be desirable to take out of his ship. The expense attendant upon such an establishment would he trifling indeed, compared with that of the present Commission, if permanently fixed at Canton, or elsewhere, and its utility and efficacy in my opinion beyond all calculation."-Corresp pages 114, 115,

    February 4th. The first quarterly report of the Ophthalmic Hos- pital in Canton was published by the Rev. Peter Parker, M. D.

5th. The chief superintendent of British trade wrote the follow- ing to viscount Palmerston, respecting the traffic in opium, then in an "increasing and flourishing condition."

    "I see no grounds to apprehend the occurrence of any fearful events on the northeast coast, nor can I learn what new danger exists. I am assured, from the best authority, that the scuffles between different parties of smugglers and mandarins, alike engaged and competing in the traffic, are not more serious, or frequent than in this province. In no case have Europeans been engaged in any kind of conflict or affray; and while this increasing and Incrative trade is in the hands of the parties whose vital interests are so totally dependent on its safety and continuance, and by whose prudence and integrity it has been cherished and brought into its present increasing and flourishing condition, I think little apprehension may be entertained of dangers emanating from imprudence on their part. Should any unfortunate catastrophe take place, what would our position at Canton entail upon us but responsibility and jeopardy? from which we are now free. On the question of 'Smuggling Opium,' I will not enter in this place, though, indeed, smuggling carried on actually in the government boats can hardly be termed such. Whenever his majesty's government direct us to prevent British vessels engaging in the traffic, we can enforce any order to that effect; but a more certain method would be to prohibit the growth of the poppy and manufacture of opium in British India; and if British ships are in the habit of committing irregularities and crimes, it seems doubly necessary to exercise a salutary control over them by the presence of an authority at Lintin."-Corresp. p. 119.

    8th. This morning, the ground in Canton was covered with a fleece of snow, nearly two inches deep.

    'The chief superintendent informed his government that the second superintendent captain Elliot, while at Whampoa, on account of the Argyle's boat, had concerted measures for proceeding with two armed vessels to recapture the crew. Corresp. p. 120.

15th. His excellency Tang Tingching, new governor of the pro- vinces, made his entrance into Canton.

    22d. Mr. Innes brought to the notice of the chief superintendent the fact of samples of his goods lost from the Orwell being in the

188

Review of Public Occurrences During the

APRII.,

possession of an attendant officer at the custom-house in Canton ; this fact was corroborated by another, that no sample of the goods, which were of a new pattern in regard to their color, had previously been sold in China. Corresp. p. 124.

March 14th. Captain Elliot addressed a communication to the foreign office, on the subject of opening communications with the Chinese authorities in Canton. The following is an extract.

*

'It had long seemed to me, that the arrival of the new viceroy at Canton would furnish us an occasion for the re-opening of our communications with the provincial authorities, by the only channel which, I ain well persuaded, will ever open out to us at once, without a very hazardous and a very needless struggle.

44

· Being at Canton, and conforming heartily to the spirit of our cautious and conciliatory instructions, I see every day more reason to believe, that without much address upon our parts, and in short, by the merc force of circumstances, we should soon come to make ourselves so useful to the native authorities, as to lead them (gradually and silently indeed, but surely) not only to admit, but to court direct communication with us. In China, to keep things quiet is the best evidence as well as the whole end of successful administration: as soon as the viceroy found out that we were sincere allies with them in that object, he would sedulously cultivate our friendliness."-Corresp. p. 136.

During this month the fort above Howqua's Folly, sometimes call- ed Napier's fort, was commenced, with a view to prevent Europeans from approaching the provincial city in their men of war.

April 18th. Under this date, sir G. B. Robinson wrote to viscount Palmerston, and closed his communication with the following para- graph:

64

There remains, therefore, no alternative but a continuance in my present quiescent line of policy, until I am in possession of definite instructions from your lordship as to our future measures. I have only to observe, that I per- severe in my course, simply because all has proceeded well and successfully during its operation; and I consider, that so long as that is the case, I am best fulfilling the duties of my office."-Corresp. p. 131.

May 12th. The new commissioner of customs, Wan, arrived from Peking, and was received with the usual honors.

28th. By a letter of this date from viscount Palmerston, the powers of the superintendents of British trade in China are extended so as to include Lintin and Macao. Corresp. p. 11.

June 5th. Viscount Palmerston, having been informed of Mr. In- nes' intention to procure redress for sundry goods, by acts of reprisal against the Chinese trade, instructs the superintendent to prevent his so doing by all legal means, considering that Mr. Innes' inten- tions could not be too strongly condemned, since if they were carried into execution, they would have rendered him liable to the penahres of piracy Corresp. p 112

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7th. II. B. M. government refuse to authorize the permanent re- sidence of the Commission at Lintin. With a view to economy, the government also signify its determination to abolish the office and salary of chief superintendent. In concluding his dispatch of this date to sir G. B. Robinson, viscount Palmerston writes:

"In communicating to you this decision, I have at the same time to inforın yon, that your functions will cease from date of the receipt of this dispatch. You will make over to captain Elliot all the archives of the Commission ; which will, of course, include copies of every dispatch and its inclosures, which you have addressed to this department during the period you have acted as chief super- intendent."-Corresp. p. 114.

14th. Viscount Palmerston wrote to captain Elliot, and referring to that of the 7th says, "you will, from the date of the receipt of this dispatch consider yourself as the chief of the commission." Corresp. p. 119.

     July 22d. Captain Elliot having, in the preceding December, ad- vised that the cominander of the steamboat Jardine should be enjoiu- ed, on the king's authority, not to proceed up the river to Canton, viscount Palmerston thus remarks thereon:

      "I think it necessary to recommend to you great caution in interfering in such a manner with the undertakings of British merchants. In the present state of our relations with China, it is especially incumbent upon you, white you do all that lies in your power to avoid giving just cause of offense to the Chinese au- thorities, to be at the same time very careful not to assume a greater degree of authority over British subjects in China than that which you in reality possess." Corresp. p. 121.

     The following is another extract, under the same date, from a let- ter to captain Elliot from his government.

"I have to observe to you that it does not appear to his majesty's government, that it would be expedient that you should attempt to re-open communications with the viceroy through the long-merchants; but, on the contrary, it is desi- rable that you should decline every proposition to revive official communica- tions through that channel, whatever may be the quarter from whence such pro- positions may come. It might be very suitable for the servants of the East India Company, themselves an association of merchants, to communicate with the authorities of China through the merchants of the hong; but the superintendents are officers of the king, and as suci: can properly communicate with none but officers of the Chinese government. This is a point upon which you should insist; and I have therefore to instruct you, if any attempt should be made by the hong-merchants to enter into communication with you upon matters of public business, to express your regret that you are not at liberty to recei...n any such communications, except from the viceroy direct, through some responsible. officer of the Chinese government. I have to add, that his majesty's govern- ment do not deem it expedient that you should give to your written commum- cations with the Chinese government the naine of Petitions "-Corresp. p. 123.

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27th. Captain Elliot wrote to the foreign office respecting the me- morable memorial to legalize the introduction of opium. This change of means in the action of the government he did not regard as an in- dex of "any change in the principles of its policy," which seeks the smallest possible amount of foreign intercourse, consistent with the active pursuit of trade, always anxious to avoid such difficulties with foreigners as might furnish their governments " with a pretext for in- terference." He considered the measure of legalization as designed to overthrow the trade at Lintin and on the coast, and to concentrate it at Canton through the hong-merchants. He says it is " a confusion of terms to call the opium trade a smuggling trade; it was formerly a prohibited trade, but there was no part of the trade of this country which had the more active support of the local authorities." In his mind, it was the visits of Mr. Gordon to the tea plantations, and the distribution of tracts along the coast by Mr. Gutzlaff and others, rather than the traffic in opium, that produced this change. Ile thus concludes his observations:

"This state paper is a public confession that the Chinese cannot do without our opium, and that being the case, the regulation of the manner of its introduc- tion in such wise as will render it least mischievous to their policy of foreign exclusion, is no doubt a skillful measure, but I greatly question its efficacy. It has been delayed too long. The officers and the people have been accustomed to the feeling that the government is at once false and feeble. Sooner or later the feeling of independence, which the peculiar mode of conducting this branch of the trade has created upon the part of our countrymen in China, will lead to grave difficulties. A long course of impunity will beget hardihood, and at last some gross insult will be perpetrated, that the Chinese authorities will be con- strained to resent; they will be terrified and irritated, and will probably commit some act of cruel violence, that will make any choice but armed interference impossible to our own government. The immediate effect of the legalization of the opium, will be, I should suppose, to stimulate production at Bengal; there is some notion here that it will encourage the growth of the poppy in China, and that home-produced opium will thrust out our own market; eventually per haps it may, but results of that kind are of slow growth."~-Corresp. p. 138.

A translation of this paper, of Heu Naetse with a few remarks re- specting it, will be found in vol. V., p. 138, &c.

29th. Imperial envoys, some time engaged on special criminal cases in Canton, left the provincial city for Peking.

August 1st.

       A severe gale was experienced on the river at Can- ton, but little damage was occasioned thereby. On the coast the gale was severe.

6th. The hong-merchants advertise the foreign merchants that, as soon as the opium becomes dutiable, there will be no longer any need for receiving ships at Lintin.

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  11th. Archdeacon Dealtry, of Calcutta, published a series of re- marks, written by a British merchant in Canton, condemnatory of the traffic in opium. Vol. V., p. 297.

  The governor of Canton, sometime during this month, made an address by memorial to the throne, asking for money to repair and strengthen the forts at the Bogue.

  September 7th. The governor and lieutenant-governor of Canton sent up a report to the emperor, containing drafts of sundry regula- tions made in reference to the proposal to sanction the importatiou of opium. Vol. V., p. 259.

  14th. The honorable W. Fox Strangways addressed to captain Elliot the following note from the foreign office.

'Sir,-I am directed by viscount Palmerston to transmit to you, for the pur- pose of being forwarded to the Portuguese governor of Macao, the accompany- ing letter, under flying seal, addressed to his excellency by his government con. taining instructions as to the conduct he should puruse in all matters in which the superintendents of British trade in China may have occasion to address them. selves to his excellency, on subjects relating to the discharge of their official duties: these instructions are sent to his excellency in consequence of the re- presentation of his majesty's government to that of Portugal, of the circum- stauces stated in sir G. Robinson's dispatch of the 23d of November, 1835. -Corresp. p. 123. "I am, &c., (Signed) W. FOX STRANGWAYS."

22d. The first report of the British Seamen's hospital in China, was published, with general rules of the institution. Vol. V., p. 274. 28th. The Morrison Education Society, for the promotion of edu- cation among the Chinese, was organized.

October. During this month memorials, counter to that for the legalization of opium, were presented, by Chú Tsun, Hü Kiú, and others.

Vol. V., p. 390.

  10th. Captain Elliot addressed a letter to the foreign office, from which the following is an extract.

44

   We are in expectation of soon receiving the final orders from Peking for the legalization of the opium. This is undoubtedly the most remarkable measure which has been taken in respect to the foreign trade, since the accession of this dynasty, when the ports on the coast were closed, and it has been prefaced by a series of reports to the emperor, strikingly worthy of attention. They incline me to believe, that it wants but caution and steadiness to secure, at no very distant date, very important relaxations."-Corresp. p. 138.

13th. Sir G. B. Robinson sent a communication to viscount Pal- merston, from which the following is an extract.

   • Nothing but decided measures will, at the present period, induce the local Chinese government to admit or tolerate the resort to, or residence at Canton of an officer of his majesty's government on a becoming footing (and unless he be so placed, his presence must prove a source of evil instead of good), as they

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have the sagacity to foresee the endless embarrassment certain to emanate there- from, but they will tacitly sanction, or perhaps avail themselves of the fall exer. cise of his functions and authority without the river, and I am confident, appeal to him in any extreme case of difficulty or aggression on the part of his country- inen, thereby at once yielding a point of contention which it seems to me idle to arge."-Corresp_p. 135

November 8th. Regarding the goods lost by Mr. Innes, viscount Palmerston wrote to captain Elliot.

The dispatch of sir George Robinson of the 20th of November, 1835, relative to the case of Mr. Innes, together with the various minutes and other papers connected with it, which have been transmitted home by the superintendents have received the most careful consideration of his majesty's government, and their legal advisers.

·

 · It appears from these papers, that Mr. Innes, a British merchant resident at Canton, had employed a pilot named Acha, to transfer some goods from the ship Orwell, while passing up from Lintin to Canton, to another vessel at Lintin bound for Manila: that the pilot Acha, instead of proceeding with the goods to the other vessel, was conveying them up the Canton river, when his boat and the goods were seized by the Chinese custom-house officers, near the Bocca Tigris, for a breach of the Chinese revenue laws; it being considered that he was attempting to smuggle the merchandize within the entrance of the port of Canton; that Mr. Innes conceiving himself to be wronged by the acts of the pilot and of the custom-house officers, had petitioned the governor of Canton for redress; and that, upon experiencing delay in obtaining the restitution of his goods, he had noti- fied to the governor his determination to procure redress for himself by acts of reprisal against the Chinese trade; but that he had consented to abstain from his ineditated hostilities, upon receiving from the superintendents a pledge, that his case should be submitted to the consideration of his majesty's government; and that the recovery of his property should he made the subject of a demand on the Chinese authorities, on the first occasion of the superintendents coming in formal contact with those authorities.

You have already been informed, by my dispatch of June 6th, addressed to sir George Robinson, that the papers connected with this transaction were under the consideration of the law officers of the crown. The report which I have now received from the law officers, fully confirms the opinion which I expressed in that dispatch, that the acts threatened by Mr. Innes, would, if carried into effect, amount to juracy. I have therefore to instruct you to communicate to Mr. Innes the opinion of 'is majesty's legal advisers, with regard to the intention which Mr. Innes had announced, and to express the conviction of his majesty's government, that he will abandon all intention of having recourse to proceedings which high legal authorities have declared would amount to piracy. You will further inform Mr. Lunes, that if the contrary should unfortunately happen, and if he should per- sist in carrying his former intentions into execution, he will be abandoned by the British government to the fate which such a course will probably bring upon him; and further, that the commander of any of his majesty's ships which may fall in with him, will he bound to act towards him as the naval instructions re- quire commanders of his majesty's ships of war to act towards pirates whom they may meet.

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"With respect to your representations to the Chinese authorities, with a view to obtain the restitution of Mr. Innes' property, you will conform yourself to the instructions contained in the latter part of my dispatch to sir George Robin-

I am,

&c., (Signed)

PALMERSTON."

Sun.

---Corresp. p. 126.

Under the same date and from the same source-the foreign of fice-another communication was addressed to captain Elliot, fela- tive to a clain preferred by Messrs. Turner & Co. of Cauton against Mr. Arthur Saunders Keating for a balance of $300 freight. The reader will find the case given in detail on page 127, et seq. of the Blue Book.

Captain Elliot is recommended to confine his interference, "when called for, as much as possible to friendly suggestion and advice to the parties concerned." The only power exercised by the supercar- goes of the E. I. Company, "was that of removing unlicensed per- sons; but as no license from his majesty is now necessary to enable his majesty's subjects to trade with or reside in China, such power of expulsion has altogether ceased to exist with respect to China." Corresp. p. 129.

By another dispatch of this date, the office of the third superin- tendent was abolished, and a deputy superintendent appointed in his stead with a salary of 15007. instead of 20007. per annum; the salary of the surgeon was reduced from 15007. to 10007. per annum; that of the secretary and treasurer from 15007. to 8007.; and that of Chi- nese secretary and interpreter from 13007 to 1000l. The assistant surgeon's office was abolished; and the sum for contingent expenses reduced from 50007, to 25007.

9th. The constitution of the Morrison Education Society was adopted, and its officers elected. Vol. V., p. 375.

10th. Foreign merchants address the governor of Canton, asking for permission to export raw silk freely, by paying only the proper duties. This was refused. Can. Reg., 8th Nov.

November 3d. By an edict from the governor of Canton, the pas- sage boats on the river were required, on passing the Bogue, to re- port themselves for examination.

5th. The following edict, from the Canton Register of Nov. 22d, is a specimen of the style in which the far-traveled foreigners are au- nually proclaimed to the native community in Canton.

  Tang, a president of the Board of War, member of the Censorate, governor of Kwangtung und Kwángsí, &c.; and Wáu, controller-general of the custoins at the port of Canton, issue hereby strict prohibitory orders.

"Whereas-as the words and speech and written language of the) various fo- reign rs who come hither to trade are different from those of China, the cere-

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monies, laws, prohibitions, and orders of the celestial dynasty they cannot very easily understand; on this account the security-merchants and linguists are or- dered to lord over and manage their trade; it is their duty to give unceasing instructions, suppress their pride and profligacy, that their hearts may be changed and themselves renovated; and, moved with gladness, dwell long in peace and obtain profit; each confining himself to his own station and employment. Aud the security merchants should be careful to preserve their respectability on ac- count of their estates and families, and conduct their trade on just principles, without fraud or falschood, then will men from afar put confidence in them.

 "Now we have inquired and found that formerly some of the hong-merchants were lawless and shameless; and when foreigners came to Canton and lived in 'heir factories, the avaricious amongst the hong-merchants hit upon a hundred plans to pay their court to them; some previously bought youths to be their dɔmestic attendants; or they invited women from the boats to lodge with them in their factories; which was not only injurious to our native manners and cus- toms, but gave occasion for much apprehension that some serious disturbances might occur.-At present, the foreign ships successively enter the port, and we have real apprehensions that there are some lawless ones amongst the hong" merchants, who still follow the old courses. Besides issuing secret orders to examine and seize, it is proper that we prepare strict prohibitions, as follows. The security-nierchants and linguists are hereby ordered, as well as the police. patroles, and constables, to fully inform themselves thereof. Henceforth, it is necessary you should all have regard to your characters, and thoroughly reform your foriner faults. All the foreigners dwell in the rear of the hongs, near the river; near there the tánkiá and other small boats are not allowed to remain; and the foreigners in their journeys, between the provincial city and Whampoa, are not allowed to seek for and hire the tánkiä people, nor go on board the other small boats. The foreigners are allowed to bring their own servants and attendants, originally they were not permitted to hire the people of the Inner Land, li they (the merchants and linguists) dare, as hitherto, to hire for the foreigners native servants and youths of tender age, and seduce them to spend the night, drinking, &c., in the river boats, or bring in loose women during the night into their factories,-when they are seized by the police, &c., or even should we hear only of such conduct, the lawless foreigners, as well as the security-merchants and linguists, shall be delivered over to the district magistrates, and punished with the utmost severity of the law. And if the local police and constables receive bribes and connive with the foreigners, when once their delinquency is heard of, they shall be first punished by wearing the wooden collar for a month, and then taken to the public offices and bamnboned. We, the governor and hoppo, have a firm grasp of the laws, decidedly we will not show the least favor. All should tremblingly obey, and truly not try experiments with the laws. A special edict. Tánkwáng, 16th year, 9th moon, 27th day." (Nov. 5th, 1836)

 22d. A public meeting was this day held in Canton, for adopting measures relative to erecting a tribute to the memory of the late cap- tain Horsburgh. Can. Reg. p. 198.

234. Several foreign merchants, charged with being engaged in the opium trade were ordered, in virtue of an imperial edict, to leave Canton within the period of half a month

Vol V.

ין .

166

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  28th. Sir G. B. Robinson, in the absence of any dispatches rela- tive to his "quiescent course of policy," declared his intention to per. severe therein. Corresp. p. 135.

  Mr. H. Holgate was appointed to succeed to the charge of the British Seaman's hospital at Whampoa.

  A General Chamber of Commerce was formed in Canton, at a pub- lic meeting held this 28th of November.

  December 13th. The orders for the expulsion of foreigners from Canton repeated, in an edict addressed to the hong-merchants. Vol. V., p. 467.

  14th. With the following note we close sir G. B. Robinson's official correspondence; it was written at Macao under this date, and ad- dressed to viscount Palmerston :

16

My Lord,-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of dispatches from your lordship, per ship Neptune, announcing the abolition of the office of chief superintendent of the trade of British subjects in China, and directing me to make over the archives and other documents of this establishment, to capt. Elliot, r. n. The commander of the ship Eleanor, being actually in attendance at my office, at the moment of their arrival, for the purpose of signing his manifests and receiving a port-clearance, I have no time to add more, than that these instruc- tions will be carried into effect this day, and that I shall further have the honor of addressing your lordship, by ships shortly about to sail for England. -Corresp. p. 136.

"I have, &c., (Signed) GEORGE B. ROBINSON' On the same day, captain Elliot, as chief superintendent, thus wrote to the same.

46

By a ship upon the point of sailing, I have the honor to acknowledge your lordship's dispatch of June 15th of this year, to my address, accompanying dis. patches from May 28th to June 15th, to the address of sir George Robinson.

   In conformity with these instructions, I have this day assumed the chief place in the Commission. And with the expression of my thanks to your lordship, I beg to convey my assurance, that I shall endeavor to justify the appointinent, by a steady determination faithfully to discharge the duties intrusted to ine. I apply myself to that purpose with a strong persuasion, that a conciliatory dis position to respect the usages, and above all, to refrain from shocking the pre- judices of this government, is the course at once most consonant with the mag nanimity of the British nation, and with the substantial interests at stake, in the maintenance of peaceful commercial relations with this empire. Being this impressed, my lord, I hope it will be a source neither of surprise nor dissatisfar. tion to yon to learn, that I do not propose to protract the actual interruption of our public communications, upon the ground that we have a right to a direct official communication with the viceroy. I will only add, that the very re- markable movements of this government in respect to the foreign trade actually in agitation, and the critical state of uncertainty in which the results still re- main, furnish me a strong additional motive for desiring to place myself at Canton as soon as possible

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"The manner in which I propose to re-open the communications with the viceroy, as the Select Committer was accustomed to conduct them, shall forin the subject of an early dispatch to your lordship."-Corresp. p. 139.

On the same day, the 14th of December, he addressed the follow- ing communication to the governor of Canton :

The undersigned has the honor most respectfully to announce to his excel. lency the governor of the two provinces, that he has this day received dispatches from the English government, appointing him to the station of chief English authority in China. In the actual condition of circumstances, with no English authority at Canton, and with great numbers of English ships in the river, having on board many hundreds of seafaring persons, and others little acquainted with the laws and customs of this empire, the undersigned believes his excellency will be of opinion, that he should be permitted to repair to Canton, with as little delay as possible, for the purpose of fulfilling the duties confided to his management. The undersigned has, therefore, the honor to request, that his excellency will be pleased to issue orders to furnish him a passport to proceed to the provincial city. In using his most carnest efforts to maintain and promote the good under. standing which has so long and so happily subsisted between this ancient and great empire and his own distant country, the undersigned can assure his ex- cellency, that he is only conforming to the strong instructions of his own govern. ment. The undersigned hopes he may permit himself to observe, in this place that no task could be more agreeable to his own disposition, than the duty of diligently seconding these wise objects, by the sincerest personal desire to con- ciliate the goodwill of his excellcnry. The undersigned has once more to offer his excellency the sentiments of his most profound respect, and will conclude with the expression of an ardent hope, that his excellency's administration of these provinces may be long and prosperous.

-Corresp. p. 142. (Signed) "Charler ELLIOT, Senior Superintendent." This address was accompanied by a short note to Howqua, senior hong-merchant; and under an envelop to him, was confided to the care of Messrs. Astell, Clarke, Jardine, and Dent; these gentlemen were requested to arrange a meeting with Howqua, and to deliver the governor's address to him. Four members of the Commission were to accompany captain Elliot to Canton.

22d. The address was duly forwarded and received by his excel- lency the governor, who, after noticing its reception and quoting it, thus proceeds:

"On the receipt of the above, I made examination, and find that since the English nation has had commercial intercourse here, it has, hitherto, established a Company, and appointed a chiof, second, third, and fourth supracargoes to come to Canton, and manage the trade. The foreign ships of the Company suc. cessively reached Canton on the 7th and 8th nonths of every year; and their cargoes having been changed, left the port and returi el home in the course of the 12th inonth, and of the 1st and 2d months of the following year. After the de. parture of all the foreign Company's ships out of the port, the chief supracargoes of the Company, and all the foreign merchants of the said nation, requested per.

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mits to proceed to Macao and reside there. Then in the 7th and 8th months, when the merchant ships of the said nation again reached Canton, the chief supra. cargo and the others, requested permits to repair again to the provincial city, lo transact the affairs of trade. This, the formner mode of practice, continued for a long period to be the unvarying rule.

   Not long since, in consequence of the dissolution of the Company, and the non-arrival of the chief supracargo, owing to which a man was wanting to take the general direction of these affairs, my predecessor in this government addressed a memorial to the throne, and ruceived the following imperial edict, That he should immediately command the hong-merchants to direct the private merchants to send home a letter, calling for the re-appointment of a chief supracargo, to re. pair hither to superintend the affairs of commerce, in order that the old ordi. nances might be complied with. Respect this! In respectful obedience hereto, my predecessor issued directions, and also commanded that a barbarian eye [or headman] should not be again sent. This is on record.

4

'Now, the said foreigner, Elliot, having addressed to me the abovc.cited informa. tion, it is doubtless my duty t report the same to the throne, for instructions how to act. But in the petition, I observe, that the maid foreigner designates himself an officer from afar,' which appears like the designation of a foreign eye, and is not at all that of a chief supracargo. This being wholly inconsistent with the mode in which things were heretofore conducted, and the following points not having been at all distinctly stated by him, it becomes highly important to inquire, before acting, whether, in consequence of the dissolution of the said Company; the said nation has made a change in her regulations? What office the said fo- reigner actually holds at present from the said nation? Whether his object in coming to Canton is in truth merely to control the several unconnected mer. chants: and if he is not at all to transact commercial business? And lastly, whether the dispatches which he states that he has received from home, are sent by the said nation's king or not?

"To make these inquiries, I send, as my deputy, Cháng Sing, magistrate of the d'strict Yangshán; I send also the sub-prefect stationed at Macao, and the ma. gistrate of the district Hiángshán. I, furthermore, issue this order to the senior merchants, requiring them on receipt hereof, as soon as possible to take their de- parture; and, in instant obedience hereto, to proceed speedily to Macao, that in the suite of my deputy, and of the local territorial officers abovenamed, they may investigate these particulars, viz.:-What office the said foreigner, Elliot, now holds from the said nation? In what respects he would come to Canton to super- intend the foreign merchants? Why a chief supracargo does not come from the said nation, in place of a foreign eye being sent? written credentials from the said nation's king? aim? And what is the number of individuals in his suito? On all these points the real facts must be speedily made [known] to me, that I may examine and decide accordingly.

Whether he has really received Whether he has any ulterior

"If, on examination, no covert purpose appear, then let orders be immediately enjoined on the said foreigner to reside for a time at Macao, and wait there till I. the governor, shall have sent in a memorial to the great emperor.

And as soon as I shall learn his majesty's gracious pleasure, I will then address a communica. tion to the superintendent of maritime customs, calling on him to grant a pass-

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port for the said foreigners to come up to Canton, and oversco matters. he thus comes up, he must comply with the old regulations, having a residence at Canton and another at Macao, and coming and going at the regular seasons. This is a law and ordinance of the celestial cinpire. The phraseology and subject- inatter of the said foreigner's address are reverential and submissive. It seems that he understands matters, and he will, therefore, doubtless be implicitly obedient in all things. During the residence of the said foreigner, for the present, at Macao, the local officers should still keep a diligent and faithful watch on him, day and night; and they must not allow the said foreigner to presume to leave Macao a single step, or to hold any cominunication or intercourse with people unconcerned. This is of the utmost importance. With trembling anxiety obey this, and oppose it nol. A special order." (Dec. 22d, 1836.)-Corresp. pp. 144, 145.

28th. Captain Elliot again addressed the governor, expressing the satisfaction he had selt in giving replies to the officers deputed by his excellency, and signifying his determination to remain at Macao until the emperor's pleasure should be known.

30th. Captain Elliot in a long letter under this date, to viscount Palmerston, thus describes what he had done and purposed to do.

"My Lord,-In my dispatch to your lordship of the 14th instant, I had the hon- or to state, that I should endeavor to open the communications with the provin- cial authorities forthwith; and that I should take an early opportunity to make known to your lordship the means by which I hoped to accomplish that object. I perceived that the recent arrival of your lordship's dispatches would afford me a favorable pretext for addressing myself to the governor of the two provin- ces; and I was mindful that any delay in the communication of my appointment ̧ might hereafter be construed into a point of a very suspicious nature, extremely ditficult of satisfactory explanation; I lost no time, therefore, in drafting the accompanying note to his excellency.

"Another reason, too, had alwys presented itself to me, in recommendation of this prompt application to the governor. It seemed that a communication for- warded on the very recent receipt of instructions from his majesty's government, would of itself be a state of circumstances well calculated to dispose the governor to lend a reasonable attention to moderate and unsuspicious overtures, respectfully submitted for his excellency's adoption.

44

 •The translation of this paper was sealed up and directed in the same form in which the Select Committee of supracargoes had been accustomed to superscribe documents to the governor's address. In other words, the superscription bore the Chinese character Pin, carrying in our language the signification of 'an address from an inferior to a superior.' It was then placed in an open envelop to the address of the senior hong-merchant, and the whole inclosure was trans- mitted with the accompanying confidential letter to the agents of the East India Company at Canton, and to two members of the principal British firms at that place. These gentlemen were selected as being the most proper persons through whom the first declaration of my appointment and official character might be made, with a view to the sufficient formal authenticity of the fact. Upon the morning of the 25th instant, I had the satisfaction to receive an official com- munication from the gentlemen to whom my address had been confided, covering an edict from the governor in reply to it, together with a note from Howqua

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      Your lordship will observe by the governor's edict, that he bas required me to remain at Macao pending instructions from his imperial majesty; and further, that his excellency commands certain officers and hong-merchants to visit me here for the purpose of clearing up some doubts which bad presented themselves to his mind, as to the nature of my appointment, and the duties I am to perform. The opinion I have formed of the tenor of his excellency's edict, (which it is material to observe, carefully abstaius from all notice of the events in 1834,) is, that the provincial government, and probably the court, would be well content to feel reässured in respect to the sentiments of his majesty's government upon those matters; and I have no doubt there is a disposition to draw to a close the present hazardous interruption of responsible communication and supervision at Canton.

"I would in this place take the liberty to remark to your lordship, that in the consideration of Chinese official papers, with a view to the detection of their real spirit, it has always seemed to me to be a point of principal moment, to weight the effect of any distinctly promised course of action, and to attach a very subor- dinate degree of importance to their mere phraseology. I would by no means be supposed to think that I hold the consideration of the language to be without use for the due estimation of the intentions or dispositions of this government, but I certainly am of opinion that it will always be found to be a sounder course steadily to look at the portions material of those instruments, and to draw our conclusions from these, than from the manner in which it is the custom of these people to dress or to cover up their purposes.

      · Testing the governor's edict by this principle, I would say that if his excellen- cy had informed me I must abide at Macao, without making a distinct specification of a line of proceeding upon his own part, I should have concluded that it was determined to adhere rigidly to the rule that the chief must be a trading chies. But coupled with the declaration, that the chief ought to be a trading chief, and that I must remain here for the present, the governor signifies with great plain- ness, not only that he knows I am not a trading chief, but that he will seek the imperial sanction to let me proceed to Canton; and in order to leave me in little doubt that this application will be successful, he describes the steps he will take till that sanction arrives. This, in my manner of considering the matter, is to ac- quaint me that it is determined to permit me to repair to Canton. But at the same time, I conceive that his excellency's desire is to be permitted to work out that end in his own fashion; that is to say, with due regard to a respectable inode of setting aside difficulties which it is so frequently the consequence of their jealous policy to create for themselves, as well as for others.

     "This edict, my lord, has appeared to me to justify some hope, that a point of no ordinary public moment is susceptible of attainment, namely, the direct im- perial sanction of the official character of a person at Canton, wholly unconnect- ed with trade, and I trust your lordship will approve of the terms in which I have replied to his excellency's edict, with the intention to promote that result.

"Upon the morning of the 28th instant, I received a visit from the hong-mer- chants, who had arrived at Macao with the mandarins deputed by the governor to seek some further explanation as to the nature of my office and duties, and upon the other matters noticed in his excellency's edict. These persons opened their mission by proposing that I should visit the mandarins; a course, however, which U declined, upon the ground that I had no particular communication to

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make to them; I remarked at the same time, that these officers must be in every respect better judges than myself of any necessity which existed agreeably to the governor's edict, that they should see me; at all events, if they were of the mind that we ought to meet, I could assure them that it would give me great pleasure to have the honor of receiving them at my house; if they did not consider it requisite, I should be glad to suit their convenience, by affording the merchants any verbal explanation in my power upon those points which appeared to the governor to need further explanation.

*

Renewed efforts were made in the course of the day to induce me to visit the officers; but I had strong reasons for declining to accede to that proposition; and I felt much satisfaction, that an obstacle (not of my creation) had arisen to prevent our meeting. It occurred to me that there was a possibility the mandarins night have propounded questions, with respect to the particular ship of war in which I came, and that the replies might have led us back to the consideration of events much better kept out of sight. Il, upon the other hand, I had declined to answer such questions, it was to be apprehended, that my silence might hrve been constructed into arrogant disrespect towards the governor, and have in- duced inconvenient heats and suspicions. With the merchants, unembarrassed by the presence of the mandarins. I was aware I stood in a far more favorable position. They would take all imaginable care to shape their questions in such wise as would make the avoidance of disagreeable topics no difficult matter.

"Upon the occasion of this last visit to me on the night of the 28th, the mer- chants intreated that I would give them something under my own hand to show to the mandarins; and I then caused the accompanying memorandum to be tran- slated, which I told them, they were at perfect liberty to hand to the officers. They wished me also to sign a string of answers which they had drawn up from my conversation, and from the paper just referred to; but this I refused to do, not that there was any violation of the truth in what they had said, but & could not recognise their right to place me on examination on any subject what- ever. If the mandarins thought fit to come, 1 remarked, we would discourse at large upon any point of question they proposed; but I never could consent to set my hand to questions put to me by persons in the situation of the inerchants. When they found that this was my resolution, they left ine, professing that they thonght the mandarins ought to be satisfied with what I had said, which I con- clude they were, as I learnt that the whole deputation departed the next day (the 29th instant) to return to Cauton, and report to the governor. I delivered to the merchants my reply to his excellency's edict.

"It is proper to state to your lordship, that I took occasion to tell the mer- chants in strong terins, for communication to the authorities, that I could not undertake, upon the part of his majesty's government, the least share of responsi- bility, for the adjustment of any dispute or difficulties which might arise at Can- ton, pending my protracted absence from that place, in conformity with the governor's desire.

 His excellency, in his wisdom and sense of justice, would admit that it was fit I should be placed in a situation to prevent and control before I could be called upon to manage and adjust. This was an argument very congenial to the mode of general reasoning in this country upon all points of responsibility; and they assured me that it should be earnestly pressed upon the governor's attention

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"In this early stage of my correspondence with your lordship's departinent. I would presume to observe, that I am not prone to attach easy credit to what I hear in respect to the temper and the views of the high native authorities. But upon this occasion, I certainly have a belief in the general rumor, that my ap- proaches have been acceptable to the governor, both in point of manner and malter. The translation of my first note was executed with all the care that the interpreters could give to it. And it is said by the Chinese to have drawn from bis excellency unequivocal marks of satisfaction.

I have to express my great obligations to Messrs. Astell and Clarke, for the zealous and very judicious manner in which they assisted me in the delicate task I felt myself called upon to impose on them; and I am also indebted to Messrs. Jardine and Dent, for their prompt concurrence in that transaction.

   "I have thus, my lord, once inore opened the, communicatious with this go- vernment; and I sincerely trust your lordship will see no reason to disapprove of my motives, or of the manner of my proceeding. I have acted under a strong persuasion, that all hope of peacefully carrying the point of direct official inter- course was futile; that the actual condition of circumstances was hazardous; that the instructions in my hand do not warrant the assumption, that I have any high political or representative character; and, finally, that the course itself which I have pursued is neither derogatory to the national honor, nor at variance with sound principles of public propriety and utility.

I shall venture to trouble your lordship, by an early occasion, with a few idens as to the mode by which, in my opinion, it would be judicious to preface and accompany an attempt to carry the point of direct official communication not only to the governor, but from the governor, whenever it shall appear that sufficiently urgent public grounds exist for achieving such a concession.

   'Your lordship will hear with satisfaction, that the trade at Canton is proceed- ing in tranquillity.

CHARLES ELLIOT."

-Corresp p. 139-142.

I have, &c.,

(Signed)

We have given-and it seems only right and just to give-captain Elliot's own correspondence as fully as seems requisite to explain his whole course; and if we can do this impartially, we shall be content to leave our readers to draw their own conclusions.

31st. A public notice was given this day, by the superintendents of the British trade in China, that over British subjects and ships their authority was to be considered as extended to Macao, as it had previously been to the port of Cauton, "without prejudice to the just rights, authorities, and sovereignty of the government of her most faithful majesty, the queen of Portugal, at Macao and the anchorages thereto subject."

(To be continued)

=

VOL XI

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I

ART. II. Liáu Chái Chi, or Extraordinary Legends from

Liáu Chải. Reviewed by a Correspondent.

MATERIALISM is the most prevalent system amongst the thinking Chinese. Without troubling themselves about a first cause, they con- trive to substitute a reciprocal working of the elements upon each other; and by this means they suppose matter was at first called into existence, and the present order of nature maintained. This is the orthodox creed, though not quite in unison with realities or facts. What is called the Course and Law of Nature by our infidel philoso- phers, to which they subject everything, the Chinese call revolving chaos and endless reproduction. Both parties are far enough from the truth, though the latter are more excusable. Most of the Chinese, however, admit the existence of spiritual beings, which are met with throughout all nature, though a few allow them to exert little or no influence in human affairs. Reason in whatsoever manner you will, you can never persuade them, that their whole being is mere mat- ter; and as some part partakes of a spiritual nature, there must like- wise be some connection between man and the world of spirits. In the same degree that man becomes enlightened, without the salutary influence of Christianity, he endeavors to rid himself of all relation- ship with the invisible world, and apparently succeeds in gaining this end, when he is again most forcibly thrown back upon a long ex- ploded creed, that there exists a most intimate union with beings unseen from whom he cannot sever himself. But the mass of the Chi- nese have not yet arrived at that manhood which coufers the privi- lege of believing nothing, except what is perceptible to the senses; they have not yet cast off the bonds that link them to another world; and as they do not know its nature, they have filled the universe with imaginary demons and spirits, to whom they suppose they owe some allegiance. That such is the case they prove mechanically, without any reflection, every day; and stores of incense and gilt paper bear evidence of a remembrance of their duty towards invisible beings. By a system of gross inconsistency, however, they bring down these existences to the level of sense, in images and prints, and look upon them as full substitutes for the originals. For though their represen- tations are in general nothing more than deified heroes and sages, they attach to their manes the same ideas, as to the spirits, genii, &c.

Such delusions, however, are not in strict accordance with the

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governmental regulations, and therefore the priests of superstition receive no stipend from their rulers. There are no benefices, no tithes, no emoluments, and all religionists must get on by their own wits. They manage, however, pretty well, by some means or other to gain a living, and even contrive to get temples and monasteries endowed, much to the scandal of the grave Confucianists. A reli- gious belief being a matter of necessity, and the government not providing for religious instruction, it is the duty of individuals as well as communities to make up the want, and this is done by joint subscription. Thus large and splendid temples are built, and hosts of priests maintained, who in the event of scanty supplies take to beg ging, or turn doctors and soothsayers.

It requires great exertions, however, to maintain their influence, for government does not even confederate with such a race, as that of the priesthood. Priests are never employed in offices of trust; nor are they remarkable for their learning and high moral qualifications. The greater part of the priesthood has sprung from the dregs of the people, and it is therefore no wonder that they are little esteemed. Many of them are persons who have taken refuge in a temple to save themselves from starvation, and few have taken the profession from religious motives. Their conduct inspires no reverence, and thus being without any solid claims upon the admiration of the multitude, they must principally depend upon their idols, their jugglery, and flat- tering the prejudices of the people, in order to retain a hold upon their minds. To effect this the Budhists have imported from Hin- dostan a multitude of legendary tales, which they disseminate amongst the ignorant. These stories either exalt the power of their gods, praising the unspotted lives of the priests, and narrating the many miraculous deeds they performed; or more commonly, holding forth the dreadful punishments of hell, which will overwhelm that sinner, who pays no regard to their tencts and leads an immoral life. In every large monastery these works are for sale, and no votary goes to the temple, without buying at least one of them.

