Administrative Reports - 1928



ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS FOR THE YEAR 1928
Table of Contents
0 History and Geography
1 General
2 Finance
3 Production
4 Trade and Economics
5 Communications
6 Justice, Police and Prisons
7 Public Works
8 Public Health
9 Education
10 Land and Surveys
11 Labour
12 Legislation
13 Miscellaneous
A Financial Returns
A(1) Finances
A(2) Audit office
B Assessment
C Secretariat for Chinese affairs
D Harbour office
E Imports and Exports office
F Royal Observatory
G Supreme Court
H Police Magistrates' Courts
I Land office
J New Territories
K Police and Fire Brigade
L Prisons
M(1) Medical and Sanitary Departments
N Botanical and forestry
O Education
P Volunteer Corps (Not Published)
Q Public Works
R Post office
S Railway

 






CONTENTS.
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
1. GENERAL
II. FINANCE
III. PRODUCTION
IV. TRADE AND ECONOMICS
V.
COMMUNICATIONS
VI. JUSTICE, POLICE AND PRISONS
VII.
PUBLIC WORKS
VIII.
PUBLIC HEALTH
Page.
1
3
5
6
7
9
15
17
20
24
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IX. EDUCATION
X. LANDS AND SURVEY
XI.
LABOUR
XII. LEGISLATION
XIII. MISCELLANEOUS
:
28
29
30
32
History and Geography.
The Colony of Hong Kong is situated off the south-eastern coast of China between latitude 22° 9′ and 22° 17′ N. and longitude 114° 5′ and 114° 18′ E. The island is about 11 miles long and 2 to 5 miles in breadth, its circumference being about 27 miles and its area 28 square miles.
It consists of an irregular ridge of lofty hills rising to a height of nearly 2,000 feet above sea level, stretching nearly east and west, with few valleys of any extent and little ground available for cultivation.
The island, then desolate and sparsely inhabited by fishermen, was ceded to Great Britain in January, 1841, the cession being confirmed by the Treaty of Nanking in August, 1842, and the charter bears the date of 5th April, 1843. All that part of Kowloon penin- Sula lying South of Kowloon Fort to the northernmost point of Stonecutter's Island together with that island was ceded to Great Britain under the Convention signed at Peking in October, 1860,
and under the Convention signed at Peking in June, 1898, the area known as the New Territories including Mirs Bay and Deep Bay was ⚫leased to Great Britain by the Government of China for 99 years. The area of the New Territories and Islands is about 345 square miles.
Trade gradually developed as China became accustomed to foreign. intercourse and it increased greatly owing to the opening of the Suez Canal. It now stands at about 200 million pounds sterling per annum.
Large local banking, dock, steamboat, and insurance companies were established between 1865 and 1872, and their numbers are being continually added to.
The Colony is the centre of an incessant flow of Chinese cinigra- tion and immigration (sec XIII Miscellaneous).
The rainfall for 1927 was 107.86 inches, and for 1928, 71.15 inches. There was a serious shortage of rain from the middle of July to the end of the year; only 18.24 inches falling during this period as against an average of 39.50 inches. From October 19 to the end of the year only 0.850 inch fell, 0.585 inch of which fell on November 13-14. In 1927 the mean temperature was 71.4′ and in 1928, 72.4′. the mean minimum temperature during the latter year ranging from 79°9′ in July to 55°0′ in February and the mean maximum temperature from 88°5' in July to 63°1' in February. There was a heat wave from July 4 to August 4. The mean temperature for July, 83°5', was the highest on record, except in 1889 when it was 83°6′. Typhoons are prevalent during the months July to October, but the Colony was not visited by a typhoon in 1928.
The currency of Hong Kong consists of the following coins (vide) Order in Council, 2nd February, 1895):-
1. The silver dollar of Mexico.
2. British dollar.
3. The Hong Kong dollar, half-dollar, and 20 cent, 10 cent. and 5 cent pieces, issued from the Hong Kong Mint. (1866-68).
4. Half-dollars, 20, 10, and 5 cent pieces, imported from
England, and coined at the Royal Mint and Birmingham Mint.
5. Copper coins representing one-hundredth part of the dollar (called one cent), and one-thousandth part of the dollar (mil or cash), imported from England.
Local weights and measures are the following:
1 tael=1.1
oz.;
1 picul 133rd lbs. (avoirdupois)
73 catties-1 imperial gallon;
1
3
I. General.
The year 1928 showed a continuation of that steady recovery in the financial and commercial position of the Colony reported for the year 1927, which is reflected in the financial figures of the year published in Part II.
The new development of the Kai Tak Aerodrome and Shing Mun Waterworks are typical of the new confidence and vision. The cost of these, though too great to be borne out of revenue was easily met by the flotation of the balance of the Public Works 6% loan issued at a premium of 3% which was promptly over-subscribed; such indeed was the response that further loans for the purpose of financing future development of the waterworks scheme may be assured of a hearty welcome by the Public.
The disastrous events of December 1927 had left Canton with an empty Treasury; a large area of the business quarter of the city had been destroyed by fire; the army of Cheung Fat-fui was still a menace; a Soviet had been established with much blood-shed in the Hoi Luk-tung districts, and brigandage was rampant throughout the province. On January the 4th Marshal Li Chai-sum returned to Canton from Shanghai to find his party again in power and began without delay to evolve some order out of the general chaos. By the end of the first quarter Cheung Fat-fui had been expelled, the communists scattered and driven into the mountains and the currency. of the province had almost returned to parity.
By the end of February the situation had so improved that H.M's. Minister, Sir Miles Lampson, was able to pay a formal visit to Canton, and on 2nd March Marshal Li Chai-sum came to Hong Kong where he remained as a guest at Government House until March the 4th. From March the 9th to the 11th His Excellency the Gover- nor was in return the guest of Marshal Li at Canton. This inter- change of visits leading as it did to the resumption of friendly rela- tions between the Governments of the two cities marked the end of the period of estrangement which had culminated in the boycott, and as a token of this the boycott committee was formally dissolved during the same month. Real progress was made during this period in dealing with brigandage and it could be said with truth that by the end of the year the countryside was safer for honest men than it had been since the revolution. Noteworthy events were the des- patch of a permanent garrison to Bias Bay in the autumn and the operations against the bandits of the Ku Tau Mountains which took place in the winter.
General Chan Ming-shü succeeded Marshal Li as Chairman of the Provincial Council in December. This year saw also the formal re- cognition by Great Britain of the National Government of China.
Although the steps taken by the Kwangtung Government to sup- press piracy in the Bias Bay area were not entirely successful, the number of piracies which took place was at least less than in the
4
previous year and the prospect of co-operation between the Chinese and foreign Governments in this respect gives promise of greater success in the future.
*
The list of piracies which took place in 1928 is as follows:-
(Chinese Register)
Date
Vessels
9.3.28
Junk Hoi Cheung
14.4.28
S.S. Hsin Wah
1.5.28
Boat.
A.P.C. Motor
6.5.28 Cargo Junk
S.S. Tean
26.9.28
S.S. Anking
Place
Til Hau Kok in Sham Shui
District.
Bias Bay.
Off Chung Chow Is. (34 miles
outside British Water).
Lunk Ku Yau.
Hoi How.
Tai Chow How.
One of the most interesting events of the year was a Grand Tattoo held early in October, organized by a combined military and civilian committee. This, the first spectacle on such a scale ever organized in the Far East, was attended by over 10,000 persons, and welcomed as a huge success. The proceeds were devoted to charity and it is to be hoped that similar entertainments will be held in the future.
The Shanghai Defence Force, whose presence in the Colony was one of the features of 1927, had for the most part been transferred to Shanghai by the end of that year, leaving in the Colony the two British Garrison battalions and the 2nd Battalion Scots Guards; the latter were also transferred to Shanghai in June, 1928.
The Queen's Regiment, originally part of the Shanghai Defence Force, was relieved in December, by the Somerset Light Infantry. The Garrison was thus maintained at a strength of two British and one Indian battalions.
His Excellency the Governor, Sir Cecil Clementi, K.C.M.G., sailed for home for eight months' furlough on 9th May, 1928, and the Colonial Secretary, the Hon. Mr. W. T. Southorn, C.M.G., acted as Officer Administering the Government during his absence.
The honours conferred on residents of Hong Kong by His Majesty the King included the appointment of the following:-
.C.M.G. .M.B.E.
Mr. E. D. C. Wolfe
Miss M. Sloan
Mr. H. K. Holmes
.C.B.E. (Civil)
Dr. S. W. T'so, LL.D.
.O.B.E.
Mr. R. Sutherland, M.B.E.
.O.B.E.
Miss L. E. Mackay
O.B.E. (Military)
Mrs. C. G. Alabaster
.M.B.E. (Civil)
Mrs. H. R. Remington
.M.B.E.
Mrs. E. D. C. Wolfe Captain Adey
.M.B.E. ""
.M.B.E.
Mrs. Russell-Brown
Subadar Major Piran Ditta,
Mr. A. J. Reed
Mr. P. T. Lamble
.M.B.E.
D.C.M...M.B.E. (Military)
.I.S.O.
.I.S.O.
...
T
5
On Sunday, November 18th, 1928, the four "Southampton" flying boats of the Royal Air Force, under Command of Group Captain M. Cave-Brown-Cave, arrived from Salamague, which is situated in the Northern Philippines. The boats left Singapore on November 1st, and had visited Kuchang, Labuan, Port Princessa, Manila and Salamague. After making one week's stay in Hong Kong they returned to Singapore via Tourane Bay, Coconut Bay, Bangkok, Victoria Point and Penang. On reaching Singapore, they had completed 5,340 miles in 41 days.
II. Finance.
1. The total revenue of the year amounted to $24,968,399 which sum exceeded the Estimate by $4,865,009 and the revenue for 1927 by $3,623,863.
It should be noted, however, that included in the revenue is a sum of $1,963,359 which was recovered from the funds of the Public Works Loan (1927) on account of expenditure on Loan Works during the years 1923-1926.
There were increases under all heads with the exception of Light Dues which showed a slight decrease. The most notable feature was the increase in Land Sales of $1,485,236 and another large increase of $517,790 was shown under Licences and Internal Revenue mainly due to Assessed Taxes, Liquor Duties and Opium Monopoly.
A considerable increase in Radio and Postal Traffic is reflected in the Post Office Revenue which exceeded the Estimate by $151,918 and improved conditions enabling the Kowloon-Canton Railway through service to Canton to be maintained resulted in an increase of $101,800.
2. The expenditure for the year amounted to $21,230,242 which was $952,803 less than the estimate and $385,177 more than the expenditure in 1927.
Substantial savings were effected in the votes of the Public Works Department and the Harbour Department and to a smaller extent in many other departments.
3. The following is a statement of Revenue and Expenditure for the last five years.
Year.
1924
1925
!
1926
1927
1928
Revenue. $24,209,640
23,244,365
21,131,582
21,344,536
24,968,399
Expenditure.
$26,726,428
28,266,817
23,524,716
20,845,065
21,230,242
4. Public Debt:-In November the balance of the 6% Public Works Loan (1927) was issued at a premium of three per cent. The nominal value of this issue was $1,927,000 bringing the amount of the Loan, which is repayable in 1932, up to $4,927,000. The Sinking Fund amounted to £20,666.
The Inscribed Stock Loans of 1893 and 1906 due for repayment in 1943 stood at £1,485,733 and Sinking Fund at £631,051.
5. Trade Loan:-A further 87 loans amounting to $3,403,560 were redeemed during the year thus reducing the nuniber of the loans outstanding on 31st December, 1928, to 83 representing a sum of $4,697,906.13.
In four cases it was found necessary to enforce the security and this was done without loss.
III. Production.
FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE & BOTANY.
Formation of Plantations.-Certain areas were definitely allocated for the purpose of permanent forestry reserves, greatly increased areas were consequently sown with Pinus Massoniana and other trees both in situ and broadcast.
Insect Pests.-Pine Tree Caterpillars made their appearance in the early months of the year, the damage done by them was not serious.
Protection of Plantations.-The total length of fire barriers in all parts of the Colony was increased by three miles and all old barriers maintained in good condition; the presence of the barriers undoubtedly saved many plantations from serious damage and in some cases total destruction.
Cultivation of Foreign Vegetables.-The amount of foreign vegetables grown is increasing annually and such vegetables find a ready sale among the European residents.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.-Eighteen consignments totalling 17,340 bulbs of Narcissus Tazetta were inspected and certified for export to Britain and the United States of America.
Numerous consignments of dried vegetable products were inspected and certified for export to the Philippine Islands.
FISHERIES.
A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit à large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.
MINING.
The mineral resources of the Colony are small and little mining was done in 1928.
The Inscribed Stock Loans of 1893 and 1906 due for repayment in 1943 stood at £1,485,733 and Sinking Fund at £631,051.
5. Trade Loan:-A further 87 loans amounting to $3,403,560 were redeemed during the year thus reducing the nuniber of the loans outstanding on 31st December, 1928, to 83 representing a sum of $4,697,906.13.
In four cases it was found necessary to enforce the security and this was done without loss.
III. Production.
FORESTRY, AGRICULTURE & BOTANY.
Formation of Plantations.-Certain areas were definitely allocated for the purpose of permanent forestry reserves, greatly increased areas were consequently sown with Pinus Massoniana and other trees both in situ and broadcast.
Insect Pests.-Pine Tree Caterpillars made their appearance in the early months of the year, the damage done by them was not serious.
Protection of Plantations.-The total length of fire barriers in all parts of the Colony was increased by three miles and all old barriers maintained in good condition; the presence of the barriers undoubtedly saved many plantations from serious damage and in some cases total destruction.
Cultivation of Foreign Vegetables.-The amount of foreign vegetables grown is increasing annually and such vegetables find a ready sale among the European residents.
Inspection of Nursery Stock.-Eighteen consignments totalling 17,340 bulbs of Narcissus Tazetta were inspected and certified for export to Britain and the United States of America.
Numerous consignments of dried vegetable products were inspected and certified for export to the Philippine Islands.
FISHERIES.
A considerable proportion of the boat population of Hong Kong supports itself by deep-sea fishing, in which pursuit à large number of junks are engaged. The villages of Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, and also many in the New Territories, are largely dependent upon this industry for their prosperity. Fresh water fish is imported from Canton and the West River. There are oyster beds of considerable value in Deep Bay.
MINING.
The mineral resources of the Colony are small and little mining was done in 1928.
7
MANUFACTURES.
Sugar. The Sugar markets of the world continued, during 1928, to suffer from over-production, mainly in Java, and prices during 1928 were the lowest registered since the pre-war period. The hope that the over-production would be taken up in the replenish- ment of invisible stocks was not realised, and business generally was confined to hand-to-mouth buying. Whilst consumption in Europe increased by a nominal amount, that of America has registered a slight set-back.
Recent development of trade between Java and the consuming centres in China in washed sugar-a much cheaper process than refining-was one of the main factors leading to the permanent closing down of one Hong Kong sugar refinery and the stoppage for six months of another.
Hosiery.-There are established in the Colony over a score of Chinese-owned factories for the knitting of cotton hosiery and singlets. The factories use, except for the higher grades, Japanese yarn and find an ever-increasing demand for their products in South Africa, the Persian Gulf, and in many parts of the near East. wherever there is a large native population.
Ginger. A dozen ginger-preserving establishments deal with the raw product which is imported from South China and supplied principally to Great Britain. Holland, the U.S.A. and Australia, to the extent of about £300,000 annually.
Rope Making-Rope-makers have had a fairly satisfactory year.
SHIPBUILDING
Two ocean-going passenger vessels were built in local dockyards during 1928, four ocean-going motor vessels, and twenty smaller craft,
IV. Trade and Economics.
In the opinion of merchants the recovery of trade--which more settled political conditions in China gave reason to expect--scarcely manifested itself in 1928 to the extent hoped for. The volume of business was, as far as can be estimated in the absence of trade statistics, no more than maintained.
The following figures, taken from returns for 1924 (the last avail- able), show the principal countries with which trade is carried on:-
United Kingdom
Imported from £9,450,000
Exported to £
744,000
Germany
1,835,000
132.000
Belgium
696,000
19,000
Holland
326,000
107,000
France
319,000
79,000
Italv
259,000
6,000
Sweden
173,000
2,000
Other European Countries. United States of America
189,000
16,000
5,915,000
2,489,000
8
Cuba, Central & S. America
Japan, Korea & Formosa
169,000 9,127,000
933,000
3,523,000
Australia
1,042,000
428,000
Canada
733,000
410,000
New Zealand
54,000
62,000
Foreign Countries Miscellaneous
195,000
38,000
TOTAL
£30,482,000
£ 8,988,000
The Scale of Hong Kong's trade with neighbouring countries is indicated by the following figures, also taken from the statistics for
1924:-
India Ceylon
Burmah
China
Straits Settlements & F.M.S.
British North Borneo
Netherlands East Indies
French Indo-China
Siam
Philippine Islands
TOTAL
Imported from
Exported to
£ 1,998,000
£
805,000
21,000
133.000
1,051,000
224,000
1,692,000
2,893,000
277,000
129,000
*25,974,000
89,738,000
9,457,000
1,054,000
10,994,000
5,135,000
6,262,000
2,530,000
654,000
1,719,000
£58,380,000
£54,360,000
Hong Kong's own consumption and production of commodities is comparatively small; one of its main functions is to act as an entrepot and clearing house for the products of South China and for the world's manufactured goods passing into South China.
However, owing to the fact that no duties are levied upon com- modities, except liquors and tobacco, whereas China levics import and export duties upon all commodities, the tendency has been for a number of manufacturing processes to be established in the Colony, e.g., sugar and tin refining, cement making and ginger preserving; there are also several factories weaving cotton manufactured goods, and hundreds of native workshops manufacturing rattan ware and similar products.
Much of the voluminous trade with neighbouring countries com- prises purely Chinese commodities and is carried on by Chinese firms in Hong Kong with branches elsewhere. Trade with Europe, the Americas and Australasia is principally in the hands of British and foreign import and export firms who do business with the Chinese mercantile community established in Hong Kong, purchasing from them the products of China which have been assembled from the interior, and selling manufactured goods which pass on from wholesale to retail dealers and so to the small shopkeepers in the interior of of China. The lack of modern means of communication in China necessarily makes the process slow and difficult.
* This figure is obtained from the Chinese Maritime Customs Returns.
The Chinese written language is a great hindrance to direct deal- ings between Chinese traders and merchants and manufacturers in foreign countries; another obstacle is lack of confidence by shippers overseas the product of many regrettable experiences. The sub- stantial British and foreign firms in Hong Kong, with their branches in the Treaty Ports of China, serve a definitely useful purpose in acting as intermediaries between Chinese and overseas traders. Owing to the hindrances to commerce resulting from the language difficulty and the lack of education of the proprietors of native manufactories it would be impossible for firms abroad to do business direct. As a rule letters would not be answered, and, even if contact were established, there would be no means of ensuring deliveries in accordance with sample. It is in this matter, especially, that the foreign exporters protect the interests of buyers abroad. Enquiries as to the South China market should be addressed to the General Chamber of Commerce, Hong Kong.
V. Communications.
SHIPPING.
The total Shipping entering and clearing Ports in the Colony during the year 1928 amounted to 300,316 vessels of 44,883,765 tons which compared with the figures of 1927 shows an increase of 1.609 vessels and an increase of 756,604 tons.
Of the above, 52,278 vessels of 37,640,694 tons were engaged in Foreign Trade as compared with 51,289 vessels of 36,834,014 tons in
1927.
There was an increase in British Ocean-going shipping: 652 vessels of 1,132,261 tons.
Foreign Ocean-going vessels show an increase of 603 vessels and an increase of 61,970 tons.
British River Steamers show a decrease of 932 vessels and a decrease of 530,341 tons. This decrease is due to the following vessels not running owing to Fire. Shipwreck and other causes. S.S. "Sui Tai", "Kochow", "Anjou", "Paul Beau" and "Charles Hardouin".
Foreign River Steamers show an increase of 70 vessels and a decrease of 18,855 tons.
In Steamships not exceeding 60 tons employed in Foreign Trade there is an increase of 651 vessels with an increase in tonnage of 7,669 tons.
10
Junks in Foreign trade show a decrease of 55 vessels and an increase of 153,976 tons. This is due to larger vessels being em- ployed.
In Local Trade (i.e. between places in the waters of the Colony) there is a decrease in Steam Launches of 3,581 Vessels and a decrease in Tonnage of 105,069.
Junks in Local Trade show an increase of 4,201 Vessels entered and cleared and an increase of 54,993 tons.
Of vessels of European construction, 5,912 Ocean-going vessels, 3,927 River Steamers, and 4,249 Steamships not exceeding 60 tons entered during the year giving a daily average of 38.5 vessels as com- pared with 37.3 vessels in 1927 and 20.8 vessels in 1926
Ocean-going Vessels entered as follows:-
Vessels.
No. of times entered.
Total Tonnage
Flag.
1927. 1928. 1927. 1928.
1927.
1928.
British,
346
|
Japanese,
264
3715,702 5,562 8,466,960 8,786,202 250 1,109 1,016 2,927,207 2,829,121
U.S.A.,
79
83 245 251
1,495,775
1,471,424
Chinese,
81
751,315 1,670
847,073
812,037
German,
43
60 151 163
487,160
564,429
Danish,
11
14
48
70
153,341
196.780
Dutch,
41
36
251
245
849,766
$23,506
French,
32
33
246
312
629,144
724,176
Italian,
6
5
26
26
141,566
143,918
Panamanian,
1
388
Norwegian,
61
472
419
657,005
613,765
Portuguese,
5
5
73
81
15,526
14,380
Swedish,
9
11
30
43
103,182
128,955
Mexican,
1
1
1,183
Total.
997 1,018 9,669 9,859 16,774,788 17,109,051
>
11
A comparison between the years 1927 and 1928 is given in the following table :--
1927.
1928.
Decrease.
Increase.
Class of Vessels
No.
Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No.
Tonnage.
British Ocean-
going,
3,861
9,660,440 | 4,513 |10,792,701
652 1,132,261
Foreign Ocean
going,
6,767 | 16,039,724 | 7,370 | 16,101,694
603
61,970

British River
Steamers,...
7,549
7,300,082 6,617
Foreign River
Steamers,.. 1,165
561,155 1,235
6,769,741
542,300
932 530,341
18,855 70
Steamships
under 60
tons For -
eign Trade... 7,893
233,374 | 8,514
Junks, Foreign|
Trade,
24,054
3,039,239 23,999
241,043
3,193,215
651
55
7,669
153,976
Total, Foreign
Trade,
|51,289 | 36,834,014 52,278 37,640,694
987
549,196 1,976 1,355,876
Steam Laun-
ches, Local
Trade..... |219,555 5,771,970 215,974 5,666,901 | 3,581
105,069
Junks, Local
Trade,
*27,863 *1,521,177 †32,064 †1,576,170
4,201
54,993
Grand Total... 298,707 44,127,161 300,316 44,883,765 4,568
654,265 6,177
1,410,869
Net,
1,609
756,604
* Including 15,358 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 993,280 tons.
15,966
وو
of 903,674
""
HONG KONG SHIPPING STATISTICS.
Number & Tonnage of Vessels in Foreign Trade entered &
cleared.
Total Shipping Entered and Cleared.
Year
Number
Total Percentage Tonnage of British
Tonnage
British Tonnage Tonnage
Total
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
43,436 16,955,332 41.7 41,985 21,072,129 43.0 43,364 24,194,022 52,222 50,427
7,072,021 29,518,189
43.8
27,852,616 44.3 29,543,564
45.4
1923
1924
1925
49,900 35,947,534 57,765 41,336
47.0
38,770,499 32,179,053
47.3
9,095,805 35,615,169 11,608,069 40,122,527 12,766,492 43,420,970 13,420,118 46,566,764 16,920,491 53,402,239 18,369,413 56,731,077
47.6
15,321,935 49,520,523
1926
30,231 28,371,104 51.5
14,730,846 43,796,436
1927
51,289 36,834,014
45.7
16,960,522 44,127,161
1928
52,278 37,640,694
46.6
17,562,442 44,883,765
12
KOWLOON-CANTON RAILWAY.
All the through express trains between Kowloon and Canton continued to be hauled by British Section engines daily throughout the year, with the exception of two periods totalling 9 days when through traffic was temporarily suspended.
Monthly general revenues showed a steady and healthy increase, even throughout the summer months which are usually lean ones, until by the end of the year General Revenues had amounted to $820,994.90 against $713,424.85 for last year.
General Revenues for the first time since the opening of the line exceeded Working Expenses by the very satisfactory sum 21 $20,040.73 notwithstanding the inclusion of the exceptional sum of $30,526.76 being depreciation of rails in stock, which were written down to market value and depreciation debited to Working Expenses.
Liabilities under Capital decreased by $138,080.45. cumulated deficit stood at $6,978,224.05 on December 31st.
The ac
The Fanling Branch Line was closed in April as of no further service to the public since the opening of the motor road to Sha Tau Kok. A good proportion of the track recovered as also of the rolling stock and buildings, was disposed of.
Additions to Capital Account were light as there were no engineer- ing works of note. The principal items being the Improvements at Taipo Market Station $21,027.31 and Machines for Workshops $6,575.93.
Revenues from Rents which in 1927 amounted to $33,428.00 declined to $7,728.57.
The Railway suffered no damage from typhoons or rainstorms.
Permanent Way and Structures, Rolling Stock and Plant were maintained as usual.
The Workshops continued to be exceptionally busy until about November, as by arrangement with the Chinese Section 30 of their goods wagons were thoroughly overhauled and reconditioned at our shops.
The total train mileage amounted to 292,345 miles, or 67,581 miles more than last year. This includes trains run over the Chinese Section to Canton.
The Rules applicable to the Public and to the Staff, as also the General Tariff, were all revised and reprinted.
As the result of a decision to adopt concrete sleepers generally, in replacing wooden ones, manufacture was re-started in April and 5,070 concrete sleepers turned out by the end of the year.
13
POST OFFICE.
Mails. The number of mail receptacles of Hong Kong origin despatched during the year was 35,517 as compared with 35,159 m 1927—an increase of 358; the number received was 45,202 as compared with 43,638—an increase of 1,564.
Receptacles in transit, including those to and from British and Foreign Men-of-War, numbered 175,492 as against 194,200 in 1927-- a decrease of 18,708.
The large decrease in the number of receptacles for Men-of-War was due to the withdrawal of a large number of vessels-including a flotilla of destroyers-consequent on the establishment of a more peaceful state of affairs in China.
Registered Articles and Parcels.-The number of registered articles handled amounted to 806,980 as compared with 833,177 in 1927—a decrease of 26,197; of these figures 15,946 were in respect of Hong Kong postings and 10,251 transit articles.
The figures for insured letters were 17,430 and 17,648 respectively -an increase of 218.
Parcels, ordinary and insured, which were dealt with reached a total of 423,880 as against 424,047 in 1927-a decrease of 167.
WIRELESS.
1. The year 1928 saw considerable advances made in the reorganisation and establishment on a sound basis of the wireless services of the Colony.
2. The Kowloon Royal Observatory W/T Station was closed as a transmitting station, the transmitter installed there being thorough- ly overhauled, redesigned and installed at Victoria Peak for broad- casting and commercial services. The Observatory station is now used as the receiving station for the ship services and as a distant reception station for the Radio Telegraph Office. The Observatory Station operates, by remote control the transmitters installed at Cape D'Aguilar which are used for the ship services. The station is also used for the reception of time signals, and long distance weather reports.
3. Cape D'Aguilar is now a gouped transmitter station for ship. services and for point to point transmitters. Reception is not carried on at this station, operation and control of transmitters being done by remote control from the Radio Telegraph Office and the Observatory Station.
4. Early in the year a new site for a wireless station, to be built and organised on the most up to date lines, was chosen at Victoria Peak. A considerable amount of progress has already been made in the erection of station, buildings, masts etc., and two transmitters are already installed there, one working on 300 metres for broadcasting musical programmes, weather reports, news bulletins etc. and when not in use for broadcasting working on 850 metres for
14
commercial services, and the other one working on 49 metres for communication with points in South China and French Indo-China. The station which is still in course of erection will, when completed, accommodate high power short wave long distance transmitters for commercial working with practically all parts of the world. The cali signal of Victoria Peak Wireless Station is ZBW and its position is Lat. 22°16′ 38′′.56 N., Long. 114°08′ 31′′.95 E
5. The Radio Telegraph Office which was transferred from the 1st Floor of the General Post Office Building to the Ground Floor of the new P. & O. Building during the month of October is the controlling station for all services. R.T.O. operates by remote control the transmitters installed at Cape D'Aguilar and Victoria Peak which are used for fixed point services, carries on direct and indirect reception, and accepts and distributes radiotelegraphic traffic. Commercial wireless telegraph services are maintained between numerous points in South China, French Indo-China, Siam, British North Borneo, Yunnanfu, Philippines, Dutch East Indies, Dutch Borneo, American Continents, Europe, etc.
The revenue collected by the Post Office during the year from radiotelegrams amounted to $162,517.66. an increase of $20,639.21 on the amount collected in 1927.
Advices of vessels signalled at the Lighthouses yielded $1,021.00, Semaphore messages, $3.60 and Wireless Receiving Station Licences. $482.31. The total Revenue from the Telegraph Service amounted to $162,999.97.
The number of paid radio-telegrams forwarded during the year was 38,422 consisting of 322,041 words against 22,793 consisting of 209,171 words in 1927, and 51,951 were received consisting of 477,109 words as against 26,326 consisting of 276,078 words.
In addition to the paid traffic figures given above the wireless service is responsible for the reception of time signals daily from Bordeaux, Rugby, Malabar and Nauen, for the transmission of time signals to ships in the China Sea, the reception of press messages amounting to 373 messages 211,156 words from Rugby, the collection and distribution of meteorological traffic, having forwarded 2,968 messages 205,194 words, and received 10,346 messages 200,623 words, the reception of Saigon Health Bulletins once weekly, the reception and dissemination of distress, piracy and navigation messages, the transmission and reception of Government messages, etc., etc.
An interesting development during the year 1928
was the commencement of local broadcasting. The programmes, which occupy approximately four hours daily consist of musical items, speeches, weather reports, news bulletins, church services, concerts etc., are transmitted by the transmitter installed at Victoria Peak and controlled from the studio on the First Floor of the General Post Office Building. Broadcasting is gaining in popularity and the demand for receiving licences for which a charge of $5.00 per annum is made, is becoming greater.
15
CABLES.
The Eastern Extension Telegraph Company (British) by means of three cables to Singapore, one direct and one each via Labuan and Cape St. James respectively, provide good connections with Europe via India, with Australasia, and with the other British Colonies and possessions. By their cable to Manila connection is made with the direct American cable, thence to San Francisco. Two cables to
to Shanghai, belonging respectively to the Eastern Extension and to the Great Northern (Danish) Companies, via Foochow and Amoy respectively, give a good connection with Shanghai, North China, Japan and Russia; and the system of the Great Northern Telegraph Co. gives a good service to Europe via Asiatic Russia.
TELEPHONES.
Telephonic communication, provided by the Hong Kong Telephone Co., is available to most parts of the Colony.
VI. Justice, Police and Prisons.
Serious Crime in 1928 showed a slight increase over 1927-—5,351 cases against 4,879. Minor Crime showed a considerable decrease 14,077 cases against 19,891 cases in 1927. The increase in serious crime is accounted for by the increase of burglaries and larcenies in dwellings, and felonies other than murder, robbery, assault with intent to rob, kidnapping. piracy and unlawful possession. Larceny cases showed a marked decrease. In the minor offences, "Miscel- laneous" showed a decrease of 5,000 cases.
There was an increase of 2 murders, and a decrease of 1 robbery.
The murder of Mr. Lee Hysan, a well known member of the Chinese Community, was the most serious outrage of the year. The victim was shot in the back at point blank range while entering his Club, which was accessible only from a little frequented back lane: no hue and cry was raised. and the murderer made good his escape.
There were no sudden variations in the population of the Colony during the year, as conditions in the neighbouring Province remained generally peaceful.
In May, the Japanese Boycott, which was reflected in the Colony. resulted in nothing more serious than a few isolated cases of window smashing, which were promptly dealt with and checked.
Piracy. Five Piracies were recorded, the two principal being the S.S. "San Nam Hoi" in January, and the S.S. "Anking" in Novem- ber. The Chief Officer of the "San Nam Hoi" and 2 Indian Guards were killed.
15 of the pirates were captured, and 7 were executed by the Kong Mun Authoritics. In the "Anking" Piracy, the Chief Officer, the Chief Engineer and Chinese Compradore were killed and
16
the bodies thrown overboard. One of the pirates was afterwards arrested in Hong Kong and executed. A number of piracies on junks occurred during the year in waters adjoining the Colony.
year.
Piracy in the Canton River Delta showed an increase.
There were no serious strikes or industrial troubles during the
Labour Associations. Three events of importance took place :-
(1) Proscription of Cha Kui Tsung Kung Wui.
(2) Proscription of Ki Tuk Kau Siu Nin Tuen.
The closing of these two centres evoked no opposition.
and was merely a continuation of the policy of clos- ing all seditious Political Associations operating under the guise of Labour Unions.
(3) The Chinese Seamens' Associated Union, a local Union working in conjunction with local Institutions opened at the end of 1928.
A most successful "Tattoo" was held early in October at which the attendance reached the large figure of 10,000. A Public Entertain- ment on such a large scale naturally required very special Police, and particularly Traffic arrangements which were carried out to the satisfaction of the general public attending the "Tattoo".
The total number of persons committed to Victoria Gaol was 5,756 as compared with 7,740 in 1927. Of these 1,117 were com- mitted for criminal offences against 1,740 in 1927. Of committals for non-criminal offences there were 35 less for hawking without a licence, and 19 less for unlawfully cutting trees, than in 1927.
The daily average of prisoners confined in the Gaol was 1,071 the average for 1927 being 1,189 and the highest previous average being 1,116 in 1925. The percentage of prisoners to population, accord- ing to the daily average of the former and the estimated number of the latter was 0.100. The average percentage for the last ten years was 0.121. Owing, however, to the large floating population, which is constantly moving between the Colony and Chinese Territory, the percentage of crime to population does not convey an accurate idea of the comparative criminality of the residents of the Colony. The Victoria Gaol has accommodation for 700 prisoners including patients in Hospital. The Branch Prison at Laichikok has accommodation for 450 prisoners.
The prison discipline was satisfactory, the average of punish- ments per prisoner being 0.49 as compared with 0.52 in 1927 and 0.49 in 1926.
Prisoners are employed at printing, book-binding, tinsmithing, mat-making, tailoring, carpentering, soap-making, gardening etc. Practically all the Government printing and book-binding is done in Victoria Gaol.
-
17
VII. Public Works.
BUILDINGS.
During the year progress as stated was made on the following works:
Hong Kong.-The New Hospital at Victoria Gaol, an enclosed Revolver Range for the Police, fifty two Village Houses at Wong Nei Chong together with School and Public Trough Closet were com- pleted. The new Reception Block at Victoria Gaol, an additional storey to the Colonial Secretariat Building and the new Wireless Telegraph Station at the Peak were nearing completion by the end of December.
Kowloon-An open Market at To Kwa Wan and Public Con- veniences at King's Park were completed together with a temporary block of new Class Rooms to the Central British School and the raising of the Time Ball Tower on Signal Hill. A new Store at the Yaumati Slipway was commenced in October.
A number of minor works were also carried out in the district.
New Kowloon.--An open Market at Kowloon City. Quarters for Sextons at Sai Yu Shek Cemetery and 2 Public Trough Closets and 1 temporary latrine at Shamshuipo were completed.
Public Latrine and Bath-house at Shamshuipo and Extension to Shamshuipo Market were in course of erection.
New Territories.-The erection of a new School at Cheung Chau and Pill Boxes for Military Authorities at Lo Wu and Sha Tau Kok were completed. Block House for police at Lin Tong was commenced in June and was nearing completion by the end of the year.
COMMUNICATIONS.
Hong Kong.-Approach road to Tung Wah Hospital at Sookunpoo and Path to Revolver Range at Bowen Road were completed. The site formation and road construction at Wong Nei Chong was nearing completion by the end of the year.
Kowloon.-Waterloo Road Extension to boundary and earthworks for To Kwa Wan Road were completed and the former was partially surfaced by the end of the year. Argyle Street Extension to a width of 60 ft. was nearing completion by the end of the year.
New Kowloon.-Road to Dairy Farm Lots at Diamond Hill and Waterloo Road Extension to foothills were completed. Formation of roads in Kowloon Tong Development Area was nearing completion and the Widening of Castle Peak Road was in progress.
18
New Territories.-Tai Po Bridge reconstruction and road diver- sion, and Patrol Path from Ta Ku Ling to Lin Ma Hang were both completed early in the year.
DRAINAGE.
Hong Kong.-Considerable progress was made with the recon- struction of Wong Nei Chong Nullah, Section No. 3 being completed by the end of November, and Section No. 4 (in front of Jockey Club Stand), commenced in March, being more than half finished.
New sewers and storm water drains were constructed to a length of 8,833 feet, and stream courses (other than the Wong Nei. Chong Nullah) trained to a length of 1,618 feet.
Kowloon. The training of the large nullah in the Ceineteries Valley at Homuntin, commenced the previous year, was completed.
New sewers and storm water drains were constructed to a length of 6,400 feet.
Trenches were formed and swamps filled in, in connection with the anti-malarial campaign.
New Kowloon.-New sewers and storm water drains were con- structed over the area generally to the length of 4,300 feet, and on the Kowloon Tong Development area to the length of 6,900 feet.
The construction of one side wall and invert to nullah on East side of Kowloon Tong Development area was completed.
Anti-malarial work was continued.
New Territories.-Various works of an anti-malarial nature were carried out at Taipo and Taipo Market. Sewers were constructed to the length of 200 feet, while about 300 feet of stream course training was accomplished.
WATER WORKS.
Hong Kong.-The Eastern Filter Beds and Service Reservoir were completed. A new 12" main has been laid in Queen's Road East from Arsenal Street to Garden Road and a new 18′′ main laid from Bowen Road Service Reservoir to Kennedy Road. A 2′′ wrot iron pipe was laid across Aberdeen Harbour to provide a street foun- tain supply to Aplichau.
Seven thousand and sixty-eight feet of 6" pipe and 372 feet of 8" pipe have been laid in the Praya East Reclamation Roads.
Investigations, preparation of preliminary drawings and quantities. in connection with the Aberdeen Water Scheme were continued.
Kowloon.-The following lengths of distributing mains were laid: -4′′ C.I. 2,030 lin. ft., 6′′ C.I. 4,020 lin. ft., and 8′′ C.I. 1,820 lin. ft
7
19
New Kowloon.-An additional length of 3,190 lin. feet of 6′′ C.I. mains were laid in the Kowloon Tong Development area.
The approach path to Kowloon Reservoir was regraded and sur- faced.
New Territories.-The 3" main at Taipo was extended to Kam Tsin Village. An intake damn with conduit and pipe line was formed on the Needle Hill Stream to augment the Shing Mun Supply.
Shing Mun Valley Scheme. The laying of the 1st 24" diameter steel main was continued, 9,100 lin. ft. being laid during the year, bringing the total laid to-date to 12,330. lin. ft.
The installation of the Paterson Rapid Gravity Filtration Plant was satisfactorily completed and tested during the year. This plant is now capable of filtering 5 million gallons per day and provision has been made for future extension to 10 million gallons per day.
A commencement was made towards the end of the year on the excavation for the Service Reservoir in the Shek Lai Pui Valley and fair progress was made.
RECLAMATIONS.
Hong Kong. Praya East, 87 acres were reclaimed out of a total of 90 acres.
The North Point Scheme which is a private undertaking was completed.
Kowloon.-Tai Kok Tsui, about 54 acres, was completed.
New Kowloon.-A contract was let for the construction of the sea wall-about 1,600 feet in length to protect the Shamshuipo Re- clamation. Approximately 600 lin. feet of walling had been completed at the end of the year.
Approximately 1.7 acres reclaimed at Cheung Sha Wan in con- nection with the dumping of refuse.
The un-reclaimed portion of the Kai Tak Reclamation was filled in by Harbour Dredgings to a height of about 2 feet below formation level, and the filling protected by a sea wall. The area reclaimed to finished levels is about 120 acres, the area to be completed to formation level is approximately 85 acres.
tion.
Little progress was made with the Kowloon Bay West Reclama-
New Territories.-The Standard Oil Co. continued with the for- mation of a site at Lai Chi Kok. About 90% of the work has been completed.
PIERS.
Kowloon. The repair work to the Police Pier at Kowloon Point was completed.
20
SLIPWAYS.
New Kowloon.-It is proposed to use the Kai Tak Reclamation as a commercial aerodrome. A slipway 380 feet in length providing a depth of 6 feet of water at L.W.O.S.T. is under construction at the Eastern frontage of the reclamation.
SURVEYS.
Further triangulation was carried out to fix additional ground control stations required in connection with new map now in course of preparation.
VIII. Public Health.
The estimated population of the Colony is as follows:-
(1) Non Chinese
18,150
(2) Chinese:
City of Victoria,
550,000
Villages of Hong Kong
43,000
Kowloon (and New Kowloon)
264,890
Population afloat
103,400
New Territories,
96,250
Total Chinese population
1,057,5-10
1,075,690
Total Civil population
The population of Hong Kong is a very variable one and, owing to the large unstable, floating population, and to partial birth registra- tion, no reliable means are available for estimation.
For purposes of statistics, the estimated population of the New Territories has been subtracted.
The Crude Birth Rate for the year 1928 was 9.5 per 1,000; 9.2 per 1,000 among the Chinese Community and 20.4 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese as compared with 8.2 and 19.6 in 1927.
These figures are very inaccurate and unreliable owing to incom- plete registration of Chinese births (especially females) and immigra- tion. There are signs, however, that registration is increasing among the Chinese Community. The non-Chinese rate is more trustworthy.
The Crude Death Rate was 15.06 per 1,000; 15.14 per 1,000 among the Chinese Community and 11.20 per 1,000 among the non- Chinese. As registration is essential before burial can take place the figures for deaths are much more accurate and reliable.
The ratio of Infantile Deaths (under 1 year) to total deaths for the year 1928 was 29.5% which is midway between the figures for the years 1927 (31.6) and 1926 (27.3).
The Zymotic Death rate was .45.
20
SLIPWAYS.
New Kowloon.-It is proposed to use the Kai Tak Reclamation as a commercial aerodrome. A slipway 380 feet in length providing a depth of 6 feet of water at L.W.O.S.T. is under construction at the Eastern frontage of the reclamation.
SURVEYS.
Further triangulation was carried out to fix additional ground control stations required in connection with new map now in course of preparation.
VIII. Public Health.
The estimated population of the Colony is as follows:-
(1) Non Chinese
18,150
(2) Chinese:
City of Victoria,
550,000
Villages of Hong Kong
43,000
Kowloon (and New Kowloon)
264,890
Population afloat
103,400
New Territories,
96,250
Total Chinese population
1,057,5-10
1,075,690
Total Civil population
The population of Hong Kong is a very variable one and, owing to the large unstable, floating population, and to partial birth registra- tion, no reliable means are available for estimation.
For purposes of statistics, the estimated population of the New Territories has been subtracted.
The Crude Birth Rate for the year 1928 was 9.5 per 1,000; 9.2 per 1,000 among the Chinese Community and 20.4 per 1,000 among the non-Chinese as compared with 8.2 and 19.6 in 1927.
These figures are very inaccurate and unreliable owing to incom- plete registration of Chinese births (especially females) and immigra- tion. There are signs, however, that registration is increasing among the Chinese Community. The non-Chinese rate is more trustworthy.
The Crude Death Rate was 15.06 per 1,000; 15.14 per 1,000 among the Chinese Community and 11.20 per 1,000 among the non- Chinese. As registration is essential before burial can take place the figures for deaths are much more accurate and reliable.
The ratio of Infantile Deaths (under 1 year) to total deaths for the year 1928 was 29.5% which is midway between the figures for the years 1927 (31.6) and 1926 (27.3).
The Zymotic Death rate was .45.
*
L
21
The deaths from Notifiable Infectious Diseases in order of in- cidence were as follows:-
Disease
Chinese
Non- Chinese
Total
1. Small Pox
(Typhoid
303
1
304
72
2
74
2.
[Paratyphoid
1
0
1
3. Diphtheria
26
1
27
4. Cerebro Spinal Fever
13
3
16
5. Puerperal Fever
13
2
15
6. Plague
2
0
2
Totals
430
9
439
There was a serious epidemic of Smallpox in the last quarter of the year which is still in progress (March 1929); up to 31st December, 1928, there were 616 cases notified of which 304 or 50% have died.
The deaths from special Diseases and locally important causes were as follows:-
Disease
Chinese
Non-
Totals
Chinese
Malaria
289
6
295 (1)
Beri-beri
665
2
667 (2)
Respiratory Diseases :-
Tuberculosis (pulmonary)
and Phthisis
4,388
23
4,4111
(3)
Non-tubercular
4.103
32
Other forms of Tuberculosis
795
X=
4,135
11
806
Venereal disease (Syphilis)
275
275
Dysentery
290
1
291
Heart disease & Heart failure...
269
11
280
Infantile enteritis and Gastro-
enteritis (under 1 year)
391
5
396 (4)
22
(1) Further antimalarial work is needed in the Colony but many of the cases are likely to have been imported from China.
(2) There is considerable doubt as to the accuracy of these figures as the disease is by no means easy to diagnose or differentiate.
(3) The total figure for Respiratory Diseases and Pulmonary Tuberculosis is 8,546; that is an average of twenty deaths a day from iung diseases. This figure far exceeds those from all other causes of death in the Colony. Over half the deaths are due to Pulmonary Tuberculosis which is due to bad housing conditions and overcrowding among the poorer section of the Chinese community. The climate and conditions of the Colony are most inimicable to cure.
(4) These and other nutritional diseases are world wide causes of infantile mortality. In death returns they are not always clearly defined. Malnutrition, non-breast feeding, neglect and dust-borne bacteria are the chief factors.
The deaths reported in the Coroners' Returns (Chinese only) are as follows classified according to age and sex:—
Age Periods
Males
Females
1.
Under 2 years
2,103
2,350
2
Over 2 years
942
434
378:-
Totals
3,045
2,784
Suicides and Deaths from Accidents or Violence amounted to
(i) Chinese
(ii) Non-Chinese
358
21
These figures include a very large proportion of dumped bodies, especially heavy among infants. This dangerous and revolting prac- tice is hard to eradicate among an ignorant population.
There were four cases of human plague reported in 1928; two on 4th May, one on 23rd June and one on 23rd July, the last two being fatal. The Colony had been free of plague for over four years and it is likely that the infection was brought from China by persons who had gone to their native district to worship at the tombs of their ancestors. A thorough house cleansing was instituted at once in the areas from which the cases came and it is possible that these measures prevented the spreading of the disease.
24
Victoria Hospital.-This hospital is situated on the Peak and con- sists of a Main Block and a Maternity Block,
There are 50 beds in the main block to which 529 patients were admitted, and 25 beds in the Maternity Block to which 67 were admitted.
Kowloon Hospital.-Situated on the mainland has 43 beds. 1,204 patients were treated in 1928 as compared with 980 in 1927.
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL (Government aided).
Number of beds
Number of patients treated in 1928
Number of patients treated in 1927
INFECTIOUS DISEASES 'BRANCH.
Number of beds
Number of patients treated in 1928
Number of patients treated in 1927
KWONG WAH HOSPITAL, KOWLOON, (Government aided).
Number of beds
Number of patients treated in 1928
Number of patients treated in 1927
500
11,486
9,726
63
126
31
250
8,822
7,598
The Hospitals are under the supervision of a Visiting Medical Officer who is a member of the Medical Department.
IX. Education
The total numbers of pupils at schools in the Colony, excluding the Police School, are:-
Number of Pupils
English
Schools
Vernacular Schools
Total
Government Schools
3,674
385
4,059
Military School
128
128
Excluded Private School
167
167
Grant Schools
4,147
1,011
5,158
Vernacular Schools, Urban
District
35.631
35,631
Vernacular Schools, Rural
District
5,290
5,290
Private English Schools
6,377
6,377
Technical Institute
574
574
Total
15,067
42,317
57,384
25
The chief Government Schools are Queen's College, King's Col- lege, and three District Schools for Chinese boys, the Belilios Public School for Chinese girls, the Vernacular Middle School and two Ver- nacular Normal Schools, and the Ellis Kadoorie School for Indians.
The Central British School and Kowloon Junior, Victoria, and Quarry Bay Schools for children of British parentage have an average attendance of 293. There is also a school for children of the Peak District with an average attendance of 49.
There are 5 Grant-in-Aid Anglo-Chinese Schools for boys and 6 for girls, and 4 Grant-in-Aid Vernacular Schools for girls.
The Hong Kong Technical Institute affords an opportunity for high education of students who have left school. Instruction was given in 1928 in Building Construction, Field Surveying, Mathematics, Chemistry (Practical), Metallurgy, Physics, Electricity, French, Shorthand, Sanitation, Seamanship and Cookery. Classes for men and women teachers, both "English" and "Vernacular" are a feature of the Institute.
The lecturers are recruited from members of the medical and educational professions in the Colony, and from the Department of Public Works, and receive fees for their services. The Institute is furnished with a well equipped chemical laboratory and excellent physical apparatus.
The expenditure of the Education Department in 1928 was $1,100,295.08 and the revenue collected from Government School fees was $172,943.76.
THE UNIVERSITY OF HONG Kong.
The University of Hong Kong was incorporated under a local University Ordinance, 1911, and opened in 1912. It is a residential University and open to students of both sexes.
The late Sir Hormusjee Mody bore the entire expense of the erection of the main building and additions have been made through the liberality of benefactors of varied nationality and domicile. The latest addition to the buildings is a workshop built out of a con- tribution from Sir Robert Ho Tung.
The annual income of the University now amounts to about $574,000 of which about $315,000 comes from endowments and $50,000 from Government. Messrs. Butterfield and Swire gave £40,000 to the original endowment fund and subsequently $100,000 for engineering equipment. The Rockfeller Institution has endowed the University with three chairs in surgery, medicine and obstetrics, the endowment being in each case $250,000.
The expenditure for the year 1928 amounted to $542,700,
26
The University includes the three Faculties of Medicine, Engineering and Arts. Admission to all faculties is conditional upon passing the matriculation examination of the University or some examination recognised as equivalent thereto.
The Faculty of Medicine provides a six year course of study in the usual pre-medical and medical sciences, leading to the degree of M.B. and B.S. The degrees of M.D., and M.S., may be obtained for postgraduate work. The degrees above mentioned are recognised by the General Medical Council for registration in Great Britain.
The Faculty of Engineering provides a four year course in practical and theoretical engineering, leading to the degree of B.Sc., (Eng.). Fourth year students specialize in civil, in mechanical or in electrical engineering. The degree for post-graduate work is that of M.Sc., (Eng.).
The Faculty of Arts includes departments of pure arts and science, social science, commerce and a department for training teachers. The course is in all cases one of four years and leads to the degree of B.A. The degree for post-graduate work is that of M.A.
With a view to securing the maintenance of the desired standard -which is in all three faculties that of a British University degree- external examiners are, in all faculties, associated with the internal examiners in all annual final examinations. In the Faculty of Engineering, but not in other faculties, degrees with honours are granted, the standard being assessed by special examiners chosen from amongst the external examiners in the University of London.
The degree of LL.D., is granted, honoris causa.
The site of the University, was given by the Government of Hong Kong. As subsequently enlarged by minor grants and by purchase, the University estate covers an area of 709,789 sq. ft. The view from the grounds over the harbour is magnificent and the grounds are naturally beautiful.
In the main buildings are housed the chemical and physical laboratories, the University library and portions of the engineering laboratories. They further include the Great Hall, a Senate room and the lecture and class rooms used by the Faculty of Arts and for general purposes.
Special medical buildings include schools of anatomy, physiology, pathology and tropical medicine, erected at the cost. of Chinese gentlemen resident in the Colony. Clinical instruction is given at the Government Civil Hospital.
Special engineering buildings include:—
(a) a power station, with internal combustion engines of varied types which are maintained for instructiona!
purposes;
28
clubs. The graduation fee is $25. Probably about $1,200 repre- sents the minimum amount which at present prices would cover a student's annual expenses including vacations. It would cost a Chinese student who goes abroad $2,500 a year at the very least and this would not cover travelling expenses.
Numerous scholarships are available, including the King Edward VII Scholarships founded by His Majesty's Government. There are also scholarships provided by the Governments of Hong Kong, of the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, of Kedah and Siam.
The Union is the centre of the social life of the students. It is at once a Club and a centre of athletics. The Union Committee contains certain members of the University teaching staff, but its President and Secretary are undergraduates elected by the under- graduates. The undergraduate members of the Committee are also elected by their fellow students. There is a Union magazine with English and Chinese sections. The editors are students, a member of the teaching staff acting as assistant editor. There are thirty-eight women students; these women students are all members of the Union.
Students of the University come from Kwangtung, Chihli, Hankow, Hupeh, Yunnan, Hunnan, Shanghai, Pekin, Eukien. Singapore, Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Kedah, Jahore, Java, Manila, Burma, Siam, Japan, India and Macao. The present cnrolment is 323 of whom 271 are Chinese and 52 non-Chinese.
X. Land and Surveys.
LAND GRANTS AND GENERAL VALUE OF LAND.
1. (1). The amount of premium received from Sales of Crown Land and Pier Rights exclusive of the New Territories during the year 1928 was $1,191,677.36 an increase of $1,084,043.73 on the preceding year, and $136,112.68 more than the average of the previous five years. The principal items were $120.237.50 for Kowloon Inland Lot No. 2135, $95,025 for Kowloon Inland Lot No. 2158, $92,325 for Kowloon Inland Lot No. 2111 and $71,275 for Kowloon Marine Lot No. 97
(2). The amount of premium received from Sales of Crown Land and Pier Rights in the New Territories during the year under review was $437,750.54 being an increase of $405.009.29 on the preceding year, and $219,741.10 more than the average of the preceding five years. The principal item being $120,031.25 for New Kowloon Inland Lot No. 1127.
(3). The foregoing increases indicate a gradual and
and welcome return to normal conditions.
2. The total area of land leased during the year was 462 acres 1 rood and 1-2/5 poles which is a slight increase on the preceding
year.
29
The total area resumed was 1,788 acres 3 roods and 5-4/5 poles.
3. In Hong Kong and Kowloon there was a growing demand for building sites whilst in the Northern District of the New Territories there was little demand for house sites in the development areas but in the villages construction of new houses goes on steadily and there was a fair demand for agricultural land.
There is little to report with regard to the Southern District of the New Territories beyond an increase in the demand for house sites at Hang Hau and Ngong Ping.
SURVEYS.
An Aerial Survey of the Colony was undertaken in 1924 and the groundwork necessary to enable new maps of the Colony to be published was completed in 1927.
The Geological Survey of the Colony was continued by Dr. Brock. Dean of the Faculty of Geology, University of British Columbia.
XI. Labour.
Most of the factories in the Colony have worked very much under their full capacity for the greater part of the year. This has resulted in a further decrease in the number of young children employed. The knitting factories in Kowloon and the cigarette factories in Hong Kong formerly employed large numbers of young girls of 12-15 years of age. With trade in an almost stagnant condition no new learners were taken on and those children already employed have outgrown the age of registration. The total number of children now working in factories is 100. These are employed in knitting factorics. No European firms in the Colony employ children under the age of 15
years.
During the year investigations were made into the conditions prevailing in the white lead and vermilion factories with a view to ascertaining to what extent the workers in these trades-most of whom are women-suffer from mercurial or other poisoning contracted during the course of their employment; and to consider what measures can best be taken to minimise the risk from such industrial diseases.
No strikes or other disputes of importance occurred during the year though there were several minor incidents.
In January there was a short-lived strike at the Fung Keung Rubber Factory at Shaukiwan which followed the refusal of the owners to grant certain demands, for more wages, shorter hours, etc., which were suddenly presented to them by the workers. Later on definite evidence was discovered in a Communist den in Percival Street that the whole affair had been deliberately organised by two women Communists.
30
In March there was a strike of four or five days duration at the Sincere Perfumery Factory at Kennedy Town, arising from the stricter enforcement of the searching of employees on leaving the premises and a proposal by the management to raise the amount of security déposited by each employee to two dollars. This proposal was dropped and the strike settled itself.
In August the Kowloon Docks became the centre of a violent agitation against the system of engagement through foremen with its alleged "squeezing" of the workmen. The source of the agitation was traced to the Sing Ngai Kwan Workmen's Club. Communist organisations also have been quick to seize on this grievance as an occasion for propaganda and references to it occur frequently in pamphlets distributed from time to time. among the Dockyard workers.
A note-worthy event was the proscription of the Hong Kong Teahouse Employees' Union, an organisation which had for long been notorious for the violence of its methods, the questionable sources of its income and the rascality of its members. The Motorcar Drivers' and Tailors' Unions, which closed down after the 1925 Strike, were revived this year.
XII. Legislation.
Twenty Ordinances were passed during 1928. The most import- ant were the following.
The Secretary for Chinese Affairs Incorporation Ordinance. No. 3. makes the person for the time being performing the duties of that office a corporation sole. A large number of leasehold properties in the Colony were formerly held by various substantive or acting holders of that office, some of whom have now retired. The inconvenience of this was obvious. This Ordinance vests all those properties in the new corporation, which will also have power to hold future property assigned to it. Some of the properties so assigned are District Watch- man Stations, others are Chinese Public Dispensaries, others are temples or temple properties, others are schools, and others are mis- cellaneous trust properties. All are held on trust. One lot has been vested in the new corporation which did not stand in the name of any holder of the office. That was the site of a temple at Shaukiwan. The Crown lease in that case, which was for 999 years, was in the name of Lam Ah Neung. An attempt was made to find Lam Ah Neung but it was unsuccessful, and it was eventually discovered that there was no such person and that the name only represented the goddess of the temple.
The Chinese Temples Ordinance, No. 7, was a very novel piece of legislation. It was a private bill introduced by the two Chinese members of the Legislative Council, and it was put forward on the strong recommendation and urgent request of the leaders of the
30
In March there was a strike of four or five days duration at the Sincere Perfumery Factory at Kennedy Town, arising from the stricter enforcement of the searching of employees on leaving the premises and a proposal by the management to raise the amount of security déposited by each employee to two dollars. This proposal was dropped and the strike settled itself.
In August the Kowloon Docks became the centre of a violent agitation against the system of engagement through foremen with its alleged "squeezing" of the workmen. The source of the agitation was traced to the Sing Ngai Kwan Workmen's Club. Communist organisations also have been quick to seize on this grievance as an occasion for propaganda and references to it occur frequently in pamphlets distributed from time to time. among the Dockyard workers.
A note-worthy event was the proscription of the Hong Kong Teahouse Employees' Union, an organisation which had for long been notorious for the violence of its methods, the questionable sources of its income and the rascality of its members. The Motorcar Drivers' and Tailors' Unions, which closed down after the 1925 Strike, were revived this year.
XII. Legislation.
Twenty Ordinances were passed during 1928. The most import- ant were the following.
The Secretary for Chinese Affairs Incorporation Ordinance. No. 3. makes the person for the time being performing the duties of that office a corporation sole. A large number of leasehold properties in the Colony were formerly held by various substantive or acting holders of that office, some of whom have now retired. The inconvenience of this was obvious. This Ordinance vests all those properties in the new corporation, which will also have power to hold future property assigned to it. Some of the properties so assigned are District Watch- man Stations, others are Chinese Public Dispensaries, others are temples or temple properties, others are schools, and others are mis- cellaneous trust properties. All are held on trust. One lot has been vested in the new corporation which did not stand in the name of any holder of the office. That was the site of a temple at Shaukiwan. The Crown lease in that case, which was for 999 years, was in the name of Lam Ah Neung. An attempt was made to find Lam Ah Neung but it was unsuccessful, and it was eventually discovered that there was no such person and that the name only represented the goddess of the temple.
The Chinese Temples Ordinance, No. 7, was a very novel piece of legislation. It was a private bill introduced by the two Chinese members of the Legislative Council, and it was put forward on the strong recommendation and urgent request of the leaders of the
32
Ordinance No. 10 of 1908. That temple has also been exempted from the operation of the present Ordinance. Another example was that of the Hau Wong Temple near Kowloon City. Ten years control of that temple resulted in a surplus sufficient to justify the use of it in building a new out-patient hospital in Kowloon City in connection with the Chinese Public Dispensary. This use of the surplus was suggested by the representatives of the inhabitants of Kowloon City, and it is no doubt an illustration of the kind of policy which will be followed under the Ordinance. The definition of the term "Chinese temple" naturally gave rise to considerable difficulty. The definition which was ultimately adopted is unusual in that it is based mainly on certain Chinese words which are not defined, e.g., the word “Tsz”, which means a Buddhist Monastery. It is doubtful if these Chinese words could be defined within reasonable limits, but it is not anti- cipated that any great difficulty will arise in the practical application of the term.
The Carriage of Goods by Sea Ordinance, No. 17, gives effect, as regards outward bills of lading from Hong Kong, to the proposals of the draft Convention on bills of lading agreed to at the meetings of the International Maritime Conference held at Brussels in October, 1922. The Ordinance is practically a copy of the English Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1924.
The United Kingdom Designs (Protection) Ordinance, No. 18, gives to the registered proprietors of designs registered in the United Kingdom under the Patents and Designs Acts 1907 and 1919, the like privileges and rights in Hong Kong as though the certificates of regis- tration in the United Kingdom had been issued with an extension to the Colony.
XIII. Miscellaneous.
EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION.
Two hundred and fifty seven thousand one hundred and sixty two (257,162) Emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1928 of these 125,338 were carried in British ships and 131,824 in Foreign vessels.
One hundred and eighty seven thousand eight hundred and forty seven (187,847) returning emigrants were reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from Coast ports as against 181,100 in 1927. Of these 103,127 were brought in British vessels and 84,720 in Foreign vessels.
Appendix A.
FINANCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF THE REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR TH
Heads of Revenue,
Estimates,
1928.
Actual Revenue
to 31st December, 1928.
Revenue for same period of preceding
Increase.
Decrease.
Heads of Expendit
year.
$
".
Light Dues
150,000
138,550.02
132,379.31
C.
$
c.
C.
6,170.71
Do.,
Special Assess-
ment
165,000
165,292.04
158,762.56
6,529.48
Licences and Internal Re-
venue not otherwise specified -
Fees of Court or Office,
14,563,640
15,081,429.56 15,248,634.64
Payments for specific
purposes, and Reim-
bursements in Aid
1,865,550
1,945,215-33 1,789,799.18
155,416.15
Post Office
815,000
966,918.40 890,946.79
75,971.61
Kowloon-Canton Railway
719,195
820,99+,90
713,424.85
107,570.05
Rent of Government Pro-
perty, Land and Houses
1,246,755
1,331,138.98
1,283,234.68
47,904-30
Interest
65,250
235,764.68 328,086.83
Miscellaneous Receipts -
363,000 2,647,859.32 655,583.54
1,992,275.78
167,205.08
92,322.15
Total (exclusive of Land
Sales)-
19,953,390 23,333,163.23 21,200,852.38
2,391,838.08
259,527.23
Land Sales, (Premia on
New Leases)
150,000 1,635,235.65 143,683.34
1,491,552.31
TOTAL
H. E. the Governor Cadet Service
Senior Clerical & Acc
ing Staff -
Junior Clerical Serv Colonial Secretary's and Legislature Secretariat for Ch
Affairs
Treasury -
Audit Department
District Office Nortl
Do.
Post Office
South
Imports & Exports O Harbour Master's
partment -
Royal Observatory- Fire Brigade
Supreme Court - Attorney General - Crown Solicitor's Off Offical Receiver - Land Office
Magistracy Hong Ko
Kowloon
Do Police Force - Prisons Department Medical Department Sanitary Department Botanical and Fore
Department - Education Departme Public Works Dep
ment
Public Works, Recuri Do., Extraordin Kowloon-Canton Rai Volunteer Defence Co Hong Kong Royal N: Volunteer Reserve Military Contribution Miscellaneous Service. Charitable Services Charge on Account
Public Debt- Pensions -
20,103,390 24,968,398.88 21,344,535.72 3,883,390.39
259,527.23
TOTAL
Deduct
Net
259,527.23
$3,623,863.16
Appendix A.
NCIAL RETURNS FOR THE YEAR 1928,
NUE AND EXPENDITURE FOR THE PERIOD ENDED 31ST DECEMBER, 1928.
Estimates,
Decrease. Heads of Expenditure.
1928.
Actual Expenditure to 31st December, 1928.
Expenditure
for same period of preceding year.
C.
$
C.

C.
C.
Increase.
Decrease.
C.
C.
5.71
H. E. the Governor
101,328
107,569.13
103,096.25
4,472.88
Cadet Service
325,606
323,865.05
316,639.96
7,225.09
Senior Clerical & Account-
ing Staff -
167,573
159,402.76
152,432.89
6,969.87
Junior Clerical Service
621,867
631,561.83
705,809.19
74,247.36
7.48
Colonial Secretary's Office
and Legislature
47,955
56,993.19
43,021.40
13,971.79
Secretariat for Chinese
Affairs
11,947
11,592.73
11,533.80
58.93
Treasury -
8,9-8
8,419.35
6,107.57
2,311.78
Audit Department
45,098
47,160.12
41,257.03
5.903.09
167,205.08
District Office North
23,076
22,666.14
20,537.68
2.128.46
Do.
South
11,144
9,247.27
10,150.84
903.57
Post Office
274,329
243.570.08
134,583.48
108,986.60
Imports & Exports Office
805,170
748,806.99
849,296.91
100,489.92
Harbour Master's De-
partment -
899,547
7+8,057.57
632,121.36
115,936.21
Royal Observatory-
36,556
35,434.52
36.664.99
1,230.47
3.15
Fire Brigade
217,924
198,222.37
190,350.27
7,872,10
Supreme Court -
148,559
136,123.55
141,493.29
5,369.74
Attorney General
33.798
35,264.50
24,369.40
10,895.10
Crown Solicitor's Office
39,855
51:44.17
36,608.03
14,536.14
.61
Offical Receiver -
9,871
9,846.95
9.545.89
301.06
Land Office
26,677
28,866.99
24,309.42
4,557-57
Magistracy Hong Kong
2,250
1,857.71
1,917.80
60.09
Do
Kowloon -
2,056
1,899.17
2,031.02
131.85
0.05
Police Force-
2,012,117
1,986,105.12
1,759,131.57
226,973-55
Prisons Department
528,591
485,147.89
493,379-33
8,231.44
Medical Department
861,058
86,638.21
717,531.96
69,106.25
Sanitary Department -
645,425
578,991.11
588,154-71
9,163.60
Botanical and Forestry
..30
Department -
100,158
96,597.70
93,289.09
3,308.61
Education Department
1,229,013
1,103,540.35
1,091,423.21
12,117.14
Public Works Depart-
.78
92,322.15
ment Public Works, Recurrent- Do., Extraordinary- Kowloon-Canton Railway Volunteer Defence Corps- Hong Kong Royal Naval
Volunteer Reserve-
Military Contribution-
1,454,258
1,362,633.59
1,309,117.34
53.516.25
1,610,150
1,482,915.36
1,542,494.98
59,579.62
2,467,164
2,108,515.82
2,966,390.69
857,874.87
720,598
747.743.71
632,380.39
115.353.32
97,400
96,303.79
62,562.92
33,740.87
3,653,644
3,748,960.40
3,491,894.33
257,066.07
Miscellaneous Services
924,404
1,141,430.22
1,034,917.88
106,512.34
Charitable Services
94,624
100,574.93 |
118,609.41
18,034.48
Charge on Account of
Public Debt-
1,079,298
1,046,602.31
790,595.90
256,006.41
.08
259,527.23
Pensions
-
833,979
739,969.59
659,312.51
80,657.08
-31
39
259,527.23
TOTAL
-23
16


22,183,045 21,230,242.24 20,845,064.69
1,520,494.56
1,135,317.01
Deduct
Net
1,135.317.0!
385,177.55
Statement of Assets and Liabilities on the 31st December, 1928.
: LIABILITIES.
Deposits not Available.....
House Service Account
Postal Agencies
Coal Account
Suspense Account.
Suspense Trade Loan
Overdraft Bank Trade Loan
Adjustment of Exchange Account.
Total Liabilities
Balance
Total
ASSETS.

2,048,683.60
Subsidiary Coins
3,088.27
Advances
4,150.04
Building Loans.
8,608.54
Imprest
2,145,163.77
57,944.63 1,469,787.88-
4,785 82
506,594.85
† Crown Agents' Deposit Account
3,948,865.98
674,855,25
4,023,050.88
132,923.69 * Investment Account
Unallocated Stores, (P.W.D.).
Unallocated Stores, (Railway).
Balance at Banks..
Trade Loan Outstanding.
363,463.33
150,192.06
1,281,141.98
1,239,614:56.
4,697,906.13
Crown Agents' Current Account
34,722.85
7,401,955.12
8,091,633.87
.$
15,493,588.99
Total
15,493,588.99
† Cash on deposit £221,000 0s. Od.
Cash lent at Interest £178,000 Os. Od.
* Invested as follows :-
AMOUNT OF STOCK, &C.
NOMINAL VALUE.
COST PRICE.
MARKET VALUE.
STERLING INVESTMENT.
Natal, (1929-49)
Newcastle Corporation, (1945-55),
3% Stock.
41%
""
Queensland, (1940-60).
Treasury Bond, (1934D)
""'
£ 7,600. 0.0 20,000. 0. 0 29,009.16.10 74,649. 0.6
£ 5,646. 7. 0 (77) 19,200. 0 0 ! (97) 28,719.14.11! (99) 75,882.12. 6
*
£ 5,852. 0. 0 19,400. 0. 0 28,719.14.10 75,882.12. 6
£ 131,258.17. 4│£ 129,448,14. 5
£ 129,854 7. 4
Y
Appendix A (1)
REPORT ON THE FINANCES FOR THE YEAR 1928.
REVENUE..
The total revenue for the year amounted to $24,968,399 being $4,865,009 more than the estimate and $3,623,863 more than the revenue in 1927.
Compared with that year there were increases under all heads except Licences and Internal Revenue, the most notable being an increase of $1,992,275 and $1,491,553 respectively in Miscellaneous Receipts and Land Sales.
2. The principal heads showing excess over the estimates were as follows:-
་་
EXCESS.
(a) Licences and Internal Revenue
$ 517,790
(b) Fees of Court &c.
79,665
(c) Post Office
151,918
(d) Kowloon-Canton Railway
101,800
(e) Rent of Government Properties &c.
84,384
(f) Interest
170,515
(g) Miscellaneous Receipts
2,284,859
(h) Land Sales
1,485,236
It should be noted that (g) includes a sum of $1,963,359, which was recovered from the funds of the Public Works Loan (1927) on account of expenditure on Loan Works during the years 1923-1926.
The most striking feature in the above table is (h) which affords evidence of the improvement in local conditions, an im- provement which is also reflected in the increased Postal and Radio Traffic (c) and Railway Receipts (d) the latter being mainly due to the running of the through service to Canton.
The considerable increase in (a) is largely due to Assessed Taxes, Liquor Duties and revenue from the Opium Monopoly.
3. The only head showing a deficit was Light Dues which fell below the amount estimated by $11,449.
A (1) 2-
EXPENDITURE.
4. The total expenditure brought to account amounted to $21,230,242 being $952,803 less than the estimates and $385,177 more. than the expenditure in 1927.
The principal heads showing savings were as follows:-
SAVINGS.
Post Office
$ 30,759
Imports and Exports Office
56,363
Harbour Department
Police Force
Prison Department
151,489
26,012
43,443
Medical Department
Sanitary Department
Education Department
Public Works Department
74,420
66,434
125,473
101,624
Public Works Recurrent
127,235
Public Works Extraordinary
358,648
Charge on account of Public Debt ...
32,696
Pensions
94,009
The savings in the Harbour Department are accounted for by lapsing salaries and deferring the purchase of new launches provided in the estimates, with a consequent saving in fuel, equipment, and stores.
A considerable reduction in the expenses of running the Opium Monopoly was the chief reason for the saving shown by the Imports and Exports Office.
Lapsing salaries and outstanding accounts for the carriage of mails, which will of course have to be met in 1929, resulted in the Post Office expenditure falling below the estimates.
In the Police Department over-expenditure on Passages, Rent of Stations and Secret Service was more than counter- balanced by savings in Special Expenditure.
..
-A (1) 3-
The Prison Department showed savings in practically all sub-heads of expenditure, the notable items being Personal Emoluments and Rent of Quarters for Warders.
Savings in the Medical Department were mainly due to lapsing salaries and smaller purchases of hospital equipment and stores generally.
Lapsing salaries and small decreases in many sub-heads produced the savings shown in the Sanitary Department.
The saving in the Education Department is mainly due to lapsing salaries and to Capitation and Building Grants falling below the estimate.
Lapsing salaries chiefly accounted for the savings in the Public Works Department. The votes for Typhoon and Rain- storm damages were notable items in the savings effected under Public Works Recurrent.
A considerable saving in Public Works Extraordinary is shown. Several works contemplated in the estimates were not proceeded with during the year and others were not initiated until late in the year. Particularly large sums remained un- expended in the votes for Port Works.
Difference in sterling exchange accounted for the saving under the head "Charge on account of Public Debt" and the same reason may be ascribed for part of the savings on Pen- sions.
The principal heads showing excess were as follows:-
EXCESS.
Kowloon-Canton Railway
Military Contribution
Miscellaneous Services
$ 27,146
95,316
217,026
The excess in the Railway Accounts is due to depreciation on rails. An underpayment to the Imperial Government on account of 1927 was settled in the year under review and thus brought about the excess shown under Military Contribution.
Several unforseen items of expenditure including a refund of China Companies Fees and the temporary exchange com- pensation allowances to Government servants were responsible for the excess under Miscellaneous Services.
5. The Revenue for the year exceeded the Expenditure by the sum of $3,738,157.
A (1) 4-
5. The following statement shows the Liabilities and Assets on the 31st December, 1928 :-
LIABILITIES.
C.
ASSETS.
C.
Deposits not Available
2,048,683.60
Subsidiary Coins
2,145,163.77
House Service Account.
3,088.27 Advances
57.944.63
Postal Agencies
4,150.04 Building Loans
1,469,787.88
Coal Account
8,608.54 Imprest
4,785.82
Suspense Account
506,594.55 Crown Agents'
Suspense Trade Loan
674,855.25
Deposit Account... 3,948,865,98
Overdraft, Bauk Trade
Unallocated Stores,
Loan Adjustment of Ex-
change Account
4,023,050,88
(P. W. D.),....
363,463.33
Unallocated Stores,
132,923.69
(Railway)
150,192.06
Investment A/c.
1,281,141.98
Balance at Bank...
1,339,614.56
Trade Loan Out-
standing
4,697,906.13
Crown Agents'
Current Account...
34,722.85
Total Liabilities
7,401,955.12
Balance
8,091,633.87
Total.....$ 15,493,588.99
† Cash on deposit £221,000 Os. Od.
Cash lent at Interest £178,000 Os. Od.
* Invested as follows:-
AMOUNT OF STOCK, &C.
Total.....$15,493,588.99
NOMINAL VALUE.
COST PRICE.
MARKET VALUE.
STERLING INVESTMENT.
..3 % Stock. £ 7,600. 0. 0 £ 5,646. 7.0 (77) £5,852. 0. 0
19,200. 0. 0(97) 28,719.14.11 (99) 75,882.12, 6
Natal, (1929-19).
Newcastle Corporation,
(1945-55)
.41%
20,000. 0.0
Queensland, (1940-60) ...5 %
29.009.16.10
";
17
74,649. 0.6
£131,258,17. 4 £129,448.14. 5
Treasury Bond, (1934D)..41%
*
19,400. 0. 0 28,719.14.10 75,882.12. 6
£ 129,854. 7. 4
* No quotation.
A (1) 5.
7. The following table shows the Revenue and Expenditure during the last five years:
I
1924
$
1925 $
1926
1927
1928
$
$
$
Revenue ..24,209,640 23,244,365 21,131,582 21,344,536 24,968,399
Expendi-
ture.....26,726,428 28,266,817 23,524,716 20,845,065 21,230,242
Surplus ...
Deficit..... 2,516,788 5,022,452 2,393,134
499,471 3,738,157
PUBLIC DEBT.
8. The Inscribed Stock Loans of 1893 and 1906 amounted to £1,485,733 and the Sinking Fund stood at £631,051 being £43,846 more than the amount at credit of that fund at the end of 1927.
The Public Works Loan (Ordinance No. 14 of 1927) amounted to $4,927,000. The first part of this Loan was issued locally at par on November 1st, 1927, and Bonds were allotted to the value of $3,000,000. The second part was issued on November 1st, 1928, at a premium of 3 per cent-Bonds to the nominal value of $1,927,000 being allotted. The Sinking Fund amounted to £20,666.
GENERAL REMARKS.
9. The total receipts and payments in the Treasury books during the year were $52,430,121 and $51,684,457 respectively. The figures not accounted for under revenue and expenditure relate to transactions under various heads such as Deposits, Advance, Subsidiary Coin, Unallocated Stores, etc.
10. Subsidiary Coins in stock on 31st December, were as
follows:
--:
20 cents
$ 17,610
1,834,079
10
5
Copper
273,419
20,056
$2,145,164
The nominal amount of coins in circulation was $17,914,370
and the market value stood practically at par.
T
— A (1) 6 —
11. The local circulation of notes and Specie in Reserve of the three banks having authorised issues were as follows on 31st December:
Hong Kong and Shanghai
Banking Corporation
Chartered Bank of India,
Australia and China
Mercantile Bank of India,
Ltd.
Notes in
Circulation.
Specie in Reserve.
$45,161,419 $34,000,000
15,022,149 5,900,000
1,782,294
660,000
$61,965,862 $40,560,000
12. The rate of exchange for the Estimates was taken at 18. 11d. whereas the average rate for purpose of conversion in the Treasury books was 2s. 01d.
17th May, 1929.
C. McI. MESSER,
Colonial Treasurer.
b
A (1) 7-
REPORT ON THE TRADE LOAN.
The sterling liability on 31st December stood at £415,000. During the course of the year under review, £435,000 was repaid as against £400,000 in 1926, and £550,000 in 1927. Loans obtained in London amounted to £1,800,000 and by the end of the year £1,385,000 had been repaid. The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation are now the sole lenders.
All loans fell due for repayment at the latter part of 1927 and the beginning of 1928, but owing to the financial situation then prevailing it was decided not to put any undue pressure on the borrowers, and many loans were renewed on a month-to- month basis.
It was found necessary in four cases to resort to enforce- ment of the security, and no losses were sustained in this con- nection.
The Overdraft at Bank at the close of the year was $4,023,050.88.
The following table shews the financial position of the loan on 31st December, 1928:
Total of Loans issued from 16th November,
1925 on the security of Mortgages
Less redemption effected during the year:-
1926 1927
1928
Total
$15,628,782.84
$2,604,930.00
4,845,879.76
3,403,560.02
-10,854,369.78
4,774,413.06
76,506.93
Less amount written off as Irrecoverable
Total of Loans outstanding on 31st Dec. 1928 $4,697,906.13
Overdraft with the Hong Kong and Shanghai
Banking Corporation on 31st Dec. 1928
Interest in arrears on 31st December, 1926
31
"
12
$ 4,023,050.88
$117,369.42
31st December, 1927
206,818.64
31st December, 1928
""
321,121.10
A (1) 8
289
Total number of Loans issued
Less number redeemed in:
1926
1927
1928
Number of Loans outstanding
34
85
87
206
83
Loans obtained in London by the Hong Kong
Government
Less repaid in 1926:
£1,800,000
£400,000
"}
72
77
"
1927 1928
550,000
435,000
1,385,000
Total outstanding on 31st Dec. 1928
£ 415,000
17th May, 1929.
C. McI. MESSER,
Colonial Treasurer.
E
Appendix A. (2)
REPORT OF THE AUDITOR, HONG KONG
}
ON THE AUDIT OFFICE,
and the examination of the various accounts in connection with Revenue, Expenditure, and Store Accounts of the Colony of Hong Kong, and Kowloon-Canton Railway (British Section) for the financial year 1928.
OUTSTANDING QUESTIONS.
1. With reference to the final paragraph of my report on the Accounts for the financial year 1927, dealing with the defalcations by the Treasury Water Account Clerk, Carvalho Yeo, I have to report that the accused was apprehended and charged before a Special Jury at the Criminal Sessions on six counts relating to forging and uttering three cheques purporting to be drawn on the Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corpora- tion, by Mr. C. McI. Messer, Colonial Treasurer, and Mr. T. Black, Cashier, on behalf of the Government in favour of certain fictitious firms to the total amount of $260,407.93.
The trial commenced on the 20th of November, 1928, and lasted until the 6th of December when the accused was found "Not Guilty" in respect of the three counts of forgery, and "Guilty" in respect of the three counts of uttering. The accused was sentenced to ten years hard labour on each of the three counts of uttering, the sentences to run concurrently.
The Government has intimated that no criminal proceedings against Carvalho Yeo in respect of certain defalcations in con- nection with the Water Accounts will be taken and the amount involved viz., $15,329.95 will require the sanction of the Secre- tary of State to be written off.
Arising out of these frauds in the Treasury Department, Government commenced proceedings against the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation for the re-crediting of the sum of $260,407.93 contending that the cheques were forgeries.
The case was heard before the Chief Justice and a Special Jury between the 22nd of April and the 25th of May, 1929, when His Lordship delivered judgement in favour of the plaintiff in the following terms, with costs:
"That the said Government is entitled to be credited by the defendant corporation with the said three amounts, namely $86,965.33, $78,300.41 and $95,142.19, together with interest thereon at the- customary or contractional rate of two per centum per annum from the dates whereon the amounts of the said three cheques were respectively debited to the general account of the said Government till payment or judgement”,
A (2) 2-
The judgement of the Court was complied with by the defendant banking corporation on the 9th of July, 1929, the sum of $260,407.93, together with the accrued interest sum of $7,876.02 being credited by the Bank to the account of the Hong Kong Government.
EXCHANGE ACCOUNT.
2. With reference to paragraph 5 of your letter No. 153/546 of the 22nd of April, 1929, and my reply thereto No. 8/20/1929 of the 4th of June, 1929, the final examination of this Account for the year under review shows that exchange transactions have been accounted for in the Treasury Accounts in accordance with the principle laid down in the Secretary of State's Despatch No. 431 of the 26th November, 1925, with the proviso that the 20% on the nett profit of the dollar exchange has been carried to a Suspense Account, "Military Contribution". In this con- nection I would refer you to a copy of my letter No. 70 of the 30th of May, 1929, addressed to the Colonial Secretary and sub- mitted to you under cover of my letter No. 8/20/1929, request - ing information as to the ultimate disposal of the balance of the "Suspense Account Military Contribution" as at the 31st of December, 1928, $504,104.70. I have not at present been in formed of any decision as to the proposed adjustment of this amount held in suspense but I understand that the Government is addressing the Secretary of State on the matter.
ADJUSTMENT OF EXCHANGE ACCOUNT.
3. This Account, which I regret has become somewhat com- plicated of recent years, has now been adjusted in the Treasury Accounts and the liability shown on the Statement of Assets and Liabilities as at the 31st of December, 1928, represents the dollar book difference of sterling funds and sterling investments in the hands of the Crown Agents at the close of the financial year and may be accepted.
REVENUE.
4. The Revenue Accounts of the Colony were examined in accordance with the procedure adopted in the previous year and as submitted to His Excellency the Governor and approved by yourself in the official programme of work. Four hundred and forty (440) queries were issued during the year 1928, of which four hundred and thirty four (434) have been satisfactorily settled.
5. The total Revenue collected during the year, including proceeds from Land Sales, amounted to $24,968,398.88 being an increase of $3,623,863.16 as compared with $21,344,535.72 in 1927, and an increase of $4,865,008.88 in comparison with the Estimated Revenue of $20,103,390.00. There was, in addition, an opening balance of $632,672.91 which brings the total Re- ceipts available for the financial year to $25,601,071.79.
A (2) 3
6. The various items of Revenue which show an increase or decrease as compared with the estimates are set forth in the detailed statement of Revenue and I submit that the explana- tions tendered by the Colonial Treasurer may be accepted as correct. The Revenue for the year exceeded the Expenditure by $4,370,829.55.
REVENUE INCREASES.
7. The following sub-heads of Revenue show the most noticeable increases as compared with the Estimates:
Assessed taxes
Hawkers Licences
Liquor Duties
Opium Monopoly
Pawnbrokers Licences
Hong Kong Companies
Registration
Medical Treatment
Official Receiver's Commission
$ 54,264.78
17,289.00
152,413.07
518,225.95
17,525.00
8,152.90
18,526.39
15,080.40
Water Excess supply and meter
rent
198,898.60
Message fees
77,517.66
Postage
74,400.74
Railway-Passenger Service,
Foreign Line
107,746.07
Railway-Interchange of Rolling
Stock
17,976.38
Lands not Leased
38,684.74
Condemned Stores
181,751.72
Compensation in lieu of rates
21,831.85
127,632.64
Other Miscellaneous Receipts Land Sales, Premia on New
Leases
1,485,235.65
8. The number of Queries raised during the year under review shows an increase of 254 as compared with the Revenue Queries for the preceding financial year. The departmental ac- counts to which this increase can be mainly allocated are as follows:-Post Office: Radio Telegrams, Imports and Exports and Harbour Office and the following explanations are submitted for your information.
POST OFFICE: RADIO TELEGRAMS.
During the year the activities of the Radio Office have been extended to other Administrations resulting in an increase of messages which have been subject to detailed examination.
A (2) 4-
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
Investigation into the accounts of the Opium Monopoly as affecting the disposal of confiscated opium through action by the Police resulted in numerous observations, and from the replies to the questions raised it was found necessary to submit to Government certain recommendations which, having been put into practice, will ensure a more satisfactory system of account ing for all confiscated goods.
HARBOUR OFFICE.
It was considered necessary to raise a considerable number of observations on the question of the use of Government Launches by Government Officials without payment. His Ex cellency the Governor has recently directed the Treasurer ani Harbour Master in co-operation with this department to fram regulations as to the use of such vessels, which should result the matter being placed on a more satisfactory basis.
are:
REVENUE Decreases.
9. The principle decreases as compared with the Estimat..
Liquor Licences
Stamp Duties
Tobacco Duties
China Companies Fees
Medical Examination of Emigrants
Public School Fees
Sunday Cargo Working Permits.
Survey of Steamships
Railway-Passenger Service, Home Line
Goods Service, Home Line
Conservancy Contracts
ARREARS OF REVENUE.
$ 22,371 68
181,602 14
30,822 sn
53,080,390
35,484.0
14,056.21
32,725.00
29,684.00
15,496.61
13,694.87
17,960.00
10. A statement showing the arrears of Revenue at the termination of the financial year 1928 is enclosed showing a total sum of $320,185.52 outstanding on the 31st of December, 1928, since which date, and on the 31st of July 1929, the position is as follows:
Collected since 1.1.1929 Written off
Outstanding on 31.7.1929
TOTAL
$129,518.98
29,700.84 160,965.70
$320,185.52
A (2) 5
Reviewing the statement, it will be observed that with the exception of outstanding revenue in respect of Leased Lands, and Premia on New Leases the Treasury control over the col- lection of revenue is satisfactorily maintained.
With reference to the outstanding Revenue under the heads Premia and Leased Lands, I would explain that these arrears are the result of unforeseen difficulties which have arisen in connection with the completion of the Praya East and Kowloon Tong Building Schemes. The Government have taken necessary action for recovery of the amount due.
EXPENDITURE 1928.
11. The Expenditure Accounts of the Colony have been examined in accordance with the general procedure. Three hundred and ninety-nine (399) Queries were raised in the course of the examination of the general expenditure accounts included. in which are two hundred and forty-two (242) Queries on the Store Accounts, of which three hundred and ninety-seven (397) have been satisfactorily settled.
The number of expenditure queries raised shows an increase of 172 as compared with the number raised during the previous financial year, and in explanation it is submitted that audit activities were extended in the examination of Store Accounts generally, with special reference to the Police and Medical Departments Accounts which resulted in a total of 103 and 76 observations respectively. I am, however, glad to report a con- siderable improvement in the Store Accounts of these depart- ments during the first half of the current year.
The total expenditure for the financial year 1928 amounted to $21,230,242.24 being an apparent decrease of $952,802.76 on the total estimated expenditure and an increase of $385,177.55 as compared with the total actual expenditure for the previous financial year.
SUPPLEMENTARY VOTES.
12. During the financial year it was found necessary to obtain supplementary votes amounting to $1,504,477.00. Fur- ther sums amounting to $21,438.00 were voted in 1929 to sup- plement the 1928 Estimates. The total amount provisionally voted being $1,525,915.00. In comparing these totals with the Appropriation Account a difference of $4 will be observed which formed the subject matter of Audit Query No. 397/28E. This discrepancy is due to a clerical error in the preparation of the Account, and I am informed by the Treasury that the error, together with the Printer's errors on pages 27, 45 and 47 of the Appropriation Account (Audit Query 398/29 and 399/30E) have been duly reported to the Secretary of State.
A (2) 6
Of the total of $21,438.00 found necessary to be voted in 1929 to authorize expenditure incurred during 1928 in excess of the Estimates, the principal items, with the explanations of the Colonial Treasurer are appended hereunder :
$ 7,175.00 Due to unforeseen expenditure on passages. for Police Recruits paid by Crown Agents.
2,277.00 Owing to appointment of Land Officer to acting Puisne Judge it was necessary to create acting appointments in the Land Office the provision of which could not be foreseen.
4,506.00 Due to increased expenditure on passages
for Government Servants.
3,600.00 Stationery-unforeseen expenditure.
1,350.00 Due to increased amount of Crown Agents
Commissions.
2,530.00 Balance being made up of minor unfore-
seen increases.
$21,438.00
EXPENDITURE SAVINGS.
13. In comparing the expenditure with the Estimates it will be observed that there were savings on 26 heads, explana- tions of which are set out in the Draft Appropriation Account for the year, which latter may be accepted as correct.
EXPENDITUE INCREASES.
14. The following heads of expenditure show the most noticeable increases:
(a) His Excellency the Governor
(b) Junior Clerical Service
(c) Colonial Secretary's Office and Legis-
lature
(d) Crown Solicitor
(e) Kowloon-Canton Railway
(f) Military Contribution
(g) Miscellaneous Services
$ 6,241.13
9,694.83
9,038.19
11,289.17
27,145.71
95,316.40
217,026.22
(h) Charitable Services
5,950.93
A (2) 7
The explanation for the various increases set forth in the appropriation account may, I submit, be accepted.
EXCESSES ON SUB-HEADS.
15. The excesses on sub-heads of expenditure as recorded in the Appropriation Account have been authorised in accordance with the provisions of Colonial Regulation No. 281, with the exception of those shown in the enclosed list. I am informed that the Government is taking necessary action to authorise these small excesses in accordance with the Colonial Regula- tions.
ANNUAL STATEMENT OF REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
16. The Annual Statement of Revenue and Expenditure has been examined in detail with the various books of account, and is duly certified and submitted in triplicate.
STORE ACCOUNTS.
17. All Departmental Store Accounts have been examined during the year, and other than my remarks in paragraph 11 call for no special comment.
SURPRISE SURVEYS.
18. Four hundred and seventy-five (475) surprise surveys of Cash, Stamps, Railway Tickets, Stores, Bonded Warehouses, Opium etc., were undertaken during the year. Details of the surveys have been submitted to you in the monthly returns for 1928. All observations raised in the course of the surveys have been satisfactorily settled.
The following comparative statement shows a steady in- crease in the number of surprise surveys undertaken by Audit during recent years:-
1925
1926
1927
1928
229
312
363
475
STAMP VAULT.
19. The main stock of Stamps (Postage and Revenue) Post- cards, Watermarked Paper, Imperial and Local Postal Notes, have been examined and were found to agree with the respective balances shown in the various stock books.

A
SECURITY Bonds.
20. As in previous years the Security Bonds given by Officers for the due discharge of their duties were examined by a Board consisting of the Crown Solicitor and myself, and the observations raised during the course of the survey have been satisfactorily settled.
STATEMENT OF ADVANCES AND REPAYMENT OF ADVANCES.
21. The Statement of Advances and Repayment of Advances has been examined with the Treasury Books of Account and found to agree.
STATEMENT OF DEPOSITS AND REPAYMENT OF DEPOSITS.
22. This Statement has been examined with the Treasury Accounts and found to be in agreement.
SECRET SERVICE REWARD FUND.
23. The total receipts of the Imports and Exports Reward Fund, which are derived from the sale of confiscated articles, fines and forfeitures amounted to $75,629.89. The payment of rewards to informers was $51,480.06, the balance $34,149.83 being carried forward to 1929 Account. The receipts were con- siderably augmented by the sale of a large quantity of confiscated drugs through the Crown Agents, otherwise the payments would have exceeded the receipts from other sources by approximately $13,000. In view of the decrease of receipts it was considered hecessary to carry the whole of the balance of the Reward Fund forward to supplement the 1929 account.
STATEMENT OF SUBSIDIARY COINS.
24. The enclosed statement has been examined with the Treasury Accounts and found to agree.
NEW TERRITORIES.
25. All the accounts have been regularly examined and were found in order.
HARBOUR OUTSTATIONS.
26. The accounts have been regularly examined and call for no comment.
The following outstations were visited during the year: Aberdeen, Stanley, Shaukiwan, Yaumati, Cheung Chau, Sai Kung and Tai O.
A (2) 9
WEI-HAI-WEI BRITISH POSTAL AGENCY.
27. The monthly account of the Agency has been regularly examined in the office and formed the subject of my Report submitted under covering letter No. 1/11 of the 10th of Septem- ber, 1928.
During my annual tour of inspection to Wei-hai-wei a com- plete survey of all cash and postal matter was made with satis- factory results.
REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES.
28. This account was examined in detail at Shanghai, vide my report submitted under covering letter No. 44/79 of the 11th of September, 1928.
CUSTODIAN OF ENEMY PROPERTY.
29. This account has been examined quarterly. There were few transactions during the year and the Government has requested authority from the Secretary of State to close the Account by remitting to the Clearing Office, London, the balance in hand together with the final statements of Account.
STATEMENT OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES.
30. The Statement has been examined and may be accepted.
The balances of the various suspense accounts amounting to $506,594.85 are shown in the "Suspense Account Summary of Receipts and Payments" enclosed and include the sum of $504,104.70 being the total amount held in suspense in respect of the liability for Military Contribution on Exchange transac- tions.
RAILWAY REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
31. A copy of the Annual Report of the Kowloon-Canton Railway for the year 1928 is submitted. The various state- ments contained therein have been examined and found correct. During the year repeated surprise surveys were made at all stations and the stock of tickets and cash earnings checked.
RAILWAY EARNINGS.
32. A statement showing the gross receipts for the past five years is shown on page 9 of the Report and it will be observed that the gross receipts for the year were $820,994.90 being an increase of $107,570.05 as compared with $713,424.85 for the year 1927.
- A (2) 10
The through passenger service to Canton was maintained practically throughout the whole year and the foreign passenger receipts showed an increase of 46% over the receipts for 1927.
SUSPENSION OF TRAFFIC CLAIMS.
33. The Claims against the Chinese Section on account of suspension of Through and Joint Sectional Traffic, Hire of Rolling Stock and Demurrage, which stood at $993,449.22 at the end of 1927 have increased by $4,146.99 in respect of suspension of traffic 1928 making a total of $997,596.21 out- standing at the end of 1928. The Debits in respect of Demurrage and Hire of Rolling Stock for the year 1928 were accepted by the Administration of the Chinese Section and the accounts adjusted. Detailed statements of the Claim against the Chinese Section have from time to time been submitted and the British Administration is exploring every possible avenue with a view to settlement.
RAILWAY EXPENDITURE.
34. The working expenses for the year 1928 amounted to $800,954.17 being an increase of $85,184.76 over the amount expended in 1927. It is, however, satisfactory to note that for the first year since 1922 the Revenue shows an excess over working expenses of $20,040.73.
FARES ALLOCATION.
35. The final division sheets of Through and Joint Sectional traffic receipts have been agreed between the two Administra- tions to the end of 1928.
RAILWAY STORES.
36. Test surveys of the Main and Workshop Stores were carried out during the year and call for no particular comment.
PRAYA EAST ACCOUNT.
37. The account has been examined monthly and all observations made have been satisfactorily settled.
The Reclamation Scheme is in an advanced stage of completion, Roads and the necessary Drainage Works being in course of construction. The estimated cost of the Scheme has been exceeded and the participants were required to meet the excess cost, being given the opportunity of paying further calls by cash or accepting the liability of an overdraft on the Prava East Account at 6% with the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation to finance the further cost of the scheme. In the majority of cases the latter course was adopted by the subscribers.
A (2) 11
The Government is granting Leases to Subscribers desirous of entering into occupation of their respective Lots, with the proviso, that the proportionate liability on the excess cost over the estimate will be met by the Lessees on completion of the scheme and when the amount is finally known.
PUBLIC WORKS LOAN ACCOUNT.
38. A further issue of $1,927,000 was made during the year 1928 making a total of $4,927,000 issued in respect of the total loan of $5,000,000.
The allocation of expenditure on the works authorised in the Schedule of Public Works Loan Ordinance No. 14 of 1929 is as follows:-
Head 1.
Waterworks Development
Head 2.
Aerodromes and Harbour Development.
$ 3,500,000
1,500,000
Since the inception of the Loan the expenditure incurred
up to the 31st December, 1928, is as follows:-
Head 1. Head 2.

