China Repository - 1841 | Directory

THE

CHINESE REPOSITOY

VOL. X.

}

:

FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1841.

CANTON:

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS.

1841.

INDEX.

}

 




ACCOUNTANT, story of an,

Affairs with the English..

Agriculture in Japan..

81|British forces in China...57,478,688 529||British merchants return to Canton 233 284||Broken island, or Mamuh shan.....268

Alceste island, notice of.......................371||Broughton in the Japanese sea..160

Alcoholic liquor invented. America, how first peopled. Americans, attempts of, to enter

Japan.

...

348

55

126 Brown, Rev. S. R., reports by....564 .311 Budhism introduced into China..140 Buffaloe's Nose, notice of the........ 254 .160||Burial places inviolable.. .443

445 CABINET, a new one at Peking..200 525||Cabinet, members of the imperial. 56 .527,623||Cabinet, new measures of.. .682,684 at...590||Calendar for the year 1841....

638,686||Caine, capt. William, of Hongkong 286 ..524,621||Cambridge, the British ship. 179 shore..261||Cannibalism, an instance of.................. 349

4 Canton, list of officers at. 72||Canton, state of affairs at .529,687 472||Canton, the defenses of. 32 Canton, the capture of,

...535 506||Canton river, operations on the...179 588||Canton, attacked by Brit. fors. 295,391 527 Canton, the ransom of the city...296 279||Canton, the bombardment of.

Amoy, English beaten from Amoy, heroes of rewarded. Amoy, fall of its defenses. Amoy, forces left at............... Amoy, losses of the Chinese Amoy, notices of the city Amoy, the capture of. Anchorage on the Chusan Ancient learning, a view of. Anecdotes of the Japanese. Angling for frogs by Chinese. Anglochinese College deed................ Anstruther, capture of capt... Anstruther revisits Ningpo. Arms, supply of, to Chinese............. Arts among the Japanese..

Authors, a list of distinguished... 9 Cantor, Dr., collections by.... Averil's travels in the east...... .301|Cape Montague, notice of the.

Cards of invitation to marry.

56

113

.340

434

.253

68

.309

257

136

.68;

.120 105

BELCHER, a letter from capt.....548 Cathay, early attempts to reach..245 Benevolent Societies in China. Bengal govt. notification.... Bible, work of translating the. Bilbaino, indemnity for, paid. Black island, or Heishan. Blackheath, or Chang too, Blackwall or Tsihtsze. Blood, use of, among the Chinese. Bocca Tigris, the fall of the.. Bocca Tigris, the defenses at. Bogue, the several forts at. Bogue, the battle of the..

52||Central Asia, notice of... .535||Central islands, notice of the. 30 Che hwangte, the reign of. .424||Chěkeäng, affairs in.....

371 Chesapeake, the ship, burnt. island.270||Chinaman, the character of a..........

"267||Chin Leënshing, shot in battle.. 41

104||Chin dynasty, notices of the. .116||Chow dynasty, notice of the

.146

.132

110||Chow dynasty, the after or second 152 37 Chimmo, B, naval secretary. .475 .176||China, its first inhabitants.

248

246

Books burnt by Che hwangte....136 Chinese empire, state of the......... Bremer, sir J. J., appointed plenipo 352 Chinhae attacked and taken. .626 Britain tributary to China........ .340||Chinhae, Chinese losses at...... 588

iv

Chinhae, notices of.

INDEX.

.128

..283

                   685||E Yin, the faithful minister,. Chinhae, notices of the place. 636 Economy of Chinese workmen..473 Christian books in China. .644 Edict, urging on the war...... Christians, early in China. .311 Edwards, Mr. A. P. seizure of...639 Chookeätseen, notice of the.. .260 Elephant island, notice of............ 262 Chronology of the Chinese. .121||Elepoo, tial and condemnation of.633 Chuenpe, the battle of. .37,108 Eliza, the ship, goes to Japan........161 Chuhshan island, notice of the...373 Emperors of the Ta Tsing dynasty 593 Chusan, the government of... 57 English intercourse with Japan..168 Chusan, under It.-governor Lew..118 Examinations, literary instituted.. 148 Chusan archipelago, notice of the 251 Expedition moves northward.....523 Chusan, notices of 264,425,587,636,686 Expedition, progress of the second 587 Chusan, topographical notice of..328 Chusan, meterological observa-

tions made at...

Chusan, reminiscences of. Chusan attacked and taken. Chwastoff's visit to Japan. Classes of people in Japan.. Classical literature of China.. Climate of Chusan island:

291

124

FIELD, the death of Mr..... 354 Fire in suburbs of Tinghae ?...JU:515 fhusan, medical operations at...453||Fisher's island, notice of. 72.270 .481||Fisherman and pirates at war: 17:528 .623 Fourmont, the conduct of... ....673 166 Frénoh commercial mis. to E. A..688 17 Friend of India, note from.....7.560 593 Fube and his cotemporaries. 428||Fuhkeën, account of by gov: Yen.639 Coast of China, surveys on the..371 Funtoo shan, the island, notice of 257 Coins among the Japanese... .282 Colleges in the city of Tinghae..490 GAMBLING by quadrating cash.....474 Colonial Magazine, note from........560 Gardeners, the Japanese. Columbine goes to Chusan.....291 Gazette, the Hongkong. Commerce of Japan..

                 282 Geology of the Chinese coast.../425 Commerce of Chusán.

                 429 Gifts conferred by Taoukwang..... 90 Commissioners, three imperial...234||Gode, Record of the Chinese. Compass invented by duke Chów 132||Gold, abundance of, in China.. Confucius, the writings of.......646 Golownin's visit to Japan. Confucius, conversation withi ..614 Government of Japan... Conspiracy in Japan. Consuls, foreign in China. Coolidge, seizure of Mr.. Corea, coast of, noticed Corkers, or isolated reefs.

Coronation of Taoukwang.

285 286

75 Gough, sir Hugh's dispatches....535 58 Gough, sir Hugh, arrival of. 415 Gough's Passage, notice of..

87

.248

.166

10

.184

..256

.378,380 Grammar of the Chinese.....

253 Grammatica Sinica, notice of. ..678

87 Granaries at Tinghae.

7.222

.483 .687

77 Gulf of Cheible, tides in the. .382

122,125 HALF-TIDE rock, notice of the...258

Hea dynasty, notices of the.

.126

258

567||Heights above Canton.

391

263 Han dynasty, the eastern, noticed 140 525 Han dynasty, notice of the..

.139

Counsels, division of, at Peking...682||Grattan; captain. Crucifixion of Japanese.

Cruelty of Japanese government.. 75|| Cycle of sixty years..

· D¿v, Dr., a recommendatory

letter from...

Deer island, passage.. Defenses at Amoy noticed. Dictionary, a Latin-Chinese, by'

Prémare.

Heäke Mun, notice of the.

Han dynasty, the After.

140,150 679.685

674 Hangchow, the dangers of. 193 Hangchow, notices of the city....643 Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee's donation 479 80 Herbert, an official let. from capt. 549 128 History of China, Magaillans'....641

49 History made easy.

    Douglas, lieut., shipwrecked. Douglas, lieut., notice of his cage.508 Drollery among the Japanese. Drought, seven years of. Dual powers, notice of the.

Duelling by Japanese, notice of.. 80, History, method of studying.

1

6

INDEX.

14

373

Hobson, Dr., Medical report by...465||Krusenstern's visit to Japan.. Holidays consecrated to worship. 70 Kungtung, notice of... Holderness Rock, notice of the...252 Kutsu or Kootsze, island. Hongkong, rules and regulations of 287| Kuper, A. L, official letter of........547 Hongkong declared a British set- Kwan Teenpei, commander-in- {

64 chief.

..267

.....109

350 Kwan Teenpei, the family of....687 351 Kwan shan, notice of,,

Kwokenso, a military post.........、

240

    tlement.. Hongkong made a free port. Hongkong, sale of lands at, Hongkong, the population of, 289,592 Hongkong, British settlement of. Hongkong, affairs at. Hongkong Gazette, notice of . Hospital for foreign seamen, Hospitals in Tinghae city. Houki, notice of the island.....

Ice and icebouses, in Tinghae.

52-LACKER-Work in Japan. 286 Lampoon on governor Tăng 479 Tingching..

270

**: 256

.280

172

.652

374||Language, study of the Chinese.. 48

495 Land Measure, notice of.

Lanterns, manufacture of..

430 Laoukeun, notices of.

662

309

19

*****.168

*9* •,150

.146

378

Illustrations of men, &c.,. .49,104,172||Laws of the Japanese.

472,519,613,662 Laxmann, visit of, to Japan.

130 Leng, the After, dynasty 516||Leang, the dynasty.

Leaoutung, cost of..

Images, invention of. Indian Oak, wreck of the. Interview with the imperial com-

missioner Keshen. Innes, death of Mr. James. Instructions, notice of the sacred. Island, one to be possessed.

1.

617 .118,675

517 Letters, specimen of Chinese., 424 Low Yunko's memorials. .593 Lew Yunko, conduct of............ 503 .513|| Lew chew, death of an envoy from 688 Lewis, letter, of king, to the emp. 312 688||Library, catalogue of the imperial. 2 10,72,160,205||Library, a Chinese, in England.. 35

279,309 Lin goes to Chekeäng.

JANCIGNEY, Colonel A. de.. Japan, notices of

292

592

649

Japan, the population of.. 16 Lin sent to the Yellow river Japanese, the language of the. 205||Literature of the Chinese....550,669 Japanese, national character of the 72 Lockhart, Dr. medical report by..453 Japanese, the religion of the....309 Long Measure of the Chinese. Japanese, some shipwrecked, 120|Louisa, loss of the cutter.... 407 Jesuit missionaries.....

301||Lowang, description of . Jocelyn's Six Months' narrative.,510 Luh Tseihchang, report of. Johnston, A. R.. gov. of Hongkong Julien on Chinese particles. Justice, the administration of.

KAEFUNG FOO, Fuhe's capital.

351

222||Macao, medical practice in, 249 Macao, the government of.

Magaillans, funeral of..

124|| Magaillans' History of China. .599||Magaillans, life of father G.,,..

Kanghe's voluminous writings.. Kanghe, character of the emperor.599 Malacca, the college at. Keaking, character of the emperor 90||Malcolm, arrival of major G. A....... Keshen, an interview with. Keshen's correspondence.

.255.256

.676

465

57

.611

.641

.605

32

.475

.517||Mantchous, early history of the.,642

502||Manufactures in Japan. 235||Maria, the schooner, lost.

279

528

65

84

111 Medical philanthropic society. of. 184] Medical practice in China.

21

22

257

235

.480

Keshen's memorial on state affairs Keshen, a memorial from. Keshen, particulars of his trial. Keshen, edicts respecting. Keshen, degradation and recall Keshen, charges against. Kintang, the island of. Kite, loss of the ship.. Kitto point, the situation of.

10 Marriage ceremonies. 590||Matsoo Po, the goddess.

352||Medical Missionary Society...52,448 .267||Mei-shan, or Plumb island.

.191||Memorial from Keshen.

253 Memorial from Yihshan.

vi

Mencius, biography of..

Mencius, the writings of.

Mercy, the goddess of..

INDEX.

.320||Parker, arrival of sir William. .648||Parsees, character of the. 185 Parsees Journals of two..

475

...653 .652

.656

Meshan and Lanjett, island of........254 Parsees, language and books of...657 Meterological observations..... .354||Parsees, religion of the....... Miaotaou, the group of islands...875 Particles, remarks on Chinese. Mikado, character of the.

10 Patahecock, position of the island 252 Mile, ita length in Chinese............. .651||Pei ho, mouth of the river.......376 Military, duty of the Japanese... 14 Pellew, captain of the Phæton.... 72 Military operations on the coast. .438||People encouraged to take arms..529 Militia, native, at Canton. 592 People in Canton, bad feeling of..527 Mines, the opening of, mooted. .685 Perfidy of the Chinese government 119 Ming dynasty, notices of the.... 156 Persians, language of the ancient.660 Minister to the court of Peking..475 Phaeton's entrance to Nagasaki 72,168 Miscellany, a Chinese toy-book..613 Philological works of Dr. Morrison 31 Morrison, boat of the ship...........295,415 Phleghthon, arrival of the steamer 424 Morrison, memoir of Dr.... 25 Picture of the battle at Canton...519

....

Morrison Fiducation Society...52,564 Pihkwan, situation of............. Mountain, lieut.-colonel, D. A. G..391||Pirates, numerouns and trouble- Mountaineers, the independent. .644| some.

.622

.291

Pirates, destruction of near Chusan 515 16 Plenipotentiary, policy of the new 476 .138 Ploughman, an island.

.560 Poetry of the Japanese.

..254

· 214

.434 Policy of the new plenipotentiary. 476 ..648||Poo Nang che tsang sin, Sack of

Wisdom..

.636 Poote, notice of the island.

NAGASAK1; government of, National titles introduced. Native words, bad use of. Natural history of Chusan. Navigation through China. Nemesis, proceedings of the

      steamer.. Nestorian Christians enter Chitra 148 Population of Hongkong. Nine islands in Chusan Archipel..269||Population of Tinghae. Ningpo, letter from the prison in..119 Pottinger, arrival of sir Henry. Ningpo, military operations at... 291 Pottinger, commissions of sir H...476 Ningpo, Brit occupation of...588,629 Powers of nature illustrat d..... 49 Ningpo, notices of the city.

Ningpo, fall of the city... Noble, a narrative by Mrs..

550

.260

592

.488

.475

636||Pratt, major, commands at Chuenpe 38 676 Princes in Japan, character of...........13 119 Prisoners at Ningpo released........... 120 Noble, Mrs., embarks for England 424||Prisons in Japan, notices of the.. 21 Note-book, Leaves from a soldier's 510 Proclamation, an imperial.......6×3 Notices of China, No. 5.

                   65 Proclamations about Hongkong.. 63 Notifications from Bengal govt.....535||Proclamations to the people of Notitia Lingue Sinicæ,.,

.671 Canton.

180 Proclamations by captain Elliot..344

ODE of Soo Hwuy, translation of.663 Promotions in the Chinese army..445

Official rank, sale of.......... Oifice, the magistrate's, of Chusan Opiuni, Jocelyn's notice of the

trade in.....

Oswainong, or Black rock. Outrages against Chinese,

Painting among the Japanese. Paper, collection of waste. Paper, the manufacture of'. Paper, when invented. Parke's history of the Chinese

empire...

[684] Punctnation, new mode of.

487 Punishments in Japan.

512

19

Pwankoo, meaning of the word 49,123

259 QUESAN islands, surveys of the...251 ..530||Queen, notice of the steamer..

Quoin, or the Kiaoushan.

..279

523

.374

.104 RAINBOW, Chinese name of the.. 50

Ransom of the Canton city.

.281

.13 Rebellion of the Yellow caps.

Regulations for Hongkong..

.241||Religious secte mi Japau..

.349

98

.2x7

.309

   Religion of the Japanese. Reminiscences of Chusan.

Report of the M. M. Society..

Report of the M. E. Society. Residents in China, list of.

INDEX.

30918urveys, extension of..

vir

.481||Suy dynasty, the northern... 144,146 448 Suy dynasty, notices of the After. 154 .568 Syllabaries of the Japanese.

........206

56 Szema Kwang, notice of................ 152 44 Szema Tseen, the historiographer. 138

Residents in China, address to... Rewards for British subjects. - 120,174 Robert's passage, notice, of, Routes, the various, to China, Russia, the discovery, of.......... Russian intercourse with Japan.

256 TA Tsing dynasty, notices of the..... 158 310 Tae Shan, notice of the island.. 270 245 Taikok, the defenses at.. 102 Taoukwang's succession.

110 87

Taoukwang's slaughter of rebels,. 98

150

SABBATH, observance of the............. 49 Tang dynasty, the After.... Sack of Wisdom, review of the..550 Tang dynasty, notices of the.....148 Sacred Instructions of Ta Tsing..503 Tăng Shun's paper on foreigners.531 Sailing north, the order of.

Sap Kwo Che, notice of the. Sarah Gally Passage....... School-books, a desideratum.

524 Tăng Tingching banished to Ele 421 98 Tang Tingching, memorial from. .443 259 Tang Tingtsae, prefect of Ningpo 685 .577 Tang Tingtse of Ningpo.....

670

148

Schools for Chinese in Macao....568 Tea, impost on, commenced,. Schools for Chinese in Singapore.575 Teaouchow mun, notice of.................... 257 Schools for Chinese in Malacca. .575 Teaobwa ahan, notice of.. Sciences among the Japanese,...2 6 Teën te, a Chinese goddess, Seaouping taou, notice of. 379 Teenming, first Mantchou sov........595 Senhouse, dispatches of sir Le F..545||Teëntsin, defenses at............. Senhouse, sir H. Le F. death of. .352 Time, divisions of, in Japan. Self-destruction of the Japanese.. 72 Tinghae, capture of the city..484,514

Seogun, character of the.

Shaluyteen, notice of the.

Shakok, the defenses at,

Shamo, a small island..

259

84

686

216

11 Tinghae city, description of............ 332 377 Thnghae, proclamation at.

625

110 Tinghae, notices of the city.

487

373 Tinghae situation of the city 260,263

132

..373

.261

63

Shang dynasty, notices of. .....125 Tinker, a cliff steep rock.......254 Shang dynasty, name changed...130 Titles called the Meaou haou........ Shantung promontory, notice of...373 Toki, notice of the island.. Shaou Yung, the report of......676 Tower Hill, the passage... Sheihluh mun, or Sixteen passages 265 Toybook, review of a Chinese...613 Sheppy, the island of... .269||Trade, interruption of, at Canton.292 Sherry, loss of the sailor-boy.

....419||Treacherous conduct of Chinese..292 Shinkeä mun, or Singkamong.

........264 Treachery of Chinese officers....527 Ships, list of, for January 1841... 61 Treaty, preliminaries for a....... Shunche, the reign of........... .......597 Troops in and near Canton

....240 Sickness of troops at Hongkong..618 Troops, number of, in Canton...... .421 Singapore institution schools...34,53 |Trumball island anchorage.... Sinkong or Chinkeäng.... ...266 Tse dynasty, notices of the...... Soldiers of righteousness. .................350 Tsin dynasty, notices of the.. 136,142 Soldiers, character of Chinese....514 Tein dynasty, the Eastern.......143 Sovereigns, the three august.123,231 Tsin dynasty, the After..

....150 Sow Shin Ke, Records of the gods 87 Teotang, new one in Macao...

                                        .292 Spies, description of Japanese.... 15 Tung Keen Kang Muh, notice of. 7 Stead, the death of captain...

              .....291 Tung Yuen Tsă taze, a toy-book.613 Succession in Japan, rule of........... 78 Tungcha shan, notice of. Superintendents of British trade.. 58 Tungtsze Kong, the bay of. Sung dynasty, notices of the

Southern..

Twan Yungfuh, notice of. .155 Tyfoons, notices of two.

263

144

372

...378

342

.421

viii

Tyfoons at Hongkong..

USEFUL Knowledge Society.....

VESSEL, a sunken ohe, raised........ Vessels of the Japanese.. Victoria bay, description of. Victoria bay, notices of. Victoria, speech of queen.

INDEX.

.620|| Writers on Chinese affairs.

Writing apparatus, a portable. 53|| Writing of the Chinese.

641

667

646

.383

82 YANGTZE keäng, survey of". 283|| Yellow caps, the rebellion of the.. 98 380 Yen, memorial from governor....639 379 Yihking appointed generalissimo.683 290 Yihshan, imperial commissioner.234

Yihshan's memorials..

346,402 .529

WALKS, Chinese mode of making 172 Vihshan's crooked policy. Wall, notice of the Great.... 136,519 Yu Paoushan, prefect of Canton..527 Walls, Chinese mode of making..172 Yu Pooyun general.. ...503,676 Wanton use of native words.....560 Yu the Great, prosperous times of.126 War, the probreas of the.....176,688 Yuen dynasty, notices of the....154 Warren, an official let. from capt..549 Yuhwhang Shangte, sketch of...305 Whelps, a group of islands. 253|Yukeen's mémorial.. Wisdom, review of a Sack of....550||Yukeen's conduct at Chinbae.', 588 Woman, Memoir of distinguished. 138 Yukeen, notice of the death of.. 680 Woo Tsunle Leih yuen..

4 Yungching's character & writings 603 Woo Shingkeuen Tseotsae. 7 Yuyaou, a visit to the city.

W Veosnam, Mr., assistant surgeon 475 Worshiper, an idolatrous..

.438

688

.173 ZOROASTER, the religion of..... 658

.

{}

B

M

Meie t

molen sa 4 be mix

TEL..,notnat) mi ko v baum

gummibar huelet BubussT &^46.

UTR.6llo zoiet gemob med BAX.

bol.

Logo6lá ui tc:0

Cov.

Goudse na tutining nor

szememontii,it to en

Cepill") to ratommio "modin'd

me! HOUR), letras wall and punto 14 sijon vult to ebrench oil muž v

• geomqnk"o ceilqime he

8!0,2ood-qo1 " "osel deT mai? qudd 100.

USH.

Jo yad edi 2 roži " -t, mui

ینه وه

filing to il tuoh cali hu 12

regul mi not see

na in der denongjstří

16.

191

mit to meat, f

Low) to monon "toor?l? 1.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-JANUARY, 1841.- No. 1.

ART. I. Chinese history: its value and character, as viewed and exhibited by native historians; with a notice of the work entitled History Made Easy.

Who does not wish to know the full history of the Chinese? The time, the manner, and the route, by which the progenitors of the blackhaired race reached the hills of Tang-their leader and his line of ancestors, with all the knowledge, traditional or self-taught, possessed by him-the rise and progress of learning in every depart- ment, concerning things and relations, civil, social, and moral,- such as the invention of writing and the materials for executing it, the wheel and the loom, and the successive steps in bringing to per- fection the various products of the soil in both their natural and arti- ficial states-architecture and the vast varieties of handicrafts, with every branch of knowledge whereof these all are applications-schools, of every grade and class, with their numerous regulations-domestic and state policy, in their all-but-endless changes-oh, who would not like to draw back the veil that now shrouds the past and look through the vista of bygone ages, and see in their germ and progress all those things which now fill, or ought to fill, the history of the Chi- nese empire? But is this practicable? Can any one venture upon such an undertaking? For drawing a map of the empire in its ori- ginal state-for ascertaining the situation of the first little colony- and for marking the earliest advances in the arts and manufactures-- where can the historian collect his trustworthy materials? In fact, do any exist? If so, what and where? Are there monuments, or

VOL. X. NO. 1.

1

2

Q.

Chinese History.

JAN.

testimonies and witnesses of any kind, capable of being wrought into an edifice so complete that it shall exhibit the successive dynasties, as they rise one after another, in full relief and in their true propor- tions? For completing all that the most curious can desire, doubtless the requisite materials cannot be found; but with our own present very limited knowledge of Chinese antiquities, it is quite impossible to say how much can be obtained, or what can be achieved. Yet surely a faithful exhibition of whatever does exist, bearing the stamp of authenticity, will not, cannot fail, to interest the reader, and there- by secure in behalf of Sinim a degree of consideration not hitherto or at present enjoyed.

On a work so arduous, it were impossible to enter without being impressed with a deep sense of its greatness-too great ever to be accomplished except by the united strength of many. Brief and mis- cellaneous notes are all that we dare to promise; and for the imperfec- tion of these, we must crave the most candid indulgence of the critic. A complete history of China, from the earliest times, may be easily pictured in fancy; but in reality to draw forth the full outline, collect and arrange the materials, is a work far beyond the grasp of any single hand: our notes, however, though they must be brief and mis- cellaneous, shall usually, if not in all cases, be derived from original

sources.

With a catalogue of the imperial library, 四庫書目,

Sze Foo Shoo Muk, by our side, for a guide, references can be made to the best authors; and these it will be our endeavor as far as prac- ticable to consult. Sometimes we shall introduce translations, and sometimes analyses may be substituted, according as the one or the other may seem most likely to meet the wishes of our readers.

The Chinese empire-unsurpassed in its antiquity and almost un- rivalled in its extent and resources-now invites our attention.

Na- tive historians,-who have studied with the best advantages for arriving at the truth-denying to the empire that duration which weaker and more credulous minds have conjectured-assign limits for it which do not much differ from the chronology of our own inspir- ed records. What these native historians have written, it shall be our endeavor to ascertain and to state. In our earlier volumes some short papers have been given-sketching an outline of Chinese history; and in our last volume, the reader has in his possession valuable biographical notices, by Rémusat, of some of the most eminent Chi- nese historians of ancient or of modern times. The writings of Szema Tseën, and those of other early historians, we shall have oc casion frequently to consult; but we have here first to introduce to

1841.

Chinese History.

3'

the notice of our readers a popular work of modern date: it is the

     A & Kang Keen E Che Luk, or History Made Easy. The character and value of Chinese history, generally, as viewed by native historians, are exhibited in an Introduction and Preface to this work more fairly than can be done by any equally": brief remarks of our own. And our readers, we presume, will not be displeased with these papers, although cumbered with the disadvan- tages almost inseparable from mere translations. The first paper is a short Introduction, written by an uncle of the principal author, of which the following is a translation:

Introduction.

"Succeeding the Annals written by Confucius

Chun

Tsew] and subsequently, in one grand whole illustrating the rise and fall of states, no work is superior to the Kang Muh; indeed the incidents comprised therein are so numerous, extending over a period of several thousand years, that the reader seems in an ocean, wide-spreading and boundless. Compilers-following brevity, par- ing off the redundancies-celebrated hands, have appeared in crowds; but their nice words and profound thoughts, the meaning of their lan- guage, the reality of their statements, are so imperfectly and obscurely expressed, that even those who are the most fond of learning and of profound thinking, with minds fitted to comprehend what they read, are yet without means of forming a connected chain of the events recorded. And this they are unable to do even after they have ex- amined other books and consulted their friends and teachers. Being myself ever fond of investigating the great principles of the Annals by Confucius, I have always found delight in perusing the entire Kang Muh (or Historical Principia). During the ten years and upwards that I held office in Shense, Szechuen, Shanse, and Honan, so completely was I engrossed with public affairs, that very few were the days afforded for the pleasures of historical reading. The mo. ments of leisure that occasionally occurred were insufficient for the study of entire histories; and of the compilations, seized at intervals for reperusal, I was only able to comprehend their general import.

66

Formerly my relative, the honorable Lewtsun, a member of the Board of War, rising from the office of lieutenant-governor in Fuh- keen to the governorship of Kwangtung and Kwangse, with Tsootsae my nephew, having collected the productions of many ancient and modern worthies of celebrity, compiled a work which they called £ x H It Koo Wan Kwan Che, or A Complete View of

Chinese History.

JAN.

Ancient Learning [the Ne Plus Ultra of Aucient Lore]. This ny relative published, with an introduction of his own. Already it has circulated through the whole empire: as a corrector of youth, and as a work servicable to those of more advanced learning, its merits are neither few nor small.

1

"In the spring of this year I received an imperial commission, appointing me lieutenant-governor of Yunnan; and Tsootsae with his friends the Chows, Tsingchuen and Singjõ, having prepared a draft of their work, entitled History Made Easy, sent it far away to me. Upon a cursory perusal of its-leading parts, I found it modeled after the Kang Muh, as compiled by Wang and Lew, with brevity and diffuseness, elegancë and plainness, blended in an admirable manner. Selecting a chapter at random and carefully perusing it, I found that no principles had been omitted, no books left unconsulted; so that the readers, without examining other writings or consulting their friends and teachers, could comprehend it and form a connected chain of events. And I was also pleased to find that I now under- stood in the minutest details that of which before I had only obtained general ideas. The terms "Made Easy," are fitly and correctly applied to it; and as a corrector of youth and a work servicable to those of more advanced learning, its merits far surpass the Koo Wan Kwan Che. Will not its popularity, therefore, excel in an equal ratio? I quickly directed its publication, having prepared for it this Introduction.

    "Written by Tsunle Leihyen, uncle to the [principal] author, lieutenant-governor of Yunnan, assistant director of military affairs in Keënchang and Peihtseě and of the military stores in Szechuøn and Kweichow, and one of the principal members of the Censorate, on an auspicious day, in the spring of 1712.

(L. S) "Seal of Woo Tsunle Leihyen."

Here ends the commendatory essay of the patron of Woo Tsoo- tsae, Chow Tsingchuen, and Chow Singjo, the three joint authors, or rather compilers, of the History Made Easy. Immediately after the Introduction, we have from Woo Tsqotsae the following-

Preface.

"When a youth I had a strong inclination to read historical works, but had advanced even to old age, without having read through a single one: and why? Because, being naturally very dull, and unable quickly to comprehend what I read, it was, even while trying to understand it, suddenly forgotten. Moreover, my know-

1841.

Chinese History.

1

ledge of words being very limited, it was constantly necessary to consult authorities. Besides, early disabled by diseased feet, I had no mind for the study of the classics and general literature; while of cities and towns, of mountains and rivers, not one was visited. Although possessed of a strong inclination to read history, I was yet like the deaf devoid of hearing, and like the blind devoid of sight; therefore ere the reading a single chapter was completed, I suddenly became disgusted and wearied. This was the reason why I never read through a single work. Still, although I possessed a strong in- clination to read history, and desired to study a multitude of books for perfecting my inquiries, and to visit all the noted hills and great rivers for the extension of any observations, I deemed it impractica- ble. Hence I was led to inquire, what method of reading I should adopt in order to obtain the accomplishment of my wishes.

"

Always I have observed that those who found delight in history, were for the most part far more intelligent than other men, capable of compassing much at a glauce, never forgetting what they had once read, and without any labored effort readily digesting what they had acquired; hence, when they read historical works, they must needs seek for such as were ample; and when they discoursed there- on they must necessarily be inclined to such as were profound; but those who are stupid, like myself, should take that history which is concise rather than those which are ample, and that which is plain rather than such as are profound; then perchance they may be able to obtain that to which they aspire.

"The two Chows, Tsingchuen and Singjo, were the friends of my earliest years, my youthful fellow-students, engaged with me in the study of history. In the 43d year of Kanghe (a. d. 1705), having compiled from the Kang Muh a complete work, they submitted it to me as a model for historical reading; and immediately in conjunction. with them I engaged in its revision, which without interruption from the winter's cold or the summer's rain was continued for six succes- sive years.

   "Displeased with the diffuse style of the manuscript, we aimed to select what was most important and to pare off what was redundant; and anxious to remove all obscurity, we labored to bring forward the general heads and to present them in the most' perspicuous order.: Of the facts which were recorded therein we diligently searched for the origin and source, carefully describing and attentively explaining them, endeavoring to make them as distinctly visible as the finger laid in the palm of the hand, so as not to burden the mind or oppress the

+

6

Chinese History.

JAN.

memory.

       The geography has been traced in such well defmed lines, and the ancient names so compared with the modern, that the whole seem as reality before your eyes, without shadow of error in any way whatsoever. The rivers, too, with their names and all their turnings and windings, are described with faithful precision. Obscure and difficult phraseology, and terms that are unusual or obsolete, are marked and pointed with such clearness and distinctness, that they may be read without impediment or hesitancy.. The writing of the: characters for words) and their words have been attended to and inarked with every possible care; so as to avoid following and perpe- tuating former error and mistakes such as writing loo for t yu, hae for she, &c. If in every place required, notes and explanations were to be introduced, they would be multiplied to an indefinite extent; their entire omission would be a capital defect, their too frequent repetition cumbersome; hence a system of refer- ences has been adopted, which may serve to give life and animation, and add spirit and unity to the whole, not unlike the blood-vessels that penetrate every part of the human body! Such, as here deline- ated, is the method of studying history, which, with grateful emotions for its completion, I now submit to the reader.

My former condition of inability to read through a single work while possessed of a strong inclination to study history, and the impracticability of obtaining such a method of reading as I desired- obtained at length by the completion of the work compiled by my two friends,-although unable to read a multitude of books for the perfect- ing of my inquiries or to traverse noted hills and great rivers for the extension of my information-compared with that previous state of having ears devoid of hearing and eyes devoid of sight, differs in a very great degree! Yes, at length I perceive that the disinclination for historical reading, and the inability to understand discourses on this subject, do not result entirely from poor natural endowments and bad masters, but rather from the defective works of compilers; constructed in such a manner that they are unfitted to direct the inclination or enlighten the understanding.

看看

· My two friends desired me to publish our work without delay. To this I replied, that it was not well to give it so hastily to the public, urging that it should be delayed for further correction, so as to allow time to supply its defects-permitting it to be used only as a text-book for the children in private schools. Unexpectedly at this moment my friend Choo Shinghwae sent me the records of the Ming dynasty, which he had copied out in a complete work. These I immediately.

1841.

Chinese History.

compiled, that they might be added to the other in case of its publi- cation,-which, after being kept under review for another whole year, began to assume a fiuished shape. Again my two friends desired that the work, introduced by a preface from an able master, should be published, believing that it would obtain a wide circulation. I replied, that it was yet without that surpassing erudition which could give it celebrity and fix with sufficient accuracy the rise and fall of a hundred generations, and that moreover it but faintly portrayed the merits of those it describes, and but poorly exhibited their achieve- ments and their failures. In all the minor points of style-such as the structure of sentences, the form and sounds of the characters, &c., it has only a mediocrity of merit. Though it may obtain a place in the most obscure schools and libraries, celebrity it cannot have, nor be expected to acquire a lasting fame. Being published under the terms "Made Easy," how many are there, except those who are as stupid as myself, who will not be offended by its conciseness, and who will not laugh at its humble style?

"Written by Woo Shingkeuen Tsootsae at the hall Chihmŭh in Shanyin, on the 15th day of 7th month in the spring of the 50th year of the reign of Kanghe.

(L. S.) "Seal of Woo Shingkeuen Tsootsae."

The History Made Easy comprises a chronological series of events, extending from the earliest times of Chinese history to the close of the Ming dynasty. The copy before us is bound in 36 vols., the whole being divided into 112 sections or keuen, giving a total of nearly 8000-pages. Immediately after the preface, introduced above, the compilers have given in detail the rules, ten in number, by which they have been guided in preparing their work for publi- cation.

L

The 1st has reference to the mode of compiling their work. A general history ought to the studied throughout, from beginning to end; but men of ordinary capacities are not capable of performing such a task; hence the necessity for an abridgment of general his- tory-which ought to be prepared only with the greatest care, so as to preserve unity, and by giving brevity to the narrative render every object and every subject more lucid. This the compilers have en- deavored to effect. Their work is, for the most part, an abridgment of one of the Tung Keën, or "General Mirrors" of history-appar- ently that of Choo, the celebrated commentator of the Four Books, and is called

Tung Keen Kang Mũh.

Chinese History.

The 24 has reference to the arrangement of the

Muh, in order to give method and order to their work.

JAN.

Kung and the

The Kang

糊 are the heads or the principal parts of the history; they form a brief text of the whole work, down to the close of the Yuen dynasty. The Muh are the subordinate parts of the history; they are to the

Kang (so the Chinese say) what the eyes are to the the strands are to the rope, of which it is composed. a Kang without a Muh; vice versâ, not.

head, or what

There may be

In the first part

The 3d has reference to the arrangement adopted by the coin- pilers in the subordinate part of their work. down to the reign of

Weilee of the Chow dynasty, and also in the last part of it, after the fall of the Yuen family, our compilers do not employ the Muh;

they use

Kang and

in

the first part, prior to Weilee's reign, Ke; in the last part, after the rise of the

Ming line, they presume not to employ either Kang Muh or Kang Ke, but content themselves with a plain and simple narrative, with- out any of these divisions.

The 4th explains their system of references, adopted with the special purpose of rendering more easy the reading of history "by Inen of only ordinary capacities," like themselves. Having divided their work into sections (112 as specified above), and numbered the leaves of each section, the references are easy, and need no explana- tion from us. References in this manner, so common in our own, are seldom made by the Chinese in their books-for, as they inti- mate, it argues a want of intellect and a bad memory.

    The 5th explains their mode of referring to, and specifying, the original works from which their materials have been derived. This they have done to enable the reader, whenever disposed, to refer to those authorities, either to see that there be no error in the abridg- ment, or to make himself more fully acquainted with the subject in hand.

    The 6th explains their manner of treating the subject of geogra- phy-which is simply that of specifying the place, by its modern 'name, where each respective event occurred,→for if the reader of history is ignorant of the place, "the narrative will be to him like a dream.'

    The 7th explains the new mode of punctuation, employed by the compilers.

         The Chinese usually omit all marks of punctuation; but in the History Made Easy, not only is the whole of the text di- vided into sentences and clauses by appropriate marks, but the good

1841.

Chinese History.

and bad qualities of men and things are indicated--the first by white

marks or small circles, the second by black marks.

The 8th describes their use of marks for indicating sentences or

periods, and the clauses or the subdivisions of periods.

They say,

詞住而意亦住者句用小圈於字之旁

46.

tsze choo, urh e yik choo chay, wei keu; yung seaou keuen yu tsze che pang; i. e. a complete proposition, where the sense also is com- plete, makes a period (or sentence); and it is indicated by a small round mark placed at the side of the word (where it terminates):"

訶住而意未住者為讀用小圈於字之中

tsze choo, urh e we choo chay, wei tow; yung seaou keuen yu tsze che chung; i. e. "a complete proposition, where the sense is not complete, makes a clause; and it is indicated by a small round mark placed between the words."

    The 9th explains and illustrates the care which has been taken to secure a correct text,- a particular in which Chinese typography is exceedingly defective, especially in all books of light reading.

    The 10th and last explains and illustrates the care taken to mark the different readings of the same character when it may chance to have different meanings, distinguishable only by different sounds.

Immediately following these ten rules is a long list of distinguish- ed authors and literati, 178 in number, beginning with Szema Tseen of the Western Han, and closing with one of the later worthies of the Ming dynasty. Their principal works are also given, in notes attach- ed to their respective names. The list is a good one, and might not, perhaps, be out of place in the Chinese Repository; but in case of publication, it would require original notes, which at present we are unable to prepare-and this must be our apology for omitting it.

Next to this list of authors, we have a catalogue of sovereigns, from Pwankoo to Tsungching or Chwangleě, whose reign closed with the late dynasty, A. D. 1643. This list of sovereigns, if practica- ble, shall appear in our next number. After it, the compilers proceed with the main body of their work, commencing with

koo, who, according to Chinese tradition, yu she, "first appeared in our world."

Pwan- show chuk

VOL. X. NO, 1.

B.

10

Notices of Japan, No. V.

JAN.

ART. II. Notices of Japan, No. V.: political state of the empire,

classes of people, laws, prisons, &c.

    THE government of Japan is supposed to be, like that of most oriental states, despotic; and so in fact it is, although the received idea of despotism requires some little modification to render it perfectly applicable to the sovereign ruling authority of Japan. We must especially abstract from that idea one of its great- est evils, and one which is habitually, whether or not justly, conceived to he inseparable from, if not an essential part of, despotism-namely, its arbitrariness. Liberty is, indeed, unknown in Japan; it exists not even in the common inter- course of man with man; and the very idea of freedom, as distinguished from rude license, could, perhaps, hardly be made intelligible to a native of that extra- ordinary empire. But, on the other hand, no individual in the whole nation, high or low, is above the law; both sovereigns, the supreme mikado, and his lieu- tenant-master the siogoun, seeming to be as completely enthralled by Japanese despotism as the meanest of their subjects, if not more so. If it be asked, how despotism can exist, unless wielded by a despotic sovereign, either monarch, oligarchy, or democracy, which last may be interpreted demagogue; the answer is, that at least at this present time, law and established custom, unvarying, known to all, and pressing upon all alike, are the despots of Japan. Scarcely an action of life is exempt from their rigid, iuflexible, and irksome control; but he who complies with their dictates has no arbitrary power, no capricious tyranny to apprehend.

     Japan is a feudal empire, according to the very spirit of feudality. The mikudo, as the successor and representative of the gods, is the nominal proprietor, as well as sovereign, of the realm; the siogoun, his deputy or vicegerent. His dominions are divided, with the exception of the portion reserved to the crown, into princi- palities, held in vassalage by their respective hereditary princes. Under them, the land is parceled out amongst the nobility, who hold their hereditary · estates by military service.

     The utter impotence for good or for evil of the nominally all-powerful mikado has been sufficiently shown in a former paper, as also the perpetual thralldom in which he is held by the very honors paid him. It is, probably, the ever-recurring annoyance of these troublesome honors, that still induces the mikado frequently to abdicate in favor of a son or daughter. If even by this step they gain very little that can be called liberty, they at least escape from their taşk of diurnal immobility, and are no longer, it may be hoped, actually restrained from all lo- comotion.

The next personage to be noticed, in speaking of the political condition of Ja- pan, is the mikado's vicegerenț, the siogoun, or kubo, the names being indifferently given him, without any clear explanation of diversity of signification between them.* Klaproth, however, indicates siogoun as the more appropriate title. This * [In the note on page 305 of vol. IX, the term kubo is applied to the mikado at Miyako. It is however more commonly applied to the siogoun at Yedo, but an examination of the Chinese characters employed for this title shows that or the lord's palace,' might sometimes be applied to the mikado without

公方

L

committing a very glaring blunder, though it is no doubt incorrect to apply that term to thể mikado though he is known by it in some parts of Kiusiu.]

F

F:

i...

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. V.

*

11

supposed virtually-absolute sovereign, who is still so called by many writers, we find, upon carefully examining the details given by those same writers, to be nearly as destitute of real power, as much secluded from the public eye, and en- meshed in the inextricable web of law and custom, as his nominal master.

The siogoun* scarcely ever stirs beyond the precincts of his spacious palace inclosure; even his religious pilgrimages, and his journeys to Miyako to do homage, or in Japanese phrase, make his compliment, to the mikado, being now performed by a deputy. The business of government is represented as wholly unworthy of engaging his thoughts and his time is said to be so skillfully oc- cupied, as scarcely to leave him leisure, had he the wish, to attend to the affairs of the empire.

The mere official duties of ceremony imposed upon the siogoun-the obser- vances of etiquette, the receiving the homage or compliment, and the presents of those permitted and bound to offer both, upon frequently recurring festival days and the like-are represented as sufficient fully to occupy three individuals. These important ceremonies are regulated and conducted by a host of courtiers, holding what we should call household offices, and always about the person of the siogoun. But lest any notion of degradation in this actual nullity, any percep- tion of being, like the mikado, but the shadow of a sovereign, should germinate in the imperial breast, or be planted there by some ambitious favorite, both the siogoun and his court are constantly surrounded and watched by the innumera- ble spies of the council of state, which now constitutes the real executive power. The members of the council of state are differently given by different writers; but the best authority makes them thirteen-to wit, five councillors of the first class, uniformly selected from the princes of the empire, and eight of the second class, selected from the nobility. Other ministers are mentioned who do not appear to be comprehended in the council; these are the temple lords, who seem to be laymen, though the actual regulators of all religious matters, and the two ministers, called by some writers commissioners for foreign affairs, by others lieutenants of police, or heads of the spies; and, indeed, the concerns of Japan with foreigners should naturally belong rather to the police department than to any especial minister. The councillors of both classes are almost uniformly chosen from amongst the descendants of those princes and nobles who distin- guished themselves as partisans of the founder of the present siogoun dynasty, during the civil war that preceded, and the intrigues that assisted his usurpation. Over the council presides a councillor of the highest class, and he is invariably a descendant of Ino Kamon no kami, a minister who rendered an essential service to the same usurper's posterity. This president is entitled Governor of the Em- pire: and his office, if resembling that of an European premier, or rather of an oriental vizier, appears even to transcend both in authority. All the other councillors and every department of administration are subordinate to him; no affair can be undertaken without his concurrence; and a notion is said to prevail in Japan, that he is individually empowered to depose a siogoun who should go- vern ill, and to substitute another, of course the legal heir, in his place; but this is manifestly a mistaken or confused conception of a power vested in the whole council, though possibly exercised by their president, which will presently be explained, and which it will then appear is not held gratuitously.

* Fischer.

+ Siebold.

12

Notices of Japan, No. V.

JAN.

This council of state transacts the whole business of government ; decides upon ́every measure, sanctions or reverses every sentence of death pronounced by an -imperial governor, appoints to all efficient offices, corresponds with the local authorities; and upon the occurrence in any part of Japan of any affair in which the course to be pursued is not clearly marked out by law or precedent, must be 'consulted, and pronounce its decree, before a single step be taken by even the highest local officers. Each councillor has his own specific department, for which, in the common routine, be alone is responsible; but the measures of which, upon any important point, must be discussed, and adopted or rejected, by the whole body of his colleagues, headed by their president.

When any proposition has been duly investigated and determined upon by the -council, the resolution taken is laid before the siogoun for his sanction. This usually follows, as a matter of course, nine times in ten without the monarch's even inquiring what he is called upon to confirm. But if, by some extraordinary accident, he should chance to trouble himself about the concerns of his empire, and, either upon rational grounds or through caprice, withhold the sanction re- quested, the proceeding consequent upon the difference of opinion between the monarch and his ministers is prescribed by law. The measure is not at once abandoned, as might be imagined by persons thinking of the siogoun as a despotic sovereign; it is, on the contrary, referred to the arbitration of three princes of -the blood, the nearest kinsmen of the monarch, his probable heir, in default of a son, being one, if of sufficient age. The sentence of these arbitrators, whatever it be, and whatever be the question submitted to them, is not only final, but fraught with important, and, to European minds, painful results.

J

Should the verdict be in favor of the council, the siogoun has no alternative; be may not revoke his previous refusal, and yield to the united judgment of his ministers and the arbitrators, but must immediately abdicate in favor of his son or other legal heir. Such an abdication, for various causes, is an act so constantly recurring, that it bears a specific name, inkio; and a regular habitation for the abdicating siogoun is as established and essential a provision of the Yedo court,

· as a jointure-house for a queen-dowager in this country. To this inferior abnde the siogoun, against whose opinion the arbitrators have decided, instantly retires, - and his successor takes possession of the vacated palace.

Should the arbitrators pronounce in favor of the monarch, the consequences are yet more serious, inasmuch as the minister who proposed and most strongly urged the obnoxious act, if not every member of the council, headed by the president--whose supreme authority should involve responsibility--is under the necessity of committing suicide, according to the Japanese mode, by ripping him- self up. When to this always possible, if not often recurring, necessity, is added, that the whole council, collectively and individually, is surrounded by spies known and unknown, employed by superiors, inferiors, rivals, and each other, it will be evident that these seemingly absolute ministers cannot venture upon the - infraction of any law, or upon any deed of violence, of rapacity, or of arbitrary tyranny, except with the sword of Damocles, it may be said, literally as well as metaphorically, hanging over their heads.

1

    Turn we now to the vassal princes of the empire, whose power appears to be the chief object of apprehension to the siogoun and his council.

    There were originally sixty-eight principalities, hereditary, but subject to for- feiture in case of treason. Of this penalty, advantage was taken by successive

1840.

Notices of Japan, No. V

13

    usurpers during the civil wars, to weaken apprehended rivals by the subdivision of their dominions. The consequence of these proceedings is, that there are now said to be 804 distinct administrations, including great and small principalities, lordships, and imperial towns.

     The princes, called kok-shyu [or kokushi], or lords of the land, are of two grades, the dai-mio ('very much honored'), who hold their principalities directly of the mikado, and the sai-mio ('much honored'), who hold theirs of the siogown. Both dai-mio and sai-mio are nominally absolute in their respective states. They go. vern with all the forms and organization of actual sovereignty, and each, by means of his noble vassals, maintains his own army; but they are entangled in a net of suzerain policy, which disables even the mightiest from attempting aught against the siogoun or his council; and so completely and annoyingly are they controlled, alike in their public duties and in their private enjoyments, that in no class of Japanese is the practice of (inkio) abdicating in favor of a son so pre- valent as amongst these grandees. A reigning prince of advanced age is never seen in Japan.

     The actual administration of every principality is conducted, not by the prince himself or ministers of his choice, but by two go-karó, or secretaries, appointed by the Yedo council, the one to reside in the principality, the other at Yedo, where the family of the absent secretary is detained in hostage for his fidelity. These double appointments extend to all high provincial posts, and it is only by the regular annual alternation of situation of the two colleagues that men holding such posts ever see their families. Nor are the secretaries, thus obtruded on their nominal master, allowed to act as their own or the prince's judgment may dictate. They are, in fact, the mere delegates of the council, whose orders are transmitted by the secretary at Yedo to the secretary at the capital of the prin- cipality.

     Either every alternate year, or the half of every year, the princes are compelled to spend at Yedo, and that is the only time during which they can enjoy the society of their famílies, there kept as hostages. During their residence in their own dominious, they are not only separated from those families, illegitimate as well as legitimate, but strictly prohibited from holding any species of intercourse, innocent or criminal; with the other sex. The ceremonious observances that fill ́their time, as the siogoun's, are prescribed from Yedo. They may not appear without their palace-walls, except at stated times and according to stated forms; nay, the very hours of their down-lying aud up-rising are imperatively preördain- ed by the council. That no infraction of these intolerable restrictions can escape the knowledge of the council through the instrumentality of their spies, every prince and his household are well aware; but it is said that into some of the prin cipalities those spies penetrate at the hazard of their lives; from one, Satzuma;* hardly any are said ever to return, and the Yedo government, never acknowledg- 'ing them as its servants, never inquires into or avenges their fate. ⠀

...

But all this does not afford sufficient security in the opinion of government.

+

* Doef · [This principality lies in the southern part of Kiusiu, and its prince is one of the most powerful in the empire. He monopolizes the whole trade be- tween Lewchew and Japan, and governs Lewchew and the intermediate islands by his own officers, and has the reputation of allowing an underhand trade with the Chinese in a few articles.]

!

14

Notices of Japan. No. V

JAN.

Lest the princes should, even at the sacrifice of all that is dear to them, confederate against the siegoen, neighboring princes are not allowed to reside simultaneous- ly in their respective dominions, unless, indeed, ill-will should be known to exist between them, in which case their mutual jealousies are sedulously fomented, by affording them occasions of collision. But the plan chiefly relied upon for insur- ing their subjection is to keep them dependent by poverty. To reduce them to the required state of indigence, many means are employed.

     Nearly the whole military duty of the empire is thrown upon the princes; they are required to maintain troops rateably, according to the extent of their domin- ¡ons, and to furnish even those required for the imperial provinces, the admin- ¡stration of which is avowedly in the hands of the Yedo council. Thus, at Naga- saki, which during the last two centuries has been the only seat of foreign com- merce, the whole profit of which is devoured by the siegeus, council, governors, and their understrappers, and which for that very purpose was dismembered from a principality, and coverted into an imperial city, the duty of guarding the bay falls altogether upon the princes of Fizen and Chikuzen, whose dominions the bay divides. The two centuries of profound peace, which Japan bas enjoyed since the adoption of the exclusive system, bave naturally lessened the need of troops. The consequent diminution of expense is felt to be a great object; but neither the princes nor their subjects are the persons destined to profit by the saving thus effected. The number of troops to be maintained by each prince is, indeed in just proportion to that originally allotted them; but the sum which the troops so dispensed with would have cost them, they are required to pay into the treasury at Yedo.

    Other modes of impoverishment there are, to which, when necessary, recourse is bad. One is that of obliging the princes to display extravagant pomp and magniñcence during their residence at Yedo, involving them in every imaginable expense. Should these ways of draining his exchequer prove insufficient with some extraordinarily opulent or prudent prince, two resources are kept in reserve, which have never yet failed. One of these is the stogoun's inviting himself to dinner with his inconveniently wealthy vassal, at his Yedo palace; the other, the obtaining for him, from the mikado, some highly coveted post at the daïri. The expense of duly entertaining the siegoun, or of receiving the investiture of an exalted datri office, is such as no Japanese fortune has yet proved able to stand.

     Of the lordships, it may suffice to say, that they seem to be merely very inferior principalities, the government of which is managed and controlled in a manner perfectly analogous to that just described.

    The provinces and towns retained as imperial domains are administered by imperial governors, appointed by the state council at Yedo, and whose fidelity is similarly secured. To every government, two governors are appointed; one of whom resides at Yedo, the other at bis post, his family remaining as hostages at court, and he himself being subjected to the same restrictions and annoyances as the princes in their principalities; the two governors annually relieve each other in their government. Their authority in their governments is equal to that of the princes, or rather of the princes' secretaries in the principalities; except that a governor cannot inflict capital punishment until the sentence has been ratified at Yedo, whilst the princes may freely exercise this act of sovereignty. But neither prince nor governor likes to pronounce sentence of death, lest the

1840.

Notices of Japan, No. V.

15

   perpetration of crimes requiring such punishment should be imputed to conni- vance, negligence, or general mal-administration on their part.

    The governor is assisted by an official establishment, appointed by the council of state, most of the members of which are subject to the same restrictions as himself; and their number would be incredible, were we not told that the principle of Japanese government is to employ the most persons possible of the higher and middle classes. The official establishment of Nagasaki, the only one of which the Dutch writers have personal knowledge, may be worth giving as a sample.*

    The gevernor has under him two secretaries, and a number of go-banyosi,† or superior police-officers, to each of whom is allotted a department, for which he is responsible, and a number of banyosi, or under police-officers, to execute his orders. All these are subject to the governor's authority; but the following officers are wholly independent of him: the treasurer, a sort of district chancellor of the exchequer, who is second in rank to the governor, and has an accountant to assist him in his labors; and the military commandant of town and district, the third in rank. Of all those official persons-the banyosi, who are of a very inferior degree, excepted-only the treasurer and the military commandant are permitted to have their families at Nagasaki. It is needless to repeat, that all these are surrounded by spies.

    And here, having again occasion to mention the ever-recurring spies, it may be worth while to pause, in order to say a word or two further upon this mainspring of Japanese government. Their Japanese name of metsuke is interpreted by Dr. Von Siebold to mean 'steady looker,' or observer; by the Dutch writers, 'lookers across. They are of every rank in life, from the lowest to the highest beneath that of a prince, since even the proudest noblemen undertake the base office, either in obedience to commands which it were death-that is to say, imperative self-slaughter-to disobey, or impelled by the hope of succeeding to the lucrative post of him in whom they can detect guilt. Those spies at Nagasaki, who are subject to the governor, are entitled to demand on audience of him at any hour of the day or night; and woe betide him, should he, by postponing their admission, incur the risk of their reports being transmitted to Yedo otherwise than through himself. But there are other spies, not officially known, upon himself; and this, which notwithstanding the constant mention of spies as official public characters, it is self-evident must be the case, is further proved by the following anecdote of the success of a high-born spy. The incident did not, indeed, fall under the personal observation of the Dutch factory, inasmuch as it occurred in another and remote government, Matsmai; but it is given upon good authority, and is general in its application.

44

     · Complaints† of the governor of this province had reached the court, which took its own measures for ascertaining their truth. The agreeable tidings that the governor was displaced were speedily received; but it was not without astonisht. ment that the capital, Matsmai, recognized in his successor a journeyman

* Doeff and Meylan.

    † [Go.banyosi is a term of general designation; go means imperial or govern- mental, and is applied to whatever appertains to the government; ban means to watch, to judge, to oversee (a ban no iye or ban-ya, is a guard-house); and ai is officer; so that a go-banyosi is a governmental overseeing officer. These officers are perhaps confined to imperial cities like Nagasaki, for none of our informants have ever heard of such a title.]

Meylan.

16

Notices of Japan, No V

JAN.

tobacco-cutter, who, some months before, had suddenly disappeared from his master's shop. The journeyman tobacco-cutter had been personated by a noble of the land, who had assumed that disguise in order to exercise the office of a spy, for which he had been sent to Matsmai by the court."

To return to Nagasaki. The officers hitherto mentioned are all governmental officers; but the affairs of the town itself, its own police, &c., are managed, not by them, but by separate municipal authorities-to wit, a council of nine, some, thing akin to a mayor and aldermen, but holding their offices hereditarily. The resolutions of this council must, however, be unanimous ; if not, they are submit. ted to the governor. The municipal council employ, as their ministers and ser- vants, a regiment of ottone and kashira, to whose superintendence the peace and good conduct of every street in the town is committed; a superintendence much facilitated by closing the gates of every street at a certain hour of the even- ing, after which no one can pass in or out, without an especial permission from his kashira or ottona.

But all this organization of watchfulness does not satisfy the care, despotic or paternal, of the government, or perhaps we should say of the institutions, for the safety of the people. Every town and village in the realm is parceled out into lots of five houses, the heads of which are made answerable for each other; each is bound to report to his kashira every and any misdemeanor, irregularity, or even unusual occurrence, in any of his four neighbors' houses, which from the kashira is transmitted through the oltona to the municipal council; so that it may be said, not that one half, but that each half, of the nation is made a spy upon the other half, or that the whole nation is a spy upon itself. The householders are further bound to exercise the same vigilance over the portion of the street before their houses; any disaster that may there happen, in a chance broil among stran- gers, being imputed to the negligence of the adjoining householders. Any neglect of interference or report is punished, according to the occasion, with fine, stripes, imprisonment or arrest in the offender's own house; which last is a very different thing in Japan from what it is in other countries. In Japan, the whole family of the man sentenced to domiciliary arrest is cut off from all intercourse with the external world; the doors and windows of the house being boarded up, to insure the seclusion. The offender is suspended during the whole time, if in office, from his office and salary; if a tradesman or artisan, from exercising his trade; and, moreover, no man in the house may shave, a disgrace as well as an inconvenience. How the subsistence of the family is provided for during this long period of inac. tion and non-intercourse, does not appear.

One consequence or necessary concomitant of this system of mutual espial is, that a man should have some power of choosing the neighbors whom he is to watch and be watched by. Accordingly, no one can change his residence without a certificate of good conduct from the neighbors he wishes to leave, and permis. sion from the inhabitants of the street to which he would remove to come amongst them. The result of this minutely ramified and complete organization is said to be that, the whole empire affording no hiding-place for a criminal, there is no country where so few crimes against property are committed; and doors may be left unbarred, with little fear of robbery.

The population of Japan, which is variously estimated by different writers at from 15,000,000 to 40,000,000 of souls, is divided, if not exactly into castes, yet into nearly hereditary classes. It is held to be the duty of every individual to

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. V.

17

remain through life in the class in which he was born, unless exalted by some very peculiar and extraordinary circumstance. To endeavor to rise above his station is somewhat discre:litable; to sink below it utterly so. These classes aré eight.*

    Class 1 is that of the kokushi, or princes, including both dai.miỏ and sai-mið, whose condition has been already sufficiently explained.

    Class 2 is that of the kie-nin; literally, noblemen,' These noblemen, as be- fore said, hold all their lands in flief, by military service, due to the several princes, or, in the imperial provinces, to the siogoun. The number of warriors due from each nobleman is regulated by the size and value of his estate; and they provide for the performance of his duty by the under-granting, or stubinfeudation of their lands. From this noble class are selected the ministers who are not princes, the great offices of state, governors, &c., &c.; and the universal passion for these offices serves, in great measure, to keep the nobility dependent upon the court, but not sufficiently so to satisfy the jealousy of government. Many of the precau- tions employed towards the princes are likewise resorted to with respect to the nobles. They are not, indeed, deprived of their families, except when holding provincial office; but they are compelled to spend a considerable part of every year at Yedo, and are there required to display a magnificence, which, if not quite equal to that exacted from the princes, is so far beyond their means, that it doubly weakens them; first, by actually impoverishing, and secondly, by inducing them to lessen the number of their military vassals, in order to derive a larger income from their estates. In the profound peace Japan has for two centuries enjoyed, this is probably esteemed safe policy.

Class 3 consists of the priesthood of Japan, Sintoo and Budhist alike. Of these, it well be more convenient to speak in an account of the religion of Japan. Class 4 is that of the samorai, or military, and consists of the vassals of the nobility. The service by which they hold their lands is now, and has long been, if not altogether nominal, yet very easy, as they have only to furnish troops sufficient to give guards and splendor to the courts of the mikado, the siogoun, and the princes, to preserve internal tranquillity, and to watch the coast. In former times, prior to the closing of the empire against foreigners, and confining every native within its limits, the Japanese soldiery are said to have been well known and highly valued throughout Asia, where, as soldiers of fortune, they served every potentate and state willing to engage them. That practice is now forbidden; and their military prowess must have died away, since it has had no field of action. But still, this class, useless as it may now appear, ranks in ge- neral esteem next to their feudal superiors. The siogoun is said to maintain, besides the samorai of the imperial provinces, a body of armed men called the dozin, in- cluded in this class, but considered very inferior to the samerai, and bearing more affinity to the French gendarmery than to regular troops.

    It should be observed, whilst upon this subject, that captain Golownin, in his account of his captivity in Japan, says the imperial soldiers were so superior in rank and appearance to those of the princes, that he at first mistook the imperial privates for officers. No writer of the Dutch factory mentions any such differ- ence; and generally speaking, Golownin's situation-a prisoner in a remote pro- vince, conversing only through rude and ignorant Kurile interpreters, or by

Meylan.

*

VOL. X. NO. I.

3

18

Notices of Japan, No. V.

JAN.

teaching his visitors Russian-rendered him so obnoxious to error, that when he differs from those who have better, though still very imperfect, means of informa- tion, his testimony can have little weight; but upon this subject, having been almost wholly guarded by military, it is at least possible that he should be better informed than upon most others, and that such a difference may exist. These four classes constitute the higher orders of Japanese, and enjoy the especial, the envied privilege of wearing two swords, and the hakama, or petticoat- trowsers.

Class 5 comprehends the upper portion of the middle orders of society.

it con- sists of inferior officials and professional-that is to say, medical-men; persons deemed respectable, or, to borrow an expressive French phrase, comme il faut, and permitted to wear one sword and the trowsers.

    Cass 6 comprises the lower, or trading portion of the middle orders; as mer. chants, and the more considerable shopkeepers. In this class, regarded with ineffable disdain, are found the only wealthy individuals in Japan. Far from being, like their superiors, forced into extravagant ostentation for the purpose of impoverishment, these persons are not allowed to imitate that ostentation. The degree of that splendor they may display is strictly limited, and they can spend their money only in those luxuries, comforts, and pleasures, which their superiors are obliged to forego, in order to support their station. The degrading step by which alone, if he aspire to ape his superiors, the richest merchant can, as a nominal, evade these sumptuary laws, has been already noticed; and even when thus indulged with one sword, never may he, under any circumstances, aspire to the trowsers.

as p

their

Class 7 is composed of petty shopkeepers, mechanics, and artisans of all des- criptions--one trade, of which presently, expected--and including, strange to say, artists. The general appreciation of this class it is not easy to fix, as every sepa. rate genus, and even species, appears to be differently valued, according to the different occupations and trades; as, for instance, we are told that goldsmiths and is. painters rank much above carpenters and blacksmiths; but whether any difference thority be made between artists and housepainters does not appear.

Of the

Class 8 consists of the peasantry, and day-laborers of all kinds. former, the greater part appear to be, in fact, the villains or serfs of the landed proprietors; and even those who make some approach to the condition of an English farmer, or rather of a contineutai metayer-that being the Japanese mode of letting landare said to be so heavily burdened with contributions, that indi- gence keeps them in a state of complete degradation.

    To these recognized eight classes might be added a ninth, to locate the excep- tion from the seventh above alluded to.. This exception consists of the tanners, curriers, and all unhappy beings connected in any way with the leather trade. From some peculiar prejudice, originating probably in the Sintoo doctrine of defile- ment by contract with death, these dealers in hides or leather are the very pariahs,` or outcasts of Japanese society. They are not permitted to dwell in the towns or villages with other men, but inhabit villages exclusively their own, whence they are called into the towns only to discharge the functions of executioners and gaolers, in which, if they need assistance, the tea-house proprietors are bound to supply it. They are not allowed to pollute an inn or public house with their presence, but, if in need of refreshment on a journey, they are served with what

Bi

anall tra

der.

Ta

21

4

Y

+

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. V.

19

      they purchase outside, and the landlord would rather throw away than take back a vessel from which one had drunk. Finally, they are not numbered in a census of the population; and, what is yet more whimsical, their villages, when situated upon the high road, are not measured in the length of that road *-are subtracted from it, as nonentities-so that, in paying by the distance between town and town, the relays of men and cattle stationed at the post-houses, the traveler is actually carried gratis through'a village inhabited by makers of leather.

The Japanese laws are very sanguinary, admitting but little distinction between different shades of guilt, and none that turn upon the magnitude of theft. They admit of no fines-except, perhaps, in some trifling † misdemeanors amenable to municipal jurisdiction, because in the opinion of the Japanese legislators, anch pecuniary punishments would give an unfair advantage to rich over poor criminals. Due pains are likewise taken to make the laws known to all classes alike. In every town and village is a spot inclosed by palisades, where, from a scaffold, every new law is proclaimed to the people; and where it is afterwards placarded, for the benefit of such as may have been absent from the proclamation. The code of police regulations is constantly placarded there.

In fact, the administra ion of justice is said to be extremely pure, making no distinction between high and low, rich and poor. If offenses against the state are more certainly punished than se against individuals, it is only because the officers of government would rk their own lives by neglecting to prosecute a state criminal, whilst the procution of crimes of the second class rests with the individual injured, who my not think it worth his while, for the mere gratification of taking a fellow-creare's life, to add the expense and trouble of a lawsuit to the evils he has ay endured.

Minor complets and offenses are carried before the ottona, who act, in a manner secret as police magistrates, under the advice and control of the spies. The fairnes their adjudications is further insured by a right of appeal to the public tribis. But to afford means of escaping such publicity is one main ob. ject of thithority intrusted to these municipal delegates, who redress grievances and punimall transgressions natbon, thus sparing the character and feelings of many an der. The public tribunals are very solemn, diligent, and astute in their proceedings, and selo.. fail, we are assured, to elicit the truth. But to effect this, when evidence and other mens are wanting, they have recourse to torture. From their verdict there is no appeal.

Capital punishment, and even sentence of death, nécessainy involve connis- cation of property, and disgrace to the family of the criminal. Hence, a man of the higher orders, publicly accused and conscious of guilt, prevents his trial by at once ripping himself up. If the criminal be arrested too suddenly to allow of this step, and the family excite sufficient interest to induce the judicial and prison authorities to incur some little risk for their sake, recourse is had to two nathon forms of death before sentence. When most kindness is felt, the prisoner is privately supplied with a weapon with which to rip himself up; but this is a rare indulgence, because attended with considerable risk to the friendly agent. The more ordinary course is, to order the prisoner to be tortured, for the purpose of extorting confession; at the same time, causing an intimation to be given to the executioner, that should the operation prove fatal, no questions will be asked. In

# Fischer.

* Siebold.

+ Meylan,

20

Notices of Japan, No. V.

JAN.

either case, the prisoner is reported to have died of disease; and being presumed guiltless, because unconvicted, the body is delivered to the family for internent, and the concomitant evils of conviction are avoided.

The criminal, who, not having thus eluded or forestalled his fate, is sentenced to death, is bound with cords, set upon a horse, and thus led to the place of execu- tion-an opon field without the town, his crime being published both by word of mouth and by a flag. Upon his way thither, any person who pleases may give him refreshment--a permission seldom made use of. Upon reaching the appointed spot, the judges, with their assistants, take their places, surrounded by the insig- nia of their office, and with unsheathed weapons. The prisoner here receives from the executioner a cup of sake, with some of its regular accompaniments, as dried or salted fish, roots, mushrooms, fruit, or pastry; and this he is allowed to share with his friends. He is then seated upon a straw, mat, between two heaps of sand, and his head struck off with a sword. The severed head is set up upon

a stake, to which is affixed a placard, announcing the crime that had incurred such punishment. It is thus exposed for three days, after which the relations are allowed to bury as much of the corpse as the birds of prey have left.

     This is the description given by the Dutch writers of an execution, and doubt. less is what they have witnessed at Nagasaki. But a conjecture may be hazard- ed, that the forms are those practiced only towards criminals of the lower orders founded upon what was said in a former paper of the mode of putting high-born offenders to death; and perhaps a second, not improbable, conjecture might be added-to wit, that however precise are the laws of Japan, much is left to the plea. sure of the judge, in relation to the mode of inflicting the immutable doom. But whatever be thought of the ideas here thrown out, it is very clear that both of these . are the merciful forms of execution, as we elsewhere learn that prisoners are fre- quently and publicly tortured to death, and that the excellence of the executioner is measured by the number of wounds-sixteen is said to be the maximum-that he can inflict without causing death.* Upon these occasions, it is reported that the young nobles habitually lend the executioner their swords, as a trial of the edge and temper of a new blade. It is further asserted, that they take great delight in witnessing executions, especially such as are enhanced by torture.

                                     One species of torture, in which a shirt of reeds, the criminal's only garment, is set on fire, is considered so superlatively entertaining from the sufferer's ́contortions, that it has acquired the name of the death-dance.'t

While speaking of executions, it should be said that, in the Annals of the io. gouns, the abdomen-ripping is spoken of as a mode of punishment commanded by the monarch. This statement, though at variance with every other upon this subject, derives a character of authenticity from the book's Japanese origin. Yet, when it is considered that the nominal translator, Titsingh, was very little ac- quainted with Japanese; that his translation was, in fact, made by native inter- preters with their imperfect knowledge of Dutch; that the scientific philologist, Klaproth, finds the opperhoofd's other translations full of blunders; and, finally, that the work was first published long after Titsingh's death in a French version; the probability may be suspected of an imperial hint to a great personage, that he would do well and wisely to perform the hara-kiri, being converted into a com mand.

* Titsingh.

† Meylan.

1841.

Medical Philanthropic Society.

21

     The prisons for slight offenses, and the treatment therein, are very tolerable. Captain Golownin describes the worst in which he and his companions were con. fined at Matsmai, as a row of cages in a building like a barn; and, despite his bitter complaints, it is evident, from his own account, that the cages were reason- ably airy, with provision for cleanliness and warmth; also that the prisoners were reasonably well fed, according to the dietary of the country, though inadequately for Russian appetites. That this was the ordinary prison is likewise evident from several circumstances; such as his having been told, when about to be removed thither from another place of confinement, that he was now to be in a real prison ; his finding in one of the cages a native culprit ́under sentence of flagellation; and the name, roya, ' cage,' given by Golownin as designating this building, and also by old Kæmpfer as the name of a prison.

But this description by no means appplies to prisons destined for heinous offen- ders, tried or untried, and which every account represents as frightful, and appro priately named gokuya-Anglicė, hell. In these prisons or dungeons, fifteen or twenty persona are crammed together into one room, situated within the walls of the government-house, lighted and ventilated only by one small grated window in the roof. The door of this dungeon is never opened, except to bring in or take out a prisoner. The captives are refused books, pipes, and every kind of recreation ; they are not allowed to take their own bedding in with them, and their silken or linen girdle is exchanged for a straw band, the wearing of which is a disgrace. The filth of the dungeon is removed through a hole in the wall, and through that same hole the victuals of the prisoners are introduced. These victuals are of the very worst description; and although the prisoners are allowed to purchase or to receive from their friends better food, no individual purchaser or receiver of sup- plies can derive any benefit from his acquisition, unless it be sufficient to satisfy the appetites of all his chamber or dungeon-fellows. The inmates of this detestable abode, a detention in which might be punishment adequate to most offenses, being left wholly to their own government whilst confined there, have established the law of the strongest, and that in its worst form; a ruthless democratic tyranny, where the weakest is the minority.

* Fischer.

ART. III. Prospectus of the Medical Philanthropic Society, fon

China and the East. London, 1840.

[From this prospectus our readers will learn with pleasure, that Mr. Lay is not unmindful of the promise made to the Medical Missionary Society at a public meeting in Canton. Along with the prospectus, we have the names of a provisional committee, consisting of the following gentlemen: G. Tra- descant Lay esq., Joseph H. Arnold esq., Horatio Hardy esq., M. Chalmers esq., M. D., Rev. Samuel Kidd, James Beunet esq., M. D., Hezekiah Clark esq., W. Alers Hankey esq. An early day was to be named to organize a society for carrying into effect the suggestions contained in the Prospectus.

22

Medical Philanthropic Society.

JAN.

The efforts of this new Society we hope will be commensurate with the exigencies that have called it into being. In the prospectus, a reference night, we think, with propriety have been made to an institution established in Macao by Dr. Morrison, and thus noticed by Dr. Pearson in 1821. Dr. P. says: "Some months ago, Dr. Morrison instituted a dispensary for supplying the Chinese poor with advice and medicines, which he superintends himself from one to two hours every morning. I have also been able to give pretty constant attendance, and have had an opportunity of observing the details of Chinese practice, in from about ten to fifteen cases daily. * * * I am happy to say that the institution has already done much good-much human suf- fering has been relieved. Upwards of 300 patients have made grateful acknowledgments for renovated health." A native physician and apothecary was employed as an assistant in this establishment, with the occasional at. tendance of an herbalist. See the Anglo-Chinese Gleaner for January, 1821, pp. 6, 7.]

THE honor of founding the first institution, for conferring upon the Chinese the benefits of European science in medicine and surgery, is due to Dr. T. R. Colledge, surgeon to the English factory in China. Observing the prevalence of diseases of the eye among this people, and their entire unskillfulness in treating them, he opened, in 1837, an Ophthalmic Hospital in Macao, in which, during the five years of its continuance, more than four thousand persons were relieved, not only of those disorders, but likewise of other maladies. This establishment was closed in 1832, from an increase of medical duties devolving upon Dr. Colledge, in consequence of the departure of the late respected Dr. Pearson to England.

    The success which had attended it led Dr. Colledge, in 1834, to suggest to Dr. Parker, a physician from the United states, to esta- blish a similar institution in Canton, which, after a course of increas- ing usefulness, has been brougnt to a close (only a temporary one is hoped) by the political events, which have lately interrupted Brit- ish intercourse with China.

    The eagerness with which the Chinese, not only of the lower, but the higher ranks,* availed themselves of the benefits thus afforded them; and the influence which the evident superiority of western science had over their own, in softening ther national prejudices, led the benevolent promoters of these measures to contemplate the prac- ticability of conferring, in union with them, blessings of a still higher order. It is well known, that the late eminent Dr. Morrison, and others associated with him, after translating the Holy Scriptures into the Chinese language, had for many years endeavored, by the circulation of them and other publications, to lead the people of that country to

    * The author of the interesting work on China, entitled Fanqui, states the case of two young ladies, brought by their parents, persons of consideration, from Nanking, a distance of many hundred miles, to the institution in Canton, for dis- orders in their eyes, and who returned cured.

14.

1.2

1841.

Medical Philanthropic Society,

23

a dispassionate consideration of the claims of Christianity, as a divine revelation.

To these benevolent efforts, the well known contempt of the Chi nese for all that is foreign had placed a barrier, apparently insur- mountable. Experience has, however, since shown that even this inveterate prejudice could not always withstand the claims to atten- tion, which such convincing proofs of superior knowledge, united with disinterested kindness, carried home to the understanding and the hearts both of patients and observers. Sufficient tokens of such an improved state of mind were perceived, to justify the committee in China in saying in their report" We hope this is but the beginning of a great work, that will eventually remove from the Chinese nation all those unfounded prejudices which at present prevent general inter- course, and lead this people to call those their enlightened benefac- tors whom they now call barbarians."

    To bring these two important branches of Christian philanthropy into more obvious union before the Chinese people, it was resolved to form a society at Canton, under the title of "The Medical Mission- ary Society,"

            a fundamental rule of which should be, that the agents employed by it should possess, in union with the requisite, medical and surgical skill, that sincere piety and religious know- ledge, which would incline, and qualify them to impart to those who might become desirous of receiving it, an acquaintance with the evidences and truths of Christianity.

    The plan was adopted, and the Society established accordingly, at Canton, in February, 1838; and a valuable medical library, through the liberality of its friends, was attached to it. Considerable sub- scriptions were made for its support, to which some of the Chinese themselves contributed. Two large hospitals, one at Canton and the other at Macao, were opened, and so greatly were these institutions valued by the Chinese, that they were the last English establishments interrupted by the late political events. Short as the duration of these institutions was, it served to evince the beneficial tendency of the principle on which they were founded, and to encourage the ap plication of it on a more extended scale, as the means of so doing shall allow.

therefore, to invite the benevolent British public to encou- rmation of a Society in England, for the communication Sings of European medical skill, and of the Christian reli- Chinese and other eastern nations that the present ad- mitted to their notice.

24

Medical Philanthropic Society.

JAN.

It is proposed that this Society shall stand in an intimate, though in its proceedings an independent, relation to the Society already formed in China; and that it shall extend its friendly coöperation, so far as medical assistance can avail, to all Missionary societies, in their labors in that quarter of the world. The individuals under the patronage of this Society will, in the first instance be sent to the institutions in China, for the sake of additional information, and will diverge from thence to their future spheres of labor, as circumstances shall direct.

    The measures proposed to be adopted for the accomplishment of the objects of this Society (subject to the final decision of its direc- tors, when appointed by the members) are as follows :-

    I. To invite and send out pious and well qualified medical men to engage in this Christian labor, and furnish the means of their support.

    II. To afford, under the superintendence of a medical committee, to young men, intended for missionary labors in China and contiguous countries, in connection with any Protestant society, such profession- al instruction as will qualify them for combining medical and surgi- cal benefits with their religious teaching.

III. To communicate to the public, by its Reports, such infor- mation as may enlarge their knowledge of the state of medical sci- ence among the Chinese.

    The provisional committee trust that their object will approve itself to the best feelings of the friends of religion and philanthropy. It aims at communicating to the most numerous, and, in many respects, interesting portion of the human family, blessings which their Jiar social condition has hitherto kept them from attaining; and which, most probably, will still be long unenjoyed, unless the active benevolence of those whom they affect to despise, shall prove the means of introducing them. This office, the British nation seems especially called upon to undertake; and it appears to the friends of the proposed measure, that the present period invites it to make the needful preparations for the efforts without delay. It may reasonably be hoped, that the political differences between the two nations will shortly be terminated, and that a basis will be laid, in their adjust- ment, for a more amicable and dignified intercourse than has hitherto subsisted between them.

1841

Life of Dr. Morrison.

25

London, 1839.

ART. IV. Memoirs of the life and labors of Robert Morrison

D. D., F. R. S., &c. Compiled by his widow. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 362, 421

WITH thankfulness, commensurate to the eager expectation with which we have looked for its appearance, do we now receive this detailed account of the youth and education, the early efforts and matured labors, of a valued and venerated friend. In a series of faith- ful sketches, the chief incidents of his life, delineated for the most part by his own hand, and his personal characteristics portrayed by those who knew him well, the loved wife and tried friends,--we are vividly reminded of one who lived among us, and with whom was our daily walk and conversation. Of these sketches, Mrs. Morrison thus speaks: "In the compilation of the work, it has been the constant aim of the writer to elucidate social, moral, and intellectual traits - of character, by a simple narrative of facts, which supplies in itself such evidence of sound wisdom and true piety, as to render unne- cessary the aid of editorial embellishment, or indeed any originál composition, further than was requisite to unite the different portions. of the narrative, and explain their mutual connection and depen- dence. But while fidelity and simplicity chiefly characterize the narrative, it is hoped that its deficiencies will be satisfactorily sup- plied by the very comprehensive analysis of Dr. Morrison's literary labors, given in the appendix, by one whose extensive acquaintance with the language and literature of China qualified him to fill the office of principal in the Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, and now fits him for the professorship in the same department in the Universi- ty College, London."

This is, indeed, so far as it goes, what biography should be, espe eially the biography of one whose literary life and extensive corres- pondence have afforded such ample materials for the depicting of himself. It sets before our eyes the person to be portrayed, in the same form and stature in which he appeared when living, neither exalting him to gigantic shape, nor reducing him to dwarfish size, according to the dimensions of the writer's own mind. And we are speaking not our own sentiments alone, but those also of others who have read this life, when we satisfy ourselves of the accuracy of the plan, by remarking that in these sketches, the lineaments of ripe age are most readily recognized in the self-drawn portraits of youth. Yet, with all this, it may be doubted whether something more might

VOL. X. NO, I.

4

26

Life of Dr. Morrison.

JAN.

not be superadded with advantage. Single portraits and separate sketches afford but glimpses of the man at specific periods, in a few only of the more marked characteristics, or incidents of his life. These we would not have altered or remodeled at the fancy of an- other. But might not one who had carefully studied these portraits, and sketches, and to whom also the man whom they represent had been well known,-with advantages of such a nature, might not such à one have presented to us a more complete and more perfect paint. ing? A painting wherein might be intimately conjoined (as on canvass Chinnery has not unsuccessfully aimed at conjoining), historical delineation with personal portraiture, that we might see the man's life as a whole,-before tracing the features in each suc- cessive sketch. Such a painting would be, as it were, an index- picture to the separate and minute etchings. But if it were what we mean, it would be far more than this: for the painting that we seek should show, with accuracy of delineation and mellowness of color- ing, the man's own peculiar features, as displayed to view in all that he did or suffered, and should draw together around him, not the work of one day or one year, but the associated toils and endurances of youth as of age, of the plodding student and the earnest inquirer, as well as of the laborious scholar and the devoted missionary.

     From one to whom Dr. Morrison's life, as well as the features of his mind, were so well known, we did hope,-we do still hope,-for such a portraiture. But that we have it not yet, is doubtless attribu- table to Mrs. Morrison's ill health, and the cares of a young family, combined perhaps with diffidence of her ability to do justice to a subject to herself so especially interesting. To attempt even an out- line of what Mrs. Morrison has declined to undertake will not, in this brief notice, be expected of us. Rather will we look to receive, hereafter, as the fruits of renewed health and increased strength such a view as we now seek of our friend's life. A view, it will be not simply of incidents and labors, but of a human mind of no low order, developing, in the varied incidents of fifty years, and the ar- duous labors of a quarter of a century, many high powers and fine sensibilities,-raising with itself our minds to the thankful adoration of Him who has endowed man with such capabilities. As one of lofty mind-when contemplating the influence of a parent over him in early years, not in any single trait but in all the character and con- duct- →was so struck with admiration as to exclaim, 'O God, I thank thee for my father,'-so, in a kindred spirit, should we regard the me- mory of our departed friend, to whose walk and converse we are so

1841.

Life of Dr. Morrison

27

     much indebted, for whose instruction and example we are so bound in gratitude to the Giver of every good.

An outline of the principal incidents of Dr. Morrison's life has been given in a former volume of the Repository, from the hand of one who is now also with the dead. What we have here proposed to ourselves is, to lay before our readers a few of the more observable - of the sketches with which these volumes furnish us. The sketches they give are no doubt of varied merit, and some perhaps are mere outlines, so imperfect or so barren of much that can serve to illus- trate the mind to which they relate, that they might with advantage have been excluded from the work. With such we have indeed nothing at present to do. Yet we may express the hope, that, in a future edition of these memoirs, they may be left out, and if others. more worthy cannot be found to supply their place, that the work may, by their omission, be reduced to a size more convenient to the general reader, and this too may be done without injury to those, who, more personally interested by kindred ties of blood, of friendship, or of similar pursuits,-would study the minuter traits of character. A republication will also afford opportunity for remodeling the arrange-. ment in some parts, where the pressure of a printer's demand for manuscript would appear to have interfered with a careful attention to method, to a bringing together-we mean-of all that bears on any one point, less in the order of dates, than in the order that true art would prescribe. But we must proceed to our selections.

     Robert Morrison was born at Morpeth in Northumberland, in the year 1782. He was of poor but pious parentage. His early years, therefore, though without the advantages of learning, received a good moral and religious training. By this he was placed in a favorable position for finding,-without wasting time and energy in a long un- satisfying search, a distinct and clear view of the true aim of life,- a sojourn, whereof it is nowise the purpose to collect such things as may adorn our cabinets or fill our treasure-houses, (though these be lawful and well so long as they draw us not away from, nor render us regardless of, the true end,) but a sojourn the object of which is, that all malice, pride, and self-confidence may be destroyed in us, and that we may become loving, grateful, humble dependents and disciples of the meek and lowly Master of this world.

The advantages of such early religious training are well sketched by the youthful Morrison, shortly after he had been favored with a clear view of human life: Let us look at some fragments, selected chiefly for their brevity.

Life of Dr. Morrison.

JAN.

    The following account was written by himself on his application for admission into Hoxton Academy in the year 1802.

"In the early part of my life, having enjoyed the inestimable privilege of godly parents (a blessing for which I desire ever to be thankful), I was habituated to a constant and regular attendance on the preached gospel. My father was ever careful to keep up the worship of God in our family, and educated me in the principles of the Christian religion. When farther advanced in life, I attended the public catechising of the Rev. John Hutton, from whose instructions I received much advantage. By these means, (under the good hand of God,) my conscience was somewhat informed and enlight- ened; and I was kept from running to that excess of riot to which many persons in an unregenerate state do, though as yet I lived without Christ, without God, and without hope in the world. I was a stranger to the plague of my own heart; and, notwithstanding that I often felt remorse, and the upbraidings of conscience, yet I flattered myself, that somehow I should have peace, though I walked in the ways of my own heart.'

"It was, perhaps, about five years ago, that I was much awakened to a sense of sin, though I cannot recollect any particular circumstance which led to it, unless it were, that at that time I grew somewhat loose and pro- fane; and more than once being drawn aside by wicked company, (even at that early time of life,) I became intoxicated. Reflection upon my conduct became a source of much uneasiness to me, and I was brought to a serious concern about my soul. I felt the dread of eternal damnation. The fear of death compassed me about, and I was led to cry mightily to God, that he would pardon my sin; that he would grant me an interest in the Saviour i and that he would renew me in the spirit of my mind. Sin became a burden. It was then that I experienced a change of life, and, I trust, a change of heart too. I broke off from my former careless companions, and gave myself to reading, to meditation, and to prayer. It pleased God to reveal his Son in me, and at that time I experienced much of the kindness of youth, and the love of espousals;' and though the first flash of affection wore off, I trust my love to, and knowledge of, the Saviour have increased. Since that time (soon after which I joined in communion with the church under the Rey. John Hutton, my present pastor, and likewise became a member of a praying society), the Lord has been gradually pleased to humble and prove me; and, though I have often experienced much joy and peace in believing, I have likewise experienced much opposition from the working of indwelling sin- 'the flesh lusting against the spirit, and the spirit against the flesh; and these. being contrary the one to the other, I could not do the things that I would.' I have gradually discovered more of the holiness, spirituality, and extent of the divine law; and more of my own vileness and unworthiness in the sight of God; and the freeness and richness of sovereign grace. I have sinned as I could; it is by the grace of God, I am what I am.'" Vol. I., pp. 4, 5.

1841.

Life of Dr. Morrison.

About the same time the following private record was also made by his own hand :

      **✪ blessed Jesus, long have 1 sought for rest to my immortal soul, at one time in the gratification of the lusts of the flesh;' and at another of the mind.' When very young, I was a companion of the drunkard, the sabbath. breaker, the swearer, the profane person; but in these my heart smote me, 1 had no rest. Then I made learning and books my god; but all, all, are vain! I come to thee: Come unto me, all ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest,'-Fatigued with unsuccessful pursuits after happiness, and burdened with a sense of guilt, Jesus, thou Son of God, I come to thee, that I may be refreshed, and my burden removed.

Jesus! my Lord, thou art possess'd

Of all that fills, th' eternal God!

Oh! bring my weary soul to rest,

Remove my guilt, that pond'rous load!"-Vol. I, p. 29. From the time (probably the early part of 1798) that such princi- ples laid firm hold upon his mind, the course of his thought and feeling was changed, and an ardent desire was kindled in his mind "to serve the gospel of Christ," and promote those views which had conduced to his own enlightenment. "At an early age he was ap- prenticed to his father, and learned the trade of a last and boot-tree maker, in which his industry was very commendable."

But it was in a few years overruled by an invisible hand that that industry should be employed in a higher calling, and, after many exercises of mind he was induced to propose himself for admission into " Hoxton Aca- demy (now Highbury College);" one of the most valuable 'Institutions formed by Evangelical Dissenters,' for the purpose of affording an extended education to candidates for the holy ministry." This ap- plication was made in November of 1802, and in the following Janu- ary we find him commencing the regular curriculum of studies at that Institution. Meanwhile, as his mind developed, a field of labor seemed to offer itself to him among pagan nations. The record of his own views of this subject, and the whole correspondence with his friends respecting it, are peculiarly interesting; but we may not enter upon them. Having been recommended to the directors of the missionary society, generally known under the designation of "The London Missionary Society," his services were at once engaged by them, and he was shortly after appointed missionary to China, where it was designed he should lay the foundation of a Protestant mission. It was in the early part of the year 1807, that he embarked for Chi- na, when commenced a most interesting era of his life. That (ac- cording to the plan of the memoir which divides his life into five

1

80

Lafe of Dr. Morrison

JAN.

periods) is the third period, and embraces incidents "from his einbar- kation for China, to the foundation of the Anglo-Chinese College." It would, however, be impolitic to enter at any length on the narratives given of his checkered voyage to Canton, of his reception at Can- ton, of his incipient labors, of his appointment as translator to the English factory, of the mission to Malacca, of his successes in trans- lation, &c., &c. Suffice it to say, that in the larger part of the first volume, there is much matter to interest the historian, the politician, the merchant, and the missionary.

The second volume opens with the fourth period of our friend's "

's "life and labors," and announces the translation of the whole Bible into Chinese as completed. This work had been commenced soon after Mr. Morrison's arrival in China in 1807, and terminated in 1819. He had been partly relieved in this labor by the late Dr. Milne, who join- ed him in 1813; and had derived some assistance in the translation of the New Testament from a MS. found in the British Museum; but the onus was borne mainly by himself. In writing to the directors of 'The London Missionary Society,' he speaks candidly his own senti- inents on the value to be attached to that translation, by no means regarding it as the ultimum. The following is an extract from the same communication expressive of his own views of the duties of a translator of the Sacred Scriptures.

"The duty of a translator of any book is two-fold, first, to comprehend ac- curately the sense, and to feel the spirit of the original work; and secondly,' to express in his version faithfully, perspicuously, and idiomatically, (and, if he can attain it, elegantly,) the sense and spirit of the original.

    "For the first part of this duty, a Christian student will be much more. competent than a heathen, translator generally is; for the second part of the work, of course, a man who trauslates into his mother tongue (other things being equal) will much excel. Till those who are now heathen literati, cease to be heathens, these qualifications will not easily be found, in tolerable per- fection, in the same individual.

"That the first is of more importance than the second, is, I believe, true; for no elegance of composition can atone for a misunderstanding of the sense of the sacred page; whereas a degree of uncouthness in the style of any writ- ing destroys not the sense. Some think that the doggrel version of the Psalms used by the Church of Scotland is a better translation of the sense of that divine book than the most elegant that ever was attempted. And I know, by much experience in commercial and political translation, that a very inelegant written version of a foreigner, will enable a native student to comprehend very clearly the sense and spirit of the original, and that also much better than a verbal statement of the meaning can.

46

By these remarks, I mean to convey it as my opinion, that a less pure

1841.

Life of Dr. Morrison.

31

and idiomatic translation, made by a Christian missionary of a sound judg- ment and moderate acquirements, is likely to convey the sense of divine revelation better than a translation made by the most accomplished pagan scholar, who has not studied the sacred writings, and who, if he possessed the adequate knowledge, in consequence of his dislike of the subject, rarely brings mind enough to the work, to comprehend clearly the sacred text. Not to mention the influence of his preconceived pagan notions in his compost- tion, and the dishonesty which generally characterizes most heathens, I think any of the Chinese I have ever seen would slur the work over in any way, or, if they were more zealous, would affect to amend the sense of the original, when it did not comport with their previous opinions.

66

• In my translations, I have studied fidelity, perspicuity, and simplicity; I have preferred common words to rare and classical ones; I have avoided technical terms, which occur in the pagan philosophy and religion. I would rather be deemed inelegant, than hard to be understood. In difficult pas. sages I have taken the sense given by the general consent of the gravest, most pious, and least eccentric divines, to whom I had access.

"To the task, I have brought patient endurance of long labor and seclu- sion from society; a calm and unprejudiced judgment; not enamored of novelty and eccentricity, nor yet tenacious of an opinion merely because it was old; and, I hope, somewhat of an accurate mode of thinking, with a reverential sense of the awful responsibility of misinterpreting God's word. Such qualifications are, perhaps, as indispensable as grammatical learning, in translating such a book as the Bible."

    Of Dr. Morrison's Philological works, the second great object to which he devoted his time and strength, and of his Dictionary in par- ticular, we need not here say much. These works are well known by reputation to the literary world in general, and to those with whom Chinese study is an object, they are the daily and invaluable compa- nions. His Grammar was compiled, at an early period in his studies, chiefly for his own advantage; and others of more value have since been published: yet Sir George T. Staunton speaks of it, as "a work which will prove, both in regard to its plan and its execution, a most valuable acquisition to the student of the Chinese language." His Dictionary is such as no student of Chinese can, without great injury to himself, fail to make daily use of. A living sinologue of the highest merit speaks of it as being laid aside for other dictionaries, only by those whose means are so limited that they cannot afford to purchase anything so expensive as it is. The Vocabulary of the Canton dialect has till lately been the only publication for the advantage of those who, residing chiefly at Canton, choose the study of the local dialect in preference to that of the general language.

The next great work, in the promotion of which Dr. Morrison took

82

Life of Dr. Morrison.

JAN.

a leading part, was raising the Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca. The foundation-stone of this institution was laid on the 14th of November, 1818, by major William Farquhar, formerly English resi- dent and commandant of Malacca. To the history of the College down to this time we cannot at present refer,-its fortune has been various. But for the benefit of our readers, we transcribe the " Anglo- Chinese College Deed," given in Vol. II. pp. 47-51, as it discovers the intentions of the original founders.

*

I, Robert Morrison, D. D. of the University of Glasgow, having been sent to China in the year of our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seven, by a Society of Christians meeting in London, and composed of mem- bers of various British Churches for the purpose of learning the Chinese language, rendering the Sacred Scriptures into the said tongue, and compos- ing an English-Chinese Dictionary, with the ulterior view of the diffusion of the Christian Religion in China, and the Extra-Ganges nations; and having, in the year 1818, nearly brought these several works to a conclusion, my mind was led to pray to God for direction, and to meditate on what further means could be used to bring about the final object of my mission.

"The Divine Providence having increased my personal property in a small degree, I determined to appropriate One Thousand Pounds sterling to found a College, to be called the Anglo-Chinese College, the object of which should be the cultivation of English and Chinese literature, in order to the spread of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

    "As the above preamble shows, the cultivation of literature is not to be considered the final object of the Institution, but attended to as a means of effectuating, under the blessing of God's Holy Spirit, the conversion to the faith of Christ of the Extra-Ganges nations who read or speak the Chinese language; so, on the other hand, the College must never be considered as a mere dwelling-house for Christain missionaries, but as a place devoted to study, with apartments only for the Principal of the College, and such other persons engaged in tuition, or the appropriate studies of the College, as it can accommodate with rooms.

     ·Having intrusted the building of the College to the Rev. William Milne, my first associate in the Chinese Mission, and we, unitedly, having laid our views and wishes before the public, soliciting their pecuniary aid, and they having confided in the sincerity of our intentions and deemed our object laudable, and deserving the pecuniary aid of Christians,-ull monies received from the donors and subscribers (whose names are written in the College record) are to be considered as appropriated solely and inalienably to the objects stated in the preamble.

T

    "The College, then, and its funds, shall never be diverted from the original object, stated in this deed by any authority whatever; whether by the will of the Founder, or of the first Principal of the Anglo-Chinese College, the Rev, William Milne, or of any Trustees hereafter to be appointed.

1

10

N

TE

3

F

+

!

1841.

64

Life of Dr. Morrison.

33

      May He, on whose shoulders is the government of the world-who has all power in heaven and on earth-recognise this offering, humbly designed to operate as a means of bringing many sinners to obedience and happiness ; and may He secure the performance of thie Deed. To His Providence the Anglo-Chinese College is reverently committed ; and may the whole Eastern hemisphere be soon filled with the glorious light of His gospel, and be taught to ascribe to Him the glories of creation! Amen and amen.

       "Since neither Doctor Morrison nor Mr. Milne, although the Founders of the Institution, have any power to alienate either the building or the funds of the Anglo-Chinese College, so, as long as they adhere to the original object of it, as stated above) it is but equitable and seemly that the first named should be a perpetual Trustee, and the last-named perpetual Principal, during their lives.