   In this charlatanry the priests of Táu have been far behind those of Budha. For though they have likewise their books about genii and demons, their legendary literature is by no means frequently met with, nor are their tales as popular. It is however surprising how they maintain their sway by such lying fables, whilst the pure word of the eternal God is read with little attention, and seldom taken to heart. Their minds being darkened, that they cammot understand the way of eternal life, they turn to anything that will quiet then

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feelings respecting futurity, and for this purpose these books furnish abundant food.

The present volumes are legends, that refer principally to the doc- trines of the Táu sect. The first contains a good many advertise- inents and prefaces, according to the invariable rule of Chinese writings. The author's name is Pú Tsungling, a literary bachelor of Tsz'chuen in the department of Tsínán in Sháutung; he flourish- ed in the reign of Kánghi. The style of the work is highly admired, and this, together with the nature of the stories, causes it to be often read. Although many of the tales refer to the Táu sect, Budhists are sometimes introduced; but it contains also accounts of elis, fairies, ghouls, and spirits of all sorts, with wonderful narratives of animals endued with spiritual power, and other surprising tales.

Judging from the many copies in the hands of the people, we con- clude that it is rather a popular work. The Chinese in their leisure hours like to peruse such lucubrations, and to laugh heartily at them, though they at first pretend not to believe them. Their superstitions, however, are thus nourished, and they can never free themselves entire- ly from the incubus. There is nothing that can liberate man from this thralldom except true Christianity, which in all its bearings produces a healthful state of mind, and whilst it makes us acquainted with bliss eternal before the throne of God and of the Lamb, it introduces us likewise to an innumerable company of saints and angels in light. When we are familiarized with these sacred objects, we feel indeed the utmost contempt for such superstitious fables. Otherwise no faith in fate, or in the laws of nature and destiny, which is frequently disguised under the name of Providence, can permanently rescue us from error.

To give some idea of the work before us, we here transcribe a variety of its stories. An old priest of Táu had died, and his spouse entered the house with great wailing. On a sudden they heard loud exclamations from the old man, and a crowd of people ran into the room where the body was laid out, and saw to their great surprise, that the dead man had revived. On being question- ed about his resuscitation, he related, that on expiring he remem- bered his pledge of bringing with him a whole set of skeletons, and had revived in order to come back and setch them, and expressed a wish that his wife might accompany him; after this he should die again. The old woman remonstrated against his intention of again leaving this world, as he had now acquired the means of enjoying its pleasures. But he was inexorable, and obliging his wife to lie

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down with him, notwithstanding she was supported in her remon- strances by the whole family, they both shut their eyes and began to sleep. On nearer inspection it was found, that the eyelids of both husband and wife were already closed in death, and they never came to life again.

There lived a family in Kwangsí, who, exposed to repeated wars, lost their whole property, and the husband as well as his wife were carried into hopeless captivity. But there remained still two brothers, who, reduced to poverty, used to go to the forest in order to collect firewood. Whilst thus engaged, one day, a tiger rushed from his Jair upon the youngest of the two, who, apparently killed the fierce. animal, but, having been severely wounded, he all at once disappear- ed in the jungle. His brother was inconsolable at his loss, and after pining a few days, died broken-hearted. The relations deeply af flicted by this calamity, thereupon consulted a sorcerer, who lived in the village. This man was only too glad to charge himself with bringing them to life again, and therefore repaired instantly to the city. Here he cited a whole host of spirits, and set them immediate- ly to work to resuscitate the young man that had lately died. As soon as the latter felt the return of his faculties, he again immediate- ly instituted a search after his brother, but without the slightest suc- cess. Happening, however, to be in a remote town, he saw a splendid cavalcade pass him, and perceived in the rear a young gentleman superbly dressed, who kept his eyes steadily upon him. Having all at once dismounted, he went up to the broken-hearted sufferer, and exclaimed, "You are my brother! Come with me to the office and I shall relate to you the events that have taken place since I saw you last. When the tiger had gone, I fell, from loss of blood, into a but by the service of propitious spirits, my wounds were dress- ed and I was brought to a rich family in office, where I myself at- tained a high rank." Upon further inquiry it was found, that the ma- tron of this house was the mother of the unfortunate wight, and that his father had risen to the rank of general and afterwards died, leav- ing behind him another son.

swoon,

      There lived a family in a commercial district, the father of which had by several wives a number of children. As his consorts were not all equal in rank, two having been taken from the lowest grade, their respective offspring assumed authority over each other, and this gave rise to litigations. When the father had died, they omitted, on account of mutual jealousy, to bury him according to the established rites, and even came to blows, whilst the corpse of their parent was

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still upon the earth. This animosity grew more virulent, every day until the magistrates had to interfere, and one of the brothers having been severely punished for sacking the house of his sister-in-law, a pause ensued, and the propositions of one of the combatants was lis- tened to. They went thereupon with one accord to their parent's grave, and having made the customary sacrifices and genuflections, harmony spread through them all, and they selt the growth of frater- nal love in their hearts. From this state of mutual goodwill, they were however suddenly roused, by their neglecting to pay honor to their progenitor; and whenever they neglected to pay due honors to the dead, it always produced altercation amongst themselves. The same feeling existed amongst their children, until they discovered the cause of the mischief, and thenceforth became inore attached to each other.

A minister of state, in his excursions, happened to fall in with a monastery, and as rain was approaching, he resolved to wait there until the shower was over. Here he met several priests of Budha, whose behavior was very singular, and amongst them an old man, who on his entering paid not the least attention to the illustrious visitor. On being asked to explain such rudeness, he answered, "I was once a minister of state like yourself, but wearied of worldly honors, I have retired to this quiet place, and care for nobody." The traveler being tired, soon fell asleep, and beheld a number of genii approach- ing him in the shape of beautiful females, whom he received under his protection. After this he was present at an imperial audience, and being charged with very important matters, he executed them with promptness, but studied his self-interest, oppressing the people and driving them to despair-a behavior which was quite in accor- dance with his real disposition. But these acts of cruelty drew forth a series of accusations, which were sent to court, and the emperor re- solved instantly to destroy the worthless servant. He however had previous warning of his impending fate, and immediately fled into the mountains. There he met a band of robbers, who surrounding him, threatened to murder him instantly. But he begged hard for his life, and one of the desperadoes springing forward to examine more close- ly his features, all at once exclaimed; "Indeed this is the villain who drove us to the necessity of adopting this mode of life," and imme- diately severed his head from his body. A demon close at hand put them together again, and hastened with his booty to hades, where he presented the statesman to a grim monster, the director of the punishments of hell, who pronounced his doom. He was then fed

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     to a cauldron, m which some oil was heated, till the vessel became red hot, and this was poured down his throat. This excruciating pain made the victim repeatedly ask for death as a boon, but this was not granted, and after being duly tormented, the demons took him over a mountain, which was beset with sharp swords; and finally tied him to a wheel, which by its rotation almost smashed his body to pieces. He was then ordered to be born as a women, and in this shape he suffered a great deal of bad treatment, so as to drive him al- most to madness. Having to undergo some other severe punishment, he suddenly awoke, and seeing the priests all sitting around him, he inquired about the interpretation of his dream. As they however, refused to give him a satisfactory explanation, and his heart sinote him, since he had committed crimes fully deserving punishment, like that he had undergone in his dream, he refused to return to court, and went into obscurity in the mountains.

     A gay young man was fond of the society of beautiful ladies, and very impudent and bold to gain a sight of them. Once on a day he was walking out and perceived a very handsome lass, fair as a houri, and according to his custom ran after her, and trudged along her side for a considerable distance. Instead of being coy, the nymph was very affable, but the unfortunate swain, on fixing his eyes more and more upon her smiling countenance, lost his sight, and soon found himself in utter darkness; and upon examining into this change, he perceived a white spot, that had grown over his whole eye. IIc spent several years in utter blindness to expiate for his frowardness, and was not restored to sight, until he had done penance, paid the priests their fees, and prevailed upon them to intercede in his behalf with the fairy, who had struck him blind.

     There lived a rich man in Chili, who was exceeding generous and entertained every stranger, who came to ask for his hospitality. More than a hundred individuals sat at his festive board, and he was really delighted, if he could give his guests a good repast, and make them merry. But the money soon winged its way, and he became a poor man. During his prosperity he had formed a matri- monial alliance with one of his friends' daughters, but on becoming destitute, the damsel was refused to his son. Her parents having found out a richer suitor prevailed upon the daughter to marry him. As she was a very comely woman, the bridegroom considered her an acquisition. But on the day of the wedding, the bride defaced her features and escaped to the house of her ancient lover, vowing never to part from him.

She remained notwithstanding all remonstrances

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to the great regret of her parents. Since this catastrophe, misfortune upon

  misfortune had come over her father's house, and when he was reduced to starvation, her generous partner who had again realized great property, hastened to the parental house, and there relieved the sufferers of their anxiety and want, by presenting them with a large sum of money. And this man had formerly been sent away from the door of his father-in-law, because the sum of money, which he brought as a dowry, was not considered sufficient. So much for the generosity of this noble minded man.

A young husband lost his wife and was sorrowing for her loss, when the cold hand of death also removed his concubine.

Being inconsolable, he retired to a solitary cupola in the garden to indulge freely in his grief. He was sitting up late and reading a book, when suddenly the figure of an old woman gliding along the wall made him startle. He had, however, assurance enough to meet the spec- tre boldly, and ascertaining that it was a hobgoblin, drove it forth- with out of the room. Very soon afterwards, there appeared the shadow of a very beautiful woman, which the disconsolate husband was anxious to catch. The figure seeing no escape possible, began to assume the human form, and addressed the mourner: "A number of women are buried under your house, and being envious of your consort, we killed her.

All of us have assumed the shape of demons, and hover about at pleasure; the old woman you saw before was my duenna when alive, and also serves me in hades. If you wish to have accounts of your late wife, I shall appear to you regularly every evening, and become the courier of your desires to your spouse.' When the husband heard this he was greatly delighted, and instantly closed the bargain. This intercourse had lasted for some time, when the ghostly visitor declared, that she must now revenge her own death, for her husband by his improper conduct, had forced her to hang herself. The case had never been sufficiently investigated, and she was now going to Shantung to bring the whole matter before the pro- per tribunal. But I cannot walk, she added, and you must therefore give me a horse to ride upon. The widower readily agreed to pro- vide her with a charger, but stipulated, that during her absence, his wife should be allowed to have interviews with him in a private apartment unknown to any one in the house. To this the fairy easily agreed; the husband had a proper horse made, burnt it at his door, and she rode off instantly to the court of justice. The shade of his wife now came regularly, and the intercourse grew daily more and more endearing, when one evening she began to complain of dreadful

"

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pain, and the malignant influence of demons. "You will," she said, "never be happy as long as you mingle in our society; my loss is irreparable, but bear it as well as you can, and never come again to this place." Having uttered these words, he saw her extended a corpse, and thenceforward never intruded again on the forbidden ground.

     A mother bore a child, which from the day it came into the world could speak, and she nourished it with dog's milk. When the boy grew up, he was very expert in classical lore, and the doating mother flattered him with the prospect of marrying a princess, who was the only proper partner for such a genius. But years elapsed, and no princess made her appearance, and as the lad grew up to manhood, he was rather anxious to seek a partner in life, and extremely dissa- tisfied with his mother's ambitious views. Whilst he was in this fretful mood, there came a splendid cavalcade, and a nymph-like virgin stood forward to inform him, that she was the princess, destined by her relations to become his consort. The youth was overjoyed, and wished to show his affection to the beautiful bride, when the latter warned him off, remarking, that they must previously proceed to business; and first of all she said, this house does not suit your fu- ture companion in life, and therefore take this sum of money and put it in proper order. The youth looked at the cash so unexpectedly put at his disposal, when the whole apparition suddenly disappeared. His mother immediately concluded, that it was merely a company of hobgoblins, that wished to play a trick on her beloved, and therefore forgot the whole matter, whilst her son, who could never chase from his mind the beautiful form of the princess, considered the whole a reality. The money, however, remaining in his possession, he inade a very good use of it, and most generously spent it amongst his friends. Being accustomed to play a game of chess with some of his boon companious till late at night, he came home after midnight, and there found to his great astonishment, that the thieves had plun- dered his house and left him not a single article. His mother could not survive the loss, and died of fright, whilst he himself went into a jungle. Here he was suddenly attacked by a tiger, which fairly carried him away in his mouth, and then threw him down before the gate of a palace. What was therefore bis astonishment when the identical princess came to salute him, and after having condoled with him on account of the death of his mother, requested him to resume all the rights of a husband. After some time, however, she disap- pcared, and he had long to wait for a second interview. By degrees

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he got a large family of sons and daughters, all of whom without ex- ception proved reprobates, unworthy of such parents.

 A mandarin was on his way to the capital, bat fell very sick; and being unable to proceed, stopped in his boat, whilst his complaint grew every day worse. His servants observing that their master was dying, immediately resolved to throw him overboard, and then seize upon his effects. Their consultations, however, were overheard by a female, who went on board, took away the body, put it into her own boat, and then pulled away. On perceiving the livid color of the whole body, she addressed the dying man, saying, you are wandering amongst the dark regions of the grave, and cannot expect to live much longer, but I have a medicine, that will restore you to bealth again. She therefore handed him a pill, which he immediately swal- lowed, and then began gradually to recover. After this he was nursed by the same woman with a wife's care, and thus soon recovered. Having arrived at the capital he received fresh proofs of the fervent attachment of this lady, but could never persuade himself that she was a human being. Once he had lost the seal of his office, and could nowhere discover it, but the officious and kind-hearted nurse indicated its place in an instant, and thus saved the officer from de- gradation. Instead however of showing gratitude, the officer became more and more suspicious, and on a certain night, when he had re- turned home at a late hour, he discovered his benefactress to be a spirit, and would immediately have dispatched her with his sword. She awoke, however, betimes, and with a scornful look said: "Un- grateful wretch, thou canst not feel the obligations thou owest to me; receive therefore the award of thy base behavior, and throw up the pill that saved thy life!" He did so instantly, was again afflicted with his former disease, and died in consequence.

ART. III. Topography of Kiángsú; boundaries and situation of

the province; its area and population; departments and districts; rivers, lakes, mountains, productions, &c.

FORMERLY, and until the peaceful and prosperous times of the pre- sent dynasty, the provinces of Kiángsú and A'nhwui were united in one, under the name of Kiángnán; so they are described by Du

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Topography of Kiángsl.

211

Halde, and often so spoken of at the present day. Thus, the govern- ment of the Liáng Kiáng includes, together with these two provinces, that of Kiángsí. The province is bounded on the north by Shán- tung; on the east, by the sea; on the south by Chekiáng; and on the west, by A'nbwui and Hònán. Its shape, on native maps, is rhom. boidal, with the longest sides running from the northwest to the south- east, and the shortest from east to west. The extreme north is in lat. 35° 10′, and the southern limit in lat. 31° 20′, giving an extent of 3° 50′ from north to south; in longitude it extends from 5′ to 5o 5′ east from Peking. Of the line of coast little is known, except that it is studded with the low islands and sand banks, evidently formed by the disemboguement of the two great rivers, the Yángtsz' kiáng and the Yellow river. Commencing at the northeast on the sea, following closely the line of demarkation, you run first northwest, then west, and round the south, crossing and twice recrossing the river Mu; thence due west across seven small streams, and then turning short to the south you run down to and over the Grand canal; going on a little to the south, you then turn to the northwest and sweep around to the southwest, to the Yellow river. Thus far you have Shantung on one side of the line. On the south of this river, for a short dis- tance, perhaps fifty miles, the province borders on Honán, and the line runs from the northwest to the southeast. It now separates this pro- vince from that of A ́nhwui, and runs first east, then south, and again east, or rather southeast; and in this direction it continues on to the sea, dividing Kiángsú from Chekiáng.

Its area must be nearly that of Chekiáng, which has been estimat- ed to contain 39,150 square miles, making 25,056,000 English acres. The population is much larger than that of Chekiáng, being put down at 37,843,501 souls.

    Kiángsú is divided into twelve departments, and sixty-seven dis- tricts it having 8 fú, 1 chili ting, and 3 chili chau, with 2 ting, 3 chau and 62 hien-the names of which are as follows, taken from the imperial authority.

1.

Kiángning fú; or the

Department of Kiángning, includes seven districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 32° 4′ 30′′ N., and long. 2° 18′ 34′′

E. of Peking, and 118° 43′ 34′′ E. of Greenwich.

1上元 Shángyuen,

3高淳 Káushun,

2 L Kiángning,

4

Küyung,

江寧

Topography of Kiangsu

7 A Luhó.

212

5

Kiángpú,

6溧水 Lishui,

II.

Súchau fú; or the

APRIF.,

Department of Súchau, includes ten districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 31′ 23′ 25′′ N., long. 4° 0′ 25′′ E. of

Peking, and 120° 25′ 25′′ E. of Greenwich.

1

Wú hien,

2 長洲 Chángchau,

6常熱 Chángshu,

7 昭文 Cháuwan,

3元和 Yuenhò,

8

Kwanshán,

4

YI Wúkiáng,

9新陽 Sinyáng,

5震澤 Chintse,

10

Táihú ting.

III. I

Sungkiáng fú; or the

Department of Sungkiáng, includes eight districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 30° N., and long. 4° 28′ 34′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 53′ 34′′ E. of Greenwich.

1華亭 Hwating,

2婁縣 Lau hien,

3 in Ễ Nánhwái,

4 奉賢 Funghien,

IV.

5金山 Kinshán,

6上海 Shánghái,

7川沙廳 Chuenshá ting

8 Tsingpú.

Chángchau fú; or the

Department of Chángchau, includes eight districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 31° 50′ 36′′ N., long. 3° 24′ 17′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 49′ 17′′ E. of Greenwich.

1

2 it

Yánghú,

Wútsin,

3 宜興 Thing,

4 荆溪 Kingki,

V.

5金匱 Kinkwei,

6 ! £B Wúyáng,

7

Kiángyin,

8 靖江 Tsingkiáng.

Chinking fú; or the

Department of Chinkiáng, includes four districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 32° 14′ 26′′ N., long. 2° 55′ 43′′ E.

1

of Peking, and 119° 20′ 43′′ E. of Greenwich.

Tántú,

2丹陽 Tányáng,

3 金壇 Kintán,

4溧陽 Liyáng.

1842

VI.

Topography of Kiángsú.

Hwáïún fú; or the

Department of Hwái'án, includes six districts.

213

Its chief city is situated in lat. 33° 32′ 24′′ N., long. 2° 45′ 42′′ E. of Peking, and 119° 10′ 42′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 山陽 Shányáng,

2鹽城 Yenching,

4

A'ntung,

5 清河 Tsingho,

3阜寧 Fauning,

6桃源 Táuyuen.

VII.

Yángchau fú; or the

Department of Yángchau, includes eight districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 32′ 26′ 32′′ N., long. 2° 55′ 43′′ E.

of Peking, and 119° 20′ 43′′ E. of Greenwich.

1

Kiángtú,

5寶應 Páuying,

2甘泉 Kántsiuen,

6興化 Hinghwa,

3 儀徴 Iching,

7東臺 Tungtái,

4 高郵州 Káuyú chau,

8秦州 Tái chau.

VIII.

Süchau fú; or the

Department of Süchau, includes eight districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 34° 15′ 8′′ N., and long. 0° 57′ E.

of Peking.

5碭山 Yángshán, 6豐縣 Fung hien,

1銅山 Tungshán,

2睢寧 Shuining,

3宿遷 Sutsien,

7沛縣 Pei hien,

4 蕭縣 Siáu hien,

8

Pei chau.

IX.

Háimun ting; or the

Department of Háimun, has only one district,

海門 Háimun.

X. H Hái chau; or the

Department of Hái, includes two districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 34° 32′ 24′′ N., and long. 2° 55'

47" E. of Peking.

1 沐陽 Muyang,

2灝榆 Hányi.

214

XI.

Topography of Kiangsú.

Tung chau; or the

APRIL.,

Department of Tung, includes two districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 32° 3′ 40′′ N., and long. 4° 12′ 42′′ E. of Peking, and 120° 37′ 42′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 如辠Jükáu,

XII. 太倉州

2 Táihing.

# #

Department of Táitsáng, includes four districts.

1 là if Chinyáng,

2 嘉定 Kiáting,

Táitsáng chau; or the

3寶山 Páushán,

4

Tsungming.

 The latitude and longitude of some of the chief towns of this pro- vince have not been ascertained, or, at least, have not been given by any Europeans. However, they are marked on the Chinese maps with sufficient clearness to enable us to describe their positions accu- rately enough for the general reader.

I. The department of Kiángning includes the ancient Nánking, or the Southern capital-once the most celebrated city of China, whether regard be had to its extent, its buildings, its manufactures, or the character of its inhabitants. The department comprises seven districts: two of them, Shangyuen and Kiángning, have the resi- dences of their chief magistrates in the provincial capital: Küyung, the chief town of the district of the same name, and the residence of its chief magistrate, is situated on the east of the department; Lí- shui and Kaushun are on the south; Kiángpú is on the west; and Luho is on the north. This department forms the southwest portion of the province; on the north and northeast it is bounded by the de- partment of Yangchau; on the east, by that of Chinkiáng; and on the west and south, by the province of A ́nhwui. Its greatest extent is from north to south. The Yangtez' kiáng flows through it, so dividing it that about one third of its area is on the northern, and the rest of the department on the southern, bank of that majestic river.

The members of lord Amherst's embassy are, we believe, the only foreigners who have visited Nánking in modern times; and it is from their writings that we select most of the few particulars which we have to give regarding that city. It stands on the southern bank of the river, and distant from it about three miles. Several canals lead from the river to the city, and also one road, on which some of the members of the embassy walked to the northern gate; this gate is a

1842.

Topography of Kiangsu,

215

 simple archway, thirty-five paces broad, the height of the wall forty feet, and its width seventeen. Mr. Ellis, and three of the other gen- tlemen of the embassy, succeeded in passing completely through the uninhabited part of the city, which at present seems to comprise much more than half of the whole area within the walls. The outline of the city, as marked by the walls, is very irregular, approaching to a right angled triangle, the southern wall being the base, and the western the perpendicular, nearly twice the length of the base. Mr. Ellis and his friends visited one of the vapor-baths, "where," he says, "dirty Chinese may be stewed clean for ten tsien, or three farthings each the bath is a small room of one hundred feet area, divided into compartments, and paved with coarse marble: the heat is con- siderable; and as the number admitted into the bath has no limits, but the capacity of the area, the stench is excessive." Another gen- tleman of the embassy, Mr. Poole, says the outermost of the three compartments was lined with closets for the reception of the clothes of bathers, who undressed in this division of the establishment. The closets were all ticketed. One was called the bath of fragrant waters. The two other divisions of the buildings were beyond the first: the largest, on the right hand, containing three baths, about six feet in length, and three in width and depth. "At the time of our visit, they were filled with Chinese, rather washing than bathing themselves, who stood upright in the water, which was only a few inches deep, and threw it by turns over each other's backs. There appeared no intention of renewing the water, thus become saturated with dirt, for the use of many other Chinese who waited their turn in the outer apartment. The steam arising from it, however fragrant to the senses of the Chinese, was to mine really intolerable, and drove me away before I could ascertain in what manner the baths were heated. I just looked into the adjoining room, and found it furnished with mat- ted benches, and that it was used by the bathers to dry themselves in before going to dress in the outer apartment." The walls of Nan- king, judging from a specimen carried away by Abel, are built of grey compact limestone, which he says frequently occurs in quarries in its neighborhood. Mr. Davis speaks of a striking resemblance be- tween the city of Nánking, with the area within the walls but par- tially inhabited, and ruins of buildings lying here and there, and that of Rome. Le Comte's account of the Porcelain pagoda may be found in the first volume of the Repository, at page 257.

II. The department of Súchav is nearly square; it lies on the south of the Great river, and extends southward from it to the pro

216

Topography of Kiangsu,

Arril,

vince of Chekiáng, having the departments of Táitsáng and Sung- kiáng on the east, and that of Chángchau on the west. The magis trates of three districts have their residences at Súchau: these dis- tricts are, Chángchau on the east, Yuenhò on the west, and Wúhien in the middle between the two. From Súchau the chief town of the department, the districts of Kwanshan and Sinyáng lie on the east, their chief magistrates both (judging from the map) residing in one city; the districts of Wúkiáng and Chintse lie on the south, their inagistrates likewise both dwelling within the same walls; the district of Táihú is situated on an island in the Great-lake, and hence its name (Táihú ting); the remaining two districts, Chángshu and Cháu. wan, are situated on the north of the department, their chief magis. trates residing in one and the same city, near the "Great river,"-as the Yángtsz' kiáng is emphatically and very commonly called.

"Above," say the Chinese, "there is paradise (or the palace of heaven) below are Sú and Háng;" i. e. the cities of Súchau and Hángchau. All that was said, in the last number, in praise of Háng- chau, may be said, with equal propriety, of Súchau. We subjoin, however, some additional particulars, collected from one of the his- tories of the department: the work is called

                      Súchau fú Chí, and is comprised in forty octavo volumes, making eighty-two chapters, besides long and labored introductions.

Among the remarkable things noticed in these introductions are thesiun hing, or "imperial visits,"-if we may translate the phrase by giving its equivalent, instead of the literal sense of the two words: siun means to go round, as a circuit judge, and as the ern- perors used to do on tours of inspection: hing means to bless, as the emperor does any and all places that he visits. Kánghí twice visited Súchau, once in the 23d year of his reign, and again in the 28th- Kienlung also visited the city repeatedly.

Chapter 1st comprises several maps, showing the shape of Súchau, the city, and the whole department, with all its districts and principal rivers and lakes: it also containskú kin yuen ke piáu, a list of all the ancient and modern names which the place has had at different times: with #yuen ke cháng tsie, minute and clear explanations of the reasons for these changes. Its most ancient name was Yángchau, and it was then without the pale of civilization; subsequently it was called Wú. This name it bore in the times of the Three Kingdoms.

Chapter 2d comprises two topics; the first is Tj ¦ & fun

1842

Topography at Kiangsu

207

yé sing kwei; the second is

siang i. The phrase fun ye sing kwei has reference to that part of the heavens under which the place is situated, and its bearing in regard to the sun and other ce- lestial bodies. Under the second phrase, tsiáng í, are noticed in chro- nological order, all the strange and ominous occurrences that have happened at Súchau-such as eclipses, falling stars, appearances of comets, earthquakes, famines, plagues, locusts, inundations, hurri- canes, remarkable births, talking dogs, strange sights, miraculous events, fruitful seasons, droughts, running and falling of mountains, square eggs producing a monkey, &c.

Chapter 3d gives the

shape of the department.

kiáng yi, and hing shing,

Chapter 4th details the particulars of the ching chí, cities

and moats, giving their dimensions, gates, &c.

Chapter 5th enumerates and describes, first the governmental offices, and then the

and governmental post-office or caravansaries.

kún chú,

tsáng yi, granaries,

Chapter 6th describes the hiáng tú, large and small vil-

lages, and the

shi chin, markets, marts, &c.

fang hiáng, streets, lanes, of

Chapter 7th enumerates the

various sorts and dimensions.

Chapter 8th gives the names of all the kiáu liáng, bridges, and kwán tsin, passes.

Chapter 9th gives the names of the shán fau, hills and

mountains.

  Chapter 10th describes the shúi táu, water courses, such as lakes, rivers, canals, &c.

  Chapter 11th is occupied with the hò hing, or form of the rivers, giving their dimensions, &c.

Chapters 12th to 15th are occupied with the ✯ ‡ shúi lí, or

water privileges.

Chapters 16th to 19th contain lists of the bearers, through all the successive dynasties.

Chapter 20th contains the

from the Chan dynasty downwards.

chi kun, office

hú kau, or censuses, extending

Chapter 21st relates to the fung su, or manners and cus-

toms of the people.

Chapter 22d enumerates the

wu chán, productions of all

sorts, animal, vegetable, mineral, and manufactured.

VOL AL NO IP

28

218

Topography of Kiangsu

APRIL,

Chapters 23d to 26ith relate to the hit tien fù, taxes of various

kinds.

Chapter 27th relates to those classes of persons called

yúu yu, who are employed by the officers of government, as niessen- gers, keepers of prisons.

Chapter 28th describes the institutions of learning, called

hió hiáu, which terms includes colleges, and all the minor schools.

Chapters 29th to 34 relate to

suen kü, the selected and

elevated men, who are chosen for high service in the government.

Chapter 36th relates to the military defenses, the ping fang, i. e. soldiers, &c.

Chapters 36th and 37th describe the various kinds of sacrificial rites, under the head of

tsz' sz'.

Chapters 38th to 40th relate to

houses, such as temples, monasteries, &c.

tsz' kwán, the religious

Chapter 41st relates toti tse, the dwellings of the people, describing their situation, &c.

Chapter 42d is filled with notices of the yuen ting, gar- dens, pavilions, arbors, &c.

Chapter 43d contains notices of the

tombs, &c., of distinguished persons.

chung mú, graves,

Chapter 44th relates tokú tsi, the antiquities of various

kinds, such as monuments, pagodas, and the like.

Chapter 45th contains notices of literary productions, under the head of 藝文iwan.

Chapters 46th to 53d are filled with hwán tsi, or reminis- cences of those who have served the state.

Chapter 54th contains

fung tsió, or lists of those who have

been honored with titles: it is a chapter on heraldry.

Chapters 55th to 66th contains

distinguished men.

lie chuen, or memoirs of

Chapter 67th contains notices of háu yiú, persons distin-

guished for their filial duty.

Chapter 68th contains notices of

chung í, or those who

have distinguished themselves by loyalty to the state.

Chapters 69th and 70th relates to 文學 wan hiỏ, the literature

and its authors.

Chapter 71st relates to the twu lió, or military men, herves

of all ranks.

1842

Topography of Kiangsú

Chapter 72d relates to

persons who have come from

this departmeut.

219

liú yú, sojourners and residents, other parts of the empire to reside in

  Chapter 73d relates to tu hing, private actions, or notable deeds performed in private life.

Chapter 74th gives notices of &c., who, though possessing ability,

Chapter 75th relates to

of all ranks.

yin yi, hermits, recluses, chose to live in retirement. hau fi, queens and imperial ladies

  Chapters 76th and 77th notice such as have in any way distinguished duct.

lie ni, eminent women, themselves by their good con-

  Chapter 78th relates to the shu, or fine arts, painting, and the like.

  Chapter 79th describes the Shi Tan, the religious sects of Budha and the Táuists.

  The remaining chapters, 80 to 83, are filled with miscellaneous notices, under the head of

tsáh kí.

This brief outline of the statistical History of Súchau will afford the reader some idea of the manner in which all things belonging to that department are described. Every province, and almost every department and district in the empire, has its statistical history, in which, as in the one above noticed, a great amount of information is collected and arranged. Volumes of historical, statistical, and de- scriptive information, regarding Súchau, might be compiled; but these miscellaneous notices are all that we can now give.

  III. The department of Sungkiáng comprises eight districts- one ting and seven hien. It forms the southeast portion of the pro- vince, and is of a triangular shape, having Táitsáng chau on the north; the sea on the east and west. The districts of Hwating and Lau hien have the residences of their chief magistrates at the city of Sunghiáng. Northeast from this city are Shanghái and Chuensha; on the east, is Nánhwái; on the southeast, is Fung hien; Kinsh ́n is on the south; and Tsingpú on the north. Shanghái ranks among the largest and richest commercial cities in the empire.

  IV. The department of Chúngchau is of a square form, having Tungchau on the north, Súchau on the east, Chekiáng on the south, and Chinkiáng on the west. Nearly one third of its area is covered with water, the Great river passing through it on the north side, and one half or more of the Great lake lying within its southern border

220

Topography of Kiángsú.

APRIL,

The chief magistrates of Yánghú and Wútsin have their residences at Changchau: north from this city, and on the northern bank of the Great river, is Tsingkiáng; on the east are Kiángyin, close on the southern bank of the Great river, and Kinkwei and Wúyáng, the chief magistrates of the last two both residing in one and the same city; on the south are the departments l'hing and Kingkí.

V. The department of Chinkiáng is a narrow strip of territory stretching from the Great river on the north to the province of A ́n- hwui on the south, having the department of Chángchau on the east, and that of Kiángning on the west. The district of Tántú has the residence of its magistrate at the city of Chinking, close on the southern bank of the Great river; Tányáng is also not far from the Great river, southeast from Chinkiáng; Kintán is near the middle of the department; and Líyáng is near the southern border. Du Halde says this department "is one of the most considerable, ou account of its situation and trade, being one of the keys of the empire towards the sea, and at the same time a place of defense, where there is a strong garrison."

VI.

The department of Hwái'án extends from the mouth of the Yellow river, along both its banks, to the western banks of the lake Hungtse. Its chief city "is in imminent danger of being drowned," for the ground on which it stands is lower than the canal, which in several places is supported only by banks of earth: "six miles off," says Du Halde, "it has a borough named Tsingkiáng pú, which is as it were the port of the Yellow river, large and populous; and there resides the surveyor general of the rivers." The department contains six districts: the magistrate of Tanyáng resides at Hwái'án; north from this city, is A ́ntung; to the northest from it is Fauning; east is Yenshing; west and northwest are Tsinghó and Tányuen.

VII. The department of Yángchau is likewise an extensive re- gion, bounded on the north by Hwái'án, on the east by the sea, on the south by Tungchau and Chinkiáng, on the southwest by Kiáng- ning, and ou the west by A'nhwui. It is nearly square in its form, and no inconsiderable portions of its surface are covered with water. It comprises eight districts: two, Kiángtú and Kántsiyen, have the residences of their chief magistrates at Yángchau, which stands not far from the northern bank of the Great river; I ́ching stands near it to the southwest; the Great river forms the southern boundary of these three districts. Directly east of Yángchau is the district of Tái or Tái chau; farther towards the northeast is Tungtái. Hing- hwá stands in the center. On the north is Pángying and on the

1842.

Topography of Kiángsu.

221

west Kányú chau: in this name, and Tái chau, the last character or syllable, chau, does not constitute a part of the name, but is merely an equivalent for hien, a district.

     VIII. The department of Süchau comprises eight districts, in- cluding the whole northwestern part of the province, on both sides of the Yellow river, west of the department of Hwái'án. There are four districts on the south side of the river; Tungshán, the seat of whose chief magistrate is at Süchau, stands midway between the extremes of the department; northwest from thence is Siáu hien and Yáng- shán; and in the opposite direction to the southeast, is Suining. On the northern side of the river, to the northwest and east are Peichau

and Sutsien.

IX. The department of Haimun is geographically described by its name, which, literally translated, means the marine gate, or gate of the sea. It is an island and stands in the mouth of the Great river, northwest from the greater island of Tsungming.

     X. The department of Hái is bounded by Shántung ou the north and northwest, on the east by the sea, on the south by Hwái'án, and ou the west by Süchau. On the west and southwest, the river Mu forms the boundary of this department, or runs very near it, making a right angle at its sonthwest extreme.

XI. The department of Tung is of a triangular shape, situated on the northern bank of the Great river at its mouth, so that the sea forms one of its sides, the river another, while the third side is bounded by the department of Yangchau. The chief towns of both of its districts stand some distance removed from the chief town of the department: the latter is on the south, Jükáu is on the west, and Táihing is on the northwest of the department.

XII. The department of Táitsáng stands on the sonthern bank of the Great river, at its mouth opposite to the department of Tung on the northern bank. It has four districts; Chinyáng on the west; Kiáting and Páushán on the south and southwest; and Tsungming stands on an island of the same name; and it was there that mid_ shipman Hervey was killed, and a site, near which he fell, is now Galled Hervey Point. Du Halde, speaking of the island, says, that it has three kinds of soil; the first is on the north, wholly uncultivated, and covered only with reeds; the second extends from the first to the sea on the south, and yields two crops annually; the third " con- sists of a greyish sort of earth, dispersed, by spots of the bigness of two acres, over several parts of the island on the north; it yields so great a quantity of salt, that those of the contineut are supplied with

222

Topography of Kiangsu

APRIE

it, as well as the islanders. It is pretty difficult to account whence it is that certain portions of land, scattered here and there over the whole country, should be impregnated with salt to such a degree as not to produce a single blade of grass; while at the same time the lands contiguous to them are very fertile, both in corn and cotton. It often happens also that the fertile lands, in their turn, become salt, and the saline lands fit for sowing."

Probably no territory in the world, of similar extent, is better watered than the province of Kiángsú. The Yángtsz' kiáng, the Yellow river, and the Great canal, a vast number of lesser streams and branches, with several extensive lakes, afford easy communica- tion by water through almost every part of the whole province. The list of rivers, if made complete, would far exceed that given for Che- kiáng. But we shall not, in this article, attempt to give an account of them in detail. The entrance of the Yángtsz' kiáng was quite unknown to European navigators, previously to the surveys which were published in the last volume. We trust that all who may have the means of acquiring additional information, will kindly communi- cate such for our pages. The embassies of Macartney and Amherst traversed the province, and both on the same course from the fron- tiers of Shantung to the Great river; there Macartney's turned to the left, and passed on to Hángchau; while the second turned to the right, and proceeded up the Yangtsz' kiáng. To the several volumes written by the members of those two embassies, our readers are refer- ed for many valuable notices of men and things seen in their jour- neys. Staunton, vol. II. p. 398, &c.; Ellis, p. 194; Abel, p. 148; and Mr. Davis's new work, noticed in a former number.

There are no mountains, and but few hills, in Kiangsú, the whole province being for the most part one unbroken plain.

The productions are quite the same as those already enumerated as found in Chekiáng,-certainly they are no less in number nor inferior in quality. To Europeans the province presents a rich field for research and observation, regarding the country and its products, the people and their manufactures. Dreadful indeed must be the desolations in this province, if it becomes the theatre of war, as very likely it may in the coming season. Most of its large cities, and they are many, can be approached by small vessels and steamers; whilst vessels of the largest class can, it is believed, move up the Great river quite across the province; and those of the middling class, with the steamers, will probably have no difficulty in reaching the great Jake Poyang.

1812

A Chinese Chrezkanoating

ART. IV. A Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect. By E. C. Bridgman. Macao, S. Wells Williams. 1811. Super-royal octavo. pp. 728. (Continued from p. 161.)

PRELIMINARY to a notice of the Chrestomathy, some desultory ob- servations were thrown together in the last number, regarding those who are now studying the Chinese language. The number of stu- dents thus engaged, as was there shown, is by no means inconsider- able; and, considering the time they have devoted to the study, and the means they have enjoyed, we see no cause to complain of the proficiency they have made. Looking, however, at the present exi- gencies of the case-in a political, commercial, or religious point of view-who will venture to say that the men and means employed by foreigners in the study of this language are one half, or even a third part, of what they ought to be? A moment's consideration of exist- ing circumstances will serve to make more evident the desirableness of increased attention to this subject.

For political purposes, five times the present number of men are now needed; and probably ten times as many as are now employed could find immediate and ample demand for their services. When lord Jocelyn had been only six months with the English expedition In China, and when its operations had not one fifth of their present extent and magnitude, he thus wrote on this subject:

"One of the greatest difficulties and drawbacks to the expedition has been the want of interpreters; and it is a requisition of such vital importance for all future negotiations, that some steps ought to be taken to remedy the evil. There is no doubt that most of the disagreements between the soldiery and the people, and likewise our want of supplies, arose from the difficulty of making bargains and agreeing upon prices, when there were no linguists to interpret between the parties."

This is strong testimony; and every intelligent man connected with the expedition will, we doubt not, give the same. Similar, and even stronger, language than that of lord Jocelyn, we have often heard ex- pressed regarding the want of interpreters. Had proper means been adopted, and sufficient inducements held out, many years ago, these present embarrassments would have been avoided; and instead of five, the British government might now command fifty interpreters. It must be acknowledged, however, in excuse, that many years ago, they had no conception of the necessity there would arise to emplov We know that the East India Company did afford somm

So many.