$2,221,876.42 1,851,125.91
A contribution from the Imperial Government of £100.000 of which £70,000 has been received in 1929. will be credited to Head 2, Sub-head 2, Aerodrome.
The accounts for the year 1928 have been examined and found to be well kept.
TRADE LOAN ACCOUNT.
39. The accounts for 1928 have been examined and found to be in order.
.
The following statements are submitted which show the financial position of the Account as at the 31st December, 1928:-
(a) Trial Balance
(b) Working Account
(c) Balance Sheet
(d) Statement of Outstanding Loans
(e) Statement of Outstanding Interest.
The Sterling Loan has been reduced to the amount of £415,000,

A (2) 12
Owing to the financial stringency prevailing in the Colony at the latter part of 1927, and the beginning of 1928 when all local loans fell due for repayment, the Government decided not to put any undue pressure on the borrowers, and many loans were renewed on a month to month basis. It was found necessary in four instances to foreclose and no losses were incurred in this connection.
AUDIT STAFF.
40. A statement is submitted showing changes in the Audit Staff during 1928.
I made my Annual tour of Inspection to Wei-hai-wei and Shanghai during the period from the 15th of June to the 30th of July, 1928, my report on which as stated is already in your hands. Mr. T. Dallin acted as Auditor during the period of my absence.
Capt. A. F. B. Howard, M.C., was appointed 2nd Assistant Auditor and arrived in the Colony on the 3rd of November, 1928.
Mr. B. E. Maughan. Senior Clerk, proceeded on home leave on the 3rd of March, 1928. and returned to the Colony and resumed duty on the 8th of November, 1928.
Mr. T. G. Stokes was appointed to the Senior Clerical and Accounting Staff of the Government on the 1st of April, 1928, and posted to this department.
Miss B. V. Franklin was posted to this department as Stenographer on the 1st of August, 1928.
During the year European Probationers for the Senior Clerical and Accounting Staff were temporarily attached to this denartment for instruction in accordance with the request of the Colonial Secretariat.
I am pleased to report that the standard and progress of the work has been well maintained and that the staff performed their duties most creditably.
27th August, 1929.
H. R. PHELIPS.
Auditor.
B 1
REPORT ON THE ASSESSMENT FOR THE YEAR 1929-1930.
1. By Order of His Excellency the Governor in Council a new valuation of the whole Colony has been made and the Rateable Value has thereby been increased from $30,395,447 to $31,617,566 an addition of $1,222,119 or 4.02 per cent.
the
2. The following Table gives a comparison of the Assessments for years.
1928-1929 and 1929-1930 :-
DISTRICT.
VALUATION 1928-1929.
VALUATION 1929-1930.
INCREASE,
PER
CENT.
The City of Victoria,
22,116,417 22,116,417 22,741,244 22,741,244
624,827 2.83
Hill District,...
488,715
529,405
Shaukiwan, Saiwanho, and
Quarry Bay,
614,744
597,670
Hong Kong Villages,....................
1,208,421 | 2,311,910
1,331,753 2,458,828 146,918 6:35
Kowloon Point,
1,450,880
1,566,890
Yaumati,
1,691,350
1,802,620
Mongkoktsui,
1,144,090
1,231,426
Hunghom & Hok Un,.............
611,690
628,015
Kowloon Villages,
210,147
224,242
New Territories,
855,963 5,967,120
964,301 6,417,491 450,374 7.55
Total,..........
30,395,447
31,617,566 1,222,119 4.02
3. The number of tenements reported to be vacant averaged about 192 monthly, as compared with 324 last year.
4. During the year ending 20th April, 1929, 819 Interim Valuations were made as follows:-
New or
rebuilt tenements tenements structurally altered
CITY OF VICTORIA.
REST OF COLONY.
No.
Rateable Value.
No.
Rateable Value.
$
and
248
426,270
307
406,264
Assessments cancelled, tenements
resumed, pulled down or being. in other respects not rateable......
119
342,250
145
74,090
Number and increase
367
84,020
452
332,174
B 2
5. The following comparative statement shows the Rateable Value of the Colony of Hong Kong in each of the ten years from 1920-1921 to 1929-1930 inclusive :·
Year.
Rateable Value.
Increase as compared
Percentage of In- crease in Rateable
with previous | Value as compared
year.
with previous year.
$
$
%
1920-21 17,408,959
1,104,185
6.77
1921-22 18,696,660
1,287,701
7.40
1922-23
19,805,929
1,109,269
5.91
1923-24 21,059,700
1,253,771
6.33
1924-25 22,147,951
1,088,251
5.16
1925-26 27,287,862
5,139,911
23.20
1926-27
27,998,237
710,375
2.60
1927-28 29,016,439
1,018,202
3.64
1928-29 30,395,447
1,379,008
4.75
1929-30 31,617,566
1,222,119
4.02
6. In the ten years 1920-1921 to 1929-1930 the Rateable Value of the Colony has increased by $14,208,607 or 81.62 per cent.
THE TREASURY,
20th April, 1929.
C. McI. MESSER, Colonial Treasurer & Assessor.
Appendix C.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY FOR CHINESE AFFAIRS FOR THE YEAR 1928.
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
(Tables I and II).
1. The revenue derived from all sources during the year was $20,040.53 and the expenditure was $78,913.32.
PROTECTION OF WOMEN AND GIRLS.
Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, No. 4 of 1897.
Po Leung Kuk Incorporation Ordinance, No. 6 of 1893.
(Table III).
2. The number of persons reported by Hong Kong residents to the Po Leung Kuk as missing during the year was 42 of whom 10 were found, as compared with 45 and 20 in 1927. The total number of persons reported missing including reports from China and Macao was 44 of whom 10 were found, as compared with 50 and 20 in 1927.
3. Ten names were added to the list of girls under bond to report themselves periodically to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs. The number of names on the list on December 31st was 21. The name of 1 girl was struck off the list.
(For a fuller report on the work of the Po Leung Kuk see Annexe A).
EMIGRATION.
Asiatic Emigration Ordinance, No. 30 of 1915.
(Emigration of Women and Children, (Free).
(Table IV).
4. The number of female and minor passengers examined and allowed to proceed shows an increase of 11% over the number for 1927.
C 2
P
5. The record of the occupations of the female emigrants over 16 years of age shows that 78% went either with or to join relatives, 19% went as maid servants and the remainder con- sisted of tailoresses, farmers and hair-dressers.
6. 75 women were detained for enquiries; 66 were detained in 1927.
7. The number of women and girls repatriated during the year was 26.
(ii)-Male Emigration, (Assisted).
(Table V).
8. The figures for the year show a decrease of 8% as com- pared with the number for 1927.
CHINESE BOARDING HOUSES.
The Boarding House Ordinance, No. 23 of 1917.
(Table VI).
9. Under this Ordinance Chinese Boarding Houses are divided into six classes.
10. During the year 37 convictions were obtained for breaches of the Ordinance as compared with 16 in 1927.
Ordinance No. 3 of 1888.
(i)-District Watch.
(Table VII).
11. The District Watch Committee met on 12 occasions; the average attendance being 14. The loyal advice and assist- ance of the Committee (which deals with every kind of question affecting the Chinese Community) continue to be of the greatest value to the Government.
12. The 5-year terms of the Hon: Dr. R. H. Kotewall, Mr. Tong Yat Chun and Mr. Li Po Kwai expired and they were re- appointed by His Excellency the Governor for a further period of 5 years. Mr. Ho Kwong resigned and the vacancy was filled by the appointment of Mr. Li Yik Mui.
13. During the year the two gentlemen nominated by the permanent members of the District Watch Committee to serve on the Committee for the coming year, were Mr. Wong Ping Suen and Mr. Lo Chung Kui vice Mr. Tam Woon Tong and Mr. Chau Tsun Nin whose terms had expired.

4
-C 3

14. At the end of the year the District Watch Force was one below its authorized full strength of 125. The average strength for the year was 119. 26 new men were engaged.
S. I. Andrew continued in charge of the Force until May when he returned to the Police Department and his place was taken by S. I. Carey.
The number of Police Court Cases secured by members of the Force was 848, an increase of 242 on the 606 cases secured in 1927, which was itself a "record" year. 35% were cases of Larceny, whilst Larceny from the Person and Unlawful Pos- session accounted for 19% and 14% respectively. It is gratify- ing to note that close co-operation exists between the District Watch Force and the Police Force.
(ii)-Permits.
15. Permits to fire crackers were given in 1,273 cases of which 1,055 were for weddings, and the remainder for birthdays, shop-openings etc. 121 permits were issued for theatrical per- formances, 111 of which were held in permanent and 10 in temporary buildings. Other permits issued were 20 for religious ceremonies and 3 for processions.
REGISTRATION OF BOOKS.
Ordinance No. 2 of 1888.
16. 47 books were registered during the year as compared with 26 in 1927.
TUNG WA HOSPITAL AND MAN MO TEMPLE.
Ordinance No. 1 of 1870, No. 9 of 1904 and No. 10 of 1908. (Table VIII to Table XID).
1929:
17. The following is a list of the Directors for 1928:
Tang Shiu Kin,
Lo Yin Nin,
Ng Wa,
Li Chi Tseung,
Siu Shuk Lim, Fung Kang Ue, Mak Sui Cho,
18. The following gentlemen
M. K. Lo,
Ho Yi Cheong, Leung Yau Shang, Leung Yuk Ki, Yu Cheuk Shang, Lo Chuk Chai, Chan Tsz Hang, Ma Si Chuen,
Ko Leung Wo, Lau Sing Chong, Wong Chung To, Ng Yiu Ting, Tsang Hiu Man, Li Chak Man, Li Yiu Tseung.
were elected Directors for
Ma Wai Nun, Ho Sai Ki,
Mok Tat Huen,
Kwok-Sheung Ngo,
Lam Kau Mau,
Cha Ping,
Kwok Lam Shong,
Kwan Wan Pak.
- C 4
19. The buildings and equipment have been considerably improved during the year. The number of in-patients for 1928 was 11,486 of whom 6,419 came under Western treatment and 4,587 under Native treatment. The number of out-patients, to whom free medicine was supplied, was 198,598, of whom 176,788 attended the Herbal Clinic (Native treatment) and 21,810, the Western Clinic (Western treatment).
20. The number of destitutes temporarily housed and then sent to their homes at the expense of the Hospital was 4,273, of whom about 3,000 were refugees from the districts of Hoi Fung and Luk Fung at the time of the Communist troubles there.
21. The foundation stone of the Eastern Branch of the Tung Wa Hospital at Sookunpo was laid by His Excellency the Governor on 4th May 1928 and at the end of the year the build- ing was nearly completed. Funds in hand, which have been raised by subscription, amounted to over $380,000, though a very large further amount will be required.
KWONG WA HOSPITAL.
(Table XIII to Table XIVB).
22. The number of in-patients admitted during the year was 8,563. 792 persons were admitted in a moribund condition and died shortly afterwards, of the remainder 6,056 selected Western treatment and 1,715 Native treatment. The number of out-patients was 128,942 of whom 83,685 selected Native treatment and 45,257 Western treatment. 575 bodies were brought to the Hospital Mortuary to await burial. Free burials were provided by the Hospital for 3,176 poor persons. Building operations for a new Maternity Block are now under way.
Statements of accounts and other reports furnished by the Committees of the Tung Wa and Kwong Wa Hospitals are published for general information (Tables VIII-XIV). Full details of the income and expenditure of these institutions are to be found in the annual volumes published in Chinese by the two Committees. Further imformation regulating the Hospitals is contained in the report of the Medical Department.
TSAN YUK MATERNITY HOSPITAL (West Point).
(Table XII and Table XV).
23. The work of this hospital has gone steadily forward throughout the year. The nurses training school is increasing in numbers and the general standard of education among the probationers has improved. Several useful additions have been made to the equipment, including a new Scialytic Light for the operating theatre. The Infant Welfare Clinic on Friday morn- ings is increasing in numbers and scope.
C 5
WAN TSAI MATERNITY HOSPITAL.
24. The work of this hospital has steadily increased since it was established in 1919. 1,029 cases were admitted as against 1,003 in 1927 and 773 in 1926. There are 22 beds in this popular hospital, but the problem of carrying on the work in the present building is becoming increasingly difficult, and plans are now in the hands of the Committee for rebuilding part of and renovating the whole of the premises.
CHINESE PUPLIC DISPENSARIES AND PLAGUE HOSPITAL.
(Table XVI to Table XIX).
25. In outlying districts where there are no hospitals the dispensaries fill a most important place in providing free medi- cal attention to thousands of people. At all the Chinese Public Dispensaries a weekly gynaecological clinic is held and at some of the bigger ones a women's clinic is held twice a week. The dispensaries are also free vaccination centres. The number of cases treated in 1928 was 192,152 as against 161,370 in 1927. Vaccinations numbered 49,941 as against 31,031 in 1927.
CHINESE PERMANENT CEMETERY.
(Table XX).
26. The balance at the end of the year was $52,843.28 as against $40,755.26 in 1927.
CHINESE RECREATION GROUND.
(Table XXI).
27. The balance in hand at the end of the year was $4,995.75 as against $4,403.88 in 1927. The Ground continued its contribution of $100 per month to the funds of the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital.
TRANSLATIONS.
28. The total number of translations made by the Trans- lators during the year was 1,572, as against 1,145 in 1927 and 737 in 1926. There were 891 translations from Chinese into English and 681 from English into Chinese. In addition a large number of translations made in other Government Departments were sent to this office for revision.
PASSAGE MONEY FUND.
(Table XXII).
29. The net income shows a considerable decrease.
C 6
FACTORIES.
30. Mr. F. Meade continued to act as Inspector of Factories under the Industrial Employment of Children Ordinance: he also acted as Inspector under the Factory (Accidents) Ordinance, 1927.
His report (Annexe B) contains an interesting survey of factory conditions in the Colony during 1928.
LABOUR.
31. No strikes or other disputes of importance occurred during the year though there were several minor incidents.
In January there was a short-lived strike at the Fung Keung Rubber Factory at Shaukeiwan which followed the refusal of the owners to grant certain demands, for more wages, shorter hours, etc., which were suddenly presented to them by the workers. Later on definite evidence was discovered in a Com- munist den in Percival Street that the whole affair had been deliberately organised by two women Communists.
In March there was a strike of four or five days duration at the Sincere Perfumery Factory at Kennedy Town, arising from the stricter enforcement of the searching of employees on leaving the premises and a proposal by the management to raise the amount of security deposited by each employee to two dollars. This proposal was dropped and the strike settled itself.
In August the Kowloon Docks became the centre of a violent agitation against the system of engagement through foremen with its alleged "squeezing" of the workmen. The source of the agitation was traced to the Sing Ngai Kwan Work- men's Club. Communist organisations also have been quick · to seize on this grievance as an occasion for propaganda and references to it occur frequently in pamphlets distributed from time to time among the Dockyard workers.
The Shiu Hing Knitting Factory was the scene of a small strike on the part of a few women in September, the reason given being dissatisfaction with the piece-rates. Only about fifteen women stopped work and they were replaced by new hands.
In October there was a feeble attempt to create trouble at the Man Fuk Knitting Factory where about a dozen men suddenly stopped work without any apparent reason.
It would seem that Communists were active here since several references to the incident have been found in Communist documents which have fallen into our hands. Similar references were made to quite unimportant incidents which occurred in December at the Tai Hing Knitting Factory and the Kwong Sang Lung Engineer- ing Works.
C 7
A note-worthy event was the proscription of the Hong Kong Teahouse Employees' Union, an organisation which had for long been notorious for the violence of its methods, the questionable sources of its income and the rascality of its members. The Motorcar Drivers' and Tailors' Unions, which closed down after the 1925 Strike, were revived this year.
TEMPLES.
(Table XXIII).
32. The Chinese Temples Ordinance became law on April 27th 1928. The main objects of the Ordinance are:-(a) to prevent the exploitation of the ignorant by charlatans; (b) tố recover for the benefit of the community the control over public temples which have been slipping into private hands; and (c) to prevent for the future.the establishment of temples as purely business speculations. Except in the case. of a few exempted temples, the revenues, funds, investments and properties of all Chinese temples are brought under the control of a Chinese Temples Committee; any surplus revenues remaining after pro- viding for due observance of the customary ceremonies and the maintenance of the temple buildings and temple properties shall be applied for the purposes of Chinese charities in the Colony generally (General Chinese Charities Fund). The members of the Chinese Temples Committee established under Section 7 of the Ordinance were as follows:
(a) Sir Shouson Chow, Dr. R. H. Kotewall,--Chinese
members of the Legislative Council.
(b) Mr. Li Yau Tsun,--Representative of the District
Watch Committee.
(c) Dr. S. W. Tso, Mr. Wong Kwong T'in,-Chinese
members of the Sanitary Board.
(d) Mr. Tang Shiu Kin,-Chairman of the Tung Wah
Hospital.
(e) Mr. Ma Chui Ch'iu,-Senior member of the Po
Leung Kuk Committee.
(Mr. Wong Shiu Hing,--Chairman of the Kwong Wah
Hospital.
(g) The Secretary for Chinese Affairs (Chairman).
The Committee met at the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs on seven occasions during the year. Mr. Wong Kwong T'in acted as honorary secretary. The first step was to secure the registration of all Chinese temples-including temples proper, monasteries, nunneries, Taoist establishments, etc. A Sub- Committee consisting of Mr. Li Yau Tsun and Mr. Wong Kwong T'in was appointed to consider the temples-almost two hundred in number which registered. As a beginning 28 temples which were purely business speculations and which contravened Section 4 of the Ordinance were ordered by the Committee to close down. Full control of several temples was taken over by the Committee, and tenders were received for the office of sz chuk or temple-
C 8
keeper. A noteworthy case is the large and popular Kwun Yam Temple at Hung Hom, the. accepted tender for which was $3,680 compared with $1,850 previously when the Temple was under the control of the local kaifong. The Committee agreed to make a grant of $100 per month from the General Chinese Charities Fund to the free school maintained in connection with the Temple-an excellent example of how Chinese charities will benefit by the proper control of temple revenues. Regulations were also drawn up for observance by temple-keepers in the care of temples under their charge and to safeguard the worshipping public against excessive charges by temple-keepers for joss-sticks and other paraphernalia.
STAFF.
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
33. The Hon: Mr. E. R. Hallifax acted as Colonial Secre- tary throughout the year and the Hon: Mr. R. A. C. North acted as Secretary for Chinese Affairs with the exception of the period March 12th to March 26th when his place was taken by Mr. S. B. B. McElderry.
Chief Assistant to Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Mr. T. W. Ainsworth acted as Chief Assistant to the Secre- tary for Chinese Affairs from 1st January to 12th March and Mr. R. A. D. Forrest from 13th March to 31st December.
Assistants to Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Mr. E. H. Williams continued as an Assistant to the Secre- tary for Chinese Affairs until 18th October when his place was taken by Mr. J. S. MacLaren.
Mr. R. R. Todd continued as an Assistant to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs throughout the year.
Emigration Officers.
S. I. O'Connor reverted to the Police Department on 6th September and was succeeded by S. I. Russell.
Sergt. G. Haywood reverted to the Police Department on 20th August and was succeeded by Sergt. McKay.
Inspector of Women and Girls.
Sub-Inspector G. A. Stimson continued to act as Inspector under the Women and Girls Protection Ordinance, 1897, until February 2nd when he proceeded on leave and was succeeded by Sub-Inspector W. R. Chester-Woods, who reverted to the Police. Department on August 25th and was relieved by Sergt. E. G.
Post.
R. A. C. NORTH, Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
May 4th, 1929.
?
Heads of Revenue.
Table I.
Revenue for the years 1927 and 1928.
Details of Revenue.
Ordinance under which received.
Revenue in
1927.
Revenue in
1928.
Increase.
Decrease.
0.
$
0.
0.
No. 1 of 1889 & No. 4 of 1908. No. 30 of 1915.
20,383.33
1,200.00
18,072,00
1,200.00
..
2.311.33
Licences and Internal Revenue not other-- wise specified,
Fees of Court
or
Office, Payments for Specific Purposes,
ments-in-aid,.
and
Interest,
Reimburse-
Chinese Boarding House Licences. Emigration Passage Brokers' Licences, Forfeitures,
Certificates to Chinese proceeding to foreign countries
Bond by Non-resident Householders, Official Signatures,
Interest accrued on official account,
Other Miscellaneous Receipts,
Permits for Firework Displays,
75.00
75.00
No. 6 of 1923.
150.00
250.00
100.00
No. 3 of 1888. -
No. 14 of 1913.
80.00
138.00
58.00
394.92
205.53
189 39
110.00
100.00
10.00
Total,.
22,318,25
20,040,53
233.00
2,510.72
Deduct Increase,
Total Decrease,
...$
233.00
2,277.72
1
C 9
Table II.
Revenue and Expenditure of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs since 1919.
Revenue.
Expenditure.
Year.
Total.
Decrease.
Increase.
Total.
Decrease.
Increase.
Percent-
age of
Expen-
diture to
Revenue.
$
C.
$3
C.

C.

C.
C.
%
1919,
21,430.72
5,247.78
52,634.57
2,516.90
245.60
1920,
18,007.65
3,423.07
57,716.27
5,081.70
320.51
1921,
15,659.34
2,348.31
18,705.03
39,011.24
102.25
1922,
15,514.50
144.50
21,115.67
2,410.64
136:10
1923,
16,777.69
1,263.19
28,795.63
7,679.96
171.63
1924,
18,716.08
1,938.39
27,512.96
1,282.67
147.00
1925,
15,741.94
2,974.14
29,225.63
1,712.67
185.66
1926,
19,740.62
3,998.68
8,147.42 21,078.21
41.19
1927,
22,318.25
2,577.63
11,533.80
3,386.38
51.68
1928,
20,040.53
2,277.72
78,913.32
67,379.52
393.78
C 10
Table III.
·
.-
Number of Women and Girls detained in a Place of Refuge by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under Sections 34 and 35 of Ordinance No. 4 of 1897, and arrangements made regarding them.
Permitted to leave,
Permitted to leave under bond, Restored to husband,
Restored to relatives,
Under Detention on 1st January, 1928.
Prostitutes. Emigrants.
...
Detained during 1928.
Total. Prostitutes. Emigrants. Total.
...
Total.
7
...
7
7
11
13
11
11
...
13
13
Sent to native place,
Married,.
Adopted,
Sent to Refuge or Convent,....
1
1
...
7
Died,
Awaiting marriage,.......
...
Cases under consideration,
...
...
::
...
Total,
1
4
1
42
Cases brought forward, 1.
Cases dealt with during the year, 39,
...
7
8
C 11 -
...
4
42
43
Cases carried forward, 4.
C 12
Table IV.
Number of Female Passengers and Boys examined and passed before the Secretary for Chinese Affairs under "The
Asiatic Emigration Ordinance, 1915", during the year 1928.
Women and Childreen, 1928.
Total
Women
Destination.
and
Children,
Women. Girls.
Boys.
Total.
1927.
Macassa
559
152
385
1,096
664
Japan
Straits Settlements and
F.M.S.
24,831
4,492
9,142
38,465
30,577
Dutch Indies
Belawan Deli
1,366
401
723
2,490
1,455
British North Borneo
1,192
299
492
1,983
1,937
Honolulu
54
13
35
102
99
Central America...
7
29
36
40
Canada ...
...
9
9
6
United States of America..
169
55
313
537
337
Mexico
South America
35
3
18
56
Mauritius and Re-Union
164
15
152
331
118
Australia
15
2
10
27
14
India
380
46
152
578
6,733
South Africa
2
6
8
Vancouver
1
106
107
Batavia...
2,198
303
1,317
3,818
2,741
West Indies (Jamaica)
9
12
Sourabaya
Balikpapan...
16
Rangoon
21
Port Elizabeth
9
Delagoa Bay
5
10 10 4 —
9
30
7
33
131
10
23
5
6
Salina Cruz ...
Callao
18
29
49
Billiton
22
4
28
Victoria...
6
15
22
Seattle
57
13
150
220
228
Manila
1
1
Total, 1928 ...
31,131
5,814
13,122 50,067
45,083
T
C 13
Table V.
Number of Assisted Emigrants.
Rejected.
Year.
Examined. Passed.
Un-
at
Rejected Rejected
Total
Percentage
willing. S.C.A.
by
as unfit.
rejected. Doctor.
of rejection.
1925,
11,129
11,055
36
19
19
74
*66
1926,
15,536 14,804
181
21
24
229
1:47
1927,
26,266 21,626
66
57
16
139
*52
1928,
23,433 19,952
49
42
21
112
.57
Treatment of Rejected Emigrants for 1928.
Sent home through Tung Wah Hospital at expense of
Boarding Houses,
35
Rejected by doctor and sent back to boarding houses to
be cured,
21
56
Total,
Native districts of Assisted Emigrants passed.
West River,
East River,
North River,
Canton,..
Delta,
Kwong Sai,...
Southern Districts,
Mandarin, (Hunan, Kwong Sai and Kiang Si),
Total,
1,974 10,796
371
1,532
...... 1,221
1,936
1,871
251
19,952
C 14
Table V,-Continued.
Destinations of Assisted Emigrants.
Whither bound.
Male Assisted Emigrants.
1927
1928
Straits Settlements and F.M.S.,
637
185
British North Borneo,
1,868
613
Dutch Indies :--
Banca,
6,852
5,425
Billiton,
3,512
2,895
Balikpapan,
466
Belawan Deli,
8,125
9,242
British Solomon Island,
India,
Samoa,
Ocean Island,
Nauru,
Makatea,
Solomon Islands,
Tihiti,
Sydney,
TOTAL
478
401
230
580
297
22
65
88
12
11
22,052
19,952
283
3142 passenger's passes were issued for 1st and 2nd class Straits Settlements passengers during the year.
Classification of the Assisted Emigrants examined, accord-
ing to the language spoken gives the following figures :--
Cantonese, Hakka,
Hoklo,
12.243
2,561
7,046
Southern Mandarin (mostly from
Hainanese,
Kwong Sai and Hunan),
634
949
TOTAL
23,433
Table VI.
Chinese Boarding House Licence Returns under Boarding House
Ordinance No. 23 of 1919.
Class
.I II IV
No. in existence at beginning of 1928...3 No. in existence at end of 1928
.2
V VI VII 57 14 268 201 99 68 16 299 213 98
i
- C 15
Table VII.
Statement of the Receipts and Expenditure relative to the Hong Kong District Watchmen's Fund for the year 1928.
Receipts.
Expenditure.
C.
$ c.
C.
27.
To Balance,
Contributions, (Victoria $54,578.80
64,028,83
By Wages and Salaries :--
Chief District Watchmen, Assistant Chief District Watch-
2,833.00
and Kowloon $9,961,11) ...
64,539.91
men,
1,849.00
Detectives,
6,877.86
1st Class District Watchmen,... 7,524.90
Grant by Hong Kong Government,.......
2,000.00
2nd
"
51
:>
3rd
9,933.09 1,960.80
"
"
""
Payment for District Watchmen for
Special Services,..
30,978.65
1,014.60
""
Miscellaneous :---
Cooks,...
938.00
» Fines,..
20.00
Coolies,
790.00
Messengers,
96.00
1,824.00
""
House Rents,
1,423.50
Office Staff:-
""
Condemned Store,.
287.00
Manager,
135.00
Writer,
132.00
""
Interest on Hong Kong Government
Interpreter,
Clerk,
6% P. W. Loan,
540.00
Collectors,
996.00
1,263.00
""
Interest on Fixed Deposits
990.00
Total,..
34,065,65
""
Interest on Current Account,
221.17
??
Other Charges
Allowance to Detectives,
1,596.66
Medal Allowance,
1,330.00
Rent allowance,
1,595.00
Oil Allowance,
85.60
Electric charges,
662.94
Conservancy Allowance,........
63.60
Coolie Hire and Conveyance
Allowance,
1,083.59
Stationery and Printing,
331.23
Good Conduct Allowance,
142.00
Uniform and Equipments,
2,866.72
Repairs and Fittings,
3,527.41
Ammunition, .
871.84
Furniture,
318.29
Rent of Telephone,
432.00
Gratuities and Rewards,
1,468.50
Crown Rent,
11.37
Fee for Boundary Stone Yau-
mati D.W. Quarters.........
25.00
Stamp duty for ('rown Lease,..
45.00
Premium on Fire Policies,
274.51
Tremium on Hong Kong Govt.
6% I'.W. Loan,
600.00
Photos for D. W.S...........................
1.50
Sundries,
632.60
17,965.36
Pensions:-
Ex. C.D.W. Fung Pong and others,
4,804.00
Total Expenditure,........
56,835.01
>>
Balance,
78,230.00
Total,
$ 135,065.01
Total,
135,065.01
Balance in Colonial Treasury
Hong Kong Government 6% P.W. Loan,...$38,000.00
Cash,..
10,070.00
Fixed Deposits....
30,000.00
Advance to C.D.W.s.
160,00
Total,........
$78,230.00
Examined and found correct.
Hong Kong, 31st December, 1928.
WONG KAM FUK,
Member of
District Watchmen Committee.
Patients.
on 31st December, 1927.
Remaining in Hospital
Treatment.
Chinese
Treatment.
European
Total.
Total number of pa-
tients under treatment.
Discharged.
Deaths.
Table VIII.
Number of Patients under treatment and other statistics concerning the Tung Wah Hospital during the year 1928.
Admitted.
Out-patients.
Remaining in Hospital
on 31st December, 1928.
Treatment.
Chinese
Treatment. European
Total,
Vaccinations.
Dead bodies brought to Hospital Mortuary
for burial.
Destitutes sent home.
395 3,545 3,4086,953 7,348 5,473 | 1,546
329 89,728 11,539 101,267 | 8,339 938 4,273
Male,
Female,
85 1,042 3,011 4,0534,1383,872. 615
151
87,060|10,271 87,060 10,271 97,331
486
Total,..
4804,5876,419 11,006 11,486 | 8,845 2,161
480 176,788 21,810 198,598 8,339 1,424 4,273
Total for 1927,
433 4,3334,9609,293|9,726 | 7,270 1,976
480 146,975 148,228 |195,203 2,776 1,512 499
C 16
1
Receipts.
.:
C 17
Table IX.
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL CASH ACCOUNT 1928.
Amount.
Payments.
Amount.
C.
Cash Balance from last year :—
Tung Wah Hospital account. $105,005.57 Tung Wah Eastern Hospital 111,669.17 Man Mo Temple....
Débit balance against Kwong Wah Hos-
pital from last year...
32,624.60
66,386.64
Current account with Kwong Wah Hos-
pital....
58,209.25
Emergency Fund
58,469.06
Maternity Hospital
1,836.02
Current account with Tung Wah Eastern
Hospital
159,843.38
343,366.46
Current account with Tung Wah Eastern
Hospital
....
207,323.68
Current account with Kwong Wah Hospital Current account with Man Mo Temple Current account with Maternity Hospital..
103,788.23
Current account with Man Mo Temple... Current account with Emergency Fund... Current account with Maternity Hospital Amount paid for purchase of "Red Cross
23,484.00
501.50
3,772.00
26,154.92
4,594.06
Carriage" on behalf of Tung Wah Eastern Hospital
4,000.00
Current account with Emergency Fund Rents from house property
Subscriptions collected from steamers Annual subscriptions of Hongs.......
34,390.86
Provisions for staff
15,754.25
110,308.75
Salaries for staff
49,761.54
4,118.79
Provisions for sick rooms
31,057.84
11,003.50
Sick room sundries
16,304.91
Annual subscriptions from wealthy persons Subscriptions and donations
6,000.00
Hospital sundries.
8,187.81
18,817.89
Chinese drugs.....
39,312.37
Subscriptions from Directors past and pre-
Western drugs
13,569.54
sent
10,406.00
Repairs....
10,444.23
Special contributions for supply of medi-
Destitutes' and Patients' passages
280.93
cines, quilted clothing, coffins and shrouds
Repairs to landed property
551.97
4,454.80
Lights
7,712.58
Government grants
8,000.00
Insurance
920.50
Government grants for coffins
10,000.00
Crown rent and taxes
11,896.90
Amount received from Government on
Grant to Old Men's Asylum, Kowloon...
200.00
account of Western medicines....
2,500.00
Sundries for coffiu home & burial ground..
232.56
Grant from Man Mo Temple...................
2,500.00
Building costs
10,424.60
Contributions from Theatres...
3,150.00
Small-pox Hospital expenses
2,496.52
Profit from holding special theatrical per-
Free gift of padded clothing
2,000.00
formances
15,600.00
Stamps, stationery and advertisements
4,823.22
Subscriptions for coffin home
4,380.00
Grant to Kwong Wah Hospital
2,000.00
Interest on loans and deposits
56,192.85
Grant to Fong Pin Hospital
1,000.00
Premium on notes and discount on goods
Burial of bodies by Tung Wah Hospital...
3,049.47
purchased
3,258.69
Coffins for bodies buried by Tung Wah
Fees from Patients
4,267.96
Hospital
6,691.10
Rents from Coffin home
21,300.00
Burial of bodies by Government Mor-
Sale of medicines, kitchen refuse and
tuary
2,541.80
boat-hire
9,630.27
Coffins for bodies buried by Government
Rent from Yat Pit Ting
960.00
Mortuary...
4,960.72
Rent from iron burner
1,449.00
Interest on deposits...
7,375.07
Appropriation for building of Wing Pit
Ting and charities out of profits from holding of theatrical performances
15,600.00
Balance
476,331.55
Grand Total................
$ 1,027,916.71
Grand Total...
$1,027,916.71
The Balance of $476,331.55 consists of the following credit balances:
Tung Wah Hospital
Tung Wah Eastern Hospital
Kwong Wah Hospital
Man Mo Temple
Emergency Fund.....
Maternity Hospital....
Total.......
$140,153.64
159,149.47
12,954.38
69,057.56
92,358.42
2,658.08
.$476,331.55
(For particulars see Table).
Audited and found correct.
LI TUNG
Auditor, Hong Kong.
TANG SHIU KIN,
Chairman.
NG WAH,
Director,
Tung Wah Hospital.
Income.
- C 18
-
Table X.
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL,
INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 1928.
Amount.
Funds brought forward from 1927
$105,005.57
Maintenance.
Expenditure.
Amount.
1
Ordinary.
Subscriptions:-
Annual subscriptions of
Hongs
Subscriptions collected on
Steamers
Subscriptions & donations
Subscriptions from wealthy
persons
Subscriptions from Direc-
tors past and present .. 10,406.00
Grants:
Government
Government for Coffins
Government for Western
Medicine
Man Mo Temple
.$ 11,003.50
4,118.79
Provisions:
Food for staff
Food for sick room
Surgery & Dispensary :--
Chinese drugs Western drugs
$ 15,754.25 31,057.84
$ 39.312.37 13,569.54
$ 46,812.09
52,881.91
18,817.89
Establishments:·
Light
.$ 7,712.58
6,000.00
Insurance
Repairs
920.50 10,444.23
Repairs to hospital pro-
50,346.18
perty
551.97
Sick room expenses
16,304.91
$ 8,000.00
Small pox hospital ex-
10,000.00 !
penses
2,496.52
2,500.00
2,500.00.
Coffin home and burying
ground expenses
Crown rents and taxes
232.56
11,896.90
23,000.00
50,560.17
Special contributions:-
Salaries, wages, &c.:
For Mortuary expenses ...
4,380.00
From Theatres
3,150.00
Staff salaries Sundries
$ 49,761.54
8,187.81
For supply of medicines,
57,949.35
quilted clothing, coffins and shrouds
4,454.80
Appeals, grants, &c.:-
Destitutes and Patients'
11,984.80
passages
$ 280.93
Investments:-
Old Men's
Asylum
Rents from house property$110,308.75
Kowloon
200.00
Rents from coffin home
21,300.00
Padded Clothing for free
Rents from Yat Pit Ting..
Rents from iron burner
960.00 1,449.00
distribution
2,000.00
Kwong Wa & Fong Pin
Interest
56,192.85
Hospitals
3,000.00
190,210.60
Red Cross Carriage for
Other receipts:-
discount on goods pur-
Tung Wah Eastern
Premium on notes and
Hospital
4,000.00
9,480.93
chased
Fees from Patients
.$ 3,258.69
Miscellaneous :·
4,267.96
Stationery &c.
.$ 4,823.22
Sale of medicines and
kitchen refuse and boat- hire
Burial of bodies by Tung
Wah Hospital
3,049.47
9,630.27
Coffins for bodies buried
17,156.92
by Tung Wah Hospital.
6,691.10
Burial of bodies
by
Extraordinary.
Government
4,960.72
Interest on Deposits
7,375.07
Profit from holding theatrical performances- 15,600.00
29,441.38
Extraordinary.
Building costs
$ 10,424.60
Appropriation for building
of Wing Pit Ting and charities
15,600.00
Balance
26,024.60 140,153.64
Total
$413,304.07
Total
$413,304.07
Audited and found correct.
LI TUNG
Auditor, Hong Kong.
:
TANG SHIU KIN,
Chairman.
NG WAH,
Director.
Tung Wah Hospital,
C 19
Table XI.
PARTICULARS AS TO CREDIT BALANCES
1928
To Amount received during 1928
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL
in account with Kwong Wah Hospital.
$103,788.23 By Debit Balance brought from 1927....$ 32,624.60 .
Amount paid during 1928 Balance
$103,788.23
وو
58,209.25 12,954.38
$103,788.23
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL
in account with Man Mo Temple.
To Credit balance brought forward from
27
1927 .....
Amount received during 1928..
.$ 66,386.64 26,154.92
By Payments during 1928
Balance
$ 92,541.56
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL
in account with Emergency Fund.
To Credit balance brought forward from
1927
$ 58,469.06 34,390:86
By Payments during 1928
Balance
>?
Amount received during 1928
$ 92,859.92
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL
in account with Maternity Hospital.
To Credit balance brought forward from
1927
,,Amount received during 1928
$ 23,484.00 69,057.56
$ 92,541.56
501.50 92,358.42
$92,859.92
$ 1,836.02 4,594.06
By Payments during 1928
Balance
$ 3,772.00 2,658.08
$ 6,430.08
$ 6,480.08
TUNG WAH HOSPITAL
in account with Tung Wah Eastern Hospital.
To Credit balance brought forward from
By Payments during 1928
1927 ...
""
Amount received during 1928
$111,669.17 207,323.68
Balance
21
$318,992.85
Audited and found correct
LI TUNG,
Auditor, Hong Kong.
$159,843.38 159,149.47
$318,992.85
TANG SHIU KIN,
Chairman.
NG WAH,
Director.
Tung Wah Hospital.
Table XI (A).
Statement of Receipts and Payments of the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital, 1928.
Receipts.
Amount.
Expenditure.
To Balance from 1927
وو
Subscriptions...
""
Interest on mortgage
Payment by Mr. Lau Shau Cho of loan on
Mortgage
""
Funds from Tsap Shin Dispensary....
C.
Amonut,
$
C
111,669.17
124,107.32 -
By Building costs
80,000.00
Palmer and Turner architects
"
5,000.00
11,728.51
""
Deposit on mortgage.
36,000.00
"
Free medicine. and coffins given by Tsap
70,000.00
1,487.85
Shin Dispensary etc.
8,920.11
Salaries for staff.
3,011.33
>>
"}
Advertisements .......
1,164.37
Crown Rent
2.00
"}
Other payments during 1928
25,745.57
Balance
159,149.47
>>
A
Total..
318,992.85
Total.
318,992.85
>
C 20
Receipts.
Table XI (B).
Emergency Fund Account, 1928.
Amount.
Payments.
Amount.
C.
Balance from account 1927:
58,469.06
Gratuity to destitutes,
Interest
2,050.07
Passage money for destitutes,
c.
100.00
401.50
Funds from Secretariat for Chinese Affairs
32,340.79
Balance,
92,358.42
Total,...
92,859,92
Total,......
92,859.92
C 21
Receipts.
Table XI (C).
Man Mo Temple Fund Account, 1928.
Amount.
Payments.
Amount.
Balance from account 1927,
66,386.64
Subscription to Tung Wah Hospital,
2,500.00
Rent of Temple property,
14,154.00
Free Schools and sundries,
14,302.17
Rent from Temple keeper,.
3,719.10
Repairs to Temple property, and free schools,
1,508.90
Government Grant in Aid of free schools,
5,520.00
Police, Rates, Crown Rent, and Insurance
Interest,
1,593.28
Premium,
1,638.33
Refund of Crown Rent,..
14.40
Water accounts,
216.00
Funds from the Mong Yeung School at Wong
Nei Chung,...
1,082.14
Refund of deposits, to temple-keeper and lessees,
2,100.00
Miscellaneous receipts,
72.00
Building costs for alteration of the small
shops in front of Man Mo Temple,
1,000.00
Advertisements,
56.05
Sundry expenses,
162.55
Balance,
69,057.56
Total,.......
92,541.56
Total,...
.$
92,541.56
Table XI (D).
Statement of Receipts and Payments of the Western Maternity Hospital, 1928.
Amount.

Receipts.
Amount.
Expenditure.
$
C.
Balance from 1927,
1,836.02
Rent of hospital property handed over to the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, ...
Rent of Hospital Property,
4,550.00
Interest,
44.06
Police, Rate, Crown Rent, & Insurance Premium,
Repairs to Hospital Property,
Balance,
C.
3,200.00
514.70
57.30
2,658.08
€ 23
Total,
6,430.08
Total,
6,430.08
--
C 24
Table XII.
Revenue and Expenditure of the Brewin Charity during the year 1928.
Revenue.
Amount.
Expenditure.
Amount.
To Balance from 1927
$173,912.93
Subscription from Directors, Tung Wa
Hospital
??
2,100.00
"
Subscription from Committee, Po
Leung Kuk
850.00
Subscription from Directors, Kwong
Wa Hospital
305.00
By Charity for widows and orphans
Subscription to Old Men's Home Salary for Accountant Mr. Chan Yik
Wan
Salary for Clerk Mr. Wong Shut Ming. Stamps
Conveyance expenses for collecting
$ 8,746.60
2,400.00
100.00
60.00
4.10
Refund of auditing fee from Mr. Lau
interest, etc.
10.60
Yuk Wan, auditor
50.00
Printed matters by the Wing Fat
8.10
Interest from Mr. Chiu Cheuk U for
""
22
Auditing fee for Auditor Mr. Lau Yuk
mortgage
4,500.00
Wan
50.00
Interest from Mr. Lau Kwai Nam for
Balance
179,919.34
mortgage
2,340.00
""
Interest from Mr. Yau Leung Kang for
mortgage
1,280.00
Interest from Mr. Kan Iu Cho for
mortgage
1,472.00
Interest from Mr. Tsoi Mau Sui for
;
mortgage
1,462.50
#"
Interest from Mr. U Nga Ping for
mortgage
1,350.00
*1
Interest on War Bonds of Singapore
Government
318.66
15
Interest on War Bonds of Hong Kong
Government
600.00
Interest on Current Account with
Shanghai Bank
443.73
Sin Siu Shi's Benefit
60.00
Interest on fixed deposit of Wong Fung
Sze with Shanghai Bank
53.92
Additional War Bonds of Singapore Government (as supplement to the following entry marked*- omission subsequently discovered through auditing)
Total
200,00
$191,298.74
Total
By Fixed deposit with Mr. Lau Kwai Nam on mortgage of
four houses in Temple Street
3 J
Fixed deposit with Messrs. Fung Tak Wo, and Lam Un
Hoi on mortgage of five houses in Temple Street Fixed deposit with Mr. Kan Iu Cho on mortgage of house
property in Wanchai Road
.$ 32,000.00
32,000.00
16,000.00
1
Fixed deposit with Mr. Tsoi Mau Sui on mortgage of
house property in Wing Lok Street
25,000.00
"
Fixed deposit with Mr. U Nga Ping on mortgage of house
property in Bonham Strand
45,000.00
Fixed deposit with Lo Luk on mortgage of house property
in Whitfield
8,500.00
11
War Bonds of Hong Kong Government
10,000.00
*
J
War Bonds of Singapore Government
5,000.00
Additional War Bonds of Singapore Government (as
supplement to the preceding entry)
200.00
""
Fixed deposit and interest of Wong Fung Sze
1,252.15
Deposit of Sat A Li with Wing Hing Bank (after deduct-
ing two dividends amounting to $67.70) Current account deposits with Shanghai Bank Deposit with Tung Wah Hospital
Total
252.40
4,004.54
710.25
$179,919.34
Examined and found correct.
$191,298.74
Sgd. TANG SHIU KIN,
Director.
Patients.
Table XIII.
Number of Patients under treatment and other statistics concerning the Kwong Wah Hospital during the year 1928.
Remaining in Hospital
on 31st December, 1927.
Treatment. Chinese
Treatment.
European
Total.
Admitted.
Total Number of pa- tients under treatment.
Discharged,
Deaths.
Remaining in Hospital
on 31st December, 1928.
Treatment.
Chinese
European Treatment.
Total.
Out-patients.
Vaccinations.
Dead bodies brought to Hospital Mortuary for burial.
Destitutes sent home.
Male,
142
1,482 2,588 4,070
|
| 4,2122,800 1,269
143
47,153 23,955 71,108
349
26
Female,
117
4664,0274,4934,6103,676
830
104
36,532 21,302 57,834
226
Total,..
259
1,948 6,6158,563 8,822 6,476 2,099
247
83,685|45,257, 128,942
575
26
Total for 1927, 193
1,689 5,777 7,466 7,659 5,239 2,161
259
83,058) 41,279,124,337
318
C 25 -
C 26
Table XIV.
KWONG WAH HOSPITAL.
Cash Account 1928.
Receipts.
Amount.
$
Payments.
Amount.
C.
Balance brought forward from
Current account with Tung Wah
previous year,........
15,921.81
Hospital,
103,788.23
Government Grant,
8,500.00
Salaries for Hospital staff,
23,293.20
>>
Special Donation,... 25,000.00 Donation for West-
Provisions for staff,
7,201.95
Hospital sundries,
2,386.85
ern drugs, Government Donation for giving
free coffius,
4,028.50
Provisious for patients,
15,499.27
Sick room expenses,
8,342.35
7,000.00
Charcoal,
1,017.82
Subscription from Tung Wal
Hospital, for giving free coffins. Current account with Tang Wah
Hospital,..
Chinese drugs,
14,078.27
2,000.00
Western drugs,
10,235.90
Lights,
3,811.20
58,209.25
Telephone rent,
282.20
Subscriptions from charitable persons and yearly subscrip- tions,
Subscriptions from Ko Shing, Tai
Ping, and Lee Theatres, Donations from A. Fong and Tai
Wo Photographers,
Stationery, stamps, and adver-
tisements,
2,649.29
31,155,05
Water,
286.75
Furniture and repairs,
3,596.39
4,400.00 Building contract,
2,440.00
Coffins,
5,609.44
1,100.00
Burial of bodies from Hospital
Donations from Old Yaumati
Mortuary,
480.50
Chinese Public Dispensary,
6,643,82
Burial of bodies from Yaumati
Donations from Po Hing Theatre..
66.00
Public Mortuary,
428.15
Sale of Chinese Medicine,.
391.77
Old Men's Asylum,
.43.40
Premium on notes,
77.07
Grave stones,
371.60
Sale of kitchen refuse,
1,508.06
Cumsha to coolies, sale of refuse,
Payments by in-patients and for
&c,
275.58
+
drugs,
8,260.49
Crown Reut,...
1.50
Interest,
143.94
Temples,
27.00
Amount transferred from Free Chinese Drugs Special Fund to Income and Expenditure
account, Transferred from Tin Hau
Temple,
Building work in connection
with Maternity Hospital,
1,000.00
Maternity Hospital Fund de-
10,825.88
posited with Tung Wah Hospital,
2,896.00
32,624.60
Rent from Shui Yuet Kung
Temple,
Amount paid on account of Free
Chinese Drugs Special Fund,..] 10,947.53
1,948.57 BALANCE,
16,512.49
Interest and house rent collected
in respect of Free Chinese Drugs Special Fund, ........... Maternity Hospital Fund sub-
scribed,
10,947.63
6,750.52
Grand Total,.............. ...$ 237,502.96
Grand Total,...
237,502.96
黃少卿
WONG HOK SUN,
Committee.
Income.
C 27
Table XIV (A).
KWONG WAH HOSPITAL. INCOME AND EXPENDITURE ACCOUNT 1928.
Amount.
Expenditure.
Amount.
A.-ORDINARY.
To amount transferred from Free Chinese
Drugs Special Fund
Rent from Shui Yuet Kung Temple Government Grant (General).$ 8,500.00
$ 10,825.88
1,948.57
Balance from last year's account A.-MAINTENANCES.
Provisions:
Staff
$ 12,881.72
Patients
$ 7,201.95 15,499.27
Government Grant
for
22,701.22
Western Drugs
4,028.50
Dispensary:-
Government Grant for free
Chinese drugs
coffins
7.000.00
Western drugs
$14,078.27 10,235.90
19,528.50
24,314.17
Subscriptions:-
Establishment:
Tung Wah Hospital for
Lights
$ 3,811.20
free coffins
Charitable persons
.$ 2,000.00 31,155.05
Furniture and repairs
3,596.39
Sick room expenses
8,342.35
33,155.05
Charcoal
1,017.82
Entertainments :
Telephone rent
282.20
Lee Theatres
graphers
Ko Shing, Tai Ping and
Po Hing Theatre
Donations:-
A Fong & Tai Wo Photo-
Old Yaumati Public Dis-
pensary
Water
286.75
$ 4,400.00
Sundries
2,662.43
66.00
Building contract
2,440,00
4,466.00
Crown rent
1.50
22,440.64
Salaries:-
$ 1.100.00
Hospital staff
.$23.293.20
23,293.20
6,643.82
Miscellaneous:
7,743.82
Stationery, stamps and
Patients Payments:--
In and out patients
advertisements
$ 2,649.29
Chinese drugs sold
.$ 8,260.49 391.77
Temples
Coffins
27.00 5,609.44
8,652.26
Burial of bodies
480.50
Other receipts :—
Premium on notes
Interest
77.07 143.94
Burial of bodies
Yaumati
from
428.15
Old Men's Asylum
43.40
Sale of kitchen refuse,
Grave stones
371.60
&c.
1,508.06
9,609.38
1,729.07
B.-EXTRAORDINARY.
Donations:
Government Special
Donation
.$25,000.00
25,000.00
Debit Balance
2,191.18
Total
$115,240.33
Total
$115,240.33
黃少卿
WONG HOK SUN,
Committee.
C 28
Table XIV—(B)
FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE KWONG WAH HOSPITAL.
Free Chinese Drugs Special Fund deposited with the Tung Wah Hospital.
Amount left deposited with Tung
Wah Hospital at end of 1927... $ 64,761.80
Credit with Tung Wah Hospital
at end of 1928
$ 64,761.80
Current account with Tung Wah Hospital.
Amount paid to Tung Wah Hospital
during 1928
$103,788.23
Amount overdrawn on Tung Wab
Hospital in previous year Amount received from Tung Wah
Hospital in 1928
Balance with Tung Wah Hospital
at end of 1928
Amount left deposited with Tung
Wah Hospital at end of 1927. Amount paid to Tung Wah Hospital
during 1928...
$103,788.23
Maternity Hospital Fund.
$ 64,761.80
$ 61,761,80
$ 32,624.60
58,209.25
12,954.38
$103,788.23
Credit with Tung Wah Hospital... 24,702.76
$ 21,806.76
2,896.00
$ 24,702.76
$ 24,702.76
Kwong Wah Hospital General Fund.
Cash at end of 1926
$.5,942.27
Special Donation from Tin Hau
Temple in 1928
1927
Advanced to Sick room Fund in
1927
$
540.00
32,624.60 Repaid to Tung Wah Hospital in
Debit Balance in 1928 account...
9,433.34 2,191.18
Balance:
in Casb....... with Tung Wah
Hospital
$13,447.97
12,954.38
$38.566.87
26,402.35
$38,566.87
Analysis of Cash in hand.
Cash in hand as per Cash account...$ 16,512.49 || Kwong Wah Hospital General
Fund
Maternity Hospital Fund.......
$ 13,447.97 3,064.52
$ 16,512.49
SUMMARY.
$ 16,512.49
Free Chinese Drugs Special Fund deposited with Tung Wah
Hospital
..$64,761.80
Maternity Hospital Fund deposited with Tung Wah Hospital Maternity Hospital Fund in cash with Kwong Wah Hospital Kwong Wah Hospital General Fund in cash..
24,702.76
3,064.52
13,447.97
Kwong Wah Hospital General Fund deposited with Tung
Wah Hospital
12,954.38
Kwong Wah Hospital in account with Maternity Hospital Fund.
Amount in hand at end of 1927...... $ 22,016.76 Paid Architect Amount of subscriptions collected
during 1928
$
""
6,750.52
Foreman Balance
950.00 50.00
25
27,767.28
$ 28,767.28
$ 28,767.28
Kwong Wah Hospital in account with Free Chinese Drugs Special Fund.
To Balance of last year's account... $ 64,761.80 | By amount transferred to Income
,, yearly subscriptions and interest
and house rent collected in
1928.....
"2
10,947.63
$ 75,709.43
"7
and Expenditure account
amount paid for repairs to landed property
amount paid for Crown rent,
taxes and advertisements
Balance
黃少癎
$ 10,825.88
20.00
101.75 64,761.80
$ 75,709.43
WONG HOK SUN,
Committee.
Receipts.
Table XV.
WESTERN MATERNITY HOSPITAL.
Statement of Account for the year ending 31st December, 1928.
c.
$
c.
Expenditure
$
C.
c.
C 29
To Balance
Subscriptions
548.00
Donations :-
Chinese Public Dispensaries
Fund
6,100.00
Chinese Recreation Ground Fund
1,200.00
Rent of houses purchased with Tung Wah Hospital Jubilee
Donatiou
3,200.00
1,004.19 By Salary
Drugs
Furniture
Gas and Electricity
Repairs and Fitting
Stationery and Printing
Clothing and Uniform
Bedding
5,348.36
2,515.19
317.11
1,213.52
19.88
136.90
115.00
1,006.71
Mr. Chau Sing-cho (cost of the Scialytic lamp for the Operat-
Food for Patients, pupils and midwives in the Hospital
·· ...
4,415.22
Instruments
611.15
ing Theatre)
500.00
Fee for District Watchmen on duty
11,548.00
at the door
465.00
Fees paid by patients in the Hospital
Water Account
499.25
8,420.20
Telephone (Sub. Exchange)
19.00
Money paid by pupils etc. in the Hospital for their foods...
Washing
1,403.34
909.40
Crown Rent
1.00
Fees paid by patients who had venereal diseases
Coarse Paper
1,238.00
44.00
Miscellaneous
1,857.46
Interest
18.68
Balance with Colonial Treasury
21,182.09
762.38
Total...
21,944.47
Total.
21,944.47
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
C 30
Table XVI.
Summary of work done by the Chinese Public Dispensaries: Victoria, Harbour, Shaukiwan, and Kowloon Peninsula.
New Cases,...
Return Cases,
Description.
Total,.....
Certificates of nature of disease issued,
>>
??
cause of death,.
Grand Grand Total. Total Total
1928.
1927.
109,894
82,258
192,152 161,870
4
:
:.
:.
:
:
:
367
315
246
281
961
839
146
94
421
297
Patients removed to hospital by ambulance,...
Corpses removed to hospital or mortuary,......
Attendances at cleansing of infected premises,
Compensation claims sent in,
Applications received for coffins,
for midwives, ...
""
Confinement cases in Maternity Hospital,......
Infants brought to Dispensaries, (alive),
:
...
1,029 1,003
(dead),........
1,322
""
Total,.....
:
1,322
1,335
Vaccinations at private houses,
31
"">
وو
Dispensaries,
49,910
Total,.
49,941 31,031
I
Table XVII.
CHINESE PUBLIC DISPENSARIES.
Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31st December, 1928.
31
Receipts.
$
C.
Expenditure.

$
3
To Balance,
84,808.97
By Maintenances of Dispensaries :— Victoria,
29,265,44
Grant by Government,
9,000.00
Harbour and Yaumati,
7,302.32
"}
Shaukiwan,..
7,544,58
Donations from :-
Kowloon City,
4,378.75
22
Tai Ping Theatre,
5,500.00
48,491,09
San Theatre,
750.00
""
Lee Theatre,
300.00
Ko Shing Theatre,..
300.00
"
Subscriptions, Land,....
18,219.20
"
Harbour
Shaukiwan,
"
Kowloon City,
11.
10,941.90
1,061.15
695.00
37,767.25
"}
>>
Subscription in aid of the Fund of Maternity Hospital, Western,....... Part payment to Contractor Kin Sang for erection of Shaukiwan Dispensary,....
Advance to the Fund of Yaumati Public Square for erection of Stalls,.. Balance :-
6,100.00
11,500.00
6,500.00
Donation towards the Fund for erec-
tion of Shaukiwan Dispensary: General Chinese Charities Fund,. Kai Fong of Shaukiwan,
On Fixed Deposit in Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
40,000.00
8,000.00
On Fixed Deposit in Colonial
1,110.00
Treasury,.
15,000,00
9,110.00
Fees from Maternity Hospital in
On Hong Kong Government 6% Public Works Loan,
11,000.00
"}
Chinese Public Dispensaries, Wan-
In Cash,
6,686.27
chai,.....
Interest,
2,093.80
2,617.94
Advance to :—
Dispensaries Clerks,
120.00
""
72,806,27
Total,
145,397.36
Total,.
145,397.36
R. A. C. NORTH, Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Table XVIII.
HUNGHOM DISPENSARY.
Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31st December, 1928.
Receipts.
To Balance,..
""
Subscription etc.
Expenditure.
$
c.
$
C.
989.45
1,978.39
By Payment through Secretariat for Chinese Affairs,
2,142.00
,, Payment through Local Committee,.
2,974.51
Donations from :—
Po Hing Theatre,
34.00
Balance :--
Kwun Yam Temple, ....
600.00
At Colonial Treasury
Kai Fong for holding theatrical performance,.
600.00
With Local Committee
General Chinese Charities Fund,.
200.00
Subscription from Scavenging Contractor at
Hunghom, ...
1,060,00
>>
Condemned Store,
5.00
*
Total,..
5,466.84
120.77
229,56
Total,....
5,466,84
C 32 -
-
CHUNG IU SHAN, Chairman.
TSANG PING SHAN,
Accountant.
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Receipts.
To Balance,
"}
Grant by Government,
Donation from :-
Tab`e XIX.
SHAMSHUIPO DISPENSARY.
Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31st December, 1928.
"}
Kai Fong for holding theatrical performance,. Sam Tai Tsz, Pak Tai and Tin Hau Temples, Rent from the eight houses at Shamshuipo,...
C.
1,828.42
8,000.00
Expenditure.
By Payment through Secretariat for Chinese Affairs,
Payment through Local Committee,
Balance :-
At Colonial Treasury,
With Local Committee,
300.00
599.56
1,952.00
""
Total,
7,679.98
C.
2,700.00
2,342.38
618.32
2,019.28
Total,
7,679.98
WONG IU TUNG,
Vice-Chairman.
AU TO NAM,
Accountant.
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
C 33
Receipts.
Table XX.
Statement of Receipts and Payments of the Chinese Permanent Cemetery for 1928.
Amount.
$ C.
Payments.
Amount.
c.
To Balance,
40,755.26 By Rent of telephone,
180.00
"
Interest from Hong Kong and
"}
Shanghai Bank,
499.58
200 pieces of number stones by Yeung Tam-kee, Wages for Ma Shu-hoi & gardeners,
160.00
1,501.50
""
99
Tai San Bank,...
403.00
Printed matters by the Shing Fat,
28.50
""
Sale of 182 lots,
9,695.00
Repairs to Telephone,
7.00
""
Stone Embankment,..
2,730.00
""
"}
Wages from Dr. S. W. Tso
"3
Stamps,
Rent of wharf,
12.00
1.00
for refilling vaults,
260.00
""
Rates for getting water from river,
1.00
Interest from Mr. Ngan Kit
""
Crown Rent,
1.50
Hing,
1,050.00
""
""
Wages for Pun Yan Chin & Chau Wan Kok, Flower pots, scythes, brooms, etc.,
480.00
""
Balance,
Total,
$55,392.84
S. W. TSO, Secretary,
T. N. CHAU, Treasurer.
C 34-
Total,..
177.06
52,843.28
$55,392.84
By deposits with Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank,.. .$ 25,727.67
""
""
Tai San Bank,
""
Cash,
Fixed deposit on mortgage of house No. 237 Nathan
Road,
7,000.00
115.61
20,000.00
$ 52,843.28
Examined and found correct,
LI PO KWAI.
To Balance,..........................
Rent of Stalls,
"}
Receipts.
Table XXI.
CHINESE RECREATION GROUND.
Receipts and Expenditure, 1928.
Interest on money deposited in Treasury,
Payments.

4,403.88 | By Wages of Watchmen, etc.,
896.00
"}
Water Account,
3,332.70
""
Consumption of Gas,
179.00
292.50
,, Subscription to Western Maternity Hospital, 1,200.00
29.95
"}
Lime Washing,
}}
Repairs, .....
>>
Miscellaneous, Balance,
90.00
82.20
31.08
4,995.75
Total,.
$
7,766.53
Total,.
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
7,766.53
€ 35
Receipts.
Table XXII.
Statement of Accounts of Passage Money Fund, 1928.
Payments.
$
•C.
To Balance on Fixed Deposit,
.$4,250.00
"
"" in Colonial Treasury,
3,046.98
By Gifts to 5 women on being married, Gratuities to destitutes,
10.00
56.20
7,296.98
>>
Subscription to Alice Memorial Hospital,
50.00
"
""
Eyre Diocesan Refuge,
170.00
""
Passage Money received,.
""
Less Refund,
130.25
74.50
""
Hawker's and Boat Licences to destitute per-
song,
13.00
55.75
"}
""
Miscellaneous Receipts,
Gifts in aid of repatriation of emigrants,. Balance on Fixed Deposit, ....$6,250,00
87.80
3.40
"}
""
Interest on Fixed Deposit,
in Colonial Treasury,......
949.56
$ 170.00
7,199.56
"
"J
on money deposited in Treasury,
60.43
230.43
Total,
$
7,586.56
Total,
R. A. C. NORTH,
$7,586.56
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Receipts.
C 37
Table XXIII.
GENERAL CHINESE CHARITIES FUND.
Statement of Accounts for the year ending 31st December, 1928.
$
C. $ C.
Expenditure.
To Balance,
Rent from Temple Keepers of :-
Hau Wong Temple, Kowloon City. Tin Hau Temple, Yaumati
17,740.00
2,800.00
Kwun Yam Temple, Chi Wan Shan. Pak Tai Temple, Wanchai Tin Hau Temple, Shaukiwan
1,449.00
1,374.52
""
463.20
Tam Kung Temple, Shaukiwan ... Fook Tak Chi Temple, Shaukiwan Sheung Tai Temple, Ma Tau Chung Tam Kung Temple, Sung Wong Toi Tin Hau Temple, To Kwa Wan
1,357.50
273.34
228.25
157.50
...
50.00
87,558.07 By Maintenance of Free Schools,
"
Kowloon City.....
Refund of Security to Temple
Keeper of au Wong Temple, Kowloon City....
Expenses for holding theatrical performance at Kowloon City
"3
Grants to:-
Lok Shin Tong, Kowloon City
for expenses
Tin Hau Temple, Nga Tsin
25,893.31
Wai for expenses
Chinese Public Dispensary,
Kowloon City,for fee of bound-
:
:
SA
C.
400.00
70.00

C.
1,599.32
2,000.00
650.00
"
House Rents :-
·---
Property of Hau Wong Temple,
Kowloon City.....
834.00
Property of Tin Hau Temple,
Shaukiwan
Chinese Public Dispensary
744.65
ary stone and stamp duty for Crown Lease
Hunghom for expenses
57.00
200.00
1,578.65
Balance of funds of Tin Hau
""
Chinese Public Dispensary Shaukiwan for erection of new building
8,000.00
Temple, Yaumati transferred from
8,727.00
Tung Wah Hospital
58,536.89
>
Repairs to:-
""
Contribution from Wong Tai Sin Temple, Kowloon City (Sik Sik Yuen)
1,500.00
Pak Tai Temple, Wanchai
Tam Kung Temple, Shaukiwan. To Ti Temple, Shaukiwan
Refund of amount overdrawn from
...
46.50
320.00
140.00
1,006.50
""
""
""
Grant from Education Department
for Free Schools in Kowloon City Subscriptions from Kai Fong of Wanchai for repairs to Pak Tai Temple, Wanchai Miscellaneous
Temple, Wanchai
from Pak Tai
Tung Wah Hospital by Kwong
900.00
Wali Hospital up to 31st Decem-
ber, 1927.
32,624.60
Crown Rents
4.00
500.00
Stamp Duties for Crown Leases
120.00
:..
:
Water Account
37.50
""
2.00
""
Annual Subscription to Confucian
Society for expenses of the Free
School at Yuk Hee Kung
Interest :-
Temple, Wanchai
520.00
Fixed Deposit......
2,546.10
19
Planting Banyan trees on Chi Wan
Current Account............
1,985.36
Shan Road
60.00
4,531.46
Advertisements
7.00
""
>>
Balance in Treasury
Fixed Deposit.........
80,000.00
Cash
50,644.46
130,644.46
Total................
181,000.38
Total......
181,000.38
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Table XXIV.
Prosecutions under Ordinances No. 3 of 1888, No. 30 of 1915, and No. 4 of 1897.
Offence.
Convicted.
Discharged.
No. of
Cases.
Male.
Female.
Male.
Female.
99
90
::
1
...
...
:
Ordinance No. 3 of 1888.
Bills,-Posting without permission,
Fireworks, Discharged without permission, Drums and Gongs,-Night noises by beating, Processions,―Organising in the public streets
without permission,
Householders' Registration,-Failing to register,
Ordinance No. 30 of 1915.
Decoying men or boys into or out of the Colony,.. Emigration House offences,..
Personating emigrants,.....
Sending assisted emigrants out of the Colony with- out notifying the Secretary for Chinese Affairs,
Ordinance No. 4 of 1897.
Abduction of girls under 21,
Procuring girls under age to have carnal connexion, Indecent assault upon female,....
:
1
:
4IQ
13
::
:
1
I
1
...
:
Remarks.
:
2
Using premises as a brothel (Sec. 14),
...
Procuring women or girls to be common prostitutes.. Detaining, harbouring, or receiving women or girls,.... 11
2
5
Trafficking in women,.
3
I
1
Deriving profits from prostitution and trading in
women,
89
Carnal knowledge of female,
15
1
69
Rape,...
::
...
1
...
227
C
C 38 -
C 39
ANNEXE A.
Report on the work of the Po Leung Kuk for the year 1928.
The Po Leung Kuk Society was founded in 1878 to aid in the detection and suppression of kidnapping, especially of girls and women, and to shelter such girls or women as had been kidnapped in the interior and brought to Hong Kong for sale or emigration. Its name means "institution for the protection of good women". The initiative in its formation came from the Chinese themselves, and ever since by subscription and personal service, they have continued to support it.
There is a paid Chinese staff-matron, amahs and nurses, and two clerks who are secretaries to the managing committee. This Committee meets every evening from Monday to Friday at 7 p.m. the principal meeting of the week being held at 12 noon on Sunday. It not only manages the Po Leung Kuk, but acts as an advisory committee to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs, in all cases affecting women and children, and Chinese family life generally, which are often extremely difficult and tedious. It corresponds when necessary with charitable institu- tions and private persons in various parts of China, traces parents of lost children or ill-treated mui tsai, and shelters for the night any Chinese woman or girl who chooses to go. When parents or relations cannot be traced, the Committee arranges for the girls in its care to be given in marriage (never as con- cubines) or in adoption, always under bond and always with the consent of this office; and in every case this office ascertains the girl's willingness before giving consent to either adoption or marriage,
In addition to the annual Committee appointed by co-option there is a Permanent Committee, which serves to maintain continuity of policy, and of which the Secretary for Chinese Affairs is the ex-officio chairman.
The following gentlemen were elected in March to serve as Managing Committee for the year:-
Ma Tsui Chiü,
Fu Yik Pang,
Wong Pak San,
Li Kit Cho,
Li Hoi Tung Wong Chung Yi,
Tse Yat Cho, Chan Chung San, Chan Ping U,
Ng Yiu Wan,
Chan U Tin, Laü Shu Tong.
The number of inmates of the Po Leung Kuk on 1st January, 1928, was 61 and during the year 622 persons were admitted as against 502 in 1927. The circumstances of admis sion and the action taken in regard to them are set out in Table
A.
- C 40
42 women and girls were admitted under warrant and 500 were admitted without warrant. Of the remainder 31 were lost children, 15 were accompanied by parents or guardians, and 34 were maid-servants or "mui-tsai" who had left their masters or mistresses.
On leaving the Kuk 275 women and girls were restored to husbands or other relatives, 40 were sent to charitable institu- tions in China, 4 were given in adoption, 2 married, 241 released (10 released under bond), 6 sent to Convent or Refuge and 4 died. The number of inmates remaining in the Kuk on Decem- ber 31st was 61.
The institution was visited monthly by Justices of the Peace, Messrs. A. G. Coppin and Dr. S. W. Tso, who on no occasion found cause for adverse comment. The average monthly number of inmates was 52.
The matron reports favourably on the conduct, health and industry of the inmates during the year. There were 50 cases of sickness of which 27 were sent to the Tung Wah Hospital for treatment and of these 4 died.
Lady Chow and Mrs. R. H. Kotewall, (the wives of the two Chinese Members of the Legislative Council) continued to undertake the duty of regular monthly visits of inspection during the year.
R. A. C. NORTH,
Secretary for Chinese Affairs. President.
We, Ma Chi Lung and Wong Pak San, members of the Board of Direction of the Po Leung Kuk Incorporated Society do solemnly and sincerely declare that the attached statement. of Assets and Liabilities of above Society on the 31st December 1928, marked “A” and signed with our names on the 25th January 1929 is a true statement, and we make this solemn declaration conscientiously believing the same to be true and by virtue of the provisions of "The Statutory Declaration Act, 1835".
馬持隆
黃伯臣
Declared by the declarants Ma Chi Lung and Wong Pak San, at Victoria, Hong Kong, the 25th January, 1929, through the interpretation of Luk Yam Ko of Hong Kong, the said Luk Yam Ko having also first declared that he had truly, distinctly and audibly interpreted the contents of this document of the said declarants and that he would faithfully interpret the con- tents of this document to the said declarants and that he would faithfully interpret the declaration about to be administered unto them.
Before me,
R. A. D. FORREST, Justice of Peace.
C 41
You do solemnly and sincerely declare that you understand the English and Chinese language, and that you have truly and audibly interpreted the contents of this document to the declar- ants Ma Chi Lung and Wong Pak San and that you will truly and faithfully interpret the declaration about to be administered to them.
Declared at the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs, Hong Kong. This 25th January, 1929.
Before me,
Luk Yam Ko.
R. A. C. NORTH, Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
Statement "A" of Assets and Liabilities of the Po Leung Kuk Incorporated Society on the 31st December, 1928.
Fixed deposit with Mrs. Lei Ho Shi
on mortgage
Assets.
Liabilities.
$20,000.00
nil
At current account with Ng Chau and
Yik On banks
6,512.68
$26,512.68
This is the statement "A" referred to in the Declaration of
Ma Chi Lung and Wong Pak San.
Declared before me this 25th day of January, 1929.
馬持隆 黃伯臣
R. A. D. FORREST,
Justice of Peace.
Table A.
Number of Women and Girls admitted to the Po Leung Kuk during the year 1928 and the
arrangements made regarding them.
January, 1928, In the Po Leung Kuk on 1st
Admitted during the year,
Total,
Kuk on the 31st Decem-
Remaining in the Po Leung)
ber, 1928,
Committed under Warrant from the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs
Committed under Warrant from
the Emigration Office.
Pending the opening of the Secretariat for Chinese Affairs. Sent with their own consent by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs Sent with their own consent from
Singapore and Bangkok.
Sent with their own consent by the Police.
Lost Children.
Accompanying parents or
guardians.
Runaway maid-servants.
Total.
6
00
:
9
...

Released after enquiry.
Released under bond.
Placed in charge of husband..
Placed in charge of parents and relatives.
Sent to Charitable Institutions
in China.
Dent to School, Convent, or Refuge.
Adopted.
Married.
Died.
Cases under consideration.
Total.
39
1
1 or for 1
42
83 174
40203 31
15 34
622
221
10
44 231
40
43
:
:
89 182
40 [213] 37
15
42
6 | 14
6 18
7
661
4
2
61
10
4
+24
39
60.
622
222 11
45241 50
7
14
4 61
661
C 42
-
Table B.
Po LEUNG KUK.
Statement of Receipts and Expenditure from 1st January to 31st December, 1928.
RECEIPTS.
Balance from previous year,
Subscriptions:-
Elected Committee,
*
300.00
C.
6,118.58
EXPENDITURE.
By the Elected Cominittee :-
(see Table C),
Balance :-
*A
C.

c.
9,960.00
1
4,644.50
1,331.89
On Deposit,
2,000.00
750 00
8,127.17
At Current Account,
4,512.68
6,512,68
Yue Lan Celebrations, West Point,... 1,100.78
Guilds,
Man Mo Temple,
Theatres,
Interest :-
On Mortgage,
1,800.00
On Current Account,
426.93
2,226,93
Total,..
[16,472,68
Total,..
$
16,472.68
Certified by the Statutory Declaration of Wong Pat San and Ma Chi Lung, Members of the Board of Direction,
C 43-
Table C.
Statement showing particulars of Expenditure by the Elected Committee from 1st January to 31st December, 1928.
EXPENDITURE.
RECEIPTS.
Balance from previous year,
28.81
Received from Permanent Board,.
9,960.00
Decorations,
Food,....
Miscellaneous Receipts,....
14.60
Light and Fire,
Premium on bank notes,
Miscellaneous,
Passage Money,
Petty Expenditure,
Printing,
62.86
3,228.30
1,090.27
198.53
142.74
525.22
175.90
235.90
C.
-C 44 —
Repairs,
101.00
Stationery,
108.00
Telephone,
128.56
Insurance,
Wages,
3,988.00
9,985.28
18.13
Balance,
Total,... 10,003.41
$
Total,...
$ 10,003.41
~
1
C 45
ANNEXE B.
Report of the Inspector of Factories for the year 1928.
Most of the factories in the Colony have worked very much under their full capacity for the greater part of the year. This has resulted in a further decrease in the number of young children employed. The knitting factories in Kowloon and the cigarette factories in Hong Kong formerly employed large num- bers of young girls of 12-15 years of age. With trade in an almost stagnant condition no new learners were taken on and those children already employed have outgrown the age of registra- tion. Should trade improve so that extra hands are needed it may be expected that children will again be engaged as learners. The almost complete absence from factories of children under 15 is but a temporary state of affairs due to present conditions and does not necessarily indicate a changed attitude on the part of employers. When trade improves children will again be employed in large numbers. The total number of children now working in factories is 100. These are employed in knitting fac- tories. No European firms in the Colony employ children under the age of 15 years.
Dangerous Trades.-Glassmaking.-A noteworthy feature of this trade is the increasing number of women and girls employed. They are rapidly displacing the men in everything but the actual glass blowing. This may be the result of the restrictions placed on the employment of boys in glass factories. The work is un- suitable for women and is carried out under conditions which make glass making an exceedingly unhealthy and dangerous trade.
Fireworks.-There is only one factory in the Colony where fireworks are made. Children are not employed, most of the workers being women. The factory is modern and the work is carried on under fairly safe conditions, although from the nature of the industry there is always a considerable danger of explo- sions. Another factory has recently been established on the beach at Kennedy Town and although termed a 'cracker factory' is not actually such since no filling with powder or other ex- plosive is done there: the work carried on being the making of the tubes or cartridges which are sent elsewhere to be filled.
During the year investigations were made into the conditions prevailing in the white lead and vermilion factories with a view to ascertaining to what extent the workers in these trades-most of whom are women-suffer from lead poisoning or mercurial poisoning contracted during the course of their employment; and to consider what measures can best be taken to minimise the risk from such industrial diseases. Enquiries so far made show that a large proportion of the workers show signs of "blue gum', the typical symptom of lead poisoning, and some of the men also showed symptoms of mercurial poisoning. The methods of manufacture in these factories are very primitive and the sanitary accommodation together with washing facilities.
C 46
most unsatisfactory. The enquiries are being continued and may result in the recommendation of certain preventive measures to deal with these diseases. Further enquiries were made as to the use of white lead in house painting etc. It was found that lead paint is in general use in the Colony, but there was no evidence that the painters themselves suffered any ill effects and it was not found practicable to attempt to restrict its use.
Accidents in Factories.-The year was marked by the occur- rence of the first boiler explosion to take place in the Colony for many years. This occurred in a Chinese factory at Shauki- wan and resulted in the death of one man and serious injuries to nine others. Later in the year another explosion occurred in a Chinese factory in connection with steam plant, although the actual explosion took place in a compressed air chamber. This resulted in the death of one woman and injuries to several others. Inquests were held in both cases and showed that the explosions were caused through carelessness or incompetence on the part of the boiler attendants. Recommendations were made by both juries that periodical inspection of all boilers and steam plant in factories should be made compulsory, and that only properly trained men be allowed to operate such plant.
The total number of accidents in factories during the year was 59 (7 fatal) as against 43 (9 fatal) for the eight months of the previous year when accidents were first made notifiable.
Analysis of Accidents in Factories during 1928.
Accident due to
Total No.
Industry.
Fatalities.
of Accidents.
Machinery. Explosions.
Falls etc.
Shipbuilding,
Sugar Refining, Oil Installations, Glass Works, Cement Works, Electric Power
Stations,
- 19 01 00 Or
5
4
24
2
33
3
1
4
3200 10 0 ON
8
5
2
2
Rubber Factory,.
1
1
Knitting Factory,
1
1
Printing Works,.
1
...
Nut Oil Factory,
Gas Works,
1 1
1
1
Confectionery,
1
Paper Mills,
Total......| 20
8
31
59
Accidents due to machinery......20 (2 deaths).
explosions...... 8 (4 ).
"
>"
12
""
falls etc. ......31
33
(1 death).
Appendix D.
REPORT OF THE HARBOUR MASTER
FOR THE YEAR 1928.
CONTENTS.
Bunker Coal shipped
Buoy Plan
:
:
:
:
:
Crews, Nationality of
Emigration and Immigration
Examination of Pilots
Examination of Masters, Mates, and Engineers..
Gunpowder Depôt ...
Junks
Launches...
Lighthouses and Signal Stations.....
Mercantile Marine Office.
Marine Magistrate's Court
*
PAGE.
5
47
5
10
12
12
18
10
14
16
11
11
16
15
13
7
45
10
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Marine Courts of Enquiry
Marine Surveyors' Office
Moorings
Outstations
Passenger Trade
Port Facilities...
Registry of Shipping
Revenue and Expenditure
Shipping Report
Sunday Cargo Working
Trade
:
:
:
:
:
Yaumati Slipway and Coaling Depôt
:
:
:
:
7
3
12
5
19
2
TABLES.
TABLE.
Arrivals and Departures all Vessels Summary
Boat Licences etc. issued ...
IX
XII
:
Emigration to Destinations other than China.
XIV
Do.
in quinquennial periods
XV
Do.
in annual periods
XVI
Immigration from countries other than China
XVII
Do.
in quinquennial periods ...
..XVIII
Do.
in annual periods
XIX
Junks entered
VII
Do. cleared
Launches entered
Do. cleared
Revenue
Revenue and Expenditure comparison
VIII
X
ΧΙ
:
XIII
XXIII
Shipping Total 1909 to 1928
XXIV
...
Do. Graph all classes 1909 to 1928
XXV
Do.
do. Ocean Going British and Foreign Vessels
1909 to 1928
XXVI
Do.
do. Ocean Going British Vessels 1909 to 1928
..XXVII
Do. cleared
Vessels entered showing Number Tonnage and Crews
Do. entered at each port
I
do.
II
III
Do. cleared
do.
IV
Do. of each nation entered...
V
Do.
do.
cleared...
VI
Do. in Foreign Trade comparison of Tonnage 1919 to 1928 XXII
Do. Registered
Do. Struck off the Register...
XX
XXI
D 3
1.-Shipping.
A comparison between the years 1927 and 1928 of all Shipping entering and clearing Ports in the Colony is given in the following table:
1927.
1928.
Decrease.
Increase.
Class of Vessels
No.
Tonnage. No. Tonnage.
No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.
British Ocean-
going,
3,861
9,660,440 4,513
10.792,701
Foreign Ocean
going,
6,767 | 16,039,724 7,370
16,101,694|
:
:
652
1,132,261
603
61 970
British River
Steamers,.
7,549
7,300,082 6,617
6,769,7411
932
Foreign River
530,341
Steamers,.. 1,165
561,155 1,235
542,300
18,855
70
Steamships
under 60
tons For-
eign Trade...
7,893
Junks, Foreign|
Trade,
24,054
233,374 8.544 241,043
3,039,239 23.999 3,193,215
651
7,669
55
153,976
Total, Foreign
Trade,
51,289 36,834,014,52,278 | 37,640,694 987
549,196 | 1,976
1,355,876
Steam Laun-
ches, Local Trade.....
219,555 5,771,970215,974 5,666,901 3,581
105,069
Junks, Local
Trade,
*27,863] *1,521,177 +32,064 †1,576,170
4,201
54,993
Grand Total... 298,707 44,127,161 300,316 44,883,765 4,568
654,265 6,177 | 1,410,869
Net,
1,609
756,604
*Including 15,358 Conservancy and Dust Boats of 993,280 tons.
15,966
""
"9
""
of 903,674
It will be seen from the above table that the total Shipping entering and clearing Ports in the Colony during the year 1928 amounted to 300,316 vessels of 44,883,765 tons, which compared with the figures of 1927 show an increase of 1,609 vessels and an increase of 756,604 tons.
Of the above 52,278 vessels of 37,640,694 tons were engaged in Foreign Trade as compared with 51,289 vessels of 36,834,014 tons, in 1927,
There was an increase in British ocean-going shipping of 652 ships of 1,132,261 tons.
Foreign ocean-going vessels show an increase of 603 ships and an increase of:61,970 tons.
D 4
British river steamers show a decrease of 932 ships and a decrease of 530,341 tons.
Foreign river steamers show an increase of 70 ships and a decrease of 18,855 tons.
In steamships not exceeding 60 tons employed in foreign trade there is an increase of 651 ships with an increase in tonnage of 7,669 tons.
Junks in foreign trade show a decrease of 55 vessels, and an increase of 153,976 tons.
In local trade (i.e. between places within the waters of the Colony) there is a decrease in steam-launches of 3,581, and a decrease in tonnage of 105,069 tons. 59 launches were laid up in 1928 as compared with 26 in 1927.
Junks in Local trade show an increase of 4,201 vessels and an increase of 54,993 tons.
Of vessels of European construction 5,912 ocean steamers, 3,927 river steamers and 4,249 steamships not exceeding 60 tons entered during the year, giving a daily average of 38.5 ships.
Thus -
Steamers.
No. of times entered.
Total Tonnage.
Flag.
1927. 1928. 1927. 1928.
1927.
1928.
British, Japanese,
346 371 5,702 5,562
8,466,960 8,786,202
264
U.S.A.,
79
250 1,109 1,016 2,927,207 | 2,829,121 83 245 251 | 1,495,775 | 1,471,424
Chinese,
81
751,315 1,670
847,073
812,037
German,
43
60 151 163
487,160
564,429
Danish,
11
14
48
70
153,341
196.780
Dutch,
41
36
251
245
849,766
823,506
French,
32
33
246
· 312
629,144
724,176
Italian,
6
26
26
141,566
143,918
Panamanian,
1
388
Norwegian,
61
74
472
419
657,005
613,765
Portuguese,
5
73
· 81
15,526
14,380
Swedish,
11
30
43
103,182
128,955
Mexican,
1
1,183
Total,
997 1,018 9,669 9,859 16,774,788 17,109,051
Ca D B
The Nationalities of the Crews in British and in Foreign Ships were as follows:-
OTHER EURO-
VESSELS.
BRITISH
PEANS AND AMERICANS.
ASIATICS.
1927. 1928. 1927. 1928. 1927. 1928. 1927. 1928.
British,..... 364 371 42,028 41,014 1,321 1,372 292,594411,717
Foreign, 633 647 | 1,374 765 45,734 47,001 237,818,236,150
Total,
997 1,018 43,402 41,779 46,055 48,373 630,412647,867
Hence in British ships :-
and in Foreign ships:-
1927. 1928.
1927.
9.68 %
00:33 %
1928. 9-03 % of the crews were British. 00-30% of the crews
00:48 %
00-26 % of the crews
were British.
15.75 %
16.55% of the crews
were otlver Europeans & Americans.
were other
Europeans &
Americans.
90.04 %
90-67 % of the crews
were Asiatics.
83.77% 83-19 % of the crews
were Asiatics.
100.00 %
100.00 %
100·00 % 100·00 %
2.-Trade.
Details of vessels of European type of construction, shipping bunker coal and oil fuel are as follows:-
1927.
E PORTS.
1928.
No.
Coal Tons. No. Oil Tons. No.
Coal Tons.
No.
Oil Tons.
Steamers,
5,316 365,375 5,316 88,821 5,951
River Steamers, 4,353 92,919 4.353 586 3,925
327,761 5,951 117,380
85,407 3,925
453
Total,
9,669
458,594 | 9,669 89,407 | 9,876
413,168 9,876 117,833
D 6
P
The River Trade compared with 1927 is shown in the
following Table :-
Year.
1927..
1928......
Imports. Tons.
Exports. Tons.
Passengers.
350,340
494,518
2,331,588
322,058
475,689
2,211,904
The following Tables show the Junk Trade of the Colony for the year 1927 and 1928 :
IMPORTS.
1927.
1928.
Junks.
Tonnage.
Junks. Tonnage.
Foreign Trade,...... 11,990
1,502,466
11,931
1,577,103
Local Trade,..
5,947
253,175
7,910
326,549
Total,
...... 17,937
1,755,641
19,841
1,903,652
Cargo 1928.
Cattle, 1,851 head,
Swine, 6,732 head, General,.....
Tons.
220
395
.395,224
Total,.....
395,839
EXPORTS.
1927.
1928.
Junks.
Tonnage.
Junks.
Tonnage.
Foreign Trade,...... 12,064 Local Trade,... 6,558
1,536,773
12,068
1,616,112
274,722
8,188
345,947
Total,
18,622
1,811,495
20,256
1,962,059
Cargo 1928.
Kerosine, 1,413,081 Cases,
Rice and Paddy,
Coal,
General,.
Tons.
49,905
.216,575
.108,220
.728,847
Total,.....
.1,103,547
D 7
13. Passenger Trade of the Port for the year 1928:-
Passengers.
Emigrants.
No. of Ships.
Arrived.
Departed. Returned. Departed.
British Ocean-going,
4,513 262,280 286,433 103,127
125,338
Foreign Ocean-going,
7,370
309,957
342,219
84,720
131,824
British River Steamers,
6,617
989,283
1,066,746
Foreign River Steamers,
1,235
71,913
83,962
Total,
19,735 1,633,433 | 1,779,360
187,847
257,162
Steam launches, Foreign Trade,
8,514
Junks, Foreign Trade,
23,999
386 72,356
506 72,507
Total, Foreign Trade,
52,278
1,706,175 1,852,373 187,847 257,162
Steam-launches, Local Trade,
215,974
1,563,637
Junks, Local Trade,..
32,064
1,986
1,552,728 12,473
Total, Local Trade,
248,038
1,565,623
1,565,201
*
Grand Total,
300,216 | 3,271,798 3,417,574 187,847
257,162
3.-Revenue and Expenditure.
The total Revenue during the year was $973,283.46 as against $1,000,229.80 collected in the previous year showing a decrease of $26,946.34 or 2.76%.
Light Dues,
Light Dues, Special Assessments,
Licences and Internal Revenue,...
Fees of Court or Offices,........ Miscellaneous Receipts,
1927.
1928.
Increase. Decrease.
$132,379.31 $138,550.02 $6,170.71
158,762.56 165,292.04 6,529.48
192,771.04 190,178.25
515,988.54
$2,592.79
477,320.51
38,668,03
328.35
1,942.64 1,614.29
$1,000,229.80 $973,283.46 $14,314.48 $41,260.82
D 8
3. Revenue and Expenditure,-Continued.
The principal individual increases are :—
Light Dues,
$ 6,170.71
Light Dues, Special Assessments,
6,529.48
Fines,
796.39
Fishing Stakes, New Territory,
218.90
Examination of Masters,
210.00
Gunpowder Storage,
1,212.37
Official Signatures,
Printed Forms,
Registry Fees,
1,908.00
234.00
664.00
Sale of Condemned Stores,
1,525.65
The principal individual decreases are:-
Boat Licences,
$
882.60
Chinese Passenger Ship Licences,
285.00
Junk Licences,
1,351.75
Junk Licences, New Territory,
1,084.75
Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,
509.80
Fees for use of Government Buoys,.
2,876.00
Medical Examination of Emigrants,
15,592.60
Survey of Steamships,
560.50
Sunday Cargo Working Permits,
23,275.00
The Expenditure
excluding Special Expenditure
was
$648,324.33 as against $610,480.26 expended in 1927 showing an increase of $37,844.07. This increase is principally due to additional staff and stipulated increments.
Special Expenditure included:-
Renewal of Rock Buoys and Moorings, 1 New Launch for Boarding Officers,..
$
235.00
25,000.00
1 New Launch (Lila) to replace “H. D. 5”,
41,250.00*
Renewal of 1 Buoy for Sanitary Department
Mooring,
1 New Launch (Britannia) to replace Victoria,... 33,150.00†
98.94
$ 99,733.94
* Excluding last instalment of $13,750.00 paid in 1929. Excluding first instalment of $16,650.00 paid in 1927.

Light Dues were collected during the year 1928 as follows:-
Special Assessment.
No. of
Class of Vessels.
Trips.
Tonnage.
Rate
per ton.
Fees
Collected.
Rate
per ton.
Fees
Collected.
Total Fees
Collected.
D 9
$
C.
ť.
Ocean Vessels,...
6,229
13,486,023 1 cent.
134,860.25
1 cent.
134,860.25
269,720.50
Steam-launches,
2,907
| 101,755 | 1
1,017.55
1
>>
1,017.55
2,035.10
River Steamers, (Night Boats),.
1,263
801,660
2.672.22
4,008.39
6,680.61
"
Do-,
(Day Boats),
2,571
3,048,702
Nil.
5
6
"}
25,405.85
25,405.85
Total,
12,970
17,438,142
$138,550.02
$165,292.04
$303,842.06
D 10
4. Steam-launches.
On the 31st December, 1928, there were 336 Steam-launches and 149 Motor Boats employed in the Harbour. Of these 418 were licensed for the conveyance of passengers, 31 steam-launches and 12 motor boats belonged to the Colonial Government, 3 steam launches and 1 motor boat belonged to the Imperial Government, and 15 steam launches and 5 motor boats to the Naval Authorities. In addition there were 42 motor boats privately owned for pleasure and private purposes.
New licence books for Steam Launches and Motor Boats were issued as follows in three classes during the year 1928, under Regulations, Section 37 of the Merchant Shipping Ordinance, No. 10 of 1899.
Class I......... 54 licences
Class II
20
""
Class III ...... 91
19
For incompetence or negligence in performing their duties:-

3 coxswains' certificates were cancelled.
707 engagements and 716 discharges of masters and engineers were recorded during the year.
5.--Emigration and Immigration.
257,162 emigrants left Hong Kong for various places during the year 1928 (285,593 in 1927). Of these 125,338 were carried in British ships and 131,824 in Foreign ships.
187,847 returning emigrants were reported to have been brought to Hong Kong from the several places to which they had emigrated either from this Colony or from Coast Ports, as against 181,100 in 1927. Of these, 103,127 arrived in British ships and 84,720 in Foreign ships.
6.-Registry, etc., of Shipping.
During the year, 18 ships were registered under the provisions of the Merchant Shipping Acts, and 25 Certificates of Registry cancelled. 234 documents, etc., were dealt with in con- nection with the Act, the fees on which amounted to $2,440.00 as compared with $1,776.00 in 1927.
D 11
7.-Marine Magistrate's Court.
Three hundred and Eighty (380) cases were heard in the Marine Magistrate's Court during 1928 (as compared with 324 in 1927),
The principal offences were:-
Mooring within 100 yards from low water mark in pro-
hibited hours.
Boarding ships without permission.
Carrying excess passengers.
Failing to carry the regulation lights.
Failing to observe the Rule of the Road.
Dumping rubbish in the Harbour without a permit.
Dredging in Harbour without a permit.
8-Marine Courts of Enquiry.
(Under Section 19 of Ordinance 10 of 1899).
During the year 1928 five courts were held, viz:-
(1) On the 4th January, 1928, to enquire into the circum- stances attending the collision between the British S.S."Kwong Fook Cheong" and S.S "On Lee".
(2) On the 4th & 5th April, 1928, to enquire into the circumstances attending the collision between the British S.S."Taming" and the Lighter "Vermont" No. 3468V.
(3) On the 26th June & 3rd July, 1928, to enquire into the circumstances attending the stranding and sinking of the British S.S. "Ko Choy" Official No. 137695 of Hong Kong.
(4) On the 18th & 19th October, 1928, to enquire into the.
circumstances attending the stranding of the S.S.
'Borneo" Official No. 153537 Hong Kong.
46
(5) On the 6th December, 1928, to enquire into a charge of misconduct against Mr. P. Scully, certificate No. 4389 (River Trade only) of Hong Kong as 1st Mate of the British S.S. "Chuen Chow".
D 12
9.-Examination of Masters, Mates, and Engineers.
(Under Board of Trade Regulations.)
The following Tables show the number of Candidates examined under Ordinance No. 10 of 1899 for Certificates of Compe-
tency.
Master,
First Mate,
Second Mate,
Grade.
Passed.
Failed.
12
17
7
7
1
4
Master, River Steamers,
...
Mate, River Steamers,..
* Total,
20
18
First Class Engineer,
14
20
Second Class Engineer,
21
1628
18
† Total,
35
38
* Passed 41.7 per cent. Passed 47-9 per cent.
Failed 58.3 per cent.
Failed 52.1 per cent.
For Steamships not exceeding 60 tons, under Section 37 of Ordinance 10 of 1899:-
Master,...
Engineer,
Candidates.
Total,...
Passed.
Failed.
92†
49
85*
16
177
65
* Including 10 candidates from Government Launches examined.
ور
7
"
27
10.-Examination of Pilots.
(Under Ordinance No. 3 of 1904.)
Twenty-three licences were renewed during the year, and one Candidate presented himself for examination and passed.
11. Sunday Cargo-Working.
Under Ordinance No. 1 of 1891, 1,168 permits were issued during the year as compared with 1,324 in 1927.
The Revenue collected under this head amounted to $122,275 as against $145,550 in 1927 showing a decrease of $23,275.
D 13
12. Harbour Master's Out-Stations.
The Out-stations attached to the Harbour Department issued
Licences, etc., as follows:-
1927.
1928.
Shaukiwan,..
5,668
5,629
Aberdeen,
6,817
6,581
Stanley,
465
629
Yaumati,
4,316
4,254
Cheung Chau,
4,419
4,343
Tai O,.....
2,144
2,136
Tai Po,
1,779
1,724
Saikung,
695
1,015
Longket,
897
388
Deep Bay,
668
698
Lantao
624
448
28,492
27,845
The following is a comparative statement showing the amount of fees collected at out-Stations during the years 1927 and 1928.
Station.
1927.
1928.
Increase.
Decrease.
$ C. $ C.
C.
$
C.
Shaukiwan,.
25,369.95* 22,053.25
3,316.70
Aberdeen,
16,451.50
17,153.00
701.50
Stanley,
828.75
1,069.30
240.55
Yaumati,
32,221.75
37,271.75
5,050.00
Cheung Chow,
11,102.50
12,584.60
1,482.10
Tai 0,
Tai Po,
4,882.35 4,623.05 4,952.15 5,163.15
259.30
...
211.00
Saikung,
1,794.75 2,311.75
517.00
Longket,
2,497.35 1,500.65
996.70
Deep Bay,
1,909.40 2,279.90 370.50
Lantao,
1,834.40 1,498.20
336.20
Total,
103,844.85 107,508.60 8,361.65
5,119.90
Nett Increase,
3,241.75
* Excluding Dispensary Fees $2,031.80
t
""
11
"
$3,612.30
D 14
13-Lighthouses and Signal Stations.
GAP ROCK LIGHTHOUSE.
During 1928 a total number of 1,388 vessels were signalled and reported including 274 by Flash lamp.
4,266 messages, including meteorological observations for the Observatory, were sent by telegraph, 812 messages were received. (32 by wireless) including weather reports.
Telegraphic communication was interrupted for 15 hours and 25
minutes.
There were 91 hours and 30 minutes of fog, and fog signals were fired 569 times.
The fortnightly reliefs were delayed 6 times owing to bad weather.
WAGLAN LIGHTHOUSE.
During 1928, 4,652 vessels were signalled and reported in- cluding 1,055 by Flash lamp.
3,925 messages including meteorological observations for the Royal Observatory were sent by telegraph and 103 by wireless.
805 messages were received by telegraph and 83 by wireless including weather reports.
year.
Telegraphic communication was maintained throughout the
There were 359 hours fog, and fog signals were fired 4,430 times.
The Diaphone fog signal was sounded for 367 hours 30 minutes. The relief was delayed owing to bad weather on 5 occasious.
GREEN ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE AND SIGNAL STATION.
During 1928, 1,635 vessels were signalled and reported. 24 vessels were not reported owing to telephonic communication being interrupted.
365 messages were sent and 18 were received.
Aga lights (including Green Island) are now 17 in number and have worked accurately and continuously throughout the year. The Beckwith Bell fog signal has worked satisfactorily throughout the year.
KAP SING LIGHTHOUSE.
This station has been regularly inspected and has worked satisfactorily throughout the year.
ID 15
KOWLOON SIGNAL STATION.
At the Signal Hill Station, Kowloon, 3,452 vessels were signalled and reported as entering and 2,526 as leaving the harbour. 96 Typhoon and non-local signals were hoisted.
14. Harbour Moorings.
GOVERNMENT MOORINGS.
Government Moorings as detailed below are available for the
use of vessels frequenting the Port :-
Daily Rental. Number Available.
1927.
1928.
A Class for Vessels 450/600
feet long
...
$8.00
17
17
B Class for Vessels 300/450
feet long
6.00
18
20
C Class for Vessels less than
300 feet long...
4.00
21
19
...
...
Total...
56
56
Of the above 56 Moorings there are 16 special Typhoon Moorings viz., 14 A Class and 2 B Class.
(i) In the aggregate these moorings were in use throughout the year as follows:-
A Class 3,935 days.
B Class 4,830
C Class 6,045
99
(ii) In addition they were used by Naval Vessels and Transports, for which no charge was made, as follows:---
A Class 105 days.
B Class 13.
""
(iii) In the aggregate the following moorings were vacant owing to dredging operations :-
A Class 293 days.
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE,
The gross revenue for the year, including $1,210 from Private Buoys, was $85,850.00. (The loss of revenue due to (ii) and (iii) above amounted to $3,262.00) and the expenditure for upkeep was $19,981. In addition to this $11,053.55 was ex- pended in providing chain for new moorings.