      "The Honorable the East India Company's Pinang Government having granted, at the request of Mr. Milne, a piece of ground in Malacca, to the Missionary Society (usually called the London Missionary Society), and that Society having, at the request of Dr. Morrison and Mr. Milne, allotted part of that ground to be the site of the College; the ground, as well as the build- ing and funds (already, or hereafter to be, received), cannot be alienated from the aforesaid object of the College. All books given by Dr. Morrison and various other donors (whose names are recorded) to the Anglo-Chinese College Library, shall be,Inalienable.

"I will not anticipate the failure of the object for which these grants have all been made, and therefore I shall not insert any reservation of my personal property, in case

of the object failing; nor stipulate that, in case of such an event occurring, it shall revert to my heirs and successors. 1 have a firm reliance on the Divine Providence.

"But should it happen that circumstances render it impracticable to con- duct the studies of the College at Malacca, the premises shall, in that case, be sold, and the College be removed to some other place in Extra-Ganges India. No merely local difficulties shall put an end to the Institution. . If it be stopped in one place from any unforeseen cause, let it be recommenced in another, 1

"The records of the College shall always be open to the inspection of the local Christian authorities in the place where it may be situated; and annu- ally, at least, a statement of its affairs, whether showing its progress or its decline, shall be laid before the Christian public in a printed document.

"To the spiritual Church of Christ on earth,-to the learned, the scien tific, and the opulent, and also to poor and unlearned Christians-to those who, next to their own salvation, desire the happiness of their fellow-crea- tures, of every nation and of every tongue, the Anglo-Chinese College is, by this Deed, respectfully commended.

"In case of a failure of Trustees, appointed according to the constitution of the College, or the demise of Mr. Milne, its temporary management: shall devolve on the senior, in mber of the Chinese department, and the acting

VOL. X. NO, 1.

5

34

Life of Dr. Morrison.

JAN.

committee of the Ultra-Ganges Missious; and in case of the failure of re- gularly appointed Trustees, and of such senior meniber and committee, the management of the College shall devolve on the above named Missionary Society in London.

"Sealed, signed, and delivered, at Canton, in China, where no stamps are

   used, this twentieth day of March, A. D. One Thousand Eight Hundred and Twenty.

(Signed):

#Robert MORRISON.

"In the presence of us, who have hereunto set our names,

"J. B. UrmsTON,

"Chief for all affairs of the Honorable East India Company in China.

"J. REEVES."

On thinking of our revered friend and on perusing his memoirs, we are again and again constrained to use the common saying, He was far before his generation.' The object at which he aimed was great, and the means which he set on foot, or which he sought to iustitute, were, as far as a mortal could make them, proportionately. great. And though the result of such agency might not immediately or speedily appear, he was still encouraged by a confidence that "the anticipated harvest should be fully reaped." With such expectations it was that, in conjunction with the late sir T. Stamford Raffles, Dr. Morrison aided in commencing the "Singapore Institution," the object of which was to exert that influence on "the islands of the Archipelago, and the continental nations of Eastern Asia," which it was intended the Malacca college should use in enlightening and evangelizing China.

            We would request the reader to peruse pages 186-190 of the second volume, which will throw some light on the formation of this institution.

    In the close of the same year, 1823, we find the subject of this inemoir returning to England with a view to recruit his strength; which had been for seventeen years spent in China, and to promote the great objects of his mission. It was by no means his original intention to detain himself long in his native country; but he saw fit to prolong his stay with a view to the formation of a Universal Lan; guage Institution. (See p. 298.) In this he met with some success.

    " A universal language institution was formed, and brought into operationį and so far as there was opportunity of judging, the result was likely to prove successful; while from the catholic principles on which it was based, and the patronage it had obtained, there was every reason to hope for its continu

ance.

    But, alas! the mover was not so supported as he should have been. The language institution waned with the departure of Dr. Morrison

1841.

Life of Dr. Morrison.

35

from his native shores; so vain and heartless is the applause and assent of man! Probably, if he had remained on the spot and con- tinued to set that example which we know he did during his visit, of promptness "to teach," and to forward those who attended at the institution, his coadjutors might have been stimulated. But it was not so, and we have at this day to lament the passing away of another promising institution, as a proof of the fickleness of humanity. However, we have to congratulate ourselves, that at length something has been done to afford the willing student an opportunity of study- ing the Chinese language in his own country. Dr. Morrison carried with him to England a Chinese library, numbering 10,000 volumes, "many of them scarce and expensive, so that the cost of the whole amounted to upwards of £2,000." With his characteristic liberality of mind, he proposed offering this library as a gift to either of the then existing universities, on condition of their instituting a professor- ship of the Chinese language, for the instruction of individuals desirous of studying it, for religious, or other, purposes.

     To this effect he wrote to the Rev. J. Dealtry, during his stay in London:

     "On Tuesday morning last, I had to regret that indisposition prevented your meeting us at Mr. Ware's, for the purpose of conversing on the in- troduction of the Chinese language into one or both of the Universities. The desirableness of such a measure may be made apparent to three different! departments of the community. First, the knowledge of Chinese language and literature by the Christian philanthropist, for the communication, of re-: vealed religion to China, Japan, Corea, Loochoo Islands, and Cochinchina,, which countries contain a population equal at least to one fourth of mankind., As all these nations read the Chinese language, there is an immense reading, population, with, I believe, scarcely any other than pagan books to read. I believe that it is practicable to acquire the Chinese language in this country' sufficiently well, to write in it Christian Chinese books, for the instruction

of all those nations.

"In the next place, as the British possessions in the East gradually ap- proach the Chinese empire and the territories of Cochinchina, and there is a very valuable commercial intercourse with Chip, which will probably. require the attention of government at no distant period; a knowledge of the Chinese language seems desirable to his majesty's government. The French Government, although it has no immediate connexion with China, has estab- lished, in Paris, a Royal Professorship of Chinese. Again, to the literary part, of the British public, the knowledge of one of the most ancient languages of the world, in which is found a great variety of ancient and modern publica- tions, is surely a desirable acquisition. The philosophy of language is in- complete if it exclude the Chinese,

}

36

Life of Dr. Morrison....

JAN.

"These, my dear Sir, are the thoughts which I have to suggest, on the reasons for attending to Chinese in this country. It is my opinion, that more attention, on the part of Christians generally, to the literature of pagan na- tions which possess any, would facilitate greatly the diffusion of Christian knowledge amongst them. I shall be happy to furnish any further explana- tions, either by personal interview or otherwise, that may be in my power.

"Your's sincerely,

"To Rev. J. Doaltry.

"Robert Morrison."-

    But, "owing to some cause which cannot now be satisfactorily ascertained, he was obliged to relinquish the hope of seeing a Chi- nese professorship instituted in either of the universities;" and the Chinese library was, on the doctor's embarkation for China, com- mitted to the shelves of an upper chamber, whence, it has often call- ed forth our surprise and sorrow, that in England, which boasts of her Cambridge and her Oxford, there was not zeal enough to encou- rage the study of that language, the repositories of which were spread before us, exposed to the corrosion of damp, and the ravages of insects.

At length, through the efforts of Dr. Morrison's personal and tried friends, sir G. T. Staunton, and Mr. W. A. Hankey, some 12 years after their introduction into England, a surer and more honorable place was found for these "10,000 volumes," in the building of the University College, London; in connection with which institution the first Chinese professorship in England has been founded.

    To return, however, to the "Memoirs." Dr. Morrison left England a second time on the 5th of May 1826, and with his family reached his former station. During the remaining eight years of his life, he was as laborious as before, adding to the number of his writings for the instruction of the Chinese, continuing his philological labors, aiding his younger fellow-laborers in the study of the language, and, amid many lesser duties and much official work on behalf of the East India Company's factory, commencing a commentary on the Scriptures, and a collection of marginal.references. He was ever "diligent in business, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord;" and at last we have seen him sink into the grave. He has gone to his rest, to receive the crown of joy prepared for him; and, while his tomb reminds us of our friend, there are many works which remain to speak his merits, of each of which it may be written, (as was written by a friend, for a private tablet, of the version of the Sacred Scrip tures :)

"Moriensque reliquit,

Patronis honorem, Patriæ decus,

Genti humanæ lucrum."

1841

Battle at Chuenpe

37

Yes, our friend has gone to his rest; but we have often indulged a sacred pleasure in visiting "the spot consecrated by his honored remains," and, while we have mused on him, we have silently-used- the panegyric which he passed on his lamented coadjutor Dr. Milne, "in the usual course of things there is reason to fear; that it will be long ere we shall see his like again.'"

(

M.

;

+

ART. V. Battle at Chenpe: the position and number of the respre- tive forces engaged in the action, with details of its progress ant effects. PROCEEDING up the river towards Canton, about twenty miles from Lintin and about twice that distance from Macao, you reach the first two forts at the Bogue, one on Tycocktow (or Taikok) on the west side of the channel, and the other on Chuenpe (or Shakok) on the east side. Both Tycocktow and Chuenpé are islands: the battery on the first is built upon the south eastern point; that on Chuenpe stands near the northwestern point; and above it, on the top of the hill, a small battery, called the hill fort, has recently been built round the old watch-tower;' further eastward are other fortifi- cations. Three miles above Chuenpe, and on the same side of the river, are the batteries of Anunghøy, separated from Chuehpe by Anson's Bay. In the middle of the river, opposite to Anunghoy, is Wangtong; and three miles farther up is Tiger Island. · There is also a small fortification on the west side of the river opposite to Wangtong. On all these sites the batteries are strongly built, well furnished with men and guns, and are looked upon by many of the Chinese as impregnable-and so they would be,' were they in the hands of those who are trained in modern warfare.

   These notices of the positions occupied by the Chinese being kept in mind, the reader, though never having been at the Bogue; wil be able to understand the mqvérpents of the British forces' on the forenoon of the 7th instant.

་་

   At 8 o'clock, or sodn after, the squadron, under sommand of Sin J. J. Gordon Bremer, having waited out the time that had been allowed for the concession of certain demands made on the Chinese government-was in readiness to move up the river, from its anchor. age off Sampanchow, three miles below the first forts.

x

Battle at Chuenpe.

JAN.

Boats with the marines of the squadrow and royal artillery first shoved off; and these were shortly joined by the rest of the land force, conveyed from the transports into shallow water by the stea- mers, Enterprise, Madagascar, and Nemesis: the land force was to disembark near the watering-place on the south side of Chuenpe, and was then to march up a valley, extending from thence, with some windings, to the forts.

The Calliope, Hyacinth, and Larne, all weighed at nearly the same time, the Queen taking the Calliope in tow.

These ships, under the command of captain Herbert, were to proceed directly up the river and bombard the lower fort on Chueupe. The Queen and Nemesis, as soon as disengaged and able to get into position,' werė to throw shalls into the hill forts, and into, the entrenchments on the inner side of it.

    The Samarang, Druid, Modeste, and. Columbine, getting under weigh soon afterwards, steered for Tycocktow, under the direction of captain Scott, to whose management the taking of the fort there had been committed.

    These arrangements having been made, the Wellesley and the other large ships, weighed and moved on in midahannel, to take posi- tion above these two forts preparatory to an attack on the batteries further up the river. At half past eleven o'clock they came to anchor above: Chuenpe, the action on both sides of the river having then closed, but not without great slaughter on the part of the Chinese. Never before had they met such a foe, nor witnessed such dreadful havoc. From those who were present, and from others who have visited the battle-ground, we will now detail the particulars, so far as we have been able to ascertain them.za: 40

}

2

#1

The action commenced on Chuenpe, and at nearly the same hoitr by both the land and naval forces. The troops for the field service, consisting of a battalion, of royal marines, a detachment of royal artil lery, having one 24 pr., howitzer and two 6 pr. fieldpieces, drawn by a party of seamen from the Wellesley, Blenheim, and Melville,- detachments of the 26th and 49th regiments, the 37th Madras natives infantry and a detachment of Bengal volunteers, in all about 1400 men, under the command of major Pratt of the 26th of Cameronian regiment, began to land about half past 8 o'clock; two miles south of the lower fort on Chuenpe-near the watering-place, as before stated: They landed without opposition; and major Pratt having for med them, sent forward an advanced party of two companies of ma- rines; the guns came next, dragged by the seainen, and supported by

1841.

Battle at Churnpė.

39

detachments of the 26th and 49th; the remaining troops following int column-the ships meanwhile moving up to attack the lower fort, and the steamers getting ready to throw shells into the hill fort. After advancing about a mile and a half and reaching the top of a ridge, the troops came in sight of the hill fort and of a very strong entrenched camp, having a high breast work all round and a deep ditch outside, well palisaded, with two field batteries on its flanks, facing the way the enemy was expected to approach, and having one of its sides prolonged up the hill so as to connect it with and protect the hill fort. In the valley, to the right and eastward of this first entrenchment, there was a second, having also a large mound, on which were placed three guns in its front, and three more in ano- ther battery on its flank. Still farther to the right and eastward there was a third entrenchment of a circular form, with small bat- teries commanding the approach in every direction. There were deep ditches in the rear of the guns, for the purpose of sheltering the men from the enemy's fire. From the freshness of the materials, it would appear that all these field-works (except the round fort) were of recent construction, and they formed altogether a very formi dable position, and one from which, if held by a determined enemy, it would have been very difficult to hive dislodged him. They were thickly lined with Chinese, as was also the crest of the hills in front of and near them.

     The confused noise of the warrior was now heard. The Chinese in the entrenchments, seeing an advanced party approaching, cheered and waved their flags, as if in defiance, and opened their fire froin the field batteries, which was quickly returned by the field pieces of the artillery which had been drawn up and placed on the ridge of the hill. The Queen and Nemesis at nearly the same time began to throw shells into the hill fort. Though the Chinese were the first in this direction to fire on the troops; yet it was not till after several shells had been thrown that they began to return from the forts the fire of the vessels. It is said, that, in consequence of the firing on the Queen' from Chuenpe in November, the high commissioner had given an order, that not even the firing of shotted guns from the vessels should be returned, except after frequent repetitions. It is further 'said also, that, in consequence of this order, the friends of the late heëtae are about to appeal to the emperor for redress,-they alledging that he fell in consequence of not being permitted at once to beat back the assailants.

The first hill: (to the right of the guns on the ridge) was soon

*

40

Battle at Chuen pe

JAN.

cleared by the advanced party of royal marines-who, descending juto the valley, drove the enemy from their entrenchments and from the field batteries behind them. Major Pratt then ordered two' cóm- panies of the 37th native infantry (supported afterwards by another company), to circle round the other hill-still more to the right of the guns which was also held by the Chinese.. These parties met with considerable opposition, but they drove all before them, killing and wounding not a few. Seeing that the guns on the ridge-the howitzer and two fieldpices, which had now been firing for twenty minutes were causing the Chinese to fly from their first and prin cipal entrenched camp, the main column moved down the valley right upon it, the soldiers clearing the field batteries as they proceeded.

  Two of the leading companies, the royal marines, were now ordered to drive the Chinese from a wooded hill which they still occupied, a little farther to the north, not far from Auson's Bay.

  A small party, at the same time, passing through the first entrench- ment, already déserted, hastened up to the hill fort. Major Pratt, with only two men, was the first to reach it. Finding the Chinese there at their posts, as he looked in over the walls, he ordered one of the men to fire, whereupon, they all fled in consternation. The British flag was then hoisted on the fort.

  Ere this was done, the guns in the lower fort had been silenced, by the ships which had taken up their position before that battery ; and now the guns of the ships also ceased firing, lest the shot might strike those who were advancing to attack the fort on the land side. Find ing themselves assailed from above by those in the hill fort, as well as from the ships, the main body of the Chinese had left the battery, and were retreating eastward, when they were met by the parties of royal marines and 37th native infantry that had circled round and taken possession of the wooded hill. At this unexpected encounter, they were mowed down with sad havoc those who escaped unhurt either hetaking themselves to the water, or retiring to the fort and there looking themselves in. Their pursuers, reaching the gate, applied their muskets to the lock, and so forced it open, dealing death in every direction as they entered. Resistance was unavailing; the Chinese were quickly overcome; their flag hauled down, and the Union Jack displayed from the ramparts. About a hundred, ac- cepting quarter, were taken prisoners; but were released by the com- modore as soon as he landed. The rest, shutting themselves up small out houses, or hiding themselves behind walls, and thence (when not perceived) attacking their captors, soon drew down upon them- selves indiscriminate slaughter.

+

:

in

1841.

Battle at Chienpe.

#

      In the meantime, the fort on Tycocktow was attacked and carried by the division under the command of captain Scott. The Samarang led the division, and pushed straight on for the centre of the battery, heedless of the fire which, on this side, the Chinese commenced and continued, until her anchor was let go within less than a cable's length of its guns. At that moment three hearty cheers were given, and then came her broadside. The Modeste soon anchored close by her, and the Druid and Columbine were not far astern. The broud sides from the long guns of the Druid were terrific, and mass after mass of the solid masonry crumbled away beneath their concentrated shot......... Though silenced, the Chinese did not quit their posts until the crews landed from the boats, and, entering through the breach that had been made, carried the fort by storm. In doing this there was some hard fighting hand to hand, and opportunity afforded for the Chinese to display their best strength. But they could not long withstand the deadly fire of the musketry, and numbers of them were shot down while climbing up the sides of the hill, vainly endeavoring to escape. The guns of the fort were spiked and thrown into the giver.

Thus, after an action of an hour and a half, fell the boasted strength of Tycocktow and Chuenpe--and the latter (fortunately for its moral effect) was carried chiefly by the land forces. The superiority of foreign ships and great guns had long been acknowledged; but on shore, hand to hand, the sons of Han believed themselves inferior to #1016. Their defenses on Churenpe were not small; the lower and the hill fort, and the entrenchments beyond, were well constructed, containing in all probably not less than 2000 men, of whom full 500 were killed, and many more wounded.

     Among the killed was the heětae, or brigadier, commanding in the fort, by 'namre Chin Leënshing, a native of Hookwang, and a veteran of about 50 years. He had risen from the ranks, and ob- tained the honorary distinction first of a blue and then of a peacock's feather, for his services in the field against various insurgents and mountain-tribes, in Hookwang, Szechuen, Shense, and Kwangtung. He remained at Leënchow, in the northwest of this province, for several years after the suppression of the troubles there in 1883: and last year he was called from thence to expell the English from Hong- kong. He received a bullet in his breast, standing at the head of his men; his son, who, though repeatedly urged to save himself, refused to leave him, when he found his father was dead, and himself unhurt, leaped into the water, and so perished. This and other

·

VOL. X. NU. 1.

6

Battle at Chaenpe.

·JAN.

Chinese officers, if we may believe many concurrent reports, well sustained the part of brave men and faithful soldiers, dying at their respective posts. Some, nay many, of the roen in the ranks too, fought bravely-desperately. Such warfare the Chinese seem never before to have witnessed. The storm burst on them like a thunder- bolt, and in the space of a few minutes, their forts, their entrench- ments, their batteries, their barracks, their magazines, were all in ruins-beaten-down, set-on-fire, blown-up. In some places, the dead lay, literally, heaps upon heaps.'

The superior advantages of armed steamers were very clearly seen during the engagements of the morning. The iron steamer in par- ticular did masterly. First, she disembarked the 37th regiment; next, as already remarked, taking a good position, she threw shells with great effect into the hill fort; then she rounded the point, pouring her grape and canister, and other missiles, into the lower battery as she passed; and after this, she pushed on into the shallow water in Anson's Bay, and her first Congreve rocket "took terrific and in- stantaneous effect, blowing up one of the largest of the war junks, with all her crew," the rocket having passed through its deck into the magazine. Aided by a number of boats, she kept on in the work of destruction, and junk after junk was set on fire and blown up, until eleven were destroyed. Then, to the great astonishment of the Chinese, she pushed quite across Anson's Bay and proceeded up a creek, where two more war junks were moored to the shore, which she grappled and dragged away, without giving or receiving a single shot. This was the Nemesis.

3

There were 97 guns in the forts and entrenchments when they were carried-25 in Tycocktow, the others on Chuenpe, 44 mounted and 38 dismounted. There were 80 or more in the junks. These, with a variety of stores and magazines, were destroyed. It is said also, that a sum of money, about $5000, which had been brought down to the Bogue for the half-monthly pay of the troops, was blown up in one of the junks, instead of being disbursed to the officers and soldiers on that day, it being the 15th of the

                      › ́moon, and their pay-day.

   The Chinese suffered severely from the burning of their powder flasks, and garments padded with cotton, which were set on fire by their matches, as they fell. Wearing their cartridge-boxes around their waists, some of the men were literally blown up, by the ex- plosion of the powder contained in them.

The damage and loss sustained by the attacking forces were small,

1841.

Battle at Chuenpe.

43

exceedingly small in comparison with those of the Chinese. Not one was killed; and only 38 were wounded, and most of these slightly. Of the wounded, 3 officers aud 27 men were on shore; and most of these were burnt by the accidental explosion of an expense ma- gazine in the lower fort.

     Such are the details of the action of the 7th. A few remarks res- pecting the impression it has produced on the Chinese, with par- ticulars of what succeeded, the renewal of negotiations, &c., will find a place in the Journal of Occurrences: we close this article with the following

"GENERAL MEMORANDUM.

             "Wellesley, off Anunghoy, January 8th, 1841. "The commander-in-chief has to express his admiration of the gallant conduct of the whole force during the affair of yesterday, and requests that the captains and commanders of the squadron, and the commanders of the steam vessels, will accept his best thanks.

    "To major Pratt, commanding the force on shore,-major Johnstone, commanding detachments of the 26th and 49th regiments,-captain Ellis, royal marines,-captain Knowles, royal artillery,-lieuta. Symons of the Wellesley, and Wilson of the Blenheim (employed on shore), captain Duff, 37th M. N. 1.-captain Bolton, Bengal volunteers, and lieut. Foulis, com- manding a detachment of the Madras artillery, together with the officers, non-comissioned officers, and privates,-his best thanks are also due.

"The commander-in-chief wishes to mark in an especial manner the conduct of the whole of the non-commissioned officers and privates of the European and native force, in abstaining from the least excess or irregulari- ty, a

    ‚-a circumstance alike honorable to themselves, and beneficial to the cha- racter and interests of their country.

(Signed) "J. J. Gordon Bremer. "Commodore of the 1st class, and commander-in-chief.

• To the respective captains, commanders, and commanding officers of H. M. ships and vessels, and the Hon'ble Company's steamers; and to the military officers employed at the capture of Chuenpe and Tycocktow; the respective ships' companies, and the non-commissioned officers and privates of the marine and land forces.'

Troops engaged at the assault and capture of Chuenper

Royal Artillery, under command of capt. Knowles,

Royal Artillery

Seamen, under Lt. Wilson of H. M. S. Blenheim Detachments of 26th and 49th regiments under

Major Johnstone of the 26th regiment,

non-com.officers and privates.

33

137

104

504

607

76

Total force

1461

Royal Marine battalion, under capt. Ellis of the Wellesley, 37th Madras Native Infantry, under capt. Duff, 37th N. I. Detachment of Bengal Volunteers, under capt. Bolton

44

Address to Foreign Residents in China.

J'AN

    Major Pratt 26th regiment in command. Lt. Stransham of Royal Marines, from H. M. S. Calliope, acting Brigade Major. Lt, Stewart Mackenzie, of the 90th Light Infantry, and military secretary, acting ajd-de-camp. Capt. Ellis of the Royal Marines commanded the advance. Lt. Symons of the Wellesley superintended the landing and reembarkation of the troops.

ART. VI. Address to foreign residents in China; the new year; re- trospect; present position of affairs; opening prospects; and increased responsibilities.

ABOUT Commencing a new era, in the relations of foreigners with this country, a glance at the past may aid in the guidance of future conduct. With the opening year, too, it is customary and befitting, that there be made some recognition of that bounteous Hand, which guides the seasons, and assigns to every man his lot with the number of his years. Our limits, however, will not allow, nor is it neces- sary, that we dwell long either on the past or the present-suffice. it, that coming days find each one of us readily "doing the things that are right."

    A retrospect, touching only on a few prominent points in the fo- reign relations with China, will furnish data sufficient for drawing a comparison between the past and the present.

    'Raphael Perestrello arrived here in 1516.' Adventurers from Spain, France, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, and England, soon fol- lowed those from Portugal. The impressions made here by these early visitors, like those made by adventurers from the same countries to the New World at the same time, were far from being salutary. Their's was an age of chivalry. In both the Indies, bold enterprises were prosecuted with no regard to the native inhabitants, whenever their rights could be disregarded with impunity. The famed riches of Cathay had no inconsiderable attraction; but the Chinese, was not so easily beguiled as the Indian. Queen Elizabeth saw this; and accordingly she wisely framed her policy, and addressed to the empe ror letters commendatory, which she intrusted to the chiefs of an ex- pedition destined to this country. That, and various other efforts, inade at sundry times, even down to the present day, failed. Between

1841.

Address to Foreign Residents in China.

45

the Chinese and the other nations of the earth there never have exist-: ed any relations, commercial or political, established on equitable principles. The intercourse with the sovereigns of Europe, barely enough to allow them to be claimed as tributary, has been wholly in- sufficient to secure for them an acknowledgement of independence. Ministers plenipotentiary from the states of Christendom never found a residence in these eastern capitals. Canton, Amoy, Ningpo, and Chusau, are the only commercial marts, of any note, ever opened in. this empire to western enterprise.

      The few foreigners who have gone into the interior, have for the most part done so in disguise-if we can except only some of the Catholic fathers, who for a time were allowed to reside in the empire, and remain close to the seat of majesty. But the privileges which Ricci and his companions enjoyed were of short duration; while from Chusan and Ningpo and Amoy the commercial establishments were by degrees withdrawn. In fact, all the privileges, of whatever kind, enjoyed by foreigners in this country, have been begged or bought ;, and hence they have been looked on by the Chinese as "special favors." With such a condition of circumstances, honorable relations, were incompatible. Thus, during three centuries, the empire has remained closed against the free ingress of men from afar. European, embassies, not excepting Macartney's, served only, or at least mainly,, to foster that spirit of exclusiveness which by their projectors it was, intended they should overcome,

Iu Canton, the residence of European families has never been al- lowed; and in Macao, even the temporary residence of ladies (not Portuguese) used, to be obtained with much difficulty. In 1798, an American ship, the. Betsey, arrived off Macao, having on board, Mrs. M'Clannon, her infaut daughter and a servant maid, with part of the crew of a vessel, wrecked on her way to Sidney. The morning, after, his arrival, the captain "waited upon the governor, a mandarin of high grade, who declared...he would not only not allow the female passengers to land, but must also refuse a permit and pilot to enable the ship to proceed to Whampoa." The next day, finding him "as stubborn as ever," he presented the case to the honorable Mr. Hall the president, of the select committee of the F. I. Co.'s factory; yet nothing was sufficient to induce the Chinese to allow the female pas- sengers to land. Thus, the second, the third, and the fourth days were passed, with no more encouragement on the last than on the first. On the fifth day the case was finally arranged by Mr. Hall, who made the mandarin a handsome cumshaw, giving bonds that the

看看

...

46

Address to Foreign Residents in China.

JAN.

first English vessel or Company's ship that sailed should take the females away."

    The Chinese were long, and until very recently, supported by foreigners themselves in this exclusive policy. British subjects, resort- ing to China for commercial purposes, in more than one instance, deemed it necessary to provide themselves with consulate certificates from foreign courts, in order to prevent their deportation in ships of their own country. And the man who has done more than any other, to improve the relatious of his country with China, deemed it inex- pedient to be publicly known as an Englishman for months after his arrival here in 1807.

    The foregoing instances, few as they are, present a faithful view of the policy hitherto maintained towards foreigners--a policy restric- tive and unfriendly in a degree exceedingly unjust and reprehensible. To the men from afar it allowed no rights; whatever was received by them was of grace, granted out of tender compassion. The sovereigns of Europe were enrolled as the 'liege subjects of the son of heaven, and both from them and their people implicit and unconditional obedience was claimed as rightfully due.

    Thus affairs remained till the summer of 1840, when first an al- tered tone was assumed, and efforts for amelioration were commen- ced. As part of the means for gaining the proposed end, the submis- sion of Chusan was peremptorily demanded. This demand not being complied with, the island fell to the arms of H. B. M. Of the acts which have since occurred there, at the Pei ho, and in this vi- cinity, our readers need not be reminded.

i

    'The interruption of negotiations on the 7th instant, was followed by such a stroke as the Chinese had never before felt. The horrors of war, however, lasted but for an hour; then peace became the order of the day. But will it be lasting and salutary? Will the terms of the treaty, now under consideration, be such as will lead to the pre- servation and extension of friendly relations?

These questions are not easily answered, in direct terms; nor is it possible in few words faithfully, nor even in many fully, to describe the opening prospects. It is safe to say, that things are not as they used to be. In some essential points they are improved. The false notion of foreigners being tributary has been exploded; and along with it have gone those assumptions of high preeminence which for so long a time prevented any acknowledgment of equality. The Chinese having once felt the power of the "rebellious foreigners," will in future be slow to repeat overt acts, affecting the lives and pro-

1841.

Address to Foreign Residents in China.

47

perties of those who (as they now know) have it in their power to ask, and, if need be, to take, redress. A safe channel for communi- cation has been opened, on fair and honorable grounds, so that, whenever necessary, complaints and demands may be made with equal facility. The rule of right must, we would fain hope, be here henceforth respected, and all enmities and violence laid aside.

War-an evil, and a great evil is ever to be deprecated, whether offensive or defensive. The expedition of 1840 will be viewed very much according to the interest af those who look at it. If it termi- mates, as it seems likely soon to do, with a treaty of commerce and amity, and without more bloodshed, its projectors will no doubt be well satisfied. The belligerent parties have both suffered much, and will both rejoice at the restoration of peace, the advantages of which they can now more than ever before appreciate. Chastisement is sometimes necessary. It is an evident part of the divine administra- tion even in this world. And it was not an unnatural remark for a Chinese, "that the gods were angry with both his own countrymen and with foreigners because of their wickedness, and that when a few hundreds or a few thousands of each had fallen as sacrifices they would then be satisfied." But with such sacrifices, we know the God of heaver is not well pleased. It is happy there has been here comparatively so little suffering. It is matter for rejoicing that the scourge of war is stayed, and that there is a prospect of peace being henceforth maintained, and that, at the same time, foreigners will be more respected and enjoy such immunities as are usually possess- ed in other countries. In these prospects, obscure as they yet are, we rejoice, and the more because the proposed objects of ameliora- tion are likely to be gained without protracted war.

Comparing now the present with the past, we see considerable advances have been made. However reluctantly, the Chinese are coming into-nay they are already within-the great circle of na- tions, from which they cannot recede. In the course of improvement there will be checks; these, however, by degrees will be all over- come or removed.

These new and altered relations are happily of a nature suscepti- ble of easy and rapid improvement; and to the means of effecting this, we wish to draw the attention of our readers, and of those par- ticularly who reside in China; for upon such, the events of the past year have devolved new obligations with increased responsibilities.

Firinness and decision-always accompanied with a mild, accom- modating, and straight-forward policy-are now more than ever

1

Address to Foreign Residents in China.

WAN.

before required of those who may be in any way drawn into contact with the Chinese authorities. But these points are of such promi nent importance that they cannot be overlooked, and we pass: them by without further comment, assured they will receive all due atten- tion from those whom they concern. If the Chinese, as they profess, really wish for peace, then let them cast away their childish restric- tions; let them, like all enlightened and independent states, freely allow foreigners to come or to go, or to remain, as they' please, only holding them responsible for good behavior;-let them, talking no inore of tribute, send and receive plenipotentiaries and consuls, open their ports and their highways, and on just and friendly terms reci- procate the honors and the favors duc alike to and froin equals.

any man.

The acquisition of honorable gain, though it may be the main, yet may never be the only, nor the most important, object of pursuit with His strength, his power, his riches, his honors, are all fading, transient, uncertain. How much, during the last few months, have we seen fade and disappear! But though all that is earthly in man vanisheth away, yet it is not so with his being. That ceaseth not for ever; and so blended with the present is its eternal state, that it is only the part of wisdom carefully to guard and measure all the acts of our mortal life-never forgetting that for all these things, whether they be good or whether they be evil, God will bring us into judgment."

L

46

    Leaving it with the common sense and enlightened consciences of our readers-aided always by the light of Holy Writ→to determine the things that are right, and to choose the ways and means of pur- suing them-we hope to be excused in calling their attention to a few particulars of paramount interest.

The study of the Chinese language, to those who purpose long to remain in this country, cannot be too strongly recommended. Its acquisition will be not only of great personal advantage, but it will give us influence with others, will secure respect, and promote good- will and friendly feelings. It is, and well it may be, against us, in the eyes of the Chinese, that we know so little of their language, their literature, and their history.

S

}

    The maintenance of kigh moral character, with special reference to the power of good example, claims from us in China very much more attention than it has been wont to receive. Such character is of great value; it can neither be counterfeited, nor dishonored. In its best estate, it causes wrath to be conquered by kindness, lové to be exercised towards enemies, and friendly offices to be done even

1841

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

49

to those who hate us Its acts are all unequivocal, and as salutary as they are powerful. And if moulded and adorned according to the precepts and rules of the Christian code, it is man's best safeguard and his richest ornament.

..

The observance of the Sabbath-last, not least-would we récom- mend with the utmost earnestness and becoming deference. The ' great Author of our being, knowing the infirmities of our nature, doubtless saw that man needed the rest which this day affords from the excitements of ordinary business and pleasure, with the opportu nity also which it gives for more undivided attention to spiritual and étérnal interests, and therefore ordained the Sabbath for man's bene- fit. On this high ground, we recommend its observance. Careful recognition of Jehovah's government, cheerful obedience to his laws, are most suitable for such worms as we are. The nations are all his; and he exalteth and abaseth when and whom he pleaseth. Plague, pestilence, stormy winds, and volcanic fires, are all his ministers and fulfill his pleasure. And shall not we fear him, bow submissive to his will, and hallow his Sabbath? Judge, ye who have understand, ing. Judge ye.

B.

#

.1.

Q

ART. VII. Illustrations of men and things in China: popular, no-

tions and allusions to the powers of nature.

}

Tux few sentences here given will exhibit some of the most current notions of the Chinese upon the heavens, and metaphors drawn from them. The explanations are also those of the Chinese. Few people relish racy sayings and neatly turned allusions better than this people, and few use them more frequently.

1. When the primeval chaos was first separated, then the dual powers began to be fixed,

71

deven Hail adr tes

T: 0.

The idea of chaos is expressed by bubbling, turbid water; heaven and earth are the dual powers; before the chaos was separated, these two powers were mingled 'and pent up as a chick in oed, hat when the renowned Pwankoo appear- ed, who was the offspring of these powers, then their distinction and operation were apparent. " Pivan' means a basin or receiver, referring to the shell of the egg; kob' ustálly means' antient; but here it means (we are told) solid, to secure, intending to show how the first man Pwänkoo was hatched from the primeval chabs'liy Mid dial posvers, unfu then softlèd'and'exhibited 'the 'arrangement of the

1.01

VOL. X. NO. 1.

50

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

JAN.

causes which produced him~(we would add)-a mode of explaining the crea- tion peculiarly Chinese.

2. The light and pure parts of chaos ascended and floated forming

heaven.

    3. The heavy and foul parts of chaos descended and solidified, forming earth.

Gods are the noble (yang) spirits of heaven; demons are the ignoble (yin). effluence of earth. The light and pure ether was 10,800 years in rising and forming heaven; the glorious and animated portions concreted and made the sun, moon, planets and stars, which when completed all moved in harmonious con- cert. The heavy and foul parts that descended were also 10,800 years in so- lidifying and forming the globe; from the best were made the hills, rivers, and. fountains, and when all were completed, citics and towns arose.

4. The sun is the focus of all the male principles.

5. The moon is the type of the great female principle.

     The sun is the lord of life; like a great prince, he nourishes and bestows his favors; the moon, his spouse or queen, is matched to him; together they arrange and marshal their nobles and courtiers, i. e. the stars and planets.

6. The rainbow is called

of heaven and earth..

tae tung, and is the impure vapor

7. The toad in the moon is the bright spirit of the moon.

    When the foul vapors rise from the earth, and meet those descending from the sky, a rainbow is the product; it is always opposite to and tallies with the sun, and is duplicated. The Chinese fable that Chang-go drank the liquor of immortality, and straightway ascended to the moon, where she was changed into a toad, which they always trace in the face of the moon.

8. A whirlwind is called a ram's horn.

9. A flash of lightning is called the Thunderer's whip.

10. When the flakes of snow fly in sixes, it is a sign of a fruitful

year.

+

''Snow and rain come from the earth, they do not descend from the high ¡¡eaven. The flakes of snow and the petals of flowers are usually in fives, and when the snow is in sixes it shows a predominance of the yin principle, or that of the earth, and by eonsequence that there will be much rain.

11.

"The sun

is up

three rods," is to say that you are late. 12. "The dogs of Shuh barking at the sun," is a metaphor for those who learn little from what they see.

>

13. "The oxen of Woo panting at the full moon," ridicules those who are excessively timid.

    The hills of the country of Shŭh were so high that the days were very short, and the dogs on seeing the sun were terrified, and set up a simultaneous howl.- The country of Woo had oxen which feared the heat, and seeing the moon, be- gan to pant, supposing it to be the sun; just as Poo Fun, who, fearing the cold, shivered as he saw the north through a glass screen.

    14. To cover ones-self with the stars, and to put on the moon, speaks of a fleet post traveling early and late.

1841.

Illustration of Men and Things in China.

51

     15. To be washed by the rain, and combed by the wind,' is a figure for the hard toil of those who are exposed to the weather.

16. To be busy without a purpose is like the clouds driven about without a thought; i. e. such a man is at the mercy of circumstances,

as the clouds are driven by the wind.

17. A benevolence which extends to all around is likened to the vivifying spring having legs; i. e. its diffusive goodness is like the heat of spring upon vegetation.

18. When one makes a present to another to show his respect, he

says,

       [In giving this] I have the simplicity of the man who presum- ed to teach his betters to sun themselves.'

19. When one engages another to be his advocate, he [politely] Bays, • I wish to put my case upon a strength able to turn heaven.'

In the Sung dynasty, there was a clodpole sunning himself one day; and, being ignorant that the empire contained large palaces with deep apartments, or that peo. ple wore silks and furs, he said to his wife, 'people do not know that the sun is warm to their backs; I will go and report it to the king, and he will certainly givé me a large reward.'-'To turn heaven' refers to a talented statesman of the Sung dynasty, who by his wise counsels turned the purposes of the emperor, and saved the country from disaster.

20. The kindness which moves one to save another from death

is termed a second creation.

21. The affection which induces one to rescue another from death is called a 'second heaven.'

the

22. He whose power easily vanishes (i. e. depends on the whim of

is called an ice hill.' sovereign)

<

23. The morning stars resemble wise and good men who are neglected and forgotten.

24. The echo of thunder resembles different accounts agreeing. 25. The man who frets himself exceedingly to no use, how does he differ from the man of Ke who feared the sky would fall on him?

This man of Ke was so afraid lest the sky should fall on him, and he be able to find no place to escape to that he could hardly eat or sleep. One told him that the sky was made of solid ether, and would not fall. 'If so,' he replied, "the heavenly bodies ought not fall down (i. e. set).' They are merely the bright spots of ether, and do not injure when they fall.' On hearing this, he was appeased.

$

26. He who undertakes an affair for which he is not capable nowise differs from Kwafoo who chased the sun.

27. When Confucius finished the Chun Tsew and Heaou King, the rainbow was changed to pearls.

   28. The Hyades desire wind, Sagittarius desires rain; they are like two people whose thoughts and wishes cannot agree.

52

Benevolent Societies,

JAN.

ART. VIII. Benevolent Societies: Medical Missionary "Society ; Morrison Education Society; Useful Knowledge Society; Sin- gapore Institution Free School; the Anglo-Chinese College. THE several benevolent institutions in China, hitherto supported chiefly by the foreign residents, have been kept very much from public view, by the disturbed state of political affairs, during the last two years; it is matter for congratulation, however, to know that in the meantime their operations have been only in part suspended. With the restoration of peace and a thrifty commerce, we trust the friends and patrons of these institutions will have the satisfaction of seeing them prospering and extending their influence more than ever before-an influence as salutary as it is benevolent, acting with nearly equal power both upon the benefactor and the beneficiary. Charity is like the exercise of mercy-'tis twice blessed. It is a pleasure to know, that there are in the foreign community not a few, who are not only ready as they have opportunity, but who seek for occasions, to do, or to aid in doing, those acts of mercy and of chari- ty which are ever duc to the poor, the ignorant, and the afflicted.

    By the Medical Missionary Society, a very great amount of suffer- ing has been alleviated or removed. The Society has established hospitals in three places-one in Canton, one in Macao, and one in Chusan,-at all of which collectively there have been received more than ten thousand patients. Most of them have been, from among the poorer classes, but there have been some from the highest ranks. The late imperial high commissioner and governor of these pro- vinces has, very recently, even since his removal from office, sought for medical aid from foreign practitioners. Four medical officers are connected with the Society,-two of whom are, for the time being, absent from China.

The Morrison Education Society, attracting less public notice, has not been less successful in its sphere. The effects of its labors are designed to be of the most beneficial and permanent character,- for they touch the mainsprings of society, and give form and shape to the intellectual machinery of those who are to be the organs of com- munication between this and other nations. It is of great importance that such persons should be thoroughly trained. Hence we think the Society has acted wisely, in resolving so to limit the number of its pupils as to make their education as thorough and complete as pos- sible. In this plan we have had full opportunity to observe its pra

1841.

Benevolent Societies.

53

gress and success.

               Its school, under the tuition of the Rev. S..R. Brown, was opened early in November, 1839, with six boys; though there have been some changes in the individuals, the number still remains unaltered; and their course of studies has been so shaped as to secure to them, in addition to the principal benefits afforded in their own schools, the best that are now enjoyed in European institu- tions. The want of proper school-books and apparatus has been very much felt; and it has already become desirable that there be an assistant or an associate tutor in the school. Since the new-year holydays, the trustees have visited and examined the pupils, and were much pleased and well satisfied with their proficiency.

    Note. The Library of the Institution, containing between two and three thousand volumes, is open to those who desire to borrow books from it, at the' Society's house, near St. Paul's, Macao, under the care of Mr. Brown.

    The Useful Knowledge Society, wanting both the literary and pecuniary means of carrying on its operations, has been compelled. during the last two years to restrict them to the printing of one work a Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton dialect-which is now nearly through the press, and will be ready for publication in two or three months.

The sixth Annual Report of the Singapore Institution Free School, for 1839-40, kindly forwarded to us,-though not drawn up in so perspicuous a manner, nor published in so neat a style, as we should like to see it,-shows that a very considerable advance has been made during the last year. The whole number of boys on the lists is 208-thus distributed: 15 Macao Portuguese, 4 Armenians, 1 Spaniard from Manila, 2 Jews, 25 Protestant Christians, 13 Klings, 2 Parsees, 3 Cochinchinese, 23 Roman Catholic Christians (not including the Macao lads), 50 Malays, and 70 Chinese. To the list of instructors in the schools, a very valuable acquisition has been made, by securing the entire services of the Rev. J. T. Dickinson. Of the Chinese department of the school, the Report says:

"If compared with European schools, and especially with those of the better sort, our Chinese school cannot be called good. But if it be compared with other Chinese schools (a much fairer criterion), it will not suffer in the comparison. There are some peculiarities of Chinese schools which strike Europeans unfavorably, such as the excessive noise, the committing of whole books to memory, and the exclusive attention paid for the first year or two to the mere learning of sounds without any reference to their meaning.

In these respects the school is believed to be better than those schools which are un der the uncontroled management of Chinese masters. The pecu- liarities referred to, however, are not so objectionable as might be supposed by those unacquainted with the Chinese language. So many characters are not to be learned without imposing an enormous

54

Calendar for 1841.

JAN.

load upon the memory, and accordingly Prémare, the great sinologist, would have even European students of the language commit to memory the Chinese classics after the manner of boys in Chinese schools. The noise of Chinese schools is also in some measure perhaps necessary, for words and tones so closely resembling each other are not to be acquired with closed mouths."

 From the Anglo-Chinese College, Malasca, no report for the last year has reached us. By recent letters from the Straits, we learn, with deep sorrow, that its late principal, the Rev. John Evans, has been suddenly removed by the cholera-which in November and December was carrying off large numbers of the native inhabitants. The late Rev. J. Hughes was also one of its victims. By the death of Mr. Evans, the sole management of the Institution has devolved on the Rev. James Legge, who arrived at Malacca in January, 1840. We hope soon to be enabled to lay before our readers à particular account of the institution; for the present we can only say that its: several classes of Chinese youth, and its printing department, are both continued as hitherto. On page 32 of this volume will be found an account of the origin and design of this institution.

1

ART. IX. Calendar for 1841; with lists of members of the im- perial cabinet; provincial afficers at Canton; Portuguese govern- mentat Macao; British naval and military forces in China; foreign consuls, &c., and other foreign residents, commercial houses, and merchant ships.

A. D. 1841 corresponds to the 4478th year of the Chinese era, which is computed by cycles of sixty years, the present being the 38th of the 75th cycle, and the 21st in the reign of his imperial majesty Taoukwang. The Chinese at the present time date all their papers, official or otherwise, from the first year in the reign of each succes- sive emperor. Though the reigning sovereign ascended the throne in 1820, he was pleased to ordain that that year should be considered the last of his father and predecessor's, and the next the first of his /own reign. They reckon by lunar months; introducing occasional- ly an intercalary month; their 1st day of the 1st month of this year corresponds to January 23d; an intercalary month occurring between the 21st of April, and the 20th of May. The comparative calendar, on the next page, will enable the reader easily to find the corresponding date of any document, when given only in Chinese, and also vice verṣâ.

Sep.

1841.

Calendar for 1841.

Oct.

Nov.

m.

Dec.

10&

ΟΙ

11 m

* GV OD KO CO 2 00 σ)

2 &

4 m

w 22.

142222222222

18 /1 w

19

20

20

21

22

23

24

7

25 | 8

26

1st

Jan.

Feb.

m.

12

Mar.

|April |

12 m.

13 m.

int.

13 m. May. [4 m. Į

C

**** ON ON TË LO SO I 00 0 - 1 02 03 E

6

3th to

$

0123

6

t

10

11 1-2

12 | 3 m | 13

in $

14

15 | 5 s

wo 132 ƒ

14 | 3 s

15 | 4 S

165

16 6 S

177 m

+ − CA CO 2 bus

13 & 1 June.

14 &

15 m.

July.

12 | 1 t

|Aug.

DAE

7 m.

131 S 15 142 m 16

15

m

178 s

8 t

19

10

17

17

18

20

20

21

189 S 19

9 to

20

19 10 m 2010

21

10 s

S 2011 |

21 |11 ƒ

22 11 S

20

22 12 s

23 12 m

23 13 S

24 13 ́t

13 to 21

24 14 m 25 14

22 115 m

17 S 25

18 m

20 10

28

25 15 / 26

*

ធ ន

$

2

1 2 3

Go

8 122 m.

9 123 £

719 S

8 20

9 21

10 22

14 28 S

3:

13

14

14 26 S 15 27 m 15

16 28

16

[29 m

17 29 w 17

30 t 18

30 t

18

17

31 f

19

00

نار

Lists of Chinese Officers

1. Nuy Ko, or Imperial Cabinet, Peking.

JAN.

The presiding members of the Nuy Ko, (lit. Inner Council,) are four principal (ta heòszc) and two assisting ministers (heepan ta heõsze), alternately Mantchou and Chinese. The present incumbents are

1. 穆彰阿 Muchangah,

a Mantchou.

2. 潘世恩

Pwan Shengan,

a Chinese.

3. 琦善

Keshen,

a Mantchou.*

4. 王鼎

Wang Ting

a Chinese.

a Mantchou.t

5. 伊里布 Elepoo,

6.Tang Kinchaou, a Chinese.

2. Provincial officers at Canton.

     The list contains only the names and common titles, of the officers who are at the head of the provincial government, and most concerned with foreigners, or who are resident at Canton and at Macao. For a complete list of the titles of the provincial officers, the reader is referred to vol. IV., page 529.

Keshen (acting).

督院 governor,

It.-governor,

琦善

怡良

Eleảng.

將軍 gen.-commandant, 阿精阿 Atsingah. 左都統 1st It.-general, 玉瑞 Yuhsuy.

右都統 2d t.-general, 英隆

Yinglung.

學院 literary chancellor, 單懋謙 Shen Mowheen. 海關 com. mar.customs,

Eleäng (acting).

水師提督 admiral, 關天培 Kwan Teënpei.

藩司 com.administration 梁

Leang

臬司 com.of justice,

王廷闌 Wang Tinglan.

JERF prefect,

糧道 com. for grain,

'com. of gabel, 宋 朱

Sung

Choo

Yu Paoushun.

南海 magistrate,

magistrate,

梁星源 Leäng Singyuen. 張曦宇 Chang Eyu.

intendant at Macao, sub-prefect.

香山縣 magistrate,

Yih Chungfoo.

立昂 Tseing Leihngang.

Woo Szeshoō.

山縣左堂 sub. mag 楊維善 Yang Weishen.

Imperial high commissioner, and acting governor of Kwangtung & Kwangse. † Governor of the two Keäng, and imperial high commissioner in Chekeäng-

1841.

List of H. B. M. Forces.

3. Portuguese government at Macao.

Adrião Accacio da Silveira Pinto, Governor. Jozé Maria Rodrigues de Basto, Judge.

João Teixera Lira, commandant.

Bernardo Estevão Carneiro. Procurador.

57

Present Members of the Senate-Bartholomeo Barretto; Antonio Joaquim Cor- tella: João Damasceno Coelho dos Santos; Claudio Ignacio da Silva; Manoel Antonio de Sousa; Bernardo Estevão Carneiro.

4. H. B. M's ships and vessels on the coast of China, Jan. 1, 1841, Under the command of commodore, sir J. J. Gordon Bremer, knt., C. B., K. C. H., commander-in-chief in the East Indies.

Wellesley,

72, captain T. Maitland. (Flag-ship)

72, captain sir H. Le Fleming Senhouse, knt, K. C. H. 72, captain the hon. R. S. Dundas.

44, captain H. Smith.

26, captain Thomas Herbert.

Blenheim,

Melville,

Druid,

Calliope,

Samarang,

26, captain James Scott.

Herald,

26, captain Joseph Nias.

Larne,

18, commander J. P. Blake.

Hyacinth,

Modeste,

le, commander W. Warren. 18, commander Harry Eyres.

     Columbine, 16, commander T. J. Clarke. Sulphur,

           8, surveying vessel, commander E. Belcher. Starling, schooner, tender to Sulphur, lieut-commanding H. Kellett. Jupiter, armed en flute as troop ship, master-commanding R. Fulton. Louisa, cutter, tender to flag-ship, T. Carmicheal. R. N., commanding.

Queen, master-commanding W. Warden, Enterprise, master-commanding C. H. West. Madagascar, master-commanding J. Dicey. Nemesis, master-commanding W. II. Hall R. N.

H. Co's arm- ed steamers

Blonde,

The above off Canton river.-The following at Chusan.

42, captain Thomas Bourchier.

26. captain C. R. Drinkwater Bethune.

Conway,

Alligator,

26, acting captain A. L. Kuper.

Nimrod,

Pylades,

18, commander T. Y. Anson.

20, conmander C. A. Barlow.

Algerine, 10), lieutenant-commanding T. H. Mason.

Rattlesnake. 28, troop ship, master-commanding W. Brodie.

Young Hebe, schooner, R. R. Quin, tender to Conway, surveying.

Hon. Co.'s armed steamer Atalanta, commander J. Rogers. Indian Navy.

5. Detail of H. B. M.'s military force at Chusan on 1st January.

18th regiment, Royal Irish, Lt-colonel Adams, 26th regiment, Cameronians, Lt--colonel James, 49th regiment, Lieutenant-colonel Bartley, Bengal Volunteers, Lieutenant-colonel Lloyd, Madras Artillery, Lt-colonel Montgomerie c. B. Madras sappers and miners, captain Cotton.

291

487 rank and file.

27

326

"

402

185

F

227

Staff officers with H. B. м. military force at Chusan, Jan. 1st,

Brigadier-general Burrell, 18th regiment, Lieutenant Mitford, 18th Royal Irish, Major Mountain, 26th Cameronians, Major Becher, Bengal army, Captain Moore, Bengal army, Major Wilson, Bengal army, Major Hawkins, Bengal army, Captain Smith, Bengal army. ·

VOL. X. NO. I.

Commanding. Aid-de-camp.

Depy. adjutant-general. Depy, quarter-master-general. Depy, judge-advocate-general.

Paymaster-general.

Deputy commissary-general.

do.

Assistant do.

58

List of H. B. M. Forces.

Captain Davidson, Bengal army, Surgeon Grant, Madras artillery, Major Stephens, 49th regiment, Captain Caine, 26th regiment, Lieutenant Dennis, 49th regiment, Lieutenant Dunbar, 18th regiment,

1AN.

Assistant commissary-general. Superintending surgeon.

Commissioner of public property. Magistrate.

Assistant magistrate.

Assistant magistrate.

6. Establishment of Superintendents of the trade of British subjects.

His excellency, capt. C. Elliot,

R. N., British plenipotentiary, A. R. Johuston, esq. Edward Elmslie, esq.

Mr. A. W. Elinslie,

Mr. L. d'Almada e Castro, Mr. J. d'Almada e Castro, John Robt. Morrison, esq. Rev. Charles Gutzlaff, Robert Thom, esq.

Mr. S. Fearon,

 Mr. J. B. Rodriguez, Mr. W. H. Medhurst, jr. T. R. Colledge, esq. (absent) A. Anderson, esq.

Chief Superintendent.

Deputy Superintendent. Secretary and Treasurer.

Clerks in the secretary's office.

Chinese secretary and interpreter. Joint interpreter,* Joint interpreter,}

Clerks in the Chinese secretary's office.

Surgeon. Acting surgeon.

7. Foreign Consuls.

French-Charles Alexandre Challaye, Esquire.

American.-P. W. Snow esq. (W. Delano, jr., esq., acting vice-consul.) Danish-James Matheson, esq.

Foreign

Residents.

Abeel, Rev. David,

am.

Almack, W.

br.

Burjorjee Manackjec, Burjorjee Sorabjec,

par.

Amroodeen Sumsudeen

moh.

Burn, D. L.

br.

Anderson, Alexander,

br.

Bush, F. T.

Ardaseer Furdoonjec,

par.

Baldwin, T.`R.

br.

Calder, A.

Bateman, J.

Calder, D.

"

Byramjee Rustomjee,

Cannan, John H.,

Challaye, C. A.

Chinnery, George.

am.

"

fr.

br.

par. br.

11

""

Coolidge, J. jr., and family. am.

Cowasjee Pallanjec,

Baylis, H. P.

Beale, Thomas, Bell, William, Blenkin, W.

19

"

Clarke, W.

Board, Charles,

""

Compton, J. B.

Bomanjee Eduljee

par.

Boone, Rev. W. J., and fain. am.

Couper, W.

Bovet, L..

sw.

Boyd, W. Sprott,

br.

Braine, George T.

19

Bridgman, Rev. E. C..

am.

Brooks, George R.

am.

Brown, Rev. S. R., and fam, am,

Bull, Isaac M.

am.

Croom, A. F.

Burd, John,

dan.

sw.

par.

Burkhardt, F. S., absent Burjorjee Manackjee,

*

Cowasjee Sorabjee,

am.

Cowasjee Shapoorjee Tabac, Cowasjee Shapoorjce Lungrali, Cox, Richard H.

Crawford, Adam

Cursetjee Frommurjec, Cursetjee Rustomjce

Dadabhoy Burjorjee,

 Lent to the government of Chusan. Lent to the senior naval officer at Chusan.

quar.

br.

""

par.

"

1841.

    Dadabhoy Byramjee, Dadabhoy Rustomjee,

Dale, W. W.

Davis, J. J.

Delano, Edward, Delano, Warren, jr. Denham, F. A. Dent, John, jr.

List of Foreign Residents.

par..

Henry, Joseph.

Heras, P. de las

br.

Heron, George.

Hobson, B., M. B.,

"9

am.

Hogarth,--

am.

.br.

""

"

19

+

Dent, Lancelot.

Dent, Wilkinson.

De Salis, J. H.

Dickson,

Dhunjeebhoy Nasserwanjce, par.

Dinshaw Furdoonjee,

am:

par.

Diver, W. B. M. D. absent am.

and family.

Holgate, H. Holliday, John, Holmes, R. Hooker, James, Hormuzjee Framjee, Hormuzjee Sapoorjee, How, James absent Hubertson, Hughesdon, C. Hughes, W. H.

Humpston, G.

Hunter, W. C. Innes, James,

br.

sp

br.

"

"

"

$9

par.

37

br.

13

"

99

am.

br.

59

Douglass, L. P.

br.

Drysdale, A. S.

"

Drummond, F. C.

absent

"

Dudgeon, Patrick,

br.

Jalbhoy Cursetjee,

Durran, J. A., jr.

fr.

Jardine, Andrew,

par. br.

Eduljee Furdoonjee,

par.

Jardine, David,

Ellis, W.

Elliot, Charles, and family,

Elmslie, Adam W.

br.

Jeaneret, A.

sw.

"

"

Johnston, A. R.

Jumoojee Nasserwanjee,

br.

par

Elmslie, Edward.

Just, Leonard,

absent

pr.

"

Erskine, W.

"

Just, L., jr.

""

11

Fanning, W.

Kay, Duncan J.

11

"

Fearon, Christopher.

Kennedy, G.

"

Fearon, Charles.

Fearon, Samuel.

"

Kerr, Crawford, and family,

King, C. W., and family, absent am.

Fessenden, Henry.

am.

King, Edward,

Findlay, George,

br.

Lane, W.

Fletcher, Angus,

Larruleta, M.

19

Forbes, D.

""

Le Geyt, W. C.

am.

br.

sp.

br.

Fox, Thomas,

absent

99

Framjee Heerajee,

par.

Lejeé, W. R.

Leighton, H. J., and family

19

am.

Framjee Jamsetjee,

Leslie, W.

Fryer, W.

br.

Limjee Bomanjee,

Gemmell, W. absent

""

Lloyd, Charles."

Gibb, John D.

"

Gibb, T. A.

"

Gillespie, C. V.

am.

Gilman, Daniel,

Gilman, J. T.

Gilman, R. J.

Gray, W. F. absent

am.

br.

moh.

Manackjee Bomanjee,

""

par.

Gribble, Henry, and family.

Gully, R.

Gutzlaff, Rev. C., and family. " Halcon, J. M.

Hamilton, L., and family.

Harker, Henry R.

Hart, C. H. and family.

Harton, W. H.

Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee,

Manackjee Pestonjec,

19

par.

br.

Martin, H.

sp.

i

am.

br.

Matheson, James.

McMinnies, H.

"

17

absent

"

par.

Melville, A.

Medhurst, W. H.,

jr.

"

Lockhart, W.

Low, W. H.

Macculloch, A. Mackean, T. W. L. Macleod, M. A. Mahomedbhoy Alloo,

Markwick, Charles

Matheson, Alexander, absent

Matheson, Donald.

am.

br.

"1

br.

par.

du.

br.

60

List of Foreign Residents.

Moller, Edmund,

Mollyer, A,

pru. dan.

Monk, J.

Morgan, W.

Morrison, J. R.

br.

Morsa, W. H.

am.

Moul, Henry

br.

JAN.

Scott, W.

br.

Sucksen, C. F. absent

prus.

Shaikamod Dossboy,

moh.

Shaikassen Budroodin

moh.

"

Shawuxshaw Rustomjee,

par.

Sherifkhan Kanjee,

rach.

Shillaber, John

am.

Murrow, Y. J.

Shuck, Rev. J. L. and family

Mercer, J. A., and family,

Silverlock, John

Merwanjee Dadabhoy,

par.

Simpson, J. W.

Merwanjee Eduljee,

Skinner, John

Merwanjee Jeejeebhoy,

Millar, John

Milne, Rev. W. C.

Nacoda Elias

Slade, John

要鳖

br.

Smith, Gilbert

Nacoda Saboo

Nacoda Seleman.

Nasserwanjee Bhicajee,

Neave, Thomas D.

Nowrojee Cowasjee,

Nye, Gideon, jr.

Nye, Thomas,

Oswald, R.

br.

Palanjee Dorabjee,

par.

Smith, John, and family

Smith, J. M.

Snow, P. W. absent

"

moh.

19

*

Somjee Visramn,

par.

br.

par.

am.

Spooner, D. N.

Stanton, Vincent.

| Staples, Edward A..

Stevens, T. Woodhouse Stewart, C. E.

Stewart, Patrick, and family.

Stewart, W.

**

**

am.

moh.

am.

br.

90

um.

br.

Pallanjee Nasserwanjee Patell,

par.

Still, C. F.

"

Parker, Rev. Peter. M. D.

abs. am.

Strachan, Robert

Paterson, A., and family,

br.

Strachan, W.

**

Pattullo, Stewart E.

**

Sturgis, J. P.

am.

Pestonjee Cowasjee,

par.

Tait, James,

absent

br.

Pestonjee Dinshaw,

11

Talbot, W. R.

absent

am.

Pestonjee Jamsetjee,

"

Thom, Robert,

br.

Pestonjee Ruttonjee Shroff,.

**

Pestonjee Nowrojee,

"

du.

"

Pestonjee Rustomjes,

Pitcher, N. W.

Prosh, John

br.

*

br.

19

*

Pyke, W.

Ragoonath Juvan.

Racine, H. absent

Rees, Thomas

Rickett, John, and family

Ritchie, A. A. and family.

Roberts, Rev. I. J.

Robertson, P. F.

Rohin Raypall

Ryan, James.

A. A. Ritchie.

    A. & D. Furdoonjee, Augustine Heard & Co. Bell & Co.

    Bovet, Brothers, & Co. Christopher Fearon. Daniell & Co. Dent & Co.

Thomson, W.

Van Loffelt, J. P. Varnham, Warner, Walker, J. Waterhouse, B. Webster, Robert, Wetmore, S., jr. Wildridge, P. Wilkinson, Alfred,

Williams, S. Wells,

ind.

SID.

br.

99

am.

am.

Wright, Henry

br.

Young, Peter

moh.

Yriarte, R.

am.

Wookerjee Jamset jee,

**

am.

br.

am.

par.

br.

19

sp.

Yruretagoyena, G. de, and fain. sp.

Commercial Houses.

! Dirom & Co.

D. & M. Rustomjee & Co. Elgar & Co.

Fergusson, Leighton, & Co. Fox, Rawson & Co. Gibb, Livingston, & Co. Gribble, Hughes, & Co. Gideon Nye., jr.

1841.

Heerjeebloy Rustomjer. Holliday, Wise, & Co. Hooker and Lane. Isaac M. Bull.

lanes, Fletcher, & Co. J. A. Mercer. James Ryan.

Jamieson & How.

Jardine, Matheson, & Co. John Smith..

Merchant Ships..

1 L. Just & Son. Lindsay & Co. Macvicar & Co. Olyphant & Co. Robert Webster. Russell & Co. Turner & Co.

W. & T. Gemmell & Co. Wetmore & Co.

William Scott.

Merchant Ships in China, Jan. 1841.

61

Acasta,

br.

Ryle,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

294 tons

Akbar,

am.

Dumaresq,

Russell & Co.

642

Ann

br.

Denham,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Ann Gales,

br.

Giles,

Dent & Co.

203

Ariel.

br.

Warden,

Dent & Co.

Bengal Packet,

br.

Steward,

Lindsay & Co.

231

Brigand,

br.

Paddon,

Heerjeebhoy Rustomjee.

Caroline,

br.

Fryer,

C. Fearon,

Charles Kerr,

br.

Arnold,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

463

Danish Oak

dan.

Rabé,

Russell & Co.

300

Dos Amigos,

sp.

Matta.

J. P. Sturgis.

Duchess of Clarence br.

Buck

W. & T. Gemmell & Co.

274

Eagle,

br.

Patterson,

Elizabeth,

br.

Geffrey,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Eben Preble

am.

Hallet,

Russell & Co,

488

Fort William -

br.

Hogg,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

1230

Frances Smith

br.

Edmonds,

Macvicar & Co.

600

George 4th,

br.

Brownless.

Gertrudes,

3p.

Good Success

br.

Fraser,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Harriet,

br.

Martin.

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Hellas,

br.

Baylis,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Hope,

br.

Simpson,

Macvicar & Co.

300

Horatio,

am.

Howland,

Gideon Nye, jr.

John O'Gaunt

br.

Robertson.

Turner & Co.

449

Kelpie,

br.

Konohasset,

Kosciusko.

am.

am.

Forbes, Waterman.

Peterson,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Jardine Matheson & Co.

432

J. Shillaber.

Lady Hayes

br.

W. Strachan,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Lambton,

br.

High,

C. Hughesdon.

Lam heart,

br.

Hopkins,

Dent & Co.

268

Lloyds,

br.

Green,

Lindsay & Co.

463

Lowell,

am.

Remmonds,

Russell & Co.

484

Lydie,

fr.

Meshek,

T. W. Stevens.

315

Lyra,

br.

Huberston,

J. A. Durran,

Manty,

br.

Phillips,

Elgar & Co.

200

Mellish,

br.

James,

Dent & Co.

424

Monarch,

br.

Robertson,

Holliday Wise & Co.

460

Mau Imein,

br.

Guy,

Oneida,

am.

}

Swift,

G. Nye jr.

Orwell,

br.

Hews,

Dent & Co.

Parrock Hall,

br.

Parsaus,

Dent & Co.

Premier,

br.

Were,

Gribble Hughes & Co.

561

Prima Donna,

br.

Kell,

Dent & Co.

222

Sanderson,

br.

Bushby,

Dirom & Co.

308

Scale by Castly,

br.

Johnstone,

H. Rustomjee.

1256

Scotland,

br.

Cunningham.

W. & T. Gemmell & Co.

363

Snipe.

br.

Ade.

1

62

Journal of Occurrences.

JAN.

St. George.

br.. Wright,

Russell & Co.

388

Spy,

br

Paterson,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Syed Khan,

br.

Horsburgh,

Ternate,

br.

Cleverly,

Fergusson Leighton & Co.

271

Tomatin,

br.

Wingate

Jamieson & How.

428

Urgent,

br

Water Witch,

br.

Reynell,

Dent & Co.

200

Westmoreland,

br.

Emery,

Lindsay & Co.

405

William,

Wilhelmine Maria, ham.

Young Queen, br.

Valentin,

am.

Underwood,

Holmes,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Ships arrived in January.

1st Bella Marina, br.

Wickham, Sing, and Liv. Bell & Co.

Eagle,

br.

Patterson,

Chusan,

3d Mysore,

br.

Ward.

Singapore,

4th Giraffe,

br.

Wright,

Manila,,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Defiance, br.

Evalt,

Ernaad,

br.

Hill,

**

5th Chieftain,

br.

Clark,

Chusan,

Innes, Fletcher & Co.

Florida,

am.

Falcond,

U. S. & Manila, G. Nye, Jr.

Rafaela,

sp.

Manila,

Isabella II,

"

sp.

Manila,

14th Clifford,

br.

Sharpe,

Manila

15th Dartmouth, br. Jacob,

H. M. F. S. Danaide 18, Rosamel,

Bombay,

Jardine Matheson & Co.

Manila,

19th Lema,

21st Herald,

am.

Endicott,

Sing and Bom. Russell & Co.

br.

Watt,

Loudon,

22d Kingston, br.

Maclean,

Sing and Bom.

Black Swan, br.

Hart,

Singapore,

10

Hamilton, am.

Kilham,

13

31st Folkestone, br. Jolly,

Manila, London.

ART. X.

Journal of Occurrences; commercial business; negotia- tions; cession of Hongkong; treaty; Chusan; public affairs. FEB. 18th. The occurrences during the past month, no space is left us now to detail: suffice it to say: 1; the blockade not being raised, commercial business remains in statu quo; a few merchants only are in Canton, and they, "in a very unpleasant neighborhood just now," are ready to leave: 2; negotiations have nearly reached their ne plus ultra: 3; Hongkong has been ceded to the British crown, and Chuenpe restored to the Chinese: 4; a trea- ty is understood to be in an advanced state, and must soon be exchanged or rejected: 5; the evacuation of Chusan has commenced; and the wliole of the British forces there, with the prisoners at Ningpo, are soon expected to arrive at Hongkong: 6; the aspect of public affairs is indeed, at this moment, of a very ominous cast; and it is believed by almost every Chinese, so far as we know, that the emperor will discard the acts of his minister Ke- shen; and in this belief they are supported by the assembling of troops and other hostile movements, and by imperial edicts and other official papers. Some of these documents are in our possession, and shall appear in our next number. We are inclined to think, but are by no means strong in the opi- nion, that Keshen will stand. It is said three new commissioners are on their way to join-or as some will have it-to supersede him. We subjoin three official papers.

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

63

No. 1.

To Her Britannic Mujesty's Subjects. Macao, 20th January, 1841. Her Majesty's plenipotentiary has now to announce the conclusion of per- liminary arrangements between the imperial commissioner and himself involving the following conditions.

      1. The cession of the island and harbor of Hongkong to the British crown' All just charges and duties to the empire upon the commerce carried on there to be paid as if the trade were conducted at Whampoa

     2. An indemnity to the British government of six millions of dollars, one million payable at once, and the remainder in equal annual instalments ending in 1846.-

3. Direct official intercourse between the countries apon equal footing.

      4. The trade of the port of Canton to be opened within ten days after the Chi- nese new-year, and to be carried on at Whampoa till further arrangements are practicable at the new settlement.

Details remain matter of negotiation. The plenipotentiary seizes the earliest occasion to declare that Her Majesty's government has sought for no privilege in China exclusively for the advantage of British ships and merchants, and he is only performing his duty in offering the protection of the British flag to the subjects, citizens, and ships of foreign powers that may resort to Her Majesty's possession. Pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, there will be no port or other charges to the British government.

The plenipotentiary now permits himself to make a few general observations. The oblivion of past and redressed injuries will follow naturally from the right feeling of the queen's subjects:-Indeed it should be remembered that no extent of modification resulting only from political intervention can be efficacious in the steady improvement of our condition, unless it be systematically seconded by conciliatory treatment of the people, and becoming deference for the country, upon the threshold of which we are about to be established. The plenipotenti- ary can only presume to advert very briefly to the zeal and wisdom of the com- mander of the expedition to China: and to that rare union of ardor, patience, and forbearance which has distinguished the officers and forces of our arms at all points of occupation and operation. He is well assured the British communi- ty will sympathize cordially with him in their sentiments of lasting respect for his excellency and the whole force, which he is ashamed to express in such in- adequate language.

' * སཙྩེཝཾ

He cannot conclude without declaring that next to these causes the peaceful adjustment of difficulties must be ascribed to the scrupulous good faith of the very eminent person with whom negotiations are still pending.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M. Plenipotentiary in China.

Circular. To Her Majesty's subjects.

Macao, 20th January, 1821. Her Majesty's plenipotentiary considers it incumbent upon himself to lose no time in assuring the commercial community that he will use his best efforts with her majesty's government to secure an early and entire advance of their claims for indemnity. And mindful of the interests of parties in India, he will not fail respectfully to move the Right Honorable the Governor general of India to second these purposes as far as may seem just to his lordship.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT. Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

No. 2.

PROCLAMATION. By Charles Elliot, esq, a captain in the royal navy, Chief Superin- tendent of the trade of British subjects in China, and holding full powers, under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to execute the office of Her Majesty's commissioner, procurator, and plenipotentiary in China.......... THE island of Hongkong having been ceded to the British crown under the seal of the Imperial minister and high commissioner Keshen, it has be come necessary to provide for the government thereof, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure.

    By virtue of the authority therefore in me vested, all Her Majesty's Rights, Royalties, Privileges of all kinds whatever, in and over the said island of Hongkong, whether to or over lands, harbors, property, or personal service, are hereby declared, proclaimed, and to Her Majesty fully reserved..

:

64

Journal of Occurrences,

    And I do hereby declare and preclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, the government of the said island shall devolve upon, and be exer- cised by, the person filling the office of Chief Superintendent of the trade of British subjects in China for the time being.

And I do hereby declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, the natives of the island of Hongkong, and all natives of China thereto resorting, shall be governed according to the laws and customs of China, every description of torture excepted.

And I do further declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's further pleasure, all offenses committed in Hongking by Her Majesty's subjects, or other persons than natives of the island or of China thereto resorting, shall fall under the cognizance of the criminal and admiralty Jurisdiction, present- ly existing in China.

    And I do further declare and proclaim, that, pending H. M.'s further plea- sure, such rules and regulations as may be necessary from time to time for the government of Hongkong, shall be issued under the hand and seal of the person filling the office of Chief Superintendent of the trade of British sub- jects in China for the time being.

And I do further declare and proclaim, that, pending Her Majesty's fur- ther pleasure, all British subjects and foreigners residing in, or resorting to the island of Hongkong, shall enjoy full security and protection, according to the principles and practice of British law, so long as they shall continue to con- form to the authority of Her Majesty's government in and over the island of Hongkong, hereby duly constituted and proclaimed.

Given under my hand and seal of office,'

on board of Her majesty's ship Wellesley, at anchor in Hongkong Bay, this twenty- ninth day of January, in the year one thou- wand eight hundred and forty-one.

GOD SAVE The Queen.

(Signed) CHArles Elliot.

(True Copy) EDWARD ELMSLIE Secretary and Treasurer, &c.

No 3.

BREMER, Commander-in-chief, and ELLIOT, plenipotentiary, &c. &c., by this Proclamation make known to the inhabitants of the island of Hongkong, that that island has now become part of the dominions of the Queen of Eng land by clear public agreement between the high officers of the Celestial and British Courts: and all native persons residing therein must understand, that they are now subjects of the Queen of England, to whom and to whose officers they must pay duty and obedience.

The inhabitants are hereby promised protection, in her majesty's gracious name, against all enemies whatever; and they are further secured in the free exercise of their religious rites, ceremonies, and social customs; and in the enjoyment of their lawful private property and interests. They will be governed, pending her majesty's further pleasure, according to the laws, customs, and usages of the Chinese (every description of torture excepted), by the elders of villages, subject to the control of a British magistrate; and any person having complaint to prefer of ill-usage or injustice against any Englishman or foreigner, will quietly make report to the nearest officer, to the end that full justice may be done.

Chinese ships and merchants resorting to the port of Hongkong for pur- poses of trade are hereby exempted, in the name of the Queen of England, from charge or duty of any kind to the British government.

                               The pleasure of the government will be declared from time to time by further proclama- tion: and all heads of villages are held responsible that the commands are duly respected and observed.

Given under Seal of office, this 1st day of February, 1841.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-FEBRUARY, 1841.- No. 2. ·

,

ART. I. Notices of China, No. V marriage ceremonies, translat- ed and abridged from the Annales de la Propagation de la Foi From a letter of M. BoHET, missionary in Fubkeën. By: S. R

1

}

    Ir is no uncommon thing in China, to contract matrimonial alliances for children before they are born, as follows. Two women mutually promise to marry their expected offspring, provided they be of differ- ent sexes; and to render the promise more obligatory, pledges are given; as for instance,' 'a' ring and bracelet for her who shall be the mother of a daughter, and two fans of the same shape and color, for the one who shall give birth to a son. When this agreement is enter- ed into, it is almost impossible to withdraw from it. The mutual promise is afterwards written in a book with gilt leaves, consisting of a single sheet of paper. After the birth of the daughter, her name is recorded upon this document, together with those of her father and mother, and the place of her birth. As a matter of etiquette, the book is then sent to the parents of the boy, who receive it, and on their part return à similar one to the other party. These formalities being finished, it is impossible to draw back, and the marriage must take place, except in case one of the children becomes a leper. We see then, that the affair of marriage is not a question of consent between the affianced parties, since it is concluded by the parents, long before the children are of an age to give it. This is the reason

Dated Hinghwa foo, March 4th, 1882.

VOL. X. NO. I.

9

+

+

66

Notices of China, No. V.

FEB.

why there are so many unhappy women who find no end to their domestic troubles, but in suicide. Ordinarily, the parents take the first steps towards concluding a matrimonial contract, but there are persons in the country, men and women, intrusted with the business of match-making. These people make it their profession, get their livelihood by it, and generally follow no other. Marriage is a sort of trade, of which these go-betweens are the monopolists!

*

    It is dishonorable to a girl ten years of age not to have been be- trothed, and after that period, the saying is, 'the market is dull.' At the age of fourteen or fifteen years, a girl can no longer go out of the house, though she may be pardoned if curiosity has led her now and then to peep out at the door. But when strangers enter the house she is obliged to hide herself in the most retired apartment. Every thing being ready for the espousals, the parents of the lad inform those of the girl, that they may fix the day. At the appointed time, the go-between, attended by two men and as many women, goes to the house of the future spouse with the usual presents in baskets. In one are found the two gilt books, mentioned above, around which are arranged diverse kinds of fruits, according to etiquette; and in the four corners are coins ranged in piles. Another contains a small fresh ham, the foot of which must be sent back to the intended fa- ther-in-law. A third basket has vermicelli in it. On the arrival of the bearess of the presents, crackers are fired to proclaim the news to the neighbors, and two red tapers are lighted in the hall of entrance. Afterwards, the betrothed apportious the ham to those present, but the number is often so great, that there is scarcely a morsel for each. She also sends the little book, containing the promise of marriage, to Her intended husband; and her parents send him as many baskets containing articles of the same value as those presented to her. They are, however, of a different kind, and consist of various fruits, of which they make six separate parcels, each having a certain flower, set upon red paper, fastened to its four corners.

· The affianced boy likewise receives from his mother-in-law (that is to be) some small tokens of trifling value, which he immediately distributes to those who may be present. The seed of the gourd, dried in the sun, forms one of the latter. After these ceremonies, espoused; he has never

-

the youth cannot upon any account see his seen her yet, nor will he till the day of their nuptials. If he has not done it already, the father of the girl is not tárdy to demand her price, about $32 being the most moderate sum for a wife. commonly it is from 66 to 80 taels. In all cases, the

More

young man

1841.

Notices of China, No. V.

67

cannot have his bride till the stipulated price has been paid, and he is furthermore obliged to pay the additional expenses incurred when she quits the paternal roof, and goes to live with her husband.

     At length, when the money is paid, and the time for the marriage comes, the guests resort to the house of the bridegroom, to celebrate it. The courier, who acts as guide to the chair-bearers, accompanied by a person appointed to direct the movements of the bride, takes the lead; yet before starting, they consult an astrologer, to ascertain whether the day is propitious or unfavorable. In the latter case, they take care to provide themselves with a large piece of pork, so that the demon, which in the form of a tiger, may be likely to oppose them, being wholly occupied in devouring the meat, may leave them unmolested. Mean- time the maiden, rising before dawn, makes her toilet in the haut ton of elegance, dressing herself with her richest jewels and apparel. The best garments are concealed by others less beautiful worn over them, and the whole is covered by a bridal dress, which is simply a large mantle that completely envelops her. She is also muffled up in an enormous hat, resembling a flat wide basket, that descends to the shoulders and covers the whole figure. Thus attired she takes her seat in a red [and gilt] sedan, borne by four men. All who meet her

upon the road are obliged to yield the path, even though it be the viceroy of the province that passes by. The sedan is entirely closed, so that she can neither see nor be seen. At a little distance from it, one or more chests of the same color as the sedan, contain, ing the apparel of the bride, are borne in state. Most commonly they contain nothing but old petticoats and small linen, the sport of all sorts of vermin. Custom requires that, during the time of the pro- cession, all those who form the train should weep and cry, and until they arrive at the bridegroom's house, no music is heard but that of wails. [?] If however the distance is great they make a pause, and only resume their lamentations when near the end of the journey.

At last, the courier, who is in advance of the train some minutes, arrives at the house all panting for breath, knocks loudly at the door, and cries out with vehemence, "There she is!" and at once a multi- tude of crackers, to the noise of which are added the discordant sounds of many instruments of music, announce to the neighborhood the arrival of the bride. As she stops at the door, the bridegroom hastens to conceal himself in the most retired part of the house, and there closets himself, now and then putting his eye to the key-hole to see what is transpiring without. The go-between, who accompanies the spouse, then takes a little child, if there be one in the house, and ·

68

Notices of China, No. V.

FEB.

makes him salute the young bride, after which she also enters the chamber of the intended husband, to inform him of his bride's arrival. He at first affects indifference to all that is going on around him, and seems occupied in other matters; however he goes out with the go-between, advancing with a grave step, and approaching the sedan, opens the door with an air of agitation and trembling: the bride steps out, and they both go forward together to the ancestral tablet, which they salute with three genuflections, and then seat themselves_at table opposite to each other face to face. The go-between serves them, and the bridegroom eats and drinks, but the bride merely makes a pretense of it, for the large hat, which all the time screens her and conceals her figure, prevents her from raising anything to her mouth. The repast being finished, the now wedded pair enter

their chamber.

I

All the guests have a lively curiosity to know the result of this first interview, for it is then only that the husband removes the mask from his wife's head, and for the first time in his life beholds her features. Whether pretty or ugly, blind, blear-eyed, or deformed, he must make up his mind to have her for his lawful wife, and whatever may be his disappointment, he must disguise it, and outwardly ap- pear content with his lot. After he has considered his wife for some time, the guests, parents and friends, men and women, all enter the apartment to do the same, and view her at their leisure. Every one is allowed to express his opinion aloud, but the criticisms of the women are most severe. They closely scrutinize the newly married lady, and make every little natural defect which they observe, the subject of remark and malicious exaggeration. They are the more severe in their censures, from the recollection that they themselves have been ill-treated in like circumstances, and find great pleasure in having an opportunity to be avenged. This cruel examination, during which she who is the object of it, must keep silence, and cannot in any manner complain of the severe remarks that are made upon her per- · son, being finished, she is at first introduced to her father-in-law and mother-in-law, who respectively salute her according to etiquette, and afterwards into the presence of her own father and mother.

:

It should be observed that neither of the parents of the bride ap- pear at that wedding. Neither of them can be invited on the oc- casion, that matter belonging entirely to the bridegroom, who invites his parents and friends a fortnight beforehand.

1

The cards of invitation are peculiar in their form. They consist of a large red sheet of paper folded into two small ques, in the forın

1841.

Notices of China, No. V.

69

of letters, but on which there is nothing written. Only those who have received these cards in due form can be present at the nuptials. 'The bridegroom is always the bearer of them, and in delivering them to the guests, he at the same time makes to each a present of two cakes made of rice flour, cooked in water and colored red. : The persons invited must, a few days before the fête, send him a sum of money equal to and even greater than the expenses they will be con- sidered as occasioning. The least sum is eighty cash for a child, and a hundred and forty or more for an adult. This contribution serves not only to cover the cost of the bridal feast, but the additional expenses.

The second day of the wedding, the husband carries to the same gests, another card of invitation, like the first and with the same formalities, and everything passes off as on the preceding day. On the second day, the bride goes to present her respects to the ladies who have honored the nuptials by their presence, and makes a genu- flection to each. They, in return, each ́ make her a present of a ring, or something else, of indeterminate value. The smallest they can give, however, must be worth at least 40 cash... The young gentlemen, invited to the wedding, unite together after the feast, and make the bridegroom a present of two Chinese lanterus. Io the course of the night the guests in concert get up a hurly-burly to the wedded pair. In the midst of the uproar, and when the latter are supposed to be asleep, the former try to break into their apartment, either by forcing the door, or by making a hole in the wall, in order off seine of the garments, or other things belonging to the married couple. If they succeed, the husband is obliged to repur- chase the stolen 'articles.

to carry

J

:

?

In the ceremonies that accompany marriage entertainments, the gravity of Chinese manners does not allow of those animated signs of inirth, which we often see among us under similar circumstances, but on the other hand they indulge in many indecencies which our morals forbid. Throughout the whole of the fête, music is incessant, and the scene closes with a comedy, performed by professional actors, whose theatrical pieces are in as bad taste as those of the merry- andrews that go about our country to amuse people with their farces. Before the guests retire, they make an image of paper, or something else, representing a little child, which they carry to the bridal bed to secure a son for the first-born. The comedians receive a handful of cash for their services. Should the father and mother of one of the betrothed happen to die, the marriage is postponed during the season

70

Notices of China, No. V.

FEC.

of mourning. An interdict to the same effect is laid upon the whole empire when the emperor dies.

Marriage among the poor is more simple. They often purchase for a small sum, a little girl whom they train up to be their son's wife, when he is of a suitable age, and in that case the expenses are very much reduced. On the other hand, poor parents, who have a daughter already affianced, whom they find it difficult to maintain, send her with ceremony to the parents of her intended husband, who are obliged to receive and support her.

J

The 12th, 13th and 14th days of the Chinese moon, are holidays, consecrated to the worship of the genii or spirits, to whom the people address themselves praying for health and riches, the only blessings, alas! which these poor idolaters know or desire. At these times, in villages, where there are persons that have been married in the course of the year, the inhabitants, men and women, join together on one of these days, and go by night to visit the new wife, who, shut up in the house from which she cannot go out, as yet knows nobody in the place of her confinement.

The young woman receives her visitors standing by her bed, with her husband at her side. The men enter first, and carefully scruti- nize her, but no one can say a word. She too is silent, but her husband being the speaker on the occasion, makes a pompous pane- gyric upon his wife, especially upon her external perfections, calling their attention to her pretty little feet, her beautiful hands, &c., &c. Meantime they are going and coming incessantly, and from their eager appearance, one might take them for people going to see rare beasts shut up in a menagerie. As fast as they retire, they are regal- ed with a cup of tea and a pipe of tobacco. After the men have satisfied their curiosity, then comes the women's turn. The husband withdraws, and leaves them the open field with his young wife. They notice her person with the closest scrutiny from head to foot, and afterwards every article of her apparel. She must take good heed not to be abashed, and to be very discreet in her words, for her per- son, her conversation, her carriage, everything about her is noticed, remembered, and very soon divulged and maliciously exaggerated. Every defect which they can discover becomes the common topic of conversation for a long time, among those of her sex, so that we may say that her reputation for life turns upon her discretion at that time, and besides, however grave and reserved may be her manner, how- ever wise her words, however accomplished her person, the tongues -of jealous women will always find matter for their censures.

.

The

1841:

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

71

   poor creature, well knowing that she cannot please every body, some- times resolves to say nothing, and remains motionless as a statue, with an elongated visage, her eyes half-shut and fixed upon the ground, making no reply to any address, and suffering herself to be examined without uttering a word.

    After the wedding is over, the son-in-law will not enter the house of his father-in-law, and vice versa, unless they are mutually antici- pated by a formal invitation to a feast, in which no point of etiquette can be dispensed with. When this duty has been performed they can visit each other at pleasure.

    As the husband's father is considered as having purchased his daughter-in-law, she belongs to him, and he has the right to dispose of her. Hence it is, that many sell their son's widow to other per- sons, and often at a low price. If she has had children by her first marriage, they appertain by right to the father-in-law, and she cannot take them away with her. Henceforth these children have no rela- tion to her, and no longer regard her as their mother.

    In China, no account is made of relationship on the mother's side, and therefore the children of sisters may lawfully marry each other; but on the side of fathers and brothers it has no end, and relatives by the male line, though of the hundredth generation from the com- mon stock, can in no case intermarry. The laws severely forbid it, and such a marriage would be null.

i+

1.

    A woman cannot visit her parents for at least a year after her nuptials, unless the most urgent circumstances, such as the death of one of her parents, oblige her to do so. Before she pays them a visit, they must call upon her. After that she is at liberty to go, accom panied by her husband, carrying presents with her, in great formali ty, with a sedan, music, &c., and returns to her home only when her father-in-law recalls her ip state, after having repeated her presents

allew.

Note. These notices of Chinese usages are by us the more valued, because they afford information concerning things which exist in the interior of the coun- try, where they have been described by eyewitnesses; but more notes are requir- ed than are here added, especially where the usages described are different from what we find in this part of the empire. Thus, in the present article, the writer speaks of the weeping and crying of those who go in procession when carrying the bride to the home of her new husband; in this part of the country, nothing of the kind, so far as we know, exists; but previously to her leaving the home of her parents and usually some ten or twenty days previously-there is a long season of weeping and wailing, in which she is joined by many of her friends and relatives.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

FEB.

Aur. II.

  Notices of Japan, No. VI, anecdotes illustrative of Japanese character; the visit of the Phaton; a conspiracy; a wrecked ship; a magistrate's sagacity &c., &c.

Or this kind of illustration, the Dutch writers afford very little, and that little is chiefly found in Doeff's Recollections; though from Titsingh's unreadable An- nals a few anecdotes may be gathered, that strongly exemplify some national peculiarities both of mind and manners; for example, the vindictive 'spirit and inflexible constancy of the Japanese, the slight account they make of humanı life (save as its loss, would imply an act of injustice), their love of a jest, and their ideas of good breeding. Upon the established principle, that tragedy should pre. cede farce, we will begin with an instance given by Doeff of the abdomen-ripping, He does not give it as an anecdote, but relates it as part of the history of his presidentship. His story is too prolix to be given in his own words, to say noth- ing of his ignorance of the object of the English officer.

 In: the year 1808; Capt. Pellew of the Pheton, while cruizing in the Indian seas, projected the capture of the annual Dutch vessels trading with Japan. His search for them proved unsuccessful, that being one of the years in which none were dispatched'; but he prosecuted it even into the bay of Nagasaki. The con- sequences of this step, unintentionally and unconsciously on his part, were such as to excite a fierce hatred of England in the minds of the Japanese.

}

+ Upon captain, Pellew's making the coast, and the report of a strange vessel in sight reaching. Nagasaki, the usual deputation was sent forth ;---the previous in- quiries and taking of hostages, described by Siebold, have been ordered in conse. quence of this transaction. The boat bearing the members of the Dutch factory was in advance' of 'that with the Japanese commission, and, as the ship displayed Butch 'dolors, advanced joyfully to meet her shallop, when, as soon as they were; within reach of sách other, the Dutch officials were grappled, dragged for- cibly into the skip's, host, and carried on board. ́. The Japanese police-officers and interpreter, in utter dismay at so unexpected, so incomprehensible a catastrophe, rowed back to relate the misadventure of their foreign colleagues. The governor of Nagasaki, to whom the loss of two of the strangers in his charge was matter of life and death; ordered the two go-banyosi to Bring back the captured Dutch. men, or not to return alive; and then sent to ask Doeff what could be the mean. ing of the occurrence, and whether he saw any means of recovering his people. Doeff replied, that he conceived the ship to be an English man-of-war, and that the Dutchmen, being civilians, might be recovered by negotiation. But even whilst those › messages were passing, the Phaton-made her way, unpiloted, into the harbor, and the Japanese, confounded at an exploit altogether unprecedented, raised a cry that she was bearing down upon Dezima.

 The governor, who now feared to lose his whole factory, ordered all the Dutch- men, with their most valuable effects, to the government-house, there, at least, to be as safe as himself. They found him in a fearful rage, and he greeted Doeff with the words: "Be you easy, opperhoofd; I will have your Dutchmen back for you." Soon afterwarde came a note from one of the captives, stating that the ship was English, and that captain Fellew requested provisions and water.

1

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

73

With this demand the governor declared himself little disposed to comply; and he was busily engaged in making preparations for destroying the strange vessel, ac- cording to the general tenor of his instructions. His first measure was to summon the troops from the nearest post, one of the prince of Fizen's, where a thousand men were bound to be constantly on duty; only sixty or seventy were found there, the commandant himself being amongst the missing. This neglect of orders by others nearly sealed the governor's own fate: but he did not intermit his efforts to regain the Dutchmen, and his scheme for succeeding by negociation was truly Japaness. The chief secretary waited upon Doeff, informing him that he had received orders to fetch

back the captives; and to the question, "How ?" replied, "Even as the ship has seized the Dutchmen, treacherously; so shall I go on board quite alone, and with the strongest professions of friendship; I am then to ask for the captain, to request the restoration of the Dutchmen; and in case of a refusal, fo stab him first, and then myself." Doeff's representations to both the secretary and the governor, that such an act must infallibly cause the death of the captives by the hands of the enraged crew, could with difficulty induce them to abandon this wildly-vindictive project.

One of the Dutch captives was now sent on shore, on parole, to fetch the pro. visions asked for. He reported that he and his comrade had been strictly inter- rogated as to the annual Dutch ship; and that the English captain threatened, should he detect any attempt at deception respecting them, to put both captives to death, and burn every vessel in the harbor, Japanese or Chinese. The go. vernor was most unwilling to let his recovered Dutchman return to captivity, but was at length convinced of the necessity of suffering him to keep his word, for the sake of the other. He then gave him provisions and water to take on board, but in very small quantities, hoping thus to detain the ship until he should be ready for hostilities. Capt. Pellew had by this time satisfied himself that his intended prizes were not in Nagasaki bay, and in consequence, upon receiving this scanty supply, he sent both Dutchmen on shore. Their release was to the two police officers, who were still rowing despondingly round and round the Pheton, meditating upon the impossibility of executing their commission, a respite from certain death.

Meanwhile, the governor was collecting troops to attack the English frigate : but his operations proceeded slowly, and other subsidiary measures were suggest. ed. The prince of Omura, who came to Nagasaki with his troops before dawn, advised burning her, by means of fifty small boats filled with combustibles, the Dutch president preventing her escape by sinking vessels laden with stones in the difficult passage out of the harbor. But whilst all these plans were under con- sideration,

           whilst troops were assembling as fast as possible, and commissioners rowing from shore to shore to gain time by proposals to negociate respecting com. merce, the Englishman, who had no further object in remaining, sailed out of the harbor as he had sailed in, unpiloted, leaving the Japanese even more confounded than before.

     The Dutch now returned to Dezima, and as far as they were concerned, the whole affair was over.

Not, so with respect to the Japanese. The governor had, involuntarily indeed, disobeyed his orders, by suffering the escape of the intruder; and he felt that he had been negligent in not knowing the state of the coast-guard

YOL. X. NO. II.

10

1

74

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

FEB.

posts. To a Japanese, his proper course under such circumstances could not re- quire deliberation. Nor did it. The catastrophe is thus told ;*

"He so well knew the fate awaiting him, that, within half an hour of our departure, he assembled his household, and in their presence, ripped himself up.. The commanders of the deficient posts, officers not of the siogoun but of the prince of Fizen, followed his example; thus saving their kindred from inevitable dishonor. That their neglect would indeed have been punished with the utmost severity, ap- pears from the circumstance that the prince of Fizen, although not then in his dominions, but compulsorily resident at Yedo, was punished with a hundred days of imprisonment, because the servants whom he had left behind him had not duly obeyed his orders. On the other hand, the young son of the governor of Nagasaki, who was altogether blameless on the occasion, is at this hour in high favor at court, and has obtained an excellent post. When I visited the court of Yedo in 1810, I was told the following particulars respecting this youth. The prince of Fizen, considering that the death of the governor of Nagasaki might in a great measure be imputed to him, inasmuch as the desertion of the guard posts, though occurring without his fault, had mainly contributed to it, requested permission of the council of state to make a present of two thousand koban (about £2,650) to the son of the unfortunate governor. Not only was this request granted, but the wholly unexpected and unsolicited favor was added, that, to spare him further applications, he might repeat the gift annually. This permission, being equivalent to a command, compelled the prince of Fizen to pay an annuity to the governora orphans."+

This story, falling within Heer Doeff's personal knowledge, accurately cha- racterizes the spirit of the Japanese government, and the occasions rendering suicide imperative. It is melancholy to be obliged to add that, according to re. port, Dr. Von Siebold has had the misfortune of causing a similar catastrophe, though upon a smaller scale. The details are not yet before the public, but are said to be these. The high reputation of the doctor for science, and the favor of influential Japanese friends, obtained for him permission to remain at Yedo for the purpose of giving instruction to the learned members of the college, when Col. Van Sturler returned to Dezima; and afterwards permission, more extraordinary still, to travel in the empire. He was, however, prohibited from taking plans or making

* Doeff.

+ Both Meylan and Fischer, in speaking shortly of this unfortunate visit of the Phaeton to the bay of Nagasaki, assert that captain Pellew insisted upon a supply of fresh beef, as the ransom of his Dutch prisoners, threatening to hang them in case of a refusal; that the governor, out of pure humanity, sacrificed å bullock to save the lives of two men, and killed himself to expiate this sin of com. mission, this violation of a positive law. Now, to say nothing of the improbability of an English gentleman's being guilty of an act so idly and so foolishly violent and cruel, neither Meylan nor Fischer, who were not then in Dezima, could know this story save by hearsay; while Doeff was not only on the spot, but one of the chief actors in the prologue to the final tragedy; and the narrative in the text is taken from his pages, with no other alteration than compression, explanation of captain Pellew's views, and omission of some vituperation of that officer in par- ticular, and his countrymen in general. Doeff, who explicitly states the governor's reasons for killing himself, says not a word of beef; and he assuredly desires not to favor England or the English, to whom he imputes every body's misdemeanors, The tale had grown more marvelous by tradition when told to the later writers- that is all,

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. V1.