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encouragements to induce the young men in their factory at Canton to study the Chinese language. We know, also, that both at Malacca and Singapore the British government has made grants of money fur the education of Chinese youths. Yet neither at the Straits of Ma- lacca nor in China, either at any previous time or at present, has this subject received all the consideration which it demands from the British government; while by all other governments, the Portuguese only excepted, it has received little or no attention, nor were their circumstances such as to require it. We are glad to know, however, that her Britannic majesty's plenipotentiary has not allowed this sub- ject to escape his notice; and we congratulate the friends of Chinese education on the assurances, which his excellency has been pleased to give, not only of a willingness, but of an anxious desire to promote this laudable object by every possible means, public as well as private.

Commercial affairs, it is true, have been managed with a tolerable degree of satisfaction to the foreign factors, through the agency of native linguists,-if it be proper so to designate a class of men, who are as notorious for their double-dealing as they are for their igno- rance, they being unable to read or write a word of English or of any other foreign tongue. As the losses occasioned by these men have fallen chiefly on that government which gave them their appoint- ments, and upheld them therein, the foreign merchants have had much less cause, than otherwise they would have had, for complaint. Still they have often complained, and not without reason.

But if, as many hope, the days of these linguists and of the monopoly of the co- hong, are about to cease, it is needless to expose the malpractices of either the one or the other of them.

Religious considerations hitherto have effected far more than all others, in promoting the study of the Chinese language. The conduct of the East India Company was remarkable. When a poor and "ob- scure individual" asked for a passage in one of its ships to China, it was denied him, and he was compelled to seek a conveyance "by an indirect course;" and not only so, but after his arrival in China he was obliged to "continue as an American." One year and a half, however, had not elapsed, before the factory of the said E. I. Com- pany sought for the services of this obscure individual, offering him a salary of £500 per annum. This offer was accepted, because but for his connection with the Company's factory, it would have been necessary for Morrison to leave China. Though he continued to act as translator and interpreter as long as he lived, his labors as a Christian minister and missionary were never interrupted till his life

1×12

A Chinese Chrestomathy

225

closed. Motives similar to those which brought Dr. Morrison to China, have led to the East almost all those who are now engaged in studying this language. The number of these students, as has been cnumerated, is by no means equal to the exigencies of the case. The cause of revealed truth has claims on Christendom for a multi- tude of able and learned men, who, making themselves masters of this language, as the country becomes accessible, shall make known to its inhabitants the glad tidings of salvation and all the benefits of modern science.

  The principal works now extant designed to aid the student in the study of the language, were enumerated in former volumes. See vol. III.

p. 11., and vol. VII. p. 113. Several new ones may now be add- ed to that list, and among them is the Chrestomathy.

  As its title indicates, the Chrestomathy is designed to furnish a series of easy lessons, comprising simple instruction, or that which is plain and useful. Its object is threefold: to aid foreigners in learning the Chinese, to assist native youth in acquiring the English tongue, and to show how far this language can be acquired and express- ed through the medium of the Roman letters. Throughout the work, the English, the Chinese characters, and their sounds occupy three parallel columns on each page. The Chinese, in the middle column, is written in the local dialect, excepting only the extracts from the classics and other standard works, law phrases, with forms of edicts, &c., making in all, perhaps one quarter of the whole work. The English, in the column on the lest is a translation of the Chinese; and the sounds, or the Romanized Chinese, fill the column on the sight. A few notes and explanations, designed to illustrate the text, are sup- plied at the bottom of each page. The following is a specimen of the inode of arrangement: chap. III. sec. 1.

1. Pray sit down, (says

the host, and the guest

responds)

Pray sit down.

2. What is your honor-

name?

My humble surname

is Lau.

"Ts'ing tsó'.

請坐

"Ts'ing tsó'.

尊姓呀

Tsun sing' á'?

小姓劉

'Síú sing' Lau.

  The body of the work is preceded by an introduction, in which the orthography adopted (substantially that of sir William Jones), the tones, &c., are explained; some cursory remarks on Chinese gram- mar, literature, &c., are added; to which is joined a list of Chinese books, 165 in number, selected from the imperial catalogue

YOL ΧΙ NO IV:

The

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A Chinese Chrestomathy.

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catalogue is divided into four parts: 1, Classical writings, in ten scc- tions; 2, Historical writings, in nine sections; 3, Professional writings (including arts, sciences, and religion) in fourteen sections; and 4, Miscellanies, in five sections. This catalogue is in itself a very valuable work, comprised in one hundred and twelve duodecimo volumes of 140 or 150 pages each. It is called, literally, the Four Treasuries, from the four departments into which the works compris- ed in the library are divided. The 165 works enumerated in the Chrestomathy constitute but a very small part, probably not more than one fiftieth, of the whole library; but we have not the means of ascertaining what may be the exact number. It is no doubt one of the largest collections of books in the world. One simple work-the Great Classical Collection of the emperor Yungló of the Ming dy- nasty-contains twenty-two thousand eight hundred and seventy- seven chapters, making, as Chinese books are usually bound, at least 1400 volumes!

The Chrestomathy is divided into seventeen chapters, each of which we shall briefly notice-partly for the purpose of showing what the work is, and partly for the sake of placing on the pages of the Repository a variety of information which will, perhaps, be accepta- ble to the general reader.

Chapter Ist is on the 'Study of Chinese,' comprising exercises in conversation, reading, and writing. On this last topic, there is given one of the best systems, now in vogue among the Chinese. Wáng Yúkiun (called Wong Yaukwan in the Canton dialect) is the author of this system of writing, which in many respects corresponds to those which are common in the west: the work contains twelve plates, il- lustrating the several methods of holding the pencil, to which are added explanations with examples of all the different strokes which occur in writing Chinese. Elegance in writing is highly esteemed by this people, and great care is taken by scholars to secure the ac- complishment. Copy-books are numerous; and all the examples, contained in one of the most approved works, are introduced into the Chrestomathy, in a series of copies, ninety-two in number.

Chapter 2d contains words and phrases, used when speaking of the Human Body,' which the Chinese regard as a microcosm. "The circuit of the heavens," say they, "has three hundred and sixty de- grees; the human body also has three hundred and sixty divisions; in the heavens are stars and constellations, with the sun and moon ; in man also are the heart, liver, spleen, and lungs; hence he is call- ed, siâu tien fi, little heaven and earth, that is, a microcosm. Many

A Chinese Chrestomakhy

***

of the phrases in this chapter are selected from those maxins and short sayings, for which the Chinese language is remarkable. Such are the following. The eye is the best index of a man's character.' 'Words may act a deceitful part, but the eye cannot play the rogue.' Bitter words are good medicine.' From the mouth come peace and war; peace is mild, war is destructive; thus from the words of the mouth, are these two diverse effects: how greatly ought such springs of evil and of good to be feared.'

4

Chapter 3 comprises phrases relating to the Kindred Relations.' The following is an extract from the fourth section selected for the Chrestomathy from the Memoirs of Distinguished Women.

"In the education of females, the first object of their attention is their virtue ; the second is their language; the third is their deportment; and the fourth is their appropriate work. Confucius said, 'let the woman be in subjection to the man.' Therefore, she has no part in the direc- tion of affairs; but there are three whom she must obey while under the paternal roof, she must obey her father; after marriage, she must obey her husband; and when he is dead, she must obey her eldest son: in no case may she presume to follow her own will. There are seven causes for putting away a wife; namely, disobedi- ence to her parents, barrenness, wantonness, jealousy, incurable disease, loquacity, and thievishness. There are five things which may prevent a woman from being taken as a wife; if she belong to a vicious family, a rebellious family, to one whose members suffer- ed capitally, to one afflicted with incurable disease, or if she be the elder child, and has no brother." In the last section of this chapter are collected inost of those terms which are in common use to desig- nate near and distant relations among the Chinese; 149 are enume- rated, and others might have been added.

Chapter 4th gives a collection of phrases appropriate to different classes of men-sages, worthies, heroes, bards, &c. Although there are no castes in China as in India, still there are several classifica- tions worthy of notice. Among the ancients, all were divided into four classes-scholars, husbandmen, mechanics, and merchants. They have also a threefold division. They say, men of the highest order are good without instruction; men of the middling class are good after they have been instructed; while those of the lowest grade are bad in spite of instruction." In the several sections of this chapter there are also collected a variety of maxims, of which we give a specimen or two. The purpose of the hero is that which cannot be The genius of the poet never

moved by musie

(

beauty of gam

225

A Chinese Chrestomathy

APRIT.,

goes beyond what is pure and elevated.'

'Those who in ancient

times were called wise men, are now esteemed fools.' Among the

sages Confucius is preeminent, and they thus celebrate his praises:

孔子孔子大哉孔子 孔子之前從無孔子 孔子之後更無孔子 孔子孔子大哉孔子

Confucius, Confucius, how great is Confucius!

Before Confucius, there never was a Confucius!

Since Confucius, there never has been a Confucius!

Confucius, Confucius, how great is Confucius!

Chapter 5th relates to 'Domestic Affairs,' and is divided into twelve sections. The first gives an account of the manner of renting houses in China; the second enumerates, in alphabetical order, all the va- rious apartments and parts of houses, and these are moulded into phrases which are in common use. All the most common articles of furniture are specified, in the same manner, in the third section; the number runs up to 252. Articles of dress and of the toilet are speci- fied in the same way in sections fourth and fifth. Section sixth is in dialogue, and comprises phrases for the bedroom. In section seventh, 174 articles of food are enumerated, also in alphabetical order. Sec- tion eighth is in dialogue, with the steward of the house, afford- ing a large variety of such phrases as are in daily use. Phrases for the breakfast table are given in the ninth section; those for the dinner table in the tenth; and those for the tea table in the eleventh. Rules for visiting, observed by the Chinese, are given in the twelfth section.

In chapter 6th, 'Commercial Affairs' are treated of in the same mauner. You have first described the method of renting shops and warehouses; next you have 236 commercial articles and terms enu- merated, and when necessary defined; the regulations of the govern- ment for the native pilots are next given; then all the different kinds of teas are specified; dialogues on buying and selling goods, descriptions of Chinese coins, and all the varieties of silk, then fol

1842

A Chinese Chrestomathy

low; and the chapter closes with the celebrated edict of commissioner Lin for the surrender of opium. In consequence of this cdict 20,283 chests were immediately surrendered, and afterwards destroyed, un- der Lin's superintendence near the forts at the Bogue.

In chapter 7th,' Mechanical Affairs' are treated of, and in detail, the names of all common articles, mechanical operations, mechanical implements, are enumerated, and when necessary, described. The naines of colors are also given.

The 8th chapter is occupied with 'Architectural Affairs.' Ships and carriages and all their appendages are described under this head. In chapter 9th, the implements, operations, and importance, of 'Agriculture' are the leading topics of discourse.

  Chapter 10th is devoted to the 'Liberal Arts.' "I have heard peo- ple speak of the six liberal arts in China; may I ask what they are? 'They are,' it is said in reply, 'etiquette, music, archery, charioteer- ing, writing, and arithmetic.'" Each of these six forms the subject of a separate section; in the second, under the head of music, is given a pretty full account of musical instruments, which are formed on five principles.

  Chapter 11th is devoted to 'Mathematics.' Here are specified the different methods of notation in use among the Chinese: and also their common rules of arithmetic, measures of length, of capacity, weights, land measures, and measure of time; with notices of try, trigonometry, and astronomy.

geome-

  In chapter 12th, 'Geography' is the leading subject. The shape of the earth and meteorology are noticed in the first and second sec- tions. In the third, the nations of Asia are enumerated; those of Europe are given in the fourth; those of Africa in the fifth; and those of America in the sixth. Some of the principal islands of the sea are noticed in the seventh; and in the eighth and ninth are brief- ly described the territorial divisions of the Chinese empire and of Canton province.

C

Mineralogy' is the subject of chapter 13th, which gives the names of the minerals and metals most common in China.

·

  Botany' is the subject of the 14th chapter. The various parts of plants are first enumerated and described. Then are given alpha- betical lists of forest trees, fruit trees, vegetables and grains, orna- mental flowers, and a collection of miscellaneous plants.

'Zoology' is the subject of chapter 15th. Here the different parts of animals are first described, and then are enumcrated the animals of different kinds-mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes (246 in number) crustacea and mollusca and insects

230

A Chest Chrestomathý

APRIL,

Conversations on medicine, nosology, materia medica, anatomy, and surgery, are the leading topics treated of in chapter 16th, under the head of Medicine,' which the Chinese call 'the benevolent art,' and is esteemed second only to the literary profession. The medical college at Peking arrange all diseases into nine classes-those affect- ing the pulse violently, those affecting the pulse slightly, those arising from cold, diseases of females, ulcers and cutaneous diseases, those needing the acupunctura and cautery, diseases of the eyes, of the mouth and teeth, and of the bones.

C

Governmental Affairs' are treated of in the 17th chapter, divided into eight sections. The first gives an index-view of the whole Penal Code of China, by specifying all the 436 heads under which that body of law is arranged. The various titles given to the emperor are enumerated and defined in the second section. In the third are notices of the imperial family. The Inner Council of state is de- scribed in the fourth; the General Council in the fifth; the six su- preme Boards in the sixth; and the Colonial Office in the seventh. A list of official titles, 462 in number, are given in the eighth and Jast. Two indexes, one general, containing nearly twelve thousand articles, and a small one comprising proper names, close the volume. From the foregoing synopsis it will be seen that a very large num- ber of topics are treated of in the Chrestomathy. On many of these topics if we mistake not, it will be found one of the best sources of information within the reach of the general reader. Regarding Chi- na and the Chinese, there are probably very few single volumes that contain more information than the one under consideratio. We speak freely, yet we trust impartially, on this point, because we wish to recommend the Chrestomathy to the friends of Chinese literature in general, as well as to the students of the language in particular. "And if the Chrestomathy shall aid in bringing about a better state of rela- tions between foreigners and the Chinese, and in facilitating a more friendly intercourse, desirable and useful alike to all, the object of its publication will be fully gained."

Charest Sematary Bataria

231

ART. V Report of the Chinese Seminary, Parapattan, Batavia,

under the direction of the Rev. W. 11. Medhurst, and others. [We are always happy in being able to give our readers reports of Chinese schools: the following needs no comments from us. In laying such state- ments before the public, special care should be taken, not only to make them accurate, but to give them interest, by the detail of facts, showing what the school is in all its parts, and what are the advances mady by all the pupils. The education of Chinese youth, in European literature, and Christian know- ledge, and modern sciences and arts, deserves the countenance and support of all who love their fellow-men. More attention must be given to this sub- ject; and more teachers, and better books, must be had, and as the number of students in the language increases, we may expect an increase of facilities for learning it; and this we are gratified to know is to some extent the case.]

 THE above Institution has been in existence about three years. At first it contained 24, and latterly 34, Chinese boys, born in Batavia, who have hitherto been boarded, clothed, and educated in it. They reside and study on the mission premises, and return home only once a fortnight, and at the year's end. They are employed solely in learning, which cccupies them about twelve hours every day. They have one English master, and two Chinese teachers, to suit the two different dialects spoken by the boys. The Chinese lessons are given early in the morning and late in the afternoon, while the English studies occupy the rest of the day. In Chinese, are employed as schools books the New Testament and the works of Confucius; in English, the New Testament, Martinet's Catechism of Nature, a Catechism of Geography, the English Grammar, and the spelling- books of the British and Foreign School Society are used. The boys translate everything they learn in English into Malay, and are employed every morning in rendering the Chinese Testament into English, or the English Testament into Chinese. They have com- mitted to memory Watts' First and Second Catechism, together with a scheme of Christian doctrine drawn up by some clergymen of Cal- cutta. They attend morning prayers in English every day in the chapel, when they alternately read a portion of the New Testament and answer questions on the same. In the evenings they join in Malay worship, besides attending every service, English, Malay, and Chinese which are beld on the mission premises.

  An examination in Chinese was held on the 25th of January last, when they stood the competition with the boys of several indigenons

chook

who learn only Chinese, and carried off a fair proportion of

232

Chinese Seminary. Batavia

APRIL.

prizes. At that examination the learners were required to repeat any given passage in the Four Books of Confucius, to explain it in the colloquial dialects, and then to write it off without looking at the ori- ginal; which if well done would present a tolerable proof of the ex- tent and accuracy of their acquaintance with the Chinese author. No prize was awarded unless these three things were promptly and correctly done, and though the boys had only a week's notice of the examination, they acquitted themselves as well as those whose atten- tion was solely directed to Chinese studies.

On the 2d of February, an examination was held in the English language, when the boys replied to a number of queries on Christian doctrine, displayed a familiar acquaintance with the general geogra- phy of Europe, aud answered from memory all the questions in the English Grammar, published by the Irish Board of Education, regard ing the various parts of speech, from the article to the interjection, which could not be done without possessing a complete knowledge of the whole. They were also prepared with a treatise on natural his- tory, which they had committed to memory, and with some transla- tious of their own from Malay into English, which there was not time to hear.

   Several of the boys, however, were called up, and asked to read in an English book which they had never before seen, and this they did not only fluently and well, but rendered it at bidding into Malay, or gave the meaning of difficult English words by more fami- liar expressions, without hesitation. In arithmetic they have advanced to reduction of money, weights, and measures; and though their pen- manship is not elegant, they are ready scribes, having to write out in English a great part of what they learn. Their dispositions are do- cile and industrious, quarreling is seldom heard of, and theft is un- known. They have a full persuasion of the impropriety of worshiping idols, and say that they believe in the doctrines of the Gospel. The seeds of Divine truth have, however, been implanted in their minds, and may we not hope that their confidence in heathen systems will not only be shaken, but that by the teaching of the Holy Spirit they will be brought at no very distant period to see the importance of giving their hearts to God, and believing in his Son Jesus Christ?

The sympathies and assistance of a Christian and benevolent pub- lic are solicited in behalf of these interesting youths; such an under. taking, it is evident, cannot be conducted without expense. As far as the instruction is concerned we may look for aid to London Mis- sionary Society; but they expect, and not without reason, that while Their Board provides the means of imparting knowledge, the funds

1842.

Journal of Occurrences

233

necessary for feeding and clothing the children should be raised on the spot.

Hitherto not much above one half of the sum required for the board of the seminarists has been contributed by the friends of education in the vicinity, in addition to several presents of cloth for the boys, but it is hoped that now the feasibility and utility of the scheme has been established, such assistance will be rendered as will enable the conductors of the Seminary to maintain it with efficiency and success. The state of the cash account for boarding and cloth- ing the boys in the Chinese Seminary, at Parapattan, is as follows;

In 1839, received ƒ 412:50 In 1839, paid f 846:26 In 1840, do.

761:73

In 1841,

do.

302:46

In 1840,

do. In 1841, do.

885: 18 880:05

Total, f 1476:69

Total, f 2611:49

  Donations and subscriptions to the above object will be thankfully received by

W. II. MEDHURST,

ART. VI. Journal of Occurrences: attack on Ningpò and Chin- hái by the Chinese, and their defeat; circulars of their excel· lencies sir H. Pottinger and sir H. Gough regarding it; Amoy ; disgrace of Yen Petáu; fortifications on the river; U. S. A. ships Constellation and Boston; list of their officers; notice from commodore Kearny; smugglers; Friend of China and Hong- kong Gazette; regulations for the post-office and currency of Hongkong.

ARRIVALS from the north during the month have brought the particu- lars of a simultaneous attack by the Chinese upon the British forces at Ningpo and Chinhái, a movement it would seem they had been preparing for some weeks previously to its actual execution. The following circular was issued by H. M plenipotentiary immediately after the receipt of the intelligence.

CIRCULAR TO HER BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SUBJECTS IN CHINA.

Her Britannic majesty's plenipotentiary in China has great pleasure in an- nouncing to her majesty's subjects the complete repulse of two bodies of Chinese troops which attacked the British positions at Ningpò and Chinhái at daylight on the morning of the 10th of last month.

During the whole of February, almost daily intelligence reached the head- quarters of her majesty's forces showing that the Chinese high authorities con- templated some active operations, but they were from time to time deferred on such frivolous pretences, that it appears their excellencies the naval and military commanders-in-chief had gone over to Chusan to make arrangements at that place preparatory to a forward movement of a portion at least of her majesty's com- bined forces.

VOL. XI NO IN

30

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Journal of Occurrences

APRIL

In this state matters remained until the date and home above mentioned when a considerable body of Chinese, estimated at from 10,000 to 1:2,000 men, advanc cỡ upon the south and west gates of Ningpò, got over the walls and penetrated to the market-place in the centre of the city, where they were met by our troop. and instantly driven back with great loss; in fact, it would scem that the moment the Chinese troops found themselves so warmly received, their sufe object was to get out of the city as fast as possible, and in their retreat to the south gate, the field guns drawn by ponies came up and opened on a dense wass with grape and canister, at a distance of less than 100 yards About 250 dead bodies were found inside the walls, and when the accounts came away, her nuje ty's 49th regi ment had not returned from the pursuit of the discomfited and flying enemy.

Whilst these operations were progressing on shore, a number of fire boat- (sampans) lashed together with chains, were floated down the river, and were towed into the mud by the boats of the Sesostris, steamer. In the meantime a gun was brought down a lane in the eastern suburbs (across the river) and as the mhabitants had been previously warned that any such attempt would bring chas fisement upon them, her majesty's ship Modeste opened her guts, and did great execution in that quarter. The attack on Chinhai was much more feeble. enemy advanced to the north gate, where they were driven off by the guard, and followed by one company (afterwards reinforced by three others) of her majesty's 55th regiment, who killed 30 men and two others in the pursuit.

'The

Simultaneously with the attack on the city of Chinhai, fire sampans chained together were set adrift to burn the shipping at that anchorage, but they all went on shore above the ships of war and merchant vessels, and did no sort of harm.

Shortly before these impulses, verurred, the Nemesis, steamer, was sent from Chusan to reconnoitre the island of Taisam (Tái shán), where it was understood Chinese troops were collecting with the purpose of attacking H. M. forces at Ting hái The steamer sent her boats into a creek where they were fired on, and in consequence commander Collinson and fient. Hall landed the steamer's ship's company, when the Chinese fled with the loss of about thirty killed and a num ber wounded. The steamers boats then set fire to a number of junks which had also fired on her, and returned to Chinhái. Their excellencies the naval and mi litary commanders-in-chief had gone back to Ningpo, and proposed to follow up the repulses the enemy had experienced, by active measures.

It affords her majesty's plenipotentiary the highest satisfaction to close the ircular by stating that in these attempts of the enemy, her majesty's combined forces bad not lost a man. The latest intelligence from the head-quarters of the Chinese army south of the Hángchan river speak of the troops being in almost a state of insubordination, and in want of supplies, &e. The emperor had ordered, that the provinces which are the seat of war should bear the expenses of it, and as the inhabitants seem resolved to make no further sacrifices, there appears every probability of the army dissolving itself, and becoming totally disorganized. God save the Queen.

Henry Pottinger, 11. M. Plenipotentiary Dated at Macao on the 1st day of April, 1×42.

This repulse was shortly after followed up by offensive measures Detachments from the 18th, 26th and 19th regts, and a body of ma rines, in all about 1100 strong, marched against Tsz'ki; the circum- stances of this movement are thus announced.

Circular To II. B. M 's subjects in Chisa,

Her Britannic majesty's plenipotentiary in China has the highest satisfaction in announcing to her majesty's subjects that he has this day received official in telligence that a body of Chinese select troops, estimated at from 8000 to 10,000 men, partly forming the garrison of the district city of Tsz'kí, (10 miles from Ningpo) and partly posted in a strongly fortified camp on the heights close to that city, were totally defeated with the loss of all their gims, small arins, ammunition, stores, camp equipage, &c., (both in the city and camp) by her majesty's com bined forces on the 15th of fast mouth.

Acconials Inal for some time before reached their excellencies, the naval and mildary commanders in clued of the a mblage of troups at Tsz kapid as there

1842

Journal of Occurrentes

  was reason to believe they intended to refire on Pikwan forty miles distant, in consequence of the repulses sustained by the Chinese forces at Ningpó and Chin- hái on the morning of the 10th March, their excellencies determined to make a rapid movement in the hope of bringing them to action before they could re trogade. The troops, seamen and marines were accordingly embarked in the Ne- mesis, Phlegethon, and Queen steamers, lowing a number of boats of the squadron, early on the morning of the 15th, and after proceeding 16 miles by the river, and marching five, reached Tsz'kí at half past three o'clock, when a fire was opened or them by some guns from the ramparts, and a considerable body of inatchlock men, who retired on receiving a few rounds from two small pieces, and the walls were immediately escaladed without resistance.

The chief body of the British troops, &c., marched round outside the town, and were joined at the east gate by the escalading party, where the whole had an excellent view of the Chinese forces entrenched on two distinct lofty hills in front, and on the left. Arrangements were directly made for advancing to attack and dislodge them as nearly as possible at the same instant. This manœuvre suc- ceeded admirably, and although the enemy disputed the possession of their steep and difficult position so obstinately that many instances of hand to hand combat occurred, II. M.'s forces gallantly and steadily persevered in their ascent under an unceasing fire, until their summits were gained, and the rout of the Chinese army became complete at all points, and was followed up by a pursuit which was continued till sunset.

Whilst these operations were going on upon the heights, the small steamers, Phlegethon and Nemesis accompanied by some of the boats of H. M. ships, pro- ceeded up a branch of the main river leading in the direction of the intrenched camp, where they destroyed a number of gun-boats and fire vessels; and shortly after, on the fugitives from the Chinese camp passing near them, they landed their small crews, and pursued them in various directions, putting a number hors de combat. It is estimated that the enemy could not have lost fewer than 1000 men killed, in these different affairs, independent of a great number that were carried off wounded, and amongst whom are known to have been many man. darins and officers of rank.

Her majesty's plenipotentiary has not received the return of casualties in her majesty's land forces, but he regrets to mention that three were killed and fifteen wounded (most of them severely) in the naval brigade.

The British forces remained the night of the 15th in the Chinese deserted camp, and the next day, after the necessary delay of embarking the wounded, destroying the guns, wall-pieces and matchlocks, as well as the useless provisions and am- munition, and burning the camp and barracks; the commander-in-chief pushed forward to a second entrenched camp about seven miles from Tsz'kí at the Chángkí pass, but it was found that it had been evacuated during the night, and atter destroying the works, and burning everything that was ignitable, including the joss-house and other buildings, which had been converted into magazines or barracks, H. M.'s forces returned to Tsz'kí the same evening, and to Ningpo on the 17th. God save the Queen.

Hesry Pottinger, H. M. Plenipotentiary. Dated at Hongkong Government House, 8th April, 1842.

The slaughter made among such of the Chinese troops as pene- trated into the streets of Ningpd in this bold attack to surprise their enemies, seems to have been so great and disastrous as to completely paralize the whole force, so that those who were able thought only of escaping from immediate destruction. Four or five dollars were found in the dress of most, if not all, of those killed. The force which was driven from Tsz'kí contained a large portion of remarkably ath- letic able-bodied men, and the corps as a whole was much superior to what had been met on previous occasions. The Chinese officers too had chosen their position with considerable military skill.

A pawn- broker's shop of great extent was found at Tsz'kí, similar in many

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respects to that which was found in Tinghái in 1840. H. E. sir Hugh Gough issued a General Order subsequent to each of these actions.

General Orders by his excellency lieut..general sir Hugh Gough, a. C. B., com- manding expeditionary land force in China.

Head-quarters, Ningpò city, 14th March, 1842. 1. Lieut.-general sir Hugh Gough congratulates the troops both at Ningpo and Chinhái, on the recent gallant repulsc of the Chinese, in their bold and well-plan- ned night attack upon these cities. All those employed manifested the spirit which the lieut..general feels assured that the whole of the troops would have displayed, had circumstances cnabled them to come into closer contact with the enemy.

Sir Hugh Gough begs colonel Schoedde and lieut..colonel Morris, c. B., to ac- cept for themselves, as commanders at the points of attack his very best thanks, and to convey his excellency's highest approval to the officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers, under their respective commands, particularly to those men. tioned by them and by It.-colonel Montgomerie, c. 8., who commanded the sortie from the north gate of Ningpò, and whose praiseworthy conduct was such as might have been expected from this gallant and judicious officer: to lieut.-colonel Mountain c. B., deputy adjutant general; lieut.-colonel Hawkins, deputy commissa. ry general; major Moore, deputy judge advocate general; Dr. French, superintend- ing surgeon; captains Moore and Balfour, and lieut. Molesworth, Madras artillery : to licuts. Murray, Armstrong, and O'Toole, 18th R. I. regiment; brevet captain Moorhead, 26th (Cameronian) regiment: captain McAndrew, lieut. Grant, lieut. and adjutant Browne, licuts. Ramsay and Michell of the 49th; and captain Daubeney, and licut. Schaw of the 55th regiment.

2. The following letter from the military secretary to the commander-in-chief in India, forwarding copy of a letter to his excellency's address from his lordship, the general commanding in chief, having been received by the last mail, licut.-general sir Hugh Gough has the high gratification of communicating to the force under his command the gracious expression of Her Majesty's approval, as conveyed by general lord Hill.

"Commander-in-chief's office, Delhi, Dec. 24th, 1841. Head-quarters, camp. "Sir, I am desired by the commander-in-chief to forward, for your information, the copy.

   of a letter from lord Hill, dated Horse Guards, Oct. 30th, 1841, and to express his excellency's gratification in having the opportunity of conveying these assurances of her majesty's approbation. I have, &c.

To It.gen. sir Hugh Gough, G. C. B., (Signed) "JOHN LUARD, It.-col. &c. Commanding the military force in China.

             46 4 Horse Guards, October 30th, 1841. "Sir,-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 10th August last, transmitting a printed copy of lieut..general sir Hugh Gough's report of the brilliant successes obtained by the troops under his command in the neigh. borhood of Canton in the month of May last, and I have the satisfaction of as- suring you, that the Queen has been pleased to express her entire approbation of those operations, and of the conduct of the officers and men employed on the occasion. You will be pleased to signify the same to sir Hugh Gough, and to inform him likewise, that the zeal, talent and energy he displayed, are duly ap preciated by her majesty, who is no less sensible of the conspicuous gallantry of the troops, and of their admirable order under the most trying circumstances.

HILL.'"

"I have, &c.

(Signed)

3. His excellency has the further pleasure of publishing the following letter from the political secretary to the government of India, conveying the approbation of the right honorable the governor-general of India, in council.

"To lieut..general sir Hugh Gough, a, c. B.,

"Fort William, 22d Nov., 1841.

Commanding the expeditionary force on the coast of China. Sir,-I am directed by the right honorable the governor-general of India in council to acknowledge the receipt of your dispatch under date the 5th September, announcing the capture of Amoy by her majesty's combined naval and military forces; and in reply to convey to yon, his lordship's high approbation of the judi

1842.

Journal of Occurrences.

237

  cious arrangements concerted by rear-admiral sir William Parker and your excel- lency, and of the conduct of the officers and men engaged on the occasion. Copies of the dispatches have been published in the Official Gazette, and trans. mitted to the authoritics in England. I have, &c.,

(Signed)

By order,

"T. H. MADDOCK, Sec. to the government of India."

A. S. MOUNTAIN, Lieut.-colonel, D. A. G.

General Orders by his excellency lieut.-general sir Hugh Gough, a. C. B., com. manding the expeditionary land force.

Head-quarters, Ningpo city, 18th March, 1842. Lieutenant-general sir Hugh Gough congratulates his brave comrades in arms on the opportunity which was given to them on the heights of Segoan, of proving to the élite of the Chinese army, the superiority of Britons both as soldiers and as men. Sir Hugh Gough will not here particularize, as the frequency of brilliant deeds in this small but formidable force renders it difficult to vary the expression of his approval, and where all did their duty nobly, the lieut..general requests all to accept his warmest thanks, with the assurance that he will not fail in his dispatch to do justice to their gallant and exemplary conduct so creditably displayed as well in the field as in their forbearance towards the peasantry, who were in many cases intermingled with the fugitive soldiers.

The lieutenant-general's thanks are equally due to the battalion of seamen and marines, and he feels assured that every officer and soldier will join with him, in admiration of the spirited advance of a small body of the battalion upon the forti- fied encampment on the hill to the right of the enemy's position, headed by his excellency sir William Parker.

By order,

A. S. MOUNTAIN, lieut..col., d. a. G.

Later arrivals to the 10th inst., bring accounts of an attempt on the 5th inst. to destroy the shipping at Chinhái by means of boats con- taining gunpowder in boxes. Two lascars of the Ernaad, transport, were destroyed while attempting to seize one; and the ship itself was somewhat injured by one exploding under the quarter. No other vessel was seriously injured.

  2. At Amoy, there was a rumor of an attack upon the force sta- tioned at that place, but by accounts brought a few days since all was quiet. The settlers on Kúláng sú had returned in considerable num- bers, but had not yet brought their families back. The Sesostris steamer arrived from Chinhái, and carried 300 men of the 18th Royal Irish northward, leaving a force of about 300 on the island under the orders of major Cooper. H. M. ship Pylades had been dispatched to Formosa to recover the crew of the Ann lately wrecked.

  3. The following imperial command contains the dismissal of Yen Petáu, late governor of Fukien. It will be recollected that I'liáng is the present governor in that quarter.

Formerly, Yen Petáu (late governor of Fukien), having in a detailed report, stated the circumstances of the loss of Amoy; and as I was apprehensive that the report was not true, and as I could not be always admitting him to an audience, I sent Twánhwá to make a secret examination; it is now authenticated that the said officer has reported the facts, and the reports generally tally with each other; and in the number of the new troops (reinforcements at Amoy), and the marines (water braves-i. e. swimmers and divers), the reports differ but little. But the said governor has been managing the affairs of Amoy for more than half a year; yet the English no sooner appear than straightway Amoy is lost! and he forthwith retreats upon to guard. Tungán and Shingkiun; he is stupid and weak. without ability, and he cannot avoid the consequences of his crime.

  Now, as Amoy has been retaken, our indulgence shall excuse the severe pu nishment of his crime; but he is to be degraded three steps, and lose his butteşt

236

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APRIL,

and rank, but still be retained in office, and shame may, perhaps, stimulate him to efforts to regain his reputation, when his honors shall be restored.

Now, looking at another of his reports, I see he announces that the English have not renewed their attacks; this is nothing but empty prattle and glossing talk: and there is not a word of truth in it.-He should now (have reported) in what manner he had formed his plan of attack and extermination of the [English] places; but no scheme has been devised:---heinous, beinous are his incoherent fallacies; this conduct really proves him to be ungrateful for imperial favors, and unfit for office. I order Yen Petán to be forthwith dismissed from the public service. Respect this. January 13th, 1842. Can. Reg., April 19th.

;

4. The fortifications on the river between Canton and Whampoa are, apparently, completed, and the authorities are now arming them the troops are constantly engaged in practicing both with large and small arms. No fortifications are building below Whampoa. On the 12th instant, at a visit on Wangtong, it was found wholly desert- ed, not a human being was on the island. The sites of all the old forts at the Bogue seem to be viewed with horror both by soldiers and people; and this feeling will not die away if, at short intervals, the steamers or the small vessels of war run up to the First Bar or even higher. The visit of the Ariadne, steamer, to Whampoa on the 14th, caused no inconsiderable anxiety among the authorities in the pro- vincial city. One of the hong-merchants has lately presented his go- vernment with a schooner built at Canton according to the European model, by native workmen, which is highly praised for her symme- try by competent judges. She carries 22 guns, is coppered inside as well as outside, and has canvas sails. There are other vessels of war also building.

5. The U. S. A. ship Constellation, 36, bearing the broad pen- dant of commodore Kearny, left Macao Roads on the 11th inst. for Whampoa, where she anchored on the 13th. The corvette Boston, 18, left for Manila on the 1st instant, and will, we understand join the Constellation on her return. We are happy to learn that the officers and crews of both these vessels are in excellent health, and have been so since they left the United States in Dec. 1840. The following lists of officers have been furnished us.

Officers in the CONSTELLATION. Commodore L. Kearny, commanding the squad. ron. H. Pinkney, T. Bailey, II. II. Rhodes, L. Handy, J. L. Parker, lieutenants. Stephen Rapelje, fleet surgeon. Nath. Wilson, purser. John G. Reynolds, 1st Leutenant of marines, N, Collins, acting master, J. W. B. Greenhow, assistant surgeon Reed Worden, passed midshipman. A. G. Pendleton, professor of ma- thematics. John Mathews, J. C. Beaumont, B. L. Henderson, James Wilcoxson, Earl English, John Walcutt, Homer C. Blake, Charles Waddell, G. V. Dennis- ton, William Grenville Temple, R. M. McArann, James Wiley, Francis Gregory, midshipmen. Butler Maury, commodore's clerk. Thomas Tyler, boatswain. Daniel James, gunner. David Marple, carpenter. John Heckle, sailmaker,

Officers in The Boston. J. C. Long, commander, T. G. Benham, M. G. L. Claiborne, H. Walke, Jolin F. Mcrcer, lieutenants. R. J. Dodd, surgeon. Nath. G. Rogers, acting purser. Isaac N. Brown, acting master. John H. Wright, assist- ant surgeon. James B. McCauley, R. B. Lowry, Charles Dyer, Reuben Harris, S. P. Quackenbush, midshipmen. Mr. Henriquez, commander's clerk. John Munro, boatswain. Elisha Whitton, gunner. George T. Lozier, sailmaker. W. D. Monmonier, master's mate.

Commodore Kearny has published the following notice respecting American vessels engaged in the opium traffic.

1812

Fyttemal of Oamrinus

11

U. S. ship Constellation, Macao Ronds, 31st March, 1842 Sir, The Hongkong Gazette of the 24th instant contains a shipping report in which is the name of an American vessel engaged in carrying opium,-therefore I beg you will cause to be made known with equal publicity, and also to the Chi- uese authorities by the translation of the same, that the government of the United States does not sanction "the smuggling of opium on this coast under the Ame rican flag in violation of the laws of China. Difficulties arising therefrom in respect to the seizure of any vessel by the Chinese, the claimants certainly will not under my instructions find support, or any interposition on my part after the publication of this notice. I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

I. KEARNY, commanding the U. S. E. I. squadron.

(Signed)

To the United States consul or the vice-consul at Canton.

6. Forty smugglers, out of a crew of seventy, were seized by native fishing boats near the Bogue about the middle of the month, and delivered over to the authorities at Canton, by whom they will doubtless be very summarily executed. A large number of these miscreants were also brought into Macao on the 26th instant, aud carried to Hiangshan the next day, to be forwarded to the provincial city. A few scizures of this kind will restrain in some degree their andacity, and render traveling in the waters of the river safer than it has been for natives during the last six months.

7. The Friend of China and Hongkong Gazette has now reach- ed its sixth number, and we believe with as fair a proportion of public patronage as could be expected. It has hitherto been published anonymously, but the prospectus leads us to infer that no pains will be spared to render it worthy to represent the settlement abroad. From the first number, it appears that the native inhabitants of the island are reckoned at 12,361; in the list of occupations the great dis- proportion of laborers and artisans employed in building shows how readily the Chinese flock where there is a demand for their services. If we consider how cramped all commercial operations have been dur- ing the last three years, from the want of an eligible place for con- ducting them safely, and for storing goods, the growth of the settle- ment will not be deemed surprising; and moreover a free port on the confines of an empire like China, and near a city like Canton, may be expected to increase very rapidly, especially with the inducement of high wages and prompt pay to attract workmen. It appears from the first number, that measures were taken, during the latter part of March, to put down and affright the pirates in the neighborhood by sending the steamers to Chungchau to recover the boat and property of a man who was proceeding to Hongkong. We have extracted several circulars published by authority in its columns for the present number, and have ventured to make a correction in sir Hugh Gough's General Orders of the 14th ult. of "captain Daubeney, and lieut. Schaw," for "capt. Daubency & Co. Schaw." Too much care can- not be taken to make such documents correct, and we doubt not the paper will soon improve in this respect. The members and duties of the committee announced in our last number are thus detailed in a public notice.

NOTIFICATION,

With relevence to the notification dated on the 22 inst. the following gentle men are apponite * a commyttre de capry into effect the "ulgent therein described

10

Journal of Occurrences

Major Malcolm, capt. Mesk, 11 M. - 19th foot (with the sanction of majʊi-gene- ral Burrell, c. 8.), ensign Sargent ; W. Woosnam, esq. Mr. J. Pascoe, 2d master of H. M.'s ship Blenheim, (with the sanction of capt. sir Thomas Herbert, K.C.B.) Captain Mylius, land officer, will attend the committee for the purpose of giving effect to its proceedings, by laying down the necessary land-marks, boun- daries, roads, &c., &c. The committee will report to government any cases in which they are of opinion that the native Chinese should be remunerated for ground which was in their possession previous to the occupation of the island by her majesty's forces, and which may have been appropriated, as well as the amount of remuneration. The committee will select the most eligible spots for public landing-places; will define the limits of the cantonments or locations for officers, near the different barracks; will likewise fix the extent of ground to be reserved for the naval depôt, and for dock-yards, including spots for one or more patent slips, which it is understood are likely to be erected by companies or individuals. It being the intention of government to form a watering place for the shipping hereafter, the committee will select the most eligible spot with a running stream of good water for that purpose.