D 16
PRIVATE BUOYS.
Permission was granted to various industrial concerns to maintain private buoys and moorings to the number of 26, and the total revenue derived from that source was $1,210.
15.-Mercantile Marine Office.
38,773 seamen were shipped and 38,221 discharged at the Mercantile Marine Office and on board ships during the year, com- pared with 37,500 shipped and 34,122 discharged during 1927.
43 distressed seamen were received and admitted to Sailors' Home and Boarding Houses; of these 17 were sent Home, I to Aden, 1 to Bombay, 2 to Calcutta, 1 to Kobe, 1 to Melbourne, 2 to Shanghai, 6 to Singapore, 1 to Vancouver, 1 remained in Gaol, and 10 obtained employment.
$729.70 was expended by the Harbour Master on behalf of the Board of Trade in the relief of these distressed seamen.
16.-Marine Surveyor's Office.
The total number of vessels surveyed for Passenger Certificates in 1928 was 134 vessels of 389,967 gross tons, 45 being surveyed at Kowloon Docks, 60 at Taikoo Dockyard, 5 at Cosmopolitan Docks, and 22 on Chinese slipways, the remainder being surveyed in the Harbour on bottom Certificates.
The nationalities and tonnage of these vessels were as follows:
109 vessels of 343,210 tons (gross)
British,
Chinese,
10
Norwegian,
12
9,785
26,921
""
95
Danish,
2
4,291
19
"1
"
Dutch,
1
5,760
""
15
3 vessels of 30,558 gross tons were granted Bottom Certifi- cates at Hong Kong during the year, all were of British Nationality.
Emigration surveys were held on 56 British and 63 Foreign Steamships, as compared with 59 British and 78 Foreign Steamships in the previous year.
Year.
1926 120
13
4130
Return of Work performed by the Government Marine Surveyor's Department.
Passenger Certificate
Certificate of Appro- val of Load Line.
Bottom Inspection.
Emigration.
Measurement of Tonnage for British Registration.
British Tonnage Certificates for Foreign Vessels.
Recording
change
of name and Endors- ing Carving Note.
Inspection of Crew Space, Lights, and Markings.
Minor Inspections.
Inspection of Tracings and Draw- ings of Boiler.
Survey of Licensed
Passenger Launches. Survey of Boilers under Construction.
Inspections of
Government Launches,
Piracy Fitting etc. Examination of Engineers.
Examination of
Chinese Engineers of Launches & M. B.
Estimated Total
Number of Visits in, connection
with foregoing Inspections.
Life jackets Stamped and Inspected.
LI CI
18
6
15
1927 128
27
8 137
12
24
12
45
615
24
759
16
1,140
73
1928 134
50
3119
11
12
Co
198
10
724
14
1,224
100
142
4,290
96
4,488
55
828
12
763
18
512
73
101
5,215
12,793
D 18
17.-Government Gunpowder Depôt.
During the year 1928 there were stored in the Government Gunpowder Depôt, Green Island :--
No.
Approx- imate
of Cases.
Weight.
Ib.
Gunpowder, privately owned,
714
24,000
Do., Government owned,
26
2,110
Cartridges, privately owned,.......
189
14,040
Do., Government owned,............
19
1,833
Explosive Compounds, privately owned,
5,393
342,482
Do.,
Government owned,
89
2,586
Non-explosives, privately owned,.............
126
23,555
Do.,
Government owned,
34
1,370
Total,
6,590 411,976
During the saine period there were delivered out of the Depôt :-
No.
Approxi-
of Cases.
mate
Weight.
For Sale in the Colony
lb.
Gunpowder, privately owned,
76
1,420
Cartridges, privately owned,...
Non-explosives, privately owned,
For Export :-
37
2,190
Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.
1,928 5
117,004
545
Gunpowder, privately owned,
Cartridges,...
Explosive Compounds, privately owned,.
Non-explosives privately owned,
Government owned :-
430
14,630
91
6,969
2,433
139,117
1
375
Gunpowder,
9
1,170
Cartridges, ..
Explosive Compounds,
45
1,146
Delivered to be destroyed :—
Explosive Compounds,
14
420
Total,..
5,069
301,986
- D 19-
On the 31st December, 1928, there remained as follows:-
No. of Cases.
Approxi-
mate
Weight.
lb.
Gunpowder, privately owned,.
208
7,950
Do.,
Government owned,
17
940
Cartridges, privately owned,
61
4,881
Do. Government owned.
19
1,833
Explosive Compounds, privately owned,
1,018
65,941
Do.,
Government owned,
44
1,440
Non-explosives, privately owned,
120 22,635
Do.,
Governinent owned,
34 -1,370
Total......
1,521 106,990
18.-Government Coaling Depôt, Yaumati.
Government Launches received coal or oil fuel as required during the year. 8,864 tons of coal was received into the Depôt and 8,586 tons issued to launches. 25,379 gallons of Kerosene and 9,066 gallons of Petrol were received and 24,184 gallons Kerosene and 8,660 gallons Petrol were issued to motor launches.
GOVERNMENT SLIPWAY, YAUMATI.
Government launches were slipped, aggregating 78 times at regular intervals during the year and the slip was occupied 288 days.
D. 20
SHIPPING, 1928.
Table 1.-NUMBER, TONNAGE, AND CREWS, OF VESSELS ENTERED AT PORTS IN THE COLONY OF HONG KONG FROM EACH COUNTRY IN THE YEAR 1928.
BRITISH.
FOREIGN.
GRAND TOTAL.
COUNTRIES WHENCE ARRIVED.
Vessels.
Tons. Crews. Vessels.
Tons.
Crews. Vessels. Tons. Crews.
Australia & Pacific Islands including New Zealand
32
82,071
3,482
15
56,023 1.646
47 138,094 5,128
British North Borneo,........
35
81,468
3,044
16
30,232
811
51
111,700 3,855
Canada,
25
248,819 13,818
1
4,355
37
26
253,174 13,855
Ceylon,
1
2,606
30
1
2,606
30
India including Mauritius,
116
396,370
15,354
83
275,558
5,367
199
671,928
20,721
South Africa,.........
5
14,298
403
2
4,254
78
7
Straits Settlements & F.M.S.,
98
224,385 9,823
United Kingdom,
147
China,..
$
*
River Steamers,
Steamships under 60 tons,.
:
15
Junks,
:
Denmark,
Europe (not specially mentioned),
42,195
1,412
92,200 2,999
741,534 17,055
36 196,714 5,136
1,254 1,828,792 110,218 1,239 1,442,434 82,937
2,469 2,641,896
166,787 465 248,983 24,286
4,080 115,393 47,565
11,120 | 1,165,738 | 192,092
18 89,565 699
130,862 1,818
36
134
18,552
316,585 12,822
481
183
2,193
938,218 22.191
3,271,226193,155
2,934 | 2,890,879 | 191,073
4,080 115,393 47,565
11,120 1,465,738 |192,092
33
40
France,
8
39,816
731
44
276,404 7,821
18 89,565 699
173,057 3,230
52 316,220 8.572
Formosa,
10
17,302
627
124
161,472 7,113
134
178,774 7,740
Germany,
3
16,033
246
87
380,180 6,699
90
296,213
6,945
Holland,..
9
37,079
936
12
56,071
701
21
93,150 1,637
Italy,
14
་་་
(French), Indo-China,.
127
Japan,
144
168,817 8,496
649,116 20,067
443
Macao,
River Steamers,
1
666
52
841
741,463
45,450
11
Steamships under 60 tons,
169
:
:..
Junks,
"
Netherland East Indies,.......
15 46,163
760
172
77,015 1,061
531,558 27,153
441 1,596,763 35,828
366 47,712 9,197
152 21,812 4,172
4,431
1,723
811 111,365 12,750
528,245 14,760
14
169
Philippine Islands,
17
145,287
6,899
64
Russia in Asia,
11
60,616
852
19
Siam,
101
155,993
8,552
172
South America,
17
437,912 12,363
80,948 856
208,765 11,650
81,004 1,777
77,015 1.061
570 700,375 35,649
585 2,245,879 55,895
367 48,378 9,249
993 766,275 49,622
4,431
1,723
811 111,365 12,750
187 574,408 15,520
81 583,199 19,262
273
17
30 141,564 1,708
364,758 20,202
$1,004 1,777
Sweden,
13
46,147
13 46,147
442
United States of America,
87
403,023
7,205
212
1,217,055 28.293
299 1,620,078 35,498
TOTAL,
5,562 8,786,202 | 442,289
20.477 10,019,776 |549,860
26,039 18,805,978 | 992,149
D 21
-
Table II-NUMBER, TONNAGE, AND CREWS OF VESSELS CLEARED IN THE COLONY OF
TO EACH COUNTRY IN THE YEAR 1928.
COUNTRIES TO WHICH DEPARTED.
BRITISH.
FOREIGN.
Vessels.
Tons. Crews.
Fuel Oil.
Bunker Coal.
Vessels. ! Tons.
Crews.
Fuel Oil.
Bunker Coal.
Vessels.
Australia & Pacific Islands including New Zealand
29
82.415
3,367
3,285
2.960
17
British North Borneo,.....
44
114,043
3,428
2,460 2.440
26
63.978 1,839
61,952
360
46
1,093 2,050
370
70
Canada,
21
200,144
10,371 3,160
160
21
Ceylon,
:
India including Mauritius,..............
75
South Africa,
3
9,492
276,211 10,814
307
500
2,612
103
358,649
6,797
:
650
178
12
41,941
926
15
Straits Settlements & F.M.S..
108
United Kingdom,.
China,
River Steamers,
213,541 10,465
.90 514.403 15.146 3,405 5,121
1,271 1,894,841 139,869 7.331 60,835
2,465. 2,638,692 | 166,591
66,460
10,736
3,680
70
169,922
4,948
120 6,003
178
39
212,434
5,434
T
430
129
1.362
1,753,632 83,055
3,710 57,802
2,633
453
""
Steamships under 60 tons,....
:
467
4.113
249.855 24,145
10,786
2,932
116.551 47,933
:
17,587
4,113
Junks,
:
">
:
11,377
1,521,873196,926
:
11,377
Denmark,....
12
63,110
478
12
Europe, (not specially mentioned),
14,351
419
5
France,
2
6,760
139
33
Formosa,
8
15,921
459
:
290
110
163,831
23,226 340
227,355 7,295
6.953
8
1,225 1,500

35
985
118
Germany,
23
117,013
2,066
300
42 190,006
3,516
65
:
Holland,
:
2
10,337
124
2
Italy,
13
71.959 1,075
13
(French), Indo-China,
167 242,795
11,109
1,016
Japan,...
Macao,
213
2
904,146 24,869
1,332 100
23,747
9,710 19,795
535
738.591 34.085 1,003 61,012
339 1,326.781 29,353
366 48,109 9.018
702
5,087
14,615
552 :
1,456
368
,!
River Steamers,
21
Steamships under 60 tons,
Junks,.
842
744,690 45.567
7,252
151
21,650 4.157
:
909
993
:
182
4.668
1.784
952
182
691
94.239 10,518
691
Netherland East Indies,
Philippine Islands,
Russia in Asia.
ск
24.477
356
750
111
354.658 10.258
4,417
119
28 202,522 10,090
220
1,140
109
637,595 16.808
700
2,310
137:
30
B
162.438 2,393
800
15
Siam,
85
132,746 7.215
8,571
8,732
144
73,151
169,342 9.684
723
1.475
45
742 37.080
229
South America,
28
:
Sweden,
12
132,543 3,111
40,339
28
396 2,380
12
United States of America,
51
263,264 5,140
7.491
1,110
185
1,116,199 27,631 £1,000 4,299
236
TOTAL,
5,568
8.776,240470,280 | 58,341 208,184
20,671 10,058.476 | 550,713
59,492 223,523
26,239
D 21
TUMBER, TONNAGE, AND CREWS OF VESSELS CLEARED IN THE COLONY OF HONG KONG
TO EACH COUNTRY IN THE YEAR 1928.
ED.
BRITISH.
FOREIGN.
GRAND TOTAL.
Vessels.
Tons. Crews.
Fuel Bunker Oil. Coal.
Vessels.
Tons.
Crews.
Fuel Bunker Oil. Coal.
Vessels.
Tons. Crews.
Fuel Oil.
Bunker Coal.
id
29
$2.415 3,367 3,285 2.960
17
63.978 1,839
360
46
146.393 5.206
3.285 3,320
44
114.043 3,428 2,460 2.440
26
61,952
1,093 2,050
370
70
175,995 4.521
21
200,144 10,371 3,160
160
21
200.144
:
:
:
:
10,371 3.160
4,510 2,810
160
75
276,211 10,814
500
2,612
103
358,649
6,797
650
178
:
634,860
17,611
500
3,262
3
9,492
307
:
12
41,911
926
15
:
51,433 1.233
108
213,541 10,465 10,736
3,680
70
169,922
4,948
120
6,003
178
383,463 15.413
10,856 9,683
.90 514,403 15.146 3,405 5,121
1,271 1,894,841 | 139,869 7.331 60,835
2,465. 2,638,692 166,591
39
212,434 5,434
430
:
129
726,837 20.580 3.405 5,551
1,362
1,753,632 83,055 3,710
57,802
2,633 3,648,473 |222,924
}
11,041 118,637
£53
66,460
467 249.855 24,145
10,786
:
:
:
:
4.113
116.551 47,933
:
17,587
:
11,377 1,521,873 196,926
2,932 2,888,547 |191,036
4,113 116.551 47.933
11,377 1,521.873 | 196,926
453 77,246
17,587
:
:
:
12
63,110
478
12
63.110
478
2
$
15,921
459
23
117.013
2,066
3
14,351
6,760
419
139
5
:
:.
:
:
23,226
340
8
37,580
759
33
227,355 7,295
1,225
1,500
35
290
110
163,831 6.953
985
118
234,115 7.434
179.752 7.412
1,225
1,500
1,275
300
42
190,006 3,516
11223
65
:
:
2
10,337
124
:
2 10,337
307,019 5,582
124
300
:
13-
71,959 1,075

13
71.959
1,075
167
242,795
11,109
1,016
23,747
535
213 904,146 24,869 9,710
19,795
339
1,326,781 29,353 5,087
738.591 34.085 1,003 61,012
14,615
702 981,386 45,194 2.019
84,759
552 2,230,927 54.222 14,797 34.410
2
1,332
100
366
48,109 9.018
1,456
368
49,441 9.118
1,456
842
744,690 45,567
7,252
151
21,650 4,157
909
993
766,340 49,724
8,161
182
4.668 1.784
952
182
4,668
1.784
952
691
94,239 10,518
691
8
24.477
356
750
111
354.658 10,258
4,417
94,239 10.518
119 379,135 10.614
28 202.522 10.090
220
1,140
109
30
85
162.439 2,393
132,746 7,215 8,571
800
15
73,151
637,595 16,808
733
700
1,475
2,310
137
840,117 26,898
5,167
920 3,450
45 235,589 3,126 1,475
8,732
144
28
12
263,261 5,140 7.491 1,110
169,342 9,684
132,543 3,111
40,339 396 2,380
185 1,116,199 27,631 41,000 4,299
742 37.080
229
28
800
302,088 16.899 9.316 45,812
132,543 3.111
12
236
40,339
1,379,463 32.771 48,491 5,409
396 2,380
5,568 - 8.776,240470.280, 58,341 208,184
20,671 10,058,476 | 550,713 59,492 223,523
26.239 18,834,716 1,020,993 117,833 431,707
D 22
Table III. TOTAL NUMBER and TONNAGE of VESSELS ENTERED at EACH PORT in the
COLONY of HONG KONG in the YEAR 1928.
2,180
57
975
163
3,155
:
:
218 11,074
61 3,403 279
14,477
218 11,074
61 3,403
279
14,477
274
17,094
11
508
285
17,602
274
17,094
11
508
285
17,602
70
1,799
261
75
2,060
70
1,799
:
10
:
261
75
2,060
:
BRITISH.
FOREIGN.
TOTAL.
Names of Ports.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
Vessels.
Tons.
Vessels.
Tons.
Vessels. Tons. Vessels.
Tons.
Vessels.
Tons.
Vessels.
Tons. Vessels.
Tons.
Vessels.
Tons. Vessels.
Tons.
:
106
2,180
57
975
163
3,155
106
:
Junk Bay,
Victoria,.
5,403 | 8,473,657
159 312,545
5,562 8,786,202
11,539
8,725,031
8,136 1,257,451| 19,675 | 9,982,482 16,942 17,198,688
8,295 1,569,996 25,237 18,768,684
Total,
5,403 | 8,473,657
159312,545
5,562 8,786,202
12,207 8,757,178
8,270 1,262,598 20,477 10,019,776 | 17,610 17,230,835 8,429 1,575,143 26,039 18,805,978
|
Aberdeen,
Cheung Chau,...
Saikung,
Stanley,*.
Tai O,
Tai Po,
Deep Bay,
:
:
:
:
*Vessels passing through this Station enter and clear at Aberdeen.
}
TOTAL.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
Vessels. Tons.
Vessels, Tons.
Vessels. Tons.
Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons.
Vessels. Tons.
D 23
Table IV.-TOTAL NUMBER and TONNAGE of VESSELS CLEARED at EACH PORT in the
COLONY of HONG KONG in the YEAR 1928.
BRITISH.
Names of Ports.
WITH CARGO.
IN BALLAST.
TOTAL.
Vessels.
Tons. Vessels. Tons. Vessels. Tons.
Aberdeen,
Cheung Chau,
Saikung,
Stanley,*.
Tai 0,
Tai Po,
:
:
FOREIGN.
:
86
1,950
202
4,084
:..
96
5,465
286
17,970
81
130 8,201
4,328
177
416 26,171
9,793
96
5,465
81
4,328
177
9,793
286
17,970
130
8,201
416
26,171
31
741
45 1,306
76
2,047
31
741
45
1,306
76
2,047
:
:
:
:
FO.
116
2,134
86 1,950
:
:
202
:
:
4,084
116
2,134
:
...
5,417 8,419,343
151356,897
5,568 8,776,240 15,077 | 8,989,735
4,723 1,026,646 19,800 10,016,381 20,494 17,409,078
4,874 | 1,383,543
25,368 || 18,792,621
Total,
5,417 8,419,343
151 | 356,897
5,568 | 8,776,240
15,606 | 9,016,045
5,065 1,042,431 20,771 10,058,476
21,023 17,435,388 5,216 1,399,328
26,239 18,834,716
:
Deep Bay,
*
Junk Bay,
*
Victoria,..
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:..
:
:
...
:
Vessels passing through this Station enter and clear at Aberdeen. *No statistics available,
D 24
S
Table V.
NUMBER, TONNAGE, and CREWS of VESSELS of EACH NATION ENTERED at PORTS in the COLONY of
HONG KONG in the YEAR 1928.
ENTERED.
NATIONALITY,
Vessels.
Tons.
Crews.
British,
2,252 5,399,843
230,052
River Steamers, .......
3,310
3,386,359
212,237
""
American,
251
1,471,424
42,421
Chinese,
1,129
553,554
51,833
""
River Steamers,...
541
258,483
26,922
"
Junks,
11,931
1,577,103
204,842
Danish,
70
196,780
4,321
Dutch,
245
823,506
23,212
French,................
312
724,176
31,178
Italian,
26
143,918
2,093
Japanese,
1,016
-2,829,121
74,215
Norwegian,
419.
613,765
23,336
Portuguese,
5
2,038
273
River Steamers,
76
12,312
1,536
German,
163
564,429
12,843
Swedish,
43
128,955
1,521
Panamanian,
1
388
26
Steamships under 60
tons trading to Ports outside the Colony, ..
4,249
119,824
49,288
TOTAL,
26,039
18,805,978
992,149
D 25
Table VI.
NUMBER, TONNAGE, and CREWS of VESSELS of EACH NATION CLEARED at PORTS in the COLONY of
HONG KONG in the YEAR 1928.
CLEARED.
NATIONALITY.
Vessels.
Tons.
Crews.
British,
2,261
5,392,858
258,122
River Steamers,
3,307
3,383,382
212,158
"2
American,.
254
1,469,804
48,227
Chinese,
1,132
552,875
51,739
وو
River Steamers,
543
259,355.
24,769
Junks,
12,068
1,616,112
207,444
"
Danish,
70
196,800
4,260
Dutch,
247
824,984
23,096
French,
311
723,573
25,625
Italian
26
143,918
2,143
"
Japanese,
1,015
2,821,408
73,534
Norwegian,
421
618,493
23,708
Portuguese,
5
2,038
313
River Steamers,
75
12,150
1,521
>
German,
164
567,353
13,078
Swedish,
43
127,618
1,489
2
776
50
Panamanian,
Steamships under
60
tons trading to Ports outside the Colony, ...
4,295
121,219
49,717
TOTAL,......
26,239
18,834,716
1,020,993
Table VII.
Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers, and Cargoes of Junks ENTERED in the Colony of Hong Kong, from Ports on the Coast of China and Macao, in the Year 1928.
CARGO.
BALLAST.
TOTAL.
Vessels.
Tons. Crew,
Passen-
gers.
Cargo,
Tons.
Ves-
scls.
Tons. Crew.
Passen-
gers.
Passen-
Vessels.
Tons. Crew,
Cargo.
gers.
Tons.
Canton,..
371
78,458 7,785
West River,.
Macao,
East Coast,
1,587
West Coast,.
92
3,823 496,711 76,564 68 10,422 943
121,420 14,915
10,127 1,614
66,353
28,011|1,802 |364,487 176,511 2,786 344,887
34.656
2,173
442,945 42,441
28,011
47,780
28
6,609
841,598 124,294 66,381
176,511
4.197 743|100,943 11,807
811
111,365 12,750
4,197
5,975
80,307 365 10,582
2,795
1,952 132,002 17,710 5,975
80,307
2,113 294 39,066
6,033
386
49.193
:
7,647
2,113
D 26
Total, 1928,
5,941
717,138 | 101,821
72,328
291,139 5,990859,965 | 103,021
28
11,931 1,577,103 204,842 72,356
291,139
Total, 1927,..
6,112
727,280107.674
85,500
277,767 5,878 775,186 | 101,002
272 11,990 | 1,502,466 208,676
85,772 277,767
Table VIII.
Total Number, Tonnage, Crews, Passengers, and Cargoes of Junks CLEARED in the Colony of Hong Kong, for Ports on the Coast of China and Macao, in the Year 1928.
Cargo.
Ballast.
Total.
Vessels.
Tons.
Crew.
Passen-
gers.
Cargo,
tons.
Vcs-
sels.
Tons.. Crew.
Passen-
gers.
Vessels. Tons.
Crew.
Passen-
gers.
Cargo,
tons.
Canton,
2,646
501.699 50,423
West River,
5,392
726,753 | 105,618
Macao,
668
90,428 10,105
504,641 38 4,738 63,018 | 404,009 875 89,588 65,882 23 3,811
655
2,684
506,437
51,078
504,641
12,773
6 267
816,341 | 118,391
63,018
404,009
113
::.
691
94.239 10,518
65,882
East Coast,.
1,296
West Coast,
57,706 11,011 9,489 395 52,516 7,868
18,717 721 86,165 42,360 14 2,708
8,347
2,017
143,871 19,388 9,489
18,717
201
* 409
55,224 8,069
42,360
Total 1928,.
10,397 1,429,102 | 185,055
72,507
1,035,609 | 1,671 | 187,010
22,389
12,068 1,616,112 | 207,444 72,507 1,035,609
D 27 -
Total 1927,
10,627 | 1,393,107 | 192,945
86,521
1,015,444 |1,437 |143,666
16,862
75
12,064 1,536,773 209,807
86,596 | 1,015,444
FOREIGN TRADE.
Table IX.
Summary of Arrivals and Departures of all Vessels.
1927.
1928.
No. of
VESSELS.
TONS.
CREW.
No. of
VESSELS.
TONS.
CREW.
D 28
British Ships entered,
5,702
8,466,860
368,593
5,562
8,786,202
442,289
British Ships cleared,
5,708
8,493,662
438,824
5,568
8,776,240
470,280
Foreign Ships entered,
3,967 8,307.928
283,863
4,297
8,322,849
295,730
Foreign Ships cleared,
3,965
8,303,052
283,428
4,308
8,321,145
293,552
Steamships under 60 tons entered..........
3,936
116,538
44,494
4,249
119,824
49,288
Steamships under 60 tons cleared,..
3,957
116,836
44,688
4,295
121,219
49,717
Junks entered,
11,990
1,502,466
208,676
11,931
1,577,103
204,842
Junks cleared,
12,064
1,536,773
209,807
12,068
1,616,112
207,444
Total of all Vessels entered,.
25.595
18,393,792
Total of all Vessels cleared,.
25,694
18,450,323
905,626 26,039 18,805,978 976,747
992,149
26,239 18,834,716
1,020,993
Total of all Vessels entered and cleared, in
Foreign Trade, .........
51,289
36,844,115
1,882,373
52,278 37,640,694
2,013,142
LOCAL TRADE.
Total Junks entered,
5,947
253,175
57,546
7,910
326,549
77,283
Do.
cleared,
6,558
274,722
63,101
8,188
345,947
80,920
Total Local Trade entered and cleared,
12,505
527,897
120,647
16,098
672,496
158,203
Total Foreign Trade entered and cleared,
51,289
36,844,115
1,882,373
52,278
37,640,694
2,013,142
Total Local Trade entered and cleared,
12,505
527,897
120,647
16,098
672,496
158,203
Grand Total,
63,794
37 372,012.
2,003,020
,376
38,3 13.190
2.1.345
1
PLACES.
Table X.
Statement of Licensed Steam-launches Entered in the Colony of Hong Kong during the year 1928.
TOWING.
NOT TOWING.
Vessels.
Within the Waters of the Colony, 1927,
Do.,
1928,
76,276 | 1,633,611
75,191
757,507
1,609,196 746,649
Tonnage.
Crew.
Passengers.
Tons.
Cargo,
Outside the Waters of the Colony :—
Canton,
West River,
Macao,
East Coast,
Other places,
Total,
151 3,130 1,682
233 7,258 3,546
92 2,330
940
187|| 8,080 2,176
1,261 39,194 15,670
1,924 59,992 24,014
:
:
:..
...
...
:
:
:
:
Vessels.
Tonnage.
Crew.
Passengers.
Tons.
Cargo,
Vessels.
Tonnage.
1
TOTAL.
Crew.
Passengers.
Cargo,
Tons.
33,500 1,252,327 414,641
32,857
1,579,533
16,574
16,574 109,776 | 2,885,938 1,172,148 | 1,579,533 1,225,325 405,240 | 1,563,637 11,289 108,048 2,834,521 | 1,151,889| 1,568,637 11,289
109 3,639 1,305
:.
125 5,577 1,799 104
77 2,101 783
218 7,988 2,346
1,796 40,527 19,041
2,325 59,832 25,274
...
...
260 6,769 2,987
:
36
358 12,835 5,345
104
36
169 4,431 1,723
405|16,068 | 4,522
282 1,153 3,057 79,721 34,711
282 1,153
386 1,189 4,249 119,824 19,288
386 1,189
D 29
Table XI.
Statement of Licensed Steam-launches Cleared in the Colony of Hong Kong during the year 1928.
D 30
PLACES.
TOWING.
NOT TOWING.
TOTAL.
Vessels.
Ton-
nage.
Crew.
Bunker Cargo Vessels. Ton-
Crew.
Coal.
Tons.
nage.
Passen- Cargo, Bunker gers. Tons. Coal
Vessels.
Ton-
nage.
Crew.
Passen- Cargo, Bunker gers. Tons. Coal.
Within the Waters of theColony,1927,
Do.,
1928,
76,264 1,633,391 757,379 13,786 75,054 1,605,601 745,279 13,555
35,515 1,252,641 32,872 1,226,779
412,788 1,575.292 14,598 103,767 1,552,728 8,777
13,021
12,524
109,779 | 2,886,032 1,170,167 1,575,202 14,598 26,807 107,926 | 2,832,380 | 1,149,046 | 1,552,728 8,777
26,079
Outside the Waters of the Colony :-
Canton,.....
West River,
Macao, ............................
186 4,083 2,070 907 210 256 8,068 3,843 4,493
129| 3,130 1,211 722
85 2,896 1,023
1,695
246
271 6,979 3,093
1,905 1,153
597
:
53 1,538
122│| 5,412 1,744
573
46 3,765
82
37 230
378(13,480| 5,587
182 4,668 1,784
46 4,362 4,575
37 952
...
East Coast,
Other places,
Total,
228 9,220 2,585 1,280 2,135 56,136 24,781 7,449
2,984 80,637 34,490 14,851
186| 7,061 | 2,035
138 1,022
915 23,675 9,852
807| 1,361|40,582|15,227
414116,281 4,620
460 4,545 2,108 3,050 79,811 34,633
506 9,510 4,358 4,295 121,219 49,717
138 2,302
460 4,545 9,557
506 10,987 |18,539
LICENCE.
LICENCE
Books.
DUPLICATE BOAT RE- SPECIAL
FEES.
LICENCE.
PAINTING
PERMITS.
Table XII.
Number of Boat Licences, Permits, etc., issued and Fees collected during the year 1928.
(Under Table UT, Section 40, of Ordinance No. 10 of 1899.)
DESCRIPTION.
Licence Books,
Boat Repainting, .25 Cents
Special Permits, .25
:
:
3,287
...
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
"}
Passenger Boat, Classes A & B,
2,700
Lighter, Cargo and Water Boats,
2,100
Other Boats,
12,647
Fish Drying Hulks,
55
Duplicate Licence,'
TOTAL,
17,502
:
4,147
:
:
3,287
- D 31
$ 3,287.00
1,036.75
463.00
14,328.50
53,531.40
1,852
2
...
42,361.25
...
487.75
2.00
4,147
1,852 $115,497.65
D 32
P
Table XIII.
Comparative Statement of Revenue collected in the Harbour Department during the years 1927 and 1928.
Sub-head of Revenue.
Amonut
1927.
Amount 1928.
1. Light Dues, Ordinance 10 of 1899,
Special Assessment, Ord. 10 of 1899, 2. Licences & Internal Revenue not otherwise
""
specified :-
Boat Licences, Ordinance 10 of 1899, Chinese Passenger Ship Licences, Or-
dinance I of 1889,
Fines, Forfeitures,
Fishing Stake and Station Licences,
Ordinance 10 of 1899,
Fishing Stake and Station Licences, from
the New Territories, Ord. 10 of 1899, Junk Licences, &c., Ord. 10 of 1899, Junk Licences, &c., from the New Ter-
ritories, Ord. 10 of 1899,
Pilots Licences, Ordinance 3 of 1904, Steam-launch Licences, &c.. Ordinance
10 of 1899,
3. Fees of Court or Office, Payments for specific purposes, and Reimbursements- in-Aid:-
Engagement and Discharge of Seamen,
Ordinance 10 of 1899,..
Engagement of Masters and Engineers of Steam-launches, Ord, 10 of 1893, Examination of Masters, &c., Ordinance
10 of 1899,
Fees for use of Government Buoys,
Ordinance 10 of 1899,.. Gunpowder Storage, Ord. 10 of 1899, Medical Examination of Emigrants, Ord.
10 of 1899,
Official Signatures, Ordinance 1 of 1889, Printed Forms, Sale of, Ord. 10 of 1899,... Registry Fees (Merchant Shipping Act),
Ordinance 10 of 1899,.... Steam-launches, Surveyor's Certificates,
Ordinance 10 of 1899,......
C. $ C.
132,879.31 | 138,550.02 158,762.56|165,292.04
116,380.25 116,497.65
2,025.00 1,740,00
8,835.16
120.33
9,631.55 135.00
34.50
62.80
901.40
1,120.30
41,377.50
10,025.75
11,012.75
9,928.00
115.00
145.00
11,969.15
11,892.20
36,208.60| 35,698,80
360.50
383.00
2,522.50 2,732.50
88,726.00
85,850.00
8,169.34
9,881.71
*180,108.60 †164,516.00
5,396.00 7,304.00 719.50 953.50
1,776.00 2,440.00
11,575.00 11,470.00
Survey of Steamships, Ordinance 10 of
1899......
34,876.50 34,316.00
Sunday Cargo Working Permits, Ord.
1 of 1891,
145,550.00 122,275.00
4. Miscellaneous Receipts
Rent of Government Property, Building, Sale of condemned stores,
Other Miscellaneous Receipts, Interest,
...
203.00 41.00 84.35
11.32 1,728.65
86.19
116.48
Total,
$1,000,229.80 973,283.46
* See next page.
† See next page,
D 33
* Statement of Emigration Fees, 1927 :-
Revenue
collected by.
Expenditure incurred by.
Harbour Department,...... $180,108.60
$13,300.00 (Estimated.)
Office of Secretary for
Chinese Affairs,
16,110.00
4,124.00
Stamp Office, on account
of Bill of Health,
Medical Department,.......
11,346.00
...
28,856.08
$ 207,564.60
$ 46,280.08
1
Net Revenue.......................... $161,284.52
Harbour Department,...... $164,516.00
Office of Secretary for
Chinese Affairs,
Stamp Office, on account
of Bill of Health, Medical Department,.......
16,400.00
† Statement of Emigration Fees, 1928-
Revenue collected by.
Expenditure incurred by.
$ 13,300.00 (Estimated.)
4,047.00
11,088.00
30,441.73
$192,004.00
$ 47,788.73
Net Revenue..
$144,215.27
Table XIV.
Summary of Chinese Emigrants from Hong Kong to Ports other than in China, during the year 1928.
BRITISH SHIPS.
FOREIGN SHIPS.
GRAND TOTAL.
PORTS.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
Total.
Total.
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
- D 34-
Australia,
1,662
8
1,671
36
36 1,698
· 1
8
1,707
Africa,
241
36
15
1 293 239 128 170
90 627
480
164
185
91
920
British N. Borneo,
3,412 | 1,180
507
304
5,403
:
3,412
1.180
507
304
5,403
Bombay (India),
་་་
5
5
Calcutta,
Canada,
Dutch Indies,
Fiji,
Honolulu,
Mexico,
Mauritius,
New Zealand (Dunedin)..
7,300
37
84
3
7,424
310
· 13
6
329 7,610
50
90
3
7,753
842 105
49
26
1,022
842 105.
49
26
1,022
|28,694|| 4,033| 1,954
626 35,307 28,694| 4,033
1,954
626
35,307
46
46
46
46
:
9,829 243 117
5510,244 9,829
243
117
55
10,244
764
22
26
812
764
22
26
812
707
142 137
12
998
707
142
137
12
998
17
17
17
17
New Caledonia (Noumea), New Guinea (Raboul),
I
1
1
27
29
27
29.
Nauru Island,
278
278
278
278
Ocean Island,
253
255
256
255
Portuguese East Africa,
91
36
14
2
143
91
36
14
2
143
Panama (Balboa),
South America,
218
7
22
247
218
22
247
580
329
199
185 1,293
580
329 199
185
1,293
Sumatra (Belawan Deli),
100
Straits Settlements,.
1,505 202 |71,369 22,023 | 8,240 | 3,730 | 105,36% 43,425 12,305 6,055
56 1,863 6.980| 1,069
497
293
8.839 8,485 | 1,271
597
349
10,702
2,594 64,379 |114,794 34,328 (14,295| 6,324|169,741
Samoa Island
**
464
464
Tahiti,
155
Tamatave in Madagascar Island
7
11
2
180
464
165
464
11
4
180
11
2
2
United States of America,
Total 1928,
20
1
21 9,016 285 195
679,563 9,036 285
196
67 9,584
|88,318 23,740 | 9,144 | 4,136 125,338
Total 1927.
100,187 18,470 | 9,255 | 3,912 131,824 188,505 42,210 18,399 | 8,048 | 257,162
101,148 24,052 9,053| 4,010|138,268 114,653 19,901 | 9,037 | 3,839 147,330 215,701 43,953 18,090 | 7,849 285,593
Total Passengers by Foreign Ships, Total Passengers by British Ships,.
Kroney of PROTON Per
100,187 18,470 9,255 | 3,912 ||131,824
88,318 23,740| 9,144| 4,136|125,338

Table XV.
Statement of Average Number of Emigrants from Hong Kong to. Ports other than in China, for Quinquennial Periods from 1890 to 1925 inclusive.
$
1890.
1895. 66,706 60,360 66,961 73,105
1900.
1905.
1910.
88,452
1915.
109,110
1920.
84,602
1925.
129,004
Table XVI.
Number of Male and Female Emigrants from Hong Kong to Ports other than in China, for Ten Years, from 1919 to 1928 inclusive.
- D 35
Whither bound.
1919.
1920.
1921. 1922. 1923. 1924.
1925. 1926. 1927. 1928.
Straits Settlements, Males, Straits Settlements, Females,
Total,
7,424 30.330 4,214 13,605
11,638 43,935
87,324 50,356
67,032 39,616 52,011 58,051 20,292 10,740 13,573 17,631 65,584 75,682
78,505 | 127,863|158,788 | 129,089 19,047 29,422 43,620 40,652 97,552 | 157,285202,408 | 169,741
Other Ports, Males, Other Ports, Females,
46,044 59,128 64,293 44,109 48,773 49,427 2,287 2,195 4,394 3,928 5,867 4,750
40,198 54,506 75,003 77,815 2,784 4,736 8,182 9,606
Total,
48.331
Grand Total,
61,323
59,969 | 105,258
68.687 48,037 54,640 54,177
42,982 59,242 83,185 87,421
156,011
98,393 | 120,224 | 129,859 140,534 |216,527 |285,593|257,162
Table XVII.
Summary of Chinese Emigrants Returned to Hong Kong from Ports other than in China, during the year 1928.
BRITISH SHIPS.
FOREIGN SHIPS.
GRAND TOTAL.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children,
PORTS.
Total.
Total.
Total.
M.
F.
M: F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
- D 36 —
Australia
2,112
94
Africa,
166
26
Bangkok,
2,528
565
454
British N. Borneo,
437
157
ཨྠཚེ
52
37 2,295
103
30
40
10
183
2,215
124
92
23
47
2,478
206
166
26
9
5
206
233
3,780
1,776
537
410
154
2,877
4,304
1,102
864
387
6,657
80
66
740
437
157
80
66
740
...
Canada,
5,381
147
174
43
5,745
339
23
7
7
376
5,720
170
181
50
6,121
Continent of Europe,
256
8
00
17
9
355
**
349
83
35
12
479
605
156
52
21
834
Dutch Indies,
19,822
2,228 | 2,045
829
24,924
19,822
2,228 | 2,045
829
24,924
Honolulu,
685
36
33
30
784
685
36
33
30
784
Nauru Island,
131
131
131
131

Ocean Island,
132
132
132
132
...
..
.་་
South America,
401
...
81
40
22
544
401
81
Samoa Island,
533
1
534
533
Straits Settlements,
66,935
12,717 | 6,1463,411
89,209
25,293
3,470 | 1,742
979
31,484
92,228
Sumatra (Belawan Deli),
16,565
2,2231,245
596
20,629
16,565
United States of America,
...
2,009
192 149 90
2,440 2,009
...
40
16,187 | 7,888 |4,390 |120,693 2,223 1,245 596 20,629 192 149 90 2,440
22
544
534
...
Total 1928,
78,611
13,780 6,932 |3,804 | 103,127
67,342
8,903 5,746 2,729
84,720 | 145,953
22,683 [12,6786,533 |187,847
Total 1927,
76,528
13,310 7,094 3,957 | 100,889
62,652
8,779 | 5,593 | 3,187 80,211139,180
22,089 12,687 7,144 | 181,100
Total Passengers by British Ships,
""
"
Forcign
78,611
67,342
13,780 |6,932|3,804|103,127
8,903 5,746 | 2,729 84,720
Excess of
British
"}
11,269 4,877 1,186 | 1,075 1,8407
Table XVIII.
Statement of Average Number of Emigrants Returned to Hong Kong from Ports other than in China, for Quinquennial Periods from 1890 to 1925 inclusive,
1890.
96,068
1895. 1900. 104,118 109,534
1905.
137,814
1910.
146,585
1915.
151,728
1920.
100,641
1925.
129,106
Table XIX.
Number of Male and Female Emigrants Returned to Hong Kong from Ports other than in China, for Ten Years, from 1919 to 1928 inclusive.
- D 37
Where from.
1919.
1920. 1921.
1922. 1923.
1924.
1925. 1926. 1927. 1928.
Straits Settlements, Males, Straits Settlements, Females,
60,812 68,316 2,871 4.610
Total,.
63,683
Other Ports, Males,..
70,070
Other Ports, Females,
2,267
Total,
72,337
49,512 58,371
52,596
307
57,903
91,203 74,694 58,800 65,047 52.220 9,190 10,950 7,186 9,216 8,671 72,926 100,693
46.776 52,429 2,736 5,912
Grand Total,
72,194 113,507 | 100,116 14,761 23,189 20,577 $5,644 65,986 74,263 60,891 86,955 136,696 120,693 50,374 51,031 27,888 36,886 38.360 58,515 4,742 4,900 2,843 4,820 6,044 8,639 55.116 55,931 30,731 41,706 44,404 67,154 136,020 | 122,438 |159,064 | 143,547 | 121,102 | 130,194 91,622 | 128,661 181,100 187,847
Table XX.
Return of Vessels Registered at the Port of Hong Kong during the year 1928.
Name of Vessel.
Official
Number.
Registered
Tonnage
Horse
Rig.
Build.
Fower.
Where and when built.
Remarks.
1. Chief Maquilla ex "M.S. Dollar' 140,336
11
...
6,919
N.H.P. 659
Schooner. Clincher.
Kobe
.1917 Transferred from Vancouver.
2. Chief Skidegate ex "Esther Dollar"...
120,444
4,848
690
">
Glasgow
..1899
3. Chief Capilano ex
19
"Robert Dollar"... 145,168
6,791
554
1
"}
Clincher. Gustemunde ...1917
"
.་
4. Lyeemoon ex Gordon 127,935
1,734
200
ད་
"
"
5. Northern Star
154,011
50
64
Not.
6. Doreen ex Paracel 1154,012
17
6
""
>"
Greenock ..... ..1908 Clincher. Hong Kong.. ..1928 Carvel. Hong Kong Unknown
Formerly owned by Chinese as First Registry (New Vessel).
"Gordon ".
7. Choi Cheuk...
154,013
10
B.H.P.. 96
}}
;
8. Feathers
154,014
8
N.H.P.
5
Yawl.
31
"}
9. Matang
154,015
769
105
"}
10. Tai Yat 1.
154.016
115
120
"}
Schooner. Clincher. Nil.
!!
11. Pearl River
ex
"Teviot"
154,017
21
16.6
"}
Carvel.
12. Koromiko
..
117,599
1,541
313
Schooner.
13. Kittawa
106,640
708
120
19
14. Chuen Chow
154,018
670
96
"
Schooner.
Nil.
15. Tai Pat 8..........
154,019
115
16.6
"}
""
16. Cassum ex H.M.S.
"Woodlark"
154,020
148
30
17. Chung Yuen
154,021
86
""
18. Chung Kai
154,022
86
24.72
21.72
""
Fore & Aft Clincher. Sunderland
In & Out Hong Kong.. Clincher.
Clincher. London Schooner. In & Out | Hong Kong..
་་
..1928
Formerly unregistered vessel owned by Chinese Paracel I'
as
First Registry (New Vessel).
1912 Formerly unregistered vessel as "Feathers .1928 First Registry (New Vessel). .1928
""
""
.1910 | Formerly unregistered vessel as "Teviot .1907 Transferred from Dunedin.
"}
.1898 Transferred from Wellington, New Zealand. .1928 | First Registry (New Vessel).
.1914 Formerly unregistered vessel owned by British registered Company.
1897 Formerly H.M.S." Woodlark .1928 | First Registry (New Vessel). ..1928
"}
"
=
-
- D 38
Table XXI.
Return of Registers of Vessels Cancelled at the Port of Hong Kong during the year 1928.
Official
Name of Vessel.
Number.
Registered
Tonnage.
Date of
Rig.
Build.
Registry.
When and where built.
Reason of Cancellation.
1. Wing Ning
153,512
40
2.
2. 1924.
None.
Carvel.
Canton
.1918 Sold to foreigner (Chinese),
2. Ray
153,544
14
12.
5. 1924.
,1924
"}
??
}}
3. Hoi Loong
154,009
32
5. 8. 1927.
**
"
Hong Kong
.1900
"
4. Lai Sang
112,829
2,225
13. 11. 1924.
Fore & Aft
Schooner.
Clincher. Govan
.1901
....
"}
5. Moon Tong.
109,857
37
28. 12. 1923.
Carvel.
Hong Kong
...1899
"}
6. Chung Yuan
153,590
13
19. 5. 1925.
None.
.1907
"
).
Portu (Portuguese).
7. Luen Tai.
151,430
246
8. 11. 1921.
Clincher. British Isles
Unknown
29
(Chinese)
8. Luen Yick
152,083
240
19. 5. 1922.
Clincher.
,
"}
9. Morning Star
123,077
51
22. 6. 1907.
10. Sai Cheong
152,447
240
24. 3. 1927.
None.
Carvel.
Clincher.
Hong Kong
..1900
..1923
>
"?
$9
(Portuguese).
11. Tung Cheong...
153,582
240
4. 3. 1925.
1923
*
"}
19
).
12. Moonshine
152,107
42
5. 6 1923.
13. Rentes
153,552
21.
23. 6. 1924.
Ketch.
Nonc.
Aberdeen
31
1918 | Sold to Forcigner (Chinese).
"}
Hong Kong
1920
14. Setubal
153,561
28
9.
9. 1924.
Carvel.
Canton
1923
"1
15. Crane
123,075
22
30. 5. 1907.
"
Hong Kong
.1906
16. Chi On
152,427
44
5. 11. 1924.
17. Hai Hong
101,726
1,270
18. 1. 1916.
None.
Fore & Aft
1903
99
""
Schooner.
18. Sun Tang Chow..
153,586
40
19. Ling Nam
142,385
3,975
20. On Shun
152,430
75
21. Taikoo Teen
139,561
3
22. Gorjistan
104,851 2,916
23. Tangistan
109,605
2,679
24. Motorlight
142,142
28
25. Pheumpenh
78,839
1,065
14. 4. 1925. 9. 7. 1927. 11. 9. 1923. 10. 5. 1917. 26. 1. 1924.
3. 8. 1923. 20. 7. 1927. 31. 8. 1910.
Nonc.
Carvel.
Canton
Schooner.
Clinker,
Hamburg
Carvel.
Canton
None.
Hong Kong.
Clincher. Walker-on-Tyne 1899
1921 Sold to Foreigner (Chinese). .1903 | Registered anew at Singapore. .1921 Sold to Foreigner (Chinese). 1911
"}
""
>>
"1
.
27
).
(American).
Schooner. Elliptical.
Low Walker-on-
Tyne...
.1893
"
Clincher.
Leith...
.1900
Shanghai
Schooner.
Belfast
1915 Sold to Foreigner (Chinese).
.1879
(
").
(Japanese).
(
).
(
"T
).
>>
- D 39
- D 40
Table XXII.
Number and Tonnage of Vessels in Foreign Trade Entered and
YEAR.
Cleared since 1919.
No. OF
VESSELS.
TONNAGE.
1919
41,985
21,072,129
1920
43,364
24,194,022
1921
52,222
27,852,616
1922
50,427
29,543,564
1923
49,900
35,947,534
1924
57,765
38,770,499
1925
41,336
32,179,053
1926
30,231
28,371,104
1927
51,289
36,834,014
1928
52,278
37,640,694
Table XXIII.
Revenue and Expenditure of the Harbour Department.
Year.
Total Revenue of Department.
Total Expenditure of Department Excluding Special Expenditure.
Percentage of Expenditure to Revenue.
$
C.
$
C.
%%
1919,
633,794.25
192,026.19
30.29
1920,
701,493.26
230,033.12
32.79
1921,
800,798.13
246,295.53
30.76
1922,
857,576.04
280,625.57
32.72
1923,
925,643,02
300,484.95
32.46
1924,
997,530.74
313,412.04
31.92
1925,
878,118.83
452,106.42
51:48
1926,
820,888.39
534,675.91
65.13
1927,
1,000,229.80
610,480.26
61.03
1928,
973,283.46
648,324.33
66.61
- D 41
Table XXIV.
Table showing total Shipping at the Port of Hong Kong during the years 1909 to 1928.
TOTAL TONNAGE
TOTAL TONNAGE | TOTAL TONNAGE
YEAR.
ALL CLASSES.
OCEAN GOING.
OCEAN GOING
BRITISH,
1909
34,830,845
15,593,835
7,735,927
1910
36,534,361
16,215,915
8,111,946
1911
36,179,152
15,507,635
7,589,995
1912
36,735,149
16,372,290
7,779,970
1913
37,742,982
17,722,168
8,449,533
1914
36,756,951
16,913,914
8,321,692
1915
33,884,919
14,381,808
7,358,586
1916
36,381,457
13,728,092
6,868,743
1917
33,827,325
12,289,548
5,168,058
1918
29,518,189
9,745,469
3,627,576
1919
35,615,169
14,467,847
6,842,024
1920
40,122,527
17,574,636
8,351,084
1921
43,420,970
20,064,611
9,247,198
1922
46,566,764
21,971,162
9,688,891
1923
53,402,239
25,894,058
11,222,141
1924
56,731,077
27,874,830
11,844,752
1925
49,520,523
23,653,774
9,866,820
1926
43,796,436
21,314,696
9,257,417
1927
44,127,161
25,700,164
9,660,440
1928
44,883,765
26,894,395
10,792,701
Tons.
D 42
Table XXV.
DIAGRAM SHEWING TOTAL SHIPPING ALL CLASSES
1909-1928.
57,000,000
56,000,000
55,000,000
54,000,000
53,000,000
52,000,000
51,000,000
50,000,000
49,000,000
48,000,000
47,000,000
46,000,000
42,000,000
41,000,000
40,000,000
39,000,000
38,000,000
37,000,000
36,000,000
35,000,000
34,000,000
33,000,000
32,000,000
31,000,000
30,000,000
29,000,000
1909
0161
1161
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
45,000,000
44,000,000
$3,000,000
44,883,765
1927
1928
Appendix F.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR
OF THE ROYAL OBSERVATORY, HONG KONG,
FOR THE YEAR 1928.
1.--GROUND AND BUILDINGS.
The grounds were kept in order by the Botanical and Forestry Department with the assistance of the Observatory coolies. The concrete path on the slope from the Nathan Road entrance was continued to the eastern entrance in December.
The Time Ball Tower on Kowloon Signal Hill was raised 20 feet between April 29 and October 10. The ball is now visible from the bridge of all steamers in harbour, except those in wharves Nos. 2 and 5 immediately to the West of the godowns of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Godown Company.
The Anemomograph Hut at the Peak was demolished on December 7, the site being required for a wireless mast. A new Hut was erected on a site 28 feet North and 53 feet East of the centre of the old Hut.
Magnetic Station at Au Tau.-The doors and bolts were adjusted and the roof of the magnetograph building repaired during the year.
Underground Chamber for Seismographs and Clocks.-The range of temperature in the underground chamber was 10°.7 (F) in 1928 as against 11°.6 (F) in 1927 and 9°.1 (F) in 1926. The relative humidity was seldom less than 93% between May 7 and August 23. The range during the year being 27% in 1928 as against 32% in 1927 and -42% in 1926.
In the following table the mean monthly temperature and humidity in the Underground Chamber are compared with the temperature and humidity in the open air.
F 2
Mean Monthly Temperature and Relative Humidity in the Underground Chamber and in the Open Air
during the year 1928.
Excess of Under-
In Underground Chamber.
In the Open Air.
Month
ground Chamber over Open Air.
1928.
Temper- Relative Temper- Relative Temper- | Relative
ature Humidity ature Humidity ature Humidity
о
о
%

%%
January,..
69.6
61.6
83
+60
1 2
February,. 69.9
67
58-7
+112
- 15
March,.... 69.6
63°2
87
+ 64
I I
April,
711
83
70°9
+ 0.2
+ 2
May,
74'1
94.
77+
86
3.3
+ 8
June,
-6.2
94
79'9
83
37
+11
July.....
78.5
94
835
80
5°C
+14
August,... 80.2
92
824
2.2
+ 8
September 80.3
87
81.6
1*3
+12
October,
78.4
85
75°1
+ 20
November, 76.7
89
69'3
67
December,!
74.3
90
65-6
72
++
+22
+18
Range,.
107
27
248
22
II.--METEOROLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS.
All the meteorological instruments were maintained in good order throughout the year.
The thermometers in use were compared with Kew Standard No. 647 in Summer and Winter.
The working of the electric contact on the Nakamura Pluviograph is tested daily at 11h.
The Beckley and Dines Baxendell Anemographs were oiled and the orientation of the vanes checked once a month. The Dines Baxendell instrument continues to work satisfactorily, except at very low velocities when its action is uncertain.
F 3
The mean monthly results of comparisons with the records of the Beckley Anemograph from 1910-1927 are given in the following table, together with the results for 1928:-
Factor for converting the actual run of the Beckley Anemograph cups to velocities recorded by the Dines Pressure
Tube Anemograph.
January,
February,
March,
April,..
196
Factor (Dines ÷ Beckley
3 ).
Month.
Mean 1910-1927.
1928.
1-83
1.88
194
2013 2:07
2115
2'01
2.20
1'97
May,
June,
2013
173
July,
2°25
1.88
August,.
2123
1'94
September,
2.22
1'95
October,...
2'12
2.21
November,
2'02
2.16
December,
193
213
Year
2:06
2.03
III. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AT THE OBSERVATORY.
Automatic records of the temperature of the air and evaporation were obtained with a Richard dry and wet bulb thermograph, and of the direction and velocity of the wind with a Beckley and a Dines-Baxendell anemograph, modified as described in the report for 1912. The amount of rain is recorded automatically by a Nakamura Pluviograph and the amount of sunshine by two Campbell-Stokes universal sunshine recorders. Eye observations of barometric pressure, temperature of the air and of evaporation and the amount of cloud are made at each hour of Hong Kong Standard time. The character and direction of the motion of the clouds are observed every three hours. Daily readings are taken of self-registering maximum and minimum thermometers.
Principal features of the Weather in 1928.—The principal features of the weather in 1928 were:
(a) Absence of typhoons.
(b) Serious shortage of rain from the middle of July
to the end of the year.
(c) Temperature above normal in January, July and
December.
F 4
W
Barometric Pressure was below normal in every month except in February and October, when it was considerably above. The mean pressure for the year at station level (109 feet above sea level) was 29.828 ins., as against 29.830 ins. in 1927 and 29.842 for the past 45 years. The highest pressure was 30.312 ins. on February 19 as against 30.305 ins. in 1927 and 30.509 ins. for the past 45 years. The lowest pressure was 29.227 ins. on July 14 as against 28.927 ins. in 1927 and 28.590 ins. for the past 45 years.
The temperature of the air was moderately above normal in January and July and considerably above in December. It was moderately below in June and October.
The mean of the daily maximum temperatures in July was 88°.5; the highest on record, except in 1889 when it was 88°.7. The mean temperature for the month, 83°.5, was also the highest on record, except in 1889 when it was 83°.6. The mean of the daily minimum temperatures, 79°.9, was the same as the previous highest on record, which also occurred in 1889.
The mean temperature for the year was 72°.4 as against 71°.4 in 1927 and 71°.8 for the past 45 years. The highest temperature was 92°.6 on July 30 as against 93°.1 in 1927 and 97°.0 for the past 45 years. The lowest temperature was 45°.0 on February 1, as against 45°.9 in 1927 and 32°.0 for the past 45 years.
The rainfall was considerably above normal in May, very considerably below in July and considerably below in September. From October 19 to the end of the year only 0.850 inch fell; 0.585 inch of which fell on November 13-14. The total for the year was 71.155 ins. as against 107.865 ins. in 1927 and 85.726 ins. for the past 45 years. The greatest fall in one civil day was 4.100 ins. on May 29 as against 7.255 ins. in 1927. The greatest fall in one hour was 1.700 inch between 12th. and 13th. on June 1, as against 2.100 ins. in 1927.
The wind velocity was normal in March and slightly above normal in December. In all other months it was below normal, considerably so in February, May, July, October and November. The mean velocity for the year was 11.2 m.p.h. as against 11.7 m.p.h. in 1927 and 12.5 m.p.h. for the past 45 years. The maximum velocity for one hour, as recorded by the Beckley anemograph, was 59 m.p.h. at 1h. on July 15, as against 83 miles in 1927 and 108 miles for the past 45 years. The maximum gust velocity, as recorded by the Dines-Baxendell anemograph, was at the rate of 76 m.p.h. at 23h. 20m. on July 14 as against 116 m.p.h. in 1927 and 130 m.p.h. for the past 19 years.
F 5
It
The relative humidity was considerably above normal in January and moderately above in February, March and Decem- ber. The mean relative humidity for the year was 79% as against 78% in 1927 and 77% for the past 45 years. frequently exceeded 95% and the lowest for the year was 25% on November 21 as against 24% in 1927 and 4% for the past 45 years.
Rainfall at four Stations.-In the following table the monthly rainfall for the year 1928 at the Observatory is com- pared with the fall at the Police Station, Tai Po; the Botanical Gardens; and the Matilda Hospital, Mount Kellet:
Mouth.
Observatory Police Station (Kowloon). (Taipo).
Botanical
Matilda
Gardens Hospital (Hong Kong).(Hong Kong)
inches.
inches.
inches.
inches.
January,
1.880
119
2'17
1'25
February, ...
3.570
2.18.
3.87
4'05
March,
5:185
3726
6.37
5°52
April,
4*195
4.81
6.68
7.88
May,
18410
13.61
19°13
1672
June,
15130
16.91
13.64
10.80
July,
4780
3.71
3.37
1.95
August,
12.910
8.63
17.98
1145
September,...
3.915
3'50
6·34
7:50
October,
0'435
'09
0.38
0'48
November,...
0.815
3'94
0'94
0'74
December,
O'C20
0'00
O'C.2
Year....
71155
61.83
80.89
68.34
Floods.-Little or no damage was caused by floods during the year 1928. The heaviest rainfall occurred at the Observa- tory as follows:-
Period
A mount.
Duration.
Greatest fall in 1 hour.
Amount.
1928.
Time.
d.
h.
d. h. inches.
hours.
inches.
d. h.
Mar. Apr....19
6
5 to Mar. 7 13
3.63
29
080
Mar.
7 7
7
to Apr. 22
22
3.84
58
1:06
22 Apr.
Mar 90.
to June 2
19
1483
75
1·70
May
June...30
17
to July 2. 11
3:58
11
0.68
June 30 22
Aug.
13
to
Ang, 6
18
471
17
1.64
Aug.
མ ཾ ཁ ཾ བ
ā 13
**2*
3
13
F 6
Typhoons. The tracks of 21 typhoons and 10 of the princi- pal depressions in the Far East in 1928 are given in the monthly Meteorological Bulletin for December.
No typhoon passed near Hong Kong in 1928, the greatest wind (gust) velocity during the year being at the rate of 76 m.p.h. from E by N at 23h. 20m. on July 14, when a typhoon, which had been approaching Hong Kong, curved to westward and passed about 100 miles South of the Observatory.
IV.-PUBLICATIONS.
Daily Weather Report and Map.-A weather map of the Far East, for 6 a.m. of the 120 meridian time, is constructed daily and lithographed at the Observatory. On the verso is printed the morning weather report, from about 40 stations in China, Indo-China, Japan, Borneo and the Philippines, and a weather forecast for the following districts:
1. Formosa Channel.
2. S.E. Coast of China between Hong Kong and
Lamocks.
3. Hong Kong to Gap Rock.
4. S. Coast of China between Hong Kong and Hainan.
This publication is exhibited on notice boards at the Hong Kong and Kowloon Ferry Piers, the Harbour Office, at the offices of the Cable Companies and, since November 18, 1927, at the General Post Office. Formerly copies were sent, free of charge, to subscribers to the "Daily Bulletin", but as on March 31 publication of this Bulletin ceased, arrangements were made by which local firms, and others interested in the Daily Weather Report and Map, should receive a copy through the Chamber of Commerce, on payment of an annual subscription of $10.00. At the close of the year there were 55 such subscribers. The Weather Report and Forecast, and all Storm Warnings are telephoned to Stone-cutters Wireless Station for transmission to ships on the China Station.
A weather map for 2 p.m. of the 120th. meridian time is also constructed daily. It is not published, but an evening weather report and forecast based thereon, is sent to the morn- ing papers and exhibited on the notice boards.
Meteorological observations from 26 stations in the Far East, followed by a Weather Report and Forecast, are broadcast by Cape d'Aguilar (V.P.S.) on a 600 metre spark at 0400 and 1200 G.M.T. A repetition of the 0400 message is made by V.P.S. on 2800 metres I.C.W. at 0500, and of the 1200 message on 2000 metres I.C.W. immediately following the 1300 time- signal.
*Changed from 800 metres on June 1.
- F 7
The Weather Reports and Forecasts are also broadcast by the Observatory Station (G.O.W.) on 300 metres telephony at 0548 and 1148 G.M.T.
Hong Kong Storm Warnings are broadcast by V.P.S. on a 600 metre spark on receipt, and at 18 minutes past every hour until 1600 G.M.T.
G.O.W. normally broadcasts these warnings on 300 metre telephony immediately following the 0548 and 1148 weather reports, but when Hong Kong local typhoon signals are dis- played they are, broadcast by telephony on receipt, and at 48 minutes past every hour until the signals are lowered.
Shanghai and Manila Warnings are broadcast by V.P.S. on a 600 metre spark on receipt, and repeated after an interval of 10 minutes. They are similarly broadcast by G.O.W. on 300 metres telephony when the Hong Kong local typhoon signals are displayed.
V.-WEATHER TELEGRAMS, FORECASTS AND STORM WARNINGS.
Daily Weather Telegrams. In addition to the ordinary 6h. and 14h. observations, which the Cable Companies transmit free of charge, the 11h. and 17h, observations were received at half rates from the following stations:-
Shanghai
Gutzlaff
Amov
Macao
Since August 15 the 2300 and 0700 G.M.T. observations from Fort Bayard, Phu-lien, Tourane, Cape Padaran and Cape St. James, and the 0300 and 0900 G.M.T. observations from the above, and about 12 other stations in Indo-China, have been received from Phu-lien on short wave.
This service is very valuable and ensures the early receipt of the observations, and at regular hours, namely:-at 0115, 0400, 0830 and 1015 G.M.T. It also saves the expense of obtaining the 0300 and 0900 G.M.T. observations by cable.
Other valuable services are the 2200 G.M.T. observations on short wave from Yangtze Ports, and several stations in N.E.. China sent personally by Father Gherzi S. J. of the Zi Ka Wei Observatory, and the 2100 G.M.T. observations from Pelew, Yap, Saipan and Ponape, sent on 1050 metres from the Pelew Observatory at 0200 G.M.T.
F 8
Since September 29 the 0600 and 2200 G.M.T. observations from Hoihow have
have been received by wireless telegraphy occasionally.
The Meteorological Authorities at Pratas continue to send, with commendable regularity and promptitude, their 6h., 11h., 14h., and 17h. observations and the 6h, observations from some Philippine stations. They also send hourly observations during the passage of a typhoon..
Though the number of observations received for construct- ing the daily weather maps has increased of late years, owing to the advent of wireless telegraphy, far more observations are still required before even approximately accurate maps can be drawn, showing kinks in the isobars, lines of discontinuity, cold fronts, warm fronts etc. At present the observations of temperature are SO few that no attempt is made to draw isotherms on the weather maps.
wireless
Proposals for the establishment of additional meteorological reporting stations are to be submitted to the Pan-Pacific Science Conference which will take place in Batavia next May, and to the Conference of British meteorologists, which is to take place in London next August.
Monsieur Jean Coffin, of the French Meteorological Service, while on a tour of the Far East in connection with an improved service of wireless meteorological broadcasts, visited the Observatory on January 31 and March 3. He informed me that the Tokio Observatory proposed to send the 6 a.m. observations from 20 stations in the Japanese Empire daily to the Naha Wireless Station, which would broadcast them on short wave, using the Hong Kong 6-letter telegraphic Code. He also stated that observations might be expected from a high power station in Hankow at an early date; no details of the above schemes are to hand.
Extra Weather Telegrams. The following stations send extra weather telegrams at half rates during typhoons, on receipt of certain code words from Hong Kong:-Amoy, Canton, Macao, Phu-lien, Sharp Peak and Taihoku. The Director of the Philippines Weather Bureau also sends extra telegrams, at his discretion, from Aparri or some other station nearer the typhoon centre. The 9 p.m. observations from Swatow, kindly sanctioned by the Chinese Telegraph Administration, were occasionally received; but usually on the next or following day. The Director of the Taihoku Observatory sends extra weather telegrams from the two stations in Formosa nearest to the centre during the passage of a typhoon.
F 9
Weather Telegrams from Ships by Radio.-The following table gives the monthly number of ships from which radio. meteorological messages have been received, and the number of messages received (each arrival and departure is counted. separately) :-
Mouth.
British (including H.M. Ships).
HL.M.S.
in ports..
Other National-
Total.
ities.
No. of ships.
No. of
messages.
No. of ships.
No. of
messages.
No. of ships.
No. of
messages.
No. of ships.
No. of
messages.
January,
44
137
18
63 31
95
93 295
February,
45
175
16
56
26
77
87
308
March,
203
14
83
37
118
107
404
April,
49.
153
23
19
73
317
May,
4.8
147
21
110 29.95
98
352
June,
8
215
+
821
30
131
145
428
July,
91
237
14
102
215
183 554
August,
257
13
115
18+
146 556
September,
290 16 108
195
164
593
October,
301 18 125 62 214
164
640
November,
75
322
20
116 64
302
159
740
December,
208 16 151 66 194 143 553
[1928,
789
2645 203 1202 588 1893
1580 5740
1927,
544
1802 154 1838 435 1386
1133 5026
Totals 1926,
1058
5216
831 2376 1889 8883
1925,
687 2199
752 1762 1439 3961
[1924,
665
1703
852 1667 1517 3370
Communication was effected on a wave-length of 600 metres until 1927, April 1st, and on 800 metres until 1928, May, 7th. Wave-lengths of 600 metres and 2,800 metres (H.M. Ships) have been employed since.
It will be seen that the number of British ships sending these messages increased from 698 in 1927 to 992 in 1928. The number of ships of other nationalities increased from 435 to 588.
F 10
Results of Weather Forecasts.-The results of comparison of the daily weather forecasts with the weather subsequently experienced are given below, together with the results of the previous five years:-
Year.
Complete Partial Success. Success.
Partial
Total
Failure. Failure.
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
AUNANG dlo
%
do
%
%
66
30
3
71
24.
5
62
34
4
72
26
70
26
4
66
3 I
3
нооооо
The forecast comprises wind direction, wind force, and weather. Complete success means correct in three elements. Partial success means correct in only two elements. Partial failure means correct in only one element. Total failure means correct in no element.
The method of analysis is described in the 1918 Report.
Storm Warnings. The symbols of the China Seas Non-local Storm Signal Code are displayed on Kowloon Signal Hill and on the roof of No. 49 Godown of the Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Co.
The following Ports are warned by a telegraphic adaptation of the code:-Shanghai, Sharp Peak, Swatow, Amoy, Santuao, Macao, Canton, Wuchow, Phu-lien, Taihoku, Manila, Labuan and Singapore. 103 storm warnings were sent in 1928. 187 were received from Manila, and 144 from Zikawei. responding numbers in 1927 were 136, 154 and 188 respectively.
The cor-
Calcutta was warned on August 26 and 27 of the passage of typhoons across Indo-China in a westerly direction.
The Day Signals of the Local Code are displayed at the following stations:--
Royal Observatory H.M.S. "Tamar" Gough Hill
Standard Oil Co., Lai Chi Kok Harbour Office
Green Island
Hong Kong and Kowloon
Wharf & Godown Co., Kowloon.
Field Officer's Quarters,
Lyemun.
·
F 11
The Night Signals are displayed at sunset, at the following stations:
Royal Observatory
Harbour Office
Railway Station
H.M.S. "Tamar"
Gough Hill
Field Officer's Quarters,
Lyemun (since 1928,
July).
They have the same signification as the day signals.
A translation of both Day and Night Signals is displayed at the General Post Office and at the Upper Tram Station.
When Local Signals are displayed in the Harbour signals are displayed at out-stations as follows:
When No. 1 Signal is displayed in the Harbour.
Red T by day.
2 Red Lights vertically by night.
When Nos. 2 to 7 Signals are displayed in the Harbour.
Black Cone by day..
2 Green Lights vertically by night.
These Signals are displayed at the following stations:---
Shataukok
Tai Po
Aberdeen
Cheung Chow
Gap Rock
Tsun Wan
Ping Shan
Tai O
Stanley Saikung
Waglan.
In the following table are given the number of times and number of hours the local signals were hoisted in each of the years 1924-1928 :-
Red Signals.
Black Signals.
Bombs.
Year.
Number of
tin-es
Number of hours displayed.
Number of
Number of hours
Number
of times
times.
displayed.
fired.
1924 1925
IO
1926
1927
1928
0 in inoo
186
4
85
128
3
57
50
4
103
I
169
61
58
:
F 12
The figures in the above table include the number of hours that night signals, corresponding to the day signals, were hoisted.
The red signal indicates that a depression or typhoon exists which may possibly cause a gale at Hong Kong within 24 hours. The black signals indicate that a gale is expected at Hong Kong.
Three bombs fired at intervals of 10 seconds indicate that wind of typhoon force is anticipated.
Arrangements were made early in the year 1927 for the more rapid dissemination of typhoon warnings by telephone. The Observatory now warns 6 stations, 3 of which are distributing stations. Of these one warns 7 stations, 3 of which are distribut- ing stations.
Of the latter, one warns 11 stations, 2 of which are distributing stations. In all 86 stations or officials are warned. This service requires specially qualified operators at the Exchanges, who come on duty when the red signal is hoisted.
Special forecasts and storm warnings were issued to the Far Eastern Flight during their passage from Singapore to Hong Kong and return, in November.
VI.-METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FROM SHIPS,
TREATY PORTS, &c.
Logs received. In addition to meteorological registers kept at about 40 stations in China, meteorological logs were received from 186 ships operating in the Far East. These logs, represent- ing 9425 days' observations have been utilised for amplifying the weather maps and verifying typhoon tracks. The corresponding figures for the year 1927 were 169 and 7221.
Comparison of Barometers.-The corrections to ships baro- meters are usually obtained by comparing their readings while at Hong Kong with those of the Observatory Standard. Oc- casionally ship captains bring their barometers to the Observatory to be compared with the Observatory Standard.
VII. MAGNETIC OBSERVATIONS.
Routine magnetic observations were discontinued at the Royal Observatory at the end of 1927. From the beginning of 1928 Magnetic horizontal force, declination and dip have been determined at the Au Tau Station weekly, when possible. The instruments used are a magnetometer by Cooke, Troughton and Simms, No. 31, and an Earth Inductor by the Cambridge Instru- ment Co. C65818. In the following table are given the annual values of the magnetic elements in 1928 as derived from 40 determinations :-
Declination (West) Dip (North)
Horizontal Force (C.G.S. unit)
Vertical Force (C.G.S. unit)
Tutal Force (C.G.S. unit)
#
0.43.1
30.38.8
0.37478
0.22207
0.43563
F 13
Photographic registration of declination, horizontal force and vertical force was commenced at Au Tau on January 31. The declination registers have been generally satisfactory, but the horizontal and vertical force traces are subject to derangements due to causes at present obscure. The range of temperature in the magnetograph house is too great. Superior insulation and thermostatic control of the inner chamber are desirable.
The assistance of the Officer-in-Charge of the Au Tau Police Station was kindly granted by the Captain Superintendent of Police for changing sheets, battery charging etc., but owing to Police staff changes and illness this plan was abandoned on July 1, when a Chinese attendant was engaged for the work and given quarters in the Police Station It has been difficult to impress upon the attendant the necessity for extreme care in handling photographic paper, and honesty and promptitude in reporting defects. In consequence much register has been lost, and although some improvement has been recently effected the pre- sent arrangements are unsatisfactory. It will ultimately be
necessary to adopt others of a more elaborate nature, if reliable results are to be obtained.
VIII.-TIME SERVICE.
Time Ball. The time ball on Kowloon Signal Hill is dropped at 10h, and 16h, daily, except on Saturdays when it is dropped at 10h. and 13h, and on Sundays and Holidays when it is dropped at 10h. only (120th Meridian Time).
The ball is hoisted half mast at the 55th minute and full mast at the 57th minute. If the ball fails to drop at the correct time it is lowered at 5 minutes past the hour and the ordinary routine repeated at the following hour, if possible.
Time signals are also given at night by means of three white lamps mounted vertically on the Observatory radio mast. The lights are extinguished momentarily every second from 20th 55m. to 21h., except at the 28th, 29th, 54th, 55th, 56th, 57th, 58th and 59th seconds, of each minute. During the alterations to the time ball tower (referred to in next paragraph) brighter lights were used for the lamp signals, and the programme was repeated at 10h. and 16h. in the hope that the signals would be observed from ships in the harbour by means of telescopes or binoculars. They were observed by certain ships to the S.E. of the Signal Hill but were not visible from the Harbour Office. The 21h. signals were repeated at midnight on December 31 the last signal indicating the close of the year 1928. The hours refer to Hong Kong Standard Time (8 hours East of Greenwich).
The time ball was dropped 365 times without failure. From April 29 to October 11 the apparatus was not in use, owing to alterations to the tower.
The error of the time ball due to accumulated error of the standard clock never exceeded Os.3 throughout the year.
F 14
M
The probable error of the time ball in each month of the past five years is given in the following table. During the period that the time ball was out of action the figures apply to the 10 a.m. radio signals.
Probable Error of the Time Ball.
Month.
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
January,
±0.26
±0.38
+0.13
±0.14
±0.13
February,
*13
*22
*18
12
*10
March,
*17
*22
*! I
*IO
April.....
*27
*16
13
'10
10
May,
*23
*10
14
*10
10
June,
*27
13
*20
July,
*21
10
'10
*IO
II
August..
*16
*IZ
12
20
September,
13
'IO
*10
*10
October,
*18
*12
I
*II
November,
14
•10
10
'10
*10
December,...
12
'10
*13
*13
*12
Means,
±0.19 ±0.15 +0'12
+0*12
+0*12
Time Signals by Radio-Telegraphy. In addition to the time signals given by the time ball, and on the radio mast, signals are broadcast at 10h. and 21h. by radio-telegraphy, via Cape D'aguilar. Particulars of the programme are given in Govern- ment Notification No. 322 of 1.6.28.
On December 27 it was found that the programme wheel of the time-signal clock was one second in advance of the second hand. In consequence the radio time signals and the lamp signals have been one second early, probably since May 10, when adjustments were made. This error was eliminated on December 27.
311 observations of the rhythmic radio time signals emitted by Nauen at 8h. a.m., Hong Kong Standard Time, have been made during the year and 80 observations of a similar signal emitted by Bordeaux at 4 p.m. Hong Kong Standard Time.
The observations have been utilized for clock regulation during cloudy weather and have been tabulated for longitude determination. This cannot be completed until the errors of the time signals are received.
F 15
The results of observations made in 1927 are as follows:-
Station.
No. of bservations.
Deduced Longitude of Hong Kong.
h.
m.
S.
Nauen
332
7. 36. 41.20 E
Bordeaux
80
7. 36. 41.32. E
Transit Instrument.-Routine transit and level observations were made by the Chinese computers throughout the year. The Collimation and Azimuth determinations and occasional transit observations were made by the Chief and First Assistants.
The number of observations in the years 1927 and 1928 was as follows:
Transits
Level determinations
Azimuth determinations (mark) Azimuth determinations (transits
of circumpolar stars) ...
Collimation determinations (mark).
1927 1928
1156 1200
566
620
42 31
121 276
44 41
Clocks. Sidereal Clock Cottingham and Mercer, No. 507, has been in use as the Observatory Standard throughout the year. Its performance has been marked by a steady increase of losing rate, with superposed fluctuations corresponding to varia- tions of pressure in the clock case due to temperature changes. No increase of pressure due to leakage in the case has been observed. The losing rate varied from+0s.29 (on February 25) to0s.89 (on October 9). The clock tripped on three occasions owing to defects in the remontoire batteries.
The Sidereal Clock Dent 39741 stopped on November 17 and November 18. It was cleaned and oiled on November 19, since when it has gone without further interruption. The rate has been altered as found necessary in order to keep its error approx- imately the same as Cottingham.
The Mean Time Clock, Leroy 1350, was used for dropping the time ball, maintaining the electric time service in the Obser- vatory, and sending hourly signals to the Railway, the Post Office, the Telephone Co., and the Eastern Extension Telegraph Co. The clock is corrected daily before 10h. and 16h. by the electric -regulating apparatus. The daily rate of the pendulum is kept below 0.5 sec. by the addition or withdrawal of weights. Mean Time Clock Dent, 39740, has been corrected daily and its rate regulated as in the case of Leroy 1350.

F 16
Batteries, Power Supply, &c.-The necessary current for the Time Service has been supplied by accumulator batteries, charged as found necessary from the alternating mains of the China Light and Power Co., Ltd., by the rotary converter or the Tungar rectifier.*
IX.-MISCELLANEOUS.
Seismograph.-No alterations were made to the seismograph during the year. New needle points were fitted as required. As against 202 in 1927, 183 earthquakes were recorded during the year 1928, one of which was felt at Hong Kong; at 10.58.30 p.m. on January 29. During a severe earthquake which occurred about 2500 kms. from Hong Kong, in the early morning of March 10, the seismogram showed an amplitude in a N-S direction of 98 mms. and in an E-W direction 78 mms.
The seismograms have been forwarded to the President of the International Seismological Committee, Oxford, to be dealt with.
Upper Air Research.-64 Balloon ascents were made during the year.
69 temperature flights were made in aeroplanes by Officers of the R.A.F., Kai Tak, and 2 by Officers of H.M.S. "Hermes". On July 23 Flying Officer F.M.V. May reached a height of 19,000 feet in 109 minutes, the temperature at this height being 25°7 (F).
The results of the Pilot balloon observations have been forwarded to the Secretary of the International Commission for the exploration of the upper air.
The results of the temperature flights have been tabulated and plotted. They show a mean lapse rate of 2.°78 (F) per thousand feet, up to 15,000 feet, in the Spring and 3.°00 (F) in the Summer. In the Autumn and Winter the observations are not sufficiently numerous to admit the calculation of even ap- proximate mean values. The lapse rate of relative humidity is extremely variable in all seasons of the year. During the passage through cloud an increase of humidity will naturally be recorded, but even on clear days there appears to be no definite lapse rate, the humidity curves for individual flights being very irregular. On August 22, though cumulus clouds was prevalent up to 20,000 feet, the humidity fell from 84% at 7,000 feet to 33% at 14,000 feet. On several occasions a dry layer was found from 10,000 to 13,000 feet, between wet layers.
The following days were selected by the International Com- mission as days for international ascents:-March 12-17, July 17-19 and November 12-17. March was chosen as the "inter- national month". From March 12-17 and November 12-17 the weather at Hong Kong was cloudy.
Visitors. His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government and Mrs. Southorn visited the Observatory on October 12.
F 17
Flying Officer Vanghan Fowler R.A.F. came to interview the Director on February 23 in connection with the meteorolo- gical needs of a proposed civil aviation company for Hong Kong.
Professor G. Fenzel visited the Observatory on March 31 in connection with the establishment of meteorological stations throughout Kwangtung.
Lieut: Commander J. H. Drummond R.N., the newly ap- pointed Superintendent of the Chart and Chronometer Depart- ment of the Naval Yard and representative of the Air Ministry, visited the Observatory on August 30.
Group' Captain Cave Brown Cave R.A.F. and Officers of the Far Eastern Flight visited the Observatory on November 24 and 27, to enquire as to weather conditions. The flight to Indo-China was delayed by a typhoon in the China Sea.
Staff. No change occurred in the European or Local Staff during the year. Mr. B. D. Evans, First Assistant, was on
leave of absence from March 24 to December 23. ·
Expenditure. The annual expenditure on the Observatory for the past ten years is as follows:
Year.
Total Expenditure.
Increase.
Decrease.
C.
C.
C.
1919
23,450.57
3,422.33
1920
25,965.66
2,515.09
1921
32,700.51
6,734.85
1922
38,350.10
5,649.59
1923
38,522.58
172.48
1924
52,638.49
14,115.91
1925
46955.51
10,682.98
1926
45,158.87
3,203.36
1927
36,664.99
8,493.88
1928
35.434.52
1,230.47
Acknowledgements.-Acknowledgements are here made to the Naval Authorities for their co-operation in securing daily observations from II.M. ships and upper air temperatures by ineans of sea planes; to the Directors of Weather Services in the Far East, and the Chinese Maritime Customs Authorities, for daily observations by cable and radio-telegraphy, and extra ob- servations during typhoon weather, to the Telegraph Companies for transmitting the majority of the observations free of charge, to the Commauders of vessels who have furnished meteorological observations by post and by radio-telegraphy, to the Directors of the various Observatories and Institutions, and private persons, who have presented their publications to the Library, and to the Observatory staff for the efficient manner in which they have carried out their respective duties.
21st February, 1929.
T. F. CLAXTON,
Director.
Appendix G.
REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR OF THE SUPREME
COURT FOR THE YEAR 1928.
1. ORIGINAL JURISDICTION.
Three hundred and twenty (320) actions were instituted in this division of the Court during the year 1928, as against 410 in 1927. One hundred and thirty six (136) were disposed of during the year and 81 were settled or withdrawn before trial as against 185 and 80 respectively in 1927.
The claims amounted to $2,994,331.20.
The debts and damages recovered amounted to $1,200,768.02, as against $2,651,486.11 in 1927.
The fees collected amounted to $14,924.50, as against $18,760.80 in 1927.
Tables setting out in detail the figures contained in this and the following paragraphs are printed on pages 01, 02, Y2 and Y3 of the Blue Book for the year 1928.
2.--SUMMARY JURISDICTION.
Two thousand and ten (2,010) actions were instituted during the year as against 1,857 in 1927.
The cases were disposed of as follows:-Settled or with- drawn 531, Judgment for the Plaintiff 945, Judgment for the Defendant 48, Nonsuit 8, Struck off, Dismissed or Lapsed 44, and Pending 434; as against 447, 861, 46, 8, 47 and 448 respectively in 1927.
The claims amounted to $589,941.93, as against $557,994.12 in 1927, and the amounts recovered were $284,808.69, as against $251,590.09 in 1927.
The number of Rent Distress Warrants issued was 1,447, representing unpaid rents amounting to $261,853.11, of which $58,930.39 was recovered by enforced sales in 481 Warrants; as against 1,334, $307,287.79 and $80,569.92 respectively in 1927.
Nine hundred and nine (909) Warrants were withdrawn on settlement between the parties as against 813 in 1927, and the remaining Warrants were cancelled or otherwise disposed of.
The fees collected amounted to $22,577.20, as against $20,966.70 in 1927.
G 2
3. CRIMINAL JURISDICTION.
There were 91 cases and 118 persons committed for trial at the Criminal Sessions, as against 112 and 199 respectively in 1927.
The number of persons actually indicted was 118 of whom 73 were convicted, 41 were acquitted, 3 discharged (case abandoned), and one person's trial was postponed. In 1927 the figures were respectively 112, 47, 39 and one bail forfeited.
4.-APPELLATE JURISDICTION.
Six appeals were lodged during the year.
Of the six, two were granted and the remaining four were withdrawn or settled.
5.-ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION.
Twenty nine actions were instituted during the year.
In eight cases judgment was given for the Plaintiff, in three cases for the Defendant, fourteen were settled or withdrawn and the others are pending.
The fees collected amounted to $1,378.65, as against $650.25 in 1927.
6.-PROBATE AND ADMINISTRATION,
Two hundred and forty eight (248) grants were made by the Court being:-
Probate
Letters of Administration
104
144
248
The figures in 1927 were respectively 138 and 161.
Court fees amounted to $21,247.20 and Official Administra- tor's Commission to $1,989.30. The figures in 1927 were $18,917.20 and $393.04.
During the year there were 321 Deceased Estates Accounts on the Court books. The invested funds for these Estates totalled $7,000.00 and the cash balances $133,292.89.
32 Accounts were closed during the year and 148 new Accounts were opened. Two Estates were transferred to Trusts Account.
1
G 3
7.-OFFICIAL TRUSTS.
The number of Trust Estates in the hands of the Official Trustee at the end of the year was 23. The invested funds totalled $165,594.50 and the cash balances $7,321.69. One trust was wound up during the year and two new trusts were
opened.
The amount of commission collected was $753.67 as against $151.02 in 1927.
8-REGISTRAR OF COMPANIES.
On the 31st December there were 544 companies on the Hong Kong Register, of which 56 were in course of liquidation. During the year 70 new companies were put on the Register and 38 struck off. No company was transferred from the Shanghai to the Hong Kong Register and one company from the Hong Kong to the Shanghai Register.
The fees collected in respect of "China" companies amounted to $89,341.76, and those in respect of other companies to $18,152.90.
One firm was registered under the Chinese Partnerships Ordinance, 1911, and no firm was registered under the Limited Partnerships Ordinance, 1912.
Deposits to the total value of $3,883,000 have been made by Insurance Companies under the Fire and Marine Insurance Companies Deposit Ordinance, 1917.
9.-FEES AND COMMISSION.
The total sum collected during the year by way of fees and commission amounted to $101,624.20 as against $96,254.96 in the previous year.
10.-STAFF.
Mr. Justice Wood, Puisne Judge, was absent on long leave from 28th April to 31st December, and Mr. P. Jacks, Land Officer, acted as Puisne Judge during this period.
Mr. H. A. Nisbet, Registrar, left Colony on 23rd June on long leave prior to retirement on pension and retired on pension on 19th October. Mr. C. D. Melbourne, Deputy Registrar, acted as Registrar from 23rd June.
Mr. T. M. Hazlerigg, Treasury Solicitor, was appointed Deputy Registrar on 1st April.
Mr. E. P. H. Lang was appointed Deputy Registrar on his arrival in the Colony on 11th October.
G 4
Mr. W. R. N. Andrews, 1st Class Overseer, P. W. D., was appointed Accountant on 1st April.
Mr. R. W. H. Maynard, Clerk to the Chief Justice, was absent on long leave from 31st March to 31st December, and Mr. W. Thomson acted as Clerk to the Chief Justice during this period.
Mr. T. F. O'Sullivan, Second Bailiff, was invalided from the service on 9th March.
Mr. W. J. Gorvin, Bailiff, left the Colony on 8th June on half pay leave prior to retirement and retired on 9th December. Post abolished.
Mr. E. L. Stainfield, Clerk and Usher, returned from long leave on 10th October, Mr. R. Cunningham, acting Clerk and Usher returned to Police on 1st October.
Mr. E. A. Roberts, Clerk and Usher, proceeded to Shanghai on leave from 11th to 30th April and did not return. Mr. W. H. G. Hirst was appointed Clerk and Usher on probation on 1st August.
-
Table showing total number of Cases dealt with and Expenditure and Revenue of the Supreme Court.
(From 1918 to 1928).
Expenditure
Revenue
G 5 -
Total
Number
Year.
Percentage
of Revenue
of cases
dealt with
to
Total
Increase
Decrease
Total
Increase
Decrease Expenditure
*
$
$
ရာ
%
1918...
1919.
931
98,28 1.40
1,381.48*68,032.72
19,697.91
69
982
98,844.23
1920.
872 | 113,082.79
562.83
14,238.56
*61,305.87
6,726.85
62
*55,957.31
5,348.56
49
1921.
851 118,782.72
5,699.93
*58,830.97
2,873.66
49
1922.
827
126,424.34
7,641.62
*60,448.59
1,617.62
47
1923.
962 128,838.62
2,414.28
*69,955.20
9,506.61
54
1924.
1,549
136,136.69
7,298.07
*89,624.99
19,669.79
65
1925
1,908 150,698.14
14,561.45
i
*121,606.20
31,981.21
80
1926
3,416 133,680.40
17,017.74 *117,252.61
4,353.59
87
1927.
2,267 141,493.29
1928
2,330 165,114.93
7,812.89
23,621.64
*96,254.96
20,997.65
68
*101,624.20
5,369.24
62
C. D. MELBOURNE, Registrar, Supreme Court,
*Not including amounts paid direct to Treasury for fees in respect of Licences to keep Local Registers and China Companies Fees by the Registrar of Companies under the Companies Ordinances, 1911 and 1925.
28TH FEBRUARY, 1929.
G (1) 1
REPORT OF THE OFFICIAL RECEIVER AND
REGISTRAR OF TRADE MARKS AND LETTERS
PATENT FOR THE YEAR 1928.
BANKRUPTCY.
New Business.
1. New bankruptcy business during the last year has been considerably smaller in volume than that during 1927, the assets for distribution among creditors only amounting to a sum of approximately twenty six thousand dollars, as against four hundred and forty nine thousand dollars in 1927, and the estimated liabilities to two hundred and seven thousand, as against two million seven hundred and eighty eight thousand dollars.
Fees.
2. The fees received for Official Receiver's commission,. however, amounted approximately to twenty thousand dollars, constituting a record for this office, at any rate, during the last 10 years.
This is accounted for by the revenue derived from winding up the large estates which went into bankruptcy during the year 1927, and the distribution of which had not been com- pleted during that period.
Bankruptcy discharge.
3. Nothing of particular significance occurred in bankruptcy administration during the period under review, but the pro- nouncement made at the beginning of the year by the Chief Justice, that it was intended in future to enforce the provision, peculiar to the local legislature, contained in sub-section (2). of section 27 of the Ordinance, (which provides in effect that where a debtor does not of his own accord apply for his discharge within a reasonable time, the Court may compel him to do so) will probably have considerable effect, and will, except in cases of genuine misfortune, make bankruptcy a rather less attractive and more hazardous undertaking than hitherto has been the case. Many bankruptcy offences only arise when discharge is applied for.
5
G (1) 2
4. Comparative figures for the year 1927 and 1928 are given
below:
Companies Liquidation.
Bankruptcy.
Year
Petitions for winding up
| | Winding up Orders
Total Number of
Petitions
Creditors' Petitions
| Debtors' Petitions Total number of receiving orders
1928
1927
Public
examinations
Adjudications
Arrangement
Schemes of
Petitions
withdrawn
Petitions
dismissed
27
19
8
13
10
6
2
10
1
1 39
26
13 25
27
15
1
3
7
1
LO
5
$ 26,819.28
1
2
207,887.22 5,562.75 20,080.40
449,097.52 | 2,788,520.55 |6,414.90 | 14,960.87
TRADE MARKS & LETTERS PATENT.
Revenue.
5. The revenue derived from the registration of trade marks, namely approximately $10,000, was about up to the average.
German marks.
6. A feature of the year was the large proportion of appli- cations for registration of trade marks by German firms, these amounting no less than 109 out of a total of 497 of all nationali- ties, or 21.93% as against a percentage of 16.90% for 1927. This would appear to indicate a further revival or contemplated revival of German trade in the Far East.
;
Appendix H.
REPORT OF THE POLICE MAGISTRATES COURTS
FOR THE YEAR 1928.
(Victoria)
Mr. R. E. Lindsell acted as First Police Magistrate and Coroner from the 1st January to 21st May and from 6th June to the end of the year.
Major C. Willson, O.B.E. acted as Second Police Magistrate from the 1st January to the end of the year in addition to his duties as First Clerk.
Lt. Col: F. Eaves D.S:0. acted as First Police Magistrate and Coroner from 22nd May to 5th June during the absence of Mr. R. E. Lindsell (on vacation leave).
(Kowloon)
Mr. W. Schofield acted as Police Magistrate, Kowloon from the 1st January to 12th November.
Mr. E. I. Wynne-Jones acted as Police Magistrate from 13th to 24th November.
Mr. E. W. Hamilton acted as Police Magistrate, Kowloon from 26th November to the end of the year.
Mr. W. F. Kerr acted as First Clerk from the 1st January to 30th September.
Mr. D. Ogilvie acted as First Clerk from 1st October to the end of the year.
The number of cases was 28.468 as compared with 32,122 in 1927 and the Revenue was $163,216.82 as compared with $223,811.97 in 1927.
Table I shows the total number of cases tried and the Revenue and Expenditure of the Magistracy for the years 1919-1928.
Table II gives a return of punishments awarded in respect of different classes of offences during the year.
Table III gives an abstract of cases under cognizance of the Police Magistrates' Courts during the year.
Table IV shows the number of offences under various Ordinances tried during the year.
Table V gives an abstract of cases brought under cognizance of the Police Magistrates' Courts during the last ten years.
E. W. HAMILTON,
First Police Magistrate.
26th February, 1929.
– H 2 —
EXPENDITURE.
YEAR,
Total. Increase.
Decrease.
Total.
Table I.
Table showing total Number of Cases tried in, and Expenditure and Revenue of the Magistracy for the years 1919 to 1928.
REVENUE.
Percentage
of Ex-
penditure
to Revenue.
Increase. Decrease.
Total
Number
of Cases
tried.
C. $ C.
$
$
$


1919
40,774.23*
1920.
1921
45,539.94* 4,765.71 21,867.02*
1922
1923.
1924.
1925
1926
...
...
24,694.04* 2,827.02 24,532.48* 30,069.20* 5,536.72 36,520.85* 6,451.65 15,665.69*
29.95 | 90,851.35* 21,247.97 103,132.51* 12,281.15
23,672.92 149,195.72*| 46,063.21 159,928.50* 10,832.68
261,372.23 76,446.08 211,227.43*
1927.
3,724.58
1928.
3,737.63
12,998
44.77
15,304
44.15
17,374
14.65
18,221
15.44
161.56 184,926.15* 24,998.65
21,811
13.27
27,877
11.50
50,144.80
25,989
17.29
20,855.16 233,529.18* 22,301.75 11,911.38 223,811.97
30,516
6.71
...
9,717,21
32,122
1.66
13.05
...
163,216.82
60,595.15
28,468
2.29
*Cases tried in New Territories Courts not included..
|
Table II.
HONG KONG, KOWLOON AND NEW TERRITORIES.
RETURN of PUNISHMENTS awarded in respect of CERTAIN CLASSES of OFFENCES, during the Year.
PUNISHMENTS.
Offences against
Assaults
and other
offences
Description.
Number of
each kind
inflicted.
against
the
Malicious
injuries to
property.
Gam-
property other than malicious
bling.
person.
injuries to pro- perty or predial larceny.
Offences against Revenue Acts, Highway Acts, Health Acts, and
other Acts relating to the social economy of the colony.
Offences against
Masters and
Servants Acts,
Other
including Acts
offen.
relating to
ces.
indentured
coolies.
Fines,
22,067
141
12
1,527
142
1,969
18,271
Imprisonment in lieu
of fine or security,
64
1
9
19
...
24
Peremptory Imprison- ment,
· 4,598
98
11
143
1,738
727
4
1,877
Whipping,
420
6
2
6
154
74
178
Juvenile Prison,
:
Expelled from the
Colony,
1
...
:
...
:
:
Sentenced to House of
Detention,
48
:
:
1
.:
48
...
Bound over with or
without Sureties,
610
199
1
TOTAL,..
27,808
448
227
27
1,688
3
2,079
38
2,797
8
3
358
12
20,757
|
H 3 —
..
CLASSIFICATION OF OFFENCES.
TOTAL NUMBER
OF CASES.
TOTAL NUMBER OF PRISONERS.
Convicted and
Punished.
Discharged.
H 4
Table III.
ABSTRACT of CASES under COGNIZANCE of the POLICE MAGISTRATES' COURTS during the Year 1928.
CASES, HOW DISPOSED OF, AND THE NUMBER OF MALE AND FEMALE PRISONERS UNDER EACH HEAD.
Ordered to find Security.
WRITS ISSUED BY THE POLICE MAGISTRATES DURING THE YEAR.
Warrants.
Committed for Trial
at the Supreme Court.
Committed to Prison or Detained pending Orders of H.E. the Governor.
To keep the Peace.
M.
F.
М.
F. M.
F. M. F. M. F.
To be of Good Behaviour.
To answer
any Charge.
Witnesses punished for preferring False Charge or giving wilful False Testimony.
---Undeci‹ied.
M. F. M. F.
M.
Assaults and
other offences
against the person,........ Malicious injuries to property, Gambling,
Offences against property other
than malicious injuries to property or predial larceny, Offences against Revenue Acts,] Highway Acts, Health Acts, and other Acts, relating to the social economy of the Colony,
489
31
621 229 20
32
149 9 14 1
25 1
5
:
580 1,886 1,652
33
191
4
2,459 | 2,683 | 1,983
58
500
63 41
2,475 2,551 | 2,177
68
295
Offences against Opium Ordin- ance No. 30 of 1923, Offences against Masters and ServantsActs, including Acts, relating to indentured coo- lies,..... Other offences,
563
614
508
36
63
191
6
2
I
N****
2
1
10
5 2 | 27
1 3
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
*
::
:
:

1
37
26
a
14
GO
:
21,829 22,863 |19,608789 | 1,937|136 29
6
184 16 121
6
27 4
...
Total,
28,468 31,276 26,191 1005 3,157 222 84 1 6
386 24 152
7
37
:
:
19
:
:
116
...
135
:
:
:
:
* TOTAL MALES AND FEMALES,
* Consisting of Offenders not sentenced to Imprisonment.
1
:
F.