15

maps, but was detected in the transgression of this prohibition, and imprisoned. His escape was effected by the fidelity and attachment of his Japanese domestics; but the

     person or persons who were responsible for his safe custody had no re- but the hara-kiri. This is the story circulated on the Continent; the ac- source curacy of the details cannot be avouched; but of the fact, that the German doctor's escape, like the British sailor's, caused Japanese suicide, there seems to be, unhappily, no doubt.

But to leave the subject of self-slaughter. The following fragment of history, from the Annals of the siogouns of the Gongen dynasty, is characteristic alike of the vindictive temper, resolution, high sense of honor, and ferocity in punishment of the Japanese, and also of their long enduring hereditary gratitude.

During the civil wars (which will be related in a succeeding paper on Japan- ese history) between Gongen and his grand-daughter's husband, Hideyosi, the prince of Toza had been a faithful adherent of the latter; after whose discomfiture, he fell into the conqueror's hands. He endured much cruel, much degrading treatment; and at last his hands were ordered to be struck off, which in Japan is the very extremity of dishonor. The prisoner upbraids the usurper, who thus appears to have been present throughout, with his perjury to Hideyosi, and his barbarity to himself. The answer to his reproaches was sentence of decapitation. The prince's son, Marubasi Chuya, instantly resolved to avenge his father's death; but being then a destitute and helpless child, but nine years old, he careful- ly concealed his purpose until he should find himself in a condition to effect it. This did not happen until the accession of Gongen's great-grandson, Minamoto no Yeyetsuna, in 1651, when he was appointed commander of the pikemen of Yorinobu, the new singoun's uncle. Chuya now deemed the moment of revenge arrived. He concerted his schemes with Ziositz [or Yuino Siosits], the son of an eminent dyer but a man of such talent, that he had been tutor to Yorinobu. This prince himself was suspected of being implicated in the conspiracy; if he was, the presence of mind and firmness of his confederates effectually screened him. Yet, when we are told that the drift of the plot was to exterminate the whole race of Gongen, and to divide the empire between Chuya and Siosits, this seems a design so unlikely for a prince of the proscribed family to participate in, that we must suppose the views of the conspirators to be misrepresented, or Yorinobu to have been duped by his accomplices, as the issue of the transaction renders it hardly possible to acquit him of all knowledge of the plot.

An

measures

act of indiscretion on the part of Chuya, after so many years (nearly fifty) of prudence, betrayed the conspiracy, and orders were issued for his arrest, and that of Siosits. It was deemed important to seize both, or at least Chuya, who resided at Yedo, alive, in the hope of extorting further disclosures; and were taken accordingly. An alarm of fire was raised at Chuya's door, and when he ran out to ascertain the degree of danger threatening his house, he was suddenly surrounded and attacked. He defended himself stoutly, cutting down two of his assailants; but, in the end, was overpowered by numbers, and secured.

His wife, meanwhile, had heard the sounds of conflict, and apprehend- ing its cause, immediately caught up those of her husband's papers which would have revealed the names of his confederates (amongst whom were men of distinc- tion and princes of the land), and burnt them. Her presence of mind remains

*

Titsingh, page 14.

76

Notices of Japan, No. V1.

FEB.

even to this day a topic of admiration in Japan, where the highest eulogy for judg- ment and resolution that can be bestowed upon a woman, is to compare her to the wife of Chuya. Such qualities, it may be conjectured, had procused her the honor, contrary to Japanese custom, of being her husband's confidant.

The plans of government being thus foiled, even in their apparent success, the next orders were to arrest all the known friends of Chuya. Siosits avoided caps ture by the usual form of suicide; but two of his friends, named Ikeyemon and Fachiyemon, were seized and interrogated. They promptly acknowledged their participation in a conspiracy which they esteemed honorable, but refused to betray a confederate. The destruction of Chuya's papers left no possible means of discovering the parties implicated, except the confession of one of the prisoners, and they were therefore subjected to tortures sickening to relate, but which must nevertheless be known, if we would justly appreciate either the firmness or the ferocity of the Japanese character.

    Chuya, Ikeyemon, and Fachiyemon were, in the first instance, plastered all over with wet clay, then laid upon hot ashes, until the drying and contracting of the clay, rent and burst the flesh into innumerable wounds. Not one of them changed countenance, and Fachiyemon, taunting his tormentors like a Mohawk in the hands of hostile Cherokees, observed, "I have had a long journey, and this warming is good for my health; it will supple my joints, and render my limba more active." The next form of torture tried was making an incision of about sight inches long in the back, into which melted copper was poured; and this cop. per, when it had cooled, was dug out again, tearing away the flesh that adhered to it. This likewise failed to conquer the fortitude of the victims: Fachiyemon af- fected to consider it a new.fashioned application of the mora, a Japanese mode of medical treatment by actual cautery; and Chuya thus replied to the judge. minister, who urged him to avoid further suffering by revealing his accomplices : Scarcely had I completed my ninth year, when I resolved to avenge my father, and seize the throne. My courage you can no more shake than a wall of iron. I defy your ingenuity! Invent new tortures; my fortitude is proof against them!" The government now despaired of obtaining more victims than those they already held, and the day of execution was appointed. When it dawned, the death-doomed, amounting in number to thirty-four, were, conducted in procession through the streets of the town, headed by Chuya; his wife and mother, with Ikeyemon's wife, and four other women, closed the melancholy train. here be remarked, that, out of thirty-four prisoners, only three were tortured; pro- bably because the ringleaders only were supposed to possess the knowledge desir- ed; and Chuya's wife, who was manifestly in the secret of the names so keenly and ferociously sought, could, as a woman, give no available evidence, even if confession were extorted from her.

It may

    As the procession reached the place of execution, a man, bearing two gold-hilted swords broke through the encircling crowd, approached the minister of justice whose duty it was to superintend the work of death, and thus addressed him: "I am Sibata Zabrobe, the friend of Chuya and of Siosits. Living far remote, I have but lately heard of their discovered conspiracy, and immediately hastened to Yedo. Hitherto I have remained in concealment, hoping that the siogoun's elemency would pardon Chuya; but as he is now condemned to die, I am come to embrace him, and if need be, to suffer with him."" You are a worthy man,"

184 E.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

77

replied the judicial officer, "and I would all the world were like you. I need not await the governor of Yedo's permission to grant your wish; you are at liberty to join Chuya."

The two friends conversed awhile undisturbed; then Sibata produced a jug of suke, which he had brought, that they might drink it together, and as they did so, they bade each other a last farewell. Both wept. Chuya earnestly thanked Sibata for coming to see him once more. Sibata said: "Our body in this world resembles the magnificent flower asa.gawa, that, blossoming at peep of dawn, fades and dies as soon as the sun has risen; or the ephemeral kogero (an insect). But after death, we shall be in a better world, where we may uninterruptedly enjoy each other's society," Having thus spoken, he rose, left Chuya, and thanked the superintending officer for his indulgence.

     All the prisoners were then fastened to separate crosses, aud the executioners brandished their fatal pikes. Chuya was first dispatched, by ripping him up

with

two cuts in the form of a cross. The others were then successively execut. ed; Chuya's wife dying with the constancy promised by her previous conduct.

It may here be observed, that the difference between this execution and all the descriptions given in the last paper, tends to confirin the conjecture there hazard- ed that the manner is not fixed, but depends much upon the judge. The different writers describe what they have seen, rather than what is prescribed. This rip. ping up of Chuya does not affect what was there said of the hara-kiri, the essence of which is, its being suicidal, or the proper act of the sufferer. This in merely a substitute for decapitation. But our story is not yet finished.

66

When this judicial massacre was over, Sibata presented his two valuable swords to the official superintendent, with these words: "To you I am indebted for my conversation with my lost friend; and I now request you to denounce me to the singoun, that I may suffer like Chuya,' "-"The gods forbid that I should act thus!" rejoined the person addressed. You deserve a better fate than to die like him; you, who whilst all his other friends were consulting their own safety by lurking in concealment, came boldly forward to embrace him."

As the name of Sibata Zabrobe does not again occur in the Annals, it may be hoped that this stout-hearted and faithful friend was suffered to return safely to his distant home. But the fate of another of the suspected conspirators is still to be told, and the manner of his escape exemplifies one of the lofy characteristics of the nation-their devoted fidelity.

    The burning of Chuya's papers had destroyed all proof, if any had existed, of Yorinobu's complicity; but circumstances were strong against him. His palace was searched, but nothing found that could decidedly inculpate him; and now his secretary, Kanno Heyemon, came forward with a declaration, that he, and only he, in the prince's establishment, had been cognizant of the conspiracy, confirming his assertion by ripping himself up. The fruit of this self-immolation was, that Yorinobu, although still suspected, remained unmolested at Yedo; and that a suspected prince did so remain, may show how modified and bound by law is Japanese despotism. Some generations afterwards, Yosimune, descendant of Yorinobu's, became siogoun, and evinced the gratitude of the family for the preservation of their ancestor, by raising the posterity of Kanno Heyemon to some of the highest honors of the state, and rendering them hereditary in his race.

The next anecdote, 、 taken from the same source, will both show that the wo

78

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

FEB.

men share in this lofty contempt for life, whether their own or another's, when they conceive duty, or the public interest, to require the sacrifice; and that, if a siogoun possesses despotic power, there is little disposition to let him exercise it arbitrarily.

Early in the eighteenth century, the siognun Tsunayosi, a profligate prince, who by his vices had destroyed his constitution, accidentally lost his only son, and resolved to adopt an heir, the dignity of siogoun having never been inherited by a daughter. This is a constant practice in Japan with the childless, whether sovereign or subject; but the established rule is, to select for adoption the son of a brother, or other near relation; in direct contravention of which, Tsunayosi, disregarding the claims of his nephew, fixed his choice upon an alien to his blood, the son of a mere favorite of inferior birth.

The prime minister, Ino Kamon no kaini, remonstrated, alleging that a step so unprecedented would exasperate not only the princes of the blood, but all the grandees of the empire. His representations proved unavailing against the fæ. vorite's influence; whereupon he sought the empress, or midai. To her the minister revealed his master's illegal and dangerous design; explained the pro- bability, if not certainty, that a general insurrection would be its immediate con- sequence; and declared that, unless she could avert it, the adoption and its fearful results were inevitable. The midai-a daughter of the reigning mikado, and high-minded, as became her birth and station-meditated profoundly for some minutes; then raising her head, she bade the alarmed minister be of good cheer, for she had devised means of prevention. But what these means might be shre positively refused to tell him.

Upon the day preceding that appointed for the adoption, the daughter of the 'son of heaven,' who had long been wholly neglected by her libertine husband, invited him to take sake with her; and upon his assenting, prepared a sumptuous entertainment. While he was drinking, she retired for a moment to her private apartment, wrote and dispatched a note of instructions to Ino Kamon, and then, placing in her girdle the ornamented dagger worn by women of exalted rank, she returned to the banqueting-room. Shortly afterwards, she announced her wish for a private conversation with the siogoun, and dismissed her attendants.

    The Japanese annalist relates, that when they were alone, the princess ear- nestly implored her consort to grant the request she was about to prefer to him. He refused to pledge his word until he should know what she desired; and she then said: "I am assured that you purpose adopting the son of Dewa no kami as your heir.

          Such a step, my most dear and honored lord, must grievously offend all those princes whose claims are thus superseded; it will unavoidably provoke a general insurrection, and occasion the destruction of the empire. My prayer therefore is, that you would renounce so ruinous a design." The siogoun was incensed at such feminine interference with his project, and indignantly replied; How darest thou, a mere woman, speak upon state affairs? The empire is mine, to rule at my pleasure. I need not female counsel, nor will I see or speak to thee more !"* With these words he arose, and was leaving the apart- ment in a rage. The midai, followed, and detaining him by his sleeve, persisted with humble urgency.

Yet bethink you my sovereign lord. Reflect, I implore

*

66

44

      Whether this lady's high birth would have saved her from divorce or not, is not said. This threat might imply only neglect.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

19

you, that should you execute this baneful resolution, to-morrow's sun may see all Japan in rebellion." The singoun was inflexible; her expostulations, gentle and submissive as they were, serving only to exasperate his resentment. The heaven-descended lady, finding argument and solicitation fruitless of otherwise averting the impending disaster, suddenly plunged her dagger into his breast, and, withdrawing it, repeated the blow. Her aim was true; the monarch fell, and his consort, sinking on her knees by his side, implored his pardon for having in an emergency so critical, employed the only possible means left of securing the throne to the Gongen dynasty. She concluded with an assurance that she dreamed not of surviving him. The moment the siogoun Tsunayosi had breathed his last, the stabbed herself with the same dagger, and fell lifeless upon his corpse- Her ladies, hearing the noise of her fall, ran in and found both weltering in their blood.

     At this moment appeared Ino Kamon, who, startled by the purport of the empress's billet, had flown to the place. He was instantly admitted to the cham- ber of death, and stood confounded at the fearful spectacle" it presented. After a while, recovering himself, he exclaimed, "Lo! a woman has saved the empire! But for her bold deed, Japan would to-morrow have been convulsed, perhaps destroyed!"

The self-slain princess had not it seems, thought it sufficient thus effectually to prevent the sisgoun from executing his illegal design: she had further given Ino Kamon, in her note, precise instructions as to the course he was to pursue. By obeying them, the minister secured the accession of the lawful heir, and alleviated the disappointment of the youth whom Tsunayosi had intended to adopt, by obtaining a principality for him from Yeyenobu, the monarch he had been intended to supplant. Ino Kamon's own services were recompensed by the and grateful siogoun, who rendered the office of governor of the empire hereditary in his family; and the midai is said to divide the admiration of Japan with the wife of Chuya.

new

In a subsequent reign, that of Yosimune, the following incident occurred. *

·He reigned thirty years, and from Titsingh's account, would appear to have been elected siogoun, after the death of the preceding, who was a mere boy.

he was

    One of the inferior servants of the siogoun, named Iwaso Gozo, had a daughter. who was

Constantly ill; he took her to the hot baths, in hopes of reëstablishing her health. He had been there three weeks, when three men belonging to the retinue of the prince of Satsuma came to see him, and requested him to lend them ten kaban, promising to repay him at Yedo. Gozo declined, alleging that poor, and his daughter's illness very expensive, and expressing his regret that it was not in his power to secommodate them. They appeared to be satisfi- ed with his excuses; and as he was to set off the next day, they invited him to supper, purposing to detain and make him drunk with sake. Gozo, having no suspicion of their design, accepted the invitation, and after supper, finding that it was late, he returned thanks, and begged permission to retire, that he might take a little. rest before his departure. Next morning, very early, he set out, but had scarcely proceeded three miles, when, on examining his sabre, which seemed heavier than usual, he discovered that it was not his own. He immediately re- turned, went to the persons with whom he had supped the preceding night, and

Titsingh, page 70.

#

80

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

FEB.

delivering to them the sabre, begged pardon for having taken it away in a mis- take. Instead of accepting his excuses, they replied, that this was an affair which could not be so lightly passed over; that he could not have offered them a great- er affront than in exchanging his sabre for one of theirs; and that they would be dishonored, if it were known at Yedo that they had not taken a signal revenge for it. They, therefore, declared, that he must fight them, and urged him to fix the time and place for the combat. Gozo complained of their injustice; remind. ed them that he had with him a sick daughter, who would be left destitute if be were to perish by their hands; and again intreated them to pardon him, assuring them that his daughter and himself would never cease to bear their kindness in grateful remembrance. All his remonstrances were fruitless. Finding, therefore, that he could not appease them, he was compelled to accept the challenge, and agreed to meet them the following day.

Gozo, on leaving them, reflected on his situation, which was in reality terrible; for he had no other alternative than either to perish in the combat, or, if he vanquished his enemies, to die by his own hand. Such was the law established by the prince of Satsuma. In this dilemma, he called upon one of his friends, who was a servant of the prince of Mito, related to him what had happened, and begged that he would lend him a pike to equip him for opposing his anta- gonists. His friend not only gave him bis pike, but assured him that he would accompany him as his second, and assist him if he saw him in danger.

     Next day, Satsuma's three servants repaired to the field of battle, where they were met by Gozo. They were armed with long sabres, while he had nothing but his pike, which, however, he plied with such dexterity and success, that with the two first thrusts, he extended two of his adversaries at his feet: the third, ap- prehensive of sharing their fate, ran away. Gozo, after pursuing him for some time, but without being able to overtake him, because fear lent him wings, re- turned to the place of combat for the purpose of dispatching himself. At this moment his friend ran up. wrested his arms from him, and cheered him, by repre- senting that justice was on his side, as he had been provoked in an unwarrantable manner, and obliged to defend himself. "I witnessed the combat," added he; "I will make my report of it, and be bail for you. Meanwhile, the best thing you can do is to lose no time in acquainting the governor of Yedo with what has happened."

The governor wrote, in consequence, to the prince of Satsuma, who soon afterwards returned for answer, that on inquiry he learned that the malefactors were not his subjects, but must have come from some other province. Gozo was in consequence set at liberty, and thus the affair terminated.

We may now turn to anecdotes less painful, illustrative of lighter parts of the Japanese character. The following will prove that, if an implacable vindictive spirit, over which time can exert no softening influence, be part of that character, at least it is not excited by petty provocations, and may likewise afford a specimen of the good-humor and love of drollery that mingle rather oddly with the national ferocity and passion for ceremony.

About the middle of the last century,* Fota Sagami no kami, a man of high reputation for learning and talent, was advanced to an eminent place in the coun. cil of state by the young siogoun, Yeye-sige, upon his accession. In the business.

* Titsingh.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

81

of administration, Fota Sagami fulfilled all the expectations to which his reputed ability had given birth; but he provoked great, if partial, animosity, by the in- exorable severity with which he treated the officers of the old siogoun, who had abdicated, depriving them of the rewards their former master had bestowed upon them for their services.

The despoiled men, having vainly petitioned for redress, meditated revenge, but determined first to make an effort for the recovery of their lost wealth by intimidation. In pursuance of this scheme, a pumpkin, carved into the form of a human head, appeared one morning over the state counselor's door, with the following inscription attached to it: "This is the head of Fota Sagami no kami,

cut off and set up here in recompense of his cruelty."

Fota Sagami's servants were enraged at the insult offered to their master, but yet more terrified at the idea of the fury they anticipated it would awake in him, and which they feared might in some measure fall upon themselves, as though their negligence had given the opportunity for so daring an outrage. Pale and trembling they presented themselves before him, and reported the ominous appari. tion of the pumpkin-head, with its inscription. The effect was far different from what they had expected. Fota Sagami's fancy was so tickled by hearing, whilst full of life and health, that his head was announced to be actually cut off and set up over his own door, that he laughed heartily at the joke; and, joining his col- leagues in the council-chamber, felated his vicarious decapitation in the person of a pumpkin. There, likewise, the jest excited bursts of laughter, amongst which, however, unbounded admiration was expressed of Fota Sagami no kami's fortitude. Whether the jesters were permitted again to enjoy the rewards assigned them by the ex-siogoun, does not appear.

Another incident of the same reign, at a later date, exhibits a Japanese view of good breeding, and mode of testing talent and character.* Oka Yechizen no kami, one of the governors of Yedo, was directed to seek out able men for the service of the siogoun, and amongst others, a skillful accountant. A person named Noda-bounsa was recommended to him as an able arithmetician, and in other respects well fitted for office. Oka Yechizen sent for Noda-bounsa, and when the master of the science of numbers presented himself, gravely asked him for the quotient of 100, divided by 2. The candidate for place as gravely took out his tablets, deliberately and regularly worked the sum, and then answered 50. "I now see that you are a man of discretion as well as an arithmetician," said the governor of Yedo, "and in every way fitted for the post you seek. Had you answered me off-hand, I should have conceived a bad opinion of your breeding. Such men as you it is that the siogoun wants, and the place is yours."

    Yeye-sige did, indeed, want men of discretion about him, to supply his own deficiency, for he had by this time so completely destroyed his intellectual facul- ties by excesses of various kinds, as to reduce himself to idiotcy. To have plainly stated the fact, however, or to have applied to the monarch the appellation be. longing to his mental disease, would have been treason. The wit of his subjects devised means of guiltlessly intimating his condition, by giving him the name of a herb that is said to cause temporary insanity, and Yeye-sige was surnamed Ampontan.†

*

Titsingh.

[The disposition to caricature and ridicule high officers is very common

VOL. X. NO, II,

11

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

FEB.

An instance of the quick talent and ingenuity' evinced by the least educated portion of the community, akin to this sort of wit, occurs in the history of the transactions at Dezima during the long administration of president Doeff; but, upon the occasion in question, these qualities were directed towards a more useful purpose than nicknaming a sovereign. An American ship, hired by the Dutch at Batavia to carry on their permitted trade with Japan, whilst the Eng- lish cruizers rendered the service too hazardous for their own vessels, or for any but neutrals, as she set sail in the night, laden with her return cargo of copper and camphor, struck upon a rock, filled, and sunk. The crew got on shore in boats, and the problem that engrossed the attention alike of the American cap- tain, the Dutch factory, and the constituted authorities at Nagasaki, was how to raise the vessel.

"The first idea was to employ Japanese divers to fetch up the copper; but the influx of water had melted the camphor, and the suffocating effluvia thus disengaged cost two divers their lives. The attempt to lighten her was neces. sarily abandoned, and every effort to raise, without unloading her, had proved equally vain, when a simple fisherman, named Kiyemon, of the principality of Fizen, promised to effect it, provided his mere expenses were defrayed; if he fail- ed, he asked nothing. People laughed at the man, who now, perhaps, for the first time in his life, ever saw an European ship; but he was not to be diverted from his purpose.

He fastened on either side of the vessel under water fifteen ~ or seventeen boats, such as those by which our ships are towed in, and connected them all with each other by props and stays. Then, when, a high spring-tide favored him, he came himself in a Japanese trading-vessel, which he similarly attached to the stern of the sunken ship, and at the moment the tide was at the highest, set every sail of every boat. Uprose the heavy-laden, deep-sunken mer. chantman, disengaged herself from the rock, and was towed by the active fisher. men to the level strand, where she could be conveniently discharged and repaired. Kiyemon not only had his expenses repaid to him, but the prince of Fizen gave him permission to wear two swords, and to wear as his arms a Dutch hat and two Lutch tobacco-pipes!"

Without making any remark upon either the extraordinary coat-of-arms assign. ed to the fisherman, or the yet more extraordinary want of liberality evinced in the payment, or rather the apparent non-payment, of his successful exertions-for no hint is given that either the American captain, or the Dutch president made him any pecuniary recompense-it may be observed, that the permission to wear among the Chinese, and we should infer from this instance, and from others relat. ed by different authors, that it is also common in Japan. One, more allied to a pun than anything else, we give, which was made on the present siogoun, Tenpo, by taking the elements of his title, and making a sentence out of it. The two characters

Ten po are made into the following sentence: ·大人

ichi dar shtono kuchi hōzo, which means that "people's mouths are

not well supplied" by the monarch. This was made of him in consequence of a famine that occurred about ten years ago, in 1831. The point of it is, that these five characters, when combined, make the imperial title; and their meaning when read is an imputation upon his want of goodness and carefulness, by which the people suffer from hunger. The last character does not mean wood, as it usu- ally does in Chinese, but is the Japanese word ho, to nourish, which is written in this way.)

* Doef

.1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VI.

83

two swords is a satisfactory proof that the line of demarcation beween the different classes of society is not absolutely impassable.

Another Japanese fisherman seems to have displayed ingenuity equal perhaps to Kiyemon's, though in a less honorable and useful form, for the mere purpose of making money by his countrymen's passion for everything odd and strange.* He contrived to unite the upper half of a monkey to the lower half of a fish, so neatly, as to defy ordinary inspection. He then gave out that he had caught the creature alive in his net, but that it had died shortly after being taken out of the water; and he derived considerable pecuniary profit from his cunning in more ways than one. The exhibition of the sea-monster to Japanese curiosity paid well; but yet more productive was the assertion that the creature, having spoken during the few minutes it existed out of its native clcment, had predicted a certain number of years of wonderful fertility, and a fatal epidemic, the only remedy for which would be, possession of the marine prophet's likeness. The sale of these pictured mermaids was immense. Either this composite animal, or another, the offspring of the success of the first, was sold to the Dutch factory, and transmit. ted to Batavia, where it fell into the hands of a speculating American, who carried it to Europe, and there, in the years 1822-23, exhibited his purchase at every capital, to the admiration of the ignorant, the perplexity of the learned, and the filling of his own purse, as a real mermaid.

     Ere closing this paper, let us for a moment recur to the Japanese Annals for a gratifying proof of the care with which justice is administered by the delegated representatives of the council of state; although even that care, it must be allowed, smacks somewhat of despotic power in the whole manner of the transaction. The mode of trial alone renders the story worthy of attention, especially considering the asserted success of the Japanesc tribunals in eliciting the truth. The incident occurred at Ohosaka.

An usurer,+ named Tomoya Kiugero, lost a sum of money, amounting to 500 koban (upwards of £650). As no stranger had been seen about his premises, suspicion fell upon his servants, and after considerable investigation, finally settled upon one of the number called Chudycts. No proof was found, and the man, in spite of cress-questioning, menaces, and cajolery, positively denied the crime imputed to him. Tomoya now repaired to the governor of Chosaka, preferred his complaint, and demanded that Chudyets should be tried and punished. The go. vernor, Matsura Kawatche no kami, who had been promoted to his post in conse quence of his reputation for ability, wisdom, and virtue, sent for Chudyets, and examined him. The accused protested his innocence, and declared that torture itself should never compel him to confess a crime of which he was innocent. Matsura Kawatche now committed Chudyets to prison, sent for Tomoya and his other servants, told them the result of his inquirics, and asked what proof they had of the prisoner's guilt. They had none, but persisted nevertheless in their firm conviction that Chudyets was the thief, and Tomoya insisted upon his immediate execution. The governor asked if they would set their hands to this conviction of guilt, and demand of execution. They assented, and master and men, together with the master's relations, signed a paper to the following effect;-" Chudyets, to Tomoya Kiugero, has robbed his master of 500 koban.

This we attest by these presents, and demand that he be punished with death, as a warning

+ Titsingh, page 38.

servant

* Fischer.

84

Sketch of Teen Fe, or Matsoo Po.

FEB.

to others. We, the kinsmen and servants of Tomoya Kiugeto, in confirmation of this affix to it our signatures and seals. The second month of the first year Genboun (1736)." The governor, taking the paper, said to the complainant, Now that I am relieved from all responsibility, I will order the head of Chudyets to be taken off. Are you so satisfied?" Tomoya replied that he was, returned his thanks, and withdrew his party.

4

    Soon after, a robber, who was taken up for a different offeuse, and put to the torture, confessed, amongst other crimes, the theft of Tomoya's money. This discovery was communicated to Matsura Kawatche, who immediately sent for Tomoya, his relations and servants, laid before them the true thief's confession, and thus addressed them :-" Behold! you accused Chudyets without proof, attesting your accusation under your hands and seals. 1, upon the strength of your assertion, have commanded the death of an innocent man. In expiation of this crime, you, your wife, kindred, and servants, must all lose their heads; and I, for not having investigated the business with sufficient care, shall rip myself up." At these dreadful words, Tomoya and his friends were overwhelmed with despair. They wept and bemoaned their sad fate, and implored mercy, whilst the magistrates and officers present united in praying for some mitigation of so terrible a sentence. But the governor remained sternly inflexible.

    When this scene of agony had lasted a considerable time, Matsura Kawatche suffered his features to relax into a milder expression, and said, "Be comforted; Chudyets lives. His answers convinced me of his innocence, and I have kept him concealed in the hope that the truth would come to light." He then ordered Chudyets to be introduced, and proceeded thus:-" Tomoya, your false accusa- tion has caused this innocent man to suffer imprisonment, and nearly cost him his life. As this irremediable misfortune has been happily averted, your lives shall be spared; but as some compensation for what he has undergone, you shall give him 500 koban, and treat him henceforth as a faithful servant. Let the pangs you have this day experienced be graven on all your minds, as a warning how you again bring forward accusations upon insufficient grounds."

This decision of Matsura Kawatche's gave universal satisfaction, and in testimony of the siogoun's approbation, he was soon afterwards promoted to the more important and lucrative government of Nagasaki.

ART. III. Sketch of Teën Fe, or Matsoo Po, the goddess of Chi-

nese seamen, Translated from the Sow Shin Ke.' By J. L. S. FE's surname was Lin. She formerly dwelt in the department of Hinghwa, and district of Ninghae, being the present Pooteën heën, about eighty le from the sea-board, in the village of Mechow. Her mother, whose family name was Chin, dreamed that she saw the goddess Kwanyin' of the southern ocean, who presented her a fig flower which she swallowed. This done a pregnancy of fourteen

2

1841.

Sketch of Teen Fe, or Matsoo Po.

85

months ensued, at the end of which period she gave birth to the god- dess Fe. Her birth took place in the first year, third month, and twenty-first day of the reign of Teenkwan of the Tang dynasty. At the time of this birth a wonderful fragrance was perceptible for a mile around, and at the end of ten days it was not dispersed. In her infancy her intelligence was extraordinary. During her first year, while she was carried in the keảng paou,* when beholding any of the gods she folded her hands, and manifested desires to do them reverence. At the age of five she could recite the sacred books of Kwanyin; and at eleven she was able with gravity to attend upon the feasts and music of the gods.

     Now Fe concealed her sacred proceedings, thus rendering them obscure to vulgar eyes. She would attend to her toilet, but would speak but little. She had four brothers, who in their mercantile pursuits proceeded backward and forwards among the islands of the sea. Upon a certain day while Fe was busily engaged, all her ener- gies were suddenly paralized, and closed were her eyes for a time. Her father and mother perceiving that a great storm had arisen call- ed out for her. Fe, upon awaking, sighed and said, why did you not allow me to assist my brothers that there might have been no misfortune? To her father and mother her meaning was inexplicable, nor did they make any further inquiries of her. Her brothers having gained a competency and returned, they, weeping, said, three days ago a mighty gale of wind arose, the waves reached the heavens, and we brethren being each in different vessels, our oldest brother's ves- sel was driven by the storm beneath the surge. Each one of them declared that during the prevalence of the gale they beheld a female child leading the vessels along, and proceeding over the waves as if upon level ground. The parents now at once perceived that when formerly Fe had closed her eyes, her spirit had gone to the rescue of her brothers. The eldest brother was not saved, owing to Fe's being too hastily aroused, and the spirit therefore could not achieve his deliverance, which caused the parents unceasing regret. When Fe became of sufficient age to wear the hair-pin," she made oath that she would not become the bride of any man, nor did her parents presume to force her to marry. She did not remain long with them, for sud- denly while sitting in a grave dignified posture her spirit passed away. Again the fragrance was perceptible for several miles around, just the same as upon the day of her birth. At first her spirit was frequently observed, and in aftertimes there have been many who have seen her. These persons who saw her, supposing her to be an

ناع

+

Sketch of Teen Fe, or Matsoo Po.

FEB.

attendant upon the mother of Sewang," said she thoroughly under- stands the superintendency of posterity.

A whole city publicly worshiped her, and in that city there was a certain woman who had been ten years married but had no son. She traveled into various regions to worship the gods, but in the end received no favorable response. At last she paid her adorations to Fe, and then she became the mother of sons. Thus all who have no sons let them forthwith come and worship Fe, and at once will their prayers be answered.

    During the Sung dynasty Yuenteil and Le Foo were followers of the imperial messengers, who were dispatched to the country of Co- rea, and as they were proceeding by the village of Mechow, a mighty wind arose, and when their vessel was about to be engulfed, bright clouds of variegated beauty suddenly appeared, and they saw a per- son ascending the mast, and then proceeding round and taking hold of the helm. This person's strength being exerted for a long time, they were at length enabled to cross over the sea. The above honora- ble officers made inquiries about the matter of the people of the boats. Their followers Yuenteih and Le Foo both placing themselves in respectful attitudes towards the south, and thankfully worshiping said, now as we have the golden paper and ruby book, we have therefore verily escaped being devoured by the monsters of the deep. His majesty diffuses rain and dew throughout the various regions of foreign lands, and his aid is afforded to his embassadors who do not disregard his commands. The gods lend their assistance, and special- ly are we assisted by the soul of Fe. These gentlemen remember- ed this, and on their return represented it to the court, and it was royally declared that she was a divine personage. A temple was

erected for her in Mechow, at which a hundred families maintained their worship, and they carved images of wood for the use of vessels.

    At the beginning of our country, in the seventh year of the reign of Ching Tsoowan, an imperial officer named Tsangwo, was deputed to the south-western barbarians. He worshiped at the shrine of Fe, and obtained a favorable response, as those did in the time of Sung, so he returned, and made the matter known to the court, and she was proclaimed the safeguard of the nation, the assister of the people, the 'excelling spiritual essence, the illustrious answerer of prayer, of enlarged benevolence, affording universal aid, THE CELESTIAL FE! Those who worship her are to be found throughout the empire.

   Fe when living obtained the essence of highest spirituality, and cherished the perspicuity of the divine oxcellence, and dying she

1-41.

The Emperor Tavukwang.

Thus men are not deficient in progeny.

S*

She

controls posterity. rules the seas, and their waters therefore cannot become billows. She creates happiness, and largely bestows it upon men. I, having examined the historical annals of the district of Hinghwa (Fe's native region), and uniting the traditions of the people with the re- corded tablets, have herewith drawn up this abridgement, and thus submit the information.

搜神記

1. The Sow Shin Ke, or Record of Researches concerning the Gods, are comprised in 3 octavo vols., and was compiled during the Ming, the last Chinese dynasty. The compiler's name is not attached to the edition which we` have translated from, nor are any dates affixed. The work contains brief sketches of one hundred and eighty-one popular Chinese deities, and a pretty good idea is given of what the natives themselves regard as the origin of their idols, and an enlightened mind will perceive how debased must be a people who worship as divine, objects whose history according to their own accounts, is enveloped in such unreasonable and superstitious fancy. There are other different traditions of Matsoo Po besides the notice found in the Sow Shin Ke. Mr. Medhurst has written a Christian tract entitled the "Birthday of Matsoo Po," which well ex- poses the absurdity of the history and worship of the idol.

       2. Pooteën heën is in the province of Fuhkeën, and hence the Fuhkeễn sea- men are more attached to Fe than any other class of seafaring meu.

      3. Kwanyin is the Chinese goddess of mercy, and is a very popular idol. A sketch of her history is also contained in the Sow Shin Ke.

     4. The keang paou is a cloth by means of which small children are carried unon the backs of their mothers and nurses. It has four bands attached to if, one of which goes over each shoulder, and two around the waist of the nurse, and are tied upon the breast. The cloth is sometimes of various colors, and highly wrought with ornamental figures.

      5. That is became of a marriageable state. Young ladies do not put up their hair with pins, but allow it to hang down until they are about to be married.

     6. Se wang is the superintendent of the female genii, as Tung wang kung is of the male genii.

7. The golden paper and ruby book have reference to the dispatches of the great emperor,

ART. IV. The emperor Taoukwang: his succession to the throne of his father, coronation, with notices of his character and go-

vernment.

WHEN the destinies of an empire so vast and populous as the Chi- nese, are swayed by one man, we naturally wish to know something of the history and character of such a monarch.

At the present time, this wish is strengthened by an expectation that his imperial majesty is about to change (or to have changed) his relations with the other potentates of the earth, with whom he is to fellowship as brothers,

consins, &c.

The Emperor Tumukwang.

FEB.

          Hitherto men from afar, albeit richly imbued with his great favors, have known, or had the means of knowing, but little of the son of heaven.' Once we saw what was said to be a portrait of his august person; and once we had in our possession an auto- graph, written with the vermilion pencil. A great many and very diverse sayings, touching the character and conduct of H. I. M. we have heard first and last; but having failed to write them in a book at the time, we dare not now trust to memory for a portraiture of one whose person and character are so sacred as his majesty's are. Could we borrow the note-books of certain historiographers, then perhaps a faithful and full picture might be given. But being without these ample materials, we hope our readers will not be displeased with the few fragments we have been able here and there to collect. subjoin three state papers, to which we add a few explanations and some brief notices.

No. 1.

We

    The chainber of ministers (Nuy Kŏ) has received with due respect the following imperial edict :

"From the late emperor, who has now gone the great journey, I received the utmost possible kindness and care; and from him I derived my being; his gracious kindness was infinite, like that of the glorious heavens above. Although his benevolent life had been continued more than six decades of years, his celestial person was still robust, and his energy and spirits undi- minished. I, the emperor, who continually waited on him in the palace, desired his days to be protracted, and hoped he would reach his hundredth year. This year, on a tour, he was to solace with his presence Lwangyang, in Tartary, and I, the emperor, followed in his train. His sacred person was on the journey as strong as usual, till he happened to be affected by very hot weather; however, he still ascended his chair without weariness ; but finally he became ill, and after three days, a great encroachment on life was apparent. I, the emperor, beat the ground with my head, and called on heaven to bring him back-but, in vain ! With reverence I meditate on his late majesty's reign during twenty-five years,-how effectually he sup- pressed banditti and rebellion, and gave tranquillity to millions of common people. Night and day he diligently labored; and never idled away a single day. His official servants, and the black-haired race, all looked up gratefully to his benevolent rule, under which they enjoyed the happiness of a glorious tranquillity. Now, when but a few days of his tour had elapsed, the great event has occurred; the dragon on horseback has ascended and be. come a guest on high. All creatures, endued with blood and breath, mourn with grateful feelings, proceeding from the most perfect sincerity; and how much more deeply do I, the emperor, feel; and how much more durable will be my grief, who have received such vast benefits, ten thousand times re.

The Emperor Tamukwang.

1841.

RY

peated!

        1 received his late majesty's last will, commanding that the funeral mourning should be the same as formerly. That in twenty-seven days I should put off deep mourning, is what my heart submits to with difficulty; but I yield obedience to ancient rules, and will reverently wear mourning for three years; and shall thereby, in some small degree, manifest the affectionate grief which I feel. Let the governmental officers and people, throughout the empire, observe the former laws for national mourning. The kings and great officers of state are hereby ordered to assemble to deliberate and report to the emperor. Respect this."

    Copies of this paper were circulated in Canton early in Oct., 1820. Doubts were then entertained of its authenticity, the document being, contrary to what is usual on such occasions, without the names of the ministry or any titles for the emperor, excepting only his kwõ haou, or national designation,' which was Yuenhwuy,

元徽 meaning "an original assemblage of natural beauties." (See the Indo-Chinese Gleaner, for January and February, 1821, from which we borrow these papers.) This first one purported to have been issued on the 9th of September, six days after the demise of Keäking, which occurred on the 2d. On the 20th of October, the governor of Canton received a dispatch from the Board of Rites, ordering him "to close the seals of office on the 20th of the 12th month of the 25th year of Keäking, and to open them on the 19th of the 1st month of the first year of Tavukwang," which, instead of Yuenhwuy, was to be the national designation, or imperial title of the new em- Dr. Morrison, commenting on this title says, "the meaning of the taou, is similar to the 'eternal reason of some European writers, the 'ratio' of the Latins, and the Ays of the Greeks; in a political sense, the Chinese use it for a perfectly good government, where reason, not passion, dictates its acts: kwang means light, lus- tre, glory, illustrious, and so on. The new imperial title of Taou- kwang may be rendered by the two words, reason illustrious,' by which the monarch wishes to intimate that his reign shall be the glorious age of reason' in China, that he will rule gloriously, accord- ing to the pure dictates of eternal reason." Dr. Morrison further adds, referring to this first paper, and the title Yuenhwuy therein as- sumed, "Whether it be supposed that the people dared to print and hand about a spurious imperial proclamation, or that the emperor and his advisers changed their minds on the subject of the title, the pre- ceding appears very strange."

peror.

The second of the three papers is called he chaou, or joyful pro- clamation,' and was thus prefaced: "On the 17th of the 8th mouth (September 23d, 1820), the great emperor, who has received from

VOL. X. NO. 11.

12

90

The Emperor Tavukwang.

FEB.

   heaven and revolving nature, the government of the world, issued the following proclamation."

No. 2.

"Our Ta Tsing dynasty has received the most substantial indications of heaven's kind care. Our ancestors, Taetsoo and Taetsung, began to lay the vast foundation (of our empire); and Shetsoo became the sole monarch of China. Our sacred ancestor Kanghe, the emperor Yungching the glory of his age, and Keënlung the eminent in honor, all abounded in vir- tue, were divine in martial prowess, consolidated the glory of the empire, and moulded the whole to peaceful harmony.

"His late majesty, who has now gone the great journey, governed all under heaven's canopy twenty-five years, exercising the utmost caution and industry. Nor evening nor morning was he ever idle. He assiduously ained at the best possible rule, and hence his government was excellent and illustrious; the court and the country felt the deepest reverence, and the stillness of profound awe. A benevolent heart and a benevolent administra- tion were universally diffused; in' China proper, as well as beyond it, order and tranquillity prevailed, and the tens of thousands of common people were all happy. But in the midst of a hope that this glorious reign would be long protracted, and the help of heaven would be received many days, unexpec- tedly, on descending to bless, by his majesty's presence, Lwanyang, the dragon charioteer (the holy emperor) became a guest on high.

     My sacred and indulgent father had, in the year that he began to rule alone, silently settled that the divine utensil (the throne,) should devolve on my contemptible person. I, knowing the feebleness of my virtue, at first felt much afraid I should not be competent to the office; but on reflecting that the sages, my ancestors, have left to posterity their plans; that his late majesty has laid the duty on me-and heaven's throne should not be long vacant-I have done violence to my feelings, and forced myself to intermit awhile my heartfelt grief, that I may with reverence obey the unalterable decree; and on the 27th of the 8th moon (October 3d), 1 purpose devoutly to announce the event to heaven, to earth, to my ancestors, and to the gods of the land and of the grain, and shall then sit down on the imperial throne.

Let the next year be the first of Taoukwang.

1

"I look upwards and hope to be able to continue former excellencies. lay my hand on my heart with feelings of respect and cautious awe.-When a new monarch addresses himself to the empire, he ought to confer benefits on his kindred, and extensively bestow gracious favors: whatever is proper to be done on this occasion is stated below.

    "First. On all persons at court, and those also who are at a distance from it, having the title of wang (a king) and downwards; and on those of, or above the rank of a kung (a duke), let gracious gifts be conferred.

    "Second. On all the nobles below the rank of kung, down to that of kih-kih, let gracious gifts be conferred.

    <

1841

The Emperor Tamukwang

91

       "Fourth. Those officers, whose deceased parents have received posthu- mous titles of honor, shall have those titles increased, to correspond with the promotion of their sons.

<< Fifth. Officers at court of the fourth degree of rank, and in the pro- vinces those of the third, shall have the privilege of sending one son to the national college (Kwo-tsze-keën).

       "Sixth. Officers who have been deprived of their rank, but retained in office, and whose pay has been stopped or forfeited, shall have their rank and pay restored.

      "Seventh. Let the number of candidates to be accepted at the literary examinations, in each province, be increased from ten to thirty persons.

66

Eighth. Let the required time of residence in the national college be diminished one month on this occasion.

      " Ninth. Let all the graduates of the degree of a. m. be permitted, as a mark of honor, to wear a button of the sixth degree of rank.

"Tenth: Let officers be dispatched to sacrifice at the tombs of departed emperors and kings, of every past dynasty; at the grave of Confucius, and at the five great mountains, and the four great rivers of China,

      "Eleventh. Excepting rebels, murderers, and other impardonable offen- ders, let all those who may have committed crimes before daybreak of the 27th of the 8th moon (the day of ascending the throne) be forgiven. If any person again accuse them with the crimes already forgiven, punish the ac- cuser according to the crime alleged.

"Twelfth. All convicts in the several provinces who have been transport- ed for crimes committed, but who have conducted themselves quietly for a given time, shall be permitted to return to their homes.

1

Thirteenth. Tartars under the different banners, and persons of the imperial household convicted of the embezzlement of property, and punished by forfeits, if it can be proved that they really possess no property, let them be all forgiven.

Fourteenth. Let all officers of government whose sons or grandsons were charged with fines or forfeits on account of their father's crimes, be forgiven. "Fifteenth. Let officers and privates in the Tartar army, to whom go- vernment may have advanced money, not be required to repay it.

       "Sixteenth. Let all old soldiers of the Tartar and Chinese armies, who have seen service, and are now invalided, have their cases examined into, and have some favor conferred on them in addition to the legal compassion they already receive.

}

      "Seventeenth. Let there be an inquiry made in all the provinces, for those families in which there are alive five generations; and for those persons who have seen seven generations ; and rewards be conferred in addition to the usual honorary tablet conferred by law.

"Eighteenth. Agriculture is of the first importance to the empire-let the officers of government everywhere, and always, laud those who are dili- gent in ploughing and sowing.

92

The Emperor Tamukwang.

FEB.

    "Nineteenth. Old men have in every age been treated with great respect; let a report be made of all above seventy, both of Tartars and Chinese, with the exception of domestic slaves, and people who already possess rank.

"Twentieth. Let one month's pay be given to certain of the Mantchou and Mongolian Tartar soldiers, and also to the Chinese troops who joined the Tartar standard at the conquest.

"Twenty-first. Let men who belonged to the Tartar arıny, and who are now above seventy years of age, have a man allowed to attend upon them, and excuse them from all service. To those above eighty, give a piece of silk, a catty of cotton, a shih measure of rice; and ten catties of flesh meat; and to those above ninety, double these largesses.

"Twenty-second. Let all overseers of asylums for widows and orphans, and sick people, be always attentive, and prevent any one being destitute. "Lo! now, on succecding to the throne, I shall exercise myself to give repose to the millions of my people.-Assist me to sustain the burden laid on my shoulders! With veneration I receive charge of heaven's great con- cerns.-Ye kings and statesmen, great and small, civil and military, every one be faithful and devoted, and aid in supporting the vast affair; that our family dominion may be preserved hundreds and tens of thousands of years, in never ending tranquillity and glory! Promulge this to all under heaven- cause every one to hear it !"

The following paper was issued previously to the august ceremony to which it relates, which took place on the 27th of the 8th month, and was called tăng kẽih, 'ascending the summit,' meaning evidently the summit of power, honor and glory. There does not seem to have been literally any coronation or putting on of a crown; the term, however, is a fair equivalent for the ascension act.

No. 3.

    "The members of the Board of Rites beg respectfully to state the usual ceremonies observed at the ascension of the emperors. On the day appointed for the ceremony, the commander of the foot- guards shall lead in the troops to take their station at the several gates of the imperial city. The members of the Board of Rites, and of the Hung-loo office, shall assemble in the imperial Council Cham- ber, and set the seal-table (on which the imperial seal is to be placed) in the palace of Peace, to the south of the imperial throne, and exactly in the middle. Let them set the report-table (on which the petition, requesting his majesty to ascend the throne, is to be laid) on the south side of the eastern pillar of the palace; the edict-table (on which is to be placed the imperial proclamation, announcing the ac- cession,) on the north side of the eastern pillar. Let the writing-table (on which the pencil and ink, used on the occasion, are to lie) be set on the right or left of the western pillar; and the yellow-table (from which the proclamation is to be promulged) on the red steps, (or elevation at the foot of the throne, where ministers advance to pay

1841.

The Emperor Taoukwang

93

their obeisance,) exactly in the middle. The imperial guards, both officers and men, shall then enter, and set forth, in order, the impe- rial traveling equipage, in front of the palace of Peace. They shall next make ready his majesty's foot-chariot, (i. e. one usually drawn by men) without the palace gate. The five (ancient) imperial car- riages shall then be set forth without the Woo gate. The docile elephants shall be placed to the south of the five carriages. Let them draw up the imperial horse-guards, on the right and left of the middle path of the vestibule, fronting each other, east and west. Let the imperial canopy and cloud-capt basin (in which the imperial pro- clamation, announcing the emperor's ascension, is placed) be set within the vestibule. After this, the members of the Board of Music shall arrange the ancient musical instruments, used by Shun, to the east and west, on the palace causeway; and the musical instru- ments, used on state occasions, they shall set in order within the palace. These shall be thus placed, but not (for the present) used. -Next, the musical instruments, used at the arrival and departure of his majesty, together with the dragon-dome, and the incense- dome, (i. e. a kind of portable shed, or portico) shall be set forth without the Woo gate. The officers of the Board of Public Works shall place the golden phoenix at the gate of Celestial Repose, direct- ly in the middle; and set the stage, from which the proclamation is to be made, in the first chamber, on the eastern side of the gate. The second officer of the Board of Rites, having ready the petition, (re- questing the emperor to ascend the throne) shall take it, reverently, in both his hands, and place it on the petition-table, already set on the southern side of the eastern pillar. One of the officers of the Coun- cil Chamber, taking the proclamation, to be subsequently issued, în both his hands, shall place it on the edict-table, standing to the north of the eastern pillar. One of the secretaries of the Council Chamber shall, in the same manner, take the pencil and ink-stone, and put them on the table, on the western side of the palace.

"The prime minister shall then lead forth the members of the Coun- cil Chamber to the gate of Celestial Purity (i. e. his majesty's private apartments), and beg for the imperial seal. One of the members shall receive it with profound reverence, and the prime minister shall follow him from the gate of Celestial Purity to the palace of Peace, where it shall be laid on the seal-table, which is in the middle of the hall, on the south of the imperial throne; after which they shall re- tire. Then the officers of the Hung-loo office, shall bring up the kings and nobles of the imperial kindred, from the highest down to those of the eighth rank, on the elevation at the foot of the throne. Then the great officers of state, civil and military, all in their court dresses, shall range themselves in order acccording to their rank, within the vestibule.

"At the appointed hour, the president of the Board of Rites shall go and intreat his majesty to put on his mournings, and come forth by the gate of the eastern palace, and enter at the Jeft door of the middle palace, where his majesty, before the altar of his deceased

94

The Emperor Tamukwang.

FEB.

imperial father, will respectfully announce, that he receives the decree-kneel thrice, and bow nine times.

    "This finished, the emperor will then go out by the eastern door, into the side palace. The president of the Board of Rites shall issue orders to the governor of the palace, officers of the imperial guard and the chief ministers of the interior, to go and solicit his majesty to put on his imperial robes, and proceed to the palace of his mother, the empress-dowager, to pay his respects. The enpress-dowager will put on her court robes, and ascend her throne; before which his majesty shall kneel thrice, and bow nine times. After the perform- ance of this ceremony, the governors of the palace shall let down the curtain before the door of the emperor's private apartments, and the officers of the interior imperial guards shall have in readiness the golden chariot, directly in the middle, in front of the door of the imperial residence The president of the Board of Rites shall then bring forward the officer of the Astronomical Board whose business is to observe times, to the gate of his majesty's residence, to announce the arrival of the chosen and felicitous moment. His majesty will then go out by the left door of his apartments, and mount the golden chariot. The president of the Board of Rites, together with ten of the great officers of the same Board, shall take their stations in front of the imperial chariot, to lead on the procession. Two officers of the personal guard shall walk behind. Ten chief officers of the leopard- tail legion of guards, holding spears (perhaps muskets), and ten bear- ing swords, shall form the wings of the personal guard. The proces- sion shall then move in order, to the palace of Protection and Peace, where his majesty will descend from the chariot. Here the president of the Board of Rites shall solicit his majesty to sit down in the roy- al iniddle palace.

     Then the president of the Hung-loo office shall lead forward the great officers of the interior, the officers of the imperial guard, of the Council Camber, of the National Institute, of the Chin-sze office, of the Ke-keu office, of the Board of Rites, and of the Censorate, arranging them, in front and rear, according to their rank. He shall then call upon them to kneel thrice, and bow nine times.

"This ceremony over, the president of the Board of Rites step- ping forward, shall kneel down, and beseech his majesty, saying, Ascend the imperial throne.'-The emperor shall then rise from his seat, and the procession moving on, in the same order as above described, to the imperial palace of Peace, his majesty shall ascend the seat of gems, and sit down on the imperial throne, with his face to the south. At the Woo gate the bells shall then be rung, and the drums beaten; but no other instruments of music shall be sounded. The chief officer of the imperial guards shall say aloud, strike the whip' (a brazen rod called by this name). The whip shall accord- ingly be struck below the throne. The master of the ceremonies shall command the attendant ministers to arrange themselves in ranks. The president of the Hung-loo office shall bring up the kings and dukes on the elevation, at the foot of the throne; and the master

:

1841.

The Emperor Tavukwang

33

of the ceremonies shall lead forward the civil and military officers, and range them in due order within the vestibule.

He shall say

      advance;' they shall accordingly advance. He shall say kneel;' then the kings, and all the ranks downward, shall kneel. When he says-bow your heads to the ground,'-and, ' rise,'-then the kings, and downward, shall kneel thrice, bow the head to the ground nine times, and rise accordingly. When he says retire, the kings, and downward, shall all retire, and stand in their former places.

"Then the prime minister, entering by the left door of the palace, shall go to the table, and taking the proclamation in both his hands, shall place it on the middle table; after which he shall retire for a moment, and stand with his face to the west. The president of the Council Chamber, advancing to the middle table, with his face to the north, shall seal the proclamation, and retire. The president of the Board of Rites shall then approach near; and the prime minister, taking the proclamation in both hands, shall walk out with it by the imperial door of the palace of Peace, and deliver it to the presi- dent of the Board of Rites, who shall kneel and receive it. After rising, he shall carry it to the table, in the middle of the elevation, below the throne, and lay it thereon, with profound reverence-shall kneel once, and bow to the ground three times. Next, he shall kneel and take up the proclamation in both hands-shall rise, and descend by the middle steps. The president of the Board of Rites, kneeling, shall take up with both hands the cloud-capt basin, into which he shall receive the proclamation, and then rise. The officers of the imperial guard shall spread out the yellow canopy (or umbrella) over the said basin, and go out with it by the middle door of the palace of Peace. The civil and military officers shall follow out by the gate of Resplendent Virtue, and the gate of Virgin Felicity. The chief officer of the guard shall then say strike the brazen whip;' it shall accordingly be struck thrice, below the steps.

"His majesty shall then rise, step to the back of the palace, mount his chariot, and go forth by the left door, to the outside of the door of his private apartments, where he shall descend from the chariot ; aud, entering the side palace, by the left door, shall change his robes, and return to the mat (where the funeral obsequies are perform. ed). The prime minister shall lead forward the presidents, who shall reverently take the imperial seal, and deliver it at the door of the im- perial residence, to one of the great officers of the interior.

"At this time the proclamation-bearer, taking the document in both his hands, shall proceed to the outside of the Woo gate, and place it in the dragon-dome-shall kneel once, and bow to the ground thrice. Then the officers of the guard, and sword bearers, shall carry for- ward the domes, in the following order the incense-dome in front, and the dragon-dome behind. The officers of the Board of Music shall lead on the procession, immediately behind the imperial insignia, but shall not play (the national mourning forbidding this). One of the judges of the Board of Rites shall then ascend to the tower on the wall, opposite the gate of Celestial Repose, and they shall set

96

The Emperor Tuaoukwang

FEB.

down the incense-dome: the proclamation being placed there also, in the middle of the dragon-dome. The proclamation-bearer shall then kneel once, and bow to the ground thrice; after which, taking the proclamation in both hands, he shall lay it on the yellow-table, which is placed on a high stage. The dragon and incense-domes shall be removed, and set down directly in front of the gate of Celes- tial Repose. The officers, civil and military, shall arrange them- selves at the southern end of the golden bridge. The master of the ceremonies shall say form ranks;'-also, 'enter.' The officers, civil and military, shall accordingly form ranks, and the venerable elders of the people, a little behind, shall form themselves into two files; and all stand facing the north. The herald-minister shall then ascend the stage. The master of the ceremonies shall say- 'an edict!'

         Then all shall instantly fall on their knees. The herald shall next read the proclamation, in the Chinese language, after which he retires to the table. The words bow' and 'rise' being pro- nounced (by the master of the ceremonies), and answered by three genuflections and nine prostrations, from all present, the proclama- tion-bearer, taking the said document in both hands, shall place it again in the cloud-capt basin, and suspend it, by an ornamental cord, from the bill of the golden phoenix. The judge of the Board of Rites, receiving the same, shall set it again in the dragon-dome, and going out by the gate of Exalted Purity, the procession shall be led on as formerly, by the officers of the Board of Music, behind the imperial insignia, but without playing, to the office of the Board of Rites, where, an incense-table being placed, the president of the Board of Rites shall bring forward the judges, who shall kneel thrice, and bow to the ground nine times.. These ceremonies all finished, let the proclamation be reverently printed, and promulgated throughout the empire. Such is our statement laid before your majesty."

4

The imperial pleasure, has been received thus: 'Act according to the statement. Respect this.'"

    Shortly after the new emperor had assumed the reins of govern- ment, he issued another paper. It begins abruptly, and some of the first words of the original are probably wanting.

No. 4.

    "Mine is not a vacant office. For a long period the whole empire receiv- ed from the late emperor the most gracious beneficence; the utmost liberali- ty in times of distress; and the most perfect admonition and correction. It sometimes happened that individuals willfully violated the laws; but when the time of signing death-warrants occurred, he examined the papers con- taining the cases of capital offenders with the utmost care; and if any way of saving them could be discovered, he exercised benevolence beyond the laws. All my people should be dutiful to their parents, respectful to supe- riors, ashamed of crime, and 'cherish a dread of punishment, to aid me in imitating his late majesty, wllo showed a love of the lives of others, such as heaven displays. Now, in consequence of all the kings, Tartar nobles, great statesmen, the civil and military officers, having said with one voice, Heav-

1841.

The Emperor Taoukwang.

Emperor

97

     en's throne must not be long uuoccupied, it is incumbent thạt, by the con- sent of the imperial manes, and the gods of the land, a sovereign do early assume, his sway.' In consequence of their again and again remonstrating with me, I forced myself to yield to the general voice, and interrupting, for a short time, my keen sorrows-on the 3d day of the 8th month (September 9th, 1820), having announced the circumstance to heaven and to earth, and to the mares of my imperial ancestors, I sat down on the imperial throne. Let the next year be the first of the reign of Taoukwang.

      "I look up reverently to the altars of the land and of the grain, and desire to receive, and to continue the will of my predecessors: and I profoundly hope that the imperial throne will remain eternally.

1,

      "Do all of you my relations behave as eminent worthies, you civil and military officers be unitedly faithful and devoted, and exert yourselves, that the dominion may be continued to an illimitable period, and that you may for ever enjoy the repose of a well regulated government.

"Proclaim this to the whole empire, and cause every one to know it.'

From the several foregoing papers, the reader will be able to form an opinion respecting the character of the one man who now rules, as absolute monarch, the 360,000,000 of human beings inhabiting the Chinese empire. Whether the imperial title was or was not chang- ed, there are in the history of his reign repeated instances of some. thing very much like change. Repugnant as this idea may be to the mind of a true son of Han, changes there have been, and changes there will be. There are in this, as in all other human governments, imperfections with abuses of administration, which ought to be cor- rected. It augurs well, therefore, that there are changes and signs of changes. How have Turkey and Egypt changed their relations! And must not China and Japan likewise change? If illustrious reason, instead of brute force, is to have ascendency here, then well; and the changes, for the amelioration of the condition of the people, and the improvement of the state, shall be hailed with acclamations of joy.

/

It is not right to speak evil of dignities, and we forbear to repeat sundry idle tales which have been told derogatory to the character of his majesty. During the twenty years he has filled the throne, there has been a very tolerable degree of prosperity, though the present state of affairs is by no means flattering or pleasing to the imperial mind. But we will not dwell on this topic. Some noble and valorous acts are put to the credit of the emperor. In the 18th year of his illus- trious father's reign, when a plot was formed to destroy the monarch and subvert the government, the young prince (though ignorant of his being the heir, the will of his father not having then been made

VOL. X. NO. II.

13

98

The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps.

FEB.

known,) with his own hand destroyed two of the rebels who were at- tempting to climb over the palace walls. This bold act caused the other rebels to fall back with terror, and thus the sacred abode was preserved in quiet. Judging from the protrait which we have seen, his majesty is tall, thin, and of a dark complexion. He is now sixty years of age, and apparently strong and robust. He is reputed to be "of a generous disposition, diligent, attentive to government, and economical in his expenditure." He is greatly revered by his subjects, and apparently much swayed by the counsels of his minis- ters, of whom some are very able men,-though we much fear as he says, "they know not what truth is." Of the emperor's present line of policy much remains to be said. It will be questioned and scanned as that of his predecessors never was. The old order of things is passing away, and now→

Magnus ab integro sêclorum nascitur ordo.

ART. V. The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps, compiled from the

History of the Three States.*

As the insurrection, that ended in that dismemberment of the Chi- nese empire which became the foundation of the popular San Kwŏ Che, or "History of the Three States," forms the subject of an in- teresting passage in the records of former times, we take the liberty of inserting, in the pages of the Repository, a short digest of the account of the rise and progress of the Yellow Caps to the death of their first leaders, as given in the first and second sections of that work.

The history of the Three States-Shŭh, Wei, and Woo-opens by dating the origin of those causes, which led to the division of the empire into three kingdoms, at the reigns of Hwan (A. D. 147) and Ling (a. D. 168), the immediate predecessors of Heuen, the last emper- or of the Han dynasty. The historian finds occasion for the civil wars, that caused the downfall of that house and disjointed the whole em- pire, in the corrupt state of the government, which had shut up the avenues to preferment against the good and the wise, and admitted See volume seventh, number fifth, pp 232-249, for a brief account of this

work.

1841.

The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps.

99

eunuchs, that class of weak, low, and depraved courtiers,into the councils of the state. It was the emperor Hwan who began this course of degeneracy, and the dire consequences of it were gradually evinced during the reign of his successor, more weak than himself. Soon after Ling had ascended the throne, signs most strange and alarming appeared in the heavens and on the earth, all portentous of some approaching calamity. The sagacious and patriotic of the princes knew full well the occasion of all this, and presumed to warn their sovereign of a crisis at hand. His own fears were to some de- gree excited, but they were speedily dispelled by the craft of the eunuchs, who induced their master to degrade those ministers, who had dared to remonstrate with imperial majesty. Finding that their opportunity had now come, the eunuchs formed themselves into a body of counselors, called the shĩh chang she, or "the_ten constant attendants," and, enjoying the emperor's implicit confidence, they took the reins of government into their own hands. Having thus briefly pointed out the causes of future calamities, the historian, like a patriot, sighs over the weaknesses of his sovereign and the misfor- tunes of his country, "Alas, my father! The imperial government waxed worse every day, until there was universal disaffection, and marauders rose up like wasps.'

"

At this time, when the country had become disposed for change, a leader appeared in a family of the principality of Keuluh. In this family there were three brothers, whose surname was Chang. Chang Keo, the eldest of them, was chief in the insurrection, to which he bad been incited by an interview with a singular personage, who gave himself out to be one of the mountain genii. This sage of Nanhwa called Chang Keò aside, and put a book into his hands, at the same time announcing that he was to be the "liberator_mundi," and threatening the worst of evils, if he should decline his appoint- ment. On this, the stranger vanished. Keo took the book and de- voted himself to its study, till at length he gained superhuman power, and was able to control the elements of nature.

     It happened, that in the eighteenth year of Ling's reign, and in the first month, a pestilence broke out, and raged furiously among the people. During that plague, Chang Keò rendered himself po- pular, in curing large numbers by the successful use of magical papers and charm-waters, and increased his own influence by send- ing forth, to every part of the country, men who had been inspired by him, with supernatural virtue to overcome the same distemper. In this way he gained the confidence of myriads, who were disposed by

'100

The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps,

TES.

him in various districts under regular leaders, and he only waited for a fit time when to carry his projects into execution.

    Very shortly after, he gave out that the time had arrived, when the reigning family should cease and give place to another line of em- perors; and he assured his countrymen that heaven would favor them, as a new cycle was just opening. Thus he won an immense

body of the nation over to his side. To render the plot complete, he sent one of his trusty followers to form an alliance with one of the eunuchs, and, lest they should lose the present opportunity through delay, he dispatched a second confidant to apprize the intriguing party at court of the badge adopted by their allies, and of the day when they would rise; but the messenger, who had been intrusted with the final instructions, repented and discovered the scheme to the imperial cabinet.

    This disclosure led to the immediate seizure and imprisonment of Fung Seu and his party, who formed the court cabal; and the imperial troops were ordered out to crush the first symptoms of insurrection.

When the rebel generals Chang Keo, Chang Paou, and Chang Leäng heard that their secrets had been betrayed, they took it as a sign for an instantaneous rise, and, assuming high sounding titles, they put forth a public manifesto, calling for the aid of their countrymen- They were at once joined by 400,000 or 500,000 men, who all wore yellow caps, in sign of their attachment to the new cause, from which circumstance this insurrection is generally designated in history, "the rebellion of the Yellow Caps." While the rebels were scattering themselves over the country, orders were issued by the emperor that every district should be in readiness to defend itself; and that three of his chung lang tseäng (high generals) should proceed with troops to subdue the Yellow Caps.

    The first act of aggression, on the part of the malcontents, was in the district of Yew, the lieutenant of which immediately issued a pro- clamation for a general levy of troops.This call brought forth the famous Lew Pe Heuentih, a descendant in the line of the Han family, who, it had been predicted by his relatives and comrades, would some day rise to eminence. It, at the same time, brought Heventih

· in contact with the heroes Chang Fei and Kwan Yu, the result of which interview was that these three persons entered into a solemn covenant, to stand by each other in supporting the interests of the house of Han, and to keep the unity of mind and purpose inviolate.

Thus leagued, these heroes of the San Kwo Che sally forth to join the ranks of lieutenant Law Yen, who gladly welcomed them.

1841.

The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps,

101

His excellency, hearing in a few days that a party of the enemy was coming down upon one of his districts, gave orders to his officer Trow Tsing, to proceed against them and avail himself of the assistance of Heuentih, whose comrades signalized themselves in the first onset, by killing-the one a colonel, the other the general of the rebel troops. On this, a large body of the enemy seeing themselves thus early de- prived of some of their leaders, joined the imperial party; and the leutenant of Yew conferred rewards on the victors.

But, on the day following the victory, he received a dispatch from the governor of Tsing department, to 'the effect that he was placed in imminent danger by the siege, which had been laid against him. His request, that auxiliaries should be sent to him, was forthwith grant- ed; and in a very little time the siege was raised, chiefly through the stratagems of the three brothers:

Immediately on the distribution of rewards by the gov. of Tsing, Heuentih and his comrades separated themselves from the troops of Yew, to hasten to the relief of Loo Chili, (Heuentih's former tutor, and one of the chunglang tseäng already spoken of,) who was then en- gaged in contest with Chang Keỡ, the leader of the rebellion. On their reaching the scene of warfare, Loo Chih was much pleased with this mark of attachment in his late pupil, but directed him to proceed to the assistance of his colleagues Hwangfoo Sung and Choo Sun who were, in the Ying district, waging war against Chang Keo's brothers. While Heuentih was advancing towards Ying, the imperialists had routed the Yellow Caps,-who fled in all directions before the con- At that instant, another hero of those times, Teaou Tsaou, (called by a Spanish writer the Buonaparte of China,') made his appearance, to share in the glory and the spoils of the day.-This Tsaou Tsaou displayed early in life a roving and wily disposition, which it was impossible for his father or his uncle to curb. However, men perceived that he was qualified for the times, and foresaw his future eminence, at the prediction of which Tsaou Tsaon was not a little delighted. At the age of twenty, he entered office, and con- ducted himself with strict impartiality, so that he became a terror to evil-doers. · After a few minor promotions, he was made an officer of cavalry, and it was then he led forth a company to assist the im- perial house.

1

5.1.

:

   · Heuentsh arrived only in season to congratulate the victors on the repulse of the enemy, and detailed his interview with his tutor Loo Chih, to whom the two chung lang tseäng directed the three bro- thers to return, as they felt persuaded the fugitives would immediate-

102

The Rebellion of the Yellors Caps.

FEI.

ly resort to Kwangtsung, where Chang Keo was besieged by. Loo Chĩh. The brothers at once retraced their steps, but had proceeded only half the distance, when they met Loo Chỉh confined in a cage and guarded by a party of soldiers, who were conducting him to the capital. The captive explained that he had been maligned at court, and that, under the false representations of a crown officer, who had been sent down to extort money from him but had failed in his at- tempts, he had orders from the emperor to hasten to the capital for examination, and that meanwhile Tung Cho was appointed to super- intend those hostilities against the chief Chang Keŏ, which had wek uigh been closed, but for this unhappy interruption. Chang Fei, when he heard this account, got furious, and was on the point of cutting down the guards with his sword, when Heuentih quieted him by the irresistible argument that, as it was the emperor's will, nothing could be done in opposition to it. So Loo Chỉh was allowed to pass on to meet his doom.

At the advice of Kwan Yu, the sworn brothers resolved to returù without delay, to their native district. But on their progress north- ward, they perceive, from the din of war, that conflicting parties are at hand. It is the imperial bands routed and put to flight by Chang Keo's overpowering numbers. Heuentih and his friends take a stand and, by a vigorous attack, beat the rebels back, and saved the honor of the throne. It was Tung Chŏ (Loo Chĩh's substitute,) who had been thus rescued by an unknown branch of the imperial house, but this general treated his deliverers only with disrespect, which the ever ardent Chang Fei could not brook, and he swore that nothing should appease him, short of the blood of the haughty and uncivil Tung Chŏ.

1

However, his brothers Heuentih and Kwan Yu successfully remon- strated with him; but, as it was their united opinion, that, rather than join the corps of such an officer, they should put themselves under the banner of Choo Sun one of his colleagues, they accordingly pro- ceeded to enter his ranks, and were treated by him with all urbanity. As that general was engaged in an attack on the rebel Paou's forces, he took the faithful three with him. In this instance, Heuentih also -signalized himself in a close combat with one of the enemy's colonels, whom he left dead on the field. A general engagement instantly ensued, when general Paou, by some magical art (which produced a storm of wind and thunder, and drew down a black cloud from -heaven, in which appeared a countless ́host of matchless warriors,)

drove his opponents back in fear and consternation.

N

66

1841.

The Rebellion of the Yellow Caps.

103

But, on the next assault, Paou's juggle was not so successful, as it was rendered futile by the superior stratagem of Choo Sun. He, im- mediately after he found Paou having recourse to his magical powers, had arranged that a quantity of the blood of pigs, sheep, and dogs, should be collected and carried up to a neighboring height, and that, on the first appearance of the same phenomena which had occurred before, this should be poured down. When the assault was made,

· Chang Paoù acted the magician, there was a tremendous wind and thunder, the sand flew, and the stones ran (along the ground), a black cloud overcast the sky, and an immense number of men and horses fell from heaven." Heuentih turned his horse and hastily retreated, while Chang Paou pursued him, with all his men, as far as the ris ing ground, when the mixture was thrown down from its top, and then there could be seen. "in the air, paper-men and grass-horses, falling in confusion to the ground. The wind and thunder ceased, nor did the sand and stones continue to fly about." Chang Paou, finding himself baffled in this attempt, was obliged to flee for his life, and, with difficulty reached one of his fortresses, where he shut himself up and his troops.

While Choo Sun was occupied in besieging Chang Paou, he heard that his colleague Hwangfoo Sung, had been appointed to take the place of Tung Cho, whose frequent losses had occasioned his degradaṛ tion from office; that, when Hwangfoo entered upon his office, Chang Keò died, and was succeeded in command by his brother Chang Leäng; that Chang Leäng had been cut off by Hwang, for which achievement the emperor promoted him, and yielded to his interces- sions in behalf of the defamed Loo Chih, whose misfortune has been noticed; and that Tsaou Tsaou also had been promoted in consi- deration of the services, he had lent in support of the imperial cause. Choo Sun, on hearing all this intelligence was stimulated to a simul- taneous attack of the town, in which Chang Paou had taken shelter, and he brought the besieged to such a stress at length, that one, of Paon's own officers beheaded his master and delivered up the city to the imperial general. Thus fell the first leaders of "the rebellion of the Yellow Caps."

W. C.

108

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

FEB.

ART. VI. Illustrations of men ́and things in China: priest col- leeting paper; uses of blood; mode of cutting glass; a 'China-

mar.

   PRIEST collecting paper.I met a respectable looking Budhistic priest one day, perambulating the streets with two small baskets slung on his arm, on which were written the four characters

king seth tsze che, meaning, 'respect and pity paper having charac" tera on it.' I asked him what he was doing; 'I am going about picking up all written paper,' said he, "lest sacred names should be defiled.' His baskets, "so far as I could see, held as much orange peel as paper; but I suppose he thought that all useful things coming in his way, were not to be passed by, any more than pieces of written paper. This respect for paper! with characters on it is universal among the Chinese, and among this class of religionists it is deemsed meritorious to go about and rescue all printed and writteń paper from defilement. The reader must not infer, however, that this is done gratuitously, for the priests collect money, from shopmen and others who write much, in order to pay themselves for picking up waste paper in the streets in their stead; thus making gain out of their reverence for holy characters.

i

    Uses of blood-Thé butcher receives the blood of the ox or hog iniò a tub, and after it coagulates, drains off the watery serum, and sends the rest to market. It is cooked in various ways by the people, both alone and combined with other viands. The blood of ducks, after co- agulation, is warmed over a fire, and when the color has changed, and the mass become a little concrete, it is cut into cakes and ex- posed for sale lying in water; the purchaser adds salt and other condiments when he cooks it a second time. The blood of hogs and cattle is also extensively used as a paste. It is, after coagula- tion, thoroughly worked by squeezing it through a handful of straw, to separate the fibrine, and then kimmered over a slow fire with the addition of a little lime. When made it is of a dingy-red color; it must be used soon, for it spoils in a day or two; the shopmen paper tea-chests, boxes of goods, &c., with this paste.

י'

    Mode of cutting glass.-The diamond and corundum are both employed by glaziers; they select the natural grains, or break them into fragments, and insert them in a pencil, so as to expose a corner; none of the lapidaries here can cut these genis. The

1841.

Illustrations of Men and Things in China,

105

itinerating workmen who mend and clamp broken glass and china-. ware, have one set into the point of their drill. But the corundum is. far too expensive for a common workman, and he employs another method of trimming his pane of glass. He marks an ink-line where he wishes it to be divided, and then files a notch on the edge to com- mence after this, he slowly follows up the line with a lighted joss- stick; the glass cracks pretty evenly after the fire, which is detained upon a spot until it splits; the edge of the pane is rather uneven,

                                                   but the putty, says he, will hide all those defects.

A 'Chinaman.'-What a number of things there are to which we prefix the adjective China as a convenient mode of designating them! Porcelain and China are synonymous with many persons; a set of chi- na, or chinaware, China silks, China sweetmeats, China root, China orange, China rose, are all sufficiently marked merely by the adjec- tive; for ages have the productions of this country excited the com. mercial enterprise of other lands, so that the terms China ship, China merchant, and China cargo, in common life, designate a peculiar branch of commerce. But among all the odd things this country produces, a Chinaman himself is the oddest. Ever since the day

:

when Milton sang.

1

Of Sericana, where Chineses drive, With sails and wind their cany wagons light,'

down to these matter-of-fact times of tea and Patna, a Chinese has remained an image of himself. He is, in truth, a curious speci- men. Judge him by our standard, and he is to it a very antipodes, but weigh him in his own scales, he is of great gravity; try him by his own measure he is faultless. It is hard to say which of the two standards is the best for arriving at a fair decision. Next to the son of heaven, a true Chinese thinks himself to be the greatest man in the world; and China, beyond all comparison, to be the most civilized, the most learned, the most fruitful, the most ancient-in short, the best country under the starry canopy. It is useless te toll him to the contrary, for he will no more believe you than you do him; "If your country is so good, why do you come here after tea and thubarb?" is a puzzler ;-"If your people are so good why do you bring opium here to destroy us?" is unanswerable in his mind to prove his own goodness and our wickedness;- "We can do with- out you, but you cannot live without us," says he, to clinch them both; and when a Chinese is thus intrenched in his own wisdom, he is beyond persuasion.

If we examine some of the minuter shades of his character we

VOL. X. NO, IĮ.

14

106

Mustrations of Men and Things in China.

FEB.

shall at once perceive that he was cast in a different mold from us barbarians;' and albeit the outlines of the two are alike, their finish is quite diverse. Let us glance at some of these lesser traits, as they are grouped in the following sketch:

    "On inquiring of the boatman in which direction our port lay, I was answered west-north; and the wind, he said, was east-south. We do not say so, in Europe,' thought I, but imagine my surprise when in explaining the utility of the compass, he added that the needle pointed south. On landing, the first object that attracted my attention was a military mandarin, who wore an embroidered petticoat, with a string of beads around his neck, and a fan in his hand. His insignia of rank was a button on the apex of his sugar- loaf cap, instead of a star on his breast, or epaulettes on his shoulders; and it was with some dismay, I observed him mount on the right side of his horse. Several scabbards hung from his belt, which of course I thought must contain dress-swords or dirks, but on venturing near through the crowd of atten. dants, I was surprised to see a pair of chopsticks and a knife-handle sticking put of one, and soon his fan was folded up and put into the other, whereupon I concluded he was going to a dinner instead of a review. The natives around me had their hair all shaven on the front of their head, and let it grow as long as it would behind; many of them did not shave their faces, but their mustaches were made to grow perpendicularly down over their mouths, and lest some straggling hairs should diverge cheek-ways, the owners were busily employed pulling them down. We arrange our toilettes different- ly in Europe,' thought I, but could not help acknowledging the happy device of chopsticks, which enabled these gentlemen to put their food 'into the mouth endwise, underneath this natural fringe.

་ ་

$

"On my way to the house where I was to put up, I saw a group of old peu- ple, some of whom were graybeards; a few were chirruping and chuckling ¡to singing birds, which they carried perched on a stick or in cages; others were catching flies to feed the birds; and the remainder of the party seemed to be delightedly employed in flying fantastic paper kites, while a group of boys were gravely looking on, and regarding these innocent occupations of their seniors with the most serious and gratified attention. As I had come to the country to reside for sometime, I made inquiries respecting a teacher, 'and the next morning found me provided with one who happily understood English. On entering the room, he stood at the door, and instead of coming forward and shaking my hands, he politely bowed, and shook his own before This breast. I looked upon this custom as a decided improvement upon our mode, especially in doubtful cases; and requested him to be seated. I knew 1 was about to study a language without an alphabet, but was somewhat astonished to find him begin at what I had all my life previously considered the end of the book. He read the date of the publication, The fifth year, tenth month, and first day. We arrange our dates differently,' I observed, and begged him to begin to read, which he did from the top to the bottom, then proceeding from the right to the left. You have an odd book here,"

i

"}

C

1841.

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

10%

remarked 1, taking it out of his hands; and looking farther, saw that the running title was on the edge of the leaves instead of the top; that the pag- ing was near the bottom; that the marginal notes were on the top of the page; that the blank space at the top of the page was very much larger than at the bottom; that the blanks for correction were large black squares in the middle of the column · instead of white openings ;* that the back was open, and the name written on the bottom edge; and lastly that the volume had d heavy line near the middle of every page, which he said separated the two works contained in it. I asked the price of the work, and he said it was a dollar and eight thirds, and on counting out $34 he gave me back $21, say- ing I had paid him too much; I asked an explanation, and learned that in China eight thirds meant three eighths; a long time after 1 learned still fur- ther that it was really eight divided by three, a mode of expression, which, by placing the numerator after the denominator, is just opposite our own. An- other small volume which he took out of his pocket, had the number and caption of the chapters at the foot instead of the head; and my astonishment was increased, when on requesting him to find a word in a small dictionary, he told me the words were arranged by the end instead of the beginning→→ ming, sing, king, being all in a row..

44

Giving the book back to him, I begged him to speak of ceremony. He commenced by saying, When you receive a distinguished guest, do not fail to place him on your left hand, for that is the seat of honor; and be cantious 'not to uncover the head, as it would be an unbecoming act of familiarity.' This was a severe 'below to any established notions, but re- quested him to continue. He reopened the volume, and read with becoming gravity, The most learned men are decidedly of opinion, that the seat of the human understanding is in the belly.' 'Better say it is in the feet, and done with it,' exclaimed I, for this so shocked all my principles of correct philoso- phy, that I immediately shut up the book, and dismissed my moonshe to come another day.

     "On going abroad, I met so many things contrary to all my preconceived ideas of propriety, that I readily assented to a friend's observation that the Chinese were our antipodes in many things besides geography.' 'Indeed,' said I, 'it is so; I shall almost expect shortly to see a man walking on his head; look, there's a woman in trowsers, and a party of gentleman in petticoats; she is smoking a segar, and they are fauning themselves; but I was taught not to trust to appearances too much, when on passing them, I saw the latter wore tight under-garments. We soon after met the comprador of the house dressed in a complete suit of white, and I stopped and asked him what mer- ry making, he was invited to; with a look of the deepest concern, he said, he was just returning from burying his father. Soon we passed a house, where we heard sobbing and crying, and desiring to alleviate grief, I inquir- ed who was ill. The man, suppressing a smile, said, it is a young girl just about leaving her father's house to be married, and she is lamenting

The black places which occur in some books, as for instance the Court Ca- lendar, are'caused by the block being left uncut for subsequent correction.

108

Memorial from Keshen.

FEB:

with a party of her fellows.' I thought, after these unlucky essays, I would ask no more questions; but carefully use my eyes instead. Looking into a shop, I saw a stout strapping fellow sowing lace on a bonnet; and going on to the landing-place, behold, there all the ferry-boats were rowed by women; and from a passage-boat just arrived, I saw the females get out of the cabin which was in the bow. What are we coming to next? said I, and just by I saw a carpenter take his foot-rule out of his stocking, to measure some timber, which his apprentice was cutting with a saw that had the blade set nearly at right angles with the frame. Before his door sat a man busily engaged in whitening the soles of a pair of shoes with white lead. We next passed a fashionable lady who was just stepping out of her chair, hobbling, I should rather say; for unlike our ladies with their com- pressed waists, her feet were not above three inches long; and her gown; instead of having gores sewed into the bottom, was so contracted by embroi- dered plaits as apparently to restrain her walking. Come let us return home,' said I, * for 1 am quite whirled about in this strange land.'"

    This sketch will somewhat illustrate a Chinaman's ideas of pro- priety; it is very manifest from it that there is no accounting for or reasoning against tastes, and that if we wish to judge fairly of many things that he does, and of many of his notions, some know- ledge of their rationale is desirable. If this his outer man is unlike what we deem good taste, we shall find, alas, that his inner man is much more unlike, much farther estranged from what we are taught to regard as (and know to be) good morals.

ART. VII. Memorial from Keshen, concerning the attack on Chuen-

pe; with replies thereto from the emperor.

MEMORIAL from your majesty's slave, Keshen, with reference to the English foreigners' not waiting for replies, but straightway attacking the forts of Shakok and Taikok ;-even now, while the contest, yet rests undecided, is this report sent with all speed, by an express, traveling diligently more than 500 le daily, in order to be humbly submitted to your majesty's sacred perusal.

·

After your slave had this morning dispatched his respectful re- port, regarding the communication he had prepared to send in answer to the English foreigners, and regarding the actual warlike display ́of banners,-a dispatch was received by express, at a later period of

1841.

Memorial from Kesken.

109

the day, from your minister, Kwan Teenpei, the commander-in-chief of the naval forces. It reported, that all the vessels of the English foreigners had weighed anchor, during the morning of the 7th, and in distinct squadrons had proceeded to attack the forts of Shakok and Taikok, outside the Bocca Tigris: that the fire of the guns was kept up incessantly, and the contest sustained all around, from 8 a.m. till 2 e. M., during which the foreign vessels had fired above 10 [rounds of] cannon: that our forces, with all their strength and energy, responded to the attack, till about 2 P. M., when from a dis- tance some of the foreigners were seen to have fallen into the water: that, as it happened, the tide began to ebb, and the foreign vessels ceased firing, and are now anchored in the middle of the stream; between Shakok and Taikok, each side maintaining its ground: that, probably, with the making of the flood, the next morning, the con- test would recommence :: and, further, that there were four steam- vessels, which fell upon the war junks, but finding the attack res- ponded to by our vessels, drew off again without having decided the contest on either side.

་ །

     Your slave, since his arrival at Canton, has in repeated instances exchanged communications with the English foreigners: and has at all times given them admonitory commands, with mildness: and as regards the several things solicited by them, though he has not been able completely to satisfy their rapacious cravings, still he has with a liberal hand granted a measure of what they desired. Yet these foreigners, on the present occasion, having, upon the 6th, sent in a foreign letter, hastily, on the morning of the 7th, without waiting for a reply, proceeded straightway to attack the forts→ to such a degree has their presumptuous overbearing and unruly violence been car- ried! Some, giving their advice on this matter, express it as their opinion, that if the whole defensive and preventive guard be firmly maintained, that will suffice in time to weary them out. Or, it is said, if they only be granted commercial intercourse, a restraining cordon may then be kept around what they have. Whether or not these schemes are worthy of coufidence, your sacred majesty's wisd om and thorough knowledge will determine,-and to escape it would be impossible.

·

     These foreigners, now, having dared to commence this attack, and having begun troubling and disturbing, the present quarrel is then of their own creation; in their behalf nothing can be said; and, as they would not wait for the communication prepared for them, there would be no propriety in now sending it to them.

110

Memorial from Keshen.

FER:

The fort of Shakok stood solitary, cut off by the sea; and it is to be observed, that, before this collision, from apprehension that it was insufficiently protected, 200 men of the lieut.-governor's brigade had been sent to occupy the important entrance into Tungkwan district; and 200 of the personal brigade of the commander-in-chief had been sent to defend such places as should need increased protection.

The fortified point of Taikok nearly adjoins the range of land call- ed Nansha (the southern sands), and it is to be apprehended, lest the said foreigners, making a cireuit behind the hills should make their way inwards. Having sent an express to your majesty's minister, Kwan, the commander-in-chief, 'to inquire of him what points will require the addition of forces, he has himself personally examined those positions near to that place, where it will be suitable to post military guards, and having reported the same he has received in- structions accordingly to post forces thereat. At the same time direc- tions have been given, to prepare, with all celerity, large quantities of gunpowder, iron ball, and so forth, sufficient, it is hoped, for many months' use,-in order thus to facilitate the defense of the various places.

The Bocca Tigris is the post of which the commander-in-chief retains the defense. To cooperate with and aid him in its defense, your slave has sent Le, general of the Chaouchow division, who will be able to give him efficient counsel and assistance.

    A detachment of naval forces has also been posted on shore at Woochung kow, distant about sixty le (roughly, about 20 miles) from the city of Canton; the river has been filled up by sinking stones; and rafts of spars have been so placed as to prevent any passage beyond. These arrangements were all, on the 27th of December, successively reported complete, under the superintendence of the chunghei, Keshow, and the foosze, Cho Szeleảng.

    At Canton itself, adjoining the walls of the city, are the houses of the people, rendering it a matter of difficulty to fire from thence- But at the same time, the river flows all round, leaving no place for the epcampment of troops. There are found, however, on the river itself, forts of old standing, for the better defense of which the gar- risons have been increased-and to such as have flats adjoining them, encamped forces have also been attached, to aid in the defense of each place. 12

   With regard to the provinces of Fuhkeën and Chěkeäng, your slave, as early as the first decade of last month (the close of Novem- ber), having carefully inquired into the actual and daily more press-

1841.

The Emperor's Reply.

ing condition of things with all the said foreigners, felt reason to apprehend that they might go to other ports and inlets; and therefore communications were immediately sent to your majesty's minister Woo Wanyung, governor of Fuhkeën and Chěkeäng, and to the high commissioner in Chěkeäng, Elepoo, to afford them every informa- tion; and they were moved to transmit the same information to the adjoining government of Keängsoo, that there also all requisite ob- servation and defense might be maintained. The distance being however considerable, and the regulation of the governmental posts being rather lax, it is uncertain whether the dispatches then sent will have yet arrived, and whether the information sent has been communicated to the various provinces along the coast.

      Whether or not our forces have suffered in this conflict, and tò what extent wounds may have been inflicted, shall be reported with all haste as soon as ascertained. And of the state of things hencefor- ward, full reports shall be transmitted from time to time. The me- morial is now first sent by an express, traveling with diligence to exceed the rate of 500 le daily, in order to convey intelligence of the circumstances attending the attack made by these foreigners, with- out waiting for replies, and of the collision which in consequence took place. · The memorial is respectfully submitted, imploring the august sovereign to cast on it his sacred glance. (Jan. 8th, 1841.)

     Imperial edict-issued on the 5th day of the 1st month (January 27th, 1841:)..

#

}

|

I

A report has been received from Keshen, setting forth the circum- stançes, of an attack on, and capture of, certain forts, by the English foreigners...

These rebellious foreigners, from the time of their return to Can- ton, have been daily increasing in disorderliness and insubordination. And we have therefore issued repeated and strict commands to all thé provinces, that the most attentive and well ordered guard of pre- vention; should be maintained; and that fit occasion should be taken to proceed against them for their destruction. With what care, then, did it become all the high officers, civil and military, of the 'pro- wincés, to have arranged their defense! But to-day, the report is

· received: from: Keshen, that where he is, the fort of Shakok has been attacked and taken by the rebellious foreigners, and that that of Taikok: also has been destroyed; and withal that the soldiery of the government have fallen, dead and wounded, and the naval vessels have been carried off and plundered. It is plain from this, that the

:

112

The Emperor's Reply.

FEB.

   said acting governor, and his fellow-officers, have in no way taken the needful preparative arrangements for prevention and defense. Let the proper Board take into its severest consideration the conduct of Keshen. At the same time, let him have direction of the forces sent from all parts, and exert his utmost efforts to drive off or destroy these foreigners, speedily reporting an entire victory.-Kwan Teën- pei, though, filling the post of commander-in-chief, and having under his control the whole naval force, has shown himself at all times devoid of talent to direct, and, on the approach of a crisis, perturbed, alarmed, and resourceless. Let his button and insignia of rank be at once taken from him,-but let him, at the same time, bearing his offenses, labor to attain merit, and show forth his after-endeavors. The said acting governor and his colleagues will make clear inquiry and full report as to all the officers, subalterns, and soldiers, wounded or slain. Respect this.

1.

!

i

}

    On the same 27th day of January, this further imperial edict was issued.

An express from Keshen reports that the rebellions foreigners have attacked and destroyed certain forts. In consequence of the daily increasing disorderliness and insubordination of these rebellious fo- reigners, our commands were before repeatedly issued, declaring it as our pleasure, that secure preparative arrangements should be made, and fit occasion taken to proceed to their destruction-considering that they have coveted Canton, and that not merely for a day.

The said high commissioner, sustaining a most weighty trust,--- and knowing, as he did, that the temper of these foreigners is proud and overbearing, seeing also that the military condition of the pro- -vince where he is has fallen into decay for this long time past,-

   should have begun with defensive precautions, with the view of being prepared to avert any disaster. Yet is this report now received from kim, that the rebellious foreigners have seized upon the fort of Sha- kok, and further attacked that of Taikok. From the fact that, when, these, foreigners, on the 7th of January, let loose their passions, and began firing upon these two forts, they were at once able to destroy them, it is to be seen, that no preparations whatever could have been made in that province: such neglect calls forth bitter indigna- tion. Our commands have therefore been plainly declared, that Keshen and Kwan Teënpei be, the last deprived of his button and other insignia of rank, and the former subjected to the severest con- sideration of his conduct. ·

1841.

The Emperor's Reply.

113

The rebellious dispositions of these foreigners being now plainly manifested, there remains no other course than, without remorse, to destroy and wash them clean away, and thus to display the majesty of the empire. What room can there yet be left for showing them consideration and exhibiting to them reason! Expresses have con- sequently been sent to Hoonan, Szechuen, and Kweichow, to direct that forces be sent from each of those provinces, with all speed, to Canton. And to Keängse, an express has also been sent, directing that the 2000 men before ordered from thence shall proceed with all haste to join these. All the forces of the province of Kwangtung itself shall be under the control and direction of the said acting governor. And, the posture of affairs being at this time urgent and pressing, let him at once proceed to occupy each several post and passage of im- portance: let him not suffer the least remissness or negligence to appear. The forces ordered from various parts may all successively reach Canton within the second month (beginning 21st February). And let him then proceed immediately to take command of all the officers and subalterns, and lead them on to the extermination of these foreigners, thus hoping to atone for and save himself.

     Regarding the forts of Kwangtung, it was before represented by Tăng and his then colleagues, that they were protected by rafts and chains thrown across so as to stop the progress of the foreign vessels. Let Keshen, then, ascertain and duly report, whether or not these places now taken, Shakok and Taikok, are the same places (as those where the rafts were thrown across). That these commands may be made known-let them be sent by an express traveling 600 le (about 200 miles) daily. Respect this.

Upon the same day this further imperial edict was also received: Our ruling dynasty has kept in good order and discipline the ex- terior foreigners, wholly by the perfect exercise of good favor and of justice. So long as those foreigners have been truly compliant and dutiful, they have unfailingly been treated with generous liberality,- in the hope that all might rejoice together in the blessing of peace.

     Some time back, owing to the daily increasing prevalence of the poisonous opium, introduced by western foreigners, commands were issued to make vigorous endeavors to arrest the growing contumacy. But the English alone, staying themselves upon their pride of power and fierce strength, would not give the required bonds; and for this it was commanded, that they should be cut off from commercial intercourse. But, in place of repenting themselves, they daily in- creased in boastful arrogance. And suddenly, in the 6th month of

VOL. X. NO. H.

15

;

114

The Emperor's Reply.

FEB.

last year, they went so far as to invade with several tens of vessels, Abe district of Tinghae, seizing and occupying its chief town. And they further came and went, as they would, along the coasts of the several provinces of Fuhkeën, Chěkeäng, Keängsoo, Shantung, Chih- le, and Moukden, causing disturbance and trouble in many ways. The violence, presumption, and disobedience, of these rebellious foreigners having reached such a degree,-it would have been no hard thing to array our forces, and to exterminate and cut them off utterly. But, considering that these foreigners had presented letters, complaining of what they called grievances and oppressions, it was deemed unsuitable to refuse to make investigations for them, and thus to fail of displaying the perfect justice of our rule. Hence special commands were given to our minister, Keshen, to proceed with speed, to Canton, and to examine and act according to the facts. Had these foreigners possessed a spark of heaven-bestowed goodness, they would assuredly all have returned to Canton to await his arrange- ment of matters. But a half only weighed their anchors and proceed- ed southward, while a half still remained at Tinghae,-thus exhibit- ing the craft and slipperiness of their dispositions, too clearly to need pointing out. And we have recently received intelligence, that at Tinghae, during these months past, they have debauched and ravish- ed women, plundered and carried off property, erected fortifications, and opened out canals,-even setting up a mock officer, to issue pro- clamations demanding of the people payment of the revenue. What evil have our people done, to be subjected to this bane and hurt? To speak, or to think, thereof removes even from sleep and from food their enjoyment. After the arrival of Keshen at Canton, when he proceeded plainly to admonish and point out the right course, they still continued insatiable in their covetous desires. Having first thought to extort the cost of the opium, they further requested that places of trade should be given them.

   We had anticipated finding them changeable and inconstant, and had estimated them as persons not to be influenced by truth and jus- tice we had, therefore, made provision, last year, for the selection of veteran troops, of the provinces of Szechuen, Hoonan, and Keängse, to be ordered for service in Kwangtung; and we had also ordered forces from Hoonan, Hoopib, and Nganhwuy, to proceed to Chekeäng, as a precaution against attack. And now the report received by express from Keshen is, that on the 15th day of the 12th month of last year (7th January, 1841), these foreigners, in combina- tion with Chinese traitors, proceeded on board many vessels, directly

1841.

The Emperor's Reply.

113

for the offing of the Bocca Tigris; and that, having opened the thun- der of their fire, they inflicted wounds upon our officers and soldiers, and also destroyed the fort of Taikok, and possessed themselves of that of Shakok. Thus rebellious have they been against heaven, op- posers of reason, one in spirit with the brute beasts,-beings that the overshadowing vault and all-containing earth can hardly suffer to live, obnoxious to the wrathful indignation alike of angels and of men. There can only remain one course, to destroy and wipe them clean away, to exterminate and root them out, without remorse. Then shall we manifestly discharge our heaven-conferred trust, and show our regard for the lives of our people.