HENRY POTTINGER, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary.

Dated at Hongkong Government House, this 29th day of March, 1842.

In other numbers of the same paper, Charles E. Stewart is ga- zetted as having been appointed assistant secretary and treasurer; Edward G. Reynolds to be assistant to the land officer; and Robert Edwards to be postmaster. The regulations of the post-office arc thus announced, in which we are sorry to see that it is to be opened on the Sabbath.

Mr. Robert Edwards having been appointed to take charge of the post office at Hongkong, the following regulations are published for his guidance, and for general information. All mails upon arrival, are to be delivered to the har- bor-master, who will have them conveyed to the post-office. Notice of the in- tended time for closing any mail, is to be given to the harbor-master, who will make the necessary arrangement for having it taken on board ship. The harbor- mnaster is to give information to Mr. Edwards, of the arrivals, sailings and general movements of the vessels in port, who will cause a notice of the same to be ex- posed at the post-office: a general delivery of letters to take place at least once in every twenty-four hours. All government letters are to be forwarded immediately on arrival. The office to be kept open and attended from 8 o'clock a. m. till 8 r. m. on week-days, and from 8 to 10 a. M., and from 3 to 5 P. M. on Sunday. For the present no charge of any description is to be made on letters or parcels.

By order.

J. ROBT. MORRISON, acting secretary and treasurer.

Hongkong, April 15th, 1842.

Sir Henry Pottinger has also, under date of 29th March, 1842, is- sued a proclamation fixing the kinds of coin to be regarded as legal tenders, and the rate at which they are to be taken; they are, Spa- nish, Mexican and other dollars, Company's rupees, and their com- ponent parts, and the cash of the Chinese. The dollar is the standard, and all descriptions of dollars are to be held of equal value, provided they are of equal weight and standard. This regula- tion will soon have a beneficial effect upon the currency, and tend to remove the prejudice against the Mexican and S. A. coinage hereto fore maintained by the Chinese. According to this proclamation, two and a quarter Company's rupees are equal to one dollar; one rupec and two annas (or half a quarter) is equal to half a dollar; and half a rupee and oue anna is equal to a quarter of a dollar; 1200 cash arc equal to one dollar, 600 to half a dollat, 300 to a quarter of a dollar, 533 to a rupec, 266 to half a rupce, and 133 to a quarter of a rupce

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. XI.-MAY, 1842.-No. 5.

ART. I. Retrospection, or a Review of Public Occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to December 31st, 1841. (Continued from page 201.)

CAPTAIN Elliot's proceedings, undertaken with a view to obtain, from the Chinese, a formal recognition of his authority as king's officer, with permission for him to proceed to and reside at Canton, were noticed in the last number, as were also those of the local govern. ment regarding the trade in opium. These proceedings were brought down to the close of 1836, from which date we now proceed with our review. The more careful attention is due to these early steps, in public affairs, because with them are intimately connected the merits of the present war between Great Britain and the Chinese empire a war involving, more or less directly a large portion of the human family. In proceeding with our review, it is our aim to ad- duce all the facts and testimony within our reach, necessary to ena- ble the reader to form a correct judgment on the case in question.

     January 1st, 1837. The magistrate at Nánhái went to the shop of Hungyi, a money-changer in the street Lienhing, near the foreign factories of Canton, in search of opium: the owner of the shop having absconded, some of the people employed by him in it were seized, in order to elicit from them information regarding the conduct of their master. The magistrate came out the next day and sealed up the shop.

    2d. Aming, one of the linguists who had been seized and tortured on the charge of aiding in the smuggling of fine silver, was brought out of the city under a guard, with a heavy wooden cangue round his '

VOL. XI NO V

31

242

Review of Publis Occurrences During the

MAY,

neck, and posted at the gate of Ilowqua's factory, where he was to remain for two days, then to be removed to Mowqua's gate, and so on to the gates of all the thirteen hongs.

10th. Regulations of the General Chamber of Commerce of Can- ton were adopted at a general meeting held this day.

20th. The governor of Canton sent up a memorial to the emperor regarding the appointment of captain Elliot to "manage the mer- chants and seamen of his country," and requesting permission for captain Elliot to reside at Canton.

"Since it was first permitted to the various nations of the foreigners, without the empire's pale, to have commercial intercourse with Canton, the English trade has always been the largest. Heretofore the direction of that nation's trade was in the hands of a company, by which, a chief, second, third and fourth supracargoes were appointed to reside in Canton. All the Company's foreign vessels successively reached China during the 7th and 8th months of every year; and having exchanged their commodities, left the port during the course of the 12th month, and of the 1st and 2d months of the following year. Having all left, the supracargoes forthwith requested passports to proceed to Macao, and reside there until the return of their foreign vessels in the 7th and 8th months, when they again requested passports to come to Canton to transact their affairs. This is the way in which formerly, and for a long time past, these affairs were regulated.

14

 At a later period, the Company having been dissolved, no chief supracargo was scut; and another person was directed to take the control of affairs.* Your majesty's minister, Lú, then the governor, having represented this, received your majesty's commands, 'immediately to direct the hong-merchants, to desire the said private merchants to send a letter home to their country, calling for the renewed appointment of a chief supracargo who should come to Canton to direct commercial affairs, and thus should conform to the old enactments. Respect this.' In respectful obedience hereto, directions were given, as is on record.

"Now in the 14th month of the present year, I, your majesty's minister, have received from an English foreigner, Elliot, an address forwarded from Macao, to this effect:-'I have received dispatches from my government, specially ap- pointing me to come to Canton, for the general control of the merchants and scainen of my nation. Under present circumstances, there being very many ships in the port, and the merchants and seamen at Canton and Whampoa being very numerous, and many

          of them little acquainted with the laws of the celestial em- pirc, I am apprehensive lest any difficulties should arise; and I intreat, therefore, permission to proceed to Canton for the direction of affairs.'

 • Observing that this foreigner, in his address, calls himself an officer, which appears to be the designation of a barbarian headman, and not at all of a chief supracargo, and that he does not plainly state in his address, what rank he now holds from his own nation; whether the purpose of his coming is simply to apply fimself to the control of the merchants and seamen, or whether he is also to

This is an unofficial copy obtained through a private channel, and liable therefore to mistake There seems to be a mistake here: it should probably be

and there was no por sorpy to take the control of allons

1842

Last Ten Years, from 18932 to 1841.

243

transact commercia) business, and whether he has credentials from his govern- ment or not, I immediately sent a deputy to Macao, whom I directed to proceed thither with speed, to take with him hong-merchants; aud, in conjunction with the local, civil and military officers, to ascertain fully the truth on all these points. This having been done, the deputy and the others reported to me in the following terms: In obedience to the orders received, we took with us the hong-mer- chants, and questioned the foreigner, Elliot, on each point distinctly. His infor- mation was that he, Elliot, was an English officer of the fourth grade; that in the Autumn of the 14th year of Táukwáng, he came to China in a cruizer, as was at the time reported by the pilots; that he had remained two years in Macao, his business being to sign the papers of English merchant vessels; that now, the Company not having been reestablished, and there being no chief supracargo, he had received his king's comınands, through a letter from a great ininister of the first rank, informing him that he is appointed to control the merchants and sen- men,-not to control commerce; that he has credentials, commanding him to bold the direction of affairs at Canton; and that in case of any disturbances, he alone is answerable. We also learned that the foreigner, Elliot, has brought with him a wife and a child, and a retinue of four persons. On inquiry, we found that the foreign barbarians at Macao, and the foreign merchants of his nation, all represented Elliot as a very quiet and peaccable man, and as having no ulterior object to effect.'

       · This report having come before me, I find that since the dissolution of the English Company, a chief supracargo has not come hither; that of late, the ships' papers of foreign merchants returning home have been signed by this foreigner, who has resided at Macao for the purpose, and is represented to have quietly attended to his duty; and that at this present time, ships are constantly and unin- terruptedly arriving, and the merchants and seamen are indeed very numerous. It would be well, promptly to relax the unimportant restraints in order to preserve peace and quiet. Now this foreigner having received credentials from his coun- try, appointing him to the general control of merchants and seamen: though he is not precisely the same as the chief supracargo hitherto appointed, yet the differ- ence is but in name, for in reality he is the same. And, after all, he is a foreigner to hold the reins of foreigners; and if not allowed to interfere in nught else, it would seem that an alteration may be admitted; and that he may be permitted to come to Canton and direct affairs, according to the same regulations under which the chief supracargoes have hitherto acted. I have, for the present, commanded the said foreigner to remain temporarily at Macao, waiting until I shall have an- nounced the facts to your majesty. If your majesty's gracious assent be vouch- safed, I will then write to the superintendent of maritime customs to grant a pass- port for his admission to Canton. Thereafter, he shall be required to change his residence from Canton to Macao and back again, according to the season, just as under the former regulations; and tre shall not be allowed to overpass the time, and linger about at the capital, so as gradually to effect a settlement here. I with besides command the local, civit, and military officers, and the hong-merchants, from time to time, truly to watch and examine his conduct, and if he exceed his duly, and acts foolishly, or forms connections with traitorous Chinese, with a view to twist the laws to serve private interest, he shall be iminediately driven forth, and sent back to his country. Thus will the source of any illegalities be closed up

244

Review of Public Occurrences During the

MAY,

 "It is my duty to lay this before your majesty, that the correctness or incorrect- ness of my views may be determined; and for this purpose I subjoin to my me- morial these remarks. Prostrate imploring you sacred majesty to grant me instructions. A respectful memorial."-Corresp. p. 151-152.

 21st. A meeting was held in Canton, convened by a circular from captain Elliot, for the purpose of choosing a committee of Brit- ish residents in Canton to correspond with H. B. M. superintendents of trade. Canton Register, 24th Jan. This proposed arrangement was not however actually carried into execution so as to effect any of the objects proposed by captain Elliot.

 February 7th. Under this date captain Elliot wrote to viscount Palmerston, respecting the situation of certain British subjects who had been ordered, by the Chinese government, to leave this country on account of their being traders in opium; and he assures his lord- ship that, if this measure, of expelling the merchants is attempted, his interposition will become 'indispensable,' on account of the great injuries both they and their constituents would suffer by their being obliged to leave this country. Corresp. p. 181.

 11th. His excellency Adrião A. da Silveira Pinto, governor of Macao, disembarked with his lady and family, on the Praya Grande, with the usual honors. Canton Reg., 21st Feb.

    Six Japanese arrived in Canton from Háinán, where they had been wrecked near the close of last year. Several instances of this kind have been known to occur.

 21st. Captain Elliot wrote to viscount Palmerston, saying he could not but think "the legalization of the trade in opium would afford his majesty's government great satisfaction." Yet he added, "it cannot be good that the conduct of a great trade should be so dependent upon the steady continuance of a vast prohibited traffic in an article of vicious luxury, high in price, and liable to frequent and prodigious fluctuation." And he believed it susceptible of proof, "that the gradual diversion of British capital into other channels of employment than this (in opium), would be attended with advanta- geous consequences.'

This letter to the foreign secretary was oc- casioned by the appearance in Canton of the two following papers.

No. 1.

 "On the 20th day of the 12th month (Jan. 26th) the grand Council of State received the following verbal commands from his majesty :

A report has this day arrived from Tang and his colleagues, presenting the re- sult of their mutual deliberations, directed to remove the baneful effects that arise trom opine having pervaded the country. By the prevalence of opium through- out the empire there has been occasioned a daily decrease of our fine silver;

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being now desirous to exert ourselves entirely to stop up the source of this evil. the only sure mode of proceeding is, utterly to prohibit the exportation of sycec silver. If by diligent and assiduous watchfulness in the places from whence the silver is exported, and at those points by which it necessarily must pass, we can deprive both the traitorous natives and the barbarians of all opportunity of ex- ercising their artful advices, it is clear that we may thus gradually close up the breach and prevent further exportation. The said governor and his colleagues have been able to perceive this, and point it out in their memorial. Let them Join heart and hand to enforce vigilant and faithful observation, to punish all trai. torous natives who combine with the foreigners in all illegality, and entirely to hinder foreign merchants from gratifying their avaricious greediness; and let it be their grand object wholly to prevent the exportation of our fine silver. Their labors must be productive of some fruit, they must not attempt to get off with mere empty words, but, having the name of exerting themselves, they must prove the reality of their exertions. Communicate these commands to Tang and Kí, and let them enjoin them also on Wán. Respect this."

No. 2.

"The following passage is translated from a paper purporting to give informa- tion as to the nature of a dispatch received by the provincial government from Peking.

"A dispatch from the grand Council of State bas reached Canton, to this effect, that the exportation of sycee silver is still by law to be prohibited; that as to opium, the governor and lieutenant-governor are directed to deliberate with regard to a duty, to be levied on its importation."". -Corresp. p. 191.

March 10th. The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge in China held its second annual meeting in Canton.

  16th. An edict was issued by the governor forbidding foreign ships to anchor in Kumsing moon.

18th. The hoppo, or commissioner of customs, issued an edict, in accordance with the imperial pleasure, giving captain Elliot permis- sion to proceed to Canton. Chi. Rep., vol. V., p. 527.

21st. Captain Elliot addressed the following note to his excellency the governor of Canton.

  'The undersigned has had the honor to receive the signification of his imperial majesty's most gracious commands that he should be furnished with a passport to repair to the provincial city and enter upon the performance of his duties. The undersigned respectfully assures his excellency, that it is at once his duty and his anxious desire to conform in all things to the imperial pleasure. And he will therefore heedfully attend to the points adverted to in the papers now before him. The undersigned has transmitted to the senior hong-merchant a list of the per- sons attached to his suite, whose names he desires to be inserted in his passport. And be avails himself of this occasion to offer to his excellency the governor, the reiterated expression of his most respectful consideration. -Corresp. p. 195.

(Signed)

64

CHARLES ELLiot."

20th. Captain Elliot received his passport, allowing H. B. M. commission to proceed to Canton.

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his government.

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Captain Elliot wrote the following communication to

My lord,-Before I proceed to Canton, I think it right to place your lordship in possession of my own views upon the actual posture of circumstances con- nected with the public intercourse between his majesty's government and this empire. The imperial edict which I have had the honor to transmit, is certainly a very formal and unequivocal recognition of my character as a British officer, appointed by the government of my country, to manage its public concerns in these dominions. No attempt is made to evade the material distinction between my own position and that of the chief servant of the Company, or of any other foreign functionary hitherto permitted to reside here. The understanding that I cannot engage in trade, and that my business is purely public, is plainly ex- pressed.

1

Upon the side of his majesty's government then, my lord, it appears to me, that no condition is wanting to give to the representations of Its agent here, a complete formal character. They are the communications of a foreign officer recognized by the emperor, addressed to the head of the provincial government, and they reach his excellency's hands in a sealed shape. As respects the com- munications of the government intended for me, the state of the case is very different. They are not addressed to me at all: they speak of me, not to me. They are injunctions to persons with whom, in the admission of the emperor, I have no congeniality of pursuit, and who, therefore, in common sense, ought to have no public relations with me. To the extent that the employment of the hong-merchant, as a channel for the conveyance of direct sealed communications to the governor, commits me to receive by the same hand direct sealed cominu- nications from the governor, the analogy, indeed, is a sound one, and I could offer no objection to practice founded upon it. But the use of the hong-mer- chant, as a letter-bearer to the governor, certainly carries with it no acquiescence in the doctrine, that the governor's orders addressed to that individual are binding upon me.

As it is at present, I am entitled to consider that the governor's communica- tions in respect to me reach me in the form of no more than highly credible information. And when no public inconvenience, or grave personal responsibility is to be incurred by shaping my proceedings upon knowledge thus acquired, I hope your lordship will be of opinion that I shall only manifest a proper respect to these authorities by conforming to their understood wishes, notwithstanding the indirectness of their signification. But as a constant principle, it appears to be clear that my obligations to conformity to the pleasure of this government, or of my notice of it, are justly limited by the rule, that it should be directly and formally signified to me. It is not for me to dictate a mode of intercourse to the Chinese government with an officer of a foreign nation-and, indred, I have a strong impression that events will soon open their own eyes to the unsuitableness and inefficacy of the present course, for their own purposes. When his excel- lency finds me incommunicable upon points on which he desires to communicate with me, (for to receive papers addressed to the hong-merchants, in my judgment, by no means commits me to acknowledge them in other papers, addressed to the governor,) I imagine his excellency will set about to seek what these obstacles

ure, and how they may be conveniently and quietly set aside

His excellency it may be anggested in some anch conjuncture, receives my

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communications in a sealed shape addressed directly to himself, a practice with which I am perfectly satisfied; and if he thinks fit to forward his own, direct to me in the same wise, I could no longer presume to question the perfect formal sufficiency of such a manner of intercourse. There were many subjects upon which his excellency communicated with the hong-merchants, that I could not venture publicly to notice, except his pleasure were signified to me in a direct form, or through a responsible officer of the empire of respectable rank, specially deputed for purpose of carrying on the public intercourse with me. Under present circumstances, his excellency's views only reached my knowledge as they did that of all foreign private individuals-that is to say, at second hand, and as an individual, they should always have my most respectful attention. But as an officer, my responsibility was serious, and I was precluded from dealing with them officially, unless I had a direct public warrant for my proceedings. The hong-merchants arc men unacquainted with public affairs, and naturally swayed by their private interests, and therefore with no culpable intentions, their liability to mistakes and misconception is considerable. The consequences of such errors might be too fatal to permit me to waver from my just claim to be placed in direct possession of the wishes of this government, whenever it was expected I should take public notice of them, committing the public interests of my country.

"The emperor

          had already been graciously pleased to acknowledge my offi- cial character; and his imperial majesty, in his wisdom, would also recognise the reasonablenes of these objections and requests, founded upon my duty to my own government, and upon an anxious desire to obviate the risk of very hazar- dous misunderstandings. With this course of representation put forward at a favorable opportunity, and in the most deferential language, I see no reason to despair of carrying the required modification in the mode of conducting my official intercourse with the provincial government. I will conclude this dispatch, by observing that, in my own humble opinion, the actual manner of communica. tion from us to the Chinese is sufficiently formal and complete for all our purposes. From them to us, and for their objects, it is defective. I can assure your lordship that this is a condition of circumstances far less inconvenient to his majesty's government than to the provincial authorities. The defect, however, is of their own creation, and the remedy is in their own hands. I have, &c.

~Corresp. pp. 196-198.

"CHARLIS ELLIOT."

(Signed)

  8th. Captain Elliot addressed the following letter to the governor of Canton, intending to prepare the way by it to announce his own arrival.

"The undersigned has the honor to acquaint your excellency, that he has received dispatches from the government of Singapore, informing him that seven- teen natives of China had arrived there in January last, from a place called Pulo Aor. The chief of these persons represents, that he is an officer of this empire, and that the vessel in which they were embarked was carrying grain from one port to another, when she was overtaken by a violent tempest, and blown off the coast. The vessel was reduced to a condition of extreme peril in the high seas, and six of the unfortunate men had already sunk under the effect of cold and privation, when the English ship of Moncrieff bound from Canton to England, came up with her. This commander with becoming humanity took the people cop of the wreck under circumstances of great difficulty, and left them at Pulo

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Aor, having made arrangements with the native chief there, to convey them to Singapore. It is a pleasing duty to the undersigned on this occasion to acknow- ledge in grateful terms, the many acts of kindness which bis own shipwrecked countrymen have experienced on the coast of China. The interchange of these charities cannot fail to strengthen the bonds of peace and good-will between the two nations. The undersigned avails himself of this occasion to renew to your excellency the sentiments of his high respect.

-Corresp. p. 201.

(Signed)

"Charles Elliot."

12th. H. B. M. commission arrived in Canton, consisting of capt. Elliot, Mr. Johnston, Mr. Elmslie, Mr. Morrison, and Mr. Anderson, leaving Mr. Colledge, Mr. Vachell, and Mr. Gutzlaff at Macao.

15th. The governor urges upon the hong-merchants to send away the foreign merchants engaged in the opium trade, who had applied for delay to recover their debts from the hongs.

19th. The governor of Canton, it seems, was not to be coaxed into compliance with "barbarian usages;" on the 13th he issued or- ders to the hong-merchants; and again under this date, and in the following terms.

"Tang, governor of Kwangtung and Kwángsí, &c., &c., issues this order, requiring obedience.

"On the 12th instant, the English superintendent Elliot reported, that a ves- sel, with officers and people of Formosa, having encountered a gale off the Piscador islands, was driven to Pulo Aor, within the dominions of the said nation; that the persons on board were rescued, and that the foreign chief at Singapore had informed the said superintendent of the circumstance, in order that he might report the same. On the receipt of this report, I, the governor, com- municated the subject in the proper quarters, and also commanded the senior hong-merchants to enjoin orders on the said superintendent, that he knowing the same, might act accordingly.

"But for all-for those without as well as those within the pale of the em- pire-there are rules and bonds of action, styles and modes of expression, be- coming that dignity which has so long been respected. To the renovating prin- ciples for so long a period emanating from our empire, the barbarians on every side have submitted themselves. They bave tendered to the celestial empire their respectful services, and this empire stands in truth at the head of the lands at its remotest borders, in no other character than that of a ruler amid ministering Servants. As to foreign merchants, permission is granted them to trade and to export, and thus is bestowed on them the means of obtaining profit. And in re- gard to those in distress, they are rescued from their distresses, and with needful gifts are sent back. These things arise solely from the all-pervading goodness, and cherishing kindness of the great emperor, whose favors are constant and universal. Between him and the small, the petty, how can there exist anything like 'bonds of peace and good-will ?'

"The said superintendent, in his address on this occasion, has failed altogether to conform himself to the old rules, has omitted the respectful expression, 'celes- tial empire,' and has absurdly used such words and expressions as 'your honor- able country,' and `peace and good-will between the two natious,' giving utterance

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to his own puffed-up imaginations. Not only is this offensive to the dignity to he maintained, but also the ideas therein expressed are absurd and ridiculous. At the time, I, the governor, on account of the dutiful nature of the thing reported, and because the said superintendent, having but newly come to Canton, is per- haps uninformed on many matters, viewed his address indulgently, and in a par- tial light, and manifested vastness of liberality. Therefore I refrained from plainly correcting him, and from casting back to him his address. But the said superintendent having come to Canton for the purpose of controlling the mer- chants and seamen, he cannot avoid having from time to time addresses to make. And if not forewarned, it will be impossible to insure that he will not, by cou tinued ignorance and blindness, fall into some grave errors. This then would not be the way to preserve uninjured the concerns of the foreigners.

      "I therefore issue this order to the senior hong-merchants, requiring them im- mediately to enjoin it on the said superintendent Elliot, that he may act in obedi- ence to it. In whatever address he may have to present, he is absolutely required toc onform implicitly to all that is called for by the dignity of the celestial empire. He must be careful to render his expressions thoroughly respectful, in order that appropriate commands may be given in reply. Let him not again step into any path opposed to the dignity of the empire, and so tread in a course of still greater error.

64

      The senior hong-merchants, whenever the said superintendent, or a foreign merchant of any nation, present an address on any subject, are required to give it a previous close and careful perusal, and if there be in it anything, as in this instance, inconsistent with the perfect dignity to be maintained, or any similar loose and crude phraseology, they are immediately to send back the address;- they must not have the audacity to present it for the party, by doing which they will involve themselves with such party in a severe investigation. I, the governor, having spoken, the law shall follow up what I say. Let all then listen with trem- bling attention. Oppose not these commands." April 19th.-Corresp. pp. 202-203.

    Regarding this edict captain Elliot wrote a long letter to his go- verninent, dated the 27th of this month, setting forth his views and action thereon. He perceived, he said, with great satisfaction, that the governor's manner of repelling his advances had not been care- fully measured, and that his excellency had hastily placed himself in an unsound position. He therefore sent for Howqua, and on the-

22d. Having signed in his presence the following document, dis- patched him with the same to the governor.

      "On the 20th instant, the undersigned, &c., &c., received a communication from the hong-merchants, concerning an cdict from the governor, addressed to them, dated on the 19th instant.

"In his excellency's cdict to the hong-merchants, he is pleased to command the senior of their body to give all the addresses, which it may be the duty of the undersigned to submit, a closc and careful perusal, before they present them to his excellency. And if they shall not approve of the language, not to dare to present them, but immediately to send them back. The undersigned cannot presume to question the perfect authority of his excellency to issue any orders, couched in any terms which he may think fit, to the hong merchants But the undersigned we

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foreign officer, and not a merchant, and he must take the liberty respectfully to declare, that it is impossible for him to submit his addresses to the governor to the knowledge or approbation of the hong-merchants, before they are forwarded.

"In the present posture of circunstances, therefore, the undersigned must cease to forward any further addresses to his excellency. And it is at the same time his duty to add, that in future he can only receive such official communica. tions, scaled with his excellency's scal, as his excellency shall be pleased to address directly to hin.self, and not to the hong-merchants. To direct sealed communi. cations from that high quarter, it must always be the duty and thic earnest effort of the undersigned, to give the most respectful and zealous attention. The terms of his excellency's last edict to the hong-merchants, and the instructions which the undersigned has now received from his own government, constrain him to say, that he cannot deviate from his present determination, without drawing down certain ruin upon his own head. The exalted public station of his excellency, and his experience in affairs, render it needless for the undersigned to press upon the rule, that an officer's obligations of duty to his own government are sacred, and must be fulfilled.

CHARLES ELLiot."

--Corresp. p. 204.

(Signed;

25th. Having received the above, the hong-merchants reported the same to the governor, and thereupon his excellency thus address- ed himself to the hong-merchants.

"L

·Upon the receipt of this, I the governor have examined into the matter refer- red to.

I find that the said superintendent, having newly come to Canton, and being in consequence unacquainted with the rules of dignity in the celestial cmpire, made use, in his former address, of expressions not altogether proper; which led the governor, to send to him commands of a special nature, making known to him the prohibitions and requirements, and thus preserving him from error.

me,

16

 Now the above representation having been laid before me by the said mer- chants, I perceive that the said superintendent is able to understand the duties of faithfulness and attention, and that he will not indulge the slightest desire to ael contrary to the requirements of dignity; that he is indeed dutifully disposed. Hereafter, whenever he may have occasion to address me on any subject, the said superintendent is permitted to seal his address, and to deliver them to the senior merchants, Wú Sháuyung, Lú Kikwáng and Puan Sháukwáng (Howqua, Mowqua, and Ponkequa), to present for him. As regards the subject matter of his addresses, and the nature of the expressions adopted, it will not be difficult for me the governor, myself to distinguish them, and act in reference to them. But with respect to commands issued by me, the governor, to the foreigners from with. out the empire, requiring their obedience in any matter, the established rule of the celestial empire is, always to address them to the senior houg-merchants, to be enjoined by them; and thus rule it is inexpedient to alfer. On a review of the particulars contamed in the above address, I forthwith issue this order. When it reaches the said senior merchants, let them immediately enjoin it on the said superintendent, that he, having knowledge thereof, may act accordingly. Op pose not these commands." April 25th, 1837.-Corresp. pp. 20 1-205.

27th. The above was handed to captain Elliot late on the same Jay, the 25th, and, under all the circumstances of the case," he

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251

determined not to reject "these overtures;" accordingly he gave the following reply.

"The undersigned, &c., &c., has had the honor to receive an edict from your excellency, addressed to the three senior hong-inerchants, dated on the 25th inst., for communication to him. He begs to offer to your excellency his respectful thanks for the commands that his addresses shall always be transmitted to your excellency's hands, by the three senior hong-merchants, in a scaled form. Your excellency, however, an illustrious officer in a very high station, has been pleased to signify that the customs of the empire prevent a direct communication of your cominands to the undersigned. Under these circumstances, he has bent his most earnest attention to the course which it becomes him to pursue. And he is hum- bly of opinion, that he shall best evince his profound respect for the rules of this empire, by continuing to carry on the communications in the manner prescribed by your excellency, until he can receive the further commands of his own govern. ment. The undersigned avails himself of this occasion to renew to your excellency the sentiments of his highest consideration. -Corresp. p. 205.

(Signed)

"Charles Elliot."

  With reference to the foregoing, viscount Palmerston, under date of Nov. 2d, 1837, thus wrote to captain Elliot.

   'Her majesty's government have learnt with satisfaction that you had unccred. ed in obtaining the admission of the first of these claims, which relates to the mode of sending in your own communications; and I am to express to you the approbation of your government of the course which you pursued on the occasion. You will not fail, on every suitable opportunity, to continue to press for the recognition, on the part of the Chinese authorities, of your right to receive, direct from the viceroy, scaled communications addressed to yourself, without the inter- vention of hong-merchants.

I am, &c. (Signed)

-Corresp. p. 192.

"PALMERSTON."

  May 1st. On the communication of the 27th from captain Elliot, the governor gave the following orders to the hong-merchants.

"This address coming before me, I the governor have perused the document, and fully informed myself of its contents.

"As to my comunands, which I the governor may have to give, such com mands have hitherto been enjoined and inculeated through the medium of the senior hong-merchants. This concerns the settled dignity of the celestial empire; and the said nation, in its up-gazing contemplation of the majesty and benignity of the empire, will assuredly indulge no foolish expectations of change. Let obe. dience be at once paid in this matter, as is agreeable to the duty of the said super intendent's office. The above address being fully authenticated, I forthwith issue these commands to the said senior hong-merchants, Howqna and Mowqua. Let them minediately enjom the commands on the said superintendent, that he, knowing the saine, may act accordingly. Oppose not these commands." May tar. 1-37.)---Corresp. p. 206-207.

11/h. Under this date a list of subscribers, with donations to the amount of $5,230, to a proposed Medical Missionary ARLOTA " Chea published m the Canton Regester

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A meeting of the foreign residents was held in Canton with a view to open a chapel for public worship. A committee was appointed to carry into effect the wishes of those convened. Can. Reg., May 30th.

24th. In a dispatch of this date to his government, captain Elliot wrote; thus "upon the whole, perhaps, your lordship may be led to think that there can be no advantage in wringing a change of prac- tice from the Chinese government regarding the mode of inter- course;" and therefore he hints that all "needless agitation of points of form" should be avoided. Corresp. p. 206.

June 1st. The governor of Canton gave permission to capt. Elliot to proceed to and from Canton in his European boat, without applying for a passport, he promising "not to fail to report the period of his arrival and departure." Corresp. p. 208.

5th. The managing partner in the Hingtái hong made a report of its concerns to the provincial government. Can. Reg., June 27th.

12th. Under this date, viscount Palmerston, in reply to captain Elliot's communications of December 30th, 1836, and January 12th, 1837, wrote thus:

"I have received your dispatch of December 30th, 1836, detailing the parti- culars of a communication into which you had thought proper to enter with the authorities of the Chinese government at Canton, through the hong-merchants; and I have also received your dispatch of January 12th, 1837, in which you state the course which you intended to pursue until the arrival of further instructions from this department. I have now to desire that, upon the receipt of this dispatch, you will forthwith inform the hong-merchants and the viceroy that his majesty's government cannot permit that you, an officer of his majesty, should hold com. munications with an officer of the emperor of China, through the intervention of private and irresponsible individuals. You will, therefore, request that any com- munications which the governor may have to make to you in future, may be sent to you direct; and that the governor will consent to receive directly from you any communications on public affairs which the interests of the two governments may require you to make to him. You will also explain, that if in future your written communications should not be endorsed with the character which is usually adopted by subordinate officers in China, when addressing representations to supe- rior Chinese authorities; this alteration will not arise from any want of respect on your part towards the governor; but will simply be the result of the established usages of England, which do not admit that an officer commissioned by the king of England should so address an officer commissioned by any other sovereign." -Corresp. p. 149.

19th. The commissioner of customs made a report to the governor regarding the European boats, running to and from Canton, which led to the larger ones being interdicted, and the smaller ones being required to go without decks. Vol. VI., p. 103.

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21st. In February of this year, captain Elliot addressed lord Auck- land, and rear-admiral sir Thomas Bladen Capel, soliciting the pre- sence of one or more armed vessels, because "the interruption of the opium trade in China, must have the effect, not merely of temporarily crippling our means of purchasing at all in this market, but of plac- ing us, in respect to the prices of export staples, completely in the power of a copartnership of native dealers. The failure of the opium deliveries is attended with an almost entire cessation of money tran- sactions in Canton." But he thinks it " quite unnecessary to press upon the attention of their excellencies the many extremely important considerations connected with this subject." He therefore begs leave to suggest, "that the frequent aud short visits of ships of war to this anchorage off Macao, and in the neighborhood of the points, along the coast, to which the outside trade (in opium) has extended, seem- ed to him to be the movements (best) calculated, either to carry the provincial government back to the system (of connivance) which has hitherto prevailed, or to hasten onwards the legalization measure from the court." Again: "there is a pressing necessity to use every effort, consistent with safety and discretion, for the relief of the whole trade, from the embarrassment into which it has been thrown by the restrictive spirit of the provincial government." This was written on the 2d of February ; (Corresp. pp. 188, 189;) and surely indicates a desire to preserve the traffic in opium, either by legalization or by connivance. Their excellencies were not slow to accede to the superintendent's wishes. One of his majesty's sloops of war having arrived here, under the command of captain Quin, captain Elliot addressed the following letter to that officer, dated Macao, June 21st. Sir,-The disclosures which took place at Manila during your last visit at that port, have made you acquainted with all that is yet known of the disastrous fate of the late brig Fairy. And our recent conversation will have apprised you that fourteen Lascars lauded upon the coasts of Fukien, but the piratical part of the crew are still said to be detained in Fúchau fú, the capital of that province. From all the inquiry I have been able to make, I am led to conclude that these men are kept by the provincial government of Fukien, in consequence of a diffi. culty to understand, or to credit the circumstances under which they landed; and probably pending further instructions from the court for their removal to this place. It appears to me, however, that if an application were made by you at the mouth of the Min river, the doubts and delays of the government of Fukien would give way; and at all events, if the people were not at once delivered to you, this proceeding would, in my judgment, accelerate their dispatch to this place by other means.

44

With that impression, I have taken the liberty to propose this service; and in conformity with your wishes, I now submit the mode by which it occurs to me it may be best executed

I would suggest that you shovid proceed to the moth

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of the Min river, upon which the city of Fúchan fű is situated, taking with you the Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff, joint interpreter to this establishment. That upon your arrival at that destination, you should hand to the commander of any man-of-war junk, or other servant of the government who may wait upon you, the accom. panying paper, inclosure No. 1; and that your address to the governor should be placed in the hands of any officer who may be deputed to receive it. His ex cellency will probably meet these advances with a declaration that the people arc safe; that it is not in his power to deliver them to you; that they shall be dispatched to Canton forthwith; and finally, with a request that you should leave the coast immediately.

"To a coinmunication of this nature, I would advise that you should reply in the most conciliatory terins, signifying your indisposition to press any arrange- ments to which you were informed his excellency could not accede, and expres- sive of your entire confidence in his assurance of the safety of the people. If this communication from the governor should be made verbally, that is to say, through an officer deputed to confer with you, as indeed it is probable it will, I would submit that you should request this functionary to commit the subject matter to writing, remarking, that you were ready to leave the coast as soon as that was done. At this point of my letter, it is proper to observe to you, that I am without any uneasiness as to the safety of the people; but independently of has- tening onwards the period of their release into our hands, this service appears to be calculated to help the uninterrupted progress of gradual relaxation at this place. I believe that no circumstance would more impressively fix upon the local government of these provinces the necessity of great moderation and circumspec- tion in respect to the treatment of foreigners, than the successful result of quiet official application by an officer of the king at some other point than Canton; and more particularly at the chief city of the neighboring province of Fukien, where it is known that the monopoly of the foreign trade at Canton is a subject of great jealousy.

· The appearance of considerable eagerness for an early reply to your address, upon the ground that you were anxious to leave the coast, would probably re- remove all uneasiness about your intentions, and expedite a satisfactory aud courteous answer. And I would beg you to bear in mind, that having effected a communication upon just pretexts, and in a deferential manner, you will have accomplished what appears to be the principal object of your mission; for, as has already been observed, there is no reason for solicitude as to the safety of the people. Your former experience in this country, the cautious character of your instructions from the commander-in-chief, and your own sound judgment, would make it intrusive upon my part to do more than mention the necessity of ex- treme care in refraining from any proceedings likely to excite the suspicions of the Fukien authorities, and of earnest effort to conciliate their good-will. But being upon this topic, I would presume to say that it would be well to avoid those parts of the coast upon which the opium ships are usually anchored, neither would it be desirable that the ship should pass above the forts at the entrance of the Min.

"I have judged it best that the communications with the government of Fu- kien should be carried on in your name, rather than my own, because my busi- ness is specially with the authorities of the provinces, and you will feel that communications upon my part with those of another would expose me to great

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suspicion and dislike here. Mr. Guizlaff, the joint interpreter, has been instructed to place himselt under your directions, and will readily afford you every assist ance in his power. After your departure from the Min, I am led to hope that you will convey to the Bonins, Mr. Millichamp, a British subject, and a principal settler in those islands. This person has been waiting here for a passage for more than twelve months at a heavy expense, and I am not withoni reason to believe that any facilities which could he properly afforded to him, would be acceptable. to his majesty's government. Perhaps too, in the course of your voyage to the Bonins, you would do me the favor to call at Napakiáng, in Lew chew, for the purpose of enabling the Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff to join a vessel, bound on an expedi tion of investigation which he has my permission to do. I have, &c., -Corresp. pp. 211-212.

(Signed)

"CHARLES ELLIOT A very full account of the loss of the English brig Fairy will be found in vol. VI., p. 201 and the sequel. H. B. M. sloop Raleigla sailed on the 23d, two days after the date of the foregoing letter. The vessel alluded to in the last paragraph was the Morrison, which sailed from Macao July 4th, bound to Japan. See vol. VI., p. 209 and sequel. For some curious notices of the Bonin islands, sce Corresp. p. 218 and sequel; also vol. VI., p. 381 and sequel.

  July 4th. The American ship Morrison, captain D. Ingersoft, sailed from Macao for Japan. Vol. VI., p. 289, &c., p. 353, &c.

  9th. The governor of Canton published an edict regarding the affairs of the Ilingtái hong. Canton Reg., July 18th.

  18th. Another edict from the governor was published on the same subject. Canton Reg., July 25th.

August. In course of this month an imperial edict reached Can- tou, announcing the degradation of his excellency Tang Tingching. Vol. VI., p. 308.

  29th. The ship Morrison returned from her trip to Lewchew and Japan, and brought back the Japanese, whose return to their homes was the main object of her voyage.

September 20th. Under this date, viscount Palmerston, at the Foreign office, addressed the following communication to the lords of the admiralty.

'Her majesty's government have had muder their consideration sir John Bar row's letter of the 6th instant, in which, by command of your lordships, he in closes a copy of an article in the instructions of the naval commander-in-chief in the East Indies, upon the subject of our relations with China, and requests to be informed whether any, and if any, what addition or alteration should be made in that instruction; and, also, whether the rear-admiral commanding-in-chief. should not be directed to proceed himself to Macao, to communicate with her majesty's superintendent at Canton. Her majesty's government having, at the same time, had under consideration the several letters which have on various occasions been addressed by this department to the admiralty, upon the nature of

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the protection which it would be desirable to afford to British subjects resident in or trading to China, I have now to signify to your lordships the queen's pleasure, that the existing instruction to the commander-in-chief in the East Indies, with respect to China, should be altogether concelled, and that one, in the following terias, should be substituted in its stead:

"The trade between Great Britain and China being now by law thrown open to all her majesty's subjects instead of being confined, as formerly, to the East India Company, the care of our commercial relations with the Chinese empire has, in consequence, been transferred to the crown; the East India Company's establishments at Canton and Macao have been withdrawn; and a queen's officer has been substituted, with the title of superintendent and with the duties of a consul. It is, therefore, desirable that one or more of the ships under your orders should, as frequently as possible, visit the China station, and should remain there as long as may be consistent with the demands of the service elsewhere within your command; and whenever a frigate can be spared for this service, a ship of that class would be preferable to a smaller one.