Total Number of Prisoners.
M.
F'.
M.
F.
Summons for Defendants.
Summons for Witnesses.
Notices of Re-hearing.
Arrest.
Distress.
Search.
For entering
Gambling Houses.
Magistrates' Orders.
TOTAL.
585
36 [12,738 | 64
6 249 S1595 555
86 14,374
· 31
1,849
37
2,559
124
2,498 72
572 42
...
...
26
|22,028 951
30,148 | 1,263 12,738 | 64 6249 81595 555
86 14,374
31,411
OFFENCES.
Table IV.
POLICE COURTS.
LIST of OFFENCES TRIED during the year 1928.
No. OF
CASES.
No. of
PRI-
SONERS.
OFFENCES.
No. of
CASES.
No, OF
PRI-
SONERS.
# 5
-
Brought forward,
208
241
Accessories and Abettors Ordinance-3 of 1865
00
8 Common Law Offences
99
90
100
Advertisement Regulation Ordinance-19 of 1922
2
10
2
Coroners Abolition Ordinance-5 of 1888..
1
Arms and Ammunition Ordinance-2 of 1900, — Contraventions of
Corrupt Practices Ordinance-4 of 1865
1
.1
93
333333
128
Criminal Intimidation Ordinance-13 of 1920..
10
10
Asiatic Emigration Ordinance -30 of 1915
1
2
Criminal Procedure Ordinance-9 of 1899
9
19
Boarding House Ordinance-23 of 1917
46
45
Dangerous Goods Ordinance-1 of 1873-
Chinese Extradition Ordinance -7 of 1889
G
6
Contraventions of Regulations made thereunder.
36
39
Chinese Marriage Preservation Ordinance-42 of 1912
17
15
Dangerous Drugs Ordinance-22 of 1923
19
19
Chinese Publication Ordinance-15 of 1907
1
Defence (Sketching Prevention) Ordinance-1 of 1895
4
Coinage Offences Ordinance-7 of 1×65.-
Deportation Ordinance- 25 of 1917
235
237
Offences relating to the King's gold and silver coin, (Sections 3-12)
31
31
Dogs Ordinance-5 of 1893,—
Contraventions of
947
947
(
21-32)
1
1
}}
Emergency Regulations Ordinance-5 of 1922.
10
10
Cinematograph Film Ordinance-23 of 1923.
2
Carried forward
208
241
Carried forward,...
1,570 1.611
OFFENCES.
Table IV,-Continued.
LIST of OFFENCES, etc.,—Continued.
No. of
CASES.
NO. OF
PRI-
SONERS.
OFFENCES.
No, OF
CASES.
No. of
PRI-
SONERS
- H+6 —
Brought forward.
1,570 | 1.611
Brought forward,
2,260 3,60
Eating House rdinance - 9 of 1911
Employers and Servants Ordinance-45 of 1902,- Proceedings under
13
14
Gunpowder and Fireworks Ordinance—14 of 1991.— Contraventions of and Offences under
15
17
34
22 Importation and Exportation Ordinance-32 of 1915
1
1
Explosive Substance Ordinance-23 of 1913.
1
1
Indecent Exhibition Ordinance-3 of 1918
7
5
Extradition Act Ordinance-1870-1906
I
1
Interpretation Ordinance-31 of 1911
10
2
2
Ferry Ordinance-28 of 1917
10
11
Larceny Ordinance-5 of 1865,—
Larceny by Bailee (Section 4)
Female Domestic Service Ordinance—1 of 1523
Forest Fire Prevention Ordinance - 5 of 1917
2
**
Simple Larceny
Larceny of cattle and other animals. (Sections 9—17).. of things attached to or growing on land, (Sections 22-28)
13
13
1,295 | 1,406
4
4
222
261
Forgery Ordinance—11 of 1922—(Sections 2—3).
Larceny from the person and similar Offences,
4-8).
(Sections 29-37)
377
400
Uttering forged bank notes, (Section
9).
10-15)..
Sacrilege, Burglary and house breaking, (Sections 38-47)
78
91
""
16-21).
12
Larceny in dwelling houses. (Sections 48-49).
59
57
"
22-28).
י,
Fugitive Offenders Act., 1881
Fisheries (dynamite) Ordinance-4 of 1911
in ships, Wharves, &c., (Sections 50-53) or embezzlement by clerks, servants, &c., (Sections 54-60)
Frauds by bankers, agents, &c., (Sections 62–74) Obtaining property by false pretences, (Sec. 75–78)...| Receiving stolen property, (Sections 79—87)
10
12
72
77
25
26
60
66
243
269
Gambling Ordinance-2 of 1891.— Contraventions of and Offences under
580 1.886
Carried forward,
2.260 3,64
Carried forward,
4.743 6,311
i
OFFENCES.
Table IV,-Continued.
LIST of OFFENCES, ETC., Continued.
NUMBER No. of
OF
PRI-
CASES. SONERS.
OFFENCES.
NUMBER No. of
OF
PRI-
CASES. SONERS.
I 7 -
Brought forward,.......
4,743 6,341
Brought forward,..
||12,810 14,545
Apprehension of Offender's and other proceeding, (Sections 91–97).
Marrried Women (Maintenance in case of desertion)
1
Ordinance-10 of 1905,-
Proceedings under
*6*
6
Legal Practitioners Ordinance--1 of 1871
3
Medical Registration Ordinance→1 of 1884.
1
Licensing Ordinance--8 of 1887,- Contraventions of and Offences under
4,181 4,252
Merchant Shipping Ordinance—10 of 1899,-
99
of Regulations made thereunder
2,393 2,398
Liquor Licence Ordinance-9 of 1911,- Contraventions of and Offences under
Contraventions of and Offences under Part VI, (Sections 21-30).
Contraventions of Regulations made thereunder
***
25
29
Part I,
(Sections 3-40)
68
'Part II, (Sections 41-73)
46
III. (
74-96)
52
}
Liquor Amendment Ordinance—16 of 1927-
Magistrates Ordinance-3 of 1890,- Offences under ...
88
66
49
Merchandise Marks Ordinance-4 of 1890.- Contraventions of and Offences under
20
16
55
86
98
Misdemeanour. Punishment Ordinance-1 of 1898,- Offences under
104
102
New Territories (Regulations) Ordinance - 34 of 1910
-
11.
11
1,181 | 1,245
Maintenance Order Ordinance-9 of 1921
Malicious Damage Ordinance-6 of 1865.-
1
1
Offences against the person Ordinance-2 of 1865.- Homicide, (Sections 2-9)
Attempt to murder (Sections 10-14)
4.
Injuries by rea or River banks etc., (Sec. 25—26) Miscellaneous injuries, (Sections 42--44)
Acts causing or tending to cause danger to life, &c., (Sections 16-31)
...་་་་
19.
31
29
30
Assaults, (Sections 32-43).
......་
397
518
Forcible taking or detention of persons, (Sections
Marine Store Protection Ordinance-13 of 1919.
24. 31
44-45).
12.
15
Carried forward
12.810 14,545
Carried forward,.
|13,421 |15,291
OFFENCES.
Table IV,—Continued.
LIST of OFFENCES, ETC.,-Continued.
NUMBER No. of
OF
PRI-
CASES. SONERS.
Brought forward
Opium Ordinance-30 of 1923.—
Contraventions of, Part II, (Sections 4-
8)
"}

III, (
IV. (
""
9-20)
21-43)
Ordinance-7 of 194 (Raw Opium)
Pawn Brokers Ordinance-1 of 1860,-
Contraventions of
Plant Ordinance-11 of 1920
Pharmacy Ordinance 9 of 1916
Piers Ordinance-11 of 1899
OFFENCES.
NUMBER No. of
OF
PRI-
CASES, SONERS.
Brought forward,
...-
...
14,096 16,019
13,421| 15,291
Prison Ordinance-4 of 1899,-
Offences under
7
476
ིི ༤༧ ཻ་ ༤
32
523
Prohibited Area Ordinance-12 of 1927
1
I
2
86
Protection of Women and Girls Ordinance-1 of 1897,- Offences under
167
174
35
30
Public Health and Buildings Ordinance-1 of 1903,— Contraventions of Part I, (Sections 1-7)
18
18
I
1
,.
""
"
}}
3
11
13
II, (
III. (
VI, (
8-95)
543
584
96-250)
58
62.
"
255-264)
23
20
Failure to comply with B. A. Notice
3
3
1
S. B.
132
131
99
""
""
Piracy Prevention Ordinance-23 of 1914
Piracy Ordinance Sec. 7 Will. IV & Vict, Chap. 88..
Police Force Ordinance-11 of 1900,—
1 Public Places Regulation Ordinance-2 of 1870,- Contraventions of Regulations made thereunder

3
Perjury Ordinance-21 of 1922
Offences under
29
*
36 | Railway Ordinance-21 of 1909
Prevention of Crimes Ordinance-4 of 1887
1
1 Registration of Persons Ordinance-35 of 1923..
Regulation of Chinese Ordinance-3 of 1888,-
10
11
3
2
8
10
9
1
"}
Offences under Part
I, (Sections 1-17)
1
1
V, (
VII, (
"}
22-28).
50-51)
99
103
...
Carried forward,
|15,177 17,154
Post Office Ordinance-6 of 1900,- Contraventions of and Offences under
Printers and Publishers Ordinance-1 of 1886
Carried forward,..
14,096 16,019
- H 8-
OFFENCES.
Table IV,-Continued.
List of OFFENCES, ETC.,—Continued.
NO OF
No. of
CASES,
PRI-
SONERS,
OFFENCES.
No. of
No. of
CASES. SONERS, PRI-
6 H -
Brought forward,
15,177 17.154
Brought forward,
20,967 23,763
River Steamer Ordinance-6 of 1895
2
11
Theatres and Public Performance Ordinance-18 of 1908
1
1
Rogue and Vagabond 5 Geo. IV, c. 83
15
18
Tobacco Ordinance-10 of 1916
55
56
Sale of Food and Drugs Ordinance-8 of 1896
11
11
Tramways Ordinance~10 of 1902,—
Contraventions of Offences under.
5
Seditious Publication Ordinance-6 of 1914
18
26
Travellers Restriction Ordinance-19 of 1915
**
Servant Quarters Ordinance-11 of 1903,-
Offences under
7 Vagrancy Ordinance-9 of 1897, Proceedings under
85
69
*
Servant Character Acts Ordinance--3 of 1873
1
Societies Ordinance-8 of 1920
11
36
Vehicles and Traffic Regulation Ordinance--40 of 1912,- Contraventions of Regulations made thereunder
6,5636,585
and Offences
749
753
""
"
11
Stamp Ordinance-8 of 1921—
Offences under
33
83
Watchman Ordinance-6 of 1928
9
*9
Stonecutters Island Ordinance -4 of 1889
3
Water Works Ordinance-16 of 1903.
Offences under
11
12
Stowaways Ordinance-5 of 1903.- Offences under
26
43
Weights and Measures Ordinance-2 of 1885,- Contraventions of and Offences under
18
18
Summary Offences Ordinance—! of 1845,
Nuisances, Trespasses
and Similar
Offences.
(Sections 3-21)
Offences against good order, (Sections 22 −35)
Possession of stolen goods, (Sections 36–41)
Proceedings under Miscellaneous Provisions, (Mections
4.954 5,392 253 537
109 439
Wild Birds and game preservation Ord.—6 of 1885 Undecided Cases
2
2
135
135
42-51)
2
Carried forward.
20,967
|=3,763
TOTAL.
28,603 31,411
Appendix I
REPORT OF THE LAND OFFICER AND REGISTRAR OF MARRIAGES FOR THE YEAR 1928.
REGISTRATION.
1.-(1) During the year four thousand seven hundred and ninety eight (4,798) instruments were registered under the pro- visions of Ordinance No. 1 of 1844,—an increase of 170 on the preceding year.
(2). The total number of instruments registered under the provisions of the above mentioned Ordinance (since 1844) to the end of the year 1928 was 113,126.
(3). The number of instruments registered each year during the last ten years is shewn in Table I.
2. The total consideration on sales, mortgages, surrenders and miscellaneous land transactions amounted to $140,481,255.63 particulars of which are shewn in Table II.
GRANTS OF LAND.
1. The total area of land leased during the year under review was 462 Acres 1 Rood and 12 poles, of which 393 Acres and 38 poles were dealt with by the District Officers.
2. Particulars of grants surrenders and resumptions during the year are shewn on pages W I and 2 of the Blue Book for 1928.
SURRENDERS.
Sixty four (64) Surrenders of land required for public pur- poses (including Surrenders under Contracts of Exchange) were prepared and registered in the Land Office, the total considera- tion for those required for public purposes amounting to $46,690.98.
CROWN LEASES.
1. Two hundred and thirty five (235) Crown Leases were issued during the year, as against 196 in the previous year—an increase of 39.
2. The number of leases issued each year during the last ten years is shewn in Table III.
:
- I 2
FEES.
1. The total amount of fees collected (exclusive of the New Territories) amounted to $86,085.00 being an increase of $8,477.50 on the preceding year. Table IV shews the Monthly Revenue.
2. Land Registration Fees in the New Territories amounted to $5,255.30 and Crown Lease Fees to $30.00.
3. The total fees collected during the past ten years is shewn in Table V.
STAMP DUTIES.
1. Stamp Duties paid on registered documents (exclusive of Probates and Letters of Administration) amounted to $1,299,441.80.
2. Stamp Duties on Probates and Letters of Administration registered amounted to $582,871.35.
CROWN RENTS.
1-(1). The number of lots entered on the Hong Kong and Kowloon Crown Rent Roll-as shewn in Table VI-was 5,516— an increase of 182 on the preceding year.
(2). The Crown Rents on this Roll amounted to $575,427.59 --an increase on the preceding year of $26,491.13.
2.-(1). The number of lots entered on the Village Crown Rent Roll-as shewn in Table VII-was 3,289-a decrease of 28 on the preceding year.
(2). The Crown Rents on this Roll amounted to $1,787.05 as compared with $1,832.55 in the preceding year,-a decrease of $45.50.
3-(1). The total Crown Rents amounted to $577,214.64 -an increase of $26,445.63 on the year 1927.
(2). The increase was occasioned by the sale of new lots and revision of Crown Rents.
DOCUMENTS.
Six hundred and eighty three (683) miscellaneous documents were prepared in the Land Office during the year, viz:
(a) Two hundred and thirty five (235) Crown Leases
(with Counterparts).
(b) One hundred and forty nine (149) Memorials for the registration of Undertakings relating to Ver- andahs and Balconies over Crown Land.
..
I 3-
(e) Sixty four (64) Surrenders of land required for public purposes street improvements and private Exchanges.
(d) Three (3) Deeds of Covenant relating to Scavenging
Lanes.
(e) One hundred and eighty five (185) Agreements for
leases exchanges surrenders and Permits.
(f) Forty seven (47) Memorials of Re-entry.
NAVAL AND MILITARY LANDS.
A parcel of land portion of the Victoria Cantonment at the junction of Queen's Road and Garden Road was placed at the disposal of the Colonial Government by His Majesty's Secretary of State for War for the purpose of road improvement and the instrument of Transfer is in course of completion.
STAFF.
On the 14th March, 1927, His Excellency the Governor was pleased to appoint the Land Officer Mr. Philip Jacks to act as Puisne Judge until further notice, the Assistant Land Officer Lt. Col. Frederick Eaves, D. S. O. to act as Land Officer and Mr. William James Lockhart-Smith to act as Assistant Land Officer with effect from the 16th March 1927. These appoint- ments still continue. The following promotions in and transfers and appointments to the staff occurred during the year:-
Li Kung Shan promoted to Class III Clerk from 1. 1.
1928.
Miss Jenny L. Whyte appointed Stenographer from
1.1.1928.
Wong Kwan Ki transferred from Public Works Depart- ment as Class VIB Clerk from 1.6.1928 left the Service on 18.8.1928.
Wong Kim Sung appointed Class VIB Clerk on 5.6.1928
-left the Service on 31.10.1928.
Tsang Kwong appointed Class VIB Clerk on 24.10.1928. Yung Kam Sing promoted to Class V Clerk from
1.7.1928.
Tang Kai Wing promoted to Class VIA Clerk from
1.7.1928.
21st January, 1929.
F. EAVES.
Land Officer.
- I 4
Table I.
NUMBER OF INSTRUMENTS REGISTERED AND CROWN LEASES GRANTED DURING THE YEARS 1919 To 1928.
Year. Instruments registered
Crown Leases granted.
1919
3,021
114
1920
3,045
74
1921
4,466
84
1922
4,146
207
1923
6,837
209
1924
6,000
90
1925
4,226
178
1926
4,360
250
1927
4,628
196
1928
4,798
235
Table II.
CONSIDERATION ON INSTRUMENTS REGISTERED IN THE LAND OFFICE DURING THE YEAR 1928.
No. of Lots
Description of
Instruments.
Number or portion: registered.
Total
of Lots Consideration. affected.
$
Assignments
1,675
1,912
45,404,243.91
Mortgages and Transfer of
Mortgages
1,281
1,724
55,923,500.74
Reassignments and Certi-
ficates of Satisfaction
1,175
1,539
37,246,313.78
Surrenders
64
95
46,690.99
Judgments and Orders of
Court
70
181
Miscellaneous Documents
454
583
331,177.52 1,529,328.70
Probates and Letters of
Administration, (Stamp Duties $582,871.35)...
79
181
Total
4,798
5,215
140,481,255.63
-
I 5
Table III.
CROWN LEASES GRANTED DURING THE YEAR 1928.
Hong Kong.
Kowloon.
New Kowloon.
Total.
Marine
Inland
Rural Building
Garden
Shaukiwan Inland
Aberdeen Inland
Inland
Garden
Hung Hom Inland
Inland
Dairy Farm
Sheung Shui Inland
Tsun Wan Permanent Pier
9
70 | 10 1 5
70
3 61 1 1 1 235
Table IV.
RETURN OF MONTHLY REVENUE PAID IN STAMPS TO THE LAND OFFICE DURING THE YEAR 1928.
Searches
Month.
Registration of Deeds.
Copy Documents
Crown
Lease
Total.
and Certi
Fees.
fications.
$
C.
$
c.
C.
$
C.
January February
7,458.00
524.00
270.00
8,252.00
5,855.00
526.25
425.00
6,806.25
March
6,536.00
681.00
930.00
8,147.00
April
7,646.00
729.50
840.00
9,215.50
May
6,448.00
827.00
580.00
7,855.00
June
5,834.00
454.00 570.00
6,858.00
July
5,355.00
500.00
480.00
6,335.00
August
6,339.00
514.00
600.00
7,453.00
September
4,846.00
435.00
480.00
5,761.00
October
6,567.00
523.50
570.00
7,660.50
November
4,690.00
503.75
520.00
5,713.75
December
5,241.00
422.00
365.00
6,028.00
Totals:-
$72,815.00 $6,640.00 $6,630.00
$86,085.00
1927 Total
.$77,607.50
Increase
$ 8,477.50
3
-
4
I 6
Table V.
FEES COLLECTED DURING THE YEARS 1919 to 1928.
Searches
Year.
Registration
of Deeds.
of Docu-
and Copies Grants of
Leases.
ments.
Total.
$
C.
$
C.
$
C.
C.
1919
45,896.00
3,486.90
3.102.00
52,484.90
1920
52,569.00
3,849.75 2,870.00
59,288.75
1921
70,617.00
4,235.00 2,685.00
77,537.00
1922
65,407.00
4,683.50 5,550.00
75,640.00
1923
109,671.00 7,280.00 6,680.00
123,631.00
1924
93,304.00
5,824.25 2,470.00
101,598.25
1925
65,068.00
4,778.75
5,210.00
75,056.75
1926
65,843.00
4,443.00
7,635.00
77,921.00
1927
67,115.00
5,050.50 5,442.00
77,607.50
1928
72,815.00
6,640.00 6,630.00
86,085.00
· I 7
Table VI.
HONG KONG AND KOWLOON RENT ROLL.
Locality and Description.
No. of Lots.
Total Crown Rent.
C.
Victoria Marine Lot
362
82,018.26
Praya Reclamation Marine
Lot
70
Inland Lot
2,137
7,269.91 217,359.38
Quarry Bay Marine Lot
2
Inland Lot
13
"
18,458.00 4,166.00
Victoria Farm Lot
8
401.55
Garden Lot
44
Rural Building Lot
210
1,485.00 37,645.58
Aberdeen Marine Lot
5
579.16
Inland Lot
84
2,265.16.
Aplichau Marine Lot
24
152.84
Inland Lot
40
263.48
Shaukiwan Marine Lot
10
1,928.00
Inland Lot
217.
4,359.43
Stanley Inland Lot
4
4.00
Kowloon Marine Lot
56
47,417.23
Inland Lot
1,296
84,536.23
Garden Lot
1
1.00
Hung Hom Marine Lot
2
6,140:00
Inland Lot
1
154
9,068.00
Sheko Inland Lot
3
9.00
Tai Tam Inland Lot
1
1.00
Tong Po Inland Lot
New Kowloon Marine Lot
1
1.00
5
18,608.00
Inland Lot
719
22,733.88
Farm Lot
27
4
17
Rural Building Lot
1
135.50
42.00
Tai Po Inland Lot
436.00
Fan Ling Lot
1,192.00
Sheung Shui Lot
910.00
Ping Chau Farm Lot
1
225.00
Mining Lot
1
302.00
Tsun Wan Marine Lot
3
2,808.00
Inland Lot
9
1,786.00
New Kowloon Dairy Farm Lot
14
638.00
Tsing I Marine Lot
1
82.00
Total
5,516
$575,427.59
I 8
Table VII.
VILLAGE RENT ROLL.
Locality and Description.
No. of Lots.
Total Crown
Rent.
C.
Wongneichung
46
26.50
Aberdeen
19
73.00
Pokfulam
24
28.25
Tai Hang
157
633.50
Ah Kung Ngam
25
18.25
Shaukiwan
28
15.50
Ma Tau Wei
81
150.00
Hau Pui Loong
13
49.50
Wong Tsuk Hang
2
34.50
Tai Hang Stream
17
72.00
Little Hong Kong
1
2.00
Tong Po
1
2.50
Stanley
9
18.00
Tytam
3.50
Tytam Tuk
3
2.50
Shek O
8
23.00
Chung Hom Bay
3.00
Chinese Joss House, Bowen Road
Victoria
1
3.00
Aplichau
42
75.00
Telegraph Bay
13
43.50
Little Hong Kong
1,577
280.25
Shek O
315
68.00
Hok Tsui
Chai Wan
182
36.00
723
125.80
Total
3,289
$1,787.05
I 9
REPORT OF THE REGISTRAR OF MARRIAGES FOR THE YEAR 1928.
MARRIAGES.
1. The number of Marriages celebrated in the Colony during the year was 236 (of which 105 were between Chinese Persons) as compared with 176 (and 70) respectively in 1927—an increase of 60. Particulars are given in Table I.
FEES.
2. The total amount of Fees received under the Second Schedule of The Marriage Ordinance 1875 was $2,558.00, as compared with $1,538.00 in 1927--an increase of $1,020.00. Particulars are shewn in Table II.
TABLE 1.
F. EAVES.
Registrar of Marriages.
(1). Marriages by Special Licence. 32.
(a) At Licenced Place of Public
Worship.
(b) At the Office of the Reg-
istrar of Marriages.
6.
26.
(2). Marriages by Registrar's Certificate. 204.
(a) At Licenced Places of Public (b) At the Office of the Reg-
Worship.
164.
istrar of Marriages.
40.
--I 10
B
TABLE II.
FEES RECEIVED DURING 1928.
Fee.
Total Fecs.
$ e.
C.
214.00
214 Certificates of Notice @ 100
(Registrar's Certificates).
9 Searches.
45 Certified Copies.
3 Licences to Registrar
of Marriages to issue his Certificate.
32 Special Licences.
1.00
9.00
1,00
45.00
""
10.00
30.00
>>
50.00
""
1,600,00
2 Special Licences.
(Fees remitted)
66 Marriages at the Office
of the Registrar.
@ 10.00
660.00
Total.....$2,558.00
Appendix J.
REPORT ON THE NEW TERRITORIES FOR THE
YEAR 1928.
A. NORTHERN DISTRICT.
I. STAFF.
Mr. J. A. Fraser continued in charge throughout the year. Mr. E. H. Williams was appointed A.D.O. on 30th August.
On the transfer of Mr. G. J. Chambers to P.W.D. on 30.6.28, Mr. F. Brett was appointed junior Land Bailiff at Ping Shan, and Mr. W. G. Routley continued to act as L.B. at Taipo.
II. MAGISTRACY.
Table A shows the number of cases heard by the District Officer sitting as Police Magistrate and as Judge of the Small Debts Court.
Motor traffic on N.T. roads steadily increased, and in the course of the year passenger services were organized between all main centres, terminating at the frontier, Sheung Shui, (connecting with the railway) and Kowloon by Yuen Long and Castle: Peak. There is keen competition between the 'bus. companies and the owners of lorries and cars for the mixed passenger and goods traffic, and this coupled with a stricter supervision led to an increase of 180 traffic offences reported which represents the bulk of the 50% increase in the number of cases brought in the local police court.
The number of opium cases was reduced from 49 in 1927 to 23 in 1928.'
It is noteworthy that there were 81 cases under the Larceny Ordinance in 1928 against 50 in 1927.
A curious result of the prosperity of the District is the increase in the number of crimes of violence, originating in the native's dislike of the incoming settler, traceable generally to prejudice or fear.
The number of small debts cases increased very slightly. The local unthrifty practice of investing money in "money loan associations" continues to be a fruitful source of litigation, and to prevent such disputes blocking the work of the Court it has been found necessary to restrict the number of cases which the head of one association as plaintiff may bring at one time.
J 2
Besides the cases quoted, there were 49 miscellaneous, and 49 "women and girls' cases, in addition to 23 death enquiries, five of which were formal, at Taipo. These figures show an increase of about 25% on the previous year, and do not include land cases, about which the only feature of remark was the settlement of several disputes of long standing. At Ping Shan (excluding police cases) there were 165 cases of all descriptions, as against 187 in 1927, the average for the past 5 years being 93.
III.-LAND OFFICE.
The number of sales and other transactions affecting land during the year is set out in Table B.
Land transactions and fees.-The number of memorials re- gistered was 2,830 against 2,749, and fees received as stamp duty, $3,347.70 against $3,617.30 in 1927.
These figures are interesting as reflecting conditions general- ly in the District. A large number of small mortgages connected with agriculture were made, redeemed and made again, while in development areas there was little money for investment although the land market continued to rise.
Conversions.—In 1928, there was a still greater number of conversions and re-assessments (118 against 105) than in the previous year, with a built-over area of 4.29 against 2.94 acres. That even this is unable to cope with the increased population is shown by the number of matshed permits issued.
Matsheds. $1,624.00 was collected in matshed permit fees, for 608 sheds, against $1,205.50 for 315 sheds in 1927. The immigration which this represents is partly from Chinese Territory, and partly from Kowloon, where the development of New Kowloon has driven numbers of market gardeners to settle in places along the railway and the Castle Peak road. Beancurd manufacture also continues to increase mostly around Yuen Long.
During the year, a survey of matsheds was carried out in conjunction with the police, and a large number of unauthorized sheds registered or demolished.
Development generally.-Development of all kinds took place mainly along the motor roads, and the number of Crown lots leased for short periods rose from 426 to 493, while sales of land (excluding buildings) in more remote places dropped from 127 to 115. At Ngau T'am Mei one large area of 12 acres was sold, and among the many smaller sales were a number of building and garden or orchard lots, averaging an acre, development areas from Taipo to Castle Peak.
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J 3
Building construction.-The restriction of building construc- tion to villages was less marked than in the previous year, al- though it still continued the main feature of this kind of develop- ment. Modern houses costing from $8,000 to $25,000 totalling not less than $200,000 were erected, as well as large Chinese houses and at least one good school. More than twenty houses and shops were projected on the South side of the main road at Yuen Long, the fore-runners, it is to be hoped, of a long-needed extension of the market in this direction.
IV.
REVENUE.
The Revenue collected in this office is set out under the appropriate heads in Table C. to which should be added the following amounts collected in the district by other Depart- ments:-
Crown Rent paid in Land Office
Mining Licence fees paid in Treasury Harbour Dues Sai Kung
$ 2,940.00
C.
1,125.00
2.271.25
Sai Kung (No. 4 Launch)
1,534.40
11
"
Deep Bay (No. 1 Launch) Taipo (No. 2 Launch)
5,163.15
2,279.90
Total
$15,313.70
Liquor and tobacco duties collected by Imports and Exports Department are not included.
Allowing for the transfer of liquor duties to the Imports and Exports Department and other abnormal factors, there was a real increase of about $4,000, mainly in land sales and traffic fines, in the revenue from all sources.
The main points of note are a decrease in the number of money-changers' licences and an increase in the number of licences to sell kerosene, a commodity on which there is a heavy duty in China..
V. GENERAL.
Frontier. Early in the year the frontier situation eased considerably. Chinese troops at Shamchun were relieved in January by local guards, and replaced in September by a small regular detachment. Disciplinary action
Disciplinary action was taken by the Chinese authorities against irregularities in Chinese Shataukok, and the guards there were reorganized. Relations became normal about July, and it was possible again to co-operate freely with the neighbouring local authorities in maintaining peace and order.

Towards the end of the year the long-abandoned construc- tion of a modern road from Shamchun to Lo Wu, just across the border, was resumed, and further improvements in com- munications in this neighbourhood are contemplated.
J 4
Afforestation—(a) Planting of pines was again carried out in co-operation with the inhabitants, on chosen areas near main roads, with only partial success, owing to the extreme drought, in which a great many young trees after taking root were destroyed by insect pests.
(b) Hill-fires. It is impossible to estimate the damage from the unusually large number of hill-fires, which covered many acres of land in every part of the District during the annual grave-sacrifices. No single instance of intentional burning, how- ever, was found.
(c) Village forestry lots.-In August, a departmental review of the areas leased as forestry lots was begun, and 390 of those were examined by the end of the year. Few areas were well covered with trees.
Communications. The western portion of the frontier patrol-path was completed, and the rest is in hand. The small public works vote (Table E) was devoted almost entirely to improving local communications, and in particular a bridge was completed at Tai T'ong (Ping Shan district) to plans supplied by the P.W.D.-quite the largest undertaking of its kind for some time. This by no means represents all the work done on communications, for which a great deal of credit is due to unassisted local enterprise.
On the railway, Taipo Market station was improved by the addition of a loop-line and siding. The light railway from Fanling to Shataukok, so long a feature of the District, was dismantled early in the year. The area lately covered by the track will be used for widening the new motor road, which it adjoins.
The erection of petrol-filling stations for motors at Shataul kok, Taipo, Fanling, Yuen Long and Castle Peak has com menced.
Agriculture (a) Rice. The rice-crop though retarded by drought was on the whole better than last year's, and prices for unhulled rice were 60 cents to $1.10 per picul lower. The first crop was good throughout, and in most places the second averaged from 50% to 90% of a good year's, but at Ha Tsuen and places. to the West of the Castle Peak road, it is reported that less than half the usual yield was obtained., It is noteworthy that in general crops were earliest in the flat open valleys of the West.
(b) Fruit Fruit-crops were not good, laichees being the most plentiful. An increase of about 15 acres under pine-apples is recorded.
1
J 5.
The recent change in ownership of an orchard covering many acres at Cha Hang near Taipo has made it worthy of notice as one of the most progressive enterprises in the District. The construction of workers' houses, an approach road, catchwater: and pipeline, terracing, and the intensive planting of olives, mangoes, laichees and other fruits show how far well-employed capital can go to overcoming difficulties of situation and water- supply on a bare hillside..
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!
(c) Vegetables: The following is a rough comparison of the quantity of certain kinds of vegetables grown for sale, taking European vegetables as the unit -
European vegetables
1
Gourds
2:
Chinese green vegetables
11
Sweet potatoes
7
Roots
15
Turnips etc.
There is a slight allround increase in cultivation, but crops: were partly destroyed by insects.
Agricultural Show. -The District is again indebted to the Rev. H. R. Wells and his committee including Sir Robert and. Lady Ho Tung and many of the local elders, for successfully organizing a second agricultural show under the patronage of H. E. Sir Cecil Clementi.
To obtain a wider range of exhibits, the show. was held a fortnight later than that preceding, and opened at Sheung Shui on
5th January, 1929 by H. E. the Hon. Mr. W. T. Southorn, at that time administering the Government.
Competition was keen, especially in the sections for Chinese vegetables, rice, and roots. There were some good exhibits of fruit, and the poultry section was greatly extended.
Thanks are due to Mr. H. Green, Supt. Botanical and Forestry Department and to Mr. C. M. Manners, Secretary of the Kowloon Residents Association, for their interest in the show, as well as to several firms and private gentlemen who served on the Committee and gave prizes.
It is extremely difficult without a permanent organization to ensure that the material necessary to sustain the interest and enlarge the scope of the Show will be available each year, and what the Committee have to consider now in the light of past experience is the best means of providing an organization. that will work well, be elastic and take up least time.
Miscellaneous (a) Health-Smallpox cases traceable to Hong Kong were recorded at Taipo and elsewhere, but the disease did not spread in the District. Vaccinators were at
J 6
work at the main centres and in some villages. Under the auspices of the St. John's Ambulance Association, a series of lectures on malaria prevention was arranged in Taipo, Shatin and Sheung Shui, but the difficulty of securing an attendance caused the course to be discontinued.
(b) Trade was fair. Fish were less plentiful than in the previous year. Brickworks are still idle, and the only consider- able business done was at a brickworks at Castle Peak. Two new industries came to the District, by the erection of a fire cracker factory at Yuen Long, and the working of several kaolin deposits, in conjunction with a refining plant shortly to be erected in Kowloon.
(c) The Crown Rent collection was unusually good, $53.78 only of the total being uncollected.
(d) Racecourse. A series of race-meetings held on a piece of waste land at Kwanti near Fanling which has been levelled and prepared entirely by the "Fanling Hunt", was well attended. In the second year of its life, the "Hunt" has succeeded in creating a very pleasant open space, and providing a diversion which attracts numbers of people from Hong Kong; if continued it should have an important bearing on the develop- ment of this neighbourhood.
J. A. FRASER,
District Officer.
25th February, 1929.
Table A.
POLICE COURT..
1928.
Average from
1923-1927.
Cases heard
484
333
Persons brought before the P.M.
802
524
Persons convicted and punished
413
343
Persons bound over
126
50
Persons discharged
258
121
Persons committed
5
9
Persons imprisoned
110
95
Fines inflicted
$7,439.20 $12,370.43
Warrants executed
28
48
Cases heard
Writs of Execution
SMALL DEBTS COURT.
1928.
Average from 1923-1927.
265
126
81
45
Table B.

No. of
Sales,
No.
Area
Increase
Decrease Amount
in
in
Amount
paid for
Term
of
Headings.
Permits,
of
in
Annual
Annual
Licences, Lots.
Premia,
Resump-
of
Acres.
tion of
Rent.
Rent.
&c.
Fees, &c.
years.
Land.
J-8-
Sales of Land for Agriculture.
""
"
>>
Building
""
"}
>>
Threshing Floor
Orchard
"
""
"
Conversions
162
Permits to occupy land for Agriculture.
16
>>
""
Exchanges
""
"
256
"}
for other purposes..
5
Extensions
Re-entries
13
རྞཎྜམ*2ནྡྷ་ྒུ སྒྱུཧྨ

642
99
25.33 acres.
46.59
3,164.75
117
3.22
274.50
35
2,752.00
12
*38
1.62
148.05
""
4
1.93
1.94
511.50
118
4.29
243.50
610.82
""
*55
1.10
વગગગગગ
10
23
18:09
98.16
462 212.62
587.05
6
36.36
90.60
I
>>
4
1.64
25.90
75
}}
14
-73
8.64
150.00
75
"
266
1716.53
997.85
Surrenders
45
5.10
37:43
Resumptions
"
200
24.18
47.79
Stone Quarry Permits
">
5,383.57
94
Permits to cut Earth, etc.
399.00
146
566.00
Matshed Permits
608
7.58
Ferry Licences
1,624.50
5
Forestry Licences
9.00
363
363
19093.50
Pine-apple Land Leases
1,909.35
109 109
45.74
137.22
Grave Certificates
"
22
11.00
Deeds Registered and Stamp Fees
2,830
3,347.70
J 9
Table C.
REVENUE.
1928.
Average for 1923-1927.
Crown Rent (Leased Lands),
$ 89,025.63
$87,982.43
Kerosene Oil Licences,
528.00
423.00
Chinese Wine and Spirit Licences,
4,393.75
4,726.65
Pawnbrokers' Licences,
1,200.00
1,200.00
Moneychangers' Licences,
260.00
410.00
Fines,
2,345.00
2,036.25
Fines (Land Sales),
356.00
325.00
Fines Reward Fund (Opium),
400.20
1,054.10
Fines Reward Fund (Liquor and
Tobacco),
317.00
182.30
Forfeitures,
443.00
195.33
Forfeitures (Land Sales),
32.00
628.20
Distress Warrants,
118.00
62.00
Distress Warrants (Crown Rent),
57.00
12.00
Arrears of Revenue,
372.80
138.38
Other Miscellaneous Receipts,
188.54
99.59
Forestry Licences,
1,909.35
2,585.00
Permits to cut Earth &c.,
566.00
572.40
Grave Certificates,
11.00
59.84
Pine-apple Land Leases,
137.22
30.84
Matshed Permits,
1,624.50
923.10
Permits to occupy land,
1,418.64
882.20
Stone Quarry Permits,
399.00
458.60
Stone Quarry Leases,
175.00
476.92
Ferry Licences,
9.00
9.00
Certified Extracts,
Sunprints,
200.00
205.60
110.00
100.00
Premia on Land Sales,
7.337.12
52,530.76
Stamps for Deeds,
3,347.70
4,016.19
Boundary Stones,
80.00
178.30
Deposits not Available,
1,443.00
2,006.07
Crown Leases,
Nil
60.00
Widows and Orphans Pension Fund,
10.33
Nil
Court Fees,
11.70
Nil
$118,826.48 $164,570.05
J 10
Table D.
REVENUE COLLECTED FROM 1919-1928.
1919
$117,174.51
1924
$209, 105.18
1920
115.865.45
1925
141,862.65
1921
121,080.38
1926
139,773.95
1922
159,191.56
1927
127,251.02
1923
280,848.64
1928
118,826.48
Table E.*
LOCAL PUBLIC WORKS, 1928.
Payment.
Repair to a path at Hung Ling
75.00
a path and bridge between Kam Tin and
Wang Toi Shan
410.00
1
a sea wall between Im Tso Ha and Ma
Cheuk Ling
100.00
Stepping Stones at Wun Iu
311.50
Repair to a path at Wong U Tan
100.00
?J
a bridge near Tai Tong
1,700.00
"
a bridge near Tai Om
200.00
Dam at Ping Yeung
250.00
Repair to a road at Shun Wan Ham Tin
100.00
"1
""
a bridge at Tsung Hum Tong
900.00
Matshed for Agricultural Show at Kam Tsin
835.00
Balance un-expended
18.50
$5,000.00
J 11:
Table F.
RAINFALL AT TAIPO POLICE STATION.
1928.
Average 1923-1927.
inches.
inches.
January
1.19
.93
February March
April
May June
July August
September
2.18
3.05
3.26
3.45
4.81
9.13
13.61
8.63
16.91
16.16
3.71
24.66
8.63
20.59
3.50
6.26
October
.09
6.82
November
3.94
2.39
December
Nil
.36
Total
61.83
102.44
Table G.
SERIOUS CRIMES REPORTED,
Murder
Suspected Murder
Kidnapping
On Land.
Armed Robbery and Kdnapping
Double Armed Robbery and Wounding
1928
1927
1
1
1
Armed Robbery and Wounding
1
I
Armed Robbery
4
Robbery with violence
2
Attempted Armed Robbery
1
Robbery, without arms
1
Highway Robbery
1
2
Attempted Highway Robbery (armed)
1
Total
12
17
On Water.
1928
1927
Armed Robbery
Armed Robbery and Wounding
Armed Robbery and Kidnapping
Piracy
Assault with intent to rob
2
2
I
Total
ལ་
6
J 12.
REPORT ON THE NEW TERRITORIES
FOR THE YEAR 1928.
B.-SOUTHERN DISTRICT.
1. STAFF.
was
Mr. E. I. Wynne-Jones continued in charge, and relieved on 23rd July by Mr. T. W. Ainsworth. Mr. Ainsworth went on leave on 20th August when Mr. J. A. Fraser, District Officer North, was appointed District Officer South in addition, and Mr. E. H. Williams, Assistant District Officer in both Districts.
2. MAGISTRACY.
Table A shows the number of cases heard by the District Officer sitting as Police Magistrate and as Judge of the Small Debts Court.
The chief point of note is the reduction in the number of cases of all kinds.
LAND OFFICE.
Early in the year, the demand for and continued but fell off considerably after July. A certain number of undeveloped house-sites were re-entered.
The greatest development took place on the slopes of Lantao leading up to the plateau from Tung Chung, and on the plateau itself; it will soon be necessary to extend the cadastral survey to include this area.
A scheme for the erection of a large distillery nea Ts'uen Wan was begun by the construction of a large storage tank for molasses, and the first of a projected six houses for European employees.
On the outskirts of New Kowloon an interesting develop- ment was the erection of new factories for potting preserved fruits. A similar factory appeared in Ch'eung Chau about four years ago and has been extended recently. Ch'eung Chau and Ping Chau also manufacture shrimp paste, some of which goes to American markets,
J 13
An extension of the town area to Kap Shek Mei in New Kowloon led to the clearing of squatters from the neighbourhood, general malaria prevention measures including filling and draining, and new provision for water-supply to fields in the vicinity..
The value of scattered kaolin' deposits in the Territory was recognized for the first time, and one permit to obtain this material, at Cha Kwo Ling near the Eastern entrance to the Harbour was auctioned for about $1,000.00. Smaller deposits were also worked.
A new salt pan was leased at Mui Wo on the South side of Lantao.
On the whole, land sales decreased, without doubt owing to the prevailing unfavourable conditions to agriculture.
Table B gives the number of sales and other transactions affecting land.
The number of memorials registered was 993 against 931 in 1927.
The fees received as stamp duty amounted to $1,907.60 against $1,968.20 in 1927.
The increase in the number of deeds and decrease in fees is due to the large number of small loans on land, mostly made towards the end of the Chinese financial year, while fewer transactions of any size were concluded.
4.--REVENUE.
The revenue collected by the office is set out under the appropriate heads in Table C. totalling $39,279.47. Tables D and E respectively show the revenue collected in the District by Police and other Departments, and Table F gives for purposes of comparison the total revenue from all sources for the past three years.
5.-GENERAL.
The District was fairly prosperous, despite a dry summer. Vegetable and rice erops compared favourably with those of the previous year. Fish were not plentiful, and prices were high. The following estimate shows roughly the state of the fieries near Tai 0:
Weight in piculs. Average price per picul.
Fish. Wong Fa
Ma Yau
Herring
Shrimps
3500
450
1660
350
$22.00
20.00
17.00
15.00
J 14
While other industries suffered to a greater or less extent, salt pans did well in some cases it is said the output was more than doubled, and it is certain that it was
considerably increased.
on the whole
The year was a poor one for livestock generally, and towards the end of the year disease destroyed many poultry. Ducks however, reared partly on the salt marshes, were not affected by the drought. Surplus cattle were sold in Hong Kong.
The health of the District was on the whole good. A few cases of small-pox came to light, mostly isolated echoes of the outbreak in Hong Kong, but the disease did not take hold in the villages, a fact for which a vaccination campaign carried on in the larger centres like Ts'uen Wan is probably mainly responsible. Anti-rabies measures were taken in Ch'eung Chau and Ts'uen Wan, and all suspected and ownerless do destroyed.
Under the auspices of the St. John's Ambulance Associa- tion, a number of educative lectures were given at Ch'eung Chau on the subject of malaria prevention.
The principal event of interest was the formation of a company with the exclusive right of maintaining a ferry-launch service between Hong Kong, Aberdeen, Ch'eung Chau, Tai O, Castle Peak and Ts'uen Wan, replacing and in some cases absorbing individual companies which have hitherto served these places. It is hoped by this means to eliminate competition and increase efficiency.
An unfortunate incident occurred in March in connection with a motor-boat ferry plying from Shaukiwan to Saikung. The boat caught fire, and was burnt out.
Tai O passed an uneventful year. Business was fair, serious crime nil, and fires, always a grave danger in this village, where there are many matshed-dwellers, were confined to two isolated huts, and attended with no loss of life. Subsidence of founda- tions during storm weather caused one house collapse. The revenue from the market shows a slight decrease.
Ch'eung Chau. Lack of water and lower prices combined to affect the prosperity of the market-gardens, which, however, continue to take up more land. Among the fishing population, scarcity of good fishing led to clan disputes which culminated in violence on at least two occasions.
In the market, a number of stalls were unoccupied, in con- trast to the prosperity of the previous year.
The Anglo-Chinese Government school was reconstructed.
J 15
The number of European residents has decreased with the return to normal conditions in China. No new European houses have been built, but several have been partially reconstructed. The old solid stone construction is gradually giving place to higher and lighter buildings of reinforced concrete, but the relative cheapness of stone here will always favour its use as a building material.
On the expiry of the local electric company's licence to supply power and light, a new company was formed to replace it on the same premises. New wiring and standards have been installed, and machinery will shortly be erected.
Ping Chau. The revival of building development in Hong Kong had its counterpart in a slight increase in the output of the lime-kilns on this island.
Ts'uen Wan, well-sheltered and better watered than the rest of the District, had good crops. Pineapples were not plentiful, but some new planting was done. Fish were scarce and dear.
The drinking-water supply of Ts'uen Wan is at present from brackish wells. A proposal to lead a supply from the hills fell through on the ground of expense.
Lamma. Fishing and agriculture were less than in a normal year. Losses in poultry and pigs from disease were partly com- pensated by considerable cattle sales.
There were few events of outstanding importance. Trade was fair, and there was little crime. The District may be said to have weathered very well what bade fair to be a disastrous year.
"
23rd February, 1929.
J. A. FRASER,
District Officer South.
J 16
Table A.
POLICE COURT.
1926.
1927.
1928.
Cases heard,
156
196
89
Persons brought before the
Police Magistrate,
295
306
185
Persons convicted and pun-
ished,
174
140
120
Persons bound over,
1.
11
7
Persons committed,
2
1
Persons imprisoned,
43
88
50
Persons discharged,
53
50
21
Fines,
$1,704.11 $2,273.57
$879.16
Arms Fines,
271.00
524.95
20.00
Forfeitures,
427.61
57.00
42.37
Revenue Reward Fund,
1,449.42
1,433.60
803.43
SMALL DEBTS COURT.
1926.
1927.
1928.
Cases heard,
66
100
49
Writs of Execution,
2
16
10
Headings.
No. of Sales,
Permits, Li- cences, etc.
No. of Lots.
Table B.
Area in Acres.
Increase of Crown Rent.
زم
€9-
Decrease of Crown Rent.
Amount of
Premia, Fees, etc.
$
Amount paid for Resump- tion of Land.
Term of Years.
Land Sales for Buildings...
. . .
Agriculture
72 72
10
29
1.24
93.50
1.74
2.00
""
""
Threshing Floor
1
.01
.10
829.50
190.00
2.70
""
Drying Ground
1
.23
1.00
100.00
Salt Pan
1
11.14
557.00
Conversions
4
.17
14.79
Stone Quarry Leases...
3
80.23
295.00
Permits to occupy Land
355.40
Matshed Permits on Crown Land
595
1,184.50
Private Land
76
541.50
Earth Permits
814
1,008.00
Forestry Licences
117
1,825.57
Pineapple Licences
363
679.40
Deeds Registered
Resumptions Surrenders
Re-entries
Reversion
...
993
1,907.60
110
12.55
155.85
42,793.80
8
.08
4.00
175
7.01
41.32
5
.44
2.16
...

S
10 10 10 10 10 10 1
75
75
75
75
75
- J 17 —
J 18
Table C.
Revenue collected by the District Officer, Southern District,
New Territories.
1927.
1928.
$ c.
$
C.
Land Sales,
2,098.00
1,122.20
Boundary Stones,
81.00
473.00
Permits to cut Earth and Stone,
1,215.50
1,008.00
Forestry Licences,
1,527.21
1,825.57
Forfeitures,
57.00
42.37
Fines,
2,273.57
879.46
Deeds Registration Fees,
1,968.20 1,907.60
Crown Leases,
30.00
Legal Costs,
157.01
92.00
Crown Rent,
26,308.68 26,110.86
Matshed Permits on Crown Land,
948.00 1,184.50
Matshed Permits on Private Land,
316.25
541.50
Permits to occupy land,
220.23
355.40
Pineapple Land Leases,
661.97
679.40
Market Fees,
1,706.30
1,706.05
Leases of Stone Quarries,
270.00
295.00
Interest on Deposit Account,
72.86
27.15
Other Miscellaneous Receipts,
206.40
175.98
Revenue Reward Fund,
1,433.60
803.43
Arms Fines,
524.95
20.00
Total,
$42,046.73 $39,279.47
Station.
Kowloon City
Sham Shui Po
Tai O
Cheung Chau
Tsun Wan
Lamma Island
Table D.
LICENCE FEES COLLECTED BY THE POLICE DEPARTMENT.
Wine and
Spirit.
Pawn-
Kerosene. Dogs.
Money brokers. Changers.
Total.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Total

€9
$
$
$
C.
$
$
1,155.00
3,000.00
4,155.00 |
492.00
6,000.00
250.00
6,742.00
J 19
675.00
66.00
400.00
.40.00
1.181.00 |
875.00
74.00
800.00
30.00
1,779.00
425.00
34.00
459.00
100.00
100.00
2,075.00
174.00 1,647.00 10,200.00
320.00
14,416.00
J: 20
Table E.
Revenue collected through other Departments from the Southern District, New Territories.
1927.
1928.
$ C.
Treasury, (Village Rates),
92,134.86
$ C.. 92,602.16
(Crown Rent for Inland
Lots),
42,713.43
54,620.86
(Quarries in New Kowloon), (Eating House
4,312.75
6,321.88
Licence
Fees),
240.00
250.00
Police, (Licence Fees),
15,159.00
14.416.00*
Harbour Office (Harbour Dues,
Stake-nets),
17,819.25 18,705.85
Total,
$172,379.29 $186,916.75
*See Table D.
Table F.
Total Revenue collected from Southern District, New Territories,
during the last three years.
By District Office,
By Other Departments,.
Total,
1926.
1927.
1928.
$
C.
40,664.95
$ C. 42,046.73
$ C. 39,279.47
177,205.92
172,379.29
186,916.75‡
$217,870.87 $214,426.02 $226,196.22
See Table E.
Table G.
LOCAL PUBLIC WORKS, 1928.
Repairs.
Wooden Pier at Cheung Chau,
Road in Cheung Chau European Reservation, Cheung
Chau,
Path at Tsun Wan,
Un-expended,
Total,
$ c. 950.00
150.00
300.00
600.00
$2,000.00
1
མ།
Appendix K.
REPORT OF THE CAPTAIN SUPERINTENDENT OF
POLICE FOR THE YEAR 1928.
SUMMARY OF CRIME FOR 1928.
1. The total number of cases reported to the Police during the year 1928 was 19,610 as against 24,444 in 1927, being a decrease of 4,834 or 19.7%. The average for the last five years is 19,690.
2. In the division of these cases into serious and minor offences there were 5,201 serious cases in 1928 as against 4,553 in 1927, an increase of 644 or 12.3%. There were 14,409 minor cases in 1928 as against 19,891 minor cases in 1927, a decrease of 5,482 or 27.5%. Please see Table I.
CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT.
I. The Strength of the Department on December 31st
was:-
Europeans Chinese
TOTAL
1928
1927
37
34
125
123
162
157
II. The numer of searchers employed on Steamers, Launches and ferries, on December 31st was:-
1928
1927
Europeans
7
6
Chinese Regular
125
95
Chinese Temporary
Nil.
25
Female Searchers
31
31
TOTAL
163
157
These figures include both Hong Kong and Kowloon.
The Temporary Searchers were dispensed with on the 1st September, 1928, and replaced by Regular Duty Chinese Con- stables.
- K 2
On 17.1.28 an attempted piracy occurred on board the s.s. "San Nam Hoi" whilst proceeding from Kong Mun to Kau Kong. The ship arrived safely from Hong Kong at Kong Mun; at the latter place a number of passengers were taken on board, who eventually turned out to be pirates. The Chief Officer and two Indian Guards were shot dead during the attack. A deter- mined resistance was offered by the Ship's Officers and the pirates were defeated and forced to jump overboard.
There were six seizures of arms, not including daggers, dur- ing the year. The largest was a seizure on the Ping On Wharf on 16.10.28 when two American travelling trunks were found to contain false bottoms in which were concealed 1 Thompson Sub Machine Gun, 3 Revolvers, 1 Automatic, 1 Luger Pistol, 1,200 rounds of ammunition. No arrest was made in this case.
The s.s.
"Yuet On", "Charles Hardouin", and "Paul Beau", which were formerly plying between Hong Kong and Canton, transferred in December, 1928, to the Kong Mun run, thus making a total of 8 River Steamers plying to Canton, and 8 to Kong Mun.
III.-(1) Serious crime in 1928 showed an increase over that in 1927-5,201 cases against 4,553 in 1927. Minor crime showed a considerable decrease-19,610 cases against 24,444 cases in 1927.
(2) The increase in serious crime is almost entirely accounted for by the increase under larceny. There was an increase of 4 in murders, and in robbery cases there was a decrease of 1.
The decrease in minor offences is very largely due to the withdrawal of the campaign against opium divans, as there were 5,855 opium cases in 1927 as against 624 only in 1928.
(3) There has been a gradual, but constant, increase in the population of the Colony during the year due to the gradual return towards normal conditions in the adjoining province of Kwangtung.
(4) Table II shows the number of piracies committed in There is a adjacent waters during the years 1927 and 1928. decrease of 14 in the number of piracies other than Bias Bay piracies, and a decrease of 2 in the number of Bias Bay piracies.
(5) Table III gives the number of Discharged Prisoners, Deportees, and Vagrants dealt with by the Records Office during the year 1928.
K 3
FINGER PRINT DEPARTMENT.
A summary of work executed in this Department for the year 1928 is as follows:-
Number of
Number of Number of
Number of
Number of
convictions
finger prints
convictions
persons
records
under
examined.
identified.
filed.
Deportation
under Market
Ordinance.
Ordinance.
1928
12,646
2,916
13,084
216
937
1927
14.131
3,109
13,221
172
779
Increase Decrease
44
158
1,485
193
137
No. of records on file: 108,902.
PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT.
The total number of photographs taken of scenes of serious crime and accidents throughout the year was 71. The total number of copies of photographs issued was 1873.
PROPERTY REPORTED STOLEN AND PROPERTY RECOVERED.
The estimated value of property stolen during the year was $478,020.98 as against $612,293.36 in 1927 a decrease of $134,272.38 or 21.9%.
The average for the last five years is $551,860.06.
The value of property recovered during the year was $74.702.63 or 15% of the value of the property stolen, as against $63,308.25 or 13% of the property stolen in 1927, an increase of 2% in ratio between the property stolen and property recovered.
LOST PROPERTY.
The following is a recovered:
return showing Property lost or
Year.
Articles reported lost.
Value lost.
Articles re- covered and found but not
Value of
articles
found.
reported lost.
1928
357
$33,829.85
129
$ 1,470.38
1927
348
18,125.18
122
1,453.80
K 4
GAMBLING.
There were 165 successful Gambling Cases for the year ending December 1928 as against 239 in the year 1927.
There were four cases in which no conviction was obtained.
There were 74 lottery cases, compared with 74 in 1927.
MENDICANTS.
During the year, one thousand and fifty four mendicants were arrested and dealt with as follows:
36 mendicants charged before the Magistrate.
77
8
sent to Tung Wah Hospital.
released.
sent to Amoy.
1
227
sent to Canton.
775
31
sent to Deep Bay.
With the exception of items 2 and 3 about 80% of the mendicants had been sent out of this Colony more than once.
DEAD BODIES.
The following table shows the number of unknown dead bodies found by Police in the Streets and elsewhere during the last 5 years :·
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
Victoria,...
Kowloon,.....
579
285
268
367
358
819
674
637
801
1,077
Harbour.....
219
124
110
37
139
Elsewhere,
99
98
99
112
106
Total.
1.716
1,181
1.114
1,317
1.680
1924
1925
1926
1927
1923
Males,
968
670
644
791
992
Females..
715
472
430
479
670
Unknown,
33
39
40
47
18
K 5-
DOGS ORDINANCE,
Owing to the prevalence of rabies in the Colony the muzzling order continued in force throughout the Year.
One thousand and twenty five dogs were destroyed in 1928
as compared with 1,216 in 1927:—
1928
1927
Dogs Licensed
3,945
3,241
Dogs Licensed (free)
33
4
Dogs Impounded
288
267
Dogs Destroyed
1,025
1,216
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
Weights and Measures
examined.
Correct. Incorrect.
Total.
Foreign Scales
199
2
201
Chinese Scales
1,201
29
1,230
Yard Measures
291
291
Chinese Foot Measures
554
554
Total..
2,245
31
2,276
The following prosecutions were instituted under the Weights and Measures Ordinance :
Number of Cases.
Convictions.
Fines.
17
17
$288
DANGEROUS Goods.
The following prosecutions were instituted under the Dangerous Goods Ordinance:
Number of Cases.
18
Convictions.
Fines.
16
$610
K 6
ARMS ORDINANCE.
Table IV (a) shows Arms and Ammunition seized and con- fiscated during the year 1928.
Table IV (b) shows seizures classified according to places of origin.
TRAFFIC IN ARMS AND AMMUNITION.
No definite information has been obtained concerning arms smuggling agencies during the year, but the seizures effected showed that such agencies are still carrying on an active trade. In almost every case it is clear that the Arms seized were for importation into China, and that Hong Kong is merely being used as a transhipment port. The following paragraphs give a summary of the more important cases and seizures effected during the year:-
1. On 22nd March, 1928, a Chinese coolie was arrested coming off the gangway of the S.S. "President Lincoln”, carry- ing a leather suitcase in which Police found 12 .38 Long Revol- vers and 1,200 rounds of Ammunition. This had probably been brought in as passengers' luggage, but owner could not be dis- covered.
2. On 2nd April, 1928, Water Police visited S.S. "Morea' and, concealed in various places in the crews' quarters and the engine-room, found 19 Automatics and 2,050 rounds of Ammuni- tion of French manufacture. No arrest was made as there was no definite indication of the persons responsible for importing the Arms.
3. On 10th May, 1928, a Chinese detective on patrol duty on a sampan in the Harbour at Aberdeen, stopped a junk's dinghy which was crossing the Harbour being rowed by a Chinese female. On the dinghy he discovered 391 Automatic Pistols and 49,157 rounds of ammunition of French and Belgian manu- facture. These Arms were evidently about to be smuggled out of the Colony.
4. On 9th July, 1928, Police visited a cave in the hillside above Telegraph Bay, and there discovered 30 Mauser Pistols of German manufacture, also a number of boxes of Heroin Pills. The cave had apparently been used as a dump pending arrange- ments for smuggling the Arms out of the Colony.
5. On the 23rd July, 1928, the European boatswain on board S.S. "Benmohr", just as the ship was leaving Hong Kong and passing through Lye Mun, saw some firemen about to lower some tins over the side of the ship. On his approach the men scattered and only one Chinese fireman was arrested. Police were called to the ship and in 3 galvanized iron tins found 54 Automatic Pistols, 1 Revolver and 5,500 rounds of Ammunition, of French or Belgian make. These Arms had apparently been concealed on the ship at Antwerp by the fire-
men.
K 7
6. On the 31st August, 1928, Police visited the S.S. "Hirundo" and found, concealed in flour sacks in possession of the Chief Steward, 83 Automatic Pistols and 8,300 rounds of Ammunition of German manufacture.
7. On the 1st September, 1928, the boatswain of the S.S. "Sinkiang" discovered, unclaimed on the deck, 1 large earthen- ware jar and 1 sealed kerosene tin. On investigation these were found to contain 4 .38 Long Revolvers and 400 rounds of Am- munition, of French manufacture.
8. On the 17th September, 1928, C.P.O. Clarke visited a sampan anchored off Cheung Sha Wan and discovered 229 Auto- matic Pistols and 17 .38 Long Revolvers and 23,793 rounds of Ammunition of French or Spanish manufacture. 3 of the Auto- matics were loaded and were evidently intended to be used by smugglers for the protection of their goods. There was no one on board the sampan when the visit was made.
9. On the 18th October, 1928, Waterfront Searchers, in the course of a Routine Search of baggage belonging to Chinese returning from the U.S.A., discovered in the false bottoms of 2 trunks 1 Thompson sub-Machine gun, 3 .38 Long Revolvers, 2 Automatic Pistols and 1,200 rounds of Ammunition. The bag- gage had been brought on to the Wharf by a boarding-house runner on behalf of the owner, who could not be traced.
10. On the 12th December, 1928, Water Police, in the course of a Routine Search, arrested a Chinese steerage pass- enger on S.S. "President Cleveland" and discovered in the false bottom of a packing case amongst his baggage, 3 .38 Long Revolvers and 1,000 rounds of ammunition.
PASS OFFICE.
During the year 68 persons of various nationalities, other than Chinese, Indian and Japanese, were put before the Courts for the following offences:-
Vagrancy
Stowaways
Passport Ordinance
53
9
6
The number of foreign destitutes dealt with during the year was 86.
K 8 -
TRAFFIC REGULATIONS.
The following prosecutions were instituted under the Traffic Regulations (Notification No. 377: Government Gazette of 26th June, 1924):-(For the purpose of comparison 1927 figures are also inserted).
Year.
Prosecu- Convic- With-
tions. tions.
Dis- drawn. charged.
Remanded. Result.
1928..
6,711
6,321
116
155
119
$ 27,6 4.00
1927......
5,740
5,431
129
102
78
$22,441.50
Manslaughter
1928..
1
1927.
1
1
The total number of persons examined as Motor Drivers during the year was 1,665 as against 876 in 1927.
The total number of persons passed as motor drivers during the year was 1,218 as against 680 in 1927.
The total number of accidents reported during the year was 888 as against 611 in 1927.
The total number of fatal accidents was 39 as against 39 in 1927.
The total number of Public motor vehicles examined and found unfit for public use during the year was 358 as against 116 in 1927.
The total number of Public motor vehicles examined and passed fit for public use during the year was 1,408 as against 680 in 1927.
The total number of Motor driver's licences suspended dur- ing the year was 69 as against 13 in 1927.
The total number of Motor Driver's licences cancelled dur- ing the year was 4 as against 4 in 1927.
K 9
LICENCES.
The following licences were issued during the year:—
1927
1928
Public Jinrikshas
1,717
1,649
Private Jinrikshas
930
865
Public Chairs
610
610
Private Chairs
121
106
Drivers and Bearers
17,155
16,834
Truck licences
1,018
937
Motor cars (Livery)
348
491
Motor cars (Private)
1,000
1,148
Motor cars (Drivers)
2,717
2,970
Motor cycle (Licences)
511
538
Motor cycle (Drivers)
426
362
Money Changers
209
195
Pawnbrokers
119
121
(Transferred
Chinese Wine & Spirit licences.
to
S.I.E. Dept.
Auctioneer Licences
4
5.
Billiard Tables & Bowling Alleys
3
3
Distillery Licences
(Transferred
to S.I.E. Dept.
Marine Stores
29
35
Game Licences
358
355
Hawkers
10,891
11,907
Dangerous Goods
946
905
Poisons
22
17
K 10
EXECUTIVE STAFF.
Mr. T. H. King Director of Criminal Intelligence proceeded on long leave on March 3rd and returned to the Colony on November 9th, 1928.
Mr. C. G. Perdue acted as Director of Criminal Intelligence during Mr. T. H. King's absence.
Mr. L. H. V. Booth A.S.P. proceeded on long leave on March 31st and returned to the Colony on December 6th, 1928.
Mr. D. Burlingham returned to the Colony from long leave on May 24th, 1928 and resumed duty as D.S.P. (K).
Mr. W. G. Gerrard proceeded on long leave on January 7th, 1928 and died in England on March 26th, 1928.
Mr. W. Kent was promoted Assistant Superintendent of Police on March 26th, 1928.
Mr. W. La Bart Sparrow was seconded for duty with the Government of Wei Hai Wei as from January 1st, 1928.
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
Table showing the Total Strength, Expenditure and Revenue of the Police Department for the years 1918 to 1928:
Year
Total Strength
Expenditure
Revenue
1918.
1.228
$ 727,233
$ 219,012
1919.
1,228
840.977
225.031
1920.
1,281
1,165,084
229,122
1921.
1,341
1,443,627
259.876
1922.
1,381
1,533,772
376,347
1923.
1,589
1,633,847
349,443
1924.
1,774
1,877,948
389,176
1925.
1,965
1,898,823
375,832
1926.
1,994
1,745,085
374,549
1927.
2,026
1,759,132
393,557
1928..
2,042
1,986,105
148,772
K 11
ESTABLISHMENT RETURN.
Return showing the Establishment and Casualties in the Force during the year 1928:
Nationality.
of Casualties.
Europeans,
253
43
2
Indians,
754
100
14
Chinese,
756
84
4
Water Police..
240
32
1446
5
10
4
21
11
51
77
19
31
142
8
16
30
Total, 2,003 259
7
29
48
102 270
This number includes the Police paid by other Depart- ments, also the Engineers, Coxswains, Stokers, and Seamen, but it is exclusive of:—
9 Superintendents.
2 Accountants.
2 Storekeepers.
1 Police Secretary.
23 Clerks.
11 Telephone Clerks.
70 Interpreters..
128 Messengers and coolies.
2 Indians and 2 Chinese Constables who are employed
by Private Firms.
2 Shroffs.
Actual Strength on the 10th December, 1928.
Europeans.
Indians. Chinese.
Total.
Present,
219
706
741
1,666
Sick or Absent on
leave,
48
15
97
Excess over Estimates'
Vacancies,
15
15
37
1
Total,
260
769
771
1,800
K 12.
CONDUCT.
Owing to the re-classification of Offences in the Regulation published in August, 1927, it is not possible to make a complete comparison of the figures for 1928 with those of previous years.
"A" Contingent.
The conduct of the European Contingent was good. The total number of reports against them was 121 as against 119 in 1927. There were 5 reports for being drunk or under the influence of drink, as against 14 in 1927. There were 25 reports for neglect of duty as against 24 in 1927; for misconduct there. were 11 reports.
"B" Contingent.
There were
For
The conduct of the Indian Contingent was fair. 1,189 reports as against 779 for the preceding year. drunkenness there were 12 as against 21 in 1927. For neglect of duty 217 as against 42, for misconduct there were 341. Minor Offences 619. 2 men were convicted by the Police Magistrate (Dismissed from the Force) 1 for receiving a bribe, and 1 for larceny of fruits. 240 men had no report as against 345 in 1927.
"C" Contingent.
The behaviour of the Chinese Contingent (Cantonese) was fair. There were 1,347 reports as against 1,343 in 1927. For drunkenness there were none as against 5 in 1927. For neglect of duty there were 219 and for misconduct there were 297. There were 858 minor offences. 226 men had no reports as against 258 in 1927.
"D" Contingent.
The behaviour of the Chinese Contingent (Wei-hai-wei) was fair. There were 339 reports as against 498 in 1927. For drunkenness there was 1 as against 2 in 1927. There were 84 for misconduct and 59 for neglect of duty. For minor offences there were 196 as against 387 in 1927. 44 men had no report as against 76 in 1927.
-Water Police.
The conduct of the Chinese Staff of the Water Police (average strength 230) was fair. There were 323 reports as com- pared with 322 for the previous year. For disorderly conduct there were 3 as against 14 in 1927, 7 for neglect of duty as against 21 in 1927, 116 for absence from Station or launch as against 226 in 1927, 15 for sleeping on duty as against 9 in 1927, 119 were reported for minor offences during 1927.
- K 13
Three Seamen were charged before Police Magistrate (Kow- loon) on 6.10.28 for being found in a gambling house at the 2nd floor of No. 843 Canton Road on 5.10.28, each fined $3.00 or 3 days H. L.
Coxswain No. 88 Li Yung was fined $200.00 at Central Police Court and dismissed from the Force for corrupt practice.
HEALTH.
Admissions to Hospital during the last three years are as
follows:
1926.
1927.
1928.
Nationality. Establish- Admis-
Establish-
inent.
sions.
ment.
ment.
Admis- Establish- Admis-
xions.
sions.
Europeans,...) 246
148
246
118
253
176
Indians.
572
BGS
753
405
751
479
Chinese,.
946
731
816
412
756
311

MEDALS AND COMMENDATIONS,
His Excellency the Governor was pleased to grant Medals and Commendations to the following Police Officers :-
Inspector C.P. Fallon:
3rd Class Medal.
for zealous work performed while in charge of the Staff of C.I.D., Kowloon, particularly Yaumati, since 1st December, 1926. He has had nearly 17 years service in the C.I.D. and was granted the 4th Class Medal in 1919. He has been commended 6 times by C.S.P. He joined the Force on 15.11.12.
4th Class Medal.
Divisional Inspector J. Qgg: for long and faithful service (over
23 years) and for zeal and diligence displayed during the time he has performed the duties of Divisional Inspector (South). He joined the Force on 19.12.1905.
Inspector W. Shannon:
K 14
for excellent work while in charge of Guards Office and in connection with the Piracy Prevention Ordi- nance in the period 1918-1920; also for valuable work in the. organization of the Indian Watch- men under the New Watchmen's Ordinance. He joined the Force on 19.12.12.
re-
Acting Inspector L.P. Lane: for meritorious work while on the
He
Staff of the C.I.D. particularly in connection with the Sunning Piracy November 1926, and the Chai Wan Murder case, August 1927. also performed valuable service in the Treasury Fraud Case 1928 and in the events which led to the arrest of Carvalho Yeo in Shang- hai. He joined the Force on
19.12.12.
Class II Engineer Tang Shum: for long and faithful service in the
Class II Engineer Lo Sau:
Water Police (nearly 27 years). He joined the Water Police on August 5th, 1902, was promoted 1st Class Stoker on 5.6.05, 2nd Class Engineer on 3.1.07, 1st Class Engineer on 16.11.21, Engineer-in- Chief (Junior) on 1.1.25, Class II Engineer on 1.1.29.
pro-
for long and faithful service in the Water Police (25 years). He joined the Water Police on 1.1.04, moted 1st Class Stoker on 3.1.07, 2nd Class Engineer on 1.12.11, 1st Class Engineer on 1.1.22, Engineer- in-Chief (Junior) on 1.1.25, and Class II Engineer on 1.1.27.
Commendations.
Sub-Inspector A.E. Carey :
for good work while on the Staff of the C.I.D. to which he was ap- pointed in May, 1923. He joined the Force on 14.7.19 and has been commended once by H.E. and 4 times by the C.S.P.
K 15
Sub-Inspector A.H. Elston: for good arduous work while on the
P.S.A. 31 L.R. Whant :
Staff of the C.I.D. since 24.1.25. As Officer in charge of the secre- tarial work of the C.I.D. he has worked with zeal and diligence, and has performed excellent work in connection with the movement and control of Aliens. He joined
the Force on 24.3.19.
for alertness and initiative when on patrol in the Western District on 27.8.28. Through alert obser- vation and zeal he was able to secure the seizure of a large quan- tity of Heroin pills and the con- viction of two men for possession of Dangerous Drugs.
L.S.A. 81 W.E. Goldsmith: for energy and initiative displayed
while on duty in Kowloon Bay on 5.10.28 in effecting the arrest of a Chinese concerned in the piracy of the S.S. "Anking" on 26.9.28, and recovering part of the stolen property. The prisoner was found guilty of piracy and sentenced to death at the December Criminal Sessions 1928.
Detective P.C.C. 630 Chan for alertness and diligence in effect-
Siu Ping:
ing the arrest of two men on 12.3.28, and making subsequent enquiries which led to the convic- tion of these two and one other for possession of Communistic litera- ture in Yaumati. The three de- fendants were sentenced at the Kowloon Magistracy to 1st one year, 2nd 9 months, and the 3rd 6 weeks' H.L.
MUSKETRY AND REVOLVER COURSES 1928.
A.-Musketry: Europeans.
194 Officers fired their Annual Musketry Course at Taikoo Rifle Range, Quarry Bay, during January 1929, and are classified as under:
Inspector Booker obtained the highest score with 205
out of a possible 220.
L.S.A. 130 Pennell was second with 195.
Advanced Course.
- K 16
Classification Part II.
Marksmen
52
Marksmen
1st Class Shots
23
1st Class Shots
2nd
17
2nd
11
3rd
2
3rd
""
19
"}
Failures
Nil.
Failures
TOTAL
94
4
42
45
TOTAL
100
94
Total Fired
194
A. Revolver: Europeans.
Each Officer fired three Quarterly Advanced Revolver Courses at Kennedy Road Revolver range during 1928 as under:
Possible score: 140.
Points required to qualify: 70.
Fired in April.
Superintendents
7
Other ranks
202
PASSED
209
Fired in July.
Superintendents
Other ranks
PASSED
Fired in October.
Superintendents
Other ranks
PASSED
7
203
210
7 213
220
B.-Musketry: Indians.
672 Indians fired their Annual Musketry Course at the Taikoo Rifle Range Quarry Bay during December 1928 and are classified as under:—
Corporal B.14 obtained the highest score with 211 out
of a possible 220.
Advanced Course.
Marksmen
1st Class Shots
2nd
- K 17
Classification Part II.
10
Marksmen
64
3
1st Class Shots
158
2nd
419
3rd
12
Failures
4
TOTAL
657
15
Total Fired
672
TOTAL
15
B.-Revolver: Indians.
Each officer fired three Quarterly Revolver Courses at Kennedy Road Revolver Range during 1928 as under:
A
Possible score: 120.
Points required to qualify: 60.
May
640 Passed
11 Failed
651 Total fired
August
669
Passed
9 Failed
678 Total fired
November
671
Passed
1 Failed
672 Total fired
D.-Musketry: W.H.W.
143 men of the Northern Contingent fired their Annual Musketry Course at Taikoo Rifle Range, Quarry Bay, during January 1929 and are classified as under :
Classification Part II.
Marksmen
28
1st Class Shots
48
2nd
64
21
3rd
1
""
''
Failures
2
Total fired
143
-K 18-
D.-Revolver: W.H.W.
Each officer fired three Quarterly Revolver Courses at Kennedy Road Revolver Range during 1928 as under:--
Possible score: 120.
Points to qualify: 60.
March
134 June
127
September
123
Failures
Nil.
Failures
Nil.
Failures
Nil.
C.-Musketry Course: Cantonesė.
Cantonese Police are not armed with rifles.
C.-Revolver Course: Cantonesc.
Each officer fired three Quarterly Revolver courses at Ken- nedy Road Revolver Range during 1928 as under: —
March
Failures
Possible score: 120. Points required to qualify: 60.
539
June
575
September... 569
1
Failures
Failures
Total fired.. 540
Total fired.. 578
Total fired.. 571
WATER POLICE SEAMEN (CHINESE).
Each seaman fired two Revolver Courses during the year 1928 as under.
June
Failures
50 Nil.
September Failures
TOTAL
50
ΤΟΤΑΙ.
N8
52
18
70
DISTRICT WATCHMEN,
The District watchmen fired their Annual Revolver Course at Kennedy Road Revolver Range during July 1928.
Possible score: 120. Points required to qualify: 60.
Passed Failure
92
20
Total fired
112
K 19
SPECIAL EVENTS.
1.-GENERAL.
The peaceful condition of the neighbouring province of Kwangtung during the year 1928 and the increasing use of troops for the repression of pirates and bandits was reflected in Hong Kong by a notable absence of interruptions to normal trading. Although there was an appreciable increase in serious crime, that increase was almost entirely due to larceny. Murder and robbery showed no appreciable change from 1927. The most notable murder during the year was that of Mr. Li Hysan on the 13th April, 1928. In this case no arrest was made in spite of diligent inquiries by the Police.
2. PIRACY.
The effect of the fate meted out to the S.S. "Irene" pirates in October, 1927, continued to be felt during the early part of the year.
In April, 1928, pirates again became active and captured the S.S. 'Hsinwah" belonging to the China Merchants S.S. N. Co. This outrage was followed on the 29th May by the piracy of the British steamer S.S. "Tean", which was captured while lying at anchor in Hoihow Bay. Finally, on September 30th, the British steamer, S.S. "Anking" was pirated while on her way from Singapore to Hong Kong. Repeated representa- tions to the Chinese Authorities at Canton failed to produce any adequate response until after the piracy of the S.S. 'Anking”, when troops and warships were dispatched to the Bias Bay neighbourhood. Since that time troops have been stationed constantly in that area and Chinese gunboats have maintained an intermittent patrol of Bias Bay waters, and it has thus be- come more difficult for pirates to take a captured ship back to their headquarters with any degree of safety.
3. POLITICAL.
Following the defeat of the Communists in Canton in December, 1927, there was a great decrease in anti-foreign agitation during the year. Anti-Japanese feeling made itself felt in Hong Kong during May, 1928, in the form of shop-window breaking and street oratory. This agitation was never very strong and rapidly collapsed. During the year, Canton Authori. ties devoted attention to the suppression of undesirable labour activities, and throughout the year maintained a friendly attitude towards the British in Hong Kong.
K 20
4. TREASURY FRAUD CASE.
In January, 1928, the Colonial Treasurer reported to Police that a large sum of money, amounting to $260,407.93, had been fraudulently obtained from the Government Account with the Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation by means of 3 forged cheques. As a result of enquiries suspicion ultimately centred on Carvalho Yeo, a former Treasury Clerk, who had left the Government service at the beginning of January after a disagreement with one of the Treasury Officials. In August, 1928, Carvalho Yeo was located and arrested in Shanghai. He was ultimately handed over to the Hong Kong Police and was brought to trial at the November Criminal Sessions, 1928. He was found guilty on three charges, and sentenced to 10 years imprisonment on each charge, sentences to run concurrently.
5. GENERAL.
A most successful "Tattoo" was held for three nights at Sookunpo in October, 1928. The attendance reached the large figure of 10,000. Special Police arrangements, in which the Police Reserve ably participated, were made, and worked very efficiently.
ANNEXES.
WATER POLICE.
Annexe A.-Details concerning the Water Police.
B.-Details concerning Recruiting, and the Police
Training School.
19
19
NEW TERRITORIES. (NORTH)
C. A report on the New Territories (North)
GUARD.
ils concerning the Anti-piracy and Shore tards.
STREET BOYS CLUB.
E-A report on the working of the Street Boys'
Club.
HONG KONG POLICE RESERVE.
F.-A report on the Hong Kong Police Reserve.
T. H. KING,
Ag. Captain Superintendent of Police.
VALUE OF
PROPERTY
STOLEN
VALUE OF
PROPERTY
RECOVERED.
Chinese.
← K 21
Table I.
YEARLY RETURN OF CRIME FOR THE WHOLE COLONY FOR THE YEAR 1928.
1927.
1928.
PERSONS
CONVICTED,
Charged cases.
Cases without charge.
Total cases.
Charged cases.
Cases without charge.
Total cases.
% Charged cases to total.
Europeans.
Indians,
Chinese.
PERSONS
DISCHARGED.
Europeans.
Indians.
SERIOUS OFFENCES.
€9-
S

Arms,
Assault (Serious),
32
Assault with intent to rob,
LO L
19
104
73
10
83
88%
65
:
2
34
17
17 100%
Ι
16
5
4
4 100%
Burglary,
16
75
91
20
85
105
19%
23
23
4
...
10,080.68
1,203.85
Coinage Offences,
13
13
32
32 100%
29
...
Deportation,
172
172
211
211 100%
210
Embezzlement,
15
34
49
24.
57
81 30%
20
4 79,918.07
11,585.40
House and Godown Breaking,.
25
79
104 27
63
90 30%
34
1
8,060.14
763.98
Intimidation and Extortion,..
20
20
11
11 100%
10
4
Kidnapping,
10
10 20
3
23 87%
16
12
Larceny,.
1,389 1,226 2,615 1,652 1,519
3,171 79%
Co
11,566
oo
1
Larceny from Dwelling Houses,
67 517 584
59 562
Larceny on Ships and Wharf,..
69 88 157
77
77
6219.5%
154 50%
58
:
:
I
76
Manslaughter,
5
7
3
...
3| 100%
I
Murder,
10
17
13
21 38%
1
727
198168,685.27 46,819.59
18 90,204.77 9,813.16 9,879.10 2,234.55
...
Murder, Attempted,
1
1
2
2 | 100%
Obtaining by False Pretences,
60 22
82
64
18
82 78%
...
1
53
...
N
Receiving,
159
159
153
153 100%
1
120
1
Robbery,.....
26
74
100
27
72
99 27%
35
Women and Girls,..
13
13
26
26 100%
21
17 11,390.73 1,441.47 791
17| 42,028.10 782.83 11
Other Serious Offences,
202
14 216 205
7
212 96%
6
CO
167
1
1
88 57,774.12:
57.80
Total,.
2,394 2,159 4,553 2,715 2,486 5,201
16
5 2,523
7
3
|
499 478,020.98 74,702.63
MINOR OFFENCES.
K 22
Table I.- Continued.
YEARLY RETURN OF CRIME FOR THE WHOLE COLONY FOR THE YEAR 1928.
:
291 100%
Charged cases.
Cases without charge.
Total cases.
Charged cases.
Cases without charge.
Total cases.
1927.
1928.
% Charged cases to total.
Europeans.
Indians.
PERSONS
CONVICTED,
Chinese.
PERSONS DISCHARGED.
VALUE OF PROPERTY STOLEN.
VALUE OF
PROPERTY RECOVERED.
:.
Europeans.
Indians.
Chinese.
Assault,
332
332
291
Damage to Property,
13
13
28
Dangerous Goods,
25
25
31
28 100% 31 100%
7
51
5
331
21.
1
1 69
:
31
Drunkenness,..
24
24
20
20 100%
10
4
10
Forestry Offences,
334
334
335
335 100%
487
Gambling,
503
503 364
364 100%
Hawking Offences,.
9,109
9,109 8,988
8,988 100%
Lottery Offences,
288
288
245
245 100%
Mendicants,
13
.13
74
Merchant Shipping Ordinance,
273
273
349
74 100%
349 100%
1,769 8,869 291 86
22
173
254
ลง
31
1
CO
726
LA
:
4
14
Morphine,
7
7
17
17 100%
12
9
Nuisances,
248
248
239
239 100%
251
15
Opium,
5,855
5,855
624
624 100%
624
101
...
Revenue,
183
183
228
228 100%
1
1
17
Rogue and Vagabond,
47
47
20
20 100%
24
4
Stowaways,
26
26
27
27 100%
10
1
32
3
Unlawful Possession,
326
326
332
332 100%
318
38
:
Vagrants,
39
39
47
47 100%
45
7
1
Vehicles and Traffic,
773
773 1,078
1,078 100%
1,066
28
Women and Girls,
103
103
144
144 100%
135
21
Other Miscellaneous Offences,..
1,370
1,370
928
928 100%
23
32 1,252
2
127
Total,..
19,891
19,891 14,409
14,409
108
51 16,568
9
4
934 | 478,020.98| 74,702.63
Grand Total,...
22,285 2,159 24,444 17,124, 2,486 19,610
124
56 19,091
16
7 1,433
A
C. $
I
!!
|
Sp
K 23
Table II.
PIRACIES REPORTED TO HONG KONG POLICE DURING 1928 OTHER THAN BIAS BAY.
Date.
Ship, Name and address of
Place of Occurrence.
Complainant.
Estimated No. of Pirates. Dialect spoken.
Estimated Value of Pro- perty Stolen.
No. of Persons Kidnapped.
Jan. 2
S.L. Cheung Yuen, Chan Chau Ho, 28 miles below Sham Shui Pilot, 125 Portland St. 2nd fl.
18
S.S. San Nam Hoi, Capt. Sparkes.. Outside Kongmoon
8
$ 7,000.00
5 males.
25
21
T.J. 293H. Fan Tong Master
Off Sam Chau Inlet, Ping Hoi
15 Hoklos.
8,778.00
27
T.J. (No. unk.) Hui Sing Master
Off Sam Mun Customs
?
"
2,035.00
Feb. 1
F.J. (No. unk.) Liu Kiu Master
West River near Toi Shan
Mar. 21
Off Pu Toi
5,620.00
219.50
3 males.
1:
1!
22
223
Boat 839A. So Chan Lec Master, 1320W. Chung Fo Kat, 2709H.W. Chui Man Lai,
Near Tam Kon Shan
F.J. 4195H.A. So Fat Lee, Master S.S. Hin Cheung, Cheung Ngau, Near Tit Hau Kwok Sam Sui Dist. Master, Chuen Yik Co., 25
Queen St.
April 8
T.4764 Ho Kiu Master
""
Off Tai Lam Chung
Remarks.
Attack repulsed. Chief Officer killed. 2 I.G.'s wounded. Pirates jumped overboard. Believed caught by Chinese authorities.
111.00
10 Boatloads.
70,000.00
8 males.
(crew).
6
1,025.70
9 males.
12
T.J.3256C. Chan Shun Master
8 miles E. of Ninepins
6 Hakas.
1,040.00
Junk and Crew held by pirates.
All three fired on and boarded by part of crew of a large junk.
Pirates driven off by Chinese Gun- boat. Took the prisoners with them.
While unloading the captured junk at Pak Tau Sai Lo. C.T. the pirates were attacked by Pea- sant Corps and routed. Junk, cargo and prisoners recovered.
K 24
Table II,-Continued.
PIRACIES REPORTED TO HONG KONG POLICE DURING 1928 OTHER THAN BIAS BAY.
Date.
Ship, Name and address of Complainant.
Place of Occurrence.
Estimated No. of Pirates. Dialect spoken.
Estimated Value of Pro- perty Stolen.
No. of Persons Kidnapped.
Remarks.
April 16
7484W. Tsui Kan Fuk, Master
Off Ninepins
5 Hakas.
1,035.00
May 5
M.B. Tsing Shan, Leung Tung 4 miles W. of Fan Lau Pt. Cox'n. (A.P.C.).
2 Boatloads.
3,514.00
June 10
T.J. 3418H. Leung Yau, Master .... The Brothers
20
13,000.00
8 males. (crew).
20
Fishing boat (No. unk.) Shek Yau Between Tap Mun and Sha Mun Yiu, Master.
4
1,059.00
Sept. 7
Fishing boat 258W. Chim On Lee Master.
Off Fan Lau Pt. Lantao
20
417.00
Oct. 17....
Fishing boat (No. unk.) Kwok Tsat Lee Master.
E. side of Chi Chau I.
11
580.00
Boat 3547. Lam Kam Yip Master
Dec. 4
11
33
S.S. Wong Shek Kung, Capt. Nils Herring.
20 miles S.S.W. of Gap Rock
12
5,000.00
Off Fan Lau Pt.
2,637.00
SUMMARY:
--
Total Cases for 1928, 18, Property Stolen Approx. $123,071.20, Persons Kidnapped 33. Total Cases for 1927, 32, Property Stolen Not Ascertained, Persons Kidnapped 191.
Cargo of Kerosene oil stolen and landed near Macao.
Pirates fled on approach of Ch. Gun- boat, taking prisoners and cargo. One of crew killed and one wounded.
2 of crew shot by Pirates.
All missing men and $705.00 of pro- perty recovered.
Ship taken to Sam Long Island.
#

1:
K 25
Table II,-Continued.
PIRACIES REPORTED TO HONG KONG POLICE DURING 1928.
SHIPS TAKEN TO BIAS BAY.
Date.
Ship, Name and address of Complainant.
Place of Occurrence.
Estimated No. of Pirates. Dialect spoken.
Estimated Value of Pro- perty Stolen.
No. of Persons Kidnapped.
Remarks.
5 Passengers. Ship taken to Sam Chau Inlet, N of Bias Bay.
Ship taken to Bias Bay.
3 European and 1 Chinese member of crew shot. 2 European mem- bers wounded. Ship taken to Hong Hoi Bay.
April 17
S.S. Hsin Wah, China Mchts. J.P. Jensen, Master.
Off Foochow
16
1,035.00
May 29
S.S. Tean, B. & S. Co., E.H. Histed Master.
In Hoi How Bay
?
7,000.00
Sept. 30
S.S. Anking, B. & S. Co., Capt. C. Plunkett-Cole Master.
Between S'pore and Hong Kong
40.
80,000.00
7 Passengers.
11
SUMMARY:
Total Cases for 1928, 3, Property Stolen' Approx. $88,035, Persons Kidnapped 12. Total Cases for 1927, 5, Property Stolen Approx. $102,266, Persons Kidnapped 27.
Decrease
Year.
- K 26 -
Table III.
DISCHARGED PRISONERS, DEPORTEES AND VAGRANTS 1928.
Number of persons Banished from Hong Kong.
No. of persons discharged from Gaol of whom Des- criptions are on Record.
Persons deported from
Singapore and Re-Banished.
Singapore Vagrants
Repatriated.
1927
1,513
1928
1,286
1,939
2,539
667
284
1,357
1,013
Increase
Rangoon Deportees.
888888
Repatriation of
Undesirables. Dutch East Indies.
545
227
600
16
I
690
729
130
292
I
Repatriation of
Undesirables. Deli Planters Association.
675
292
L
}
!!
1
- K 27
Table IV (A).
ARMS AND AMMUNITION SEIZED AND CONFISCATED DURING THE YEAR, 1928.
In Store on December 31st, 1928.
Description of Arms.
Arms Seized.
Ammunition seized.
Arms.
Ammunition
Winchester Rifles
Rifles--Various
German Rifles
Mauser Pistols
Automatic Pistols
Revolvers
Shot Guns
Luger Pistols
German Machine Gun
Walking Stick Guns
American Machine Guns, Cal. 45,
Thompson...
1
106
1
16
718
35
7,480
2
55
14,946
706
57,006
ខឹង
27
35,650
363
78,266
67
28,190
54
7,555
6
435
68
1,583
212
30,738
1
2
303
K 28
Table IV (B).
ARMS AND AMMUNITION.
Classification of Seizures of Arms and Ammunition according to place of origin.
Rifles Winchester
Spanish.
U.S.A.
French and Belgian.
!
Austrian. British.
Canadian. German. Unknown.
Grand Total.
Amm:
106
Various
Amm:
""
,
Mauser
Amm:
1 (Barrel)
1
106
...
15
15
713
713
Pistols Mauser
55
Amm:
14,160
786
55 14,946
Automatic
3
་་
Amm:
1,051
617 55,955
85
1
706
8.304
46
57,006
Luger
68
68
Amm:
808
775
1,583
Revolvers
4
Amm:
32 3,847
22
24,343
Shot Gun
Amm:
.45 Thompson
Machine Gun
Amm:
Primers
1
:..
⠀ ⠀
::
105
9
44
67 28,190
::
i
1
- K 29
Annexe A.
REPORT ON THE WATER POLICE.
Return of Changes in the Establishment in 1928:-
Resignations
Dismissals
Struck Off
Retirements
Invalided
On Transfer to Land Force
Enlistments
1 enlistment to cover 1 vacancy on
31.12.27.
Vacancies on 31.12.28
6
15
1
9
~
33
29
5
34
CRUISING LAUNCHES.
During the year under review Nos. 1, 2, and 4 Cruising Launches have undergone their annual survey and overhaul, besides being slipped quarterly when minor repairs were effected.
No. 3 Cruising Launch is still afloat and doing duty, but is now unseaworthy. A new No. 3 Launch which will be ready for duty about the end of January 1929, will take up the beat now covered by the old No. 3 Launch. This new Launch when completed, will be mounted with a 3 pounder gun which will bring her into line with Nos. 2, and 4 Launches, each of which carry similar guns. A number of European and Chinese attach- ed to the Cruising Launches have been trained in the use of the 3 pounder guns.
HABOUR LAUNCHES.
Launches Nos. 5, 6, 7, 9 and 14 which have been employed on Harbour work during the year, have been overhauled and are in good condition..
She
A new No. 8 Harbour Launch was bought from the Kowloon Dock Company, during the year and is giving satisfaction. took the place of the old No. 8 Launch which was condemned. During the year under review the colour of the Launches has been changed from Slate to Blue, with Yellow funnel.
K 30
MOTOR-BOATS.
Motor-boats Nos. 10, 11, and 12 have been overhauled and are in good condition.
SEARCH-LIGHTS.
Search-lights on Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 14 Launches have been overhauled and exercised and are in good working order.
PULLING BOATS.
Pulling boats and gear are in good condition.
WIRELESS.
Nos. 2 and 4 Cruising Launches, and also the new No. 3 Launch are all fitted with Wireless, each with accommodation for 2 Wireless Operators. The wireless on these launches has proved to be of great service.
MUSKETRY.
Vickers Gun Courses have been fired on all the Cruising Launches each quarter. The guns are all in good condition.
The Chinese Deck Staff of these Launches are periodically exercised in the use of revolvers and Winchester Rifles, and in addition to above fire a quarterly course with revolver, and an Annual Course with Winchester Rifle.
Annexe B.
POLICE TRAINING SCHOOL.
1.-RECRUITING TABLE FROM 1.1.28 TO 31.12.28
District-
Euro-
pean.
Canton-
Indian.
W.H.W. Watch
ese.
men.
Continuing instruction
from 1927
13
126
71
Recruited
43
85
39
Passed out
32
148
99
Struck off
17
Dismissed
1
7
Ngamo
2
46
30
21
23
Invalided
2
Resigned
2
Continuing Instruction
1929
23
37
2
25
10
5
1
1.
K 81
II. EXAMINATIONS.
During the year Eighteen examinations were held for Pro- motion. The following table shews the number of Officers who qualified for the various ranks.
European
Indian
In- Sub In- Sergeant spector. spector,
Major.
Sergeant.
Lance Sergeant.
5
انت
1-3
17
32
13
Cantonese ("C""
Contingent) W.H.W. ("D"
Contingent)
III.
SPECIAL TUITION.
A-During the year 31 Indian Police were specially trained in Traffic Duties: 28 qualified and were appointed to the Traffic Staff: 3 failed to qualify and were returned to regular duty. Ten Chinese (Northern Contingent) were selected for training in Traffic Duties: their training is continuing into 1929.
B.The Chinese, Indian, and Motor Cycle Companies of the Hong Kong Police Reserve were trained in Drill, Revolver Firing, and Police Duties. The following table shews the num- ber of Officers who passed in the various subjects.
Drill.
Revolver Course.
Knowledge of Instruction Book.
Chinese Company
Indian Company
Motor Cycle, Company
12
19
4
*=*
C.--First Aid: The following table shews the number of regular Police Officers and recruits who were trained, and passed or failed in First Aid to the Injured.
Trained.
Qualified. Failed.
Undergoing
a Course.
European.....
92
Indian
134