       The various forces that have been ordered for service must now speedily reach their posts. Let Elepoo instantly advance with the forces under him, and recover Tinghae, that he may revive its peo ple from their troubles. And let Keshen on his part, stir up the soldiery, and with energy and courage proceed right on, making it his determined aim, to compel these rebellious foreigners to give up their ringleaders, that they may be sent encaged to Peking, to re- ceive the utmost retribution of the laws. The base and vile fellows among those foreigners, and the Chinese traitors who abet their re- bellious practices, are yet more to be sought after. Measures must be devised for seizing them, nor must proceedings cease till they be utterly slain.

     Regarding the coasts of all the maritime provinces, it has repeatedly been declared to be our pleasure, that strict and well arranged mea- sures of precaution be everywhere taken. Let all the authorities, generals, governors, lieut.-governors-with increased diligence main- tain a constant plan of observation, and, as soon as any come, attack them. And let them also proclaim it to all, whether officers or people, that it becomes them to regard these foreigners with a hostilę spirit, to cherish towards them the asperity of personal enemies. Speedily report perfect victory, and all shall enjoy rewards from their sove- reign. That it will be so, we indeed cherish strong hopes.

Be these our commands made known universally. Respect this.

ART. VIII. Journal of Occurrences: perfidy with interruption of negotiations; battle at the Bogue; rewards for Englishmen; detention of prisoners at Chusan; imperial edict declaring war of extermination ; present state of affairs; shipwrecked Japanese.

116

Journal of Occurrences.

FEB.

FROM the following notices, and from the documents contained in the preceding article, may be seen of what sort of government, and of what sort of men, the celestial empire is composed.

No. 1. Circular to her majesty's subjects.

    The imperial minister and high commissioner having failed to conclude the treaty of peace, lately agreed upon by H. M.'s plenipotentiary, within the allotted period, hostilities were resumed yesterday afternoon. A Chinese force, employ- ed, under cover of a masked battery and strong field-work, in blocking "up a channel of the river at the back of Anungboy, was dislodged, the obstructions effectually cleared away, the guns in battery and deposit, amounting to about 80 pieces of various calibre, rendered unservicable, and the whole of the military materiel destroyed. This effective service was accomplished without loss, in two hours, by captain Herbert, of H. M.'s ship Calliope, baving under his com. mand the steam vessel Nemesis, and pinnaces of H. M.'s ships Calliope, Sam- arang, Herald, and Alligator. The extent of the enemy's loss has not been ascertained.

On board H. M.'s ship Calliope, off South Wangtong, February 24, 1841.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary. No. 2. To her majesty's subjects.

    The batteries of the Bocca Tigris have this day fallen to her majesty's forces. Several hundred prisoners have been captured, the enemy is in flight in all directions, and no loss reported up to this hour on our side.

H. M. ship Calliope, off North Wangtong, 26th February, 3 P. M.

(Signed)

CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary.

No. 3. Public notice.

H. M.'s ship Wellesley, at anchor off North Wangtong, 20th Feb. 1841. The batteries at the Bocca Tigris having this day fallen to her majesty's arms, notice is hereby given that all British and foreign merchant vessels are permitted to repair to that point, and that they will be allowed to proceed higher, as soon as it is ascertained that the river is clear of all obstructions.

(Signed)

J. J. G. BREMER, Commander-in-chief.

    This failure to conclude the treaty of peace, this perfidy with in- terruption of negotiations, can be rightly understood only when view- ed in connection with the whole course of events since the arrival here of H. B. M.'s expedition last June. Its objects were to obtain redress and indemnity for the past, with securities and immunities for the future. However; the instructions to the plenipotentiaries not having been here published, their import can only be conjectured from what has transpired. It should be carefully borne in mind, as we pro- ceed, that to make war on the Chinese, formed professedly no part of the objects of the expedition, provided its ends could be secured by other means; consequently a trial of pacific measures must needs first be made.

The first question with the plenipotentiaries was (or appears to have been) whether the forts at the Bogue should be demolished or left standing, while they with the naval and military force should move northward. The feeling of the British and foreign community here was almost unanimous in favor of the first measure; they chose the latter, and wisely-at least so we were inclined to think.

It having been determined on-we presume in accordance with in- structions from the queen's government at home-to take immediate possession of Chusan, an advanced force under commodore Bremer inoved forward for that purpose. The plenipotentiaries, with the

1841.

Journal of Occurrences,

117

When off the coast

remainder of the expedition, followed soon after. of Fuhkeën, one of the vessels, bearing a flag of truce, was sent with. a dispatch to the port of Amoy. The ship was fired on, and the communication refused. As Chinese policy forbade the reception of this dispatch, it would have been wise, perhaps, not to have given opportunity for the committal of such an outrage.

As to the right and expediency of occupying Tinghae--which fell on the 5th of July,-we have been in doubt. Indeed, the occupation of any insular position has always seemed to us objectionable. There may have been reasons for, and advantages resulting from, taking Chusan, of which we are ignorant; but judging from what we know, it would have been better to have rendezvoused at some small island (of the size of Shachow in this vicinity). This would have prevented the long detention of the expedition at Chusan, and would have al- lowed the entire force to have gone up-a part upon the Yangtsze keäng, and a part to the mouth of the Pei ho, early in July: and at these two positions-the nearest to the court that it was possible for them to reach-the forces should have remained until all questions at issue were settled.

-a great desideratum"-says Mr. Warren, "penetrate to Peking, and learn what is the real state of things there; and let us cheerfully yield to what we shall find to be the reasonable and just wishes of the emperor." So we have always argued; and accordingly would have abstained from attacking Chu- san, and from every other hostile act, save only to lay on a blockade. A different course was resolved on, and it may have been the right With its principal details, our readers are familiar. After a month's delay, and the rejection of lord Palmerston's communication by the provincial authorities, the plenipotentiaries proceeded north, and arrived off the mouth of the Pei ho, August 9th.

The presence

one.

"Let us

of so large a squadron, (though not the half it might have been) so near the capital, had no small effect. The tone of the imperial go- vernment was changed, and in correspondence it became respectful and courteous and pacific. No doubt the blow on Chusan helped to produce this effect; and perhaps it may on this account be justified. Negotiations soon commenced between the plenipotentiaries and the imperial minister Keshen. The twice rejected letter was at once. received; a long interview was held; and at length it was agreed, that Keshen should meet the plenipotentiaries at Canton, that half the forces should immediately withdraw from Chusan, and hostilities cease all along the coast.

     The emperor's participation in this agreement, is fully attested by H. I. M.'s own edict, dated September 17th at Peking, appointing Keshen high commissioner, and ordering his officers in the provinces to observe the armistice. See vol. IX. page 411.

     The accepting of this agreement was an act of great generosity on the part of the plenipotentiaries, who, at the moment the edict above alluded to was being issued, were on their return with the squa- dron to Chusan. There they found that the Kite had been lost, and that her crew, with others, had fallen into the hands of the Chinese:

120

Journal of Occurrences.

Rewards for Englishmen were offered, under the seals of the high provincial officers, on the 25th, the day before the battle. For each of the ringleaders, $50,000 were offered; for others a smaller sum. This measure was devised some days previously to the interruption of negotiations!

Ön the 27th a battery of some 50 guns was demolished, about 200 Chinese killed, the Chesapeake burnt, and a squadron of 40 vessels dispersed at or near Whampoa. The next day the Calliope, Herald, Alligator, Modeste, Sulphur, with the steamers Nemesis and Madagas- car were at anchor above the First Bar off the Brunswick Rocks.

On the present state of public affairs it is not easy to form any opinion which may not be shaken or changed the next hour. The Chinese are dumb, and some of them even deny the capture of the forts at the Bogue. It is certain, however, that they have been de- molished, excepting one which is to be reserved by the captors.

What, now, is the proper course to be pursued? With whom can the plenipotentiary now treat, and where? At Canton and with the imperial commissioner? But can his promises be received? Will he not again make false pretenses?

    Shipwrecked Japanese.-The American brig Argyle, captain F. Codman, which arrived from South America on the 19th instant, brought three Japanese sailors who had been rescued from a wreck in the North Pacific (June 9th, 1840), in lat. 34° N., long, 170° 30′ E., more than 2500 miles from their home. They were bound to Yedo, and, driven beyond their port by a westerly gale, had been drifting about for 181 days when found; the vessel was a single masted boat, loaded with a cargo of 400 peculs of rice. They are from the village of Okinosu in the principality of Toötomi, lying about 100 miles SW. from Yedo. Their names are Akahori Shentarō, aged 37, the captain of the vessel; Kamiyama Matsunoski, aged 50, who has left a family at home; and Asayama Tatsuzoii, aged 28. They were much pleased to find some of their countrymen in China. From them we learn that in many parts of the empire, especially among the eastern principalities of Nippon, severe famines have been ex- perienced for three or four years past, so that the poor had died by the roadside of starvation; some of the princes had prohibited the ex- portation of all provisions out of their own dominions.

The cargo

of this vessel was designed for one of the princes of Toötomi then at Yedo. They represent the country as generally at peace internally. Much praise is due to capt. Codman for the kindness he has shown to these men since they were rescued, and the hope is not a groundless one that they may still be returned to their native land.

   P. S. March 5th. We learn that the prisoners at Ningpo have been released, and are with the troops and transports on their way down from Chusan. Some of them have already arrived.

On Wednesday the 3d the ships were at Whampoa, and a force was preparing to move on Howqua's fort, when a flag of truce came off, and a conference was held between the plenipotentiary and offi- cers from Canton at 3 P. M..

44

"

$

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-MARCH, 1841.- No. 3.

ART. 1. Chronology of the Chinese; their era and mode of reck- oning by cycles, with a complete series of their successive dy- nasties and sovereigns.

CHRONOLOGY is so intimately connected with the record of historical events, so essential to the proper arrangement of facts, that the study of the latter cannot be pursued with pleasure, without some attention to the former. Without chronology, history will be dark and con- fused, and its study devoid of the advantages it would otherwise possess. Waving here all questions respecting the accuracy of the Chinese mode of computing time, it will suffice for our present pur- pose, if we can lay before our readers a concise account of their cycle, with complete series of their successive dynastics and sovereigns.

For the cycle of sixty years, which the Chinese call

7

Ta

hwa keǎ tsze, they acknowledge themselves indebted to Naou, or Naou the Great, one of the ministers of Hwang te, or the Yellow emperor. By command of his sovereign, in the sixty-first year of his reign, Naou the Great, taking the sheih kan, or ten

horary characters,甲乙丙丁戊己庚辛壬癸 keă, yeih, ping, ting, mow, ke, káng, sin, jin, kwei, and together with them the+sheih urh che, twelve other horary characters, 子丑寅辰巳午未申酉戌亥tsze, chow, yin,

maou, shin, sze, woo, we, shin, yew, seah, hae, he formed this cycle. The sheih kon have been called the 'ten stems,' and the sheik urh che, the twelve branches.' Naou, commencing with

VOL. X. NO. III.

16

TABLE OF THE CHINESE CYCLE OF SIXTY YEARS, OR HWA KEA TSZE.

122

Chronology of the Chinese.

MARCH,

1805

.

1804

-1745乙丑

1744 甲子

1814

1754甲戌

1824

1764 甲申

1774

1834

甲午

1784

1844

甲辰

1794

1854

甲寅

keď tsze

keă seuh

kéa shin

keǎ woo

keǎ shin

keŭ yin

1755

1815

乙亥

1765

1825

乙酉

1775

1835

乙未

1785

1795

1845

乙巳

1855

乙外

yeih chow

yeih hae

yeih yew

yeih we

yeih sze

yeih maou

1746

1806

丙寅

1756

1816

丙子

1766

1826

丙戌

1776

1836

丙申

1786

1846

丙午

1796

1856

丙辰

ping yin

ping tsze

ping seuh

ping shin

ping w00

ping shin

1807

1747 T

1757

1817

丁丑

1767 丁亥

1808

1748 戊辰

ting maou

1818

1758 戊寅

ting chow

1828

1827

ting hae

1768 戊子

1837

1777 TRY

1787

1847

丁未

1797

1857

丁巳

ting yew

ting we

ting sze

1838

1778 戊戌

1788

1848

戊申

1798

1858

戊午

mow shin

mow yin

mow tsze

mow seuh

mow shin

mow wo0

1749

1759

1809

1819

已外

1769

1779

1829

1839

1789

1849

1799

1859

已未

ke maou

ke chow

1820

1760 庚辰

1770

1830

kăng shin

kang yin

1771

1831

ke sze

1750 庚午

· 1810

kang 000.

1751 辛未

1811

sin we

1752壬申

1812

1753

1813

jin shin

癸酉

kwei yew

1761 辛巳

1821

sin sze

1762 壬午

1822

jin tw00

1763癸未

1823

kwei we

sin maou

1772 壬辰

1832

jin shin

1773 癸巳

1833

kwei sze

1781 辛丑

1841

sin chow

1782 壬寅

1842

jin yin

1783葵列

1843

Jerwei maou |

1791 辛亥

1851

kăng shin

1861 辛酉

1802 壬戌

sin hae

1852

1792 壬子

1862

jin tsze

jin

seuh

1793

1803

癸亥

1853

1863

kwei chow

kwei hae

ke ha

ke yew

ke we

1780

1840

庚子

1790

1850

庚戌

1800

1860

庚申

kăng tsze

kăng seuh

1801

sin yew

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

123

     the first of the stems and the first of the branches, formed coup- lets, and by repeating the first series six, and the second five times, framed the cycle--a tabular form of which stands on the opposite page. This being completed, was, according to tradition, imme- diately adopted by the emperor, and the 61st year of his reign thus became the first year of the first cycle,-seventy-four of which, mak- ing 4440 years, were completed a. D. 1803.. The present year 1841 is the 38th year of the 75th cycle; it is called sin chow.

      Besides the mode of indicating time by the cycle, the Chinese date from the commencement of each successive monarch; thus the first day of the present month of March they write according to their

calendar, thus, 道光二十

年二月初九日,

Taoukwang, 21st year, 2d month, 9th day.

We now proceed to give, in their order, the names of the several dynasties with the titles of the sovereigns in each.

1. THE THREE AUGUST SOVEREIGNS;

1. 三皇紀 SAN HwaNG Ke.

1. Pwan koo, the first on earth.

2.

Teen hwang, the celestial sovereign.

3.

Te hwang, the terrestial sovereign.

4.

Jinhwang, the human sovereign.

 5.有巢 Yew chaou. 6. A Suy jin.

     The 2d, 3d, and 4th, in this series, are generally considered, by way of eminence, as the three sovereigns. For an explanation of Prankoo, see page 49; for the meaning of the imperial and royal titles, see volume II., page 309.

     This period, even by the Chinese, is regarded as wholly mytholo gical. After the, separation of the heavens from the earth, Pwankoo was, the first that appeared in the world. Teen hwang is, sometimes regarded as a line of sovereigns, thirteen in number, reigning 18,000 years. Te bwang is another line, eleven in number, reigning 18,000 years; and Jin hwang, a third, nine in number, reigning 45,600 years.

124

Chronology of the Chinese.

2. 五帝紀 Woo TE KE.

Names of the Sovereign.

1. 伏羲 Fuhhe.

2. 農神 Shinnung.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Fishing, grazing, &c., instituted.

3.

4.

Agriculture commenced.

Hwang te.

Calendar adopted.

Shaouhaou.

5. 顓頊 Chuenheuh.

6. 嬰

Kuh.

7. 堯

Yaou.

Destruction by a deluge, K

hung shwuy wei hwan.

8. 炸

Shun.

Fuhhe, Shinnung, Hwang te, Yaou, and Shun arc regarded, by most historians, as the five sovereigns. During this period, from 2852 B. C. to 2204, very little can be ascertained concerning the persons who then lived, or the events that occurred; in Chinese his- tory, a few particulars are recorded, handed down by tradition. They are worthy of notice, chiefly because they are so frequently referred to by the Chinese in all their writings.

    The capital of Fuhhe is reputed to have been situated on the southern bank of the Yellow river, in the province of Honan, near the present provincial capital Kaefung foo, lat. 34° 52′ 5′′ N., long. 1° 55′ 30′′ W., from Peking.

Shinnung, the Divine Husbandman, known also as Yen te Shin- nung, is chiefly renowned for his attention to agriculture.

    To Hwangte credit is given for several useful inventions, of which that of the cycle is the most notable. The honor of inventing letters, the calendar, &c., are claimed for him and his principal ministers. He was born in Kaefung the ancient capital.

Of Shaouhaou called also Shaouhaou Kinteën, of Chuenheuh called also Chuenheuh Kaouyang, and of Kuh called also Kuh Kaousin, little comparatively is recorded."

    Of Yaou and Shun, volumes have been written; they are by the Chinese even to this day regarded as the illustrious patterns of all that is good in everything.

1841.

..

Length

No.

of

B. C.

Reign.

of Cycle.

1.

115

2852

2.

જે

140

2737

3.

100 2697

Cycle

Chronology of the Chinese.

THE FIVE SOVEREIGNS.

Number

and Year

Cotemporary Events.

125

The creation 4000, or accord-

ing to Hales 5411 B. C.

Adam dies, aged 930 years,

3070.

Noah born 2944.

begins.

4.

84 2597

:41

5.

78 2513

2:05

6.

78

2435

3:22

The universal deluge 2344, or according to Hales 3155.

7.

102 2357

4:49

8.

50 2255

6:23

The tower of Babel commenc- ed, 2230.

The Assyrian and Egyptian em- pires commenced, about 2229.

     The numbers of sovereigns in each successive dynasty, given on the right hand page, in the first column, correspond to the same num- bers on the opposite or left hand page.

The cycle era is that of the Chinese, it begins with the 61st year in the reign of Hwang te, who occupied the throne 100 years, conse- quently his successor's reign cominenced in the 41st year of the 1st cycle, marked :41, the next reign, in succession, commenced on the 5th year of the 3d cycle, and is marked 2:05; and so on of the rest, as indicated in the fourth column of figures. Thus 2:05 shows two complete cycles and five odd years, or a total 125-which number, 125 is the year in which Chuenhouh's reign began. In like man- ner 6:23 indicates six complete cycles and twenty-three odd years, or a total 383 years, this number 383 being the first year of Shun's reign, dating from the 61st of Hwang te, which is adopted as the commencement of the Chinese era.

     A few cotemporary events, on the remaining part of the page, are sélected from Lempriere and Calmet, (the former following Dr. Blair's chronology;) unless it be otherwise stated.

The Chinese names are 'copied from the Kang Keën E Che1; ·

and

the Chinese chronology is selected from a native work, called the

三元甲子 San yuen kex:tste.

126

Chronology of the Chinese.

3. 夏紀 HEA KE。

Names of the Sovereign.

4. 大禹 2.帝啓

Ta Yu.

3. 太康

4. 仲康

Te Ke.

Tae Kang.

Chung Kang.

Te Seäng.

5.帝相

6. 少康

Shaou Kang.

7. 帝檸

Te Choo.

8. 帝槐

Te Hwae.

9. 帝芒

Te Mang.

10. 帝泄

Te Seě.

MARE

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

*

It was in this age that yu kin, it rained gold.

About the same time, also,

Eteih tso tsew, Eteih made wine: Yu banished him and interdicted the use of the tsew- a strong and alcoholic liquor, and not simple wine, since it is known that the grape is not indigenous in China.

11. 帝不降 Te Puhkeäng.

12. 帝扃

Te Keung,

13. 帝廑

Te Kin.

14. Te Kungkeð.

15. 帝臯.

Te Kaou.

10. 帝發

Te Fă,

17. 桀

Kee Kwei.

1

This dynasty, commencing B. c. 2205 and terminating 1767, oc cupied the throne 439 years, the records of which are brief and of doubtful authenticity. Of all the seventeen emperors, the first, Ta Yu, or Yu the Great, was the most celebrated, for his virtues; the last, Kee Kwei, was the most notorious for his vices. Of the other monarchs of this family, little is recorded besides their names, and these read like mere chronological characters.

e to his

sposition

+

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

3. THE HEA Dynasty.

127

No.

1.

Reign.

Year

B. C.

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

82205 7:13] Division of the earth, 2200; Gen. xi. 18.

9 | 2197 7:21

3. 29 2188 | 7:30

4. 13 2159 | 7:59

5. 28

21468: 12

6. 61

7.17

21188: 40 The kingdom of Sicyon established,

2089, and the first pyramid built

20579:41

8. 26 | 2040 8:58

9. 18 2014 10:24

10. 16 1996 10:42] Abraham born 1992.

11. 59

12. 21

1980 10:58

1921 11:57 Abraham goes into Egypt, 1916.

1900 12:18

13. 21

14. 31

1879 12:39

15. 11

1848 13:10

Kingdom of Argos founded 1856.

16. 19

1837 13:21 Memuon, the Egyptian invents letters,

1822.

17. 52 1818 13:40

Dating the commencement of the building of Babel from about the year 2230, and presuming that the dispersion, which soon followed, drove mankind eastward to the Yellow river, it is possible, and per- haps probable, that Yu was the founder of the Chinese empire. The allusion to his draining off the waters of a deluge seems to support this supposition. All the records extant, regarding this dynasty, are of very doubtful authenticity.

128

Chronology of the Chinese.

4. 商恕 SHANG KE.

Chingtang.

Names of the Sovereign.

1. 成湯

2. 太甲

Taekeǎ.

3. 沃丁

Wuhting.

4. 太庚

Taekang.

5. 小甲 Seaoukeǎ.

6. 雍已

Yungke.

7. 太戊

Taemow.

8. 仲丁

9. 外王

Chungting.

         Waejin. 10. Ÿ ¶ Hotankeă.

11. 祖乙

Tsooyeih.

Toosin.

Wuhkeă.

12. Jill

13. 沃甲

14.

TTsooting.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

Seven years of great drought,

大早七年 ta han tseik nein. The emperor then 幬于桑 taou yu sang lin prayed in a grove of mulberries: he prayed,

saying 無以予一人之 不敏傷民之命 Woose

yu yeih jin che púh min; shang min che ming, do not, on account of the negligence of Ourself, de- stroy the lives of the people.

With regard to his own conduct. in six particulars he blamed him.

self, 言未已大雨 yen 20e

e, ta yu, his words were not end- ed, when the rain descended co- piously.

In the 25th year of the 16th cy- cle (B. c. 1713), # Yin- hung, E Yin died, loaded with honórs. "In ancient or modern times, no one has ever used power better than E Yin, nor any dis- coursed of it better than Mencius."

This dynasty reigned 644 years, the throne being occupied in the meantime by twenty-eight sovereigns in succession.

The first emperor of this line is reputed to have been a very pious, deyout, discreet, and humane prince, distinguished by the worship and honor which he paid to Shang Te, the Supreme Ruler. In the chronological table before us, his name first appears в. c. 1783, before he ascended the throne. He was a descendant seventeen years of Hwang, te, and saw with grief and indignation the abuses that pre- vailed at court and throughout the empire. Some of the ministers of state were beheaded, others fled, and found a safe retreat at his resi- dence. Among these, was the renowned E Yin. This minister

Sters

the

s frecu

1841.

No.

Reign.

1. 13

2. 33

3. 29

B. C.

Chronology of the Chinese.

3. THE SHANG Dynasty.

Year

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

129

1766 14:32 The deluge of Ogyges in Attica, 1764.

1753

14:45 Joseph born 1741.

1720 15:18 The shepherds, expelled from Egypt, set-

tle in Palestine, 1714.

4. 25 1691

15:47 The seven years of famine begin in

Egypt, 1704.

1666 16:12

7. 75

8. 13

5. 17

6. 12 1649

1637

1562

9. 15 1549

10. 9 1534

11. 19 1525

12. 16 1506

13. 25 1490

16:29 Joseph dies, aged 110 years, 1631.

16:41 Moses born, 1571, according to Blair.

The kingdom of Athens begun under 17:56 Cecrops, who came from Egypt with a

colony of Saites, 1556.

18:09 Scamander migrates from Crete, and be-

gins the kingdom of Troy, 1546.

18:24

18:33 The deluge of Deucalion in Thessaly

1503.

18:52 Cadmus comes into Greece, and builds

the citadel of Thebes, 1493.

19:08

The ten plagues inflicted by Jehovah on 14. 32 1465 19:33 the Egyptians, begin 1887.

    again and again remonstrated with his degenerate sovereign, but always in vain. At last he advised Chingtang to assume the reins of government; in this counsel, he was joined by many other high officers. With great reluctance, he yielded to their solicitations, and took the throne, 1766. Upon the fall of the Heä dynasty, two suns were seen fighting in the firmament, the stars lost their brightness, mountains were precipitated, and the earth quaked! So deeply did all nature sympathize with the suffering state.

The wars which broke out during this dynasty were numerous; nearly every succession was followed by a state of anarchy. The droughts, famines, and other calamities which occurred, were like- wise frequent, and were attended by dreadful omens and fearful sights. Now and then were found a few who respected virtue and

VOL. X. NO. III.

17

130

Chronology of the Chinese.

4. SHANG KE (Continued).

Names of the Sovereigns.

15. 南庚 Nankăng.

16. Yangkeй.

17. 盤庚 Pwankáng.

18.

19.

20.

Seaousin.

Z Seaouyeih.

T Wooting.

21. 翩庚 Tsookáng.

22. Tsookeǎ.

23. 廩辛 Linsin.

24.Kǎngting.

Wooyeih.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

The seventeenth emperor of this dynasty, Pwankăng,-having re- moved his capital to Yin,改國 號日殷 kae kroǒ haou, yuè

yin,-changed the name of the nation, and called it Yin.

The conduct of the twenty-fifth emperor is most notable: the his- torian thus describes it:

武乙無道爲偶人謂 之天神與之博合人 爲行天神不勝乃僇 辱之

Wooyeih, devoid of reason, made images, called them gods, and gambled with them, having order- ed a man to play for them; the gods, being unable to win, he dis- graced them.

25.

26. T Taeting.

27.

Z Teyeih.

28. 紂辛 Chowsin.

Tanke, the infamous fe-

male companion of Chowsin.

truth, and acted the part of good men; but the great mass of the people were vicious and miserable in the extreme.

Of the rulers none could be more wicked than Wooyeih. Having made his images of clay in the shape of human beings, dignified them with the name of gods, overcome them at gambling, and set them aside in disgrace, he then, in order to complete his folly, made leathern bags and filled them with blood and sent them up into the air, exclaiming, when his arrows hit them and the blood poured down, I have shot heaven-i..e. I have killed the gods of heaven. Afterwards, when abroad hunting, he was suddenly overtaken by a storm and killed by a thunder-bolt. This is the first instance of idolatry recorded in the Kang Keën E Che.

1841

Chronology of the Chinese.

4. THE SHANG DYNASTY.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

131:

1433 20: 05 Servitude of the Israelites in Egypt, under Cushan-Rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia,

No.

15

& Reign.

B. C.

25

16

7

17

28

1401 20:37 Othniel delivers them, 1401.

1408 20:30 eight years, 1409.

18 20 1373 21:05 The Eleusinian mysteries introduced at

Athens by Eumolpus, 1356.

19 28 1352 21:26

20

21

2 2 2 2

22

59

my

1324 21:54 Servitude of the Israelites renewed, 1339

and 1321.

1265 22:53 The Argonautic expedition, 1263.

33 1258 22: 60 Gideon delivers Israel, and governs them

during nine years, commencing 1241.

1225 |23:33 The Theban war of the seven, heroes

against Eteocles, 1225.

1219 23:39

23:60 Æneas sails to Italy, 1184.

23 6

24

21

25

4

1198

26

3 1194 24:04

The city of Troy taken, 1184. Samuel born, 1151.

27

37

28

333

32

1191 24:07 Samson marries at Timnath 1133, and 20 years afterwards kills himself under the

1154 24: 44 ruins of the temple of Dagon.

The last of this line of emperors was also remarkable for his crimes and his follies. He was proud, cruel, and debauched. Pos- sessed of

        great strength and good natural abilities, he abandoned him- self to every species of vice, and to the most dreadful cruelties. In every thing that was base and wicked, he found a fit companion in the infamous female slave Tanke. " They collected a vast concourse of people devoted to pleasure and dissipation; they had made for'

lake of wine, and surrounded it with meat suspended on trees; to this banquet naked men and women resorted, and passed long nights in drunkenness and debauchery. Profligacy to this ex- tent is more than the common sense of mankind, in the worst of The king and court fell into contempt." Most

them a

times can approve.

horrible crimes and punishment followed.

132

Chronology of the Chinese.

5. 周紀 Chow Kz.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1. it E Woo wang.

2. 成王 Ching wang.

3. 康王 Kang wang.

4. 昭王 Chaou Wang.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Mo wang.

Kung wang.

IE wang.

Heaou wang.

9. 夷王E wang.

10.

Le wang.

11.

宣王

Seuen wang.

12.

Yew wang.

13.

Ping wang.

14.

桓王

Hwan wang ·

15.

釐王

Chwang wang.

16. Le wang.

17.

惠王! Hwuy wang.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

With this line of emperors, posthumous titles commenced; and from their being inscribed on tablets deposited in temples, they were called廟號

haou, or temple titles.

meaou

That of Woo wang is thus explained, 諡法克定禍亂曰武

she fa, keih ting ho hwan, yuě woo, according to the rules for pos-

thumous titles, one able to settle the calamitous disorders is called martial.

周公作指南車 Choo

kung tso che nan chay, the duke of Chow made the compass, about 1112.

馬化人

ma fa jin, a horse

transformed into a man.

川竭山崩 chuen keě, shan

păng,

rivers became dry and

mountains fell.

Bosing yunjoo yu,

stars fell like rain.

(Falling rocks and stars appear

to have been very frequent in these early times.)

     Amidst all the cruel and shameful abominations that marked the close of the Shang dynasty, a few able and virtuous men weregeon- spicuous; among these, the members of the Chow family were chief. Wăn wang 'the king of letters,' or civil king as he has sometimes been called,-was born about the year 1231 B. c., and in the reign of Taeting was raised to the rank of prime minister. He was a ta-

=:

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

5.

THE CHOW Dynasty,

133

No.

07

Reign.

my

37

B. C.

Year

of

| Cvete.

Cotemporary Events.

112225:16 The ark taken by the Philistines, 1112.

1115 25:23 Saul made king over Israel, 1095.

26 1078 25: 60

26:26

The kingdom of Athens ends in the death of Codrus, 1070.

The migration of the Ionian colonies from Greece, and their settlement in Asia Min-,

|27 : 17/or, 1044.

The temple of Solomon finished, 1000. Visit of the queen of Sheba, 988.

28:24 Solomon dies, 971.

3

4

51

1052

5

55 | 1001

6

12

946

28:12

77

25

934

8

15

909

9

16

894

10 51

878

11

46

827

12 11

28: 49 Homer and Hesiod flourished, according

to the Marbles, about 907.

29:04 Elijah the prophet taken up into heaven

Jabout 892.

i

29: 20 Lycurgus establishes his laws; the Olym-

pic games restored about 884. 30: 11 Carthage built by Dido, 869.

781 30:57 Fall of the Assyrian empire, 820.

1351 770

1423

719

15

15

696

16

5 681

31:08 Kingdom of Macedonia founded, 814.

31:59 Kingdom of Lydia begins, 797.

32:22 Isaiah begins to prophesy, 757.

Rome built, 753.

32:37 End of the kingdom of Israel, 717.

i...

17 25 676 32:42 Draco establishes his laws at Athens, 623

1

lented and upright` man, and for his fidelity was thrown into prison, where he completed the Yeih King, or Book of Changes. From his Incarceration he is said to have been liberated by the influence of his son Woo wang-the first monarch of the Chow dynasty; grieved at the imprisonment of his father, the son sent to the emperor a beautiful lady, with whom he was charmed, and by whose influence the libera- tion of the minister was effected. Wăn wang is celebrated for erudi. tion, and for the good counsels which he gave to those who were in authority.

136

Chronology of the Chinese.

6. 秦紀 TsıN KE.

Name of the Sovereign.

莊襄王 Chwangseäng wang.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

This emperor meě chow,

exterminated Chow,

Note. These two dynasties-if they are to be separated-may be considered

as one. They are separated here because they are thus arranged in the work from which we obtain them-the History Made Easy.

7. How Tsın Kɛ.

Names of the Sovereigns.

With cotemporary Chinese events.

始皇帝 Che Hwangte.

chuh chang ching,

Urlishe Hwangte Che built the great wall, and

fun shoo, burnt the books.

Parts of the Chinese history are involved in much obscurity, and few more so than that of this period. The 'unravelment of history,' has

been made an object of particular attention with some of their best scholars, and one of their works bears such a name.

                                  But it forms no portion of our present object of enter upon the discussion of these entanglements, or to attempt their unravelment.

   In the year 250 B. C., a prince named Heaoumăn wang obtained the throne, but died a few months afterwards; in the Kang Keën E Che, his name does not appear upon the list of sovereigns; it has a place however in the chronological tables, San yuen keå tsze.

Che Hwangte, the successor of Chwangseäng was a remarkble person, and his acts more memorable than those of any other sover- eign who ever occupied the throne of this empire.

With all his greatness there was much that was base and execrable in his character. His name was Ching, and his sirname or the name of his family was Leu: he was of mean parentage and an illegitimate -at least, our historians so affirm. He had reigned twenty-five years when he gained possession of the whole empire. Hitherto he had borne the name of Tsin wang ching; he now, on becoming universal monarch'of the whole world as he supposed, took the name

son-

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

137

Cotemporary Events.

6.

THE TSIN Dynasty.

No.

Reign.

Year

B. C.

of

Cycle.

1

3

249 39:49

The sea-fight at Drepanum in Sicily, and the Romans defeated by Adherbal.

Note. It may be remarked here, once for all, that the object of the writers of the History Made Easy is to give, in this concise form, only what they regard as the true imperial line; consequently, all the minor and cotemporary states are omitted; but in the body of their work they supply the details.

No.

Reign.

1

37

2

t

B. C.

7. The After Tsin Dynasty.

Year of Cycle.

246 39:52

209 | 40:29

Cotemporary Events.

Hamilcar passes with an army and his son Hannibal to Spain, 237. The temple of Janus at Rome closed, 235.

Plautus, Evander, Zeno, Ennius, Epi- cydes, flourished about this time..

    Che hwangte, the First Emperor, and entertained the vain and am- bitious purpose of obliterating the names of all those who had pre- ceded him.

The building of the great wall, and the order for destroying all the sacred and classical books in the empire, are the principal acts that give character to his reign. The first was achieved at an amazing expense, and will remain among the wonders of the world down to the end of time. How far the other was executed it is impossible to determine. It was an iron rule that could draw forth men and means sufficient to erect, in the course of a few years, that immense pile which stretches along the whole northern frontier of the empire; a power that could do all this, would be ablé, we may suppose, to achieve almost anything in the range of possibilities. The emperor did cause great numbers of the literati to be put to death; and he did command all the sacred and classical books to be burnt, but it seems to us impossible that such a decree could be obeyed. Over so great an extent of territory thousands of copies had been multiplied; and on the promulgation of decrees, it were easy for the admirers of the classics to conceal them in secret places, utterly beyond the reach of the public authorities. However, many of the Chinese believe that no entire copy remained undestroyed.

VOL. X. NO. HII.

18

138

Chronology of the Chinese.

8. 漢紀 HAN KE.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Kaoutsoo.

2 惠帝

Hwuy te.

Leu how.

Wăn te.

King te.

3 呂后 4. 文帝 5景帝

Woo te.

6 武帝

7 昭帝

Chaou te.

8 宣帝 9元帝

Seuen te.

Yuen te.

10

Ching te.

11哀帝

Ngae te.

12

Ping te..

13

Jootsze ying.

14 淮陽王 Hwaeyang wàng.

MARCI

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

韓信國士無雙 Han

Sin was without an equal.

yu heuě, it rained blood. Leu how (i. e. the empress Leu) the first female sovereign.

Paper said to have been invent- ed by the Chinese in this reign.

地震二十二日 earth

quaked for 22 successive days, 司馬談

Szema Tan received the title of first historiographer.

司馬遷 Szema Tseën, his

son,

the Herodotus of China, was born 145 B. C.

In the time of Seuen te the

Chinese empire extended to the Caspian sea.

劉向作烈女傳 Lew

Heäng wrote the Memoirs of Dis- tinguished Women.

(This dynasty down to the time

of Ping te is sometimes called the Western Han, in contradistinc- tion to that which arose soon after.):

Lew Pang--for this was the name of the first emperor of the new dynasty-did not gain full possession of the empire till 202 B. C., which year is marked in the tables before us, as the 5th of his reign; by most writers, however, 202 is regarded as the 1st year of the Han dynasty.

It should be remarked here that the sovereigns of this line intro- duced what is known as the kwỡ haou or national title;' historians however have preferred to give the first place to the meaou haou, and to regard it as the proper name of each emperor; but it could be used only after the sovereign's demise; while the other, the kwo haou was used during his lifetime, and by some of the emperors was often changed, and frequently more than once. In this concise view, we venture to omit the introduction of all these kwo haou.

:

18414:

No.

Chronology of the Chinese.

8. THE HAN DYNASTY.

Year of

Cotemporary Events.

Reign.

B. C.

I cocle

8

202

7

194

4

$23

5

16

6 54

40:36 The battle of Zama, 202.

139

40:44 The first Macedonian war begins, 200.

18740:51

179 140:59

15641:22

The luxuries of Asia brought to Rome among the spoils of Antiochus, 189.

Numa's books found in a stone coffin at Rome, 179.

After the fall of the Macedonian empire 168, the first library was erected at Rome 140 41:38 with books from Macedonia, 167.

Restoration of learning at Alexandria,

86

42:32 137.

Sylla conquers Athens, and sends its li-

*73 42: 55 braries to Rome, 86.

7

13

25

16

48

22

10 26 32

The reign of the Seleucidæ ends in Sy- 43: 10 ria about 65.

Alexandria taken by Cæsar, 47. The 43:26 war of Africa, and Cato kills himself, 46.

Egypt reduced into a Roman province. 43:52 About this time flourished, Virgil, Stra-

bo, Horace, Livy, Ovid, &c.

JESUS CHRIST born..

11

12

5

A. D. 143:58

13

17

6

14

23

44:03 Ovid banished to Tomos, 9.

44 20 Augustus dies at Nola, 14.-

     For a pretty full explanation of impérial names and titles, the reader is referred to our last volume, page 389; those who wish for the kwō haou will find them in Dr. Morrison's View of China, Mr. Gutzlaff's Sketch of Chinese history, and in the introduction to the Kang Keën Ę Che.

1 i

4

     This dynasty has been more celebrated than any other that ever occupied the 'throne of China. Its heroes and its literati were nu- merous, and of high and noble character. To be called a Han tsze, or a son of Han, even at this day, is regarded as a high honor.

?

      Arémarkable coincidence is noticable" in the name of the 12th emperor, who ascended the throne in the year of Immanuel's advent, and after a reign of five years received the title of Ping te, "prince of peace." In add

#

140

Chronology of the Chinese.

9. 東漢 TUNG Han Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1光武 Kwang woo.

2明帝 Ming te.

  3章帝 Chang te. 4 和帝 Hote. 5殤帝 Shang te. 6 安帝 Ngan te. 7順帝 Shun te 8冲帝 Chung te. 9質帝 Cheih te. 10桓帝 Hwăn te.

11 靈帝 Ling te.

12 獻帝 Heën te.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

東都洛陽故日東漢

('This emperor) eastward built his capital Loyang, (the modern Ho- nan foo) and therefore the dynasty was called the Eastern Han.

Mingte, A. D. 65, sent messen- gers to India to search for and bring back the religion of Budba.

Shang te becoming emperor when a child, his mother establish ed a regency, placed herself at its head, and on the demise of her son placed her nephew on the throne. She was a pupil of the great authoress Pan Hwuypan.

In the reign of Hwăn te people came from India and other west- ern nations with tribute, and from that time foreign trade was carried on at Canton.

Note. It was near the close of this dynasty that the three states-Shub, Wei,

and Woo-arose'and flourished.

a

10. How HAN KE.

後漢紀

Names of the Sovereigns.

1昭烈帝 Chaouleě te. 2後帝

How te.

With cotemporary Chinese events.

i

A law passed by the state of Wei, viz. From this time quéens shall not assist in the government.

The messengers of Ming te, according to the wishes of their mas- ter, proceeded to India, where they found the doctrines and disciples of Budha; and, having obtained some of their books with skamun, they brought them to China. It is said that the emperor dreamed that he saw a golden man walking in his palace, and in the morning

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

9. THE EASTern Han DynASTY

141

Cotemporary Events.

44:22 St. Paul converted to Christianity, 36.

44:55 The expedition of Claudius to Britain,

43.

45:13 Nero visits Greece. The Jewish war begins. Josephus and Pliny the elder

.8945: 26 flourish, abont 66.

Death of Vespasian, and succession of 45:53 Titus, 79.

25

No.

Reign.

A. D.

Year of

Cycle.

133

25

2 18

3 13

288

58

76

4 17

5

1

106

6

19

107

my

19

126

8

I

145

9

1

10

21.

11 22

12

31

About 106 flourished Florus, Pliny jun., 45: 54 Dion, Plutarch, &c.

Adrian visits Asia and Egypt, 126; and 46 : 03 [rebuilds Jerusalem, 130.

46:22] Antoninus defeats the Moors, Germans,

     and Dacians, 145. 14646:23

Lucian, Hermogenes, Appian, Justin the

147 46: 24 martyr, flourished about 161.

Commodus makes peace with the Ger- 16846:55 mans, 181. Albinus defeated in Gaul, 198.

Severus conquers the Parthians, 200;

19047:07 and soon after visits Britain.

       Note. The historical novel, called the San Kwỏ Che, extends its narrative from A. D. 170 to 317.

10. THE AFTER HAN DYNASTY.

No.

Reign-

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1

221

242 228

47:38 The age of Julius Africanus, 222,

Goths exact tribute from Rome. 4740

The

i

#

when he received his ministers at public audience, he told them of the dream; whereupon one of them gave him an account of what he had heard of Budha. The consequence was the embassy and the in- troduction of Budhism into China. The writers of the History Made Easy reprobate this conduct of the emperor, and denourice both the shaman and their doctrines as being false, and wicked. Shamun is a Sanscrit word, used as an equivalent for hoshang, pricts of Budha.

1

Chronology of the Chinese.

11. 晋 TIN KE

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 武帝 Woo te: 2惠帝 Hwuy te. 3 懷帝 Hwae te. 4愍帝 Min te.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Woo te簒魏稱帝 Lsoan Wei ching te, destroyed Wei and made himself emperor.

4

Min te's reign was an age of wonders: a sun fell from the fir- mament; and the earth changed its course and went backwards; &c.

    Note. This dynasty is sometimes called the Se Tsin, or Western Tsin, in con-- tradiction to the next, the Eastern Tsin.

12. TUng Tsin Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Yuen te.

2明帝 Ming te. 3成帝 Shing te.

4 康帝 Kang te. 5 穆帝 Müh te. 6 哀帝 Ngae te. 7 帝奕 Te yeih.

8 Keenwän.

9孝武 Heaouwoo. 10 安帝 Ngan te. Kung te.

11

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

日夜出高三丈 the sun

in the night rose 30 cubits high; and again black spots were seen

upon his disk. Other strange phenomena were noticed, with many fearful signs. It was a dark age.

A stamp duty,

shouy

ke, on the sale of lands and houses ́said to have been introduced

about the year 367. /

"Children of concubines, priests, old women, and nurses

were the administrators of government.

1

,

i!.

"

Among the great men of the Han dynasty there was a good deal of the heroic and chivalrous, especially in those leaders whose actions are described in the History of the Three States. With all thei

1841.

11.

No.

Reign.

Year

A. D..

of

Cycle.

1.

26

265

48:22

Chronology of the Chinese,

THE TSIN DYNASTY.

Cotemporary Events.

143

The Scythians and Goths defeated by Cleodomus and Athenæus, 267.

2 17

290

48:47

Britain recovered, and Alexandria taken, 296.

3

6

4

4

307 49:04 About this time flourished Gregory and

Hermogenes, the lawyers.

31349:10

      Note. The much to be commiserated emperor,' Min te 'had grief and sorrow for his lot, while presiding over the nation.'

No.

Reign.

THE EASTERN TSIN DYNASTY.

12.

Year

A. D.

of Cycle.

1

317

49:14

3

323

20

3

17 326

4 2 343

5 17 345

א.

.0

6

4

362

7

366

371

9

24

373

10

11

22 397

419

Cotemporary Events.

The emperor Constantine begins to favor the Christian religion, 319.

49:20 The first general council at Nice, 325.

$

49:23 The seat of empire removed from Rome

to Constantinople, 328. 49:40

49:42 An earthquake ruins 150 cities in Greece

and Asia, 358.

49:59

50:03 Julian dies, and is succeeded by Jovian,

363.

50:08 The Goths permitted to settle in Thrace,

on being expelled by the Huns, 376.

50:10 The Vandals, Alani, and Suevi, permit- ted to settle in Spain and France by Hon- 50:34 orius, 406.

Rome plundered by Alaric, king of the 50:56 Visigoths, 410.

"

knight-errantry there was no lack of superstition, magic, witchcraft, and the many nameless vagaries usually accompanying them. But in the time of the Tsin, the heroic and chivalrous degenerated into the most pitiable weakness. Base and cruel women exercised great influ ence at court; the religions of Budha and Laou keun were in vogue; and the people suffered. Some few writers are found during this

1

201

!

144

Chronology of the Chinese.

13. 北宋紀 Pın Suna Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 高祖

Kaou tsoo..

Shaou te.

2 少帝 3文帝 4. 武帝 :5.廢帝 6 明帝

Wän te.

..

Woo te.

Fei te.

Ming te.

7蒼梧王 Tsangwoo woo

8順帝 Shan te.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese events.

宋人好譽 Sung jin haon

yu, the people of Sung loved praise and commendation.

女子化為男

neu tsze hwa

wei nan, a woman transformed into

a man.

射鬼竹林堂 shay loanei

chuk lin tang (the emperor) shot

a demon in the court of the bam-

boo grove.

Note. This is often called the Nan Pik Sang; it is also styled Sung Ke foo Peih Wei, or the Sung attached to the Northern Wei.

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

+

14. TSE KE.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1. 高帝

Kaou te.

2 武帝 3.明帝

Ming te.

Woo té.

!

篡宋位tston Sung

tseih wei, (this is said of the founder of the new line) he exter- minated Sung and took the throne.

4.東昏侯 Tunghwăn how. 五銖錢 Woo choo tseên, five

5.和帝 Hote.

pearl cash.

period. It was about the year 286 that the literary title sewtsae was introduced.

1

!、 *

In the reign of Shaou te of the Sung family, Budhism was inter- dicted. Under the reign of his successor, Wăn te, learning began to revive. The prince of Wei also persecuted the Budhists, burnt their temples and put the priests to death.

1841.

No.

1

2 1

3 30

424

51:01

4

10

454

Reign.

A.D.

Chronology of the Chinese. .

13. THE Northern Sung Dynasty.

ear

of Cycle.

3 420 50:57

Cotemporary Events.

145

The kingdom of the French begins on the lower Rhine.

423 50: 60 The Romans take leave of Britain, and

Inever return, 426.

The Saxons settle in Britain; Attila, king of the Huns, ravages Europe, about 51:31449.

LO

5

1 464

51:41

6

8

465

51:42 The paschal cycle of 532 years invented

by Victorius, 463.

t

4

473

51:50

The western empire is destroyed by the king of the Heruli, who assumes the title

8

2

477

51: 54 of king of Italy, 476.

      Note. The founder of this line (the Sung, or Northern and Southern dynas- ties) was Lew Yu.

Reign.

14. THE TSe Dynasty.

Year

Cotemporary Events.

479 51:56 Constantinople partly destroyed by an

earthquake, which lasted 40 days at in-

51: 60 tervals, 480.

No.

A. D.

of Cycle.

1

4

2 11 483

3 5

494

4 2

499

5

1

501

Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, con- 52: 11 quers Italy, 493,

52 16 Christianity embraced in France by the

baptism of Clovis, 496. 52:18

Seaou Taouching was the founder of the Tse dynasty, which took its name from a dukedom of which Seaou was master.

The Tse ke, like the Sung, and like the Leäng and Chin which follow it, was called Nan Pih, Southern and Northern, there being most of the time two distinct governments, one Tartar, the other Chinese, the former occupying the northern part of the country, and the latter the southern, and hence styled Northern and Southern dynasties.

VOL. X. NO, IIĮ.

19

146

Chronology of the Chinese.

15. LEANG Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 武帝 Woo te.

2Keën wăn.

3元帝 Yuen te. 4. 敬帝 King te.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

twan tseën, short cash, were interdicted by this emperor. The depreciation amounted to 10, and sometimes 20, and even 30, in a hundred.

"The people began to sit with their legs hanging down," i. e. they used chairs!

Note. Budhism which had been discarded, again revived. The first emperor himself, when old, became a priest, and lived according to the rites of the order.

16.

Chin Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 高祖

Kaou tsoo.

2文帝 3廢帝

Wán te.

Fei te.

4 宣帝

Seuen te.

5 1/2 ±

How choo.

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

Cloth, paper, and iron money

had

been sometime in vogue when,-

鵝眼錢

1000 yen tseën, goose-eyed__money-now

came

into use. Pearl money was soon

used in its stead.

女學士

neu heŏ sze, make

their appearance.

17. và ht Sux KE.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Kaou tsoo.

1 高祖 2煬帝 Yang te.

3 帝侑 Kung te yew.

4. 恭帝佪 Kung te tung.

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

天下地震 teën heäte chin,

an earthquake throughout the whole empire.

lung chow, an imperial

boat-built. This was 45 cubits

high, 200 long, having four sto-

ries.

    Yang Keën was the founder of the Suy dynasty. He was fond of power and extended his rule oyer the whole of the empire, uniting in

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

15. THE Leang DynasTY.

147

No..

Reign.

Year

A. D.

Cycle.

1

48

502

2

2 550

3

3

552

2 555

Cotemporary Events.

52:19 Alaric defeated by Clovis, 507; and Paris made the capital of the French do- 53:07 minions, 510.

53:09 The Turkish empire in Asia begins, 545; and the manufacture of silk intro- 53: 12 duced into Europe from the east, 553.

      Note. During this short dynasty, the empresses exerted great influence in the councils of state. One of them was a distinguished heroine.

16. THE CHin Dynasty.

Year

Part of Italy conquered by the Lom- bards, 568.

No.

Reign.

A. D.

of

Cotemporary Events.

Cycle.

1

3

557

53:14

A dreadful plague in Europe, Asia, and Africa, commences 558.

2

7

560

53: 17

3

4

14

569

5

2. 56753 : 24

53:26 Latin ceases to be the language of Italy

about 581.

6 583 53:40

     Note. The capital of the empire was frequently changed; the last sovereign of Chin reigned at Nanking.

17. THE Sur Dynasty.

Cotemporary Events.

53:46 The Saxon heptarchy begins in England

No.

Reign.

Year

A. D.

of

Cycle.

1

16

589

2 13

605

3.

1

4

1

619

Jabout 600.

54:02 The Persians take Jerusalem with a

slaughter of 90,000 men, 614.

618 54: 15 Mohammed in his 53d year, flies to Me- dina, and this becomes the 1st of the He- 54 : 16 gira, 622.

one the northern and southern empires. Corea, which had drawn off from its allegiance, was humbled and

made to sue for peace,

148

Names of the Sovereigns.

1 高祖 2太宗 3 高宗

Kaou 'tsoo.

Tae tsung.

Kaou tsung.

4 中宗

Chung tsung.

5 睿宗

Juy tsung.

6 玄宗

Heuen tsung.

7肅宗

Suh tsung.

8 代宗

Tae tsung,

• 德宗

Tih tsung.

10 順宗

Shun tsung.

1 憲宗

Heën tsung.

12

穆宗

Múh tsung.

13 敬宗

King tsung.

14

+

文宗

Wăn tsung.

15

武宗

Woo isuug.

16 宣宗

Seuen tsung.

17

懿宗

E tsung.

18 僖宗

He tsung.

19 昭宗

Chaou tsung.

Chronology of the Chinese.

18. TANG Kɛ.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese Evepts. ·

Ha tung paou tseën, the

copper coin, now current, first comes into use.

The Nestorians enter China about this time, when the empress Woo Tseihteën lived.

And books began to be bound;

previously scrolls only were used.

梨園弟子 theatricals com-

mence.

kaou she, the literary ex-

aminations-instituted about this

time.

帝聞空中神語 the em-

peror heard in the fimament' di-

vine words.

choo shuy cha, an

impost on tea began in the 9th year of Tih tsung.

The feast of lanterns comes in-

to vogue.

Heën tsung brought one of the

fingers of Budha in procession to his capital.

服金丹而崩 The emper-

or Müh, a devotee of the Ration-

alists' school, fuh kin tan urh

pång, swallowed the philosopher's stone and died.

無憂城

woo yew ching, a

city without sorrow.

Eunuchs exercise great influ-

ence in the affairs of state.

The emperor Chaou commanded

one of his prisoners to be

20

昭宣帝

Chaouseuen te.

keu che, sawn asunder.

Le Yuen, of the house of Leäng, was the founder of this dynasty, which is second to none except perhaps that of Han. During this

1841.

Chronology of the Chinese.

149

No.

Reign.

A. D.

18. THE Tang Dynasty.

Year of

Cycle.

620

54: 17

2 23

627

54: 24

3 34

650

4 26

5 3

710

6 43

.00

=

17

25

Cotemporary Events.

Constantinople besieged by the Persians and Arabs, 626.

Mohammed dies, 632; Jerusalem taken by the Saracens, 634; Alexandría taken, 54: 47 and its library destroyed, 637. The Sa-

racens ravage Sicily, 669.

68455:21 The venerable Bede among the few men of learning of this age. Pepin engrosses 55: 47 the power of the French monarchy, 690.

The Saracens conquer Africa, 709; and 55:50 Spain, 713.

713

756

}

A market opened at Canton, and an offi- 56:33 cer appointed to receive the imperial

duties.

763 56:40 Bagdad built and made the capital of the caliphs of the house of Abbas, who greatly 78056:57 encourage learning, 762.

Irene murders her son and reigns alone, 1805.57:22 797; Charlemagne emperor of Rome, 800; Egbert ascends the throne of En- 57:23 gland, 801.

9

10

11

-15

806

12

4

821

13 2

825

14 14

827

:

15 6

841

16

13

847

17 14

860

The Arabians arrive in China, and settle 57: 38 in Canton prior to 805.

The Saracens of Spain take Crete, which 57:42 they call Candia, 823.

1

57: 44 Origin of the Russian monarchy, 839.

57:58

58:04 The Normans get possession of some

cities in France, 853.

58: 17 Clocks first brought to Constantinople

..from Venice, 872.

18 15 874 58:31

X

Paris besieged by the Normans, and 19 15 889 58:46 bravely defended by bishop Goslin, 887.

King Alfred, after a reign of 30 years

20 3 904 59:01 dies, 900.

line of emperors, China stood comparatively higher than at any other period. The darkest age of the West, was the brighest in the East: !!

150

Chronology of the Chinese. 19. 後梁紀 How LEANG KE.

Names of the Sovereigns.

MARCH,

With cotemporary Chinese events.

1太祖 Tae tsoo.

2Leang

The greatest hero of this age 劉鄩一

+

步百計 Lew

2 Leäng Choo teen Tsin at one step could execute a

hundred stratagems!

20. 後唐紀 How Tang Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1.莊宗 Chwang tsung.

2明宗 Ming te. 3 閔宗 Min te. 4. 廢帝 Fei te.

* ། '

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

傳粉墨與優人共戲

This emperor (Chwang) painted his face and with stage players engaged in theatricals.

每夕焚香祝天,this

emperor (Min) every evening burnt incense and paid his vows to heaven.

21. How Tsin Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

With cotemporary Chinese events.

口高祖

Kaou tsoo.

2

2出帝

Chuh te.

楊延政剝皮 Yang Yen-

ching flayed the poor people. He set up his throne in Fuhkeën,

22. 後漢紀 How Han Ke.

od: d.

Names of the Sovereigns,

Kaou tsoo.

2隱帝 Yin te..

i

درم

With Chinese cotemporary events.

大風發屋拔木 a tem-

pest overturned the houses and uprooted the trees.

These woo tac, or five dynasties-Leäng, Tang, Tsin, Han, and

1841.

No.

1

Reign.

Chronology of the Chinese.

19. THE AFter Leang Dynasty.

Year

A. D.

of Cycle.

907

59:04

2

10

913 59: 10

Cotemporary Events.

151

The Normans establish themselves un" der Rollo in France.

Romanus the First, general of the fleet, usurps the throne.

20. THE After Tang Dynasty.

No.

co Reign.

Year

A. D.

of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

923

59:20

Fiefs established in France, 923.

2

8

926 59

3

4

93459:31.

2 934 59:31

Reign.

21. THE After Tsin Dynasty.

No.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

1

936

59': 33

2

3.

Cotemporary Events.

The Saracen empire divided by usur pation into seven kingdoms, 936.

944 59:41 Naples seized by the eastern emperors,

942.

22. THE AFTER Han Dynasty.

No.

Reign.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

1 947 59:44 The sons of Romanus conspire against

their father.

2 3

94859:45

F

Chow, occupy the throne from 907 to the close of 959, a period' of fifty-three years, giving an average of little more than ten years to each house. There were other families that claimed authority,' and the several monarchs had to contend moreover with foreign foes; consequently this period presents one unbroken series of disor- ders and revolutions. - ⠀⠀⠀

{

1,52

Chronology of the Chinese.

23. How CHOW KE.

Names of the Sovereigns. '

1太祖 Tae tsoo.

2世宗 She tsung.

3 恭帝 Kung te.

MCHAR,

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

佛像鑄錢 the images' of

Budha were made into cash: this was done by an imperial order issued by She tsung.

Note. The first and second of these three emperors exhibited wisdom; and She tsung was zealous in promoting the welfare of his people.

24. SUNG Kɛ.*.*..

Names of the Sovereigns.

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

1太祖 Tae tsoo.

the set-

2太宗 Tae tsung.

3. 真宗 Chin tsung. 4仁宗 Jin tsung.

5 英宗 Ying tsung.

6 神宗 Shin tsung.

7哲宗 Chě tsung.

I

日下腹有一日

T:

ting sun reäscended for a day:

this was seen and attested by the

astronomer Meaou Heun.

得天書于泰山(one of

the emperor's ministers) obtained

celestial books from Taeshan.

Pop. 9,955,729.

In the fourth year of Ying

tsung, Canton was first walled in.

司馬光 Szema Kwang. 男人誕子。

8徽宗 Hwuy tsung.

birth to a child.

9欽宗 Kin tsung.

a man gave

女人生鬚 a woman wore.

a long beard.

Learning received much attention during both this reign and the next succeeding it. The first emperor was rased to the throne by military men, who were about to wage war against some northern hordes; and being unwilling to serve; under the rule of a mere child, the emperor Kung being only nine years old they determined.to elevate in his stead a servant of the deceased monarch. They im- mediately dispatched a messenger, who found him 'lying under the influence of wine, and in that state communicated to him, their

1841.

23.

No.

Reign.

Yea

ear

A. D.

of

Chronology of the Chinese.

THE AFTER CHOW DYNASTY.

Cotemporary Events.

153

Cycle.

1

3

951

59:48

2

6

954

59:51

3

960

Romanus II., son of Constantine VII., by Helena, the daughter of Lecapenus, 59:57 succeeds, to the Eastern Empire 959.

     Note. She tsung not only destroyed the images of Budha, he also pulled down their temples, and took their sacred utensils and converted them into money, having established a mint for this specific purpose.

Reign.

24. THE SUNG DYNASTY.

Year of

No.

A. D.

Cycle.

1

16 960

59:57

2 22 976 60:13

Cotemporary Events.

Italy conquered by Otho, and united to the German empire, 964.

The third or Capetian race of kings in France begins, 987; arithmetical figures 60: 35 brought into Europe by the Saracens, 991. A general massacre of the Danes in 1023 60: 60 England, Nov. 13th, 1002.

3 25 998

4

41

5

4

1064 61:41

The kingdoms of Castile and Arragon begin, 1035. The Turks invade the Ro- 18 1068 61: 45 man empire, 1050; take Jerusalem, 1065;

William the conquerer crowned, 1066.

7 15 1086 62:03

25

Asia Minor taken by the Turks, 1084; 110162: 17 first crusade 1096; Jerusalem taken by the crusaders, 1099; learning revived at

9 1 1126 62:43 Cambridge, 1110.

decision; and ere he had time to reply, the yellow robe of state was placed upon him. Thus he was made emperor, the exalted sire of the blackhaired nation. Rude and ignorant as he himself was, learning flourished under his auspices, encouraged by the colleges he built, and the rewards he conferred.

     The number of authors given to this and the southern Sung families, by the writers of History Made Easy, is sixty-one; among this crowd of literary men, Choo He is the most distinguished.

VOL. X. NO, III.

20

154

Chronology of the Chinese.

25. 南朱紀 NAN SunG Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Kaou tsung.

2 Heaou tsung.

孝宗

3光宗 Kwang tsung-

4.寧宗 Ning tsung.

6

理宗 Le tsung.

Too tsung.

7恭宗 Kung tsung.

8端宗 Twan tsung.

9帝昞 Te Ping.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese Events.

Choo He, the able critic

and historian, known as Choo foo- tsze, flourished early in this reign.

白虹貫日 a white rain- bow seen passing through the sun.

天赤如血 the heavens red

as blood.

蝗飛蔽天 lights of locusts

obscure the heavens.

An officer appointed by the emperor to reside at Canton as commissioner of customs.

Gunpowder and fire-engines used.

Movable characters, made of burnt clay and placed in a frame for printing.

26. YUEN Ke.

Names of the Sovereigns.

1世祖 She T'soo.

2 成宗

Ching tsung.

3 武宗 4 仁宗 5英宗

Woo tsung.

Ying tsung.

Jin tsung.

6泰定帝 Taeting te.

7明宗 Ming tsung.

With cotemporary Chinese Events.

Huuhpeihleě, or Ku-

blai, was the founder of this dy- nasty.

Foreign trade for a time inter- rupted at Canton.

枋得不食二十餘日 Fangtih lived more than

20 days without eating any food.

The Grand Canal.

周歲童子暴長四尺

a child one year old suddenly

grew to more than four cubits in height.

8夜宗 ̇順宗

Wăn tsung.

Shun, tsung.

雨毛如線而綠 feathers

rained down like thread of a green color.

Kublai's life and actions-especially, his attention to the Polo

#

1841.

No.

Reign.

Chronology of the Chinese.

25. THE Southern Sung Dynasty.

A. D.

Year of Cycle.

136.1127

1127 62:44

2 27 1163 63: 20

3 5

4 30

5 40

6 10

17

1

1190 63:47

Cotemporary Events.

155

Accession of Stephen to the English crown, 1135.

The Teutonic order begins, 1164; the conquest of Egypt by the Turks, 1169.

Third crusade and seige of Acre, 1188; John succeeds to the English throne, 1199. Genghis khan's reign and conquests. The Magna Charta, 1215. Origin of the 1225 64: 22 Ottomans, 1240.

1195

63:52

1265 65:02 The uncle and father of Marco Polo the Venetian traveler in China.

1276 65: 12

2 127665: 13

9

2

Reign.

1278 65: 15

1295

No.

A. D.

116

1280

2 13

3

4

9

5

3

6

5

Edward I. on the English throne, 1272.

The famous Mortmain act passes in England, 1279.

26. THE YUEN DYNASTY.

Year of

Cycle.

Cotemporary Events.

65:17 During the Sicilian vespers, 8000 French murdered, 1283. Wales annexed to Eng- 65: 32 gland, 1283. Regular succession of En-

glish parliament begins, 1293.

1308 65:45

1312 65:49 The mariner's compass said to be invent-

jed or improved by Flaveo, 1302.

132165:58

132466:01 The Swiss cantons begin 1307. Edward

II. succeeds to the English crown.

1:1329 66:06 Edward III. on the English throne,

{

:

1327.

3

133066:07

The first comet observed, whose course is 9 35 1333 66: 10 described with exactness, in June, 1337.

family, his embassy to the pope, his predilection to Christianity,- are narrated in the travels of Marco Polo,an historian of no mean

ta

156

Chronology of the Chinese.

27. MING KE.

Names of the Sovereigns.

Meaou Haou,

Tsae 1900.

2建文帝 Keënwǎn te.

KwŎ Haou.

Hungwoo.

Keënwăn.

MARCH,

Cotemporary Chinese events.

奏戶

Yunglo. 六

十戶萬十四十

六年戶

部百百五八

Hunghe. 十四萬五千八

Seuentin 百 +

In the 26th year of Hung-

3 太宗 Tae tsung.

4仁宗 Jin tsung.

5宣宗 Seuen tsung.

6

7景帝 King te.

8憲

Heen tsung.

Chinghwa. in the empire.

Ying tsung.ingung woo, the Board of Revenue

9孝宗 Heaou tsung.

10i

11

Woo tsung.

She tsung.

12 穆宗 Mäh tsung.

13 神宗 Shin tsung.

Teënshun.

reported that the number of

Kingtae. families was 16,052,860,

and the persons 60,545,811

京師地震有聲

Hungche. (in the 11th year of this reign) there was an earth-

Chingtih. quake at the capital ac-

companied by a noise.

Keutsing.

天鼓鳴 sound of a

Lungking, drum in the heavens.

In the 4th year of Hung-

Wanleih che, it was only 9,113,446 families, and 53,281,158

In the 6th year of Man-

14 光宗 Kwang tsung.

Taechang individuals.

15 熹宗 He tsung.

Teënke. leih, the families were 10,621,436, and the per-

16 懷宗 Hwae tsung. Tsungching. sons 60,692,856.

   rank. He held his court at Peking, which was called Kambalu. The history of his ancestors, Genghis and others, and that of his own times, are full of interest. They were great men, and achieved great things. Central Asia-their theatre of action-may again erelong become a scene of interesting events, and opened and free for the European traveler.

The native historian says, 'in the beginning of the Ming dynasty, the government paid no regard to rank in the employment of its sub- jects. In commencing the dynasty, there was an urgent demand for

1841.

No.

10

Reign.

CD

Chronology of the Chinese.

27. THE MING DYNASTY.

Year

A. D.

of Cycle.

1368 06:45

Cotemporary Events.

157

Timur on the throne of Samarkand. William Occam, Peter Apono, Wiclif,

1398 | 67: 15 and Chancer flourish.

Henry V. succeeds his father Henry IV,

1403 | 67: 20|1413.

Constantinople is besieged by Amurath 67: 42 II., the Turkish emperor, 1422.

Cosmo de Medici recalled from banish- 67: 43 ment, and rise of that family at Florence,

1434.

67:53

Glass first manufactured in England, 1457. The arts of engraving and etching

1457 68: 14 invented, 1459.

1

30

2

5

3

22

4

1

1425

5

10

1426

6

21

1436

7

8

8

23

1465

9 18

1488

10

16

1506

11 45

12

6

13 47

14

1

15

16

16

68:22

68: 45

The Cape of Good Hope discovered. Shillings were first coined in England, 1505.

Edict of Worms proscribing Luther and his adherents, 1521. The pope taken 69:03 prisoner, 1527.

Huguenots, i. e. 'the allied by oath,' first 1522 69: 19 so called, 1560; massacre of them at

Paris, 1572.

156770: 04

1573 70: 10

The Turks invade and ravage Russia, 1575.

A British colony established in Virginia, 1614; and an English settlement made at 162070:57 Madras, 1620.

1621 70:58 War commenced by England against ¡France in favor of distressed French pro- 1628 71:05|testants, 1627.

talents; and the people of the empire being roused by the hope of rank and nobility, the human intellect at once rose above mediocri- ty. At this time they had fire-chariots, fire umbrellas, &c.

     Again the historian says: In the 3d year of Keätsing, people came in foreign vessels to Macao, and affirmed that, having encoun- tered a gale of wind, their ships were leaky: it was desired, that Macao, on the coast, might be allowed them to dry their goods,' Hence originated the foreign settlement.

159

Chronology of the Chinese.

28. TA Tsing Chadu.

The Names of the Sovereigns, or Meaou Haou.

hwangte,

1肇祖原皇帝 Shaoutsoo Yuen 2興祖直皇帝 Hingtsoo Cheih

hwangte.

3景翼皇帝 Kingtsoo Yeih

hwangte.

4顯宣皇帝 Heëntsoo Seuen

hwangte.

5 太祖高皇帝 Taetsoo Kaou

hwangte.

6 太宗文皇帝 Taetsung Mán

Kwo Haou.

MARCH,

N. B. These were mere

chieftains, without

tional titles.

天命 Teënming.

天聰 Teëntsung.

崇德 Tsungtih.

Shetsoo Chang Shunche.

7 世祖章皇帝 Shetsoo Chang

8聖祖仁皇帝 Shingtsoo Jin

hwangte.

9 世宗憲皇帝 Shetsung Heën

hwangle.

10 高宗純皇帝 Kaoutsung Shun

hwangte.

11 仁宗睿皇帝 Jintsung Juy

hwangte.

12 (The reigning monarch.)

Recapitulation.

康熙 Kanghe.

雍正 Yungching.

乾隆 Keënlung.

嘉慶 Keäking.

道光 Taoukwang.

1. The three August Sovereigns reigned 81,600 years.

na-

2. The five Sovereigns

reigned 647 yrs., commencing a. c.

2852

3. The Hea dynasty

4. The Shang dynasty

reigned 439 reigned 644

2205

"

**

1766

99

39

5. The Chow dynasty 6. The Tsin dynasty 17. The After Tsin dynasty

8. The Han dynasty 9. The Eastern Han dynasty 10. The After Han dynasty 11. The Tein dynasty

12. The Eastern Tein dynasty

reigned 873 reigned 3 reigned 44 reigned 226 reigned 196", reigned 44 19

1122

""

11

249

11

246

19

202

$9

**

"

A. D. 25

221

reigned 52

265

19

19

reigned 103

317

"

13. The Northern Sung dynasty

reigned 59

420

14. The Tse dynasty

reigned 23

479

15. The Leäng dynasty

16. . The Chin dynasty

reigned 55

502

"

reigned 32

557

"

1841.

No.

1

Reign.

Chronology of the Chinese.

28. THE Great Tsing Dynasty.

A. D.

1583

Year of Cycle..

Cotemporary Events.

159

N. B. The reigning family feign to derive their origin from the gods: it is believed, however, that the nation was formed of Tongouse tribes, situated on the banks of the Amour, north of Corea; and during comparatively very modern times.

}

10 60

11

25

12

1616

1627

6

1636

7

8 61 1662

War declared between the Turks and Venetians, 1645. Charles I., king of

18 1644 71:21 England, beheaded, 1649. Carolina plant-

ed by English merchants, 1676.

First king of Prussia crowned, 1701.

71:39

9 13 1723 72:40 War between the Ottoman Port and Per- sia, 1730; the Russians invade Tartary,

3

1736 72:53 1338.

1796 73:53 An emigration of 500,000 Tourgouths

from the Caspian to China, 1771.

1821 74:18

17. The Suy dynasty

reigned 31 yrs., commencing a. D. 589

18. The Tang dynasty

reigned 287

620

19. The After Leang dynasty

20. The After Tang dynasty 21. The After Tsin dynasty 22. The After Han dynasty

reigned 16 reigned 13 reigned 11 reigned 4

907

"J

923

""

"

936

"9

947

"1

11

23. The After Chow dynasty

reigned 9

951

59*

"

24. The Sung dynasty

reigned 157

960

25. The Southern Sung dynasty reigned 153

1127

"

19

26. The Yuen dynasty

27. The Ming dynasty

reigned 88 reigned 276

1280

""

23

1368

"

"

28. The Ta Tsing dynasty has reigned 196

1644

39

**

     The whole number of sovereigns in the foregoing lists, exclusive of the mythological line, is 243.

     The number of years-excluding the reign of the three august sovereigns-is 4692, which gives to each dynasty a fraction more than 173 years; and to each sovereign a period of little more than

19 years.

160

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

MARCH,

ART. II. Notices of Japan, No. VII.: recent attempts by foreign- ers to open relations with Japan; by Americans; by Russians; and by English.*

WHEN Christianity was finally extirpated throughout Japan, and the remnant of the European trade committed to the Dutch factory at Dezima, the resolute seclu- sion of the insular empire was long respected and left undisturbed by other nations. The slight attempt made by the English under Charles II., which the Dutch foil- ed by proclaiming the English queen to be a Portuguese princess, can hardly be called an exception.

This abstinence from any endeavors to transgress the prohibitory laws of Ja- pan allowed the strong feelings in which they originated to die away; and towards the close of the last century, the continuance of the system appears to have proceeded rather from indifference to foreign trade and respect for existing cus- toms, than from hatred or fear. Whilst the public mind of Japan remained in this ́easy state, although no trade, nor unnecessary intercourse with foreigners, was permitted, foreign ships in distress for provisions or other necessaries, were freely suffered to approach the coast, and their wants were cheerfully relieved. Captain Broughton,t when exploring the Japanese seas in the years 1795-6-7, was, perhaps,

* [Several papers on foreign intercourse with Japan have already appeared in the pages of the Repository; see Vols. VI and VII. In this paper, some things are repeated that are found in those articles, but much that is here given concern- ing Russian and American intercourse has not been before related, and we retain it in the series.]

     [Capt. Broughton published an account of his cruise in the Japanese waters in 1804, in a small quarto of 393 pages. Speaking of the conduct of the Japanese towards him and his ship, he says; "The same unremitted jealousy of foreign- ers seems to have pervaded every place in those seas where the Providence touched at; and although the desires of the crew for wood and water were readi- ly complied with, yet any wish of exploring the interior of the country, or of gaining a more perfect knowledge of its government, produce, and manners, was invariably and pertinaciously resisted." The Providence was a strongly built ship of 400 tons. After taking her departure from Oahu in 1796, she made a cruise north of Nippon, and in the spring of the next year anchored at Macao. Here, her enterprising commander having purchased a tender, left in April for the same seas, and on 17th of May, he was unfortunately wrecked on a reef at the north of Typinsan, one of the Madjicosima (or more correctly Hachi kosima, the Eight islets), a group of small islands between Lewchew and Formosa. The tender now proved to be of great service, and by the kind assistance of the natives of the group, who from his account are much like the Lewchewans in dress, language, and appearance, he was able to provision her and return to Macao in June. Hay- ing discharged some of his crew, captain Broughton planned a continuation of his cruise in the tender, notwithstanding she was only 87 tons, and, as he adds, "in- adequate in many respects. But still there was some prospect of acquiring geographical knowledge of the Tartarean and Corean coasts; and I was unwill- ing, even under the existing circumstances, not to use every endeavor to the utmost of my power, that could tend to the improvement of science by the ex- ploration of unknown parts." With these wishes, so characteristic of British navigators, and seconded by his officers, he left for the Japanese seas; he touched at Lewchew, Endermo harbor in Yesso or Insu, Matsmai, Tsus sima, Chosan in Corea, and Quelpaert I.; and returned to Macao in Nov. 1797. The volume contains but little else than nautical observations and remarks, which may be one reason why it has since its publication been so little spoken of or quoted.]

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

161

   the last English sailor who thus benefited by unsuspicious Japanese Hospitality.* Since that period, attempts have been made and accidents have happened, the effects of which are represented by the Dutch to have been the revival of their alienation from foreigners in all its original inveteracy. Siebold, however, rather questions this resuscitation; and thinks, that if it did take place, the feeling has again died away.

    The first aggression upon the Japanese prohibitory code was made by the Americans, and originated in the war between England and Holland, during the subjection of the latter to France. It has already been intimated,† that the Dutch authorities at Batavis, when they durst not expose their own merchantmen to capture by British cruizers in the Indian seas, engaged neutrals to carry on their trade with Japan. The first North-American ship thus hired was the Eliza of New York, captain Stewart, in 1797; and her appearance at once aroused Japan- eee suspicion.

    A vessel, bearing the Dutch flag, but of which the crew spoke English, not Dutch, was an anomaly that struck the Nagasaki authorities with consternation. It cost the president of the factory some trouble to convince the governor of Nagasaki that these English were not the real English, but English living in a dis- tant country, and governed by a different king. All this, however, even when believ- ed, was of no avail; the main point was, to prove that the Americans had nothing to do with the trade, being only employed by the Dutch as carriers, on account of the war.

        The governor was at length satisfied that the American was no inter- loper, the employment of neutrals being, under existing circumstances, unavoida-

and he consented to consider the Eliza as a Dutch ship.

ble;

Upon his second voyage, the following year, captain Stewart met with the ac. cident mentioned in the last paper; and it seems not unlikely that his increased intercourse with the Japanese, during the attempts to raise his ship and her repairs, gave birth to his project of establishing a connection with them, independent of his employers, the Dutch. His scheme and his measures do not, however, very distinctly appear in Doeff's narrative, either because the Dutch factory president is perplexed by his eagerness to identify them with English incroachment, or because the successful foiling of captain Stewart's hopes prevented the clear development of his intended proceedings.

When repaired and reloaded, the Eliza sailed, but was dismasted in a storm, and returned again to refit. All this occasioned such delay, that the American substitute for the Dutchman of 1799 arrived, and had nearly completed her load. ing for Batavia, when captain Stewart was at length ready to prosecute the voyage that should have been completed in the preceding year, 1798. For his consort he obstinately refused to wait, and sailed early in November, 1799. The follow. ing year capt. Stewart again made his appearance, but in a different vessel and under a different character. He had still not reached Batavia, and told a piteous

    * [So far as merely supplying the necessary wants of distressed mariners who may be wrecked on their shores, we are inclined to think the Japanese are as kind now as they have ever been; that is, they would feed and clothe such persons, and get them sent out of the country as soon as possible. When the Morrison was at Satsuma, the Japanese on board were told that three sailors from a foreign ship had some years before been sent to Nagasaki. Capt. Gordon in the Brothers (sco Chi. Rep., Vol. VII., page 589) was not treated at all inhospitably.]

↑ Doeff.

+ No. VI. page 82.

VOL. X. NO. III.

21

1841.

Notices of Japan,. No. VII.

163

     During the reign of Catherine II., a Japanese vessel was wrecked on the coast of Siberia, and the empress ordered such of the crew as had been saved to be con. veyed home. A Russian ship accordingly landed the rescued Japanese at Matsmai in 1792, and the captain, Adam Laxmann, made overtures respecting trade. He was formally thanked for bringing home the shipwrecked sailors, and permitted to repair to Nagasaki, there to negotiate with the proper authorities upon his com mercial propositions. He was further informed that at Nagasaki alone could fó- reigners be admitted, and if the Russians ever again landed elsewhere, even to bring home shipwrecked Japanese, they would be made prisoners.

     Capt. Laxmann did not go to Nagasaki, and the attention of the empress being probably withdrawn from so small a matter as trade with Japan by the engrossing character of European politics at that moment, the opening was neglected. It must be stated, however, that Dr. Von Siebold doubts of there having been any real opening. He ascribes the implied possibility of the Russian overtures for trade being entertained at Nagasaki, to the prince of Matsmai, or his secretary, feeling that the town was in no condition to sustain a conflict with a man-of-war, and being consequently anxious to get amicably rid of the Russian visitor.

      In 1804, exertions were made to repair this omission. A Russian man-of-war appeared in Nagasaki bay, conveying count Resanoff, ambassador from the czar to the siogoun, and empowered to negotiate a treaty of friendship and commerce between Russia and Japan,. The count brought with him official Dutch recom. mendations to the president of the factory, who had previously received advices/ upon the subject of the embassy, and recommendations from Batavia. These Heer Doeff had communicated to the governor, so that the constituted authorities of Nagasaki were not altogether unprepared for the embassador's arrival.

It was on the 7th of October * that the Russian vessel was reported to be off the mouth of the bay. The usual commission was sent out to visit her and receive her arms in deposit; and upon this occasion, in compliment to the embassador, the president was requested to accompany the deputation in person. Even at this first meeting the dissensions between the Russian and Japanese dignitaries began. The commissioners, regarding themselves as the representatives of the siogoun, required, as usual, that the marks of repect due to his person should be paid to themselves; whilst the embassador deemed it inconsistent with either his indi- vidual or his official rank to humble himself before the deputies of a provincial governor. The next dispute related to the arms, which Resanoff positively re- fused to surrender, this quarrel turning, like the former, upon the point of honor,

* Doeff.

+ Upon the subject of this representation of the siogoun's person, a difficulty that occurred with the Coreans, and was settled during Doeff's presidentship, may be mentioned. The king of Corea sends an embassy to pay a sort of homage to every new siogoun upon his accession. They formerly repaired to Yedo for that purpose, but upon the accession of the present monarch, the Corean embassy was refused permission to visit the capital, and required to do homage to the prince of Tsu-sima, the immediate superior of Corea, who has a garrison upon the peninsula. This the Corean refused as a degradation, claiming admission at Yedo; and the dispute remained for years unsettled, the homage unpaid. At length, the prince of Kokura, grand treasurer of Japan, and the grand accountant (probable the Japa- nese chancellor of the exchequer), were sent as representatives of the siogoun, to Tsu-sima, to receive the Corean homage; and to this representation of majesty the embassy were content to pay it. The deputation from Yedo visited Doeff at Dezima upon their return to court,

· 164

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

MARCH,

    not of safety, as he readily suffered the ammunition to be landed and held by the Japanese.

     President Doeff avers, that it was solely owing to his good offices and personal influence with the governor, that the ship, thus imperfectly disarmed, was permit- ted to enter the harbor, and take up a secure anchorage, there to await the answer from Yedo, not as to the future opening of negotiations, but as to the present ceremonial. This single evening the Dutchmen were indulged in spending cheer. fully in European society. But the next day a suspicion seems to have arisen of possible confederacy between the two sets of foreigners, however manifestly op. posed their interests, and they were never again allowed to exchange a word. They contrived, however, to correspond in French, through the medium of the interpreters, always, ready apparently to favor the violation of the rigid code: the way, indeed, in which excessive rigidity is in most cases usefully though illegally compensated.

The jealousy of combination between the Dutch and Russians went so far, that the annual ship, this year really Dutch, and then in course of loading, was remov. ed from her wonted berth to a distant station, and when she set sail, the captain and crew were forbidden to answer the kindly greetings and farewell of the Rus- sians. The Dutch captain durst only wave his hat in reply, and this want of politeness seems to have given great offense to the courteous Muscovites, who imputed it to mercantile ill-will.

Meanwhile, the Russian embassador earnestly solicted permission to land, and Capt. Krusenstern, the commander of the ship, as earnestly desired leave to repair his vessel. These requests, being contrary to law, required a reference to Yedo. But Nagasaki now witnessed an unprecedented phenomenon-the simultaneous presence of the two governors: the relief governor having arrived, and the reliev. ed governor fearing to depart at so critical an emergency. Whilst awaiting the orders from Yedo, the colleagues deliberated. They inquired whether the Dutch factory could accommodate the embassy at Dezima, which Doeff, though straiten. ed for room in consequence of a recent fire, agreed to do. But the proposal was not repeated, and the governors next talked of giving the Russians the use of a temple. This idea likewise was abandoned, and finally a fish warehouse, over against Dezima, but at the further extremity of Nagasaki, was selected for the residence of the Russian embassy. It was accordingly cleared out, cleaned, and prepared, for their reception, by inclosing it with palisades, to prevent external communication. These preliminary arrangements being completed, count Re- sanoff was, about the middle of December, installed with his suite in this strange hotel d'ambassade, where the Russian soldiers mounted guard with unloaded mus. kets. It is said that the court of Vedo decidedly disapproved of this ungentle- manlike treatment, in minor points, of the rejected European embassy. A former siogoun had, indeed, beheaded a Portuguese embassy, leaving only enough sur. vivors to carry home the report of their reception, but he had not degraded or insulted them.

All these delays, difficulties, and annoyances, which Doeff ascribes to Resanoff's refusal to give up his guns and perform the kotow, were imputed by the Russians to Dutch influence and misrepresentation. This question requires no investiga. tion; of course, the Dutch did not wish the Russian mission success, but under- hand efforts were scarcely wanted to insure its failure. The affair was, however,

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

165

deemed important even at Yedo, as this is said to have been one of the very few occasions upon which the siogoun* consulted the mikado; probably wishing for his sanction of a refusal that might lead to war.

Towards the end of March, a commissioner, who appears to have been a spy of the higher grade, arrived from Yedo with the answer of the siogoun, and the Russian embassador was invited to an audience, at which he should hear it read. The governor requested Doeff to lend his own norimono for the conveyance of the embassador from his warehouse-lodging to the government-house. The other pre- parations made were directed solely towards preventing the European intruder from acquiring any knowledge of Nagasaki or its inhabitants. The shutters of the windows of all the houses in the streets through which he was to pass were ordered to be closed; the ends of all the streets abutting upon those streets to be boarded up, and every inhabitant, not called by official duty to the procession or the audience, was commanded to remain at home.

      A pleasure-boat of the prince of Fizen's conveyed the Russian embassy across the bay to the landing-place, where the Dutch president's sedan awaited the embassador; a solitary acknowledgment of rank, as his whole suite followed on foot. The next day a second audience was granted, and in consequence of a heavy rain, cago were provided for the Russian officers. The answer was a decided refusal, and Doeff was requested to assist the interpreters in translating the Japanese official document into Dutch. He observed that the Russians pro- bably did not understand this language, and offered to make a French version of the paper. But the Japanese, knowing nothing of French, could not have judged whether a translation into that language was correct; a point far more important in their eyes, than such a trifle as the answer being intelligible or not to those to whom it was addressed.

But though the object of the negotiation was peremptorily rejected, the negotia- tion itself was not yet over. The siogoun had rejected the presents offered him from the czar, whereupon count Resanoff naturally declined accepting the Japan. ese presents sent for himself. This was a point of vital importance to the go. vernor of Nagasaki individually; he had been ordered to make the embassador accept these presents, and a failure would have left him no alternative; he must have ripped himself up, imitated, most likely, by a reasonable proportion of his subordinate officers. By dint of intreaty, the interpreters, who had by this time picked up a little Russian, prevailed upon Rosanoff to accept something; and in. deed if they, or Doeff by letter, explained to him the inevitable consequence of his pertinacious refusal, a man of common good-nature could not but yield.

The Japanese, according to custom upon occasion of rejecting overtures, defray- ed the expenses of the Russians at Nagasaki, and gratuitously supplied the ship with necessaries at her departure. The bitter reciprocal accusations between the baffled Russian diplomatist and the Dutch president are irrevelant to our object; the more so, perhaps, that Resanoff did not live to hear Doeff's charges against himself, or even to give an account of his mission. But short as was the remain- der of his life, it allowed him time to take measures for the gratification of his own anger at his treatment at Nagasaki, which must have determined for a long time, if not permanently, the exclusion of his countrymen from any intercourse with Japan.

* Fischer.

166

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

March,

Instigated by these vindictive feelings, he appears to have resolved upon mak- ing Japan feel the wrath of Russia. For this purpose, during his stay in Siberia or Kamtschatka, he directed two officers of the Russian navy, named Chwostoff and Davidoff, then temporarily commanding merchant-vessels trading between the eastern coast of the Russian dominions in Asia and the western coast of North America, to effect a hostile landing upon the most northern Japanese islands, or their dependencies.

It must here be stated that, before this period, the Russians had gradually possessed themselves of the northern Kurile islands, the whole Kurile archipelago having for centuries been esteemed a dependency of the Japanese empire, and 'more immediately of the prince of Matsmai. Whether this loss of a few islands in a rude and savge state were even known at Yedo; the Dutch factory were of course ignorant; and it seems not unlikely that the prince and his secretary-mas. ters, if they could secure themselves against spies, would deem it expedient to conceal a disaster rather disgraceful than otherwise important.

It was upon Sagalien, one of the southern Kuriles, still belonging to Japan, that Chwostoff and Davidoff, according to Resanoff's orders, landed in the year 1806. This being the most unguarded part of the empire, they were able, unop. posed, to plunder several villages, commit great ravages, and carry off* many of the natives. On reëmbarking, they left behind them papers in the Russian and French languages, announcing that this was done to teach the Japanese to dread the power of Russia, and to show them the folly of which they had been guilty, in rejecting count Resanoff's friendly overtures.

The Japanese government, provincial and supreme, was utterly confounded at this whole transaction. The governor of Nagasaki, evidently by orders from on high, repeatedly asked the Dutch president's opinion of its object; and the French papers were sent to the factory with a request that Doeff would translate them. Some of the interpreters had gained sufficient Russian during the six months' detention of the embassy to make a sort of translation of the Russian copy; and thus, by comparing the two versions, the council of state would be enabled to judge of the fidelity, as to matter and spirit, of Doeff's.

The only immediate result of this really wanton outrage, was the degradation of the prince of Matsmai. He was judged incapable of protecting his subjects or defending his dominions; for which reasons, the principality of Matsmai was converted into an imperial province, and, with its dependencies, Yezo and the Kuriles, thenceforth committed to an imperial governor.

    Four years later, Capt. Golownin was sent in a frigate to explore the Japanese seas, and especially the portion of the Kurile archipelago still belonging to Japan. In the course of a voyage of discovery so likely to offend the feelings of the Japan. ese, some of Golownin's crew indiscreetly landed upon the Kurile island Eeterpoo -or, according to Siebold's orthography, Jetorop-near a fortress, and they were in danger of being taken; but Golownin persuaded the commandant that the hos tile incursion of Chwostoff and Davidoff had been a sheer act of piracy on their part, for which they had been punished-they had been imprisoned, but suffered to escape, and as far as appears, not dismissed the service-and that he himself had only approached the coast because in want of wood and water. A Kurile who spoke Russ, and a Japanese who spoke the Kurile tongue, were Golownin's usual media of conversation. The commandant was satisfied, treated Golownin

F

Jiz

I

ཞུ་

the

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

167

hospitably, and gave him a letter to the commandant of another Jetorop fortress, where, the anchorage being safer, wood and water might be more easily shipped. Golownin made no use of this friendly introduction, but continued for weeks to sail about amongst the islands, exploring, according to his instructions. When at length the wants he had prematurely alleged really pressed, he did not seek the Jetorop harbor recommended to him, but cast anchor in a bay of another yet more southern Kurile island, Kunashir. Here a similar misunderstanding occur- red with the commandant of an adjoining fortress, but was not so happily got over.. The Japanese officer merely affected to be satisfied till he had lulled Golownin in- to security; and then, upon his landing without his usual precautions, surprised, overpowered, and made prisonors of him, his officers, and his boat's crew.

The mixture of cruelty and kindness that marked their treatment astonished the Russians, but is easily intelligible to those who have made acquaintance with the Japanese character. The cruelty was deemed essential to their safe custody, and any torture contributing to such an object would be unhesitatingly, as relent- lessly, inflicted. The kindness was the genuine offspring of Japanese good-nature, ever prompt to confer favors, grant indulgences, and give pleasure, even at the cost of some personal inconvenience.

Thus the Russians were bound all over with small cords so tightly, as to render them perfectly helpless, as to induce the necessity of their meat and drink being put into their mouths: whilst their legs were allowed just sufficient liberty to enable them to walk: The ends of each man's cord were held by a soldier; and in this state they were driven over land or piled upon one another in boats, when they were to cross the sea. Their complaints that the cords cut into their flesh were totally disregarded, and though the wounds were carefully dressed every night, the cords were neither removed nor slackened; but their guards, who underwent more fatigue than themselves, were always ready to carry them when tired, and seemed to grant with pleasure the frequent requests of the compas- sionate villagers of both sexes upon their road, to be permitted to give the prison. ers a good meal: when the givers stood around, and feeding them like infants, seemed to enjoy the refreshment they afforded. The Russians were moreover constantly assured that they were only bound as Japanese prisoners of their rank would be.

      They were finally conveyed to Matsmai, and there kept in prison. After a while, a good house was perpared for their accommodation, where they could be guarded with less annoyance to themselves. The use they made of this indulgence was to attempt an escape, which of course led to their being again committed to the surer custody of a prison. The continued friendship of the governor after this eva. sion, the success of which must have compelled him to the hara-kiri operation- and they were not retaken for some days-is a lively example of the good disposi tion of the Japanese. So is the behavior of one of their guards, who, though degraded from a soldier to a prison servant, because on duty at the time of their flight, exerted himself unremittingly to procure them comforts. The great topics of Golownin's complaints in prison, where he and his companions were immediate- ly unbound, are want of food and troublesome questions; but this simply means, that the abstemious Japanese could not even conceive the appetite of a Russian sailor, and that the Europeans were above answering questions which, under reversed circumstances, they would gladly have put.

168

Notices of Japan, No. VII

MARCH,

    The Japanese government endeavored to profit by the captivity of the Russians, both to instruct and improve the interpreters in that language, and to acquire astronomical science, of which they hoped to learn more from naval officers than from merchants. Amongst the learned men sent from Yedo for this purpose was Doeff's friend, the astronomer Takahaso Sampai, who was likewise, according to the opperhoofd, a commissioner appointed to act with the governor of Matsmai.. As Golownin, who calls him Teské, and speaks of him with affection, seems unconscious of this branch of his mission, it may be suspected that even the philosopher upon that occasion played the part of metsuke, or spy.

    Nearly two years from the seizure of Golownin elpased ere such a disavowal of Chwostoff and Davidoff was obtained from competent Russian authority, as would satisfy the court at Yedo. When the disavowals and explanations were at length admitted, and the prisoners allowed to reembark in Golownin's own ship, which had carried on the negotiation between the two empires, the cordial joy and sympathy of the Russians' Japanese friends are described as really affecting. Golownin, upon his departure, was charged with a written document, warning the Russians against further seeking an impossibility, such as permission to trade with Japan. The warning seems to have been respected, as no subse. quent attempts with or upon the sonthern Kuriles are mentioned.

     The English attempts at opening a commercial intercourse with Japan are the next and last to be narrated. The first of these was too slight to give offense, and may be briefly dispatched. Soon after Capt. Stewart's last visit to Nagasaki, another strange vessel was reported to be off the bay. She was visited by the accustomed Japanese and Dutch deputation, and announced herself as a British merchantman from Calcutta, sent thither to endeavor to open a commercial intercourse between India and Japan. The cross was omitted in her flag, in compliment to the prejudices of the latter nation. The captain's request for leave to trade was refused, and the ship ordered away.

     The next British vessel that visited Japan was the Photon. Her intrusion into the bay of Nagasaki, as has been explained, had no connexion with views of traffic; but its unfortunate result left a hatred of the English name rankling in the hearts of the Japanese, very unpropitious to subsequent amicable or mer. cantile relations. Various additional measures of precaution were ordered, of which the demand of hostages from every strange sail prior to her entering the bay, as mentioned by Siebold, is one.

The British merchants made no second effort to trade with Japan; but in the year 1811, Batavia was attacked by an English armament, and governor Jansens capitulated for Java and all its dependencies. One of these dependencies the factory at Dezima undoubtedly was, the president, as well as the inferior officers and members, having always been appointed and sent thither by the governor of Batavia for the time being, with whom the opperhoofd corresponded, and to whose authority he was always subject. The English governor of Java, sir Stamford Raffles, naturally considered the Japanese factory as part of his government, and in the year 1813, proceeded to enforce his authority in that quarter, and thus effect the transfer of the factory and the trade to England. The measures he took for this purpose were the quietest possible; he dispatched two ships, as the annual traders, having on board a new Dutch opperhoofd--now British by allegiance- Heer Cassa, to relieve president Doeff, who had already held his office more

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

189

then double the usual time, and two commissioners-one Dutch, Doeff's pre- decessor and patron, Wardenaar; the other English, Dr. Ainslie-to examine and settle the affairs of the factory.

To the Japanese, these ships upon being visited appeared simply two more Americans, hired by the Dutch; and although to the factory deputation there seemed a something mysterious about them, it was not till Wardenaar landed and explained to the president and the warehouse-master that Holland was no more, the European provinces being incorporated with France, and the foreign colonies surrendered to England, that the state of the case was understood. Neither, in- deed, was it properly understood then, for the first of the facts stated Heer Doeff refused to believe, and consequently to acknowledge English authority.