"The purposes for which such ships would be stationed are:-First, to afford protection to British interests, and to give weight to any representations which her majesty's superintendent may be under the necessity of making, in case any of her majesty's subjects should have just cause of complaint against the Chinese authorities; and secondly, to assist the superintendent in maintaining order among the crews of the British merchantmen who frequent the port of Canton.

"The officers commanding the ships of her majesty, which may thus from time to time be sent to China, should be especially admonished to be very careful that the officers and men belonging to the ship under their command, do not in any way offend the prejudices of the Chinese people, nor violate the laws and cus- toms of the Chinese empire; and upon all such matters, as well as with respect to the places where such ships ought to lie, in order best to be able to perform the services for which they are sent, the officers in command should communicate frequently and confidentially with her majesty's superintendent; remembering always, however, that unless in a case of great emergency, when a demonstration or an actual employment of force may be urgently and absolutely necessary for the protection of the lives and property of British subjects, her majesty's ships of war are studiously to respect the regulations of the Chinese government as to the limits beyond which foreign ships of war are not allowed to approach the city

of Canton.

*** But it is for many reasons expedient, for the interests of her majesty's service, that you should yourself take as early an opportunity as may be convenient, to have a personal communication with her majesty's superintendent, who would meet you for that purpose at Macao; and your visit on that occasion should, if possible, be made in a line-of-battle ship. The interchange of information be. tween yourself and the superintendent, for which such personal communication would afford an opportunity, would, in many possible future contingencies, be highly advantageous to British interests in that quarter.

You will, however, constantly bear in mind, that while, on the one hand, it is useful that the Chinese should be aware of the nature and extent of her majesty's naval power, it is, on the other hand, most important that you should avoid any proceedings which might inspire the Chinese with an apprehension that this naval power is likely to be employed in unprovoked hostility against them.'

"

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"In conclusion, I am to request that your lordships will furnish me with a copy of any instructions which you may now, or at any future time, think proper to give to the naval commander-in-chief in the East Indies, bearing upon the ques tion of our relations with China, in order that the same may, if necessary, be transmitted to her majesty's superintendent in China, for his information aud guidance.

I am, &c.,

(Signed)

PALMERSTON." Corresp. pp. 193-194.

    25th. On the 4th and 17th of August, and on the 18th and 19th of September, the governor and lieutenant-governor issued orders to the hong-merchants, requiring captain Elliot immediately to send away all the opium-receiving ships from China, of which an abstract is here given.

No. 1.

"The English superintendent Elliot, being authorized to direct even trifling matters, is so much the more called on to interfere in an important matter, which, as it is contrary to the laws of the celestial empire, must also be obnoxious to the instructions which the superintendent has from bis own government. The bene- volence of the great emperor is universal, but it cannot suffer depraved foreigners to tempt natives to do evil.

"The strict terms of the imperial edict require on the part of their excellencies, the utmost diligence; and, being apprehensive that the hong-merchants may not have explained the subject with sufficient earnestness, this second edict is there- fore issued. The superintendent is to be instructed, immediately to send away all the vessels anchored at Lintin, and other places outside the port; and here- after, the trade must be confined to articles legally dutiable, and no contraband articles, such as opium, must be imported.

"The goodness of the government in permitting 'foreigners to have a general mart for their commerce, at such an important emporium as Canton, is then spoken of; but it is shown on the other hand, that the emperor can be awfully severc, as well as good and merciful; and that it will be well, therefore, to avoid such conduct as will lead to the entire stoppage of commercial intercourse."

No. 2.

·The goodness of the government in permitting the continuance of trade. under all circumstances, for a space of 200 years, is highly extolled, and the contumacy of foreigners reprobated; and it is asked, if they can suppose that while they render the Chinese seas a common sewer for the filthy opium, the go. vernment can fail to put the laws in force against them; if in the several foreign countries, individuals of another country were, with their ships, to contravene the laws, and continue for a long time so doing, the king of the country would certainly enforce the laws against the offenders. How much more must the go- vernment of this empire punish the contumacious disobedience of barbarians?

· The king of England has been hitherto dutiful and respectful, and has plainly prohibited the conduct complained of; and, lest any of his people should bring shame on their country, has sent the superintendent Elliot to Canton, to hold them in check. But a month has elapsed since strict investigation concerning these receiving-vessels was entered upon, and yet the superintendent has not sent any of them away. It is to be feared, therefore, he is unfit for the situation of superintendent. If he can willingly bear reproach on account of these vessels.

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how then will he answer it to his king, or how to their excellencies; it he will seriously consider it, he surely cannot find rest upon his bed.

"

Their excellencies issue once more their commands, requiring the superin- tendent to make known to those of the receiving-ships the goodness and the terrors of the government; to lay before them the choice of weal or woe; and to call on them all immediately to return home: they also require him to report to his king, in order that the receiving-vessels may henceforth be prohibited from coming hither. Thus the good and bad will not be confounded; thus the un- bounded goodness of the emperor may be manifested, and the path of intercourse be for ever retained to those who are good among the foreigners, It would not be difficult for their excellencies to use the power placed in their hands, and at once drive off these offenders; but they do not decline repcatedly to give admo- nitions, lest anything should be wanting to the faithful exhibition of their require- ments, and so the display of impartial benevolence should be obstructed. But further contumacy, after this, will make it manifest that words are but thrown away upon willful offenders."-Corresp. p. 235.

Referring to these "orders to the hong-merchants, captain Elliot, under this date, the 25th of September, thus addressed the governor of Canton.

 The undersigned, &c., &c., has had the honor to receive your excellency's edicts addressed to the senior hong-merchants, dated on the 18th and 19th Sep- tember, 1837. His commission from his government places the ships and subjects of the English nation trading to this port under his direction. It is his duty to use every effort to cause all British persons arriving within these limits, to respect the laws and customs of the empire; and your excellency may be assured that he will ever zealously devote himself to those objects. The undersigned is not ignorant that an extensive traffic is carried on without the port of Canton by the ships of foreign nations. But he sees only the papers of British ships which arrive within the port: and he is therefore without any public means of knowing which of the ships resorting to these anchorages are British; what is the nature of their pursuits; whence they come, or whither they go

看着

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 Your excellency has now been pleased to direct that his majesty the king of England should be informed of the gracious will of the emperor,, requiring the adoption of measures to prevent these alleged irregular visits of British ships to the coast of China. It is the duty of the undersigned respectfully, but plainly, to signify to your excellency, that the present condition of his public intercourse with the government of these provinces renders it impossible, consistently with the customs of his country, that any such communication should ever arrive under the notice of the king. The pleasure of your excellency reaches the knowledge of the undersigned, who is an officer, and wholly unconnected with trade, in no more authentic and formal shape than the copy of an edict addressed by your excellency to native merchants. He does not dare to forward the sub- stance of information derived from such a source for subinission to the throne.

 In his ordinary intercourse with your excellencies, he has deferred, at great personal responsibility, to the present manner of communication, because your excellency informed him that it was in conformity with the customs of the em- pire. But in the transmission of communications to the knowledge of the king of England, it is in like manner just and needful, that due regard should be had - the enstoms which regulate the manner of intercourse with his maje t、

1

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Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841

In a late visit of a British ship-of war to the coasts of Fukien, upon public business, his excellency the governor of that province communicated his pleasure concerning those affairs, to certain officers of the province, and commanded them to take a copy of his edict, and to deliver it, under their seal, to the commander of the British ship. That document is now in possession of the undersigned, and a translation of it will be laid before the king, so that the gracious benevolence of the emperor to the distressed subjects of his kingdom may be made known to his majesty. If your excellency, in your wisdom, shall judge fit to conform to this same practice, whenever it be desired to lay communications before his ma- jesty, all difficulty upon the subject will be removed.

414

The undersigned will conclude this address, by observing, that his gracious sovereign has never yet been approached with representations setting forth the existence of irregularities by the subjects of his kingdom ou these coasts; and that his majesty, therefore, can know nothing of any such allegation, or of the plea sure of the emperor in respect to them. The undersigned avails himself of this occasion to renew to your excellency the sentiments of his highest conside- rations.

1 am. &c.,

-Corresp. pp. 236-237.

(Signed)

· Charles ELLIOT."

28th. Their excellencies, the governor and lieutenant-governor, replied to the foregoing, declaring the address of the superintendent to be merely a specious document,' yet are willing to adapt their proceedings to the occasion," and therefore they command the pre- fect and the chief military officer of the department to communicate the orders under their seals directly to captain Elliot, that he may forward the same to his king.

29th. Accordingly, under this date those two officers communi- cated to captain Elliot the following document.

Chú, prefect of Kwangchau sú, and Tá, commander of the forces of Kwang. chau, issue these commands to the English superintendent, Elliot, that he may render himself acquainted therewith. On the 28th September, we received from their excellencies the governor and lieutenant-governor, the following official document :-

"On the 3d of August, we received from the Grand Council of State, copy of an imperial edict, of date July 14th, of the following tenor :-

*** Owing to the exportation of silver carried on from all the ports along the coast, and in consideration of the important bearing of this upon the national resources and the livelihood of the people, we have already, in repeated instances, declared our pleasure, requiring all the governors and lieutenant-governors of the provinces, faithfully to make exammation and to act in this matter.

   To-day again, the sub-censor Lí Pánkiú, has laid before us a memorial to this effect, that there are above ten English warehousing vessels, which first, m the year 1821, entered the anchorage of Kápshuymún, and thence m 1×33, re- moved their anchorage to Kumsingmún; that the importation of opitum, and the exportation of silver, depend wholly on these warehousing vessels, which form also a general refuge for absconders; that a set of worthless fellows, in boats called • fast-crabs,' going and coming froin morn to night, find means to make their way stealthily intrevory éreek and mlet that ther an depraved deal 1-

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who prepare the drug for usc, buying and selling by wholesale; and, also, that the native retail dealers in foreign commodities, under the open pretext of selling articles of commerce, make secret sinuggling their business, and in nowise differ from the larger preparers of the drug.

464

There surely must be a fixed place of anchorage for the vessels of the fo. reigners: how then is it, that, while previous to the year 1821, the clandestine establishment of warehousing vessels was never heard of, these vessels have of late been suffered to remain for whole years at anchor on the high seas, thus leading to unlawful combination between them and natives, and to unrestrained smug- gling? Let it be the responsible duty of the governor of Kwångtung and his col. leagues, to give strict orders to the hong-merchants, to be enjoined on the resident foreigners of the said nation, requiring them to compel the warehousing vessols now anchored there, one and all, to return home, and not to permit them under any pretext to linger about. Let them also ascertain where are the dens and hiding-places of the opium-dealers, and inflict punishment on each individual, without the slightest indulgence. Thus the source of the evil may be closed up, and the spirit of contumacy suppressed. Let a copy of the memorial be, together with these commands, transmitted to Tang and Kí, and by them let the com- inands be enjoined on Wán. Rospect this.'

 "This having been with respectful obedience transmitted to us, the governor and licutenant-governor, we have examined the subject. Opium is a poison capa- ble of destroying life; and the pure silver may not by law be exported. The aim and object of the foreign receiving-ships is gain alone; and by presuming for a long period to remain at anchor, enticing the natives and combining with them in clandestine traffic, those concerned in these ships have greatly infringed the laws of the celestial empire. Having respectfully received the above commands, we issued especial orders to the hong-merchants, requiring them earnestly and zeal- ously to enjoin the same on the said superintendent Elliot, and directing, that he should pay immediate obedience to the declared imperial pleasure; that he should send away home every one of the receiving vessels now anchored in the various offings, and should no longer suffer then to linger about as heretofore. This is on record.

After thus doing, we successively received reports from the military com. mander at Tápang, from the sub-prefect at Macao, and from the civil and naval authorities of Hiángshán, to the effect, that there were twenty-five receiving-ves. sels anchored off the Motáu island (in Kapshuymún), as also in the offings of the Nine islands and Cabreta point, and in the anchorage of the Typa; from which places they successively moved on the 29th and 30th days of August; and on the 2d and 3d of September, nineteen of the said receiving-ships proceeding from the Motáu islands to Tsienshátsuy offing, and two of them from the Nine islands, and one from off Cabreta point, to the same place; further, that on the 8th of Septem- ber, two vessels moved from Tsienshátsuy to the Typa, and on the 9th, one from the same place to Cabreta point; while only a Dutch ship, which had in the year 1834, anchored off the Nine islands, and had at this time removed to Tsienshátsuy weighed anchor on the 7th, and proceeded to sea, beyond the great Ladrone islands. We also received a communication from the naval commander-in-chief to the same effect, adding that Tsienshátsuy is to the eastward of Motáu; and sug gesting the great necessity for driving off the numerous vessels which have now taken up their anchorage there

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Last Ten Years, from 1832 to 1841.

261

Now these receiving-ships come from the southwestward, and must needs return in a southwest direction; how is it then that they have on the contrary removed eastward! And why do they not remain in one place? It is manifest herein that they wish to cruize about unchecked, and to linger in the neighbor. hood, to watch the progress of circumstances.

  "The goodness of the celestial empire and its cherishing kindness arc extreme. Since it first granted to all nations a general market, where the commodities of all might be bartered, a space of 200 years has elapsed as though it had been but a single day. Such profound benevolence,-favors so substantial, are well fitted to penetrate the entire body, even to the very marrow of the bones. Could it then be supposed, that depraved foreigners would twist awry the laws, and to serve merely their private ends, would assume the pretence of traffic! Most lucid and clear are the sacred commands. Can any yet dare to be, as the habitual looker. on, unobservant, and still continue to linger about? And are the seas of the cen. tral flowery land to be made a coinmon sewer for the reccption of this filthy [opium]! Or shall we, intrusted with the defense and government of the frontier, be thought unable to follow such conduct with the rigor of the laws? Consider, if within the territory of any of those countries, the vessels of another country were contumaciously to infringe the prohibitions, and remain for a long period there without leaving, whether the king of that nation would not regard it neccs- sary to punish such offenders with rigor, refusing the least indulgence. How much more then the celestial empire! How can it suffer barbarians to disobey the laws, and without restraint to throw contempt thereon!

44

The king of the said nation has been heretofore, dutiful and respectful, and his prohibitions have been rigorously and clearly enacted. And being apprehensive lest merchants or seamen of vessels coming hither should infringe prohibitions, or transgress the laws, and so should bring shame upon their country, he specially sent the superintendent Elliot to Canton, to keep them under control and re. straint. But these receiving-ships have now remained for a very long time at an. chor; and though two months have elapsed since the said superintendent has received our commands, he has not yet sent them away to their country. We fear he is unfit to bear the designation of superintendent. If he can willingly subject himself to reproach on account of these receiving-vessels, how will he be able to answer it to his king? Or how to Us, the governor and lieutenant-governor? Let him, in the stillness of night, reflect hercon; and if he do so, we think that he will be unable to find rest upon his bed.

66

It now, however, appears, from an address presented by the said superinten. dent, that he objects to the copying and enjoining of these commands by the hong-merchants, on the ground of such copied document being unauthentic, with. out official seal or envelop, and so not giving him evidence [whereon to pay obc- dience to it; and also that he is apprehensive of transgressing the laws of his country. According to the established laws of the celestial empire, it is required, that in all matters wherein commands are given to the outer foreigners, such com. mands be enjoined through the medium of hong-merchants. And in this instance, moreover, the imperial pleasure was declared, specially requiring that the hong- merchants should be commanded to give directions and to act. Can any dare, then, not to pay respectful obedience thereto? The said nation of course has its own laws.

But is it imagined, that the laws of outer barbarians can be practiced

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in the domains of the celestial dynasty? What ifter ignorance of the requirements of dignity is this!

Yet the representation, that it is impossible for him to communicate to his government such an unauthenticated document appears reasonable. And we, therefore, on this consideration act, on this occasion, as expediency dictates. We forthwith issue this document to you, the prefect of Kwángchau sú, requiring you immediately, in conjunction with the commander of forces in the department, to copy these our commands, and cnjoin them on the said superintendent Elliot, that he may act in obedience thereto. He is required speedily to make known to the receiving-vessels anchored at Tsienshátsuy and other places, the imperial goodness, and also the imperial terrors; to set before them the choice of weal and woe: and to urge their speedy and entire departure for their country. There must be no contumacious opposition. The said superintendent is also to convey it to his king, that hereafter such receiving-vessels arc to be prohibited ever again coming hither; and that only the merchant vessels trading in legally dutiable articles may come, while all contraband articles, such as the filthy opium, are not to be conveyed over the wide seas. Thus, the source of the evil may be closed, and the laws be held up to honor; thus, the universally beneficial and boundless favors of the great emperor, may, on the one hand, be conferred; and, on the other hand, the path of commercial intercourse may for ever be kept open to all good foreigners. We, the governor and lieutenant-governor hold a great power in our hands, and do that which we determine to do. What difficulty should we have in driving these vessels away with the utmost rigor? Yet we refuse not to repeat our admonitions again and again, fearing lest there should be any want of perfect faithfulness, and any consequent obstruction to the display of universally impartial benevolence.

"If, after this time of issuing our commands, the receiving-vessels again col- lect, as though we were not heard, and continue to reinain looking around them, it will be manifest that amendment finds no place in the hearts of those concern. ed in them; and not only will they be no longer borne with by the great emperor, but by their own king also, they will certainly be subjected to trial. We cannot do otherwise than pursue them with the rigor of the laws, and show forth to all the celestial terrors. If the said superintendent fail to pay earnest obedience hereto, he also will draw on himself investigation and expulsion. All must with trembling anxiety attend. Further, let him be commanded to report as to the periods when these receiving-vessels severally depart for their country. Oppose not! Be earnest and speedy; earnest and speedy!"

We, the civil and military authorities of this department, having received the above, forthwith copy the commands of their excellencies the governor and lieut.. governor, and send them to the said superintendent Elliot, requiring him to pay immediate obedience. (The remainder of the document is a repetition of the latter portion of the preceding commands, with but one addition, wherein they require captain Elliot to report again through the medium of the hong-merchants.") Be carnest and speedy; earnest and speedy! A special order. September 29th, 1837.-Corresp, pp. 237.240.

October 5th. The heads of the financial and judicial departments of the provincial government, issued a document regarding the amount and payment of the debts of the Hingtái hong. Can. Reg. 24th Oct

om 1832 in ANTE

Last Ten Years, frau

November 4th. The first annual report of the general cominittcc of the Canton Chamber of Commerce, was approved at a general meeting. Vol. VI., p. 327.

  17th. Under this date captain Elliot replied to the edict of the 25th of September, promising "to transmit it to his country by the rapid steam and overland communication." And then adds:

  "He has already signified to your excellency with truth and plamness, that his commission extends only to the regular trade with this empire; and further, that the existence of any other than this trade has never yet been subinitted to the knowledge of his own gracious sovereign. He will only permit himself to add, on this occasion, that circumstances of the kind described by your excellency, cannot be heard of without feelings of concern and apprehension: and he desires humbly to express an carnest hope that sure and safe means of remedying a hazardous state of things, may be speedily devised. -Corresp. p. 210.

(Signed)

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"Charles Elliot."

  19th. The following communication affords no very favorable pic- ture of the then existing 'state of circumstances." It was, under this date addressed from captain Elliot to viscount Palinerston.

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My lord,-I now beg leave to resume the subject of my dispatch of yester- day's date.

      In the early part of this year, the project of immediately legalizing the traffic in opium was, without doubt, favorably entertained at the court; and, situated as we are, it is impossible to detect the particular management by which the postponement of the measure may have been achieved. We have now arriv ed, however, at a stage in the passage of circumstances when it appears to be necessary, that the subject should once more be drawn under your lordship's se rious attention. The vigorous proceedings of the provincial government against the native smugglers at the outside anchorages in the immediate neighborbood of this port, have had the effect of vastly increasing the traffic on the eastern coasts of the neighboring province of Fukien. Till within the last few months that branch of the trade never afforded employment to more than two or three small vessels; but, at the date of this dispatch, and for some months past, there have not been less than twenty sail of vessels on the cast coast; and I am sorry to add, that there is every reason to believe blood has been spilt in the interchange of shot which has ever and anon taken place between them and the mandarin boats.

  "The most grave result of the vigilance upon the spot remains to be described'. The native boats have been burned, and the native smugglers scattered; and the consequence is, as it was foreseen it would be, that a complete and very hazardous change has been worked in the whole manner of conducting the Canton portion of the trade. The opium is now carried on (and a great part of it inwards to Whampoa in European passage.boats belonging to British owners, slenderly manned with Lascar scamen, and furnished with a scanty armament, which may rather be said to provoke or to justify search, accompanied by violence, than to furnish the means of effectual defensc. I have no certain means of judging to what extent the shipping at Whampoa may be implicated in this new mode of carrying on the trade, but I am no. without reason to believe, that they are so, and possibly at an mereasing degree And as your lordship is probably aware that the hong increkant whine secures cach ship, and the caplan. di rojuspṛpre

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join in a bond that she has no opium on board, it is needless to dwell upon the very embarrassing consequences which would ensue if the existence of a different state of fact should nevertheless be established.

"I am disposed to believe that the higher officers of the provincial government are perfectly sensible of the extensive smuggling of opium carried on in the Eu- ropean passage.boats, and from some motive, either of interest or policy, or pro. hably of both, they oppose no immediate obstacle to such a condition of things. But the continuance of their incrtness is not to be depended upon. Disputes among themselves for the shares of the emoluments, private reports against each other to the court, and, lastly, their ordinary practice of permitting abuse to grow to ripeness, and to rest in false security, are all considerations which forbid the hope that these things can endure.

 Setting aside, however, the interference of the mandarins, it is not to be questioned that the passage of this valuable article in small and insignificantly armed vessels afford an intense temptation to piratical attack by the many des. perate smugglers out of employment, and by the needy inhabitants of the neigh- boring islands. And another Ladrone war directed against Europeans as well as Chinese is a perfectly probable event. In fact, my lord, looking around me, and weighing the whole body of circumstances as carefully as I can, it seems to me that the moment has arrived for such active interposition upon the part of her majesty's government as can be properly afforded; and that it cannot be deferred without great hazard to the safety of the whole trade, and of the per- sons engaged in its pursuit.

"The accompanying paper was originally intended as a memorandum of mat. ter to be framed into a dispatch to your lordship; but several considerations dispose me to hope I shall be excused for transmitting it in its present form. That the main body of the inward trade (about three-fifths of the amount) should be carried on in so hazardous a manner to the safety of the whole commerce and intercourse with the empire, is a very disquieting subject of reflection; but I have a strong conviction, that it is an evil susceptible of early removal.

                    (Signed) CHARLES Elliot." -Corresp. p. 241-242.

Accompanying this, of the same date, was forwarded to the foreign office a long memorandum, proposing that her majesty address a letter to the emperor, and send it by a special commissioner, who should proceed to Chusan, there to confer with officers from Peking, and settle all difficulties. Corresp. p. 242.

"I have, &c.

21st. Dispatches, dated June 12th, 1837, were received by capt. Elliot, forbidding him to use the word pin in his addresses to the Chinese authorities. A long discussion ensued, and ended in an in- terruption of communications between the two governments. Vol. For a series of edicts against the opium trade, see vol. VI., p. 352.

VI., p. 341, and sequel.

December 2d. The British flag was struck this morning by captain Elliot, hoisted in Canton on his arrival there on the 12th of April preceding.

Last Ten Years, from 1532 to 1841.

265

  4th. Ünder this date captain Elliot addressed a commumication to viscount Palmerston, from which the following is an extract.

   *In my mind, my lord, the peaceful establishment of direct official intercourse is no longer of questionable or difficult accomplishment. The principle that officers were not to reside in the empire, has been formally renounced by the emperor himself, and that was the main obstacle; the clearest admission of my right to direct sealed communications with the governor upon the ground of my official character, has been conceded; an official mistake in an edict describing me to be a merchant, has been publicly acknowledged and corrected; facilities (especially upon the plea that I was an officer, and involving a direct official intercourse with the mandarin here) have been accorded; striking proofs of the disposition to devolve upon me in my official capacity the adjustment of all dis- pntes, even between Chinese and my own countrymen, have been afforded. On one occasion, the provincial government has already communicated with me in a direct official shape; and upon my late departure from Canton, it was easy to perceive that the governor was prepared to fall entirely into that course, upon the condition that I should waive the proposed change in the superscription of my address.

When to these circumstances be joined the consideration that the provin cial government has now been accustomed to a measured mode of official ad- dress, which it is certain has been more agreeable to it than the less guarded tone of irresponsible individuals, I think I may say, that it is probable the communica tions will be opened upon the required footing before the replies to these dis patches can arrive. But at all events, I entertain a persuasion that a letter from your lordship to the cabinet at Peking, written by her majesty's command, and sent to the inouth of the Pei ho in a ship-of-war, would at once draw from the emperor an order for the concession of the point. Your lordship's letter might he sent here for translation; and if communications were open, authority might be given to me to return it to England. If her majesty's government, how- ever, should be of opinion that the proposition contained in my dispatch of No- vember 19th, 1837, were deserving of attention, perhaps the object of direct official intercourse might form a part of the instructions to the special com - missioner."-Corresp. p. 249.

Under date of June 15th, 1838, lord Palmerston shortly expresses the approval of her majesty's government of captain Elliot's course in retiring from Canton; and adds that

44

With respect to the plan proposed by you in your dispatches of the 19th No veinber, for scuding a special commissioner to Chusan, to endeavor to effect some arrangement with the Chinese government about the opium trade, her majesty's government do not sec their way in such a measure with sufficient clearness to justify them in adopting it at the present moment."

He also intimates that

   "With respect to the smuggling trade in opnini, which forms the subject ol your dispatches of the 18th and 19th November, and 7th Deccinber, 1837, I have to state, that her majesty's government cannot interfere for the purpose of enabling British subjects to violate the laws of the country to which they trade. Any loss, therefore, wluch such persons may suffer m consequeniet of the more effectual

31

:

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execution of the Chinese laws on this subject, must be borne by the parties who have brought that loss on themselves by their own acts."

30th. The governor and lieutenant-governor and hoppo addressed a memorial to the emperor, regarding the existing state of the contra band trade.

Vol. VI p. 473.

(To be continued.)

ART. 11. Hung Lan Mung, or Dreams in the Red Chamber ; u

novel. 20 vols. duodecimo. Noticed by a Correspondent. Amongst the novels of the Chinese, this work holds a decidedly high rank. The author, after making many protestationɛ of his ina. bility to do justice to the subject, which indeed is the only truth in the book, commences his story, like the History of New York, with the creation of the world. To wit, there was once a being, man or woman cannot now be ascertained, called Nükwá, in which, by the way, several authors have supposed they had found some resemblance to that of our mother Eve. Now, this Nikwa, being of a thrifty dis. position, undertook to repair the heavens with solid stones, a work of some difficulty, considering their height and airiness.

But noi- withstanding all this, the artificer succeeded, and made a very hand- some piece of work, as is this day to be seen.

Nikwa had prepared 36,501 stones for the grand work, but there were only 36,500 wanted, the odd one was therefore thrown away 'This discarded stone, however, perceiving itself to be devoid of talent and unfit for the splendid work to which its brethren had been ap- plied, began to repine, and would have been overpowered by its grief, if, in the midst of its misfortunes, a priest of Táu and one of Budha had not come and paid it à visit. They observed that there was something curious in the stone, aud soon found out, that its claims to superiority were very great. To avoid having it looked upon as a common stone, they set to work and graved an inscription, which set forth the excellency of the said stone. When finished, they went away, and nobody took any notice of the wonderful mineral, until a few kulpas, some of which were at least 100,000 years' duration, had passed away. Then it happened that another priest found the identical stone, and wondered at the long histories, that were engraved on its surface

He therefore acked bun how this had come to pass, and

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was told, that every event had been carefully noted down, and hence the long stories that astonished the ecclesiastic. He was, however, so much taken with the contents, that he immediately copied the whole, and made of it the present volumes. So much for the origin of this work, than which none other can boast a more ancient descent.

There lived at a city called Kúsú a wealthy man, the son of a ma- gistrate, whose name was Chin Fí, or otherwise Chin Sz'yin. But one thing was wanting to make his happiness complete, for he had no son and only one daughter, whose name was Yinglien, and at the tune the story begins only three years of age. Once being tired with reading, Chin fell asleep on his seat, and saw in his dream two priests, both of whom gave him an account of the wonderful stone, and even presented it to him to look at. But at that moment he awoke, and perceived that it was only a dream. Hearing in the street a great noise, he saw two noisy, roistering priests, resembling those he had just seen in his dream, foretelling him his fate, and frightening him with the gloomy prospects, that should soon darken his brightest hopes. Now this inan being of a very jovial disposition, had many visitors and friends, and amongst others a poor scholar, named Ká Yütsun. The latter having no money for paying the expenses of a journey to the capital, was likely to lead a life of obscurity for the remainder of his days, if Chin had not generously advanced him fifty taels, with which sum he set out for the court

  In the meanwhile, one calamity upon another befell the unfortu- nate Chin. His darling little daughter had disappeared, and could nowhere be found; the house also caught fire during an illumination aud burnt down, so that he was obliged to proceed with his wife to his father-in-law's. Here he bought, with the remainder of his pro- perty a little estate, and as he did not understand agriculture every- thing went to ruin. When therefore mad Tau priest announced to him more fortunate days, he instantly followed him, leaving his wife in a most distressing situation. She found, however, a kind friend in Ká, the literati, who by her husband's kind assistance had passed the examinations, and having become the magistrate of that district, had married her maid. Cruelty and worthless behavior, however, brought him in bad odor, and he was finally accused of malversation, and lost his office. Being of a buoyant disposition, he laughed at his misfor- tune, and became a wanderer in the empire.

  Under such circumstances, Ká met a friend, who had become a salt inspector, and beard from him a relation of the wonderful events which had befallen bis own famdy Whilst thus enjoying themselves

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there arrived tidings of his restoration to oflice, and he therefore set out for the capital, taking with him the little daughter of his host, Táiyu, a child of great learning and intelligence. The author gives us a great idea of the splendor reigning in the capital, which we suppose to be for the most part imaginative. On reässuming his dignity, Ká was considerably startled with a case of violence com- mitted towards an unoffending female. This innocent damsel had been sold to a party, but the wretch that kidnapped her, disposed of The girl a second time, to a young unprincipled man, of high birth and powerful connections. The former purchaser would however not so easily part with her, and therefore to obtain possession of the trea- sure some force was used, and a man killed in the scuffle. The gentleman was therefore accused as the murderer, and brought be- fore Ká. The latter did not hesitate to pronounce judgment, but the difficulty was, how to execute the sentence. On further examination he found, that the delinquent had such influential friends, that the slightest proceedings against him would involve the magistrate in im- mediate disgrace, and no measures for his apprehension could therefore be taken. At this juncture it was ascertained, that the unfortunate girl, who had occasioned so much noise, was Yinglien, the kid- napped daughter of Chin Sz'yin, a circumstance which increased the anger of K, on account of his being unable to rescue her from her debauched suitor, though then but a child.

We are first made ac-

The story becomes now more intricate. quainted with the state of female society amongst the higher classes, and the general pursuits of these ladies. They seem to be after all the most trivial beings, chattering like magpies about nothing curi. ous, and peering into every nook and corner, the while doing mis- chief, and exercising kindness by turns. There is no end to finery, gewgaws, knicknacks, and dress, and the young ladies freely express their opinions about all these matters.

As an episode, we find at last a dreain in the red chamber. 'The individual is the lady Panyu. She lies down to sleep, is met by a nymph, and instantly carried into the fairy land. Everything that can create delight is there presented to her wondering eye. Of jas- pers, rubies, and pearls there is no end. There are sparkling foun- tains of clear nectar, trees that bear ambrosia, and nymphs of perfect beauty, and exquisite form to wait upon the stranger. But all this could not satiate the visitor; she must have some amusement for her mind. To this end she is first shown into a spacious ball containing sundry scrolls, with many curious inscriptions, consisting of sublime

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poetry and laconic distiches. Being a great admirer of literature, Páuyu prolongs her stay in the palace, and is made acquainted with the records of destiny, in the examination of which she never tires. Actuated by curiosity, she attentively peruses its pages, and thus be- comes versed in futurity. In the height of her enjoyment, however, she utters an involuntary shriek, and is awakened by her maid

servants.

From these trifles we are led to death-bed scenes. The king of terrors himself is never mentioned, but the physician stands promi- nent. Desirous to rescue his friends from the fangs of death, the doctor exhibits his simples and compounds, but it happened by some mischance that the patient took too much, and died of a surfeit of drugs. The physician knew how to excuse himself, and so the mis- fortune was charged to the disease.

In the intrigues the acting characters behave very grossly, and this part of the work fully shows the coarseness of the author's mind. The monotony of the story is much relieved by scraps of poetry, put in very opportunely. When a number of ladies are assembled, they generally compose, and inscribe their verses upon a wall or some other conspicuous object, and then make the contents a topic of con- versation.

Amidst this joyous mode of living, there arrived among the party, who were all relations of Ká, or the daughters and sisters of his friends, an imperial decree to choose one amongst the number to en- ter the hareın. This event made the whole company delirious with joy, it was such an amazing honor, and fraught with so many benefits to the whole family, that preparations for a splendid outfit were im- mediately made, and the fortunate damsel was then conveyed to the imperial apartments. Such elevation usually confers upon the rela- tions titles of nobility, and they were on this occasion by no means sparingly bestowed. Thus the happiness of the circle increased daily, and they endeavored to chase every latent sorrow from their hearts. These ladies were, however, not always confined to their apartments. They not only visited their friends, and corresponded with the impe- rial favorite, but made long rambling excursions to the most romantic spots of the neighborhood. On these occasions they carried with them paper and ink, to write down the inspirations suggested by the beauti- ful scenery. It was then that their hearts expanded, and they ex- pressed the most ardent love for each other. One peculiar taste marked their literary propensities, they would always choose the in- seriptions on stones, and decypher them, for on these they supposed

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the wisdom of ages to be recorded, and the writings thus collected they made the theme of lively conversation. On these occasions their sentiments often differed, for all was guess work, and like critics of old manuscripts, they very freely gave their opinions. Their usual occupations consisted in study and writing, thrumming the gui- tar, or playing chess, drawing, composing poetry, or embroidering flowers. Whilst, however, fortune smiled upon them, they did not forget the poor family of Chin, to whom they sent no less than 40,000 taels, as a debt of gratitude, for what the unfortunate man had done to the head of the Ká family when in distress.

At this point, the story grows more and more uninteresting, and contains scarcely anything, but the tittle tattle of the female apart- ment. These ladies, when left to their own society become very tire- some to their friends as well as to themselves. On a visit to the im- perial favorite, the damsels found several nuns in the neighborhood of the harem, who burnt incense and lamps in honor of the idols. On inquiry they were informed, that it was the custom of the inmates of the palace, to choose a favorite idol, and to make a certain allow- ance of oil, in order to propitiate his favor by the constant burning of a lamp. This edifying example so much operated upon the young lasses, that they came forward with a subscription, and had their idol and lamp. This custom we think is still upheld in the precincts of the palace; the officiating clergy are lamas, who also act like father confessors, and often disturb the peace of the ladies.

On a

The leading character amongst the inmates of Ká's family, was a very petulant woman, who committed many freaks, which involved herself as well as the others in considerable difficulties. It was the same Pauyu who had had the dream in the Red Chamber. certain day she had teased a waiting-maid so much, that the girl was driven to despair, and threw herself into a well. This circum. stance increased the wrath of the magistrate, and without listening to the remonstrances of the other ladies, he had Páuyu brought to the hall of office, and so severely bainboord, that she was more dead than alive. But the worthy mandariu soon found out, that he had put his hand into a wasp's nest, which should be a warning to all whom it may concern, never to meddle too much with ladies' affairs. Whilst her beautiful form was lying on the ground, covered with stripes, his own mother came with a number of shrews; and attacked him with such bitter reproaches, even threatening to show fight, that the now vanquished judge, was fain to retire with all haste. Some of the women however, actually conspired to take his part and to kilt Pá"-

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1612

Draw in the Ren Cramber

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for wincin me case of accusation, they were ready to pay a heavy mulct to escape punishment But these schemes were never put into execution, and Pauyu lived to laugh at her rivals. A spirit of contention and hatred had thus been kindled, and brawls in the house were frequent, which sometimes rose to blows, much to the scandai of the maid-servants.

     From the description we have of the arrangements in the imperial marcm, & does by un means appear that the women are carefully watched, but that their relations have free access. One scene is very characteristic of the establishment. The first physician of his im- perial uvajesty was called to ascertain the various complaints of the dear inmates He was a man of considerable patience and skill, but the immense number of applicants quite overpowered him. Every our of them had to ask his advice; some he gravely told, there was nothing the matter with them; to others he gave a few pills, and was very glad at last to escape from them altogether.

      On a certam suring day, they left their respective homes and re- paired to a garden to enjoy the fragrant flowers. It was here their spirits warmed, and vented themselves in curious poetical effusions qpon the beauties of Flora. This is a favorite pastiine of the higher classes of Chinese, and in all situations in life, they are fond of pour. ing out their hearts in high flown poetry, understood only by the initi- ated. Amongst their amusements, the voice of wisdom is occasion- ally heard from an old matron. There appeared a suitor for the hand of her accomplished daughter, who pretended to be a scholar, and And in fact read many books. The damne was not so soon taken with the proposal, but examined into the merits of the swain. He had learning, but nothing else. She therefore turned towards the senolar, and said, "endeavor to practice what you have learned, for the benefit of the nation, and then you will be welcome to my house and home; so long however as you are a pedant, dare not to ask for the honor of becoming my son-in-law:" and with this wholesome advice, the old woman dismissed him.

      Most of the discourses of the elderly people turn upon marriage, and the best means of settling their daughters in life. Instances are not wanting of girls choosing a partner for themselves, whom they had never seen before, declare their intention to their mothers, and then entreat them to send the matchmaker to the family of the swain elect. Such proceedings are by no means considered indelicate, and to make the story short, the two mistresses of the respective families

meet ovet a cup of tea and arrange the preliminaries

There ap

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pears to be a good deal of over-reaching in this matter, and many a promise of a rich dowry to be bestowed upon the parents of the bride, is dexterously evaded.

Ká, the magistrate, was living in alluence, and his daughter so clever in writing poetry, attracted a great deal of attention. Go-be- tweens passed to and fro, but the fair damsel reluctantly refused her band, until a powerful family wanted to force her into an union. All the efforts to obtain her being in vain, the head of this house resolved upon ruining the officer, and for this purpose made him pay heavy tines. Ká himself not having the means of meeting the constant de- mands, was finally obliged to take from the public treasury, and when the accounts were demanded he was found a defaulter. His enemy however did not obtain his heart's wish, and the match was not concluded.

Two other girls of the coterie were betrothed to faithless lovers, and felt a deep grief on seeing their affections slighted. On the ap- pointed time for accompanying them home, they upbraided the gentle- men in no very measured terms, and declared that they would never become their partners. But as the bridegrooms grew very pressing, the girls asked a little respite to-retire to their rooms, and when alone they cut their throats, as being the least evil of the two.

Páuyu, that busy lady, on seeing her friends one after the other departing this life, felt rather lonely, and to prove her great attach- ment to her former companions, she went to sacrifice at their graves, and rehearsed a splendid funeral oration. It is sometimes customary among the Chinese, whenever a person of importance has departed this life, for one of the sorrowing friends to go to the grave, and re- capitulate the merits of the deceased. This female panygerist was however far more eloquent than many a statesman, who is purposely deputed to bury a compeer, and her praises made the departed an angel in human form.

A trial of manslaughter fills a great many pages, and probably details Chinese law proceedings pretty accurately. The individual was accidentally slain by one of his boon companions in a pot-house. To avoid all difficulties, the guilty party endeavored to hush up mat- tcrs, but a near relation of the deceased insisted upon having blood for blood. Witnesses appearing before the magistrate, a solemn ap- peal was made to him in open court, and when the culprit endeavor- ed to excuse himself, the incensed officer uttered dire threats and denunciations. This was a broad hint to the accused, and his friends mimediately resolved to put an end to this cause by a consideyibb

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    bribe. One present, however, could not altogether stay the proceed. ings, and it would indeed have gone hard with the defendant, if a cunning person had not taken the lead in the affair, and suited the gifts to the occasion, keeping the officer constantly in suspense, and causing him to be anxious to defer the sentence. At a critical junc- ture in the case, the emperor went on a visit to his ancestorial tombs, and his pilgrimage obliging all officers to leave their offices in order to accompany the monarch, the trial was arrested, and the manslayer escaped with his life.