71
92
42
Chinese
23
12
a:
(Cantonese)......
190
153
37
95
K 32
IV. DISCIPLINE.
One European recruit was dismissed for misconduct. Four Indian recruits were fined $30.00 each by the Kowloon Magis- trate for "Disobedience of Orders" and one of these was fined a further sum of $25.00 on a Second Charge of 'Insubordination”. All four were subsequently dismissed. Three other Indian re- cruits were dismissed for misconduct, and 17 were struck off as unsuitable. Six Cantonese recruits were dismissed for mis-* conduct, and 3 were struck off as unsuitable.
Discipline was otherwise satisfactory.
Annexe C.
REPORT ON THE NEW TERRITORIES (NORTH).
I. DEPARTMENTAL.
1.--ADMINISTRATIVE.
Mr. W. R. Scott took over the charge of N.T.N. from the late Mr. W. G. Gerrard on 1.1.28. He was temporarily second- ed for duty as Private Secretary to H. E. the O.A.G. on 7th September, 1928. Mr. L.H.C. Calthrop was then appointed A.S.P.N.T. in addition to his other duties on 7.9.28. Mr. L.H.V. Booth acted as A.S.P.N.T. from 10.12.28-31.12.28 on his return from leave.
2.-ESTABLISHMENT.
The European Staff was increased by the transfer of the following officers :-
Insp. Brennan, D.I.N., to Au Tau on 2.3.28
Traffic Sgt. Tuckett to Tai Po on 1.2.28
The following is a list showing the increase and decrease of the Strength for N.T.N. Stations since August, 1928:-
Sha Tau Kok increased by 1 I.P.C. Tai Po
Lok Ma Chau
Sheung Shui
Ta Ku Ling Ping Shan
Castle Peak
Au Tau
reduced by 1
>>
1
11
11
"
""
""
*
1
1
& 1 Chinese
Detective
Sai Kung
Sha Tin
*
"
1
K 33
3. CONDUCT & DISCIPLINE.
The conduct of the European police was very good. Defaul ters 7.
The conduct of the Indian Police was good. 168 men were reported for misconduct. Two Indian Constables were charged before the District Officer North with (A) Assault and (B) Misconduct on 12.12.28. They were fined $100.00 or 1 month's H.L. each. One Indian Constable was summoned before the Kowloon Magistrate on 1.2.28 for larceny. He was fined $25.00.
The conduct of the Cantonese Police (including Inter- preters and Telephone Clerks) was satisfactory. 26 men were reported for misconduct.
4. COMMENDATIONS.
Four Police Officers were
Superintendent of Police:-
1. L.S.A. 118 Boffin.
2. P.S.B. 60 Abdulla.
3.
commended by the Captain
Detective L.S. C.75 Lo Kwong.
4. Detective P.C. C.130 Kwong Kwong.
5. SICKNESS.
The following Table gives the Sickness Returns from all T.N. Stations for 1928, the figures for 1927 being shown in comparison.
Station.
To Hospital
with fever.
Sick in Stn. with fever.
To Hospital
other causes.
Sick in Stu. other causes.
1928
1927
1928 1927
1928 1927
1928 1927
Sha Tau Kok.
Tai Po.........
Au Tau
Sha Tin Ping Shan
Sai Kung......
Lok Ma Chau.
Ta Ku Ling.. Sheung Shui..
Total
Castle Peak.....
26
23
2
1
:
6612
5
2282467212
4
5
4
6
14
53
11
10
2
7
38
57
8
4
25
89
6
48
7
18
17
2
12
13
14
4
8
424720 CO
8
9
9
8
H ∞ CIN DI CO ∞
5
4
2
5
4
3
1
4
4
73422110
5
60
83
133 250
69
56
16
CO
36
K 34
As this return clearly shows, malaria in the N.T.N. continues to decrease. There is а well marked difference between the total number of cases for both years 333—193 — 140. Every station with the exception of Lok Ma Chau and Ta Ku Ling shows this improvement, Ping Shan and Tai Po being the best. This was probably due to the small amount of rain which fell during the year, thus leaving little water for the breeding of the mosquito larvae and to the specially energetic measures taken by Officers in Charge to combat mosquitos.
The figures for sickness through other causes remain much the same.
6. BUILDINGS, ADDITIONS & ALTERATIONS TO.
1. New block-house at Lin Ma Hang, Sheung Shui, was started in March, 1928 and up to the 31st December, 1928 had not yet been completed.
2. An additional latrine to Sha Tau Kok Police Station was built and completed by P.W.D. on 15.3.28.
3. On 28.10.28, the P.W.D. commenced alterations to the Indians' Mess Room and Cook-house at Sha Tin Station
by putting in two windows. Alterations were completed on
21.11.28.
4. A new Pill Box was built by the P.W.D. at the entrance to Sha Tau Kok village and completed on 15.8.28.
5. A hut, latrine and bath-house were erected by the Military Authorities at the North-west end of the Sha Tau Kok Police Station on September, 1928.
II. GENERAL.
1. ACCIDENTS (TRAFFIC).
Motor traffic in N.T.N. was responsible for 33 accidents--- 1 fatal and 32 minor. The figures for 1927 were 1 and 23 respectively.
2. ACCIDENTS, FATAL (NON-TRAFFIC).
Total 8. Three deaths were due to accidents on the rail- way, 3 to drowning and the other 2 to shooting with firearms.
1_
K 35
3. FIRES
There were 8 fires in 1928, compared with 3 in 1927. Only two of these fires were of serious nature, i.e. the destruction of an unnumbered fishing boat at Sha Kong Mei, Ping Shan, involving a loss of $900.00. In the other a Chinese female named Tsui Kam, 55 yrs., Widow, a native of Wai Chau, was burned to death in her matshed at Tai Ling, Sheung Shui District.
4. CRIME.
The following Table shows the number of serious crimes committed in the N.T.N. during 1928, with comparative figures for 1927:-
Murder
Suspected Murder
Kidnapping
ON LAND.
1928 1927
1
3
1
1
1
Armed Robbery & Kidnapping
Double Armed Robbery & Kidnapping
Double Armed Robbery & Wounding Armed Robbery & Wounding
1
1
Armed Robbery
4
6
Robbery with Violence
1
2
Attempted Armed Robbery
Ι
Robbery, unarmed
1
Highway Robbery
1
Attempted Highway Robbery, armed
Total
12
17
ON WATER.
Double Murder
Armed Robbery
Armed Robbery & Wounding Armed Robbery & Kidnapping
Piracy
Assault with intent to rob
Total
4
6
The majority of the crime can be ascribed to 'squatters' from the Wai Chau District. There has been a steady in-flow of these people from this district since 1925.
K 36
5. FRONTIER INCIDENTS.
These have been reported weekly throughout the year. The Frontier has been very
quiet and nothing serious has happened. The situation in general across the border shows a marked improvement on 1927.
Annexe D.
REPORT ON THE GUARDS 1928.
Jan. 1st. Dec. 31st.
Steamer Guards (Indian)
338
197
Steam Launch Guards (Chinese)
12
6
Shore Guards (Indian)
274
254
Shore Guards (Chinese)
25
33
Special Lewis Gun Guards (Indian) Guards on Strength (Casual Duty)
49
44
19
77.
717
611
STRENGTH.
The Strength on the 1st January stood at 717 and on the 31st December 611, as compared with 728 on the 1st January, 1927, and 722 on the 31st December, 1927.
The number of resignations during the year was. The number of dismissals during the year was The number of men taken on strength
The number of desertions during the year was The number of deceased during the year was The latter included 2 Guards killed by pirates
during attempted piracy of s.s. "San Nam Hoi" 17.1.28.
191
11
111
6
6
3 Guards died in Government Civil Hospital and 1 Lewis Gunner died in the Government Civil Hospital.
The majority of Guards who resigned, returned to India on leave.
The remainder are men who left to seek work as Private Watchmen.
A large number were paid off the vessels of Messrs. Butterfield & Swire, and were replaced by Military Units.
1
- K 37
CONDUCT.
Discipline throughout the year was fair. There were 355 .] faulters. 11 men were dismissed for misconduct. During the year 8 Steamer Guards were commended by the Captain Superintendent of Police on the recommendation of the Captains of the s.s. "San Nam Hoi" and s.s. "Kochow", for good work on board, during the attempted piracy on the former, and the stranding of the latter ships.
MUSKETRY.
All guards throughout the year were exercised with the revolver, and instructed in the use of the Winchester Rifle and Greener Gun. They also attended at Sookunpo, and later at Kennedy Road, and fired their Quarterly Course.
Special Lewis Gunners have been instructed throughout the year in the Lewis Gun and revolver.
PRIVATE WATCHMEN.
The number of men who registered as private
Watchmen during the year was
The number of men who resigned during the
year was
568
65
Since the advent of the New Watchmen Ordinance, a number of men have been proceeded against for offences com- mitted against the suid Ordinance. This action has had good results.
Annexe E.
STREET BOYS CLUB.
1. The membership of the Club is 29 of whom 23 boys. were in the Club in January, 1928.
2. During the year 5 boys absconded from the Club; 2· boys obtained permission to return to the Country. and failed to return. One boy, employed at
employed at the Police Store, was arrested for larceny and sentenced to 2 weeks H.L. 21.4.28 On discharge from Gaol, he went to Cheung Chau and found employment.
3. 5 boys who had been arrested for minor offences were discharged by the Police Magistrate and admitted as members of the Street Boys Club.
4. During the year 8 boys have been sent to the St. Louis Industrial School. 1 absconded.
K 38
5. 9 boys are employed as messengers; 13 boys were given a free Itinerant Hawkers Licence and allowed to hawk. 7 boys at St. Louis Industrial School.
6. The Funds of the Club on 31.12.28 amounted to $4,027.43.
7. The boys employed, are encouraged to save part of their earnings, with the result they have saved $258.91 during the year.
8. During the Summer months the boys attended a Bathing Party, once every week at Kau Pa Kang Bathing Beach. 10 boys took part in the Police Aquatic Sports held at the Victoria Recreation Club Baths in September, and all displayed great keenness. During the Winter months hot baths are provided regularly at Police Headquarters.
9. The Club premises remain at No. 40 Hollywood Road, 3rd floor, not far from Police Headquarters. Chinese Police Sergeant Fung Kam resides on the premises and attends to the welfare and discipline of the boys.
10. The following is a Statement of Accounts up to and including December 31st, 1928.
INCOME.
EXPENDITURE.
1st January, 1928
To Balance
Donations:
M.C.L. $500.00
$2,395.38
By Rent of Club
Premises
$ 720.00
Light
94.09
Chinese
Recreation
Printing
1.50
Club ..... 30.00
Mr. Murphy 5.00
Cheque Book
2.50
Special Don-
ation from
Record Box
6.00
Chinese
Com-
munity 2,000.00
N.Y.K.
30.00
Miscellane-
ous
50.00
Interest on Boys
Savings Account.
5.45
St. Louis Industrial
C. Choa ... 25.00
Interest on current
Account
Rent Refunds
School for Boys from the Club
342.50
2,640.00
Dec. 31st.
73.09
By Balance
4,027.43
91.00
$5,199.47
$5,199.47
K 39
Annexe F.
HONG KONG POLICE RESERVE.
The Hong Kong Police Reserve has been maintained throughout the year on the same basis as before.
The strength of the force has shown but slight increase, a number of resignations having been caused through transfer of members to other ports.
The strength of the Contingents is as follows:-
Chinese
78
Indian
53
Flying Squad
34
Sharpshooters'
34
Total
199
During the year 4 Chinese and 1 Indian Constables were highly commended, while 3 Chinese Constables and 6 members of the Flying Squad were commended by the Captain Super- intendent of Police, for valuable services rendered.
All units of the Police Reserve have rendered valuable assistance to the Regular Police upon special occasions, especially during the "Tattoo' in October, 1928.
Training has been continued at both the Police Training School and at Central Police Station : attendance thereat has been satisfactory.
Special Constabulary:-Strength of the Special Constabulary on 31.12.28 was 182.
Flying Squad.--Nine recruits joined during the year and though the strength of the Flying Squad is small-Hong Kong 25 and Kowloon 9-good work has been performed in conjunction with the Regular Traffic Police. Regular weekly runs have been held in Hong Kong and Kowloon, and various patrols have been provided for escort duties. Traffic duty was performed on special ceremonial occasions. The men have displayed great keenness in their work. This is shown by the attendance of individual members on all parades.
2
K 40
REPORT BY THE CHIEF OFFICER
HONG KONG FIRE BRIGADE.
1. Cost of Fire Brigade.-The cost of the Fire Brigade for the year 1928 was $197,222.37 as compared with $190,350.27 in 1927 and $206,232.50 in 1926. Special Expenditure amounting to $12,768.74 is included.
2. Calls. The Brigade received 137
received 137 Calls in all, an increase of 29 on the Calls for 1927. The actual number of serious fires amounted in all to 12 as against 6 in 1927. The most serious fires were:---
(1) The fire on the River Steamer "Sui Tai" which was lying at the Wing Lok Wharf. The whole upper works of the Steamer were gutted but the hull and Engines saved. This ship has been reconstructed and is again on the run. I am satisfied that had it not been for the splendid work of the newly acquired Fire Float it would have been impossible to save this ship which is of wood construction.
(2) The fire at No. 20 Upper Station Street when 5 per- sons were burnt to death before the arrival of the Brigade A somewhat late call was received and on arrival of the Brigade not only the premises in which the fire had originated but the premises opposite were fully alight.
3. Loss of Life.-The attention of Government has been drawn to the very flimsy construction of many of the over crowded tenement houses is the Colony and it would appear that the time has arrived for insisting on fire proof material only being used in the construction of these tenement houses, many of which have only one common Staircase for two separate houses of from 3 to 4 stories. Even if fire procf material for the stair case and 1st floor was insisted on there would be little likelihood of person being burnt to death in these houses. In most cases the ground floor is a shop, in the case of No. 20 Upper Station Street it was Joss Paper shop full of inflammable matter which if once set alight converts the shop into a roaring furnance in a few moments. Unless therefore the inmates can escape by the roof which is not always possible they have no means of escape once the ground floor is alight. In all 10 persons lost their lives, 5 of whom were burnt to death in the fire in Upper Station Street. A+ the fire in Lai Chi Kok Road on 13th April, 1928, 2 persons were rescued by firemen from the burning building.
1
K 41
4. Stations and Equipment. It was not found possible to proceed with any new Stations during the year 1928 but additional premises adjoining Mong Kok Sub-Station were leased thus converting the small Sub-Station at Mong Kok into a full sized Station with full Fire Brigade personnel and an equipment of 2 Motor Appliances.
5. Hill Fires.-Owing to the very dry season there were an unusually large number of Hill fires which the Brigade were called upon to cope with in conjunction with the Police and the Staff of the Botanical Department.
6. Recruits. No difficulty was experienced in obtaining sufficient Recruits during the year but the Brigade is still slightly short of its full numbers owing to the large number of resignations.
The report of the Superintendent giving full details of the work of the Brigade during the year 1928 is attached.
E. D. C. WOLFE, Chief Officer Fire Brigade.
*
22nd February, 1929.
...
K 42
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF THE HONG KONG
FIRE BRIGADE FOR THE YEAR 1928.
Calls:-
The number of calls received during the year totalled 212. Actual fires 137, Chimney fires 32,. Collapses 5, and false alarms 38.
Compared with the previous year (1927) there is an increase of 29 calls.
There were 12 serious fires, details of which appear in Table II.
Of the false alarms; 11 were maliciously given, 20 were given with good intent, and 7 were due to electrical faults of Fire Alarms.
How received:-By Street fire alarm 53; by Public telephone 94; by Government telephone 28; from Police 25; from Messengers 12.
LIVES LOST; PERSONS INJURED; PERSONS RESCUED.
Ten persons lost their lives or received such injuries that they subsequently succumbed.
Seven persons received minor injuries from which they recovered.
Two persons were rescued by means of the Fire Brigade appliances.
Seven persons were extricated alive by the Brigade from collapses, while 2 corpses were recovered.
STAFF INJURED IN THE EXECUTION OF DUTY.
Injured
3
HEALTH OF STAFF.
During the year there were 259 cases of illness, viz., European officers 13, Chinese members 246.
COMMENDATIONS.
His Excellency the Officer Administering the Government was pleased to appreciate the work performed by the Brigade at the fire on the S.S. "Sui Tai" on the 24/8/28.
K 43
The Chief Officer, the Hon. Mr. E. D. C. Wolfe, was pleased to commend Sub Officer Chan Wei Son for marked efficiency and bravery in effecting the rescue of 2 persons at a fire in Lai Chi Kok Road on the 13/2/28.
STRENGTH OF STAFF.
The authorized strength of the Staff for the year 1928 was as follows:-
1 Chief Officer (Hon. C.S.P.)
1 Superintendent
2 Stations Officers
1 Consulting Engineer
4 Asst. Station Officers
1 Mechanical Engineer
1 Asst. Mechanical Engineer
(Chinese)
14 Sub Officers
5 Foremen
120 Firemen
32 Motor Drivers
16 Ambulance Attendants
1 Clerk
10 Telephone Clerks
69 Other ranks
THEATRE AND OTHER DUTIES.
Duties performed by members of the Brigade at public and private entertainments during the year totalled 818 comprising altogether 5,924 hours.
MOTOR AMBULANCE SERVICE.
The number of cases attended during the year by the respective Ambulances is shewn in the following summary :—
Cases.
Distance run.
Total
(miles)
Police Private
No. 1 Ambulance (Kowloon)
272
263
535
3,652
No. 3
317
402
719
4,962
"
No. 2
(Hong Kong)
268
443
711
4,325
No. 4
634
683 1,317
9,868
"
""
Totals
1,491
1,791 [3,282
22,807
K 44
The yearly increase in cases attended by the Motor Ambulances is shewn in the following summary :--
Last year 1928.
Previous years.
1927
1926 1925 1924 1923
Cases attended
3,282 3,187 2,637 2,265 2,129 1,712
REVENUE.
Theatre and Other duties
Motor Ambulance Service
$2,106.00
3,756.00
$5,862.00
WATER SUPPLY.
An additional 22 pedestal hydrants and 109 ball hydrants were installed during the year; total number of hydrants now being 1,324 viz.,
Hong Kong (pedestal hydrants)
90
Kowloon (pedestal hydrants)
70
Hong Kong (ball hydrants) (including Peak)
810
Kowloon (ball hydrants)
354
Total
1,324
The above hydrants were regularly inspected every
quarter.
GENERAL.
Staff-During the year 31 Chinese members resigned, 21 were dismissed and 14 absconded. 56 recruits were enrolled and trained as firemen and passed out of the Drill Class into the Brigade while 32 men were engaged and appointed to fill vacancies in other ranks of the Department.
Brigade motor driving classes were recommenced during the latter half of the year; progress made to date is however unfortunately slow, the driving of motor fire engines seeming to be particularly difficult to the average Chinese learner.
As a result of the much appreciated interest and assistance of the St. John's Ambulance Brigade, first aid classes for Sub Officers and firemen have been continued throughout the year as for practically every member of the Fire Brigade to be now in possession of one or more certificates.
– K 45
Equipment. (Additions & deductions).The following ap. pliances were supplied during the year and added to the equip- inent of the Brigade:-
1 A. J. S. Motor Fire Cycle, equipped with a 20 gallon soda-acid engine, and 4-2 gallon Foam and 3 Carbon Tetrachloride fire extinguishers;
1 Rolls-Royce-Dennis Motor Fire Engine, equipped with a 250/300 g.p.m. turbine pump, and 1st aid appliance;
while the following unserviceable appliances and fire float were sold during the year:-
2 Land Steam Fire Engines (Nos. 4 and 5)
1 Fire Float (No. 2).
(Overhauls and Tests).-All Brigade motor vehicles fire floats and apparatus were satisfactorily overhauled and tested during the year.
Fire Inspection Work.-The following number of inspections were made by the Brigade and reported upon during the year: —-
Theatres and Cinemas
407
Hotels and Restaurants
5
Garages
191
Petrol Storages
44
Inflammable Structures
180
Premises used for offensive trades
65
Miscellaneous storages
65
Premises installed with hydrant services
(other than those mentioned above)....
25
Total
982
In addition, 155 Chemical Fire Extinguishers located to various Government Buildings were tested and recharged by the Brigade during the year.
Prosecutions. Two summonses were taken out during the for contravention of the Celluloid and Cinematograph Film Ordinance.
vear
The thanks of the Brigade are due to the Police, the members of the St. John's Ambulance Brigade, Boy Scouts, Naval and Military Forces and others for the much appreciated assistance they have generously rendered the Brigade from time to time during the year.
24th January, 1929.
H. T. BROOKS, Superintendent, Fire Brigade.
K 46
Table I
Summary of Estimated Monetary Loss by Fire for the year 1928.
Not Exceeding
Exceed-
Month
Under $500
ing
Total
$5,000
$750 $1,000 $2,500 $5,000
January..... 1,560
600 1,000
:
30,000
33,160
February... 255
900
1,155
March
40
700
90,000
90,740
April
580
800 2,000 2,600 27,939
33,919
May
660
660
June
1,040
1,800
2,840
July
617
617
August
743
:
:
September...
25
:
October 141,050
November.. 844
:
:
:
:
161,000 161,743
9,000 9,025
141,000| 282,050
2,000
2,844
December
265
1,000 2,000
209,350 212,615
Total... 147,679 1,300 3,700 | 7,800 | 2,600 668,289 831,368
K 47
Table II
Short Report of Serious Fires.
Fire Extinguished by
Time of
Date
Call
Address
Business
1928
Hours)
rants
Hyd- Eng-
Fire ines Floats
Da
Jan. 1
19.52
106 Hollywood Road Central.
Tobacco & Tea Merchants.
1
2
Mar. 19 01.10
223 Des Voeux Road' West.
Tea Merchant.
N
3
Mar. 31 06.12
Lying at No. 27 A Buoy, Victoria Harbour.
S.S. "Tjikembang."
Apr. 4 10.47
Lying at No. 50A Buoy, Wanchai Bay.
S.S. "Somedono Maru."
Apr. 13
22.12
Unnamed Road, off Lai Chi Kok Road,
Mong Kok.
Pith helmet manufacturer.
1
Aug. 24
12.13
Lying at Wing Lok Street Wharf.
S.S. "Sui Tai."
Sept. 10
22.43
Cap-Sui-Mun Pass.
Trading Junk No. T. 973 H.
Oct. 14
20.46
53 & 55 Wai Ching Street, Yaumati.
Paper Dyeing Company.
Oct. 15 00.35
Lying at No. 1A Buoy, Victoria Harbour.
S.S. "Changte."
2
1
Dec. 6 00.25
Lying at Junk An- chorage, Victoria Harbour.
Junk
0. 446 V.
1
Dec. 13
02.36
20 Upper Station Street
Victoria.
Joss paper.
Dec. 15
04.13
153 Connaught Road West.
Rattan Dealer.
2
A building of 3 floors office & godown). Top floc of building and contents b
A building of 4 floors and dwellings). Two upper leading from second to thir and collapse and roof C damaged by water and brea:
A passenger cargo V About 18 x 18 ft. of woode tye plates and beams bad cargo (sugar and flour) da water in lower after hold
A cargo vessel of abou tons of coal damaged by holds.
A brick building of 3 and 1st floors used as a 1 dwelling). Ground floor ai from 1st to 2nd floor sever and contents by heat, smol
One male and one fer firemen with No. 5 Fire E
A passenger and cargo part and super-structure s vessel and cargo damaged
A trading junk laden gallons kerosine and gener
One male drowned. า brought to Hong Kong by a hospital. (since recovere
(
Two buildings, each about 30 x 30 ft. (used as Upper floors and contents and contents under damage adjoining and communicatir
A passenger and cargo No. 1 hold and contents
6 x 5 ft. of wooden partit main deck, by cutting awa
A trading junk of 70
wood crackers, matches, severed damaged by fire an
One male severely burr to Hospital. (since recov
No. 20-A building o as shop and dwelling) and
Nos. 18, 22, 5 and 9 about 45 x 15ft. situated above buildings, front sid and heat, interiors and
Two males and three the arrival of the Brigad
One male burns on he (since recovered).
Nos. 134, 135 and 13 four floors, covering an a godowns, shops, offices ar to first floor level (adjoin
No. 133-Upper flo severely damaged by fire No. 134).
- K 47
Table II
Short Report of Serious Fires.
Fire Extinguished by
Address
Business
Hyel-
rants
Eng- Fire
ines Floats
llywood Road Central.
Tobacco & Tea Merchants.
Į
2
5 Vœux Road
Tea Merchant.
West.
No. 27 A Buoy, ia Harbour.
S.S."Tjikembang."
at No. 50A Vanchai Bay.
aed Road, off hi Kok Road, ng Kok.
S.S. "Somedono Maru."
!
Pith helmet manufacturer.
1
2
at Wing Lok et Wharf.
S.S."Sui Tai."
5
2
ui-Mun Pass.
Trading Junk No. T. 973 H.
55 Wai Ching et, Yaumati.
Paper Dyeing Company.
2
1
No. 1A Buɔy,
ia Harbour.
at Junk An- ge, Victoria Harbour.
S.S. "Changte."
Junk
o. 446 V.
r Station Street Victoria.
Joss paper.
2
nnaught Road
West.
Rattan Dealer.
2
1
Damage
A building of 3 floors about 35 x 35 ft. used as shop, office & godown). Top floor severely damaged by fire, rest of building and contents by smoke and water.
A building of 4 floors about 40 x 15 ft. (used as shop and dwellings). Two upper floors and contents and staircase leading from second to third floor, severely damaged by fire and collapse and roof off. Floors and contents under damaged by water and breakage.
A passenger cargo vessel of about 8,013 tons gross. About 18 x 18 ft. of wooden deck severely damaged by fire. tye plates and beams badly buckled, and a quantity of cargo (sugar and flour) damaged by fire, heat, smoke and water in lower after hold and 'tween deck.
A cargo vessel of about 6,000 tons gross. About 2,900 tons of coal damaged by fire and water in Nos. 2 and 3 holds.
A brick building of 3 floors about 60 x 30 ft. (ground and 1st floors used as a pith helmet factory, 2nd floor as dwelling). Ground floor and contents and staircase leading from 1st to 2nd floor severely damaged by fire, upper floors and contents by heat, smoke, water and breakage.
One male and one female rescued from 2nd floor by firemen with No. 5 Fire Escape.
A passenger and cargo vessel of 1,200 tons gross. After part and super-structure severely damaged by fire, rest of vessel and cargo damaged by heat, smoke and water.
A trading junk laden with 3,600 gallons petrol, 3,600 gallons kerosine and general cargo burned out and sunk.
One male drowned. Three males suffering from burns brought to Hong Kong by the S.S. "Sai On" and taken to a hospital. (since recovered).
Two buildings, each of 4 floors, covering an area of about 30 x 30 ft. (used as workrooms, stores and dwellings). Upper floors and contents severely damaged by fire, floors and contents under damaged by water and dirt. (Premises adjoining and communicating).
A passenger and cargo vessel of about 4,900 tons gross. No. 1 hold and contents damaged by fire and water, abont 6 x 5 ft. of wooden partition, starboard side of crew space main deck, by cutting away.
A trading junk of 700 piculs capacity laden with fire crackers, matches, wood oil, medicine and joss paper severed damaged by fire and partly submerged.
One male severely burned on head and face and removed to Hospital. (since recovered).
No. 20-A building of 3 floors about 40 x 15 ft. (used as shop and dwelling) and contents gutted.
Nos. 18, 22, 5 and 9:-Four buildings of 3 floors and about 45 x 15ft. situated on either side of each of the above buildings, front side and verandahs damaged by fire and heat, interiors and contents by water.
Two males and three females burned to death before the arrival of the Brigade
One male burns on head and face and taken to Hospital. (since recovered).
Nos. 134, 135 and 136 :-A range of buildings each of four floors, covering an area of about 60 x 45 ft. (used as godowns, shops, offices and dwellings) and contents gutted to first floor level (adjoining and communicating).
No. 133-Upper floor used as dwelling and contents severely damaged by fire (adjoining and communicating with No. 134).
Appendix L.
REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PRISONS FOR THE YEAR 1928.
1. The number of prisoners received into prison during the year and the corresponding number for year 1927 were as follows:
Convicted by Ordinary Courts
Convicted by Court Martial
Convicted by High Court Wei-hai-wei Debtors
On remand or in default of finding
surety
There was
Total........
1927. 1928.
6,582
4,895
4
1
3
67
80
1,086
778
7,740 5,756
a decrease of 1984 on the total number of admission as compared with the year 1927. There was a decrease of prisoners convicted for larceny during the year under review the number being 1,061 against 1,452 for the previous year.
2.--The number of Revenue Grade prisoners admitted to prisons was 3,778 made up as follows:
Convicted under the Opium Ordinance.
Gambling Ordinance
1,037
228
Arms & Ammunition Ord.
31
Vehicle Ordinance
256
Harbour Regulations
35
Water Works Ord.
12.
Marine Hawkers Ord.
32
""
""
"
""
73
19
11
""
"1
Dangerous Goods Ord.
Chinese Wine and Spirit
Ordinance
Societies Ordinance
Public Health & Buildings
Ordinance
Truck Ordinance
Women and Girls (Protec-
tion Ordinance)
Importation and Exporta-
tion Ordinance
Pharmacy & Poisons Ord. Tobacco Ordinance ....
Carried forward
21
32 82 2
15
208
32
26
3.
14
·
36
..... 2,039
""
- L 2-
Brought forward
Convicted under the Police Regulations
Convicted of removing dead body without per-
mission
committing nuisance in the street
unlawfully boarding steamers
hawking without a licence
2,039
42
12
74
14
243
cruelty to animals
7
keeping house for prostitution
42
illegal pawning
16
drunkenness
9
"
"}
trespass
72
disorderly conduct
18
assault
33
22
obstruction
83
cutting trees
42
"}
removing sand without permission
16
}}
mendicancy
19
""
unlawful possession
possession of lottery
of
tickets
unlawful possession
612
??
stealing
2283
94
83
21
offering bribe
21
པ༷པོ
possession of implement fit for
unlawful purpose
obtaining by false pretences
soliciting in a public thoroughfare
for the purpose of prostitution unlawful receiving
travelling on tram car without
paying legal fare
18
41
20+
12
6
122
""
spitting in Court
Total
77
3,778
3. The above figures show that 77 per cent of the total admissions to prison were Revenue Grade prisoners.
The following table shows the number of prisoners com- mitted to prison without the option of fine and in default of payment of fine:
In default of payment of fine.
Without
Served the
Year. option of
Paid full
fine.
imprison-
fine.
Paid part fine.
Total.
ment.
1927
1,740
4,220
190
432
6,582
1928
1,117
3,413
162
- 203
4,895
L 3
4.-68 boys were admitted as Juveniles i.e. under 16 years of age, during the year, with sentences varying from 48 hours detention to 6 months hard labour, but only 38 were treated as Juvenile Offenders; the others in the opinions of the Medical officer and Superintendent being over 16 years of age. In 8 cases corporal punishment was awarded by the courts in addition to the terms of imprisonment.
5. The percentage of convicted prisoners admitted to prison with previous convictions recorded against them, was 19 as compared with 19.1 for 1927.
6. There were 145 prisoners admitted who were convicted by Police Courts in the New Territories, against 188 for the pre- vious year.
7.-The following table shows. the number of convicts in custody on the 31st December for the past 10 years, and the percentage of the total number of prisoners in custody to the estimated population of Hong Kong:-
Estimated Number of
Percentage
Year.
of
Daily average
Precentage
population. convicts.
to
number of
population.
prisoners.
population.
1919
598,100
259
*043
756
•126
1920
648,150
275
*043
755
117
1921 665,350
231
*035
764
115
1922 €62,200
259
*039
787
119
1923
681,800
294
*043
861
*126
1924 799,550
345
*043
1,066
133
1925
874.420
394
*045
1,116
*128
1926 786,920
409
*052
1,054
*134
1927 890,400
392
*044
1,189
*136
1928 1,075,690
352
*033
1,071
*100
Victoria Gaol.
8.-14,503,195 forms were printed and issued to various Government Departments and 99,947 books bound or repaired, as compared with 13,857,160 forms and 123,620 books in 1927.
9. During the year uniforms for officers, previously put out to contract, were successfully made in the Prison by instruct- ed prisoners.
10. The Gaol was again overcrowded and additional con- gestion was caused through having to accommodate prisoners on admission as well as sick prisoners, in the Halls, during the rebuilding of the Hospital and Reception Room.
The new Hospital was occupied in August.
- L 4
11. A section of D Hall was removed to give additional air space, and security against escape. Minor repairs were effected to buildings by prison labour.
Victoria Gaol. Female Prison.
12. During the year a working party consisting of English and Chinese resident ladies visited the Prison on Tuesdays and Fridays to instruct the women in sewing, raffia work &c. and to give them elementary education. The results have been most gratifying and every credit is due to the instructors who have given their time so willingly and consistently under conditions at their best by no means ideal, and, in the summer season, hot humid, and depressing...
13.-1 remand prisoner succeeded in escaping on 30.3.28. He was not recaptured but evidence was obtained that he was subsequently shot while participating in a robbery in Canton.
Lai Chi Kok Prison.
14.-Progress continues with the land resumed in 1926– which has been largely cultivated and reclaimed and is now used for growing vegetables etc. This garden work gives useful employment to prisoners at Lai Chi Kok.
15.-There was no escape or attempt at escape.
General.
16.-There were 524 punishments awarded for breach of prison discipline as compared with 616 for the preceding year. Corporal punishment was inflicted in fifteen cases for prison offences.
17. Two hundred and eighteen (218) prisoners were whipped by order of courts.
tion).
18.
There were 4 deaths (3 natural causes and 1 execu-
19. The conduct of the Staff, with a few exceptions, has been very good.
20. The general health of the staff has been good.
21. Existing fire appliances are in good condition. Im- proved fire fighting apparatus was supplied to each prison in 1928 but the installation had not been completed at the end of the year.
22. The rules laid down for the Government of prisons have been complied with.
23. Captain Bloxham, Assistant Superintendent of Pri- sons, was granted leave from 14.4.28 to 4.1.29.
24. I append the usual returns.
J. W. FRANKS, Superintendent of Prisons.
18th March, 1929.
Table I.
Return showing the Expenditure and Income for the year 1928.
EXPENDITURE,
c.
INCOME.

C.
Pay and allowance of officers including Uni- form, etc.
Earning of prisoners
160,272.50
325,700.23
Debtors' subsistence ...
545.75
Victualling of prisoners.....
90,139.59
Naval
do.
82.50
Fuel, light, soap, and dry earth
39,941.36
Military
do.
64.05
|
Clothing of prisoners, bedding, and furniture
29,366.69
Wei-hai-wei Government subsistence
106.40
Vagrants' subsistence
92.35
Total
$485,147.89
To Balance
323,984.34
1927
$493,398.88
Total.
$485,147.89
Average annual cost per prisoner $303,34, in 1927 $284.67, and in 1926 $306,11.
:
- L 6
Table II.
Return showing Expenditure and Income for the past 10 years.
Year. Expenditure. Income.
Actual cost
Average
of prisoners' maintenance.
cost per
prisoner.
C.
$
$
C.
C.
1919...... 135,550.16
69,277.07
66,273.09
87.66
1920...... 258,609.17
66,547.61
192,061,56
254.37
1921...... 297,970.56
79,635.73
218,334.83
286.78
1922......
291,175.12 126,124.62
165,050.50
209.72
1923......
324,698.26 117,302.22
207,396,04
240.88
1924
375,158.14 121,664.03
253,137.11
237.56
1925......
462,827.14 122,221.20
340,605.84
305.20
· 1926...... 472,337.42
1927......
493,398.88 154,929.44
1928...... 485,147.89 160,272,50
148,667.08
322,640.12
306.11
338,469.44
284.67
324,875.39
303.34
Table III.
Return showing value of Industrial Labour for the year 1928.
1
2
Value of
Nature of Industry.
stock on
Value of
hand
materials
Total Dr.
January 1st purchased.
1928.
4
5
6
7
8
Value of
articles
manufactur- ed or work
done for
payment.
Gaol or other 31st, 1928. Departments.
Value of
articles
Value of
Value of
stock on
earnings.
manufactur-
ed or work
hand
Total Cr.
(Difference
done for
December
between
columns
3 and 7.)
L 7
$
C.
$
c.
C.
$
C.
$
C.
$
Oakum,
83.79
83.79
83.79
Coir,...
Net-making,
3,959.53
3.90
5,023.07
8,982,60
2,175.08
4,454.17
4,178.93
359.15
363.05
326.50
396.41
4.60
83.79
10,808.18
727.51
...
1,825.58
364.16
Tailoring,
19,733.65
9,559.14
29,292.79
100.10
13,008.18
18,382.34 | 31,490.62
2,197.83
Rattan,
2.00
143.35
145.35
1.65
392.55
3.95
398.15
252.80
Tin-smithing,
175.02
791.69
966.71
64.55
2,444.70
176.63
2,685.88
1,719.17
Carpentering,
1,138.63
3,278.03
4,416.66
291.03
5,610.67
230.51
6,132.21
1,715.55
Grass-matting,
Shoe-making,
1.05
2,941.10
96.00
97.05
379.10
1.85
380.95
283.90
9,525.40
12,466.50
217.34
10,126.38
3,167.88
13,511.60
1,045.10
Laundry,
6.50
2,403.05
2,409.55
13,061.82
4.80
13,066.62
10,657.07
Printing and Bookbinding,
10,426.83
85,058.36
95,485,19
500.58
196,359.57
38,672.50 235,532.65 140,047.46
Photography,
28.50
703.40
731.90
Total,.........$
155,4 38,500.50 116,940.64 155,441.14
163.58 3,678.13 247,093.13 64,942.38 315,713.64 160,272.50
Paid into Bank during 1928, which sum includes $483.10 for work executed in 1927, $4,861,00. Value of work executed during 1928 for which payment was deferred to 1929, $73.97.
1.30
859.58
34.60
895.48
REPORT OF
MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
HONG KONG
FOR THE YEAR
1928
- M 3
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
I.-ADMINISTRATION
II.-PUBLIC HEALTH
A. General Remarks:
(1) General Diseases.
(2) Communicable Diseases:
(a) Mosquito or Insect borne. (b) Infectious Diseases.
(c) Helminthic Diseases.
B. Vital Statistics :-
(1) General Population. (2) European Population. (3) European Officials:
!
III.—HYGIENE AND SANITATION
A. General review of work done and progress made:
(1) Preventive Measures:
(a) Mosquito and Insect-borne Diseases.
(b) Epidemic Diseases.
(e) Helminthic Diseases.
(2) General Measures of Sanitation.
(3) School Hygiene.
(4) Labour Conditions.
(5) Housing and Town Planning.
(6) Food in relation to Health and Disease.
B. Measures taken to spread the Knowledge of Hygiene and
Sanitation.
C. Training of Sanitary Personnel.
M 4
IV.-PORT HEALTH WORK AND ADMINISTRATION
V.—MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE
VI.-HOSPITALS, DISPENSARIES AND VENEREAL CLINICS
VII. PRISONS AND ASYLUMS
VIII.-METEOROLOGY
IX. SCIENTIFIC.
APPENDIX A.
REPORT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
APPENDIX B.
REPORT OF THE ANALYST'S SUB-DEPARTMENT
APPENDIX C.
RETURNS SHOWING DISEASES AND DEATHS OCCURRING IN THE MENTAL HOSPITAL
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS-RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS-RETURN of DISEASES and DEATHS.
APPENDIX F.
MORTUARIES-RETURN of DISEASES.
M 5
ANNUAL MEDICAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER, 1928.
INTRODUCTION.
1. In order to give a clear impression of the Public Health conditions obtaining in Hong Kong it is necessary first to des- cribe the situation of the Colony, its geographical features, its climate, the nature of the population and the bearing old Chinese traditions, beliefs and customs, have on the question ol co-operation with the authorities in the promotion and pre- servation of the Public Health. It is also desirable to indicate the various organisations which together make up the Public Health machinery.
2. The Territory under British jurisdiction includes the Colony Proper, namely, the Island of Hong Kong with the Pen- insula of Kowloon and the Leased Territory or New Territory as it is so often called. In this Report the term Colony means the Colony Proper.
3. Situated between 22°-9′ and 22°-37′ North Latitude the area under discussion is just within the northern limits of the tropics. It is in fact practically on the same level as Calcutta. It may be said to form the lower extremity of the left bank of the estuary of the Canton River, at the head of which is the city of Canton and on an island in which stands the Portuguese Colony of Macao.
4. Topographically the Island of Hong Kong and the Pen- insula of Kowloon may be described as a series of granite ridges separated by narrow valleys and having here and there flat areas facing the sea. The New Territory is of similar formation with some fairly wide valleys towards the north and west.
5. The Climate-From May until October the climate is hot, muggy and enervating with the air more or less saturated with moisture. From November to the end of March the weather is dry, cool, and invigorating, necessitating for comfort the wearing of warm clothes and the provision of fires in the houses. Frost is unknown.
6. With regard to population there are no accurate statis- tical figures, the great movement to and from the Colony and the facility with which the border is crossed preventing accurate checking. Hong Kong being the principal entrepôt for South China and its harbour one of the busiest in the world, every day on an average 3,000 to 4,000 individuals pass to or from China by river steamer and by rail, and there are others who arrive and depart by junks or smaller vessels. During times of political unrest in China many thousands from the mainland sojourn in the Colony, some of whom return to their homes when conditions are more settled, others remaining attracted
M 6
by the opportunities offered for employment. It is estimated that the civil population of the Colony is 979,440 of which 550,000 reside in the City of Victoria, 270,000 in the Town of Kowloon, over 100,000 on boats in or about the harbour and the remainder in villages.
7. The Chinese outnumber the rest by 50 to 1, the great majority being illiterate working people who reside in Hong Kong because of the facilities for employment but who return to their native towns and villages when too ill or too old for labour. Through this exodus the death rate of the Colony is considerably lower than it otherwise would be.
8. The traditional beliefs of the uneducated Chinese as to the cause of diseases, the means of spread and the factors which affect its course are so at variance with modern teaching, that there is little chance of promoting voluntary co-operation be- tween them and the authorities in the matter of the prevention and control of disease, until they can be brought to understand the true nature of the problems and are conscious of the use- fulness of the measures advocated. The proximity of China and the constant intercourse makes it harder to overcome pre- judices than is the case in countries further afield. The greatest hope lies in propaganda and education.
9. So closely related are Hong Kong, Canton, Macao and the River Ports in the matter of trade, and such is the amount of traffic both human and goods which pass between them that, up-to-date, it has been found impossible to devise any system of quarantine which would effectually safeguard one city against introduction of disease from the other and, at the same time, preserve that freedom of commercial movements on which these cities depend for prosperity. It has been deemed best to treat them as forming one unit, as suburbs the one of the other, and to strive for a working agreement between the various health organisations to the end that some means, other than imposing restrictions against a whole port, may be found to prevent the spread of infection.
10. The machinery for the promotion of the Public Health in Hong Kong is complex, in that organisation of energy both for the cure and the prevention of disease is divided among a number of units, governmental and non-governmental, which operate more or less independently of one another under condi- tions which can hardly be said to be conducive to co-ordination or co-operation.
11. In 1927 the Medical Officers of Health were transferred to the pay roll of the Medical Department though they still remained seconded to the Sanitary Department.
During the year under review a further step towards the co-ordination of Medical and Sanitary work took place in the
M 7
changing of the title of the head of the Medical Department from that of "Principal Civil Medical Officer" to that of "Direc- tor of Medical and Sanitary Services".
At the meeting of the Legislative Council on September 20th the Officer Administering the Government said-"The Prin- cipal Civil Medical Officer becomes the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services and will be responsible for the technical side. of the work of the Medical Officers of Health and for the advice they will give to the Sanitary Board. It is hoped that this arrangement will make it possible to follow the principles on which the Colonial Office has recently laid such stress, and to pay more attention to the methods of prevention for which the best technical advice available is necessary, and under this scheme should be available."
Matters were left at this stage pending the return of His Excellency the Governor and the appointment of a permanent Director.
At the end of the year the Medical and Sanitary Depart- ments were still separate and distinct.
12. The following table shows the bodies concerned in the various operations and the authorities in control.
Institution
Govt. Civil Hospital
Victoria Hospital
CURE OF DISEASE.
Accommodation Controlling Authority
212 beds Medical Department* 71 Medical Department
"
Kowloon Hospital
Peak Hospital
44
12
??
20
33
Infectious Diseases Hosp.. 26
Mental Hospital
Gaol Hospital
Tung Wah Hospital
17
J
""
32
21
30
""
Prison Department
(Chinese charity Hosp.). 400 Kwong Wah Hospital
57
(Chinese charity Hosp.). 250 Tsan Yuk Maternity Hosp. Chinese Eastern Maternity
Hosp.....
Chinese Public Dispen-
saries
22
Tung Wah Committee.
Kwong Wah Committee Chinese Committee
22
**
>>
(8 in number) Chinese Committee for each.
The Nethersole Hospital &
Alice Memorial Hosp.
The Matilda Hospital
126 beds London Mission
50
51
The French Hospital
50
The Military Hospitals
The Naval Hospitals
Special Committee
French Mission
Military Authorities Naval Authorities
*One hundred beds in the Government Civil Hospital have, for teaching purposes, been placed under the Surgery, Medicine and Gynaecology of the
The out-patients department of this charge.
control of the professors of Hong Kong University. Hospital is also under their
M 8
13.--PREVENTION OF DISEASE.
Activity
Controlling Authority.
Town Planning
House Construction
Sanitation of Houses and surround-
ings
Collection and disposal of refuse Collection and disposal of night soil Construction and maintenance
sewers and drains
of
Provision of drinking water and
control of same
Public Works Department
Sanitary Department
""
>
Public Works Department
"
7:
Control & protection of food supplies Sanitary Department Registration of Births and Deaths Control of epidemic causing diseases Control of special diseases such as
""
Malaria, Tuberculosis & Leprosy... Med. Dept. & Sanitary
Measures for the welfare of Mothers
and Infants...
Measures for the welfare of school
children
Vaccination
Port Health Work
Bacteriological Institute
Public Mortuaries
Department
Tung Wah Hosp. Com- mittee, Y.W.C.A., Tsan Yuk Hosp. Committee.
Education Department & Medical Department. Medical Department
""
71
23
22
14. The St. John's Ambulance Brigade, which holds a strong position in the Colony and which does excellent work both in the training and the performance of first aid duties, renders valuable assistance to the authorities.
15. Conveyance of the Sick.-Motor Ambulances for the conveyance of the sick are housed at the fire stations and are controlled by the Police and Fire Department.
The Tung Wah Hospital have a Motor Ambulance of their own which is garaged at the Hospital.
M 9
SECTION I.
ADMINISTRATION.
1.-STAFF.
The total authorised establishment of the Medical Depart- ment on the 31st of December 1928 was as follows:
Head quarters Staff.
Director of Medical and Sanitary Services
Deputy Director of Medical and Sanitary Services
Health Division.
Medical Officer of Health
Second Medical Officer of Health
Assistant Medical Officers of Health
Assistant Medical Officer for Schools
School Nurse
Port Health Officer & Inspector of Emigrants
Chinese Assistant Port Health Officers and Inspec-
tors of Emigrants
Vaccinators
1
1
1
1
2*
1
1
2
22
12
Medical Division.
Medical Officers
Assistant Visiting Medical Officer to Chinese Hos-
pitals and Dispensaries
Chinese Medical Officers
Radiologist
Radiographer
Masseuse
Bacteriological Institute and Research Division.
Bacteriologist
Assistant Bacteriologist
Class II. Laboratory Assistant
Class VI. Laboratory Assistants
Malaria Research Officer
9
1
6
1
1
1
1
1
211
2
1*
1*
* *
Malaria Research Inspector
Division of Chemical Analysts
Government Analyst
Assistant Analyst
Assistant Analyst Grade II.
1
2
Sampler
1
*Fosts vacant during the year.
Apothecary
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Apothecaries and Dispensers.
Assistant Apothecaries
Dispensers
Probationer Dispensers
1
TOLLO ON
2
5
2
Nursing Staff.
Principal Matron
1
Matrons
4
Home Sister
1
Nursing Sisters Charge Nurse
Staff Nurses
Probationers
Dressers
Head Attendant Mental Hospital Assistant Attendant Mental Hospital Female Attendant Mental Hospital Ward Masters
Midwives
43
1
3
26
17
1
1
1
37
Clerical Staff.
Accountant
1
Clerk Class II.
1
Clerks
IV.
3
1
Clerks
V.
9
Clerks
VI.
Other Officers.
Steward
Linen Maid
1
1
Office Attendants, Ward Boys, Amahs and Coolies ..267
2. The following were the principal changes which took place during the year:-
Dr. W. B. A. Moore returned from leave on January 3rd and took over the duties of Principal Civil Medical Officer from Dr. J. T. Smalley, who had been Acting P.C.M.O. during the illness. of the late Dr. J. B. Addison, M.B.E.
On February 1st the title of "Principal Civil Medical Offi- cer" was changed to that of "Director of Medical and Sanitary Services" and a new post of "Deputy Director" was created. Dr. Moore was appointed to the latter post but held the position of Acting Director for the remainder of the year.
In November Dr. A. R. Wellington was appointed Director of Medical and Sanitary Services but did not take up duty until 1929.
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Dr. J. T. Smalley acted as Deputy Director from February 1st in addition to his duties as Medical Officer in charge of Victoria Hospital.
3-Leave of Absence. The following were granted leave of
absence:
Dr. D. J. Valentine, M.C.. Medical Officer in Charge Government Civil Hospital from 6th May, 1928 to 27th Feb- ruary, 1929.
Dr. J. R. Craig from 23rd June, 1928 to 18th July, 1929.
Dr. J. P. Fehily, Health Officer of Port from 1st October, 1928 to 28th November, 1929.
Dr. E. P.. Minett, Bacteriologist from 25th January, 1928 to 8th November, 1928.
Dr. (Mrs.) E. M. Minett. School Medical Officer from 25th January, 1928 to 8th November, 1928.
4.-Appointments.-Dr. W. K. Dunscombe was appointed Assistant Bacteriologist on December 12th 1927, and arrived in the Colony on January 5th. During the absence on leave of Dr. E. P. Minett he acted as Government Bacteriologist.
Dr. H. A. Fawcett was appointed 2nd Medical Officer of Health on March 8th, and arrived in the Colony on April 13th.
Dr. F. J. Farr was appointed Radiologist on September 20th and arrived in the Colony on November 25th.
During the year a new post of Masseuse and Electro- therapeutist was made to which Miss Siggins was appointed and commenced work on July 15th.
The post of Malariologist which was provided for in the Estimates remained unfilled.
Dr. (Mrs.) A. L. Dovey was appointed 2nd Assistant Visiting Medical Officer to Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries becoming 1st Assistant on the death of Mrs. Hickling.
5.-Deaths. It is with great regret 1 have to record the deaths of Dr. J. B. Addison, M.B.E., Principal Civil Medical Officer, and Dr. (Mrs.) A. D. Hickling, M.B.E., Assistant Medi- cal Officer to Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries.
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6.-Chinese Medical Officers,
Appointments.-The following were appointed during
1928:-
Dr. (Miss) Lai Po Chun on 1st June, 1928.
Dr. Bau Tsu Zung on 23rd July, 1928.
Dr. A. D. Wong on 23rd July, 1928.
7.-Nursing Sisters.
Leave of Absence.—Leave of absence was granted to the following:-
Miss E. A. Girling, Principal Matron from April 3rd to November 11th, 1928.
Miss G. Chettle, Matron, Victoria Hospital from February 4th to October 10th, 1928.
Miss E. C. Maclaren, Home Sister from February 19th to November 9th, 1928.
Miss M. K. North, Nursing Sister from February 2nd to October 11th, 1928.
8.-Appointments.
Miss E. G. Williams, Nursing Sister, on 2nd December, 1927.
Miss J. F. Scales, Nursing Sister, on 31st January, 1928. Miss E. G. Tate, Nursing Sister, on 24th February, 1928. Miss I. Warbrick, Nursing Sister, on 5th April, 1928. Miss A. Cummins, Nursing Sister, on 5th April, 1928. Miss C. 1. Watson, Nursing Sister, 18th May, 1928. Miss A. I. Smith, Nursing Sister, 1st June, 1928. Miss H. M. Mahy, Nursing Sister, 1st June, 1928. Miss J. N. Edwards, Nursing Sister, 13th July, 1928. Miss K. E. Gordon, Nursing Sister, 10th August, 1928. Miss C. Duvall, Nursing Sister, 10th August, 1928. Miss A. Cowley, Nursing Sister, 7th September, 1928. Miss A. S. Rogers, Nursing Sister, 3rd October, 1928. Mrs. M. J. Staple, Nursing Sister, 1st June, 1928.
Resignation. Miss E, G. Williams, Nursing Sister, resigned on 19th November, 1928.
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9.—Ordinances.-The Ordinances passed in 1928 dealing with or affecting public health or
public health or medical matters were the following:-
Ordinance No. 4.---Dangerous Drugs.
No. 5.-Principal Civil Medical Officer.
(Change of Name).
No.
9.-Dentistry.
No. 19. Public Health and Buildings. No. 20.-Pharmacy and Poisons.
10.-Financial.-The amount sanctioned in the Estimates
Department was $861,058.00 and
for the
the Medical
Expenditure was $786,638.21.
the
Revenue received:
For Medical Treatment
$108,526.39
Medical Certificates
20.00
وو
Bacteriological Examinations
6,635.23
Chemical Analyses
15,562.00
Bills of Health
11,088.00
Medical Examination of Emigrants
164,516.00
TOTAL
$306,347.62
11.-Ratio of expenditure on medical and sanitary services to total revenue from all sources.-Because of the overlapping which occurs where a work serves both a utilitarian and a sani- tary service, it is impossible to assess exactly the amounts which have been spent for purely medical and sanitary purposes. In- cluding all water works and drainage works as being primarily of a sanitary nature the following shows the commitments as laid down in the Estimates for 1928 :-
Expenditure by Medical Department
''
2
""
""
13
Sanitary Department
Public Works Department. Police Department
Subsidies to Charities
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
$ 861,058
645,000
1,227,6
,680
9,000
94,624
11,086
$2,848,448
Expenditure.... 2,848,448
Ratio
Revenue
21,344,535
13.34%
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SECTION II.
PUBLIC HEALTH.
A. GENERAL REMARKS,
1.-It is usual to gauge the health of a community by the death rate for a high death rate means a high sickness rate and vice versa. The number of deaths recorded indicates very correctly the deaths which have taken place in the Colony, but owing to the desire of the Chinese to expire in their native towns and villages and the consequent exodus of many who feel their end to be approaching, the death records considerably lower than would be the case were all the deaths from diseases contracted or developed in the Colony recorded against it. Even if the death figures were corrected, the absence of accurate figures for the population makes it difficult to obtain rates which would form useful bases for coin- parisons.
are
2. The following Table shows the death rates of the Colony calculated on the deaths recorded and the estimated population.
Estimated Population
Deaths
Chinese
Others
Total
Year
Chinese Others Total
!
No. Rate
No. Rate
No.
Rate
1927.
873,900 16,500 890.400 [14,525 16.3
218 13.2
14,761 16.5
1928
961,290 18,150 979,440 14,553 15.1 182 10.0 14,757 15.0
More than half of the deaths were due to respiratory diseases and 30 per cent of the whole were caused by pulmonary tuber- culosis which stands out as the principal death causing disease of the Colony.
3. General Diseases.-The only figures available for judging the prevalence of the different diseases included under the class called "general" are those furnished by the Government Hos- pitals and the Western Clinics of the Chinese Hospitals, Tung Wah and Kwong Wah. These figures are, however, only a fraction of the whole and too much importance should not be placed on deductions made from them. Though the educated Chinese appreciate the value of so called Western Medicine, the bulk of the population still pin their faith to the old fashioned Chinese decoctions and when ill seek advice from one or more of the many empiricists who practice in the City. A number of those who enter the Government hospitals do so only after they have made full trial of Chinese medicines and have CX- hausted their means of subsistence.
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4. Year by year, however, the value of Western Medicine becomes more and more appreciated. Proof of this is the ever increasing number of those who attend the out-patient depart- ments of the Government hospitals and of those who seek ad- mission to the wards.
5. Judging from the hospital returns the important diseases of this category in decreasing order of prevalence are bronchitis, diarrhoea, hepatitis, pneumonia and broncho-pneumonia, in- fluenza and dysentery.
6. Communicable Diseases.-(a) Mosquito or insect borne diseases-The mosquito borne diseases, Malaria, Dengue and Filariasis, not being notifiable, incidence figures are not available and the only information obtainable is that put up by certain hospitals and private practitioners. Most of the population either receive no treatment or are attended by Chinese herbalists who send in no reports. Such being the position it is obvious that incidence and death rates cannot be given.
case
7. Malaria.-Judging from the hospital admissions this dis-
was less prevalent than in previous years.
The cases treated in the Government Hospitals for the last four (4) years were as follows:-
1925
1926
1927
1928
1,142
920
670
487
8. The incidence among the Police in the New Territories for the same period was:-
1925
1926
1927
1928
1.205
877
428
278
All Police Stations are now screened and the men provided with mosquito curtains. Prophylactic quinine is given and the living rooms are regularly sprayed with insecticide to repel mos- quitoes and to kill those that may be present.
9. The total number of deaths attributed to Malaria was 295 or 2% of the total deaths. During the last ten years the calculated death rates per 1,000 population have on one occasion only exceeded unity. This does not prove that the Colony is free from the breeding places of malaria carrying mosquitoes, but it would appear to prove that there are few such places within flying distance of the areas where the masses of the population reside.
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10. From the general topography of the country, from what has already been learned of the mosquito fauna, and from com- parisons with Malaya, Assam, Sumatra and the Philippines one is inclined to suspect that the breeding grounds of the potential carriers are the small collections of clear water lying in the nullahs and at the hill foots, and that the large areas of wet cultivation are not so dangerous as they have been supposed to be. However, much more detailed work will have to be done before the whole truth is brought to light.
11. The 1928 Estimates contained provision for a Malaria Research Officer and one inspector for malaria investigation work.
It was intended that the latter should work under and assist the former. Endeavours were made through the Colonial Office Authorities to obtain an experienced Malaria Research Officer but without success.
12. Dengue.-Dengue is endeinic in Hong Kong and from time to time reaches epidemic form. There was nothing in the way of an epidemic in 1928.
13. Filariasis.There are no accurate statistics concerning this disease.
are
14. Infectious Diseases.-(b) The notifiable diseases Plague, Cholera, Smallpox, Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Enteric and Para-Typhoid Fevers, Relapsing Fever, Cerebro-Spinal Fever, Typhus Fever, Yellow Fever, Puerperal Fever, and Rabies (human and animal). Responsibility for reporting lies with the legally qualified and registered practitioner attending the case, or in the absence of such a practitioner, on the occupier or keeper of the premises or in default of such on the nearest male relative living on the premises, or in default of such relative on any person in charge of or in attendance on the sick person. Reports are to be made to the Medical Officer of Health or to the Officer in charge of the nearest police station.
In
15. In China notification is not compulsory and the Chinese in Hong Kong either through ignorance or, what is more pro- bable, from a desire to conceal the case, fail to notify. actual fact practically the only reports received by the M.O.H. are those from qualified Private Practitioners or from Medical Officers in charge of the Public Mortuaries where the bodies. dumped in the street by the friends or relatives of the deceased. have been taken for inspection and disposal.
16. The Health Authorities, when they do discover a case of infectious disease, have no power to remove it to hospit unless the patient or his guardian consents or unless a magistr....... makes an order of removal.
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17. The number of cases notified during the year was:
Bubonic Plague
Cholera
Small-pox
Diphtheria
Scarlet Fever
Enteric
Para-typhoid
Relapsing Fever
Cerebro-Spinal Fever
Typhus
Yellow Fever
Puerperal fever
Rabies
4
3
616
90
0
240
18
0
21
0
20
18. Small Pox.-This disease which every year manifests its presence in the cold months by causing sporadic outbreaks but which disappears with the hot weather, this year continued throughout the summer to assume epidemie form in November when 100 cases were notified. In December there were 340 cases. The total cases brought to the notice of the Authorities during the year were 616 of which 304 or 50% died. Of these 126 were treated in the Tung Wah Hospital with a mortality rate of 50% and 15 in the Government Infectious Diseases Hospital with no deaths. The remainder were treated in their own houses, some with the permission of, some without the knowledge of the Sanitary Authorities.
19. After the 1916/1917 epidemic in an attempt to induce the people to notify cases and to stop the practice of dumping their dead in the streets at night, the Sanitary Board with the approval of the then M.O.H. passed the following resolution:—
"That patients suffering from Small-pox be allowed to be treated in their own houses under the following condi- tions:
(a) That all cases in the District be notified to the
Medical Officer of Health.
(b) That all inmates of the house be vaccinated.
(c) That a notice be posted on the door of the house
where the patient is being treated".
The results did not come up to expectations for the populace ignored the so called concession and continued in their practice of concealing cases and dumping corpses.
20. In this epidemic many a case was notified to the M.O.H. for the first time when the Medical Officer in charge of the Mortuary reported the presence of a corpse dead of the disease..
21. In December the Public were reminded of the Board's concession by notices in the Press and the distribution of
M 18
pamphlets. The result was not encouraging for there was no sign of any increased inclination to report cases and the dump- ing of bodies continued unabated.
22. Isolation of the sick and disinfection and surveillance of contacts being impossible, vaccination was practically the only means of combating the epidemic.
23. Fortunately the Chinese are not adverse to vaccination. They only resort to it, however, in large numbers when Small- pox is epidemic. The Government employ 12 public Vaccina- tors who work under the Health Officer of the Port and are also available for employment wherever the Medical Officer of Health may consider their services are most required. In addition vac- cination is available, free of charge, at all Government and Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries.
24. In November it was decided to accept the offer of the Assistant Commissioner of St. John's Ambulance Brigade to conduct a vaccination campaign as had been done in previous epidemics. Each member of the Brigade was instructed in vaccination by the divisional Surgeons and when pronounced pro- ficient his name was gazetted as a Public Vaccinator for the period of the energency. In this way 179 members of the Brigade were gazetted. Booths were opened in the streets and markets and in less than six weeks 191,372 persons were vac- cinated.
25. In addition to this 66,840 vaccinations were performed by the Public Vaccinators and at Hospitals and Dispensaries making a total of 258,212. A considerable number of vaccina- tions were also done by private practitioners which were not recorded.
26. Great difficulty was experienced in obtaining permission to vaccinate young children. There appears to be a belief that children should not be vaccinated before they are six months of age. The Ordinance provides for vaccination "within six months from the date of birth"; for some reason not readily understood this has been interpreted to mean that vaccination need not take place until the child is six months old.
The fact that 70% of the deaths were in children under 5 years of age shows the unvaccinated state of the child popula- tion.
Failure to vaccinate between the months of May to Septem- ber inclusive is not punishable though why there should be this off season is not clear.
27. The constant movement of population into and out of the Colony (some 4,000 per diem) renders it difficult to maintain an immune population.
1
-M 19
28. Plague.-Four cases of bubonic plague occurred with two deaths. These are the first cases of either human or rat plague which have been reported since September 1923. All came from the Eastern District of the City of Victoria. The first two cases were reported on May 4th. They both occurred on the same floor of a good type tenement house which was used for residen- tial purposes only. The third case was reported on June 23rd and the fourth on July 23rd. No dead rats were found and no infected rats were reported from this or any part of the Colony. House to house cleansing was carried out.
29. Rat Flea Survey.-With the object of starting a rat flea survey arrangements were concluded with the Head of the Sanitary Department for a number of wire cage traps to be set in various parts of the city, so that rats caught should remain alive until dealt with by the investigator. Experience had shown that rats found on bird-lime traps (the kind usually set) were dead when collected and free from fleas.
30. The collection and differentiation of the fleas was until June under the supervision of Dr. T. W. Ware after which time Dr. H. A. Fawcett carried on the work. The total rats examined was 259 and the number of fleas found was 1,330. The following Table shows details of the results obtained:
Species.
Xenopsylla Cheopis
Leptopsylla Musculi
Ctenocephalus.
Pulex
No. found.
Average per rat.
1,249
4.82
59
0.23
18
0.07
4
0.01
The number of rats examined is too small for definite con- clusions to be drawn but it is hoped that a continuation of the survey may throw light on the epidemiology of plague.
31. The absence of Plague from Hong Kong for so many years may be due to the sanitary measures which have been and are being taken, but it has apparently also disappeared from Canton and South China generally where similar measures have not been in use.
32. Enteric.-The number of cases reported was 240. All the cases were sporadic and as is usual in such the source of infection could not be traced. There are of course a number of possible sources of infection included among which are raw vegetables grown by the Chinese method, foods and drinks con- taminated by infected water, adulterated milk, flies, etc., etc. There is no evidence that any case contracted this disease through the public water supply.
33. Helminthic Diseases.-(c) The Hospital returns show 72 cases of ankylostomiasis, 5 cases of cestodes and 91 cases of ascaris infection.
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B. VITAL STATISTICS.
34. Births and Deaths registration which was established by Ordinance No. 7 of 1896 as amended by Ordinance No. 26 of 1923 applies to the Colony only. There is no registration in the New Territory.
35. The Registrar of Births and Deaths is the Head of the Sanitary Department, a Senior Cadet Officer. The Assistant Registrars are the Officers in Charge of various Police Stations, the Inspector in Charge of the Disinfecting Station Kowloon, and the Principal Clerks in Charge of the various Chinese Public Dispensaries.
36. Births are registered at the Central Office in Victoria, at the Chinese Public Dispensaries and at the Police Stations at Aberdeen and Stanley.
37. Deaths can be registered at the Central Office, at the Kowloon Disinfecting Station and at a number of Police Stations.
38. Death registration being a necessary preliminary to a permit for burial it may be taken for granted that practically all deaths are registered. Bodies found dumped, and they are not a few, are taken to the Public Mortuaries where they are ex- amined by the Medical Officer in charge who fills out death certificates and forwards them to the Registrar.
39. Birth registration is not universal and a considerable number of births especially those of females are never reported to the Authorities.
40. Death certificates are scrutinised by the Medical Officer of Health attached to the Sanitary Department.
41. Population.-The estimated population for the whole of the territories under British jurisdiction was 1,075,690.
42. The estimated population for the Colony was:- Non-Chinese mostly resident in Hong Kong
and Kowloon
18,150
Chinese City of Victoria
550,000
Villages of Hong Kong
43,890
Kowloon & New Kowloon
264,000
Junk & Sampan population. 103,400
Total Chinese
961,290
Total Civilian population Chinese and
non-Chinese
979,440
The estimated population for the New Territories was 96,250.
43. During the year 730,570 persons entered and 677,941 left the Colony by river steamer and by railroad making a balance of immigrants over emigrants by these routes of 52,629
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44. Births.-The births registered as having occurred in the Colony were:—
were:
Chinese Non-Chinese
TOTAL
8,973 336
9,309
45. Deaths. The deaths among the civilian population
Chinese Non-Chinese
TOTAL
14,553 182
14,735
The crude death rate for the year for the total population was 15.06, that for Chinese was 15.14, that for non-Chinese 11.20.
46. The following table gives the deaths from the principal diseases causing deaths :-
No. Percentage of
total deaths.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
4,411
30.
Tuberculosis other than pul-
monary
806
5.5
Broncho-pneumonia.
1,651
11.2
Bronchitis
1,396
8.2
Pneumonia
898
6.
Beri beri
667
4.5
Malaria
295
2.
Diarrhoea (infantile)
395
2.8
Diarrhoea
809
5.5
Dysentery
291
2.
Heart Disease and Heart
Failure
280
1.9
Deaths from notifiable diseases. No.
Percentage.
Small-pox
304
2.07
Enteric
74
0.5
Diphtheria
27
0.18
Cerebro Spinal Fever
16
0.10
Plague
0.014
47. The number of Deaths under one year was:
Chinese Non-Chinese
TOTAL
4,338
21
4,359
If the figure for Births notified represented the total births in the Colony the infantile mortality figure would be 458. This figure is obviously much too great but there can be no doubt that the true rate is a high one.
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48 Death Clock showing percentages of total deaths caused by different diseases:
(Non-pulmonary)
TUBERCULOSIS
| 2.8% 2% 4.5% 5.5 %
BERI-BERI
MALARIA
INFANTILE DIARRHOEA
5.5%
DIARRHOEA
DYSENTERY
2%
.3
OTHER DISEASES
%
PNEUMONIA
PULMONARY
TUBERCULOSIS
30%
BRONCHO-PNEUMONIA
BRONCHITIS
11.2 %
6%
8.2%
49. General European Population. The number of Euro- pean Civilians resident in the Colony is estimated at 9,000. This number includes Americans, Canadians, Australians and others of pure European descent.
50. As the majority of European Civilians, both Officials and non-Officials, are treated by Private Practitioners when they fall ill and as only infectious diseases are notifiable, there are no figures available for calculating the incidence rates of different diseases among them. The number of deaths recorded was 103 giving a death rate of 11.44 per mille.
51. European Officials.--The European Civilian Officials number altogether 655; allowing a 20% leave margin the average number resident in the Colony is 524.
52. Most of the Officers when sick are treated by Private Practitioners; sickness Statistics are not available.
There were 13 cases of invaliding.
There were 5 deaths.
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23-
SECTION III.
HYGIENE AND SANITATION.
1. The principal Ordinances which have effect in matters of Hygiene and Sanitation are:—
(a) The Summary Offences Ordinance.
(b) The Public Health and Buildings Ordinance.
(c) The Water Works Ordinance.
(d) The Sale of Food and Drugs Ordinance.
2. The Police are responsible for action under (a), the Public Works Department for action under the building sections of (b) and for (c), while the Sanitary Department deals with the public health side of (b) and with (d).
3. The Sanitary Department which is distinct from the Medical Department has at its head a Senior Cadet Officer whose title is Head of the Sanitary Department (H.S.D.). The Euro- pean Staff under his administrative supervision includes:
(1) Two Medical Officers of Health (Seconded from the
Medical Department).
(2) Two Veterinary Surgeons.
(3) Fifty-three Sanitary Inspectors.
4. There is a Sanitary Board composed of Officials and non- Officials, whose powers and responsibilities are laid down in the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, which acts as an adviser to the H.S.D. and of which the H.S.D. is the Chairman. This body has no direct control over the Sanitary Staff.
The functions and control of the Sanitary Board and Sani- tary Department as determined by the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance are limited to:-
(a) the Island of Hong Kong, (b) the Peninsula of Kowloon, and (c) that portion of the new Territory which is adjacent to Kowloon and which is known as New Kowloon.
5. The Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, who is adviser to Government on all medical and sanitary matters, confers with the H.S.D. but has no status under the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance and no authority over any of the staff of the Sanitary Department.
6. The following general review of work done and progress made in matters of sanitation is based on facts contained in the Annual Report of the Sanitary Department which is issued independently by the Head of the Sanitary Department.
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A. ADMINISTRATION.
1. For purposes of sanitary administration the Island and the Peninsula have been divided into local sanitary areas, each with a sanitary office, and these in turn have been sub-divided into Health Districts each of a size convenient for supervision by a Sanitary Inspector.
2. The built over portions of Hong Kong constitute only 1/5th of the total area. On the North side is the City of Victoria which occupies the flats and lower slopes fancing the Harbour. Behind and above the City is the Residential area of the Hill District extending up to and including the crest called "the Peak". The great mass of the population, (500,000), which reside in the City, are crowded into an area which does not exceed one square mile in extent.
On the South side and near the sea level are the villages of Aberdeen, Aplichau, Stanley and Tai Tam.
The remainder of the Island (four fifths) consists of steep slopes without habitations.
3. The Peninsula of Kowloon may be described topographi- cally as consisting of a central group of hills surrounded on three sides by flats which intervene between them and the sea coast. The bulk of the population (250,000) live in tenement houses on the flats.
New Kowloon is an extension northwards of the flats on the western side.
4. The City of Victoria is divided into Eastern-central, Western-central and Western Districts, each with a sanitary office and sub-divided into 12 Health Districts each with a Sanitary Inspector in charge. The Hill District is worked in connection with Health District 3. One Sanitary Inspector is in charge of all the villages on the South side of the Island.
Kowloon is divided into Kowloon Peninsula, New Kowloon and Kowloon City (Old Chinese walled City), each with a sani- tary office and sub-divided into seven Health Districts with a Sanitary Inspector in charge of each.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES-(a) Mosquito and Insect-borne Diseases.
1. Anti-Mosquito work has not yet reached a high level in Hong Kong. All the Inspectors can distinguish between an anopheline and a culicine but progress beyond this stage has not been attempted. There are no special Mosquito Inspectors and the Anti-Mosquito Brigade consists of two Overseers and a number of Oiling Coolies.
T
M 25
The relative dangers of different collections of water has yet to be worked out. This is a very important matter for on its solution depends to a great extent the economics of preventive
measures.
2. "The routine work of oiling pools and inspecting dwellings for breeding places was carried out by District Inspectors, and by two foremen with coolies specially employed. Full use was made of the powers given by the bye-law for the prevention and dissemination of diseases by Mosquitoes. The usual cutting of undergrowth in May and October was carried out in conjunc- tion with the Botanical and Forestry Department and the Mili- tary Authorities (as regards Military Lands.")
EPIDEMIC DISEASES-(b) Preventive Measures Against Plague.
1. In the campaign against Plague the routine measures, which had been in vogue since the disease was at its height, were continued.
These were :-
(1) Periodical cleansing of premises and lime washing.
(2) Abolition of refuges for Rats, such as Ceilings,
Stair-linings and panelling.
(8) Destruction of Rats.
2. Twenty-eight members of the Cleansing Staff were em- ployed during the year, setting traps, bird-liming boards, dis- tributing poison (barium carbonate), and collecting Rats from the many special Rat Reception Boxes which had been placed in convenient situations throughout the City.
By far the greatest number of Rats were taken dead from the Rat Reception Bins where they had been dumped by the Chinese who had either killed them or picked them up dead; as many as 2,500 Rats per week were collected from these boxes. The total number of Rats collected were 28,310 of which only 259 were caught alive. All Rats collected were sent to the Public Mortuaries where they were examined by the Medical Officer in charge. During the year no plague infected Rat was reported.
More Rats were caught on boards smeared with bird-lime than in traps. Rats so caught are generally dead when found- and of course free from fleas.
3. The M.O.H. Dr. Fawcett examined a number of fleas taken from Rats caught alive and identified the species. The researches which commenced in April were still in progress at the end of the year.
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The following Table shows the results obtained :-
Total Rats searched
Total fleas found
Species.
Xenopsylla Cheopis
:-
259 1,330
No. found. Average per Rat.
Leptopsylla Musculi
Ctenocephalus
Pulex
1,249
4.82
59
0.23
18
0.07
4
0.01
The maximum number found on any one Rat was 57, the number of Rats on which no fleas were found was 68.
April.
The Cheopis Index was highest in June and lowest in
Preventive Measures Against Small-pox.
1. "Under the Vaccination Ordinance, all Public Vaccina- tors are under the control of the Director of Medical and Sani- tary Services who is Superintendent of Vaccination". As Re- gistrar of Births and Deaths, the Head of the Sanitary Depart- ment is responsible for ensuring the vaccination of all children whose births are registered.
Vaccinations were performed by:
(a) the Public Vaccinators.
(b) the M.O's in charge of Government Hospitals. (c) the M.O's in charge of Chinese Hospitals.
(d) the M.O's in charge of Chinese Public Dispensaries. (e) 179 members of St. John's Ambulance Brigade un-
der the Assistant Commissioner.
Altogether 258,212 Vaccinations were performed.
Preventive Measures Against Cholera, Dysentery and Enteric.
1. The usual routine measures against the spread of bowel disease continued to be taken-viz-purification of the Public Water Supplies, closing of Wells.
Preventive Measures Against Tuberculosis.
1. The measures taken against Tuberculosis were:
(a) Periodical general cleansing of premises.
(b) Action taken to prevent the erection of unauthorised cubicles especially those which have defects in the matter of light and air.
(c) Action by the Building Authority to ensure the erection of houses having a proper supply of light- ing and ventilation.
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(c) Preventive Measures Against Helminthic Diseases.
1. There was no routine campaign. Whatever be the per- centage of the population which carry ankylostomes very few cases of ankylostome anaemia come under the notice of the Hospital Authorities.
GENERAL MEASURES OF SANITATION.
1. Sewage Disposal.-The collection and disposal of night soil in the Colony is carried out, partly by the bucket system, partly by water carriage.
2. Regarding the bucket system-arrangements are made with a contractor for the removal and disposal of excrement under conditions laid down by the Sanitary Board. Human night soil is a valuable commodity in China where it is used as a fertiliser for the fields, and there is no difficulty in securing contractors who will pay a considerable sum for the sole right of removal. Under a Contract made in January 1928, the Con- tractor pays $12,220 per annum to revenue for the Contracts for Victoria and Kowloon. Revenue from this source is gradually diminishing owing to the substitution of water closets for pail closets.
The excrement is removed by night from the latrines to a special fleet of junks which convey it up river to China where it is utilised as manure for the mulberry trees on which the silk worms feed.
3. Owing to the limitations of the water supply on the Island and the need for economy in the matter of consumption, it is necessary to restrict the number of water closets served by the public mains. Where a sufficiency of water can be obtained from other sources such as wells or nullahs, water closets are allowed. With regard to effluents, some enter the public sewers direct, others pass to biological tank systems to be treated before final discharge.
1. Scavenging-Refuse Disposal.-Scavenging, which used to be done by contract, is now carried out departmentally. There are 15 refuse lorries in use, 11 for Hong Kong and 4 for Kowloon. Two hundred and fifty-four tons of refuse were collected daily and removed to the various refuse depots. The bulk of the refuse is ultimately taken away by barges and dumped in the sea.
1. Drainage (Subsoil and Surface).-Drainage, both sub- il and surface, is controlled by the Public Works Department.
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1. Water Supplies.-The water supplies of Hong Kong and Kowloon are in charge of the Water Works Branch of the Public Works Department.
2. All the water is surface water collected from catchment areas which are free from ordinary risks of pollution.
3. The water, after storage for a longer or shorter period in the impounding reservoirs, is filtered, in some cases by the slow sand system in others by the rapid system and finally
chlorinated.
4. Routine examinations are carried out by the Government Bacteriologist and Government Analyst and the results furnished to the Water Authority. There was no evidence of any disease having been conveyed through the public water supplies.
1. Clearance of Bush and Undergrowth.-Generally speak- ing, in Hong Kong and the New Territory, bush and undergrowth is little in evidence except in those places where it has been planted and conserved. Routine cutting of superfluous under- growth is carried out in May and October.
2. In Hong Kong, as in many other parts of the world, there appears to be a general belief that the cutting of under- growth and the clearance of bush in some way brings about a diminution in the number of mosquitoes especially the species which carry malaria. Whatever may be the effect on culicines it is a fact that the very potent malaria carriers-Anopheles Maculatus and Anopheles Minimus breed in water open to the light and shun that shaded by trees or undergrowth. Clearance of bush may, therefore, result in an increase of malaria rather than in a diminution.
1. Sanitary Inspectors.-During the year the Sanitary Inspectors continued their routine visits of inspection.
Under their supervision 96,875 floors were cleansed in Hong Kong and 55,710 in Kowloon. This means that practically all premises were cleansed twice during the year. Lime washing was done on 44,849 floors.
SCHOOL HYGIENE.
1. The School Inspection Branch of the Medical Depart- ment consists of one Lady Medical Officer and one Nurse. These Officers work in close touch with the Education Department.
2. The following information is taken from the Annual Re port of the School Medical Officer.
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3. The average number of pupils daily attending Govern- ment Schools and Schools which receive Government grants in aid was 7,889.
Type.
Government Schools.
Number. Nationality
of Pupils.
Average Attendance.
British
5
European
337
Anglo-Chinese
11
Chinese
3,279
Indian
1
Indian
116
Total
3,732
The non-government schools receiving grants in aid number 11 of which 6 cater for Chinese only and 5 for Chinese and others. The pupils number altogether 4,257.
4. The premises of all Government and Grant in Aid Schools were inspected and attention drawn to defects. Various impro- vements in sanitation were made during the year chiefly in the direction of lighting, ventilation and air space.
5. Such is the number of pupils that it was only possible to examine the "entrants" and the specials.
Among the 1,111 "entrants" examined 1,616 defects were found. The principal defects noted were:-nasal troubles 27%, vision 10%, other eye troubles 7%, heart disease 14%, tonsils and adenoids 9.5%, suspected tuberculosis 6.5%, dental cases 5%, deformity 4.5%, skin diseases 1.5%.
With regard to eye defects-myopia accounted for 75% of the totals.
6. Treatment.-There are no School Clinics-cases of errors of refraction were seen by Dr. Morrison at his Clinic and ex- . aminations made. With regard to other defects, free treatment was offered at the Government Hospitals and at the Chinese Public Dispensaries-most children however attended once only.
7. Infectious Diseases.-The M.O.H. notified the School Medical Officer of any school cases certified by him. Among the pupils there were 37 cases of Whooping Cough, 9 of Chicken- pox, 2 of Diphtheria, 2 of Mumps and 1 of Enteric.
LABOUR CONDITIONS.
1. The general industrial conditions continued to improve and the labour situation was normal. There are no estates, plantations or mines in the Colony. Practically all the labouring class are engaged in matters connected with commerce, shipping or public works.
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2. Labourers find their own accommodation in the many tenements and lodging houses which exist in Hong Kong or Kowloon.
3. What factory regulations there are are administered by the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
4. There are no special arrangements for the medical care of labourers other than the Government Hospitals, the Chinese Hospitals, the Mission Hospitals and the Chinese Public Dis- pensaries. The total number of beds available for general dis- eases is 830 making a proportion of:-
830
1,000,000
or 1 to 1,200 approximately.
HOUSING AND TOWN PLANNING.
1. There is no Town Planning Ordinance and Housing comes under that portion of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance which is administrated by the Public Works Department.
2. By inter-departmental arrangements the Medical Officer of Health scrutinises the plans of new buildings.
FOOD IN RELATION TO HEALTH AND DISEASE.
1. Inspection and Control of Food Supplies. The laws dealing with this subject is the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance and the Sale of Food and Drugs Ordinance.
2. The authorities responsible under these Ordinances are the Sanitary Department and the Police Department. The Officers authorised to take samples are, any sanitary inspector or inspector of weights and measures, or inspector of markets, or any Officer of Police acting under the written instructions of the Secretary of the Sanitary Board, or of the Captain Superin- tendent of Police, or of the Medical Officer of Health”.
Under the Ordinance the certificate of the Government Analyst or any analyst is acceptable as evidence by the court- but the term "analyst" is not defined.
3. During the year the following samples were taken under the Sale of Food and Drugs Ordinance-milk 68, bread 81, flour 46, butter 32, cheese 10, coffee 35, tea 28, sugar 50, lard 17,
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vinegar 6, pepper 25, jam 7 and tinned milk 28. Prosecutions were undertaken in 6 cases where the samples failed to satisfy the local requirements.
Under section 82 of the Public Health and Buildings Ordi- nance, 56 tins of condensed milk and 8 cases of sardines were seized and destroyed by order of the Head of the Sanitary Department.
1. Deficiency Diseases. The only information available regarding deficiency diseases is furnished by the returns of the Government Hospitals and Chinese Hospitals-and the death returns. The Hospitals deal with only a small proportion of the sick and the truth as regards the incidence of disease among the masses cannot be deduced from their returns. The death returns are also misleading in that the majority of cases were not treated by competent physicians prior to death, and the Medical Officer examining the body and forming a diagnosis had no history to assist him in coming to a conclusion as to the cause of death.
2. Beri beri.-Despite the fact that the staple food of the masses is polished rice, beri beri is not epidemic-and the deaths from this disease formed only 4.57 per cent of the total deaths. The death rate as far as it can be ascertained was 0.62 per mille population. The total number of deaths recorded during the year was 665. The total number of cases treated in the Government Hospitals was 29 only.
3. Rickets. Only four cases were treated in the Govern- ment Hospitals. Most Chinese Infants are breast fed until they are at least a year old. Rickets is seldom mentioned as a cause of Infant death.
4. Pellagra. No cases were treated in the Government Hospitals.
5. Scurvy.-Only two cases were treated in the Government Hospital.
1. Markets. The markets come under the Sanitary Depart- ments. The Central and Western Markets are supervised by a Special Overseer who is responsible to the Veterinary Surgeon; the other markets supervised by the District Sanitary
Inspectors,
1. Slaughter Houses.-Slaughter Houses and Animal Depots are controlled by the Sanitary Department. There is a Govern- ment depot at Kennedy Town (Hong Kong) for the reception of all cattle, sheep, swine and goats brought into the Colony for slaughter. The Government Slaughter Houses are situated at Kennedy Town (Hong Kong) and at Ma Tau Kok (Kowloon). There are Government controlled slaughter houses at Aberdeen and Sai Wan Ho.
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2. The Government depot and slaughter houses are under the direct charge of the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and Asst. Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and a staff of four Inspectors.
1. Dairies. There is a model Dairy-farm in Hong Kong where milk is produced by stall fed cattle under hygiene conditions.
B. MEASURES TAKEN TO SPREAD THE KNOWLEDGE OF HYGIENE AND SANITATION.
1. With only two Medical Officers of Health to one million population the opportunities for establishing and maintaining an extensive propaganda campaign are not bright--and compara- tively little has been done.
C. TRAINING OF SANITARY PERSONNEL.
1. The Medical Officers of Health hold classes and give lec- tures to the Sanitary Inspectors but there is no regular school for teaching such as exists in Singapore.
SECTION IV.
PORT HEALTH WORK AND ADMINISTRATION.
1. Reckoned in terms of shipping-tonnage, Hong Kong is one of the five greatest ports in the world. It is the principal commercial enterpôt of Southern China and it is the terminus of the Steamship Lines running between China, Japan and North America.
2. In 1928, 4,513 British ocean-going steamers and 7,870 foreign ocean-going steamers entered and cleared the harbour. In addition there were 7,852 river steamers and 24,000 foreign trade junks. The total tonnage of vessels entering and clearing was 44,883,765.
3. The Medical Staff engaged in Port Health duties consist of two European Health Officers and two Chinese Medical Officers.
4. The work of the department includes:-
(a) Routine inspection of ships.
(b) Quarantine duty.
(c) Duty in connection with emigration. (d) Vaccination.
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5. The laws dealing with the subject of Quarantine and Port Health are contained in Table L of the Hong Kong Port Regulations, the Asiatic Emigration Ordinance and the Vac- cination Ordinance.
6. During the year 5,932 inward bound ocean-going vessels were boarded by the Health Officers. Of these 2,252 were on the British register and 3,680 on the Foreign register.
River steamers from Canton, Macao and West River Ports, also junks and small crafts were only visited when cases of sickness or death were reported.
Quarantine.
7. Hong Kong has no quarantine station for ships' passen- gers or crews. When segregation is necessary it is carried out on board ship at the quarantine anchorage. A limited number of infectious cases can be accommodated at the Government In- fectious Diseases Hospital at Kennedy Town-but there is little room for contacts.
8. During the year 4 ships were detained in quarantine; in all cases the cause of detention was Small-pox.
All vessels arriving from "infected" ports and those having infectious or suspicious cases on board fly the "Q" flag and go to the quarantine anchorage for examination.

9. The number of vessels arriving in quarantine was 307 with 20,360 passengers and a crew personnel of 23,031. All were examined and those from Small-pox infected ports were vaccinated. Where necessary medical supervision of passengers and crews was carried out before pratique was granted.
10. The total number of persons medically inspected during 1928 was 369,024 or an average of 1,011 examinations a day.
11. One hundred and forty-six vessels were fumigated dur- ing the year. Fumigations are carried out by a private com- pany but each operation is supervised by a Health Officer.
Emigration.
12. The Asiatic Emigration Ordinance No. 30 of 1915 re- quires that emigrant ships shall have:
(1) Proper and sufficient living accommodation. (2) Proper and sufficient sanitary requirements. (3) Proper and sufficient hospital accommodation.
(4) A sufficient supply of drugs, medical equipment and
disinfectants.
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It also makes provision for:·
(1) A proper diet scale.
(2) The prevention of the export of the unfit.
(3) The prevention of the export of infectious disease.
The Vaccination Ordinance 1923 requires that all emigrants from the Colony shall be protected against Small-pox by vac- cination.
13. The duty of carrying out the sanitary and medical in- spection and for vaccinating those who are insufficiently pro- tected falls on the Port Health Authorities.
14. Emigrants are classified as:-
(a) “Free emigrants" or those who pay their own pas-
sages.
(b) Assisted emigrants or those whose passages arc
paid by their prospective employers.
(c) Women and children.
15. The total number of emigrants examined during the year was 263,854 of whom 246,782 were free and 17,072 assisted.
The number of rejections was 870.
The number emigrating in 1928 was less than that emigrat- ing in 1927 by 14,891. Emigration from the port of Hong Kong has increased each year since 1919, this being the first year in which a decrease has occurred.
The great majority of emigrants proceeded to the Straits Settlements.
16. The list of drugs required was revised and brought up- to-date during the year.
Vaccination.
17. The Government Vaccinators are members of the Port Health Staff and work under the general supervision of the Port Health Officer. They are detailed for work at various centres and they assist where needed.
18. The number of vaccinations performed by these Officers at the centres were 88,036 of which 9,599 were emigrants. To these must be added the vaccinations performed on board ship of those who in the opinion of the examining officer were in sufficiently protected.
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SECTION V.
MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE.
Ante-Natal and Infant-Welfare Centres.
1. The Tsan Yuk Hospital maintains an ante-natal and Infant-welfare clinic. The number of babies brought to this centre was 504 and the total number of visits was 3,185.
Another clinic is maintained at the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital where the visits made for ante-natal purposes or with Infants amounted to 434.
Infants are treated at the Out-patient Departments of the various Hospitals and at the Chinese Public Dispensaries.
Midwives.
1. Under the Midwives Ordinance of 1910 "no one whose name is not on the Midwives Register may practice midwifery habitually for gain or describe herself as one specially qualified to carry on the work of a midwife”.
2. Training Schools for Midwives have been established at the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital, the Tsan Yuk Hospital and the Government Civil Hospital. The course of study neces- sary to qualify for the examination is two years. Examinations are held two or three times a year by examiners appointed by the Midwives Board.
During 1928, 15 Candidates satisfied the examiners and were registered.
The total number on the register at the end of 1928 was 183.
3. There are seven Midwives on the Government Medical establishment whose services are free to those who cannot afford to pay a fee. Four of these are stationed in the New Territory, two do duty in connection with the Chinese Public Dispensaries and one is attached to the Alice Memorial Hospital. All with the exception of the last are supervised by a Government Lady Medical Officer.
During the year 1,115 cases were attended by the Govern- ment Midwives.
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Maternity Hospital Accommodation,
1. The total hospital accommodation in the Colony for maternity cases is 205—and the number delivered in hospitals was 8,172:-
Hospital.
Beds.
No. of cases.
Government Civil
20
776
Victoria
33
67
Tsan Yuk
57
1,326
Wanchai
22
1,029
Tung Wah
17
1,896
Kwong Wah
30
2,589
Alice Memorial
18
459
Matilda
8
30
TOTAL
205
8,172
The Maternity Pavilion at the Government Civil Hospital.
1. The Maternity Pavilion accommodating 20 beds, the majority of which are at the disposal of the Professor of Obstetrics, University of Hong Kong, is mainly for the use of Asiatic women.
There are a few private rooms for the treatment of better class Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese patients. Europeans, as a rule, find accommodation in Victoria Hospital.
2. The admissions during the year were:—
Europeans Indians
10
35
Other Asiatics
731
TOTAL
776
One hundred cases had to be refused admission owing to
lack of vacant beds.
The number of cases treated in 1927 was 686.
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The Victoria Maternity Hospital.
1. The number of beds in this Hospital is 33.
2. There were 67 admissions during the year (63 in 1927). In June the Hospital was made available for private patients who wished to be attended by their own doctor. Only six patients availed themselves of the privilege.
3. There were two deaths-one from eclampsia, and one from shock following difficult labour terminated by caesarean section.
4. There were six patients remaining in Hospital at the end of the year.
CHINESE MATERNITY HOSPITALS.
1. There are two Chinese Maternity Hospitals which are organised on the lines of the Chinese Public Dispensaries-that is to say they are upkept by public subscriptions and governed by a Chinese Committee of Management.
The Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital (57 beds).
1. The whole of the in-patients work of this Hospital is in the hands of Dr. R. E. Tottenham, Professor of Obstetrics to the University of Hong Kong.
2. Once a week the Assistant Visiting Medical Officer to Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries Dr. (Mrs.) Dovey conducts an Infant Welfare Clinic for babies born in the Hospital.
3. In connection with this Institution is a training school for midwives and nurses. The course is three years.
4. The total number of deliveries was 1,326. In the gynae- cological department 174 cases were treated as in-patients and 1,105 as out-patients.
The Wanchai Maternity Hospital.
1. This Hospital of 22 beds is connected with the Wanchai Public Dispensary. A Western trained Chinese Doctor is in charge.
2. The number of deliveries in this Institution has steadily increased from 194 in 1919 to 1,029 in 1928.