      The question between sir Stamford Raffles and Heer Doeff, who was assuredly bound by the act of his superior, governor Jansens, is perhaps somewhat com- plicated by the English governor, like the Russian embassador, not having lived to know the charges brought against him. It is one not to be investigated without the examination of official documents, and even then the discussion would be mis. placed here, being irrelevant to the peculiarities and nationality of the Japanese. It may suffice to point out the improbability of Heer Doeff's statement, that not only no proofs were given him of the facts alleged, but that none were even sent the following year, although he had grounded his disobedience upon the want of Buch proofs-even of European newspapers.

Be this as it may, Heer Doeff resolved to remain opperhoofd, keeping the factory Dutch, and the trade in his own hands. The animosity against the Eng- lish, originating in the suicides occasioned by the adventure of the Phaeton, placed power in his hands, and he used it skillfully for his own purposes. He was obliged, however, to seek the aid of the interpreters, as in all underhand proceedings.

Heer Doeff invited the five chief interpreters to Dezima, and in Wardenaar's presence communicated to them that gentleman's statements, his own disbelief of all beyond the conquest of Java by the English, and the fact that the shipm then in the harbor were English. The Japanese were confounded at the idea of public vicissitudes foreign to their experience, and terrified at the weight of responsibility impending over the authorities of Nagasaki, who had again been duped into suffering the intrusion of English vessels. Willingly, therefore, did they agree to the scheme by which Doeff proposed to avert such consequences. This was to suppress the whole history of the conquest, and to state that a suc. cessor had been sent him, in case the Japanese should object to the further pro. longation of his already unwontedly prolonged presidentship; but that the go- vernor of Batavia wished, if not disagreeable to the governor of Nagasaki, to continue him yet a while as opperhoofd, that he might profit by a few years of trade, after so many blank seasons. This arranged, Doeff proposed to buy the cargoes of the ships, negotiate their sale and the purchase of return cargoes on his own account with the Japanese, and finally sell the latter to the English commissioners.

The strong representations made by Doeff and the interpreters of the hatred entertained by the Japanese towards the English, of the conflict and bloodshed that must ensue upon revealing the truth, evils they had not been sent there to provoke, induced the intended president, the commissioners, and the captains of the vessels, to submit to Doeff's terms. The stratagem succeeded; the vessels

22

VOL. X. NO, III.

170

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

MARCH,

passed for Americans in the Dutch service, and Doeff remained Dutch president, Dezima alone in the whole world then being in fact Dutch.

     Dr. Ainslie, who now visited in Nagasaki, according to Doeff, as an American physician, appears, from the very slight report of his mission given in sir Stam- ford Raffles' Memoir, to have experienced great kindness and hospitality, and to have been much pleased with the Japanese character, especially with the treat- ment of women, and the elegant manners of the ladies. It is to be observed that this report gives the impression of Dr. Ainslie's having been known as an Eng- lishman. Indeed, he positively states that the Japanese spoke to him of his coun- trymen with respect, averring their conviction that the English would never play a second act of the Russian embassy. But, as before said, this is not the place for discussing the question as mooted between sir S. Raffles and president Doeff; and the subject may be dismissed with the wish, that the publication of the Recollections of the latter may induce some one who possesses, or has access to the requisite knowledge of the facts to give a British statement of them to the world.

     In 1814, Heer Cassa again appeared at Dezima as appointed opperhoofd, bring- ing tidings of the great events of 1813 in Europe, especially of the Dutch insur- rection in behalf of the House of Orange, and the consequent prospect of the immediate restoration of the Dutch colonies by England. Sir S. Raffles and Heer Cassa probably expected that this information would remove all Heer Doeff's patriotic objections to follow the fate of his lawful superior, governor Jansens, and obey orders from Batavia, as of old. But Doeff still professed dis- belief, and recurring to the measures of the preceding year, inforced compliance by the same threats then employed. He was now energetically aided by the interpreters, whose lives would be forfeited should their previous complicity he discovered.

     This year, however, Heer Cassa was less unprepared for the conflict-he counter-manœuvred; and had he engaged no lady-domestics from the tea-houses, might possibly have triumphed. He gained over two of the confidential inter. preters, and negotiated through them, not the disclosure replete with danger to all, but the procuring from the court of Yedo a refusal of Doeff's request for leave to remain. But some of the women in Cassa's service were Doeff's spies; from them he learned what was going forward, and by threatening the interpreters to lay the whole truth, at all hazards, before the governor of Nagasaki, he car. ried his point, and again sent away his appointed successor. Sir S. Raffles did not apparently think it worth while, under the circumstances, to renew the at- tempt. He sent no more ships; and as some time elpased ere a Dutch govern- ment was reestablished and in full action in Java, Heer Doeff paid the price of his triumph in another interval of years without trade, emoluments, or European comforts. It was not till 1817 that Dutch vessels brought him a Dutch appointed successor, Heer Blomhoff.

     All that need be added, upon the subject of these attempts, is, that Japan now possesses interpreters understanding English and Russian as well as Dutch, and that, since the year 1830, these interpreters are according to Siebold, stationed at different points all round the external coast, in preparation for the possible approach of any strange ship. It seems something singular that in Dr. Parker's account of his repulse in 1837, these interpreters are not mentioned; unless we 'are to suppose that they might be present, but finding Mr. Gutzlaff perform their

2

#

*

I

2

E1

སྐ9 1

A:

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VII.

171

part, thought it well to conceal their own knowledge of English. If this were so, they might thus discover the missionary scheme, and hence the virulence of the hostile attack, without the vessel having been first ordered away-the usual course.*

Dr. Siebold speaks of squabbles in his time with English whalers, which neces- sarily or unnecessarily violated the Japanese harbors. Yet as it appears that some of these very offending whalers have since been supplied with wood and water, it may be hoped that the bitterness of animosity to England has subsided, unless revived by Dr. Parker's missionary views, as it must still and ever be difficult for the Japanese to distinguish between English and Americans.†

* [The account already given of this voyage in a previous volume (see vol. VI., page 353) obviates the need of any further remarks here as to its objects and doings, but when that article and Dr. Parker's Narrative were both before the writer of this paper, we think the character and intentions of the voyage might have been more fairly stated. It was not a missionary, but a commercial, voyage; and the medical services of the physician with the aid of interpreters, and the bringing back of shipwrecked natives, were made use of to obtain, if possible, an interview with the Japanese authorities, and learn their present feelings regarding a trade. It is indeed something singular, that if the interpreters mentioned by Siebold are stationed along the coast none came on board the Morrison, and the difficulty is most easily removed by concluding that there are none; for how are they to obtain the knowledge of Russian and English, two most difficult languages for foreigners to learn to speak, even with living teachers, while shut up in their own land and having never seen an Englishman, and very seldom a Russian? Even if there are such interpreters, they would have found great difficulty in discovering a *missionary scheme' which had no existence. In the bay of Yedo, the vessel was fired upon before she came to anchor, or even her national flag could be seen or known; and at Kagosima, she was told that at Nagasaki, there were proper au- thorities with whom she could treat; and the probable reason of her being fired at was from misunderstanding her intentions in laying at anchor after the officers had declined to receive the men. These very officers expressed the most lively sympathy for their unfortunate countrymen, and regretted that they were for. bidden to receive them.]

      [If the Japanese government so sedulously guard their coasts from the ap proach of foreign ships, and forbid their people from going abroad, the winds which prevail on their coasts are constantly driving their vessels out to sea, and scattering the natives over the face of the earth, thus bringing them in contact with other nations. Last month we had occasion to mention the arrival in Ma- cao of three tempest-tost mariners picked up in the Pacific; and a ship from the Sandwich Islands this month brings an account of the arrival there of seven taken off a wreck in lat. 34° N., and long. 174° E., on the 6th of June, 1840, by captain Cathcart of the whale ship James Loper; this happened only three days before the rescue of the three men by captain Codman, the two junks being about 200 miles from each other. The seven men were sent to Kamtschatka. In Decem- ber, 1832, a Japanese junk anchored in the harbor of Waialua in Oahu, which had drifted about in the Pacific almost a year; it had on board only three men, who, after remaining at Honolulu for eighteen months were also sent to Kam tschatka. Besides these two instances, there are the two mentioned in vol. VI. of the Repository, page 209. In 1836, six Japanese were brought to Canton, by the Chinese, authorities, who had been wrecked on the island of Hainan; and in 1838, four more were brought to Canton, who were supposed to be Lewchewans. The case mentioned by Siebold in No I. of this series of papers (see vol. IX, page 121,) is another that had like to have proved fatal. The men brought in the Argyle say that two junks left their village last year, which were never heard of after- wards. K'aproth, too, derived much of his knowledge of Japan from shipwrecked men, whom the Russians took up; and we cannot doubt that many more vessels are driven off from the coast which founder, or are never more heard of]

172

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

MARCH,

ART. III. Illustrations of men and things in China: mode of ·

making walls and walks; a lampoon; a worshiper.

Mode of making walls and walks. The Chinese have a substitute for stone or brick pavements, called by foreigners chunam, derivep from an Indian word meaning lime, from the use of lime in its com- position, and which they call sha hwuy, or 'sanded lime.' It is made by mixing sifted sand with quicklime in the proportion of about 15 to 1, and thoroughly working them together with a hoe, occasionally sprinkling the heap. It is then thinly spread upon the ground, and beat very solid with a kind of wooden peels, now and then wetting the place to assist the solidification. The materials for walls are the same, but the gravel is rather coarser. In constructing a wall, boards are set within posts on each side of the foundation just the thickness of the intended wall, and the prepared gravel poured in and pounded down solid with long heavy beaters. When full to the top of the boards, additional ones are placed above them, and the process repeated, till by successive increments the wall is done. When thoroughly dry, it is coated with coarse plaster for preservation from rain, and if the coating is well done, the wall becomes in time very hard and stony. Besides the usual mode of laying brick to make the walls of dwellings, either plastered or not, houses are also con- structed in the same manner of this sanded lime; but more commonly tiers of bricks are loosely laid in to render it more substantial, and the whole covered with plaster, and whitewashed.

the

In places where burned bricks are expensive, the people have devised a substitute, viz., large blocks made of disintegrated felspar and lime. Localities often occur in the granitic strata in this region where the felspar predominates, and, by exposure, has disinte- grated and fallen down in the form of coarse clay. The workman brings his tools to the place, consisting of a sliding wooden form of the size of his intended bricks, and a long beater.

He turns up clayey felspar, and mixing more or less lime with it as he sees fit, pours the same into the mold, and pounds it in as solid as possible; then opening the frame, he dries the mass in the sun. These blocks. are about 14 inches long by 6 square, and sell for $3 to $34 a hun- dred. Almost all the houses on the island of Hongkong are built of this material, which in dry situations answers well enough to sustain. a roof, and shelter the inmates from wind and rain; but when a freshet

1841

Illustrations of Men and Things in China.

173

     flows into a village of such dwellings, it soon causes them to be dissolved, an event by no means unknown in some seasons.

      A lampoon. The following satirical piece was written and circulat- ed soon after the riot in Canton, Dec. 12th, 1838, to which the ninth and tenth lines refer. The two persons named in the third and fourth lines were notorious opium dealers, and while holding office were sup- posed to be screened by gov. Tăng, who, from them and others.of the inferior magistracy, is charged with having received three tens and six,' or 36,000 taels per month for the use of the revenue cutters for purposes of smuggling. It is a pretty close translation.

+

In truth, there's no luck at all in Canton,

For Tingching in governor's hall is found,-

Who, of Cheih Shakwang, is the well known patron,

  And Ta Luhchuh by him rose from the ground. The boats of Two Kwang are privily let,

For a monthly sop of three tens and six. Poor Ho Laoukin! he strangled him to death, Because his cash and coin could not suffice ;- How was the cross all broken down and lost, And the curtained tent quite overset and tost! He put a tell-tale cangue on Punhoyqua, And squeezed the pelf from uncle Howqua. He scared poor Fung Sühchang almost to death, And Lew Shoolúh had well nigh lost his breath. If we hope for halcyon days of peace to come, Unbutton and dismiss this infamous Tăng; For if he stays three years in power,

Canton will be just like one hot cauldron.

A worshiper. I was walking one day in the environs of Honan, when I came across two respectable elderly matrons worshiping be- fore a small shrine, which, from all appearances, they had themselves placed there among the graves by the wayside. No image was visi- ble, but my attention was arrested by the inscription over the shrine, kew tseih tih e, freely rendered by, 'Ask and ye shall receive.' One of the women was kneeling on the grass, and devoutly praying, while her companion was making ready the paper to burn before the deity. In the streets of Canton, altars are erected, and before some of them, six, ten, twelve, and more, women, are sometimes seen worshiping, lighting incense sticks, kneeling, and endeavoring by repeated throws of the keën pei, or divining blocks, to ascertain the answer to their prayers. This worship in the streets is not deemed indecorous, nor does it appear to be done by them to be seen of men.

174

Rewards for British ships.

MARCH,

ART. IV. Rewards for British ships and. British subjects, offered by Eleäng, the lieutenant governor of Canton, in a procla- mation, dated February 27th, 1841.

BOUNTIES have again been offered for British subjects and British ships. Early in the summer of 1840, about the time the expedition arrived in China, the governor of this province issued a proclamation promising large rewards for the capture of Enghish vessels, and for the seizure of British subjects. One or two seizures were made, but no notice seems to have been taken of the proclamation by those against whom it was designed to operate. This second document holds out the promise of still larger rewards, and is apparently attract- ing no more notice than the first It is issued, however, under cir cumstances which fix a very foul stain on the character of the pro- vincial government-none the less foul, because it may have been occasioned by the spirit and letter of the emperor's own commands. The document is chiefly deserving of notice on occount of the exhi- bition it makes of that bad spirit which is so characteristic of the Chinese government, especially in its relation to foreign countries. It was resolved upon, drawn üp, and made known in private circles, while ostensibly amicable negotiations were going on with those who were to be its victims-dead or alive. It is not simply a declaration of war, it is a call for hostilities in their worst forms. The emperor's edicts, given at Peking on the 27th January, show unequivocally what line of policy had been fixed upon by the imperial counsels. "There can only remain one course," says the emperor, viz., destroy and wipe them clean away, to exterminate and root them out, without remorse." Accordingly he instructs his high officers "to compel these rebellious foreigners to give up their ringleaders, that they may be sent encaged to Peking, to receive the utmost retri- bution of the laws;" i. e. to be cut into ten thousand pieces, to under- go death in the most ignominious and cruel manner.

+

"to

    Before introducing the proclamation, which we borrow from the Canton Register, a few things must be remarked concerning his ex- cellency, the lieutenant-governor, by whom it is issued. E, or Eleäng, is a Mantchou, and is said to be (as is evidently the case) much under the influence of Lin, to whose measures he adheres, and by whose policy he is guided. His proclamation of rewards is a mere second edition of that issued by Lin. Indeed, since Liu's de-

1841.

Rewards for British Ships.

175

gradation, Eleäng has been the principal local agent in hastening on that collision which has been so disastrous to the military and naval forces and defenses of this province. To the rational and very pacific policy advanced by the imperial commissioner Keshen, he has been violently opposed, and very likely chief actor in causing his removal and recall to Peking. It is said, and on good authority, that he has charged Keshen with having received bribes from the British plenipotentiary! It is said also, that he compelled Keshen, before giving up the seals of governor, which he was temporarily holding, to affix them to this infamous proclamation,-which he him- self had issued, Keshen having declined taking any part in getting up that paper. The following is the translation.

E, lieutenant-governor, &c,, issues the following scale of rewards.

1.-If the native traitors can repent of their crimes and quit the service of the (English) foreigners, come before the magistrates and confess, their offenses will be forgiven; and those who are able to seize alive the rebellious foreigners, and bring them before the magistrates, as well as those who offer up the foreigner's heads, will be severally rewarded according to the following scale.

2.-On the capture of one of the line-of-battle ships, the ship and guns will be confiscated, but all that the ship contains, as clothes, goods and money, shall be the reward of the captors, with an additional reward of $100,000; those who burn, or break to prices, or bore holes through a line-of-battle ship's bottom, so that she sinks, upon the facts being substantiated, shall be rewarded with $30,000; for ships of the second and third class the rewards will be proportionably decreased.

3.-The capture of one of the large steamers shall be rewarded with $50,000, for the smaller, one half.

Those among the brave who are foremost in seizing men and ships, and who distinguish themselves by their daring courage, besides receiving the above pecuniary rewards, shall have buttons (official rank) conferred on them, and be reported for appointments in the public service.

4.-Fifty thousand dollars shall given to those who seize either Elliot, Mor- rison, or Bremer, alive; and those who bring either of their heads-on the facts being ascertained-shall get $30,000.

5.-Ten thousand dollars shall given to those who seize an officer alive, and $5000 for each officer's head.

6.-Five hundred dollars shall be given for every Englishman seized alive; if any are killed and their heads brought in, three hundred dollars will be given.

7.-One hundred dollars will be given for every sipahe or lascar taken alive, and fifty for their heads.

       8.-Those among you who, in their efforts to seize the English rebels, may lose their lives, on examination and proof of the facts, a reward of three hundred dollars shall be given to your families.

       The foreigners of every other country are respectful and obedient, and do not like the English cause commotions; it is not permitted to seize and annoy them-thus will the good and virtuous remain in tranquillity. (February 27.) ·

176

Progress of the War.

MARCH,

ART. V. Progress of the war; battle of the Bogue and destruc- tion of the forts there and on the river up to Canton; armistice and arrangements for trade agreed on.

In our last number, we briefly summed up the proceedings of the expedition to China, from the time of its arrival on the coasts in June last, to the breaking off of negotiations, resumption of hostilities, and taking of the Bogue forts, on the 26th of Feb. The details of the battle at the Bogue we were then unable to give. That omission we now supply, by insertion of the following extract from a commu- nication made to our cotemporary of the Canton Press. After parti- cularizing the opening of hostilities, on the expiry of the time allowed for the conclusion by Keshen of the treaty arranged with him,-our cotemporary's correspondent thus proceeds: in his narrative, we have ventured to make a few changes and omissions.

Owing to the calmness of the weather, the progress of the fleet was very tedious; the steamers here came into requisition, and the forces now assem- bled consisted of the following vessels :-Calliope, Samarang, Herald, Al- ligator, Sulphur, and steamer Nemesis, forming the advanced squadron, which arrived at the Bogue on the 19th; the Wellesley, Blenheim, Melville, Druid, Modeste, and steamers Queen and Madagascar, which arrived be. tween the 23d and 25th, with the transports Sophia, Minerva, Thetis, Eagle. "During the whole of the 25th, the note of preparation for the approach- ing struggle was sounded through the fleet. In the forenoon a landing was effected on South Wangtong, of three howitzers, and about 150 men of the 37th M. N. I., with parties of the royal and Madras Artillery, under the superintendence of sir Le Fleming Senhouse. The landing was re- markably well managed; the Nemesis, having towed the troop-boats ashore, took up a snug berth, nearly shut in from the fire of Anunghoy and the fort on the western side of the river, backed out, and gave it to Anunghoy with her bow-gun, and to the western fort with her stern. Some of the shot from these forts fell pretty near her; from North Wangtong the Chinese could make nothing of it, their shot falling a long way outside of her. The position taken by the landing party was perfectly covered from the fire of the Chi- nese. It is singular, that with all the care with which they appear to have fortified and protected North Wangtong, they should not have seen how easily a landing could be effected on South Wangtong, without being exposed to their fire. This was a fatal mistake, for it gave us a position that com- manded their stronghold of North Wangtong.

"At daylight on the morning of the memorable 26th, the three howitzers opened from the sandbag battery, raised during the night by our men on South Wangtong-upon the Chinese fortifications on the northern island. The firing was kept up with spirit, and the shells told with great precision, for the buildings and wooden huts, under the walls of the custom-house fort, were perceived to be on fire, and were soon demolished. The shells, and rockets must have made considerable havoc in a large encampment, stretch- ing from the fort on the west end of the island, behind the round fort on

1841.

Progress of the War.

177

the hill, towards the upper custom-house fort.* The whole defenses of North Wangtong were very strong, and exceedingly well covered and protected by sand-bag battaries, most regularly and neaty made, and had they been brave- ly served, would have cost a severe struggle, and the blood of many a gellant fellow, before them.

"It was arranged that a combined and simultaneous attack should be made on all the Bogue forts, shortly after daylight on the morning of the 26th, but owing to its falling calm, with a strong ebb-tide, it was found im- practicable, some of the ships that weighed being obliged to bring to again, and wait for the flood-tide to serve. About 11 o'clock a. ■. the Blenheim was seen under weigh, bearing down for the great Anunghoy fort, accompanied by the Queen steamer, with three rocket boats, keeping a little away into Anson's bay, and followed by the Melville about one mile distant. The ships for the attack of Wangtong were also on the move. It was nearly calın, and the ships dropped down very slowly: the suspense became oppressive; it was with breathless interest we watched the majestic gliding of the ships slowly to their work of destruction; not a sound breaking the ominous stillness that hung over the waters. The hills above Anunghoy, and stretching far away inland, were covered with large bodies of the enemy, posted at commanding points, covered by sand-bag batterics. On the opposite side of the river, along the ridge of the Tanan hills, the enemy also were seen in great strength. "The Queen steamer commenced the action, firing the first shot. The Chinese replied promptly from the strong sand-batteries lately raised towards Anson's bay, and the lower Anunghoy fort. The Blenheim coolly dropped down, without returning a shot to the brisk fire opened on her, till within 600 yards of Anunghoy, when she brought to, clewed all up, and opened her broadside. The Melville followed about 10 minutes later in the saine gallant style, and took up an admirable position about 400 yards off the fort, a short way ahead of the Blenheim. Like the Blenheim she did not fire a shot till she had brought to, then she gave her starboard broadside in quick succes, sion. Her firing was splendid, and did considerable damage to the fort. The Blenheim's fire was directed more against the sand batteries than against the people at the guns in the fort. The practice of the Queen and the rocket-boats deserves the greatest praise. During the heat of the action, a boat broke adrift from the Melville, and drifted close in under the gune of Anunghoy. A boat was dispatched to bring her back, which was effected in cool and gallant style without loss. After a few broadsides, the dragon hearted Tartars were seen flying out of the fort in great numbers, up the hill at the back of it, and around its base towards Anson's bay. Sir Le F. Senhouse then landed with about 300 men, consisting of the Blenheim and Melville's marines and blue jackets, and carried the forts, sweeping them clean from one end to the other. The British jack was hoisted, and the famed Anunghoy forts were in our possession at half-past one o'clock. The loss of the Chinese at this point was not so severe as one would have thought from the heavy broadsides of the 74s. They only lost about 20 killed, amongst whom were two officers, one of whom was a fine stout elderly man, lying near the officer-house, situated in the centre of the lower Anunghoy fort, with a bayonet wound in the right breast. By some he was supposed to be Kwan; one or two low officers were taken prisoners, but, after being taken

* To render clear what is here meant, it should be observed that North Wang. tong was strongly protected by a double fortification on the eastern side, near which was the custom-house, by a good and new battery, à fleur d'eau on the west side, commanded by a little old crumbling hill fort, and by recently erected batteries of earth and sand, on the northern and southern sides. In the centre of all these was the encampment referred to.

VOL. X. NO, III

23

178

Progress of the War.

MARCH,

on board of the ships, were let go. On our side not a single casualty oc- curred. The rigging and spars of the ships were a good deal cut up, a few shot also hulled them. Two hundred and five guns were taken, spiked, and destroyed. It is almost incredible, considering the heavy fire maintained by the forts on these vessels, that they should have escaped without losing a

man.

    "Whilst the Blenheim and Melville were engaging Anunghoy, on the eastern side, the Calliope proceeded up the other channel, on the western side of Wangtong (or Thwart-the-way) island, and opened the action at North Wangtong, closely followed by the Samarang, Herald, Alligator, the advanced squadron being directed to take up a position, north of the island- while the Wellesley, Druid, and Modeste attacked the western defenses. The continued firing of the fleet and forts, produced a roar, echoed back by the neighboring hills, like incessant peals of thunder, perfectly awful, and formed the grandest spectacle of this memorable day! About 12 o'clock the Chi- nese fire on Wangtong slackened, and the Nemesis was seen towing the troops to the landing place, close to the fort on the western end of North Wangtong. The landing was soon effected, the gallant major Pratt leading, with detachments of the 26th and 49th, in two boats, under major Johnson, closely followed by the marines under captain Ellis, the 37th M. N. I. under captain Duff, and the Bengal Volunteers under captain Mee. The force pushed rapidly up the ascent, passing in the rear of the first battery, and to the top of a steep hill. The fort here was expected to cost us a severe struggle and great loss to take, which it certainly would have done, had it been held by brave men. It was carried in splendid style, major Johnson, closely fol- lowed by captain Moorhead, leading the escalading party. The Chinese were driven out with considerable slaughter, and fled down the hill toward the custom-house fort, closely pressed by our force. It was an animating and cheering sight to see our brave fellows pursuing the enemy; but it was with feelings not unaccompanied by pity that I saw the poor flying wretches shot down. The whole of our force now pressed quickly on to the custom-house fort, and formed under the walls, opening a sharp fire of musketry on them. A few minutes more saw the British flag hoisted on the lower custom-house fort, which was greeted with cheers from the transports. Thus Wangtong was in our possession. The detachment for the service of the engineer department was furnished by the seamen of H. M. S. Wellesley, under com- mand of lieut. Birdwood, Madras engineer.

"The loss of the Chinese on North Wangtong amounted to about 250 kill- ed and 100 wounded; above 1000 were made prisoners in the custom-house fort, all of them excepting about 100, who were kept to bury the dead, were landed and set at liberty on the western side of the river.

"Whilst the vessels were dropping down to engage the forts, 4 boats were observed to leave the island, and stand away for Tiger island, the Chinese from the upper custom-house fort opening a fire upon them, but without effect. It was afterwards ascertained, that these boats contained most of the officers and their immediate followers, who fled panic-struck the moment they saw our ships under weigh, taking, it has been supposed, the base and cruel pre- caution of barring the gates, to prevent their countrymen from following their example.

"About 4 o'clock in the afternoon the Nemesis, having in tow several boats filled with the Wellesley's marines, proceeded to occupy the fort on the western shore under the Tanan hills. This fort had been previously silenc- ed by the admirable firing of the Wellesley. The troops effected a landing without difficulty, the Nemesis throwing an occasional shot or two to keep the Chinese in play. The force proceeded up the hills and dispersed the Chi-

1841.

Progress of the War.

179

nese, and destroyed and fired their encampments. The fire blazed long after dark, and formed a grand closing spectacle to this eventful day's work. The blaze must have been seen for miles off, and told the sad tale to the Chinese of the fall of the Bogue forts. It burned in a circle of nearly two miles, cast- ing a strong glare over the heavens and waters of the Bogue, forming, as it were, a vast illumination in commemoration of our triumph over the back- haired race of Han! I did not hear the number of Chinese killed in this fort

stated; they lost 30 guns. All the fortifications, those on Wangtong ex- cepted, are now being dismantled and leveled."

On the morning of the 27th, the advanced squadron, under captain Herbert, consisting at this time of the Calliope, Herald, Alligator, Sulphur, and Modeste, (the Samarang having been sent to lie in Macao Roads, where the Hyacinth had previously remained,) pro- ceeded up the river, with the steamers Nemesis and Madagascar. In the evening was issued the following.

Circular to Her Majesty's Subjects.

      A Chinese force of upwards of 2000 troops of élite (strongly intrenched on the left bank of the river at this point, and defended by upwards of 100 pieces of artillery), was entirely routed this afternoon, after an obstinate resistance, at- tended with great loss of life. The cannons were rendered unserviceable, the encampment and ammunition destroyed, and the late British ship Cambridge blown up, she having previously taken part in the action from a position close to the opposite side of a raft reaching across the river from the west of the intrench- ed camp. This signal service was achieved by an advanced squadron, consisting of the vessels named in the margin, under the command of captain Herbert of H. M.'s. ship Calliope. The casualties on the side of H. M.'s forces have been in- considerable, but are not yet accurately ascertained.

H. M.'s ship Calliope, at anchor off Brunswick Rock,

Whampoa Reach, 27th February, 1841, 9 p. M.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary. Vessels engaged: Calliope, Herald, Alligator, Modeste, Nemesis, Madagascar.

      We have been informed, by an eye-witness, that two of the Chi- nese officers fell on the bayonet of the marines. When driven to the rear of their intrenched camp, some of the soldiers stood like men, fighting hand to hand. About 200 fell; and it was supposed that the chief officer in command was among that number, he having recently arrived from Hoonan. The steamers received a few shot, one grazing the top of the steam condenser of the Nemesis.

On Monday, 1st March, the raft that had been built across the river near the above-named fort, was taken away, and the ships pro- ceeded. The taking of the next fort was thus announced.

Circular to Her Majesty's Subjects.

Whampoa Reach, 3d March, 1841. A masked battery (situated on the N. E. end of Whampoa island) fired upon H. M.'s ship Sulphur and a division of boats yesterday morning, and was gallantly carried by the boats' crews. The advanced squadron, consisting of the ships mentioned in the margin, is at anchor off Howqua's Folly, and that place is oc- cupied by H. M.'s forces. H. M.'s plenipotentiary was this day visited by the Kwangchow foo, under a flag of truce, and there is a suspension of hostilities.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary. Ships in advance: Herald, Alligator, Sulphur, Modeste, and two sail of trans- ports.

     About twenty Chinese were killed here, and twenty-three guns destroyed. The Pylades from Chusan, Starling, transports, &c., joined the advanced squadron in the afternoon.

180

Progress of the War.

MARCH,

Sir Hugh Gough, major-general and commander-in-chief of the land forces, arrived on the 2d.

The several circulars and notices which follow bring down the narrative to the close of the month.

Circular to Her Britannic Majesty's Subjects.

The armistice granted to the enemy having expired yesterday morning, at 11 ▲. ., the works in immediate advance of Howqua's Fort were occupied." The ac- companying proclamation was then issued to the people of Canton.

(Signed)

CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary.

"On board H. M. S. Calliope, Whampoa Reach, 7th March, 1841.

"

By Charles Elliot, Esq., &c., H. M. Plenipotentiary in China, -a Proclamation. Prople of Cantov':

Your city is spared, because the gracious sovereign of Great Britain has com- manded the high English officers to remember, that the good and peaceful people must be tenderly considered. But if the high officers of the celestial court offer the least obstruction to the British forces in their present stations, then it will become necessary to answer force by force, and the city may suffer terrible injury. And if the merchants be prevented from buying and selling freely with the British and foreign merchants, then the whole trade of Canton must immediately be stopped. The high officers of the English nation, have faithfully used their best efforts to prevent the miseries of war; and the responsibility of the actual state of things must rest upon e heads of the bad advisers of the emperor. Further evil consequences can only be prevented by wisdom and moderation on the part of the provincial government.

"Dated off the fort of Fshamee, near to Canton, the 6th day of March, 1841."

Circular.

Macao, 10th March, 1841. A report has this day reached the undersigned to the effect that the authorities at Canton have granted pilot chops to ships other than British to proceed to Whampoa. The port of Canton, from its entrances to the opposite extreme, be- ing in the military occupation of her majesty's arms, there is no reason to believe that his excellency the commander-in-chief of the naval forces will under present circumstances admit the efficacy of passports or papers granted by the Chinese government; the undersigned, therefore, apprehensive that disappointment may be created, considers it right to give notice that it is highly improbable that ships will be allowed permission to enter the river under any authority other than that of the commander-in-chief. It should also be stated, that a close embargo will very shortly be laid on the city and trade of Canton, unless and until the whole foreign trade proceeds upon a perfectly equal footing.

T

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M.'s Plenipotentiary.

Public Notice.

Macao, 13th March, 1841.

    At the request of his excellency the naval commander-in-chief, notice is hereby given that British and foreign merchant ships will not be permitted to proceed higher than North Wangtong until further notice.

By order of H. M.'s plenipotentiary, Edward Elmslie, Sec., &c.

Circular to Her Majesty's Subjects.

H. M. S. Calliope, Whampoa Reach, 15th March, 1841. The fort in the Macao passsage near Canton, which had been considerably strengthened and supported by flanking field works, was carried on the evening of the 13th inst., by the force mentioned in the margin, under the command of cap- tain Herbert, of H. M. ship Calliope; the enemy manifesting more spirit than has been observable since the affair of the 27th ulto. The fort has been since garrison. ed and the Modeste is at that point. On the morning of the same day, the Nemesis with the boats and marines of H. M. ship Samarang, and a boat from the H. C.'s steam ship Atalanta, proceeded from Macao towards Canton by the Inner Pas- sage. Seven small works or batteries have been carried, 105 pieces of cannon des- troyed, and 9 sail of men-of-war junks blown up, between Macao and Tszenai; the

1841.

Progress of the War.

181

chop-house at the last place was burnt down. The briefest notice of this service would be unsuitable, which failed to mention the admirable steadiness and ability displayed by Mr. William H. Hall, &. N., commander of the Nemesis, in the navigation of that extraordinary vessel. She was moved onwards for some suc- ceeding miles in her own depth of water, and with the breadth of the river so near her own length, that it became necessary on several occasions, to force her bow into the bank and bushes on one side to clear her heel of the dry ground on the opposite. Formidable obstructions to the navigation were removed by the steam- er with characteristic energy.

EDWARD ELMSLIE, Secretary, &c.

i

By order.

(Signed)

1

H. M. ships Modeste, Starling, and the H. Co.'s steamer Madagascar: boats of H. M. ships Blonde, Conway, Herald, Alligator, Hyacinth, Nimrod, Pylades, and Cruizer.

Circular to Her Majesty's Subjecta.

H. M. cutter Louisa, at anchor off Canton, 19th March, 1841. A flag of trúce having been fired upon from a work on the left bank of the Ma- cao Passage, near this city, on the 16th inst., captain Herbert, in command of the squadron in advance moved forward the ships and vessels named in the margin (Modeste, Algerine, Starling, Hebe, Louisa, Nemesis, Madagascar, bouts of H. M. ships, Calliope, Blonde, Conway, Herald, Alligator, Sulphur, Hyacinth, Pylades, Nimrod, Cruizer, and Columbine), and a flotilla of boats under the com- mand of captain Bourchier of H. M. ship Blonde, formed into 3 divisions under the immediate charge of commanders Barlow and Clarke and lieutenant Coul- son of the Blonde, captain Bethune of H. M. ship Conway seconding and assisting capt. Bourchier in the general direction of this branch of the service. H. M. S. Hyacinth and a division of boats under the command of commander Belcher, seconded by commander Warren, were placed at the south entrance of a branch of the river re-communicating with the main stream at Fatee; this movement being made with the purpose to cut off the retreat of a numerous flotilla which had taken part in the aggression of the 16th inst. The necessary arrangements having been completed, the whole force was moved forward simultaneously yes- terday at abont noon, carrying in the course of two hours all the works in im- mediate advance, and before the city (the Dutch Folly inclusive), and taking, sinking, or destroying the enemy's flotilla. The Chinese defended themselves with constancy at the main point of attack, notwithstanding the excellent fire of H. M. S. Modeste and the other attacking vessels, some of the people standing to their guns till they were dislodged by the musketry from the seamen and marines. H. M. S. Herald, brought over the flats by dint of great care and exertion, entered the reach during the engagement, and the appearance of such a reserve no doubt contributed to the success of the day. These important and admirably conducted operations have placed Canton under the guns of the squad- ron, and the vessels remain at an anchorage commanding all approaches to the city, from the southern and western branches of the river. The casualties on the side of H. M. forces have been inconsiderable.

(Signed) - CHARLES ELLIOT, Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

Circular to Her Majesty's Subjects.

Canton, Hall of the British Factory, 20th March, 1841. A suspension of hostilities at Canton in this province has this day been agreed upon between the imperial commissioner Yang and the undersigned. It has further been publicly proclaimed to the people under the seals of the commis sioner and of the acting governor of the province, that the trade of the port of Canton is open, and that British and other foreign merchants who may see fit to proceed there for the purposes of lawful commerce shall be duly protected. No bond will be required by the provincial government, but there will be no objection on the part of the British authorities to the like liabilities for the în. troduction of prohibited merchandize, or smuggling (duly proved), which would follow such offenses in England, detention of the person or penal consequences of all kind excepted. Pending the final settlement of affairs between the two countries, the undersigned has consented to the payment of the usual port charges and other established duties. Ships of war will remain in the near

182

Progress of the War.

MARCH,

neighborhood of the factories for the better protection of Her Majesty's sub- jects engaged in trade at Canton.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

Public Notice.

     Notice is hereby given that British and foreign merchant vessels have permis sion to proceed to Whampoa, all consequences arising from the possible and sud- den resumption of hostilities of course remaining at the risk of the parties. Given on board the Wellesley off Wangtong, 21st March, 1841.

(Signed) J. J. Gordon Bremer, Commodore 1st Class, Commander-in-chief.

Proclamation to the people of Canton.

     Yang, joint imperial commissioner, a noble of the second order, &c., and E, acting governor of the Two Kwang, &c.,-hereby issue a proclamation, to carry on commercial intercourse as usual, and peacefully to pursue ordinary avocations. Whereas, upon the 19th of the present month, the English plenipotentiary officially represented, that it was his desire to maintain peace, and he demanded nothing else, but only immediate permission for the trade to be carried on, as usual: and whereas the commercial intercourse enjoyed by various countries is owing to the good pleasure of the celestial court that all should cherish ten- derly men from afar: therefore, the English plenipotentiary having so repre- sented, that he demands nothing else but trade only; and the merchant ships of America and other countries having in consequence of the war, suffered deten tion, so that their cargoes remain unsold, and there is no prospect to them of returning homeward:-a change cannot but be made, commensurably to these cir- cumstances, permitting them alike to trade, and thus displaying a compassionate regard. While the facts will be duly represented to the throne,these special com mands are at the same time issued for the information of all. For this, then, it is proclaimed to all the tradesfolk, soldiers, and people in general, for their full infor- ination, that henceforward the merchants of all nations are alike permitted to repair to Whampoa and trade. You will hold intercourse with them, and pass to and fro, as usual; and there shall be no hindrance or obstruction made, nor any trouble created. After the English vesssels of war shall be withdrawn, it will yet more be right and seeming, to protect, and carefully to look to and well treat the merchant vessels at Whampoa, and the merchants dwelling at Canton. Let every one tremblingly obey. Oppose not this special proclamation. Taoukwang, 21st year, 2d month, 28th day. (20th March, 1841.)

    To the foregoing brief enumeration of engagements and results, our limits allow us at present to add no details. It is worthy of spe- cial notice, that, during all these successive engagements, in which the Chinese have lost above 2000 men (counting from the engage- ment of 7th January, at Chuenpe), there have been killed by their shot, on the side of the English, only one man, a seaman wounded on the 3d of March, and who has since died of his wounds. Three others have been killed, by accidents with guns, and in the destruc- tion of the fortifications of the Bogue. We regret, however, to have to add the death of the master of the Pestonjee Bomanjee, transport, by the hands of the Chinese, at Chusan, since the evacuation of that island. He was sent out with stores, direct from England; and on his arrival at Chusan, finding no part of the force there, he landed to learn the cause, when the party was instantly attacked. He fell, and was supposed killed; some of the boat's crew were wounded, but succeeded in making good their retreat back to the vessel. An attempt was made the next day to take the vessel, but wholly without

success.

On the 26th two officers of the Blenheim, proceeding to their ship in Macao Roads, were in company with another British subject, on

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

183

board a small cutter, when a dark night and contrary winds compelled them to anchor. About 3 A. M. a Chinese boat ran foul of the cutter, when these three, from alarm of sinking, or some other cause, jumped on board the Chinese boat-described to be a fishing vessel. The boat made off immediately, and nothing has since been learned of the fate of the three persons, thus unfortunately made captives.

ART. VI. Journal of Occurrences: the British expedition; major- general Gough; Keshen's degradation and recall; new commis- sioners; foreign factories in Canton; return of the shipping to Whampoa and of the foreigners to the city; evacuation of Chusan, release of the prisoners; war between the Cochinchinese and Siamese; renewed declaration of war.

     REFERRING the reader to the preceding article for an account of the progress of the war, we will here briefly describe the situation of the expedition as we now find it, nine months after its arrival. Though no one of its great objects has yet been gained, it does not follow of course that it has been badly conducted, or that no advantages have been secured. By pursuing a pacific line of action, and reducing the demands to the lowest point, an experiment of great value has been made before all nations the Chinese have now proved them- selves to be-what long ago many believed they were-false, faith- less, impotent, merciless, hostile to all the world, in a degree far be- yond what has generally been supposed. It is now clear,-clear as the sun, that the Chinese government will yield nothing to, nor keep any faith with, foreign states, except by constraint. Happily this constraint they already begin to feel; and it is devoutly to be wished, that this may be continued on them until they are well esta- blished in their right position among the great nations of the earth. We admire the moderation and generosity that have been displayed by the commander-in-chief and those who are with him. lities exhibited in the exercise of overwhelming power are most salu- tary. Negotiate, treat-with whom and where?... Dictation must now become the order of the day. If possible, let there be no more destruction of life, no taking possession of empire; but henceforth, as in other countries, let direct access be had to, and intercourse maintained with, the emperor and his court; and let the foreigner enjoy the same protection and the same immunities here, and be held responsible in the same manner, as is usual among the most favored nations. Such an achievement, good as it may be to the foreigner, will be as life from the dead to the Chinese-it will wake them from the long slumber of ages and put them at once, in a day, on the great march of modern improvement. Let the son of heaven know that he is not above the other potentates of the earth. By the course pursued, notwithstanding any eriors that may have been com- mitted, the expedition has gained high vantage ground; and though

Such qua-

184

Journal of Occurrences,

small numerically, and late in action, it has given a blow that will shake the empire to its centre. Its commanding attitude, however, must be maintained unwaveringly, till every just right be gained; and until the ratification of new arrangements, for permanent peace, shall have been signed at Peking.

The naval force at present is thus distributed: Wellesley, at the Bogue; Blenheim, in Maaco Roads; Druid, at Hongkong; Calliope, Blonde, Conway, Sulphur, Nimrod, and Columbine, at Whampoa ; Alligator, Pylades, and Cruizer, at Howqua's fort, six miles east of Canton; Herald, Hyacinth, Modeste, and Algerine, in Macao Pas- sage, two miles south from Canton; Starling, Young Hebe, and Louisa, passing to and fro; the Atalanta with the advanced squa- dron; the Nemesis, at Macao. The Melville sailed for England on the 26th, the Samarang on the 29th, and the Madagascar for Cal- cutta on the 30th inst. The naval commander-in-chief, we hear, will proceed in the Queen to Calcutta this day, the 31st. The land forces and transports are in company, at various points, with the naval.

The arrival of major-general sir Hugh Gough, on the 2d instant, we have already noticed. He is an experienced officer, of high re- putation, and comes on, as we understand, from Madras, to command in chief the land forces.

Keshen, the late high minister and imperial commissioner, has been degraded, and recalled to Peking, to be put on trial for traitorous conduct towards his master. He left Canton on the 12th.

Of the new commissioners, only Yang Fang is known to have ar- rived. He is an old man of more than 70 years, deaf and doltish; and, instead of exterminating the rebellious at the head of his 30,000 veteran troops, has been compelled to proclaim, on the walls of the city, their admission to Canton, with protection for their persons and property. There is a rumor of Yihshan's arrival.

    The foreign factories were approached and occupied by British arms on the 18th-just two years from the date of Lin's notable edict demanding the surrender of opium.

    The foreign shipping, for months past anchored in the Roads off Macao, is proceding up the river, several sail are already at Wham- poa, and a few of the merchants in Canton, with the expectation that business will be immediately resumed.

Chusan was evacuated by the British troops, on the 24th ultimo. Some particulars respecting it, and the captivity of Mrs. Noble and others, intended for this article, must be postponed.

Early this year, a stockade belonging to the Cochinchinese on the frontiers of Camboja, was taken by the Siamese. The prisoners were released, on condition they would never again be found in arins against their conquerors.

1

i

A paper, purporting to be an imperial edict issued on hearing of the capture of the Bogue forts, has just reached us. The emperor, it appears from this, has sworn that he and such rebellious people as the English shall not stand together under the same heavens. He requires that they be entirely exterminated. For allowing the fall of the forts, he deprives of their rank, but retains in office, all the officers in and of Canton!

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-APRIL, 1841.- No. 4.

ART. I.

Sketch of Kwanyin, the Chinese Goddess of Mercy. Translated from the Sow Shin Ke. By J. L. S.

KWANYIN, originally called Shen, was the third child of Shekin senior, who dwelt in the mountains of Tsewling, situated in the district of Keshoo of the state Koochŭh-and by spiritual transformation of per- son was re-born in the state of Pihheuě. Her father was king Meaou- chwang, his surname being Po, and his name Heä, while the mo- ther was of the family of Pibya. The parents having hitherto had no male issue, repaired for worship to a temple among the fragrant hills of the west. The celestial emperor,' however, declared to the father that he was at heart a murderer,2 and therefore his hopes of male posterity should be cut off, but that daughters should be granted to him. His eldest daughter was called Meaou Tsing, the next Meaou Yin, and the third Meaou Shen (Kwanyin). Now at the time of Meaou Shen's birth a wonderful fragrance filled the apartments, and red clouds and brightness filled all parts of the house. When she was an infant she was remarkably intelligent, and had no desire to attend to human affairs. When she had reached her ninth year, she became strenu- ously disobedient to her father's commands, and took oath that she would never marry. Afterwards, in consequence of her two elder sisters having taken husbands who could not succeed to the throne, her father then pressed her to conclude a matrimonial alliance, but Shen still positively refused. She was consequently placed under strict prohibitions at the back part of the garden, where she gave herself up to the hearty and sincere study of moral principles. On

VOL. X. NO. IV.

24

186

Sketch of Kwanyin.

APRIL,

her being released, she entered the district of Luugshoo, in the de- partment of Yuchow, and at the White Bird temple, she became a nun. Eyew, the chief of the temple, received secret instructions (from her father) to endeavor to change Shen's determination in relation to her vows of celibacy, but she continued steadfastly to refuse.

    Meaou Shen was then (for her refusal) subjected to the most bitter drudgery. In the mornings, she was made to draw water from the well, and her evenings were spent in listening to the Budhistic doc- trines. At break of day she had to burn the incense, and sweep the apartments, while her noonday task was to bring the wood with which to cook the rice; but notwithstanding all these difficulties not a murmur escaped her. Heaven was aware of the sincerity of her principles, and dispatched three thousand of the celestial army to lend her their assistance and protection. The god Kealan brushed the halls, Teënwang swept the kitchen, Lŭhting offered incense, while Yaouyeih lighted the candles. The ke bird prepared the tea, a nimble monkey carried in the vegetables, a white tiger brought fuel in his mouth, and the goddess Feking and Maouchang entered the inner courts bearing flowers, while the genii offered up fruits. Dur- ing every night the noise of the clouds, as if shaken by the winds, were heard, and the rapid movements of these gods were observed. 'The whole company of the priests became alarmed, and conveyed the information to her father, who sent five of the city cavalry under Hwuhpeihleih, ordering him to hasten and with the soldiers sur- round the temple and set fire to it. But Shen prayed to the god Budha, and biting her forefinger spurted forth the blood, causing crimson colored rain to descend, which put out the fire, and thus rescued five hundred priests, not one falling a prey to the flames. Peihleih again fired the temple, and in like manner was it put out. Three times was it set fire to, and three times was it extinguished as aforesaid. The impossibility of burning the temple was announced to her father, and his anger being aroused, he ordered Peihleih to go and bind Mezou Shen fast with cords and bring her, under arrest, in- to the common execution ground, but at the same time intimated his willingness for her mother to rescue her; for toward the tender and amiable disposition of this his third daughter he felt very kindly af fectioned, and his only wish was that she was married, and he had a son-in-law that might take charge of the affairs of the state.

    This murderous design did not even change the color of Meaou Shen's countenance, but her intention became still more firın, and

1841.

Sketch of Kwanyin.

she was imprisoned in a cold and desolate room of the palace.

{

I

187

Day

!

and night the female attendants of the palace, as well as her father and mother pressed their intreaties upon her, but Meaou Shen remained inexorable, and becoming outrageous she railed in angry speech at her father. The father himself also became greatly enraged, and forthwith granted his permission to Peihleih really to decapitate her. The god Tooshin hastened and announced this intention to Yũh te, who

      gave her a red brilliant light to screen her body, and when the ax of the executioner attempted to do its work it broke in sunder; and I trying to spear her the instrument was severed to pieces; and they then put her to death with a long red silken cloth. Just then a tiger leaped in and bearing the corpse upon his back ran off with it;-upon which her father exclaimed, "Unfilial child; it is right that you should obtain a woful recompense!" But he was not aware that Heaven had sent for her. This fierce tiger bearing the corpse as be- fore entered a forest of black fir trees, and verily was Shen fully allow- ed to be a genuine religious contemplator. For a time she remained in unbroken sleep, and her spirit roamed in regions unknown. Sud- denly there appeared to her a lad holding a chwung fan in his hand, and making his obeisance, said, 'the Yenkeun have ordered me to make known their requests to your royal highness.' Shen said,.'what are they?' The lad replied, having heard that your royal highness exercises the most enlarged mercy and benevolence, ten of the yen gods, are waiting your appearance at the Pooteën bridge.' Shep yielding to their commands accompanied him, and at the entrance of the gate of perdition she beheld a god with the head of a cow kneeling at the door, and saw the god Taycha holding a candle, while a god with an iron head was sweeping the yard. Entering per- dition she saw one prison house where punishment was inflicted. by cutting the flesh from the body, Shen inquired about it, and she was told that such punishment was for unfaithful ministers, and unfilial children. She saw another den where punishment was inflicted by pounding with a pestle, and grinding in a mill, and they told, her that this punishment was for those who would throw away what they had to spare of the five grains rather than give it to the poor; and for those also who would take the life of any living thing. She also saw a place where punishment was administered by means of a large brass boiler, and was told that this was for those who prided them- selves in their overbearing wickedness. Shen asked, Why are your punishments so very rigorous? They told her that they had punish- ments than still more severe even these. At present, said they, in

J

I.

8

188

Sketch of Kwanyin.

;

APRIL,

these regions of the lost we have forests of swords in order to recom- pense those who make it their business to transgress with their mouths by everywhere dealing, out to vulgar eyes and ears; their insidious calumnies. We inflict the punishment of plucking out eyes, and extirpating tongues, in order to recompense those who sow discord among friends, and those also who curse and swear.

                                         We have too the punishment of ripping out the intestines for the purpose of awarding retribution to those whose hearts are daggers, and whose tongues are spears (persons of dark and intriguing designs). Those who dash people into wells are rewarded by being plunged into a deep river; those who beat and flog both males and females receive the punishment of the whip and the club; those superiors who oppress inferiors, and who injure birds and beasts with stones and arrows, are punished by tigers and serpents; those who, when living, were not benevolent with their riches are punished by being made to become hungry devils, and those who inveigle their fellows are recompens- ed by means of a forest of spears. All the certain punishments of hell are innumerable, and who can say that the eyes of Heaven are not discriminating, and who can escape from the net of hades?

    All the kings of perdition who attended Kwanyin at the golden bridge had immense and ornamented umbrellas, and under foot was a red cloud colored carpet, while they also had a ruby chariot in which to receive Kwanyin, attended by singing girls. Shen express- ing her thanks to them, said, 'I have no virtue, and how dare I dis- grace your affectionate summons ?' The kings all replied, 'We have heard of your vast mercy and tender compassion, and we wish to at- tend at the banquet of your sacred books that we may not lose the smallest portion of your instructions.' Shen then exclaimed, Ometo, the supremely excellent! and they beheld her folding her hands, and offering up prayers, upon which flowers indiscriminately fell from heaven, the earth became covered with the golden water-lily, the whole of hell's iron instruments and brass frames were shivered to pieces, and more than eight thousand regions of perdition were entirely annihilated, while all the guilty were released from hell, and permitted to ascend to the mansions of heaven. Then all the execu- tioners of the said punishments represented to Shen, saying, There is a superior and there is an inferior principle; there are those who are good and those who are wicked; if there is no hell what will be the lot of murderers? And what will there be for those to fear who com- mit wickedness in the world? Such places for repaying a guilty world should not be few, but you have come here, and in your a

1841.

Sketch of Kwanyin.

189

bounding mercy and compassion have delivered your doctrines, and hell has crumbled to pieces. Were you to remain long here, then even iron itself would be insufficient for a durable perdition. When the celestial emperor hears that this wrong has been inflicted he will at once call you to return to earth.

In a

All the infernal kings attended Kwanyin to Mangpo Ting, and there separating from her, commanded the troops of perdition to lead her to the black fir forest, and give her spirit back to her. Shen awa- kening said, I have ascended to the very borders of heaven, and how is it that I have returned hither? She sat upon the grass buried in deep thought not knowing whither to bend her course. little time Budha came riding upon the clouds, and bowing and wor- shiping, playfully said, We can well endure to dwell together in a thatched cottage, and there together let us live. Shen answered, why profane me by such a sensual speech? Budha said, I am only jesting with you, my heart is really established toward you, and I desire to proceed with you to the fragrant hills. Shen making no reply, Budha farther said, I am no other than the real Sheihkeä (Budha), and specially proclaim to you the place to which you can repair. Siren bowing her head and expressing her thanks asked, To what place? Budha replied, In the country of Yuě (present Chě- keäng), near the southern seas are the isles of Pooto Yen," which is the place to which you can repair, and I will, in your behalf, call upon the dragons of earth to create a water-lily stand upon which you can cross over the seas. At Pooto, a white tiger gnawed wood for her, the god Kealan opened out for her a pleasant piece of ground, eight dragon kings both day and night took charge of the rising tides, and four celestial kings arranged the stone pillars for her dwelling. Shen dwelt on the isle of Pooto Yen nine years, and hav- ing perfected herself in merit cut out flesh from her arm in order to rescue her father from illness, and she held a bottle containing a sweet dew in order to secure long life to all the people. She was attended on

her left by Shen Tsae who possessed universal intelli- gence, and on her right by Lung New of unbounded virtue. Shen converted the whole of her family, and cultivating the principles of virtue, they all ascended to heaven. The supreme emperor, be- holding that Kwanyin's merits filled the world, and that her miracles were everywhere manifest, assented to the representations of the gods Laoukeun and Meaouyo, and proclaimed her the deity of abounding mercy and vast compassion, the rescuer-from distress and difficulties, the most faithful one, the spiritual assister, and the guardian sound of

་་

#4

:

+

190

Sketch of Kwanyin.

APRIL,

the world. The precious water-lily was given to her for a throne, and she became the sovereign of the isles of Pooto Yen in the southern seas. Her father, the king Meaouchwang was allowed to become the god Shen shing seën kwan, and her mother Pihya, was made the goddess Keuenshen. Her eldest sister became the goddess Tae shen wăn choo, and sat upon a sky colored lion; and her other sister Meaou Yin was deified as the goddess Tae shen poo been, and rode upon a white elephant.

1. The idea of the Chinese classics seems to be that

                             Hwang Te is the emperor who has under his jurisdiction all the nations of earth, and

that 天帝 Teen Te, and 玉帝 Yih Te, and 上帝 Shang Te, are

only different designations of a supreme emperor who controls the heavens and the earth, and the gods.

    2. Kwanyin is an exceedingly popular goddess among the Chinese, and her images and her shrines may be found in almost every temple of any note throughout the land; but Kwanyin's father, according to the published ac- counts of her votaries themselves, was declared by the highest power of the universe which they acknowledge, to be a murderer at heart.

3. The Chinese notions of female baseness and inferiority are fully de veloped in this passage. This man was denied sons because he was 'a mur. derer at heart,' while at the same time he was deemed sufficiently worthy of daughters. Female degradation is intimately connected with all the ramifica- tions of heathenism.

    4. Two other characteristics in the history of the goddess Kwanyin's origin are disobedience to parents, and angry railing! Heathenism is as inconsis tently absurd according to the principles of true reason as it is daringly blas- phemous according to the principles of true religion.

5. Yuh te, the Gem Ruler, considered as the god above all gode, and the great director of all other deities.

    6. The chwang fan are long streamers which are used in the temples of Budha. They are sometimes made of variegated silk with groups of fan- tastic figures of men, women and children wrought upon them with much tedious labor, and at great expense. The most beautiful and costly of these banners are only used on occasion of processions and feast-days in honor of the idol.

7. There are ten of the

閻君

Yen keun gods, who are denominated

kings, and who have the entire supervision of the various regions of hades, as well as all devils and evil spirits.

8.

Kung choo is the title by which the daughters of emperors and kings are addressed. Kwanyin being the daughter of king Meaou- chwang was consequently entitled to the epithet of kung choo. / 1

+

9. Ome is an epithet of Budha. Messrs. Modhurst and Stevens visited Pooto during their missionary tour in the brig Huron in the latter part of 1835, and Mr. M. thus refers to this phrase. "The only thing we heard out of the mouths of these dull monks was Ometo Fuh, or Amida Budha. To every observation that was made re-echoed 'Ometo Fuh? and the reply to every inquiry was Ometo Fuh.' Each priest was furnished with a string of beads, which he kept continually fingering, and while he

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

191

counted, he still repeated the same dull monotonous exclamation. The characters for this name met the eye at every turn of the road, at every corner of the temples, and on every scrap of paper: on the hills, on the altars, on the gateways, and on the walls, the same words presented them. selves, even the solid rocks were engraven with Budha's titles, and the whole island seemed to be under the spell of this talismanic phrase, as if it were devoted to the recording of 'Ometo Füh."" Ometo Fuh is a phrase used also by all devout Chinese as well as priests when they wish to express a strong affirmation of solemnity or serious concern, and also by the careless and profane swearer.

10. The island of Pooto is a part of the Great Chusan archipelago, and is entirely devoted to the religion of Budha. The island is said to contain five thousand priests; and two of the largest and handsomest temples are covered with yellow tiles in order to show that they were erected by imperial patron, age. Mr. Stevens refers to the island of Pooto in his account of the voyage of the Huron; see Chi. Rep. vol. IV.,

page 333.

1

ART. II.

;

Loss of the ship Kite, and Mrs. Noble's narrative of ker captivity and sufferings in prison in China in 1840-41; in a letter to a friend...

1

Ningpo prison, Feb. 19th, 1841.. MY EVER Dear friend. -On Sunday, the 14th, I received your kind letter, containing the glad tidings of peace, and the joyful hope of a speedy release from prison; and in which you so sweetly and affectionately offer a home to the homeless. The Almighty alone, who searcheth the heart, knows how deeply grateful I feel for all your abundant goodness towards me in my great afflictions, but as my last letters were sent publicly, I could not express my feelings; I sincerely hope you have not thought me ungrateful. As I may now do so with safety, I will try to write to you the sad particulars of the dreadful wreck of the Kite, and of following events, as far as memory and the few notes I have been able to make from time to time, will enable me to do. May the Almighty in mercy strengthen me for the truly melancholy duty.

I shall infer, that you know all our affairs up to, I think, the 10th of September, when the Kite was again on her way to Chusan; all went well till the 15th, and we then hoped to reach Chusan in two days.

Alas for earthly prospects; they are indeed fallacious. About twelve o'clock in the forenoon, the vessel struck on a quicksand, not laid down in the chart. The shock was as sudden as it was dread-

192

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

ful; all efforts at the moment were used, but in vain, and in a few moments, almost before we could think or speak, or alas! even have time to fetch my sweet child from the cabin, the vessel went over with a tremendous crash on her broadside, and every creature on board (except my dear child) was precipitated with great violence into the sea. The moment was so dreadful I saw nothing, and, whether my

beloved husband, who was giving orders till the last mo- ment, ran to the cabin to save his darling child, or whether he fell with the rest, I know not; but he was never seen or heard of more; his last words to me were 'hold on, Anne!' Never, never shall I forget them. My child must have perished in his cradle. I trem- ble to think of the sufferings of them both. Oh! how often have I wished I had shared the same grave, yet the will of God was other- wise, and I know it is very wicked, but when you know my almost unparalleled sufferings you will not wonder at it. To return to the wreck; after struggling under water for some time, I caught hold of one of the iron bars that hold the boat on the quarter, to which I clung, my body being still in the water, and the breakers coming over me with great force. A poor little dog saved itself on my breast for some time, but at last I was obliged to put it off; oh! had it been my child, I would have died rather a thousand times. Lieutenant Douglas arose close by me, and although for a time he could not help me, yet I shall ever remember with the deepest gratitude the kind manner in which he stood by me, doing all in his power to soothe me, and, by his orders, to save the lives of all. Oh! could I picture to you the scene at this moment,--the vessel on her broadside, her masts and sails in the water, numbers of persons rising and clinging to the wreck, the horror of every countenance, and the dreadful noise of the breakers: but it is too much even to tell you I saw it all; never, never shall I forget the sight. Lieut. Douglas, with Mr. Witts the chief officer, who now kindly came forward to my aid, did all in their power to save me, and they were, by the blessing of God, the means of preserving my life. These two gentlemen, with I had just strength to raise

the poor cabin boys, got into the boat. my foot, of which one of the gentlemen took hold, drew the boat to, and lifted me in. The boat being nearly full of water, and the breakers still coming over it every moment, the gentlemen were obliged to cut the rope to prevent her sinking. The current imme- diately took her, and nothing could prevent her from leaving the wreck. The people got on the upper side of the vessel. I strained my eyes in vain to find those so dear to me. I saw all but them. I

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

193

tore my hair in despair, and called till they could hear me no longer, telling them to seek my husband and child. Hour after hour the wreck was seen; at last we lost sight of it entirely. You will fancy me weeping and screaming all this time; I assure you, No; my trou- ble was too overwhelming; I could not shed a tear, although my heart was fit to break; I sat more like a statue, my eyes seeking in vain for the wreck. The boat's little kedge was thrown out, and the water rushing by was almost like a wall on either side of our boat. We saw many things washed from the wreck pass us. About 4 o'clock the current turned in our favor, and after some hours of anxi- ety we came in sight of the wreck; as we drew near, we found the vessel had sunk in the sand, and only her maintop was now in sight, to which all the poor sufferers clung for life. Efforts were made to reach the wreck, but it was impossible. Lieut. Douglas spoke to the men and told them to make a raft, hoping on the morrow to be able to render them some assistance. We now again left the wreck and night began to set in; the gentlemen lay down in the bottom of the boat, and I sat and kept watch by the stars. It was a beautiful moon- light night, but I need not say it appeared very long, and often did I speak to lieut. Douglas who slept very little.

In the afternoon we

On the 16th, we again passed the wreck early, and, as before, strove in vain to reach the poor crew. A few words were spoken, until we were carried away by the current. passed the wreck for the last time; everything possible was done to reach it but to no purpose; and after speaking a few words, once more we had to endure the trial of being carried past. What our feelings were, none but those in a like situation can conceive. It was again night, and, as before, I kept my melancholy watch. · After this we could not find the wreck, and we were obliged to come to the dreadful conclusion, that all the crew must have perished, or have been taken from the wreck by the Chinese. I now felt almost sure that I was a widow, and all alone in the world; but yet I think I hoped even against hope, and lieut. Douglas, who was most kind to me, rather led me to believe such happiness possible. Oh! could [ only tell you all of the kindness I received from that gentleman. One remark he made, when I felt almost heart broken, was, "depend on it, my dear Mrs. Noble, the Almighty has preserved you for a future and a better purpose." Thus did he at all times, in the most kind and soothing manner, try to cheer my truly sad heart. Picture for a moment our situation,-five of us in a small boat: with little clothing, the gentlemen being but thinly clad, and myself in a thin

VOL. X. NO, IY.

25

194

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

morning gown, no bonnet, no shawl, and no shoes, the latter having been washed off: no food, no water, no sail, only two oars and near an enemy's country. On this day, we went on board a fishing boat; the men were kind to us and gave us a little dry rice, some water, and an old mat to try to make a sail of. Soon after, we thought we saw a small English sail; never shall I forget the excitement we felt; but after a long time, we found we were mistaken. Towards even- ing we picked up a small pumpkin, of which I took a little,-the first food I had taken since the wreck. Whilst we were thus driven about from place to place, again we thought we saw a steamer, and we did all in our power to make them observe us, raising a signal of distress on one of our oars, and once more we were disappointed. On Wednesday night the breakers came over our little boat with such violence, that we thought she would have sunk; it washed away one of our oars, and we were all wet through; but still the Almighty preserved us. Thursday the 17th, we boarded another boat and asked them to take us to Chusan, which they promised to do, but to this the master of the party would not accede. However, they took us up a canal, and told us that was the way. It now began to rain a little, and at night we found ourselves in a small creek, with numbers of Chinamen round us. They appeared kind and brought us a little boiled rice. Wonderful to say, although we had been so long with- out food, not one in the boat complained of hunger, and of the rice now brought very little was eaten; the rain now fell fast, and we all lay down in the bottom of the boat, laying the old mat over the top. About 12 o'clock, I thought I heard footsteps, and on looking up. saw about twenty Chinese around our boat, carrying gay lanterns. I awoke lieut. Douglas in alarm; however, they still appeared kind and gave us more food. In the morning, it being very wet, we went barefooted to a Chinese house. After sitting a short time, they told us, that they would get us something to eat, and then take us to Chu- We followed; they took us to a temple for shelter from the rain. One of the party now left us, and we began to suspect that all was not right, and set off to regain our boat. But it was too late. We had scarcely ascended the bank, when, on looking behind, we saw a large party of soldiers, an officer, and numbers of Chinese, pur- suing us. We saw af once we were betrayed; flight was impossible, resistance as vain. I was leaning on lieut. Douglas' arm; he stood boldly in my defense, but it was of no use, for they struck me several times. They then put chains around our necks, hurrying us along a path not half a yard in breadth, to a large city, through every street

san.

L

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

195

    of which they led us. The people thronged by thousands to stare, so that we could scarcely pass. Their savage cries were terrific. From this they led us to a temple full of soldiers, and one of the wretches stole my wedding-ring from my finger, the only thing I treasured. Alas! that I was not to keep that one dear pledge of my husband's affection. Never shall 1 forget that temple, their fierce grimaces and savage threats. Hitherto lieut. Douglas had been my only friend, and, I think I may say, that we have been a mutual comfort to one another throughout our sufferings. But we were now to part. The soldiers bound lieut. Douglas' hands behind him, and tied him to a post, and in this situation I was forced from him. We took an affec- tionate leave of one another, as friends never expecting to meet again, until we met in heaven. He gave me his black silk handker- chief to tie around my waist, which I shall ever treasure as a remem- brance of that truly sad moment. We anticipated instant death in its most cruel form, and I think 1 could say, surely the bitterness of death is past. I now felt indeed alone. Mr. Witts, one of the boys, and myself, were now again dragged through the rain, and my bare feet slipped at every step, so that they were at last obliged to bring me a pair of straw sandals. I was obliged to hang to the coat of a tall man, who held me by the chain. We must have looked wretch- ed in the extreme, our clothes being much covered with dirt as well as drenched with rain. My hair hung disheveled around my neck. In this state we must have walked at least 20 miles, and pass- ed through numberless cities, all the inhabitants of which crowded around us; their hooting and savage yells were frightful. We twice passed through water nearly up to our waist. After having reached a temple, we were allowed to rest ourselves on some stones. They here gave us some prison clothes and food. At night they laid down some mats and a quilt, on either side of a large temple. Mr. Witts and the boy took one side, and after a short prayer to my heavenly Father, I lay down but not to sleep; the chain round our necks being fastened to the wall. Would that I could describe to you the scene: the temple beautifully lighted up with lanterns, our miserable beds, all the dark faces of the frightful looking Chinese (of whom I think there were eight), the smoke from their long pipes, the din of the gongs

        and other noises which they kept up all night. Long, very long, did this night appear. Morning at last dawned, the keepers brought us a little water to wash with, which was a great comfort ; after which they led us to an open court, to be exposed to the public gaze of numberless spectators to come throughout the day. Here they

196

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

took our height, the length of our hair, and noted every feature in an exact manner, and then made us write an account of the wreck of the Kite. In the evening I was taken to see the mandarin's wife and daughters, but although my appearance must have been wretch- ed in the extreme, they did not evince the least feeling towards me, but rather treated me as an object of scorn. This I felt the more, as I was enabled to make them understand, that I had lost both my husband and child in the wreck. We remained here two days and three nights, derided and taunted by all around us. On the morn- ing of Monday the 21st, they took the end of our chains and bade us follow them. They put our coats and quilts into small cages, just such as we should think a proper place to confine wild beasts, in: mine was scarcely a yard high, a little more than ₫ of a yard long, and a little more than half a yard broad. The door opened from the top. Into these we were lifted, the chain around our necks being locked to the cover. They put a long piece of bamboo through the middle, a man took either end, and in this manner we were jolted from city to city to suffer insults from the rabble, the cries of whom were awful; but my God had not forsaken me, and even then, although a widow and in the hands of such bitter enemies, and expecting death at every moment, I could remember with delight, that Christ my Savior had said,- I am the resurrection and the life, he that be- lieveth on me though he were dead yet shall he live." I need not tell you, my friend, how much I thought of my sweet and once happy home, and my fatherless child, and how fervently I prayed to that God of mercy, who had so wonderfully upheld me in all my sufferings, to bless her also. Death was nothing to me: I longed to be with my Savior to praise him for ever, and to meet again my affectionate hus- band and sweet child, who were more than life to me. Oh my dear friend! how often do my feelings at this and many other times of my suffering shame me, when I feel myself cold in my duty towards my Redeemer.

    We again stopped at another city and were taken out of our cages, having heavy irons put on our legs, with a chain half a yard long. Mr. Witts and the boy had also irons on their wrists; although I saw mine, they did not put them on at that time. The former were car- ried on board one boat, and I myself put into another, and thus we proceeded two days and three nights on a canal, during which time I did not taste any food, as they would not permit me to get out of my little cage on any account. You may judge what my sufferings were. I believe it was Wednesday the 23d, that we arrived at Ning-

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite,

197

But fears were confirmed, What can I say ? My

po. You may imagine my happiness in finding my friend lieut. Douglas, and my delight to hear that he had been treated rather better than myself, and had arrived there a short time before. I also heard with gratitude and joy, that all the Kite's crew had been taken from the wreck by the Chinese and were prisoners in the city. alas, alas! with all this good news my worst that all I treasured lay buried in the ocean. dear child could not have lived in an open boat and suffered as I had done, and my devoted husband, being of a warm and most affection- ate temper would not, could not, have lived to have seen me suffer as I have suffered, and how would it have torn my heart to have seen those, ten thousand times dearer to me than my own life, endure so much! I humbly pray to be enabled to say, "Thy will be done!" God has I believe in goodness and mercy taken my treasures, who was able to do for them more than I could even ask or think. And although I am lest destitute and alone and far from home, yet in his mercy he has raised you up, my Christian friend, with many others for my comfort, on account of which I shall praise the Savior both in time and eternity; and want whatever I may, may I ever possess a thankful heart.

      At Ningpo I was sorry to find another prisoner, captain Anstruther of the Madras artillery, who has since proved to me a most kind and true friend; there was also the comprador, whom I think you have some knowledge of. My most cruel sufferings were now at an end, and of course I felt more deeply my sad loss; yet I knew that I still enjoyed many blessings. Captain A.'s prison was next door to mine, and I had the pleasure of seeing him often. The mandarins gave me some Chinese clothes of the gayest colors; distressing as it was to my feelings, I was obliged to wear them, and I was put into, what the keeper styled, a clean prison, with a woman to attend on me in my captivity. After breakfasting with lieut. Douglas at the man- darin's, I went to my lonely cell,-a small dirty room, two sides of which were a mere grating, in many places daylight appeared through the rafters, and it was scarcely fit to live in, its only furniture being my cage, (in which I still slept at night, and into which I was put whenever I went to any of the mandarins,) a lamp, an old table, and a stool. For the first time after the wreck, I was enabled to undress myself and arrange my hair. I could not but rejoice when a large room was prepared for the three gentlemen to reside together in,-lieut. Douglas having been hitherto obliged to endure all the discomforts of the common prison. Subsequently we met only when we visited and

198

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

dined at the mandarin's, which we did at first frequently, but after their curiosity was satisfied I seldom saw them. When at their house, they amused themselves by questioning us about H. B. M., and her government, the number of her navy and army, and the rank and income of the officers. Often I had to repeat my sad tale, particu- Jarly on the arrival of other officers; this I thought a great trial, especially when alone. Their inquiries about our respective families were most minute, particularly what relatives we were to queen Vic- toria, and whether I myself was not her sister, which I was declared to be, notwithstanding what was said to the contrary. But it would be endless to repeat all the foolish questions they asked; however, they made notes of all our replies.

    Two days after the removal of the gentlemen from the common prison, all the remaining captives were taken to a far distant jail under the pretence of better accommodations, excepting two who were sick. I had the melancholy satisfaction of seeing them passing my door, but was not allowed to speak to them; it made my heart bleed to observe their distressed looks and haggard countenances.

    It was October the 8th, that captain Anstruther received some sup- plies from Chusan, with letters that held out hopes of release. He kindly sent me a large share of his clothes. The comprador was now taken away from us, which distressed me greatly, as I had now not a creature to whom to speak. They now gave me a bedstead, which I found a great luxury, having hitherto lain on a dirty floor. I was sometimes allowed to see and converse with the sick prisoners, and I almost felt a consolation in dwelling upon the dreadful past. Frequently my heart was sadly torn, on account of different reports about my late dearly beloved husband and child. I was once told, that he was seen going to his cabin to rescue his child, and was afterwards seen dead with the baby on his bosom. Many were the sleepless nights that such accounts gave me, but I found subsequent- ly, when meeting all the prisoners at the mandarin's, and minutely examining into the fact,-that this rumor was unfounded, for they had not seen the captain after the ship had heeled over.

    On the 8th of October I was far from well; two days afterwards I suffered much from violent pain, and was not able to lie down during the whole night, on account of the pain. This I felt deeply, not being able to speak to a creature, and being threatened to have irons put on my wrist; they had let them off only one night on account of my being so ill. On the 9th I was too glad to see the comprador return, who had been sent to Chinhae in order to ascertain whether

:

i-

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

199

the British delegate was really captain Elliot, and, if this was not the case, the individual who dared to appear under an assumed namne was to be taken.

      On the 14th, they sent another woman to wait on me, with a little cross boy about four years old, who cried the whole day long. This I felt to be a great trial, as I could not have a moment to myself. The other old woman brought also her girl, so that there were four dirty creatures in my dirty hovel. This was scarcely endurable, but, after many intreaties and the lapse of a considerable time, both the children were removed. On Sunday the 18th, I heard the melancholy tidings of one of our sailors being removed by the hand of death. I had seen the poor boy several times, and, as I felt sure he could never recover, the few moments we were allowed to speak, were spent in dwelling upon solemn subjects. Though he was a mere skeleton and weak as a child, still he wore his irons to the last. A day or two before his death, he told me he knew that he would never be well again, but his mind was calın, and I fervently hope that the Savior was present with him. As we parted for the last time, he said with much earnestness "God bless you, Mistress;" these words I still remember, they have been fulfilled, and God has remembered me. The two sick marines were much distressed at the death of the poor boy, and I was delighted to afford them some comfort, temporal as well as spiritual.

      On the 26th, we were all summoned by the superior mandarins. I felt much grieved on my way being entirely alone,-little thinking what joy was in store for me. Clothes and letters had arrived from Chusan, clothes in abundance for myself and also for my dear boy, which I had not the least reason to expect, but for which, as I sub- sequently heard, I was indebted to dear Mrs. Proudfoot. The sight of clothes, intended for my dear lost one, was overwhelming. May the Almighty reward the kind donor, and, by his gracious and merci- ful providence, ever protect her from requiring such a comfort as she bestowed upon me. Among the above, I received a very kind note, with an acceptable present of shoes, from my friend captain Baily. The gentlemen received large supplies of clothes, wine, ale, and other articles, with 300 dollars from the plenipotentiaries; and all the prisoners had clothes given to them. All the Englishmen, except the two sick, were present, and to our great satisfaction our fetters were struck off; we were also informed, that we should be free within five or six days for a certainty. Gladness then pervaded every breast, but, as usual, mine was mixed with bitter grief,-to think how short

200

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

a time since a happy wife and a joyful mother, and that I must now return desolate and alone. However, I could but be thankful to be freed from my fetters, having worn them, as I imagine aright, for 32 days; and on our way home,-if our wretched prisons deserve such a name,- -our hearts were much lighter and we began to put confi- dence in the glad tidings. But little did I then think, that we should be obliged still to drag on four long months of our existence in the dreary abode.

    About the 1st of Nov., it was reported publicly that I should be sent to Chusan alone, and that the gentlemen would be sent to Canton. On the strength of this account, they wrote letters for their friends, which I was to have taken, but, like the many rumors we had before heard, this also proved groundless. Sometime afterwards the two marines, already mentioned, were removed to the other prison. I felt sure, that one of them was then dying, and I greatly feared that he would never reach the prison. His weakness was so excessive, that he once fell down on his way, though supported by a Chinese; after a few days, the news of his death was brought to me. Notwith- standing all the representations of lieutenant Douglas, the irons were not taken off this poor man, until he breathed his last. The prison was so excessively small that they could not turn around, without squeezing each other, and though their commander remonstrated and insisted upon their being allowed to walk about and enjoy the fresh air, they were never permitted to take any exercise in the court. I frequently wrote a few lines to the lads, for whom I felt most deeply, as well as for the crew in general. Lieut. Douglas was now able to provide them with money, and once only, during the four months' imprisonment, was he permitted to visit his men: for, on seeing the deep interest he took in their welfare, and his great anxiety to better their condition, they never permitted him to see them any more. I was delighted to observe the noble feelings, evinc- ed by lieut. Douglas towards the crew of the Kite, who suffered great hardships.

Our joy was inexpressible, when a channel of private communi- cation with our friends at Chusan was opened, and when I receiv- ed from you, my friend, the first letter (Dec. 29th), which afforded us very great consolation. Before this we heard of the death of another marine, which affected us all deeply, and especially his master. Death has made sad havoc amongst us, and the Almighty alone knows the reason why he afflicted us, and I fervently hope that these many solemn warnings may be sanctified to us.

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

201

     On the 9th, I had again the great happiness of receiving two letters from you, from one of which I-learned our then contemplated rescue, which at that time gave me great uneasiness, as I trembled at the idea of any of my countrymen running the risk of such sufferings as I had undergone. But it is wonderful how often we heard of our speedy release and were as often disappointed; still for the time being our spirits were kept up by such good news.

Your first letter was accompanied by a copy of the holy Bible, an inestimable treasure for which fer ad long and earnestly prayed; but, to avoid discovery, I had to read it during the night, so that it was in truth a secret treasure, and henceforth my constant compa- nion. On Tuesday, the 2d of February, I heard that the gentlemen had been summoned by the mandarins to receive clothes and letters, and with an anxious heart I watched the whole afternoon, expecting every moment a visit from them. However, I was obliged to con- tinue in suspense till the next day, when I was called to appear be fore the mandarins to obtain another most affectionate letter from you, my friend, with an abundant store of clothes and every comfort I could desire. Grateful and thankful as I felt for them, my spirits be- came deeply affected, inferring as I did, that so many things would not have been sent, if my captivity was not to be prolonged; yet the linguist cheered me by the assurance, that I should be free within three weeks, or a month. At this time they treated me with great kindness, and I went to see the mandarin's lady, who gave me some fruit and artificial flowers, the first mark of kindness I had received from a Chinese lady. They allowed me to remain until the evening, and I was once more gladdened by meeting my countrymen, and, after staying some time, we all went to my prison to write answers to our letters.

February the 8th, I had the pleasure of a visit from some Chinese naval officers, who told me, that we were to leave Ningpo within a fortnight. We thought there was truth in the news, but we were not certain until the 14th, when I received the glad tidings from yourself. It would be impossible to describe what our feelings were on that occasion. I had thought that the gentlemen had known it the day before, so that our meeting at the first moment was not so joyful as it otherwise would have been, but they had no sooner read my letter, than our mutual congratulations were warm and most sincere, and I again had the happiness of welcoming them to my prison, where we wrote answers to our friends.

VOL. X. NO, IV.

26

202

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

               On board ship Blundell, March 1st. On the 22d Feb., before I arose, my attendant came to my bedside, exclaiming "Chinhae, Chusan, get up!" and immediately the compra- dor called to me, saying that we were indeed to go to Chinhae. But he little thought that he was not to form one of the party; as to myself, I am sure, you will believe me, when I tell you, that I knew not which thing to do first. Numbers of people came around my prison, and I was obliged to shut the door to keep them out. After my morn- ing duties, I got all my boxerpacked with the comprador's aid. While thus engaged, he was sent for by the mandarins, who told him, that he was not like the other English prisoners; they would therefore not allow him to accompany them, but send him down to Canton. This threw an immediate gloom over my spirits, and I felt deeply, when, a few minutes afterwards, I saw him locked up in his prison, for he had long been my friend in adversity. I now with difficulty got through the crowd to the gentlemen's prison, where I received a hearty welcome and the warmest congratulations, and was forbidden to speak of past troubles. Captain Anstruther now insisted upon seeing the comprador to give him money, and, after many intreaties made to the officer, whom he had greatly offended by withholding a picture for some unkindness shown, he at last succeed- ed in beating his way through the crowd. We walked a great while in the prison-yard until, by dint of perseverance and much pushing among the immense crowd, we got into our palankeens. a guard to escort us, and, having crossed the river in our convey- ances, I looked back and was astounded at the dense mass of specta- Mandarins of every grade were in attendance. Indeed the excitement at Ningpo was indescribable. Our road to Chinhae led principally along the river side, and our traveling was anything but comfortable, the way being so bad, that I feared our palankeen bearers would slip. When near Chinhae, one of my bearers tum- bled, and the palankeen thumped on the ground. I struck. my head, but the alarm was more than the injury. I thought my trou- bles would not be at an end, until I reached Chinhae. On the road we met several emissaries urging on the bearers to use all speed, to the mutual gratification of both parties. At last we arrived safely at Chinhae, where we were received with due honor by the mandarins. We had not breakfasted, and, when the gentlemen asked for food, a filthy fellow came in with an apron-full of cakes. Afterwards they brought us each a bason of meat. Captain Anstruther was now taken to see commissioner E, and, after remaining a little while, he re-

tors.

We had

1841.

Loss of the Ship Kite.

203

     turned telling us, that we should soon be sent for to hear the same story told him,-namely, that we should not have come to China if the admiral had not sent us, and that we must now return and tell the commanding officer, he must get the ships away with all speed, as a great many soldiers were waiting to enter Chusan so soon as the English evacuated it, but at the same time, he intreated us to labor under no apprehensions, for they had no hostile intentions. At first it was concluded, that lieutenant Douglas was to accompany me to Chusan, while captain Anstruther should remain and see all the men embark; but when we were with E, lieutenant Douglas told him, that captain Anstruther had nothing to do with the people, and begged that he might be allowed to remain with his crew, and that captain Anstruther might accompany me. It was at length determin- ed, that both the gentlemen should stay behind, and only Mr. Witts accompany me. I made every inquiry for my only bonnet and other things which the mandarin had previously sent for to inspect, but in vain, as the officer had kept them and would not restore them. Soon after, I took leave of the gentlemen and reëntered my palankeen which conveyed me to the water's side, where the linguist presented me with a fan. On the mandarin's premises I had the pleasure of meeting all my fellow-prisoners, which relieved my mind, as I was not before aware that they had come down from Ningpo, and had not seen them for several months. I spoke a few words to them as my sedan passed. On our way we were taken to the soldiers' tents; it being a late hour, and quite dark, I could see but little of them, but they appeared to be numerous, and to occupy a very large space of ground. Every attention was now shown me; they carried me close to the boat, and fixed a chair in the sampan for my comfort. The mandarin, who accompanied me, showed me every attention. For some hours our boat lay at anchor, to enable the other prisoners to embark and, during the night, proceeded on her way to Chusan. About seven o'clock in the morning of the 26th, I was once more gladdened by the sight of an English vessel. Soon after, we were boarded by two naval officers, and Mr. Johnson was the first to welcome me to freedom. In a short space of time, we saw several other vessels which lay at the outer anchorage; a few moments more, and the whole fleet was before -us. 1 thought I saw as great a change on Chusan as on myself; the tents were no longer on the hills and to me, at least, all things looked strange. As the boat drew hear, captain Bourchier of the Blonde sent his gig to convey me on board, and glad indeed was I to step into it, and thus quit for

204

Loss of the Ship Kite.

APRIL,

ever a people, at whose hands I had received such bitter wrongs. When safely arrived on the deck of the Blonde, I received the warm- est congratulations of captain Bourchier and the many friends to whom I was then introduced. What my feelings were at that mo- ment noue but one so long in captivity can conceive. Every one seemed a participator in my enjoyment, and each countenance wore the smile of heartfelt sympathy. I once more sat down to a comfor- table breakfast, but my joy was too exquisite to allow me to partake of it. I remained on board the Blonde until the arrival of my fellow-pri- soners, whom I was most anxious to see once more. Lieutenant Douglas and captain Anstruther soon joined us, and it heightened my pleasure greatly to see those, I so much esteemed, restored to their usual comforts and warm friends; and erelong, the European part of the crew came safely on board. I was much distressed at seeing their wasted frames and pale countenances, yet it was a cheer- ing certainty that every kindness would now be shown them. It is to be hoped, that, by the blessing of God, they will soon regain their wonted strength, and I trust the sad lesson they have so dearly learned will never be erased from their memories. Being most anxious to see you, my dear friend, and, Dr. Lockhart being in waiting to ac- company me, I lost no time in hastening on board the Blundell, where you had so carefully provided for my comfort. My dear friend lieut. Douglas did not leave me, until I was safely on board; and no sooner had I reached the deck, than I received the loud and hearty cheers of the whole crew, which not being anticipated was completely over- whelming, combined as it was with the cordial welcome of captain Trail and his officers. To describe our meeting would be needless, it is too indelibly engraven on the heart of each ever to be forgot- ten; but I would not conclude without a sincere, solemn, and heart- felt ascription of praise and thanks to the almighty Father, the gracious Savior, and the all-sustaining Spirit, who has so truly fulfilled his promise, " I will not leave thee, nor forsake thee."

ANNE NOBLE.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

205

ART. III. Notices of Japan, No. VIII.: character of the Japanese language; its various syllabaries; poetry, science, divisions of time, &c.

THE Japanese language was long supposed to be, if not a mere dialect of the Chinese, yet as closely connected therewith as the Italian and Spanish languages are with each other, or with their common parent, the Latin. This supposition, not based upon any knowledge of the two languages, was probably deduced from the fact, that the Japanese understood written, though not spoken, Chinese, whilst the Chinese reciprocally understood Japanese when written in the Chinese cha- racter-one of the many used in Japan: a circumstance perfectly intelligible, when it is recollected that the Chinese characters express, not letters or unmeaning sounds, the mere constituent elements of words, but the words themselves, or rather the ideas which those words signify; and therefore must convey the same ideas, expressed by different words, to whomsoever knows the meaning of the characters: just as the numerals 1, 2, 3, convey the same ideas of numbers, ex- pressed by different names, to the natives of different countries.*

      The more profound and accurate knowledge of the oriental languages acquir. ed of late years by the scientific philologists of England, France, and Germany, has thrown light upon this erroneous idea respecting the Japanese tongue. The erudite Klaproth explicitly declares, in his Asia Polyglotta, the Japanese to be so dissimilar to all known languages in structure, grammar, and every characteristic, as to prove the nation who speak it to be a distinct race. A disquisition on this subject would be out of place here; but a glance at the specimens given by Meylan and Fischer, is sufficient to show one essential dissimilarity between Chinese and Japanese. Every body knows the former to be a monosyllabic lan- guage, while Japanese is polysyllabic; nay, it might be called hyper-polysyllabic, since the simple pronoun I cannot be expressed in Japanese by a smaller number of syllables than four, watakusi; and to multiply I into we, requires the further addition of a dissyllable, as watakusidomo. At the same time, it must be admitted that, of these syllables, some are held so far supernumerary as to be dropped in speaking. Thus, in the Japanese dialogues given by Overmeer Fischer, who avows his knowledge of the language to be merely adequate to the common pur. poses of everyday life, the watakusi and watakusidomo of Meylan's gram. matical specimens are contracted into the less euphonous, but much shorter, watakfs, and watakfadomo.t

      * [It is not quite correct to say that the Chinese understand Japanese when written in the Chinese character. A sentence written this way is nothing more or less than Chinese, and when thus expressed it can with propriety, no more be called Japanese than it can be called Corean, or Cochinchinese, or even English. The comparison introduced of the Arabic numerals is an apposite one; see also Chinese Repository, volume III, page 15. That the Japanese understand the Chinese language when written, after they have learned the meaning of the characters, although they cannot converse in it, is no more surprising, however, than that an Englishman comprehends French when he sees it in a book, but hardly understands one word of what a Parisian says to him when he first crosses the Channel.]

† (Like the Chinese, the Japanese have a great variety of terms for expressing

206

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

     Fischer says that the sound of Japanese is soft and sweet; Meylan, that some of the letters cannot be articulated, save by native organs "to the manner born:" a matter that seems not unlikely, judging from the difficult contraction of the per- sonal pronoun. The president adds, that in Japanese there are no articles; and that the declension of nouns is by small words following the noun to be declined, like the domo following and attached to watakusi, for the purpose of making it plural. In fact, the name and nature of the preposition are simply reversed, by being made to follow instead of preceding. With respect to verbs, they remain unvaried by person or number, though changing with the tense and voice.*

The Japanese have a syllabary of forty-eight letters, which may be in a man- ner doubled, by affixing marks to the consonants that modify their sound, render- ing it harder or softer. This syllabary dates from the eighth century, and may be written in four different sets of characters. These are, the kata-kana, which is held appropriate to the use of men; the hira-kana, similarly appropriated to wo- men; the manyo-kana and the yamato-kana, the difference between which, in use or nature, is not explained, but they are said to show the original type of

every letter. In addition to these four sets of characters, the Chinese is used as a sort of learned character; probably a symptom and consequence of the arts and sciences having been brought from China to Japan. In this Chinese character ́all works of science, or appertaining to the higher departments of literature, as also official papers and public documents, are still written or printed. But even learned men employ their own kata-kana in writing annotations upon books, the the personal pronouns, meny of which convey, in themselves, an intimation of the relative standing of the parties, or in some degree indicate deference to the person spoken to or spoken of, and respect from the person speaking. This feature of the Japanese language is not confined to the pronouns, but extends to many words indicating an action, decrce, a thing, a word, or aught else, of the high per- sonage, be it a divinity, emperor, or honored friend, who forms the subject of the sentence; so that a highly polished and deferential sentence is much longer than one in ordinary conversation. Thus, in speaking to a friend, they say, Konnichi omaiyewa nani no tokorpni yukuka? meaning, where are you going to-day? But to a superior, the phrase would be, Konnichi no kimiwa nani no tokoroni on ide asobasaruka? In the instance given above, wasi is the word for the first person speaking, among equals or to an inferior, while watakusi is used when speaking respectfully to a superior or to a stranger; so with wasidomo and watakusidomo for the plural we. The syllable that is dropped is not a supernumerary one, but is contracted in speaking, as is the case with words generally in conversation. for the Japanese, in rapid enunciation, frequently make an elision of the last vowel, wherever the euphony of sentence requires it, in this respect resembling the French.]

* [The examples of Japanese poctry given in this paper will somewhat illustrate the pronunciation of the language; it is, in truth, an agreeable tongue, and, more. over considerable changes are permitted for the sake of euphony. When it is written in English, almost every other letter is a vowel, and when consonants unite and the vowels are dropped, it is for the most part in words where they readily coalesce; thus shrano for shirano. There are, however, many exceptions to this apparently simple rule, and study is required before the student can read correctly even after he knows the syllables.-The contraction of watakfs is probably written by the Dutch to express a kind of aspirated clipping of the word, for there is no f sounded by those whom we have seen from other provinces, nor is it thus written in Rodriguez' Grammar.

               The language is very copious, for it has not only its own native stores to draw from in expressing ideas, but unlimited use is also made of the Chineso; and the two are combined, and separated, apparently altogether according to the fancy of the writer. The verb especially is very full in moods

1841.

Notices of Japan, Nu. VIII.

207

text of which is in the Chinese character. The Japanese, like the Chinese, write in columns, from the top to the bottom of the paper, and begin from the right side.* and voices. For some general remarks on the Japanese tongue, see Chi. Rep., vol. VI., page 105.]

       * We give a few additional particulars, concerning the syllabarics of the Japan. ese language, most of which are abridged from an article by Klaproth, in the Nouveau Journal Asiatique for Jan. 1829. The following is his account of the introduction of the Chinese literature into Japan.

"Up to the time of the sixteenth datri, named

Ouzin tenwa,

the Japanese had no writing, all ordinances and proclamations being made vivá voce. Under the reign of this prince, Chinese characters began to be employed. In the year 284 B. C., Oüzin tenwo sent an embassy to the kingdom of

王仁

Haku-sat, which then existed in the southeastern part of Corea, to obtain learned persons, who were able to introduce the civilization and literature of China into his dominions. The embassador, on his return, brought the celebrated Wonin or Wangjin, who perfectly fulfilled the object proposed. He was des. cended from the emperor Kaoutsoo of the Han dynasty, and on his arrival was appointed the instructor of two princes. His descendants subsequently filled high military dignities, and his own merit appeared so great to the Japanese that they afterwards accorded him divine honors. Since the time of Wonin, the Chinese characters have been in use among the Japaneso. In the form of pure Chinese, they are employed principally in works of learning; but this does not hinder their diffusion throughout the country.

"However, as the construction of the Japanese language differs materially from that of the Chinese, and as the same Chinese character frequently has many meanings, the need of a remedy for this inconvenience was soon perceived, and consequently, a syllabary was formed, in the beginning of the 8th century, from

parts of Chinese characters, which was called for this reason kata-kana, H

       meaning 'parts of letters. This syllabary is used, at the side of Chinese characters, to indicate their pronunciation or their signification in Japanese, or between them to mark the grammatical forms of the idiom rendered difficult by the use of isolated characters. It is not known certainly who is the author of this syllabary, but tradition ascribes its invention to the illustrious Kibi. An- other Japanese work called

                    Wa Zi Si (Origin of Things in Japan), assures us that Kibi composed the kata-kana syllabary, and that he traveled to China, from whence he returned in A. D. 733. After his death, flourished the famous

           Koubo, the inventor of another syllabary, which could be used for the Japanese language alone, without having recourse to the Chinese. It is called hira-kana

or equal writing, and like the kata-kana is derived

from Chinese characters.

+

      "Of the invention of the third syllabary, we read as follows: 'In the year 1006 A. D., a priest of Budha, called Ziäku sõ

(or Shahchaou in Chi-

nese) went from Japan to carry tribute to China. He did not understand the spoken Chinese, but as he wrote it very well, he was directed to make out a list of Chinese characters with their meanings in Japanese. At this time it was he made some letters for his country, forty-seven in number; this number was adopt- ed because the syllabary brought from India had that number.' The forty-eighth syllable was added afterwards. This syllabary, which is used indiscriminately with the hira-kana, is called after the name of its inventor.

"There is still another ancient syllabary, with which was written the collection of odes called the Myriad Leaves, and which for this reason is called Mänyo-kana,

208

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

      Books intended for the instruction of either children or the lower orders are invariably printed in hira-kana letters; but we are told that, in those designed for

These characters are frequently mixed up with those of the two other syllabaries; it has the same order, and is composed of complete Chinese characters, written both in the common and in the running hand, and many characters are frequently employed to represent the same syllable. The following list contains the proto- types, but others are as frequently used as these; and it should be observed that the Chinese characters which compose this syllabary, as likewise of all the others, do not always represent the Chinese sound of the words that they designate. Thus, the Chinese character keang I a river represents the syllable ye, which in Japanese has the same signification; also neu 女 a female is called me, mean.

ing the same thing."

THE SYLLABARY CALLED

huyo

tau

ke vei sin

爲 津

MANYO-KANA.

wa

ho

to

cong vi

鐙ing

ye

飛 fe

飛in

hifi ku nae

ki

fu

不一乃ㄇㄞ

no

ne

毛:

tsun

wunmi ten thay it.