Mention is frequently made of nuns, to whom the ladies repaired under difficult circumstances, both for asking their advice, as well as for begging their intercession before the idols. They however held these woman in very low estimation, and treated them as slaves. One of the fair ones having a desire to become a recluse, was conveyed to a temple, and well received by the sisterhood. But on passing one night she heard dreadful noises which repeatedly awakened her from sleep, and she was anxious to discover the cause, but could not find it out. Finally she remembered, that she was in the region of spirits, and that these unruly beings held their carousals during the night. Trembling she sunk upon her couch, and having passed a most wretched night, declared on the following morning that she would not prolong her stay on any account, and took her departure forthwith. In general we find the ladies superstitious, and fond of using incantations, amulets, and philtres.

At the end of the work, we are again introduced to our old ac- quaintances, of whom we had lost sight in the middle of the story. There are the priests, the stone, Nükwá, the hill where it had been lying, and an explanation of the influence it exercised upon the lives of our heroes and heroines.

     Having brought this tedious story to a conclusion, in expressing our opinion about the literary merits of the performance, we may say that the style is without any art, being literally the spoken language of the higher classes in the northern provinces. Some words that are used in a sense different from that in ordinary writings, and others are formed for the occasion, to express provincial sounds. But after reading one volume, the sense is easily understood, and whosoever wishes to familiarize himself with the manner of speaking the northern court dialect, may peruse the work with advantage.

VOL XI NO Y

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Adams Lecture on the War with China.

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ART. III.

Lecture on the War with China, delivered before the Massachusetts Historical Society, December, 1841 By the hou. JOHN QUINCY ADAMS of Mass., U. s. A. Extracted from an Ame- ricau paper.

THE existing state of the relations between the kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the empire of China, opens for discussion questions of deep interest to the whole human race; and of pre-eminent interest to the people of the North American union. Great Britain and China are at war. The questions which immediately rise for consideration, in this conflict between two of the mightiest nations of the globe, are-

1. Which of the two parties to the contest has the righteous cause ?

2. What are the prospects of its progress and termination ?

3. How are the interests of other nations, and particularly of the United States, already, or likely to be hereafter, affected by it?

4. What are the dutics of the government and people of the United States resulting from it?

For the solution of the first of these questions, we inust resort to a statement of the facts in which the controversy originated, and for a candid application to those facts, of the laws of nature and of nations.

But before entering upon the inquiry, it may be proper to remark that an eminent French writer upon the subject of international law has contended that there can be no such thing, and he makes it a subject of grave and serious charge against the English language itself, that it applies the word law to the obligations incumbent upon nations. His argument is that law is a rule of conduct prescrib. ed by a superior-a legislator, that is, an act of government, deriving its force from sovereign authority, and binding only upon the subject. That nations, being inde. pendent, acknowledge no superior, and have no common sovereign from whom they can receive the law. That all the relative dutics between nations result from right and wrong, from conventions or compact, and from usage or custom, to neither of which can the term law be properly applied. That this system of rules had been called by the Romans the jus gentium, and in all the languages of mo. dern Europe, the right of nations, or the rights of war and peace. Upon the rigor. ous analysis of the meaning of words it must be admitted that there is much force in this objection. Law and right, we know but too well by the experience of mankind in all ages, including our own, are not convertible terms.

Law necessa.

rily implies command on one part, and obedience on the other. Right is the gift of the Creator to nian, at once the charter of his own freedom, and the law of his reverence for the same right of his fellow creature, man. In this sense right and law are convertible terms-but the law is the law of God, and the right is the right of man.

It is urged by the writer to whom I now allude, that the nations speaking the English language, by the use of this word law to express the rules of intercourse between nations, have habituated themselves to confound it with the municipal law of their own realm; and to infer that the same legislative authority which is ompetent to make the laws of the land for them, is equally competent to preveribe laws for all the nations at the earth

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How far the reproach of a French writer upon the freedom of the seas, (Ray. neval) is justified by the facts which he alleges in its support, is not now my pur- pose, nor have we time to inquire. It behooves us however to remember that the English language is now the mother tongue, not of one, but of many nations, and that whatever portion of them believe that the fountain of all human legislation is the omnipotence of the British parliament, we as one of those nations acknow. ledge no such supremacy. We think, with the great jurist of our mother country, that the omnipotence of the British parliament is a figure of speech rather too bold, and the first declaration of the act of our existence as a separate nation, was, self-evident, inalienable rights of all men by the laws of nature and of nature's God. This is the only omnipotence to which we bow the knee, as the only source, direct or indirect of all human legislation, and that thus the laws of nations are identical with the rights of men associated in independent communities.

      The practical organization of our social system is not altogether consistent with our theory of the law of nature and of nature's God, which has given to all men the inalienable right to liberty. The existence of slavery is incompatible with that law of nature.

     But we speak the English language, and what the men of other tongues call the right of nations, we call the law of nations. What then are the laws of nature by the rules of which the right and wrong of the present contest between Great Britain and China are to be ascertained? And here we are to remember, that by the laws of nations are to be understood not one code of lawɛ, binding alike upon all the nations of the earth, but a system of rules, varying according to the character and condition of the parties concerned. The general law of nations is derived from four distinct sources, denominated by Vattel the necessary, voluntary, conventional, and customary, laws of nations. The necessary law is the applica. tion of the law of nature to the intercourse between independent communities, and this itself can be enforced only between nations who recognize the principle that the state of nature in a state of peace. It is a religious principle of the Moham. medan nations, that it is their duty to propagate their religion by the sword. Time was, when their cruel, absurd, and unnatural principle was inscribed on the holy banners of the meek and lowly Jesus. The vision of Constantine himself who seated Christianity upon the throne of the Cæsars-the vision by which he pretended to have been converted to the faith of the blessed Gospel, falsified all its commands, and perverted its nature. The cross of Christ was exhibited before his eyes, and the words inscribed upon it were, " · By this conquer"-conquer, perse. cute, enslave, destroy, kindle the fires of the holy fraternities, burn the heretic at the stake, tcar his nerves to atoms by the rack, hunt him with blood.hounds, pluck out his vitals and slap them in his face-all for the salvation of his soul- by this conquer !

     By the law of nations between thuse communities, subscribers to this creed, the bishop of Rome, the self-styled servant of servants, by the seal of the fisherman's ring, was for many ages invested with authority to distribute all the kingdoms of the earth, out of the pale of Christianity, to whomsoever he pleased. And ac. cordingly in January, 1445, his holiness, Nicholas V. did, of his own proper mo. tion, without petition from any one, by his mere liberality and certain knowledge, after full deliberation and in the plenitude of apostolic power, give, grant, and con. vey the whole kingdom of Guinea, and all its negro inhabitants, to Alphonso, king ci Portugal, and his son, the infanta, Don Henry, and their heirs and successors

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for ever: and forty years after, in 1493, Alexander VI., the Nero of the papal tiara, the year after the discovery by Christopher Columbus of the western hemis- phere, did in like manner give and grant the same hemisphere to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. This was about twenty-five years before the publication of the thirty-five theses of Martin Luther at the university of Wittenberg. That was the law of nations between Christian communities of that day. Since the protes. tant reformation, the power of the pope to distribute kingdoms at his pleasure is hardly an article of the law of nations, even among Catholic communities. Yet even now there is a law of nations between Roman Catholics, strictly confined to them, and which is of no validity for any other portion of the human race.

There is also a law of nations between Christian communities, which prevails between the Europeans and their descendants throughout the globe. This is the law recognized by the constitution of the United States, as obligatory upon them in their intercourse with European states and colonies. But we have a separate and different law of nations for the regulation of our intercourse with the Indian tribes of our own continent. Another law of nations between us and the woolly. headed natives of Africa-another with the Barbary powers and the sultan of the Ottoman empire-a law of nations with the inhabitants of the isles of the sea, wherever human industry and enterprise have explored the geography of the globe; and lastly, a law of nations with the flowery land, the celestial empire, the Man. tchou-Tartar dynasty of despotism, where the patriarchal system of sir Robert Fil. mer flourishes in all its glory. And this is the heathen nation with which the im- perial Christian realm of Great Britain and Ireland, is waging a war, in which all or many others of the Christian nations of the earth, and among the rest our United States of America, are in imminent danger of being involved.

The law of nations then, by which the right and wrong of the present contest is to be tried, is, as between the parties themselves, the general and necessary law of nations, but as it may effect the other Christian nations whose rights are involv. ed in the issue, it is the Christian law of nations which must furnish the principles for discussion. It may be necessary to remember this distinction.

By the law of nature, the rights of property result from two sources, occu- pancy and labor-occupancy gives possession, and confers the exclusive right to its fruits-but possession is either temporary or permanent. It may be exclusive or common. Possession may be permanently maintained of that which can be carried about with the person. The occupancy of the soil to give the right to the soil must be permanent, at least for a scason; to be permanent, it must be divid- ed by metes and bounds; and this can be effected only by agreement. The right of property being thus established by labor, by occupancy, and by compact, the right of exchange, barter, or in other words of commerce, necessarily follows. If the state of nature between men is a state of peace, and the pursuit of happiness is a natural right of man's, it is the duty of man to contribute as much as is in his power to one another's happiness. This is emphatically enjoined by the Christian precept to love your neighbor as yourself; now there is no other way by which men can so much contribute to the comfort and well-being of one another as by commerce or mutual exchanges of equivalents. Commerce is then among the natural rights and duties of men-and if of individuals, still more of communities, for as by the law of nature every man, though he love his neighbor as himself, inust provide for his own preservation and that of his family, before he can minis. ter to the wants of his neighbor, it follows that he can give in exchange, to his

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neighbor only the excess of the fruit of his labor beyond that which is necessary for his and their subsistence. The exchange itself may indeed be of necessaries, and that leads to the division of labor, one of the greatest blessings of association; but that cannot be without commerce.

      This duty of commercial intercourse between nations is laid down in terms suffi- ciently positive by Vattel, but he afterwards qualifies it by a restriction which unless itself restricted, annuls it altogether. He says, that although the general duty of commercial intercourse is incumbent upon nations, yet every nation may exclude any particular branch or article of trade which it may deem injurious to its own interest. This cannot be denied. But then a nation may multiply these particular exclusions until they become general and equivalent to a total interdict of commerce, and this, time out of mind, has been the inflexible policy of the Chi- nese empire. So says Vattel, without affixing any note of censure upon it. Yet it is manifestly incompatible with the position which lie had previously laid down, that commercial intercourse between nations is a moral obligation incumbent upon them all.

The empire of China is said to extend over three hundred millions of human beings. It is said to cover a space of seven millions of square miles; about four times larger than the surface of these United States. The people are not Christians. Nor can a Christian nation appeal to the principles of a common faith to settle the question of right and wrong between them. The moral obligation of commercial intercourse between nations is founded entirely, exclusively, upon the Christian precept to love your neighbor as yourself. With this principle you cannot refuse commercial intercourse with your neighbor, because commerce, consisting of a vo- luntary exchange of property mutually beneficial to both parties, excites in both the selfish and the social propensities, and enables cach of the parties to promote the happiness of his neighbors by the same act whereby he provides for his own. But China, not being a Christian nation, its inhabitants do not consider them. selves bound by the Christian precept, to love their neighbors as themselves. The right of commercial intercourse with them reverts not to the execrable principle of Hobbes that the state of nature is a state of war, where every one has a right to buy, but no one is obliged to sell. Commerce becomes altogether a matter of con- vention. The right of cach party is only to propose-that of the other is to accept or refuse, and to his result he may be guided exclusively by the consideration of his own interest, without regard to the interests, the wishes, or the other wants of his neighbor.

This is a churlish and unsocial system;-and I take occasion here to say that whoever examines the Christian system of morals, with a philosophical spirit, set- ting aside all the external and historical evidences of its truth, will find all its pre- cepts tending to exalt the nature of the animal man; all its purpose of peace on earth and goodwill towards men. Ask the atheist-the deist-the Chinese, and they will tell you that the foundation, of their system of morals is selfish enjoy. Ask the philosophers of the Grecian schools-Epicurus, Socrates, Zeno, Plato, Lucretius, Cicero, Sencca, and you will find them discoursing upon the Supreme Good. They will tell you it is pleasure, ease, temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice, not one of them will whisper the name of love, unless in its gross and physical sense; as an instrument of pleasure, not one of them will tell you that the source of all moral relation between you and the rest of mankind is to love your neighbor as yourself-to do unto him as you would that he should do unto you.

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The Chinese recognize no such law. Their internal government is a hereditary patriarchal despotisın, and their own exclusive interest is the measure of all their relations with the rest of mankind. Their own government is founded upon the principle, that as a nation they are superior to the rest of mankind. They believe themselves and their country especially privileged over all others-that their domi. nion is the celestial empire, and their territory the flowery land. At a period of their history so remote that they have no authentic records of the times,* to make their separation from the rest of the world more effectual, they built a wall 1500 miles long between themselves and their next neighbors, the Tartars, which how. ever has not saved them from being more than once conquered. The last time that this happened was in the year 1644, and the second contury is about closing the dominion of the Mantchou Tartars. That conquest however produced no other revolution of government than the transfer of the imperial sceptre from one family to another. It is a remark of Hume that if the conquest of France by Henry V. had been maintained by his successors, the result would have been to convert England into a French province; such in the natural course of events must be the result of the conquest of a larger by a smaller adjoining people. And this is precisely what has happened with China and Tartary. The principle of the Chinese government is, that the whole nation is one great family, of which the emperor is the father. His authority is unlimited, and he can, not only appoint Auch of his sons as he pleases to succeed him, but may even transfer the succession to another family. Idol worship, polygamy, infanticide, are the natural conse. quencest of such a system within the realin, and the assumption of a pretension to superiority over all other nations regulates their intercourse with foreigners.

To the Greeks and Romans of antiquity, the very existence of the Chinese nation was unknown. The first notice of them received by the Europeans of the middle ages, was from the Venetian Marco Palo in the 13th century. When the Portuguese two hundred years later found the way round the cape of Good Hope to India, they soon pushed forward their navigation and their enterprize along the whole coast of China. They were allowed to trade for several years at various ports; but abusing this privilege and their navigating power, they were excluded from all access to the empire. A few years later the coast was infested by pirates.

One of these named Ching Chilung obtained possession of the island of Macao; others held the whole coast in a state of blockade, and besieged Canton, itself destitute of all naval power. The officers of the celestial empire were obliged to have recourse to those very Portuguese to defend and deliver their country from the depredation of a single bold and desperate pirate. They sent from Sancian, where they had a trading establishment, an expedition which raised the siege of Canton, and drove Ching Chílung back to Macao, where to escape from the fate which awaited him, had he fallen into the hands of his pursuers, he died by his own hands. In reward for this service, the emperor of

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The Great Wall was built about B. c. 240, by the emperor Chí Hwangtí of the Tsin dynasty. He was cotemporary with Hannibal. The Chinese records of this event are among the most authentic they have, for this emperor stands pre. eminent for his power and his conquests.-Ed. Chi. Rep.

+ In our humble opinion, these consequences can hardly be said to follow, because the emperor's authority is unlimited, nor do we exactly see how they grow out of it at all: the power of the emperor of Russia is probably as unlimited as that of lus imperial brother at Peking, but these evils are surely not general in bis dominions.--Ed. Chr. Rep

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China gave to the Portuguese the island of Macao, which they hold to this day, and from which station they, and the other navigating nations of Christendomı, have carried on their commercial intercourse with the interior of China.*

This grant, in full sovereignty of an island at the very entrance of the China seas, to a foreign and Christian power, would seem to be a wide departure from the fundamental system of excluding all foreigners from admission within the empire, but it was in truth a necessary consequence of that system. The seclu sion of the empire from all other nations was a necessary renunciation of all inaritimne enterprisc, and all naval armament. The coast was thus left defense. less against the assaults of single desperate adventurers. The traffic which the Portuguese solicited, was altogether advantageous to the Chinese. The Portu- guese brought gold, silver, and precious stones. They took away silks, nankeens, porcelain, varnish, medicinal plants and tea, the produce of the soil and manu- facturing industry of the country. A small island upon the coast as a perma. nent abode for the Portuguese traders, given to them as a possession, was a compromise for thoir claim of admission to the territory necessary for carrying on that importation of the precious metals, and that exportation of Chinese in- dustry, the benefits of which could not but be felt, and could not be overlooked. Other navigating Christian nations followed in the wake of the Portuguese. The Spaniards, the Dutch, the English, the French, and the Danes,-successive. ly came as rival competitors for the lucrative commerce. It was chiefly, though not always confined to the port of Canton, but no European was ever admitted within the walls of that city. The several trading nations were allowed to esta- blish small factories, as counting-houses, on the banks of the river without the city; but they were never suffered to enter within the gates, they were not per- mitted to introduce even a woman into their factory. All their intercourse with the subordinate government of the province was carried on through the me. dium of a dozen Chinese traders denominated the hong-merchants. All their remonstrances against wrong, or claims of right, must be transmitted not directly to the government, but through the hong, in the form of humble supplication called by the Chinese a pin-and all must be content to receive the answers of the viceroys in the form of edicts in which they, their sovereigns, and their nations, were invariably styled "outside barbarians;"-and the highest compliment to their kings was to declare them reverently submissive to his imperial majesty, monarch of the Celestial empire,-and father of the Flowery land. It is humiliating to think that not only the proudest monarch of Europe, but the most spirited and enlight. ened and valorous nations of Christendom have submitted to this tone, and these principles of intercourse, so long as to have given them, if prescription could give them, a claim of right, and a color of conformity to the law of nature.

  There are three principles of the law of nature applied to nations, laid down in the preliminary chapter to Vattel's treatise, a close attention to which is indispen-

  # For notices of the travelers who visited China before Marco Polo, and the intercourse carried on with this people, see Chi. Rep., vol. III., page 107. There is, also, in this paragraph some confusion regarding the doings of the pirates, one or two of whom are confounded. Ching Chilung died in Peking. But see Chi. Rep. vol. III., page 64, and Ljungstedt's Macao, page 12, for an account of this and other pirates, and the tenure by which the Portuguese obtained and still hold Macao. Nor is it from this port alone that the other navigating nations of Chris. tendom have carried on their commercial intercourse with China.-Ed. Chi. Rep:

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sably necessary to the adjustment of the question of right and wrong in the issue of fact between the British and Chinese governments :

"The first general law, which the very end of the society of nations disco- vers, is that cach nation ought to contribute all in its power to the happiness and perfection of others."-" But the duty towards ourselves having incontestibly the advantage over our duty with respect to others, a nation ought in the first place, preferably to all other considerations, to do whatever it can to promote its own happiness and perfection." Here is a fallacy. The first and vital principle of Christian morality is to love your neighbor as yourself-to do unto others as you would that they should do unto you. It does not permit you to promote your own happiness and perfection in preference to all other considerations. It makes your neighbor's happiness, so far as your action is concerned, a part of your own. It does not permit you to sacrifice his happiness to yours, any more than yours to his. The importance of this distinction will be seen-by referring to the second and third preliminaries laid down by the same author, and by deducing the con- sequences inferable from them all.

"Nations being free and independent of each other, in the same manner as incn are free and independent,-the second general law of their society is, that cach nation ought to be left in the peaceable enjoyment of that liberty it has derived from nature. From this liberty and independence, it follows that every nation is to judge of what its conscience demands, of what it can or cannot do, of what is proper or improper to be done; and consequently to organize and de- termine, whether it can perform any office for another without being wanting in what it owes to itself."

Now for the third general law. "Since men are naturally equal, and their rights and obligations are the same, as equally proceeding from nature, nations composed of men, considered as so many free persons living together in a state of nature, are naturally equal, and receive from nature the same obligations and rights." Hence, "If it [a nation] makes an ill use of its liberty, it offends; but others ought to suffer it to do so, having no right to conmand it to do otherwise. The nation that has acted wrong, has offended against its conscience, but as it may do whatever it has a right to perform it cannot be accused of violating the Jaws of society."

Let us separate the question of right and wrong, from that of the right of either party to compel by force the performance of right by the other, and how stand these three corner stones of Vattel's laws of nations towards cach other? If it be true that each nation ought to contribute all in its power to the happi- ness and perfection of others, how can it be true that a nation ought in the first place, and preferable to all other considerations, to do whatever in can to promote its own happiness and perfection, and to be the exclusive judge of what that is? If the vital principle of all human society be that each is bound to contribute to the happiness of all, it surely follows that each cannot regulate his conduct by the exclusive or even by the paramount consideration of his own interest. In applying his own principles to the cultivation of commerce, Vattel begins by lay. ing it down as a moral obligation. He says expressly, that nations are obliged to cultivate the home-trade-because it promotes the welfare of the community- and, "From the same reason, drawn from the welfare of the state, and to pro- "ure for the citizens everything they want, a nation is obliged to promote and

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carry on a foreign trade." And yet, because every one has a right to buy, and every one an equal right to refuse to sell, therefore every nation, having exclu- sively, or in preference to all other considerations, regard to its own interest, has a right to interdict all commerce with other nations. Here is a manifest inconsistency between the two principles. The vital principle of commerce is reciprocity; and although in all cases of traffic, each party acts for himself and for the promotion of his own interest, the duty of each is to hold commercial intercourse with the other-not from exclusive or paramount consideration of his own interest, but from a joint and equal moral consideration of the interests of both. If the object of any particular traffic is advantageous to one party, and injurious to the other, then the party suffering has an unquestionable right to interdict the trade, not from exclusive or paramount consideration of his own interest, but because the traffic no longer fulfills the condition which makes commercial intercourse a duty. The fundamental principle of the Chinese empire is anti-commercial. It is founded entirely upon the second and third of Vattel's general principles, to the total exclusion of the first. It admits no obligation to hold commercial intercourse with others. It utterly denies the equality of other nations with itself, and even their independence. It holds itself to be the centre of the terraqucous globe, equal to the heavenly host, and all other nations with whom it has any relations, politi- cal or commercial, as outside tributary barbarians reverently submissive to the will of its despotic chief. It is upon this principle, openly avowed and inflexibly maintained, that the principal maritime nations of Europe for several centuries, and the United States of America from the time of their acknowledged indepen. dence, have been content to hold commercial intercourse with the empire of China. It is time that this enormous outrage upon the rights of human nature, and upon the first principle of the rights of nations, should ceasc. These principles of the Chinese empire, too long connived at and truckled to by the mightiest Christian nations of the civilized world, have at length been brought into conflict with the principles and the power of the British empire; and I cannot forbear to express the hope that Britain, after taking the lead in the abolition of the African slave trade and of slavery, and of the still more degrading tribute to the Barbary Afri- can Mohammedans, will extend her liberating arm to the farthest bound of Asia, and at the close of the present contest insist upon concluding the peace on terms of perfect equality with the Chinese empire, and that the future commerce shall be carried on upon terms of equality and reciprocity between the two communities, parties to the trade, for the benefit of both, each retaining the right of prohibition and of regulation, to interdict any article or branch of trade injurious to itself, as, for example, the article of opium; and to secure itself against the practices of fraudulent traders and smugglers.

This is the truth, and I apprehend the only question at issue between the go. vernments and nations of Great Britain and China. It is a general, but I believe altogether mistaken opinion, that the quarrel is merely for certain chests of opium imported by British merchants into China, and scized by the Chinese government for having been imported contrary to law. This is a incre incident to the dispute; but no more the cause of the war, than the throwing overboard of the tea in Boston harbor was the cause of the North American revolution.

   The cause of the war is the pretension on the part of the Chinese, that in all their intercourse with other nations, political or contmercial, their superiority must be mplicitly acknowledged, and manifested in humilating forms. It is not credit.

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able to the great, powerful and enlightened nations of Europe, that for several centuries they have, for the sake of profitable trade, submitted to these insolent and iusulting pretensions, equally contrary to the first principles of the law of nature and of revealed religion-the natural equality of mankind-

Auri sacra fames, quid non mortalia pectora cogia?

This submission to insult is the more extraordinary for being practiced by Chris- tian nations, which, in their intercourse with one another, push the principle of cquality and reciprocity to the minutest punctilios of forms. Is a treaty to be concluded between the British and Russian empire, it must be in both their languages, or in a third, agreed upon by the parties. The copics of the same treaty are to be so varied that cach of the parties is first named in the copy re. tained by itself; the signatures of the plenipotentiaries must either be in parallel lines or alternate in their order upon the two copies. Duels have been sought between embassadors of two European courts to the monarch of a third, for the precedence of admission to his presence; and in the reign of Charles II., a bloody battle was fought in the streets of London between the retinuca of a French and a Spanishı cınbassador, in a struggle between the two coachmen, which should lead the other in a procession.

Among the expedients to which the British government had resorted to hide their faces from the shame of submission to their principle of commercial inter- course with China, was that of granting the monopoly of trade to a company of merchants. The charter of the East India Company was the instrument of this monopoly; and as the Company possessed none of the attributes of sovereignty, whatever compliances their thirst for gain might reconcile with their self-esteem as men or their pride as Britons, was supposed to involve no sacrifice of the nation. al honor and dignity. They submitted, therefore, to accept the permission to trade with the people of China, as a boon granted to their humble supplication, called a pin. But their trade was to be confined to the single port of Canton, in an empire of seven millions of square miles, with a population of 360,000,000 of souls. Even into that city of Canton no British subject was ever to be suffered to get his foot. They were permitted to erect, on the banks of the river below the city, the buildings necessary for a counting-house, over which they might display the degraded standard of their nation, but from which their wives and families were to be for ever excluded.-For the superintendence of this trade, certain officers were appointed by the East India Company-and it was to be exclusively carried on with ten or twelve Chinese merchants of the city, called hong-merchants, through whom alone, the outside barbarians had access by the pin [i. e. petition] to the government of the city.

In the year 1792, just at the time when the wars of the French revolution, in which Great Britain took so prominent a part, were breaking out, the British government instituted a splendid embassy to the einperor of China, Kienlung, who was then approaching the termination of a reign of sixty years. The selection of the time for this mission excited a gencral suspicion throughout Europe, that its object was connected with the policy agitated by the approaching conflict, and that an alliance at least defensive against revolutionary France, was contemplated, under the ostensible appearance of placing the cominercial intercourse between the two countries upon a more just and equitable footing. From the historical account of this embassy, published by sir George Staunton, it appears that its object was to prevail upon the Chiese government to admit the establehnient of

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     a permanent diplomatic British minister to reside near the person of the emperor at Peking, and thereby to secure a more effective protection to the commerce between the two countries, than it had before enjoyed. This was a fair and laud- able purpose-and so reasonable did it appear, that Mr. Ward, who published his excellent history of the Law of Nations, in 1795, before the result of lord Macart. ney's embassy was known, in the passage of his work, where he noticed this ex- clusive and excluding policy of the Chinese, added a note announcing the expec. tation that very shortly thereafter, a permanent British diplomatic mission would be established at the imperial court of Peking. But this was not the conclusion

of Chinese logic or Chinese benevolence.

From the moment that lord Macartney landed in China, till he embarked in the Lion to return home, he was considered as the vassal of a distant subordinate petty prince, sent by his master to do ho. mage, and hear the tributary presents to the superliminan majesty of the celestial empire. Laudandum, ornandum, tolerandum, was the unvarying policy of the treat. ment which he received-all possible courtesy of forms was observed towards him, and, with occasional gross exceptions, to the numerous retinue of the embassy. Two grandees of the empire, Chau tájin, a civilian, and Wán tájín, a military com- mander, were sent to accompany and escort him to Peking, with a third legate, a Tartar in every sense of the word, whose office was all but avowedly that of a spy. Arrived at Peking, lord Macartney found that the emperor was absent in Tartary, and was advised to follow him thither, which he accordingly did. He was lodged with his junto, at sundry unoccupied imperial palaces on the way, and given to understand that this and many other petty observances, were transcen- dant honors, such as no outside barbarian had ever before been indulged in. Meantime he was advised to practice the kotow, or ceremonial prostration, knock. ing his forehead nine times on the floor, which would be required on his being presented to the emperor. Lord Macartney, who perfectly understood the meaning of this ceremony, importing that his sovereign was but the tributary vassal of the celestial emperor, proposed as a compromise, to perform his part of the ceremony, on condition that a Chinese mandarin of equal rank with himself, should perform the same ceremony before the portrait of the king of Great Britain. This proposa! was not accepted, but the old emperor, as a special favor, consented to receive the embassador, as he was accustomed to approach his own sovereign, on one bended knee.

Before the presentation, however, lord Macartney, had a private interview with the kóláu, or prime minister of the empire, in which he disclosed the principal object of his mission, and was sufficiently forewarned of its failure. "His excel- lency," (says sir George Staunton,) "found it necessary to use great tenderness and many qualified expressions, in conveying any idea that a connection between Great Britain and China, could be of any importance to the latter, cither by the introduction of European commodities, of which taken in barter, the necessity was not felt or by the supply of cotton or of rice from India, which some of the Chinese provinces were equally fit to cultivate; or of bullion, of which the increase had sometimes the inconvenience of unequally increasing the prices of the useful or nccessary articles of life; or lastly by the assistance of a naval force to destroy the pirates on the coast, against whose mischief the surc source cxisted of an internal communication by rivers and canals. Such were the avowed or affected notions entertained by the Chinese government, of the superiority or independence of the empire, that no transaction with foreigners was admissible by it, on the

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ground of reciprocal benefit, but as a grace and condescension from the former to the latter.... His excellency was not unwilling to negotiate even on those terms ; and the kólau obligingly said, that they should have frequent opportunities of meet- ing during the continuance of his excellency's visit at the Chinese court."

The value of this answer was very shortly after ascertained. The presentation of the einbassador and the delivery of his credential letters was effected with great solemnity, and he was magnificently entertained by the emperor on his birth-day, the 17th of September. But the letter and the presents were no sooner delivered, than he received significant hints, that it was expected he would apply without delay for permission to depart.-The emperor returned after a few days to Peking, preceded by the embassador. Then lord Macartney, to avoid the appearance of obtruding himself too long upon the generous hospitality of the flowery land, wrote to the kóláu, informing him of his intention to ask permission to depart in the ensuing month of February, at the beginning of the Chinese new-year. In. stead of answering this latter, the kóláu sent for lord Macartney to come to him, informed him that the emperor was greatly concerned for the health of the em- bassador and of his suite, and that the climate of Peking would be very unfavor. able to them in the winter, but that it was perfectly at the embassador's own option to depart or to remain, the solicitude of the emperor being caused solely and exclusively by his regard for the embassy and the embassador himself. Lord Macartney assured the red buttoned officer that he was not under the slightest ap. prehension for himself or for his companions, of suffering from the climate of Peking-that he had many important objects of negotiation to present to the con- sideration of his imperial majesty, and "that he, the kóláu, had, when at Jcho, been so good as to flatter him with the hope of many meetings with him, which, however anxiously he wished for, his sudden departure would necessarily prevent." The reply of the kóláu was in the most approved style of courtly dissimulation. Without particularly noticing the appcal to his previous promise, his words were so gracious that the interpreter, a native Chinese, concluded that it would be per- fectly at the embassador's option to stay as long as might suit his purpose. The kóláu gave not the most distant intimation to his excellency the embassador that the emperor's answer to the credential letter from the king of Great Britain was already prepared, and was to be delivered to him the next day, as it actually was ; and that he might make no mistake as to the intentions of his Chinese majesty, Chau tájin and Wán tájin were sent to him, to inform him gently, with great reluctance, and under some depression of spirits, that they surmised but did not know, that the emperor's answer would be delivered to him on that day; and that the moment it should be received, it would be advisable to make application for permission to depart.

Early the next morning the embassador was again sent for to meet the kóláu at the great hall of audience in the palace of Peking, as soon as he could get ready. Though severely indisposed, he had no choice but to obey the summons, and after traversing a considerable part of the Tartar city, on reaching the great hall of the palace-guard, the emperor's answer to the letter of the king of Great Britain, in a large roll covered with yellow silk was placed in a chair hung with curtains of the same color. It was afterwards carried in form up the middle of three flights of stairs; while the kóláu and others who stood by it, and the embassador and his suite went up the side steps to the hall. The answer was placed in the midst of the hall, and not delivered to the embassador, but was afterwards sent to his

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hotel, in state. That this humiliation of the British nation in the person of their embassador should lack no appropriate appendage, it seemed to be part of the intended ceremony of the day to display the beauties of the palace to the embas- sador; which his indisposition obliged him to decline; and to leave the honor of this perambulation to sir George Staunton himself, and to other gentlemen of the embassy. Thc kóláu led them through a great number of separate edifices erected on a regular plan in a high style of magnificence, all intended for public occa. sions and appearance, while the emperor's private apartinents were pointed out at a distance in the interior palace.

      With the emperor's answer to the letter of his Britannic majesty farewell presenta for him, for the embassador, and for every person of his scite, were sent to the hotel. Lord Macartney was extremely reluctant at cɔmmg to the conclusion that his embassy was at an end, and that he had nothing more to do but to ask per- mission to depart and return to his own country; but a kind friend at the imperial court, whose good offices he had sccured, suggested to him that the Chinese had no other idea of an embassy, and there was in truth no other alternative. To relieve him from this embarrassment to his British pride and this Tartar courtesy, he just at this time received advices of the war which the National Convention had declared against the king of Great Britain, and the Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and he comforted himself with the anticipation that by returning home imme. diately in the Lion, the ship which had conveyed him to China, he might at the same time perform the service of conveying in safety the East India Company's fleet of merchantmen then bound to Europe.

       This ship, however, which had landed him at the mouth of the Pei ho river, within three days' journey of Peking, had already sailed from the neighboring is- land of Chusan, and was returning to Canton. The distance from that city to Peking is from twelve to fourteen hundred miles, the whole of which lord Macart. ney and his whole embassy were transported by island, river, and canal naviga. tion, at the cost of his imperial majesty, in the custody of a succession of officers, civil and military, of the very highest dignity--everywhere treated with distin- guished honors, occasionally buffeted with humiliating insults, and never suffer. ed to stray a single mile from the river or canal upon which they were boated, into the country through which they were passing; or to pass a night in one of the numerous cities through which they were conducted. They were nearly three months in the performance of this inland safe conduct; and at the expiration of his voyage and embassy, lord Macartney knew about as much of the condition of the interior of China as if he had, during the two years of his absence, continually resided in Pall Mall or Piccadilly, within a stone's throw of the palace of St. James.

This embassy, however, appears to have been treated with more respect than any other from an European government during the two centuries of the reign of the Tá Tsing or Mantchou-Tartar dynasty. The narrative of sir George Staunton distinctly and positively affirms that lord Macartney was admitted to the presence of the emperor Kienlung, and presented to him his credentials without performing the prostration of the kotow, the Chinese act of homage from the vassal to the sovereign lord:-ceremonies between superiors and inferiors are the personification of principles. Nearly twenty-five years after the repulse of lord Macartney, in 1816, another splendid cınbassy was dispatched by the British government, mi the person of lord Amherst, who was much more rudely dismissed, without every

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being admitted to the presence of the emperor, or passing a single hour at Peking. A Dutch embassy, instituted shortly after the failure of that of lord Macartney's, fared no better, although the embassador submitted with a good grace to the prostration of the kotow. A philosophical republican may smile at the distinction by which a British nobleman saw no objection to delivering his credentials on the bended knee, but could not bring his stomach to the attitude of entire prostration. In the discussion which arose between lord Amherst and the celestials, on this question, the Chinese to a man, insisted inflexibly that lord Macartney had per. formed the kotow, and Kiáking, the successor of Kienlung, who had been present at the reception of lord Macartney, personally pledged himself that he had seen his lordship in that attitudo. Against the testimony to the fact of the im- perial witness in person, it may well be conjectured how impossible it was for the British noble to maintain his position, which was, after all, of small moment. The bended knec, no less than the full length prostration to the ground, is a symbol of homage from an inferior to a superior, and if not equally humiliating to the performer, it is only because he has been made familiar by practice with one and not with the other. In Europe, the bended knee is exclusively appropriated to the relations of sovereign and subject, and no representative of any sovereign in Christendom ever bonds the knee in presenting his credentials to another.

But the personal prostration of the embassador before the emperor, was in the Chi nese principle of exactions, symbolical not only of the acknowledgment of sub. jection, but of the fundamental law of the empire, prohibiting all official inter. course upon a footing of equality between the government of China, and the government of any other nation. All are included under the general denomina- tion of outside barbarians, and the commercial intercourse with the maritime or navigating nations is maintained through the exclusive monopoly of the hong- merchants.

It has been seen how the British government and nation had accommodated themselves to this self-arrogating system of the Chinese. It was by establishing a monopoly on their part adapted to the monopoly of the Chinese system. The exclusive right of trading with China was granted to the East India Company, and all the commerce of British subjects with the celestial empire was transacted by means of commissioned supercargoes, appointed by those merchant princes, without diplomatic character, and without direct intercourse weth any officer of the Chinese government.

But on the expiration and removal of the East India Company's charter in 1833, the exclusive right of trading with China was discontinued, and thenceforth the quasi-political intercourse between the two nations, transacted by mere commercial agents of the East India Company ceased, and in the third and fourth year of the reign of William IV., an act of parliament was made and passed, 'to regulate the trade to China and India.' In pursuance of the powers conferred upon the crown by this act, the sailor-king issued three orders in council. 1.-Constitu- ting and appointing William-Jolin, lord Napier, W. Henry Chicheley Plowden, and John Francis Davis, superintendents of the trade of British subjects in China,' with an order for the government of British subjects within the Chinese dominions. 2.-Creating a court of justice for the purposes therein mentioned. 3.-Impos. ing duties on the ships and goods of British subjects trading to China, for the purposes therein mentioned, that is, of defraying the expenses of the establishment. The order for the imposition of duties was afterwards rescinded, and the order

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for the constitution of a court of justice was suspended for further consideration. The chief superintendent lord Napier was instructed to amounce his arrival at Canton, by letter to the viceroy. The superintendents were instructed to take up their residence at the port of Canton, and to discharge the duties of their commission within the river or port of Canton, or at any other place within that river or port, or at any other place thereafter to be designated by an order in council, and not elsewhere.

One of the most remarkable circumstances attending all these transactious is, that in giving these instructions to the superintendents to take up their residence at Canton, and to the cheif superintendent to announce his arrival by letter to the viceroy, they appear not to have been aware of the possibility of any ob- jection to this course of proceeding on the part of the Chinese. Accordingly, on his arrival in China, after organizing the board of superintendents at Macao, lord Napier with his colleagues and the secretary of the commission proceed. ed immediately to Canton. For the scenes which ensued of dramatic interest, partaking at once of tragedy and farce, recourse may be had to the official dispatch of the clueť superintendent to his Britannic majesty's secretary of state.

•In obedience to his majesty's commands (says lord Napier in his letter of 9th August 1834, to lord Palınerston) conveyed to me by your lordship, of the date of the 23d of January last, desiring ine to announce my arrival at Canton by letter to the viceroy, which being rendered into Chinese by the Rev. Dr. Mor. rison, the Chinese secretary and interpreter, was carried to the city gates by Mr. Astell, (the secretary to the commission) accompanied by a deputation of gentlemen from the establishment.'

[For lord Napier's account of this transaction, sec pages 26 and 27 of this vol.] You have now, in this portion of the narrative of the first dispatch from lord Napier to lord Palmerston, the primitive and efficient cause of the present war between Great Britain and China. It was in the attempt to execute two points of the instructions to the superintendent. That the chief superintendent should announce his arrival at Canton, by letter to the viceroy, and the other, that the superintendents should take up their residence at Canton. Lord Napier, with the open-hearted and inconsiderate boldness of a British sailor, attempted to execute these points of his instructions to the letter, without for an instant con- ceiving that each of them was in direct conflict with the vital and funda. inental laws of the celestial empire. This ignorance was very natural and very excusable in a captain of the British navy, but how it came to be shared by the council and the secretary of state of the British empire, is more unaccountable. The instructions were explicit and positive. Had there been the remotest suspi- cion at the time when they were prepared, that their execution would meet with resistance by the Chinese authorities, it could not have failed to be noticed in then, with directions how the superintendents were to proceed in such an event. Until then the official protector of British commercial interests in China, had been a supercargo of the East India Company, denominated by the Chinese a táipán, whose representations or remonstrances in behalf of British subjects to the go. vernor of the two provinces, Kwángtung and Kwángsí, were always presented in the form of petitions, and always communicated through the medium of the hong-merchants, without obtaining or claiming direct access to the Chinese dig. nitary himself. That this mode of communication was to cease from the time of the expiration of the exclusive privileges of the East India Company, was

Adams Lecture on the War with China.