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SECTION VI.
HOSPITALS, INSTITUTES, ETC.
1. The Government Hospitals are:--the Government Civil Hospital, the Victoria Hospital, and the Kowloon Hospital. The Peak Hospital is an institution maintained by Government as a nursing home where patients can be treated by their own doctors.
GOVERNMENT CIVIL HOSPITAL.
1. Dr. D. J. Valentine, M.C. was in charge till his departure on leave on 6th May, 1928. The post was then filled by Dr. J. R. Craig till his departure on sick leave on 23rd June, 1928 when Dr. T. W. Ware took over the duties of Medical Officer in charge, assisted by Dr. G. H. Thomas.
Dr. T. Z. Bau was appointed Assistant Medical Officer in July.
2. The new admissions to hospital (exclusive of the Mater- nity Block and Mental Hospital) were 4,995. (4,698 in 1927).
3. The daily average of in-patients was 175. (188 in 1927). Nationalities of patients treated :-
European Indian
Other Asiatics
TOTAL
458
1,012
3,525
4,995
In-patients treated by the University Medical Staff:-
3,709.
Gynaecological
Surgical
Medical
TOTAL
133
425
728
1,286
In-patients treated by the Government Medical Officers—
The Males numbered
The Females numbered
TOTAL
4,009
986
4,995
A large proportion of the third class patients were treated
free of charge.
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4. Deaths.-390 patients died and of these 173 died within 24 hours of admission. 164 pauper Chinese patients were given free burial by the Tung Wah Hospital Authorities. The death rate was 78.08 per thousand as compared with 88.54 in 1927.
5. 1,095 major operations were performed. (University Clinic 806, Government Staff 289).
6. A detailed list of the number of cases and deaths of each particular disease is given in the Appendix. A few of these call for special comment. There were no serious epidemics of any magnitude.
7. Diphtheria.-Out of 22 cases, there were 14 deaths. This high mortality is due to the fact that the majority of the cases were not brought for treatment till the disease was well ad- vanced.
8. Malaria.-There were only 273 cases, as against 390 in 1927.
9. Syphilis (acquired).-154 cases, as against 94 in 1927.
10. Gonococcal Infections.-215 cases, as against 103 in 1927.
The increased number of venereal cases was probably due to the fact that a special Venereal Diseases Clinic was begun in February 1928. The figures for this Clinic are given separately in the Appendix. Many patients attending this Clinic were ad- mitted to Hospital for treatment.
11. Diarrhoea and Enteritis in children under 2 years. 42 cases, and 11 deaths.
12. Accidents.-867 cases were of a serious nature, neces- sitating in-patient treatment.
13. The Police Force.-The total number of admissions was as follows:-
Deaths.
Europeans Indians
133 592 2
1 Pulmonary tuberculosis.
Do.
Cantonese
157
Nil.
Wei-hai-wei
83
Nil.
TOTAL
965
14. Government Servants were attended to daily, as Out- patients, between the hours of 9.00 a.m. and 10.30 a.m. The daily average was 25,
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15.-Out-Patient Department. This department is open both morning and afternoon. The work is entirely in the hands of the University Staff, except for the V.D. Clinic which is under a Government Medical Officer. The number of attend- ances was 56,947 (35,962 in 1927) exclusive of V.D. cases. In addition 9,298 patients attended for dressings.
It will be seen from this that the number of cases has in- creased enormously.
The Out-patients received medicines and dressings free of charges. Teaching clinics were held at certain hours.
The number of prescriptions dispensed was 36,145, being about 100 daily and nearly 60% increase over 1927.
16. X-Ray Department.-Mr. Murray, Acting Radiographer was in charge of the department till October, when Dr. Farr the newly appointed Radiologist arrived in the Colony. Prior to Dr. Farr's arrival Major Morrison, R.A.M.C. Radiologist to the Military Hospital very kindly acted as consultant and was of great service to the Department.
17. Miss Siggins was appointed Masseuse and Assistant to the Department on 15th July, 1928.
18. A considerable amount of massage, ultra-violet ray treatment and diathermy-ionisation has been done. The demand for treatment in this department is increasing.
19. Treatments-Diathermy
178
Ultra-violet Light
1,377
Faradism and Galvanism
236
Fees earned
$3,476
Number of patients X-Rayed
1,699
2,520
Films Exposed
20. Maternity. The Maternity Pavilion connected with this Hospital is described under the section dealing with Maternity and Child Welfare (V.).
VICTORIA GENERAL AND MATERNITY HOSPITAL.
1. General Beds 38. Maternity Beds 33.
2. Dr. J. T. Smalley was in charge throughout the year. Dr. Ware acted as assistant for the first six months of the year, when he was appointed Medical Officer in Charge of the Civil Hospital. During the second half of the year Dr. Thomas at- tended on Tuesdays and Fridays to give anaesthetics. Through- out the year Dr. Kirk assisted in the surgical work of the hospital.
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3. General Block.-In previous years the Hospital was reserved for women and children only, but as the accommodation was never fully taxed it was decided in December 1927, to admit male patients.
4. The total number of patients treated was 529 of which 194 were males and 335 females. (323 women in 1927). The nationalities of these patients were:
Europeans Chinese
Japanese
Eurasians
Males.
Females.
194
313
16
1
5
194
335
There were four deaths, the causes being sub-tertian malaria 1, appendicitis 2, hepatitis 1.
5. Operations.-During the year 219 operations were per- formed under general anaesthesia. (136 in 1927).
6. Out-patients.-1,219 visits were made to the Out-patient Department. Of these 175 were males and the remainder women and children.
7. The maternity side of this Institution is described in the section dealing with Maternity and Child Welfare (V.).
KOWLOON HOSPITAL.
1. Dr. I. Newton was in charge during the year.
Dr. J. E. Dovey attended in the Out-patient Department.
Dr. A. D. Wong was appointed Assistant Medical Officer in July.
2. 1,204 patients were admitted as opposed to 980 in 1927, of which 1,099 were males and 105 females. The nationalities were made up as follows:-
British
Chinese
Other Nationalities
Males.
Females.
260
214
46
825
811
14
119
74
45
41
1. Daily average number of patients
2. Number of Police admitted:-
Europeans. Chinese.
81
176
Indians. 3
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3. 40 patients were transferred to the Government Civil Hospital, 4 to the Kwong Wah Hospital, 3 to the Victoria and one each to the Victoria Gaol Hospital and Matilda Hospital. There were 57 deaths from all causes.
4. During the year 185 operations were performed under general anaesthesia.
5. There were no special epidemics during the year. There were fewer cases of malaria. During the summer months, when sickness is always more rife, the Hospital was hard pressed to find accommodation for all who sought admission.
6. Out-patient Department.-The number of out-patient visits recorded as compared with the previous year were as
follows:
New Cases Old Cases Dressings
TOTAL
1927.
1928.
6,918
9,626
2,067
3,482
2,129
3,980
11,114
17,088
7. The External Diseases of the eye cases increased from 1,697 in 1927 to 4,699 in 1928 and the number of prescriptions dispensed increased from 7,848 in 1927 to 14,190 in 1928.
8. Male patients suffering from active Venereal Diseases. were referred to the Venereal Diseases Clinic at the Government Civil Hospital, and women were referred to the Tsan Yuk and Kwong Wah Hospitals.
9. There is no 3rd Class accommodation in the Hospital for Chinese or Indian women.
GOVERNMENT DISPENSARIES.
1. The Dispensaries maintained by Government during the year under review were:--the Kowloon Railway Station Dis- pensary, the Taipo Dispensary and the Un Long Dispensary.
KOWLOON RAILWAY STATION DISPENSARY,
1. This Dispensary was closed at the end of February 1928. During the two months it was open 534 patients were treated.
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TAIPO DISPENSARY-(New Territory).
1. During the year Dr. C. H. Luk was Chinese Medical Officer in charge. The number of visits during the year as com- pared with 1927 were as follows:-
New Cases
Old Cases
Vaccination
TOTAL
1927.
1928.
1,689
2,386
1,191
1,987
1,316
1,677
4,196
6,048
UN LONG DISPENSARY-(New Territory).
1. This Dispensary-which is in charge of a dresser—is visited twice a week by Dr. Luk. The number of cases treated during the year was 4,168 as compared with 4.589 for 1927. The num- ber of vaccinations was 485--the number for 1927 was 400.
VENEREAL CLINICS.
1. A Venereal Diseases Clinic at the Government Civil Hos- pital was begun in February, 1928, by Dr. Craig. Owing to his absence on leave, the full figures for the first six months of the year are not available,
2. From July to December the Clinic was taken over by Dr. H. A. Fawcett, Medical Officer of Health.
3. The Clinic was only open on Wednesdays and Fridays arm 5 to 7 p.n.
1. The total number of cases treated from July to December --697 an average attendance of 36.6 on each day.
The total number of new cases was 126, of which :-
77 were Syphilis,
36 were Gonorrhoea, 13 were Chancroid.
The total revisits were 571.
5. 'Disease. Europeans. Chinese Indians. Other Races.
Syphilis
52
16
1
Gonorrhoea
17
11
8
Chancroid
Totals
25
71
29
1
M 44
-
6. At the end of March a weekly Venereal Clinic was started at the Tsan Yuk Hospital. The cases seen totalled 144.
7. Venereal cases are seen at the Out-patient Departments of the various departments and at the Dispensaries.
THE CHINESE HOSPITALS AND DISPENSARIES.
1. The Chinese Hospitals ( in number viz. 2 general and 1 for infectious diseases) are Chinese Institutions whose relation to Government has been established by Ordinance. They are subsidised by Government, are subject to inspection by certain Government Officials and each has a Chinese member of the Medical Department on its Resident Staff.
The authority in administrative control is a Committee of Chinese gentlemen elected each year by the subscribers.
2. These Hospitals were originally established to give ac- commodation to those Chinese whose fears and prejudices against Western Medicine prevented their applying for relief at the Government Hospitals. The Tung Wah Hospital situated in Hong Kong was first occupied in 1873. The Kwong Wah Hos- pital was built in Kowloon in 1911 as an extension of the Tung Wah. The Government gave the sites free and with grants of money assisted in the crection of the buildings.
The activities of the Chinese Hospitals include:-
(a) The care of the sick and treatment by Western methods or Chinese methods according to the wish of the patient.
(b) Maternity-benefits-and infant welfare--by West-
ern methods only.
(c) Assistance to the destitute.
(d) The provisions of coffins for, and the burial of the
dead.
(e) Vaccination.
(f) Health propaganda.
3. The Chinese Public Dispensaries, eight in number, were established for the purpose of supplying medical advice and treatment on Western lines. Situated in the most thickly popu- lated districts they fulfil a very useful purpose, not only in the matter of treatment but also as foci for the spread of knowledge concerning the causes of disease, the means of spread and the value of Western drugs and methods both in prevention and
cure.
M 45
Each Dispensary is controlled by a separate Committee of Chinese gentlemen who work in close touch with the Secretary for Chinese Affairs and each is in direct charge of a Chinese Medical Practitioner qualified in Western Medicine.
4. Both Hospitals and Dispensaries receive yearly grants from Government funds.
5. There are three Officers of the Government Medical Department whose whole time duty it is to visit the various Chinese Medical Institutions-both hospitals and dispensaries-- and to give advice and assistance.
Dr. E. W. Kirk was the Visiting Medical Officer to the Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries during the year. The late Dr. (Mrs.) A. D. Hickling M.B.E. was Assistant Medical Officer up till her death in September. Dr. (Mrs.) A. L. Dovey M.B., Ch. B. was appointed as second assistant on 14th March, 1928, and subsequently succeeded Mrs. Hickling. Miss P. C. Lai M.B., B.S., was appointed second assistant.
The Visiting Medical Officer is mainly concerned with the activities of the Tung Wah and Kwong Wah Hospitals, while the duties of the Assistant Visiting Medical Officers are con- nected with the work of the Tsan Yuk Maternity Hospital and the Chinese Dispensaries. Mrs. Dovey also succeeded Mrs. Hickling as supervisor of Government Midwives.
6. Progress in the Chinese Hospitals.-Much progress has been made in all departments of the Hospitals since the last report was issued in 1926. The improvements include:
(a) The appointment of University graduates as full-
time Resident Medical Officers.
(b) The foundation of training schools for female
nurses.
(e) Extensions and improvements in the male nursing
section.
(d) The establishment of Clinical laboratories in charge
of full-time laboratory assistants.
(c) The installation of a shadowless scialytic lamp in
the operating theatre.
(f) The provision of X-ray apparatus.
(g) The purchase of a motor ambulance.
(h) Improvements in the accommodation for patients.
(i) Improvements in quarters for staff.
M 46
7. The training course for nurses is spread over three years, the first two for general work, the third for obstetrical training.
8. A few years ago Surgery in the Chinese Hospitals was almost non-existent. In 1928 there were 380 operations per- formed many of which belong to the category of major opera- tions. The growth of this side of curative medicine shows the advance which has been made in the campaign against prejudice. This has been brought about by a combination of factors chief among which are the improvements which have been made in Wards and Theatres, the better nursing, the keenness of the Directors and of the Staff, and last but by no means least the stimulating influence of the Government Visiting Medical Officers.
THE TUNG WAH HOSPITAL,
1. The Tung Wah Hospital which is situated in one of the most congested areas of Hong Kong contains 400 beds.
2. The Staff consists of a Chinese Government Resident Medical Officer whose salary is paid by Government, and three Resident Medical Officers whose salaries are paid by the Hos- pital. There are in addition a number of Chinese Doctors who practice Chinese Medicine for the benefit of those who prefer that line of treatment.
3. The total number treated during 1928 was 198,598 of which 176,788 were treated by Chinese methods and 21,810 by Western methods. The number of in-patients was 11,486, the number of out-patients was 187,112.
Year by year the number asking for Western treatment increases showing that the benefits of up-to-date scientific methods are becoming more and more appreciated.
4. The appointment of a full-time laboratory assistant made it possible to institute routine examination of bloods, urines, faeces, etc.
5. The growing confidence of the community in the efficacy of the Maternity Department resulted in such a number of applications for admission that the wards were over-crowded. The total number delivered was 1,896 an increase of 370 over the 1927 figures. The number of maternal deaths was 14- giving a percentage of deaths to cases of 0.74.
1.
M 47
6. The total number of operations requiring an anaesthetic was 171-many of these were major operations.
7. There is a nursing school and midwifery school in con- nection with the establishment.
THE KWONG WAH HOSPITAL.
1. The Kwong Wah Hospital, an Institution of 250 beds, is really an extension of the Tung Wah Charity. Situated in Kow- loon it provides for that town what the Tung Wah does for Hong Kong.
2. The Western Staff consists of a Chinese Government Medical Officer paid by Government, and two Resident Medical Officers paid by Hospital Funds. All are University graduates. There are also a number of Chinese Doctors who practice Chinese Medicine.
3. Both Chinese and Western Methods are employed in treatment-the patients taking their choice. Those who prefer Chinese treatment are attended by the Chinese Doctors on the Staff, those who choose Western methods are treated by Re- sident Medical Officers.
In 1928 the number of in-patients was 8,822 and the number of out-patients 128,942.
4. 94 operations were performed under general anaesthesia.
5. There is a nurses training school with a matron in charge.
6. The nursing staff consists of 20 females (probationer nurses). There are 14 dressers for the male Wards.
7. There were 2,589 obstetrical cases with only two (2) deaths. At present there are 30 maternity beds-but a new maternity block of 75 beds is nearing completion.
8. There is a laboratory where chemical testing is carried out.
THE CHINESE PUBLIC DISPENSARIES.
1. The Dispensaries, eight in number, treated a total of 191,152 in 1928 as compared with 161,370 in 1927.
-M 48
...
2. In addition to being clinics and medicine distributing depots, these Institutions serve as vaccination depots and cen- tres where the poor may apply for assistance in matters con- nected with :
(a) the removal of patients to hospital;
(b) certification as to causes of death;
(c) removal of corpses to Mortuaries;
(d) supply of coffins..
The popularity of these establishments is steadily increasing showing that the prejudice and suspicion of the conservative lower orders of the Chinese is gradually being dispelled. As propaganda centres they are very useful.
3. The Dispensary at Shaukiwan has been found too small and a new building is being erected. Plans have also been drawn up for the extension of the dispensary at Yaumati. Both these centres attract large numbers of the boating population in addition to people living in the neighbourhood.
4. Vaccination is done free at all Dispensaries. One of the Lady Assistant Visiting Medical Officers holds a gynaecological clinic at each Dispensary once a week.
year:
5. The following Table shows the work done during the
..
i
SUMMARY
D{
WORK DONE BY THE CHINESE PUBLIC DISPENSARIES IN VICTORIA AND IN THE KOWLOON PENINSULA,
Patients.
No. of
Patients Corpses
dead
No. of
Vaccina-
Certificate
Patients removed to removed to Application
infants
tions
No. of
Gynaeco-
logical
Dispensaries.
New
cases.
Old
of cause
of death.
sent to
hospital.
hospital by hospital or
for
brought
done
cases
cases.
Ambu- Mortuary
lance.
coffins.
to Dis-
pensary.
in Dis-
pensary.
seen by
Lady Dr.
Central Dispensary
11,617
12,097
57
13
62
62
Eastern Dispensary
13
6,482
258
12,597
8,560
19
35
45
58
Western Dispensary
58
328
7,674
960
9,528
10,592
44
2
34
297
297
265
Amalgamated Harbour and
4,520
1,105
Yaumati Dispensarics
28,385
28,208
90
7
79
247
Shaukiwan Dispensary
240
13,871
1,368
21,021
10,018
30
78
1
4.
Shamshuipo Dispensary
4
122
5,371
1,008
10,501
2,107
130
140
Hung Hom Dispensary
128
9,466
5,132
66
170
48
Kowloon City Dispensary
6,779
5,544
118
82
26
88
5,259
724
43
137
3,758
439
110
89
2,975
32
Total 1928
109,894
82,258
367
561
246
961
421
1,322
49,910
5,894
Total 1927
88,799
72,571
315
426
281
939
397
1,335
31,031
M 49
M 50
INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITALS.
1. There are two Infectious Diseases Hospitals in Hong Kong one maintained by the Government the other by the Tung Wah Charity. There is no Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kow- loon.
THE GOVERNMENT INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL.
1. The Government Infectious Diseases Hospital is situated at Kennedy Town at the Western extremity of Hong Kong Island. Built for a Police Station it has accommodation for 26 beds all told.
2. This Hospital is under the charge of the Medical Officer. Government Civil Hospital, and except when there are patients occupying it has only a skeleton staff. During the year it was used for Small-pox cases.
Number treated.
Nationality.
Died
Remaining at the
end of 1928.
Male Female Total
Europeans
Chinese...
Other Asiatics.......
Total....
3
2
3
1
5
6
1
15
6
All cases were discreet and had been vaccinated in infancy. None had been recently done.
THE TUNG WAII INFECTIOUS DISEASES HOSPITAL.
1. The Tung Wah Infectious Diseases Hospital which was erected by the Tung Wah Charity Organisation in 1901-1902 is situated next door to the Government Infectious Diseases Hos- pital at Kennedy Town. It consists of three two storied blocks of wards and an administration block all connected on both floors by covered ways.
The downstairs wards are divided into four cubicles by walls only six feet high, the upstairs wards are open all through.
2. This Hospital was built for the purpose of treating Chin- ese cases who from fear or prejudice objected to entering the Government Hospital. Treatment offered was Chinese Or Western according to the wish of the patient.
11
"
1
M 51
3. Up to the present practically all cases have been treated by Doctors professing skill in Chinese Medicine.
The
4. During 1928 only Small-pox cases were treated. number of admissions was 126 of which 25 came from Kowloon. The number of deaths was 63 giving a percentage of deaths to treated of 50.
5. It is said that the Chinese believe wind, water, and scrutiny by strangers, to be detrimental to recovery in cases of Small-pox. Whether this be true or not, the cases are kept carefully wrapped up in their own clothes until death or re- covery.
SECTION VII.
PRISONS AND ASYLUMS.
PRISONS.
1. The principal-prison of the Colony is situated in Victoria, the branch prison is situated in Lai Chi Kok on the Kowloon side of the Harbour. The former has accommodation for 800 prisoners the latter for about 500. Females are only received at Victoria Gaol.
2. During 1928 the general health of the prisoners continued to be satisfactory.
3. The total number of admissions to Victoria Gaol was 5,756, the daily average number of inmates was 742, the average daily number of sick was 13.43, the sickness rate was 18.1 per mille and the death rate was 4.17 per mille.
4. The daily average number of prisoners at Lai Chi Kok was 330, the total number treated in hospital was 546 and the daily number of cases in hospital was 5.
5. The new hospital at Victoria Gaol is now open and accom- modates 30 patients. During the year 16 prisoners were removed to the Government Civil Hospital for treatment not available in the prison hospital and 8 cases for X-ray examination. One prisoner was removed to the Mental Diseases Hospital. Two cases of Small-pox were removed to the Kennedy Town Infec- tious Diseases Hospital; the disease in both instances was con- tracted before admission.
6. In the female prison there were three births and one abortion.
7. There were four deaths from natural causes, three of which took place in the Gaol Hospital and one in the Govern- ment Civil Hospital.
8. The following statistical Table shows totals, averages and percentages for the years 1921 to 1928 inclusive:-
Year.
Total Number of
STATISTICAL TABLE SHOWING TOTALS, AVERAGES AND PERCENTAGES IN COMPARISON WITH PRECEDING SEVEN YEARS.
Daily Average Number of
Out-patients.
Rate % of
Admissions
to Hospital
to
Total Admissions to Vic-
toria Gaol.
Average in
Daily
Gaol Hospital to
Victoria Daily
Average of
Prisoners
in
Victoria Gaol.
Deaths due to Disease, Vic-
toria
Gaol Hospital, to
Total Admissions to Vic- toria Gaol.
1921
4,900
236
9,298
13
158
606
6.0
25.20
4.82
0.99
0.27
1922
5,014
362
14,911
1928
5,051
327
19,324
1924
7,882
402
16,381
1925
6,339
580
18,603
28
1926
6,654
585
6,129
10
1927
7,740
355
7,891
14
1928
5,756
337
13,787
≈ 5 5 8 ~ 5 ∞
8
130
657
7.6
40.00
7.22
1.16
0.16
10
187
674
7.1
52.90
6.47
1.05
0.20
7
228
838
10.1
44.14
5.44
1.20
0.09
303
813
14.0
50.90
9.15
1.72
0.44
300
754
19.3
16.78
8.79
2.56
0.15
421
774
9.01
21.62
4.59
1.16
0.18
520
742
13.43
87.70
5.85
1.81
0.05
- M 52
M 53
THE MENTAL HOSPITAL.
1. The Mental Hospital which is an annex to the Govern- ment Civil Hospital has accommodation for 14 Europeans and 18 Asiatics.
2. This Institution is intended to be used only as a tem- porary abode for the mentally affected pending arrangements being made for their transfer to Europe or to Canton.
5. The Medical Officer of the Government Civil Hospital is in administrative charge.
Patients.
4. Remaining from 1927
48
Admissions during the year
250
298
Discharged apparently cured
191
Transferred to the Mental Hospital, Canton Died
49
20
Remaining at the end of 1928
38
298
SECTION VIII.
METEOROLOGY.
1. Situated just within the northern limits of the tropics and occupying an insular position immediately to the south of the great mass of China, Hong Kong's climate is very materially influenced by the direction of the prevailing winds.
2. The North East Monsoon blows from November to May and during this period the weather is dry, cool and invigorating. From May until October, the Season of the South West Mon- soon, the air is highly charged with moisture and the climate is hot, muggy and enervating.
During the Sum- is 87° and there Situated on the
3. The mean annual temperature is 72. mer months the average maximum temperature is little difference throughout the 24 hours. North side of the Island the City of Victoria gets all the heat and moisture of the South West Monsoon but not the breeze itself which is cut off by the mountain behind the town. During the Winter months the range of temperature is from 70° to 45° with an average of 66°.
4. The average yearly rainfall is 85.72 inches.
As might be expected most of the rain falls in the Summer months, May, June, July, August and September.
5. August and September are marked by atmospheric dis- turbances which now and then culminate in typhoons or cyclones accompanied by blinding sheets of rain.
METEOROLOGICAL DATA.
The following, Table I. gives the means or totals of the meteorological data for the several months of the year 1928.
Temperature.
Humidity.
Wind.
Month.
Barometer
at H.S.L.
Cloudiness. Sunshine.
Rain.
Max.
Mean
Min.
Rel.
Abs.
Direction. Velocity.
O
ins.
p.c.
p.c.
hours.
ins.
Points.
Miles p.h.
M 54
January
30.15
65.9
61.6
57.8
82
February
30.18
63.1
58.7
55.0
82
22
0.46
82
93.7
1.880
ENE
11.8
0.41
84
73.3
8.570
ENE
10.8
March
30.01
67.8
63.2
60.2
87
0.51
85
86.8
5.185
E by N
15.0
April
29.95
75.5
70.9
67.8
81
0.63
78
129.1
4.105
E
13.3
May
29.83
81.8
77.4
74.0
86
0.81
78
133.9
18.410
E
9.8
June
29.71
84.3
79.9
76.5
83
0.84
81
176.0
15.130
E by S
10.5
July
29.71
88.5
83.5
79.9
80
0.92
53
282.8
4.780
ESE
8.6
August
29.68
87.5
82.4
78.7
84
0.93
78
204.8
12.910
S
8.2
September
29.78
86.2
81.6
77.9
75
0.80
65
199.7
3.915
NE by E
10.8
October
80.03
80.1
75.1
71.1
65
0.57
35
263.0
0.435
ENE
11.5
November
80.10
74.0
69.8
65.7
67
December
80.16
70.5
65.6
61.9
72
52
0.49
57
177.2
0.815
NE by H
10.5
0.46
52
216.8
0.020
E by N
13.3
Mean or
Total
29.94
77.1
72.4
68.9
79
0.65
68
169.7
71.155
11.2
M 55
SECTION IX.
SCIENTIFIC.
BACTERIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
1. The Activities of the Institute include:-
(a) the preparation of vaccine lymph.
(b)
(c)
(d)
وو
""
sera.
J1
bacterial vaccines. rabies vaccine.
(e) examination of pathological material.
(f)
(g) medical research.
waters, milks, etc., etc.
2. The Institute is under the charge of the Government Bacteriologist who is assisted by the Asst. Bacteriologist and three unqualified laboratory assistants.
3. The Bacteriologist Dr. E. P. Minett was absent on leave from 25/1/28 to 8/11/28, during which time the Institute was in charge of the Assistant Bacteriologist Dr. W. K. Dunscombe.
4. Particulars of the work done during the year are con- tained in the Annual Report of Bacteriologist--which is ap- pended.
THE PUBLIC MORTUARIES.
1. There are two Public Mortuaries, one being in Victoria and the other in Kowloon.
2. At these places for the reception of the dead are received:
(a) bodies from Chinese Hospitals and Dispensaries for
diagnosis.
(b) "dumped" bodies-that is to say-bodies which have been taken from the place of death under cover of night and dumped in the street to save trouble and expense. The great majority of these have died natural deaths and there is no need for concealment. (c) bodies sent by the Police for medico-legal examina-
tion.
(d) bodies sent by the Medical Officer of Health for examination for signs of infectious disease or for simple diagnosis.
3. In all cases where a diagnosis cannot otherwise be made a sectio cadaveris is performed.
M 56
4. All dead rats collected by the Sanitary Authorities are taken to the Mortuaries for examination with regard to plague. Some of these are caught by the rat catching gang but the majority are taken from the rat boxes or bins placed about the city for the reception of dead rodents.
5. Up to a few years ago the Mortuaries were in charge of the Bacteriologist-now they are under Medical Officers who have been detailed for that work in addition to some other duty.
PUBLIC MORTUARY, VICTORIA.
Report on Post Mortem Examinations, 1928.
Number of post-mortem examinations performed. 3,338
6.
Male bodies examined
Female bodies examined
Claimed bodies sent from hospitals, &c.
Unclaimed bodies mostly abandoned
Number of Chinese bodies examined
European
Japanese Indian
1
12
American
TOTAL
Bodies were received from the following sources :
Victoria District:
Chinese European
TOTAL
Harbour Police:
Chinese
European
1,655
1,688
2.821
517
3,828
4
3,338
3,171
3,173
20 2
American
Indian
Japanese
TOTAL
27
Shaukiwan District :-
Chinese
104
Other Villages:-
Chinese
Indian
33
1
TOTAL
34
Number of rats examined
95,312
Number found plague infected
Nil.
M 57
PUBLIC MORTUARY, KOWLOON.
Report on Post Mortem Examinations, 1928.
Number of post-mortem examinations performed. 2,504
Male bodies examined ..
1,472
Female bodies examined
1,032
Claimed bodies sent from hospitals, &c.
527
""
27
Indian
>>
Unknown
J>
TOTAL
Unclaimed bodies mostly abandoned Number of Chinese bodies examined
European
1,977
2,500
1
1
2,504
Bodies were received from the following sources:
Kowloon District
Harbour Police
Number of rats examined
Number found plague infected
ANALYSTS DEPARTMENT.
2,204 300
60,260
Nil.
1. The report of the Government Analyst is given in the Appendix.
APPENDIX A.
BACTERIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.
Report for the year 1928
By E. P. Minett, M.D., D.P.H., D.T.M. & H.
Government Bacteriologist.
1.-STAFF.
The Bacteriologist was away on leave from 25.1.28 to 8.11.28. During his absence Dr. W. K. Dunscombe, the Assistant Bacteriologist acted in his stead.
The work of the laboratory continues to increase steadily, more especially in the preparation of Vaccine Lymph.
M 58
It is regretted that very little research work or publication of original scientific papers was possible during the year, owing to shortage of staff to cope with the routine work of the Institute.
2.-PREPARATION OF VACCINE LYMPH.
The preparation of Vaccine Lymph was carried on during the year, Buffalo calves being used for its production.
The number of calves vaccinated was 90, an increase of 23 over the previous year, the average yield per calf was from 80 to 100 c.c. glycerinated lymph.
The number of tubes issued was 111,231, an increase of 53,727 tubes over that of last year. The quantity of lymph in stock on 31st December, 1928, was 4,615 c.c. calculated to be sufficient to vaccinate 138,450 persons.
The decrease in the stock over last year is accounted for by the increased prevalence of small-pox in the Colony, and the vaccination campaign carried out by the St. John's Ambulance Association.
The value of the free issue of lymph was $20,963.70, an increase of $9,972.20 over that of last year. This free issue went principally to the Port Health Officer, St. John's Am- bulance Association and various Chinese Dispensaries.
The Institute continues to be able to supply all demands for lymph from private medical practitioners also the Naval and Military Forces.
This branch of the Institute is rapidly increasing its output and extra assistance is already required.
3.-ANTI-MENINGOCOCCUS SERUM.
During the year 12,740 c.c. of serum was issued being an increase of 12,020 c.c. over last year's issue. About 26,420 c.c. was condemned and destroyed as being out of date for use.
The balance remaining in stock on 31st December, 1928, was 75,685 c.c.
The value of the serum issued was $210.00.
The antitoxic reaction of the serum was satisfactory, and sterility tests were carried out as required by the Therapeutic Substances Regulations 1927.
M 59
4. CONTAGIOUS ABORTION VACCINE.
No cases occurred amongst the Dairy Farm herd during the year and no vaccine was issued. The cultures of B. abortus were kept going in the laboratory, ready for immediate issue if required.
5.--MILK ANALYSIS.
The number of samples examined was 108, an increase over the number for last year.
Samples of both fresh milk and Pasteurised milk were examined weekly from the Dairy Farm.
The results from the examination of the Pasteurised milk were very satisfactory.
6. ANTI-RABIC TREATMENT.
It is regretted that the local strain of virus was lost during the year.
An effort will be made to isolate and fix another local strain of virus as soon as possible, in order that the Veterinary Departinent may proceed with their experiments on the protection of local dogs against rabies.
89 persons were given the Pasteur Treatment during the year, a reduction of 22 on last year's treatment.
The number of graduated individual doses issued was 1,482.
The value of the free issue was $1,379.00.
The brains of 20 suspected dogs were examined, but in no case were negri bodies detected.
7.-CLINICAL EXAMINATIONS.
The number of specimens examined for Government Institu- tions and private practitioners was 7,170, a decrease of 1,345 specimens as compared with last year; the decrease is accounted for by the reduction in the number of rat smears sent to the Institute from the Public Mortuaries.
8.-EXAMINATION OF DISINFECTANTS.
Two samples of disinfectants were examined during the year by the Rideal Walker Test at the request of the Sanitary Depart-
ment.
9.-ANTA-PLAGUE WORK.
Microscopic and cultural examinations of rat spleens, or other organs continued to be carried out at the request of the Medical Officers in charge of Public Mortuaries.
M 60
10.-BACTERIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES.
The number of water analyses carried out was 1,499. Of these 1,121 were the routine examination of tap water supplies. Samples obtained from filter beds, both raw and filtered water, numbered 284.
94 special examinations of various water supplies were car- ried out, and the private water supply to the Dairy Farm was examined weekly.
320 filter candles from various domestic water supplies were examined and sterilized.
The Public Water Supplies of the cities of Victoria and Kowloon were satisfactory. Tap water samples were occasionally below the standard of B. Coli absent from 50 c.c. and in such cases investigations were made.
11. STOCK VACCINES.
The following stock vaccines were issued:~
T. A. B. Vaccine
Cholera
21
Plague
"J
32 doses
6 125
Value of free issue $16.00.
No free issue.
No free issue.
Polyvalent Staphylococcus Aureus Vaccine is stocked and issued to Government Institutions when required.
12. —AUTOGENOUS VACCINES.
Autogenous Vaccines were prepared in 10 cases, of these 7 were for Government Institutions and 3 for Private Practitioners.
13.-MEDICO LEGAL WORK.
The usual Medico Legal evidence was given in Police cases at the Supreme Court and at the Magistrate's court.
The number of articles specially examined for medico legal evidence was 43, a decrease of 2 on the number for last year.
14.-MALIGNANT DISEASE.
67 specimens were examined and reported upon, an increase of 51 specimens over the number for last year.
15.
MISCELLANEOUS,
A few specimens of Mites were examined and identified at the request of the Naval Ordinance Authorities. Specimens were sent to the London School of Tropical Medicine for the classification to be verified.
Specimens of the local so called King Crabs were sent to the Museum of the above school, also a collection of the loca! varieties of edible sea crabs used in the Colony.
Two cases of Para-Typhoid C were detected during the year by means of an organism kindly sent from the Pathologies! Department of the Municipal Council of Shanghai.
}
}
}
M 61
Nature of Examination.
Total Total
Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. for for
1928. 1927.
Blood for
Widal.
With B. typhosus,
» paratyphosus A.,.
""
>>
14
"
Wassermann Reaction,
Malaria Parasites,
Filaria,
Blood counts, etc.,
""
B.,... C.,...
Bacillus diphtherice,
WN: Ea as a
36 25 35
36
25 35
36 25
35
95
126
109
142
13
18
18
co to: co co 30
34
49
34 49
58
34
49
33
38
30 30 30 19
58
87 86 85 61 71 73 700 422
87 86
85
58
87 36
61
87
86 85
61
151
114
101 100 72
108 109
38
52
66
118
100
74
72 86
1
:
2
10
23
24
36
Facces Cultivation
ror
Meningococcus,
1
Typhosus, Paratyphosus,
Cholera, etc.,
6
1
4
12
Helminth ova,...
13
11
21
42
Amoeba of Dysentery,
2
3
30
33
31
Tissues for Section,
8
9
7
Sputa,
11
18
22
22
23
: :
1མྨཱ ཤྩ ཤྩ 1 ཡུམྦེ
:
53
6
1
7
16
33
19
29
777
43
28
NaNNa Dövi
7
1
2
19
20
35
16
6
8
22
24
21
22
13
3
26
16 23
Pus,
I
2
2
1
2
Urine,
3
10
8
14
Smear for Gonococcus,
3
14
Smear for B. lepræ,
5
WAR ON
7
FFFF880
61 71 73
700
422
73
700
422
37 518
921,319
688
82 737
331
1
2
3
42
5
38
430
240
22
15
AJA
4
87
40
255
141
4
179
65
67
16
22
276
218
25 15 16 12
46
2
1
3422
22
51
86
50
124
23
Rat smears and spleens for B.
pestis,
300
290
∞o: 28
29
3
2:4
625 3,660
1
9
20
Materials
for
medico-legal
17
نت
:
CO
43
23
36
45
Blood, &c., for B. pestis,
Animals for Rabies,
purposes,
Weil Felix Reaction for Typhus
fever,
Agglutination Reaction for B.
dysenterice
Bacteriological Analyses of
Water,
Bacteriological Examination of
Milk,
Autogenous vaccines prepared,.. Rideal Walker's Estimation of
disinfectants
Freshly prepared vaccines tested
for sterility,
Filter Candles sterilized for
domestic filters,
Miscellaneous,
Total,
:
:.
:
:
1
1
1
1
:
102
:སྨྱ
:
:
:
4
10
I
9
3
2
29
118
116
107 153 119 121
126
138 134
136
129 1,499 1,679
8
OC
8
8
10 11
1
12
N CO
10
9
1
N
IN ∞
11
8
9 108
105
10
28
1
:
1
:
:
2
7
KO
6
2
CO
6
6
6
6 6 4
2
:.
52
139
26 20
21 20
255
21
24 36 28
30
18 12
10
7
888
87
36
16
9
32 31 320 381 17 146 86
747
757 535 570 837 784 877 888 795 783 834 7379,144 | 9,304
- M 62
APPENDIX B.
ANALYST'S DEPARTMENT.
Report by Mr. E. R. Dovey, A.R.C.Sc., F.I.C., F.C.S.
Government Analyst.
The number of analyses performed during the year was 3,060 as against 2,733 in 1927.
The following classification shows the nature of the work done:
Chemico-Legal Examinations.
1928 1927
Toxicological examinations (in-
cluding 46 stomachs)
59
98
Leaves from Stomach
0
1
Blood
11
Clothing for stains
0
9
Liquids
Powders
10
6
5
1
Vomits
7
Food
4
3
Medicines
7
3
Food Residues
0
14
Crystals
1
1
Bombs and Explosives
2
3
Bullets
1
2
Herbs
0
Pills
4
1
Opium
1
1
Counterfeiting material
14
0
Other substances
10
3
Bio-chemical examinations
3
51
Dangerous Goods Ordinance.
1928
1927
Fuel Oil
15
16
Firecrackers
3
5
Liquids for flash point
0
1
Gasolene
1
Ships for inflammable vapour
71
60
Kerosene
6
7
Coal gas
0
1
Potassium chlorate
2
1
Alcohol
0
1
Turpentine
4
0
M 63
Foods and Drugs.
Arrowroot
Beer
1928
1927
1
0
1
0
Biscuits
Brandy
Bread
82
Butter,
Fresh
27
Butter, Tinned
5.
Cake
Cheese
10
Chinese wine
Chocolate
0
Cocoa
5
Coffee
36
71
Confectionery
Draught Ale
1: ཧྨ ོ ཁ བ ཁ ལ = 〉
26
12
0
19
0
1
0
22
0
Flour
61
49
Jam
0
Lard
17
Lemonade
0
Lemon squash
3
Macaroni
1
0
Margarine
0
1
Milk, Fresh
70
144
Condensed
9
3
Skimmed
0
6
Tinned
29.
32
Molasses
2
0
Mustard
0
Olive Oil
7
Peas
0
1
Pepper
31
0
Preserved plums
1
0
Rice
0
31
Strawberry essence
1
Sugar
58
59
Tea
35
54
Tea dust
0
1
Vinegar
6
Waters.
1928 1927
Public Supplies
1774
1248
Distilled water
1
Wells and springs
River water
Water from swimming pool
Nullah water
3
I
1
Sea water
Rain water
CC
0
Lime Cement
Clay
Plaster
Quickline
Sand
Water pipe
Anise Oil Cassia Oil
M 64
Building Materials.
Wood Oil
Tea seed oil
Tallow
Sandalwood oil
Rape seed oil
Lard oil
Peppermint oil
1928 1927
15
22
2
31200
0
0
Oils.
1928 1927
21
12
72
9
58
121
Pharmacy Ordinance,
0
1
4
12
1
0
1928 1927
Procaine
1
0
Chinese Drugs
4
1
Patent medicines
1
Japanese medicines
0
Morphine solutions
0
Ampoules
(
6
Mixtures
0
Pills
0
Powders
0
1
Other drugs
1
1
Chemicals.
1928 1927
Bleaching powder
1
1
Potassium nitrate
3
0
Ammonium sulphate
3
Alum
1
Aluminium sulphate
1
Nitric acid
3
0
Sulphuric acid
17
39
Sodium hydroxide
1
Carbolic acid solution
0
1
Zine iodide solution

M 65
Mineralogical.
Metals
Ores
Coal
Limestone
Minerals
Magnetite
Carbonaceous shale
1928
1927
79
66
68
73
86
79
6
1
1
Miscellaneous,
1928
1927
Coal Tar Disinfectants
4
11
Soy
1
Book Paint
0
Deposit from iron pipe
1
Knitted fabrics
5
Meat juice
Paper
Padi
Yarn cones
Composition
Deposit from batteries
Urine
Earwig exterminator
Rice bags
Fertilizer
Refractometers for calibration
Paraffin wax
Musk
Apples for presence of arsenic
1
13
0
HBHOOHNNOCOONAND H
3
1
2
5
1
1
Chinese sauce
1
Alumina-ferric
1
Nga-tin powder
1
Meal
0
1
Steel rail
1
Hay, for presence of poisonous
plants
0
1
Alumina
1
Green leaves
1
Soil
1
Slime from filter beds
0
Transformer oil
1
Purico
Lumber
Silica threads
Wrappings
2
Sewage effluents
6
Cigars
1
Deposit from pump
1
2100 TOOOO
3
1
M 66
1928
1927
Oil testing outfit
1
0
Deposit
1
0
Fish
0
Fire extinguisher
1
0
Compound engine oil
1
0
Etching fluid
1
0
Mineral tar
3
0
Dusting powder
Peanuts
Liquid
Hair tonic
Leather
2
0
2
0
1
0
1
0
Dressing
Solder
1
2
Yeast-vite
Poison
Total
Toxicological.
Among the investigations carried out
59 cases of suspected human poisoning.
shows the results:-
Poison.
No poison found
Opium found
Lysol found
Animal toxins (ptomains) found
Morphine found
Hydrochloric Acid found
Alcohol and acetaldehyde found Potassium cyanide found
Total
3060 2733
during the year were The following Table
No. of Cases.
21 Cases.
25
4
4
2
1
1
1
59 Cases.
A stomach was received from Kowloon Mortuary in February, from the body of a man found hanging on a tree, for examination to exclude poison, taken previously. Hydrochloric acid was found in quantity in the stomach showing that a pre- vious and unsuccessful attempt at suicido had been made.
A surgical dressing from an abdominal wound was received for the determination of the presence or absence of urine. The presence of an appreciable amount of urea enabled a definite answer to be given.
M 67
A body was received at the Kwong Wah Hospital from a Sampan. The stomach and a specimen of blood from the thorax were submitted to the Laboratory. No poison was found in the stomach but an examination of the. "blood" showed that it was not normal pleural fluid but a mixture of blood and sea water.
One sample of blood submitted was supposed, from its bright red colour to indicate poisoning by carbon monoxide. Spectroscopic examination showed the colour to be due to nitroxyhaemoglobin, not carboxaemoglobin. Nitroxyhaemoglobin is a substance which is occasionally found in normal decompos- ing bodies and has been known in the past to mislead toxicolo- gical investigators, who have reported it as the carboxy-com- pound.
As in previous years, by far the most common poison found has been opium. The method for the rapid determination of opium in stomach contents worked out in this Laboratory and published in the "Analyst", January 1927, was used in many of these cases and gave very good results.
A sample of ginger tea was submitted, the addition of poison having been suspected. Investigation showed that soap had been added, probably with intent to annoy. No poison or other deleterious substance was present.
A bottle containing liquid was sent in by the Police. Some of the liquid had been swallowed by a Chinese girl in an attempt at suicide. The liquid proved to be caustic soda solution of 22.4% strength.
Mineralogical.
The following Table shows the nature of the 147 samples of metals and ores examined :-
Metals
1928 1927
Ores.
1928
1927
Tin
Antimony
にこ
64
+2
Wolfram...
27
30
2
Manganese..
20
28
Bismuth.
17
12
Autimony
Gold
Lead
Tin Dust
Totals..............
79
66
Totals......
68
73
M 68
Food and Drugs.
During the year 457 samples of food were examined under the Food and Drugs Ordinance, as compared with 579 samples in 1927. Of these 21 or 4.6% were found to be adulterated. The following Table shows the nature of the samples ex- amined:
Substance.
No. of
samples analysed.
No. found genuine.
No. found adulter-
ated.
Coffee
Butter, Fresh
Tea
Tinned
Milk, Tinued
27
Fresh
གྲ 1ན ཀ མ ༤
34
34
27
5
34
31
83
33
70
66
Skimmed
1
1
0
Sterilised
1
1
0
Flour
47
47
0
Pepper
25
12
13
Sugar
56
56
0
Bread
88
83
0
Mustard
1
1
Confectionery
о
Lard
Cocoa
0
Arrowroot
1
1
Jam
7
7
Cheese
10
10
Vinegar
6
6
0
Totals
457
436
21
The confectionery samples mentioned above were partien- larly examined for the presence of injurious colouring matters but in no case were such found.
Water Supplies.
In my report for 1927, I commented on the great increase which had taken place during the past few years in the number of samples of water examined in the Laboratory. The year just ended has seen a still further large increase, the number of samples examined being 1,798 as against 1,253 in 1927. If the work continues to grow at the present rate it will be necessary next year to have an additional assistant to devote practically the whole of his time to this branch of work,
M 69
-
The routine examinations of the water filtered through the new Pattison mechanical filters at Bowen Road showed the product to be highly satisfactory, the highest value for oxygen absorbed" being 0.023, for free ammonia, 0.0028 and for albumenoid ammonia, 0.0061, all expressed in parts per 100,000. As regards the physical properties of this supply, the colour of the filtered water was never higher than 2.5 Lovibond colour units, and the transparency was throughout, 100 ems.
With regard to the water from the other filteration plants it may be said that over 95% of the samples examined were completely satisfactory. The highest value for albumenoid am- monia obtained was that given by the Shaukiwan supply in May, namely 0.011 parts per 100,000, this supply during the same month also giving the highest value for free ammonia, namely 0.0082 parts per 100,000. The highest values for "oxygen absorbed" were yielded by the Aberdeen supply, and the West Point supply, in May, namely 0.055 per 100,000. The Aberdeen supply in May gave colour and transparency figures of 154.8 Lovibond units and 15 cms. respectively, but these figures were quite exceptional. The great majority of the samples examined gave values for colour less than 15 Lovibond units and trans- parency figures above 80 cms.
The hydrogen ion concentration was determined on all samples from the main supplies, both on the raw and on the tered waters, and much useful data was thus obtained as to the reaction of the local raw water. These values might be of considerable importance in any projected malaria campaign.
The staff supervising the Pattison plant at Bowen Road are now equipped to carry out routine determinations of the hydrogen ion concentration of the water for control purposes on the spot.
The electrical conductivity method has been used through- out the year on all water from the public supplies, both filtered and unfiltered.
Criminal Work.
A bomb found by the Police was submitted for examination. It was found to consist of a tin canister containing three sticks of dynamite packed round with earth and stones. The sticks of dynamite were fitted with fuses and detonators.
One "knock-out" pistol and two cartridges were submitted for examination. Such pistols are designed to stupify the per- son fired at, without producing serious bodily harm. The cart- ridges were found to contain a small charge of black powder together with a gelatin capsule of allyl isothiocyanate. Unless The person fired at was within ten feet the effect of the pistol wuld be almost negligible.
M 70
Three samples of explosive supposed to be intended for kill- ing fish, were submitted. The explosive was found to be com- pressed guncotton, tied round with fishing line.
An unregistered medical practitioner's surgery was raided in November last and a quantity of drugs seized. Many of these proved to be modern Western medicines and not purely Chinese drugs. The owner was convicted and fined.
In the same month, a large quantity of printing materials was sent in by the Police, in connection with the production of forged bank-notes, and an examination of these showed that they were suitable for the production of such notes.
A considerable amount of work of a photographic and microscopic nature was carried out in connection with the Treasury Fraud Case.
Research.
A considerable amount of work was carried out during the year on the detection and determination of alcohol in cassia oil.
Since allegations were made in London in 1927 that many samples of such oil from Hong Kong were adulterated with alcohol the local trade in this important commodity had prac- tically ceased.
The existence of traces of alcohol occurring naturally in the oil was investigated, also the possibility of its introduction through the addition of synthetic cinnamic aldehyde. Methods were worked out for the rapid detection of alcohol and also for its exact determination. The matter was also taken up with the Chief Government Chemist, Government Laboratory, London.
Specifications were worked out and submitted to the Local Chamber of Commerce for "Pure China Cassia Oil”, “Standard China Cassia Oil”, “Standard 80-85 Cassia Oil", etc. If these specifications come to be adopted, and standard methods of analysis also approved, then the cassia oil trade should be placed in a much more satisfactory position.
Work has also been done on the Bolton and William's Heat Test for Wood Oil. Many of the samples of South China oil give values much higher than those from other producing centres. Investigations were made to ascertain the cause of this.
-
į
M 71
Sampling.
The following sampling of commercial commodities was car- ried out by the official sampler during the year:-
Tin Cassia Oil
Anise Oil
39,300 Ingots.
619 Containers. 216 Containers.
42 Tons. 400 Cases.
Wood Oil
414 Tons.
Manganese Ore
470 Tons.
Wolfram Ore
Nitric Acid
Bismuth Ore.
Solder
Lead Ore
Revenue.
100 Bags.
39 Cases. 2,150 Bags.
The fees paid to the Treasury during the year amounted to $15,562 as against $16,146 in 1927. The value of the work done as determined from the Tariff of Fecs (Government Noti- fication No. 439 of 1918) was $46,011, as against $46,428 in 1927.
Staff.
Dr. O. F. Lubatti left the Colony on long leave in April and was subsequently invalided out of the service. His post is at present vacant.
APPENDIX C.
MENTAL HOSPITAL.
Nationality and Sex of Patients treated in 1928.
Total
Nationality.
Remaining at end of 1927.
Admitted.
Number
Discharged.
Died.
Treated.
Europeans
Americans
Indians
Japanese
Chinese
West Indians
Negro
Remaining in at end of
1928.
M.
!'.
M.
F.
M.
F'.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F
6
3
13
4
19
14
1
6
6
3
Ι
19
19
132
88
151
107
118
94
11
22
1
1
}
Total
25
23
154
96
179
19 139
HOL
12
250
298
00
I
· M 72
28 10
- M 73-
Remaining!
in hospital Admitted
Total
Diseases.
at end of 1927.
during 1928.
cases
treated.
Errors of Development:-
Imbecility congenital
Moral
Feeble mindedness
Disorders of Function:
Mania Acute
Intermittent
Chronic
Associated with
Lactation
Melancholia Acute
Apparently
cured. Relieved.
Discharged.
Transferred to Canton Mental Hospital.
314
8
11
1
11
15
MTN
3
20
23
3
7
COA A
5
10
Remaining in Hospital
Died.
at end
of 1928.
4
6
1 (1)
1
6
6
coll
∞ 20
2 (2)
2
1 (3)
6
1 (4)
241
2
1
Agitated
Chronic
1
2
4632
262
1
Maniacal Depressive Insan-
ity
1
Circular Insanity
2
Alternating Insanity
1
Stupor Anergic
2
Delusional Insanity Acute
1
Chronic
2
17
Obsessional Insanity
1
877
2
HQHQ am
1
2
4
—། །ཀླ?12|
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
1 (5)
Insanity of Infective, Toxic &
Acute Delirious Mania
Febrile Insanity
other general conditions:-
2
1
3
ww
4
4 (6)
Post Febrile Insanity
3
1
1
1 (7)
Confusional Insanity
1
1
1
Syphilitic Insanity
2
General Paralysis of the
Insane
Tabes-Dorsalis
Food CD
00-
3
1
1 00
Dementia from Local Cere-
bral Syphilis
Insanity due to Alcohol
Delirium Tremens
Dementia Praccox
2
1 (8)
1
7
7
7
5
5
4
1
3
20
23
13
7
3
Primary
4
27
31
13
4 (9)
9
3.)
19
Secondary
4
11
15
6
1 (10)
7
Senile
3
7
10
5
"
from Epilepsy
3
2
5
2
42
1 (10)
1
Observation
2
76
78
62
2232
14
2 (11)
Total:-1928
Total:-1927
1. Broncho-pneumonia.
2. Lobar-pneumonia.
3.
Beri-beri.
4.
General Debility.
5. Cardiac Failure.
48
250
298
83
108
49
28
267
295
111
100
18
2008
38
18
48
CAUSES OF DEATH.
6. Sub-acute Nephritis.
6. Lobar-pneumonia (3).
7. Inanition & Cardiac Failure.
8. Cerebral Syphilis.
9. Septic Broncho-pneumonia.
9. Beri-beri (3).
10. Asthma (2).
11. Broncho-pneumonia.
11. Typhoid Fever.
M 74
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
Diseases.
APPENDIX E.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in
Total
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-
Total
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end
Deaths.
of 1928.
I.-Epidemic, Endemic, and Infectious Diseases.
Enteric Group :-
(a) Typhoid Fever (b) Paratyphoid A. (c) Paratyphoid B.
Relapsing Fever... Malaria :-
(a) Tertian.....
::
63
...
10
5
67
5
1
144
22 145
1
:::
...
...
253
256
5
18
940 195 958
...
(b) Aestivo-autumnal
5
202
10
207
6
7
233
(c) Cachexia
1
30
31
2
Smallpox....
17
17
126
...
Measles
12
12
Whooping Cough
Diphtheria
Influenza
12
12
37
15
38
2
Mumps
Dysentery :-
(a) Amoebic
: ය
131
134
3
Beri -
8
3
5
34
12
440
12
12
9
: 25: 8:29
36
64
240
126
25
9
13
39
1
75
452
21
1
(b) Bacillary
(c) Undefined or due to other
Plague :-
causes
1
2008
21
48
Ni
40
2
49
10
228885
5 or
5
160
9
មន
46 165
30
:
10
129
99
139
18888888
5
39
5
cot
(a) Bubonic
Leprosy
Erysipelas
Encephalitis Lethargica
Epidemic Cerebro-spinal Fever
Other Epidemic Diseases :-
(a) Varicella (Chicken-pox).. (b) Dengue....
Rabies
Tetanus
Mycosis
20450
10
6
:00+10
:
1
3
1
3
14
10
14
2
1
6
2
25
27
7
5
77:05
2
8
32
::::
2
1
25
32
Carried forward...... 24 961
43
985
25
68 2,321 614 2,389 114
M 75
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Total
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-
Total
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end
Deaths.
of 1928.
24
961
43
985
25
68
2.321 614
2,389
114
6
81
19
87
7
80
1,274 705
1,354
55
22
21
22
:
:
25
25
25
6
946
9:0
1
22
4
1
52
228
10
50
110 00
2283
10
50
22 10
Brought forward
I.- Epidemic, Endeme, and Infectious Diseases, -Continued.
Tuberculosis Pulmonary and
Larynygeal.
Tuberculosis of the Meninges or
Central Nervous System
Tuberculosis of the Intestines or
Peritoneum
Tuberculosis of the Vertebral Column Tuberculosis of Bones and Joints..............
Tuberculosis of other organs :
(a) Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue
(Lupus)
8 Ani...
Syphilis :-
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary.
(b) Bones
(c) Lymphatic System
Tuberculosis disseminated :—
(a) Acute
1
27
29
3
1
co co
6
6
: :
co::
3
3
73
::0
3
76
-::
10:
65
53
1
2-
70
1
:
4
44
44
5
169
174
18
23
47
70
(c) Tertiary
(d) Hereditary
5
5
1
202
202
13
13
22:
15
10
(e) Period not indicated
1
1
143
143
Soft Chancre
37
40
32
32
Gonorrhoea and its complications
180
180
Gonorrhoeal Ophthalmia
1
Gonorrhoeal Arthritis
55
63
སྶ སྩ མྦྷ 1
43
44
4
4
34
34
Granuloma Venereum
10 1
7
3
63 29
66
Septicæmia
II.—General Diseases not
mentioned above.
Cancer or other malignant Tumours
of the Buccal Cavity....
Cancer or other malignant Tumours
of the Stomach or Liver
5
22
28
30
GO
22
2
35
:
Carried forward....... 60 1,679 105 1,739 75 183
15
15
17
17
:
:
4,501 1,443 4,684 207
4,684 207
M 76
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Diseases.
Remain- ing in Hospital
Yearly Total.
at end Admis-
Deaths.:
of 1927. sions.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total. Total
ing in
ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end
Admis- of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-
Total
Deaths.
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end
of 1928.
Brought forward....... 60
1,679
105
1,739
:

75
113
183
4,501 1,443
10
5
10
:
29
1
26
:
9
O
:
:
29
27
:
4
:
1
מי
30
:
:
:
ск
10
:
:
:
2
33
35
35
70
76
42
42
922
350
966
55
30
10

2 ོ :g
:
:
:
: :6 : : : :
3
:22 4] : ::
3
43
46
1 ł
15
42
44.
2
2
28
29
1
44
+4
++
12
එය
3
16
7
1
4
18
1
:
II.-- General Diseases not mentioned above,—Continued.
Cancer or other malignant Tumours
of the Peritoneum, Intestines, Reetion
Cancer or other malignant Tumours
of the Female Genital Organs Cancer or other malignant Tumours
of the Breast
Cancer of other malignant Tumours
of the Skin ....
Canec: or other malignant Tumours
of Organs not specified
Tamous non-Malignant
Aeate Rheumatism........... Chronic Rheumatism
Scurvy (including Barlow's Disease).. Beri-Beri
Rickets
Diabetes (not including Insipidus) Auæmia :-
(a) l'ernicious
(b) Other Anæmias and Chlorosis Diseases of the Thyroid Gland :-
() Exophthalmic Goitre
(A) Other diseases of the Thyroid
Gland, Myxoedema....
Diseases of the Supra-Renal Glands...!
Diseases of the Spleen
Leukæmia :--
(a) Lenkamia
(b) Hodgkin's Disease...
Alcoholism
Chronic poisoning by organic sub- stanees (Morphia, Cocaine, &c.)...
Other General Diseases :-
Auto-intoxication
l'arpura Hæmorrhagica...
1
3
:
::
:
23
::
:
37
21
98
རཱ:
37 98
i
:
2
~ :*
18
18
1
w::
:
3
3
24
2
:
6
20
94
:
24
114
1
10
5
::
co:
3
Carried forward......
72 1,954 123
2,026 82 253
5,886
1,838 6.139 270
CO
}
!
1
M 77
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Diseases.
Remain- ing in Hospital
at end Admis- of 1927. sions.
Yearly Total.
Remain- Remain- Yearly Total. Total ing in ing in
Total
Cases Hospital Hospital|
Deaths.
of 1928. of 1927.
Treated. at end at end Admis-
sions.
Deaths.
Remain- ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end
of 1928.
Brought forward......
72
1,954
123
2,026
82 253
5,886 1,838 6,139
270
III.-Affections of the Nervous System and Organs of the Senses.
Encephalitis (not including En-
cephalitis Lethargica)
Meningitis (not including Tuberculous
Meningitis or
Meningitis).
Locomotor Ataxia
Cerebro-spinal
Other affections of the Spinal Cord
:
N
- 10 10
1
2
:
22
:
29
6
Apoplexy :-
(a) Hæmorrhage
(6) Embolism...
(c) Thrombosis
Paralysis :-
(a) Hemiplegia
(b) Other Paralyses
General Paralysis of the Insane
Other forms of Mental Alienation.
Epilepsy....
Eclampsia, Convulsions (nonpuer-
peral) 5 years or over
Infantile Convulsions....
Chorea
1
2
10
6
12
:
...
14
4
14
4
4
2
::~
2156

:::
15
5
22
94
22 199
10
16
13
** :∞
276
15
22
94
10
...
16
Hi
1:02
1:62
1
60
17
60
1
44
}
6
21
21
...
27
27
2
10
15
10
...
Hysteria
Neuritis
1
10
32
32
...
Neurasthenia
Other affections of the Nervous
System such as Paralysis Agitans..
Affections of the Organs of Vision
2
10
12.
11
12
NOTO22 2
1
3
3
S
8
2
48
558
606
20
15
15
:
:
12
12
:
(a) Diseases of the Eye
(b) Conjunctivitis
(c) Trachoma.....
(d) Tumours of the Eye
(e) Other affections of the Eye... Affections of the Ear or Mastoid Sinus..
NONEGN
2
35
12
2
30
20
NONTON
17
279
...
296
35
50
50
13
1
3
43
46
2
3
3
30
1
20
2
2
46
48
NNN
20
2
2
Carried forward....... 81
2,189
141 2,270 94
330
7,242 1,964 7,572 320
M 78
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
APPENDIX E.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Hospital
at end Admis-
Deaths.
of 1927. sions.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total. Total ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-
Total
ing in Cases Hospital Treated, at end
Deaths.
of 1928.
Brought forward...... 81 2,189 141
2,270
94 330
7,242 1,964 7,572
320
IV.-Affections of the Circulatory
System.
Pericarditis
Acute Eudocarditis or Myocarditis
Angina Pectoris....
4
1
2
1
...
...
3
4 147 104
ྋ :
3
3 151
1
Other Diseases of the Heart :-
(a) Valvular :-
Mitral
Aortic
(b) Myocarditis
Diseases of the Arteries
1
44
11
45
3
117
34
1
29
32
35
&&
30
I
8
2
42
15
225
117
5
8
42
1742
2
11
1752
2
2
23
5
23
2
(a) Aneurism
(b) Arterio-Sclerosis
(c) Other diseases
1
Embolism or Thrombosis (non-cerebral)
Diseases of the Veins :-
Hæmorrhoids
Varicose Veins
Phlebitis
33
33
1
26
27
&
3r 1980
10
5
Ι
18
Diseases of the Lymphatic System:-
Lymphangitis
Lymphadenitis, Bubo
(non-specific).....
Hæmorrhage of undetermined cause..
Other affections of the Circulatory
System
V.-Affections of the Respiratory System.
Diseases of the Nasal Passages :
Adenoids
Polypus
1
:
::
19
47
47
4
4
~
:
47
:::
:.
::
:
12:
: :
1
13
සප∞ය.
3
8
∞ ∞
3
10
10
13
~
:
00
:
4
4
3
3
:
:
:7
1
1
8
1
:
:7
6
:
:
Carried forward....... 91 2,153 171 2,544 111 334 7,711 2,129 8,045 328
Rhinitis
Affections of the Larynx :-
Laryngitis
M 79
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Total
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Total
Deaths.
Remain- ing in Cases Hospital Treated, at end
of 1928.
Brought forward......
91
2,453 171
2,544
111
334
7,711 2,129 8,045
328
V.-Affections of the Respiratory System, Continued.
Bronchitis
(a) Acute
(b) Chronic....
Broncho-Pneumonia
Pneumonia :— (a) Lobar
(b) Unclassified
152
25
26
45
171
47
4
68
Pleurisy, Empyema
3
48
Congestion of the Lungs
Asthma
43
::: 5 :
50
ලය ‍:
9
443
3
67
452
14
173
315 128 382 70 634 271 638
205
10
72
124
92
124
123
11 123
51
3
38
CC
38
1
1
:
1
47
1
1cc93
78
2
78
4
Pulmonary Emphysema
VI.-Diseases of the Digestive
System.
Diseases of Teeth or Gums-Caries,
Pyorrhoea, &c.
Other affections of the Mouth:-
Stomatitis
Glossitis, &c.
Affections of the Pharynx or Tonsils:-
Tonsillitis
Pharyngitis
Affections of the Esophagus
Ulcer of the Stomach
Ulcer of the Duodenum....
Other affections of the Stomach :-
Gastritis
Dyspepsia, &c.
Diarrhoea and Enteritis :-
Under two years..........
78
14
+4
:
79
3
3
27
30
:
:
++
14
2
4
44
KOH
6
4
:
92
37
1
15
23
:
:
22-22 0
4
40
53
3ག
92
2
16
18
37
~
18
::
20
14
16
23
: ܗ:
39
QUA
14
41
2
2
41
5
173
1
178
53
10
146
156
15
CO 10
3
42
11
42
2
13
368. 205 381
14
Two years and over
102
2
102
10
619 263
629
ة
Colitis
Ulceration
ླབ
29
30
36
1
36
...
14
14
1
I
...
Sprue
3
3
Ankylostomiasis..
36
36
2
36
1
36
Carried forward...... 115
3,439
245 3,554
135
463
10,974 3,121 11,437 454
M 80
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Hospital
at end Admis-
Deaths.
of 1927. sions.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total. Total
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-
Total
Deaths.
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end of 1928.
Brought forward...... 115
245 3,439
3,554
135
463
10,9743,121 11,437 454
~:
VI.—Diseases of the Digestive System-Continued.
Diseases due to Intestinal Parasites:-
(a) Cestoda (Tænia)
(b) Trematoda (Flukes)
(c) Nematoda
(other than
Ankylostoma) :—
3
3
11
12
::
12
12
:
Ascaris
Oxyuris
Hernia.....
(b) Other forms
(d) Unclassified
Appendicitis
Intestinal Obstruction
Affections of the Anus, Fistula, &c.
Other affections of the Intest-
ines
Enteroptosis
Constipation
Cirrhosis of the Liver :-
(a) Alcoholic
Biliary Calculus ........
Other affections of the Liver :-
Abscess
4
82
52
1
လင်း ထိ
33
CO
58
:::
64
1
...
7
86
3
23
14
25
3
53
1
40
1
40
2
5
74
10
79
38
502080
42
13
3
28
49
4
• ::
9
13
31
223
~ ::
2
2
3
44
2
47
11
21
a
1
1
:ལུ་
7
11
1
15
21
LO
5
5
3
Hepatitis...
Cholecystitis
Jaundice
Diseases of the Pancreas
24
24
14
14
16
16
Peritonitis (of unknown cause).............
29
24
29
Other affections of the Digestive
System
2
1
1
1
21
21
21
13
13
:
:
VII.-Diseases of the Genito-
urinary System (non-Venereal).
Acute Nephritis.
27
Chronic Nephritis
6
69
Chyluria
3
: ܗ:
19
822
27
75
116:
Other affections of the Kidneys,
Pyelitis, &c.
Urinary Calculus
1
1-838
33
7
34
2
: 10
3
93
2
96
26
635
276
661
23
1
3
3
3
5
33
2
38
: జిల్లా
3,959 Carried forward...... 135
314
4,094 152 513 12,083 3,483 12,596 493
M 81
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928. -
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Total
Hospital
at end Admis-
Deaths.
of 1927. sions.
Remain-Remain-
ing in
ing in Cases Hospital Hospital, Treated. at end at end of 1928. of 1927.
Yearly Total.
Remain-
Total
Adinis- sions.
Deaths.
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end of 1928.
Brought forward...... 135 3,959
VII.- Diseases of the Genito-urinary System (non-Venereal),-Continued.
Diseases of the Bladder :-
Cystitis
Diseases of the Urethra :—
(a) Stricture
(b) Other
Diseases of the Prostate :-
Hypertrophy
Prostatitis
Diseases (non-Venereal) of the Genital
Organs of Man :—
Epididymitis
Hydrocele
Orchitis
Ulcer of Penis
Phimosis.....
Cysts or other non-malignant Tumours
of the Ovaries.
Salpingitis
Abscess of the Pelvis......
:.
10:
2328
314
4,094
152 513
12,083 3,283 12,596 493
12
12
:
30
1
30
1
1
1
5
10
5
::
2
:
18
20
**:
3
22
2:
32
1
34
10
10
:
2
61
6
...
:
20
20
2
41
42
ලය ~
20
20
30
30
2
7
20
27
1
3
14
17
11
11
35
35
::::
SEE:
31
31
14
10
: :
1
1
25
26
1
2
31
Uterine Tumours (non-malignant)
37
37
1
11
Uterine Hæmorrhage (non-puerperal)
10
10
Metritis
11
11
::
::
19
$
::::
3
33
19
418244
Other affections of the Female Genital
Organs :-
7
Displacements of Uterus......
Amenorrhoea
Dysmenorrhoea
Leucorrhoea......
Diseases of the Breast (non-
puerperal :-
Mastitis
Abscess of Breast
...
CO
3
6
:
5
6
10
10
4
1
3
6198
3
9:0
40
40
: :
2803
- :
1
10
29
11
29
1
:-
Carried forward...... 138 4,321 316 4,459 168 532
::
2
::
12,342 3,501 12,874 495
M 82
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Remain-Remain- Total ing ining in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end at end of 1928, of 1927.
Yearly Total.
Total
Admis- sions.
Remain-
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end
Deaths.
of 1928.
Brought forward..... 138
4,321 316
4,459 | 168
-532
12,342 3,501 12,874 495
VIII. Puerperal State.
Normal Labour
(a) Abortion
(6) Ectopic Gestation
(c) Other accidents of Pregnancy
Puerperal Hæmorrhage....
Other accidents of Parturition
Puerperal Septicemia
Puerperal Eclampsia
Sequelae of Labour....
IX.-Affections of the Skin and
Cellular Tissues.
Gangrene
Boil
Carbuncle
Abscess
Whitlow
Cellulitis
Tinea
Scabies
Other Diseases of the Skin :-
Pediculosis
Pemphigus
Keloid
Impetigo
Erythema
Urticaria.
Eczema
Herpes..
Psoriasis
Elephantiasis
Ulcer

1
790
794
23
30
4,434 2
4,464
40
23
26
2
36
1
36
2
6
6
59
59
29
29
1
1
1
4
1
1
14
14
1
1
3
16
2
44
5
14
216
3
230
11
31
c ཡ ུ : ོ ༠༠
8
53
11
31
...
CINGNN co
16
19
78
78
2
64
66
194
194
2
19
21
520
46
573
27
19::: cr
3
5
62
67
6
2
2
1
1
3
3
2
3
10
42
52
5
3
39
39
5
34
...
5
2
2
3
10
10
3
3
10
10
2
20
248
268
15
Carried forward...... 162 5,604 326
5,766
206
668
18,157 3,563 18,825 | 603
1
M 83
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total,
Diseases.
ing in
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total. Total
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital Treated. at end
at end Admis- of 1928. of 1927. sions.
¡Remain-
Total
Cases
ing in Hospital
Deaths.
Treated. at end
of 1928.
5,604 326
5,766 206
668 18,157 3,563 18,825 603
21
26
1
17
:
:
10

58
22
22
3
2
27
18
:
193
76
18
29
:
4
14
14
42 1
NOAA 10 00
60
7
~:
2
78
18
xx
30 C12
:
نت
29
10 00
5
Oi
*:
4
28
28
28
10
8888
10
5
3
3
1.6
153
92 169
25
Brought forward...... 162
X.-Diseases of Bones and Organs of Locomotion (other than Tuberculous).
Diseases of Bones :-
Osteitis
Diseases of Joints:
Arthritis
Synovitis
Other Diseases of Bones or Organs
of Locomotion......
XI.-Malformations.
Malformations :--
Hydrocephelas
Hypospadias
Spina Bifida, &c.
Hare lip and Cleft Palate
Talipes
Supernumerary Toes
Imperforate Anus
XII.-Diseases of Infancy.
Congenital Debility
Other affections of Infancy
Infant neglect (infants of three
months or over)
XIII.-Affections of Oid Age.
Senility :-
Senile Dementia..
XIV.-Affections produced by External Causes.
Suicide by Poisoning.....
Corrosive Poisoning (intentional).
Suicide by Drowning..
Suicide by Firearms
Suicide by cutting or stabbing Ins-
truments
2
:.
A
:
دن
21
12
མལ
21
12
32
1
32
1
:
Carried forward...... 169 5,785 338
:
27
:
1-
***
27
:
:
5,954 213 688 18,573 3,700 19,261 645
S
M 84

Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the Year 1928.
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Total
Hospital
at end Admis-
of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital
Remain.
Total
Deaths.
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end of 1928.
5,785
338
5,954 213
688
18,573 3,700 19,261 645
16
:
16
:
F:
:
:
1
1
2
161
15
161
5
45
51
5
90
9
91
2
23
2
3
11
Brought forward...... 169
XIV. Affections produced by External Causes,-Continued.
Food Poisoning
Attacks of poisonous animals :-
Snake Bite
Insect Bite
Other accidental Poisonings
Burus (by Fire)
Burns (other than by Fire)
Suffocation (accidental)
Drowning (accidental)
-
Wounds (by Firearms, war excepted)...
Wounds (by cutting or stabbing
Instruments)
Wounds (by Fall)
Wounds (by Machinery)
Wounds (crushing, e.g. railway
accidents, &c.)
Injuries inflicted by Animals, Bites,
Kicks, &c.
Over fatigue
Exposure to Cold, Frost bite, &c.
Exposure to Heat :-
:
ܗ: :
22:
:
Heatstroke
21
301
322
13
200
42 202
14
16
co
3
16
247
41
247
14
18
13
1
1
Sunstroke
Electric Shock
Murder by cutting or stabbing
Instruments
Dislocation
Sprain ....
Fracture
Other external Injuries
*0.
...
:
1010
1
39
38
43
#*
44
6
6
30
:
35
7
نت
CO
8:0
30
32
383
19
2
3
17
17
♡ 26
32 CO
2
ཨ ཋ ཌ ཤྲུ་ྲ
:
14
ආස: :
1
129
13
5
:ཨསྠཱཿ*
12
129
74
79
3
23
546
21 569
19
21
193
2
14
ཨཕག
2
10
8
214
114
114
...
Carried forward..............| 216 7,191 459 7,407 278
739
19,564 3,726 20,303 693
;
M 85
Return of Diseases and Deaths (In-Patients) for the
APPENDIX D.
GOVERNMENT HOSPITALS.
ear 1928.
APPENDIX E.
CHINESE HOSPITALS.
Remain- Yearly Total.
Diseases.
ing in
Total
Hospital
Remain-Remain- Yearly Total.
ing in ing in Cases Hospital Hospital
Remain-
Total
at end Admis-
Deaths.
of 1927. sions.
Treated. at end at end Admis-
of 1928. of 1927. sions.
Deaths.
ing in Cases Hospital Treated. at end of 1928.
Brought forward...... 216
7,191
459
7,407
XV.--Ill-Defined Diseases.
Diseases not already specified or ill-
defined :-
Ascites
Asthenia
Hyperprexia
Malingering
XVI.-Diseases, the total of which
have not caused 10 Deaths.
In Attendance
Observation
278 739 19,564|3,726 20,303 | 693
1
16 25
16
26
2
3.
...
3
6
123
6. 127
5
::
24.
24
27
::
4
TOTAL....
221
7,365
459 7,586 285
739
19,592 3,726 20,331 693
M 86
APPENDIX F.
Mortuaries-Return of Diseases for the year 1928.
Diseases.
Male.
I.-Epidemic, Endemic, and Infectious Diseases.
Female.
Enteric Group:-
(a) Typhoid Fever
(b) Paratyphoid A
: co
3
Malaria:-
Aestivo-autumnal.
47
3.4
Smallpox .....
Diphtheria....
229
225
3
1
Miliary Fever
Dysentery:-
(") Amoebic
(b) Bacillary
54
29
12
1
2
Plague:-
(a) Septicæmic
Leprosy
Epidemic Cerebro-spinal Fever
Tuberculosis Pulmonary and Laryngeal
1
1
10
4
481
534
Tuberculosis of the Meninges or Central
Nervous System
5
Tuberculosis of the Intestines or
Peritoneum
19
23
Tuberculosis of the Vertebral Column
1
2
Tuberculosis of other organs
1
Tuberculosis disseminated:-
(a) Acute.....
(b) Chronic
Syphilis:-
12
1000
8
23
7
(a) Tertiary
(b) Hereditary
Septicæmia
1
19
44
3
II.-General Diseases not mentioned
above.
Cancer or other malignant Tumours of
Organs not specified
1
Carried forward.........
908
930
=
I
M 87
Mortuaries Return of Discases for the year 1928.
Diseases.
Brought forward.......
II.-General Diseases not mentioned
above,- Continued.
Beri-beri
Diseases of the Thymus
Other General Diseases:-
Purpura Hæmorrhagica
III-Affections of the Nervous System and Organs of the Senses.
Meningitis not including Tuberculous Meningitis or Cerebrospinal Men- ingitis
Apoplexy:-
(a) Hæmorrhage
Epilepsy
IV-Affections of the Circulatory System.
Pericarditis
Acute Endocardits or Myocarditis. Other Diseases of the Heart:-
(a) Valvular:-

Male.
Female.
908
930
72
11
1
1
I
5
CI
01
4
Mitral
Pulmonary
(b) Myocarditis
Diseases of the Arteries:-
(a) Aneurism
(b) Arterio-Sclerosis
Embolism or Thrombosis (non-cerebral)......
--Affections of Respiratory System.
Bronchitis:-
(a) Acute....
Broncho-Pneumonia
Pneumonia:-
(a) Lobar
5
4
~ - 20
2
1
3
10
942
1
402
388
592
704
96
26
71
47
57
40
Curried forward.........
2,253
2,166
Pleurisy, Empyema
Congestion of the Lungs..
M 88
Mortuaries-Return of Diseases for the year 1928.
Diseases.
Brought forward.........
VI.-Diseases of the Digestive System.
Affections of the Pharynx or Tonsils:-
Tonsillitis.
Ulcer of the Stomach
Diarrhea and Enteritis:
Under two years
Colitis
Ulceration
Ankylostomiasis
Diseases due to Intestinal Parasites:-
(a) Trematoda (Flukes)
(b) Nematoda (other than Anky-
lostoma):-
Ascaris
Appendicitis
Hernia
Other affections of the intestines:
Enteroptosis...
Cirrhosis of the Liver:
(a) Alcoholic
Male.
Female.
2,253
2,166
1
1
271
177
2
}
4
1
3
:
:
21 : :
*
5
(b) Other forms
Other affections of the Liver:
Hepatitis
3
Cholecystitis..
:
1
1
Jaundice
31
30
Peritonitis (of unknown cause)
8
&c.
VII.-Dis uses of the Genito-urinary
System (non-Venereal).
Acute Nephritis
Chronic
Other affections of the Kidneys, Pyelitis,
Diseases of the Bladder རྒྱུ་
Cystitis
Diseases of the Urethra
1-30
7
4
3
17
14
2
1
Carried forward...
2,613
2,417
M 89
Mortuaries-Return of Diseases for the year 1928.
Diseases.
Male.
Female.
Brought forward......
2,613
2,417
VIII.-Puerperal State.
Accidents of Pregnancy :-
Abortion
41
Puerperal Septicemia
IX.-Affections of the Skin and
"Cellular Tissues.
Gangrene
Abscess:-
Cellulitis
XI.-Malformations.
Malformations :-
Hydrocephelas
XII.- Diseases of Infancy.
Congenital Debility
Premature Birth:-
(a) Prematurity
(b) Still born
1
:
1
2
1
137
36
9
102
2:3
12
94
5
16
43
24
∞ ~10+
8
2
5
Other affections of Infancy.
Infant neglect (infants of three months
or over).
XIV.-Affections produced by
External Causes.
Suicide by Poisoning (Opium)
Corrosive Poisoning (intentional) (Lysol)
Suicide by Hanging or Strangulation
Suicide by Drowning
Suicide by cutting or stabbing Instru-
ments
Food Poisoning..
Burns (by Fire)
Burns (other than by Fire).
Wounds (by Firearms, war excepted)
15:10
2
1010 00 -
Carried forward......... 2,977
3
wai
5
2
1
2,647
M 90
Mortuaries-Return of Diseases for the year 1928.
Diseases.
Brought forward..........
· XII.- Affections produced by External
Causes, Contd.
Wounds (by cutting or stabbing Instru-
ments)
Wounds (by Fall).
Wounds (crushing, e.g. railway accidents,
&c.)
Wounds inflicted on Active Service Electric Shock
Murder by Firearms.
Male.
Female.
2,977
2,648
18
73
7
6 21
3
CO2 -I-
2
Murder by cutting or stabbing Instru-
ments
Murder by other means (Strangulation)... Other external Injuries
XV-Ill Defined Diseases.
6
1
26
Too decomposed
109
65
Total......
3,127
Grand Total........
2,715 ·
5,842
REPORT OF
SANITARY DEPARTMENT
HONG KONG
FOR THE YEAR
1928
CONTENTS.
Page
91
...
91
...
91
92
93
95
***
95
1. Report of the Head of the Sanitary Department :—
Sanitary Board Members
Legislation
Staff
Administration
...
...
Work done under the Public Health & Buildings
Ordinance
...
Work done under Food and Drugs Ordinance and Sec.
83, P. H. & B. O.
Vaccination
...
...
Scavenging
...
...
...
...
...
95
96
96 97
...
...
97
..
...


...
Refuse Removal

Nightsoil Removal...
Work done at Disinfecting Stations Ambulance and Dead Box Service
Public Bath Houses
...
Water Closets and Public Conveniences
Markets and Special Food Licences Offensive Trades
...
Cemeteries, Mortuaries, Crematoria
Births and Deaths Registration
Revenue and Expenditure
2. Report of the Medical Officer of Health :-
Meteorological data
Population
Immigration and Emigration
Births
Deaths
Age distribution of deaths
Deaths from Notifiable Diseases Deaths from Special Diseases

...
3. Report of the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon
Staff
General Statistics
Lard Factories
Crematorium
Grass growing
Quarantine Live Stock
...
Infectious Disease in the Colony ...
...
...

:
:
•••
97
97
98
98
99
66
100
131
...
133
...
133
134
135
...
137
139
140
210
...
. 210
...
212
212
213
213
...
...
214
... 214
CONTENTS, Continued.
4. Appendices (H. S. D.'s Report) :-
Appendix A. Staff...
B. Nuisances reported.......
Page
. 101
102
""
by Health Districts
C.
classified
""
D. (i)
32
E. House Cleansing
**
**
(ii) Prosecutions
...
...
103
105
. 106
107
F. (i) Number of Chinese Houses, Hong Kong 108
(ii)
39
ود
G. Houses limewashed
H. Children vaccinated
>>
""
Kowloon... 109
...
110
111
""
J.
...
I. (i) Cost of Refuse Collection, Hong Kong 112
(ia)
(ii)
Kowloon... 113
>>
Removal
114
...
(iii) Comparative cost for 2 years... 111 Work done at Disinfecting Stations
...
115
">
K. (i) List of Ambulance Stations ...
116
(ii) Calls made for Ambulance and Dead
Boxes
...
...
116
L. Public Bath-houses.
117
M. Markets ...
118
"
33
N.
Burial space in Cemeteries
119
多多
0.
(i) Interments
120
(ii) General Exhumation
120
(iii) Private Exhumation and Cremations 121
P. Certified and Uncertified deaths
122
...
>>
33
Q. Revenue
3
R. Expenditure
123
124
...
"
5. Tables (M. O. H.'s Report):-
Table 1. Meteorological Data
2. Special causes of deaths
131
154
**
3. Notifiable diseases...
157
""
4. Notifiable Diseases, distribution
159
+4
"
5. Long lists of Causes of Death
...170-209
6. Maps :-
Hong Kong Health Districts Kowloon
""
::
::
**
127
129
M 91
REPORT OF
THE HEAD OF THE SANITARY DEPARTMENT.
1. SANITARY BOARD.
The following were members of the Sanitary Board during the year:
President, the Head of the Sanitary Department, Mr.
W. J. Carrie from 1st January to 11th October and Mr. G. R. Sayer from 12th October to 31st Decem- ber.
Vice-President, the Director of Public Works, the Honourable Mr. H. T. Creasy, C.B.E., for whom the late Mr. H. T. Jackman acted from 1st to 4th January.
The Secretary for Chinese Affairs, the Honourable Mr. E. R. Hallifax, C.M.G., C.B.E., for whom Mr. S. B. B. McElderry acted from 12th to 26th March and Mr. R. A. C. North acted from 1st January to 11th March and from 27th March to 31st Decem- ber.
The Medical Officer of Health, Mr G. W. Pope, L.R.C.P.
& S., D.P.H.
Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet-Colonel J. S. Bostock,
C.B.E., R.A.M.C.
Dr. W. V. M. Koch.
Mr. Ts'o Seen Wan, 0.B.E., LL.D.
Mr. Wong Kwong Tin.
Dr. S. C. Ho.
Mr. J. P. Braga.
2.
LEGISLATION.
No by-law was made during the year.
Inspectors:-
3.-DEPARTMENTAL STAFF.
There was no increase in the Establishment. The numbers of Inspectors on duty on 1st January, 1st July and 31st December were 44, 40 and 40 re- spectively.
M 92
Clerical Staff.
The Establishment was increased by two Interpreters. The distribution of the Staff is shewn in Appendix
A.
4. ADMINISTRATION.
General Sanitary Work:-The functions and control of the Sanitary Board, as determined by the Public Health and Build- ings Ordinance No. 1 of 1903, are limited to the Island of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon.
The Island of Hong Kong is divided into the City of Victoria; its extension eastwards as far
far as and including Shaukiwan; the Hill District; and the outlying villages of Aberdeen, Aplichau, Stanley, and Taitam.
The City proper is divided into eastern, central, western- central and western districts each with a sanitary office, and sub-divided into 12 Health Districts each with a Sanitary In- spector in charge, (see map A). The Hill District is worked in conjunction with Health District 3. The Shaukiwan extension has a Sanitary Inspector in charge. The Sanitary Inspector posted in Aberdeen is in charge of Pokfulam, Aberdeen, Apli- chau, Stanley and Taitam districts.
Kowloon is divided into Kowloon Peninsula, Shamshuipo and Kowloon City each with a sanitary office, and sub-divided into seven Health Districts each with a Sanitary Inspector in charge (see map B).
Scavenging and Nightsoil Removal:---For the purpose of Refuse Collection the City and Hill District is divided into three main districts east, central and west, each with an Inspector in charge. There are two Inspectors in charge of Kowloon Peninsula and the District Inspector of Health District 15 com- bines supervision of refuse collection with district work. The Inspector in charge of Shaukiwan Health District also super- vises refuse collection in that district. The scavenging and re- fuse collection in the Villages of Pokfulam, Aberdeen, Aplichau, Stanley and Taitam was done departmentally under the super- vision of the Sanitary Inspector in charge. Inspectors in charge of refuse collection also supervise the removal of nightsoil in this area; the removal itself is carried out by contractors.
The disposal of refuse from the City of Victoria and Kow- loon is supervised by a Sanitary Inspector who is also in charge of street-watering in Victoria. Kowloon street-watering is under the direction of the Inspector in charge of scavenging (Kowloon).
Disinfection-For the purposes of disinfection of infected clothing there are Disinfecting Stations in Victoria and in Kow-
M 93
loon each under the control of an Inspector. Transport is made by means of an infected clothing motor van on either side. Use is also made of portable "Sack" Disinfectors.
Cemeteries:-Public cemeteries are under the charge of special Inspectors.
Markets:-The Central and Western Markets are under ar Other markets are supervised by the local district
Overseer.
inspectors.
Veterinary Work:-There is a Government depot at Kennedy Town (Hong Kong) for the reception of all cattle, sheep, swine, and goats brought into the Colony for slaughter. There are also Government Slaughter Houses at Kennedy Town and Ma Tau Kok (Kowloon) and controlled slaughter houses at Aberdeen and Sai Wan Ho at one of which all animals for food must be slaughtered. The Government depot and slaughter houses are under the direct charge of the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and Assistant Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and a staff of four Inspectors. All beef in Hong Kong and Kowloon is con- veyed from slaughter house to Market in specially constructed
motor vans.
Depot fees are 50 cents for cattle, 10 cents for sheep, 10 cents for swine. Slaughter fees (which are not additional to depot fees) are 40 cents for cattle, 20 cents for sheep and 30 cents for swine. There is a crematorium at Kennedy Town Slaughter House at which carcases can be destroyed on payment of a prescribed fee. A certain number of private factories are established in the immediate vicinity of the Government Slaugh- ter Houses (Kennedy Town and Ma Tau Kok) at which lard and meat products derived solely from these slaughter houses are prepared for export under the direct supervision of the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and his staff.
5.-WORK DONE UNDER THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND
BUILDINGS ORDINANCE.
(i) Sanitary Nuisances and Contraventions of Sanitary By- laws-Appendix B shows the total number of nuisances re- ported and the action taken to obtain compliance and the amount of fines. Of the total number of nuisances reported in which action was taken 63% were abated after receipt of a letter. In 186 cases a legal notice failed to produce compliance. Of the summonses which followed 156 secured convictions, 6 were dis- charged, 1 abandoned and 23 withdrawn.
.Appendix C shows the nuisances in respect of which action was taken.
Appendix D (i) shows the Health Districts from which these nuisances were reported and Appendix D (ii) gives details of all prosecutions and amount of fines inflicted.
M 94
(ii) Building Nuisances:-Appendix D (i) line 1 shows by districts the number of nuisances under Part III of the Pubbe Health and Buildings Ordinance reported by the Department to the Building Authority for action. These are additional to those referred to in paragraph (i) above.
(iii) Miscellaneous Improvements: -Appendix D (i) lines 3, 4, 5 shows miscellaneous improvements effected by District Ins- pectors in their districts. Lines 7, 8, 9, 10 show the number of houses demolished and erected. The great majority of these are tenement houses.
(iv) House Cleansing:-The routine work under the by- laws for the Prevention and Mitigation of Epidemic Disease was carried out during the year. Appendix E shows the number of floors cleansed in the various districts and as compared with the last two years.
House cleansing was carried on continuously on five morn- ings a week throughout by the staff. Appendix F shows approx- imately the total number of Chinese houses liable for cleansing.
(v) Limewashing:-The usual limewashing required by the Domestic Cleanliness and Ventilation By-laws was carried out during the year. Appendix G shows the number of floors lime- washed. The difference between this total and the total in Appendix F is due partly to exemptions, some floors being new and not requiring limewashing. A certain number has also been carried over into 1929.
At
Departmental limewashing at request of owners and where necessary under By-law 4 was carried out during the year. the beginning of the year there were a few complaints from tenants regarding the mess made by using the spray, but none at the end of the year. An increased number of covering sheets is now supplied.
(vi) Rat Catching :-Twenty-eight members of the cleansing staff were employed during the year setting traps, bird lime boards and rat poison; also collecting rats from street rat-bins, private premises, etc., and taking them to the Public Mortuary for examination. Special campaigns in February and November were undertaken when rat-poison was distributed throughout urban districts. The total number of rats caught was:-
Hong Kong
Kowloon
95,312
60,260
Of these, none were found to be plague infected.
(vii) Mosquito Prevention:-The routine work of oiling pools and inspecting dwellings for breeding places was carried out by District Inspectors, and by two Foremen with coolies specially
M 95
employed. Full use was made of the powers given by the by- laws for the Prevention of Dissemination of Disease by Mosqui- toes. The usual cutting of undergrowth in May and October was carried out in conjunction with the Botanical and Forestry Department and the Military Authorities (as regards Military lands).
6.-WORK DONE UNDER THE FOOD AND DRUGS ORDINANCE AND SECTION 83 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH
AND BUILDINGS ORDINANCE.
Samples of fresh milk were submitted for analysis under section 12 of the Food and Drugs Ordinance, of which 67 were found to pass the standard and 1 to be below standard.
In addition the following samples of Food and Drugs were taken :
Bread 81; flour 46; butter 32; cheese 10; coffee 35; tea 28; sugar 50; lard 17; vinegar 6; pepper 25; Jam 7; tinned milk 28.
Prosecutions were undertaken in 6 cases where the samples failed to satisfy the legal requirements.
Under section 82 of the Public Health and Buildings Ordin- ance the following foodstuffs were seized and destroyed by Order of the Head of the Sanitary Department.
56 tins of condensed milk.
8 cases of sardines.
7.-VACCINATION.
Under the Vaccination Ordinance, No. 12 of 1923, all Public Vaccinators are under the control of the Director of Medical and Sanitary Services, who is the Superintendent of Vaccination. As Registrar of Births, the Head of the Sanitary Department is responsible for ensuring the vaccination of all children whose births are registered, and Appendix H shows the results of action so taken.
8. SCAVENGING.
254.1 tons of refuse were collected daily from the City of Victoria, Hill Districts, Quarry Bay, Shaukiwan, Stanley, Repulse Bay, Pokfulam and Kowloon Peninsula including Kow- loon City and Kowloon Tong, and removed to the various refuse depots.
The cost of the service in Hong Kong (including Stanley and Repulse Bay) and Kowloon is shown in Appendix I (i) and 1) attached. Table (iii) shows a comparison with last year.
M 96
There are now 15 refuse-lorries in use, 11 being used in Hong Kong and 4 in Kowloon.
The apparent increase in cost of Scavenging is due to the increase in standing charges, the salaries of Inspectors and Fore- men having now been added, and the depreciation of lorries based on 10% of their initial cost.
Aberdeen and Aplichau are now scavenged departmentally (cost included in Appendix I (i)), incinerators having been built for the disposal of refuse from this area. Refuse from Stanley, Repulse Bay and Pokfulam is conveyed to the refuse depot at Kennedy Town by lorry.
It should be noted that the difference in the amount of refuse received at the depots (361 tons per day) and the amount collected by lorry, is due to a large quantity of refuse taken to the depots by private firms and individuals; also the quantity shown as having been removed by barge is approximate only.
There was a slight increase in mileage for the year due to opening up in Hong Kong of Stanley and Repulse Bay, and Kowloon Tong and Kowloon City on the Peninsula. The in- crease being 2% for the former and 101% for the latter.
9. REFUSE REMOVAL.
The bulk of the refuse from the City of Victoria and Kow- loon was, as hitherto, taken by barges and dumped at sea. Some 18,204 tons were dumped at Cheung Sha Wan where a reclamation is being gradually formed.
Appendix I, Table (ii) shows cost of removal from Victoria, the Hill District and Kowloon Peninsula. Figures for the last two years will be found in Table (iii). Barges were delayed on two occasions by weather conditions.
10.-NIGHTSOIL REMOVAL.
The contractors for the removal of nightsoil from Victoria and Kowloon were relieved of the contract on the 31st January. New contracts for a period of five years from February 1st were signed. The sum payable monthly to the revenue under the new contract for Victoria is $550 and for Kowloon $460. During the year the payment due from the contractor was reduced by $1,235 in respect of flush closets opened in Kowloon.
The contract for the removal of nightsoil from Shaukiwan was carried out satisfactorily.
Separate contracts for the removal of nightsoil from Aber- deen and Aplichau and from Stanley and Taitam were signed. A monthly payment of $35 and $50 respectively was paid by Government for this service.
M 97

11.-WORK DONE AT DISINFECTING STATIONS.
Appendix J shows the number of articles and vehicles dis- infected and washed after disinfection during the year 1928. The figures for 1927 are given for comparison. The use of portable "Sack" disinfectors has been much extended.
Miscellaneous repairs and new construction of various articles were done at the Hong Kong and Kowloon Disinfecting Stations to the value of $3,796.88 and $1,537.61 respectively. At the Central Garage miscellaneous repairs to the value of $3,210.72 were also carried out.
12. AMBULANCE AND DEAD BOX SERVICE.
Ambulances and Dead Boxes are obtainable at any hour of the day or night at the two Disinfecting Stations and also by day at the Eastern and Western District Sanitary Offices at which a staff of bearers is kept. This service is now supple- mentary to that of the Motor Ambulances which are controlled by the Police Department:
Appendix K (1) shows the stations at which Sanitary Depart- ment ambulances are obtainable in emergencies. At these stations there are no bearers attached and volunteer bearers must be obtained when required. Appendix K (ii) shows the number of times manpower ambulances and dead boxes were used.
+
13.-PUBLIC BATH-HOUSES.
Appendix L shows the number of men, women and children who used the Bath-Houses during the years 1927 and 1928.
14.-WATER CLOSETS AND PUBLIC CONVENIENCES.
During the year public conveniences were completed as follows:
One flush urinal at King's Park Recreation Ground. One trough closet at King's Park Recreation Ground. One trough closet at Nam Chang Street.
One trough closet at Yen Chow Street.
Two trough closets at Repulse Bay Bathing Beach. Five water closets at Repulse Bay Bathing Beach. Two flush urinals at Repulse Bay Bathing Beach. Three temporary public dry latrines at Praya East Re-
clamation.
One privately owned public dry latrine at Circular Path-
way was demolished.
One privately owned public urinal at Gascoigne Road
was demolished.
The Board approved the installation of 1,245 water closets, 24 trough closets and 443 urinals on private premises.
·
M 98
15.-MARKETS AND SPECIAL FOOD LICENCES.
Kowloon City, To Kwa Wan and Cheung Sha Wan markets. were opened during the year.
60 additional food licences were issued under section 78 of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance.
Appendix M gives details of rentals of the stalls in the various markets.
16.-OFFENSIVE TRADES.
Offensive Trades are controlled by the Board under section 42 of the Public Health and Buildings Ordinance, No. 1 of 1903.
Specific areas for these trades are set aside in Hong Kong and are situated at the extreme west and east of the town, well removed from the thickly populated areas.
Several areas are also set aside in Kowloon and offensive trades are confined within the limits of these areas.
The following is a list of offensive trades shewing the num- ber of licences issued in Hong Kong and Kowloon.
Trade
Hong Kong Kowloon
Bone-boiling
2
2
Bone-storing
Bone and fat-boiling
2
Drying fish guts, scales & scraping
1
Fat-boiling
18
4
Feather cleansing & sorting
1
Feather-drying
2
Feather-sorting
1
Feather-cleansing
1
1
Feather-storing
1
2
Feather-sorting & storing
Hair-drying
1
Hair-sorting
1
Lard-boiling
4
Pig-roasting
17
16
Rag-picking and storing
1
1
Rag-picking
1
Rag-sorting and storing
2
Rag-sorting
1
Soap-boiling
7
7
Scales-drying
1
Tannery
5
Tallow and bone-boiling
1
58
61
M 99
17.-CEMETERIES, MORTUARIES, CREMATORIA.
The following cemeteries were opened during the year:-
New Kowloon Cemetery No. 2 (for the Little Sisters of
the Poor).
New Kowloon Cemetery No. 3, Cheung Sha Wan.
The western portion of the Sham Wan Cemetery was closed during the year.
Appendix N shows the approximate burial space in the main cemeteries and the net available space on 31st December 1928.
Appendix O (i) shows the number of interments at the various cemeteries during the year 1928.
Appendix O (ii) shows the number of general exhumations carried out at the Public expense, and Appendix O (iii) shows the number of exhumations carried out by relatives of the deceased.
Appendix O (iv) gives particulars of cremations, bodies deposited in the Tung Wah Hospital Mortuary, and removals from the Colony before burial.
18.-BIRTHS AND DEATHS REGISTRATION,
The General Registration Office established by Ordinance No. 7 of 1896, as amended by Ordinance No. 26 of 1923, for registration of both births and deaths is situated at the Sanitary Department Head Office, Post Office Building.
At this office all non-Chinese births and deaths must be registered. Chinese are required to register in the district within which the birth or death occurred. A list of such district re- gistries for births and deaths respectively is appended. Yaumati Nos. 2 and 7 Police Stations are available for registration of deaths on Sundays and Public Holidays only, when the General Registration Office is closed. The Head of the Sanitary Depart- ment is ex officio Registrar and has appointed the Police officers in charge of stations, the Inspector in charge of Kowloon Disip. fecting Station and the principal clerks in charge of Dispensaries on the appended list as assistant registrars.
Death registration, being a necessary preliminary to burial is almost universal but there is considerable ignorance of the law among Chinese as regards registering of births. As a proof of this it may be pointed out that the records of registered mid- wives show a total of 10,940 births, whereas only 9,309 births were actually registered during the year Female births in particular are frequently not registered. This is no doubt due to the presence of a large fluctuating population wholly unaceus- tomed to the system.
M 100
Appendix P shows the ratio of Certified and Uncertified
deaths.
DEATHS REGISTRATION OFFICES.
Sanitary Department, Head Office. Kowloon Disinfecting Station. Shaukiwan Police Station.
Aberdeen Police Station. No. 7 Police Station.
No. 2 Police Station.
Kowloon City Police Station.
Sham Shui Po Police Station. Stanley Police Station.
Yaumati Police Station.
BIRTH REGISTRATION OFFICES.
Sanitary Department, Head Office. Yaumati Chinese Public Dispensary. Hunghom Chinese Public Dispensary. Sham Shui Po Chinese Public Dispensary. Kowloon City Chinese Public Dispensary. Eastern Chinese Public Dispensary. Western Chinese Public Dispensary. Central Chinese Public Dispensary. Shaukiwan Chinese Public Dispensary. Aberdeen Police Station. Stanley Police Station.
19. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE,
Appendix Q shows under the various heads the revenue col- lected by the Department during 1928 and also the revenue paid into the Treasury in respect of the Department's contracts. As regards the former, markets show an increase. This to some extent is due to the opening of Cheung Sha Wan and To Kwa Wan markets. Slaughter house fees have recovered consider- ably. Though still below the figures for 1924, the last pre-strike year, they exceed those of 1923.
Revenue from contracts again shows a decrease on account of the reductions allowed to the Conservancy Contractors.
Appendix R shows the Department's expenditure for the year 1928.
Other details of the working of the Department will be found in the reports of the Medical Officer of Health and the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon.
12th April, 1929,
W. J. CARRIE,
Head of the Sanitary Department.
...
:
:
Shaukiwan.
:
* 1 Seconded to 0.8.0.
1.
la.
2a.
2.
::
3.
::
:
::
4.
- M 101 —
Appendix A. 1928.
::
6.
:
6a.
:
7a.
H. D.'s.
:
*૪
:
9.
:
:
10.
I
:
11.
12.
I
13.
14.
1
1
:
:
...
15.
16.
:..
17.
12
:
:
East.
pred
::
::
:
-
District Offices.
Central.
West Central.
26
24
3
10
:
24
00
70
:
West.
122
Motors.
3
Bath
houses.
::
::
ΟΙ
~
21
3
Markets.
حمد
2 CO
121
168
SF
903
9
3
12
1
25
2
10
4
3
13
1
to
6
Leave.
N
Vacant.
2
27
46*
41
N
Total.
-
I H. S. D.
3 M. O. H.
2 C. V. S.
1 A. H. S. D.
27 Clerks and Shroffs
1 C. I.
1 Secretary
1 Asst. Secretary
5 Senior Inspectors.
46 Inspectors
44 Interpreters
1 Storekeeper
2 Overseers
I Asst., Storekeeper
1 Office Attendant
2 Office Coolies
3 Foremen,
10
20
ུŠtp5
"
30
33
"
G.I.
2..
!!
7.
Artisans.
Driver
S Engineers
Cleansers
1 Dust Boat Station Foreman
1 Stoker
Seaman
Caretakers
45 Sextons
1 Foreman Tallyman
6 Tallymen
8 Messengers..
3 Bullock Drivers
121 Bargemen
168 C1. Coolies..
42
49
903 Scavenging Coolies
34
18 Artisans
G
3
12 Skid. Labourers
1 Motor Mechanic
25 Motor Drivers
10 Bath-House Attendants
4 Post Office Building Coelies
13 Steersman
3 Garage Coolies..
:
30
1
10
12272
Head Office.
D. N. Hong Kong.
D. S. Kowloon.
24
7
S. II. Kennedy Town.
S. H. Ma Tau Kok.
Cemeteries.
Refuse
Disposal.
...
3
1
3
46
H. D.'s 1-3 and Peak.
H. D.'s 4-6.
H. D.'s 7-10.
Kowloon.
SCAVENGING,
1
101
4
209
95
161 212
18
24
29
...
2
A)
1
I
* 1 Seconded to C.S.0.
Nullah Gang.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Shaukiwan.
1.
la.
2a.
2.
3.
4.
M 101
Appendix A. 1928.
5.
G.
6a.
7a.
H. D.'s.
...
M 102
Appendix B.
RETURN FOR THE YEAR, 1928.
Outstanding (31st December, 1927)
Number of nuisances reported
No. of nuisances reported in which no
action taken
No. of first letters sent
12,916
Compliance on first letters.
No. of first letters withdrawn
11,299 34
No. of second letters sent
Compliance on second letters
No. of legal notices sent (sections 29
and 30)
6,954
No. of legal notices withdrawn (section
31)
21
No. of legal notices modified (section
31)
No. of legal notices time extended
(section 31)
Compliance on legal notices
6,552
No. of summonses applied for (section
32)
186
No. of summonses refused
No. of Summonses withdrawn
23
No. of Magistrate's order (section 33) .. Compliance after Magistrate's order (including compliance after sum- monses) (Fines $1,960)
63
151
Cases discharged
Cases abandoned through defendant
absconding or otherwise
6
1
Re-summonses for future to comply
(section 35)
4
Compliance after re-summonses (Fines
$170)
Nuisances abated by the Sanitary De-
partment (section 35)
Expenses of abating
Outstanding
TOTAL
247
18,338 18,338
435
17,903
+
M 103
Appendix C.
CLASSIFICATION OF NUISANCES REPORTED.
Defective gratings
3,036
Defective wastepipes, rain waterpipes, eaves gutters, etc. 2,919 Defective cement rendering
1,250
Defective floor surfaces
1,244
No dust bins
1,134
Missing gratings
1,130
Choked wastepipes, rain waterpipes, eaves gutters, etc. 1,055
Dirty condition of premises
676
Rat runs filled in
669
Obstructions of windows, doors and ventilating openings.
643
Accumulation of refuse
576
Obstruction of verandahs
520
Breeding of mosquitoes
488
Illegal cubicles
485
Use of basements for habitation, as workshops, etc. Gratings not properly fixed
388
323
No receptacles to latrines
215
cleanly condition
No cement rendering
Illegal height of cubicles
Water closets not maintained in thoroughly efficient and
Use of verandahs for cooking and sleeping purposes
Illegal wooden partitions in kitchens, verandahs, etc. Illegal wooden bunks
Discharge of sullage water, urine and excreta
Urinals or water closets constructed without permission of the Board and the consent of the Colonial Secretary
Illegal showcase
Use of rooms without windows opening into external air
155
140
98
76
72
70
62
for sleeping purposes
Use of kitchens for sleeping purposes
Offensive trades (rag-storing, soap-boiling, etc.)
Accumulation of stagnant water
Keeping of cattle, swine, etc., without licences
No urinal accommodation
Accumulation of undergrowth
breach of conditions
Water closets and urinals having been maintained in
Exposing for sale of fruit and vegetable without licences.
Insufficient glazed area to window opening
Bakehouses without licences
Obstructions of yards
Use of yards for cooking purposes
Depositing of excreta and urine etc. Common lodging houses without licence Illegal urinals
62
55
46
44
42
38
27
18
18
14
12
11
10
8
7
77
7
6
M 104
No fly-proof covers to receptacles of latrines Dark and ill-ventilated premises
Illegal wooden covers over cubicles Laundries without licences
Dirty barrels for the storage of drinking water Choked drains
No water supply to water closets and urinals No drainage to matshed kitchen
Obstructions of thoroughfare of markets
Exposing for sale of fish not in the proper part of the
market
Unlicensed pig-sties situated within six feet to dwelling
houses
Defective flushing cistern to latrines
Insanitary and defective water closets and urinals
No cover to water tank and well, etc.
Goods projected beyond the market stall
Matsheds without licence from Building Authority
Illegal fire place in yard
Obstruction of surface water drain
No fire place in kitchen
Kitchen erected in lavatory
TOTAL
5
4
1
19 00 00 00 00:
3
3
3
1
i
1
1
1
17,903
M 105
Appendix D (i).
OF WORK DONE IN THE SEVERAL HEALTH DISTRICTS 1928.
6
7
6u & 7a
9
10
1}
12
B
23
14
15
16
17
Shaukiwan Aberdeen
Total
115
141
73
417
734
617
503
993
67
61
41
103
14
16
16
19
20
1
=མྨེ ཀྑུཨྠ ཝཱ
443
2,132
381
98
157
73
110
41
146
195
1,578
747
1,393
657
776
395
808
868
515
5
289
151
22
39
24
16
10
25
17
36
81
36
15
25
9
23
4
26
42
NEREN
873
33
33
3,367
17,903
12
1,163
19
44
16
78
127
26
42
41
2
34
91
669
1,245
2
6
19
14
114
4
::
3
10
18
20
31
2
239
1
37
13
9
17
149
42
220
20
18
21
84
34
26
16
I
365
60
56
56
241
101
62
51
1,183
1
...
...
16
3
::
...
...
7
23
3
15
6
11
2
14
38
3
"
I
2
la & 2a
3
M 105
Appendix D (i).
CONSPECTUS OF WORK DONE IN THE SEVERAL HEALTH D
5
6
7
6a & 7a
9
40
425
290
115
141
73
417
443
238
1,318
796
734
617
503
993
2,132
1
2
1
5
45
25
67
61
125
94
14
81
18
19
2220
41
103
289
16
16
36
81
20
1
44
16
2
Applications for B.A. Notices,
Applications for S.B. Notices,
...
Obstructions removed from open space,
81
41
46
1,078
494
890
1
:
Obstructions removed to light and ventilation,
39
53
92
Rat runs filled in,
30
6
45
Water closets installed in private Buildings,
118
49
12
479
200
Houses demolished and No. of floors (Domestic
Houses
47
15
Buildings),
...
Floors
94
48
Houses erected and No. of floors (Domestic
Houses
40
89
Buildings),
Floors
159
11
146
..
Houses demolished and No. of floors
(Non
Houses
2
Domestic Buildings)....
Floors
4
Houses erected and No. of floors (Non
Houses
I
...
...
Domestic Buildings,...
{ Floors
Co
2
O N
6
...
110
2946
3
එය
9
16
...
2
~ +44
...
17
3
15
37
149
...
:
:
1
50.00
4
80.00
10.00
1
50.00
1
25.00
: :.
::
:
:
:
::
Shau- Aber- Total No.
Total amount
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
kiwan. deen.
of cases.
of Fines.
1
6
Co
...
...
:
1
1
1
1
63
$316.00
1
10.00
...
...
M 106
Appendix D. (ii)
CUTIONS CLASSIFIED BY HEALTH DISTRICTS 1928.
6A &
6
7
7 A
:.
:
:
:.
:
:..
:
:
:
::
:
:
:
:..
...
:
:
1
:
:
:
1
:.
1
1
...
...
:
:
...
:
:
:
1
1
:
...
:
:
:
1
:
1
4
...
1
:
2
...
...
N:
...
...
::
5
:
2
00
...
1
1
N
:
:
::
:.
:
:
1
:~
:
:
:
2
2
~ :
:
:
:
:
...
...
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
...
12
:
:.
:
:
:
...
...
12
21
150.00
10
135.00
7
80.00
2
20.00
1
25.00
4
25.00
1
25.00
: co
6
190
2,130.00
:
:
:.
D:.
:
:
:
...
:00
8
::
...
::
...
7
30
10
:~
:~
:
4
2
10
9
35
19
10
19
20
18
10
41
11
300
$3,131.00
cases summons withdrawn, 3 cases defendants cautioned, 6 cases bail of $50 estreated, 1 case imprisoned for one month, one for 10 days,
Q
1
-:
...
26
15
5:
: +
:7
:-
:+
...
:+
4
1
S
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
ki
DE
← M 106
Appendix D. (ii)
PROSECUTIONS CLASSIFIED BY HEALTH DISTRICTS 1928.
1A &
1
2
2A
:
:
*
00
4
3
00
:
1
6A &
7A
7
D:
...
...
...
1
:
:
::
:
:
:
:
:
:
::
:
:
:
1
1
1
:
:
:..
:.
...
...
...
:
:
:
:
1
:
:
:
G
...
:
:
1
...
9
3
3
1
:.
:
:
1
1
F:..
:
::
:
:
:
...
...
...
...
::
:
1
1.
2
...
:
:
.:.
:
:
:
:
:
:.