美惠 天 也

ke

ko

moo you ke #yu #nae 與利波 波。

maou

se

yew

ku

ra

ta

#heme Yeang kero Ę teang ★ lae

neu

mu

1000

re

le

ne

kettchi

che

呂o 知

ha

nu

noo

jin

禮 Flew

ru

bo,fo po

shi

+

Zganman yu

SO

10, wohe, fe isang yuen heuě

     This syllabary commences on the right, and reads in the Chinese manner. The syllables in italic are the sounds of the characters according to the court dialect of China, as given in Morrison's Dictionary; the others are their Japanese sounds, written as they are expressed in a table given in the VIIth volume of the Repository, page 496.

"There is still another syllabary, made of Chinese characters considerably contracted, which is call Yamato-kana

or 'Japanese writing."" One

of the modes of employing Chinese characters in Japanese is here exhibited. Yamato-kana is formed of three characters; the first one is an old name for Japan, and is read Yamato, though its sound is i; of the other two, the first is called according to its sound ka, the other according to its meaning in Japanese na, i. e. a name, and by the combination of the two is derived kana, a syllable or a character. The Chinese characters for hira-kana, kata-kana, and manyo-kana are all used in the same manner.

It may be added, that with the exception of the kata-kana, these various sylla baries are seldom used alone. Ordinarily, the characters of two or three are mixed together, without any rule, which renders the decyphering of the whole much more troublesome. And as if it was not already sufficiently difficult, Chinese characters are interspersed here and there, sometimes with and sometimes without the meaning or sound given on the side, just according to the whim of the writer. So that if we take into consideration the number of signs in each of the five sylla-

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

209

the well-educated, all four kinds of letters are often indiscriminately used and intermixed with the Chinese ideographic characters; one word, or even one sylla. baries, with the variations (or synonymous characters as they may be called), all of which cannot be much less than three hundred, together with the unlimited use made of Chinese characters, both in the running-hand and in the common form, it must be conceded that the scholars of Japan have succeeded in making their language one of the most difficult to read of any in the world, if indeed it is not the first in this respect. So close and so extensive is the connection between the two languages, that before the native student can make much satisfactory progress in his own literature, he must acquire a knowledge of three or four thou- sand Chinese characters, and ascertain how they are used by authors in his own country, the various modes of combining the two languages, and the different ways of writing the same character. Indeed, as it may easily be supposed, much of the time of the scholar is consumed in merely learning to read and write. We give a specimen of a common Japanese book, in which the hira-kana forms the ground. work as it were, intermixed with numerous Chinese characters, and with syllables from_the_yamato-kana. A translation of it can be seen by turning to vol. IX., page 90, bottom paragraph, on 'roasting_ore.' The first three lines are read as

follows:

Haku shekiwo yaku dzu.

      Haku shekiwo yaku nite, hazhimete kanadowo tskuru; kanadoni ardshi guchi urri, hiwo towasu kuchi nari, kanado no sotoni takigiwo shiki, fc., &c.

It will be observed that many of the cominon Chinese characters are without either collateral explanations, or sound; and also that such characters as have been explained once are left unmarked when repeated soon after.

Specimen of common Japanese Writing.

火车 璞索

whi

Bi

くの先竃を作る富嵐踊り

あつ

薪を

打多萱

三十日

めて取出

-

焚くり

کامی

*#*

VOL. X. NO. IV.

210

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

ble, being written in one character, and the next in another: no small addition to the difficulty of making any progress in Japanese literature.

In order to bring the various syllabaries which are employed in Japaness writing into view at once, we have combined them together in a tabular form. This table is made out from those in Rodriguez' Grammar, and Siebold's Epitome linguæ Japonicæ. The list of synonymous Chinese characters employed to repre- sent the sounds of the syllables given by Rémusat in Rodriguez' Grammar amounts to 382; a few of them are, however, used to represent the sound of two syllables. Sounds of the Japanese Iroha, or Syllabary.

chi

S

yo

ji

ra or la

ya

ye

ta

ro or lo

ri or li

sa

mu

ma

da

28

EE'2

hi or fi

bi

pi

ha or fa

L

ke

ba

nu

re or le u

ki

mo

ge

pa

03.

fu

60

ni

ru or lu

i & wi

ZO

23

bu

yu

se or she ze or zhel

pu

2 2 2 2 2 L

pe

ho or fo

tsu

bo

WO

no

dzu

명장

ko

BU

me

go

zu

he or fé be

wa

ne

ye & e

mi

'n

a

to

99

ka

ku

te

si or shi

na

do

ga

gu

de

zi or zhi

This syllabary is read perpendicularly, commencing on the left side, and each space corresponds to a space in the table on the opposite page. In each square are inserted: 1. The kata-kana, which occupies the centre, having the inflected syllables immediately underneath them, as ha, ba, pa; the addition of two marks, (") called a nigori, changes the initial into a harder or rougher sound; the addi- tion of a maru (°) or circle, changes the initial h or ƒ of six syllables into p. 2. The Chinese characters, from which the kata-kana is derived, placed in the top corner on the left side of each square. 3. The yamato-kana immediately beneath it, in the left lower corner; it will be seen that this is sometimes a contraction

   of the preceding, and sometimes not. 4. The hira-kana occupying the upper right hand corner; a few of these syllables are derived from the Chinese charac ters in the opposite corner. 5. The syllabary of Ziaku-só immediately underneath the hira-kana, together with some other forms used for certain syllables, as in ta, ma, no, na, &c. Many of the syllables in this are identical with those in the hira kana. There are also other forms of hira-kana besides these, for which see Ro driguez' Grammar, or Klaproth in Journal Asiatique. The last and forty-eighth

1841.

良也

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

་་

.

ヤ ア

211

惠忌

EN

3

武七萬

チヂ

路万利,太

ㄜ宇

れれ液

好禮

二1

之汞

キギ

けあり

ˇ

ふ由

升乃

つりば

ツヅ

线

7

ネガポ

杂度

白免

免め付す

, ス

JJ M

打江

身双

h

三房

N

称 お

迦奈

久 天

ラデ

タグ

なある

212

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

     Japan has long possessed the art of printing, after a fashion sufficient for the diffusion of literature, but not emulating the splendor of the London press. The Japanese printers are unacquainted with movable types, and they rather multiply manuscript copies by means of a very inferior sort of stereotype in wood, or by wood-cuts, than really print, as we understand the process. Still, they supply the public with books, and we are assured that reading is the favorite recreation of both sexes in Japan, especially at the mikado's capital.

Japanese literature comprises works of science, history, biography, geography, travels, moral philosophy, natural history, poetry, the drama, and encyclopædias. Of the merits of the productions of Japanese genius in most of these departments, the Dutch writers speak highly; but considering that the members of the Dezima factory are not likely in general to have enjoyed the most finished or scholarlike. education, we may be allowed to receive their judgment with some distrust. Nor is this want of confidence in the critical taste of these eulogists of Japanese liter. ature diminished by turning to the very few data upon which we, in this country, can form an opinion for ourselves.

syllable is an imperfect nasal sound, and was added subsequently to the formation of the preceding syllabary, (Klaproth says by one Saï-chiu, who employed the character king to represent it,) and apparently for the purpose of represent. ing Chinese sounds ending in ng. In composition its sound is always n (some- times m for sake of euphony in the middle of words), but alone it resembles a half enunciated ng, and is formed by putting the tongue on the roof of the mouth, and then making a sound in the throat.

The characters in the last square of the table are marks used in writing. The first, when used, shows a repetition of the preceding syllable; the second is placed between Chinese characters to show that they are to be read continuously, or joined together as a single word in Japanese; its use may be seen in the speci. men plate given below. It is also employed in kata-kana after a syllable to lengthen its sound. The last two niarks show that a dissyllable or word is repeated; for instance in the word kotogoto, this mark is written instead of goto, and with a nigori to show the change in the first syllable from ko to go.

The sounds of some of these syllables vary in different parts of Japan, and dif ferent modes of writing Japanese words have also been adopted by scholars of different countries. Siebold writes lo, and Klaproth ro, for the second syllable, and so of ra, re, ri, and ru; those natives whom we have heard pronounce them, say ra, re, but yet cannot distinguish between the two sounds of ra or la. When either of these five syllables begins a word, the r is sometimes pronounced as if preceded by a soft d. Siebold remarks, "that the sound is difficult to express, but vibrates between 1 and r, something like the first efforts of children to sound it: in Yedo, the predominates, and in some principalities the obtains." Those syllables beginning with h, except fu, we have always heard pronounced ha, he, hi, ho, &c., but Klaproth writes fa, fe, fi, and fo, and this was the old Portuguese mode, now retained in Fatsisio, Firado, Figo, &c. Those whom we heard also say she and shi, but Siebold and Klaproth both writes se and si. There appears to be little or no difference between the sounds of the syllables i and wi, e and ye, and we have written them thus in this table because it can be hardly be supposed there are two syllables of precisely the same sound; the natives whom we have consulted, however, (and they are from three principalities,) make no difference between them either in sound or use.

In preparing Chinese books for the Japanese public, or when writing Chinese, the grammatical additions are more or less numerous according to the caprice of the editor or writer. Sometimes, however, the works are simple reprints. The cases of nouns, the terminations and tenses of verbs, and the marks to show the transposition of characters are seldom omitted. The perpendicular lines between characters, and the meaning of difficult and unusual characters or their sounds, are

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

213

      Klaproth has given a version of a geographical treatise, and Titsingh has trans. lated, or caused to be translated, Annals of the Daïri, and Annals of the Sin-

introduced into books which it is desirable to make very plain. In the specimen here given, the small figures at the right hand corner of many of the characters are the grammatical terminations; the catches and figures at the other corner of many others show that they are to be transposed in reading. For instance, the

first two characters 取𨨏 are transposed, being read kawawo toru, and the

     catch at the left hand corner of toru shows that it is to be read after the other. It will be observed that the second of the two has hira kana syllables on the side; this is an instance of their use in explanations, for the character is an unusual one, and moreover is here used in an uncommon sense. The circles are marks of punctuation. A translation of this paragraph also will be found on page 96th of vol. IX.

Specimen of Chinese Writing with Japanese explanations.

復或輕風于煇

燻橐

陳造几

加。灑浮火爐 候水 津 力頭。

然鎔 鎔把亍

棄之璞

復加候其良者滿愧乃

随出

流化長

籥洪取

座訓俗屋鈹?

〒安登下未俗 人置辣設成謂 鉄 就 宇墙假之, 燻璧字波

爐前通

謂世冬

鈹不

干炭冷麺

滓耗

人放槽

酪及立

道。

波銅

      Prefaces of books are frequently written in Chinese, while the body of the work is in hira.kana; in these cases, the running-hand is often employed, which mach

increases the labor of decyphering the text, if the reader has learned only the com-

mon form.]

214

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

gouns of the Gongen dynasty. Of these works, the first is by far the best; it is minute, and no doubt imparts accurate knowledge of the geography and form of administration of the three claimed dependencies of the Japanese empire, Corea the Lewchew islands, and Yezo, including the Kurile archipelago. Its faults are dryness and dullness, unavoidable, perhaps, in a geographical description, and a great deficiency of statistical information. The Annals of the Datri have been recently corrected and edited by Klaproth; and a more jejune account of births, marriages, accessions, abdications, and deaths, with a few sicknesses, pilgrimages, and rebellions--but even these last uninterestingly told-it would be difficult to conceive. The Annals of the Siogouns are similar in character, though inter-. spersed with curious anecdotes; but even these are very heavily narrated, whilst some of them are evidently gleaned by Titsingh, or his Japanese translators, from other sources than the original Annals. Altogether, the three works, though valuable for the information they supply are such as it is a serious task to wade though.

Of the moral philosophy, all that can be gathered is, that it deals in ́cormmenta. ries* upon the moral precepts of the Chinese philosopher Kung footsze, or -Confu. cius, commentaries upon the Sintoo mythology, which the highest philosophy allegorizes into the epochs of creation. The encyclopædias (of which M. Rémusat has given an excellent specimenf) appear to be little more than picture-books, with letter-press explanations, arranged, like other Japanese dictionaries, sometimes alphabetically, and sometimes according to a not very scientific classification of the subjects.

Of the Japanese art of poetry, of its metre or rhyme, or substitute for either, nothing is said by any of these writers; but presidents Meylan and Titsingh furnish some specimens, as far as prose translations can be said to afford a speci. men of poetry. A selection from these examples may be here introduced; and as these gentlemen give the originals, printed in Roman characters, the insertion of one or two of these will show the form of the stanza, rhyme, &c. They will also show that either the Japanese language has great power of compression, or the Dutch translation, from which ours is rendered line by line,' is

* Siebold and Fischer,

Alta Kampei,

Kawo mita Kampei,

Mamani hanasiwo itasita Kampei,

Uchi siri tara yakamasi Kampei,

Sekenni waru Kampei.

Yes! eager is my longing

To look upon thy face,

With thee some words to speak ;

But this I must renounce;

For should it in my dwelling

Once chance to be divulged, That I with thee had spoken, Then grievous were the trouble On me would surely light. For certain my good name Were lost for evermore.

very diffuse.

+ MSS. de la Bibl. du Roi. vol. xi. p. 123,

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

215

      The following ethical stanza is likewise given in the original, because in it arc some lines longer than in any of the other specimens; but whether this be ac- cidental, or regulated by the nature of the subject, is not explained.

Kokorodani makotono,

Michi ni kanať naba, Inorazu totemo kamiya, Mamoran.

Upright in heart be thou, and purc, So shall the blessing of God, Through eternity be upon thee; Clamorous prayers shall not avail, But truly a clear conscience,

That worships and fears in silence.

      One of Titsingh's specimens, a short poem upon the murder of Yamasiro, a councillor of state, is both rather more poetical, and exemplifies the allusions to old stories or legends, and the play upon words, said to characterize Japanese poetry. This president, or rather his French translator, has added to his Dutch a Latin version, professedly literal, and no longer than the original; for which reason, it may be better to translate that (even if not literally, which the singular collocation of the words, dislocated beyond ordinary Latin dislocation, would, even more than the extreme compression, render difficult in English), than to copy the doubly and trebly translated translations; his work being published only in French and English, not in Dutch. It must be premised, that the constituent parts of the murdered man's name, being yama, 'a mountain,' and siro, ' a castle,' afford a happy opportunity for puns.

"That the young councillor is cut off at the castle on the hill by a new guard, exciting a tumult, I have just heard.

* Yamasiro's white robe being dyed with blood, all behold in him the reddening councillor.

41

       Along the eastern way, through the village Sanno, the rushing waters poured, burst the dyke of the swamp, and the mountain-castle fell.

"The precious trees planted in vases, the plum-trees and cherry trees beautiful with their blossoms, who threw them into the fire? 'Twas Sanno cut them down." (This alludes to an old tale of one Sanno's still unbounded hospitality, when reduced to extreme indigence.)

      "Cut down is the insane councillor. We might say, had such things ever before been heard of, this was the chastisement of Heaven."

       These specimens may suffice; but as the compression and style of Japanese verse have certainly not been displayed in the Dutch translations, perhaps one stanza of the Latin, which professes to be line for line, may not be unacceptable.

Kirarelawa,

Bakadoshi yorito,

Kikuto haya;

ľazamo o shiro mo

Ya

Sawagu shinpan.

Præcidisse

Consiliarum minorem

Nuper audivi;

In montis castello

Turbas excitantem novum custodem.

       With the statement that ballads, romances, and songs are said to constitute the greater number of Japanese pouins, this subject may now be dismissed. Of the drama, all that could be found has already been given, in speaking of the theatrical representations at Chosaka ; and we turn from light literature to science.

216

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

The only sciences that can be said to be cultivated in Japan, are medicine and astronomy, and upon these were are assured that original works, as well as transla- tions of all accessible European publications, are constantly appearing. Of the merits of the original works we have no means of judging, save by inference from the reports of the abilities and knowledge of the Japanese physicians and astrono- mers; and on this head, those of the medical travelers are favorable. Dr. Von Siebold dwells eulogistically upon the zeal with which physicians from all parts of the empire thronged about him to acquire medical science of a higher character than their own; and his opinion of the intelligence and knowledge evinced by their questions has been already mentioned. The latter remark applies equally to the astronomers; and it may be added, that their sense of the scientific superiority of Europe, alone places the Japanese far above the self-sufficient Chinese.

    Of the proficiency of the medical profession in Japan, some further notion may be formed from the assertion that acupuncture and moxa burning are native inven- tions. The former of these remedies, having been introduced into this country, needs no description; but it may be worth mentioning, that among the books brought to Europe by Heer Titsingh, is one containing accurate directions for its use, with an enumeration of the maladies it is calculated to relieve, and accom- panied by a doll, upon which is marked every part of the frame adapted to the operation, according to the several cases. Moxa burning is a means of blistering, or making an issue, by actual cautery, or burning balls of flaxen down, made by triturating the leaves of mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), upon the skin.*

   The drugs employed in Japanese pharmacy are mostly animal and vegetable, chemistry being for too superficially and imperfectly known to allow physicians to venture upon mineral remedies. But botany, as connected with the knowledge of simples, is diligently cultivated, and the medicines used are said to be generally. beneficial; the chief reliance, however, is upon diet, acupuncture, and the moza. Superstition is the main obstacle to the progress of medicine and surgery; its baneful influence was apparent in what has been incidentally mentioned respecting the obstetric department of the science: and the pollution incurred by contact with death renders dissection, and consequently anatomical science, impossible.

In astronomy, the proficiency made is yet greater, perhaps, from there being no superstitious impediments in the way of progress in this science. The Japan. ese astronomers study the most profound works that have been translated into Dutch, and have learned the use of most European instruments. These they have taught Japanese artists to imitate, and Meylan saw good telescopes, barometers, and thermometers, of Japanese workmanship. In consequence, the almanacs, which were formerly imported from China, are now constructed at home, the cal. culation of eclipses included, in the colleges at Yedo and Miyako.

    The measurement and division of time are in Japan very peculiar, and not very easy to be understood. For chronological purposes, cycles are employed; of these there are three, unconnected and concurrent. The one is formed by a somewhat complicated blending of astronomy with other branches of natural philosophy; the remaining two are simple, and may therefore be first mentioned.

The cycle habitually used in history for dates is the nengo. This is a period of arbitrary, and therefore ever-varying length, from one year to any number of * [The use of the actual cautery is very common, acconding to Kæmpfer: and a great number of the people who crowded the decks of the Morrison had scars on their bodies showing where it had been applied.]

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

217

years. It is regulated by the pleasure of the reigning mikado, according to any remarkable or accidental occurrence that he thinks worthy of such commemo- ration; he may, for instance, appoint a new nengo to begin from the building of a temple, from an earthquake, or the like; and he gives it a name descriptive of its origin, either simply, or, in the oriental style, metaphorically, allegorically, and enigmatically. Thus, a mikado ordered a new nengo to begin on his abdication, and named it the nengo genrokf; literally, 'the nengo of the happiness of nature and art; implying that he, in his retirement, should have leisure to enjoy both. The new nengo lasts till some new event induces the same mikado, or his succes- sor, immediate or remote, to terminate it and commence another.

The other simple mode of computation is by the reign or dat of every suc- cessive mikado. This, as the most straightforward, is the one in common use. The only difficulty to which it seems liable, mamely, the interruption of a reign in the middle of a year, is obviated by the provision, that the whole year in which a mikado abdicates or vanishes is reckoned to him who begun it, and the dat of the successor calculated only from the next newyear's day.*

The third, the astronomical cycle of sixty years, is far other, and a very com. plex affair, being constructed by calculation out of the signs of the Zodiac and the elements. The former are reckoned in Japan, as perhaps wherever astronomy has been studied, twelve, and differ from ours only in their names. They are col- lectively called ziyuni no shi, or the twelve branches,' and run thus:

1. Ne,

2. Ushi

3. Tora,

4. U,

5. Tats,

6. Mi,

the rat, answers to Arics.

the cow, answers to Taurus.

the tiger, answers to Gemini.

the rabbit, answers to Cancer.

the dragon, answers to Leo.

the snake, answers to Virgo.

7. 'Mma, 4. the horse, answers to Libra.

the goat, answers to Scorpio.

8. Hiteuzi

the ape, answers to Sagittarius.

9. Saru,

10. Tori,

the cock, answers to Capricorn.

11. Inu,

the dog, answers to Aquarius.

12. I,

the wild boar, answers to Pisces.

      The † elements of the Japanese are more original. They are held to be five in number, excluding air, and including wood and metal as elementary substances. But these five are whimsically doubled, by taking each in a twofold character; separately as one in its natural state, and another as adapted to the use of man yet in each an element. This is so strange as to be worth giving at length, and in the proper order.

      * [The year of the siogoun's reign is also employed as a mode of computing time, for the dates of all the Japanese books we have seen are reckoned by the number of years he has sat on the throne,]

+ Meylan.

VOL. X. NO, IV.

218

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

1. Ki no ye [represented by the Chinese character is wood in its natural state, as tree; this is the first element, and becomes,

2. Ki no to [represented by Z] when cut down and converted into timber. 3. Fi no ye [by, is the element of fire in its original state, as appearing in the sun's heat, lightning, volcanic eruptions, &c.

4. Fi no to [by

           is fire kindled by man, with wood, oil, incense, &c. 5. Touchi no ye [by] is earth in its uncultivated state, on- mountain-tops, at the bottom of the sea, &c.

6. Tsuchi no to [by

              is earth as wrought by the hand of man into por. celain, earthenware, and the like. Tilled ground appertains to this element, and it is sometimes represented by a rice-field.

7. Ka no ye [by] is the metallic element in its native state of mineral ore; sometimes also symbolized by manufactured metal, as a sabre or a bell.

8. Ka no to [by

nails, shears, &c.

is the metallic element smelted, worked into hammers,

9. Midzu no ye [by] is water as it flows from springs and in rivers; and 10. Midzu no to [by the character is the other watery element, as stag. nant in pools and morasses: a curious deviation from the principle laid down, that adaptation to human use constitutes every second element. [It is, however, sometimes represented by water issuing from a pipe or reservoir.]

Now, these ten elements being five times combined with the twelve signs of the Zodiac, in some way more complicated than intelligible, sixty compound figures are said to be obtained, each of which stands for a year in this most scien- tific cycle.*

    The year is divided into twelve lunar months, but contains more than 336 days, because the mikado and his astronomers add a couple of days to several of the months, announcing always in the almanac of the year how many and which of the months they have thus increased. The difference between the lunar year, even thus lengthened, and the sidereal year, is corrected by inserting every third year an intercalary month of varying length, according to the number of days the mikado has been pleased to make requisite.t

* [The mode of combining the ziyuni no shi, or twelve branches, with the five doubled elements, or rather with the ten characters which stand for them, collectively called shikkan, or 'the ten stems,' is the same in China as in Japan, and was no doubt adopted from the former by the latter. The subsequent adaption of the 'ten stems' to the five elements belongs to the Japanese, and has no con. nection with the original formation of the cycle; nor do the latter in numbering the years by it do more than express the Chinese characters which stand for any given year. The apparently complicated nature of the arrangement is chargeable more to its Dutch commentators than to the system itself. The mode of combin- ing the two is explained on page 122 of this volume.]

    → [The division of the year into months is the same in Japan as in China, and we rather suspect that the mikado, or his officer the Reki Hakase, who superintends the preparation of the almanac at Miyako, does no more han publish the already settled arrangement of the various lunar and solar periods of the year. The year is luni-solar, and consists of twelve months, except when by this mode of reckon ing, the lunar time falls behind the solar time one whole revolution of the moon; then an intercalary month is added by the following rule: if during any lunar month the sun does not enter any sign of the zodiac, (that is, if there are two full

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

219

But perhaps the most whimsical, and certainly the most inconvenient, division of time in Japan, is that by hours. A natural day and night is there divided into twelve hours, of which six are always allotted to the day-that is to say, to the interval between the rising and the setting of the sun; the other six to the night, or the period between sunset and sunrise. Thus, the hours of the day and of the night are never of equal duration in Japan, except at the equinoxes; in summer, the hours of the day being long, those of night short, and in winter vice verad.

moons in any one sign) that month is intercalary, and the year consequently con- tains thirteen months. The intercalated year contains 384 days, and the common year 354; the lat, 3d, 4th, 8th and 12th months have 29 days; the others 30 each. Besides these monthly divisions depending on the moon, the year is still further divided into twenty-four periods of about fifteen days each, the settlement of which depends on the time when the sun is in the first and fifteenth degree of any zodiacal sign. This division was also obtained from the Chinese.

twa miyo 和名:

The Japanese have a sort of descriptive term for each of the months called its , or harınonizing name; they are thus explained in the chapter entituled, Nippon gets rei zen, or, All the monthly festivals of Japan, found in the work called the Mirror of Female Education.

1st month, or shiyo gwats, is called

A

mo tsuki, the amicable month

"

because the hearts of people are then mild and goodnatured from the festivities of the newyear.

2d month, ni gwats, is called

ki-sara-gi, the month to change

clothes, because then the winter clothing is laid aside.

3d month, san gwats, is called

yayoi, the budding month, because

nature then revives from the slumber of the winter.

4th month, shi gwats, is called

the flowers are in bloom.

u dzuki, or flourishing month, when

5th month, go gwata, is called sa tsuki, or transplanting month, at which time the crop of rice is transplanted.

6th month, roku gwats, is called mina dzuki, or dry month,

because no rain falls.

7th month, sichi gwats, is called ♬ fumi tsuki, or letters' month, be-

cause in this month an ode to the stars is written on papers and suspended on poles.

     8th month, hachi gwate, is called ha dzuki, or leaf month, because the leaves of autumn begin to fall.

9th month, ku gwats, is called ♬ naga tsuki, or the long month, for the nights begin to grow long,

10th month, ziyu gwats, is called

kami-na dzuki, or godless

month, because it is supposed that all the deities leave their shrines this month, and go to Idzumo on the north of Japan.

11th month, ziyu-ichi gwats, is called

shimo tsuki, or hour.frost

month, because the rains congeal into snow and hoar frost.

12th month, eiyuni gwats, is called shiwasu, the final or season-ending month. The number of festivals, and civic and religious ceremonies, occurring through. out the year, is very great, and the important ones are carefully observed by all classes. Titsingh has given an account of some of the great festivals, and others that are observed by the court; see his Annals, pages 114-144.]

220

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

APRIL,

    Strictly speaking, the length of the hours should vary from day to day; but such extreme accuracy is dispensed with, and the variations are regulated only four times in the year, upon averages of three months.

Again, the numbering of these twelve hours, which seems so straightforward a matter for people who can count twelve, is in Japan so strangely complicated, that had not the expedient been adopted of bestowing upon each hour the name of a sign of the Zodiac, in addition to its number, it would there be no easy task to answer the seemingly plain question of "What's o'clock?" An attempt must be made to explain this abstruse and original system.

     Nine being esteemed the perfect number, noon and midnight are both called "9 o'clock"-the one of the day, the other of the night; while sunrise and sunset are respectively "six o'clock" of the day, and "six o'clock" of the night. If it be asked how nine can occur twice in twelve, the answer is, that the arithmetical impossibility is conquered or obviated by omitting the first and the last three num- bers, beginning with four and ending with the perfect nine. The intermediate numbers are laboriously evolved from the multiplication table, and the system is based upon the profound respect entertained for the number nine. Here is the

process:-

     Nine, being the hour of noon and midnight, is the point from which the num. bering begins, and considered as the first hour. Twice 9 is 18; subtract the decimal figure and 8 remains, therefore the hour following noon or midnight, say the second hour, is 8 o'clock of the day or of the night. Three times 9 is 27; subtract the decimal figure and 7 remains, and the third hour becomes 7 o'clock of the day or the night. Four times 9 is 36; repeat the operation, and we find the fourth hour, which must invariably be sunset or sunrise, 6 o'clock of the night or the day. Five times 9 is 45; and the usual operation makes the hour following sunset or sunrise, fifth from either poon inclusively, 5 o'clock of the night or the day. Finally, six times 9 is 54; and by the same operation we obtain a 4 for the sixth and last hour, which becomes 4 o'clock of the night or the day. Then comes again the noon, or 9 o'clock of the night or the day. A table, which without previous explanations must have been unintelligible, will now place the sequence of the twelve hours of a natural day distinctly before the reader.

Midnight is kokonots or 9 o'clock of the night, the hour of the Rat.

2 A. M. is yats or 8 o'clock

do.

do.

Cow.

4 A. M. is nanats or 7 o'clock

do.

do.

Tiger.

Sunrise is mutsu-doki or 6 o'clock of the day,

do.

Rabbit.

8 A. M. is itsutsu or 5 o'clock

do.

do.

Dragon.

10 A. M. is yots or 4 o'clock

do.

do.

Snake.

Noon, is kokonots or 9 o'clock

do.

do.

Horse.

2 P. M. is yate or 8 o'clock

do.

do.

Goat or Sheep.

4 r. M. is nanats or 7 o'clock

do.

do.

Ape.

Sunset, is mutsu-doki or 6 o'clock of the night,

do.

Cock.

8 P. M. is itsutsu or 5 o'olock

+

do.

do.

do.

Dog. Boar.*

10 P. M. is yots or 4 o'clock do.

* [Each of these hours is divided in eighths (equivalent to our quarters), and the notation of the intervals is done by additions to the word denoting the hour; thus, kokonots han is 1 a. m.; kokonots han sugi is half past one; kokonots han sugi maye is quarter past one, &c., &c. The use of the twelve branches' to desig. nate the hours is borrowed from the Chinese, but the other arrangement of num- bering the six hours as here explained is peculiar to the Japanese.]

*

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. VIII.

221

      These hours are always sounded by the bells of the temples. The measuring them seems a more difficult matter, although lengthening and shortening the pendulum is spoken of as sufficient for this purpose* (of course, daily, or twice a day, at sunrise and sunset, must be meant). Two indigenous modes are also mentioned. The one, which may, evidently answer, by the burning of bodies of determinate magnitude-analogous to our Alfred's candles; the other, by a peculiar sort of clock, described, not very intelligibly, to consist of a horizontal balance, having a weight at either end, and moving backwards and forwards upon a pin. The subject of hours and clocks may be concluded with the description of a clock-not its mechanism, unluckily-ordered in 1826 by the governor of Nagasaki as a pre- sent for the siogoun, and considered as a master-piece of mechanical genius. As such it was proudly exhibited to the Dutch factory, and certainly indicates more skill than taste.

      "The † clock is contained in a frame three feet high by five fect long, and pre- sents a fair landscape at noontide. Plum and cherry trees in full blossom, with other plants, adorn the foreground, The background consists of a hill, from which falls a cascade, skillfully imitated in glass, that forms a softly flowing river, first winding around rocks placed here and there, then running across the middle of the landscape, till lost in a wood of fir-trees. A golden sun hangs aloft in the sky, and, turning upon a pivot, indicates the striking of the hours. On the frame below, the twelve hours of day and night are marked, where a slowly creeping tortoise serves as a hand. A bird, perched upon the branch of a plum-tree, by its song and the clapping of its wings, announces the moment when an hour expires, and as the song ceases, a bell is heard to strike the hour; during which operation, a mouse comes out of a grotto and runs over the hill. Every separate part was nicely executed; but the bird was too large for the tree, and the sun for the sky, while the mouse scaled the mountain in a moment of time."

*

The Japanese possess some little knowledge of mathematics, mechanics, tri- gonometry, and civil engineering; they have canals, intended chiefly for irriga. tion, and a great variety of bridges; they have learned to measure the height of mountains by the barometer, and have latterly constructed very good maps of the Japanese empire. In mechanics, they have not got much beyond lathes and water-mills, nor do they desire to make further progress. The views entertained upon this subject were explicitly announced, upon occasion of the model of ap oil-mill, forming part of the Dutch present one year, offered to the siogoun. The ingenuity of the invention and its admirable mechanism were highly commended, but the model was returned, because the adoption of such an aid to labor would throw out of work all those Japanese who earn their bread in the ordinary mode of making oil.

* Fischer.

+ Meylan.

999

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

APRIL,

ART. IV. A short tract respecting four Chinese characters, which perform a very remarkable office in the writings of Mencius and his commentators, published at Paris, A. D. 1830. Trans lated from the Latin of Stanislaus Julien, by S. R. WHILE reading and treating of Chinese books, it has long since ap- peared to me (and the opinion has every day become stronger), that some characters, in certain cases determined by a certain law, throw off altogether their primitive and accustomed signification, and then become merely the phonetic signs of regimen, by which the accusa- tive case is denoted.

Those we shall at present consider are four in number : 1st. The character

e, commonly signifying uti, utor, e, ex,

etc., to use, I employ, of, from, &c.

2d. The character

in, &c.

yu, usually meaning a, ab, in, etc., from,

3d. The character Tyu, commonly meaning in, causâ, propter, etc., in, by reason of, on account of, &c.

4th. The character hoo, ordinarily importing in, propter, nota interrogationis, etc., in, on account of, a mark of interrogation, &c.

Until I shall attempt in a special dissertation more fully to set forth the doctrine from which flows a most copious abundance of princi- ples, and by the aid of which the greatest and most frequent diffi. culties are solved, I cannot refrain from submitting to my readers in a brief and compendious way the principal and most obvious uses of these characters, so far as they denote the accusative case; supported by some proofs from among the thousands which I have from time to time collected and arranged. For in my emendationes,' and espe- cially in the 4th section of Mencius, which embraces the V, VI, VII, and VIII chapters, many things occur which might justly be charg- ed upon me as faults, should I not openly avow my reasons for never having once declined from the royal way.'

* The Ewang taou, or regia via, is the great subject of the discourses of

Mencius, and we conceive that M. Julien here delicately compliments himself for his rigid adherence to the opinions of the best Chinese commentators, many of whose writings he has most carefully studied and compared, and without whose sanction he has never advanced any interpretation of Mencius. M. Julien cer- tainly deserves the thanks of all Chinese students for his translation of Mencius; and the industry and judgment, which are displayed in it, reflect the highest credit on the author. He gives us in his preface the names of eight editions of the Four Books, embracing the interpretations of more than forty authors, all of

1841

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

223

Of the charactere, commonly rendered uti (se servir), cùm, xí, causâ, e, ex, etc., to use, employ, with, as, by reason of, of, from, &c.

case.

§ I. All sinologues have plainly perceived and known that in the more modern Chinese books the characters pa and tseäng (vulgo, to take, hold), when prefixed to words that precede the active verb by which they are governed, place those words in the accusative These characters so situated are very often prefixed to things that cannot be taken hold of, and they so entirely lose their usual signification that, to the mind of the reader or hearer, they appear to be mere potential characters, indicating the accusative case. It is almost the same thing as if in writing Latin, one should cut off the termination of the accusative, which is inseparably suffixed to the last syllable of the noun, and place it before the same noun. I beg leave to do this in the following examples, that I may more clearly and distinctly explain the peculiar property, as I regard it, of these cha-

racters.

I shall adduce first an example from the learned Grammar of the distinguished M. Abel-Rémusat; see § 392.

A 把 pa

I write : As

Literally: prehendens veri

1

veri

chin sinhwa

cordis

verba

cordis loquel.

shwolenou

enuntiavit.

enuntiavit.

That is, veri cordis loquelas (sive verba) enuntiavit: "He spoke

the words of a true heart."

Another example ;

B

tu pa

Literally: prebendens

I write : am

眾 chung jin 偷 tow. 看 kam

aspiciebat.

aspiciebat.

hominum-turbam

furtim

hominum-turb-

furtim

chung, (vulg. many,) a multitude, denotes-

That is, homines furtim aspiciebat: "He stealthily beheld the

men." Observe that

the plural number.

    That the charactere, which appears in theKoo wăn, or ancient style of writing, performs, in certain cases, the same office as that of the aforesaid characters pa and tseäng, will be

evident from the following proofs.

which, he informs us, he has felt bound to read again and again, while he has admitted no sense, nor criticised any rendering of others, unless the authority of many, or at least some, of these commentators favored him. And in addition to this he has studied and compared with equal care the two Tartar versions of the same books. The man who has the ability and patience to do all this, in order to expound the Chinese classics, certainly does not boast, if he says he has adhered to the royal road to true interpretation, though unlike the modern regia via it is long and tedious. Tr.

224

Examination of Four Chinese Characters:

Mencius, Book II. page 56, line 2d.*

C

Me

em

仁jin

humanitat.

存 tsum

心sin.

Conservat

corde.

APRIL,

That is, humnauitatem conservat in corde: "He (the superior man)

preserves humanity in the heart," which exposition three of the four

editions of the Four Books which have been compared confirm. Two of them explain the word

tseäng, as indicating the accusative case, to wit in this manner.

e bypa, and the third by

B. 把 pa

← jin

存 tsum

心sin.

D C.tseäng

將 tseing

仁 jin

存 tsun

sin.

Compare § I., examples A and B, and also Rémusat's Grammar,

$346 and 392.

Hence it appears that the learned Noel erred egre-

e

   giously, when servilely adhering to the usual signification of like a tyro he interprets the same passage "by the aid of humanity he preserves the heart," as if he had written, "using humanity he preserves the heart."

    Respecting the office of e, each of the Tartar interpreters agrees with us.

gosin

humanitat

be

em

moutsilen in-corde

de

That is, "he preserves humanity in the heart."

teboumbi.

reponit.

    For every one knows that in the Tartar language, the particle be, in construction with the direct compliment preceding an active verb, points out the accusative, as if it were a separable termination of the fourth case.

The reader will find it to his advantage if he can have access to the Tartarico-Chinese Grammar entitled

Tsing

Wan Ke Mung, where (Book 3d, page 6) the particle be just quoted, inasmuch as it denotes the accusative case, is explained by the cha-

racters 杷 pa, 將 tseing, and 以

€.

* The edition of the Four Books to which all the quotations in this tract are

referred is the one styled Sze Shoo Ho Kang. The mode

of reference is as follows:

四書合講

The pages have been numbered as they are in our books, and thus the reference is to each page, and not to the sheet as in the Chinese mode of numbering. The lines are counted from the right to the left, and the space between every two black lines, which run from the top to the bottom of the page, is counted as two lines, whether it is occupied by the large character when only one line of cha- racters is found, or whether it is blank from occurring at the first of a section. Thus counted, every page has eighteen lines, and the reference is easy. This work has been chosen because it is a common one and supposed to be in hands of every student of Chinese; and because all the editions of it are very uniformly printed. Tr.

1841.

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

Another example. Mencius B. II., page 167, line 12.*

E 以。

F1 le

em

utilitat-

ht

shroo

eloqui

wang,

regi.

225

That is, utilitatem (sequendam) regi proponere, "to propose to the

king utility (to be followed)." Both of the Tartar versions taking

We to fill the place of

pa or

tseäng, as in the foregoing

examples, render the passage thus:

aisi

be

dchafafi

wang

de

kisourefi,

Literally, utilitat- em

prebendens reg-

elocutus,

utility

taking

to the king

spoke.

e, has two com-

$II. If an active verb, in company with plements, the one direct and the other indirect, three forms of con- struction may occur, which the following examples will elucidate.

     1st. Either the verb is followed immediately by the complement indirect, and the complement direct, with Ve before it, is placed after the indirect complement; as Men. B. I. page 164, line 16.

A

分 fun

dividere

λ jin

hominibus

e

As

Af tsae

diviti-

That is, hominibus divitias (suas) dividere, "To divide to men

(comp. indirect) his riches (comp. direct),

agrees with this.

The Tartar version

nialma

de

oulin

be

houtmni-

bus

diviti-

89

dendeme dividendo

to men

riches

by dividing

poure dare.

be

to give.

2d. Or, the direct complement, preceded by the word e, is

placed before the active verb, and the indirect complement is subjoin- ed. We will adduce an instance from Kanghe's Dictionary under the

shwuy.

word

B.

e

物 wuhweijin yuě shwuy

m

re-

legare

homini dicitur

shwuy.

a thing

to devise

to a man is called

shwuy.

C.

βασιλεί

Lil yu

dare

A jin

homini.

Another example from Mencius, B. II. page 81, line 10.

Ye teën

天 下 hei

That is, the kingdom to give to a man.

      *The translator ventures to suggest to those who write for the public, and who have occasion to cite examples from Chinese works, that in every case some standard edition of the work be selected, and page and line referred to as has been done in this tract, that the quotations may be readily found and read in the connection in which they stand in the respective books from which they are quoted.

29

VOL. X. NO, IV.

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

APRIL,

The Tartar version renders in a like manner:

French,

apkai ciel da

fetcher gui dessous

be

le

nialma komme

de

boume.

donner.

"To give to a man that which is under the heavens (i. e. the

empire)."

3d. Or again, the word

e, is placed after the direct comple-

ment preceding the verb, and then as we have seen above (§ II. A

and B), the indirect complement is put after the verb; e. g. Mencius,

Book II. page 89, line 4.

D.

un

yerhkeae

puh

不puh以

e

與 yu jin

festuc-

non

am

dare

homini

That is, unam festucam non dare homini, "Not to give à straw to

à man."

In the same place there follows a correlative passage entirely like it in construction.

un

Xtseu A jin

yeih 介keae puh 以取 tseu

festuc-

non

am

dare

homini.

"Not to take a straw from a man." The Tartar versión agrees with

our interpretation.

Another example. One interpreter, explaining a passage of Men-

éius, says,

E.

鱼 yu

e

PAT yu

D săng

pise-

em

a

fish

comparat he compares

vitæ to life.*

    * But if as is the custom of many with such passages, we rendere, by the preposition ex, of, or from, then contrary to the opinion of the Tartar interpreters, it will be necessary to take the direct complement for the indirect, and indirect for the direct, viz.

I. Example C: ex humanite conservat cor.

$ II.

""

"From or according to bumanity he preserves the heart." A: dividere homines ex divitiis.

*To divide men from riches."

"

B: ex re legare hominem.

"Of or from a thing to devise a man.'

E: ex pisce compărare vitam.

"From a fish to compare life."

+1

    In these examples, the Tartar interpreters, who, as every one knows, consider it a matter of conscience to give the Chinese words their genuine signification and proper office in every place, oppose such an exchange in the regimen. We are persuaded that P. Basile fell into an error which should be guarded against, when in his Chinese dictionary, under

cusative by the preposition ez; e g.

ex

from

e

道 chin

recto

the straight

wei, he renders

#wei

w tacere

to make

e, the sign of the ac-

keuh

J

the crooked.

1841.

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

§ III. It often happens that

227

e, in conjunction with the verb kaou (to tell), when no complement precedes it (the verb), repre- sents the remark of some one brought forward from above, although no mention is made of the ramark, as if it (the remark understood) were the compliment of the verb kaou in the accusative case;

e. g. Mencius, B. I., p. 171, line 6.

A

Seu

Seu

tsze

tsze e kaou Măng

以告kaow 子 tsze

sign of acc. dixit

Mencio.

Which passage the interpreters expound by subjoining the words

that are understood after C. Thus;

B

徐 Sou子 tsze

以此

tsze 言 yen

Şeu

tsze

as

ill.

loque-

告 kaou

#kaou

Máng 子 tsze

dixit

Mencio.

That is, Seu tsze told these words (ie. the speech of E tsze,) to Mencius.*

Mencius himself sometimes expresses the wordyen, which is

understood in the former example. Hence it is plain that his inter

preters, justly supposed that the words

tsze yen, in the sen-

tence quoted above, were to be understood. E. g. Mencius, Book

I, page 131, line 16,

C

氏 she Fisze che

Z

yen

em.

Isze

- τος

sermon-

She

告 kaou孟 Máng 子tsze

dixit

Mencio.

That is, "the disciple Chen tsze narrated to Mencius the speech

of She tsze."

The Tartarico-Chinese Grammar in an example precisely similar, e 真 chin weiked, (Gallice, rendre faux ce qui est vrai, "to render false that which is true,") translates the word e by the particle be, as denoting

the accusative case and answering to the words pa and tseđng, which

point out the same case. Moreover, if in P. Basile's example above cited,

pa and tseang, which are signs of the accusative, be substituted for

chik wei #ketch

the explanation will be:

將 tseang (or pa)

Literally prehendens

rectum

(or as $1A) um

rect-

L

facere

curvum.

facere curvum.

That is, rectum curvare, "to bend the straight," or that which is straight.

Compare Book I. page 69, line 14. Page 131, line 16.

Page 175, line 18. Book II. page 93, line 6. Page 160, line 8.

Page 135, line 12.

Page 184, line 2.

228

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

Of the word in," &c.

IV. The word

APRIL,

yu, commonly, a, ab, ad, in, etc., "by, from, to,

ya denotes the accusative case as often as it is subjoined to an active verb that is separated from its direct complement by the intervention of one or more words, especially

when the latter are in the genitive; e. g. Mencius, Book I. page 125, line 12.

A

tsin

exhaurire

於 yu

A jim

心sin

um

hominis

anim-

15

That is, "to exhaust the heart of a man.' The Tartar version

assents.

Another example. Mencius, Book II. page 21, line 12.

B

ek keae

mutare

於 yu

em

#ke

ejus

德 tin

indol-

That is, "to change his disposition." The Tartar version assents.

$V. But when the verbs

tsin and

keae are not separat-

ed from their direct complements by the interposition of one or more words, Mencius omits the word

yu; e. g. Mencius, Book I, page

16, line 6.

A

kwa

Ʌ jin

盡 tsin

心 sin

exiguus

vir

exhaurio

animum.

That is, "I, the man of little virtue, exhaust my heart (in reliev-

Another example. Mencius, Book I. page 136, line 2.

ing the people)."

B

王 wang 庶 shoo

rex -

forsitan

with ke 改 keae 之 che

mutabit

That is, rex forsitan illud animi consilium mutabit. jesty perhaps will change that purpose of the mind."

illud.

"Your ma-

where

VI. Still however instances occur, but they are rare, yu, the mark of the accusative is prefixed to the direct complement following an active verb. But since in examples altogether similar, sometimes in the same passage, Mencius at one time uses the word Ayu, and at another omits it without at all changing the sense, it is plainly redundant in all cases when it is placed before the direct complement following an active verb. Mencius, Book II. page 19, line 2.

親 tsin

A

yue. 於 yu

gaudio-afficere

You

   That is, gaudio-officere (reus) yevras, vel parentes, "to make glad one's parents." The Tartar version assents.

1841.

yu.

Examination of Four Chinese Characters.

In the same passage, a little above, the phrase occurs without

B

yuě 親 tsin

有 yew

gaudio-officiendi parentes

est

That is, "there is a way of delighting parents."

version assents.

道 taou

ratio.

029

The Tartar

Compare also Mencius, Book II, page 43, line 16.

Page 55, line 10. Page 76, line 10. Page 125, line 2.

Another example. Mencius, Book II. page 206, line 12.

C

觀 koan

aspectat

於 yu

um

海 hae

pelag.

者 chay

qui

That is, "he who looks at the sea." The Tartar version assents.

See above § VI. A.

In the passage above quoted a little below line 18 we find,

觀 koan

D

aspectandi

That is,

水 shouy

有yerw

術 shuh

aquam

est

ars.

"there is an art in viewing water."

Another example. Mencius, Book I. page 144, line 2.

E

問2wán

interrogavit

於 yu

ium

nh Măng

'tsze

Menc-

That is, interrogavit Mencium, or "asked Mencius."

In another place we read, (see Book I. page 85. line 18.)

F

敢 kan

ausim

問 20ăn

interrogare

★ foo Ftsze

magistrum.

"I presume to ask the master." Compare Mencius, Book II. page 159, line 18, where the name of the person inquiring is subjoined to the verb wan, and the word yu omitted.

The reason is not obscure to me, why Mencius in the passages

    adduced above, at one time uses the word without at all changing the sense, omits it.

yu, and at another, But it is not my purpose.

to run at large over the domain of grammar and syntax, nor do mły proposed limits allow me space to undertake it.

§ VII. Sometimes the word

yu, placed before a noun preced-

ing the verb by which it is governed, places that noun in the accu-

sative absolute, to which the relative che answers, so that the

noun is plainly governed by the verb next directly following; e. g.

Mencius Book II, page 223, line 4.

於 yu

民 min

th, yay

仁jin

Z che

um

popul-

humaniter-tractat illum.

That is, populum humaniter-tractat; "he treats the people hu-

Euamination of Four Chinese Characters.

230

manely."

Tartar version assents.

almost the same office as

APRIL,

In this place, Ayu performs

e in the following example, which may

be referred to § II. rule 2d, example B. Mencius, Book II, page 202,

line 2.

以。

200

則 tseik

K puh

(cibos) os

matern.

non

sheik comedit.

妻 tse

則 tseih

leang che:

Z

09

comedit

uxori

illos.

This is, maternos cibos (seu a matre oblatos) non comedit, uxorjos "He would not eat maternal food (i. e. food brought

vero comedit.

by his mother); but he ate food brought by his wife." This is con- firmed by the Tartar version.

Of the words

yu and

hoo.

VIII. The words

yu and

hoo have the same uses as

то

the word

yu of which we have treated in §§ IV., V. and VĮ.

'o save paper and time it will suffice to point out a few fit exam-

ples for the reader to refer to the principles already laid down.

Examples which answer to IV.

An example of yu; compare § IV. A and B.

An interpreter, explaining a passage in Mencius, says;

不puh 能 năng

non

possum

Byeihche

diei

not, gen.

解 Ikeae

explicare

A sin

anim-

F yu

um

此 tsze

hujus

    That is, non possum (mihimet) explicare hujus diei animum, vel quisnam illo die animi sensus mihi fuerit; i. e. "I cannot to myself

explain the mind of that day, or what emotions of mind I had that day.

hoo; compare IV. A and B. Mencius, Book

An example of

I. page 89, line 4.

I

塞 sein hoo teen

F ✈ te

teche keën

r

implet um

cæli

terre

siga of poss. intervall-

That is, implet cæli et terrræ intervallum: "fills up the interval

between heaven and earth."

Examples that answer to § VI.

An example of † yu; (compare § VI, A, C, E.) Mencius, Book

1. page 187, line 12.

**

取 tseu

comprehendam

Fyu

殘 tsam

tyrann.

um

I will seize the tyrant."

1841.

San Hwang Ke.

231

In the same passage we read (line 18) the letter yu being

omitted;

取 tseu

#ke

tsan

comprehendam To

"I will seize the tyrant."

tryrannum.

An example of

hoo (compare VI. A, C, E).

One of the

commentators explaining the passage in Mencius, at Book I. page 28,

line 2, says―

paou

conservare

hoo

um

民 min

popul-

That is, conservare populum, " to protect the people; where Men-

paou min, conservare populum, "to pro-

cius simply writes

tect the people."

Another example.

throo

問 20ăn

+ hoo

aliquis

ura

Mencius, Book I. page 77, line 14.

interrogavit

鱼 Tsáng 西

se

Tsǎngse-

That is, aliquis interrogavit Tsăngsium vel Tsangse. "Some one

asked Tsangse."

Which indeed is the same as if Mencius had written

  kwo wăn yu Tsǎngse (compare § VI. hwo wăn Tsăngse (compare § VI. F).

Not only on the words

e,

E); or

或問

yu, yu, hoo, of some of

the uses of which we have summarily treated, but

                       also on many others of no less moment, at which tyros often stumble, we have at hand the greatest abundance of examples and rules; but these must be reserved for another work.

ART. V. San Hwang Ke, or Records of the Three august Sovere- igns, subjects of the early mythological history of the Chinese. CELESTIAL, Terrestrial, and Human sovereigns-Teën hwang, Te hwang, Jin hwang-are the appellations of three august ones, often alluded to by the Chinese, but whose existence is, beyond all ques- tion, purely mythological. The authors of History Made Easy, commence this part of their work with a prefatory note, quoted from one of the learned writers of the Sung dynasty, who says, the desig-

232

San Hwang Ke.

APRIL,

nation 'three august ones' appears in the Ritual of Chow, which however does not point out their names. The scholars of Tsin, about 246 B. c., are the next, who are found discoursing about the celestial, terrestrial, and human sovereigns. A writer of the Han dynasty, in the preface to his history, speaks of Fuhe, Shinnang and Hwang te as the three sovereigns, but he fails, unfortunately, to give any au- thority for his statement. In the Domestic Sayings of Confucius, all the sovereigns after Fuhe are called te. The author of the note in question, after adducing some further evidences, concludes that the designation 'three august ones' cannot be obliterated, and refers it to the celestial, terrestrial, and human sovereigns, spoken of above; but who these were or whence they originated, he has no means of ascertaining. Thus the question ends with mere conjecture.

    The traditions respecting Pwankoo are briefly noticed by our his- torians. They say, "when heaven and earth were first divided asun- der, Pwankoo was born in their midst, able to comprehend the height and depth of heaven and earth, and also the principles of creation: hence the vulgar traditionary saying, Pwankoo divided asunder heaven and earth." Further they say, "Pwankoo was the first who came forth to rule the world." For the production of all the numerous orders of beings, which have appeared on earth, reference is made to

tae keih, or great extreme, identical with le, or reason. The operations in nature which were produced by the far famed but undefinable dual powers, were possessed of this reason, to which as master dominant they were subject. This tae keih produced two principles; the two principles, four forms; and by these operations were commenced; and great was the multitude of beings which then arose!

The celestial sovereign succeeded Pwankoo in the government of the world. Thirteen persons, all of one family name, as tradition goes, constituted this celestial sovereign (or sovereignty), that ruled in undisturbed tranquillity, while the manners of the people enjoyed self-renovation. The names of the ten stems and twelve branches, designed to mark the periods of the year, were now first formed. These names were different from those in use at the present time. The reign of this sovereign was 1800 years.

   : Next in succession came the terrestrial sovereign, with eleven per- -sons all of the same family name, continuing through another period of 1800 years, during which the sun, moon and stars, night and day, became known.

The human sovereign, with nine persons of the same surname,

:

:

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

succeeded; he inspected the hills and the rivers, and divided the world into nine parts, allowing one to each of the nine persons. All things were now multiplied in great abundance.

Yewchaou and Suyjin next appeared. "In high antiquity, the peo- ple, having dens and deserts for their abodes and dwelling-places, lived in friendship with the brute creation, and there was no disposition to injure or to harm each other." This happy age was not of long du- ration. The people soon acquired subtilty and wisdom, but were unable to cope with the wild beasts, which had become numerous and savage. In this unprotected condition, Yewchaou built log-huts, and caused the people to live in them, so that they might escape from danger. Yet, still ignorant of husbandry, they ate the fruit of trees, drank the blood of animals, and clothed themselves with their skins. In this stage of their improvement, Suyjin, observing the times and seasons, and inspecting the elements, obtained fire from wood, and introduced the art of cooking. At this time there were no letters in use, and Suyjin formed cords, in order to preserve a record of passing events, and to aid in carrying on the affairs of go-

Schools, commerce, &c., also received attention.

vernment.

ART. VI.

Journal of Occurrences: return of British merchants to Canton; business of the season; H. B. M.'s plenipotentiary ; new commissioners and governor; Keshen's memorial on the defenses of the province; court of inquiry at Hongkong; settle- ment on the island; Chinese troops; British forces; future ope-

rations.

IMMEDIATELY after the opening of the trade at Canton, by proclama- tion of the joint commissioner Yang Fang, and the acting governor Eleäng, on the 20th of March, British merchants with those of other nations repaired to their old residences at the provincial city, and the shipping, so long detained outside the Bogue in Macao Roads and its neighborhood, proceeded to Whampoa; so that at the beginning of this month, the river was again crowded with passers to and fro, and the foreign factories showed signs of becoming again what they for- merly were.

     The business of the season, though commenced under many dis- advantages, has steadily increased throughout the month; and confi- dence that no further contest is to be carried on in this neighbor- hood has been daily increasing. Native capitalists and merchants, who had removed from the city, have returned, and their shops and warehouses are

           being reopened. The new governor has issued a proclamation, requiring the people in the city to remain quiet, advis

FOL, X. NO. IV.

30

234

Journal of Occurrenceș.

APRIL,

ing those who had removed to return, and commanding them all to go actively about their own business. "Their families are as his family, and their bodies as his body;" therefore they are to be kept in perfect safety.

H. B. M.'s plenipotentiary returned to Canton and took up his temporary residence in the British Hall on the morning of the 5th instant, where he remained till the 17th. The day after his arrival, captain Elliot was called upon by the prefect, who came, it is said, to speak with him on various subjects of detail, and to convey to him the actual intentions of the high officers. The prefect repeated his visit on two subsequent occasions-the last being on the 16th, to convey a communication from the joint-commissioner Yang Fang, relative to the dispositions of his newly arrived colleagues, general Yeihshan, and the first joint-commissioner Lungwan.

The new commissioners, Yeihshan and Lungwan-with Ke Kung the new governor-entered the city on the 14th,-and in sedans from the land side, instead of taking the boats that had been sent out to meet them, thus avoiding any exposure of themselves to the British naval force on the river. On the same or the following day, the seal of a fourth member of the imperial mission-a third joint-commis- sioner-reached Canton: the officer for whom this seal is destined is coming on from Szechuen, of the troops of which province he has been for some years commander-in-chief. His name is Tseshin.

The following notices have been made public; No. 3. was publish- ed in Chinese at Canton, and printed copies of it were widely circu- lated by the people.

No. 1.

It is publicly resolved.-That on all commodities exported and imported in the 21st year of Taoukwang, the consoo charge called Hongyung ("for the use of the hongs,") profit, &c., shall all be the same as in the business arrangements of the 20th year of Taoukwang: nor shall there be anything taken in excess thereof. In witness of which this is given.

(April 12th, 1841.) (Signed)

No. 2.

By the ten Hong Merchants.

A satisfactory communication has this day been received from H. E. commis- sioner Yang, declaratory of the faithful intentions of his newly arrived colleagues concerning the arrangement concluded between H. E. and the undersigned.

The Kwangchow foo having also issued a proclamation by desire of their ex- cellencies intended to reassure the trading people, the plenipotentiary bas, for a like reason (with the concurrence of the government), made public the accompa nying notice under his seal. (Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. `M. Plenipotentiary. A Notice. British Factory, Canton, 16th April, 1841. Elliot, &c., &c., learning that the quiet and industrious people of Canton are disturbed by constant rumors of warlike preparations against this town and pro- vince, upon the side of the British forces-clearly declares to all the people that these reports are false and mischievous.

No. 3.

    The commissioner Yang and the high officers of the province, acting with good faith and wisdom, have now opened the trade; and whilst their excellencies are fulfilling their sealed engagements with Elliot, there will not be the least disturbance of the peace at Canton by the British forces.

The high officers of the English nation have clearly and manifestly proved, that they cherish the people of Canton, and if misfortunes befall the city and the whole trade of the province, assuredly the evil will not be justly attributable to them.

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

No. 4. Public Notice.

235

Macao. 20th April, 1841.

Notice is hereby given, that all persons requiring passports,for small craft pro- ceeding up the river after this date will receive the same, on application at the office of the superintendents of trade.

The passports must be exhibited on board the senior officer's ship off North Wangtong, and it is particularly notified that all small craft attempting id pass with- out examination will be liable to be brought to by the ships of war or their boats. (Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M. Plenipotentiary. No. 5. Public Notice. British Factory, Canton, 17th April, 1841. To prevent general and serious inconvenience to the trade, notice is hereby given, that her majesty's plenipotentiary has applied to the senior officer in com- mand of H. M. ships on the coast of China (and received his consent), not to suf- fer any schooner or other small craft to pass inwards beyond North Wangtong without producing on board of the senior officer's ship at that anchorage a pass- port signed by the plenipotentiary. And it is further notified, that all small vessels without such passes will be liable to dismissal from the river by the commanding officer of H. M. ships. To except vessels furnished with his own passports from the visit or examination by the officers of the provincial government, upon the ground of protecting the revenue, or any other, the plenipotentiary has also pro- cured licenses bearing the seal of the Kwangchow foo.

But the plenipotentiary, has at the same time pledged himself, not to issue his own or these passes of the government to any other than persons who shall afford him assurance, to his own satisfaction, that the boats shall only be employed in the conveyance of letters, passengers, or supplies of table provisions or conve

niencies for the use of H. M. ships in the river. The passports therefore will be canceled, whenever the plenipotentiary shall see cause to determine that suck a course is necessary in discharge of his engagements. Subjects or citizens of fo- reign states, desiring passports for boats to be employed in the abovementioned pursuits, will be pleased to refer to their respective consuls, upon whose appli- cation to the plenipotentiary they will immediately be issued.

And notice is further given, that H. M. plenipotentiary with apply to the senior officer in command of H. M. ships, to remove out of the river any ship or vessel, proved to his satisfaction to be engaged in dangerous pursuits, calculated to dis- turb the truce, and interrupt the general trade. (Signed Charles ELLIOT, &c.

About Keshen there have been many reports and several docu- ments in circulation, some of which we know to be false. His me- morial, which we here introduce, will enlist the reader's feelings in his favor. Some of the other documents shall appear in our next number.

No. 6.

      Memorial, from the minister, &c., Keshen, to the emperor, showing the posture of affairs, and the condition, offensive and defensive, of Canton.

Your majesty's slave,* Keshen, minister of the Inner Council, and acting governor of the two Kwang, kneeling presents this respectful memorial,- setting forth, how that the English foreigners have dispatched a person to Chekeäng province to deliver back Tinghae,-how that they have restored to us the forts of Shakok and Taikok, in the province of Kwangtung, along with the vessels of war and salt-junks which they had previously captured, all which have been duly received back,-and how that the war ships of these. foreigners have already retired to the outer waters :-all these facts, along with his observations upon the military position of the country, its means of offense and defense, the quality of its soldiery, and the disposition of its people, observations resulting from personal investigation,-he now lays be-

    * Slave or nootsae. It is always the practice of the Tartar officers in ad- dressing the throne, to apply to themselves this humiliating epithet, except when associated with Chinese officers, and then for uniformity they use chin, a "miuister."

236

Journal of Occurrences.

APRIL,

fore your imperial majesty, praying that a sacred glance may be bestowed upon the same.

Previously to the receipt of your majesty's sovereign commands, your slave had, with a view to preserve the territory and the lives of the people, ventur- ed,-rashly and forgetful of his ignorance, to make certain conditional concessions to the English foreigners, promising that he would earnestly im- plore in their behalf a gracious manifestation of imperial goodness. Yet, having done this, he repeatedly laid before your majesty the acknowledgment of his offense, for which he desired to receive severe punishment. It was subse. quently thereto, on the 20th of January, 1841, that he received, through the General Council, the following imperial edict.

"Keshen has handed up to Us a report on the measures he is taking in regard "to the English foreigners, under the present condition of circumstances. As "these foreigners have shown themselves so unreasonable that all our com- "mands are lost upon them, it behoves us immediately to make of them a "most dreadful example of severity. Orders have now been given that, with "the utmost speed, there be furnished from the several provinces of Hoonan, "Szechuen, and Kweichow, 4000 troops, to repair without loss of time, to "Canton, and there to hold themselves under orders for service. Let Keshen, availing himself of the assistance of Lin Tsihseu, and Tăng Tingching, take "the necessary measures for the due furtherance of the object in view. And "if these rebellious foreigners dare to approach the shores of our rivers, let "him adopt such measures as circumstances shall point out for their exter- "mination.' 33

Again, on the 26th of January, your majesty's slave received the following imperial edict, sent him direct from the cabinet:

     Keshen has presented a report regarding the measures he is pursuing "against the English foreigners: which We have perused and on the sub- "stance of which We are fully informed. In conformity with our previous "commands, let a large body of troops be assembled, and let an awful display "of celestial vengeance be made. Whatever may be required for the expenses "of such military operations, may be drawn equally from the duties arising "from commerce, and the revenues derivable from the land-tax, the drafts

•being made after due consideration, and a correct statement being drawn "out of the expenditure. If these united sources do not afford a sufficient "amount, let it be so reported to us, and our further pleasure awaited."

64

With respect, your slave, humbly, upon his knees, has heard these com- mands. He would remark, that, while he had indeed made certain condi- tional concessions to the English, these amounted to nothing more than that he would lay their case before your majesty; and thus, in the article of trade, though it was expressly said, that they desired the trade to be opened within the first decade of the first month of this year (23dJan. to Ist Feb.), he still has not, up to this time, ventured to declare it open. Yet have these foreigners, nevertheless, sent a letter, in which they restore to us the forts Shakok and Taikok, along with all the vessels of war and the salt-junks which they had previously captured; and, at one and the same time, they have dispatched a foreign officer by sea to Chekeäng, to cause the withdrawal of their troops, and have given to your slave a foreign document which he has forwarded to Elepoo, at the rate of 600 le a day, by virtue whereof he inay receive back Tinghae;-conduct, this, which on their part shows a more meek and compliant disposition than they have evinced before. But alas! your slave is a man of dull understanding and poor capacity, and in his arrangement of these things, he has not had the happiness to meet the sacred wishes of his sovereign." Trembling from limb to limb, how shall he find words to express himself! He humbly remembers that in his own person he has received the imperial bounty. Nor is his conscience hardened. How then should he, while engaged in the important work of curbing these unruly

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

237

foreigners, presume to shrink from danger or to court unlawful repose! 80 far from thus acting, he has, from the moment he arrived in Canton until now, been harassed by the perverse craftiness of these presuming foreigners, who bave shown themselves every way obstinate and impracticable,-yea, till head has ached, and heart has rent, with pain, and with the anxiety, ere even a morning meal, quickly to exterminate these rebels. Had he but the smallest point whereon to maintain his ground in contest with them, he would immediately report it, and under the imperial auspices make known to them the vengeance of heaven. But circumstances are, alas! opposed to the wishes of his heart. This condition of circumstances, he has repeatedly brought before the imperial eye, in a series of successive memorials.

Now, after that these said foreigners had dispatched a person to Che- keäng to restore Tinghae,-and had delivered up all that had been captured by them in the province of Kwangtung,-after, too, their ships of war had all retired to the outer waters,-it so happened that Elliot solicited an inter- view and as your slave had not yet inspected the entrances of the port, and the fortifications of the Bocca Tigris,-as also the troops ordered from the several provinces had not yet arrived, it did not seem prudent to show anything that might cause suspicion on the part of the foreigners, and so to bring on at once a commencement of troubles and collision from their side. Therefore, the occasion of visiting, for inspection, the Bocca Tigris, was taken advantage of to grant an interview.

       Having left Canton for this purpose, on the 25th of January, your slave bad to pass by the Szetsze waters (the Reach from First to Second Bar): and here he was met by Elliot, who came in a steam-vessel, desiring that he might see him. His retinue did not exceed a few tens of persons, he brought with him no ships of war,-and his language and demeanor upon that occa sion were most respectful. He presented a rough draft of several articles on which he desired to deliberate, the major part having regard to the trou- blesome minutiae of commerce; and he agreed, that, for the future, in any cases of the smuggling of opium, or of other contraband traffic or evasion of duties, both ship and cargo should be confiscated. Among the number of his proposals, were some highly objectionable, which were at the moment point- ed out and refused,-upon which the said foreigner begged that emendations should be offered and considered of. It has now accordingly been granted him, that alterations and emendations be made, and when these shall be determined on and agreed to, the whole shall be presented for your majesty's inspection. Your slave then parted with Elliot.

      He now found that the Szetsze waters were yet distant from the Bocca Tigris about 60 le (or nearly 20 miles). Even there, the sea is vast and wide, with boisterous waves and foaming billows, lashed up into fury by fierce winds. Majestically grand! How widely different the outer seas are from our inland river-waters!-Having changed his boat for a sea-going vessel, your slave stood out for the Bocca Tigris: and, there arrived, he made a most careful inspection of every fort and battery in the place.

Such forts as did not stand completely isolated in the midst of the sea, he yet found to have channels, affording ready water communication, behind the hills on which they were situated. So that it were easy to go round and strictly blockade them; nor would it in that case be even possible to intro- duce provisions for the garrison. After this careful inspection of the place,- the depth of water in the river, beginning here and proceeding all the way to the very city, was next ascertained; and the soundings, taken at high water, were found to be irregular, from one chang (or two fathoms) and upwards, to three and even four chang. Hence, then, it has become known to all, that the reputation of the fortifications of the Bocca Tigris as a defense, has been acquired, first, by the circumstance, that merchant-vessels require a sonie- what greater depth of water; and secondly, because that in ordinary times,

238

Journal of Occurrences.

1

APRIL,

when the foreigners observe our laws and restraints, they naturally do not venture to avoid the forts by passing through circuitous courses. But when they bring troops, to resist and oppose rather than to obey, they may sneak in at every hole and corner, and are under no necessity of passing by the forts, to enter the river, and so can easily proceed straight up to the provin cial metropolis. For as soon as they may have in any way got beyond the Bocca Tigris, there are communications open to them in every direction. It is then clear, that we have no defenses worthy to be called such. This is in truth the local character of the country,-that there is no important point of defense by which the whole may be maintained.

In reference to the guns mounted in the forts, their whole number does not exceed some two hundred and odd, hardly enough to fortify the fronts alone, while the sides are altogether unfurnished. Moreover, those guns that are in good order, ready for use, are not many. The original model has been bad, and they have been made without any due regard to principles of construction :-thus the body of the gun is very large, while the bore is very small: and the sea being at that place extremely wide, the shot will not carry above half way. As regards, then, their number, they are not so many as are those which the foreign ships carry, and in point of quality they are no less inferior to those on board the foreign vessels. Again, the embrasures in which they are placed are as large us doors, wide enough almost to allow people to pass in and out: from a sustained fire from the enemy, they would afford no shelter at all to our people; and they may, then, at once be said, to be utterly ineffective. A founder of cannon has recently presented himself, who has already given in a model, and is about to make some experimental pieces of artillery. But, should he really succeed in casting good cannon, yet can he only do so as a preparation for the future, and in no way can he be in time for the business we have now in hand. These are the proofs of the inefficiency of our military armament, which is such that no reliance can be placed upon it.

    Further, with reference to the quality of our troops: we find that the only way to repel the foreigners is by fighting them at sea, but to fight at sea it is necessary to have a good marine force. Now, we have at present to ac- knowledge the forethought and care of your majesty, in dispatching land forces from the several provinces to Canton: but these troops, before they can meet the foreigners in battle, will require to embark in ships of war and proceed to the outer waters. Though the objection be not maintained, that, being unaccustomed to the seas and waves, they needs must meet with dis- aster and overthrow; yet, seeing that the conduct and management of the vessels is a thing with which they are quite unacquainted, the services of the naval force still cannot at all be dispensed with. The recruits to the naval force of this province are, however, all supplied by its own sea-coast, by encouraged enlistment; and their quality is very irregular. Your slave had heard a report that, after the battle upon the 7th of January, all these men went to their tetuh (or commander-in-chief), demanding of him money, under threats that they would otherwise immediately disband. The other day, therefore, when on the spot, your slave made inquiries of the leth on this matter, when he answered, that the report was perfectly true, and that he, having no other remedy at hand, was obliged to pawn his clothes and other things, by which means he was enabled to give each of them a bonus of two dollars, and thus only could get them to remain until now at their posts. Hereby may be seen, in a great measure, the character of the Canton soldiery. And, supposing when we had joined battle, just at the most critical moment, these marine forces were not to stand firm, the consequences would be most disastrous. For although we should have our veteran troops serving with them, yet these would have no opportunity of bringing their skill into

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

320

play. Still further, our ships of war are not large and strong, and it is diffi- cult to mount heavy guns on board them. By these observations, it is evident, that our force here as a guard and defense against the foreigners is utterly insufficient.

Your slave has also made personal observation of the character and dis- position of the people of this province. He has found them ungrateful and avaricious. Putting out of view those who are actual traitors, and of whom, therefore, it is unnecessary to say anything, the rest dwell indiscriminately with foreigners, they are accustomed to see them day by day, and after liv- ing many years together, the utmost intimacy has grown up between them. They are widely different from the people of Tinghae, who, having had no previous intercourse with foreigners, felt at once that they were of another race. Let us reverse the circumstances, and suppose that the English had craftily distributed their gifts and favors, and set at work the whole machi- nery of their tricks, here as at Chusan: and it might verily be feared, that the whole people would have been seduced from their allegiance; they would certainly not have shown the same unbending obstinacy that the people of Tinghae did. These plain evidences of the want of firmness on the part of the people here, give us still more cause for anxiety.

      We find, on turning over the records of the past, that, when operations were being carried on against the pirates of this province, although these were only so many thieves and robbers, with native vessels and guns of native casting, yet the affair was lengthened out for several years; and was only put an end to by invitations to lay down their arms under promise of security. And it is much to be feared, that the wasp's sting is far more poisonous' now than then.

Your slave has again and again revolved the matter in his anxious mind. The consequences, in so far as they relate to his own person, are trifling: but as they regard the stability of the government, and the lives of the peo- ple, they are vast and extend to distant posterity. Should he incur guilt in giving battle when unable to command a victory, or should he be criminal in making such arrangements as do not meet the gracious approbation of his Sovereign, he must equally bear his offense; and, for his life, what is it, that he should be cared for or pitied!

But if it be in not acting so as to meet the gracious approbation of his sovereign that he becoines guilty,-the province and the people have yet their sacred sovereign to look to and rely upon for happiness, protection, justice, and peace. Whereas, if his guilt should lie in giving battle when unable to command a victory, then will the celestial dignity of the throne be sullied, the lives of the people sacrificed, and for further proceedings and arrangements it will be, in an increased degree, impossible to find resource.

Entertaining these views, a council has been held of all the officers in the city; namely, the general and lieutenant-generals of the garrison, the lieuten- ant-governor, the literary chancellor, and the commissioners, intendants, prefects, and magistrates, as also the late governors, Lin Tsihseu and Tăng- Tingching; all of whom agree, that our defenses are such as it is impossible to trust to, and that our troops would not hold their ground on the field of battle. Moreover, the troops ordered from the different provinces by your majesty having yet a long journey to come, time is still necessary for their arrival; nor can they all arrive together. The assemblage of a large body of troops, too, is a thing not to be effected without sundry rumors flying about,- -our native traitors are sure to give information; and the said fo- reigners will previously let loose their contumacious and violent dispositions. Your slave is so worried by grief and vexation, that he loathes his food, and sleep has forsaken his eyelids. But, for the above-cited reasons, he does not shrink from the heavy responsibility he is incurring, in submitting all ⚫ these facts, the results of personal investigation, to your celestial majesty,

240

Journal of Occurrences.

And, at the same time he presents for perusal the letter of the said foreign- ers, wherein they make the various restorations before enumerated. He humbly hopes his sacred sovereign will with pity look down upon the black- haired flock-his people,-and will be graciously pleased to grant favors beyond measure, by acceding to the requests now made. Thus shall we be spared the calamity of having our people and land burned to ashes, and thus shall we lay the foundation of victory, by binding and curbing the foreigners now, while preparing to have the power of cutting them off at some future period.

It is humbly hoped that your sacred majesty will condescend to inquire regarding the meeting in council, and state of circumstances, here reported. And your slave begs, that a minister of eminence may be specially dispatched hither, to re-investigate matters. Your slave has been actuated entirely by a regard to the safety of the land, and the people. He is not swayed by the smallest particle of fear. And still less dare he use false pretexts, or glozing statements. For the real purposes herein declared, he humbly makes this report (which he forwards by express at the rate of 600 le a day),-in the hope that it may be honored with a sacred glance.-A most respectful

memorial.

A court of inquiry, concerning the mortality of the British troops in Tinghae last year is in session at Hongkong.

A British settlement on that island is about being commenced, and captain W. Caine of the 26th or (Cameronian) regiment of foot, is to enter on the duties of chief magistrate.

    Chinese troops to the number of some say-50,000 are collected in and near Canton. Not more than one fourth of these, judging from all we have seen, are fit to bear arms. Many of thein are wandering as vagrants about the suburbs. Even those on guard at the gates of the city appear unarmed.

The position of the British forces is nearly the same as at the close of the last month-the guns of the advanced squadron commanding the whole city, the Union Jack waving over the factories. General Gough, and the senior officer of the squadron, sir Le Fleming Sen- house, visited Canton on the 4th. Some officers and a small guard of marines are daily at the factories.

    The late hostile movements of the expedition seem to have stopped at the right point. It must have been hard, when at the gates of the defenseless metropolis, the heights in its rear covered with troops, to stop short of actual possession. Such possession, however, would most assuredly have broken to pieces the provincial government, and thrown the whole of this part of the empire into anarchy-a state of things as much to be deprecated by the foreigner as by the native.

The future operations of the expedition are becoming a subject of daily increasing attention. Recent operations here, notwithstanding the wrathful edicts of the emperor, have induced H. I. M,'s high officers to act with good faith and wisdom,' and open Canton to whomsoever pleases to go thither for lawful purposes. Similar ope rations, at other points along the coast, will very likely lead to simi- lar results. If the emperor is wise, he will hasten-with grace to yield, what otherwise force will erelong demand of him-to open his empire, and treat foreigners, and receive the plenipotentiaries of other states, as they are treated and received elsewhere.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-MAY, 1841.- No. 5.

-

ART. I. The historie of the great and mightie kingdome of China, and the situation thereof; togither with the great riches, huge citties, politike gouernement, and rare inuentions in the same. Translated out of Spanish by R. Parke. London. Printed by I. Wolfe for Edward White, and are to be sold at the little north doore of Paules, at the signe of the gun. 1588.

     SOME months have now elapsed since any of the old writers on China have been served up for the entertainment of our readers. In the meantime several authors have fallen in our way, the oldest and the rarest of which is the one here introduced. The reasons assigned by Parke for translating the historie' out of Spanish and putting it into print, two centuries and a half ago, would be a sufficient apolo- gy, if any were needed, for our now taking the work in hande.' As the 'good courteous reader' may like to know these reasons, we introduce them here entire. They are addressed, "To the right worshipfull and famous gentleman, M. Thomas Candish esquire, increase of honore and happie attempts." And thereupon the trans- lator thus proceeds.

      "It is now aboue fiue and thirty years passed, right worshipfull, since that young, sacred, and prudent prince, king Edward the sixt of happie memorie, went about the discouerie of Cathaia and China, partly of desire that the good young king had to enlarge the Chris- tian faith, and partlie to finde out some where in those regions ample vent of the cloth of England, for the mischiefs that grew about that time neerer home, aswel by contempt of our commodities, as by the

31

VOL. X. NO. V.

242

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

MAY,

arrestes of his merchantes in the Empire, Flanders, France, and Spáine: foreseeing withall how beneficiall ample vent would rise to all degrees throughout his kingdome, and specially to the infiuite number of the poore sort distressed by lacke of worke. And although by a voy age hereuppon taken in hande for this purpose by sir Hugh Willobie, and Richard Chauncellour a discouerie of the bay of St. Nicolas in Russia fell out, and a trade with the Muscouites; and after another trade for a time with the Persians by way of the Caspian sea ensued, yet the discouerie of the principall intended place followed not in his time, nor yet since, vntil you tooke your happie and renowned voyage about the worlde in hande, although sundrie attemptes, at the great charges of diuers honorable and well disposed persons, and good worshipfull merchants and others haue beene made since the death of that good king, in seeking a passage thither both by the northeast and by the northwest. But since it is so (as wee vnderstande) that your worshippe in your late voyage hath first of our nation in this age discouered the famous rich ilandes of the Luzones, or Philippinas, lying neare vnto thecoast of China, and haue spent some time in tak- ing good view of the same, hauing brought home three boyes borne in Manilla, the chiefe towne of the said ilands, besides two other young fellowes of good capacitie, borne in the mightie iland of Iapon, (which hereafter may serue as our interpretors in our first traficke thither) and that also yourselfe haue sailed along the coast of China not farre from the continent, and haue taken some knowledge of the present state of the same, and in your course haue found out a nota- ble ample vent of our clothes, especially our kersies, and are in pre- paring againe for the former voyage, as hee that would constantly perseuer in so good an enterprise: we are to thinke that the know- ledge and first discouerie of the same, in respect of our nation, hath all this time beene by the Almightie to you onely reserved, to your immortall glorie, and to the manifest shew of his especial fauour borne towards you, in that besides your high and rare attempt of sail- ing about the whole globe of the earth, in so short a time of two yeares and about two monethes, you haue shewed yourselfe to haue that rare and especial care for your countrie, by seeking out vent for our clothes, that ought vpon due consideration to moue many thou- sands of English subiects to pray for you, and to loue and honor your name and familie for euer. For as you haue opened by your attempt the gate to the spoile of the great and late mightie, vniuersall, and infested enimie of this realme, and of all countries that professe true religion: so haue you by your great care wrought a way to imploie

1841.

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

243

the merchants of Englande in trade, to increase our naiue, to benefite our clothiers, and (your purpose falling out to your hoped effect) to releeue more of the poorer sort, then all the hospitals and almes houses can or may, that haue beene built in this realme, since the first inhabiting thereof.

"And sir, if to this your late noble attempt, it might please you, by your incouragement, and by the help of your purse to adde your pre- sent furtherance for the passage to be discouered by the northwest, (for the proofe whereof there bee many infallible reasons, and diuerse great experiences to be yeelded) our course with our commodities to the rich iland of Iapon, to the mightie empire of China, and to the ilandes of the Philippinas, for the vent that you haue found out, should be by the halfe way shortened, and you should double and many folde treble the credite of your fourmer late enterprise, and make your fame to mount, and your self to liue for euer in a much higher degree of glorie, then otherwise it might be, or that by any other mean you could possibly deuise: in which action, so highly importing the generall state of this lande I haue perfect experience that many worshipfull and wealthie marchants of this citie and other places would most willingly ioyne their purses with yours: and to play the blabbe, I may tell you they attende nothing with greater desire and expectation, then that a motion hereof being made by some happie man, your selfe and they might friendly and seriously ioyne together for the full accomplishing of this so long intended dis- couerie. And to descende to some particulars, there is one speciall reason that giueth an edge vnto their desires, proceeding from the late worthie attemptes of that excellent and skilful pilot M. fohn Dauis, made for the search of the aforesaid northwest passage these three late yeares, hauing entered into the same foure hundred lea- gues further than was euer hitherto thoroughly knowen, and returned with an exact description thereof, to the reasonable contentment for the time, of the aduenturers, and chiefely of the worshipfull M. Wil- liam Sanderson, whose contributions thereunto, although they haue beene verie great and extraordinarie, yet for the certaine hope or rather assurance that he conceiueth vpon the report of the captaine himselfe and all the rest of any skill employed in these voyages, remayneth still constant, and is readie to disburse as yet to the freshe setting on foote of this enterprise entermitted by occasion of our late troubles, euen this yeare againe for the finall perfection of so profitable and honorable a discouerie, a farre greater portion then in reason would be required of any other man of his abilitie. And all

244

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

MAY,

   beit, sir, that you have taken in your late voyage, besides the know- ledge of the way to China, the intelligence of the gouernment of the countrie and of the commodities of the territories and prouinces of the same, and that at the full, according to the time of your short abode in those partes, yet neuerthelesse for that of late more ample vnder- standing hath beene in more length of time, by woonderfull great endeuour taken by certaine learned Portingals and Spaniardes of great obseruation, and not long agoe published in the Spanish tongue, I haue for the increase of the knowledge of the subiectes of Englande, and specially for the illuminating of the mindes of those, that are to take the voyage next in hande to Iapon, China, and the Philippinas, translated the same worke into English, and committed it to print, passing ouer Paulus Venetus, and sir John Mandeuill, be- cause they wrote long agoe of those regions: which labour, to say trueth, I haue undertaken at the earnest request and encouragement of my worshipfull friend master Richard Hakluit late of Oxforde, a gentle- man, besides his other manifolde learning and languages, of singular and deepe insight in all histories of discouerie and partes of cosmo- graphie: who also for the zeale he beareth to the honour of his coun trie and countrimen, brought the same first aboue two yeares since ouer into this court, and at this present hath in hande a most excel- lent and ample collection of the sundrie trauailes and nauigations of our owne nation, a matter long intended by him, and serving to the like beneficiall and honorable purpose, which I hope will shortly come to light to the great conteutation of the wiser sort. In the meane season, hauing nowe at length finished according to my poore skill and leasure this my translation, I thought best to dedicate and commende the same to your worshipfull patronage, as the man that I holde most worthie of the same, and most able of our nation to judge aright of the contentes thereof, and to correct the errors of the author whensoeuer you shall meete with them; beseeching you to accept in good part the trauaile and good meaning of the translator: and so wishing vnto you, health, increase of knowledge, with fortu- nate and glorious successe in your further couragious attempts, I leaue you to the protection of the Almightie.

"From London the first of lanuarie, 1589.

"Your worships alwaies to command, Robert Parke." Bancroft, alluding to the anticipated discovery of a new and nearer passage to southern Asia, says:

"Thrice, at least, perhaps thrice by Cabot alone, the attempt at a north- western passage had been made, and always in vain. A northeast passage

1841.

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

245

was now proposed; the fleet of Willoughby and Chancellor was to reach the rich lands of Cathay by doubling the northern promontory of Lapland. a. D. 1553. The ships parted company. The fate of Willoughby was as tragical as the issue of the voyage of Chancellor was successful. The admiral, with one of the ships, was driven, by the severity of the polar autumn, to seek shelter in a Lapland harbor, which afforded protection against storms, but not against the rigors of the season. When search was made for him in the fol- lowing spring, Willoughby himself was found dead in his cabin ; and his journal, detailing his sufferings from the polar winter, was complete probably to the day when his senses were suspended by the intolerable cold. His ship's company lay dead in various parts of the vessel, some alone, some in groups. The other ship reached the harbor of Archangel. This was "the discovery of Russia," and the commencement of maritime commerce with that empire. A Spanish writer calls the result of the voyage 'a discovery of new Indies.' The Russian nation, one of the oldest and least mixed in Europe, now awakening from a long lethargy, emerged into political distinç- tion. We have seen that, about eleven years from this time, the first town in the United States' territory was permanently built. So rapid are the changes on the theatre of nations! One of the leading powers of the age, but about two and a half centuries ago became known to Western Europe; another had not then one white man within its limits,"

The work in hand is a small octavo, of 410 pages, printed in old German text, and is divided into three parts, which are further sub- divided into numerous books and chapters. It must have been in its day a notable production. The work opens with a description of China and the confines it hath belonging.' After a very few words, by way of introduction, Parke brings his reader at once in medias res.

"You shall understande that this mightie kingdome is the orien- talest part of all Asia, and his next neighbour towards the ponent is the kingdome of Quachinchina, whereas they doo observe in whole all the customes and rites of China. The greatest part of this king- dome is watred with the great oriental ocean sea, beginning at the iland Aynan, which is hard by Quachinchina, which is 19 degrees towards the north, and compassing towards the south, whereas their course is northeast. And beyond Quachinchina to- wards the north, the Bragmanes do confine, which are much people and verie rich, of golde, silver and precious stones, but in especiall, rubies: for there are infinit. They are proud and hawtie men, of great courage, wel made, but of browne colour: they haue had (but few times) warre with them of China, in respect for that betwixt both the kingdomes there are great and mightie mountaines and

246

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

MAY,

   rocks that both disturbe them. And harde unto this nation ioyneth the Patanes and Mogores, which is a great kingdome, and warlike people, whose head is the Gran Samarzan: they are the true Scythas or Massagetas, of whom it is affirmed that they were neuer ouercome by any other nation: they are a people well proportioned and white: by reason they dwel in a cold countrie. Betwixt the west and the south is the Trapobana, or Samatra, a kingdome very rich of gold, pretious stones and pearles: and more towards the south, are the two Iauas, the great and the lesse, and the kingdome of the Lechios: and in equall distance, are the Iapones: yet notwithstanding those that are more indifferent to this kingdome are the Tartarians, which are on the selfe firme land or continent, and are alonely deuided by a wal, as shalbe declared in the 9 chapter of this booke."

    In Parke's day the empire was divided into 15 provinces, 591 cities, 1593 towns. The temperature of the climate and the fertility of the soil and its productions are carefully noted.

    "The inhabitants in this countrie are perswaded of a truth, that those which did first finde and inhabite in this lande, were the neue- wes of Noe, who after they had traueiled from Armenia, (whereas the Arke stayed, which God did preserue their grandfather from the waters of the flood), went seeking a land to their contentment: and not finding a countrie of so great fertilitie and temperature like vnto this, wherein was all things necessarie for the life of man, without comparison: they were compelled with the aboundance thereof for to inhabite therein, vnderstanding that if they should search through- out all the world they should not finde the like: and I thinke they were not deceiued, according as now it is to be seene, and what may be considered in the proces of this chapter, of such fruits as the earth doth yeeld. And although there is declared here of such as shall suffice in this worke, yet is there left behind a great number more of whose properties, as well of herbes and beasts, which of their particulars may be made a great volume, and I do beleeue that in time there will be one set forth.'

"In all parts of this kingdome, there is great store of sugar, which is the occasion that it is so good cheape: for you shall haue a quin- tall of verie excellent white and good sugar, when it is most deerest, for the value of five ryals of plate. There is great abundance of honie, for that their delight is in hiues, by reason whereof not only honie, but waxe is very good cheape: and there is so great quantity thereof, that you may lade ships, yea fleetes thereof. They do make great store of silke and excellent good, and giue it verie perfite

1841.

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

247

colours, which dooth exceed very much the silke of Granada, and is one of the greatest trades that is in all that kingdome. The vetuets, damaskes, sattens, and other sortes of webs which is there made, is of so small price, that it is a wonder to speake it, in especiall ento them that doo know how their prises be in Spaine and in Italie. They do sell none of their silkes there by the yard, neither any other hinde of websterie, though it be lynnen: but by the waight, wherein there is least deceit. They haue great store of flaxe, wherewith the common people doo apparell themselues: also hempe for the cawlk- ing of their ships, and to make ropes and hasers. And on their drie and tough landes, although they be stonie, they gather great stoore of cotton wooll.'

     "Besides the fertilitie of this countrie beforesaid, all the fields be verie faire to behold, and yeelde maruellous odoriferous smelles, by reason of the great quantitie of sweete flowers of diuers sorts. It is also garnished with the greene trees that be planted by the riuer sides, and brookes: whereof there is great quantitie. And there is planted there, orchards and gardens, with banketing houses of great pleasure: the which they doo use verie much for their recreation and avoyding the troubles of minde. The loytias or gentlemen doo use to plant great forrests and thicke woods, whereas doo breed many wilde boores, bucks, hares and conyes, and diuers other beasts: of whose skins they make very excellent furres, but in espe- ciall of martas ceuellinas, of which there is a great number. There is great aboundance of muske, the which they do make of a little beast that doth feede of nothing else but of a roote which is of a maruellous smell, that is called camarus, as big as a mans finger. They do take them and beat them with blowes till they be brused all to peeces: then they do put them in a place whereas they may soon. est putrifie, but first they do bind very fast such parts, whereas the blood may run out of their brused bones all to peeces remaining with- in them. Then after when they thinke they be putrified, then they do cut out smal peeces with skinne and all, and tie them up like bals or cods, which the Portugals (who doth by them) do call papos: And this is the finest that is brought out of all Indies (if there be no deceit used in it), for many times they will put amongst it small peeces of lead, and other things of weight. There is also great store of kyne, that are so little worth, that you may buy a very good one for eight rials of plate: and beefes that are bought for halfe the mony: one whole venison is bought for two rials: great stores of hogs, whose flesh is as holesome and good as our mutton in Spaine. There

212

Historie of the Might Kingient of Chuna.

MAY,

is great abundance of goates, and of other beasts that are to be eaten - which is the occasion that they are of little value. The flying foules that don breed about the lakes and rivers, are of so great quantitie, that there is spent daily in small villages in that countrie many thousands, and the greatest sort of them are teales. The fashion how they do breed and bring them up shalbe declared in a chapter particularly for that which is said shal not seeme impossi- ble. They be sold by waight, and likewise capons and hens, for so smal value, that two pounds of their flesh being plucked, is woorth ordinarily two fʊys, which is a kinde of mony like unto the quartes of Spaine: hogs flesh, two pounds for a foy and a halse, which is 6 marauadiz. Likewise all other victuals after the same rate, as it doth plainly appeare by the relation made by the friers.

"There are also many herbs for medicines, as very fine reubarbe, and of great quantitie: and wood called palo de China: great store of nutmegs, with the which they may lade fleetes, and of so lowe a price that you may buy foure hundreth for a ryall of plate; and cloues, five pound for half a ryall of plate: and the like in pepper. Synamom, one roue which is 25 pound, for foure ryals of plate, and better cheape. I do leaue to speake of many other hearbs medicina- ble and profitable for the use of man: for that if I should write the particular vertue of euerie of them, it would require a great vo- lume. Of fish, both swimming and shell fish of all sorts, that they have with them is to be wondred at: not onely vpon the sea coasts, but also in the remote places of that kingdome, by reason of the great riuers, which be nauigable vato such places. Besides all this it is verie rich of mines of golde and siluer, and other mettals, the which (golde and siluer excepted) they do sell it so good cheape that a quintal of copper, yron or steele is to be bought for eight rials of plate. Golde is better cheape there then it is in Europe, but siluer is more woorth. There is founde great store of pearles in all this kingdome: but the most part of them are not rounde, by the which you may gather and vnderstande the goodnesse and fertilitie of the same. And that the first that did discouer and inhabite that king- dome, were not deceived, for that they founde all things necessarie vnto the preserving of the life of man, and that in aboundance: for the which with iust reason, the inhabitants may thinke themselves to possesse the best and fertilest kingdome in all the whole world."

To these descriptions of natural objects, our worshipfull and fa- mous author adds several chapters respecting the antiquitie and big- nesse of the kingdome, its wonderful buildings, the mightic wal, the

}

1841.

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

*

249

     dispositions, manners and customs of the people; and hazards the opinion that the time will come when all these things will be fully described so as to make a great booke! He then proceeds to dis- course of the religion that is among the people, and of the idols that they do worship, and of other things that they do use above nature.' Their temples and their various ceremonies, burying of the dead, mourning, marriages, &c., are all briefly noticed. Parke's account of the poor tallies badly with what exists in these degenerate times. The luxury of smoking opium was unknown in his day. Respect- ing the poor he says:

Manie things of great gouernment hath beene and shall be de- clared in this historie worthie to be considered: and in my opinion, this is not the least that is contayned in this chapter, which is such order as the king and his counsell hath given that the poore may not go a begging in the streets, nor in the temples whereas they make orations vnto their idols: for the auoyding therof the king bath set downe an order, vpon great and greeuous penaltie to be executed upon the saide poore, if they do begge or craue in the streetes, and a greater penaltie vpon the citizens or townes men, if they do give vnto any such that beggeth, but must incontinent go and complaine on them to the justice: who is one that is called the justice of the poore. ordayned to punish such as doo breake the lawe, and is one of the principallest of the citie or towne, and hath no other charge but only this. And for that the townes be great and many and so full of peo- ple, and an infinite nomber of villages, whereas it cannot be chosen but there is many borne lame, and other misfortunes, so that he is not idle but alwaies occupied in giuing order to remedie the necessi- ties of the poore without breaking of the lawe. This judge the first day that he doth enter into his office, hee commaundeth that whatsoeuer children be borne a creeple in any part of his members, or by sicknes be taken lame, or by any other misfortune, thát:incon- tinent their fathers or mothers doo giue the judge to vnderstande thereof that he may prouide for all things, necessarie, according vato. the ordinance and will of the king and his counsell, the which is, the: man 'child or woman child, being brought before him, and seene the default or lacke that it hath, if it be so that with the same it may exercise any occupation, they giue and limit a time vnto the parents, for to teach the child that occupation ordayned by the judge, and it is such, as with their lamenes they may vse without any impediment; the which is accomplished without faile: but if it so be that his lame- nes is such, that it is impossible to learne or exercise any occupation,

VOL. X. NO. V.

32

250

Historie of the Mightie Kingdome of China.