MAY,

equally well known to the British and Chinese governments, and in the contro. versy which immediately followed this first collision between lord Napier and the governor of Canton, the latter once and again asserts that ample warning had been given to the British merchants that when, by the expiration of the pri vileges of the East India Company, the functions of the táipán would be super- seded, some suitable messenger must be substituted to settle with the hong-mer- chants those trifling and insignificant concerns of commerce which it was far beneath the dignity of the government of the celestial empire to provide for or to notice.

But I am already trespassing upon your patience-a brief and summary notice of the sequel. is all that your time will at present allow. The proud and generous British noble mariner persisted in his determination to hold direct communication with the governor of the two provinces, Lú, and to continue his residence at Canton, till he was obliged to call for an armed force from the British frigate in which he had performed his passage, and for the frigate and another to force the passage of the river for the protection of his person from assault by the armed force of the governor, who on his part issued edict after edict against the barbarian eye the laboriously vile Napier, who had come by sea more than ten thousand miles to the flowery land of the celestial empire, for what purpose, the chief of the two- eyed peacock feather could not tell, but against all reason, and ignorant of all dignities, pretending to correspond with the viceroy of the provinces of Kwang- tung and Kwángsí, upon matters of trade, by letter, instead of by petition, and to assume the functions, which for a century and some tens of years had always been performed in all humility by a táipán, petitioning through the medium of the hong-merchants. Three of the principal hong-merchants attempted for seve- ral days to negotiate a compromise between the governor and the noble lord su- perintendent, without success, till at length an edict was issued by the governor which suspended the British trade. The British commerce in China was pros. trated at a blow, and the only alternative left to lord Napier was to retire under numerous insults and indignities to Macao, where on the 13th day of October, 1834, he died of chagrin and a broken heart.

And here we might pause :-do I hear you inquire, what is all this to the opium question, or the taking of Canton? These I answer are but incidents in that movement of mind on this globe of earth, of which the war between Great Bri- fain and China, is now the leadig star. Of the four questions which I have pro- posed this evening to discuss, we have not even reached the conclusion of the

first.

The justice of the cause between the two parties:-which has the righteous cause? You have perhaps been surprised to hear me answer Britain-Britain has the righteous cause. But to prove it, I have been obliged to show that the opium question is not the cause of the war, my demonstration is not yet complete. The cause of the war is the kotow!-the arrogant and insupportable pretensions of China, that she will hold commercial intercourse with the rest of mankind, not upon terms of equal reciprocity, but upon the insulting and degrading forms of the relation between lord and vassal. The melancholy catastrophe with which I am obliged to close, the death of the gallant Napier, was the first bitter fruit of the struggle against that insulting and senseless pretension of China. Might I, in the flight of time, be perinitted again to address you, I should pursue the course of the inquiry, through the four questions with which I have begun. But the solution

1842

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

A

of them all is involved in the germinating element of the first, the justice of the cause. This I have sought in the natural rights of man. Whether it may ever be my good fortune to address you again, is in the disposal of a higher Power; but with reference to the last of my four questions. What are the duties of the govern- ment and the people of the United States, resulting from the existing war between Great Britain and China? I leave to your meditations the last event of that war, which the winds have brought to our ears-the ransom of Canton. When we remember the scornful refusal from the gates of Canton in July, 1834, of Mr. Astell, bearing the letter of peace and friendship from lord Napier to the governor of the two provinces, and the contemptuous refusal to receive the letter itself, and compare it with the ransom of that same city in June, 1841, we trace the whole line of connection between cause and effect-may we not draw from it a monitory lesson, written with a beam of phosphoric light -of preparation for war, and preservation of peace ?

       Note. One of the strongest inducements to place this lecture of Mr. Adama upon the pages of the Repository has been in this manner to exhibit the principal arguments that can be stated in behalf of this view of the merits of the present struggle between China and England. These remarks are the views of a man of extensive experience in public life, and as such are worthy of attention and de. ference; and they also show in a lucid manner one of the strongest reasons why the Chinese government has not the right to shut themselves out from the rest of mankind, founded on deductions drawn from the rights of men as members of one great social system. While, however, we differ from the lecturer with regard to the influence the opium trade has had upon the war, for it has been without doubt the great proximate cause, we mainly agree with him as to the effect that other remoter causes springing from Chinese assumption, conceit, and ignorance have also had upon it. In its progress, these features have been more and more prominently brought forward, and on the part of this government, the war is probably at present regarded as one of supremacy or vassalism, according as the Chinese win or lose. We do not see how the war could have arisen, had not the opium trade been a smuggling trade,-we think it would never have gone on as it han were the Chinese better acquainted with their own and others' rights. But whatever bc its course, it must we think, be the hearty desire of every well-wisher of his race, that the almighty Governor of the nations would in his own chosen way educe lasting good to both parties, and cause that these two mighty nations may in their future intercourse be a mutual benefit.-Ed. Chi. Rep.

ART. IV. Recent military operations of the British forces in Chi-

na, and actual position of the belligerent parties.

IN Chekiáng, where the chief interest of the British expedition againist China is at this moment concentrated, and where the Chi- nese have, for months past, been assembling their high officers and select troops in the largest numbers, there have recently occurred, some more active operations than during the past winter. These, brought on by the increased daring of the Chinese, have resulted, as was to be expected in their signal discomfiture.

VOL XI 10

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37

290

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

MAY,

After the capture of Chinhái, and the consequent occupation of Ningpò in Oct. last, the amount of force then with the head-quarters of the expedition was not deemed sufficient for further onward progress. It would have shown weakness, and afforded encou- ragement, to the Chinese to have retired from Ningpd without making a simultaneous forward movement to some other more im- portant point; and it was therefore resolved to retain possession of that city for the winter, unless the excuse of a ransom should be given for its evacuation. We ourselves cannot but think, that. whether the immediate object of keeping the troops quiet and unfatigued during the winter months be considered, or the desir- ableness of losing no opportunity to press the enemy to the utmost possible straits be the question, it would, in either point of view, have been better, at this early period, when the defenses of the capital of the province were hardly even commenced, to have pushed on and taken, or ransomed at a high rate (and thereby weakened the enemy's "sinews of war'), the ancient city of Hángchau, the capital of the whole province. Such a movement, it would appear, is now to be made (if at the date of our writing it has not been already accom- plished); and this, with no great increase of force upon the side of the British, though opposed to a vastly increased number of men and extent of defenses ou the side of the Chinese. The difficulties to be encountered are great; but we feel not a doubt, that the superiority of British arms and discipline-under the blessing of the God of battles, who giveth not always the battle to the strong, nor the race to the swift-will come off victorious. A statement of these difficul- ties, and some exposition of the recent events which have led to this movement in advance, may be looked for by our readers.

Hángchau, as we have elsewhere stated, lies on the north bank of the river Tsientáng, at a point where that river, after a rapid course from the southward and westward, through the western districts of the province, begins to open out and form a wide embouchure toward the sea.

"The tide, when full," says sir G. Staunton in his account of Macartney's embassy, "increases the width of this river to about four miles opposite the city. At low water, there is a fine level strand, near two miles broad, which extends towards the sea as far as the eye can reach."

On its southern shore, as we proceed eastward from Hángchau, this swift-flowing river has deposited, during the lapse of ages, upon the slope of a ridge of hills that skirts it to the southward, bank upon bank of sand and earth, brought down by its rapid stream from the

1842

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

201

high mountain-range (one of the outmost of the off-branches of the

Himalayas) wherein it has its source. Under the triple distrbution of hardened ground, firm sands, and quick sands, these deposits of centuries have so narrowed the stream in its progress onward, that the deep channel that has been left on its northern edge has been found to flow with a rapidity, which even the steam vessels, when sent out to survey were unable during the spring tides to stem.

A stone causeway, built and kept in repair with much labor and the utmost exertions of Chinese engineering skill, serves on the northern bank to keep out the encroachments of river and sea from the generally flat country that lies between this place and the Yángtsz' kiáng,-a country everywhere intersected with streams, rendering it rich and fertile in the highest degree, and at the same time sufficiently diversified with hills to add beauty to the scene, and to make it in all respects one of the most lovely and interesting parts in the whole empire of China.

  The sand banks on the southern shore reach nearly to Chinhái,- not many miles to the westward of which the unfortunate ship Kite was lost in 1840, and her crew conveyed to 'T'sz'ki and Yüyáu, and thence to Ningpò. The river Tsáungò rising in the centre of the Chekiang province flows northward, almost in a straight line, into the embouchure of the Tsientáng or Hángchau river; and thus makes a slight break in the line of these sand banks, to examine which commander Collinson has recently been sent out, but with what success he has met we have yet to learn. Communicating, too, with the river of Ningpò by means of a canal, that extends likewise from the T'sáungò, westward, past the city of Sháuhing, and ends at a place directly opposite to Hángchau, a line of commnication by inland waters is thus afforded between the British position at Chin. hái and Ningpò, and the head-quarters of the Chinese force at that provincial capital,-a line which has been twice described to us,- first, by the PP. Bouvet, Fontenay, and others, on their route from Ningpo by way of Hángchau to Peking in 1687,-and then, by a portion of lord Macartney's embassy proceeding in an opposite direc- tion, from Hángchau to rejoin their ship at Chusan, in 1793. The embankment and causeway, on the northern shore of the Tsientang river and embouchure, extend from Hángchau, with little interrup- tion to the knot of hills that encircles the bay and town of Chápú,- passing by the ancient Canfu (Kánpú) of Mohammedan travelers, before it reaches this the modern seat of the rich trade with Japan : and nearly parallel with this road runs a canal, its banks adorned at

cort destances with prettiły wooded villages

292

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

MAY,

 We have thus three modes of approaching Hángchau:-first, by the sea and the river of Tsientáng, a route which saud banks and rapid tides render most difficult, if not impracticable;-secondly, by inland water, from Chinhái and Ningpò to the shore opposite the capital, carrying us past Sháuhing and several other fortified towns, and meeting interruptions in some places of locks that must be as- cended; and thirdly, by land route from Chápu, upon a carefully pre- served causeway, whereof we possess rather well-drawn native maps, and which we have reason to believe good, and of sufficient width for artillery. Of these routes a question can scarcely arise as to which will be found the best to advance upon.

 A distance of about fifty miles of sea, measured on a line drawn northward and westward, separates Chinhái from Chápú; and a somewhat greater distance of causeway has to be traveled over before reaching Hángchau from this latter place. But the town of Chápú once taken (and it can be come at by the guns of the British ships, as the Algerine proved in 1840), and its hills once crossed, there is little other than a large tract of plain ground, with perhaps only small streams intersecting it, to be passed over in the march thence upon Hángchau. The city of Kiáhing fú lies, however, not far from this route, nor many miles distant from Chápú, and here the main force of the Chinese left wing will have to be encountered. Its centre rests upon Hángchau, and "the rich and beautiful country about ninety miles in length," that lies between it and Súchau, on either side of the Grand canal. The chief position of its right wing is Sháuhing, a large city, situated, as already mentioned, on a branch of the river Tsaungo, and about midway between Ningpò and Hángchau,-from which advanced parties have been frequently pushed out to Yüyáu and Tsz'kí, chief towns of districts on the north bank of the Ningpò river, situated between that river and the sand banks of the embou- chure of the Tsientáng.

With the centre of this extended Chinese force we find, surround- ing himself with every sensual indulgence, the imperial high com- missioner, Yiking, "awe-inspiring general, a minister of the cabinet of six, a president of the Tribunal of Civil Office," and a nephew or cousin of the emperor,-attended by a galaxy of high provincial of- ficers, the Tartar-general, the governor, &c., &c., &c., and by two joint-commissioners, by name Teishun and Wan Wei, to whom a third has lately been added, and a multitude of "courtiers," or of ficers sent immediately from the presence of the emperor. Kishen, 190, would have been of the number, (for he is among the friends of

1842.

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

 Yiking), but for the strongly urged remoustrances, as we are led to believe, of the governor, Liú Yunko. With the left wing, at Kiáking fú, is Húcháu, another joint commissioner, who having guined rank and nobility by the war of 1831 against Jehanguir and his Túrks, at Cashgar and Yárkand in the farthest west, hopes now to adorn himself with honors wrested by his own right hand from the English on the sea-coasts of the east. At Sháuhing, with the right wing, is Chin Kiáiping, an aged man, lately retired from the chief coromand in Fukien, but now again called forth as joint commissioner and commander-in-chief in Chekiáug,-with whom are associated the active and intelligent old general Yü Púyun, late commander-in-chief of the provincial force, and all those who, with him retired, defeated, froin Chinhái and Ningpò, after the death of that savage self-confi- dent generalissimo, Yükien. Under these numerous officers are assembled many thousands of select troops from almost every pro- vince of the empire, foreinost among whom stands a detachment of the imperial guards,-a body of the men of Kánsu, tall and athletic inheritors of the blood of Mohammedan Túrks and Tartars,-and a band of aborigines from the mountain fastnesses of Húkwáng or of Sz'chuen, called forth now to meet the new invaders of the country, from whose plains they themselves have by former invaders been long since expelled.

  Against this whole force we find marshaled, under the gallant lieut.-general and vice-admiral, sir Hugh Gough, and sir William Parker, besides the necessary detachments of royal and Madras artillery and engineers, only four regiments of foot, the 18th, 26th, 49 h and 55th (none of them complete) and two battalions from the navy, consisting of royal marines and seamen. And of so small an array, portions must yet be left to rest upon Chinhái and Tinghái, while the main body is moving forward to meet the left and centre of the Chinese army. That army met and worsted, its right wing will alone remain, hemmed in, resourceless, between the division of the British force at Chinhái and at Hangchau,-and quickly as the dew must it dissolve away. But so dispelled it will become yet more formidable than in its entirety, if, instead of withdrawing from one field of battle to seek elsewhere another, the British forces should repose from their toils ainid the scattered, but not subjected, multi- tudes of the enemy. Blow must succeed rapidly to blow, if final suc- cess is to be hoped for. It was by the windmills in active motion that the redoubtable Don Quixote was worsted: he might have come off scatheless in the collision with them, in the calm and idle rest of a breathless summer's day

294

Positions of the British and Chinese Forces.

MAY,

It is from] such a state of inactive repose, in the very midst of the enemy, that the British forces have recently been aroused by the bold attempts which the Chinese had thereby been encouraged to make; and it is always during such a continuance of inactivity, that a crafty enemy is enabled to organize a system of espionage and secret ¡nfluence, to send into the invader's camp the vilest agents to kidnap or to poison. Of the proceedings of the Chinese in these respects, sundry accounts have from time to time appeared in the public prints, and others are daily reaching us: of their bolder operations, in the night-attack on Ningpò, and the resistance they offered when their advanced post at T'sz'ki was in turn attacked, full particulars are afforded in the circulars issued by H. B. M.'s plenipotentiary to the British community, contained in the last number.

At Amoy, a like state of inactivity has been rendered yet more un- avoidable by the smallness of the force left there, five companies of the 18th Royal Irish, at the moment of our writing reduced to three only, on the island of Kúláng sú,-and two or three ships of war in the harbor. Westward from Kúláng sú, au inlet or branch of the sea, for it is such rather than a river, runs up into the land in a westerly di- rection (soon becoming very shallow), to the departmental chief town of Changchau. Amoy itself, and Kúláng sú as its dependency, are not however subordinate to this city, but to that of Tsiuenchau (Chinchew), situated at the head of a bay somewhat farther up the coast than that of Amoy. More immediately, Amoy pertains to the district of Tungán, a dependency of the department of Tsiueachau. It is chiefly in this department, as being within a convenient dis- tance of the capital of the province, that I'liáng the late governor of Kwangtung, now a special commissioner and (we believe) governor- general of Fukien and Chekiáng, makes at this time his residence. Another commissioner, Tuánkwá, is with him and also the late go- vernor-general Yen Petáu, disgraced for having been unable to save Amoy. Accounts received from thence to the 15th of April bring us rumors of an intended attack, to be made on Kúláng sú, from the direction chiefly of Changchau, by 20,000 men, with the aid of a band of pirates and robbers, and a squadron of fire-boats. Not a doubt can we feel, that captain Smith, who, in the Volage and Druid successively, has been so long among us, and has had such numerous opportunities of witnessing these dread attacks by fire-boats, and who so well knows how to temper firmness with kindness and moderation in his treatment of the people, will, aided by the timely warning

1842

Positions of the British and Chinese Furets-

297

 which the people will convey to him, easily be enabled to defeat all their machinations.

  In the south, taken up with watching the rising progress of Hong- kong, or averse to commit themselves to measures that might require a retention here of a large force, the British authorities have perinit- ted the Chinese to rebuild their defenses; and from a little above Whampoa upwards, Canton and its approaches are now much more strongly fortified than ever before.

  The foregoing observations having been prepared somewhat too late for insertion in the last number, soine more recent accounts have since reached us. At Chinhái and Chusan, several attempts to cause destruction of the shipping by fire-boats and by shallops con- taining boxes of gunpowder have been defeated (in one case with the loss of four men killed and wounded). The routed fugitives from 'Tsz'ki were met in their flight by a new commissioner, Chülahang, just arrived from Peking with violent warlike denunciations, and a large store of honorary distinctions for brave combatants. A council of war was held on his arrival, and he strongly urged renewed attacks upon Ningpò, that the enemy might be driven into the depths of the sea. Those who had already felt the effects of British prowess show- ed, however, great unwillingness again to advance, and Chülahang himself hesitated to become the leader of the new attacks he recom- mended. To fight to the last by their own posts, and not to seek death in advancing seems therefore to have been the determination with which the council broke up. Meanwhile, it has become the purpose of the British authorities, if report speak correctly, not to approach Hángchau, but to turn the flank of all this force, and by attacking the defenses that have been erected in the Yángtsz' kiáng, to throw open that river to the British forces. The reinforcements which have begun to arrive from India and England, will soon more than double the effective force.

At Amoy the rumored attack has not taken place: captain Smith in the Druid has returned from Amoy to Hongkong, and captain Nias in the Herald has taken his place at Amoy.

  At Canton, Yishan has been permitted to send back some portions of his force that had come from distant provinces. Yiking, in the north, it is said has done the same, in order to conceal the fact of the numerous desertions that had taken place in his corps.

206

Journal of Occurrences,

ART. V. Journal of Occurrences: members of the cabinet; rumors

from Peking; forts at Tientsin; Hongkong.

near.

THE northern capital is now, more than ever before, an object of attention-attracting alike all eyes, foreign as well as native far and The Gazettes, down to about the middle of April, are filled as usual with memorials and edicts, announcements of new appoint- ments, &c., &c., seeming to indicate little or no concern, by the conductors of the " machinery of government," for its continued safe administration.

The four principal ministers of the cabinet are-as_at_the_com- mencement of the year-Muchángáh, Pwán Shingan, Páuhing, and

Wang Ting; and fifth and sixth are 奕經 Yiking and 卓秉活

Chó Pinghwo. The original sentence, sending Lin to I'lí, "the cold country," has been put in execution; so we have been informed. He left Peking sometime last month. Kishen has been banished to Mantchouria; and old I'lipú sent again to Chekiáng.

The rumor that Táukwang has fled from Peking to Moukden, we do not find authenticated. The monarchs of the reigning dynasty have been accustomed we believe, annually, early in summer, to retire to the ancient residence of their family in Mantchouria, there to spend the hot months. This precaution for avoiding hot weather, we imagine H. I. M. will probably not neglect during the present season. At Tientsin, and along the Pei ho, from the sea to the capital, the Chinese, by all accounts, have made great preparations for de- fense. The forts are reported to be more than a hundred in number, and the troops almost innumerable.

At Hongkong, affairs have gone on peaceably. Transports, con- taining Indian troops, steamers, and men-of-war have arrived and part of them gone northward.

The settlement on the island itself still progresses rapidly so far as the erection of buildings is concerned. A market for the accommo- dation of the Chinese in disposing of provisions has been erected and opened. H. E. sir Henry Pottinger, under date of April 27th, issued a proclamation, declaring Mexican or other republican dollars to be the standard in all matters of trade, unless otherwise particularly specified. This was done at the suggestion of several of the leading English mercantile firms.-The Hongkong Gazette and Friend of China of the 12th inst. contains a General Orders of H. E. sir Hugh Gough, which quotes the approbation of the late governor-general of India, lord Auckland, respecting the operations before Chinhái and Ningpo. Another paper of the 19th contains the following notice.

The appointinents of land officer, surveyor, and acting colonial surgeon at Hong- kong, are, under instruction from her majesty's government, to cease from the 31st of the current month. The arrangements to be continued for the discharge of the duties hitherto performed by the land officer will be noticed in due time.

CHARLES E. Stewart, Assistant secretary and treasurer. Government House, Hongkong, 17th May, 1842,

By order,

TIF

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

Vol. XI.-June, 1842.-No. 6.

ART. I.

Retrospection, or a Revicio of Public Occurrences in China during the last ten years, from January 1st, 1832, to December 31st, 1841. (Continued from page 266.)

OPERATIONS against the trade in opium, correspondence regarding the debts of the Hingtái hong, and the visit of the British admiral to China, are the principal topics of local interest in the chapter of occurrences for 1838. In obedience to an imperial order, issued in October, 1837, the provincial authorities, on the 30th of December, sent up a memorial to the emperor, respecting the measures adopted against the receiving ships, the actual condition of those ships, and the repeated seizures made of sycee silver and of opium, and of the boats which supply the ships with provisions. In forwarding this do- cument to his government, captain Elliot remarked that "the inter- ruption of trade is less likely to cusue from the commands of the court, than from some grave disaster arising out of collision between the government craft and our own armed boats on the river. Loss of life in a conflict of this kind, would at once compel the government to adopt the most urgent proceedings; and the actual condition of circumstances, certainly renders such a catastrophe probable in the very highest degree."

For an account of the affairs of the bankrupt establishment of Hingtái, see vol. VI., pp. 160, 304, 590, and the subsequent volumes, also the Blue Book, and newspapers of the day.

January 18th, 1838.

             Captain Elliot addressed a communication to the Foreign Office, from which the following is an extract.

    The boat of a Mr. Just ja British subject, and a watch maker, resident at Canton: was visited a few evenings since, being then about two miles above the

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factories, by some official runners, and there they discovered three cases ol opium. This is the first instance, for many years, of a searching visit on board European boats, and it is to be apprehended the practice may be inconveniently extended: the more so, as several of these boats are armed. It seems that this affair might have been settled on the night it happened, by a bribe of 2,000 dollars to the seizing officer, but Mr. Just would not go beyond the half of that gum. On the next day, the matter necessarily fell within the knowledge of a wider circle of officers, who would all require bribery to keep the business out of the viceroy's public sight. In due course, therefore, the demand for bribes amounted to 6.000 dollars; and at the date of the last advices from Canton (the 16th), the affair was still unfinished, and the terms for accommodation were rising rapidly. If the seizure he publicly reported to the viceroy, it will lead to some serious mischief; and at all events, the hong-merchant, who is the landlord of Mr. Just's house (and who has no more to do with the business than I have) will be a severe sufferer."-Corresp. p. 253.

19th. Regarding the Horsburgh memorial, a letter of this date was addressed to the committee in London by its corresponding com- mittee in China, the object of the letter was to recommend the erec- tion of a lighthouse, for the benefit of those who navigate the eastern

Chi. Rep., vol. V1., p. 545.

seas.

February 25th. An imperial order was issued for the immediate strangulation of Kwo Siping, for his having been engaged in the opium trade with foreigners. This sentence of the law was executed on the unhappy victim at Macao early in April following. Vol. VI., p. 608.

April 21st Sir Frederic Maitland addressed to captain Elliot, under this date from Madras, the following dispatch.

"Sir,―This letter will be delivered to you by captain Blake of her majesty's sloop Larne, whom I have ordered into the China seas to afford protection to the British interests, and to give weight to any representations you may be under the necessity of making, in case her majesty's subjects should have just cause of complaint against the Chinese authorities, and to assist you in maintaining order among the crews of the British merchantmen who frequent the port of Canton. I have now the honor to inform you that I relieved vice-admiral sir T. B. Ca- pel, in coinmand of her majesty's ships in the Indian seas, on the 5th of February last, and have only delayed sending a ship to China in consequence of the state of the relations of the Indian government with that of Ava; for the present, everything bears a pacific aspect, though it is by no means certain that the differ- ences between the two governments may not ultimately produce hostilities. shall, however, take advantage of the present position of affairs, to send the Larne to Macao, and after communicating with you cordially and confidentially, with instructions to go on to Manila, and obtain a supply of cordage for the dock- yard at Trincomalee, and then return to Macao.

In the early part of July it is my intention to leave the Straits of Malacca, for The purpose of paying Macan a visit in the Wellesley, in compliance with in structions from the lords of the admiralty to enable ine to have a personal com

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     munication with you, as the interchange of information for which such commu uication will afford an opportunity, might, in many possible future contingencies. be highly advantageous to the British interests. As it is possible the arrival of my flag-ship, as well as that of others which I may from time to time send in'o the China seas, may give some cause of jealousy and suspicion to the governmeut of China, I wish you clearly to understand that the trade being rataneame monopoly of a company of merchants, comes under the immediate protectiuu and care of her majesty's government; and that that government considers itself bound to see that the ships and persous of her majesty's subjects are duly pro- tected from injury or insult, as is the case in all other portions of the globe. This I communicate to you, that the Chinese government, may if necessary, be put at ease, and no suspicion arise of any hostile intentiou on the part of the Brit ish government, which is the farthest from their views, by the more frequent visits of our ships now, as compared with former times.

· Though capt. Blake is commanded to assist you in maintaining order among the crews of the British merchant ships, you must be perfectly aware he, as captain of a ship of war, has no legal right to interfere, and must be very cautious in committing himself in the disputes between the masters and their crews.

Frederick Maitland."

'I have, &c.,

-Corresp. p. 311.

(Signed)

     July 12th. Admiral Maitland having arrived off Macao addressed captain Elliot the following note.

44

       *Sir,-Ia reference to my letter dated at Madras, 21st of April last, acquaint- ing you with my intention to visit, in person, this part of my station, I now beg to inform you that I have arrived off Macao in her majesty's ship Welles- ley, and mean to proceed to the anchorage called Tungkú bay, or Urmston's, harbor, which I am informed is the safest and most convenient roadstead for a large ship at this season of the year. My future movements will be directed very much by circumstances, and I shall be obliged to you to communicate any information you are possessed of, which you think may be useful or interesting to me, as my stay in this neighborhood must depend very much upon circum- stances. I shall not form any plan until I have communicated with you, which I shall take an early opportunity of doing. I have, &c., -Corresp. p. 312.

FREDERICK Maitland."

(Signed)

Ca

     15th. Captain Elliot acknowledged the receipt of the two prece- ding, and in reply thus wrote.

Your remark, that the aspect of public affairs in India was unsettled, and that therefore your intention to visit this part of your station might be frustrated for the present, led me to refrain from making any communication to the provincial government founded upon that contingency, till the period of your actual arrival in these seas.

It is gow my purpose to repair to Canton towards the end of this week, and to cause it to be announced to the governor that I am ready, by your desire, to explain the peaceful objects of your visit, if his excellency shall think fit to receive my address in a manner which may be consistent with my instruc- tions from her majesty's government. I shall, at the same time, in conformity with your directions communicated to me in the conference I had the honor to bave with you on the 13th instant, acquaint the governor that you are willing

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to pay our personal respects to him, upon the clear understanding that you are to be .eceived on a perfectly equal footing

"And I st.ali take care to explain, as you have desired, that you would never forward or receive written communications to or from the governor, except they bore the superscription significant of complete evenness of dignity. It is proba- ble that the provincial government will make some approach towards me as sonu as your arrival is reported, and with that impression I have døferred my visit to Canton till the period I have mentioned. In conclusion, I permit myself to remark that it is a source of great satisfaction and support to me to have your concurrence, that every proper effort should be made upon my part, (and failing my success, upon your own) to explain the amicable objects of her majesty's government in commanding you to visit this empire. The rejection of all means of friendly communication with her majesty's government submitted upon the part of an officer of your high station, and in an imposing attitude, is a course not to be expected; or at all events, there can be little doubt that such rash im- practicability would expose the governor to the grave displeasure of his own court if it were persisted in, and be made the subject of future complaint at the mouth

I have. &c., (Signed)

of the Pei ho.

-Corresp. p. 313.

"Charles ELLIOT."

Under the same date captain Elliot, having received an edict (R yu, from the subprefect of Macao, returned the same for correction

29th. Captain Elliot, having proceeded to Canton, addressed the following note to the governor.

"An English officer, of the first rank, Maitland, commanding the ships of his sovereign in the Indian seas, has arrived off these coasts, by the command of his government. The superintendent Elliot has now received Maitland's instruc- tions to signify to his excellency the governor, that he desires to explain the peaceful purposes of this visit. It would be convenient, therefore, that the man- Der of intercourse should be clearly understood beforehand, so that all difficulties and misunderstandings may be prevented. For this reason Elliot requests that the governor will be pleased to send officers to communicate with him. And if they should come, his excellency may be assured that they will be received in a manner consistent with their dignity. -Corresp. p. 314.

-

(Signed)

CHARLES ELLIOT."

On the day preceding, i. e. on the 28th, an affair took place at the Bogue, which served to hasten direct intercourse between the English and Chinese authorities; and is thus set forth in a declaration of captain Middlemist

"

· Mr. Willian Campbelt Middlemist, a master in ber majesty's royal navy, and commander of the British ship Falcon, of London, now lying at Hongkong, states, that he was proceeding from Hongkong to Canton, on the twenty-eighth day of July, 1833, in the schooner Bombay (passage-boat), when, nearing the Bogue, be was chased by two mandarin boats, which made signs, by waving a fag, which he understood to ve a signal to heave-to; which signs were disregard- ed, it not being usual for the mandarin boats to make such sign. One mandarin boats then fired a musket, apparently to call the attention of the batte, wan hamedag o's "gimeared firing chei • pon die Bombay which at first

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fell short. but ns the passage bont approached the Bogue tort, being under the necessity of elcsing the land, the shot from the batteries were better directed, two of them passing between the masts of the schooner, and one within a yard of the bow, throwing the water on board. The Bombay then immediately rounded-to, and was boarded by one of the before-mentioned mandarin boats, at about 4 P. M. The boarding officer (who was not the mandarin, but an inter- preter) inquired whether ́ admiral Maitland, or any of his soldiers, women, or man-of-war's men, were on board? If so, they would not be allowed to pass up the Bogue:' which inquiries were answered in the negative.

       **On one of the passengers of the Bombay inquiring of the boarding officer whether he would seize opium, if any were on board, that officer answered no! The officer then left the schooner, and she proceeded again for Canton; but, in about an hour afterwards, she was again brought-to by a shot from the Tiger fort, and boarded by a boat from that fort, the officer of which (who did not leave his boat) made the like inquiries, viz., 'whether admiral Maitland, or any of his soldiers, women, or man-of-war's men were on board?' which being answered, as before, in the negative, the schooner was allowed to proceed without further molestation.

W. C. MIDDLEMIST.

(Signed)

       ·Declared before me, on board her majesty's ship Wellesley, in Tungkú bay, 1st of August, 1838.

                                      CHARLES ELLIOT." -Corresp. pages 314-315.

(Signed)

August 4th. Admiral Kwán addressed the following dispatch to sir Frederick Maitland.

"Kwán Tienpei, general (or admiral) of the celestial empire, the potent and fear-inspiring, writes for the information of Maitland, the chief commander of the vessels of war of the English nation. We of the celestial empire, and you of the English nation, have had a cominon market at Canton for two hundred years past. On both sides there has been the fullest harmony, without the slightest interruption thereof. During the continuance here of your nation's superintend- ing officer, Elliot, all too has been quiet.

44

'Recently, Elliot went to Canton, and there told the hong-merchants, that in consequence of the unwillingness of the merchants of the various nations to submit to restraint. he had represented to his sovereign a wish that another should be sent hither in his place: that now his sovereign had sent from home the noble Maitland, and it was desired that both should repair together to Can- ton, humbly and plainly to address his excellency the governor, in reference to the continuance here of Eliot as superintendent. To these public arrangements of your nation, his excellency our governor would of course consent, were it not that the prohibitory enactinents of the celestial empire have hitherto withheld from cominanders-general of vessels of war permission to enter the port; and of this Elliot is well aware.

      "On a recent visit of Elliot to Canton, he sought to effect a sudden change in the ancient rules, by using, in place of the words 'humble address,' (pin,) the words 'letter of intelligence.' (shúsin.) Hence his excellency our governor declined to receive, in disobedience of the regulations, his documents. Perhaps Elliot may have failed to inform you, the honorable commander-general, of this circumstance of not using the words 'humble address. What may be the motives for your present step of moving these three vessels to the anchorage of

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Langkeet! When I consider that your sovereign has sent you hither, a distance of tens of thousands of miles, to conduct affairs. I feel that you must be a man of capacity at home. Should you now neglect to distinguish clearly right from wrong, and ac upon the spur of the moment, will not the blame rest on you~ how will you be able to answer it to your sovereign? These things I specially put before you; and, while quietly awaiting your reply, I wish you unalloyed enjoyment of repose."-Corresp. p. 315.

5th. Under this date we have the three following papers relative to the affair of the Bombay.

No. 1.

SIR F. Maitland to the Chinese Admiral.

Her majesty's skip Wellesley, off Chuenpe, Aug. 5th, 1838. In reply to the admiral's note of yesterday, I have shortly to observe that the cause of my coming to this anchorage of Lungkeet is distinct from the affairs of Elliot, and is to demand explanations for au insult offered to the sovereign of my country in the person of myself, by firing at and boarding a British vessel, under the pretext that I might be on board. I have now to request that the admiral will send me officers, in order that I may fully explain my meaning, and baving fulfilled my objects in coming to this anchorage, sail away to more con- venient places below. Thus will all change of an interruption of the peace that bas so long subsisted between the two countries be happily removed.

With compliments, I have the honor to remain, &c.,

(Signed)

O

"F. L. MaitlAND." (L. S.)

No. 2. DKCLARATION of Chinese OfficerS.

On the 8th day of the 6th month (28th July), an English boat was enter- ing the Bogne, when certain natives spoke wrongly of your honorable admiral, his family, and subordinates, inquiring whether they were on board or not, and adding that, if they were on board, the boat must return, but; if not, she might proceed through the Bogue. This has been inquired into. It was not done in consequence of any official orders: the wrong language was that of the natives aforesaid themselves. Should any such-like language be used hereafter, the circumstance shall be at once investigated and punished. Their thus offending your honorable admiral is one and the same as offend. ing our own admiral."

[The above was written by Lí, a hietái or tsántsiảng, and another officer, whose name was not learned, of the rank of shaupei. It is in the handwriting of the latter, whose rank may be considered analogous to that of lieutenant-commander. The rank of the former is analogous to that of post.

captain.]

No. 3. MINUTes of Correspondence Held on Board the Wellesley.

· After the officers deputed by the Chinese admiral to visit sir Frederick Maitland had, in writing, disavowed, on the part of their admital, all sanction of the insulting inquiries inade on board the boat Bombay, sir Frederick Maitland observed, 'That irregularities will happen, but, as they may lead to serious misunderstandings between the two nations, they require to be noticed and checked. That the títuh had expressed a determination to punish the person who had committed this offence. intention of insulting the British flng had now been disavowed, he hoped the titah would consider it an sevident, and forgive the offender

But that, since every

To this the

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      officers replied, that it was an insult to the titub uimselt, as will as to SE Frederick Maitland, and that the offence could not be passed over, but must of necessity be punished

"The admiral then said that, having satisfactorily settled the business that had brought him up to Lungkee!, he meant to take the earliest oppor tunity of wind and tide to return to Tungkú. That, the monsoon, being now against his return southward, he would probably remain some weeks longer in that neighborhord He added that since the trade had ceased to be in the hands of the Company, frequent visits of British vessels of war may be espected, it being in accordance with the genius of the English nation to look after its subjects in foreign countries, to see that they are subjected to no insults, and that disturbances do not take place among them. That they may rest assured, however, that these vessels will come always with a peace- ful purpose.

       "The officers requested in the name of the títuh, that orders should be given to put a stop to the irregularities of British subjects, such as had been alluded to in the second conference between the titub and captain Maitland. The admiral informed them, that merchant vessels are not under the martial discipline of the navy, but are subject to the civil authority; and pointed them to captain Elliot, who was present. Captain Elliot assured them that his constant wish has been to prescrve peace and good order. He added a desire that the governor might be informed that the fate negotiations on his part were carried on by him, in obedience to the orders of his government, and were not owing to any want of respect towards his excellency." -Corresp. pp. 316-317.

      10th. The affairs relative to the Bombay, and the visit of the Wellesley to Chuenpí, &c., are thus reviewed in a dispatch to vis- count Palmerston, under this date.

       My lord,--In returning to the subject of my hurried dispatch of the 17th inst., I take the liberty to observe that I had delayed the acknowledgment of your lordship's dispatch of November 24, 1837, till the arrival of the rear-admiral com- manding-in-chief (which I had reason to expect from other sources of informa- tion,) should enable me to report any consequences that might result from that event. Upon the 13th ult., sir Frederick L. Maitland arrived off this place in her majesty's ship Wellesley, accompanied by her majesty's brig Algerine, and I im- mediately joined him in the cutter Louisa, and proceeded onwards with the ships to the anchorage of Tungkú bay, distant about seven leagues to the south- ward of the Bocca Tigris; a position which, besides its recommendations in point of safety and sufficient distance from the entrance of the river, has the advantage of being remote from the anchorage of the ships engaged in the illicit traffic.

'On the day that I joined him, the admiral placed in my hand the communi. cation, of which I now transmit an inclosure; and my reply to this, and the previous dispatch of the 21st April, is also now forwarded. A few days after his excellency's a val, I received a communication from the kiunmin fú, the district magistrate of this place, superscribed in the usual form; but as the inside bure the character yü, which signifies 'a command,' I returned it to him unread. with a few lines to the effect that I should be glad to give my attention as soon as this mistake was corrected The next approach was in the old form of an

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edict from the governor, addressed to the three hong merchants, and forwarded by them to me. through the hands of a linguist This document was returned unopened, with a message that my strict orders from her majesty's government in this respect, had frequemly been clearly and deferentially explained to the go- vernor, and that I could not deviate from them. It is not to be doubted that the purport of these two communications was identical, namely, to desire that I would enjoin upon the rear admiral the propriety of sailing away from the coasts of the empire. I felt then that any protraction of the attempt to explain the peacefnl object of his visit, might give sonte color to the pretext that it was suspicions and dangerous, and lead (with the hope to draw it to a conclusion.) to a course of harassing measures. directed either against the trade, or against the social com forts of her majesty's subjects by depriving them of their servants, and otherwise inconveniencing them

Under this impression, and with sir Frederick Maitland's concurrence, I pro ceeded to Canton on the 25th ult., and having hoisted the flag, forwarded to the city gates by the hands of Messrs. Morrison and Elmslie, an open paper for trans- mission to the governor by an officer. The paper was left open with the view to obviate the difficulty about the character pin. It was conveyed to the go- vernor by the kwánghie, but the three senior merchants returned it to me in the course of the evening with the remark from his excellency that his orders from the emperor were imperative, and that he could not take it unless it bore the character pin. The merchants were at the same time desired to acquaint me that the governor was a lover of peace and good understanding, and would go as far as he could to accommodate the difficulties upon the subject of in- tercourse. They then proposed by his command, that I should receive an official address from the governor setting forth that the three senior merchants were indeed officers, and that therefore I could no longer reasonably decline to receive papers addressed to them for communication to me. I answered that it needed all my respect for bis excellency to return any other than very strong terms of reply to this extravagant suggestion, and that I should certain. ly be less scrupulous if any heedlessness of the kind were repeated.