...
1
:
:
:
::
:
་་་
N
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
2
:
4
:
:.
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
...
1
::
:
:
1
A
2
:
I
4
:7
26
15
Co
:
4:5
:
...
4
:
:
α:
8
5
:
༩༤:
:
::
:ལ
2
30
5
14
4.
2
10
9
35
19
10
19
20
18
::
N
==
14
1
A:
Co
10
41
In 9 cases defendants discharged, I case defendant absconded, 26 cases summons withdrawn, 3 cases defendants cautioned, 6 cases bail of $50 estreated, 1 case imprisoned 1 for 7 days and 1 for 5 days.
:
:
Nature of Offence.
Dumping Rubbish, Nightsoil etc. Maintaining a water closet without permission of the Board. Maintaining scaffolding which retained water
mosquito larvae
containing
Using premises for Offensive Trade
without S.B. Licence.
Obstruction of avenue in markets,
etc.
Selling unsound food.
Selling tinned milk not properly
labelled
Selling food, drugs etc. not of the
nature, substance or quality
demanded
...
Trespass on Government Property Keeping Swine and Goats without S.B. Licences
Selling Fruit, Fowls, Pork, Veget- able etc. without S. B. Licences. Using and permitting basements to
be used for habitation, work- shop etc. without permission of the Board Attempting to bring a dead animal to Slaughter House...
Hawking Fish inside the Market... Failing to comply with the Magis-
trate's Order Prosecution on S. B. Nuisance Notices
Total
19
15
5:
1
4
23
19
10
2:
20
1.
M 107
Appendix E.
HOUSE CLEANSING RETURN.
Eastern Districts (Shaukiwan
Floors Cleansed.
1926
1927
1928
1, la and 2a and 2)
27,804 23,771
26,026
Central Districts (3, 4 and 5)
21,606
21,826
22,966
Western Central Districts (6,
6a and 7a, 7)
16,448
18,505
20,168
Western Districts (8, 9, and 10).
21.703
20,438
25,115
Aberdeen
2,677
3,072
2,600
TOTAL
90,238
87,612
96,875
Kowloon (11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
16 and 17)
50,095
48,754
55,710
District No. 2 was cleansed once, Nos. 4, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14,
16 and Shaukiwan were cleansed twice, Nos. 1, la, and 2a, 3, 5,
6a and 7a, 9, 11, 15 and 17 were cleansed three times, Nos. 6, 7
and Aberdeen were cleansed four times.
Appendix F (i).
Health Districts.
Table Showing Number of Chinese Houses and Floors, Victoria, 1928.
1 storey.
2 storeys.
3 storeys.
4 storeys.
5 storeys.
6 storeys.
7 storeys.
8 storeys.
9 Storeys.
10 Storeys.
Shaukiwan
Aberdeen and Aplichau
1
la & 2a
2
...
...
:
261
264
578
150
59
126
112
53
353 232
320
22
61
337
440
...
3 101
537 396
8
3
65
176
87
15
...
...
68
499 611
97
...
20
119
500 296
47
7 ~
...
...
6
6a & 7a
59
34
292 328
σε
16
175 205
16
::
9
223
382
37
9
...
34
69
456
423
54
12
130
427 503
75
10
89
525 585
94
Total...
5341,504 5,069 4,726 511
15
9
རབ
Houses.
Floors.
Average.
1,253
3,123
2:49
297
647
2.18
958
2,735
2.85
860
2,915
3:39
1,045
3,440
3.29
343
1,081
3:15
1
1,201
4,622
3.5
987
3,207
3.25
781
2,655
3.3
415
1,460
3:51
666
2,505
3.76
1,036
3,502
3:38
1,147
3,940
343
1,293
4,563
3.52
12,372 40,395
3.26
M 108
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Appendix F (ii).
Table Showing Number of Chinese Houses and Floors, Kowloon, 1928.
Health Districts,
1 storey.
2 storeys. 3 storeys. 4 storeys. Houses.
Floors.
Average.
6
240
105
347
146
600
1,837
3:06
42
682
442
1,170
3,902
3.33
37
413
319
775
2,595
3.34
17
36
452
426
931
3,149
3.38
1,058
297
604
17
1,976
3,532
1.78
22
177
587
267
1,053
3,205
3:04
144
57
669
120
990
2,745
2.77
Total
1,253
751
3,754
1,737
7,495
20,965
2.79
M 109 -
鐐 110
Appendix G.
LIMEWASHING. 1928.
Victoria
(Shaukiwan) Kowloon.
included.)
Floors limewashed by owners.
26,030
17,162
Floors limewashed by S. B. at owner's
request,
408
76
Floors limewashed by S. B. owing to owners' failure to comply with By-
law,
150
53
26,588
17,291
Registry.
Sanitary Department (Non-Chinese) Sanitary Department (Chinese) Eastern Chinese Public Dispensary Yaunati Chinese Public Dispensary Western Chinese Public Dispensary Shamshuipo Chinese Public Dispensary. Shaukiwan Chinese Public Dispensary Hunghom Chinese Public Dispensary Kowloon City Chinese Public Dispensary Central Chinese Public Dispensary...
Total...
G-
M 111
Appendix H.
VACCINATION RETURN FOR 1928.
B. F.
Unvac-
cinated.
New Total Vaccin- births. liable.
Left
Cannot
Had
Insus-
Dead.
ated.
Colony.
be
found.
Small-
ceptible.
Unfit.
Total
O. F.
Total.
pox.
174 336 510 255
22
12
7
213
510
1,462
953 2,415
394
10
101
106
1
4
1,799
2,415
930 1,721 2,651 518
108
616
424
1
984
2,651
|
1,771 2,6874,458 2,572
56
71
658
211,080
4,458
1,398 1,649 3,047
548
51
786
11,661
3,047
409
564 973
630
3
166 436 602
70
21
21 28 104 239 343 109 496 695 1,191 391
49
20
1
23
48250
103
233
973
267
233
602
16
1
9
49
78
128
343
79 175
546
1,191
6,931 9,308 16,239 5,507 274
908 2,625
1 38 6,886 16,239
NT.
M 112
Three 60 cwt.
Refuse Lorries
Eight 30 cwt, f
STATEMENT OF COST.
MOTOR TRANSPORT.
Appendix I (i).
HONG KONG.
Monthly Running Cost of Motors.
Miscel-
Repairs Claims for
Mainten-
ance of Hand Carts.
Total
Total.
Tyres.
Petrol.
venging
Staff.
laneous.
plus Damages
Total..
Monthly
Charge.
Supervision paid.
Total monthly
Mileage.
(Sums of Columns
Cost per mile
1, 2 and 3.)
Refuse collected
by Refuse
Lorries.
Cost per ton.
Petrol used.
No.
Cents.
Tons.
Gallons.
No.
Miles per
Gallon.
Refuse collected by Hand Carts.
Total Refuse
collected.
Tons.
(3)

C.
,399.01
10,251.77
106.16
995.38
169.82
194,43
...
1,465.79
11,717.56 11,578
26.00
5,402
195.5 1,4882
7.78
589
5,991
,578.31 10,447.42
258.73
875.70
108.39
38.47
1,281.29
19.23
11,747.94 9,977
27.41
4,488.5 233.1
7.62
1,3092
551
5,039.5
,641.20
10,588.01
251.16
960.44
144.00
32.71
29.30
1,417.61
48.73
12,054,35
10,693
26.96
4,905
219.5 1,436
7.44 589
5,494
,276.33
10,348.12
518,07
910.96
92.01
284.42
35.00
1,840.46
6.34 |
12,194,92
10,032
33.21
4,525.5 289.3
1,362
7.36 570
5,095.5
,374.00 | 10,140.57
487.28
915.64
114.96
21.65
60.00
1,599.53
36.16
11,776.26
10,405
28.63
41,693.5
22.9
1,369
7.59
589
5,282,5
,336.81 | 10,189,69
1,108.29
887.90
623.97
316.07
2,936.23
30.78
13,156.70 10,432 41.25
4,675.5
250.8
1,328
7.63
570
5,245,5
,408.86 10,214.87
316,05
675.11
309.10
123.64
1,423.90
16.28
,425.80 | 10,162.20
624.57
651.25
548.02
69.59
1.35
1,894.78
6.78
.434.10 | 10,282.16
335.21
628.75
281.35
109.06
...
1,354.37
,452,23 | 10,263.01
108.48
646,50
194.70
235.62
...
1,185,30
,448.72
10,280.12
105.33
618,09
138.08
375.82
1,237.32
,485.02
10,629.60
290.01
657.50
106.70
35.86
1,090.07
11,655.05
12,063.76 .02 | 11,636,55 21.65 11,469.96 9.31 11,526.75 35.74 11,755.41
25.79
10,903
10,556
4,803
216.1
1,314
8.22
589 5,392
30.70
224.8
4,776
1,302
8.10 389
5,365
9,823
27.83
4,643 10,231 25.34 4,725 210.9 1,293 26.62
9,911 4,591 218.2 1,236 10,381 25.70 4,884.5 | 213.5 1,315
223.7 1,257
7.81 570
5,213
7.89 713
5,438
8.02
690 5,281
7.90 620
5,504.5
263.39 123,797.54 4,509.34 9,423,22 2,831.10
1,837.34
125.65
18,726.65
231.02 142,755.21 124,922
28.78 57,112,5 | 222.1 |16,013}
|57,112.
7.78 |7,229 [64,341.5
}
گر
M 112
Three 60 cwt.
Refuse Lorries
Eight 30 cwt. J
STATEMENT OF COST.
Appendix I (i).
SANITARY DEPARTMENT.
MOTOR TRANSPORT.
Standing Charges.
Monthly Running Cost of Motors.
Mainten-
Estimated
Year 1928.
Wages.
Scavenging Depreci- Gear.
Total.
ation of
Vehicles.
Drivers.
Scavenging
Staff.
Tyres.
Petrol.
Miscel-
laneous.
Repairs Claims for plus Damages
ance of
Hand Carts.
Total..
Total
Monthly
Charge.
Supervision paid.
Total monthly
Mileage.
(Sums of Columns
Cost per mile
No.
Cents
(1)
(2)
(3)
January,
407.26
723.83
721.67
8,399.01
10,251.77
106.16
995.38
169.82
194,43
1,465.79
11,717.56 11,578 26.0
February,
415.67
723.83
729.61
8,578.31 10,447.42
258.73
875.70
108,39
38.47
1,281.29
19.23 11,747.94 9,977
27.4
March,
478.22
723.83
741.76
8,644.20 | 10,588,01
251.16
960.44
144.00
32.71
29.30
1,417.61
48.73
12,054.35 10,693
26.9
April,
561.67
723.83
786.29
8,276.33 10,348.12
518,07
910.96
92.01
284.42
33.00
1,840.46
6.34 12,194,92
10,032
33.2
May,
385.22
723.83
657.52
8,374.00 | 10,140.57
487.28
915.64
114.96
21.65
60,00
1,599.53
36.16 11,776.26
10,405
28.6
June,
472.01
723.83
657.01
8,336.81 | 10,189.69
1,108.29
887.90
623.97
316.07
2,936.23
30.78 13,156.70
10,432
41.2
July,
41584
723.83
666.34
8,408.86 | 10,214.87
316,05
675.11
309.10
123.64
1,423.90
16.28 11,655.05
10,903
25.7
August,
384.68
723.83
627.89
8,425.80
10,162.20
624.57
651.25
548.02
69.59
1.35
1,894.78
6.78
12,063.76 10,556
30.7
September,
.468.53
723.83
655.70
9,434.10 | 10,282.16
335.21
628.75
281.35
109.06
1,354.37
11,636.55 9,823
October,
404.50
723.83
682.45
8,452,23 | 10,263.01
108.48
646.50
194.70'
235.62
1,185.30
November,
430.12
723.88
677.45
8,448.72 10,280.12
105.33
618.09
138.08
375.82
1,237,32
December,
566.34
723.83
854.41
8,485.02 | 10,629.60
290.01
657.50
106.70
35.86
1,090.07
.02 21,65 11,469.96 10,231 25.3 9.31 11,526.75 9,911 26.6 35.74 11,755.41 25.7
10,381
27.8
Total,......
5,390 09 8,685.96
8,458.10 101,263.39 123,797.54
4,509.34
9,423,22
2,831.10
1,837.34
125.65
18,726.65
281.02 142,755.21|124,922
28.7
TMENT.
-M 113
Four 50 cwt Refuse Lorries
STATEMENT OF COST.
Appendix I (ia).
MOTOR TRANSPORT
KOWLOON.
Monthly Running Cost of Motors.
Mainten-
ance of
Total.
Tyres.
Petrol.
Miscel-
laneous.
Repairs
· plus
Claims for
Damages
Hand Carts.
Total.
Total
Mouthly
Charge.
Scaveng-
Staff. 118
Supervision. paid.
No.
Cents.
Tons.
Gallons.
No.
Tous.
(3)
3,681.51
3,752.29' 3,918.93 4,748,80
4.518,74
344.85
361.25
42.43
2.42
750.95
5,269.69
...
2,768
50.00 2,276
192.9
540,
5
5.12
450
2,726
6
4.592.79
406.34
21.59
56.04
483.97
9.61
5,086.37
2,671
...
41.48 | 2,045
205
6074
4.39
435 | 2,480
186.29
381.98
36.99
588.22
1,193.48
24.36
5,966.64
2.854
62.51
2.068
286.6
571%
4.99
453
2,521
3,942.25
4,760,20
7,53
350.51
26.96
306,24
691.24
3.16
5,454.60
2754
44.60
1,990.5 | 223.6
518
5.31
449 2,489.5
3,938.38
4 652.26
386.07
52.97
253.14
692,18
18.07
5.362,51
2.968 40.88
1,935,5 | 2|29.1
5772
5.13
458 2,388,5
3,943.04
4 704.99
392.09
39.90
67.80
499.79
15.39
5,220.17
2,729
87.58
1,998 213,3
586,7
4.82
449 2.447
4,028.41
4 771,81
315.92
36.70
96.51
449.13
8.14
5 229.08
2.862
34.40
2.100
204.8 6081
4.70
458 2,653
4.035.32
4,777,54
366,32
290,60
250.00
27.85
934.67
8.39
5 715.60
3,159
46.99 2,078 226,5
580
5.44
453 2,526
4.125.90
4.896.23
249.09
77.13
68.33
394.55
.02
5,290.80
2,788
33.98 | 1,952.5 | 220,3
498
5.50
449
2.401.5
4,087,77 4,836,58 401,88
274.75
54.12
22.28
753.03
10.82
5,600 43
2,923
44,02 2,002 5
226
6491,
5.82
465 2,467,5
1,085,94 4,852.51
291.00
47.73
31.74
370,47
4.65
5 227.63
3,077
29.96 | 2,047,5
209.3
5.28
450 2,497,5
3,904.78 4,812.15
271.95
83.56
17.15
372.66
17.86
5,202.67
2,720
36.64 | 1,950
215.4
543%
5.00
465 2,415
47,444.52 56,924.60
1,306.87 3,971,45
770.08
1,537.72
7,586.12
115.47 64,626,19
34,223
41.92 24,438,5 | 216,9|6,763
5.08 5,424 29,862.5
SANITARY DEPARTMENT.
M 113
Four 50 cwt Refuse Lorries
STATEMENT OF COST.
MOTOR TRANSPORT
Appendix I (ia).
Standing Charges.
Monthly Running Cost of Motors.
Mainten-
Year. 1928,
Estimated
Wages.
ance of
Seavening Depreci-
Miscel-
Total.
Gear.
ation of
Vehicles.
Drivers.
Scaveng-
ing Staff.
Tyres.
Petrol.
laneous.
Repairs Claims for plus Damages
Hand Carts.
Total.
Total
Monthly
Charge.
Supervision. paid.
No.
7 Total monthly
Mileage.
Cost per mile.
Je sums)
Columns
1, 2 and 3).
Refuse collected
Cents.
(1)
(2)
(3)
January,
203.62
227.26
406.35
February,
207.83
227.26
3,681.51 405.41 3,752.29* 4.592.79
4,518,74
344.85
861,25
42.43
2.42
750.95
5,269.69
2,768
50.00
2,2
406.34
21.59
56.04
483.97
9.61
5,086,37
2,671
41.48 | 2,0
March..
239.11
227.26
363.50 3,918.93
4,748,80
186.29
381.98
36.99
588.22
1,193.48
24.86
5,966.64
2.854
62.51 | 2,0:
April,
280.83
227.26
309.86 3,942.25 4,760.20
7.53
350,51
26.96
306,24
691.24
3.16
5,454.60
2754
44.60 1,9:
May,
192.60
227.26
294.02 3,938.38
4.652.26
386.07
52.97
253.14
692.18
18.07
5.362.51
2.968
40.88
...
1,9.
June,
236.02
227.26
298.67 3,943.04
4.704.99
392.09
39.90
67.80
499.79
15.39
5,220.17
2,729
37.58 1,9
July,
207.92
2.7.26
308.22 4,028.41
4 771.81
315.92
36,70
96.51
449.13
8.14
5 229.08
2.862
34.40 2,1
August,
192.34
227.26
322.62 4.035.32
4,777,54
366,32
290.50
250.00
27,85
934.67
3.39
5 715.60
8,159
46,99 | 2,0
September,
234.27
227.26
308.80 4,125.90
4.896.23
249.09
77.13
68.33
394.55
.02
5,290.80
2,738
33.98 | 1,9
October.
202,25
227.26
319.30 4,087.77 4,836.58 401.88
274.75
54.12
22:28
753.03
10.82
5,600 43
2,923
44.02 | 2,0
November,
215.05
227,26
324.26 4.085.94 4,852.51
291.00
47.78
31.74
370,47
4.65
5 227.63
3.077
29.96 | 2,0
December,
283.17
227.26
396.94 3,904.78 4,812,15
271.95
83,56
17.15
372.66
17.86
5,202.67
2,720
86.64
1,9
Total
2,695.01 2,727.12
|
4,057.95 47,444.52 | 56,924,60
1,300.87
3,971.45
770.08 1,537.72
7,586.12
115.47
64,626,19
34,223
41.92
M 114
Appendix I (ii).
Cost of Refuse Removal.
Hong Kong Kowloon.
Total.
Salary of Bargemen,.
22,328.00 576.00 22,904.00
Salary of Crews,
5,879.60
Repairs, Stores and Coal for
Launches and Barges,....
35,333.64
Total...
22,328.00
576,00 64,117.24
Appendix I (iii).
Comparative Table for 2 years.
1927.
1928.
City Scavenging,
105,500.64
142,755.21
Kowloon Scavenging,
51,220.13 64,626.19
Removal,
50,770.29
64,117.24
Appendix J.
WORK DONE AT DISINFECTING STATIONS.
M 115
1927.
1928.
Eastern
Western
Eastern
Western
Hong Kong Kowloon
Disinfect- Disinfect-
District District Office. Office
Hong Kong
Kowloon
District
District
Disinfect- Disinfect-
Office.
Office.
ing
ing
Station.
Station.
Portable Sack Disinfectors.
ing
Station.
ing
Station.
Portable Sack Disinfectors.
Number of articles disinfected..
19,876
3,924
2,570
1,029
27,428
11,604
2,266
712
Number of Public Vehicles disinfected
95
217
102
317
Number of Days Disinfecting Apparatus in use
151
217
73
36
159
190
85
44
Number of Articles washed after disinfecting
4,161
154

:
M 116
Appendix K (i).
AMBULANCE AND DEAD BOX SERVICE
LIST OF AMBULANCE STATIONS
Race Course, Wong Nei Chong Road. Belcher Street, Scavenging Coolies' Quarters. Government Civil Hospital.
Western Market, North Block. No. 6 Police Station.
Central Police Station. Post Office Building. Pokfulam Police Station. Bay View Police Station. Aberdeen Police Station. Stanley Police Station. Shaukiwan Police Station. Mount Gough Police Station. Tsim Sha Tsui Police Station. Shamshuipo Police Station. Kowloon City Police Station. Sha Tau Kok Police Station. Au Tau Police Station. Tai Po Police Station.
Appendix K (ii).
i.
CALLS MADE FOR AMBULANCES AND DEAD BOXES.
Hong Kong Kowloon
Disinfect- Disinfect- Eastern
ing
Station.
ing Station.
Western District District
Office.
Office.
Ambulances, Euro-
pean
1
1
Ambulances, Chinese.!
95
146
31
54
Dead Boxes
299
2,018
312
515
Wanchai, Cross Lane Bath-House
Second Street Bath-House
Pakhoi Street Bath-House
Pound Lane Bath-House
M 117
Appendix L.
PUBLIC BATH-HOUSES.
1927.
1928.
Men.
Women.
Children. Men. Women. Children.
200,412 90,804
215,996
48,399
147,755
83,603 191,796 95,629 89,816
151,531 162,649 311,920 210,717 177,082
17,997 26,347 54,642 19,962 28,867
69,070 26,318 166,193
61,275
25,378
M 118
Appendix M.
MARKETS.
The following statement shows the Revenue derived from Markets
Markets.
1915-1924 (average for 10 years).
1925.
1926.
1927.
1928.
C.
C.
$
C.
C.
C.
Central
Hung Hom
61,373.08
62,614.80
62,614.80
62,614.80
62,794.80
4,432.80
4,450.80
4,450.80
7,930.00
6,780.40
Mong Kok Tsui
1,890.06
3,366.00
12,592.00
11,118.20
11,073.60
Sai Wan Ho
2,467.48
2,854.80
2,864.80
2,854.80
2,854.80
Wan Tsai
Sai Ying Pun........ Shaukiwan
Shek Tong Tsui So Kon Po
Tai Kok Tsui
Tsim Sha Tsui
Western (North Block)
Western (South Block)
Yaumati
Aberdeen
Canal Road
Praya East (closed)
Reclamation Street
16,398.54
:
16,525.20
16,525.20
16,525.20
16,525.20
2,109.26 937.19
2,132.40
2,132.40
2,132.40
2,132.40
942.00
942.00
964.00
1,008.00
1,688.63
2,095.00
2,202.00
2,911.50
3,025.50
739.90
872.40
872.40
872.40
872.40
4,487.91
5,307.40
5,409.50
5,408.00
5,546.90
4,860.04
4,910.40
4,910.40
4,910.40
4,910.40
20,079.65
24,681.60
25,314.70
25,626.80
25,478.30
.....
31,693.47
32,906.40
32,906,40
32,906.40
32,921.40
12,527.45
20,637.60
19,765,10
19,272.40
21,258.20
453.84
852.00
852.00
852.00
1,011.60
516.00
516.00
516.00
516.00
516.00
377.49
900.50
904.80
2,854.75
3,286.00
3,315.00
3,289.50
3,295.20
Staunton Street
981.22
952.80
952.80
955.50
963.60
Tai Hang
725.81
565.20
565.20
565.20
846.00
Sham Shui Po
3,304.31
2,950.80
2,956.80
2,974.80
3,409.30
Kowloon City (New 1/4/28)......
293.18
279,60
271.80
254.40
2,476.70
Reclamation Street, (Poultry) (1/6/22)
1,154.40
1,454.40
1,454.40
1,454.40
1,454.40
Monmouth Path (1/1/24)
2,012.80
2,027.60
2,001.20
1,765.20
1,749.00
Wong Nei Chong (1/1/24)
2,322.00
2,322.00
2,322.00
2,322.00
2,322.00
Quarry Bay (1/7/24)
1,280.30
2,212.60
1,948.60
1,861.90
1,104.10
Whitfield (1/10/24)
2,866.80
7,636.90
5,494,50
5,524.70
5,652.60
Waterloo Road (1/10/24)
252.00
Kun Chung (1/2/28)
Cheung Sha Wan (1/4/28) To Kwa Wan (1/4/28)
996.00 16,300.90
984.00
984.00
984.00
13,575,50
13,839.90
13,861.80
1,436.40
912.30
Total,.........
.$
185,380.45
227,550.10
231,607,10
233,206.50
239,177.30
#
!!
M 119
Appendix N. 1928.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
Average
Cemetery.
mate
Approxi-
burial space. 31/12/27.
Available
Subsequent Exhumation.
space as on
Gross
available
Burials
since
Net
available
Average
burials
Private. Public.
space. 31/12/27.
space on
31/12/28.
for last
10 years.
private exhumation
for past
10 years.
Colonial
10,200
1,213
2
...
1,215
54
1,161
69
2
Roman Catholic
8,000
3,583
31
1,614
135
1,479
164
35
1917 288 1923 765
Mohammedan
3,500
298
298
54
244
64
Parsee
200
99
99
99
1
(10)
Last previous General Exhumation.
Year No. Year
No.
19131,669
1916 338
1918 864 1920|1,921
Mount Caroline
8,653
1,732
185
500
2,417
1,009
1,408
911
238
1923
920
1924 641
1925
650 1926
468
1927
490
Chinese Protestant.. Eurasian (Ho Tung)
1,800
413
413
97
316
75
200
177
...
177
1
176
3
1920 1,952 1923 1,631
Kai Lung Wan East
14,000
4,475
205
1,247
5,927
1,227
4,700
1,314
196
1924 | 1,504
Tung Wah (K.L.W. West)
་་
53,486
4,885
69
1,288
6,242
5,142
1,100
5,010
56
1926
1925 1,542. 992 1927 1,369 1919 6,000 | 1923 | 2,753 1924 |1,406 | 1925 |1,605 1926 | 2,862 1927 2,301
Mohammedan, Ho Mun Tin Sai Yu Shek
300
299
299
4
295
8
5,400
4,520
73
169
4,762
214
4,548
168
153
Shaukiwan (Chai Wan)
6,700
1,884
1,887
252
1,635
247
27
1911 |1,276 | 1920 1,197 1924 548 1927 1,046
Shaukiwan Christian
185
73
73
6
67
4
Stanley (Tung Tau Chau).
1,090
50
2
52
12
40
24
3
So Kon Po Roman Catholic...
20,000
10,331
1
10,332
1,575
8,757
1,385
1927
100
Aberdeen (Shum Wan)
2,000
1,148
10
:
1,158
155
1,003
204
37
1923 560 1924 785 1927 200
Jewish
250
108
...
108
108
Shek O
Malay
6
100
98

Ho Mun Tin
38,000
11,750
31
98
11,781
Chinese Permanent.
10
5,113
118
...
98
6,668
4,625
75
Cheung Sha Wan
7,000
-
:
.
!
M 120
Appendix O (i).
INTERMENTS.
The following table shows the number of internents at the various cemeteries during the year 1928.
Public.
Private.
Colonial
54
Mount Caroline
1,009
Kai Lung Wan East ... 1,227
Kai Lung Wan East Chiu Chow
Roman Catholic, Happy Valley Mohamedan, Valley Jewish, Happy Valley...
185
Happy
54
25
Parsee, Happy Valley..
Chai Wan
252
Malay, Happy Valley...
Chai Wan, Christian...
6
Chinese Roman Catho-
Shum Wan
155
lic, Sokonpo
1,575
Tung Tau Chau
12
Tung Wah Hospital
5,142
Shek O
6
Chinese Permanent
118
Sai Yu Shek
214
Chinese Protestant
97
Ho Mun Tin
5,113
Kowloon Christian
44
Ho Mun Tin, Indian ...
4
Eurasian (Ho Tung) ...
1
Cheung Sha Wan
55
8,132
7,166
Appendix O (ii).
GENERAL EXHUMATION, 1928.
Kai Lung Wan West
Kai Lung Wan East
Sai Yu Shek
Mount Caroline
1.288
1,247
169
500
3,204
:
1
M 121
Appendix O (iii).
Exhumations were carried out by relatives as follows:
Aberdeen
Cheung Sha Wan
Chinese Permanent
Chai Wan
10
2
10
3
Colonial
Ho Mun Tin
2
31
Hau Pui Lung
262
Kai Lung Wan East
205
Kowloon Tong
18
Kowloon Tong, Christian
1
Ma Tau Wai
23
Mount Caroline
185
Mount Davis
7.
Roman Catholic
31
Sai Yu Shek
73
Stanley
2
Tung Wah Hospital
Chinese Roman Catholic, Sokonpo
Unauthorised cemeteries
69
1
936
-CHINESE.
4
r uncertified.
Medical Coroner.
ference.
M 122
Appendix P.
RETURN OF CERTIFIED AND UNCERTIFIED DEATHS.
CHINESE.
5
เล
6
7
8
9
10
11
Number certified.
Number uncertified.
Percentage
certified.
Percentage Number HongKong Kowloon. Total. uncertified. of
T.W.H.
K.W.H. Medical
Notified Reference. by private
Coroner.
Percentage Percentage
certified.
uncertified.
Chinese
deaths.
practi-
tioners.
1
25
88.98
11.02
14,525 2,233
4,761
6,994
771
562
111
18
6,069
48.15
51.85
26
87.25
12.75 14,553 4,416
3,164
7,680
910
128
6
5 829
52.77
47.91
eath the cause of which has been certified on Form 16 of Ordinance No. 7 of 1896 by a registered medical practitioner or licentiate who has attended the case before death.
NON-CHINESE.
1
2
3
Number uncertified.
Number Number
of
Non-
Chinese
deaths.
Notified
Medical Coroner. certified. by private reference.
practi-
tioners.
1927
236
210
1928
204
178
M 122
Appendix P.
RETURN OF CERTIFIED AND UNCERTIFIED DEATHS.
CHINESE.
сл
5
6
8
9
Number certified.
Number uncertified.
Percentage
certified.
Percentage Number HongKong Kowloon. Total. uncertified. of
T.W.H.
K.W.H. Medical
Notifi Reference. by priv
Chinese
deaths.
practi
tioner
1
25
88.98
11.02
14,525 2,233
4,761
6,994
771
562
111
18
26
87.25
12.75
14,553
4,416
3,164
7,680
910
128
6
N.B.-"Certified" signifies a death the cause of which has been certified on Form 16 of Ordinance No. 7 of 1896 by a registered medical practitioner or licentiate who has
:
I
#
M 123
Appendix Q.
LIST OF REVENUE FROM JANUARY TO
DECEMBER, 1928.
Chinese Undertakers' Licences
$ c.
960.00
10.00 141.91
12,777.95
<
644.00
3,112.50
5,934.50
3,284.00
7,770.95
180.00
Fine
Forfeiture
Special Food Licences
Ambulance and Cremation Fees
Births and Deaths Registration Chinese Cemetery Fees
Official Certificates
Use of Motor Vans
Lands not leased
Laundries
Markets
Slaughter House, Kennedy Town Slaughter House, Ma Tau Kok
Interest
Condemned Stores, etc.
Other Miscellaneous Receipts
Scavenging City, Villages and Hill District
TOTAL
1927
2.400.00
239,534.00
104,384.20
35,620.00
32.51
621.96
3,137.27
2,412.80
$422,958.55
$401,700.74
Revenue from Contracts.
Conservancy Contract, Victoria
Conservancy Contract, Kowloon
Conservancy Contract, Shaukiwan
Blood and Hair, Kennedy Town
Blood and Hair, Ma Tau Kok
Deduction.
$6,600
$ 6,600
5,520 $1,235
4,285
198
198
9,984
3,504
Slaughtering Contract, Sai Wan Ho ..
4,452
Slaughtering Contract, Aberdeen
1,992
TOTAL
$31,015
M 124
Appendix R.
LIST OF EXPENDITURE FROM JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 1928.
Personal Emoluments
Advertisements
Ambulances, Coffins, Dead Vans and Dead
Boxes
Bath-Houses, Fuel, Light, etc.
$
C.
443,397.21 1,351.52
~~~
699.45
47
4.
2,029.57
5.
Bonuses to Dispensary Licentiates and
Clerks for Vaccination of Children and Registration of Births
2,516.30
6.
Burial of Infected Bodies
936.00
7. Coal for Official Quarters
1,597.47
9. Conveyance and Motor Allowances
9,811.36
10.
Disinfectants
11,142.07
11. Disinfecting and Cleansing Apparatus
3,223.58
12.
Disinfectors
1,070.84
13. Dust and Water Carts
341.89
14.
Exhumation, Recurrent
10,428.94
15.
Fuel for Blacksmith's Forges
236.70
16.
General Cleansing, Chinese New Year
539.50
17.
Head Stones
2,066.07
18.
Incidental Expenses
2,295.20
19. Incidental Expenses, Markets
394.66
20. Light
10,450.95
21. Motor Lorries, Vans and Cars, Running
Expenses
25,550.34
22. Nightsoil Receptacles
975.90
23.
Paint, Turpentine, etc.
1,252.23
25.
Rat Poison, Rat Traps, etc.
1,405.82
26.
Rent of Quarters for Inspector and Sanitary
Officers
768.00
27.
Rent of Quarters for Scavenging Coolies
3,125.70
28. Scavenging City, Villages and Hill District 29. Scavenging Gear
1,172.08
8,130.49
30.
Transport
1,923.06
31. Uniform for Staff
8,970.08
32. Workshop Apparatus
141.60
34.
33. Animal Depots and Slaughter Houses, Fuel
Animal Depots and Slaughter Houses, In-
cidental Expenses
4,561.78
823.35
35.
Animal Depots and Slaughter Houses, Light 36. Animal Depots and Slaughter Houses, Motor Meat Vans Running Expenses
701.20
3,192.39
37.
Cattle Crematorium and Refuse Destructor
463.20
TOTAL
1927
$567,686.50
$570,245.57
}
M 125
Special Expenditure.
38.
1 Motor Refuse Lorry
40. Fitting of Solid Tyres
TOTAL
C.
7,460.49
3,844.12
$ 11,304.61
1927
$ 17,909.14
:
ar
KENNEDY TOWN
SHEKONGTSU!
10
1
SEI
9
..
Y
{
SHEKONGTSUI
SEI YING POON
LU
SHEUNG WAN

10
9
8
ΤΑ
6A
6
LO
5
SHEUNG WAN
'A
6A
6
:
LO
5
3
CHOONG WAN
4
B
B
لا
U
2
2
U R
WAN CHAI
M[ 127
MAP "A"
BOWRING TON
HA WAN
2A
1 A
WONGNE
GTON
WONGNE!
N
CAUSEWAY BAY
1

!
SHAUKIWAN
.
!
KENNEDY TOWN
SHEKONGTSUI
10
of
CITY OF
SEI YING
9
SEI YING POON
W
SHEUNG WAN
9
8
7
6
5
LO
7A
6A
CITY OF VICTORIA
3
CHOONG WAN
4
NG WAN
R
B
0
U
R
لا
2
U
HA WAN
2A
2A
WAN CHAI
BOWRING TON
LA
1
CAUSEWAY BAY
WONGNEI CHUNG VALLEY

SHAUKIWAN
WAN
}
}
17
■MARKET
SHAM SHUI PO
MARKET
16
M 129
MAP "B"
KOWLOON HEALTH DISTRICTS
YAUMATI/STATION
MARKET
14
KOWLOON
HOSPITAL
CHINESE CEMETERY
INDIAN
CEMETERY
EUROPEAN PROTESTANT CEMETERY
R. C. CEMETERY
MA TAU WAI
CHINESE CEMETERY?
15
MA TAU KOK
CATTLE DEPOT
YAUMATI/STATION
MARKET
14
HOSPITAL
INDIANI
CEMETERY
EUROPEAN PROTESTANT CEMETERY R. C. CEMETERY
MONGKOKTSUI
HARBOUR
OF
REFUGE
YAUMATI
CHINESE
CEMETERY,
MA TAU KOK
CATTLE DEPOT
CHINESE CEMETERY
TO KWA WAN
DISINFECTING STATION
MARKET
13
PAKHOI ST. BATH HOUSE
"
KING'S PARK
NO.12
HILL
WAR
DEPT.
12
MARKET
11
HUNG HOM
BAY
CHEKSHAN
MARKET
M 131
REPORT OF THE MEDICAL OFFICER
OF HEALTH.
The area of the Colony, except when otherwise mentioned, dealt with in this report, includes the island of Hong Kong, the Kowloon peninsula and that portion of the New Territories known as New Kowloon, on the mainland, but does not include the remaining or greater portion of the New Territories, such being without the jurisdiction of the Sanitary Board,
The latitude and longitude of the Royal Observatory in the Kowloon peninsula are:-Latitude 22° 18′ 13.2" N., Longitude 114 10′ 26.4′′ E.
I. METEOROLOGICAL DATA
Table I.
The following, Table I, gives the means or totals of the Meteorological data for the several months of the year 1928.
Barometer
at M.S.L.
TEMPERA-
TURE.
HUMI-
DITY.
Cloudiness.
Sunshine.
WIND
Month.
Rain.
Max.
Mean. Min. Rel. Abs.
Direction,
Vel.
ins.
о
о
о
p.c. ins.
p. c.
hours. ins.
points. miles p.h.
March,
April,
May,
June,..
January,
30.15 65.9 61.6 75.8 82 0.46 82 February, 30.18 63.1 | 58.7 | 55.0 82 0.41 84 30.01 67.3 63.2 60.2 87 0.51 85 29.95 75.5 70.9 67.8 29.83 81.8 77.4 74.0 29.71 84.3 79.9 76.5
93.7 1.880
ENE
11.8
81 0.63 73
86 0.81 78
**
73.3 3.570
ENE
10.8
86.3| 5,185 | E by N
15.0
129.1 4.105
E
13.3
133.9 18.410
E
9.8
83
0.84
81
176.0 15.130 | E by S
10.5
July,
29.71 88.5 83.5 79.9
80
0.92
53
282.8 4.780 ESE
8:6
August, 29.68 87.5 82.4 78.7 September, 29.78 86.2 61.6 77.9 October, 30.03 80.1 75.171.1 November, 30.10 74.0 69.3|65.7 December, 30.16 | 70.5 | 65,6 | 61,9
84
0.93
73
204,8 12.910
S
8.2
75
0.80
65
199.7 3.915 NE by E
10.8
65 0.57
35
263.0 0.435 ENE
11.5
67 0.49 57 72 0.46 52
177.2 216.8
0.815 [NE by E
10.5
0.020 | E by N
13.3
Mean or
Total,
29.94 77.1 72.4 68.9
79 0.65
68
169.7 71.155 E
11.2
CLIMATE-few notes in relation to Health.
Although, even in Summer, the temperature is never very high (i.e. below 90° F.), the Absolute Humidity approaches 1.00 in the Summer months, while the mean Relative Humidity is about 80%, which make the period from May to September extremely trying', especially for Europeans. Perspiration, in a nearly saturated atmosphere, ceases to serve its purpose, and the heat-regulating and respiratory centres are over-taxed. with a resultant stress on all the body systems. Moreover, there is no relief at night, as the temperature remains high.
M 132
The Rains, when they come in April or May, are typically heavy but not
not continuous; the sunshine figures for these months being quite high. There are serious periods of drought from September to March, when the reservoir water- supply gets very low, and Public Health is menaced.
Mists and low-lying clouds are frequent throughout the year and have a peculiar, depressing effect, mentally and physically. In addition, a smoky haze frequently hangs over the City of Victoria and the carbon particles in the air are dense enough to cut off most of the ultra-violet sun-rays from the deep, narrow streets.
This Smoke nuisance is a serious menace to health, as well as having a destructive effect on property. The deposit of soot on the North-East side of the Island must be consider- able in 24 hours. The two chief causes of this are the harbour shipping (especially small steamcraft, with inferior coal or bad stoking) and the large number of wood fires used for cooking in the Chinese quarter. More often than not, a kitchen flue and chimney are not used. The conformation of the land and the prevailing winds cause this smoke to drift over the town and settle on it like a cap. This can be best appreciated when Hong Kong is viewed from a distance in the clear atmosphere of the surrounding islands.
With its mists; high humidity; overcrowded, smoke and dustladen streets, it can be well understood how Lung affections herd the mortality lists and far exceed all other causes of ill-health in the city.
On the other hand, some of the Autumn and Winter months are almost perfect: being drv, clear, cool and sunny A cold, North or North-East wind may, however, arise and cause a sudden drop in the temperature, so that "colds” and other results of "chill" are by no means rare.
The Peak (reserved for Europeans), 1,774 feet above sea- level, provides relief in the form of a lower night temperature this is somewhat counterbalanced by the clouds and drenching mists which so frequently envelop the hill-tops.
t
tho
It is, perhaps, the definite seasonal changes which render Colony more tolerable to Europeans than many other places on the same latitude.
M 133
II. POPULATION
The estimated Populations (used for compilation of statistics) are (1928):-
Non-Chinese (civil)
18,150
Chinese
City of Victoria
550,000
Villages of Hong Kong
43,890
Kowloon (and New Kowloon)
264,000
Population Afloat
103,400
New Territories
96,250
Total Chinese
1,057,540
1,075,690
2
Total Civil Population
(1) The population of the Colony is a very variable one and, owing to the large unstable, floating community and the partial birth registration, no reliable data are available. for estimations. Moreover, its variations are also influenced by political conditions in South China and the state of trade in Hong Kong.
There is no doubt that the population is steadily increasing (the rapid building, especially in Kowloon, is evidence of this) but neither the birth returns nor the immigration figures give any indication of this.
For the purpose of vital statistics, the estimated population of the New Territories has been subtracted, and the varying number of the Naval and Military Forces is not included.
(2) Fluctuation of Population can be indicated only by figures supplied from the Railway and Harbour Department. The latter refer only to the local Steamship lines and do not take into account the constant migration in smaller, native craft, and sailing vessels.
The actual figures furnished are as follows:
1928
By Railway...
By Steamships
Totals
IMMIGRANTS
542,723
187,847
730,570
EMIGRANTS
420,779
257,162
677,941
This shows part of the exchange of people between Hong Kong Colony and neighbouring Chinese Territory, with a balance. in favour of Immigrants of 52,629 for the whole year.
M 134
Thus, from these figures alone, there are some 3,859 people on the average, moving in and out of the Colony every day. One of the difficulties confronting Public Health administration is evident.
It is of interest to note that parts of the City of Victoria probably provide one of the most densely populated areas in the world.
III. BIRTHS
In dealing with Birth Statistics in Hong Kong, it is essential to remember that Registration of Births is largely evaded by the Chinese, especially in regard to female children Therefore, the rates and other figures, based on the number of Births, are very inaccurate and of doubtful value. The figures for the Non-Chinese Community are more reliable.
(1) The Births registered during the year 1928 were as follows:
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
8,973
336
9,309
(2) The Sex distribution of these births, compared with the previous year is shown in the following table:-
Males.
Females.
Total.
Chinese
Non-Chinese
1927 1928 1927 1928 1927 1928
4,128 5,265 3,048 3,708 7,176 8,973
163 185 161 151 324 336
Total... 4,291 5,450 3,209 3,859 7,500 9,309
These figures show a total increase of births, since last year, of 1,809.
(3) The Nationality of the Non-Chinese parents was as follows:-
British 127:* Indian 83; Portuguese 63; Filipino 14: American 11; Malay 10; German 8; Eurasian 4: French 3;
Persian and Annamite 2 each; Australian, Chilian, Brazilian, Dutch, Roumanian. Peruvian, Parsee, Dutch and Norwegian 1 each.
*These include 12 births in the Military and 3 in the
Naval Forces,
...
M 135
(4) Birth rates (crude) 1928.
These are calculated on the registered births and are, therefore, unreliable. In the case of Chinese, they are of relative value only. (The Naval and Military Services are excluded).
General Civil Birth Rate
(a) Chinese
(b) Non-Chinese
9.4
9.2
17.7
The rates for 1927 were: Chinese 8.2, and Non-Chinese 19.6. The year 1928 thus shows a record, for Chinese Registered births.
The following table shows the crude birth rates for the last 10 years:
Year.
Non-Chinese.
Chinese.
1919
20.6
3.9
1920
19.78
3.96
1921
25.88
5.68
1922
22.84
6.25
1923
23.03
6.97
1924
19.8
5.47
22.6
4.25
19.21
4.18
1927
19.6
8.2
1928
17.7
9.2
IV. DEATHS (GENERAL)
Deaths of Chinese are registered according to the district in which they occur. For this purpose there are five Registra- tion Districts, namely, Victoria District, which includes the Peak and the Harbour; Kowloon District, which includes New Kowloon; Shaukiwan; Aberdeen and Stanley Districts.
All Non-Chinese deaths are registered in Victoria.
For the sake of administration and reference, Victoria City is divided into 10 Health Districts and Kowloon into 7. In many of the following figures, the major portion of the New Territories is excluded. Minor villages on the Island are included in either Aberdeen or Stanley districts and the Harbour Population embraces all the permanently floating population who have no other fixed abode but their boats.
The dumping of dead bodies in the streets or outside charitable Institutions provides a large number of "Unknowns
M 136
The actual Death returns and Causes of Death are compiled from two main sources:
(1) Certificates from Private Practitioners (registered) and the various Hospitals, and (2) the Mortuaries, mostly via the Coroner's returns.
In addition, a certain number are certified by the Medical Officers of Health, in cases of fatal illness, unattended by a registered Practitioner. In some outlying areas, the Police notify the cause of death.
The Death Statistics are, therefore, much more reliable than those concerning Births; although it must be remembered that, with so large a fluctuation of people, it does not follow that either the disease was contracted in the Colony or that regular inhabitants stay in the Colony to die. prefer burial in their native soil.
The Chinese
There is one other point to bear in mind in connection with Non-Chinese death Statistics, especially concerning British inhabitants. It is that this section of the Community not only consists of picked individuals of sound health but these spend only the early adult or middle periods of their life in the Colony, (Children leave the Colony at about 8 years of age). Moreover, the diseases from which they suffer are mostly acquired locally, but the majority, if severe, would prove fatal after return to their native land. Thus, there arises a fallacious relation between the Foreign population and heir births and deaths.
Proportionate numbers of the sexes are also artificially produced by geographical and political conditions.
(1) Numbers of Deaths.
Total number of deaths registered in the Colony during the year 1928 is made up as follows:-
Chinese Non-Chinese
14,553
204
Total
14,757
This is practically the same total as last year (1927), there being a difference of 4 only. The Non-Chinese deaths, however. are less than 1927 by 32, so that there has been a slight increase in Chinese deaths of 28. These figures have little comparative value without an accurate census of the population.
Deaths occurring in the Forces, stationed in the Colony, are included in the above totals. Of these, 4 occurred in the Army, 9 in the Navy and 4 in the Air Force.
?
M 137
www
(2) The
Nationalities of the Non-Chinese deaths were as follows:
British 58: Indian 55; Portuguese 49; Japanese 17; American 7; French and Malay 5 each; German 2; and Annamite, African, Filipino, Australian and Italian 1 each.
(3) Age distribution of Deaths.
(a) Deaths of Infants under one year of age
Polish,
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
4,338
21
4,359
(Total figure for 1927 was 4,669)
(b) Infantile Mortality Rate was 468.2, of which:
Chinese Non-Chinese
466.0 2.2
Although this figure for Chinese is probably too large, owing to partial birth registration, it is none the less alarmingly high and in striking contrast to the very low Non-Chinese mortality rate.
(c) The percentage Ratio of Infantile deaths (under 1 year) to total deaths reaches the gravely high figure
of 29.5 (in 1927 it was 31.6%).
(d) Deaths under 1 month of age also show a very large
number:
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
1,082 5
1,087
All these figures, emphasise the urgent necessity for an extended Infant Welfare Scheme in the Colony. This should, as usual, include the 'Mother-club' Centres (for weighing; advice, and demonstration re feeding, care and clothing) together with Health Visitors and Propaganda. This work is not only so important a part of Preventive Medicine but, in dealing with the problems at the very beginning (even before birth. is so much more effective and economical than the costly measures involved in the doubtful cure of ills already established.
M 138
(4) Deaths rates (crude) 1928.
(a) General Civil death rate
Chinese
Non-Chinese
15.0
14.9
10.1
The rates for 1927 were: Chinese 16.6 and Non-Chinese 13.2.
The following table shows the death rates for the last ten
years:
Year.
Chinese.
Non-Chinese.
General.
1919.
23.30
21.90
23.20
1920..
22.78
17.90
21.19
1921.
20.29
18.08
20.27
1922.
25.47
20.46
25.16
1923.
26.27
14.83
25.98
1924.
21.90
15.06
21.75
1925.
19.12
14.60
19.05
1926..
16.01
10.9
15.9
1927.
16.6
13.2
16.5
1928..
14.9
10.1
15.0
The above figures show a considerable reduction in the last five years, but again their value is limited by the degree of inaccuracy of the estimated populations.
(b) Intermediate Death-rates.
The following table shows the so-called quarterly death rates, for periods of thirteen weeks, but such periods do not correspond exactly with the annual rates given above.
1928
Non-Chinese.
Chinese.
General.
First Quarter
11.7
13.5
17.1
Second Quarter.
9.3
15.0
19.8
Third Quarter
13.6
15.6
19.6
Fourth Quarter.
10.6
16.5
20.6
M 139
(5) Deaths from Notifiable Infectious Diseases in the year 1928.
(a) The Zymotic Death rate was only 45 in spit of
a severe epidemic of Small-pox.
The following table shows deaths from notifiable diseases (1928).
Disease.
Chinese. Non-Chinese. Totals.
1. Small poxX
303
1
304
2. Typhoid
72
Paratyphoid
1
NO
2
74
1
3. Diphtheria
26
1
27
4. Cerebro-Spinal
Meningitis
13
3
16
5. Puerperal Fever
13
2
15
6. Plague
2
0
Grand Totals
430
9
439
The
These are set out in descending order of incidence. three most serious having been Small pox, Typhoid and Diphtheria.
The large number of Small-pox deaths (mostly dumped') was due to a severe epidemic which reached its height early in 1929 and will be reported, separately, elsewhere.* There were only 126 deaths from this disease the previous year. Further details of the notifiable diseases will be found in another section of this Report.
* ..
Report on Small-pox Epidemic, 1928-29, Hong Kong" (H. A. Fawcett).
M 140
V. DEATHS FROM SPECIAL DISEASES AND LOCALLY IMPORTANT CAUSES.
(Non-notifiable)
(1) Respiratory Diseases.
Deaths (including Pulmonary Tuberculosis or Pulmonary Phthisis) from Respiratory diseases were as follows:-
a. Tubercular (Pulmonary)
Chinese
Non-Chinese
b. Non-tubercular
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Total for the year
1,731
1,708
23
4,135
4,103
32
5,866
There is an increase from the previous year (1927), when the Tubercular figure was 1595; the Non-tubercular 4,239, and the total 5,834.
The mortality rate from Respiratory diseases for the Chinese estimated population, for the year 1928, was 6.05 (in 1927 it was 6.6).
These figures on Lung diseases are very alarming, and far exceed the other causes of death in the Colony, being as much as 40% of the total deaths. Moreover, they are on the increase. To put it more dramatically, nearly six thousand a year means an average 16 deaths a day from lung diseases. This does not take into consideration the many cases which, with a chronic disease, can go out of the Colony to die.
About 30% of these deaths are due to Pulmonary Tuber- culosis, and the problem demands urgent and special attention by the Government, especially in respect of Housing and Over- crowding; Open Spaces and Wider Streets; Spitting in Public Places, and Smoke and Dust abatement.
Extension of the School Medical Service (re the Pretuber- cular Child) and early-diagnosis Centres also require further con- sideration. The chief aim should be Prevention; the climate and conditions in this Colony being most inimicable to cure.
Of the non-tubercular Lung diseases, the following took a heavy toll of young life:-
Broncho-Pneumonia
1,651
M 141
Of these, only 11 were Non-Chinese but, of the total, nearly all were under 5 years of age; i.e. 1,549 (721 in 1927).
Bronchitis
1,396
Again the majority (1,028) were children under five years. Only 4 of the total were Non-Chinese.
Pneumonia (other forms)
898
Half this number were under 5 years, and 15 of them Non- Chinese.
Thus, these three diseases alone caused the death of 3,076 young children, in the one year, or 44% of the total deaths of children under 5 years of age; a very serious waste of life.
(2) Tuberculosis (all forms).
The Pulmonary form of Tuberculosis has already been dealt with under Respiratory diseases.
The total deaths (for 1928) from all forms of Tuberculosis, 2,587, were made up as follows:
Pulmonary form :
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Non-Pulmonary forms:
1,731
1,708
23
806
Chinese
795
Non-Chinese
11
Total for the year
2,537
For the purpose of showing the various forms of tubercular disease which caused deaths, this infection is here divided into Types, as follows:
TYPE I. Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Phthisis.
TYPE II. Disseminated and Miliary Tuberculosis.
TYPE III. Abdominal and Intestinal Tuberculosis.
TYPE IV. Tubercular Meningitis.
TYPE V. Other Tubercular Diseases.
M 142
The following table shows the number of deaths from each of these types, according to age groups, for the year 1928, and in order of frequency from left to right.
Types.
Áge Groups.
Age Groups Total
I
II
III
IV
V
Under 1 year
51
96
1 to 5 years
160
250
5 to 15 years.....
110
113
222
52
6
205
73
39
4
526
24
30
277
15 to 30 years.........
280
21
3
2
314
30 to 60 years........
1,033
75
7
1,115
60 years and over
95
98
:
Unknown age......
2
2
Type Totals... 1,731 558
157
85
6
2,537
This table shows that not only was the Pulmonary type of Tuberculosis the commonest but that it proved most fatal in the middle-adult period of life.
Both the meningeal and abdominal types attacked children mostly and as many as 731 deaths were caused by Tubercular diseases in Infants under 5 years of age.
Only 277 deaths occurred in the school age-period, but un- checked infection at these ages would take its death toll later in life.
The next table shows the total deaths due to all forms of Tuberculosis for the last ten years, together with certain other facts of age incidence and percentages of total deaths (Chinese).
Years.
Age Groups.
Under 5 years...
1919 1920 1921
410 700 559
1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928
5 to 15 years...... 139 204 157 15 to 60 years..... 986 1.090 1,050 Over 60 years......
593 632 180 169
62
65
91
1,164 93
1,207
1,316 | 1,144
63
79
780 721 559 690 732 207 173 157 221 277 1 290 81
1.149 1.430
56
60
Totals...
Chinese Deaths
1,597 2,059 1,887 2,060 2,071 2,358 2.289 1,916 | 2,120 | 2,537
(All Causes).. 11,348 12,151 1,604 14,241 15,289 15,301 14,735 12,336 14.525 - 14,553
Percentage of
Chinese deaths
due to Tuber- culosis
14.0 16.9 16.2 14.4 13.5 15.7 15.5 15.5 146 17 4
M 143
From the above table, it will be seen that fatal Tuberculosis is increasing in the Colony; the 1928 total is the highest yet recorded and the percentage of total Chinese deaths is as high as 17.4%.
This emphasises the recommendations made in this report under Respiratory Diseases.
(3) Senility.
<<
"Senile decay", or merely "old age", is a very unsatisfac- tory cause of death (if it can be classed as a 'cause" at all) but it accounts for the next highest figures in the death registers.
It is a convenient refuge for some Practitioners who, with the opportunity and means at their disposal, would find, in the great majority of cases, some terminal disease to account for death. It is quite common to get a certificate signed up as "Senility" in persons of under seventy years of age.
The usual Secondary cause of "Exhaustion" is no better. The number of old people who actually die, naturally, with healthy but worn out organs must be very few, especially under the conditions in the Far East; and it is significant that we very rarely get this diagnosis from the Mortuaries or the Hospitals.
That this is highly unsatisfactory and misleading is shown by the following very high figures, registered for 1928-
Chinese Non-Chinese
1,046 7
Total
1,053
I usually return Certificates for revision, under this heading, in the case of persons under 70 years of age; but, even so, the matter needs further attention.
(4) Intestinal diseases.
Of these, "Enteritis" accounts for a large number of deaths. The Certificates give a number of varieties, such as "Gastro- Enteritis"; "Ileo-enteritis;" and "Diarrhoea" (the latter, being a symptom only, is usually revised).
These are here grouped together but, as many of them are under one year of age and obviously refer to Infantile Diarrhoea and Nutritional disturbances, they are divided into those under one year and those over this age.
Many of the latter would, probably, on investigation, prove to be dysenteric or of other specifically infective character.
M 144
In infants, the term "gastro-enteritis" is regarded by the Royal College of Physicians as unsatisfactory, and "Infective Diarrhoea" or "Infantile enteritis' are preferable.
The figures for 1928 were : —
(1) Enteritis (over 1 year of age)
Chinese
Non-Chinese
(2) Infantile Enteritis (under 1 year)
Chinese
Non-Chinese
809
809
Nil.
395
390
5
There is a small increase of 28 deaths over last year (1176).
Although these diseases are ill-defined in the returns, they indicate a high mortality both among infants and adults, and suggest that the preparation and distribution of food in the Colony, as well as Infant Care, need more careful attention.
The deaths definitely stated to be due to Dysentery, in 1928,
were :-
Amoebic. Bacillary. Undefined. Totals
Chinese
4
286
290
Non-Chinese
1
1
Totals
4
1
286
291
It is to be regretted that so few certifying doctors state the type of Dysentery causing death. It would appear to be an increasing endemic complaint but is not notifiable. Only 202
deaths occurred in 1927.
(5) Other Infantile Diseases.
Apart from Enteritis and Respiratory diseases, already men- tioned, four other infantile conditions require special note as accounting for a large proportion of the deaths under one or two years of age.
(a) Nutritional diseases of infancy.
Under this heading, have been grouped the numerous but somewhat vague death returns including such causes as Maras- mus; Atrophy; Malnutrition and Debility (under 1 year of age).
These give death figures for 1928 as under :-
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Total
397
4
411
!
M 145
Although most Chinese babies are breast fed, the milk is no doubt inadequate and feeding irregular owing to the poor condition of the mothers, many of whom continue their hard manual labour immediately on rising from their confinement. Moreover, they probably share in the lack of Calcium and other Accessory Food Factors which is so common, even in domestic animals, in this part of the world.
The unhealthy custom of contricting and binding the chest is also an important factor and every effort should be made to discourage it, especially in young girls.
Rickets and other deficiency diseases are seldom noted as causes of Infant deaths but I feel sure they must occur. The sunrays are largely absorbed by the mist and smoke, or com- pletely cut off in the narrow, dust-laden streets. Generally speaking, the urbanised Chinese are not an outdoor people and in the towns, here, they are grossly overcrowded.
(b) Prematurity and Still births.
These are both important additions to the mortality lists. Most of the Prematurity cases are from the Mission hospitals and other charitable institutions, near which a large number of mori- bund infants are 'dumped' every week. They also occur fre- quently in the Coroner's Returns. The deaths for 1928, under the heading "Prematurity", were:-
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
316
2
318
It must be understood that a clear distinction is drawn be- tween the viable (over 7 months' gestation) child which has breathed (i.e. lived) and, therefore, has a cause of death (Pre- maturity, etc.) and foetal products which were viable but still-
born
or non-viable (under 7 months). The latter, strictly speaking, have no place in a 'causes-of-death' return, as they have no extra-uterine life but, as the number (taken chiefly from Coroner's returns on 'dumped' bodies) is considerable and the wastage of potential life serious, they are specially mentioned here:
Still-birth's and non-viable Foeti recorded in 1928 were:
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
640
7
647
M 146
Except for the wide prevalence of Syphilis and the absence of any prenatal care, it is not clear why so large a number of conceptional products fail to reach full-term maturity. One expects criminal interference at an earlier stage and the figures point to some abortifacient condition which needs further investi- gation.
(c) Tetanus neonatorum.
as 70
This preventable condition accounted for as many deaths in 1928, of which all, except one, were Chinese. Lack of care and cleanliness of the umbilical stump are the chief causes and the remedy lies in training Midwives and proper care at childbirth. Antenatal and Welfare centres are valuable media for this education.
(d) Icterus neonatorum.
The deaths due to this disease are even higher; there was a total of 138 in 1928, of which one only was of Non-Chinese nationality. The exact nature of this jaundice is not usually stated on the certificate. No doubt a good deal of it is syphilitic
in origin.
Finally it may be noted that nearly all the deaths from non- tubercular meningitis occurred in children under 5 years of age, i.e. 197 deaths in 1928.
It has already been noted that 4,338 Chinese Infants, under one year of age, died in the year 1928 and, although this is somewhat less than the previous year (4,637), the figure is sadly high. These figures do not include Stillbirths. If we add those who died between one and five years of age, we get a total of about 7,000 or 48% of the total Chinese deaths for the year.
Thus nearly half the Chinese deaths in this Colony occur in children under five years of age.
Life is ended before it has scarce begun. This is not only tragic but a serious defect in an organised, modern State and demands, as already suggested, the urgent attention of the Government. The lines that Prevention should take are those of Home Sanitation (especially a reduction of overcrowding) in general, and of Infant Welfare Schemes (maternal education) in particular.
(6) Beri-Beri.
As would be expected, deaths in the Colony from this disease stand high in the list but, in contrast to most of the other diseases mentioned, do not seem to be increasing of recent
years.
M 147
The total deaths registered under this cause, in 1928, were 665, of which two only were Non-Chinese. The majority of these deaths (70%) occurred in the middle period of life (i.e. 30-60 years).
The following table shows the deaths ascribed to Beri-Beri during the last ten years and the percentage of these to the total deaths:
Year.
No. of deaths from Beri-beri.
Percentage of total registered deaths.
1919
555
4.76
1920
361
4.90
1921
526
4.42
1922
829
5.69
1923
1,270
8.17
1924
1,502
9.65
1925
1,744
11.63
1926
1,192
9.5
1927
744
5.04
1928
665
4.57
This disease is, of course, a serious cause of addition to the death roll and it seems a pity that so preventable a complaint is, in spite of our knowledge, so uncontrolled.
Unfortunately, the modern fad for polished rice is not counterbalanced by any article of native diet rich in Vitamin B.
(7) Malaria.
Malaria fever is not a notifiable disease. The only figures available, therefore, are from the death registers and a few cases that reach the General Hospital.
Although the death returns are fairly reliable, it does not follow that infection was acquired in the district in which the death was registered.
Moreover, the fluctuation of the population, to and fro, be- tween the Colony and Chinese territory, makes it impossible to Say
to what extent the infection, causing deaths within the Colony, may have been acquired therein. Therefore, no case mortality or incidence are available.
All the necessary factors are present: 'reservoir' cases and the Anopheline mosquito vector. The Indian Police are a pos- sible chronic source of the parasite. A systematic survey of these and some index, such as a splenic count, are needed. slight majority of deaths occur on the Kowloon side (mainland).
A
——
M 148
Although much good anti-malarial engineering has been done on the island, the problem has reached a point at which a thorough investigation of the local Anopheline species and their breeding habits is essential to a satisfactory solution. Moreover, while much time and money are spent on drainage, channelling and oiling, there are acres of wet cultivation and other fertile breeding grounds permitted near residential areas.
Deaths from malaria, recorded in 1928, were as follows:-
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total
289
6
295
Of these, 133 (Chinese) occurred on the Kowloon peninsula and 80 in the City of Victoria. There is a considerable reduction on the previous year's total, which was 635.
Unfortunately, very few certificates state the type of infection, so that the majority are recorded as "undefined". Of those definitely stated, there were 61 "Subtertian" and 7 "Malarial Cachexia."
Division into age periods shows that the majority of deaths recorded occurred between thirty and sixty years of age; whereas in infants and children under five years of age, only 35 deaths were noted.
The following table shows, for the last ten years, the deaths in the Colony from Malaria, together with percentages of total deaths and mortality rates.
Year.
Total deaths from Malaria.
Deaths from Malaria
per cent. of total deaths.
Deaths from Malaria per 1,000
of population.
1919...
314
2.69
0.62
1920...
332
2.67
0.59
1921...
332
3.79
(0,55
1922...
454
3.11
0.78
1923...
674
4.33
1.14
1924...
707
4.54
0.98
1925...
702
4.68
0.89
1926...
587
4.69
0.75
1927...
635
4.90
0.70
1928...
295
2.00
0.30
M 149
The above figures suggest that the increase of Malaria during recent years has, this year, been reversed. The percentage to total deaths and the mortality rate (1928) are not only exceptionally low but a record for the last fifteen years.
(8) Influenza.
After three or four years of a low incidence of Influenza in the Colony, there was a fresh outbreak in 1928 and as many as 121 deaths from this disease were registered. these, only three were of Non-Chinese nationality.
Of
Although it is not notifiable, a special Register is kept of deaths returned as Influenza. The majority are sent in always by the same Hospital or Practitioners and it is probable that the figures are not very accurate for the whole population.
The following table shows the number of deaths due to Influenza, for each month, since the year 1919.
Month.
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1927
Monthly Totals for
Ten Years.
VAAWKU DJ DJ
1926
January February. March
21
39
16 118 19 25 75 20
200
20
13
13
13
April
41 38 22 18
5645
2
10
May
75 32 27 13
7
June
137 61 26 44 13
July........
77 22 54 40 14
August
30
14 30 30 5
September..
30 28 40 11
October
44 13 64 7
November
35 27
December...
34 17
=233
76
58
LO LO ON N
CO IF ∞ CONAWOH OO
1928
Total...
449 542 303422 | 83 52
45
33 29121
7966
112 183
150
146
174
8
305
247
11
140
27
161
10
158
10
171
127
(9) Venereal Disease.
The considerable number of deaths from Venereal disease all registered under Syphilis.
M 150
The total for the year 1928 was made up as follows (all
Chinese) :-
(a) Congenital and Conceptional Syphilis (b) Acquired-Tertiary syphilis
(c)
Undefined
Total....
161
24
90
275
Again, the infants are the heaviest sufferers and, if we could include the Stillbirths and products of Abortion, the number would be much higher. There is no doubt that all the Venereal diseases are very prevalent in the Colony, but as primary causes of illness or death, they are often missed outside Hospital practice Their danger lies not in the mortality rate but in the chronic disability to which they give rise and the infection of others.
Although specific remedies are now known and prevention is a fairly simple matter, the very nature of these diseases makes them one of the most difficult of Public Health problems. The first step towards a solution is to clear the field of pre- judice and false sentiment, and make way for the fact that these diseases are not so much the result of deliberate sin (the libertine and prostitute know all about them) as of ignorance or chance..
A small Venereal disease clinic, for males, is now establish- ed and, in spite of its limited scope and means, is dealing with about 60 cases a week. It urgently demands considerable extension. Since I took charge, I have made, elsewhere, a detailed report of its organisation and work done in 1928.*
(10) Other diseases.
A few other diseases give fairly large death returns but are of less Public Health interest than those on which com- ments have already been made.
It is sufficient to mention here that the following number of deaths were recorded in 1928 for these diseases, respectively
*
(a) Heart disease (chiefly Endocarditis).. (b) Kidney disease (mostly Nephritis)
(c) Brain diseases-
Meningitis (non-tubercular) Apoplexy
"Report on V. D. Clinic, Hong Kong, 1928" (H. A. Fawcett).
286
288
215
150
L
M 151
J
(1) Deaths from Violence and other External Causes.
There has been some confusion in the registration of this group of causes owing to delayed Coroners' findings and the fact that the Mortuary returns state cause of death only and not the action which produced it. Thus a large number of persons may be "found drowned" but whether suicide, homicide or accident is not always stated.
Generally speaking, Violent death is common in the Colony and Suicide frequent among the Chinese. The latter amounted to 26 (in 1928). Deaths from street accidents amounted to 55.
The total (for 1928) of deaths from External or Fiolent causes was as follows:
Chinese Non-Chinese
Total...
358
21
379
In addition to the above is a large group of deaths with no specified cause owing to mutilation or decomposition.
These unclassified human remains amounted, in 1928, to the large number of 550 (all Chinese).
They are of importance as creating a further error in any of the other groups and as an indication of the degree of concealment of death or general lawlessness.
The following table shows the total deaths taken from Coroners' returns, for the year 1928, classified according to age and sex.
Age Periods.
Males.
Females.
Grand Totals.
Under 2 Years
2,103
2,350
4,453
Over 2 Years
942
434
1,376
Totals......
3,045
2,781
5,829
M 152
These high figures make up about 40% of the total deaths and represent violent deaths; uncertified deaths, and a very large proportion of abandoned or 'dumped bodies.
Infants provide the majority of the 'dumped', and, although this dangerous and revolting practice is hard to eradicate, it undoubtedly needs early and serious attention from both a Civic and a Public Health point of view.
When dead bodies, (cases of infectious disease often), have to be collected daily, like refuse, from the streets of a civilised town, it is surely time for drastic action.
Table II on page 63, is a short list of causes of death, showing details of incidence, by Communities and Dis- tricts, for the year 1928, and, for comparison, the same totals for the previous year.
Apart from the various totals in Table II and their variations from the previous year, the chief point of interest is the large number of deaths occurring in certain districts of the Colony.
From the present Table it will be seen that No. 9 District, in the City of Victoria, heads the regional list with 3,388 deaths. This is far ahead of the other districts on the island and only approached by Nos. 1 and 14 Districts.
This marked preponderance is partly accounted for by the presence, in these districts, of Mission Hospitals where so The French
many dead or dying infants are deposited.
Catholic Hospital, in No. I district, certainly explains the high figures there, but No. 9 District is also the most populous and poorest area. 'Dumping' is by no means the only factor in this case. It is from this area of overcrowded, airless slums that most of the disease comes and in which the mortality is naturally high.
The narrow, dusty streets, encumbered with stalls an i hawkers; the dark, tunnel-like houses with practically no oper space; and the grossly overcrowded families, in cubicles ar bunks amid a confusion of miscellaneous trades, may i entertaining to the tourist but they are an outrage to Pu Health.
If this is Civilisation, these poor people would be far better in the primitive but scattered huts on the hillsides. AS a matter of fact, the lists show a low percentage of infections disease and deaths in the more rural districts.
M 153
One can only hope, as the Western City Idea seems destined to spread its evils all over the world, that, in new areas such as Kowloon, Town-planning Authorities will recognise that Health is ultimately of more economical importance than the commercial value of land or the immediate interests of property owners and merchants. When this is established policy, we can talk of Progress.
Very
Although Kowloon is divided into Health districts also, it has been the custom to record it as one area. It can, however, no longer be treated as a kind of suburb. soon it will require a more independant administration and, already, there are problems peculiar to the Peninsula,
Below is a group-list, in descending order of frequency, of the principal registered Causes of Death in the Colony, for the year 1928:-
1. Diseases of the Lungs
2. Tuberculosis (all forms)
3. Special Diseases of Infancy
4. Senility (other causes unstated)
5. Enteritis (all non-specific forms over 1 year)
6. Beri-Beri
7. Undiagnosed (decomposed bodies, etc.)
8.
Violent deaths (External causes)
9. Epidemic diseases (such as Small-pox)
10. . Malaria
11. Dysentery (all forms)
Syphilis
12.
Heart disease Nephritis
T
Rabies (Human.)
Tetanus (Over 1 Year.)
Cancer (Malignant Disease.)
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
and Phthisis.
Beri-Beri.
}
M 154
COLONY OF HONG KONG.
Table II-SHORT LIST AND SPECIAL CAUSES OF DEATHS,
REGISTERED DURING 1928.
Tuberculosis (Other Forms.)
Other Respiratory Diseases.
Syphilis (All Forms.)
Diabetes.
2
10
23
11
32
45
12
92 132 772
57
1
46
22
113
36 264
9
10
6
22

1
27
21
8
6
54
00
61
15
23
41
6
17
3
47
19
51
21
+
50 !
6
16
335
285 1,237
:
D
107
12 143
10
N
:
130
A
6
6
3
00
2
~
2
4
пр
5
-
Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.
Meningitis (ther Forms.)
Apoplexy and Cerebral-
Haemorrhage.
Organic Heart Disease.
Enteritis and Gastroenteritis.
(Over 1 Year.)
Cirrhosis of Liver, Other
Liver Diseases.
Nephritis and Bright's Disease.
Puerperal Fever.
Other Diseases of Pregnancy
and Parturition,
Congenital Malformations and Diseases of Development.
Prematurity.
Infantile Debility, Marasmus
Malnutrition.
Infantile Enteritis and Gastro- Enteritis (Under 1 Year.)
Icterus Neonatorum.
Tetanus Neonatorum.
Senility.
Accidental and Opium Poisoning.
Suicides.
Accidental Injuries and Other
Violent Deaths.
Other Defined Diseases.
Undiagnosed (Decomposed, etc.)
1
7
1
20
39
201
*
18
229
00
Jo
1
09
6
223
80
63
120
01
ها
5
14
67
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2,231
27
18
41
6
13
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1
8
24
12
126
6
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BQ
17
955
2
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1
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340
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294
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235
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22
83 238
17 132
6
10
45 114
7
29
1 311
6
10 127 170 358
3,908
667
137
1,731 806 4,135 275
11
16 215 150 272 809
18
285
15
15
16
318
411 395 138
70
1,053
47
26
353 686 550
14,757
B
744
114 1,595 528 4,239 278
13
27
211 144 202 349 70
527
6
16

157 404
693 226
72 892
II
16
397 1,400 215
14,761
TOTAL
DEATHS
(All Causes.)
CHINESE COMMUNITY
CAUSES OF DEATH
BRITISH AND FOREIGN
COMMUNITY (CIVIL) ...|
I:1A
HONG KONG ISLANDS
1.
Enterie Fever (and Paratyphoid)|
Small-Pox.
Diphtheria.
Influenza.
Malaria.
M 154 -
COLONY OF HONG KONG.
Table II-SHORT LIST AND SPECIAL CAUSES OF DEATHS, REGISTERED DURING 1928
Plague.
Dysentery (all Varieties.)
Rabies (Human.)
Tetanus (Over 1 Year.)
1
3
6
t-
18
4
10
19
2
11
2:2A
8
22
10
21
27
VICTORIA CITY (Health Districts)
ند
3
30
4 .....
10
5......
1: 6
ลง
6:6A
2
00
7:7 A
30
8......
3
6

9.....
31
7
10
10......
3
12
1
N
10
Peak
:
Shaukiwan..
Aberdeen
Villages of
Hong Kong.
[ Unknown
Floating Population....
Kowloon (Old and New)

+
2
2
11
I
:
:
:
:
2
...
со
:
10
6
TG
36
1
17
32
17
24 | 166
7
34 133
TOTALS 1928.
TOTALS 1927.
75 304 27 121 295
162
126
45
29
635
80
2 291
202
:
39
12
со
14
6
رات
-
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Beri-Beri.
Cancer (Malignant Disease.)
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
and Phthisis.
Tuberculosis (Other Forms.)
Other Respiratory Diseases.
Syphilis (All Forms.)
Diabetes.
6
to
3
Q
20
00
N
Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.
Meningitis (ther Forms.)
Apoplexy and Cerebral-
Haemorrhage.
Organic Heart Disease.
Enteritis and Gastroenteritis.
(Over 1 Year.)
Cirrhosis of Liver, Other
Liver Diseases.
Nephritis and Bright's Disease.
Puerperal Fever.
Other Diseases of Pregnancy
and Parturition.
Congenital Malformations and Diseases of Development.
Prematurity.
Infantile Debility, Marasmus
Malnutrition.
10
23
11
32
1
3
45
12
92 132 772
57
1
1
130
3
18
229
00
8
46
22
113
36 264
6
27
18
41
6
13
10
6
22
2
I
54
1
18
7
ات
61
15
19
N
15
23
ลง
4+
6
4
G1
2
10
17
*
17
19
31
++
5
3
21
+
50
6
118

16
92
16
B35 285 1,237
66
21
68 190
6
26
26
10
107
12 143
10
6
11
10
2
5
12
32.
16
:
27
16
111
50
11
:
: :
:
2
16
I
:
6
00

6
50
8
24
B
5
בור
N
5
226
191
7
5
:.
:
+
2
2
76
13
113
II
62
13
:
94

ŏ
158 25 210 10
2
:
:
:
...
3
4
11
I
5
15
27
6
:
:
~

115
28
449 222 850 97
**
2
13
22
83
238
17
132
6
45

667 137
1,731
806 4,135
275
11
16
215
150 272
809
81
285
15
15
16 318
13 744 114
1,595
528 4,239
278
13
27
211 144
202 349
70
527
6
Co
16
2 157
114
TIF
404
بات
M 155
VI. NOTIFIABLE DISEASES
The notifiable Diseases in this Colony are, at present ; Plague; Cholera; Small-pox; Diphtheria; Scarlet Fever; Enteric and Paratyphoid Fevers; Relapsing Fever; Cerebro- Spinal Meningitis; Typhus Fever; Yellow Fever; Puerperal Fever, and Rabies (Human and Animal).
Notifications are sent in to the Medical Officer of Health on the usual forms, signed by a registered Medical Practitioner or by the Mortuary Pathologist.
are
There is only one small Isolation Hospital (for Non- Chinese Small-pox cases), and other infectious diseases either nursed at home (on the doctor's recommendation) or in the General Hospitals.
Proper Infectious-discase Hospitals, under રી Medical member of a Public Health Department; are urgently needed.
Notification is followed up by the District Inspectors; details obtained for the information of the Medical Officer of Health, and disinfection carried out.
In spite of this, serious fallacies and difficulties arise owing to the large number of concealed or 'dumped' cases; the former, as a fertile source of spread and a loss to our records and the latter, by providing no data, such as address or contacts. In the great majority of cases, our first and only information is the Post-Mortem diagnosis. For many of the infectious fevers this must, of necessity, be unreliable. The penalty for concealment is very inadequate.
(1) Case incidence and Nationality.
The incidence of notifiable diseases was much greater in 1928 than the previous year, the total number of cases notified being 1009 (only 612 in 1927). Of these, 64 were definitely imported.
The following Table shows Cases of and Deaths from the Notifiable Diseases, in 1928. (In order of Prevalence).
M 156
Cases.
Diseases.
Non- Chinese
Small Pox
Typhoid Fever
Diphtheria
Cerebro Spinal Fever
Puerperal Fever................
Paratyphoid Fever...
Plague....
Cholera
Scarlet Fever
Relapsing Fever..
Typhus Fever
Yellow Fever......... Rabies...
Totals
Deaths.
Chinese.
Non- Chinese.
Chinese.
10
606
}
303
33
207
2
72
26
64
1
26
18
3
13
19
13
10
}
4
2
81
928
430
From this table it will be seen that 81 cases were of Non- Chinese Nationality, which were made up as follows:
British 41; Japanese 11; Indian 10; Portuguese 9;
American 4; Other Nationalities 6.
Owing to the large number of concealed and dumped cases, there is no relation between cases notified and deaths, and, therefore, no case mortality can be given.
(2) Seasonal Incidence.
Table III shows cases of Notifiable Disease recorded in each month of the year 1928; under each disease, and Chinese or Non-Chinese Nationality. The previous year's totals for each month and disease are also given. All seasonal details are thus available in one Table and will be referred to again in the notes on each disease.
The largest totals were reached at the end of the year owing to the rise of a Small pox Epidemic. Generally speaking, there is no month of the year free from infectious disease but the numbers usually rise with the onset of the warmer and wetter season. The exceptions are Small-pox and Diphtheria which are most prevalent in the cool, dry season.
N
MONTHS
DISEASES.
Non-Chinese
Plague.
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Typhoid Fever
Chinese
Է-
722LO — LO 13
1
TOTAL 1928
4
33 207
со
10
TOTAL 1927
70 237
2
5
1
T
2
NO NO W NT
10
10 606 26
19
ลง
2
6 143
22
14
12
2
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Non-Chinese
| Chinese
Non-Chinese
Paratyphoid Fever
Cholera
2
I CO
2
8 1
5
ن من من قسم
Chinese
Small Pox
- M 157 ----
Table III-CASES OF NOTIFIABLE DISEASES RECORDED IN EACH MONTH OF THE YEAR 1928.
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Non-Chinese
| Chinese
Non-Chinese
Diphtheria
Puerperal Fever
Scarlet Fever
0:00
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Non-Chinese
Relapsing Fever
Typhus Fever
Cerebro Spinal Fever
Yellow Fever
T
224 ~ — —
Chinese
54
39
52
46
44
149
371
3
18
1,009
1
31
6
612
Non-Chinese
Chinese
Dogs
Rabies
TOTAL
1928
TOTAL 1927
M 158
(3) Age Incidence.
The following table shows the incidence of Notifiable Diseases according to various Age Groups.
AGE GROUPS.
DISEASES.
TOTAL
Under 1 to 55 to 15 15 to 30 30 to 60 1 year. years. years. years, years.
Over
CASES.
60
years.
Small Pox
{
104
369 52
69
21
1
616
Typhoid and Para-
typhoid Fevers
Diphtheria......
Cerebro Spinal
Fever
Puerperal Fever Plague Cholera
Scarlet Fever
Relapsing Fever Typhus Fever Yellow Fever Rabies........
2 20
10 56
130
57
3
258
3
38
26
18
5
90
: : =
10
تنت
3
3
18
+*+
21
20
4
AGE-GROUP
TOTAL
119
420
137
243
86
1,009
From the above table, it is evident that children, between the ages of one and five years, suffered most heavily from Notifiable Diseases in 1928 but that this figure was much augmented by the large number, in this age group, who con- tracted Small-pox during the Epidemic.
The next highest figure is in the young adult period; Typhoid being the outstanding disease in this group. Middle-age and Old-age show a very low incidence in all these diseases.
Table IV.THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NOTIFIABLE DISEASES 1928.
Diseases.
1
2
City of Victoria: Health Districts.
Co
Plague
4
Enteric Fever
16
: x

Paratyphoid Fever..
2
Cholera
Small-pox
18
Diphtheria
10
Puerperal Fever....
4
I
Scarlet Fever
Relapsing Fever.
Typhus Fever....
Cerebro-Spinal Fever...
2
Yellow Fever
Human..
Rabies
| D. gs.
Totals.
56
58
30
24 13
5
6
7
9
10
Peak.
Kowloon.
Harbour.
New Territories.
Villages of Hong Kong. No address.
Imported.
Total, 1928.
Total, 1927.
4
4 2
2
: :
:
8
17
20
2
38
12
17
38
240
307
1
4
2
}
3
18
7
3
31
13
439
43
10
18
616
149
1
2
41
4
90
87
2
20
16
2
2
1
8
2
1
1
21
32
1
6
:
**
4 9 16 58 40
4 526
61
14
29
25
64 1,009
612
M 159 -
يحصيه
M 160
(4) Regional Incidence.
Table IV shows the Distribution of the notifiable Diseases, occurring in 1928, according to Health Districts on the Island and other areas included in the Colony. Kowloon is shown as one area but, now that it is so large a town, the districts should be shown.
The cases under "Harbour" comprise those from among the Floating population whose only home is their boat.
The New Territories are, unfortunately, not under our con- trol and the figures given are a few that come to our registers via a Hospital or Government official. From the point of view of the Medical Officer of Health, this position is highly un- satisfactory as this zone round the Colony forms no real buffer to imported disease.
Wherever possible, the permanent home or last address of the patient is ascertained and recorded, as on this Table, but, in the case of dead bodies and others, this is by no means easy or reliable. Twenty five cases were not traced. The Hospital where they are treated is, of course, no indication of the district of infection and, in the case of children, bodies may be carried a considerable distance.
The figures here shown are a fairly reliable index of the most unhealthy and overcrowded districts. Health districts Nos. 1, 2, 9 and 10 all show high numbers for Victoria City. As already mentioned, No. 9 Health District is one of the most insanitary and Nos. 1 and 2 contain congested areas, in addition to another important factor-the small-shipping quays and the tidal boat-population.
No. 3 District is European Offices, Gardens and Residences; Nos. 6 and 7 are small Business areas and all these show a very small number of cases.
Kowloon (and New Kowloon) gives a total of 526 cases which is about 200 more than the total for Hong Kong Island. Thus, the Peninsula now presents as great, if not greater, a problem for Public Health than the City of Victoria. The latter, how- ever, receives most attention and, with the present acute shortage of Medical Staff, the former has to be left largely to run itself. There are opportunities there now which, if missed. will never be recovered, and the regrettable state of affairs in the poorer districts of Hong Kong will be repeated.
(5) Small Pox.
There was a serious Epidemic of this disease in the Autumn of 1928 and the Spring of 1929 which reached its climax in January 1929. Up to the end of 1928, there had been 616 cases notified, of which 10 were Non-Chinese. Only 18 cases were imported.
:
M 161
I have made a full Report,* elsewhere, on the entire Epidemic (q.v.). In that report, I have set out, in detail the great difficulties of control, created by lack of Isolation Hospitals; Concealment; Nursing at home; Chinese 'treatment'; Dumping; use of Public Vehicles and other irregularities.
A report on Vaccination* has also been submitted by the Chinese Assistant Medical Officer of Health, (q.v.). From this, it seems certain that an earlier campaign is needed and that the regulations for the vaccination of Infants must be revised and strengthened.
The most serious facts brought out by these investigations are that the great majority of cases were concealed and 'dumped' and that infants and young children suffered very heavily.
or
Most of the Chinese cases, I saw, were confluent haemorrhagic in type and none showed signs of recent or success- ful vaccination.
Unfortunately, concealment and the casual attitude of the Chinese towards this disease, render contact control hopeless and statistics unreliable.
The question of treatment in Isolation Hospitals and the farce of nursing at home' in crowded tenements need particular- ly urgent attention.
Below is a table which shows the monthly incidence of Small pox for the last ten years:
MONTHLY PREVALENCE OF SMALL-POX, 1919 To 1928.
Month
1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928
Monthly Totals.
January.
February
March April May June
July August September..
October.... November..
December
Total
G) 30 60 04NCO000
2
1
3 433
6
3
469
1
11
33
255
6
3
26
4
353
10
36
137
19
6
62
25
361
11
47
21
14
22
37
335
6
3
61
28
14
19
292
19
91
160
40
73
19
17
46
29
7
38
165
21
189
397
0
100
502
5
0 407
0
340
759
27
34
191
212 1320 913
66
49
149
616
* See footnote, page 53.
*
Report on Vaccination, Hong Kong, 1928. (K. C. Yeo.)
M 162
(6) Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers.
The total cases of these diseases notified in 1928 were made up as follows:
1. Typhoid fever
204
Chinese
207
Non-Chinese
33
2. Paratyphoid fever (specified as such).....
18
Chinese
10
Non-Chinese
8
Total
258
Of these, 41 cases were imported.
From the above figures it will be seen that Non-Chinese Nationalities suffered more in proportion than the Chinese. There is no systematic, prophylactic inoculation but some of the Europeans are done before arrival in the Colony.
THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE MONTHLY PREVALENCE OF TYPHOID FOR THE YEAR 1928 AND THE PREVIOUS NINE YEARS.
Monthly
Months.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.
1923. 1921. 1925.
1926.
1927. 1928.
Totals.
- M 163
January
February
March
April
11
10
104
93
3
63
8༦
84
68
9
100
12
20
13.
112
14
1078
17
20
173
17
10411
May.
June
3
219
18
142
10
204
7
105
271
144
12320
14
94
6
13
14
10
492
322
125
191
July..
August
141
179
131
15423
121
10
141
475
51
22
12
213
124
72
20015
7:
6
323
381
92
September
92
4816
291
97
41
19220
152
266
264
32
28
123
41
161
October
39
173
21333
141
254
291
21
12
November
123
283
233
713]
191
1992 6
17
23
151
25
5
December
71
193
271
510
13
2042 2
14
19
173
151
121
14
18
81
14122
83
02
152
30
201
20
322
12
15618
19
Yearly Totals...
131
161
1333
13013
11814
11579
13927
27230
24837
1549
Chinese Cases..
1977
3077
24018
1011
712
7541 1006
2078
15211
1114
Non-Chinese Cases...
1716
2875
322
4712
20710
4038
3921
6522
9627
435
231
702
338
Small figures indicate Paratyphoid cases and large figures indicate Typhoid Cases.
M 164
Typhoid is endemic and certainly not decreasing. The year 1927 was particularly bad in this respect, 308 cases being re- corded. The figures are still high enough to make this disease a problem, especially among the Foreign inhabitants.
The sporadic nature of the cases occurring, make it difficult to trace any particular source of infection. Vegetables, although watered with human excreta, are usually cooked by Europeans and notices of warning are published regularly. Milk and Ice- cream come mostly from reputable Firms, carefully kept under observation. Shellfish are probably highly contaminated but seldom consumed by the Non-Chinese Community.
The water-supply is, unfortunately, not connected, in any way, with this Department. This is a most unsatisfactory state of affairs from a Public Health point of view, but regular analytical and bacteriological reports give, on the whole, a reas- suring impression as regards main water as a possible source of Enteric.
"Carriers", especially among the numerous Chinese servants and in food-preparing occupations, are the most serious and probable source of infection. Open latrines, usually placed near the kitchen, and flies complete the necessary cycle.
Complete Water-Carriage Systems (properly used) and ex- amination of Chinese cooks in European houses would lessen the incidence.
(7) Diphtheria.
The number of cases of Diphtheria notified during 1928 was 90, of which 64 were Chinese and 26 Non-Chinese.
Only four cases (Chinese) were imported.
The following table shows the monthly incidence of Diphtheria for the last ten years.
Monthly
Month
1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 Totals (for
10 years).
January February
12
March
15
April
May.... June
July
27944O7
10
15
12
19
14
12
10
115
21
12
11
4
S3
11
10
3
76
10
10
13
17
12
13
13
10
14
August
September
October
November
December
Yearly
Totals
50
76
85
71
91
90
85
73
87
90
Chinese
39
42 47
56
59
63
59
51 65
64
Non-Chinese.l 11
34
38
15
32
27
26
22
22
26
ip to so
20 10 10 6 2 2014-
44
37
32
34
50
89
112
M 165
The figures for this disease (Diphtheria) keep fairly con- stant but show no signs of decrease at present. On an average, it is most prevalent in the Winter months; the incidence being highest in December and January, and lowest in August and September. In the cooler months, there is more overcrowding indoors and less ventilation.
Foreigners, in proportion, are as susceptible as the Natives. In some years, the Non-Chinese incidence has been relatively much higher.
Children are the chief victims and until there is a more complete School Medical Service (with regular inspection of all the schools; "following-up" of contacts, carriers, etc.) a reduc- tion of cases cannot be expected.
(8) Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.
The incidence of Cerebro-Spinal Fever during 1928 was even less than the previous year.
The cases notified were 21, of which 3 only were Non-Chinese and one of these imported.
The following table shows the monthly incidence of Cerebro- Spinal Meningitis for the last ten years.
Month
Monthly
1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 Totals.
January 23 18 5 8 10
99
5
February 32 13 9 13 10 4 11
March
April May June..
July August...... September.. October.... November... December.
71 40 59 4 16 22 13
58 44 18
4
17 10 14
24 10
8
3
10
16 9
15
10
14 5
13
12
3
4 50 10
∞ ~
6
6
10
41
Ot-G LO
1
121
120
1
5
2312-
-- N
1
3
76
97
234
174
84
71
4
53
1
36
25
21
24
36
Yearly Totals
267 158 125 53 107 81 73
14 32
32
21
From the above table, it will be seen that this endemic disease has a definite seasonal rise and fall; the Spring months, with a maximum in March (as an almost constant occurrence); and the Autumn months, with an average minimum of cases in October.
Since 1918, when there was a serious Epidemic, the in- cidence has diminished and keeps below the epidemic line.
7
M 166
(9) Puerperal Fever.
There is always some confusion over the definition of the notifiable forms of Puerperal Sepsis. The usual one of: “any febrile condition, occurring within twenty-one days after child- birth or miscarriage, in which a temperature of 100.4°F. or over has been sustained for a period of 24 hours or has recurred during that period" is not very helpful in private practice. The figures are, therefore, unreliable and err on the small side.
Moreover, in the absence of any organised Infant Welfare and Antenatal Schemes, there is little that can be done outside the Maternity Hospitals.
Where a certified midwife has attended, she is interviewed; cautioned and her apparatus inspected. "Health Visitors" are badly needed.
The actual notified cases in 1928 were 20 in number; all Chinese (16 in 1927). There were rather more cases in Summer than Winter.
(10) Plague.
This disease is endemic and of peculiar interest in this part. of China. It is always Bubonic in type.
Serious Epidemics have occurred from time to time in Hong Kong, of which that of 1894 was the first recorded and the most devastating. Of more recent years, the outbreaks in 1914 and 1922 were the most severe.
Four cases were notified in 1928; all Chinese, of which two died.
Previous to these, no cases had been reported for four years (the last being in September 1923) but, under the present condi- tions of infectious disease control in the Colony, this cannot be taken as a fact.
Similarly, the absence of records of any plague-infected rats for the same period must be viewed with equal scepticism.
Although sanitary conditions and anti-plague measures have been greatly improved of recent years, it would be the greatest mistake to be led by these figures (they are no more) into a sense of false security. The rat and the plague-carrying flea still abound; the climate is ideal for their propagation and there it still a great deal of uncontrolled immigration, linked up to the mainland by an endless stream of small shipping. Precau- tions should be increased rather than relaxed.
M 167
In a detailed survey *(q.v.) of the problem in general and the rat-fleas of the Colony in particular, I have shown that the common rat-flea, here, is Xenopsylla cheopis and that the general Cheopis Index is as high as 4.82. As many as 50 of these potential plague-carrying fleas were found on one rat.
Taking the figures of Seasonal Plague incidence for the last ten years, it is shown that the greatest number of cases occurs in May, with next highest figures in June and April, and that these months are directly correlated with the highest Cheopis counts and the maximum Relative Humidity.
The regional incidence also corresponds with the highest cheopis Indices and the largest numbers of plague-infected rats. The districts most heavily involved are those already noted for the high incidence of other diseases: namely Nos. 1A & 2A (1 & 2) and Nos. 9 & 10. a casual relation between this disease overcrowding and small-shipping activity. certainly the primary centres of danger.
There is more than and the centres of These districts are
The four cases of 1928 all occurred in Nos. 1 & 2 Districts, in the months of May, June and July.
The following table shows the monthly incidence of plague for the last ten years and decennial totals of human and rat
cases.
Month. |1919. 1920. 1921, 1922.1923, 1924. 1925, 1926, 1927 1928.
Monthly Monthly
Totals
Totals (Human) (Rat plague)
January,..
11
3
February,
6
33
March,
30
74
2
107
I
April,
94
9
247
10
365
34
May.
171 28 28 454
47
730
68
June,
132 56 64 237
49
539
40
July,
26 20 24 77
23
171
August,
4 14

29
10
63
September,.
8
3
14
October,
vember,
ecember,
00.00 4
7
12
10 2
20
10
Total,
464 138 150 ,181 148
*Preliminary Rat-flea Survey and some other notes on its Relation
to Local Plague, Hong Kong, 1928.' (H. A. Fawcett).
1
M 168
The cases of Plague recorded in the Colony since the discovery here of this disease in 1894 are given in the following table:
Year.
Cases.
Year.
Cases.
1894
*5,000
1911
269
1895
44
1912
1,857
1896
1,204
1913
408
1897
21
1914
2,146
1898
1,320
1915
144
1899
1,486
1916
39
1900
1,087
1917
38
1901
1,651
1918
266
1902
572
1919
464
1903
1,415
1920
138
1904
510
1921
150
1905
272
1922
1,181
1906
893
1923
148
1907
240
1924
0
1908
1.073
1925
0
1909
135
1926
0
1910
25
1927
0
1928
4
*This is an estimate and is probably much too low.
In the campaign against Plague, three important measures have been introduced and are now established routine procedures: (1) House-to-house cleansing and limewashing: (2) Removal of all hollow spaces in Chinese houses (such as ceilings, stairlinings, and panelling); (3) Vermin destruction.
(11) The destruction of rats and mice.
This is brought about by two means:-' -Trapping (of which bird-lime boards are the most successful) and Poisoning (Banium Carbonate). By far the greatest number of rats, however, are killed or found dead by the inhabitants end placed in numbered bins set up all over the Colony. This has been extraordinarily successful and as many as an average of 2500 rats a week are collected from these bins.
In any case, all rats are labelled and sent to the
Pathologists for examination, the results of which are then sent in to the Medical Officer of Health. Special returns are also made out for traps set, type of bait used, etc.
M 169
The rat population index (number of rats caught per hundred traps set) is about 12.
These figures for the year 1928 gave the following results:
Total number of Rats and Mice destroyed in the Colony during the year 1928-155,572. (Hong Kong, 95,312; and Kowloon, 60,266.)
Of these, none was reported from the mortuaries as Plague-infected.
(12) Other Notifiable Diseases.
No cases of the following diseases were notified during 1928; Cholera; Scarlet Fever; Relapsing Fever; Typhus Fever; Yellow Fever and Rabies.
As regards Cholera it is not clear why no cases are reported here; the disease occurs regularly in neighbouring countries.
Rabies is a constant danger (one human case and seven canine occurred in 1927) and, although a Muzzling Order is in force on the Island and all cases of dog-bite reported and watched, these regulations need to be more stringent in the Rural Areas.
At the end will be found a long list of Causes of death in the Colony for 1928 with details for districts and age-groups.
Hong Kong, May, 1929.
HUGH A. FAWCETT,
Medical Officer of Health.
LONG LIST OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
A. Epidemic, endemic and Infectious diseases
1. Enteric group:
(a) Typhoid
(b) Paratyphoid
2. Typhus
3. Relapsing fever
4. Undulant fever
5. Malaria
(a) Benign Tertian
(b) Quartan
(c) Subtertian
(d) Cachexia
(e) Mixed or undefined.
6. Small Pox (Variola)
7. Measles (Morbilli)
8. Scarlet fever
9. Whooping cough (Pertussis)
10. Diphtheria
M 170
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL. SERVICES.
VICTORIA.
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
British.
1
Others.
Army.
Navy.
Western.*
Central.*
:
:
:
:
:
14
:
:
:
:
:
:
Eastern.*
10
14
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1
:
:
:
:
21
تن
:
:
:
;:.
:
11. Influenza
3
Totals carried forward
2 11
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
Peak.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Kowloon (New
Population
Kowloon).
Afloat.
Address.
Unknown
GRAND TOTALS
(Diseases).
Under 1 year.
1 to 5 years.
5 to 15 years.
15 to 30 years.
30 to 60 years.
Over 60 years.
Unknown age.
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
+
5
24
1
74
4
3
15
13
38
:
:
:
1
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
F:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:..
:
:.
E
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
17
7
24
2
1
تن
11
15
46
:
6 40
2
:
Co
3
1
تن
00
6
15
19
20
100
63
125
:
:
:
:
:
1
13
323
22
2
:
:
:
1
N
1
:
:
: :
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:..
N
26 128
35 166
2
:
4.
445
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
1
F:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:.
:
2
61
L=
2
3
17
31
7
1
1
4
1
4
227
N
33333
23
29
23
139
10
1
00
304
136
99 53
14
1
1
:.
7
7
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1
7
2
:
27
17 34
10
121
:
:
:
1
13
A
:.
:
:
:
:
:
F:
:
13
1
18
27
73
:
:.
:
:
23
23
2
90 367
25
831
160
146 132
96
283
13
1
*For the purpose of this return, Victoria City is divided into three sections thus: Western H. Ds. Nos. 8, 9, 10.
Central H. Ds. Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 6A, 7, 7A.
-
Eastern
H. Ds. Nos. 1, 1A, 2A, 2.
25
831
160
146
132
96.
283
:
:
:
13
1
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
M 171
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL.
SERVICES.
VICTORIA.
British.
Others.
Army.
Navy.
Western.*
Central.*
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
Eastern.
Peak.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population
Afloat.
Kowloon (New Kowloon).
Address.
Unknown
GRAND TOTALS (Diseases).
Under 1 year.
1 to 5 years.
₺ to 15 years.
15 to 30 years.
0 to 60 years.
Uver 60 years.
Unknown age.
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
LONG LIST
OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
100
63
125
23
23
2
90
367
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
2
11
:
:
:
:
:
juf
:
:
:
:
:
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
15
:
:
7
CO
:
...
:
:
2
2
:
17
80
51
286
1
6
26
20
202
4
1
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
11
2
2
:
:
:.
:
57
:
333
36
:
36
:
N
1
:
:
:
...
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
...
:
:
:
:
:
:
Brought forward
12. Mumps (Infective parotitis)
13. Chicken-pox (Varicella)
14. Rubeola (German measles)
15. Cholera (Asiatic)
16. Epidemic diarrhoea (over one year and undefined)
17. Dysentery:-
(a) Amoebic
(b) Bacillary
(c) Undefined (and other causes)
18. Plague:
(a) Bubonic
(b) Pneumonic
(c) Septicaemic
Totals carried forward
.
2 12
163
99 176
:
:
:
¿
31
24
2
107
447
:
:.
:
:
31
2
:
4:
:
:
:
:
:
:
76 1,139 161 159 166 119 489
44
1
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
107 447
76
Unknown age.
15 to 30 years.
30 to 60 years.
Over 60 years.
5 to 15 years.
1,139
161
:
M 172
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL. SERVICES.
British.
VICTORIA,
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
Others.
Army.
Navy.
Western.*
Central.*
Eastern *
Peak.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population
Afloat.
Kowloon (New
Kowloon).
Address.
Unknown
GRAND
TOTALS (Diseases).
Under 1 year.
1 to 5 years.
LONG LIST OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
2
12
:
:
163
:
66
:.
176
:
:
31
24
2
...
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
2
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
4
10
5
:
:
:
...
159
166
119
489
44
1
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
F:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
2
...
:
:
:
:.
:
:
2
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Brought forward
19. Spirochatosis ictero-hae-
morrhagica (Weil's dis- ease)
20. Leprosy
21. Erysipelas
22. Acute Poliomyelitis
23. Encephalitis lethargica
24. Cerebro-spinal Meningitis (epidemic)
25. Dengue
26. Phlebotomus fever
27. Epidemic Dropsy
28. Glanders
29. Anthrax
30. Rabies
:
:
:
:
:
:
::.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:.
:.
:
:
:
:
1
1
:
:
:
:
D:
:
:
31. Tetanus (except of newly- born)
32. Mycoses
Totals carried forward
4 13
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
16
1
:
:.
5
:
:
LO
5
5
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:.
:
:
:..
:.
:
:
:
:
:
167
105 179
:
:.
:
...
:
:
:
31
...
:
2224
5
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
2
9
:
:.
1
:
:
...
:
2 107 454 78 || 1,164
:
:.
:
:
1
2
5
162
160
...
:..
:
:
:
172
126 499 44
1
:
Unknown age.
Address.
Unknown
GRAND TOTALS (Diseases).
Under 1 year.
1 to 5 years.
5 to 15 years.
15 to 30 years.
30 to 60 years.
Over 60 years.
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
Kowloon).
78
1,164
162
160
172
126
499
44
M 173
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL.
SERVICES.
VICTORIA.
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
LONG LIST
OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
British.
Others.
Army.
Navy.
*
Western.
Central.*
Eastern.
1
:
:
17 195
4 558
96
250
113
21
75
Co
:
158
449
113 1,731
51
160
110
280 1,033
95
2
13
Co.
85
6
39
390
3
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population Afloat.
Kowloon (New
Peak.
167 105 179
198
22
114
31
24
2 107 454
:
:
:.
5
영:
27 50
23
6 30
1
...
492 212 205
84
20
24
1
1
N
73
:
:
6
10
2
157
52
122
3
5
:
:
:
:
:
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
÷
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
10
:.
:
:
:.
:
:..
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:..
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
...
:
8
1
7
Brought forward
34. Tuberculosis:- (a) Disseminated
ary)
(Mili-
1
2
3 20
(b) Pulmonary (Phthisis)
(c) Meningeal
(d) Intestinal and perito- neal
(e) Bones and joints (f) Glandular (lymphatic)
(g) Skin (Lupus)
(h) Genito-urinary
(i) Other organs
35. Syphilis:-
(a) Secondary
(b) Tertiary
(c) Congenital and Con- ceptional
(d) Undefined
Totals carried forward
N
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:D
:
:
:
4 13
100
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
10
41
26
53
51
3
6
1,050
369
619
:.
:
244
:
oo
:
:
:
00
1
1
:
:
2
:
:
:

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
...
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
6 18
:
:
1
161
135
26
:
8
90
90
14
23
52
÷
:
2
2
4
24
74
74
4
300 1,222
213 3,976 502 712 463 469 1,684 142
1
4
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
1 to 5 years.
5 to 15 years.
15 to 30 years.
30 to 60 years.
Over 60 years.
Unknown age.
502
712
M 174
TABLES SHOWING (AUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN
COMMUNITY.
CIVIL. SERVICES.
VICTORIA.
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
Peak.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population
Afloat.
Kowloon (New Kowloon).
Unknown
Address.
GRAND TOTALS
(Diseases).
Under 1 year.
LONG LIST
OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
619
74
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
10
41
:
1,050
369
British.
Others.
Army.
Navy.
Western.*
Central.*
Eastern.*
Brought forward
36. Other Venereal diseases:
(a) Gonorrhoea (and its complications)
(b) Chancroid
(c) Granuloma Venereum
37. Other infectious diseases
B. Other General diseases
38. Beri-Beri
39. Pellagra
40. Scurvy
41. Rickets
2
:
:
:
:
:
:
139
:
:
:
:
1
1
42. Carcinoma and
sarcoma
(Malignant diseases):--
(a) Buccal
(b) Gastric and Hepatic
(c) Intestinal and Perito- neal
Totals carried forward
1
:
:
-
:
:
12 45
:
:
:
74
:
:
4
:
300 1,222
213 3,976
:
:
:
:
463
469
,684
142
:
4

:
:
:
:..
:
:..
:..
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:..
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
32
16
4
94 115
76 667
25
10
:
:
:
98 91
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
::
:
1
1
:.
7
6
6
8
10
5
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1,204 483 728
:
:
106
:
:
1
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
..
...
:
:
:
:
:
N
90
8
:
9
2
12
3
Co
:
:
18
118
:..
:
467
29
:
:
:
:
:
:
A:.
3
:
:
:
:
:
:
3
25
25
7
:
:
46
19
25
:
:
:
:
4,728
528 722 481 592 2,195
206
4
5
35
~
301 398 1,358
.
.com
M 175
528
722
481
592 2,195
:
206
4
7
7
2
:
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL SERVICES.
British.
Others.
Army.
VICTORIA.
Navy.
Western.*
Central.*
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
Eastern.
Peak.
Shaukiwan.
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population Afloat.
Kowloon (New Kowloon).
Address.
Unknown
GRAND TOTALS (Diseases).
Under 1 year.
I to 5 years.
₺ to 15 years.
j5 to 30 years.
:.0 to 60 years.
Uver 60 years.
Unknown age.
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
LONG LIST
OF
CAUSES OF DEATH.
(Based on International list 1926).
Brought forward
12 45
(d) Of
Female genital
organs
2
1,204 483 723
:
:
1
3
00
:
106
90
10
2
· 15
2
8
398 1,358
301
4,728
1.
2
*3
:
:
GO
1
36
1
:
:
:
LO
:
:
:
:
CR
11
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
::
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

:
1
1
1
:
:
:
(e) Of Breast
(f) Dermal
(g) Of other organs
48. Non-malignant tumours
44. Rheumatism:
(a) Acute
(b) Chronic
45. Diabetes mellitus
46. Diseases of Pituitary
gland:--
(a) Acromegaly
(b) Diabetes insipidus
47 Diseases of Thyroid gland:---
(a) Exophthalmic goitre
; }
1
1
6
1
:
(b) Myxoedema (and cretinism)
Totals carried forward
15
50
:
1
:
1
:
:
1
1,219
497 748
106
90
8
1
22222223
11
4
1
:
:
:
:
1
2
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
+
1
9
1
:
:
:.
:
:
...
:
:.
:
:
:
:
..
:
...
:
3
:
404 1,366 302 || 4,805 528 723 482 622 2,234 212
:
4
Aberdeen.
Hong Kong.
Villages of
Population
Afloat.
Kowloon (New
Kowloon).
Address.
Unknown
(Diseases).
GRAND TOTALS
Under 1 year.
1 to 5 years.
5 to 15 years.
15 to 30 years.
30 to 60 years.
Over 60 years.
Unknown age.
TOTALS AT DIFFERENT AGE
PERIODS.
M 176
TABLES SHOWING CAUSES AND NUMBERS OF DEATHS REGISTERED IN 1928.
(Ages, Communities and Districts).
CHINESE COMMUNITY (by Districts).
FOREIGN COMMUNITY.
CIVIL. SERVICES.
VICTORIA,
LONG LIST
OF
CAUSES OF DEATII.
(Based on International
list 1926).
Others.
Army.
Navy.
Western.
British.
Brought forward
151
50
48. Diseases of Thymus (Status Lymphaticus)
:
Central.*
Eastern *
1,219
497
Shaukiwan.
Peak.
748
106
:
90
:
:
:
:
:
...
:
8
:
:
:.
:
404 1,366
302
4,805
528
723 482
622 2,234
212
:
:
:
.:.
:
:.
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:..
:
49. Diseases of Suprarenal glands (Addison's disease).
50. Diseases of Spleen:
(a) Splenic anaemia (Banti)
(b) Infarct
(c) Other
51. Anaemia :
(a) Pernicious
(b) Secondary
(c) Chlorosis
52. Leukaemias :
(a) Leukaemia
(Splenomedullary)
(b) Lymphadenoma
(Hodgkin's disease)
.....
:
:
:
:
:
:
F:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Totals carried forward 15 51
:
1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
00
:.
:

:
F:
:
:
1,220 500 752
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:
106
:.
:
:
:
1
2
:
:
:
:
:
:.
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
12
:
:
:
...
4
:
F:
:
:
:
...
:
:
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
1
3
7
1
:
:
:
90
8 405 1,368
302
:
:
:
:
:
A
:.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
4,817 528 723 483 625 2,241 213
:
4
Appendix N.
HONG KONG.
REPORT ON THE BOTANICAL AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR 1928.
GENERAL REMARKS.
The weather throughout the whole year was very favourable for both gardening and forestry operations, the fourth quarter was exceptionally dry and sunny and winter-flowering shrubs, trees and annuals were much better than during the past few years.
Typhoon signals were hoisted on only two occasions during the year and no damage was done to either plantations or roadside trees by gales which usually destroy large numbers of young trees during the latter part of the year.
The rainfall for the year was 80.89 inches in 138 days as against 120.12 inches on 176 days in 1927.
GARDENS, PARKS AND GROUNDS."
Botanic Gardens.-A granite memorial in the shape of a Pai Lau was erected at the top of the main entrance steps in the Old Garden by the Imperial War Graves Commission in memory of the Chinese in the service of the British Government who died through enemy action during the Great War 1914-
1918.
Two rockeries were removed to make room for the memorial.
A very large specimen of Banian (Ficus retusa) adjoining the Azalea terraces, which was one of the oldest trees in the gardens, died and was removed.
ance
Grass Caterpillars (Thialleta signifera) made their appear- on lawns during the autumn; they were destroyed by dressings of diluted Jeyes Fluid, the dressings are most effective when applied at night.
The outhouses in the nursery yard were accidentally des- troyed by fire on October 11th; prompt action by the clerical staff prevented the fire from spreading to the office.
A portion of the aviary was repaired by the Public Works Department and all woodwork in one section was replaced by concrete.
!
N 2
Three concerts were given on the lower terrace of the Old Garden during the year by the Band of the King's Own Scottish Borderers.
The total number of trees, shrubs and plants sold during the year was 1,886.
Government House Grounds.-A number of Chrysalidocar- pus lutescens were planted to form a screen on the east side of the guard house.
Tennis lawns were regularly watered during the dry season and were further given such attention as they required, grass banks were regularly cleared of undergrowth.
The whole of the interior of the house was decorated on June 4th the occasion of the Birthday of His Majesty the King, portions of the house were decorated on several other occasions during the year.
Mountain Lodge Grounds.-A number of young trees of Cupressus macrocarpa, Cuninghamia sinensis and Casuarina equisetifolia were planted in various portions of the grounds to replace those destroyed by the gale during the previous year.
Lawns were given such attention as they required and the valley was cleared of undesirable undergrowth.
Colonial Cemetery.-A number of Chrysalidocarpus lutescens were planted as a screen near the caretakers' quarters.
The grass plots on either side of the central walk were planted with a row of Phoenix Roebelini.
A number of tress overgrowing and likely to cause damage to headstones were removed.
All grass plots and banks were given such attention as they required.
Kowloon Hospital Grounds.-The extensive grounds of this hospital were taken over by this Department in January.
The major portion of the grounds was laid out as lawns and grass slopes, and in suitable areas flowering shrubs and Palms were planted; owing to the force of the wind which blows across the grounds during the greater part of the year the flowering shrubs have not grown well.
Bamboo hedges were planted to act as screen between the various blocks of quarters.
A row of shade trees (Aleurites triloba) was planted by the side of the main approach road.
N 3
Children's Playground, Queen's Gardens.-The lawn at the west end of Queen's Gardens was taken over by this Department in January and maintained as a playground for use. of children of occupiers of the adjoining Government Quarters.
Blake Garden, West End Park, King's Park, Civil Hospital, Lunatic Asylum, Senior Officers' Quarters, Leighton Hill, Indian School, Volunteer Headquarters, Statue Square Plots, Victoria Hospital, Homestead Quarters, Government Pavilions and Villas, Royal Observatory and Kowloon Magistracy. The grounds or such portions of them as are under the control of this Depart- ment were kept in order during the year, additional planting of trees was carried on, grass lawns, banks, trees and shrubs were given such attention as they required.
Statue Pier.-The pier was decorated with pot plants several times during the year on the occasions of the landing of persons paying official visits to the Colony.
The Eyrie.-The grounds were maintained by this Depart- ment up to July 5th when it was handed over to the Public Works Department.
HERBARIUM AND LIBRARY.
Since the treating of the interior of the building with Hydrocyanic Gas by the Government Analyst in June 1927 no live insects have been found among the books, and plant speci-
mens.
Plant specimens of botanical interest and economic value were identified for local collectors and collectors outside the Colony, dried plant specimens were supplied to various institu- tions outside the Colony.
Facilities for study were afforded to visiting botanists who passed through the Colony, from time to time.
FORESTRY.
Formation of Pine Tree Plantations.-The number of in situ sowings of seed of Pinus Massoniana amounted to 196,000 during the year, the areas which were reafforested by this method were Mount Collison, West Bay, Stanley Catchwater, Pokfulam Valley, Kowloon Bay, Castle Peak, Shek Li Pui Reservoir area, Kowloon Tsai, Taipo Forestry Reserve and Ping Shan.
On suitable areas a total of 1,666 pounds of Pinus Masson- iana and 155 pounds. of Leucaena glauca were sown by the broadcast method.
Broad-leaved Trees Planted.-Groups of the following trees. were planted in the most suitable areas in the Colony, the major portion of such work being carried out in Taipo Forestry Reserve and Mount Collison Prohibited Area:-Acacia confusa, Acacia
:
N 4
pennata, Bischofia javanica, Leucaena glauca, Spondis lutea, Sapium sebiferum, Aleurites Fordii, Erythrina Crista-galli, Gleditschia australis and Adenanthera intermedia.
Miscellaneous Planting.-The planting of trees on roadsides and vacant plots to replace those killed by the severe gales of 1927 was carried on up to the end of the year.
On banks which are not allocated as playing fields in King's Park 203 mixed flowering trees and shrubs and 760 creepers were planted, serious damage was done to trees, shrubs and creepers by goats which are from time to time grazed in the Park.
On the low hills adjoining Fan Ling golf course 500 mixed trees were planted.
The open space adjoining Taipo Market was planted with Banian cuttings, all were doing well at the end of the year.
Trees Felled.-In connection with traffic requirements large shade trees were removed from the following areas: -Canton Road, Kowloon, adjoining Naval Hospital, Queen's Road East, Wood Road, Wanchai, Nathan Road, Kowloon.
Fellings of Pine and wild trees were carried out in areas damaged by fire and in connection with the development of building sites and extension of roads.
Undergrowth Clearing.-The total area cleared in connection with anti-malarial measures amounted to 5,310,345 square feet, for other purposes such as cutting of traces for surveys, nullah training, road making and other public improvements the areas cleared amounted to 1,083,225 square feet.
Insect Pests.-Pine Tree Caterpillars (Dendrolimus puncta- tus) made their appearance in large numbers during the early months of the year in many parts of the Colony, the usual method of destruction by collection and burying was carried out and a total amount so dealt with amounted to 14,505 pounds.
Protection of Plantations.-All fire barriers were cleared be- fore the commencement of the dry season, in Taipo Forestry Reserve a new section of barrier three miles in length was made, at Mount Collinson Prohibited Area the barrier undoubtedly saved the majority of the young trees in the area from total destruction.
During the year 68 fires occurred, no very serious damage was done to Pine plantations, the majority of the fires appeared to be caused by the careless dropping of lighted matches or tobacco; one man was apprehended at Wanchai Gap on February 17th in the act of deliberately setting fire to grass and young trees, he was subsequently convicted and imprisoned.
N 5-
Twenty-five of the fires occurred on the days of the Ching Ming and Chung Yeung Festivals, eleven of this number com- menced in cemeteries and were due to careless handling of fire- crackers or sacrificial papers.
During the driest seasons of the year a continuous watch was maintained for plantation and grass fires, a senior forester was on duty at the office telephones on all holidays and Sundays, and by this means a lorry and foresters could be sent out to the scene of the fires within a few minutes of a telephone report being received.
Mount Collinson Prohibited Area. The prohibition of entry to this area in order to prevent damage to the trees contained in it has so far been successful and has undoubtedly saved large numbers of trees from being destroyed by theft and fire, there were no prosecutions in respect of unauthorised persons entering the area and the only damage during the whole year was a very small amount of grass-cutting and one case of petty damage to the iron notices.
Forest Guards Service.-The total number of persons arrested and charged with forestry offences during the year was 281 as against 355 in the preceding year, of these 248 were fined or imprisoned, 25 cautioned, 6 were discharged and 2 bound
over.
Full particulars of these cases are given in Tables I and II.
Seven persons who were convicted of a second and in some cases of a third or fourth forestry offence were banished during the year, during 1927 fifteen persons were banished for similar offences, the absence of these persons from the Colony has undoubtedly had the effect of preserving many valuable trees which were constantly being felled and sold as firewood.
Two contractors paid compensation for damage to trees in plantations, the first the sum of $50 in respect of damage caused by unauthorised removal of earth, the second $100 in respect of damage caused by careless removal of boulders.
The notices which are posted in all parts of the Colony prior to the Chinese New Year appear to be bringing about the desired effect of lessening the heavy damage to the Chinese New Year Flower (Enkianthus quinqueflorus), damage to this beauti- ful flowering shrub was much less than during the past several years.
Forest Service Paths.-The extension of the path, which will eventually give access to all parts of Taipo Forestry Reserve was in progress at the end of the year, all old paths were given such attention as they required.
Forestry Licences, New Territories.-Fees collected during the year amounted to $3,734.92 as against $4,099.70 in 1927.
N 6
AGRICULTURE ETC.
The New Territories Agricultural Show, which was held for the first time in December 1927, was not repeated during 1928 as it was found that better results could be obtained by holding the show early in January in the following year.
The cultivation of foreign vegetables is still on the increase in many parts of the Colony.
Inspection of Nursery Stock and Vegetable Products.- Thirteen consignments totalling 17,340 bulbs of Narcissus Tazetta were inspected and passed for export to the United States of America and Honolulu, six consignments totalling 195,960 bulbs were inspected and passed for export to Britain and British Colonies.
Ninety-eight consignments of dried and fresh vegetable products were inspected and passed for export to the Philippine Islands.
SEED COLLECTION.
Seeds of the following were collected for local use and for the purpose of exchange:-Callistemon lanceolata, Ficus retusa, Sterculia lanceolata, Tristania conferta, Cassia fistula, Bauhinia variegata, Leucaena glauca, Glyptostrobus heterophyllus, Acacia pennata, Cunninghamia sinensis, Casuarina equisetifolia, Pinus Massoniana, Aleurites triloba, Aleurites Fordii, Aleurites mon- tana, Poinciana regia, Cinnamomum Camphora, Callistemon rigidus, Melia
Melia Azedarach, Garcinia oblongifolia, Atalantia Hindsii, Bischofia javanica, Ardisia crispa, Celtis sinensis, Albizzia Lebbek, Melaleuca Leucadendron, Eucalyptus tereticor- nis, Strychnos angustifolia and Liquidambar chinensis.
EXCHANGE OF SEEDS, &C.
The Department is indebted to the following donors of seeds, plants &c. :-Curator, Lloyd Botanic Garden, Darjeeling, India; Director, Department of Agriculture, Ceylon; Registrar, University of Hong Kong; The Director, R. H. S. Gardens, Surrey; Director of Forestry, Manila; Rev. R. H. Wells; Pro- fessor Juan Balme, Mexico; Mow Fong Garden and Messrs. Hsen-Hsu Hu; Woon Yung Chun; H. H. Seth; S. C. Le Tickle; P. J. Wester (Manila); H. Humphreys; W. Dixson (Sydney) and A. Kol (Leningrad, U.S.S.R.).
The following were the principal recipients :-Director, recipients:-Director, Daghestan Agricultural Plant-Breeding Station, Caucasus; De- partments of Agriculture, Bermuda; Ceylon; Java; Assistant Inspector, Department of Agriculture, Vancouver, B. C.; Curator, Lloyd Botanic Garden, Darjeeling, India; Subadar Tota Ram, 4th Punjabi Regiment, India; General Li Fuk Lam; Father E. Teruzzi, Catholic Mission; Elders, Chung Pak Long,
N 7
(N.T.); Mow Fong Garden and Messrs. Tang Pak Kau (N.T.); P. J. Wester (Manila); H. Humphreys; Chan Kwai (N.T.); II. Campbell (Cyprus); H. D. Mclaren; John Williams Son and Sharp (England) and Messrs. Sanders (England).
REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE,
Statements of the Revenue collected by the Department and comparison of Revenue and Expenditure are given in Tables III and IV.
STAFF.
The Superintendent proceeded on leaves on March 31st and returned and resumed duty on November 23rd.
The Assistant Superintendent returned from leave and resumed duty on February 3rd and was in charge of the Depart- ment during the Superintendent's absence.
Foreman Forester Wong Sin retired on pension on August 31st after nineteen years service.
15th March, 1929.
H
GREEN,
Superintendent.
N 8
Table I.
FOREST GUARDS SERVICE OFFENCE
REPORT OF: —
Trespassing
Setting
Assault on
fire on
Forest
plantation.plantation.
Guard.
ine tree
needle
tealing.
Pine cone
stealing.
Barking Brushwood Grass pine tree. stealing.
Wild
Cattle
Bamboo Fern cutting. stealing. stealing.
flower
stealing.
Tree root
stealing.
Turf
lifting.
grazing in plantation.
Seed
stealing.
upon
13
22
4
2
· 13
3
31
1
97
4
15
2
85
8
2
arrested for damage to plantation by digging and removing blacksoil.
8
1
2
1
1
1
10
2
1
1
1
5
14
4
3
3
48
Co
3
8
5
20
$50 compensation paid, man not charged.
4
98
3
2
118
10
"
Village or District.
Block
Compartment.
Pine tree
stealing.
Pine trec
branch
stealing.
Pine tree
ncedle
stealing.
N 8
Table I.
FOREST GUARDS SERVICE OFFENCE
REPORT OF:-
Pine cone
stealing.
Barking Brushwood Grass Bamboo pine tree. stealing. cutting. stealing.
Fern
stealing.
Wild
flower
stealing.
Tree r
stealin
Victoria Wongneichung
Shaukiwan
Tytam
Stanley
Aberdeen
Pokfulam
123410 COD
A.C.D.G.
1
A.B.C.D.
2
A.B.C.D.E.F.
4
1
3
13
A.C.
1
A.
4
A.B.F.
1
22
B.D.E.G.
8
4
4
Kowloon
8
B.
2
2
Harbour Belt
A.B.C.D.
17
4
1
13
Cheungshawan
10
4
1
3
Kang Hau
11
New Territories.
12
المصار
1
احد
4
31
4
Total for 1928
47
16
Total for 1927
76
20
15
1
97
4
2
85
8
2
6
1
2
1
1
1
10
2
2
1
1
One man was arrested for damage to plantation by digging and removing blacksoil. $50 compensation paid, man
Appendix O.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF EDUCATION FOR THE YEAR, 1928.
Staff.
Summary of Contents.
Pupils in Government Schools.
British Schools.
English Teaching Government Schools (for other than
British Pupils).
Grant Schools.
Vernacular Schools.
The Technical Institute. ·
Board of Education.
Board of Examiners.
Health.
Revenue and Expenditure.
Annexes.
A. Report of the Inspector of English Schools.
B.-
C.-
Director, Technical Institute.
Inspector of Vernacular Schools, Urban
Districts and Rural Districts.
Tables.
I. Board of Education.
II. Board of Examiners.
III.
-Government Schools.
IV. Grant Schools.
V.-Amount of Fees Remitted to Free Scholars during 1928.
VI.-Chart shewing numbers in Schools 1901-1928.
VII-University, External Examinations.
VIII. Technical Institute.
0 2
1.-STAFF.
Mr. T. J. Price, B.Sc. joined the Staff on appointment from England.
I have to report with deep regret the loss to this department by the death of Mr. R. J. Birbeck, M. A., who died in June. while on leave, after twenty-five years service. A portrait of him was unveiled in Wantsai School where for many years he had been Headmaster and was held in affectionate esteem.
At the end of the year the staff consisted of:-
---
Inspectors,
Sub-Inspectors,
Teachers,.......
British.
Non-British.
Total
Men
Women
Men
Women
2
4
6
:
8
27
56
133
30
246
Total......
29
56
145
30
260
Four Students-in-Training and one Educational Scholar graduated at the University and were appointed to masterships in Government Schools.
At the end of the year the number of University Trained Teachers Graduated on the staff was 22.
2.-PUPILS IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.
Particulars and Statistics of the various Government Schools are given in Table III.
A.-British Schools.
For the last 8 years Kowloon Junior School has been housed in the Gun Club Hill School Building leased by Government from the Military Authorities. In the autumn of 1928 notice was given by the latter of their intention to terminate this lease on January 31st, 1929, as the building would thenceforward he required for purposes of a Garrison School,
Ľ
3
0 3
Satisfactory arrangements were made to adapt "Parkside" to the uses of the Kowloon Junior School, and were nearing com- pletion at the end of the year.
A valuable extension to the Central British School was made during the year.
This took the form of an Annexe at the back of the main building and consists of four spacious classrooms and a cloakroom. One of these rooms is specially furnished as, an Art Room.
The total number of pupils on roll at the 5 schools, Central British, Kowloon Junior, Peak, Victoria British and Quarry Bay was 436. In 1927 it was 409.
B.-English-teaching Government Schools. (for other than British pupils.)
The total number of pupils on roll in 1928 was 3,238 as against 3,119 in 1927.
King's College which had been used by the Military Authorities as an emergency hospital in 1927 performed its proper function throughout 1928, and in December 1928 the number of pupils on its roll was 619 as against 496 in December 1926.
The four Government Schools (Queen's, King's, Belilios and Central British) which enter pupils for the Hong Kong University Matriculation, Senior and Junior Local Examinations did very well this year, with a total of 141 passes and 48 failures.
A report on the work throughout these schools is given in Annexe A.
In December the new school at Cheung Chau was completed and occupied. At last after 21 years we are in a permanent building of our own. It is a fine brick building, of which the P.W.D. may well be proud, with accommodation for 150 pupils and up-to-date equipment.
A munificent endowment to provide free scholarships was made by Mr. Woo Hay Tong, an old boy of Queen's College. He has drawn up an Indenture by which a sum representing a present income of some $8,400 a year is secured for the pro- vision of free scholarships distributed through all the Government Anglo-Chinese Schools, and for substantial provision of a similar kind at St. Joseph's College, the Diocesan Boys' School and the Diocesan Girls' School.
Another generous gift to education was made by the late Mr. Tsoi Kung-po who bequeathed a sum of $10,000 for pro- vision of free scholarships.
C.--Grant Schools.
In April a Branch of Wah Yan College at Mong Kok was formally opened by the Director of Education. It is in a new building, towards which the Government assisted with a Build- ing Grant of $10,000., and has accommodation for some 370 pupils.
A substantial grant was also made to the Diocesan Girls' School towards the cost of an excellent covered playground and other desirable improvements to the school building.
The Ying Wa Girls' School completed its fine new premises in Bonham Road towards which Government has in all con- tributed $50,000 under the provisions of the Code. The final $9,000 of this sum was paid in 1928.
Much good work is done in the Grant Schools, which are 11 in number with a total of 4,257 pupils.
The tendency to premature promotion, though not so marked as it has been in the past, is still an observable weakness.
D.-Vernacular Schools.
The competition to enter the Government Vernacular Middle School is shown by the large number of candidates (235) who sat for the entrance examination.
2
The special Final Examination of the Middle School Divi- sion, was again conducted by the Hong Kong University.
Two pupils were successful and they, together with the four who passed in 1927, are to enter the new School of Chinese Studies which is to open at the University in 1929.
It is once more a pleasure to refer to the Vernacular Normal School for Women which continues to do admirable work. Some of the 4th year Normal Students who have just passed out are fit to take their place as advanced Vernacular Teachers any- where.
The number of private Urban Vernacular Day Schools was 658 with a maximum enrolment of 36,642 as against 590 and 81,010 in 1927.
Of these pupils, 12,432 were girls. 218 or one-third of the total number of these schools, received Subsidies from Govern- ment totalling $92,280 as against 196 and $88,100 in 1927.
i
There were also 20 Private Vernacular Night Schools with a maximum enrolment of 423.
0 5
Rural Vernacular Schools at the end of the year numbered 182 with a maximum enrolment of 5,290 as against 185 and 5,375 in 1927. More than half, viz. 101 schools with 3,538 pupils received subsidies from Government totalling $12,985, a slight increase on the 1927 figures.
The local interest in Vernacular Studies, so marked in the last few years, has been well maintained. Figures are by no means everything, but they reflect a tendency, and it is interest- ing to note the Vernacular pupil totals of 1918, 1923 and 1928, which are respectively some 16,500, 29,000 and 42,000.
E.-Technical Institute.
The Technical Institute designed to supply instruction in various subjects for those desiring the opportunity of evening study, was well attended. Details are given in Table VIII.
3.—BOARD OF EDUCATION.
The Board met six times during the year.
The calamity of Mrs. Hickling's death removed one of the original members of the Board and a personality that cannot be replaced.
A further loss was suffered in the resignation on retirement of Dr. T. W. Pearce, another old friend and staunch supporter.
Mr. H. K. Woo and the Rev. F. Short were appointed to the Board in February and April respectively.
4.-BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
The Board met 29 times and held 7 examinations of Hong Kong Cadets, 26 examinations of subordinate officers under G.O. 115, 11 examinations of officers studying for Bonus under G.O. 120, 1 examination of Interpreter and 9 examinations of F.M.S. and S.S. Cadets and police probationers.
In addition to this, Language Examinations of Police Officers and Gaol Warders were conducted by the Sub-committee at the Police Head Quarters every Tuesday afternoon.
4.-HEALTH.
The following extracts are from the report of the Medical Officer for Schools, Dr. E. M. Minett.
Dr. Minett was in England for the greater part of the year, and during that time her place was very efficiently filled by Dr. (Mrs.) I. M. Stancliff.
6
"Only the Entrant Group was inspected this includes children of all ages, the majority of entrants in the Anglo-Chinese schools are to the lowest class, where age must be under 13, but entrants come also to other classes, at a higher age. In the British schools, entrants may have been at other schools abroad so that here also, the "Entrant Group" is of no definite age as it is in England.
"Specials" have usually been seen with the Entrants, and have been counted with them. Full advantage is not yet taken by the teachers of the school medical service, and many teachers do not yet note the defects that are out-standing in members of their classes. Vision defects are usually noted.
Re-inspection of children found defective.
A larger percentage than formerly of the children inspected have been found defective. This is partly due to slightly dif- ferent methods employed this year. In former years neither a small 'fixed defect' such as a deflected nasal septum, nor a transitory defect such as nasal catarrh in damp weather, were counted; stress being laid on the more remediable defects. One defect, such as decaying teeth, is likely to be accompanied by others, such as enlarged tonsils, growth of adenoids, mouth breathing, enlarged neck glands, and subnormal lung develop- ment, but in recent cases, remedy of the outstanding defect-in this case, dental treatment, will certainly improve, if not en- tirely cure, the accompanying conditions. It is therefore often a matter of "personal equation" whether such a case be noted as "defect-1-dental" or "defects-6-tonsils, adenoids, glands, etc." This alters numbers very considerably.
Vision defect still stands out, as in former years. This is the only defect for which satisfactory treatment is given, Dr. Morrison making refractional and retinoscopic examinations of all children found to be defective, in Anglo-Chinese schools.
The figures of Dr. Morrison's clinic have been
Cases seen
Provided with glass
1926
1927
1928
258
215
225
215
169
192
Myopia accounts for over 75% of the total defect. Possibly the Chinese as a race have a tendency towards myopia, research on the earliest ages at which it is found is much needed. This could be done only in Vernacular Schools, where children enter before learning to read. Most of our "entrants" have already spent from 3 to 7 years on Chinese reading and writing.
- 07
School clinics are much needed, and one hopes for their establishment later. A larger number of British parents are coming each year for interviews and advice, having been accus- tomed to the Medical Service in Schools in England. Only a few Chinese parents attended inspections, but now that health visiting has begun, there is no doubt that more interest will be taken.
Whooping Cough. A brisk epidemic of this disease occurred during the months January to June-cases occurring in all the British Schools, varying in numbers from 1 at Central British School to 14 at Victoria British School and 22 at the Peak School. Closure, complete and partial, was made but closure tends to have little effect when children are allowed to meet at play and at various entertainments out of school. In many cases children's first signs of illness are noticed earlier in class than at home. For the comfort of parents it might be said that the infections common here, measles, whooping cough, chicken- pox, mumps, diphtheria, run a much milder course in this sunny climate than at home, chest or other complications being rarely
seen.
Two teachers were quarantined during the year on account of illness among their own children.
Cases of Chickenpox, Diphtheria, Mumps and Typhoid were also reported upon by the Medical Officer for Schools.
Tuberculosis is of very grave importance in the Colony.
We are trying to prevent all spitting on school premises, and to dispense with spittoons in boarding-schools, but progress in this direction is necessarily slow where the habit is so constant in the streets.
Schools of a more open air type are gradually coming into being, and this is one step in the right direction.
Nutrition. It has not been possible to make any advance in data this year. As was foreshadowed in last year's report, our results are not so over average as they seemed the English standard has definitely improved within the time since the reports we had. for comparison were published.
Efforts are made to impress on children the value of a clean tuck shop, and of a meal between morning and afternoon study. Where playgrounds are provided and boys go on from school to games, this is particularly necessary. A few school tuckshops give opportunity for a nutritious cooked meal being taken.
Hygiene is now a compulsory subject in each year of the Teachers' Course of theTechnical Institute, and is also entering as. an essential part" into the educational course at the Univer- sity.
<
Physical training has been somewhat increased in the
schools.
Domestic Science may be offered for the Junior and Senior Locals, but is apt to be treated as a "book learning" subject, and cookery, housecraft, and infant welfare is taken practically in very few schools.
School Nurse's Work.-This, by our trained nurse Miss Sham Yan Lim, has been much increased in usefulness this year.
She has visited 105 homes, from which children who were found to have some remediable defect, came to school. Many of the parents were unwilling to take steps towards remedying unhealthy conditions, but in a large number of cases, mothers were glad to have an opportunity of getting information which might help them to make healthier homes. In only one case was Nurse refused admittance.
Lectures, with and without lantern slide illustration, have been given, chiefly by Nurse, a few by the Medical Officer to a vernacular school, a young amahs' class, and one or two other gatherings where health is being discussed.
Our senior girls are being encouraged to join the Nursing division of St. John Ambulance Brigade, and Girl Guide work is gaining ground, and improving health, in several of the schools.
All Government Schools (Anglo-Chinese and British) were inspected during the year. Various improvements have been made, usually in the form of better lighting, better patterns or grading of desks, and improved flushing or cleaning of latrines.
Sanitary arrangements, cloakrooms, lavatories, and latrines, are receiving more attention as parts of school premises not less important to education than classrooms.
Half yearly inspection of eleven Grant Schools were made, particular attention being paid to dormitories and rooms of boarders.
Various improvements of premises have been carried out, chiefly in the direction of more light, more air, more space, and more exereise”.
9
7. REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE.
The only Revenue collected by this Department comes from school fees, which amounted in 1928 to $177,392.76 as against $121,981.75 in 1927.
The Expenditure was $1,103,540.35 an increase of $12,117.14 over the previous year. These figures do not include Expendi- ture on School Buildings or Furniture which are debited to Public Works.
The increase was mainly due to expenditure under Personal Emoluments and Equipment.
27th February, 1929.
A. E. WOOD,
Director of Education
O 10
Annexe A.
REPORT ON ENGLISH-TEACHING SCHOOLS.
GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.
¡
(Table III).
Queen's College :--Head Master, Mr. A. H. Crook, M. A.
The Maximum Enrolment was 647.
The Average Attendance was 587.
108 new boys from the Government District Schools were admitted to Class 3. Boys admitted from these Schools usually have had a thorough grounding in elementary subjects and do well in the Upper School of Queen's College.
All pupils in Class 2 take the Junior Local Examination and all in Class 1 take the Matriculation or the Senior Local of the Hong Kong University. At the last examination 83 boys sat for the Junior Local Examination of these 53 passed gaining 41 distinctions. In the Senior Local and Matriculation Examina- tion 36 candidates sat, and of these 24 passed, eight of them gaining honours with a total of 21 distinctions. These excellent results indicate the painstaking work of the staff.
The health of the school was good.
Sports were carried on much as usual. Through the kind- ness of the Chinese Bathing Club the annual swimming gala was held at their bathing enclosure at North Point. Other sports, volley-ball, basket-ball, football, tennis and cricket were carried on with vigour. To avoid the danger of sports suffering from too much specialization by particular persons inter-class games were encouraged more than inter-school competition.
The Old Boys' Association continues to take a deep interest in the school and provides some of the scholarships and prizes During the year it suffered the sad loss of its President Mr. Lee Hy-san who had formerly been a pupil and a teacher in the College. An other old boy, Mr. Woo Hei Tong has made the munificent donation of the interest on $100,000 to provide scholarships in the local schools.
The Yellow Dragon, the school magazine, has entered it thirtieth year of continued existence. It has certainly justified its name.
J
ľ
0 11
The removal of the Technical Institute students from the basement laboratory provided a room that could be set apart for geography--a subject of great educative value. This room is equipped with beautiful relief models and many instruments.
The boys continue to take meteorological readings every morning. These include temperature, rainfall, humidity, and barometric pressure. Type-writing has been introduced to the commercial division of the matriculation class.
King's College:-Head Master, Mr. A. Morris, A.C.P.
The Maximum Enrolment was 697.
The Average Attendance was 637.
For the first time pupils were entered for the University examinations. Of seven who sat for the Matriculation and Senior Local, four passed the Matriculation, one with Honours, and have entered the University, and two passed the Senior Local. Of 29 who sat for the Junior Local Examinations, 23 passed with 28 distinctions.
Among the numerous school activities are Ambulance work for senior pupils and scouting for juniors; the latter is unfor- tunately not very flourishing but the Ambulance Division is very efficient and very energetic, and among other activities vac- cinated 27,601 Chinese during the recent campaign.
Discipline was well maintained under pleasant conditions.
The Staff consisted of 3 European Masters, 10 European Lady Teachers, 2 Chinese Lady Teachers, 6 Local University Graduates, 6 Technical Institute Trained Masters, 7 Vernacular Masters, and one Drill Instructor.
Sports were enthusiastically engaged in notwithstanding the absence of a suitable playing field, the provision of which is being considered by the Government.
Ping Pong, Volley-ball, Basket-ball and Tennis were played, and advantage was taken of the Swimming Pool, Gymnasiura and the Handicraft Room.
The Medical Officer of Schools commented on the improve- ment in "chest" development.
The School was visited and much admired by.educationalists from Japan, North China, Formosa, Canton, Australia and England.
O 12
Ellis Kadoorie School-Head Master, Mr. F. J. de Rome, B.Sc.
The Maximum Enrolment was 442 (483 in 1927)
The Average Attendance was 406.
At the Annual Examination for Class 4 90% passed, in the other Classes 96% passed.
A History Room has been fitted with splendid maps, charts and pictures and is a valuable aid to the teaching of this subject.
The Old General Readers are gradually being replaced by new Readers written by an educational expert in India.
The Teacher's Library has been largely increased and now contains about 700 volumes.
A Volley-ball court has been relaid by the P.W.D. It is also used for Tennis.
This school won the Senior Volley-ball Shield, open to all schools. Basket-ball and Football were also played. Many boys were taught to swim at Kennedy Town Beach.
Many educational excursions were made on the island, in the New Territories, and round the harbour. Several industrial undertakings were visited.
The health of the boys has been very good. This is evidenced by the more regular attendance.
Yaumati School-Head Master for most of the year Mr. C. Mycock.
1,
The Maximum Enrolment was 272 (280 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 254.
The School suffered a severe loss in the death of Mr. Tam Cheuk Kai, a very able and conscientious teacher.
The health of the boys was good, but there was a consider- able amount of illness among the staff,
tion.
Some improvement was made in the lavatory accommoda-
At the Annual Examination 243 boys were examined and 202 passed.
The Library though lacking funds continues to develop.
The King's Park ground was the scene of many football matches. Volley ball was also played. At the Annual Sports Meeting much enthusiasm was shown, the Jumping being parti- cularly good.
-
J
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O 13
Wantsai School-Head Master for most of the year, Mr. E. J. Edwards.
The Maximum Enrolment was 211 (210 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 199 or 97%.
On June 28th the sad news of the death of Mr. R. J. Birbeck, who was on Home Leave, was received.
He was headmaster of this School for nearly ten years and had rendered valuable service in the Education Department for more than twenty years.
In the Annual Examination out of 189 boys examined 171 passed. At the Entrance Examination to Queen's College and King's College 49 out of 55 passed.
The discipline was good.
The boys took a keen interest in Football, Volley-ball and Basket-ball. Swimming at North Point was very popular.
Gap Road School:-Head Master, Mr. Lo Yuk Lun.
The Maximum Enrolment was 154 (143 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 149 (132 in 1927).
The School is doing excellent work, and is a splendid feeder to Wantsai School. Its attendance records are particularly good.
Health and discipline are satisfactory.
Football in the adjacent valley is very popular.
Tai Po School-Head Master, Mr. Fung So.
The Maximum Enrolment was 67 (68 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 54 (57 in 1927).
Good work is done in this School.
English Composition and Colloquial need special attention. The majority of the boys promoted to Yaumati School show weakness in these subjects. It may be accounted for by the country environment.
Health and discipline are satisfactory.
Un Long School-Head Master, Mr. Lee King Shum.
The Maximum Enrolment was 67 (56 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 50 (46 in 1927).
O 14
At the Annual Examination 36 boys passed out of 37 ex- amined.
Health and discipline are good.
An Athletic Meeting was held for the first time, on the new playing field.
Ellis Kadoorie School for Indians :-Head Master, Mr. A. R Sutherland, M.A.
The Maximum Enrolment was 117 (114 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 107 (107 in 1927).
From 13th February, Mr. Sutherland acted as Inspector of Schools and Mr. Bishen Singh acted as Head Master of the School.
The Health of the School was good except for an outbreak of Mumps in the lowest class.
For the fourth year in succession every boy in Class 4 passed the Entrance Examination to Queen's College. In the other classes 93 were examined and 86 passed.
Urdu is very well taught.
The boys are particularly keen on all school games. The admirable location of the school favours them in this respect.
The boys are taught to cultivate flowers and vegetables. Many coffee and lichee trees have been added to the school garden.
Cheung Chau School-Head Master, Mr. Hon Kau Fung.
The Maximum Enrolment was 54 (42 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 46 (32 in 1927).
This School was moved in December from rented flats on the water front to a new permanent building erected under the supervision of the P.W.D. It is a fine, well-equipped building with modern sanitation and ventilation. It contains five class- rooms with accommodation for 150 students, and has a fine Volley-ball and Basket-ball ground.
The health of the school is good. There were a few cases of trachoma, enlarged tonsils and anaemia.
Work in the school has proceeded harmoniously.
Annual Examination 28 out of 40 passed.
O 15
P
The boys are keen on Sports especially Swimming.
The Annual Athletic Meeting was a great success.
Belilios Public School: -Head Mistress, Miss H. F. Skinner.
The Maximum Enrolment was 525 (536 in 1927).
Physical Education has taken a more prominent part in the school curriculum and an improvement in the girls' personal deportment and general bearing has been observed.
ed.
Dr. S. Y. Wong's lectures in Hygiene were much appreciat-
At the Annual Examination 158 students were examined in the Upper School and 141 passed. In the Lower School 219 passed out of 292. These results are satisfactory especially in the Upper School. The University Examination results were excellent. Out of 8 pupils entered for the Matriculation and Senior Local four gained Matriculation Certificates three Senior, while ten out of twelve pupils passed the Junior Local, winning 5 distinctions.
The Victoria Nursing Division of the St. John Ambulance Brigade was again very active. The loss of Dr. Hickling, the Divisional Superintendent, is deeply felt.
The Guides, the 3rd Hong Kong Company, won the Prince of Wales' Banner. A Company of Brownies was formed and immediately became very popular.
The work done by this School for charity is unique. It supports a Belilios Cot at the Alice Memorial Hospital and another Belilios Cot at the Great Ormond St. Hospital. It also assists the Victoria Home in Kowloon City and works energe- tically for the Ministering Children's League.
BRITISH SCHOOLS.
There are 5 British Schools, 4 being Junior Schools and the fifth a first class Secondary School. All these schools are co- educational,
Central British
Nightingale.
School-Head
Master,
Mr.
G. F.
The Maximum Enrolment was 173 (180 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 131 (130 in 1927).
The Staff consisted of 3 masters 8 mistresses and instructors
for gymnasium, cookery, singing, carpentry and boxing.
O 16
The School has very liberally equipped laboratories. In November a new wing was added, comprising an Art Room, three class-rooms and a cloak room.
The health of the school was good though there were a few cases of malaria.
The children in the Lower and the Remove Classes did satisfactory work 75% gaining promotion. For the first time in the history of the School two candidates sat for and passed the Matriculation Examination of the London University. In the University Local Examinations two candidates out of 13 pupils were awarded Matriculation Honours, two others qualified for Matriculation, and 5 passed the Senior Local, while in the Junior Local eight out of ten passed gaining 6 distinctions. For the second year in succession a King Edward VII Scholarship was won by Central British School. Both the senior and junior Montargis' French prizes were won by pupils of this school.
At the annual examination of the Royal Drawing Society 104 candidates entered 94 gaining certificates, 75 with Honours.
Football, hockey, cricket and tennis were popular. At the annual sports meeting Blue House won the Inter-House Cup. The School was permitted to use the Kowloon Dock Swimming beach. A successful Boxing tournament was held.
Victoria British School-Head Mistress, Mrs. E. M. Clark.
The Maximum Enrolment was 58 (62 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 45 (48 in 1927).
Health was generally good though there was an epidemic of whooping cough in January and February.
The work was satisfactory in all classes. 16 passed the Royal Drawing Society's Examination 3 with Honours.
Organised games and Physical Exercises form part of the daily routine. Remedial exercises are taken with certain chil-
dren.
A Wolf Cub and a Brownie Pack have recently been started.
There were several informal parties during the year-on 'Empire Day', 'May Day' and 'Halloween'.
B.A.
Kowloon Junior School:-Head Mistress, Miss Mary Cooper,
The Maximum Enrolment was 99 (100 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 84 (83 in 1927).
O 17
Health was generally good, though whooping cough was rather prevalent in the early part of the year.
There was a general improvement in the work done especial- ly in Writing and Geography.
At the Royal Drawing Society's Examination 19 pupils en- tered and all passed 17 with honours.
At the end of the year arrangements were made to move to "Parkside" which it is anticipated will prove an excellent loca- tion for the School.
Peak School-Head Mistress, Mrs. P. Y. Stark.
The Maximum Enrolment was 82 (65 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 46 (51 in 1927).
The drop in Attendance was due to an outbreak of Whoop- ing Cough from January to June.
Good work continues to be done in this School.
The children play Basket-ball and Tennis.
Quarry Bay School-Head Mistress for most of the year, Miss A. E. Hendry.
The Maximum Enrolment was 43 (44 in 1927).
The health of the children was good though some suffered from whooping cough in the early part of the year.
Very satisfactory work was done. All entered for Central British School Entrance Examination passed. The Kindergarten has been admirably conducted. At the Royal Drawing Society's Examination 12 passed, 7 with honours.
Most of the children have learned to swim. Football matches were played with Victoria British School.
GRANT SCHOOLS.
The maximum enrolment in English Grant Schools was 4257.
The average attendance was 3733.
Each school was visited at least twice during the year. There was an inspection in the spring and the annual inspection took place, as usual in October and November. During the annual inspection the work of the different classes was discussed with the head of each school and any weakness was immediately attended to.
O 18
The Kindergarten Departments in the girls' schools were excellently conducted, and in these schools Drawing, Painting and Needlework were very satisfactory.
The standard of writing was good in nearly every school but with an abundance of excellent copy books on the market flourishing styles should be avoided.
5
Reading was fair throughout and often very good but there is still room for improvement. At the annual inspection, which is held when the children have been using their text books for nine or ten months, they should be able to read so that the inspector can understand them with ease and without requiring to use a book. This should not be difficult provided that children are not placed in classes for which they are not fit. But, though there has undoubtedly been some improvement in this regard, there are still signs here and there which suggest pre- mature promotion.
Inspectors understand the difficulties of heads of schools in this matter, but, with the present-day insistent demand for instruction in English, the English Grant Schools with their comparatively high standard are in a strong position and will not suffer by strictness in the matter of promotion to higher classes.
History and Geography should not be taught in water-tight compartments and a free use of maps, atlases and map-drawing in connection with history lessons has been recommended and will be required.
The schools are well housed and in some cases the accom- modation has been improved during the year or is in course of improvement.
In every school the discipline and behaviour as observed at the annual inspection were excellent.
This year the maximum grant was recommended for each school.
On December 22 Sister Emily, head mistress of the Italian Convent School, died after 17 years of devoted service in the cause of education in Hong Kong.
PRIVATE ENGLISH SCHOOLS.
Day Schools:-There were 60 schools on the register at the end of December as against 54 in the previous year; the maximum number of students enrolled was 4,059 as against the approximate number of 3,000 in 1927; and the average attend- ance was 3,484. During the year 17 new schools came int existence, and 11 closed. Of the existing schools 5 are girls' schools and 1 is a kindergarten. The rest are boys' schools et which 6 prepare students for the University Local Examinations.
0.19
Night Schools: -47 new schools were registered, 23 closed, and 84 were on the register at the end of December as against 60 in 1927. The number of students enrolled was 2030 (1721 in 1927) with an average attendance of 1577 (1308 in 1927).
One of these night schools was registered by the Consul General for Portugal to give free tuition in the Portuguese lan- guage.
G. P. de MARTIN, A. R. SUTHERLAND,
Inspectors of English Schools.
✪ 20
Annexe B.
REPORT BY THE DIRECTOR OF THE TECHNICAL INSTITUTE, 1928.
(Table XIII).
The Institute was open as usual during eight months of the year.
The number of students in attendance during the Session ending June 30th, was 574 against 620 in 1927.
In June-and for Teachers' Classes in December-Examina- tions were conducted as in previous years by independent examiners. 373 Students were examined (245 in 1927); of these a total of 236 students or 63% passed (128, or 52% in 1927). As remarked in my last Report a high standard is required throughout, but particularly in the Teachers' Classes, where it has again been raised. At the December examination, of 45 Teachers (37 in 1927) examined in the "English" Teachers' Classes, 42 passed; in the "Vernacular" Classes 144 Teachers (112 in 1927) were examined and 41 passed (39 in 1927). Final "Teachers' Certificates" were gained by 2 men and 2 women in the "English" Teachers' Classes and by 4 women in the "Vernacular" Teachers' Classes. Hygiene is now a com- pulsory subject in the "English" Teachers' Course. Gratifying reports continue to be received of the good work done in various Schools of the Colony by Teachers--Men and Women, English and Vernacular--who have been trained in these Classes. A Nautical Class was opened during the year, by arrangement with the Harbour Master; 84 men attended and 80 passed the ex- amination held by the Harbour Authorities.
Mr. Morris acted as Director from 28th April to 5th December.
E. RALPHS,
Director, Technical Institute
+
21
Annexe C.
REPORT BY THE INSPECTOR OF VERNACULAR
SCHOOLS, 1928.
1. GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.
(i) Vernacular Middle School: -Head Master, Mr. Li King Hong, B. A.
The Maximum Enrolment was 208 (178 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 186 (165 in 1927).
The Head Master reports "during the year, 51 students have never been absent for a single school day".
All students in the highest class-i.e. the "4th Year" in the Middle School Division are required to enter for the "Ver- nacular Middle School Final Examination" conducted by the University. 5 Students were presented this year and 2 passed. Most of those who have passed out during the last 2 years have entered the Chinese School which has just been started at the University.
18 Normal students sat for their Final Examination and 8 passed (including one who took an advanced course); these were examined by independent examiners as in previous years.
The following are extracts from the Head Master's Report:-
"Messrs. H. K. Woo, T. N. Chau and Kwok Yau Ting have been appointed "Hok Tung" of the school. The "Pan Hok Tun" organized in 1926 by a number of Chinese gentlemen in order to help this school by their interest and by the gift of scholarships is now represented by Messrs. T. N. Chau and Kwok Yau Ting. This body has added to its generosity this year by the gift of an Underwood portable typewriter. The Tung Wah Hospital Committee, under the Chairmanship of Mr. Li Hoi Tung, generously offered to the Normal Division 2 scholar- ships of $40 each per annum, and one of these has been awarded to a student from one of the Free Schools under the management of the Hospital. Mr. Kwok Foo Ting, a Shanghai gentleman, presented the school with 2063 Volumes of Chinese books together with well-designed wooden cases, and has also announc- ed his intention of sending another gift. The keen interest shown by these gentlemen and their support in various ways
a great encouragement.
1
- O 22
The Entrance Examination held at the beginning of the year was attended by 235 candidates, of whom it was possible to admit only 63 for lack of class-room accommodation. The increasing demand for admission, as well as the unsuitability of the present school building, has made the need of new premises most keenly felt.
In Sports, the school has been even more successful than in previous years. The Volley Ball Team competed for the Senior Shield and were runners-up. The Football team played some 20 friendly matches with other local teams and won in a number of cases. One boy competed for the open championship in the 2 Harbour Races held under the auspices of the Chinese Bathing Club and the Victoria Recreation Club, and came out 2nd and 4th respectively.
The health throughout the school year has been satisfac- tory".
(ii) Vernacular Normal School for Women:-Head Mistress, Miss Chan Yat Hing.
The Maximum Enrolment was 143 (132 in 1927).
The Average Attendance was 128 (115 in 1927).
The 4th Year Class-a class of 8 students who having obtained their Second Year Certificate returned 2 years ago to take an advanced course--was examined by external examiners, and 6 obtained Pass Marks-i.e. 50% of the total,-while 3 of them were awarded the Higher Certificate.
One important change made this year is to extend the 2 years' course to 4 years; hence the Second Year students did not take their Final Examination at the end of the year, but continue their studies for two more years before doing so.
The tone of the school continued to be excellent, and very good work was done.
(iii) Taipo Vernacular Normal School:-Head Master, Mr. Chan Pun Chiu.
The Maximum Enrolment was 34.
The Average Attendance was 27.
10 students of the 2nd year class sat for their Final Ex- amination, and 4 passed. Chinese Composition is weak, but this weakness is. due to the foundation of the students rather than any fault in the teaching of this school. Practical Teaching and Arithmetic have improved, and other subjects which do not demand in the learner an advanced knowledge of Chinese classics have been successfully taught.
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:
O 23
During the Summer, there were some cases of Malaria; otherwise the general health was satisfactory.
II. GRANT SCHOOLS.
The number of Vernacular Grant Schools remains 4. 2 of these have a Middle School and the Ying Wa Girls' School has had another very successful year in the Junior Local Examina- tion, for which 5 students were presented and all passed.
The Maximum Enrolment in these schools was 1,011, and the Average Attendance was 925.
The teaching of Reading in all these schools has shown a steady improvement, but in one or two cases Composition has not as yet reached a sufficiently high standard. English, which was introduced a few years ago by one of these schools into its upper classes only, is now more extensively studied and is taught in all these schools.
Discipline and tone continued to be very good and the Maximum Grant was awarded in all cases.
III.-PRIVATE SCHOOLS, URBAN DISTRICTS.
Subsidized Schools.-During the year, one Subsidized School closed, one was removed from the list as being inefficient, and 24 were added to the list. Thus the total number at the end of the year is brought up to 218. The Maximum Enrolment in these schools was 14,247 (12,592 in 1927) and the Average Attendance was 13,016 (11,260 in 1927). The total amount of Subsidies paid was $92,280., working out on the average to be $423.3. per school and $6.47 per pupil (as against $436.14 and $7.01 respectively in 1927).
Non-Subsidized Schools.-138 new schools were registered— another record year, beating last year's record by 7. One school was struck off the list and 68 schools closed of their own accord -an improvement when compared with the numbers for the 3 previous years: 84, 88 and 105 in 1927, 1926 and 1925 respec- tively. The number of schools on this list at the end of the year totalled 434 (388 in 1927 and 348 in 1926), with a Maximum Enrolment of 21,384, and an Average Attendance of 19,102, (17,367 and 14,585 in 1927).
The total number of Private Day Schools now existing is 658 (590 in 1927), consisting of 2 Exempted, 4 Grant, 218 Subsidized and 434 Non-Subsidized Schools.
The Maximum Enrolment was 36,642 (31,010 in 1927) and the Average Attendance was 33,043 (26,769 in 1927), the former number including 12,432 girls.
O 24
Free Scholarships-26 boys and 3 girls from Subsidized Schools were admitted to the various Government English Schools. 40 candidates representing 9 schools competed for the 4 scholarships tenable at the Vernacular Middle School.
Night Schools~21 new schools were registered and 20 closed. The number is now 20, with a Maximum Enrolment of 423, (average attendance-338).
IV. PRIVATE SCHOOLS, RURAL DISTRICTS.
Subsidized Schools. Of the 101 Subsidized Schools existing at the end of 1927, 7 were removed to the Non-Subsidy List and 14 closed. But, during the year, 21 schools were newly sub- sidized, thus making the number at the end of the year to be again 101. As in the previous year, a number of schools received Special Subsidies, while others were awarded the ordinary sub- sidies at the rates of $15, $10 and $5 per month in accordance with their merits. The Saikung Roman Catholic Mission English School has closed for lack of a sufficient number of students. The amount of subsidies paid totalled $12,985, working out to be $3.67 per pupil-the latter figure has been almost exactly the same for the last 3 years.
Non-Subsidized Schools.-45 schools were newly opened, and 34 closed, including 3 which were struck off the register, on the ground of inefficiency. 21 schools having been transferred to, and 7 transferred from the Subsidy List, the number of Schools on this list at the end of the year is 81.
Attendance.—The Maximum Enrolment in Subsidized Schools was 3,538 including 358 girls. (3,462 with 387 girls in 1927), and the Average Attendance was 2,886, (1767 in 1927). The number in Non-Subsidized Schools was 1,752 including 158 girls (1,913 with 141 girls in 1927), and the Average Attendance was 1,363 (1,439 in 1927).
Free Scholarships.-The number of Free Scholars admitted from Vernacular Subsidized Schools to Government English Schools were: 3 to Taipo School, 3 to Un Long School, 3 to Cheung Chau School, 3 to Yaumati School (from Sha Tin Dis- trict) and 5 to King's College (from Tsuen Wan).
All schools have been visited at least twice during the year.
Y. P. LAW,
Inspector of Vernacular Schools
31st January, 1929.
T
O 25
Table I.
THE BOARD OF EDUCATION.
The Director of Education (Mr. A. E. Wood). Inspector of English Schools (Mr E. Ralphs). Inspector of Vernacular Schools (Mr. Y. P. Law). Rev. A. D. Stewart.
Mr. S. W. Tso, LL.D.
Chev. J. M. Alves.
Mr. A. el Arculli.
Captain J. Charnock.
Mr. H. B. L. Dowbiggin.
Rev. Fr. Byrne, S. J., Ph. D.
Mr. B. Wylie.
Mr. H. K. Woo, LL.D.
Rev. F. Short.
Secretary Mr. G. P. de Martin.
Table II.
THE BOARD OF EXAMINERS.
The Director of Education, Chaiiman.
Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
+ Assistants to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs.
+ Deputy Superintendents of Polic
† Assistant Superintendents of Police.
Rev. Herbert Richmond Wells, C.B.E.
John Roskruge Wood.
David William Tratman.
Alan Eustace Wood.
¡
Roger Edward Lindsell.
Ex. Officio.
Law Yan Pak.
Yu Wan.
Norman Lockhart Smith.
Geoffrey Robley Sayer.
Roland Arthur Charles North.
+ Members of the Sub-Committee for the Examination of subordinate officers of the Police and Gaol in English, Chinese and Hindustani.
1
O 26
Table III.
GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS.
STAFF.
Maximum Average
Rate of
NAME AND NAture. (1)
Certificated Teachers,
Anglo- Chinese.
Vernacular.
Monthly AI-
Fees Enrolment. tendance. per mensem
Fees Collected.
or Term.
*
ENGLISH SCHOOLS.
Central British, Kowloon Junior, Victoria, Quarry Bay and Peak Schools-for children of European British Parentage. Primary and Secondary
*
Queen's College and King's College-mainly for Chinese and Indians. Prepare for Hong Kong University Matriculation and for Commercial Examinations.....
34
1 Pianist, & 1 Carpentry
Instructor
29
Ellis Kadoorie, Wantsai, and Yaumati Schools-
for Chinese. Prepare for Upper School at Queen's College and King's College
c.
$7-$10
1 Chinese Teacher.
436
$10-$15*
342
$30-$40†
16,074,26
per term.
27
17
1,344
1,224
*$8
1 Boxing Instructor
79,804.00
per mensem
† $8-class
3 and above!
$5-class
4 and below.
10
29
11
925
859
$5
46,757.00
per mensem
Belilios Public School for Girls-mainly for Chinese.
Primary and Secondary.....
9
1 Portuguese
Teacher.
6
Gap Road School-for Chinese. Primary
Ellis Kadoorie School for Indians-prepares for Upper
School, Queen's College
*
Tai Po, Un Long, and Cheung Chau Schools-Elemen-
tary English for Chinese. Primary
Vern. Middle School, Vern. Normal School at Taipo,†
and Vern. Normal at Women
2
(1) For boys unless otherwise stated.
14
2 Needlework
510
466
$3
15,801.00
Teachers
per mensem
2
154
149
$2
3,186.00
per mensem
117
107
$2
2,598.00
per mensem
$1.00*
9
3
188
148
50 cents
1,033.50
per mensem
$18
385
341
$2 p.m.
7,690.00
† Free.
4,059
3,636
172,943.76
CONTROLLED SCHOOLS
SCHOOLS IN RECE
No.
Name of School.
Mission.
ENC
CAPITA
Higher Classes.
Rem
Average Attend-
Rate.
1 Average Total. Attend-
ance.
ance.

1
St. Joseph's College,
R. C. M.
8
892
759
672
127
2
Italian Convent,
8 & Inf./379
458
407 26
3
French Convent,
8 & Inf.
/374
267
234 27
7
Diocesan Girls' School,
C. of E.
8 & Inf.
878
254
225 20
8
Diocesan Boys' School,
8
""
5/373
311
248 55
9
St. Mary's School,
R. C. M. 8 & Inf.
/397!
336
299 24
13
St. Francis' School,
4 & Inf.
"
1981
186
161
14
St. Joseph's Branch,
4
3/892
177
122
16
St. Paul's College,
C. M. S.
8
1/365 477
412 52
17
Wah Yan College,
...
1378
809
18
St. Stephen's Girls' College,
C. M. S. 19 & Inf.
1/872
223
762 147 191 26
888888888
50 6,350 397 50 1,300 120
50 1,350
77
50
1,000
101
50
2,750
134
50
1,200
89
26
58
50 2,600
239
50
50 7,350 454 1,300 79
* Struck off Grant List. (C.S.O. 133,128).
4,257 3,733 504
|25,200 | 1,774
VERNA
No.
Name and Nature of School.
Mission.
Number of Classes,
Number Maximum of School Monthly
Days. Enrolment.
Average Attendance.
Rate.
18
Fairlea, (Girls)
C. M. S.
19
Victoria Home (Girls)
20
Ying Wah (Girls)
L. M. S.
12
21
St. Paul's (Girls)
C. M. S.
11
772-
224
292
272
11
211
176
145
11
223
262
247
235
327
302
11
900
1,057
966
5,314
4.699
NOTE.-R, C. M. Roman Catholic Mission.
C. of E. =Church of England.
O 27
TABLE IV.
IN RECEIPT OF A GRANT UNDER THE GRANT COL
ENGLISH SCHOOLS.
CAPITATION GRANT.
A
Total
UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION GRANT,
gher Classes.
Remove Classes.
Lower Classes.
Capitation
Grants
of
Senior.
Junior.
Honours.
ze
Rate.
1-
Total.
1 Average
Attend-
ance.
Rate.
2
Average Total. Attend-
3
Columus
Rate.
No. of Rate.
Total.
1, 2 & 3.
Toal.
ance.
Pupils.
No. of Rate. Pupils.
5 Total.
6
No. of | Rate.
Total.
Pupils.
ਵੱਡੇ
$

$
$
#
#
$
**

ون
$
مريرة
888888888
50
6,350
50
50
397
30 1,300 120 30 1,350 77 30
11,910 148 20 3,600 261 20
2,960
21,220 20
5,220
10,120 10
2,310 130 20
2,600
6,260
5
50 1,000 101 30
3,030
104 20 2,080
6,110
10
50
2,750
134 30
4,020
59 20
1,180
7,950 22
50
1,200
89
30
2,670
186 20
3,720
7,590 13
26
30
780
135 20
2,700
3,480
58
30
1,740
64 20
1,280
3,020
50
2,600 239 30
7.170! 121 20
2,420
12,190
16
50
50 1,300
7,350 454 30
79
30
13,620
2,370 86 20
161 20
3,220
24,190
21
1,720
5,390
~~~:: & & & & & &
30
30
30
::98888
40
15
6.0
82
15
112 113 11
30
600 89
15
1,335
100
700
30
00 15
15
225
...
30
150
18
15
270
100
100
30
300
9
15
135
30
€50
26
15
390
100
400
30
3'0
15
165
::
555
3:0
15
15
1,230 225
25,200 1,774
53,220 1,455
29,100 107,520 128
3,80
302
4,530
12
1,200
VERNACULAR SCHOOLS
age
Rate.
lance.