MAY,

this judge of the poore doth command the father to sustaine and main- taine him in his owne house all the dayes of his life, if that hee hath wherewithall: if not, or that hee is fatherlesse, then the next rich kinsman must maintaine it: if he hath none such, then doth all his parents and kinsfolkes contribute and pay their parentes, of give of such thinges as they haue in their houses. But if it hath no parentes, or they be so poore, that they cannot contribute nor supply any part thereof: then doth the king maintaine them in verie ample manner of his owne costes in hospitalles, verie sumptuous, that he hath in euerie citie throughout his kingdome for the same effect and purpose: in the same hospitalles are likewise maintayned, all such needie and olde men, as haue spent all their youth in the wars, and are not able to maintaine themselves: so that to the one and the other is minis- tred all that is needefull and necessarie, and that with great diligence and care and for the better accomplishing of the same, the judge doth put verie good order, and dooth appoint one of the principallest of the citie or towne, to be the administrator, without whose licence, there is not one within that hospitall that can goe foorth of the limittes for that licence is not granted vnto anie, neyther doo they demaund it, for that there they are prouided of all thinges necessarie so long as they doo liue, as well for apparell as for victualles. Besides all this, the olde folkes and poore men within the hospitall, doo bring vpp hennes, chickens, and hogges for their owne recreation and pro- fit, wherein they doo delight themselues. The judge doth visite often times the administrator by him appointed. Likewise the judge is visited by another that commeth from the court, by the appoint- ment of the king and the counsell to the same effect: and to visite all such hospitalles as bee in the prouinces limited in his commission, and if they doo finde any that hath not executed his office in right and iustice, then they doo displace them, and punishe them verie rigo- rouslie by reason whereof all such officers have great care of their charges and liue vprightly, hauing before their eyes the straight ac- count which they must giue, and the cruell rewarde if to the con- trarie. The blinde folkes in this countrie are not accounted in the number of those that of necessitie are to bee maintayned by their kinsfolkes, or by the king: for they are constrayned to worke, as to grind with a querne wheate or rice, or to blowe smythes bellowes, or such like occupation, that they have no neede of their sight. And if it be a blinde woman, when she commeth vnto age, she doth vse the office of women of love, of which sorte there are a great number in publike places, as shall bee declared in the chapter for that pur

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

251

pose. These haue women that doo tende vpon them, and doo paint and trim them vp, and they are such that with pure age did leaue that office. So by this order in all this kingdome, although it be great, and the people infinite; yet there is no poore that dooth perish nor begge in the streetes, as was apparent vnto the austere and barefoote fryers, and the rest that went with them into that countrie."

These extracts must suffice, The subsequent chapters of this first part of the book are occupied with moral and political topics. The - remainder of the pages are filled with miscellaneous matters, curious and miraculous-at least, the author doth so aver. The story of Limahon, and the particulars of his attack on Manila, are related at great length. This roving pirate came into notice about 1570, and the narrative, 'done into plain Euglish,' would be worth reading. The notices of several Spanish friars, who visited the coast of China about the same time, are not without interest and instruction. But we must close the book.

ART. II. Chusan Archipelago: sailing directions, derived from

nautical surveys, made by H. B. M.'s squadron in 1840-41. [We are proud of being able to lay before our readers the collection of very valuable details comprised in the following article; as surveys progress and extend, we hope often to have the pleasure of furnishing them with many similar communications. While making grateful acknowledgement for this paper, we beg to solicit from friends (and from strangers also) such addition- al information as it may be in their power to communicate.]

THE Kew shan (or Quesan islands) are eleven in number,

韮山 besides several rocks. The largest is three miles long, and its greatest breadth 12 mile; in some places, however, it is not more than a cable * or a cable and a half wide: the others are much smaller, varying from to of a mile in extent. They are thickly populated, probably to the amount of 1500 inhabitants, who principally subsist on fish. They have goats, pigs, and fowls. The sweet potatoe is cultivated upon most of the islands, and forms during the winter their principal article of food.

The geographical extent of the group is from lat. 29° 21′ N., to 29° 28′ N., and from long, 122° 10′ to 122° 16′1⁄2 E.

$

A cable's length is one tenth of a mile.

}

252

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

Patahecock or Påtszekeõ. The south-easternmost island is called Patahecock (Pa tsze keo, or the 'letter Pă Point,' so named from its resemblance to the form of the character ?} Its flat and table appearance will cause it to be easily recognised, when compared with the adjacent islands to the south,

Hib- shan or Hesan, which are rugged and uneven. Four small islets lie off its northeastern shore, and one off the southern. The summit is more than 450 feet above the level of the sea, and in lat. 29° 22′ N., and 122° 13′ 40′′ E. The northeastern islet of the group is a nar- row cliff, an islet uninhabited. To the westward are four small islands, inhabited and cultivated; and north of them, three cables, is a flat precipitous rock; its colored appearance renders it remarkable, being composed of red porphyritic hornstone. This face of the island may be approached without danger.

The westernmost island is the second in size and attains an eleva- tion of 400 feet. The body of the large island lies due south 'from it. Between the two is a mud bank, gradually shoaling to the shore of the large island. By keeping the western extreme of the west island to the eastward of N.N.E., not less than 3 fathoms will be found and good holding ground without much swell. The highest part of the large island forms a sharp peak, near the western extreme, and is 490 feet high. The coast line of the island consists of steep high cliffs, with the exception of six small sandy bays.

    South, and separated by a channel a cable and a half wide, there is another island, which is also high, with steep cliffs. Off the west- ern point is a half tide rock, and a reef runs off from its south

extreme.

!

Holderness Rock. The Holderness rock lies N. 88° W. 1 mile from the highest part of this island. It has 1 fathom over it, and breaks occasionally. From it, the highest part of the western island bears N. 24° E; a small peaked islet to the S.E.S. 52° E., and Pa- tahecock table, S. 66° E. The reef of rocks, lying off the south ex- treme of the nearest island, being in line with it. /=

    Sunken rock. Another sunken rock, with only three quarters of a fathom on it, lies S. 20° W. three quarters of a mile from the summit of the island, south of the large Kewshan; and N. 70° W. from Pata hecock, the east extreme of the large island being in line with the east extreme of the nearest island bearing N. 509 E. The inhabi tants were civil, and sold their pigs, potatoes, and goats readily. Fresh water probably could not be procured in any quantity.

During the expedition against Chusan in 1840, H. M. ship Pylades

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

253

     encountered three piratical junks here, one of which was taken and burnt.

         The inhabitants did not appear to participate, at all in the crimes of these marauders, and expressed themselves well pleased; at their being driven away.

:

Cape Montague. Several small islets lie off Cape Montague (or Szechaou shan), the depth of water close into them being 4 and 5 fathoms. The cape is in latitude 29° 10′ N., and longitude 122° 5′ E. A passage exists between it and the main, which is used by the junks. Between it and Buffaloe's Nose many deep inlets occur, which render the extremity of the continent doubtful.

      Half Tide Rock. The half tide rock lays S. 32° W. from Pata- hecock 7.8 miles, being in a straight line for Cape Montague and from the Bear (an island called ★ Tamuh shan by the Chinese, with a sharp peak at its eastern extreme), S. 42° E. 11 miles. It is uncovered two thirds of the tide. ́High tide and smooth water some-

times prevent its being seen.

+

High Water. The time of high water in the neighborhood of the Kewsan islands is 2h. 30m. before the moon's transit, and the rise and fall 14 feet. The change in the direction of the stream does not take place until 2 hours subsequent to the change in depth. The flood tide comes from the southward and seldom exceeds 2 knots per hour. The variation of the compass (1840) is 1° 57′ westerly.

Between the Kewshan group and the Bear, the depth of water varies from 3 to 6 fathoms, gradually shoaling towards the latter. Two small groups of islands lie between the Half-tide rock and the Bear, lying 5 miles from the main. From the N.E. extreme of the Kewshan islands, Buffaloe's Nose bears N. 53° W., 16 miles, and a small rock called the Mouse (nearly level with the water's edge at high water) N. 24° W. 6 miles.

The Whelps. The Whelps are a group of four small islands, N. 70° W., 10 miles from the Kewshan. ⠀

19:

1

Starboard Jack. Starboard Jack is a low flat reef with two rocks off its eastern ends, N. 47 W., 10 miles from the Kewsan.

:

Corkers. Between Starboard Jack and the outer rock or the Cor- kers, (a number of isolated reefs lying between the Whelps and Buffaloe's Nose), the distance is 34 miles, with a depth of from 5 to 6 fathoms. The outer rock of the Corkers is occasionally covered, and bears from the extreme of Buffaloe's Nose S. 31° E. Two islets, `a cable's length farther to the westward, are always above water, and will give warning should the sea not break on the outer rocks.

"

+

250

Chuson Archipelags.

MAY,

   Goughs passage. This passage (by far the best of any leading to Chusan) is formed by Futoo shan on the east, and the Central is- lands (four in number) on the west. In the passage both shores are steep to; but south of the southern islet of the central group is a shoal, of which the lead will give warning. The passage is 1.4 mile through, and 5 cables wide.

Robert's passage.

             'Robert's best passage' is formed by the Cen- tral islands on, the east, and the mud extending from Mei shan on the west, which dries que mile from the solid ground. The boundary of the passage westerly, therefore, is not known, except at low water, the lead giving no warning. The depth of water varies from 6 to 40 fathoms. The channel is 1.8 mile through, and 5 cables wide.

Ketow or Kitto

              (also on some Chinese maps written MED). The course, after you are through these two passages, for Ketow point, will be N. 41° E, 94 miles. Anchorage will be found anywhere along the Ketow shore, until one mile to the north- ward of Singlosan, a small islet near the Ketow shore, where the water deepens suddenly; and as there is no anchorage beyond this, until you get to Elephant island, ships are advised not to proceed, unless they have sufficient wind or tide to carry them in.

    Tides. In these passages the first of the flood comes from the northward, and runs sometimes for three hours before it takes the same direction as the ocean tide.

   Ten foot Junk passage. Between Mei shan and the Ketow shore there is a narrow passage 24 cables wide. It has deep water 5, 6, and 7 fathoms through, until you arrive at its southern extrem- ity, where it shoals considerably. There may be more than 10 feet, as only one line of soundings was run across the bar. There is how- ever no likelihood of its ever being used. Near the centre of the passage, on the Ketow side, there is a custom-house, and two canals which communicate with large villages in the neighborhood.

Kuŏkeu so

Two miles from the northern entrance

is the walled town of Kwokeu, a military station; interruption to our

1

sounding operations in 1840 was experienced from this quarter.

The several islands which form these passages may be here briefly described.

Lowang or Luhwang

is 94 miles long, and 6 miles across,

at the broadest part, which is the western extreme. Near the centre it is little more than two miles across, and very little elevated above the level of the sea. The southeast body of the

island'' rises to the

I.

10

C

VF

Fift

do

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

257

    height of 865 feet, being a conical bare hill. On the isthmus is an isolated peak. On the northwestern side of the island are five high peaks, the highest being 920 feet above mean tide level. The south- western coast has been already described: that to the west, in the Duffield's passage, has several small bays, with stone èmbankments stretching from point to point, by which means a considerable quantity of land has been gained from the sea. The points of these bays form nearly a straight line. Beyond the Bird rock, the coastline takes a sudden turn to the northeast. Cape Lowang, the northern extreme of the island is high and bold. The island is 26 miles in circumference, very populous, and well cultivated.

Futoo shan

Futoo shan is not quite three miles long and one broad: the southern extreme forms a narrow point, con- nected, at low water, with St. Andrew's. The channel between the point and Tree-a-top is 34 cables wide, and has deep water. A spit runs off the northern extreme of Futoo shan, to the northward of which are three small islands.

      Central islands. The south-westernmost of the Central islands is a small islet, connected by a reef and spit with the next, which is the largest of the group. This island is one quarter of a mile long, and is the resort of several fishermen, whose stakes and nets in 7 fa- thoms water will be seen in the neighborhood.

Meishan (or Plum island) appears formerly to have been eight islands, now however united by substantial stone walls, one of which is 11⁄2 mile in extent. The mud dries 11⁄2 mile from its southern extreme, and 21 cables from the northern. Off the northwest side are two small islands, from the northernmost of which a shoal extends northerly, there being 3 fathoms at the distance of 4 cables from the shore. By keeping the Central islands open of the two islands mentioned above, until your are passed them half a mile, the shoal will be avoided, and the Ketow shore may be approached with safety.

Teaouchow Mun. The passage next to Buffaloe's Nose is called Teaouchow mun by the Chinese. The entrance to it is N. 8° E., 18 miles from the northeast extreme of the Kewshan islands.

The island called Beak Head (or

Tunglo shan) forms

its southwest extreme, off the east end of which lie three small islets ; and two hummocks near the end of the island, render it sufficiently remarkable. Between the Beak Head and Front islands are three islets and a rock, which, with Lowang, form Harbor Rouse.

VOL

NO V

NO

258

Chusan Archipelago.

MAX,

    There is a narrow passage, having 34 fathoms, between. Lowang and the Beak Head, but there would be no object in using it, while there are other passages so much superior.

    Beak Head is 5 miles long, and very narrow 11⁄2 mile from the east extreine. Two reefs lie close in shore upon the northeastern side. The distance across to Vernon island or Heäke is 2.8 miles, with 18 and 20 fathoms. Near the west extreme of Beak Head the channel narrows to 5 cables, and there is no bottom with 34 fathoms. A reef of rocks, the northernmost of which is always above water, bounds the channel on the south side; and an island with a conical hill and two small islets on its south side, bound it on the northern; this island is situated midway between Vernon and Beak Head; be- tween it and the former are two small islets and a reef, which render the channel, on that side, more intricate.

Having steered N. 59° W., 81⁄2 miles from the entrance you will pass another island, to the northwest of which good anchorage will be found, in 9 to 10 fathoms. The same course, and 4 miles farther will carry you clear of the passage. On the north side of the chan- nel are four small islets, and between them and Taou-hwa shan is an archipelago of reefs and islands. There is a passage through into the Heäke mun, but it is awkward for sailing vessels. On the Lo wang side is a reef, and an islet, with a small pinnacle on it. The reef bears S. 34° E. from cape Lowang, and is generally uncovered. The mud dries 7 cables off Lowang in the bight. Vessels, there- fore, beating through, should not stand into this shore, so as to bring cape Lowang to the northward of the bearing given above to avoid the reef. On this side of Lowang it will be found difficult to land, except at high water.

The southeast passage, or Heäke mun,, lies five miles further to the northward. It is formed by Vernon island on the south, and Taouhwa shan on the north. The east extreme of the former island is rugged, with large boulders of granite. There is a cove at this end of the island, which runs in three quarters of a mile, and would afford good shelter for boats.

Vernon island (Heäke shan

or Crab-cape island) is

five miles long. On the northwest side of the island there is a long bay, where vessels may anchor in 4 to 5 fathoms, and procure water from the island of Taouhwa shan opposite. There are several cas- cades, and the water might be obtained without removing the casks from the boats. The passage here is 12 mile wide. Six miles from the entrance it narrows to 31⁄2 cables. Two small islands and some

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

259

rocks on the Taouhwa shan side, and an island with a sharp peak- (half a cable off the northern extreme of which is a rock), form the boundaries.

Taou-hwa shan) shore is bold and precipitous. The peak rises to the height of 1680 feet. Near the western end the island becomes very low, rising however again towards the extreme, where it is surmounted by a peculiar crag, which will be recognized nearly throughout all the southeastern part of the archipelago.

The depth of water in the channel is 60 fathoms in some parts, and the tide is very strong. It will, however, be found a convenient passage to sea from Chusan during the northwesterly monsoon: the distance from Elephant island to the open sea, by this passage, being only 17 miles. It should not however be attempted in light winds, as vessels are liable to be becalmed, and to experience flaws, under the high land of Taouhwa shan. The passage is 8 miles through, and from its northeast entrance to Round-about island the distance is 5 miles, N. 41o W.

     Sarah Galley passage. This passage is by no means so eligible as those already mentioned. The entrance is situated N. 12° E., 21 miles from the Kewshan group, near which will be seen the Jansen rock, a steep cliff islet with a reef 14 cable from the east extreme. Another rock, uncovered at half tide, bears from the Jansen 8. 25° W., 1.3 mile. From it the highest part of Oswamong island bears N. 75° W., 1.8 mile, and the highest part of Taouhwa shan S. 5° E. The coast line of Oswamong is high cliffs, and off the southeastern extreme is a ledge of rocks.

Oswamong is called by the Chinese Woosha, or Usha, that is, ' Black sand.'

     Two patches of rock. South of Oswamong, 5 cables, are two patches of rock, lying northwest-half-west and southeast-balanst from each other, not quite 2 cables apart. From the sonthe is, 201 patch the Jansen bears N. 52° E., and a flat peaked island between them and Taouhwa shan S. 16° E. Very high tides may cover them, but they are generally above water. The distance between them and some rocks extending from the north extreme of the flat peaked island is 7 cables. There is no bottom with 31 fathoms in the vici- nity of the rocks, after passing which the course is west 24 miles, leaving two small islets with a reef between them to the southw-2. The channel is here 7 cables broad, between Tangfow on the so sin,. and an island (with a hut on its summit and a reef of rocks off the southeast extreme) to the northward. From hence the course is S.

260

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

50° W., 1.7 mile. The channel is now 1 mile broad, between a small island with two hummocks (nearly divided at the centre,) and an island to the westward with a building, something similar to a Druidical temple, on its summit; between this island and Chookeä tseën, the mud dries nearly all the way, leaving only a small passage for boats. In standing over to the Chookeätseën shore, vessels should not bring a small flat islet (with two rocks off its southeast extreme) to bear to the southward of S. 15° W., as the depth of water decreas- es very suddenly. Off the eastern end of the island, with the Druidi- cal temple on it, the small flat island (above mentioned), which is at the west extreme of the Sarah Galley passage, bears S. 21° W., 2.6 miles. Before reaching the flat island the southeast extreme of Chụ- san will be seen. There is a bulding constructed of slabs of stone (similar to the one already mentioned on the island,) on the hills over the point, and a small tower or a fort near the water's edge. From the flat island to Round-about island the distance is 7.7 miles, W. 7° S.

Between Chookeä tseën and Oswamong there is another navigable passage, two cables wide, which may be used with a fair wind, by which means the reefs in the entrance of the Sarah Galley passage will be avoided. Off the north end of Oswamong is a small island. The passage between Tangfow and Taouhwa shan is very narrow in one part.

Chookeä tseën (or Choo's Peak,) is 6 miles from east to west. The west line has many deep indentations, some of which are inclosed from the sea by stone walls. On the eastern extreme are 4 remarkably high peaks; and near the centre of the island is a smooth cone-topped one, which is 1164 feet above the level of the sea, and forms one of the most remarkable features in this part of the archi- pelago. On the west face of the island are several sandy bays, and the hills in this neighborhood are covered with large isolated masses of granite. Off its northeast extreme is a group, consisting of five islands; and to the eastern are three small islets, the outermost of which is 83 miles distant. A half-tide rock bears N. 14° E., 7 miles from the cone-topped hill. From the summit of Pooto it bears S.

78° E., and from the south-easternmost island of the northeast group, S. 49° W.

Tinghae, The harbor of Tinghae is difficult of ingress

定海 and egress, owing to the strong tides and narrow passages. The best entrance is that round Tower hill, and between Bell and Tea is- lands, in which no hidden danger has been found.

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

261

Tower hill passage. The course for vessels intending to enter by this passage, will be west by north 8 miles from Ketow point. The depth of water in this part of the passage varies from 35 to 110 fa- thoms, and no anchoring ground is to be found unless close to the shore. Vessels, therefore, not having sufficient tide to carry them round Tower hill, or wind enough to stem the current, should re- main at anchor to the eastward of Round-about island, or in the neighborhood of Singlo shan. If possible the time of starting should be so arranged as to obtain the first of the ebb after rounding Tower hill. After having rounded Tower hill, Tea island may be steered for. The depth of water between Tower hill and Bell island varies from 30 to 40 fathoms. On the northwest side of Tower hill a bank ex- tends a cable's length from the shore with 3 to 4 fathoms on it. Spring tides set at the rate of 3 to 3₫ knots; and vessels, in light winds, should be careful that they are not set into the archipelago between Tea and Elephant islands, where the channels are narrow, and the water deep with foul ground.

      Anchorage between Bell and Tea islands. Between Bell and Tea islands good anchorage will be found in 10 to 12 fathoms. Ships intending to remain here should not open the channel between Bell island and Chusan, as the tides are stronger and the ground loose. Proceeding from thence to the inner harbor of Tinghae, another an- chorage will be found on the Chusan shore. A sunken rock, with 24 fathoms upon

            it at low water, lies due south of a small hillock in the valley, and 24 cables from the shore.

      Anchorage on Chusan shore. Opposite to a canal entrance is a mud bank, with 3 fathoms in the shoalest part, and deep water be- tween it and the shore. The tides are irregular at this anchorage, but it is convenient for watering, In light winds vessels should avoid the strength of the ebb, when passing through the channel between Tea and Guard-house island, which otherwise is liable to set them through the Straight or Southern Passage. A ledge of rocks extends off the northeast extreme of Tea island, 1 cable. It is steep to, and between the islands 40 fathoms will be found.

     Middle Ground. After passing Guard-house island it is necessary to steer for Macclesfield island, in order to avoid the Middle Ground, which has two feet in its shoalest part. The 3 fathoms line extends within 24 cables of the latter island, and Tower hill on with the slope upon the south rise of Tea island will keep you in 4 fathoms, or not to open the fort on Trumball island, with the north end of Mac- elesfield.

202

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

The middle ground is situated at the western extreme of the har- bor. On all but the western edge the water shoals suddenly. The passage between it and Chusan is I cable wide, with 12 to 14 fa- thoms. Between Guard-house island and it, the channel is 1 cable broad.

    South passage. The South, or Straight, passage lies between Deer and Elephant islands. Two sunken rocks lie near the centre of the channel, which narrow it to 12 cable. It should never be at- tempted without a commanding breeze. The tides in the vicinity of the sunken rocks flow from three channels, forming eddies which render a ship, in light winds, totally unmanageable. Intending to enter this passage, the course from Round-about island is northwest by north 44 miles.

⠀⠀ Elephant island is remarkable for a curious crag near the sum- mit, and cannot be mistaken. The tides or wind not suiting to go into the harbor, anchorage will be found abreast of it in 16 to 18 fathoms water; the bottom is gravel and not good holding ground. Beyond Round island, which is a small islet lying to the northeast of Elephant island, the water deepens from 28 to 34 fathoms, until you arrive at the Southern rock, which has 12 fathom on it at low water. The marks for it are the Cap rock, or with the saddle of Kintang, N. 75° W., and the joss-house on the hill near the suburbs showing between Truinball and Sarah Galley islands; it lies S. 63° E., 2 cables from the Black rock, and N. 75°. E., 1§ cable from the ledge extending off the island to the southward of Tea island.

    The North Rock lies due north of it 12 cable. The marks for which are a bushy tree on the eastern slope of Sarah Galley island, in line with the square beacon on the east hill, and the Black rock's north extreme on with the south part of the Cap; it bears from the former N. 63° E., 24 cables; it has 9 feet at low water. This patch is about 30 feet by 20, the water deepens suddenly on all sides of it.

:

To avoid these dangers, the best direction is to keep the western shore on board, taking care not to avoid the ledge of rocks which extend three quarters of a cable from the island south of the Cap and Black rock, the latter is steep to; at this part of the channel the bot- tom is rocky and the depth very irregular. Having passed Sarah Galley island, steer for Macclesfield, which may be rounded close, to avoid the Middle Ground, the marks for which have been already given, in the direction of Tower hill passage.

Inner harbor. The inner harbor of Tingkae is formed by the coast of Chusan on the north, Trumball and Macclesfield islands on

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

263

the south, Grave island and the Beacon rock on the east, Guard. house and Tea islands to the west. It is 3§ cables wide and 6 cables long, the depth of water varies from 4 to 8 fathoms; at the eastern extreme, is a patch of rocks with two fathoms, lying S. 85° W. 1 cable from the Beacon rock, which may be avoided by keeping the Chusan shore on board until Sarah Galley is open by Trumball.

      Deer island passage. The inner harbor also may be entered from the eastward by passing between Deer and Sarah Galley islands, which are 1 cable apart. The Beacon rock, to the northeast of Sarah Galley, may be passed close on either side. The Chusan shore may then be steered for, keeping I cable to the eastward of Grave island, and when the harbor Beacon rock opens with Grave island it may be steered for: pass between it and Chusan, and keep the Chu- san shore on board until Sarah Galley island is shut in with Trum- ball. This passage is superior to the South or Straight passage, as although in some parts it is only 14 to 14 cable wide, the limits are always marked, except off the northeast end of Deer island, from whence a spit extends 1 cable northerly. It is also the only passage into the harbor, in which the flood tide is in your favor all the way.

     Anchorage between Trumball and Sarah Galley. There is good anchoring ground between Sarah Galley and Trumball islands, in 8 to 10 fathoms. A spit extends from the southeast extreme of the lat- ter, the 3 fathoms line being 3 cables from the shore. By keeping the south end of Macclesfield open of the summit of Tea island it will be avoided.

Suburbs. The suburbs called Taontow

contain many houses, forming a long street, running parallel to the beach. To the east, and close to the water's edge, is a small hill, with a temple or joss-house on it (the mark for the south rock) 122 feet high.

     The level ground intersected by canals extends 1 mile to the eastward, where it is terminated by a ridge of hills 642 feet high, extending down to the beach, upon which are 3 beacons, 2 round and 1 square; the latter is 595 feet high, and also one of the marks for the north rock. Westerly from the suburbs the level ground extends 1.1 mile, a ridge of hills 450 feet high run down to the coast, form- ing two points. There are also 3 beacons on this ridge, the central one is 323.7 feet above mean tide level.

The latitude of the eastern of these points (the one opposite Guard- house island) was ascertained to be 30° 0′ 20′′ N. and its longitude 122° 5′ 18′′ E.

264

Chusan Archipelugo.

MAY,

The variation of the compass was 2° 33′ E. in 1840: and high water, on fall and change days, 1 hour before the moon's transit.

Rise and fall of the tide 12 feet and 6 inches. Scarcely any change takes place in the depth of the water three quarters of an hour pre- vious and subsequent to high water. At low water the change Ordinary tides rise and fall

   in the depth occurred more rapidly. from 5 to 7 feet.

    In all the channels, generally speaking, the change in the direc tion of the stream does not alter until 14. 40m. after the change has taken place in the depth. In the inner harbor, and along the coast of Chusan, the flood comes from the eastward; at the outer an- chorage, off the Elephant, from the southeast; between Bell and Tea islands, ships flood-rode tend to the northward. The strength of the tide varies from 2 to 3 knots. Strong breezes from the northward materially affect the rise and fall, the range in two conse- cutive days being sometimes 2 feet and 6 inches.

Chusan. The island Chusan (or Chowshan f¡ so called from its supposed resemblance to a boat) is 51.5 miles in circumference, its extreme length being 20.8 miles; it lies in a northwest and southeast direction. The greatest breadth in any part is 10.5 miles. From the beach at Tinghae to the northern shore, the distance is 7 miles. Towards the eastern end of the island it becomes narrower, never however being under 6.1 miles.

    The city of Tinghae is a walled town 1.8 miles in circumference, situated 0.5 cables from the beach. There are four entrances situat- ed at each of the cardinal points, which are through double arched gateways at right angles to one another.

                      The span of the outer one is 7 feet and 6 inches, and 9 feet high. The city wall is 14 feet and 9 inches high, surmounted by a parapet 4 feet and 6 inches. The width of the wall is 13 feet, and the parapet 2 feet. The southern face runs east and west. The western face north and south. The east face north 350 yards and then northwest. The northern face is irre-

gular. On the northwest side the city is overlooked by a hill, part of which is inclosed by the wall. A canal 33 feet wide and 3 feet deep nearly encircles the city and enters it near the south gate. A canal and paved foot path communicate with the suburbs, but the principal means of communication with the sea is by a canal further to the

east.

    There are three other commercial ports in the island, viz., Shin- keä mun, (Singkamong), Chinkeäng (Singkong), and Shaou.

Shinkeä mun, or Singkumong. This is situated at the

沈家門

}

.

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

265

southeast extreme of the island. The town is situated at the water's edge, and is a miserable assemblage of huts. The principal occupa- tion of the inhabitants is fishing. About 35 junks, of 100 tons bur- den, and carrying from 30 to 35 men, with 250 smaller boats, each containing 5 men, are employed for this purpose. The harbor is form- ed by the island of Lookeä (which is divided into six islands at high water), and is 1 cable wide, with 4 to 5 fathoms abreast the town. The southwest extreme lies between Lookeä and Takan, and has not more than 14 fathom at low water. A reef and mud spit extend easterly from Takan one cable, and the mud extends westerly from Lookeä 4 cables.

     H. M. ship Pylades laid between Takan (4) and Chusan in 5 fathoms, the width here being 24 cables. The high land (600 feet) on the Chusan shore, occasioned the squalls to be sometimes very vio- lent. H. M. ship Conway laid to the westward of Lookeä, with the small flat island (with two rocks off it), at the entrance to the Sarah Galley passage, bearing west 0.7 miles in 5 fathoms. The distance from Shinkeä mun to Tinghae is 11 miles. The channel along the Chusan shore has deep water. It is not, however, advisable for ships, owing to a number of small islands 3 miles to the east of the suburbs, which render the passage narrow and crooked.

Sheih-luh mun +, or sixteen passages, is the name given

十六門

to this narrow and crooked passage by the Chinese.

       Several islands with extensive mud banks confine the channel be- yond this to half a cable, occasionally it is I cable wide. Vessels, therefore, bound from Tinghae to Shinkeä mun must use one of the passages already described, or must pass to the northward of Deer island and the island east of it: this passage is not above 1 cable wide. It has deep water, except at the southeast entrance, where there are only 3 fathoms.

}

      Between Takan and Aou shan there is shoal water; to avoid which vessels should not stand so far to the northward as to bring the reef off the southern end of Aou shan in line with the crag on Ele- phant island. The channel between the east end of Chusan and Pooto has only 14 fathom at low water, and off the southeast end of Chusan it is only 2 cables wide, owing to a reef with a stone pillar on it, near the centre of the passage.

After rounding the flat island with two rocks, this Beacon' will be seen bearing N. 35° E, A course should be steered to pass between it and Chusan. Shoal water extends 31⁄2 cables from Lookeä, and 6

VOL. X. NO, V.

34

266

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

cables from the island with the Druid's temple on the summit. To avoid which, do not stand further to the eastward, when a cliff islet off the east extreme of Chusan is in line with a building on the sum- mit of the flat peninsula at the northeast extreme of Chusan. The Beacon rock in line with the cliff islet is a good mid channel mark. After passing between the Beacon rock and Chusan, keep the cliff islet on with the building upon the peninsula, which will keep you in the deepest water. The flat is extensive, the 2 fathoms line extend- ing 1,7 mile. On it were several hard casts of the lead. Vessels therefore, should cross the flat under easy sail.

There is also a good passage or Green island which is 7

Pooto

             The island of Pooto is 3.4 miles from the south- east point of Chusan, and 1.6 mile from the east point. The channel is termed by the Chinese

                   Leënhwa yang, or sea of water-lilies. After passing the flat noticed above, the water deepens suddenly to 6 and then to 12 fathoms. between Pooto and 'T'sing shan cables wide. The flat extends within 5 cables of Pooto, which must therefore be kept on board. The island is 34 miles long. In one part it is only six tenths of a mile broad. A narrow projecting point extends from the west side, forming a deep sandy bay, with 3 fathoms in it. A stream runs into the bay, which might be used during the northwesterly monsoon, by vessels in want of water. There are two reefs in the bay, but they are always above water. This island and the Chookeä tseën group belong to the priests of Budha. The temples on Pooto are very numerous, the largest of which is situated on the western side of the island, and a broad flagged road leads to it from the south side.

Singkong or

Chin keäng. Chinkeäng harbor is situated at the western extreme of Chusan, and is distant 71⁄2 miles from Ting- hae. From the Inner harbor to the southwestern point of the island, the distance is 4 miles. The passage between Bell island and Chu- san is not recommended, owing to the strong tides which exist in it. Near the centre is a half tide rock, with a beacon on it; and to the southwest of it, two cables, a rocky patch with only 14 fathom on it. Vessels bound to Chinkeäng had therefore better use the passage between Bell island and Tower hill. Should, however, the other be used, that part of the channel between the Beacon and the Chusan shore will be found the best.

   › Between Kiddisol and Chusan there is no danger, the distance being rather less than a cable and a half.

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

267

      From the southwest point of Chusan the coast-line is mud (with the exception of a small islet) to the point of-Chinkeäng harbor. Anchorage will be found along this shore in from 10 to 12 fathoms. A small islet (the Steward) lies midway between Chusan and Kini. tang. There is 45 fathoms water in its vicinity : 2 cables to thẻ eastward there is a rocky patch, on which 9 fathoms were found i.

     Chinkeäng harbor is formed by three islands, (Waeteȧod Chungteaou, and Leteaou, i. e. Outer-hook, Mid dle-hook, and Inner-hook,) and Chusan; a reef of rocks lies off the southwest point of the first island, and the mud extende from the island nearly to the reef. Between Waeteaou and Chusan the dis- tance is 6 cables, with 7 to 8 fathoms. The mud extends half q cable from the island; on the Chusan shore is a circular fort, which:: can only be approached along the embankments.

     Opposite the island of Chungteaou, the channel is less than a cable wide, with 7 fathoms. The passage increases but little in width, until you have passed the island of Leteaou, opposite to which is the landing-place, and the entrance of a stream, which is naviga- ble up to the town, distant 6 cables, at high water. Near the beach are a few houses.

      Upon the islands forming the harbor, and also on the point near the entrance, are extensite quarries of stone. The passage through is 1.7 mile long, and being both narrow and crooked can only be avail- able for steamers and small vessels.

蓏茨

      Kutsu or Koo-tsze. To the northward of Leteadu, is a flat island, Kootsze. A reef of rocks extends from it towards the island of Chusan, narrowing the passage to one cable, in which there is no bottom with 30 fathoms.

Channel between Blackwall and Chusan. Between Kootszé and Blackwall or Tsatsu (Tsih tsze) the distance is three cable. The eastern side of Blackwall has several deep bays and indenta tions; a sunken rook lies off the northeast point, distant 14 cable, and between it and Chusan, the water varies from 12 to 19 fathoms.

Kintang. From the Steward, or Pwanyang tseaou (half-

金塘 way rock), to Kintang, the distance is two miles; near the south- east extreme of the latter is a remarkable saddle hill, which with the Cap rock forms one of the marks for the southern sunken rock, in the South or Straight passage. There is a peninsula (connected by mud which is overflown at high water) at the southeast point, from which a ledge of rocks extends, the southwestern part of which is

268

Chusan Archipelago.

MAN,

always above water. Nearly opposite to Chinkeäng, there is another. sharp peak on Kintang, which is 1519 feet above the level of the sea. Channel between Kintang and Blackwall. Vessels bound from Chin- keäng to Seaou Sha-aou, or to sea by the northwest passage, must bear in mind that there is no anchorage after leaving Chinkeäng, until to the northward of Blackwall, the distance being 6 miles. The channel between Kintang and Blackwall is half a mile wide. A small islet lies off the southwest extreme of the latter. Between the two there is deep water, and from the summit of the islet, Chin- hae (at the entrance of the river leading to Ningpo) may be seen over Kintang, which, abreast of this part of the channel, is very low. After passing the islet there is a long bay on Blackwall island, from the northern point of which a reef extends 12 cable. Off the north extreme of Kintang there is a group of 5 islands.

Broken island, or Mamuh shan

The northern rock off Broken island bears from the northwest extreme of Blackwall N. 15° E., 61⁄2 miles. Between it and Broken island there is a good channel. The latter is connected with Chusan at low water; it is about 700 feet high. The ridge of hills at the northwest extreme of Chusan rises to the height of 761 feet, and on them are three beacons. The entrance to the harbor of Seaou Sha-aou is between Broken and Fisher's island (Chang pih shan), and is 6 cables wide- Broken island is steep to, except on the S. E. side, where it joins Chusan. A shoal extends 5 cables off the west side of Fisher's island.

The harbor is formed by Fisher's island and Chusan; it is 2 miles long and 1.7 mile broad, with a depth of water from 5 to 9 fathomis. This harbor is well sheltered from all winds, and easy of ingress and egress. The coast of Chusan is lined with a mud bank, which ren- ders landing (only at one spot, which is at the eastern extreme of the harbor) difficult except at high water. Near the landing-place is a small village; the principal town is situated some distance up the valley from the landing-place. The south shore of Fisher's island is also an extensive mud bank, a considerable portion of which has been inclosed from the sea. Off the southeast extreme of the island the three fathoms line extends five cables. The depth decreases gra- dually, so that the lead will give warning. The eastern entrance to Seaou Sha-aou harbor is 8 cables wide. A small islet and a rock lie off the north extreme. They may be rounded close, passing between the islets mentioned above and the islets to the eastward.

    Passage between Sheppey and Chusan. Vessels intending to go to the eastward from Seaou Sha-aou may pass either between Sheppey

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

269

     (Lan and Lew shan) and Chusan, or to the northward of Sheppey, The latter is the more eligible. The former is 2 cables wide in the narrowest part. The Houbland islands lie between Sheppey and Fisher's island. Vessels should pass between them and two small islets, which lie off the southwest side, between which and Chusan is the narrowest part of the passage. Having passed this islet, vessels may either stand along Sheppey, or steer a course for the open sea.

Passage between Sheppey and Blackheath. To pass to the north- ward of Sheppey, a N. 56° E. course must be steered for a long bar- ren island, with a round peak upon it. The distance between which and Sheppey is 1.6 mile. The mud runs off the latter 0.5 mile. The barren island is steep, to, on the southeast shore. In the channel, between Kwan shan and Sheppey, are several islets; and in standing over to the Sheppey side of the channel the mud may be avoided by keeping the north end of the largest of these islands open of the northern extreme of Sheppey.

Having passed the barren island a course must be steered to pass close to Kwan shan, which lies west from the barren island 11⁄2 mile, in order to avoid a reef which is covered at high water. It is distant from Kwan shan 24 cables. From it the barren hill bears N. 85° W., and the highest part of Sheppey S. 26° W.

Having passed the reef, the large island, mentioned as the mark for avoiding the mud bank extending westerly from Sheppey, bounds the passage to the southward. A reef extends a short distance from its northern extremę.

      Nine islands. Besides Kwan shan there are nine islands lying off the southeast end of Tae shan. A reef of rocks lies off the southern point of the one east of Kwan shan. The channel then lies between these Nine islands to the north, and the large passage island on the south. A due west course will carry you along Changtoo and the northwest group to the open sea.

Vessels wishing to anchor under Sheppey, which will be found a secure anchorage in the northwesterly monsoon, may haul to the southward, after passing the first island to the eastward of the large Passage island, and run between them and a cluster of rocks to the eastward. The east extreme of Sheppey is a low cliff, which may be passed within a cable; good anchorage will then be found in five fa- thoms, the water shoaling gradually towards the shore.

     Sheppey. The island of Sheppey is 7.5 miles long, and 5.6 broad. On the east side are several deep sandy bays. A considerable por- tion of the east extreme is separated from the island by a narrow

270

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

   channel at high water. The island appears formerly to have been two

Lan shan and Sew shan) the land being very low and protected from the sea by walls, near the northern extreme.

H. M. ship Pylades anchored here in the month of Feb., in 5 fathoms, six tenths of a mile from the west point of Sheppey, bearing N. 8° W.; the island south of Sheppey bearing 8. 54° W.; and the highest peak of Chusan S. 7° E. To the eastward of Sheppey are two cliff islets, the nearest is 1.8 mile distant, and the further 41 miles. South from the western, 2 cables, is a ledge of rocks, which is occasionally covered; and 0.6 of a mile W.N.W. from the eastern, is another small islet. The mud bank from Sheppey gradually deep- ens to the eastward, the depth of water, when the island of Pooto bears due south being 8 fathoms.

་་

·

?

    Tae shan To the northeast of Fisher's island, 51⁄2 miles, is the island of Tae shan, which is very populous. The centre of the island is an extensive flat with many villages near to its eastern ex- treme; the hills also separate, leaving a level plain across the island. Midway between Fisher's island and it are two small islets; and between Barren island and it are three others, off the south end of the westernmost of which is a sunken rock. Rocks also extend off the southwest and north points of the central one of the three. A mud bank extends from the northwest point of Barren island nearly to the first islet of the three, which lies to the N. W. of it. Between them and Tae shan the bottom is sandy with irregular soundings.

    Kwan shan. The passage between Kwan shan and Tae shan is 3 cables wide; on the Tae shan shore are several small islets; the channel is deep. H. M. ship Pylades anchored in a small cove to the north of Kwan shan on the island of Tae shan, and rođe out a heavy gale of wind. The cove, however, is too small to be recom- mended, and the deep water in its vicinity is also disadvantageous.

    To the westward of Tae shan, the islands extend about 15 miles, and from the summit, the termination of the group northerly could not be defined.

Changtoo To the eastward of Tae shan, and separated

      長塗 by a channel 1.5 miles, is another large island, called Changtoo by the Chinese, and is probably the Blackheath of Thornton's chart. The southe-n face of this island has many deep indentations, and may be composed of several islands. The time allotted for the ser- vice did not admit of a closer investigation.

1

'The breadth of the channel, between Changtoo and the two islands

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

271

to the eastward of Sheppey, is 2.3 miles. The group of islands con- tinues to the eastward of Changtoo, and a little to the southward of the same parallel for 25 miles.

Eastern Group. The easternmost island of this group is in lati- tude 30° 7′ 45′′ N., and longitude 122° 46′ B0" E. From the an- oborage under Sheppey it bears. E. 5° 8., 27 miles, and from the summit of Pooto E. 20° N., 21 miles. From the outer islet east of Chookeä taeën N. 29° E., 184 miles. It is five miles in circumfar- ence, and about 500 feet high. There is a small village on its north- western side. The shores are precipitous cliffs. The intervening islands between this and Changtoo were not examined, their outline therefore has only been inserted in the chart. Two small islets lie N. 74° E. about two miles from the eastern island.

Coast-line of Chusan. The coast-line of Chusan, after passing between it and Sheppey, trends to the northeast. At the distance of

three miles there is a small island with a narrow passage between it and the shore, and a deep bay to the westward, in which the mud dries out a considerable distance, rendering it difficult to land, except at the extreme points.

:

:

      Three miles and a half farther to the southeast there is a larger island with a remarkable fall in the hills near its centre; a small inlet. lies half a mile west from its extreme.

To the eastward ́are three islands at the distance of, a half, one and a half, and three and a quarter,. miles. The nearest is the largest of the three, and has a patch of rocks 2 cables from it to the north- east, Northeast also from the centre of the three, is another reef 4 cables from the island. The outer island is a narrow cliff (with rock off its northeast end...

!

To the northward and northeast of Pooto are three islets, and three rocks, which are steep to, except to the westward of the southern and largest of the three, where there is a reef. To the northeast of these islands, and 34 miles from the summit of Pooto, is a small co. nical islet E 8° S.; 2 miles from it is a group of 4 sharp pinnacled mocks, with several reefs among them. The reef already described (when treating of the island of Chookeä tseën) lies 8. 42o E., 64 miles-from these rocks, and is the last danger in the passage. The northeast extreme of Chusan is high, rising probably 1400 feet, the hills approaching near the coast-line. A flat peninsula, with 2 build- ings composed of slabs of stone, forms the extremity of the island.

Ships bound to the north side of Chusan, ought to make the land in about latitude 30°, when the easternmost island of the northern

272

Chusan Archipelugo.

MAY,

group will be seen to the northward, and the high land of Chookeä tseën to the westward. On closing the land, three small islets to the eastward of Chookeä tseën will be made out, and also the island of Pooto, which may be known by a small lookout-house on its summit. Intending to communicate with Chinkeä mun (Sinkeamoon), the most eligible anchorage will be found to the southward of Pooto, for which purpose a course may be steered to pass between that island and Lookeä, taking care to avoid a half tide rock which lies E. 12° S., 9 miles from the highest part of Pooto. The best anchorage will be found opposite two sandy bays, near the west extreme.

It is re- commended not to open the passage between Chusan and Pooto, as by standing too far to the westward vessels may get on the flat be ween Pooto and Chinkeä mun. Good water may be obtained from a well in the sandy bay near the temple.

!

    If bound to Sheppey or Seaou Sha-aou, a group of sharp pinnacle rocks must be kept to the southward, a remarkable island near Chu- san with a sudden fall in the land near the centre, will be seen to the westward. There are three islands with rocks off them to the east- ward of it when abreast the easternmost of these-one course may be steered so as to pass between Sheppey and Kwanshan, in which case a vessel should get to the northward of a small cliff island one quarter of the way between Changtoo and Chusan, and keep mid- channel between it and Changtoo; 34 miles to the westward of the first cliff island, there is a second, which must also be kept to the southward, you will then be abreast several small crooked islets, which lie off the southeast extreme of Tae shan; and Kwan shan, 21 miles to the W.N.W of the second cliff island, is high with a flat summit; keep it close on board to avoid the sunken rock near its south extreme, bearing from the highest part of Sheppey N. 26° E., you may then steer a west course to pass close to Barren island, from whence a S. 56° W. course, 5 miles, will carry you to Seaou Sha-aou harbor-or, instead of passing between the islands of Changtoo and Kwanshan, you may pass between Sheppey and Chusan, in which case keep the Chusan shore on board, passing between it and a small islet (which lies S. 23° E. from the south end of Sheppey): The course then lies between an islet on the Chusan shore and the south islet off Sheppey, from thence steer so as to pass to the northward of three small islets, and a reef which lies 2 miles to the westward, from whence a west course will carry you past a rocky point, and into Seaou Sha-aou or Small Sand-harbor.

1841.

TABLE

Containing names of places in the Chusan Archipelago.

The list commences at the extreme south, and the places are given nearly according to their latitude proceeding northward.

Chusan Archipelago.

Chinese

Sounds of the Chinese

Thornton's orthography.

characters.

in the court dialect.

Sounds in Fuh-

keën.

Latitude of

the places.

Longitude of the places.

Half-tide rock

Hesan island

Cape Montague (h. p.)

The Bear (peak) -

黑山

Hih shan

Hek san

14

Szechaou shan

Sod-cheaou san

29° 10′ N.

122° 5' E.

29° 15′ 3′′

122° 9'

大目山

Tamuh shan

Tae-bok-san

29° 23′ 5′′

122° 0′ 4′′

The Cubs

Quesan island

韭山

Kew shan

Patahecock (h. p.)

字角

Pătsze keŏ

Kew-san

Pat-joō kak

29° 21′ 9*

122° 13′ 7′′

Holderness rock -

Whelps (centre) -

29° 29′ 4′′

122° 5' 1"

Allen island'

Mouse

鼠山?"

Shoo shan

Ch'hé-san

29° 32′ 7′′

122° 13′ 6′′

VOL. X. NO.

V.

Starboard Jack

Castle rock

Gorkers

273

274

Chusan Archipelago.

COURT DIALECT.

Szetseacu

Sod-ta

FUHKEËN.

LATITUDE.

LONGITUDE.

29° 36′ 5′′ N 122° 9′ 2′′ E

Newpe shan

Gnêw-pit san

29° 36′ 2′′

122° 1′ 4′′

29° 37′ 6′′

122° 13′ 2′′

Luhwang

Leuk-hêng

29° 47′ 2′′

122° 7′′ 5′′

Wǎnchow, yu

Wun chew-sẽ

29° 42′ 4′′

122° 0′ 5′′

Tông-lô-kwuy

29° 40′ 9′′

122° 17′ 4′′

29° 44′ 2′′

122° 18′ 8′′

鑼龜

Tunglo kwei

Keaoupei

Futoo shan

Meishan

Heäke shan

Hoone shan

Laoushoo shan

Kwŏkeu so

Laoushoo shan

Ketow

Chuenpe

Kaou-pöey

Hwut-toe-san

Boêy-san

Kay-kê-san

Hoe-nee'

ng.san

Lá ch'hé-san

Kokke-só

Lá ch'hé san

Ke-t'hoê

Ch'hwan-pit

Tinker

Mesan & Lanjett (h.p.)

Harbor Rouse

CHINESE.

Buffaloe's Nose (h. p.) 14 牛鼻山

Front Island (high p.)

Lowang cape

'Tree-a-top

Bateman

Beak Head (E. ext.)

Footosan

Vernon island (E. ext.)

Jansen Rock

John Peak

Kitto

St. George

嶼龜山山山山所 横州 鑼盃肚山岐泥鼠渠鼠頭鼻

六温 銅交佛梅蝦湖老霩老岐穿

29° 52′ 9′′

122° 7′ **

MAY,

<}' b wată ->

Chuan pren

1841.

Chusan Archipelaga.

275

'Tinghae

Taeseay shan

Teng-haé

Tae-sea-san

Taoutow

To thuê

30° 0′4′′

122° 6′ 4′′

29° 53′ 7′′

122° 9′ 3′′

Má-chin

29° 52′ 2′′

122° 16′

Chew-san

Teng poe

定大衢

海榭頭

馬舟燈烏朱摘峠小大雌亮小王 秦山境沙家山箬頭猫猫山小渠家 山尖 山山山1 貓山山

Matsin

Chowshan

Tăngfow

Woosha shan

Chookeä tseen

Aou shan

Teibjo shan

Chetow shan

Seaoumaou shan

Ta maou shan

Tsze shan

Oe-say-san

Choo-kay-cheem 29° 54′

Aoù-san

Tek-jeak-san

Se thor san

Seaóu-beaðu-san

Tae-beaðu-san

Ch'he-san

Leäng seaoumaou shan] Lëäng-seaóu

Seaoukeu shan

Wangkeä shan

beaðu san

Sëáou-ke-san

Ong-kay-san

122° 25′ 3′′

Tinghae

Tygosan

Suburbs, temple hill

Round-about island

Bell island

Chusan

Tingboo

Oswamong

Chuttatham (cone)

Elephant island

Deer Island

276

Chusan Archipelago.

MAY,

LONGITUDE.

Hông-gnêw-ta

29° 57′ 7′′

121° 54′ 2′′

Sëáou kan

Kim tông

30° 1′ 7′′

121° 54′ 7′′

Taë-kan

Pwàn-yang-ta

30° 0′ 9′′

121° 57'

COURT DIALECT.

Takeu shan

Pwanche shan

'Taewangkeo shan

Heache shan

Waewookwei shan

'Tawook wei shan

Laou shan

Seaouchŭh shan

Yatan shoo shan

Kwafoo tseaou

Kwantow shan

Yanglo shan

Hwangnew tseaou

Seaou kan

FUHKEEN.

LATITUDE.

Taë-ke-san

Pwân-se-san

Tae-ông keak-san

Hey-se-san

Goey-gnóe-kwuy s.

Tae-gnóe-kwuy-s.

Lô ch'hé-san

Së áou-teuk-san

Ah-tan san

Kwa-hoo-ta

Kwan-t'hoê-san

Yang-lô-san

山山山

山山勝山奎奎山山山礁山山礁

Kintang

半洋礁

Taekan

Pwanyang tseaou

大盤大蟹外大老小鴨寡關洋黄小金大半 渠峙王峙五五鼠竹蛋婦頭螺牛干塘干洋

Tower Hill

CHINESE.

Sarah Galley I. 大渠山

Tea Island

Bell Rock

Bell Island.

Macclesfield Island

Trumball

Guard-house

N. W. Beacon

峙山

Kiddisol

Just-in-the-way

Kintang peak

Steward

1841.

Chusan Archipelago.

十六門

獎門

盧沈靑洛 十 KKIS K

##

陀花山花港子日藤沙白山

門山西 山

普蓮橫菜鰺冊馬小長官

Lookeä yu

Shinkeä mun

Tsing shan

Lõkeä

Loe-kay

Sim-kay-bûn

Ch'heng-san

Lök-këå

Sheihluh mun

Sip-leuk-bûn

Poote

Leënhwa yang

Hwang shan

Tsaehwa

Chinkeäng mun

Tsihtsze shan

Mamuh shan

Kootsze

Seaousha

Changpih shan

Kwan shan

Phoé tô

30° 0′ 3′′

1.12° 28′ 5′′

Liên-hwa-yâng

Hồng san

Ch'hae-hwa

Gîm-káng-bûn

Ch'hek-choo-san

Má-bok-san

30° 9′ 7′′

121° 57′ 8′′

Koe-choo

Sëáou-say

30° 9′ 1′′

122° 4′ 4′′

Tëâng-pék-san

30° 11′ 3′′

122° 3′ 2′′

Kwan-san

Singka moon

Pilot fish

Two Bouseys

Two Sisters

Pooto I.

Singkong moon..

Blackwall island

Broken island (h..p.)

Landing place

Fisher's island

: -

277

278

Chusan Archipelago.

頭 1

則肉山

長舉

CHINESE.

I 191-

崚岱蘭長螺鍋星桃枕則長

中山秀塗頭堪羅花頭肉嶴

Teaouhwa shan

Chintow shan

Tseibjuh shan

Chang yu

COURT DIALECT.

FUHKEEN.

LATITUDE.

LONGITUDE.

Chechung shan

Sẽ-teúng san

Tae shan

Lansew shan

Changtoo shan

Lotow shan

Kwokan shan

Singlo sban

Tae-san

Lân-sew-san

Teang-toe-san

Lột hoa san

Seng-lô-san

Thanhwa-san

Chim toê san

Chek-jeak-san

Tëâng-se

30° 15′ 4′′

122° 11′ 4′′

30° 10′ 3′′

122° 10′ 5′′

30° 15′ 6′′

122° 16′ 5′′

Houbland island -

Do. I

do. (h. p.)

Sheppey island

Blackheath

tseen

tained

29° 5' 7"

122° 35′ 8′′

Reef near the same

29° 58' 6"

122° 33′ 8′′

Druidical island

金鉢盂

Kinpo yu

Kim-phwat-e

7

East islet off Chookeä | Names not ascer-

MAY,

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. IX/

279

ART. III. Notices of Japan, No. IX: arts and manufactures among the Japanese: lacker-ware, paper, commerce, tea, &c. THE state of the arts in Japan is another point upon which there is some dif ficulty in forming an opinion, partly from a little distrust in the connoisseur-ship of the members of the factory at Dezima, and partly from the unanimous assu- rances that the best specimens in any department are utterly unattainable by fo- reigners. Some notion might, indeed, be formed upon the subject from the station of the artist in the classification of society, but for the possibility that this may denote rather a past than the present state. All that can, therefore, be safely affirmed is, that the arts are more advanced in that country than in China.

Respecting the art of music, there needs no addition to what has been already stated. We are told that the Japanese are extremely fond of painting, and eager collectors of pictures; that they sketch boldly with charcoal and often in ink, never having occasion to effacc; that their outlines are clear, and their drawing as good as may be compatible with ignorance of perspective and anatomy. From this ignorance, probably, arises their acknowledged inability to take a likeness, the professed portrait-painters bestowing their care rather upon the dress than the features of their sitters. In birds and flowers they succeed better; and two folio volumes of paintings of flowers, with the name and properties of each written on the opposite page, the work of a Japanese lady, and by her presented to Heer Titsingh, her husband's friend, are spoken of as beautiful. Delicate finishing seems to be the chief excellence of all Japanese artists.

Of the higher department of the art, landscape and figures, some specimens are afforded by the writers upon the subject, but so various in merit, that they perplex almost as much as they assist the judgment. Titsingh's plates of weddings, funeral processions, &c., from paintings by native artists, are, as nearly as may be, on a level with Chinese pictures. Meylan's are a shade better, and such as the qualified praise bestowed might lead one to expect.* Siebold's, although he visited Japan prior to Meylan, are far better, at least those of them which are taken from pictures painted for him: and this he explains, by stating that the young native artist whom he employed was studying the European principles of But the plates in Overmeer Fischer's splendid volume are of a character so very superior to all the others;-they are so highly finished, and have so much of light and shade, though defective enough in drawing and perspective, that it is difficult not to suspect some few improving touches to have been given in Holland

his art.

* A story, told by Meylan, of the proficiency of Japanese artists two centuries ago, might startle those who have read the opinions of these writers, or looked at most of their plates. It is that, when the ceremony of image-trampling was first ordained, there being a scarcity of Portuguese pictures of the Madonna and Child for simultaneous trampling, a Japanese painter was ordered to make a copy of one, and the copy was not to be distinguished from the original. It is to be ob served that the president never saw the copy, and the connoisseurs who had pro- nounced upon its undistinguishableness were Japanese. The painter was rewarded with decapitation. This story, however, is quite compatible with very poor de- signing on the part of the artists, for, like the Chinese, they are no doubt excellent imitators.

280

Notices of Japan, No. 1X.

MAY,

before the Japanese pictures passed into the engraver's hands; a suspicion cer tainly not weakened by the inspection of the Japanese rooms in the Royal Museum at the Hague, where we are told to seek the best specimens of every description that can be smuggled into Dezima and on ship-board.*

The Japanese are unacquainted with oil-painting, but skillful in the manage. ment of water-colors. These they prepare from minerals and vegetables, obtain. ing tints far more brilliant and beautiful than ours.

Prints they have in abundance, but only wood.cuts. The art of engraving up. on copper has, however, been recently introduced amongst them, and adopted with an eagerness which promises well for its cultivation.

Of the art of sculpture, no trace appears in any of the authors, beyond the oc- casional mention of a little ornamental carving; but we are told that the Japanese have attained as much excellence in casting as is compatible with utter disregard of proportions. They are said to cast handsome vases and images, and their bells arc remarkable for the beauty of the bas-reliefs that adorn them. These bells have no metallic tongues, but are sounded by striking them externally with wood. Of architecture, as an art, no idea exists in this country. Of military engineer. ing and navigation, as sciences, the Japanese are also ignorant, though they have the compass, and probably also possess such knowledge of military tactics as is sufficient for their purpose.

Of the lacker-work, known in this country as Japan, all the writers assert that no adequate idea can be conceived from the specimens commonly seen in Europe. What is really fine cannot be purchased by foreigners; and the best ever obtained by the members of the factory are received as presents from their Japanese friends. These are mostly deposited in the Royal Museum at the Hague; and although esteemed at home scarcely second-rate, are so really superior to the ordinary Japan, that no opinion should be given upon the beauty of the art, with out having inspected that collection.

The whole process of lackering is extremely slow. The varnish, which is the resinous produce of a shrub called urusi no ki, or 'varnish plant,' requires a tedious preparation to fit it for use. It is tinted by slow and long-continued rubbing upon a copper-plate with the coloring material; and the operation of lackering is as tedious as its preliminaries. Five different coats, at the very least, are successive- ly applied, suffered to dry, and then ground down with a fine stone or a reed; † and it is only by this patient labor that the varnish acquires its excellence. The brilliant mother-of-pearl figures consist of layers of shell, cut and fashioned to the shape required, and colored at the back; then laid into the varnish, and subject- ed to the same coating and grinding process as the rest, whence they derive their glittering splendor.

    The Japanese do not understand cutting precious stones, and therefore set no value upon them, which may account for the want of jewellery in the dress of both

* Dr. Von Siebold's Japanese museum is said to be richer and superior to the Japanese rooms in the Royal Museum. It has very recently been purchased by the Dutch government to add to their museum at the Hague.

    + Grinding with a reed, or rush, sounds strange; but Fisher's-words, "Met enn fignen steen of bies afgeslepen," admit of no other interpretation, the diction- ary affording no other signification of bies than 'rush,' or 'reed.' If we suppose the warehouse-master, or the interpreter through whom he obtained his informa. tion, to have included bamboo in the genus reed, the difficulty would be much lessened.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. 1.X.

281

Bexes. In metallurgy, they are, however, very skillful; and the beautiful work called syakudo, in which various metals are partly blended, partly combined, pro- ducing an effect much resembing fine enamel, is used in lieu of jewels for girdle- clasps, boxes, sword-hilts, &c. But the branch of this art in which they surpass most other nations, is the tempering of steel, and their sword-blades are said to be of transcendent excellence, bearing the fine edge of a razor,* and capable of cut- ting through an iron nail. They are valued accordingly; as we are told that a sum equal to £100 is not thought too much to give for a peculiarly fine sword-blade, whilst an old one, of exquisite temper, is esteemed beyond all price. Their ex- portation is prohibited, from some superstitious idea of an intimate connexion be. tween Japanese valor and Japanese arms, as a joint heritage from their divine

ancestors.

       Of the manufactures of the country, it is enough to say that they make øvery. thing wanted for their own use; that their porcelain has degenerated from its pristine superiority, it is said, owing to a deficiency of the peculiar fine clay; and that their most beautiful silks are woven by high-born criminals, who are confined upon a small, rocky, unproductive island, deprived of their property, and obliged to pay for the provisions, with which they are supplied by sea, with the labor of their hands. The exportation of these silks is likewise prohibited. ✦

* Fischer.

* [The_manufacture of paper in Japan is worthy of a more particular notice than has been given to it; the following_account, compiled from Kæmpfer, is ex. tracted from the Saturday Magazine. The tree from which the paper is made is the Broussonetia papyrifera, called kaji by the Japanese, and shoo by the Chinese. Some of the finest specimens we have seen are much whiter than the bamboo paper of the Chinese; the color of the common sorts is a yellowish white; and by much use the surface becomes furred though it does not soon wear out.

From a strong, branched, woody root, rises a straight, thick, equal trunk, very much branched out, covered with a fat, firm, clammy, chestnut-colored bark, rough without and smooth on the inside, where it adheres to the wood, which is loose and brittle, with a large moist pith; the branches and twigs are very fat covered with a small down, or wool, of a green color, inclining to purple.

£6

Every year, when the leaves are fallen off, or in the tenth Japanese month, which answers to our December, the twigs are cut into lengths, not exceeding three feet, and put together in bundles, to be afterwards boiled in an alkaline lye. These faggots are placed upright in a large kettle, which must be well covered, and boiled till the bark shrinks so far as to allow about half an inch of the wood to appear naked at the top; when the sticks have been sufficiently boiled, they are taken out of the water and exposed to the air to cool; the bark is then stripped from the wood and dried, and laid up to be manufactured at a future time.

"When a sufficient quantity is collected, it is soaked in water for three or four days, and when soft, the blackish skin which covered it is scraped off with a knife; at the same time also, the stroyer bark, which is of full a year's growth, is separated from the thinner, which covered the younger branches, the former yielding the best and whitest paper, and the latter only a dark and indifferent sort. If there is any bark of more than a year's growth, it is likewise picked out and laid aside for the purpose of making a coarser description of paper. All knotty particles, and discolored portions, are also picked out and laid on one side. After it has been sufficiently cleansed and separated, it must be boiled in clear lye. During the time it is boiling, it is kept constantly agitated with a strong reed; this part of the process must be continued until the bark has become so tender as to separate, when gently touched with the finger, into flocks and fibres.

      "After the bark has been boiled, it has to be washed, and this part of the busi. ness is of no small consequence in paper-making, and must he managed with great

VOL. X. NO. V.

36

282

Notices of Japan, No. IX.

MAY,

     With respect to commerce, the external trade is now limited to two Dutch ships, and twelve Chinese junks yearly. Nor is this all. The value of the cargoes these vessels import is limited; for the Dutch to about £75,000 sterling, for the Chinese to half as much more, annually. The exports have been progressively narrowed, until they are nearly confined to camphor and copper, and the quantity. of the latter to be allowed is matter of constant dispute between the Dutch fac- tory and the exchequer of Nagasaki. The government dreads the exhaustion of the mines.

     The internal trade is said to be very considerable, its activity and importance originating in the variety of produce, resulting from the great variety of climate. The islands constituting the empire of Japan and its dependencies, the Lewchew islands to the south, and Yezo and the Kurile archipelago to the north, extend* from the 24th to the 50th degree of north latitude, and from the 123d to the 150th of east longitude. Hence the southern islands, although all of them are not hot enough for the sugar-cane, teem with most of the fruits of the tropics, whilst the northern yield those of the temperate zones. The mountains abound in mineral wealth of every description, and the volcanic districts in sulphur.

     The circulating medium of the country is gold, silver, and copper, but only the gold and higher silver pieces can properly be called coin. They bear the mint stamp, and are of ascertained value; the smaller silver pieces, and all the copper, appear to pass by weight. Paper-money is likewise current in some principalities. † judgment and attention; if it is not washed long enough, the paper will be strong and of a good body, but coarse and of little value. If, on the contrary, the washing has been continued too long, it will afford a whiter paper, but too spongy in its texture and unfit to write on; so that the greatest care and judgment is necessary to avoid either extreme. The washing takes place in a running stream, the bark being placed in a sort of fan or sieve, which will let the water run through; it is stirred continually with the hands until it becomes a delicately soft woolly pulp. For the finer sort of paper the washing must be repeated; but, in this case the bark must be put into a linen bag, instead of a sieve, for fear it should escape along with the water. The bark having been sufficiently washed, it is spread on a thick smooth wooden table, and beaten with a wooden mallet until it is suffi. ciently fine.

      The bark, thus prepared, is put into a narrow tub with a slimy infusion of rice and of a root called oreni. It is then stirred with a thin clean reed, until the ingredients are mixed into a uniform liquid mass of a proper consistence; this succeeds better in a narrow tub, but the pulp is afterwards placed in a larger and wider-mouthed vessel. The moulds on which the paper is to be made are formed of the stems of bulrushes cut into narrow strips, instead of brass wire, as in Europe. Out of this larger vessel the leaves of paper are lifted, one by one, by means of the mould. Nothing remains now, but proper management in the drying of them. In order to this, they are laid up in heaps upon a table covered with a double mat, and a small piece of reed is placed between every leaf, which standing out a little way, serves afterwards to lift them up coveniently, leaf by leaf.

• Every heap is covered with a small plank or board of the same shape and size as the paper, on which are laid weights, first, indeed, very small ones, for fear the leaves, being yet very wet and tender, should be pressed into a solid mass; but, by degrees, the pressure is increased, for the purpose of pressing out all the water. The next day, the weights are taken off, and the leaves lifted up singly, by the help of the small reeds already mentioned, and carried on the palm of the hand to a long rough plank, on which they are placed, and afterwards dried in the sun."]

* Siebold.

46

[We have lying before us a Japanese work on numismatology, he Kin Gin

Dzu Roku, A Memoir and Plates on Gold and Silver [coins],

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. IX.

283

      A post for letters is established thoughout the empire, which though pedestrian, is said to be wonderfully expeditious.* Every carrier is accompanied by a part ner, to guard against the possibility of delay from any accident that may chance to befal him. The men run at their utmost speed, and upon nearing the end of their stage, find the relay carriers awaiting them, to whom the packet is tossed the moment they are within reach of each other. The relay postmen have started before the arriving postmen have stopped. The greatest prince of the empire, if he meets the postmen on the road, must give way, with his whole train, and take care that their course be not obstructed by him or his.

      By land, goods are conveyed on pack-horses and pack-oxen, that ascend and descend the already-mentioned staircase roads over the mountains. But the principal carriage of merchandize is by water; and for the navigation of their rivers and lakes, for fishing on the coasts, and even crossing the sea from island to island, the Japanese vessels are very sufficient. That they are utterly inade- quate to long voyages arises from the governmental system of seclusion. A sort of Japanese navigation act prescribes the form in which ships must be built, re quiring them to be so weak about the stern,† and the rudder to be so hung, that a rough sea must be almost certain to carry away the latter, if not to break a leak in the stern: a device pretty effectual to prevent the voluntary undertaking of long voyages, but that must cause the loss of many fishing-boats and coasting- Vessels.

      Almost all the Japanese craft are equally calculated for sailing and rowing. The largest are of sixty tons burden, and have one heavy mast, bearing an im- mense square sail, with a small mast and sail at the prow. The oars are very long, and not taken out.of the water in rowing. The rowers stand to their work, and are said to impel the vessel with extraordinary swiftness. Japanese sailors are generally bold and skillful. The fisheries are very productive, and the fisher- men in constant activity, fish being the principal food of the people.t

in 7 vols., octavo, published at Yedo in the 6th year of the reign of Bunchei, (a. d. 1822), which gives an account of ancient and modern coins. There are 550 kinds described, most of which are figured; the figures are colored by means of painted stamps, a branch of the typographical art which we have never seen attempted in any Chinese book. Gold, silver, and copper coins of different values are common in Japan; they are cast (if we are rightly informed) and not coined, but the finish of the workmanship and distinctness of the die would do credit to any artist, and far surpass that of the Chinese coins. We suspect there must be some uninten- tional mistake in this place, since Japanese coins have long been known and prized by amateur_numismatologists. Thunberg's collection sold for a large sum, and Titsingh also brought many specimens from Japan. The paper money in the principality of Figo is issued by the sovereign, and cannot be carried out of his dominions. Various devices are resorted to for the purpose of rendering the bills difficult of imitation. The law punishes forgery with death.]

      * Siebold. [It appears that this post, like that in China, is almost wholly for the convenience of the government, and its officers. Some of the princes too have their own postmen; private letters and parcels are carried much on the same plan as among the Chinese. Sée Chi. Rep., vol. IX. page 636.]

† Fischer.

       [The Japanese coast is filled with vessels, engaged in carrying cargoes, and in fishing. La Peyrouse met several of them, one of which he thus describes.

      "This vessel, which would carry about a hundred tons, had but one mast, very tall, placed in the centre, and apparently composed of several spars, bound together by copper hoops and wooldings. The sail was made of linen; and the

}

981

Notices of Japan, No. 1X.

MAY,

    In agriculture, the Japanese are equally diligent and successful. With the ex- ception of the roads, and of the woods required to supply timber and charcoal, hardly a foot of ground, to the very tops of the mountains, is left uncultivated.* Where cattle cannot draw the plough, men take their place, or substitute manual husbandry. The soil is naturally sterile, but the labor bestowed upon it, aided by judicious and diligent irrigation, and all the manure that can in any way be collected, conquers its natural defects, and is repaid by abundant harvests.

    The grain principally cultivated is rice, maid to be the best produced in Asia. Barley and wheat are likewise grown--the former for feeding the cattle; the lat ter is little valued, and chiefly used for cakes and soy. This last is made by fermenting together, under ground, wheat, a peculiar kind of bean, and salt. Beans of all sorts, some other vegetables, and various roots, are sedulously cul- tivated, as is the mulberry, solely for the sake of the silk-worm. A coarse sugar is said to be obtained from the sap of a tree as well as from the cane.

    But the grand object of cultivation, next to rice, is the tea-plant. This was introduced into Japan about the beginning of the ninth century, when the bonze Yeitsin, returning from China, presented the first cup of tea to the mikado Saga. Its consumption is now almost unlimited. To supply this demand, in addition to the large plantations where it is grown and prepared for sale, the hedges upon many farms consist of the tea-plant, and furnish the drink of the farmer's fami- ly and laborers. The finer sorts of tea require especial care in the cultivation.* The plantations are situated remote from the habitations of man, and as much as may be from all other crops, lest the delicacy of the tea should suffer from snioke, impurity, or emanations of any kind. They are manured with dried anchovies and a liquor pressed out of mustard-seed. They must enjoy the unobstructed beams of the morning sun, and thrive best upon well-watered hill sides. The plant is pollarded to render it more branchy, and therefore more productive, and must be five years old before the leaves are gathered. The process of harvesting the tea, or rather of storing the harvest, is one of extreme-nicety. The leaves for the finer and coarser teas are sorted as they are plucked; and no more of either kind are gathered in a day than can be dried before night. There are two modes of dry- ing, called the dry and the wet process. In the one, the leaves are at once roast- ed in an iron pan, then thrown upon a mat and rolled by hand; during the whole operation, which is repeated five or six times, or till the leaves are quite dry, a yellow juice exudes: this is called the dry preparation. In the wet process, the leaves are first placed in a vessel over the steam of boiling water, where they

   breadths were not sewed together, but laced in the direction of the length of the sail. It appeared of vast size; and two jibs, with a sprit-sail, composed the rest of the suit. A little gallery, three feet wide, projected on each side of the ves- sel, and reached one-third of her length from the stern. Over her stern were projecting beams painted green. The boat placed athwart her bows, exceeded by seven or eight feet the width of the vessel, which had a very ordinary sheer, a flat stern, with two small windows, very little carved work, and resembled the Chinese junks in nothing but the manner of fastening the rudder with ropes. Her side galleries were only two or three feet above the water-line, and the ends of the boat must touch the water when the ship rolled. Every circumstance led me to presume that these vessels were intended only for coasters, and could not be very safe during a gale of wind." See also Chi. Rep., vol. VI. pages 220 and 361.]

* Meylan.

+ Siebold.

1841

Notices of Japan, No. LX.

285

remain till they are withered; they are then rolled by hand, and dried in the iron roasting-pan. When thus prepared, less of the yellow juice exuding, the leaves retain a brighter green color, and more of their narcotic quality. Hence Dr. Vori Siebold conjectures that all black and green teas differ solely from the mode of drying the leaves, but without the use of copper. Yet it must be remembered that Linnæus held them to be of two distinct plants; and that in the best European botanical gardens-e. g. at this moment at Leyden, where Dr. Siebold resides- two distinct plants, with somewhat differently shaped leaves, are shown as the black and the green tea plants. When fresh dried, the tea is delicately susceptible of odors, and requires to the carefully guarded from their influence.

Ere quitting this subject, a few words must be said of Japanese gardeners, although their horticultural skill should rather entitle them to rank amongst the artists or artificers than the agriculturists. These gardeners value themselves alike upon the art of dwarfing, and also of unnaturally enlarging, all natural productions. They exhibit, in the miniature gardens of the towns, full-grown trees of various kinds, three feet high, with heads three feet in diameter. These dwarf-trees are reared in flower-pots, as alluded to in one of the poems before quoted; and when they bear luxuriant branches upon a distorted stem, the very acmé of perfection is attained; or, to speak more correctly, it might be supposed attained, had not president Meylan, in the year 1826, seen a box, which he describes as one inch in diameter by three inches high, but which Fischer repre- sents, somewhat less incredibly, as four inches long, one and a half wide, and six high, in which were actually growing and thriving a bamboo, a fir, and a plum- tree, the latter in full blossom. The price of this portable grove was 1,200 Dutch gulden, or about £100.

As examples of the success of these horticulturists in the opposite branch of their art, Meylan describes plum-trees covered with blossoms, each blossom four times the size of the cabbage-rose-of course, not producing fruit, which the Japanese appear not greatly to value-and of radishes weighing from fifty to sixty pounds; radishes of fifteen pounds weight he speaks of as of common occurrence, This gigantifying art, to coin a word, is more beneficially applied to fir-trees: many of these growing in the grounds of temples are represented as extraordinari- ly large. No dimensions of trunks are stated, but we are told that the branches springing at the height of seven or eight feet are led out, sometimes across ponds and supported upon props, to such a length, that they give a shade of three hund-

red feet in diameter. Thunberg also mentions a pine he saw near Odowara near Yede, the branches of which were twenty paces long, and supported on poles, the whole forming a vegetating covering over a summer-house.*

* [To the person acquainted with Chinese arts and agriculture, many of the operations described in this article will be seen to bear a very close resemblance to those practiced in the former kingdom. The cultivation of rice and tea is con- ducted on the same plan; the taste for vegetable monstrosities, as dwarfed trees, crooked and fantastic shaped bamboos, &c., is peculiar to both; many of the processes employed in agriculture, as will as in other occupations, are the same in both countries; and lastly, many of the features of the social system are apparently identical.]

286

The Hongkong Gazette.

MAY,

ART. IV. The Hongkong Gazette: Nos. 1 and 2, May 1st and 15th, 1841, containing official notices of the government and population of the island.

THESE two numbers afford the best information we have of the new possession of the British crown in the east. "A gazette will be published, under the authority of the government of this island (Hongkong), at semi-monthly periods from this date," May 1st 1841, "with a view to afford greater publicity to the general orders that may from time to time be issued by the officers of the British go- vernment and forces. The sheet will be filled up, when it is found necessary, by the insertion of such statistical returns and other pub- lic documents as shall be deemed valuable or interesting." The 1st number contains a translation of Keshen's memorial, published in our last, with the following public notices.

No. 1.

    Captain William Caine, of her majesty's 26th (or Cameronian) regiment of in- fantry, is appointed Chief Magistrate of the island of Hongkong, pending her majesty's further pleasure, and all persons repairing thither are required to respect the authority in him vested, agreeably to the annexed warrant.

(Signed) CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M. Plenipotentiary,

Charged with the government of the island of Hongkong, WARRANT. BY CHARLES ELLIOT, esquire, her majesty's plenipotentiary, &c., &c., charged with the government of the island of Hongkong:

    Pending her majesty's further pleasure, I do hereby constitute and appoint you, William Čaine, esquire, captain in her majesty's 26th (or Cameronian) regiment of infantry, to be Chief Magistrate of the island of Hongkong; and I do further authorize and require you to exercise authority, according to the laws, customs and usages of China, as near as may be (every description of torture excepted), for the preservation of the peace, and the protection of life and property over all the native inhabitants in the said island and the harbors thereof.

    And I do further authorize and require you, in any case where the crime, ac. cording to Chinese law, shall involve punishments and penalties exceeding the following scale in severity, to remit the case for the judgment of the head of the government for the time being.

Scale :-Imprisonment, with or without hard labor, for inore than 3 months; or

penalties exceeding $400.

Corporal punishment exceeding 100 lashes.

Capital punishment.

And I do further require you, in all cases followed by sentence or infliction of punishment, to keep a record, containing a brief statement of the case, and copy of the sentence.

And I further authorize and require you to exercise magisterial and police au- thority over all persons whatever (other than natives of the island, or persons sub. ject to the mutiny act, or to the general law for the government of the fleet), who shall be found committing breaches of the peace, on shore or in the harbors of the island, or breaches of any regulation to be issued from time to time by this govern- ment, according to the customs and usages of British police law.

    And I do hereby authorize you, for the police purposes herein-before specified, to arrest, detain, discharge, and punish such offenders, according to the principles and practice of general British police law.

1341.

The Hongkong Gazette.

237

       And all persons, subject to the mutiny act, or the general law for the govern ment of the fleet, found committing police or other offenses, shall be handed over to their proper military superiors for punishment.

And I do further authorize and require you, to detain in safe custody any per- son whatever, found committing crimes and offenses within the government of Hongkong, amounting to felony, according to the law of England; forthwith re- porting your proceedings herein, and the grounds thereof, to the head of the government for the time being. And for all your lawful proceedings in the pre- mises, this Warrant shall be your sufficient protection and authority.

       Given under my hand and seal of office at Macao, at this thirtieth day of April, in the year 1841.

CHARLES Elliot.

No. 2.

Rules and Regulations for the British Merchant ShiPPING.

       The following Rules and Regulations for the preservation of the peace, and the maintenance of due subordination on board the British merchant shipping, now at anchor or hereafter arriving within the port of Hongkong, are published for the information of all whom it may concern.

SECTION 1. Of the functions of the magistrale.

       REG. No. 1. To repair forthwith on board of any British ship, sending or making the signal for assistance (signals hereinafter specified), by reason of the riotous state of the crew, and, if a state of actual violence or resistance to authority shall exist, to take instant and energetic measures for the restoration of the peace and due subordination.

      REG. No. 2. Fire-arms in no case to be used on such occasions, except for the protection of life, till the magistrate, or in his absence the command- ing officer of the ship, or one of the constables of police, shall have, audibly and ineffectually, made the following proclamation (or words to the like effect): "Our sovereign Lady the Queeu commands all persons here assem- bled, immediately to disperse themselves, and to return peaceably to the per- formance of their duties. God save the Queen."

      REG. No. 3. The Magistrate on the spot, after summary inquiry into the occasion of any riot, may issue his warrant for the apprehension of any persons who shall appear to him to have acted as ringleaders, either leaving them for safe custody on board their own ships, or committing them to jail, as he may judge best under the circumstances.

      SECTION 2. Of the offenses cognizable by the magistrate, and the penalties thereunto attached.

REG. NO. 1.

Offence.

1. Drunkenness with riot, either on- board a ship, or on shore.

Penalty,

1. Confinement, with, or without, hard labor, not exceeding two weeks,- or a penalty not exceeding 20 shillings, or both-according to the particular gravity of the offense, and its frequency.

2. Either of the above penalties.

2. Contempt of the authority of the magistrate on any occasion of inquiry,

3. Disobedience of orders to desist 3. Confinement in the like manner, from riotous conduct, or abusive and not exceeding 14 days, or a penalty, menacing language tending to the dis- not exceeding £2 10s.; or both accord- turbance of the peace and of due suboring to the circumstances.

dination.

4. Ringleaders in riots, attended with 4. Confinement in like manner, not violence towards officers, or resistance exceeding one calendar month,- or a to the magistrate, or the constables of penalty not exceeding £5,-

                                       -or both, police, engaged in the restoration of according to the circumstances.

the peace.

REG. NO. 2. A decision against a prisoner involving higher penalties, or longer confinement, than those set down in the 1st and 2d specification, needs the the sanction of the head of the government, or in his absence of

238

The Hongkong Gazette.

MAY,

the deputy superintendent, and is therefore not to be pronounced by the Magistrate, till that sanction has been received, the prisoners being re- manded after the closing of the evidence on the defence.

Reg. No. 3. All other offenses of a more aggravated nature, or not spec- ified above, to be reported to the head of the government by the Magistrate, and the prisoners to be left in confinement according to the customs and usages of the sea service, pending further instructions under his hand; or to be committed to jail.

REG. No. 4. All prisoners to be maintained on the half allowance of provisions (without spirits), for which maintenance, a sum of 9d per diem shall be paid, and charged against their wages.

REG. No. 5. If the prisoner shall have been confined on board the ship to which he belongs, no charge shall be made for his maintenance.

REG. No. 6. Commanders of ships to which prisoners belong, under confinement according to these rules and regulations, are at liberty to hire laborers to supply their place, charging the daily expense to the wages of the prisoners.

    REG. No. 7. In the case of prisoners not having wages enough to meet the penalties they have incurred, the magistrate may remit the same at the end of their confinement, and the want of funds may not be made a ground for detention beyond the period originally determined.

    REG. No. 8. Commanders of ships, who have been called upon to pay penalties out of seamen's wages, to be furnished with a certificate by this government.

    REG. NO. 9. Nothing herein contained to be construed, to prevent the commander of any ship from restraining his crew, by such lawful means as he may see fit to use on his own responsibility, and without making applica- tion for police assistance.

    SECTION 3. Of the signals to be made by British ships, requiring assis- tance, by reason of the riotous state of the crew,

REG. No. 1. In the day time, ensign, union downwards to be hoisted wherever most conspicuous or convenient, and a musket to be fired to draw attention. In the night time, three or four lights in the after rigging, at irregular heights, and firing of single muskets, to be repeated at intervals till assistance arrives.

    SECTION 4. Of the rate at which payments are to be made, and the dis- posal of penalties.

    REG. No. 1. All payments and penalties, made or incurredunder these rules and regulations, to be at the rate of 5s. the Spanish dollar.

REG. No. 2. All penalties, levied agreeably to these regulations, to be for the use of Her Majesty, in part payment for the police expenses of this government.

SECTION 5. Of the manner in which seamen or others on board British ships are to seek redress.

    REG. No. 1. Any person having a complaint of ill usage to proceed respectfully to the commander, or commanding officer, and to request to be allowed to repair on shore to the office of the magistrate; and, failing redress by that means, to forward a letter to the head of the government, in order that such present inquiry and remedy may be had as the case demands.

Given under my hand and seal of office at Macao, this thirtieth day of - April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one.

CHARLES ELLIOT, H. M. Plenipotentiary,

Charged with the government of the island of Hongkong.

In the second number are given the names of the villages and hamlets on the island with the number of their estimated population.

1841.

The Hongkong Gazette.

280

The list is as follows, the names being written as they are pronoun-

ced on the spot.

No. 3.

the capital, a large town.

Chek-chu,

Population 2000

Heongkong,

A large fishing village.

200

Wong-nei-chung,

An agricultural village.

300

Kung-lam'

Stone-quarry-Poor village.

200

Shek-lup,

Do.

Do.

150

Tai-shek-ha,

Kwun-tai-loo,

大路

Soo-koon-poo,

Hung-heong-loo,

Soo-ke-wan, 掃箕灣

Stone quarry, a hamlet,

Fishing village.

A hamlet.

Hamlet.

Do.

Large village.*

1200

20

50

10

50

Sai-wan,

Hamlet.

30

Tai long,

Fishing hamlet.

5

Too-te-wan,

Stone quarry, a hamlet.

Tai-tam,

Hamlet, near Tytam bay.

88.

60

20

Soo-koo-wan, Hamlet.

30

Shek-tong-chuy,

Stone-quarry. Hamlet.

25

Chun-hum, Deserted fishing hamlet.

00

Tseeli-suy-wan, 淺水灣

Do.

.00

Sum-suy-wan, 深水灣

Do.

00

Shek-pae, 石牌

Do.

00

4350

:

In the Bazaar.

In the Boats,

Laborers from Kowlung.

Actual present population.

The Isthmus of Kowlung, or Tresemshatsuy,

tains about 800 people.

Kowlung 九龍, Taipang 大鵬, and Lye moon 鯉魚門

are villages and places near the isthmus.

* The population of this place is migratory: the place is often completely deserted, and the present influx of inhabitants depends upon the great demand for stone.

800

2000

300

7,450

g

con-

VOL. X. NO, V.

37

200

Journal of Occurrences.

MAY,

ART. V. Journal of Occurrences: the war spirit; the new_cabi- net; military operations at Ningpo and Chusan; murder of cap- tain Stead, and visit of the Columbine; death of Mr. Field and the loss of two British officers; pirates and fishermen; the new tsotang in Macao and his edicts; Lin's departure for Chě- keäng; punishment for talking on politics; interruption of trade at Canton; perfidy and cruelty of the government; the prefect's edict and captain Elliot's notice; the plot and attack on the British forces; seizure and release of American merchants; fires in the suburbs; rifling the factories; fire-rafts; bombardment; future operations.

   WAR, and nothing but war, seems now contemplated and resolved on by the Chinese, from one extreme of the empire to the other. War against queen Victoria and her subjects is to be waged, without mercy, at all points, and by all means. • Exterminate the rebels !' 'ex- terminate the rebels' are the reiterated orders that come in quick succession from the one man occupying the dragon-throne.

It is

said by many of the Chinese, who suppose they know the truth of the matter, that the emperor will listen to no proposals for an amicable arrangement with the rebels, and is angry when any such are brought to his notice, while he threatens with death the man who may dare to talk of making peace with the English!

    The gratification hoped for, as expressed on the 26th of January, in the address to my lords and gentlemen' from the British throne, cannot be realized: it was a vain hope: her majesty's sentiments, however, deserve to be put on record, in contrast with the imperial will of her elder brother. She says,

{ Having deemed it necessary to send to the coast of China a naval and mili- tary force to demand reparation and redress for injuries inflicted upon some of my subjects by the officers of the emperor of China, and for indignities offered to an agent of my crown, I at the same time appointed plenipotentiaries to treat upon these matters with the Chinese government. The plenipotentiaries were, by the last accounts, in negotiation with the government of China; and it will be a source of much gratification to me, if that government shall be induced, by its own sense of justice; to bring these matters to a speedy settlement by an amicable arrangement."

A new cabinet has been formed by the emperor. Keshen the 3d, and Elepoo the 5th, members of the Nuy Ko, or Imperial Cabinet, have been displaced, and Paouhing a Mantchou, and Yi- king also a Mantchou, have been placed in their stead. These new members are leading ministers of the war party; the first is distantly, and the second closely, connected with the imperial family. Concerning the fate of Keshen we have nothing as yet but We trust his life will not be required to appease the wrath of his master. The opinion has been expressed by many-officers and gentlemen-in Canton, that it will not.

rumors.

10

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

291

Military operations for defense of Ningpo and Chusan, since the British evacuated the latter place, have been carried forward with the utmost dispatch of which the Chinese are capable. This we were led to suspect from the tenor of imperial orders, and the circum- stances of the case. By the visit of the Columbine the fact of such works being in progress is confirmed. Similar preparations are going on along the whole line of coast, and heavy drafts are being made on the imperial and provincial treasuries for their accomplishment.

      The report of the death of captain Stead, of the Pestonjee Boman- jee, noticed on page 182 in our number for March, is confirmed by intelligence which captain Clarke obtained at or near Singlo, a few miles from Ketow point. The natives in one village fled in consterna- tion, as the Columbine's boat approached the shore. At another, not far from the same, the people, who manifested no alarm, declared that the foreigner had been beaten to death at the former village.

      The visit of the Columbine, capt. Clarke, with a dispatch for the government of Chěkeäng, was spurned, and all intercourse denied ; and not only so, but the most unequivocal demonstrations of hos- tilities were made. She returned to Hongkong on the 11th.

The death of Mr. Field, who was lost with two officers of the Blenheim on the 26th of March, has been already noticed, on page 182. The body of Mr. Field was found washed up on shore, off the the Barrier on the morning of the 1st ultimo. It was easily recogniz- ed, and the marks it bore left little or no room to doubt that his death had been caused by violence. The only conclusion regarding the two officers is that they have also suffered the same fate, by the same hands-doubtless piratical. The whole truth of this case, and that of the Black Joke and some others, will probably never be fully disclosed in this world: if it could, and the government were impli- cated, the case of these sufferers should be registered - with that of those in the Spanish ship Bilbaino. That the provincial authorities deny all knowledge of the case is naught-for again and again it has been proved that they know not what truth is.'

Pirates, always numerous in troublesome times on these coasts, have of late showed theinselves unusually bold and daring. In re- peated instances they have approached European boats; but, except it may be in the case of Mr. Field's boat noticed above, they seem not to have had any success.

On the unarmed fishing-boats, these 'water-thieves,' as the Chi nese call pirates, have been more successful. Several have been cut off-the boats destroyed and the people killed. This (the go- vernment being otherwise occupied) has constrained the fishermen to arm for self-protection. On the 10th of the month some three hundred of these fishing smacks were in the Inner Harbor of Macao. They have procured a few small guns and again disappeared. There are other reasons assigned for their presence here: one, given by the 'mandarins,' is that the fish outside are scarce just now! Another is that they were going to carry divers up the river to attack the queen's ships near Canton! It is quite true that they have succeeded in capturing some of the pirates.

292

Journal of Occurences.

MAY,

    A new tsotang, or under-magistrate, arrived in Macao about the middle of the month, and has issued several proclamations--one for- bidding the Chinese to sell strong drink to foreigners, another threat- ening punishment to bandits and robbers, a third prohibiting all the good natives to embrace the religion of the foreigners or to as- sume their dress, and a fourth disallowing their serving the barba rians as chair-bearers, nurses, &c.

Lin, late commissioner, governor, &c., left Canton for Chěkeäng early in this month, leading 2000 soldiers, for the defense of Ningpo, Chinhae, Chusan, &c.

    Summary punishment was inflicted upon a traitorous native' on the 8th instant in the streets of Canton. The man had presumed to speak regarding the business in hand between the Chinese and fo reigners. Accordingly it was necessary that he should be disciplined and others admonished. Two small sticks-little mimic flags were stuck one through each ear, so as to stand erect one on either side of his head. His hands were bound behind his back, and then with one man beating a gong before him, and another following to beat his bare back with a rattan, he was marched through the streets of the city under a guard of soldiers.

    Interruption of the trade, which had been carried on with unusual dispatch during the last month, and first half of the present, was at length again to be interrupted. The Horatio was the first ship that sailed from Whampoa after the raising of the blockade; she went to sea on the 12th ult. The Akbar followed on the 14th, and others soon succeeded. Thus business went on until Friday night, the 21st instant, when the scene changed, hostilities by fire and sword com- mencing at dead of night.

    The perfily and cruelty of the Chinese government has been ex- hibited in the late rupture in a manner that will deprive its officers of all sympathy for whatever sufferings they may have to bear. The conduct of these officers has been false and treacherous to a degree of which we had supposed man, even but half-civilized, quite incapa- ble. Such treachery deserves the strongest reprehension, with pu- nishment the most signal and exemplary. When such treachery can be practiced with impunity a government cannot long exist. And if the Great Pure dynasty must be supported by such means, its downfall will be no matter of surprise or regret.

When the advanced squadron reached the gates of the city, on the 18th of March, its government and people were spared without ran- som, on condition of their ceasing from hostilities, and allowing an immediate restoration of trade. There was neither doubt nor equi: vocation in the terms of agreement. Nothing but good faith was needed to render the engagement permanent aud safe. In a measure, the Chinese officers succeeded in restoring confidence. The people returned to their homes and shops in the city, and business com- menced. On the first of this month, there were all the appearances of peace, and little concern was manifested for the safety of persons or property in the provincial city. Such were the appearances; but they were all false and treacherous.

1841.

ers.

Journal of Occurrences,

293

This falsehood and this treachery were early known to many na- tives, as they now confess, and were suspected by some few foreign- Fresh troops were daily arriving at the city: but, it was said, they had been ordered hither by the emperor, and sufficient time had not elapsed for the orders to be countermanded. They were quar- tered in the city, because the temples there afforded them convenient shelter from the rains of the season. New cannon were being cast at Fatshan, because many of the old ones had become useless. Thus and thus the Chinese excused every overt act that attracted notice, while in secret they were maturing their plans and collecting the means for destruction.

When it was stipulated that Canton should be spared, it was known to the Chinese that the objects of the expedition would be pressed northward. The 15th of this month, according to common report, was the day fixed for a detachment to move from Hongkong and proceed to Amoy. Preparations were made accordingly. But before this day arrived, alarm in Canton had caused thousands of natives to leave the city; while the foreign merchants were by no means free from anxiety, believing, as many of them did, that the local govern- ment was meditating evil.

     On the 10th, H. B. M.'s plenipotentiary proceeded to Canton in the Nemesis; on the 11th had an interview with the prefect, and left the city the same evening. Captain Elliot was accompanied by Mrs. Elliot-thus showing the Chinese that he entertained no suspicions of their breaking faith. We do not know what information was gained by this visit and interview with the prefect, but we suspect there was no longer any doubt in the plenipotentiary's mind of the certainty of a speedy rupture. Operations were planned accordingly. The expedition to Amoy was postponed; and the only question ap- peared to be; How it should move on Canton-should it wait for the Chinese to complete their plans, or should it strike first?

On the 17th captain Elliot again left Macao; and the commander- in-chief, sir Hugh Gough, and the senior officer of the squadron sir Le Fleming Senhouse, at nearly the same time, proceeded with their forces towards Canton.

     The new guns, cast at Fatshan, had been brought to the city, and pumerous batteries were erected along the river's bank from one end of the suburbs to the other, manned by full complements of soldiers, Guns and soldiers were also lodged in warehouses and temples near the river, and elsewhere in the suburbs.

Under such circumstances it was not surprising that men, women, and children, fled from the city in crowds. Many of the foreign merchants also hastened to remove with their effects, when the pre- fect issued the following edict, under the seals of his office.

     "Yo, the acting prefect of Canton, issues this edict for public information, in order to calm the feelings of the merchants, and to tranquilize commercial bu- siness. It appears that the detachments of troops for Canton have all succes- sively arrived; the laws for the army, however, are very strict, and without being commissioned, soldiers can never move about to create disturbance. Still it is

294

Journal of Occurrences.

MAY,

feared that, as the military hosts are gathered in clouds, the merchants of all natious here engaged in commerce, hearing thereof, will tremble with alarm, not knowing where these things will end. "Some, frightened out of their wits, may abandon their goods and secretly go away; and others may not know whether to expect quiet or danger; while all cherish their fearful apprehensions: Those foreign merchants who are respectfully obedient, are viewed as noways different from the children of the celestial dynasty; and the imperial commis. sioner and general pacificator of the rebels, and the high ministers and joint commissioners, with their excellencies the governor and lieutenant-governor, ma. naging all things with due consideration, assuredly will not involve the good and the upright in trouble. These merchants, being respectfully obedient, ought to be protected from all injury, and the goods which they have brought with them ought also to be preserved in safety. It is therefore right to issue this edict for full information. And accordingly, this is published, for the assurance of the merchants of every country trading at Canton : to yon, who have always been respectfully obedient and long enjoyed our commerce, the high afficers of the celestial dynasty in fulfilling the gracious pleasure of his imperial majesty to- wards foreigners, will give full protection to the utmost of their strength. Should native robbers and bandits come out to plunder or molest you, they shall be punished with increased severity; and any goods carried off shall be restored, so that the smallest loss shall not be sustained. And you, the said foreign mer- chants, ought also, on your part, to remain quiet in your lawful pursuits, continu- ing your trade as usual without alarm or suspicion; but joining with the disturbed affairs will give occasion for subsequent repentance. A special edict."

This was

    Copies of this edict were put into the hands of the foreign mer- chants, and pasted up on their factories and in the steets. done Thursday, the 20th. The next day captain Elliot issued at Canton the following

"Circular.

    "In the present situation of circumstances her Britannic majesty's plenipoten- tiary, feels it his duty to recommend that the British and other foreigners, now reniaining in the factories, should retire from Canton before sunset.

(Signed)

CHARLES ELLIOT, H. B. M.'s plenipotentiary.

· British Factory, 21st May, 1841.

The plot was now to be developed-we say plot, because there is no doubt that, in violation of their engagement, the high officers had concerted and matured a scheme to attack simultaneously the Brit ish forces at all points, and also to make prisoners of all the foreigu merchants in Canton.