LA

My government was actuated by sentiments of profound veneration for the emperor, but it should be plainly understood that it would not regard these triflings and evasions with satisfaction. They were unfriendly and unworthy. I then remarked that I had now formally offered to set forth the peaceful pur- poses of the rear-admiral's visit, and if the governor did not think fit to accept these explanations, my business in Canton was concluded, and I should return forthwith to Macao. Whilst these communications were passing at Canton, a British boat passing through the Bocca Tigris, on the 28th ultimo, was fired upon by the batteries, and upon her arrival in Canton, Mr. Middlemist, a passenger on board, made a declaration before me, subsequently reduced to writing on board the Wellesley. Upon this I sent again for the three senior merchants, and desired them to express to the governor my serious anxiety upon the subject. The rear-admiral had taken the utmost precaution to prevent the least cause of irritation or suspicion, and was afraid that the offensive declaration at the forts, that violence was used especially in search for him, and not for opium, or other illicit trade, would give him great and just displeasure. At all events. I felt that it became me immediately to submit the circumstance to his know ledge, and I sincerely hoped the governor would furnish me with an official di... avowal of any intention to insult or provoke him.

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      "The merchants declared that the governor could have no such purpose, and that the whole matter was of course a mistake of the inferior officers, but they did not hand me any formal declaration to that effect, and I therefore proceeded at once to the rear-admiral at 'Tungku bay, where I arrived on the 1st instant. I represented to him that in my judgment this was the first of what would be found to be a series of experiments on the extent of his forbearance, and that I had a conviction the provincial government would tone their future proceedings in this respect, either for civility or increased aggression, by his treatment of the actual

emergency.

        "The rear-adınira] remarked to me hat he had come to China with a deliberate determination most studiously to avoid the least violation of the customs or prejudices either of the government or people; but that he was not less resolved to bear no insult on the honor of the flag intrusted to his protection, and that he should therefore proceed forthwith to the Bocca Tigris with her majesty's ships under his command, and demand a formal disavowal of these unprovoked attacks upon him. Her majesty's ships Wellesley, Larne, and Algerine, were accordingly moved to the anchorage of Chucnpí, where they arrived on the morning of the 4th instant, and I accompanied them in the cutter Louisa, with the hope to ren. der myself useful to the rear-admiral. On the morning of our arrival there, the captain of the flag-ship was sent to the men-of-war junks off the batteries, accom. panied by Mr. Morrison, and conveying a dispatch from the rear-admiral to the governor of Canton. The Chinese officers manifested considerable disinclination to this course of proceeding, (without, however, positively declining it,) and began by proposing some alteration in the form of the address, which involved no aban. donment of the rear-admiral's right to communicate upon a footing of equality, and was therefore adopted.

64

But whilst these communications were passing upon the subject of the mode of address, the accompanying paper from the Chinese admiral was received, and upon this, it was determined to apply at once to that functionary for redress, which was accordingly done next morning (the 5th). The result was the mission of an officer of equal rank with captain Maitland, to wait upon the rear-admiral, accompanied by one of less rank; and the expressions of disavowal of any inten. tion to insult were written at the dictation of the higher officer, by the hand of the other, on board the Wellesley in the presence of the rear-admiral, captains Mait. land, Blake, Kingcome, Mr. Morrison, and myself. Sir Frederick signified his satisfaction with this declaration, and took occasion through Mr. Morrison to make some further observations, the purport of which I have now the honor to submit. An exchange of civilities then took place, and on the morning of the next day (the 6th) the ships returned to their former anchorage at Tungku bay, where they still remain. I have already presumed to offer my respectful testimony to the great judgment and temper which the rear-admiral displayed in the dis- charge of this duty: and I believe it will appear to your lordship that the whole transaction is calculated to leave lasting and favorable impressions both of the firmness and moderation of the higher officers of her majesty's government. The events have passed without interruption to the trade or any other description of Inconvenience.

I have, &c., (Signed)

-Corresp. pp. 399-311.

"CHARLES ELLIOT."

     29th. Under this date the following correspondence occurred regarding the departure of the English admiral

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   No. 1. Sir Frederick Maitland to the Chinese Admiral- **Rear-admiral_sir Frederick Maitland has the honor to acquaint the títub, that the ship bearing the flag, now lying at Tungkú, has recently been visited by a government boat, with a desire to be informed when the ship will proceed to sea. In order that no doubt may exist as to the real and peaceful purposes of his visit, sir Frederick Maitland considers it proper to record in a written form, the expla. nation which he had the honor to make to the honorable officers, who waited upon him at Chuenpí on the 5th instant. The trade has now ceased to be in the hands of the Company, and is under the direct control and protection of the Brit- ish sovereign. Frequent visits of the British men-of-war therefore must be cx- pected, because it is in accordance with the genius of the English government to look after the interests of its subjects in foreign countries, to see that they are subjected to no injustice, and that no disturbances take place amongst them. The Chinese government, however, may rest assured, that the British vessels of war who visit this empire, will come always with a peaceful purpose; but sir Frederick Maitland must demand, in the name of his government, peaceful and respectful treatment towards them. The monsoon being now against his return to the southward, sir Frederick Maitland will probably remain a few weeks longer in this neighborhood. With expressions of compliment and consideration, he has the honor to remain, &c.

       F. L. MaitlaND." No. 2. THE Chinese AdMIRAL'S REPLY.

(Signed)

"On the 29th August, I opened and perused your communication, and ac- quainted myself with all the honorable and excellent thoughts therein expressed. The thoughtful care that is therein manifested, has also yielded me gratification. Having before heard that you were indisposed, and having also been informed of the loss of your niece, I was mentally grieved; but yet I dared not, by waiting upon you, to infringe the rules of my country; at this I trust you will not feel any offense. The outer scas afford good space and depth of water; and there is nothing to apprehend from winds or waves. Should your public affairs yet detain you several weeks, there can be no obstacle thereto. I pray you to be careful of yourself, to keep your body in health and comfort. I specially address this in reply, and wish your excellency much and many blessings."-Corresp. pp. 319.320.

September 25th. Admiral Maitland addressed this communication to the Chinese admiral, being then at Tungkú.

"Rear.admiral sir Frederick Maitland being about to sail away from the Can- ton river, for other parts of his station, as the season for the change of monsoon ig fast approaching, takes this opportunity to acquaint the títuh therewith, and expressing the high sense he entertains of the manner in which all the commu. nications which have passed between his excellency and himself, have been carri. ed on.

It has been sir Frederick Maitland's constant desire to maintain such order amongst the officers and men under his command, as might prevent any act of theirs giving offense to the Chinese authorities, in which he trusts he has been successful; and the captain of every British ship-of-war which may hereafter be sent to the coast of China, will be directed to comport himself in the saine Sir Frederick Maitland further feels it a duty he owes to the comunand. ers of the imperial war-junks which have been stationed in the neighborhood of the ship bearing his flag, to state for the fitul's information, that their conduct has been marked by the strictest propriety and civility. Sir Frederick Maitland

nanner.

1842

Topography of Anhuni

307

requests the títuh will accept his best wishes for his health and prosperity; and as a mark of his feelings towards him, begs he will honor him by the acceptance of a few bottles of Cape sweet wine. (Signed)

F. L. MAITLAND."

October 4th. The British admiral sir F. Maitland, left Macao Roads, accompanied by the Algerine.

17th. The Larne returned from a cruise on the coast of Cochin- china, on a fruitless search for the Antonio Pereira.

     22d. The French ship of war, L'Artemise, captain La Place, ar- rived off Macao from Manila.

     November 26th. The creditors of the bankrupt hong-merchants in- formed viscount Palmerston of their settlement, to receive Hingtái's debts by instalments in eight and a half years, and Kingqua's in ten years.

December 3d. A seizure of opium was made by the custom-house officers, at Canton, immediately in front of the foreign factory in- habited by Mr. Innes. For the sequel of this case, see Chi. Rep. vol. VII. p. 438; Corresp. p. 323, &c.

     12th. This is a memorable day in the annals of Canton, signaliz- ed by an attempt to execute a Chinesc criminal in front of the foreign factories. The particulars of which are detailed in the Repository. vol. VII., p. 445, &c., Correspond. p. 325.

31st. Captain Elliot announced to viscount Palmerston that he had resumed his correspondence with the Chinese authorities, and incurred the responsibility of communicating with his excellency the governor, his dispatches being superscribed with the character

禀 pin.

(To be continued )

ART. II.

Topography of Ấnhwui; situation and boundaries of

the province; its area and population; departments and dis- tricts, rivers, lakes, mountains, productions, &c.

    As already remarked, the two provinces of A'nhwui and Kiángsú were formerly united in one, which was called Kiángnán, i. e. 'south of the river.' The name A'nhwui (1)

" means peace and ex- cellence," i. e. the peaceful and excellent province. The southwest- ern portion of the old province of Kiangnán constitutes the modern Anhwui the boundary line of which forms almost a complete circle,

308

Topographp of Anhui

JONE

and is conterminous-on the north with the provinces of Hònán and Kiángsú; on the east, with Kiángsú and Chekiáng; on the south, with Chekiang and Kiángsí; and on the west, with Kiángsí and Honán. Its extreme limits stretch from about lat. 29° 3′ to 34° 15' N., and from long. 3° E., to 1° 25′ W. of Peking.

Its area is greater that that of Kiángsú, and is probably between forty and forty-five thousand square miles, but no scientific admeasure- ment of it has been made since the division. The surface of the

country in the eastern part resembles that of Kiángsú.

 The population, according to the census of the 17th year of Kiá- king is 34,168,059 individuals, which is about 850 on a square mile. There is however, some little uncertainty about the computations regarding this and the adjoining province, as their separate areas cannot be exactly ascertained. There is, according to Barrow, 92,961 square miles in Kiảngnán, which gives an average of 774 individuals to a square mile for both the present provinces. Their area united is about the same as that of the two states of New York and Pennsylva- nia, of which the average united population to a square mile is nearly 45 individuals. Their area is also about the same as that of Paraguay, where Dr. Francia lately reigned; half as large as Spain; a little larger than England and Scotland; and about the same as Bokhara in Central Asia.

 The province is divided into thirteen departments and fifty-four districts-the names of which are subjoined, in the order in which they are found in the Collected Statutes of the reigning dynasty. The figures, indicating the latitude and longitude of the several chief towns, are borrowed from the folio edition of Du Halde.

1.

Anking fú; or the

Department of A ́nking, contains six districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 30° 37′ 10′′ N., and long. 0° 35′ 47" E. of Peking, and 117° 0′ 47′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 Hwaining,

2L Wángkiáng,

31 Susung,

II.

4 潛山 Tsienshán,

5

Táihú,

6

Tungching.

ILouichau fú; or the

Department of Hwuichau, contains six districts.

Its chief etiy is situated in lat. 29° 58′ 30′′ N., and long. 2° 3′ 20′′

E of Peking, and 118° 28′ 20′′ E of Greenwich.

1 歙縣 Hi hien, 2婺源 Wûyuen, 3黟縣 hiey,

Topography of Ankara.

4

309

Tsiki,

5休寧 liúning,

6

Kimun.

III.

Ningkwó fú; or the

Department of Ningkwó, contains six districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 31° 2′ 56′′ N., and long. 2° 15′ 33′′

E. of Peking, and 118° 40′ 33′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 宣城 Siuenching,

4旌德 Tsingti,

2 寧國 Ningkwó,

5太平 Táiping,

3涇縣 King hien,

6

Nánling.

IV.

Chichau fú; or the

Department of Chíchau, contains six districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 30° 45′ 41′′ N., and long. 0° 58′

34′′ E. of Peking, and 117° 23′ 34′′ E. of Greenwich.

1賁池 Kweichí,

2石埭 Shitái,

3 建德 Kienti,

v.

4

Tungliú,

5Tsingyáng, 6銅陵 Tungling.

Táiping fú; or the

Department of Táiping, contains three districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 31° 38′ 38′′ N., and long 2° 4′ 15′′ E. of Peking, and 118° 29′ 15′′ E. of Greenwich.

1

Tángtú,

2蕪湖 Wûht,

Wúhú,

VI.

3 繁昌 Fáncháng.

Lúchau fú; or the

Department of Lúchau, contains five districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 31° 56′ 57′ N., and long. 0° 46′ 50 ́ E. of Peking, and 117° 21′ 50′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 AĽ Hófei,

23

2

3

* T. Lúkiáng

Tsáu hien,

4 54

Wúwei chau, Shuching.

310

VII.

Topography of A'nhwai

Fungyúng fú; or the

JUNE,

Department of Fungyang, contains seven districts.

Its chief city is situated in lat. 32° 55′ 30′′ N., and long. 1° 1′ 26′′ E. of Peking, and 116° 26′ 26′′ E. of Greenwich.

1 - KH Fungyáng,

2定遠 Tingyuen,

3 # # Fungtái,

4

Shau chan,

VIII.

5 靈璧 Lingpi,

6懷遠 Hwaiyuen, 7 宿州 Su chau.

Department of Yingchau, contains six districts.

Yingchau fú; or the

1

Fauyáng,

4 亳州 Pó chau,

2穎上 Yingsháng,

5 太和 Táihò,

3霍邱 Hókiû,

6 蒙城 Mungching.

IX.

Kwángti chau; or the

Department of Kwángti, has one district.

1建平 Kienping.

X. T H Chú chau ; or the Department of Chú, contains two districts.

1 全椒 Tsiuentsiáu,

2來安Láián.

XI. Ấn ) Hò chau ; or the

Department of Hò,

1

XII.

has but one district.

Hánshán.

Luán chau; or the

Department of Luán, has two districts.

1霍山 Hóshán,

XIII.

2英山 Yingshán.

Sz' chau; or the

Department of Sz', has three districts.

17 * Tiencháng, 3盱眙 Hiii. 2 HM Wúhò,

1842.

Topography of Aniorui.

311

  Before describing the several departments in detail, it is proper to reinark here, that the Great river, as the Yángtsz' kiáng is called, runs through the province diagonally due northeast from Kiángsí to Kiángsú, having about one third of the province on the south and cast, and the remainder on the north and west of the river. This river enters Kiángsú about twenty-five or thirty miles to the southwest of the ancient Nánking.

I. The department of A'nking, the chief city of which is the pro- vincial capital, lies on the northwestern bank of the Great river, and is bounded, on the south by the province of Kiảngsí, on the west by Húpi, and on the north by the departments of Luán and Lúchau. The magistrate of the district Hwaining has his residence at the city of A'nking. Southwest from this city is the chief town of the district Wángkiáng, on the northern bank of the Great river. Due west from this last named town is the district of Susung with its chief town. Again, going a little to the northwest from A ́nking, a distance of about thirty miles, you arrive at Tsienshán; and thence moving on to the southwest you find the town Táihú, the capital of the district of the same name. The town is built on an island in the Tsing-shi hd, or the river of Transparent-stones. North from the capital of the department is the town of Tungching, standing near the fountain head of a streamlet, which flows southward into the Great river. A moun- tainous ridge runs nearly parallel with the Great river, distant perhaps forty miles, and seems to form the western boundary of the depart- ment. From this ridge numerous little rills descend, and after being united in two streams enter the Great river, one to the north and the other to the south of A'nking. In the southern part of this depart- ment are some small lakes.

  Du Halde speaks of this department as being very beautiful and fertile. Its chief city was visited by the members of Amherst's em- bassy, and the following particulars arc gleaned from the Sketches of Mr. Davis. It is a large and important town, and the residence of a lieut.-governor. Mr. Davis says, "On entering the eastern suburb of the city, we perceived a very long single rank of soldiers, in their petticoat armor, drawn out to the number of nearly five hundred. With their helmets, flags, and other appurtenances, they made, as usual, a good theatrical show; and against Chinese rebels and rob- bers were probably invincible. Having admired these gentry, we made our boatmen approach the shore, and sallied forth to explore the city, which we entered at the eastern gate, nearest the water. and proceeded directly through the town, in a westerly direction, to

B12

Topography of A'uhwur

JUNE.

meet on boats at their anchorage beyond the western suburbs. The streets were as narrow as I had ever seen them in a Chinese city, nor were the shops very splendid; but many good dwelling-houses pre- sented themselves--or rather their courts and gateways, for no gentleman's house in China ever adjoins the street. The palace of the lieutenant-governor we first took for a temple, but were soon undeceived by the inscriptions on the huge lanterns at each side of the gateway in front of the great open court. These official resi- dences seldom display any magnificence. The pride of a Chinese officer of rank consists in his power and station; and as the display of mere wealth attracts little respect, it is neglected more than in any country of the world. On particular family festivals, as marriages, funerals, and the like, considerable sums are expended. The best shops that we saw were those for the sale of horn lanterns and por- celain." He goes on to say, that the porcelain was of the finest kind, that some of the tea-cups with covers were unusually elegant, and that the price was naturally very low in comparison with their sale value at Canton.

II. The department of Hwuichau forms the southeast portion of the province, comprising three vallies, being those through which flow the rivers Nán, Wú, and Sinán, the last entering Chekiing and the others Kiángsí. The head-waters of these streams rise on a range of hills running some forty miles distant from the Great river, and flow off to the south and east. This range forms the northern and north- western boundary of the department, separating it from the depart- ments of Ningkwo and Chí chau. On the east and southeast the department is bounded by Chekiáng, and on the south by Kiángsí. The chief town of the department, called by the same name Hwui- chau, is the residence of the magistrate of the district Hi, and stands on the eastern bank of the river Sinán. A second district lies duc north from this, and a third due west, and near the centre of the department. From this third, a fourth lies northward, and a fifth westward, and a sixth southward. The inhabitants of this depart- inent are distinguished for their commercial activity; and there were also, in Du Halde's time, some bankers of great wealth, who had their establishments in almost all parts of the empire. In the moun- tains, Du Halde says there are mines of gold, silver, and copper. Some of the best teas are brought from Hwuichau; and also some of the best ink and lackerware. The produce of the country is carried down the Sman to the Tsienting, and thence to Hugchau.

1842

Topography of X nhưm.

3B3

III.

       The department of Ningkwó-or the peaceful kingdom-is situated directly north from Hwuichau, on two small rivers which flow from the south. It is bounded on the north by the department of Taiping; on the east by that of Kwángti; on the southeast by Chekiáng; on the south by the department of Hwuichau; and on the west by that of Chíchau. The chief town of the department stands on the north, between the two abovenamed rivers, and is the residence of the magistrate of Siuenching. Northwest from this is Nánling; southeast is Ningkwó; southwest is Kinghien; and south and southwest from Kinghien are Tsingti and Táiping.

     IV. The department of Chichau comprises the narrow strip of country, which lies along the south and east bank of the Great river, extending from it to the departments Hwuichau and Ningkwó on the east, and from the department of Táiping on the north to the pro- vince of Kiángsi on the south. The capital stands about midway between the two extreme limits of the department, and is the resi- dence of the magistrate of the district Kweichí. North from this is Tungling, standing near the Great river; east is Tsingyáng; south- east is Shikang; southward are Kienti and Tunglau, the latter stand- ing near the Great river.

The town of Tungling was visited by the members of Amherst's mission. Mr. Davis and others in a small party traveled ten or twelve miles on shore, but he gives no account of all that he there saw and heard. This was on the 2d of November, 1816. The following day he visited a village called Tatung chin, on the southeastern side of the river. The open country, "in all its beautiful features" closely resembled that of Tungling, with some very high hills at the distanco of several miles. On the second day of their stay they traveled a distance of fifteen or sixteen miles. "The course was at first along a regular pathway from the town, partly paved with broad stones, until we reached a village at the foot of the high hills, which it was intended to ascend. In our way we came, for the first time, to small tea plantations, being now within the latitudes in which the shrub flourishes. In the same valley we discovered a new and curious species of oak, and observed that the mulberry was extensively culti- vated. On ascending one of the lofty hills of the range, a very finc prospect was afforded of the surrounding country and the course of the river. The whole surface of these picturesque mountains was cover- ed with a vast variety of shrubs and plants, many of the latter aro- matic, and among the rest the wild thyme very abundant." On the 7th they anchored at Wishú ki..." Black-Saul branch,".

" Ki,

VOL. XI NO. VI.

10

314

Topography of A ́nhwui.

JUNK,

meaning any part of a river where the stream divides into two so as to compass an island in the middle." Mr. Davis speaks of the Chi- nese conductors being afraid to proceed along the open breadth of the Great river while the wind was high, and he was surprised at the in- feriority of the sailors there to those at Canton. The boats were almost as different as the boatmen; for while the Canton vessels are strongly built and capable of buffeting the waves, the great square boxes, clamped with iron at the corners, in which we were at present embarked, seemed really to justify the apprehensions of their con- ductors." While there he had repeated rambles on shore, and saw the agriculturists cultivating rice, cotton, buckwheat, &c. Having passed A'nking on the one side, and Tunglau on the other side of the river, they visited Hwayuen chin, "the flower-garden station," where they "made an excursion along the side of the river to a sınall wood, consisting principally of green hollies, and several of the young members of the party trespassed so far on the lord of the ma- nor of the Flower-garden station as to cut themselves some walking sticks." On the 11th, a soldier of the embassador's guard was drown- ed, and was buried the next day : "the whole squadron then set sail, and proceeded along one of the branches of the river, which was divided by a long island into two streams.

Towards evening we ap- proached a very singular rock, famous among the Chinese under the name of Siáukú shán, the "Little Orphan hill," rising precipitously f om the water to the height of between two and three hundred feet." On its summit were some buildings belonging to priests of Budha : and the sides and summit of the rock were absolutely darkened with the countless swarm of pelicans, closely resembling the fishing bird of the country.

V The department of Taiping also lies on the southeast side of the river, extending from the department of Chichau to the province of Kiangsú. Its three districts, commencing with Tángtú on the north- east, succeed each other, as you proceed to the southwest, going up the river. The chief city of Wúhú hien, Mr. Davis says. is " a very considerable town, the largest of its class in China.

The streets proved on inspection to be superior to those of many of the first class cities; and some were as large and as well furnished with handsome shops as those at Canton. It is to the great inland commerce carried on by this town, that such unusual wealth and prosperity are to be referred." Here he saw bales of cloth with the E. 1. Co.'s mark upon them. These were brought inland from Canton, a distance of about six hundred miles. Here too he visited a pagoda and several temples,

1812

Topography of Anhwni

315

one of wluch was dedicated to Kwánti, the tutelary Mars of China, ancestor of the late admiral Kwan, who fell in the battle of the Bogue. As they advanced slowly up the river, they found a cli- mate and country which could yield to none in the world, and equal- ed by very few. The landscape, consisting of the finest combination of hill and dale, with very high mountains in the distance, was va- riegated in the most beautiful manner with the red and yellow tints of autumn."

VI. The department of Luchau lies on the northwestern bank of the Great river, and northeast from A ́nking, the first department of the province, which it very much resembles, Near its centre there is a large lake, filled by streamlets flowing into it from the north- west, and southwest, and discharging its own waters through a chan- nel descending in an easterly direction into the Yangtsz kiáng. Taking this lake for a centre of a circle, with five radii of fifteen or twenty miles in length, a chief town of a district will be found situat- ed near the middle of each radius. The lake is remarkable for an abundance of excellent fish. The plains abound with grain and fruit, and the hills with the "best sort of tea, for which the whole department is famous." So says Du Halde.

Du

VII. The department of Fungyáng stretches due north from Lúchau to the northern boundary of the province, and is nearly square in its configuration. The chief town stands a few miles south from the river Hwái, which runs through it from west to east. Halde tells us that this city was the birthplace of the founder of the Ming dynasty, who made it for a time the capital of his empire, but was afterwards induced to remove the scat of his government to Nản- king. Before this was done, of the many buildings undertaken only three were completed-a tomb for his father, a tower, and a temple for the priests of Budha. The tower was the highest structure in China. Upon Hungwú's removal, the public works ceased, and the glory and granduer of the city rapidly faded. Four of the districts stand on the south side of the river Hwái, and three on the north. The whole department is well watered by several streams which flow into the IIwái.

VIII. The department of Yungehau forms the northwest por- tion of the province, and is bounded on the west and north by Hò. man, on the east by Fungyang, and on the south by Latán. wholly on the north of the river Iwai, and is watered by considera ble streams flowing through the department, from the northwest to the southeast

316

Topography of Anhwui.

JUNE

IX. The department of Kwangti comprises a narrow district east of Ningkwó fú, by which it is bounded on the west, and by the province of Kiángsú on the other sides.

X. The department of Chú lies between the department of Fung- yáng on the west, and Kiángning of Kiángsú on the east. The dis- trict of Láián forms its northern part, and that of Tsunshu its most southern.

XI. The department of Hò lies between that last named, and the Great river, which forms its southern boundary. Lord Amherst's embassy stopped, on the 27th Oct., 1816, about four miles from the town of Hd, or Hòchau, which is that distance, Mr. Davis tells us, from the river, but can be approached by a navigable stream which flows from it to the Great river. In fact, as Mr. Davis says, scarcely any town of consequence in the whole empire is without a river or canal by which it can be approached.

XII. The department af Luán lies between Lúchau and A'n- king on the east, and Húpe and Hồnán on the west. It is for the most part a valley, having a rivulet, which descends from its southern extreme due north, and empties itself into the Hwći.

XIII. The department of Sz' is bounded on the north and east by Kiángsú, on the south by the department of Chú, and on the west by Fungyáng. It is watered by the river Hwái, and also by the lake Kungtse.

These last named departments, from the eighth downwards, are all small, and comparatively unimportant, being, except in their name and form of government, scarcely at all different from the districts.

The rivers of the province, with but few minor exceptions, are all tributaries to the Yángtsz' kiáng or to the river Hwái. Those that flow into the last, for the most part come from Hònán and run to the southeast; three or four, however, run from the opposite direction. Along the whole course of the Yangtsz' kiáng through the province, at short intervals and on either side of it, rivers flow in to augment its flood of waters. These numerous branches are of various lengths, some twenty, some forty, some sixty, and more miles.

Mountains are seen in the southern part of the province; and the principal ranges form the high lands, on both sides of the Great river, where many of the abovenamed rivers have their sources. Through the central and western parts are numerous hills, but we are not aware that any of them are very high or any way remarkable.

The

soil seems everywhere to be well watered and very fertile, and little il any remains uncultivated.

·

G

?

1842.

Notices on Chinese Grammar

317

  The vegetable productions are like those of the province of Chie- kiáng and Kiángsú. The greater part of the green teas come from A ́nhwui, or O'nfai, as the people of Canton pronounce the name of the province. The most celebrated localities are in Hwuichau fi among the Sunglò range of hills, in the southeastern part of the pro- vince. The shrub is however cultivated in all parts of the three pro- vinces under the authority of the governor of the Two Kiáng, although some districts are better adapted for its growth, or the tea manufac tured there is more celebrated, than others.

ART. III. Notices on Chinese Grammar. Part I. Orthography and Etymology. Pp. 148, octavo. By Philosinensis. Batavia: Printed at the Mission press, 1842.

WHO is Philosinensis? And what is the mission press at Batavia ? With us no doubt exists regarding either of these questions. And a copy of the book having been put into our hands, accompanied by a request that we recommend it, with a view to aid in securing for it an extensive and ready sale, and thereby in obtaining for its publish- er some remuneration for the time and money expended thereon; we therefore, as in duty bound, hasten to lay before our readers such information as we can collect regarding these Notices-confident that in no other way can we so well meet the publisher's wishes, and dis- charge the obligations we are under to the public generally and to Chinese scholars in particular.

  This little volume of grammatical Notices is a book almost unique in its mode of printing. In 1831 and 1832, Mr. Medhurst, the indefatigable superintendent of the Batavia mission and its "mis. sion press," published two vocabularies, Japanese and Corean, which were printed entirely by lithography. The toil and expense of writing out so many words, and writing them too in a Roman text hand, induced Mr. Medhurst to try if he could not use common movable types and lithographic printing in conjunction; and this little book is the result. All the English portion of it was "set up" (as the printers phrase it) in movable types, with blanks left for the Chinese characters, and an impression was then taken and transferred to the lithographic stone, ou which the blanks for Chinese writing were

Valores are Chinesi

ofterwards filled in with the pencil, ---and the whole was then printed sogether in the same manner as ordmary lithography We are aware that this has sometimes been done in Europe also but we knor that Mr. Medhurst, having spent nearly the whole active portion of his life, now a score of years and more, in Asiatic countries, was igno- rant of this, and to himself alone is due the credit of the experiment and its successful result. This mode of printing somewhat mars, indeed, the fair face of the page; but usually distinctly legible, and well-furnished by this mode of printing with examples in the Chinese character, without thereby involving a large increase of cost, none we presume will complain of what enables the publisher to self it at the very moderate price of $150 a copy

A grammar that will exhibit all the forms and idioms of the Clu- nese language is a great desideratum. It may in passing be here intimated, that the compiler of the Chinese Chrestomathy, noticed in our number for April, has been collecting materials for a work of this kind, during the last three years The compilation, however, of a grammar, that shall comprise everything valuable in the works of Morrison, Marshnan, Rémusat, and Prémate, and at the same time he free from their inaccuracies and supply their defects, is a task which cannot be very speedily accomplished. In the four above- named authors some very important principles have been omitted, and many slightly touched upon require to be more fully elucidated. doing this, the little and unpretending volume before us will atford essential aid, while at the same time it puts within the student's reach, and in a cheap and convenient shape, one of the best manut- als hitherto published. We should have preferred a faithful translation of either Rémusat or Premare to these Notices. Still our best thanks are due to Mr. Gutzlaff (who often takes the signature Philosinensis) for compiling, and to Mr. Medhurst for revising and publishing this volume, which we proceed now briefly to review.

In

The notices, without introduction or preface, are comprised in two books the first is divided into three chapters-on the sounds, ou the characters, and on words: the second is divided into nine chapters, under the following heads-nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, expletives and interjee- Part 1, stamped on the title page seems to intimate that the work is yet incomplete, and that something more is to appear as part 11. which we suppose is to be the syntax, to which several refer gences are made in part I

Tons.

To comp porban of the wosk Here

: wart al pet penit -

1812.

Notices on Chinese Grammar.

319

and precision. Thus in treating of sounds, characters, and words, the compiler omits to define these terms; and using them sometimes interchangeably, it is not always easy to determine what meaning he would have attached to them. Want of perspicuity is seen both in the arrangement of paragraphs, and in the structure of sentences. This might be excused in Mr. Gutzlaff, the English tongue with him not being vernacular: but Mr. Medhurst should not have allowed it to escape his practiced eye. It is not always easy to determine how much one ought to undertake. With all proper deference to seniori- ty, we would suggest to Mr. Medhurst whether, by undertaking less and by rendering that more complete, the total value of his work to the public would not be considerably enhanced. For an improve- ment in quality, we would gladly see a large reduction of the quan- tity of the matter, comprised in the first book of the notices before us. Were it worth while we could point out several inaccuracies in the paragraphs on sound, on the characters, and on words. In one place we read, "the characters, used by the Chinese, ate ideographic symbols." Again we read, "that it is also very obvious, that for the greater part of ideas no imitative representations could be made, and therefore new and arbitrary signs had to be invented," which of course are not ideographic. Further; the remarks that " the Chinese have no idea of our grammatical distinctions," and that, "not a single native writer has ever touched upon the subject," are inaccurate.

But, leaving these points, we proceed to notice, seriatim, the se- cral chapters of the second book, on grammar, properly so called. Here we find the work executed in a much more satisfactory man- ner, and all that is said "points strictly to the peculiarities of the language," for, it is added, "we intend to give the Chinese, as a whole, such as it is, independent of any other language, to enable the reader to become acquainted with its idioms." This is the truc and the only proper course to be pursued in forming a Chinese

grammar.

Chapter Ist treats of the noun. Without assigning any reason for so doing, the article is placed under this head; and is disposed of in few words. In closing the remarks on the article it is said that, "almost all the Chinese substantives have their peculiar numerals, which, put before the noun, seem to circumscribe the definite article." The class of words here referred to cannot, we think, be considered as numerals; nor is it easy to understand what is meant when it is said "they serve to circumscribe the indefinite article."

                                      The gem- uve, dative, accusative, ablative, and vocative cases are all illustrated

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Notiers on Chinese Grammar

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by examples. But of the nominative nothing is said. Remarks on gender and number close this chapter.

The adjective is treated of in chapter 2d, and a large collection of examples is given to illustrate its forms and uses. The positive, com- parative, and superlative, are noticed in three separate sections. In the first paragraph of this chapter the compiler says: "The remark, previously made, that Chinese words do not exactly belong to one par ticular class, applies also to the adjective," meaning simply to say, that many Chinese words may be used, according to circumstances, as nouns, adjectives, verbs, &c.

In chapter 3d, the pronouns-personal, reciprocal, demonstrative, relative, interrogative, distributive, indefinite, and collective,-are severally treated of and illustrated. The compiler says, in commenc- ing the chapter, "We may here premise, as a general remark, that each personal pronoun, when put before the substantive, or whenever it is followed by chi, or ti, the genitive particles, becomes possessive." Having said thus much, he anon forgets to consider possessive pronouns as a distinct class of words. He also speaks of "the declension of pronouns," and of "their oblique cases," with- out even intimating what he means by these phrases.

                               In like man- ner he says, "Chinese verbs often imply the pronoun," meaning, as his examples show, that the pronoun is often omitted. So likewise he repeatedly speaks of "the third personal pronoun;" and uses might for may, thus: "as demonstratives, might also be consider- ed words of the following class." After enumerating what he consi- ders" collective pronouns," properly so called, he adds a few others, which" are frequently used to denote multitudes, though it would be not exactly proper to consider them in the light of collectives."

In chapter 4th, the numerals are treated of; but "an idiomatic peculiarity, which the Chinese language has in common with the Japanese, in the addition of a generic term to various nouns, for the sake of enumeration," is omitted under this head, though alluded to, and partially illustrated, in another part of the volume.

In chapter 5th, on the verb, are collected a great variety of good phrases and correct observations, illustrative of Chinese grammar. The want of perspicuity, however, is very great, both in the phraseo- logy and in the general method of arrangement. We are told in the

first paragraph of the chapter that the language is "devoid of moods and tenses," and "that, unless the distinction becomes necessary, none of the grammnatical particles or auxiliaries are enumerated and illustrated by examples, substantive verbs are next considered; then

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"various classes of verbs" are specified; and we are told, that "the distinction we draw between the neuter and active verbs does not, from the nature of the language, exist in Chinese." Moods, though the language is "devoid of them," come now to be considered; but "the indicative requires no comment, and of the conjunctive we have already spoken;" while "there exist many conditional particles which circumscribe the conjunctive." The potential and optative are 'imaginary forms of the verb." The infinitive and imperative are both noticed, though "the Chinese language has no peculiar way of expressing them." So of the particles. The "interrogative forms of the verb," tenses, person, and number, are also remarked upon; and after all, "should the student not find any of the grammatical distinctions explained, which other languages exhibit, he has only to refer to the particles, where some further elucidation will be given."

"

  The 6th chapter is occupied with the adverb, under the following heads interrogatives; negatives; affirmative adverbs; adverbs of time; adverbs of place; adverbs of quality; and adverbs of quantity. Here, as in the preceding chapters, we find a good many examples, badly arranged, or rather thrown together without either much re- gard to order or method.

In chapter 7th is given "a succinct view of the various uses of prepositions," alluded to "when treating of the cases of substantives;" and a good variety of examples, tolerably well arranged, is collected. In the middle of this chapter, we are told, "that many of the Chinese verbs comprise in themselves our prepositions, an account of which would come better under the head of syntax.'

  In chapter 8th conjunctions are treated of: "this is a very nume- rous class, to which we wish to draw the attention of the student, for without a knowledge of them, neither can the books be properly understood, nor the language appropriately written or spoken." They are of four kinds-copulative, conditional, causative and disjunctive.

  The 9th chapter is occupied with expletives and interjections. "The expletives constitute a most important class of words, not only for rounding periods, but also for promoting the intelligibility of sen- tences, and their connection with each other; they are the very es- sence of construction, especially in the literary style; and their omission, or wrong position, is not only productive of jarring sounds, but may entirely change the meaning of a sentence."

  flaving now recapitulated the leading topics of Mr. Gutzlaff's Notices on Chinese Grammar, and specified some of its defects and

VOL. XI NO VE

11

1

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Portrait of Shinnang

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In no part

errors, we have only two or three remarks to add. of the volume are we referred to the sources from which the examples have been collected. This is a great defect. The numbering of the paragraphs, in some chapters, is very incomplete. We shall be glad to see part II, containing the "syntax." The work never was in- tended to be complete, but was merely designed to afford a collection of "notices;" as such we can recommend it, and sincerely hope the book will find a quick and extensive sale. No man living merits more from the lovers of Chinese literature and learning, than the Rev. Wal- ter H. Medhurst. He has done, and is doing much for the advance- inent of Chinese literature, and his zealous and persevering labors are worthy of the warmest approbation and the most liberal support of all who wish for a free and honorable intercourse with the sons of Hán. The responsibility of the publication, at least in a pecuniary point of view, rests, we have been told, wholly with Mr. Medhurst.

ART. IV. Portrait of Shinnung, or the Blazing emperor, the second of the five sovereigns, with brief notices of his life. Physiognomists, phrenologists, and philosophers of schools and classes, may possibly find somewhat on which to speculate in the se- ries of portraits which we have borrowed from the Sán Tsái Tò. These Chinese patriarchs were men of no ordinary cast, if we may judge of them either from their biographies or from their pictures. The visage of the Blazing emperor is much more intellectual than that of his predecessor. His bold elevated forehead, his high nose, and broad chin, tudicate the presence of a great mind.

                                     In his cos- mume, too, there is likewise something to attract attention. vegetables or boughs held in his hands may serve to show in what manner his mind was employed. Where and how the engraver ob- tamed the originals, from which he formed this and the other figures, we and our readers are alike left to conjecture.

                     Doubtless they are as truc as those we sometimes see of Homer, and the other great men of Greek and Roman history, who lived m high antiquity. But

serve to show what uleas are at present en

whether trye at gat they

so tamed of "ne

pretender

at the black haned race

And the

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Portrait of Shuning

323

氏農神萊炎

Her

  The prince of Shántien married the daughter of Yükián. name was A ́ntang, and she bore two sons: the eldest was Shinien, who was nourished and brought up close by the waters of Kiáng, which flowed along the south side of a city of the same name, in the department of Fungyáng in Shensí. Hence he received the surname Kiáng. Exercising the functions of government by the virtue or power of fire, he was hence called,

Yen ti, or the Blazing

 emperor. He was also known by the names of two hills, or monn- tains, near which he was born; and likewise sometimes called by the names of the districts, over which he was first made ruler. He first built his capital in the department of Káifung in Hồnán, but subse- quently he removed to the department Kinfu in Shantung.

324

Portrait of Shinnung ·

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The people of his age were rude, and wholly unacquainted with the arts and advantages of agriculture. They subsisted on fruits, vegetables, and the flesh of birds and beasts. The Blazing emperor, not satisfied with this state of his empire, engaged in domestic im- provements; examined the qualities of the soil, and the character of the climate; made ploughs, &c.; and taught his people how to till the soil and raise grain. The interests of husbandry thus commenc- ed their advance, and most salutary results followed. Hence it was that his grateful subjects called him Shinnung, which means

the Godly-agriculturist, or the Divine-husbandman.

But the sovereign did not stop with these more necessary improve- inents. The people suffered from sickness, and he was thereby led to search for remedies. The vegetable kingdom was laid under con- tribution-as intimated by the portrait. The medical qualities of plants were tested; and his investigations went on rapidly, sometimes analyzing as many as seventy new plants in a single day. Books on the healing art were soon made, and the practice of medicine became a regular and honorable profession.

The streams and springs of water were likewise carefully ex- amined, and their mineral qualities noted, so that the people might know which to use and which to avoid. The inhabitants of the em- pire now began to live in security and quietude, enjoyed the fruit of their industry, and were relieved from all fear of dying. How splen- did! Ilow glorious!

In such happy and prosperous times, commerce could not long be wanting. The people were all honest, faithful, and industrious. There were no domestic or foreign wars; and money was abundant. By imperial commands, markets were erected, and sales appointed. Soon people came from all quarters and all countries; and thus com- merce, both domestic and foreign, began to flourish.

Music and the other refined arts, under these circumstances, could not be long neglected. Instruments were made, and the song of the plentiful year was sung. The officers of government were arranged into classes, their ranks defined, and boards instituted with proper titles, and the most perfect method was everywhere preserved.

But the Divine-husbandman was not to live always, his healing art notwithstanding. The years of his reign were one hundred and forty. He died 2737 B. C. This melancholy event happened in the southern part of his empire-the Chinese say, in the province of Húkwáng. Sich are some of the sentiments and opinions entertained, by the black-haired race, regarding the successor of Fuhí

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Ulustrations of Men and Things in China,

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ART. V. Illustrations of men and things in China: the term Fan-

kwei; mode of sharpening edge tools; bean curd; sonnets of Yuen Yuen;