    At about 11 o'clock, Friday night, the Chinese began the attack, with fire rafts, which were sent off against the vessels of the advanc- ed squadron at Canton, and at the same time against the Alligator off Howqua's fort. This was the signal for general attack, when the cannonading commenced at every point where the Chinese could bring their guns to bear on their enemies, and was continued during the whole night. They failed utterly. The cutter Louisa and schooner Aurora, anchored off the factories, were in imminent danger both from the rafts and from the guns of a battery which had been erected abreast of them on shore. The Algerine returned the fire from the battery at Shameen with good effect; and the Goddess of Vengeance,' hastily getting up her steam, gave the Tartar lads on shore a good supply of round-shot, shells, and rockets. A few spent shots struck the factories, but did no great damage. Messrs. Coolidge

1841.

Journal of Occurrences.

295

and Morss, with a few of their people, were the only foreigners who

remained at the factories during the night.

Saturday morning, the 22d, at an early hour, a boat, belonging to the American ship Morrison, with four seamen, an officer and three passengers, pushed off for Whampoa, carrying a "chop" written in large characters, and so displayed that it could easily be read. The boat was fired on, before she was out of sight of the factories, and the passengers and the crew (excepting one man, who is said to have been killed) were taken prisoners, and carried into the city. Of the whole party, one only escaped without wounds, and some were se verely injured. Such conduct in the face of the prefect's edict ought not to be passed without the severest chastisement.

      The Louisa and Aurora received a few shot, but succeeded in re- tiring in good style down the Macao passage.

At daylight, the Modeste, Pylades, Algerine, and Nemesis-hav- ing now done with the fire-rafts,-moved up to silence the western fort at Shameen. This done, the Nemesis, followed by boats at some distance, pushed further on to the destruction of a large flotilla, lying pear the westernmost packhouses, where 39 war-junks and fishing smacks, and about as many fire-boats, were burnt.

     During the morning-at about 8 o'clock,-the rabble began to en- ter the factories; and all those east of Hog-lane were gutted, The large mirrors, chandeliers, &c., in the British Hall were all dashed to pieces. The clock and all its appurtenances were hauled down, not excepting the vane on the top of the belfrey. The rabble also entered the chapel, destroying everything they could lay their hands on, not excepting the beautiful stone monument and tablet, erected on the east wall in memory of one of the former chiefs of the British factory.

1

In the midst of this confusion, Mr. Morss succeeded in getting his boat from the factory to the river, and effected an escape to the Ne- mesis, and in safety reached Whampoa. Mr. Coolidge was not so fortunate, but was carried off into the city, where he met the party that had been taken from the boat of the Morrison. More particu lars concerning their treatment shall be given in the sequel-suffice it here to remark, that they were all released on Monday.

1

     The confusion and consternation of Saturday were evidently some- what increased by two fires, one of which broke out in the western suburbs near the fort at Shameen, the other was on the south of the river in Honam. They did not burn very extensively. By night, fall, all was quiet.

    The fire-rafts, boats and junks were numerous, and the Chinese hoped to have done great damage therewith. Besides those which were put in motion in Friday night, others on subsequent days were set on fire further down the river, attempting the destruction, some at the Bogue of the Wellesley, and some of the Scaleby Castle near the Second Bar. In the latter instance, which happened on the 24th, a very serious accident occurred. By a boat's crew from the Scaleby, one of the rafts on shore was boarded, and some of the

200

Journal of Occurrences-

   combustibles being thrown into the boat, and the raft set on fire, the boat drew off; but the fire seeming not to take, the boat returned and on reaching the raft an explosion took place, throwing combustibles and cinders into the air, some of which fell into the boat causing the powder there to explode: eighteen men were injured, of whom three or four are dead.

On Monday, the 24th, sir Hugh Gough and sir Le Fleming Sen- house, having the preceding day come up with their forces, move- ments commenced for general attack and bombardment. Full and exact details of these, it is not now in our power to give-but our rea- ders shall have them in our next. The course of the river is nearly due east from Canton to' Whampoa; and a few rods west of the fac tories, which are say 150 yards from the southwest corner of the city, is the Macao Passage running due south; a little farther west there is a bend, and you may ascend one branch of the river in a northerly direction, while the other branch leads off to Fatshan.

                           Up this northern branch, the land forces, about 2000 strong, with some ten or twelve pieces of artillery, chiefly in native boats, were moved by the Nemesis from the Macao passage; and during the same night, or early on Tuesday, they took possession of the heights on the north in the rear of the city-a position commanding the whole plain on which Canton and its suburbs are built. While this was being done, the forces for the attack on the south side had got into position at proper distances on the river from one extreme of the suburbs to the other. Attacked nearly at the same time both on the north and south, the Chinese troops soon fled from the hills and the suburbs into the city. Once on Tuesday the prefect came out to the Hyacinth with a flag of truce, but his proposals could not be accepted, and the cannonading continued during the 25th. The report is that $1,000,000 were delivered on board the Hyacinth on the 27th, and that similar payments were to be made on seven more days in suc- cession as a ransom for the city. Of the losses sustained, and of the arrangements for the captured, we are as yet uninformed. The numbers of killed and 'wounded, on the part of the Chinese must have been great. Some of the English troops have also fallen.

    Future operations, on the part of the British government, must now needs be pushed on with all possible dispatch and decision-the forces stopping nothing short of the walls of the capital. "China inust bend or break." The exclusive spirit of the government, and the false and treacherous conduct of its officers, are incompatible with every principle of right and reason. Strong reinforcements are, we suppose, near at hand, and the world has now just reason to ex- pect that Great Britain will do what is necessary to establish free and friendly relations between this empire and the other nations of the earth. The principles and usages common among other states, se- curing free intercourse with reciprocal rites and privileges, must be acknowledged and established here. Nothing short of this will an- swer the demands of the age, or the expectations of the many millions of spectators of the British expedition to China.

THE

CHINESE REPOSITORY.

VOL. X.-JUNE, 1841.- No. 6.

ART. I. Travels in divers parts of Europe and Asia; underta- ken by the French king's order to discover a него здау by land to China. By father Avril, of the order of the Jesuits. London, Tim-Goodwin, 1693.

PARK's narratives or rather those translated by him-were mainly concerned with travelers who came hither by sea; but those compiled by Avril refer to adventurers who reached China by land. Avril, however, was himself a traveler, having been pitched upon by his su- periors to discover an overland route for the Jesuits to China. 'Fa- ther Couplet,' says he, 'had made it his business to form an exact computation of the number of Jesuits who had set forward out of the several parts of Europe, in order to undertake the mission which he had quitted (after a residence of thirty years in China); and he found that of six hundred who had taken shipping for China, since our Company were permitted entrance into that kingdom, not above a hundred safely arrived there, all the rest being sacrificed by the way, either by sickness or shipwreck.' The travels contain many curious remarks in natural philosophy, geography, and history, with a descrip-- tion of 'Great Tartary,' and of the different people who inhabit there, to which is added a supplement extracted from the works of Hak- luyt and Purchas, giving accounts of several journeys overland from Russia, Persia, and the country of the Moguls to China, with the roads and distances of the places, &c., &c. The author's preface is worth reading. He says:

"It will not be improper in giving the publick an account of my travels, to ~

VOL, X. NO. VI.

38

306

Travels in Europe and Asia.

JUNE,

speak a word or two about the reasons that first induce'd me to undertake. them. Some years ago, the R. F. Verbiest of the society of Jesus, a famous missionary in China, acquainted his superiors in Europe, that the missions of the East were in great want of evangelical labourers; and that it would be easy to finish a considerable number of them, without exposing them to the hazards that had stopt the best part of those who were going into China heretofore by sea. ile show'd them that the Tartars in making themselves masters of China, have made a passage into that vast empire through Great Tartary, and that it would be easy to take the advantages of the commerce the Tartars had maintain'd ever since with the Chinese, to introduce the light of the gospel among both nations.

"This project prov'd the more acceptable, by reason that the loss of an in- finite number of zealous missionaries, who had consummated the sacrifice of their life, before they could reach the place of their mission, was sen- sibly regretted; and that this way, though difficult in the beginning, did not seem impracticable, since history mentions some travelers who have had the good fortune to reach China by land. But whereas the way thither was not particularly known, I was pitch'd upon by Providence, and by my superiors, for the better discovery thereof, and to get such instructions and informa. tions as were most proper to that end. I hope this relation may prove ser- viceable to such missionaries who find themselves inclin'd to carry the gospel into those countries; and that charitable persons who are zealous for the glory of God, will the more willingly contribute to a design so glorious, the execution whereof will daily become the less difficult.

6

• Besides the advantage of those missions which were the principal aim of my travels, my relation will give several new insights into sciences, and particularly into geography. I will give an instance of it in this place. None had yet been able to discover the exact distance of Peking. It is true, that the last relation of Siam, and the observations of the stars, and of the eclipses, taken in that country, and by the way, by the fathers of the socie- ty of Jesus, sent thither by his majesty as his mathematicians, had already show'd us, that our geographical maps had plac'd the extremities of Asia above 25 degrees too far. But yet Mr. Isaac Vossius, who had already print- ed his sentiments about the measures of longitude, taken according to the principles of astronomy, seem'd to distrust those kind of proofs, and was so far from allowing China to be nearer, that be pretended it lay even farther. The relation of Siam not having been able to convince him, he publisd'd a small pamphlet to maintain his first sentiments. But father Gouye, profes. of the mathemathics at the college of Lewis the XIV, refuted all his reasons, in a very solid manner, which satisfi'd the publick. The truth is, that both the ancient and modern astronomers have effectually made use of the eclipses of the moon to determine longitudes; and those who are anywise vers'd in those matters, know how much we are oblig❜d to Galileo for the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter, and the value we ought to set upon the learned and easy method the illustrious M. Capini has given us to find out

sor

i.

1841.

stars.

Travels in Europe and Asia.

307

longitudes with certainty, in discovering the cinersions and immersions of It is childish to say, that we will not find wherewithal to fill up the other hemisphere; and since M. Vossius was no better vers'd in the those principles of astronomy and geography, as M. Hire observes with reason, he might at least, to satisfie himself, have taken the trouble to look upon father Riccioli's geographical tables, or Dudly's maps. Vossius was undoubtedly & great man, and incomparably well read, nay, beyond any other; but at the same time it is undeniable, that the desire of appearing universal, often plunged him into gross errors, in taking him out of his province.

"In fine, I am persuaded, that were Vossius alive still, though never so prepossessed with his hypothesis, he would yield to the proofs that are set down in this book. And indeed, I have not only observed the stars to take the altitudes of the countries where 1 have been myself: I have also followed the rules he has prescribed to discover the exact extent of every country, the which he prefers to astronomical demonstrations: I have taken information from the inhabitants; I have spoken to them, I have heard from them how many days they employed in traveling to China, and how many leagues they travel'd a day: I have seen them go from Moscow, and come back from Peking: in a word, I have taken such precautions, that I have reason to believe, I have not been deceiv'd. All my third book is chiefly employed in relating the different roads the Muscovites and Tartars use to travel into China; for which reason I call this book, Travels into China, though I have not had the happiness to reach it myself, according to my expectation.

      ** L may add in this place, that though our profession in general obliges us not to be sparing of our lives and health, and to run to the utmost bounds of the world, through the greatest dangers, to the assistance of souls that are redeem'd by the blood of Jesus Christ, and that we are engaged so to do by a solemn vow; yet people may the better rely upon the certainty of the way 1 have discovered, by reason that this project has been approved and followed by the superiors of our society, who have always a particular eye upon our foreign missions, as the most essential and most holy part of our profession, and are always cautious not to expose their inferiors too rashly, without a reasonable ground, thereby to derive some advantage for the good of the church, and for the propagation of the true faith.

So that it may

be inferred from thence, that they would not have hazarded twelve of their brethren, all persons of singular merit, who are gone within these few months for China, and all of them by land, unless they had found some solidity in the memoirs and instructions I have given them. There are yet several others, who being moved by these examples, and the desire of suffer- ing much for God's sake, are disposing themselves for the same journey, who are resolved to take the way of the Yousbecs and of the Thibets, according to the design that had been proposed to me by the late count Syri, which he would have put in execution before this, had not death stop him in the mid- dle of his glorious enterprise.

308

Travels in Europe and Asia.

JUNE,

"In order not to lose time, and to make that road the easier for those that shall follow them, they go first to Constantinople, where they will find father Beauvollier, my companion of mission, who will be the bearer of the king's letters to the sha of Persia, and who will conduct this apostolical company to Trebizond, to Erzerum, to Irivan, and to Schamaki. They will tarry some time in all those cities, there to get new formation, and to establish good correspondencies, as also to leave two or three of their company there to serve, towards the conversion of the people of the country, and to give instructions to the missionaries that shall henceforward go that way. From thence they are to repair to Ispahan, which is the metropolitan of Persia, where they shall desire the sha's protection, and deliver our monarch's letters to him, whose recommendation and zeal will be very material for the solid establishment of our design. From Ispahan they will repair to Samar- kand, or to Bokara, there to make the like establishment, while father Gri- maldi, who has been chosen by the emperor of China to succeed the late father Verbiest in his place of president of the tribunal of the mathematics, will use his utmost endeavors to facilitate their design in China. They may likewise in that journey learn the language of the Chinese Tartars. They are also in hopes to meet in their way from Bokara to Peking, among the Chinese Tartars, some of those that have been converted in coming to the court of Peking. This road has been chosen preferably to that of the Mus- covites, both for the reasons set down in my book, and because father Grimaldi is always diffident of those schismatics, and dreads their appearing too much in China to the shame of Christianity, which they disgrace by their ignorance and brutality.

     "Our superiors design to send yearly some missionaries who shall follow the same road, and stop at Constantinople, at Trebizond, at Erzerum, at Iri- van, and at Schamaki, in the room of those who shall be sufficiently acquaint- ed with the languages to continue the voyage of China. The Persian tongue will also be of use to them, since it may serve to convert the Chinese-Maho. metans, whose conversion St. Francis Xavier did not neglect. It is much easier to bring them to the true faith, than those who are under the Turk's dominion. They may likewise usefully employ themselves during their jour. ney in bringing back the Greeks to the church of Rome, which some of them are pretty well inclined to, as it appears particularly by what I have related of the Armenians, and by the relation from Julfa, which I have annexed to this book.

       Julfa is a suburb of Ispahan, and one of the chief establishments of the Armenians in Persia.

     "Those missionaries will likewise have the advantages of being versed in the apostolical functions at their arrival in China, by the essays they shall have made by the way, and by the experience they shall have acquired. They will consequently be in a condition to labor effectually at their first arrival into China, which could not be expected from those who have hither- to been sent there by sea.

"Although these precautions seem to be very good, we are sensible at the

1841.

Travels in Europe and Asia.

309

same time, that he that plants, and he that waters, is nothing, and that none but God is capable to grant success to this great undertaking. The revolu- tion that happened in the kingdom of Siam has showed us, that God through the secret judgments of his providence, sometimes permits the best contrived measures, and the designs that are best laid for his glory, to miscarry, con- trary to our expectation. However, we shall have the satisfaction of having done our duty; and after all, we shall be too happy to acknowledge ourselves useless servants: we hope that all good Catholics will be willing to second this design, and to move the mercy of God by their prayers, since our sins perhaps hinder him from pouring his mercies upon China and Great Tartary."

Most of father Avril's observations, good and useful enough no doubt in his day, have been rendered valueless by subsequent and more accurate researches. Some facts and incidents are worthy of remark. The practice of medicine among pagan people which has attracted so much notice within these few years, is not a new thing. At Diarbeker, the capital city of Mesopotamia, our traveler was de- lighetd to find that the Jesuit fathers had made an advantageous use of physic, to settle themselves in a post most favorable to the Catholic religion, as appeared from the surprising progress they had made. Both in Kurdistan and Armenia the practic of physick had "gained more credit than the most authentic credentials."

The first book of the travels is filled with notices of Armenia. The second is occupied with memoranda of things seen or heard of in Tartary. The veteran traveler seems not to have thought much of the difficulties of passing across central Asia, nor would it be very strange if railways should erelong be constructed through those re- gions from one extreme of the continent to the other. Avril thus

speaks of the way to China by land.

16

Now in regard that every degree of the equator of the earth consists of twenty leagues, and every league of a thousand geometrical paces, follows, that every degree of the forti'th parallel, containing no more than fifteen leagues, and nine hundred and fifty-nine geometrical paces, the distance from Bokara to Peking in a straight line could be no more then about sixhundred and thirteen leagues, and to Kokutan the first city of the Chinese, four hun- dre'd sixty-three only. This being so, as it is easy for every one to be con- vinc'd of it, there is no question but that the way by land to China is much more safe and short than to go by sea, let the wind serve never so fair. I must confess that things speculatively consider'd, appear always more easy than they prove to be in practice, because we cannot certainly foresee all the accidents we may meet with in a long journey; nor do I pretend to warrant the person that undertakes them from all accidents. But as I have travel'd long enough in the east to know what success a man may have; I dare

+

310

Travels in Europe and Asia.

JUNE,

assure him after a long experience, that it appear'ed to me more easy in the practical part than it appears perhaps to others in the speculative. For not to speak of those who have formerly attempted very near the same things with success, as Paul the Venetian, Benedict Goez the Jesuit, and some others who happily arriv'd in China, by a way that was but very little known at that time, and then to come to a display that makes our way moře plain, by that little knowledge we have of the eastern countries, which are the nearest to us, there is no dispute of the casiness to go from France to Bo. kara, or Samarkand; from whence it is apparent by what I have said, that there remains no more then a fourth part of the way to reach Peking.

44

The voyage from Marselles to Constantinople is usually made in a month; from Constantinople to Teflis, and by the Black-sea, is but eight or ten days sail at most; from thence to Erzerum is but seven or eight more; from Eszerum to Irivan the most heavy laden and encumber'd caravans get to their journeys end in twelve or thirteen; from thence to Tauris, the ancient Ecbatana of the Medes, much about the same time. From this city, which is the second of Persia for spaciousness and beauty, and which is the resort and thoroughfair for all nations that traffick almost over all the East, there are two different ways to reach the Yousbecs. The first, which is the shortest, leads to the province of Kilan, so well known to all the world for the beautiful silks which are there wrought; and this journey is perform'd in three weeks; and being arriv'd there, you may embark upon the Caspian sea, the southern part of which is call'd the sea of Kilan; from whence you may in a straight line to Bokara, enter the river Oxus, which washes the wall of it. The second road lies through Ispahan, the capital of all Persia, and which, though it be the longest, is however the most com- modious, and the most advantageous to pass securely to the prince of the Yousbec's court. For in regard to this, it is a usual thing for that same Tartar prince to send ambassadors to Ispahan, and for the king of Persia to send as frequently his envoy to Bokara, to accommodate differences that arise between those two princes, by reason of the vicinity of their territories, 'tis an easy things to step into the trains of those publique ministers, when they return, or are sent to Bokara, which is not above a month and a half's jour ney from Ispahan."

    Book third contains an account of several roads into China, by land. The 1st, is that through India and the Mogul's cauntry. The 2d, is that which the merchants of Bokhara take, through Kaboul, Kashmere, Tourfan, Barantola (the residence of the delae- lama). The 3d, is that frequented by Usbecks, and Muscovites, along by the lakes near Irticks and Kama to the city of Sinkame, and thence through the territories of the Kalmucks and Mongols. The 4th, carries you through Tobolsk along the Obi, Szelinga, and thence through Mongolia. The 5th is throngh Siberia, "to the city of Nero-Sinki upon the river Szilkå; aster that to Dauri not far from

1841.

Travels in Europe and Asia.

311

Naiunai, and to Cheria that lies upon the entrance of China." The 6th, is through Nerczinski and Mongolia to the lake Dalai. "Out of this lake the river Argus takes its rise, which carries you, by water, to the river Yamour, into which it falls. Near the Argus are several mines of silver."

The inhabitants of all these central regions are next noticed, with cursory remarks respecting the Nestorians, Catholics, and the delae- lama,

"the patriarch of the idolatrous Tartars.' This patriarch, by the by, "is without all contradiction that same famous Preste-Jean, concerning whom historians have written so variously." Avril is inclined to think that St. Thomas reached China, and does not fail to notice the celebrated monument found at Singan foo in 1625. Haylon, a Christian author, of the blood reyal of Armania, "testifies that, in the thirteenth age, Tartary was full of Christians, that Kublai their emperor embarced the Christian faith, and that his brother entered into a religious war for the sake of Christianity." Albazin and its inhabitants, and the war in which they had been engaged, are briefly noticed.

     Concerning the little colony that first peopled America, father Avril obtained the followiug particulars from the vaivode of Smolènks, Mouchim Pouckhim "a person of as great a wit as a man can well meet with, and perfectly acquainted with all the countries that lie beyond the Obi, as having been a long time intendant of the chan- cery of the government of Siberia.

14

There is, said he, beyond the Obi, a great river call'd Kawoina, into which another river empties itself, by the name of Lena. At the mouth of the first river that discharges itself into the Frozsen sea, stands a spacious island very well peopl'd, and which is no less considerable for hunting the behemot, an amphibious animal, whose teeth are in great esteem. The in- habitants go frequently upon the side of the frozen sea to hunt this monster; and because it requires great labor and assiduity, they carry their families usually along with them. Now it many times happens, that being surpriz'd by a thaw, they are carry'd away, I know not whither, upon huge pieces of ice that break off one from another. For my part, added he, I am per- suaded that several of those hunters have been carry'd upon these floating pieces of ice to the most northern parts of America, which is not far off from that part of Asia which juts out into the sea of Tartary. And that which confirms me in this opinion is this, that the Americans who inhabit that country which advances farthest toward that sea, have the same physiogno- my as those unfortunate islanders, whom the over-eager thirst after gain exposes in that manner to be transportod into a foreign climate,'

"

Travels in Muscovy and Moldavia fill the fourth and fifth books,

313

Travels in Europe and Asia.

JGNE,

   Avril's object in traveling in those countries was to gain information from those who had traveled in the east, and at the same time to awaken in those he visited an interest in behalf of the eastern mis- sions. He had also to search for new missionaries, fitted for this hard service. His efforts were successful. He had with others enlisted the feelings of count Syri, and from king Lewis they obtained the following recommendatory letter to the emperor of China:

"Most high, most excellent, most puissant, and most magnanimous prince, our dearly beloved good friend, may God increase your grandeur with a happy end. Being inform'd, that your majesty, was desirous to have near your person, and in your dominions, a considerable number of learned men, very much vers'd in the European sciences, We resolved some years ago, to send you six learn'd mathematicans, our subjects, to show your majesty what ever is most curious in sciences, and especially the astronomical observa- tions of the famous accademy we have establish.d in our good city of Paris : But whereas the length of the sea voyage, which divides our territories from yours, is liable to many accidents, and cannot be perform'd without much time and danger: We have form'd thè design, out of a desire to contribute towards your majesties satisfaction, to send you some more of the same fa- ther Jesuits who are our mathematicians, with count Syri, by land, which is the shortest, and safest way, to the end they may be the first, near your majesty, as so many pledges of our esteem and friendship, and that at the return of the said count Syri, we may have a faithful account of the admira- ble and most extraordinary actions that are reported of your life. Whereupon we beseech God, to augment the grandeur of your majesty, with an end altogether happy. Written at Marly, the 7th of August, 1688.

"Your most dear, and good friend, Lewis."

one of

    The volume closes with "notes collected by Richard Johnson, who was at Boghar with Mr. Anthony Jenkinson, of the reports of Russes, and other foreigners giving an accouut of the roads of Rus- sia to Cathay, as also of sundry strange people." The first note is from one Sarnichohe, a Tartar: he makes the way thus; from Astrakan to Serachich ten days; thence to Urgense fifteen; on to Boghar fifteen; thence to Cascar thirty; and from Cascar to Cathay thirty days more. Notes by other Tartars give a different course, which is from Astrakan through Serachich, Urgense, Boghar, Ta- shent, Occient, Cassar, Sowchich, Camchick, to Cathay. The next note was sent out of Russia from Giles Homes." This contains an account of the "Samoeds," who feed upon the flesh of harts, and sometimes eat one another. They are very ill favored, with flat noses, but are swift of foot and shoot very well: they travel upon harts and dogs, and cloath themselves with sables and harts skins." Beyond this people "live another kind of Samoeds by the sea side,

"

1841.

Sketch of Yuhwang Shangte.

305

who speak another language: these people one month in a year live in the sea and never dwell upon land for that month." Another road to China is described as follows: It is

-

      "The relation of Chaggi Memet, a Persian merchant, to Baptista Ramu- sins, and other eminent citizens of Venice, concerning the way from Tauris in Persia, to Campion, a city of Cathay by land; which he travel'd himself before with the caravans.

From Tauris to Sultania, From Sultania to Casbin,

Days journey 6

4

From Casbin to Veremi,

From Veremi to Eri,

15

From Eri to Bogara, (Bokhara)

20

From Bogara to Samarchand,

5

From Samarchand to Cascar, (Kashgar) -

25

From Cascar to Acsu,

20

From Acsu to Cuchi,

20

From Cuchi to Chialis,

10

From Chialis to Turfon, (Turfan)

10

From Turfon to Camul

13

From Camul to Succuir,

15

From Succuir to Gauta,

5

From Gauta to Campion,

6

Campion is a city in the empire of Cathay, in the province of Tangut,

from whence comes the greatest quantity of rhubarb."

'A long and dangerous journey from Lahor to China, by Bene- dict Goez,' is not so easily traced as the preceding one.

                                      It was per- formed in the years 1603-05. Goez died in China; his companion, an Armenian, returned from Peking to Macao, and from thence to In- dia. The day may not be far distant when Europeans will again traverse every part of Central Asia, and with far greater facilities and better securities than were enjoyed in father Avril's day.

ART. II. Sketch of Yuhwang Shangte,' one of the highest deities of the Chinese mythology. Translated from the Sow Shin Ke by J. L. S.

    In the holy records it is inscribed, saying, In the former ages there was a country named Kwangyen meaou lõ (brilliant majesty and vast delight). The name of the monarch of this country was Tsingtih

VOL. X. NO. VI.

39

306

Sketch of Yuhwang Shangte.

2

JUNE,

(purest virtue). At this time the king had a royal consort, named Paou yuě kwang (the gem moon-light). This monarch had no sons, and upon a day he thought thus to himself: 'I am now well stricken in years, and am still destitute of a royal heir, and when my body shall have fallen and is no more, who then will there be to assume the care of the altars, the shrines, and the temples?' Having finished his musings he forthwith issued orders, summoning a large company of Taou priests to repair to his palace in order to perform religious rites. They hung up their bauners and screens, and arranged out in due order the offerings and utensils of worship. Throughout each day they unceasingly recited the sacred books, and offered up prayers to all the true sages.

And when they had continued their worship for half a year their hearts were as deeply attentive as at the beginning.

Upon a night the flowery empress, Paou yuě kwang, dreamed that she saw the great and eminent Laoukeun, together with a great number of superior deities, among whom were Poso, Yuhtseë, and Tsingtsing. They rode in cinque colored carriages, bearing vast resplendent banners, and shaded by bright variegated umbrellas. Here was the great founder Laoukeun sitting in a dragon carriage, and holding in his`arms a young infant, whose body was entirely covered over with pores, and out of which came forth unbounded splendors illumin ating all the halls of the palace, and producing a hundred precious colors. Banners and umbrellas preceded Laou- keun in the way, while he came floating in the air. Then was the heart of the (dreaming) empress elated with joy and gladness, and receiving Laoukeun with the ceremonies of congratulation and rever- ence, she kneeled down before him, and to him addressed her words as follows: 'At present our mouarch has no male descendants, and I wishfully beseech you for this child, that he may become the sove- reign of our hearths and our altars. Prostrating I look up to your mercy and kindness, and earnestly implore thee to commisserate, to give ear and grant my request!' Taoukeun3 at once answered saying, it is my special desire to present the boy to you; whereupon the em- press, with much thankfulness received him. When she had thus received the child, her spirit returned from pursuit of the dream (i. e. she awoke), and she then found herself a year advanced in preg-

nancy.

In the forty-third year of the cycle, first month, ninth day, and at twelve o'clock, the birth took place in a near apartment of the palace. At the time of the birth, a resplendent light poured forth from the pores of the child's body, which filled the whole country with brilliant

1841.

Sketch of Yuhwang Shangte.

307

    glare. His entire countenance was supereminently beautiful, so that none became weary in beholding him. When in childhood, he pos- sessed the clearest intelligence and compassion, and taking the posses- sions of his country, and the funds of the national treasury, distributed the whole to the poverty stricken, to those burdened with afflictions, to widowers and widows, to orphans and the childless, to those who had no homes, to the sick, to the halt, the deaf, the blind, and the lame. To all classes of people he was benevolent, affectionate, kind, and accommodating. Songs of commendation resounded in his praise, and the fame of his principles extending to distant regions all- hearts beneath the heavens were drawn out in reverence toward this eminent youth, while his father the king rejoiced with increasing joy.

Not long after this the demise of the king took place, and the son succeeded to the government. Seriously reflecting upon the insta- bility of human life, he gave orders for his high ministers to assume the duties of the throne. Then forsaking his kingdom he repaired to the hills of Pooming, and gave himself up to religious devotedness, and having thus perfected himself in merit he ascended to heaven, where he secured eternal life. He, however, descended again to earth eight hundred times, but still rejecting his kingdom, and sever- ing his affections from all worldly care he became a companion of the common people, and instructed them in his doctrines. At the close of these eight hundred descensions, he engaged in medical practice, and in his attendance upon the sick he successfully rescued the peo- ple from disease, and administered to them peace and gladness, These eight hundred descensions being all ended, he made still eight hundred more, and throughout all places from hades to earth he ex- ercised universal beneficence, expounded all abstruse doctrines, eluci- dated the spiritual literature, magnanimously promulged abroad the correct renovating ethics, gave glory to the widely spread merits of the gods, assisted the nation, and saved the people.

      After the above had terminated, he again descended eight hundred times to earth, and though men destroyed his body and put an end to his earthly existence, yet he patiently bore it all, even parting with his own blood and flesh. Thus in the dissemination of his holy prin- ciples, he made three thousand two hundred visitations to earth, aud became the first of the verified golden genii, and was denominated the pure and immaculate one, self-existing, of highest intelligence.

In the records of Chintsung of the Sung dynasty, it is stated that in the seventh year and ninth moon of the reign of Tachung tseäng foo, his majesty addressing himself to his privy ministers, said, I have

308

Sketch of Yuhwang Shangte.

JUNE,

been desirous together with all the ministers and people of the em- pire to make an unanimous exaltation of the title and office of the gem imperial holy one (Shangte). During the first year of the reign of Teën, the first moon, and first day, his majesty repaired to the Taetsoo palace, and reverently proclaimed Yuhwang (Shangte) the great celestial and holy emperor, to be, the great predecessor who spread out the heavens, the holder of charms, ruler of the times of the heavenly bodies, containing the spiritual essence and enveloped in reason, the most venerated of the luminous heavens, the gem like, imperial, vast and CELESTIAL Emperor.

The couplets (on the door-posts of the temples) are

1. The holder of the charms of the luminous heavens, while all are everywhere the recipients of his cherishing bounty.

2. The emperor Shangte in his gem palace rules all spirits and men, and the whole universally remain subject to his instructions.

    (The translator subjoins an extract from a sketch of the three great original * potentates, also found in the Sow Shin Ke.)

The three great original supreme ones in the beginning became the bones of the genuine genii, and by a transformation were chang ed into life, and being re-born became human beings. Their father's surname was Chun, and his name Tszechun; and he was also desig- nated the man Chunlang. He was possessed of supereminent intel- ligence and excellence.

Upon a certain time there were three daughters of the dragon king who of their own accord, vowed that they would become the wives of Chunlang. These three sisters bore him three sons, all of whom possessed intellectual capacities of vast extent, and were un- bounded in their knowledge of the recondite arts. The celestial superior, perceiving that they possessed such vast intellectual capaci- ties, and that the manifestations of their illustrious powers were inex- haustible, forthwith bestowed upon them their respective ranks as follows:

SHANGYUEN to become a celestial ruler, the sovereign prince of the red mystery and the bestower of happiness; the anniversary of whose birth to be celebrated on the fifteenth of the first moon.

   CHUNGYUEN to become a terrestrial ruler, the sovereign prince of departed spirits, and pardoner of sins-anniversary to occur on the fifteenth of the seventh moon.

Anniver

HEAYUEN to become a ruler of the waters, the sovereign prince of the regions of the rising sun, and disperser of difficulties. şareto take place on the fifteenth of the tenth month.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. X.

309

1. The Chinese worship two deities under the title of Shangte, the one Yuhwang Shangte, the gem imperial

they denominate Shangte, and which is meant in the sketch here translated; and the other

Heuenteën Shangte, or Shangte of the sombre heavens, a sketch of which is also contained in the Sow Shin Ke. The Yuhwang Shangte holds the highest rank in the whole Chinese mythology, and is a very popu- lar idol. Mr. Medhurst has written a Christian tract of eight pages, enti- tled The Birth-day of Shangte, which seems to have more especial reference to the Heuenteën Shangte.

2. The sect of Taou, or Rationalism, was founded by

Laoukeun

who was cotemporary with Confucius, about 550 years before the Christian era. The Sow Shin Ke contains a sketch of the wonderful origin of Laou- keun.

      3. Taoukeun, the Prince of Reason, is only another appellation of Laoukeun.

4. The Chinese make three of their cycles of sixty years comprise one period or age; the first of the three they call

Chungyuen, and the third

Shangyuen, the second Heäyuen, and as these three

deities bear respectively the same appellations it is possible that they might have derived it from this manner of reckoning the cycles. The Shangyuen, Chungyuen, and Heäyuen deities are said to be principally worshiped by the

doctors of the Taou sect.

5.

           Lungwang, the dragon king, is represented as the deity pre- siding over oceans, seas, and fishes, but is not regarded as an object of worship. He is the Chinese Neptune.

6.

Teëntsun the celestial superior, here meane Yuhwang Shangte. The phrase is given in Morrison's Dictionary as an epithet of Budha,' It is perhaps so applied on certain occasions, but not in the present instance.

1

ART. III. Notices of Japan, No. X.: sketch of the religious sects of the Japanese, anul principal particulars of the modern his- tory of Japan.

THE history of Japan is, in its commencement at least, so connected with the religion of the country, that, in the little here intended to be said of either, the latter seems naturally to take precedence of the former.

The original national religion of Japan is denominated Sinsyu, from the worde sin (the gods) and syu, (faith); and its votaries are called Sintoo. Such, at least, is the general interpretation; but Dr. Von Siebold asserts the proper indigenous name of this religion to be Kami-no-michi, meaning, the way of the kami,' or gods, which the Chinese having translated into Shin-taou, the Japanese subsę, quently adopted that appellation, merely modifying it into Sintoą,

4

310

Notices of Japan, No. X.

JUNE,

     The Sintoo mythology and cosmogony, being as extravagantly absurd as those of most oriental nations, possess little claim to notice, except in such points as are essential to the history of Japan, and the supremacy of the mikado.

     From * primeval chaos, according to the Japanese, arose a self-created supreme god, throned in the highest heaven-as implied by his somewhat long-winded name of Ame-no-mi-naka nusimo-kami-and far too great to have his tranquillity disturbed by any cares whatever. Next arose two creator gods, who fashioned the universe out of chaos, but seem to have stopped short of this planet of ours, leaving it still in a chaotic state. The universe was then governed for some myriads of years by seven successive gods, with equally long names, but col- lectively called the celestial gods. To the last of these, Iza-na-gi-mikoto, the only one who married, the earth owes its existence. He once upon a time thus addressed his consort, Iza-na-mi-mikoto : There should be somewhere a habita. ble earth; let us seek it under the waters that are boiling beneath us." He dipped his jeweled spear into the water, and the turbid drops, trickling from the weapon as he withdrew it, congealed, and formed an island. This island, it should seem, was Kiusiu, the largest of the eight that constituted the world, alias Japan. Iza- na-gi-mikoto next called eight millions of gods into existence, created the ten thousand things' (yorodzu no mono), and then committed the government of the whole to his favorite and best child, his daughter, the sun-goddess, known by the three different names of Ama-terasu-oho-kami, Ho-hiru-meno-mikoto, and Ten-sio- dai-zin, which last is chiefly given her in her connection with Japan.

With the sovereignty of Ten-sio-dai-zin began a new epoch. She reigned, instead of myriads, only about 250,000 years, and was followed by four more gods or demi-gods, who, in succession, governed the world 2,091,042 years. These are terrestrial gods; and the last of them, having married a mortal wife, left a mortal son upon earth, named Zin-mu-ten-wou, the immediate ancestor of the mikado.

     But of all these high and puissant gods, although so essentially belonging to Sintoo mythology, none seem to be objects of worship except Ten-sio-dai-zin, and she, though the especial patron deity of Japan, is too great to be addressed in prayer, save through the mediation of the kami, or of her descendant, the mikado. The kami, again, are divided into superior and inferior, 492 being born gods, or perhaps spirits, and 2,640 being deified or canonized men. They are all mediatory spirits.

Their temples

are a

But with divinities thus numerous, the Sintoo are no idolaters. are unpolluted by idols, and the only incentives to devotion they contain mirror, the emblem of the sour's perfect purity, and what is called a gohei, con- sisting of many strips of white paper, which, according to some writers, are blank, and merely another emblem of purity; according to others, are inscribed with moral and religious sentences. The temples possess, indeed, images of the kami to whom they are especially dedicated, but those images are not set up to be worshiped; they are kept, with their temple treasures, in some secret receptacle, and only exhibited upon particular festivals. Private families are said to have images of their patron kami in shrines and chapels adjoining the verandah of the temple; but Meylan confidently avers that every yasiro is dedicated solely to the one Supreme God, and Siebold considers every image as a corrupt innovation. He seems to think that in genuine Sinsyu, Ten-sio-dai-zin alone is or was wor

* Siebold; the authority for nearly the whole of this chapter.

3

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. X.

311

     shiped, the kami being analogous to Catholic saints, and that of these no images existed prior to the introduction of Budhistic idolatry.

There is, as there was likely to be, somo confusion in the statements of different writers upon the whole of this topic; amongst others, respecting the Sintoo views of a future state, of which Dr. Siebold, upon whom the most reliance must ever be placed, gives the following account : "The Sintooist has a vague notion of the soul's immortality; of an eternal future state of happiness or misery, as the reward respectively of virtue or vice; of separate places whither souls go after death. Heavenly judges call them to account. To the good is allotted Paradise, and they enter the realm of the kami. The wicked are condemned, and thrust into hell."

The duties enjoined by Sinsyu,* the practice of which is to insure happiness here and hereafter, are five (happiness here, meaning a happy frame of mind): Ist. Preservation of pure fire, as the emblem of purity, and instrument of puri- fication. 2d. Purity of soul, heart, and body to be preserved; in the former, by obedience to the dictates of reason and the law; in the latter, by abstinence from whatever defiles. 2d. Observance of festival days. 4th. Pilgrimages. 5th. The worship of the kami, both in the temples and at home.

The impurity to be so sedulously avoided is contracted in various ways; by associating with the impure; by hearing obscenc, wicked, or brutal language ; by eating of certain meats; and also by contact with blood and with death. Hence, if a workman wound himself in building a temple, he is dismissed as impure, and in some instances the sacred edifice has been pulled down and begun anew. The impurity is greater or less-that is to say, of longer or shorter duration-accord- ing to its source; and the longest of all is occasioned dy the death of a near rela- tion. During impurity, access to a temple, and most acts of religion, are for- bidden, and the head must be covered, that the sun's beams may not be defiled by falling upon it.

But purity is not recovered by the mere lapse of the specified time. A course of purification must be gone through, consisting chiefly in fasting, prayer, and the study of edifying books in solitude. Thus is the period of mourning for the dead to be passed. Dwellings are purified by fire. The purified person throws aside the white mourning dress, worn during impurity, and returns to society in a festal garb.

The numerous Sintoo festivals have been already alluded to; and it may suffice to add, that all begin with a visit to a temple, sometimes to one especially ap- pointed for the day. Upon approaching, the worshiper, in his dress of ceremony, performs his ablutions at a reservoir provided for the purpose; he then kneels in the verandah, opposite a grated window, through which he gazes at the mirror; then offers up his prayers, together with a sacrifice of rice, fruit, tea, sake, or the like; and when he has concluded his orisons, depositing money in a box, he with- draws.

The remainder of the day he spends as he pleases, except when appro. priate sports belong to it. This is the common form of kami worship at the temples, which are not to be approached with a sorrowful spirit, lest sympathy should disturb the happiness of the gods. At home, prayer is similarly offered before the domestic housc oratory and garden miya; and prayer precedes every mical.

* Sicbold.

312

Notices of Japan, No X.

JUNE,

The money contributions, deposited by the worshipers, are destined for the support of the priests belonging to the temple. The Emtoo priests are called kami musí, or the landlords of the gods; and in conformity with their name, they reside in houses built within the grounds of their respective temples, where they receive strangers very hospitably. The kami nusi marry, and their wives are the priestesses, to whom specific religious rites and duties are allotted; as, for instance, the ceremony of naming children, already described.

But pilgrimage is the grand act of Sintoo devotion, and there are in the empire two-and-twenty shrines commanding such hornage; one of these is, how. over, so much more sacred than the rest, that of it alone is there any occasion to speak. This shrine is the temple of Ten-sio-dai-zin, at Isye, conceived by the great body of ignorant and bigoted devotees to be the original temple, if not the birth-place, of the sun-goddess. To perform this pilgrimage to Isye, at least once, is imperatively incumbent upon man, woman, and child, of every rank, and, it might almost be said, of every religion, since even of professed Budhists, only the bonzes ever exempt themselves from this duty. The pious repeat it annually. The singoun, who has upon economical grounds been permitted, as have some of the greater princes, to discharge this duty vicariously, sends a yearly embassy of pilgrims to Isye. Of course, the majority of the pilgrims journey thither as conveniently as their circumstances admit; but the most correct mode is to make the pilgrimage on foot, and as a mendicant, carrying a mat on which to sleep, and a wooden ladle with which to drink. The greater the hardships endured, the greater the merit of the voluntary mendicant.

It need hardly be said that no person in a state of impurity may undertake this pilgrimage; and that all risk of impurity must be studiously avoided during its continuance; and this is thought to be the main reason why the Budhist priests are exempt from a duty of compliance with Sinsya, enjoined to their flocks. The bonzes, from their attendance upon the dying and the dead, are, in Sintoo estimation, in an almost uninterrupted state of impurity. But for the Isye pilgrimage, even the pure prepare by a course of purification. Nay, the contamination of the dwelling of the absent pilgrim would, it is conceived, be attended with disastrous consequences, which are guarded against by affixing a piece of white paper over the door, as a warning to the impure to avoid defiling

the house.

    When the prescribed rites and prayers at the Isye temple and its subsidiary miya are completed, the pilgrim receives from the priest who has acted as his director a written absolution of all his past sins, and makes the priest a present proportioned to his station. This absolution, called the oko-haraki, is ceremo. niously carried home, and displayed in the absolved pilgrim's house. And from the importance of holding a recent absolution at the close of life, arises the necessity of frequently repeating the pilgrimage. Among the Isye priestesses, there is almost always one of the daughters of a mikado.

    The Føye temple is a peculiarly plain, humble, and unpretending structure, and really of great antiquity, though not quite so great as is ascribed to it, and is surrounded by a vast number of inferior miya. The whole too is occupied by priests, and persons connected with the temple, and depending upon the con- course of pilgrims for their support. Every pilgrim, upon reaching the sacred spot, applies to a priest to guide him through the course of devotional exercises incum- bent upon him.

bell.

Notices of Japan, No. X

313

      In addition to the kami nusi, who constitute the regular clergy of Japan, there are two institutions of the blind, which are called religious orders, although the members of one of them are said to support themselves chiefly by music-even constituting the usual orchestra at the theatres. The incidents to which the foundation of these two blind fraternities is severally referred, are too romantic, and one is too thoroughly Japanese, to be omitted.

The origin of the first, the Bussats sato, is, indeed, purely sentimental. This fraternity was instituted, we are told, very many centuries ago, by Senmimar, the younger son of a mikado, and the handsomest of living men, in commemo- ration of his having wept himself blind for the loss of a princess, whose beauty equaled his own. These Bussats sato had existed for ages, when, in the course of civil war, the celebrated Yoritomo (of whom more will be spoken) defeated his antagonist, the rebel prince Feki (who fell in the battle), and took his general, Kakekigo, prisoner. This general's renown was great throughout Japan, and earnestly did the conqueror strive to gain his captive's friendship; he loaded him with kindness, and finally offered him his liberty. Kakekigo replied, "I can love none but my slain master. I owe you gratitude; but you caused prince Feki's death, and never can I look upon you without wishing to kill you. My best way to avoid such ingratitude, to reconcile my conflicting duties, is never to see you more; and thus do I insure it." As he spoke, he tore out his eyes and presented them to Yoritomo on a salver. The prince, struck with admiration, released him; and Kakekigo withdrew into retirement, where he founded the second order of the blind, the Fekisado. The superiors of these orders réside at Miyako, and appear to be subject alike to the mikado, and to the temple lords at

Yedo.

      Sinayu is now divided into two principal sects: the Yuitz, who profess them. selves strictly orthodox, admitting of no innovation; they are said to be few in number, and consist almost exclusively of the kami nusi; and Siebold doubts whether even their Sinsyu is quite pure: the other, the Riobu Sintoo, meaning two-sided kami worship, but which might perhaps be Englished by Eclectic Sinsyu, and is much modified, comprises the great body of Sintoo. Any explanation of this modification will be more intelligible after one of the co-existent religions-- namely, Budhism-shall have been spoken of.

      It might have been anticipated that a religion, upon which is thus essentially founded the sovereignty of the country, must for ever remain the intolerant, exclusive faith of Japan, unless superseded for the express purpose of openly and avowedly deposing the son of heaven. But two other religions co-exist, and have long co-existed, there with Sinsyu.

      The first and chief of these is Budhism, the most widely diffused of all false creeds, as appears by an authentic estimate of their respective followers, in which we find, 252,000,000 Mohammedans, 111,000,000 believers in Brahma, and 315,000,000 Budhists. A very few words concerning this creed may help to ex- plain its co-existence and actual blending with Sinsyu.

      Budhism does not claim the antiquity, the cosmogonic dignity, or the self. creative origin of Sinsyu. Its founder, Sakya Sinha-called Syaka in Japan- was not a god, but a man, who, by his virtues and austerities, attaining to divine honors, was then named Budha, or the Sage, and founded a religion. His birth is placed at the earliest 2420, and at the latest, 543 years before the Christian

VOL. X. NO. VI.

40

314

era.

Notices of Japan, No. X.

JUNE,

Since his death and deification, Budha is supposed to have been incarnate in some of his principal disciples, who are, like hunself, deified and worshiped, in subordination, however, to the Supreme God, Budha Amida. Budhism is essentially idolatrous; and in other respects, its tenets and precepts differ from those of Sinsyu, chiefly by the doctrine of metempsychosis, whence the prohibi- tion to take animal life, the theory of a future state, placing happiness in absorp. tion into the divine essence, and punishment in the prolongation of individuality by revivification in man or the inferior animals; and by making the priesthood a distinct order in the state, bound to celibacy.

     The Budhist somewhat hyper-philosophic theory of heaven does not appear to have been taught in Japan; and in the rest, there is evidently nothing very in- compatible with Sinsyu. The Budhist bonze, who, after it had for five hundred years failed to gain a footing, established his faith in Japan A. D. 552, skillfully obviated objections, and enlisted national prejudices on his side. He represented either Ten-sio-dai-zin as having been an avatar or incarnation of Amida, or Bud. ha of Ten-sio-dai-zin-which of the two does not seem certain-and a young boy, the eldest son of the reigning mikado's eldest son, as an avatar of some patron god. This flattering announcement obtained him the training of the boy, who, as a man, refused to accept the dignity of mikado,* although he took an active part in the government of his aunt, raised subsequently to that dignity. He founded several Budhist temples, and died a bonze in the principal of thess temples.

Budhism was now fully established, and soon became blended with, thereby modifying, Sineyu, thus forming the second sect, called Riobu Sinsyu. There are inany other sects in which, on the other hand, Budhism is modified by Sinsyu; and these varieties have probably given rise to the inconsistencies and contradictions that frequently occur in the different accounts of Sinsyu. Fur- ther, Budhism itself is, in Japan, said to be divided into a high and pure mystic creed for the learned, and a gross idolatry for the vulgar. The Yama-busi hermits are Budhist monks, although, like the priests of the Ikko-ayu, they are allowed to marry and to eat animal food.

*

     The third Japanese religion is called Sintoo, meaning the way of philoso phers; and, although by all writers designated as a religion, far more resem bles a philosophic creed, compatible with almost any faith, true or false. It consists merely of the moral doctrines taught by the Chinese Kung footsze (Confucius), and of some mystic notions touching the human soul-not very dissimilar to those of high Budhism-totally unconnected with any mythology or any religious rites.

Sintoo is said to have been not only adopted, immediately upon its introduc. tion into Japan, by the wise and learned, but openly professed, accompanied by the rejection of Sinsyu mythology and worship, and by utter scorn for Budhist idolatry. But when the detestation of Christianity arose, some suspicions appear to have been conceived of Sintoo, as tending that way. Budhism was, on the contrary, especially favored, as a sort of bulwark against Christianity; and thence- forward every Japanese was required to have an idol in his house--some say a Budhist idol; others, the image of his patron kami. The last is the more proba. ble view, as Dr. Von Siebold distinctly states that, at the present day, the lower * Klaproth.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. X.

315

orders are Budhists; the higher orders, especially the wisest amongst them, secretly Sintooists, professing and respecting Sinsyu, avowedly despising Bud hism; and all, Sintooists and Budhists alike, professed Sintoo.

      Such is said to be the present state of religion in Japan. But the subject must not be closed without mentioning a story told by president Meylan, of a fourth religion, co-existing with these three, prior to the arrival of the first Chris. tian missionaries. He says that about A. D. 50, a Brahminical sect was introduc. ed into Japan, the doctrines of which were, the redemption of the world by the son of a virgin, who died to expiate the sins of men, thus insuring to them a joyful resurrection; and a trinity of immaterial persons, constituting one eternal, omnipotent God, the creator of all, to be adored as the source of all good and goodness.

       The name of a Brahminical sect given to this faith cannot exclude the idea, as we read its tenets, that Christianity had even thus early reached Japan; and this is certainly possible through India. But it is to be observed, that neither Dr. Von Siebold, nor any other writer, names this religion; that Fischer, in his account of Japanese Budhism, states that the qualities of a beneficent crea- tor are ascribed to Amida, and relates much as recorded of the life of Syaka, strangely resembling the gospel history of our Saviour, whilst the date assigned to the introduction of this supposed Brahminical sect pretty accurately coincides with that of the first unsuccessful attempt to introduce Budhism. Further, and lastly, whoever has read anything of Hindoo mythology must be well aware that the legends of the Brahmins afford much which may easily be turned into seemingly Christian doctrine. But whatever it were, this faith was too like Christianity to survive its fall, and has long since completely vanished.*

*

'[For a few additional particulars concerning the religious sects and creeds found among the Japanese, the reader is referred to an article in the second volume of the Repository, page 318. The statements there made correspond very well to those in this abstract of Siebold's notices. We add a few explana- tions of some of the terms used in both that article and this. Sinsyu is, according to Siebold's explanation,

meaning the faith in gods or spirits; sintoo

        (shin taou in China) or kumi no michi as it is when translated into Japanese, and a mere synonime with it, strictly means not the way of the gods,' but the doctrine of the gods.' ¿ma-terasu-oħo-kami are the native words for the four characters

Ten-sio-dar-zin, (as they are written for us,) which mean the great god of the pure heavens. The gohei are long strips of white paper, standing, we are told, instead of the spirit worshiped, just as the ancestral tablet stands for the ancestor whose name it bears."

TP)

       The Budhistic sects appear to be much more numerous than the Sintoo, and the priests are employed by all classes on occasions of burial and mourning. from which no doubt their influence is also great. Buddoo or Budtno is (

the doctrine of Budha or Amida. The yama-busi ||} }

                                         are a class or sect, who, as their name is explained in a Japanese work, and as the Chinese charac- ters also signifiy, hide themselves in the mountains. They are also called, (or perhaps more properly their tenets,)

syn-gen-dou, practicing and

investigating doctrine. The account goes on to state regarding the yama-busi, that "they keep their bodies in subjection and practice austerities, ascending high and dangerous mountains. They study heavenly principles, the doctrine of the eight diagrams (hakke), chiromancy, the determination of good and bad luck, the

316

Notices of Japan, No. X.

HISTORY OF JAPAN.

JUNE,

Of the history of Japan, it is needless to trouble the reader with more than the few and far distant events out of which has grown, and upon which is based, the present condition of that empire of 3,850 islands, including uninhabitable rocks.

    This may, however, be not inappositely introduced by a few words touching the name, which in Japanese is Dai Nippon, or 'Great Nippon'-a name of great dignity, and referring probably to the patronage, if not the birth, of the sum-god. dess; the word nitsu signifying 'the sun,' and pon, or fon, 'origin;' and these, when compounded according to the Japanese rule, become Nippon, or Nifon. The largest island, upon which stands the Isye temple, be it remembered, bears the simple name of Nippon, without the dai, or 'great' and hence it might be inferred that Nippon was the island originally fished up by Iza-na-gi-mikoto, rather than the smaller and less holy Kiusiu. The name Japan * is derived from the Chinese Jih-pun, 'origin of the sun.' Marco Polo calls the country Zipangu (not Zipangri, as most editions of his work have it), which is the Chinese Jih. pun kwo, or 'kingdom of the origin of the sun.'

    The mythological or legendary portion of Japanese history has been suffi. ciently explained in the preceding portion of this paper-though it may be added, that the whole nation claims a descent from the kami-and what is deemed authentic history need only be adverted to here.

The authentic history of Japan began with the first mortal ruler, Zin-mo-ten- woo, whose name imports the Divine Conqueror.' Accordingly, Zin-mo-ten-woð did, it is said, conquer Nippon; and having done so, he there built him a datris or temple-palace, dedicated to the sun-goddess, and founded the sovereignty of the mikado. Whatever were his new origin-whether he was a son of the last terrestrial god, or, as Klaproth thinks, a Chinese warrior and invader-from him the mikado, even to this day, descend. His establishment in the absolute sove- reignty. of Dai Nippon is generally placed in the year 660 x. c.

    For some centuries, the mikado, claiming to rule by divine right and inheri tance, were indeed despotic sovereigns; and even after they had ceased to head their own armies, and intrusted the dangerous military command to sons and kinsmen, their power long remained undisputed and uncontroled. It was, per. haps, first and gradually weakened by a habit into which the mikado fell, of ab. dicating at so early an age, that they transferred the sovereignty to their sons while yet children; an evil the retired sovereign frequently strove to remedy, by governing for his young successor. At length, a mikado, who had married the daughter of a powerful prince, abdicated in favor of his three-year old son; and the ambitious grandfather of the infant mikado assumed the regency, placing the abdicated sovereign in confinement. A civil war ensued; during which, Yoritomo, one of the most celebrated and most important persons in Japanese history-who has been already incidentally mentioned, and was, seemingly, a distant scion of ́h› mikado stock-first appeared upon the stage. He came forward as the cham- mode of finding stolen things, and other such like sciences." The yama-busi wear A sword, and have a peculiar cap and neck strap to distinguish them. The ex- planation of the name yama-busi, given by Dr. Burger (vol. II., page 324) may also be correct, as , which means a soldier, is also called busi.]

* Klaproth.

1841.

Notices of Japan, No. X.

317

pion of the imprisoned ex-mikado against his usurping father-in-law.* The war lasted for several years, and in the course of those years occurred the incident in which originated one of the institutions of the blind. At length, Yoritomo triumphed, released the imprisoned father of the young mikado, and placed the regency in his hands; but the fowo, as he was called, held it only nominally, leaving the real power in the hands of Yoritomo, whom he created sio i dai sio. goun, * generalissimo fighting against the barbarians.' The ex-mikado died, and, as lieutenant or deputy of the sovereign, Yoritomo virtually governed for twenty years. His power gradually acquired solidity and stability, and when he died he was succeeded in his title, dignity, and authority, by his son.

After this, a succession of infant mikado strengthened the power of the sio. goun, and their office soon became so decidedly hereditary, that the Annals begin to tell of abḍicating siogoun, of infant siogoun, of rival heirs contending for the siogounship. Even during the life of Yoritomo's widow, this had advanced so far, that she, who had become a Budhist nun upon his decease, returned from her convent to govern for an infant siogoun. She retained the authority till her own death, and is called in the Annals of the Datri, ama siogoun, or the nun sio- goun. She seems to be the only instance of a female siogoun. But still, if the actual authority were wielded by these generalissimos, all the apparent and much real power-amongst the rest, that of appointing or confirming his nominal vice- gerent, the siogoun-remained with the mikado. In this state, administered by an autocrat emperor and a sovereign deputy, the government of Japan continued until the latter half of the sixteenth century, the siogoun being then efficient and active rulers, not the secluded and magnificent puppets of a council of state that we have seen them at the present day.

It was during this phasis of the Japanese empire, that the Portuguese first ap- peared there; one of their vessels being driven by contrary winds from her intend. ed course, and upon the then unknown coast of Japan. The occurrence is thus recorded by a national annalist, as translated by Siebold; -"Under the mikado Konaru and the siogoun Yosi-haru, in the twelfth year of the Nengo Tenbun, on the twenty-second day of the eighth month (October, 1543), a strange ship made the island Tanoga sima,† near Koura, in the remote province Nisimura. The crew, about two hundred in number, had a singular appearance; their language was unintelligible, their native land unknown. On board was a Chinese, named Gohou, who understood writing; from him it was gathered that this was a nan-ban ship (southern barbarian,' in the Japanese form of the Chinese words nan-man). On the 26th, this vessel was taken to Aku-oki harbor, on the northwest of the island; and Toki-taka, governor of Tanega sima, instituted ́a striêt investigation concerning it, the Japanese bonze, Tsyu-syu-zu, acting as interpreter, by means of Chinese characters. On board the nan-ban ship were two commanders, Mura-

* Klaproth; and Titsingh's Japanese Annals of the Daïri,

4

      + It has been said that sima means island; whence it follows that Siebold's expression, "the island, Tanega sima," is tautological; but, in translating a lan- guage and speaking of a country so little known, such tautology could hardly be avoided at a less sacrifice than that of perspicuity. This remark is also applicable to many other terms used when speaking or writing of Japan, by which the native word that classifies, or explains the proper name has become incorporated with it. For instance, to say the bridge Nippon-bas, where bas (or hasi) means bridge, in, like Tanega sima I., tautological,

318

Natives of Japan. No. X.

JUNE,

syukya and Krista-muta; they brought fire-arms, and first made the Japanese ac- quainted with shooting-arms, and the preparation of shooting-powder."

The Japanese have preserved portraits (and curious specimens of the graphic art they are) of Mura-syukya and Krista-inuta, who are supposed to be Antonio Mota and Francesco Zeimoto, the first Portuguese known to have landed in Japan. The Japanese were at this time a mercantile people, carrying on an active and lucrative commerce with, it is said, sixteen different countries. They gladly welcomed the strangers, who brought them new manufactures and new wares ; they trafficked freely with them, and erelong even gave their daughters in mar- riage to such as settled amongst them. The Jesuit missionaries, who soon fol- lowed, were equally well received, and permitted to preach to the people without interruption. The extraordinary and rapid success of the Fathers has been al ready mentioned. Even at Miyako, in the vicinity of the daïri, if not in it, they boasted neophytes. These bright prospects were blighted by the civil war, which had seened for a moment to promise the complete establishment of Christianity in Japan.

About the middle of the sixteenth century two brothers of the race of Yoritomo contended for the singounship; the princes of the empire took part on either side, or against both, striving to make themselves independent; and civil war raged throughout Japan. In the course of it, both the rival brothers perished, and the vassal princes now contended for the vacant dignity.

The ablest and inightiest amongst them was Nobunaga, prince of Owari, the champion of one of the rival brothers so long as he lived. After the death of the claiment he supported, he set up for himself. Powerfully aided by the courage and talents of a low-born man, named Hide-yosi, who had attached himself to his service, and gradually gained his confidence, the prince of Owari triumphed over his opponents, and become siogoun, the mikado confirming to him a dignity that he felt himself unable to withhold. The new siogoun recompensed Hide- yosi's services by investing him with a high military office, and showed himself a warm friend to the Christians and the missionaries.

In process of time, Nobunaga was murdered by an aspirant usurper, who thus possessed himself of the singounship. The murderer was shortly afterwards in his turn, murdered; and, amidst the confusion that ensued, Hide-yosi seized upon the generally coveted office. The mikado again, without hesitation, approved and confirmed Hide-yosi as siogoun, by his newly-assumed name of Taiko, or Taiko-sama, i. e. the lord Taiko,

     Taiko retained upon the throne the energies and warlike spirit that had ena- bled him to ascend it; and he is still considered by the Japanese as nearly, if not quite, the greatest of their heroes. It was he who made the greatest progress in reducing the mikado to the mere shadow of a sovereign; with him originated the system, already described, as inthralling the princes of the empire; he subdued Corea, which had emancipated itself since its conquest by the empress Sin-gon- kwo-gon; and he had announced his intention of conquering China, when his career was arrested by death, at the age of sixty-three, in the year 1598. Taiko. sama's only son, Hide-yori was a child of six years old; and to him, upon his deathbed, he thought to secure the succession by marrying him to the grand- daughter of Iyeyas (or as some write it, Yeye-yası), the powerful prince of Mikawa, his own especial friend and counsellor, whom he had rewarded with three

1841:

Notices of Japan, No. X.

819

      additional principalities. He obtained from Iyeyas a solemn prontise to procure the recognition of Hide-yori as siogoun, as soon as the boy should have completed his fifteenth year.

The death of Taiko-sama was the signal for the renewal by the vassal princes of their efforts to emancipate themselves from the yoke, nominally of the mikado, really of the siogoun; whilst the ambitious and treacherous Iyeyas, who had long aspired to the office he had promised to secure to his grand-daughter's husband, secretly fomented disorders so propitious to his designs. As regent for Hide-yori, he gradually extorted higher and higher titles from the mikado; at length, he demanded and obtained that of singoun, and waged open war upon the ward to whom he was bound by so many ties, to whom he had sworn al- legiance. Hide-yori, was supported by all the Japanese Christians, whose zeal in behalf of the son of the universally admired and regretted Taiko-sama was, to say the least, warmly approved and encouraged by the Jesuits; and the re- verend Fathers had good cause to exert themselves strenuously on his side, inde- pendently even of any idea of the justice of his cause, since the young prince showed them so much favor, that they actually indulged the flattering hope of seeing him erelong openly profess Christianity, and, should he triumph, make it the established religion of Japan.

But, in 1615, Iyeyas besieged his grandchild's husband in Ohosaka castle, and took this, his rival's last remaining stronghold, as perfidiously, it is said, as he had gained the singounship. Over the fate of Hide-yori a veil of mystery bangs. According to some accounts, after setting fire to the castle, when he found it betrayed into his enemy's hands, he perished in the flames; according to others, he effected his escape amidst the confusion caused by the conflagration, and made his way to the principal city of Satzuma, where his posterity is still believed to exist. It is certain that the princes of Satzuma are much courted by the siogoun, who seek their daughters as wives. The consort of the present singoun is a Satzuma princess.

      Iyeyas, who in the progress of his usurpation had successively taken the names of Daifu-sama and Ongonchio, had now only to secure the siogounship to him- self and his posterity. For this purpose, he confirmed all the measures devised by Taiko-sama for insuring the fidelity of the princes, bestowed many confiscated principalities upon his own partisans and younger sons, and weakened all, as far as he could, by dismemberment. He deprived the mikado of even the little power that Taiko-sama had left him, reducing the absolute autocrat to the utter help. lessness and complete irremediable dependence, which have been described as the present and actual condition of the son of heaven; and, finally, he proceeded to enforce the persecution of his rival's supporters, the native Christians and foreign missionaries, which Siebold decidedly ascribes to political, not religious, motives on the part of the new Japanese potentate; and which, in the reign of his successor, resulted in the system of exclusion and seclusion still followed in Japan.

Iyeyas, upon his death, was deified by the mikado under the name of Gongen- sama; and his policy has proved successful. His posterity still hold the siogoun- ship in undisturbed tranquillity; and although evidently so degenerated from the energy and talent of their ancestor, that they have suffered the power to fall from their own hands into that of their ministers, the change is one which they perhaps feel as gratifying to their pride as to their indolence,

320

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

JUNE,

    Every writer belonging to the Dutch factory, and therefore possessing the best attainable means of knowledge, affirms that rebellion has been prevented by the inthrallment of the princes, and that the empire has, since the quelling of the Arima insurrection, enjoyed profound peace, internal as well as external. Dr. Parker, in his little journal, tells us, indeed, that he was assured rebellion was everywhere raging; but when it is considered that he was hostilely driven away, without being suffered even to set foot on shore, little reliance can be placed upon such hearsay information. Were any further change to be anticipated for Japan, it might perhaps be that the hereditary prime-minister may play against the sio. goun the game they played against the mikado; abandon Yedo to the general. issimo, as Miyako is abandoned to the son of heaven, and establish elsewhere a third court of the vicegerent's vicegerent, the governor of the empire.*

    * [ Two articles in the sixth volume of the Repository, pages 460 and 553, contain additional particulars concerning the history of Japan during the entire century (1540-1640) when its ports were open, its princes striving for supremacy and independence, and its internal polity undergoing the revolution which has for two centuries since been so strictly maintained. Dr. Parker's sources of information were probably as little to be depended upon as is stated above; and the three shipwrecked men, who arrived in Macao in February last, confirm the declaration of the Dutch that peace has generally existed throughout the empire; but they add that at the time, Dr. Parker was in the coast (1837), and subsequently, famines have been so severe in some parts as to lead the suffering people to commit many excesses. If any inference can be drawn from the nature of Japanese politico- religious education, the close espionage maintained by the government over all classes in society, and the feebleness of purpose which such popish domination over all the powers of the intellect naturally produces, we should say that there was little prospect of any change in the internal or external policy of the country. Causes for change must come from without; nor, judging from the changes now going on in Asia, do we think that the opinion, that even the exclusive policy of the sea-girt empire of the siogoun will give way before the progress of events, is at all chimerical; and that this too will take place long before another two centuries have rolled away, perhaps even before this one is completed.]

ART. IV. Biographical notice of Măng tsze, or Mencius, the Chinese philosopher. Translated for the Repository from the

French of Rémusat.

MANG tsze, who during his life was called Măng Ko, and by the early missionaries, Mencius, is considered as the first of Chinese philosphers, after Confucius. He was born at the beginning of the fourth century before Jesus Christ, in the city of Tsow, at this mo- ment a dependency of Yenchow foo, in the province of Shantung. His father, Keih Kung-e, descended from a certain Măngsun, whose prodigal administration incurred the censure of Confucius, was origi- rally of the country of Choo, but established in that of Chin.

1841.

.

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

321

+

He died a short time after the birth of his son, and left the guardian- ship of the boy to his widow Chang she.

The care that this prudent and attentive mother took to educate her son, has been cited as a model for all virtuous parents. The house she occupied was near that of a butcher: she observed that at the first cry of the animals that were being slaughtered, the little Măng Ko ran to be present at the sight, and that on his return he sought to imitate what he had seen. Fearful that his heart might become hardened, and be accustomed to the sight of blood, she removed to another house which was in the neighborhood of a cemetery. The relations of those who were buried there, came often to weep upon their graves, and make the customary libations. Mencius soon took pleasure in these ceremonies, and amused himself in imitating them. This was a new subject of uneasiness to Chang she: she feared that her son might come to consider as a jest what is of all things the most serious, and that he would acquire a habit of per- forming with levity, and as a matter of routine merely, ceremonies which demand the most exact attention and respect. Again, there- fore she anxiously changed her dwelling, and went to live in the city, opposite to a school, where Măng Ko found examples the most worthy of imitation, and soon began to profit by them. I should not have spoken of this trifling anecdote, but for the allusion which the Chinese constantly make to it, in the proverb so often quoted: 'Măng tsze's mother was particular about her neighbors.'

Măng tsze did not fail to practice those virtues, which the Chinese suppose to be inseparably connected with the study of belles-lettres. He devoted himself early to the classics, and by the progress which he made in the right understanding of these venerated books, he was thought worthy to become one of the diciples of Tsze sze, the grand- son and not unworthy imitator of Confucius himself. When he was perfectly versed in that moral philosophy, which the Chinese call, par excellence, "the Doctrine," he made a tender of his services to Seuen wang, the king of Tse: but not succeeding in obtaining employment from him, he next went to Hwuy wang, king of Leäng, or of Wei; for at this time, the country of Kaefung foo, in Honan, constituted a little state which was known by these two names. This prince gave a cordial welcome to Mencius, but took no particular pains, as the philosopher would have wished, to profit by his instructions.

The

     Mencius' views of antiquity appeared to him, perhaps not without reason, to be of a nature not applicable to the present moment. men to whom were committed the administration of the different provin-

VOL. X. NO. VL

41

322

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

JUNE,

   ces into which China was at that time divided, were not capable of re- storing tranquillity to the empire, continually disturbed by leagues, divi- sions, and intestine wars. For them, the true science was the art of war. Mencius might well boast to them of the government and the virtues of Yaou, of Shun, and of the founders of the three first dynas- ties; but perpetual wars broke out on every side, and extending themselves wherever he went, destroyed the good effect of his teaching, and thwarted all his plans. At length, convinced of the impossibili- ty of doing any good to princes such as these, he returned to his own country; and there, in concert with Wan-chang, and others of his disciples, he employed himself in arranging the Book of Odes, and the Shoo King, following in this the example of Confucius, and an- xious to execute the task in the spirit of the great philosopher. He composed also, at this time, the work in chapters which bears his name. He died about 314 years before Christ, aged 84 years.

The book of which I have just spoken is Mencius' chief claim to reputation: always united to the three works on morals which contain the exposition of the doctrine of Confucius, it forms with these, what is distinguishingly called the Sze Shoo, or the Four Books. It is of itself longer than the other three united, nor is it less esteemed, or less worthy of being read. In the words of a Chinese author; 'Mencius has gathered in the heritage of Confucius, developed his principles, as Confucius did those of Wan wang, of Woo wang, and of Chow kung; but at his own death no one was found to do the like for him. Not one of those who came after him can be compared with him, not even Seun tsze, and Yang tsze.' I will not transcribe, even briefly, the pompous eulogies which this author, and a hundred others, have emulously bestowed on our philosopher. Let it suffice to say, that by unanimous consent he has been honored with the title of A Shing, which signifies, the Second Saint, Confucius being regarded as the first. He has also been honored, by public act, with the title of Holy Prince of the Country of T'sow; and in the great tem. ple of the literati, they pay him the same honors as to Confucius. A portion of this distinction, according to Chinese custom, has been transmitted to the descendants of Mencius, who bear the title of Masters of the Traditions concerning the classic Books, in the impe- rial academy of Hanlin.

The kurd of merit which has procured for Mencius so great celebrity, would not be regarded as of much value-in the eyes of Europeans; but he has others which, if his book were adequately translated, would procure him favor. His style, less dignified and less

1811.

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

323

concise than that of the prince of letters, is equally noble, more em- bellished, and more elegant. The form of dialogue which he has retained in his philosophic conversations with the great personages of his time, admits of more variety than we can expect to find in the apothegms and the maxims of Confucius. Their philosophy also differs equally in character. Confucius is always grave and even austere; he elevates the good, of whom he draws an ideal portrait, and speaks of the bad only with cold condemnation. Mencius, with the same love of virtue, seems to feel for vice contempt, rather than horror; which he attacks with the force of reason, and of ridicule. His style of argument is like the irony of Socrates. He contests nothing directly with his adversaries; but while he grants their premises, he seeks to draw from them consequences the most absurd, which cover his opponents with confusion. He does not spare the great, nor the princes of his time, who often pretended to consult him only that they might have an opportunity of boasting of themselves, and of ob- taining the praises which they conceived to be their due. Nothing could be more cutting than the answers he made them on these oc- casions; nothing in short more opposed to that character for servility and baseness which a too common préjudice attributes to eastern ́ nations, and especially to the Chinese. Mencius resembled Aris- tippus in nothing; but rather Diogenes, though with more dignity and decency. At times we are tempted to condemn a vivacity which almost amounts to harshness; but we forgive it, when we find it in- spired only by a zeal for the public good.

The king of Wei, one of those princes whose dissensions and continual wars desolated China at this time, detailed complacently to Mencius the pains he took to make his people happy, and expressed his astonishment that his little kingdom was not more flourishing nor more populous than those of his neighbors. Prince,' said the philo-

sopher, 'you love war; permit me to draw a comparison from thence : two armies are in presence; the charge is sounded, the battle begins, one of the parties is conquered; half its soldiers have fled an hundred paces, the other half has stopped at fifty. Will the last have any right to mock at those who have fled further than themselves?'

'No,' said the king, 'they have equally taken flight, and the same disgrace must attend them both.'

'cease then to boast of your efforts You have all deserved the same

'Prince,' says Mencius quickly, as greater than your neighbors. reproach, and not one has a right to take credit to himself over another.' Pursuing then his bitter interrogations, he asked, 'Is

321

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

JUNE,

there a difference, oh king' between kuling a man with a club, or

with a sword?

1

'No,' said the prince.

Between him who kills with the sword, or destroys by an inhuman tyranny!

No,' again replies the prince.

     'Well said Mencius, your kitchens are incumbered with food; your studs are full of horses; while your subjects, with emaciated countenances, are worn down with misery, or found dead of hunger in the middle of the fields or the deserts. What is this, but to breed ani- mals to prey on men? and what is the difference between de- stroying them by the sword, or by unfeeling conduct? If we detest those savage animals which mutually tear and devour each other, how much more should we abhor a prince, who, instead of being a father to his people, does not hesitate to bring up animals to destroy them. What kind of father to his people is he who treats his chil- dren so unfeelingly, and has less care of them than of the wild beasts he provides for!

I have heard,' said the king of Tse, one day, 'that the old king

      had a park of seven leagues in extent: can it be true?' 'Nothing is more true,' said Mencius.

Wăn wang

'It was,' replied the prince, an unwarranted extent.'

(

    'And yet,' said Mencius, 'the subjects of Wan wang thought this park too small.'

+

    'My park,' said the prince, 'is only four leagues, and my people complain of it as too large. Why this difference?'

    'Prince,' replied Mencius, 'the park of Wan wang was of seven leagues; but it was there that all who wanted grass or wood went to seek it, as well as game. The park was common to the people and the prince. Had they not reason therefore to find it small? When I entered your dominions, I inquired what was particularly forbidden there, and was told of an inclosure beyond the frontiers, of four leagues in extent, wherein whoever should kill a stag, should be pu- nished as if he had slain a man. This park of four leagues, therefore, is like a vast pit in the centre of

your estates. Are the people wrong to find it too large?'

We need not hesitate to borrow from the conversations of Mencius other passages fitted to give us a just idea of his work, since they afford us, at the same time, details of his life, and a type of his cha- racter; and it would be impossible to describe him better than he has done himself in his book. The man who has lost his wife; the

1

E

1841.

Biographical Notice of Mencius

825

woman bereaved of her husband; the old man who has no children ; the orphan who has seen his parents die: these,' said Mencius one day to the same prince, in all your kingdom are the most unhappy. They have none to whom they can tell their sorrows, or who will listen to their grief; and therefore, Wan wang, extending to all the blessings of a good government, yet acknowledged the higher claims of these four classes of unhappy persons: as we find it expressed in the Book of Odes: The rich can escape from the common suffering, but how great should be our compassion for the isolated, who have no resource !' ›

"The saying is a noble one!' exclaimed the king.

      'Prince,' replied Mencius instantly, if you find it so noble, why not conform your conduct to it? One of your subjects, O king! being about to leave for the kingdom of Tsew, intrusted his wife and chil- dren to a friend; but on his return he found that they had been left to suffer the pains of hunger and cold: what ought he, then, to do?'

4

Reject, entirely, so false a friend!' answered the king of Tse.

'If the higher functionaries were unequal to their duty; what would you do ?'

'Deprive them of their rank.'

'And if your own kingdom is not well governed, what then?'

it

The king turned from left to right, and spake of other things. Sometime after this, Mencius speaking to the same prince, said, is not the the ancient forests of a country which do it honor; but its families devoted for many generations to the duties of the magistracy. O king in all your service there are none such; those whom you yesterday raised to honor, what are they to-day?'

'In what way,' replied the king, ' can I know beforehand that they are without virtue, and remove them?'

'In raising a sage to the highest dignities of the state,' replied the philosopher, 'a king acts only as he is of necessity bound to do. But to put a man of obscure condition above the nobles of his kingdom, or one of his remote kindred over princes more nearly connected with him, demands most careful deliberation. Do his courtiers unite in speaking of a man as wise: let him distrust them. If all the magistrates of his kingdom concur in the same assurance, let him not rest satisfied with their testimony. But if his subjects confirm the story, then let him convince himself; and if he finds the individual is indeed a sage, let him raise him to office and honor. So also, if all the courtiers would oppose his placing confidence in a minister, let him not give heed to them; and if all the magistrates are of this

326

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

JUNE,

   opinion, let him be deal to their solicitations; but if the people unite in the same request, then let him examine the object of their ill-will, and if guilty, remove him. In short, if all the courtiers think that a minister should suffer death, the prince must not content himself with their opinion merely. If all the high officers entertain the same sentiment, still he must not yield to their convictions; but if the whole people declare that such a man is unfit to live, then the prince, inquiring himself, and being satisfied that the charge is true, must condemn the guilty to death: in such a case, we may say that the people are his judge. In acting thus, a prince becomes the parent of his subjects.' It is impossible to attribute more importance, to that which in our own times and country is called public opinion.

But Mencius goes further in the following passage, in which his zeal for the good of the people calls forth an apology, such as we did not expect to find in a Chinese work. The king of Tse, inquiring of the philosopher, respecting events which took place in periods already remote, spoke to him of the last prince of the Heä dynasty, who was dethroned by Chingtang, and of the last prince of the Shang dynasty, put to death by Woo wang the founder of the third, ' are these things true?' said he to Mencius.

.

History vouches for them,' replied he.

A subject put his sovereign to death! Can it be?'

    'The true rebel,' retorted Mencius, 'is he who insults humanity. The true robber, he who is guilty of injustice. A rebel or a rob- ber is a simple individual; what was Chow but such? and in him the individual was punished, and not the prince.'

Mencius did not often give way to this tone of bitterness, but his replies are commonly full of vivacity and energy, and sometimes his language has met with disapprobation.

We are told that Hungwoo, the founder of the Ming dynasty, was one day reading Mencius, and lighted on this passage: The prince looks on his subjects as the ground beneath his feet, or as grains of mustard-seed, of no account: his subjects, in return, look on him as a robber, and an enemy.' These expressions shocked the new em. peror. It is not thus,' said he, 'that kings should be spoken of. He who has given utterance to such language is not worthy to share the honors which are rendered to the wise Confucius. Let Mencius be degraded, and let his name be stricken from the temple of the prince of letters! Let no one dare to remonstrate with me on this, or to transmit any memorial on the subject, until they shall have first pierc- ed with arrows him who has prepared them."

1841.

Biographical Notice of Mencius.

327

One of their

This decree threw men of letters into consternation. number, named Tseën-tang, president of one of the supreme courts, resolved to sacrifice hinself for the honor of Mencius. He drew up a memorial, in which, after quoting the passage entire, and explaining the true sense in which it should be understood, he described the empire such as it was in the time of Mencius, and the deplorable condition to which petty tyrants had reduced it by their incessant wars with one another, and all against the lawful authority of the princes of the Chow dynasty.

{

'It is of this sort of sovereigns,' said he in conclusion, that Mencius has spoken, and not of the son of Heaven. What, after so many centuries, shall it now be imputed to him as a crime?

I die, since such is the command; but posterity will hallow my death.' After having drawn up this appeal, and made ready his coffin, Tseën-tang repaired to the palace, and being arrived at the outer gates: 'I come,' said he to the guards, 'to present a petition in favor of Mencius; here is my memorial;' and then exposing his breast, added, 'strike, I know your orders.' Instantly one of the guards wounds him with an arrow, and taking the petition, transmits it to the emperor, who had already been informed of what had hap- pened. The emperor read the appeal attentively, and approved or feigned to approve it. He gave orders to heal the wound which Tseën-tang had received; and decreed that the name of Mencius should remain in possession of all the honors he had enjoyed. I have thought it proper to relate this anecdote as showing at the same time the fanaticism of the class of men of letters, and the veneration which attends the name of our philosopher.

His book being, as I have said, an integral part of the Four Books, must be learned entire by those who submit to the examinations and aspire to literary honors. It is, of course, one of those which has been most often reprinted. Thousands of editions exist, with and without commentaries. Numberless men of letters have devoted themselves to elucidating and explaining it: it has twice been trans- lated into Mantchou; and the last version, revised by the emperor Keënlung, forms, with the text, three of the six volumes of which the Mantchou-Chinese copy of the Four Books in the Royal Library is composed. Father Noel has included Mencius in the Latin tran- slation that he has made of "The six classic Books of the Chinese empire," but we look in vain in this translation for any of those qualities which we have remarked in the style of Mencius; and the meaning is too often lost in a verbose and fatiguing paraphrase.

C

328

Topographical Account of Chuesan.

JUNE,

Thus this author, who of all Chinese writers is, possibly, the most calculated to please Europeans, is one of those who have been the least read and admired.

There is a biographical notice of Mencius in the Sze Ke of Szema Tseen; and some particulars, literary and bibliographical about his works, in the 184th book of the Library of Ma Twanlin. Father Du Halde has given a copious analysis of Mencius; and we have some details about his life in the memoirs of the missionaries. J. B. Carp- zou has written a meagre dissertation on Mencius, which consists only of passages taken from Noel, and is unworthy of notice. A work, every way remarkable, is the beautiful Chinese and Latin edi- tion of Mencius by Stanislas Julien, since it required not merely a study of the text of Mencius, but of all the commentaries of this author which have reached Europe. (For a more extended notice of this translation, see page 222 of this volume.)

ART. V.

    Topographical Account of Chusan; its territorial divi- sions, population, productions, climate, &c., &c.

   TINGHAE, under the Chinese rule, forms a heën, or district, having the town of the same name for its chief town and seat of government. This is what by Du Halde, and other European writers, is called a city of the third order: the two superior orders being chow and foo (or tcheou and fou),-words that do not, however, properly distinguish the cities and towns, but rather the territorial divisions which are under the jurisdiction of such cities and towns. A chow contains, sometimes, several heën subordinate to it; at other times it does not: a foo always comprises several heën, and frequently also one or two of such chow as have no subordinate heën within their precincts. By regarding these last chow as nowise different from the heën, and the others (those that have jurisdiction over several subordinate heën) as answering to the foo*, we may confine to two names the distinctions of the more marked territorial divisions:-the higher of these we may call prefectures or departments; and each prefecture will contain a number of districts, as many sometimes as ten, twelve,

or even more.

* They differ only in the number and gradation of officers, and the consequent expense of establishments.

i

1811.

Topographical Account of Chusan.

329

      Tinghae heën is one of these districts. It is subject to the pre- fecture of Ningpo foo; Chinhae heën, at the mouth of the river of Ningpo, is another district in the same prefecture.

      The heen is the smallest division of territory in which the presiding officer is invested with all the powers of government. This officer is called a cheheën, i. e. 'knower of the district.' His powers and position relatively to the high officers of the provincial government resemble, in a great measure, those of magistrates over districts in India; and he has hence often been called a magistrate. The territory under him is frequently declared by Chinese writers to be analogous to the states or kingdoms of former days. And in accordance with this view of it, the actual "knower" of a district has under him clerks in the six several departments, of administration, revenue, civil and religious rites, war, justice, and public works, into which the business of the general national government is divided. To no officer of subordinate rank are these general powers given. The magis- trate's district is, however, subdivided into portions, under officers of police at times, otherwise under village elders. The duties of these parties consist chiefly in the preservation of the peace, and the col- lection of revenue. In addition, there is generally in each subdivi- sion of the district a tepaou, or "protector (or insurer) of the country," a person held responsible for all disturbances and crimes committed within his beat. The village elders are called by various names, in different parts of the empire, and are much more recognized by the government in some parts than in others. The police officer, with powers for collection of the revenue, above spoken of, is generally called seun keën (3) i. e. offices who "go around" and "ex- amine," and the divisions of country under them are called sze ( (司);

another common designation of divisions of country subordinate to a

V

heën is chwang (JE). The primary sense of this word being a farmstead, it has been employed probably with a special reference to the collection of revenue. And thus in each chwang are to be found- besides the officers of police, the village elders, and the responsible tepaou or constables-sundry officers subordinate to the collectors of revenue, who are at times military men, but in general men looking forward to a place on the civil list.

With these explanations premised, it will be more easy to under- stand the following brief remarks respecting the district of Tinghae and its divisions.

      Chusan, the largest of the cluster or archipelago of islands to which it gives its name, is but a part of the district of Tinghac. The

VOL. X. NO. VI.

12

330

Topographical Account of Chusan.

JUNE,

heen, or district, includes also all the islands to the southward as far as the Kewshan islands, and all to the northward of the group, except a few of the most northerly ones which belong to the next province. The position of the town of Tinghae is in lat. 30° 0′ 20′′ north, aud long. 122° 5′ 18′′ east ; the island is 511⁄2 miles in circumference, and 204 miles long; the greatest breadth is 10 miles, and the narrowest 6 miles; the direction of the island is from northwest to southeast. The general aspect, and that of all the neighboring islands and coasts, is ridges of lofty hills, very steep and occasionally running into peaks. These ranges of hills inclose beautiful and fertile vallies; some of those in the interior of the island, are almost completely sheltered by the hills, but the greater number run from the interior towards the sea.

       In passing around the island, the various vallies are seen to good advantage; all the larger ones have a stream of water running through them, which are sometimes honored by the name of rivers, though none of them possess a depth of water sufficient for large boats more than a mile and a half from the shore.

    The mouths of those vallies that are open to the sea appear, without exception, to have a retaining wall or bound running along the beach, so as to make the valley behind an alluvial plain of more or less ex- tent; in that, for instance, in which Tinghae is situated, the bound is fully two miles long, and the valley runs up into the gorge of the hills at least three miles in some parts, but this varies according to the slope of the hills. These retaining walls have sluices for regulating the quantity of water which flows from all the subordinate ravines. The plain is intersected by canals navigable for small boats, and consists principally of paddy fields, though here and there occur patches of brinjal, maize, and beans. Up the slopes of the hills, in every spot capable of cultivation, sweet potatoes, yams, or some other vegetable is grown; on those parts where the soil is unfit for general cultivation, a sort of dwarfish fir is planted for fuel.

    In traversing the island, and ascending some of the higher ridges, cultivation is found to be carried even to the summit, in every spot where the rock is covered with earth. It would appear that much more rice is produced than can be wanted for the inhabitants; the surplus is either directly exported, or distilled into the spirit called samshoo; when the island was occupied, immense stores of this spirit ready for exportation were found in the city; in fact the chief trade of Chusan seems to have been in this article.

    Timber trees are scarce, nor are fruit-trees plentiful; the timber for building, whether for houses or junks, is principally fir, aud comes

1841.

Topographical Account of Chusan.

3.1.

from the central provinces of China. Charcoal is plentiful and cheap, and mineral coal is brought in small quantities from the main- land, but appeared not to be of very good quality. The horned cattle are evidently few; nor are there many goats, and, so far as could be learned, no sheep; but hogs are numerous, as also are geese, ducks, and fowls. Fish at first was brought only in small quantities, but afterwards the market was abundantly supplied.

The roads which intersect the island are paved footpaths passing in every direction across the lowest parts of the ridges, and are in many places steep and difficult of ascent. There are no wheel-car- riages of any description, so that all goods, even the most weighty articles, are transported by men.

Great diversity of opinion exists regarding the population of the island. The official reports to the native government give 40,000 families or houses; and, allowing five individuals to each, (and this is perhaps by no means too large an allowance,) the population would be 200,000. From all that was seen of the number of people in the large villages, this estimate will probably be found to be lower than the actual number.

This district is divided into 34 chwang,-18 are upon the chief island or Chusan,-and 16 include all the islands of any conse- quence subordinate to it. Pooto forms an exception, being free from all imposts, and under the direction of a chief priest or abbot residing in the principal temple. He possesses the island, and a few others to the south of it, as the property of the monasteries, paying no revenue, and only being in penal matters under the control of the magistrate of Tinghae.

      The chwang, or divisions, on Chusan, are composed chiefly of large valleys, and are hence called aou . Each has one or more streams running through it, and affording means of irrigation; and every large valley is separated from its neighbors by hills surrounding it on three sides, leaving only one side open, to the sea. To this, there are two exceptions, namely of two inland valleys, one communicating with a more southerly, the other with a more northerly, one.

                                       There are also two or three chwang that comprise two large valleys, with a com- munication between the two through a gap in the hills.

     The sixteen chwang under which the subordinate islands are rang. ed are here briefly mentioned.

1-3. Kintang (or Silver island), comprising three chwang.

4. Tsihtsze (Tsatsu or Blackwall island).

5-6. Taeseay (or Tygosan), divided into two chwang.

332

Topographical Account of Chusan.

7. Taouhwa, west of the Sarah Galley channel.

JUNE,

8. Tăngfoo (Tingboo) in nearly the same part of the archi- pelago.

9-10. Luhwang or Lowang island, divided into two chwang.

     11. Heäche, comprising also several islands between Lowang and the Great Chusan.

12. Sewshan, or Lan-Sew shan (the two islands called Sheppey). 13. Changpih, or Fisher's island.

14-15. Taeshan, or Large island, near the northern extremity of the archipelago, divided into two chwang.

    16. Changtoo, a long island to the northeastward of Sheppey. Pooto, with Chookeä tseën (or Chuttatham) and other small is- lands, are under the jurisdiction of a priest.

The eighteen chwang of the chief island of Chusan are,

1. The town itself, with its southern suburb called Taoutow. 2. Yungtung, the large valley within which the town is situated. 3-6. Eastward of Yungtung, are four, namely; Wooseay, Tung aou, Loohwa or Loo-Poo, and To aou.

     7-13. On the northern side of the island, are six; viz. Tachen (facing northeastward), Petan, Pihtseuen (or Pejuen), Kanlan, Ma aou, Seaousha, and Tasha.

    14-15. On the west side, Sinkong (also called Chinting), and Tszewei or Tsevi.

16. On the southwest, or westward from Yungtung and the town, Yentsang, off which is the outer harbor, where large ships lie.

    17-18. Two inland valleys, Chaeho, on the north of Yentsang, and Kaousee on the south of Pihtseuen. These eighteen chwang are here briefly described in the same order.

1. Ching chwang, which comprises the town, or 定海縣

Tinghae heen ching, the city of the district of Tinghae, is situat- ed in the valley of Yungtung, about half a mile from the beach. Whe- ther or not the ditch and walls form the limit of this division does not appear. The city is of an irregular pentagonal form, about 1200 yards in extreme length from north to south, and 1000 yards in average breadth.*. It is surrounded by a wall of 23 miles in length, having 4

     * References to reconnoitering survey of the town and suburbs of Chusan, taken during the week after the occupation, by captain Anstruther, and lieuts. Little and Cadell of the artillery. A. Encampment of the 26th Cameronians. B. Camp of the artillery, Sappers. and Miners, and Bengal Volunteers. C. Pagoda hill, the head-quarters of the 18th Royal Irish. D. Main guard. E. Arsenal. F. Pay office. G. Chief magistrate's. H. Brigadier Burrell's. I. Guard chiefly in the joss houses. J. A large pawnbreker's establishment (Madras Artillery Record, from which the accompanying plate is taken.)

¡

.73

*

*1**

for:

H

J

:

!

1841.

Topographical Account of Chusan.

333

gates, each supported by an outer gate, and defenses at right angles to the inner gate, and distant from it about 20 yards. The wall is about 18 feet high and 15 feet thick, surmounted by a parapet of 4 feet high and 2 feet thick. This wall is surrounded on those sides where it looks on the rice fields by a canal running parallel to it, about 30 yards distant, the interval being, as all the flat land is, oc- cupied with rice grounds. The southern face of the wall runs due east and west 1000 yards, nearly in the centre of which is a gate- way, and at very irregular intervals five towers, each 8 yards square. From the eastern end of this, the wall turns due north 350 yards. In this face is another gateway and two of the towers just described; from the northern point of this face, the wall runs nearly straight 950 yards to the northwest, defended by three small towers, one of these being the extreme northern point of the city.

long, is crooked and irregular, At 200 yards from the western hill, on the top of which is a

The fourth face, about 700 yards with a gateway and three towers. end, the line of wall ascends a steep large bastion. A fifth side, 800 yards long, joins this bastion to the western end of the southern face, and completes the wall. The hill spoken of above, as partly inclosed by the northwest angle, is a spur from a high peak of the surrounding hills, due west from the north- west bastion, and slopes down to the angle of the city.

The steeets are all roughly paved with granite, having sewers run- ning down the centre, covered with large slabs of the same stone; these sewers except, when cleansed, are at all times very offen. sive, especially in the narrow streets which are much crowded. None of the streets are more than 20 feet wide, and generally do not exceed 12 or 15 feet. The houses are low, and the great majo- rity of them built of wood.

The city possesses no large gardens or squares, but a considerable extent of open ground on the eastern side is devoted to the cultiva tion of rice. The canal, which nearly surrounds the city, sends a large branch through a water-gate near the southern gate, which, dividing into many branches, traverses the greater part of the city in all directions. These branches form several large pools of foul stag- nant water into which every description of filth was thrown; and the street sewers also opening into the canals, rendered the latter ex- tremely offensive, and, during the warm weather, caused a most un- pleasant smell throughout the city. Added to this source of malaria, great numbers of large jars were placed at the corners of most of the treets, and in all vacant spaces, which were filled with a fermenting

334

Topographical Account of Chusan.

JUNE,

mass of animal and vegetable offal gathered from the streets, and preserved for manuring the fields in the neighborhood; as may be supposed in some of these places the stench was dreadful.

    No very exact account of the population of the city can be given, but it may be estimated at from 25,000 to 30,000, before the arrival of the British force there; but not more than 10,000 ever returned during the occupation of the place.

    At the distance of 800 yards from the southern gate of the city is Pagoda hill, an eminence 150 or 200 feet high, which commands the city and harbor. The hill, in its greatest length from north to south, is 500 yards at the base, with a breadth of 200 yards; a canal skirts its eastern face. On its southern slope is a roomy and commodious temple. The southern descent is steep and rocky directly down to the beach.

The sea-port town or suburb

Ta Taoutow is a street

   of 900 yards long, running due west of the Pagoda hill. It is inter- sected by numerous lanes of 100 yards long leading to the various jetties, and at the foot of the Pagoda hill is a square landing-place well faced with stone, measuring 55 yards long by 20 yards broad. It is also paved and flagged, and is the point at which the troops first landed. Nearly the whole of this suburb is composed of shops and stores. There were also one or two extensive samshoo manu- factories and some large paddy stores, and several well stocked tim- ber yards. This sea-port or trading town is probably attached to the city division, a number of paddy fields and vegetable beds inter- vene between the two.

    2. Yungtung (an ancient name originally pertaining to Ningpo). This valley, in which the city is situated, is of conside- rable extent, and stretches far to the eastward, and incloses a range of hills. The southern portion of the eastern ridge, and the spurs or offsets from these inclosed hills make several subordinate vallies which open into the larger one. That portion of the valley which particularly belongs to the city is almost surrounded on three sides by hills, the harbor is the southern bound; it is about 4 miles long and 3 broad. This valley is wholly occupied by rice fields, except a few patches for brinjal, sweet potatoes, millet, and buckwheat.

One large stream runs through the valley from the eastward and falls into the sea; near the east gate, and about 1 mile from the sea, there is a large sluice which dams up the water, so that in rainy weather a large quantity is collected here which overflows and thus inundates a great portion of the valley. This sluice is the nearest

چیم

1:

a.

גיז.

1841.

Topographical Account of Chusan.

335

    point to the city, which heavy laden boats can reach, and hence it is a spot of considerable importance; there is a substantial stone bridge over the stream, and several shops and other buildings near at hand. At the mouth of the stream is a tolerably good landing-place, to which the Ningpo boats come in great numbers to all hours of the day, when the tide permits, (for at low tide the bed of the stream as far