(Upper Grade.)
Principal Grant.
心心
11
2.992
5
11
1,595
2,717
3,322
10,626
118,146
on.
England.
C. M. S. =Church Missionary Society, L. M. S. -Loudon Missionary Socie
I
UNDER THE
THE GRANT CODE.
OLS.
UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION GRANT.
B
C
D
Grand
7
al
ition
nts
Total
Total
Local
Senior.
Junior.
Honours.
Refund
Grants
Special
Rent
of
Science
of
Columus
of Fees.
imins
4
& 3.
No. of Rate. Pupils.
Toal.
No. of Rate. Pupils.
5 Total.
No. of Rate. Pupils.
G Total.
Columns
Grant Grant
4, 5, 6, & 7.
A, B, C & D2
$
$
ول
$
€9
$
220
20
120
10
260
5
110
10
050
22
590
13
180
20
90
16
.90
21
390
11
30
~~~:: &&&&&&
30
600
89
15
1,335
7
100
700
1,840
4,475
700

30
200 15
15
225
392
917
26,395
11,037
30
150 18
15
270
100 100
336
856
30
300
9
15
135
308
743
30
(50
26
15
390
100
300
832
2,282
30
3'0 11
15
165
392
947

30
30
0888888
40
15
555
6.0
82
15
1,230
3:0
15
15
225
7,116
6,853
11,312
8,537
3,480
3,020
1,155
2,190
1.060
15,440
2,020
3,880
2,040
4,320
30,110
440
995
:
6,385
...
...
1,080
.20
128
3,80
302!
4,530
12
1,200
7,715
17,285
4,880 4,320
134,005
IOOLS.
rch Missionary Society.
don Missionry Socie
Grant in aid of Rent.
$
Total
$5
2,992
1,595
2.717
3,322
10,626
4,320
144,631
|:: 1:| ་ ་
:
:
48,000
47,000
46,000
45,000
44,000
43,000
42,000
41,000
40,000
39,000
38,000
Γ
Average Attendance in all Government : Technical Institute, which was o
Note. The figures prior to 1913 are not v
until that year.
The figures for the New Territories were The University and Police School were no English Schools :— Red.
Vernacular Schools :-Black.
1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1909. 1910. | 1911.
37.000
36.000
1912. 1913
35,000
!
O 29
Table VI.
Average Attendance in all Government and Grant Schools, and total enrolment at Private School
Technical Institute, which was opened in 1908.
Note. The figures prior to 1913 are not very trustworthy, as there was no right of entry into privat.
until that year.
The figures for the New Territories were included in 1913 for the first time.
The University and Police School were not included.
English Schools :-Red.
Vernacular Schools :-Black.
904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 1909. | 1910. 1911. 1912. 1913. | 1914.
F
1915. 1916. 1917. 1918. 1919. 19
3
I.
Schools, and total enrolment at Private Schools and the 08.
rthy, as there was no right of entry into private schools
1913 for the first time.
1915. 1916.
1916. 1917. 1918.
1919. 1920.| 1921. | 1922. 1923. 1924. 1925.
1926.1927. 1928.
37.244
10.
$
37,000
36,000
35,000
34,000
33,000
32,000
31,000
30,000
29,000
28,000
27,000
26,000
?
25,000
24,000
23,000
22,000
21,000
20,000
19,000
18,000
17,000
Appendix Q.
REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC WORKS FOR THE YEAR 1928.
Expenditure.
1. The amounts voted, as compared with those actually expended by the Department under the various headings, were as follows:
Amount voted,
In Estimates.
Supplement- ary Votes.
Actual Expendi-
Total.
ture.
$
1,610,150.00
(iii) Extraordinary Works, 2,467,164.00
(i) Personal Emoluments 1,236,672.00
(ia) Other Charges,......................... 204,686.00
(IB) Special Expenditure,
(ii) Annually Recurrent
Works,
22,900.00
1,236,672.00 1,157,430.00
16,000.00 220,686.00 177,566.93
16,800.00 39,700.00 27,636.66
5,541,572.00
102,485.00 1,712,635.00 |1,482,915.34
719,412.00 3,186,576.00 || 2,105,515.82
854,697.00 6,396,269.00 4,954,064.77
Less amount met out of savings, under Heads as per Financial Messages for the year 1928,...
(iv) Works undertaken
116 283.00 116 283 00
5,541,572.00
on P.W. Loan Account| 5,000,000.00
(v) Works undertaken
on behalf of Parti-
cipants P.E.R.
(vi) Works undertaken on behalf for Mili- tary and Naval Authorities
738,414,00 6,279,986.00 4,954,064.77
5,00,000.00 976,112.08
547,227.11
23,883.64
Total,
$ 10,541,572.00 738,414.00 11,279,986.00 | 6,501,287.60
Detailed Statements of (ii) and (iii) are given in Annexes A and B with reference to:-
(1.) Savings are due partly to higher rate of exchange than the one at which the sterling salaries in the Estimates were converted and also on account of vacant posts provided for in the Estimates not having been filled during the year under review.
(iv.) Vote taken to reimburse Revenue for previous
expenditure chargeable to Loan Funds.
Expenditure.
Q 2
The sum of $2,939,470.85 was expended on works charged to Public Works Loan Account, but of this amount $1,963,358.77 was included in Extraordinary Works in previous years reports. The balance of $976,112.08 represents the actual expenditure of works undertaken during the year. (v.) In addition to other expenditure a sum of $547,227.11 was expended on work undertaken on behalf of Participants in the Praya East Reclama- tion Scheme. This amount does not include the expenditure on Government's participation in the Praya East Reclamation. The amount of $124,982.85 expended on these works has been included in Extraordinary Works expenditure. (vi.) A sum of $23,883.64 was expended on work under-
taken on behalf of the Military Authorities. (A), (iB) and (ii) Savings were effected on the following
subheads:—
Sub-head :-
HEAD 29.-P.W.D.
1. Personal Emoluments,
$79,242.00
OTHER CHARGES.
2. Conveyance and Motor Allowances,
13,003.37
3. Drawing Materials and Mounting Plans, 4. Electric Fans and Light,
28.68
4,258.50
5. Incidental Expenses,
2,813.46
6. Lifts Maintenance, Government Buildings, 7. Surveying Instruments and Contingencies, 9. Uniforms,
525.95
1,570.46
3,161.22
10. Upkeep of Government Garage plant,
186.63
11. Upkeep and running expenses of Motor
Lorries and Cars,
557.12
12. Upkeep of Motor and Steam Rollers,
1,621.55
13. Upkeep of Quarry Plants,
3,987.67
RADIO TELEGRAPH BRANCH.
14. Incidental Expenses,
16. Transport,
117.27
634.76
SPECIAL EXPENDITURE.
18. Equipment of Government Garages and
Workshop,
202.74
19. Traffic Beacon,
700.00
20. Wireless Receiver,
11.47
22. Additional receiving gear for short wave
transmitter,
331.37
23. Conversion of 5 K.W. Spark transmitter to
interrupted continuous wave Harbour Surveying,
3,000.00
3,059.43
.
Sub-heads:--
Q 3
HEAD 30,--P.W.R. HONG KONG.
2. Communications,
3. Drainage,
4. Lighting,
5. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages,
7. Miscellaneous,
Expenditure.
$ 3,611.31
877.89
1,146.51 35,181.67
5,647.55
KOWLOON.
8. Buildings,
11,978.95
9. Communications,
2,955.38
10. Drainage,
2,656.99
11. Lighting,
5,549.28
12. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages,
3,361.15
14. Miscellaneous,
14,643.33.
NEW KOWLOON.
15. Buildings,
16. Communications,
4,885.38 692.25
17. Drainage,
128.06
18. Lighting,
2,103.03
19. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages,
25,014.76
20. Water Works,
358.66
21. Miscellaneous,
9,709.12
NEW TERRITORIES.
22. Buildings,
15,503.08
23. Communications,
1,237.29
24. Drainage,
359.22
25. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages,
35,676.94
26. Water Works,
27. Miscellaneous,
722.88
1,899:05
The savings were far more than counterbalanced by ex- cesses on Other sub-heads as set forth below:
Sub-heads:
HEAD 29.-P.W.D.
8. Transport and Travelling Expenses,
RADIO TELEGRAPH BRANCH.
15. Repairs, Stores and Current,
SPECIAL EXPENDITURE.
17. 1 Motor Car,
21. Short Wave Transmitter,
$ 2,841.38
2,546.74
500.00 4,541.67
HEAD 30.-P.W.R.
HONG KONG.
1. Buildings,
18,915.47
6. Water Works,
14,034.47
KOWLOON.
13. Water Works,
26,839.36
(iii) Savings under this Head were largely due to some works, for which substantial. sums were allocated, not being pro- ceeded with during the year on account of the necessity for
conomy.
Expenditure.
Q 4
Comparison of Expenditure, 1927 and 1928.
2. The following is a Statement of the Expenditure of 1928 as compared with that of the previous year:--
1927.
1928.
Increase.
Decrease.
(i) Personal Emoluments
(IA) Other Charges,
(IB) Special Expenditure, (ii) Annually Recurrent
Works,
$ C.
1,117,271.48 | 1,157,430.00
(iii) Extraordinary Works, 2,966,390.69 2,108,515.82
$
$
$ C.
40,158.52
177,164.73
177,566.93
402.20
14,681.13 27,636.66
12,955.53
1,542,494.98 1,482,915.36
59,579.62
857,874.87
5,818,073.01 | 4,954,064.77
53,516.25 917,454.49
(iv) Works undertaken
on P.W. Loan Ac- count,
|1,537,261.16
976,112.08
561,149.08
(v) Works
undertaken
on behalf of Parti-
cipants P.E.R.
839,079.00
547,227 11
291,851.89
(vi) Works
undertaken
on behalf for Mili-
tary and Naval
Authorities,
747,065.25
23,883.64
723 181.61
53,516.25 2,493,637.07
Total, .$ 8,941,408.42|6,501,287.60
In reference to:-
(i.) The increase is due to increments on salaries.
(iB.) The actual increase is due on account of additional Wireless Apparatus and Harbour Surveying dur- ing the year.
(i.) The actual decrease is due to the absence of heavy commitments on account of Typhoon and Rainstorm Damage which were necessary in 1927. This item alone accounts for a decrease of over $200,000 and that the aggregate decrease is only $59,579.62 is due to various small increases on other sub-heads..
(iii) The decrease is due to economies effected owing to the conditions which have prevailed locally, as in the past two years, and consequently works not of an urgent nature were not proceeded with dur- ing the year under review.
- Q 5
Expenditure.
(iv.) The decrease is on account of large resumptions during the year 1927, the actual work done in the year under review was in excess of the previous year.
(v.) The decrease is due to the Praya East Reclama-
tion Scheme approaching completion.
(vi.) The actual decrease is due to works undertaken during 1927 being practically completed within the year, and no further request for work from the Military Authorities.
COMPARISON OF EXPENDITURE OF PUBLIC WORKS
DURING 1918-1928.
Personal Emoluments
Year.
and Other Charges,
Expendi- Recurrent
ture.
Works.
Special Annually Extraordinary
Total
Works. Expenditure.
$ c.
$39 C.
$
C.
C.
0.
1918
374,906,32
296.30
712,675.37
1,578,149.12
2,666,027,11
1919
390.006.29
1,376.35
822,509.87
2,235,002 95
3,448.895.46
1920
468,371.82
615.96
825,493.70
2,555,877.69
3,850.359.17
1921
650,900 00
699.00
938,582.38
3,053,525.11
4,643,706.49
1922
820,529.49
1,145.40 | 1.074,646 20
3,575.635.19
5,471.956.38
1923
900,573.35
1.209.36 1,424.532.80
4,716,602 94
7,042,918.45
1924
1,184,482.27
2-5.63
1,793,968.69
8,112,785 49|11,091,522,08
1925
1,346,091.10
78,919.11
1,574,481.75
8,638,930.87
11,638,372.83
1926 1,247,918.89
946.00
1,522 816.80
4,720,000,19
7,791,681,88
1927
1,294.436.21 1928 1,334,996.93
14.681.131,542,494.98
2,966,390,69
5,818.003.01
27,636.66 | 1,482,915.36
2,108,515.82*6,501,287.60
7
Total...$ 10,013,212 67| 127,810.90 |14,015,068,00| 44,261,416 06 69,961,730,46
*This expenditure includes a sum of $976,112.08 expended on works charged to Loan Funds, $547,227.11 expended on works on behalf of participants in the Praya East Reclamation Scheme, and $23,883.64 expended on works undertaken on behalf of the Military Authority.
Expenditure under these Heads has not been included in the comparison of Expenditure Statement in previous years.
i
Expenditure.
6
3. Statement of Revenue from Water Works, 1928.
1928.
Locality.
Excess Con-
sumption.
Rate 2%.
Total.
G.
C.
1927 Total.
0.
c.
Chong Village
City including Wong Nei
properties bordering
and
Shau Ki Wan Road,
308,068.21
Hill District,
17,116.10
436,933.62 9,839.13
745,061.83
26,955.23
709,533.50 25.187.11
Pokfulam District,
10,778.13
10,778.13
10,442 38
Kowloon including Sham
Shui Po and Kowloon
City,
247,106,51
109,891.63
356,998.14
285,817.73
Aberdeen,
4,893.25
1,196 92
6,390.17
5,407.12
Repulse Bay,
Shau Ki Wan,
Lai Chi Kok,
2,859.40
2,859.40
2,741.65
9,067.78
9,451.73
18,519.51
17,741.77
166,116.70
166,116.70
141,060.25
Fan Ling,
Tai Po
Total,
2,305.99
2.305.99
2,!61.25
586.53
586.53
513.13
768,898.60
567,673.031,336,571.63 | 1,200,605 89
COMPARISON OF WATER WORKS REVENUE 1927 AND 1928.
1927.
1928.
City (as above stated),
$ 709,533.50
$ 745,061.83
Hill District,
25,187.11
26,955.23
Pokfulam District,
10,442.38
10,778.13
Kowloon,
285,817.73
356,998.14
Aberdeen,
5,407.12
6,390.17
Repulse Bay,
2,741.65
2,859.40
Shaukiwan,
17,741.77
18,519.51
Lai Chi Kok,
141,060.25
166,116.70
Fan Ling,
2,161.25
2,305.99
Tai Po
513.13
586.53
$1,200,605.89
$1,836,571.63
7
Land Sales.
Land Sales, etc.
4. Land Sales, Extensions, Grants, etc.-The total amount of premia paid into the Treasury
Treasury during the year was $1,642,106.87 of which $5,807.75 was derived from fees for boundary stones.
The revised estimate for the year was $1,250,000.00.
The following is a comparative statement of the Revenue derived from Land Sales, &c. for the years 1926-1928:
1926.
1927.
1928.
C.
C.
e.
Sales by Auction,
30,370.50
39.840.501,369,356.00
Sales without Auction,
55,761.18
50,038,31 299,146.23
Extensions granted.
112,449.79
22,334.87
91,948.56
Grants on Nominal Terms,
1.00
Grants on Short Leases.
20,800.00
3,321.00
Premia derived from sale of rights to
erect piers,
1.280.00
564.20
903,96
Fees for Boundary Stones to define Lots,
6,515.50
3,575.25
5,961.75
Conversions and Exchanges,
94,334.20
44,425.70
57,855.31
Total,
321,511.17
164,099.83 1,825,172.81
Actual amount of premia paid into
the Treasury,...
$
325,569.79
146,242.24 1,642,106 87
The difference between the above totals is accounted for by the payment of premium and interest in 1928, and also failure to pay premium on transactions during 1928, refunds and re- adjustments.
5. Sales by Auction.-Six lots in Hong Kong, 33 lots in Kowloon and 32 lots in New Kowloon were sold during the year realizing the sums of $128,206.00, $849,945.50 and $385,157.50 respectively.
The District Officer (South) sold 18 lots which realized $253.00 and the District Officer (North) 216 lots for $5,794.00.
6. Sales without Auction-Twenty five lots in Hong Kong (including 20 lots on the Praya East Reclamation), 3 lots in Kowloon and 4 lots in the New Territories were sold during the year realizing the sums of $138,755.25, $45,665.00 & $6,997.20 respectively.
The District Officer (South) sold 59 lots which realized $796.70 and the District Officer (North) 16 lots for $782.30.
Land Sales, etc.
Q 8
7. Extensions Granted.-Fifteen lots in Hong Kong, 11 lots in Kowloon, and 8 lots in the New Territories were granted ex- tensions during the year realizing the sums of $21,518.73, $63,166.00 and $7,041.33 respectively.
The District Officer (South) granted extensions to 7 lots realizing $72.50, and the District Officer (North) extensions to 14 lots realizing $150.00.
8. Conversions and Exchanges.-Fourteen lots in Hong Kong, 45 lots in Kowloon and 24 lots in New Kowloon were ex- changed during the year at premia amounting to $7,703.50, $19,885.55 and $22,890.44 respectively. One lot (I.L. 2477) in Hong Kong was converted from a 40 years lease to a 75 years renewable lease at a premium of $6,765.00.
The District Officer (South) arranged the conversions of 4 lots without premium and the District Officer (North) the con- versions of 118 lots at a total premium of $610.82 and the ex- changes of 4 lots without premium.
9. Grants on Nominal Terms.-The following grants were made during the year:-In Hong Kong two areas (R.B.L. 314 and G.L. 76) of 46,060 square feet and 24.21 acres to St. Stephens College; an area (I.L. 2726) of 9,220 square feet to the Tung Wah Hospital for a Funeral Pavilion; and an area of 3,260 square feet as an extension to the Italian Convent (I.L. 1370).
In Kowloon an area (K.I.L. 2142) to the Secretary for Chinese Affairs as a site for a Temple to replace the Hung Shing and To Tei Temples in Tai Kok Tsui. There were no grants in the New Territories.
10. Grants on Short Leases.-In Hong Kong Garden Lot No. 35 was re-granted for a term of 21 years from 21.3.10.
In New Kowloon two Dairy Farm Lots were granted for a term of 10 years and an extension granted to New Kowloon Dairy Farm Lot No. 6. There were no grants in Kowloon.
The District Officer (South) granted one lot for a term of 3 years.
There were no grants by the District Officer (North). 11. Permits to occupy land for short periods &c.—These were of a very miscellaneous character and too numerous to admit of individual mention.
The total numbers of permits issued during the year for Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon was 2,962 (including 797 new permits), the fees for which amounted to $137,236.44.
The District Officer (South) issued 65 permits at a total fee of $376.92, and the District Officer (North) 257 yearly permits, 18 permits for 5 years and 2 permits for 10 years at a total fee of $776.91.
9
Land Sales, etc.
12. Extension of Leases.-In Hong Kong the leases of I.L. 2323 (The World Theatre) and I.L. 1858 (The Kau U Pong Theatre) were extended for a further period of 3 years in each
case.
There is nothing to report as to Kowloon and the New Territories.
13. Prospecting and Mining Licences.-Two mining licences for areas at Castle Peak and Sheung Shui were issued during the year and Mining Licence No. 4 was renewed for a period of one year.
14. Plans &c.-Plans and particulars in duplicate of 300 lots were prepared and forwarded to the Land Officer in con- nection with the issue of Crown Leases. In addition to these 72 Sale Plans, 191 Tracings, 7,680 Sunprints and 72 Cyclestyle Prints were prepared and issued during the year (including 51 plans sold to the public at sums amounting to $829.50).
15. Naval and Military Lands.-There is nothing to report under this heading.
16. Piers.
(a.) Permanent Piers.-In Hong Kong the lease for the pier opposite Marine Lot No. 22 was renewed for a further period of 21 years from 1.1.28.
There is nothing to report in Kowloon and the New Terri- tories.
(b.) Temporary Piers.-Licences to erect 5 temporary piers were issued during the year (1 in Hong Kong, 3 in Kowloon and 1 in New Kowloon) the total fees amounting to $153.69. The premia on renewal of licences for temporary piers amounted to $903.96.
The District Officer (South) issued one licence at a fee of $10.00.
17. Cemeteries.-In Hong Kong an area of 35,000 square feet (I.L. 2727) was granted as a Hindu Cemetery.
In the New Territories an area of 8,850 square feet (New Kowloon Cemetery No. 2) was granted to the Little Sisters of the Poor.
There is nothing to report in Kowloon.
18. Re-entries.-Fourteen lots in Hong Kong, 32 lots in Kowloon, 7 lots in the New Territories, 175 lots in the Southern District (New Territories) and 265 lots in the Northern District (New Territories) were re-entered during the year.
Surveys.
Q 10
SURVEYS.
19. The following is an abbreviated report of work carried out during the year:-
ORDNANCE SURVEY.
City of Victoria.-Revision work has been carried on; 11.7 acres have been surveyed with a chainage of 3 miles.
The Peak.-Revision work only has been undertaken in this district.
The area surveyed and plotted was 2 acres and the total chainage 2300 feet.
Pokfulam.-Area surveyed and plotted was 34 acres and the total length of traverses 31 miles.
Aplichau. The survey of the village was completed and plotted, the acreage being 13.43 and the chainage 6920 feet.
Deep Water Bay. The area surveyed and plotted in this district was 2.6 acres with a chainage of 3900 feet. The golf course used by the Royal Hong Kong Golf Club and the fore- shore adjoining were surveyed, the total area being 15 acres and the total length of traverses 5000 feet.
Repulse Bay. The work in this district necessitated surveys totalling 2 acres with a chainage of 2300 feet.
Stanley.--The whole of the village, foreshore and cultivation were surveyed and plotted during the year, the total acreage being 166 and the chainage 6 miles.
Wong Ma Kok.-This small village and surrounding cultiva- tion were surveyed. The total number of acres surveyed were 10.4 and the length of traverses 5280 feet.
Tytam. Work has been commenced in this district, 2.54 acres have been surveyed and traverses run of 13 miles.
Sai Wan.-Area surveyed and plotted 18.7 acres and tra- verses 1 miles.
Shau Ki Wan.-The work, except for revision has been com- pleted, the area surveyed and plotted during the year being 18 acres with a chainage of 3 miles.
Quarry Bay-One hundred and ten acres have been sur- veyed in this district and 100 acres plotted during the year. The total length of traverses was 9 miles.
11
Surveys.
Shek 0.-This survey which was commenced in December 1927 was completed the area being approximately 200 acres, the length of coast line surveyed 9,500 feet, the total length of main traverses 28,000 feet and minor traverses for detail work about 10,200 feet.
Kowloon.During the year 448 acres were surveyed and 396 acres plotted the chainage being 43 miles.
20. Traverses.-The following main traverses were run during the year and detail along the routes surveyed and plotted:-
Quarry Bay to Mount Butler along
Mount Parker Road
Mount Butler to Hill 800 (adjoining Wong Nei Cheong Gap-Tytam Road).
Pokfulam Police Station to Kai
Lung Wan via Sassoon Road and Victoria Road
Boa Vista to Shaukiwan along Is-
land Road
From the junction of Sai Wan Road
and Island Road to Sai Wan Village and thence to Tytam Gap
From Stanley Gap on Island Road
to Trig. Station at Stanley Village
Chainage in miles.
3
2
21/
1층
13/
21. Triangulation.-The triangulation in the New Territories to which reference was made in the report for the year 1927 was completed, calculations made and the results recorded.
Two beacons erected by the Military Authorities below Jardine Look-out were valued and a new station fixed and valued at Stanley.
Permanent cairns were erected at Tin Kau (Plover Cove) Bushy Reef, Jones Cove, Cham Chuk Wan, Table Island, Sharp Island, Hill 1356 (Station south of Lam A Village) Fung Head (Tai Long) Hill near Shik Hang Village (Long Harbour). These stations were temporarily fixed by the No. 2 Colonial Survey Section, Royal Engineers and will eventually be connected to the main triangulation.
22. Revenue Surveys and General.-Surveys were made for plans to be attached to Crown Leases of 312 lots. Boundaries of numerous lots were set out for the Drainage, General Works
Surveys.
Q 12
and Roads Offices. In Hong Kong 43 frontage lines to streets. were checked and in Kowloon and New Kowloon 159. Boun- daries of 112 lots in Hong Kong and 156 lots in Kowloon and New Kowloon were defined and in addition in the latter neigh- bourhoods 30 areas were defined which were to be let on permit for various periods and 224 sites for pigsties.
On the Praya East Reclamation, roads were set out to a length of over 8,000 feet and permanent marks were left by means of piles which were driven into the Reclamation. A nail was driven into the top of each pile and valued so that any future setting out can be readily undertaken. Considerable time was lost on setting out lots in this locality as it was found that pickets, even when surrounded by concrete, were pulled out of the loose ground and many times had to be replaced.
A contour survey of Waglan Island was made and plotted to a scale of 20 feet to one inch with vertical intervals of 5 feet. This survey also included details of all buildings and high and low water marks.
An area of 30 acres at Cape D'Aguilar was also contoured.
Mount Collinson Forestry Reserve with an area of 328 acres was defined the chainage being 3.8 miles.
Various surveys were carried out in connection with the transference of land between the War Department and the Hong Kong Government, the total area surveyed being 59 acres.
Fifty acres were surveyed and contoured between Argyle Street and the Kowloon Cemeteries. The "measured mile" in Kowloon Bay was checked for the Harbour Department and the marks defining same proved to be in their correct positions.
The reservoirs of the Kowloon Tong Estate and the Catch- ment area appertaining thereto were surveyed the area being about 63 acres. An area of about 72 acres adjoining the catch- ment was also surveyed.
A survey of Kowloon Bay Reclamation was carried out and a plan prepared shewing the area and the villages etc. up to the foot-hills on a scale of 32 inches to one mile, the area surveyed being 183 acres.
23. Boundary Stones.-Stones were fixed to define the boundaries of 58 lots in Hong Kong and 224 lots in Kowloon and New Kowloon.
out:
Q 13
B. O. 0. Work,
24. New Territories.-The following surveys were carried
Acres.
Chainage in feet.
The Royal Hong Kong Golf Club
Course at Fanling
400
63,600
Cheung Yuen, Lam Tai Village
9
4,700
Lots 589 and 740 and neighbour-
hood, D.D. 131, Castle Peak
Lots 717 and 718 D.D. 92
43
2,400
3
1,800
An area at Ska Tau Kok for
laying-out purposes
20
7,700
Various lots at junction of Fan-
ling and Sha Tau Kok Roads
6
5,000
Sai Heung Yuen, Lam Tai, Castle
Peak
40
13,600
The officer stationed in the New Territories
was also employed on work in connection with the renovation of stones defining the Northern Boundary of the New Territories.
Works under the Buildings Ordinance
25. A further increase has to be recorded in the number of new works dealt with in 1928, as compared with the previous year.
As
The number of domestic buildings completed at the end of the year also shows an increase over the figures for 1927. In most districts the works which were in progress at the end of 1928 is an indication that the number of houses completed during the year 1929 will probably be even greater than 1928. regards "non-domestic" buildings, the number actually com- pleted at the end of 1928 was less than the previous year, but a considerable amount of work was in progress, so that the figures for 1929 will probably show a corresponding increase, as in the case of domestic buildings.
Attention is drawn to the graph embodied in this Report which is of interest as showing a comparative statement of the number of plans approved and houses certified during the period from 1905 to 1928,
B. 0. 0. Work.
14
26. Plans. The following is a tabulated statement showing the number and type of buildings, in connection with which plans were deposited during the year, the figures for 1927 being given in a parallel column for purposes of comparison:-
Buildings, &c.
1927.
1928. Increase. Decrease.
New European houses,
89
170
81
New Chinese houses,
201
633
432
New Buildings and Structures
other than the above,
281
350
69
Alterations and additions to
existing buildings,
2,427
2,045
382
1
Verandahs,
151
574
423
***
Balconies,
37
129
23
92
Sunshades,
6
Areas,
Piers, (including repairs)
10
5
...
5
Wells,
17
86
39
:
Total,.....
3,249
3,998
1,136
387
The number of plans (covering the buildings in the tabulated statement above) deposited during the year was 2,385, as com- pared with 2,158 in 1927.
The number of plans approved during the year was 2,929 as compared with 2,481 in 1927.
27. Certificates.-The following Certificates for new build- ings were issued:
246 under section 204 of Ordinance No. 1 of 1903, cover- ing 506 domestic buildings, of which 145 were European and 361 Chinese dwellings, and 94 cover- ing 107 non-domestic buildings.
These figures show an increase of 47 in the case of "domestic" and a decrease of 11 in that of "non- domestic" buildings. Of the 145 European houses completed and certified, 42 are on the Kowloon Tong Estate.
500)
1905238
258
1000
1590
R500
BLACK CURVE Indicate No. of Plans Approved
RED CURVE
Indicate
No. of Houses Centified
NG
157
1263
||16]
946
1 208]
1191.
1477
[1644]
1886]
1609
426]
1712
1818]
2049
1965
2016
2458
|2661|
2850
3887
2498]
2155]
2481
N #
01
[2500
2500
1401
08
145)
160
+48
1910
+95
121
13
N
12201
141
312
15
352
171
16 gra
335
18
406}
161
|457||
20
YEAR
1955)
+771||
814
169+
500
1000
11500
2000
3000
13500
Q 15
B. 0. 0. Work.
28. Notices and Permits.-The following is a tabulated statement of the notices served and permits issued during the year, the figures for 1927 being given in a parallel column for purposes of comparison::
Dangerous Structure Notices, Miscellaneous Notices......
Private Street Improvement Notices, including footpaths under verandahs and balconies,
1927.
1928.
Increase. Decrease.
262
141
435
284
101
196
92
Notices in respect of Nuisances
reported by Officers of the
Sanitary Department,
2,665
4,236
1,571
New Permits issued,..
716
935
219
Permits renewed,.
611
372
Fees charged for the issue of new
permits,
36
14
Fees charged for the issue of plans
for Theatrical sheds,
5
10
10
121
151
:
239
$
22
5
:
Charges made for permission to obtain Sand and Stone from Crown Land,
Charges made for damage to Trees... Fees charged for re-instating road
surface,
Penalties imposed for breach of Tramway Permit conditions,...
Securities required in connection
with the issue of permits
Number of Demands made,
Total amount,
65, 32
$
30
30
250
$ 250
***
$ 150
$ 150
$ 125
72
$11,475
:
**
125
29. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damage.-No damage occurred affecting any private building works.
30. Prosecutions.-The following is a tabulated statement of the cases in which legal proceedings were taken with regard to illegal works and other nuisances, the number of convictions obtained, and the amount of fines imposed:-
Nature of Offence.
Obtaining stone, etc., without permission,
Matsheds without permission,
Defective Mortar,
Defective Building Works,
Illegal works (ie., divergence from approv-
ed plans, non-submission of plans before commencing building opera- tions, construction of illegal works, and occupation of matsheds, &c., without permission),
Other cases (ie., non-compliance with
notices issued under the Public Health & Buildings Ordinance)..................
No. of Cases.
No. of
Convictions.
Amount of Fines.
3128
35
5
350
150
20
20
18
515
25
14
$60
B. 0. 0. Work.
16
31. Cemeteries.-In connection with the provision of ad- ditional grave spaces, the work of forming new terraces and paths, and repairing paths, channels and culverts proceeded as usual at the Chinese Cemeteries at Mount Caroline, Chai Wan, Kai Lung Wan, and Shum Wan in Hong Kong.
It was necessary to provide extensions to areas in Kai Lung Wan East Cemetery.
At the Chinese Cemeteries in Kowloon,-Kowloon Central and Sai Yu Shek,-similar works were also carried out.
A small amount of nullah training was carried out at the Kowloon Central Cemeteries.
A reinforced concrete Bridge and Embankment were formed at the approach to Sai Yu Shek Cemetery.
Cheung Sha Wan Cemetery was re-opened during the year and a new approach road formed.
32. Reclamations.-The following is a statement of the private reclamations which were completed or in progress during the year:-
Area in sq. ft.
M.L.'s 430 and 431, North Point (nearing com-
pletion),
833,975
S.I.L. 524, Shaukiwan (in progress), K.I.L.'s 1558 to 1561, Ma Tau Kok (in
7,626
progress),
407,985
?
N.K.M.L.'s 6 and 7, Lai Chi Kok (in) 374,400
progress),
N.K.I.L. 520, Castle Peak Road (in progress), N.K.I.L. 521, Castle Peak Road (in progress), N.K.I.L. 971, Castle Peak Road (in progress), Tsun Wan M.L. 2, (work suspended nothing
has been done during the year),
Tsun Wan M.L.'s 4 and 5 (in progress),
ƒ 630,000
27,000
24,750
24,750
874,400
ƒ 74,900 273,600
In connection with the reclamation of about 215 acres of foreshore and sea-bed at the head of Kowloon Bay, referred to in previous year's reports, this has now been taken over by Government and work is being completed by the General Works Office.
17
B. O. O. Work.
33. Principal Works of a Private Nature, completed or in progress.
Works completed:-
Shops, and office Block, on I.L. 619, Sec. B., R.P.,
Queen's Road Central.
Shops, on I.L. 2414, Queen's Road Central.
A block of European Flats (4), known as Aigburth Hall,
on 1.L. 2483, May Road.
A large extension to the Generating Station of The Hong Kong Electric Co., Ltd. on M.L. 321, North Point.
The "Ko Shing Theatre" on M.L. 58, R.P., Queen's
Road West.
The Ying Wa Girls' School on I.L. 590, Bonham Road. Extension to The Nethersole Hospital on I.L.'s 590
and 1897, Bonham Road.
A block of 24 European flats, known as Peak Mansions,
on R.B.L. 78, Stubbs Road, The Peak.
The "Peninsula Hotel" on K.I.L. 1461, Salisbury
Road.
Extensions to The Hong Kong and Kowloon Wharf and Godown Co. Ltd. Godowns Nos. 17 and 18, on K.M.L. 11..
The "Majestic" Cinema Theatre, op K.I.L. 570, R.P.,
Nathan Road.
School-Ying Wah College'-on K.I.L. 1784, Bute Street and Sai Yeung Choi Street, Mong Kok Tsui. School-Wah Yan'-on K.I.L. 1568, Sec. A, s.s. 1,
Nelson Street.
Church on K.I.L. 2059, Ho Mun Tin.
Office Block on I.L. 295, Queen's Road Central.
Office Block, on I.L. 619 R.P., Queen's Road Central. In course of erection:
A large Departmental Store for The Sun Co. on P.R.M.L. 63, Des Voeux Road Central and Con- naught Road Central was in progress.
The new building for the Wesleyan Sailors' and Soldiers' Home, on 1.L. 2616, Praya East, was nearing completion.
A large R.C.C. Godown on I.L. 2755, Praya East Re- clamation was commenced. This is the first per-
.
manent building to be erected on the Reclamation. A large building in R.C.C. to be used as a Chapel, (St. Paul's Hospital), on I.L. 1018, Causeway Bay, was in progress.
A large Hospital for the Tung Wah Hospital Authori- ties, on I.L. 2686, Soo Kun Poo, was commenced. A large Chinese family mansion on I.L. 1946, Broad-
wood Road was nearing completion.
B. O. O. Work.
18
Theatre on I.L.'s 48, R.P. and 601, R.P., Queen's Road
Central, and Circular Pathway.
A new wing as an extension to St. Stephen's Girls' College, on I.L. 2440, Lyttelton Road and Park Road was in progress.
A Students' Hostel, to be known as "Ricci Hall", on I.L. 2610, Sec. A. Pokfulam Road, was com- menced.
A building for use as a Public Dispensary on S.I.L. 430,
Main Street, Shaukiwan, was nearing completion. A large Rubber Factory on S.I.L. 104, Main Street, Shaukiwan, was commenced, and good progress made.
A large block of buildings for St. Stephen's Boys' College, on R.B.L. 314, Stanley, was commenced, and good progress made.
Site formation for 28 European houses on R.B.L. 245, Deep Water Bay, was almost completed, and the building of one house was commenced.
A large Chinese family mansion on R.B.L. 28, The
Peak, was commenced, and good progress made. 10 European houses (10 shops and 30 flats), on K.I.L.
407, Nathan Road.
5 European houses (5 shops and 15 flats) on K.I.L.
413, Nathan Road.
Telephone Exchange and Staff Quarters, on K.I.L. 574,
Nathan Road.
"Po Hing" Theatre, on K.I.L. 2101, Nathan Road, Hostel and Hall for the Chinese Y.M.C.A. on K.I.L.
1483, Waterloo Road, and Pitt Street.
Maternity Ward, Kwong Wah Hospital, on K.I.L. 1213,
Kwong Wah Street.
Chapel and School, on N.K.I.L. 579, Yen Chow
Street, (nearing completion).
School, on N.K.I.L. 1114, Un Chau Street. (nearing
completion).
Sub-station for The China Light and Power Co. (1918)
Ltd. on K.I.L. 1900, Prince Edward Road.
22 European houses on K.I.L. 2097, Prince Edward
Road.
24 European houses on K.I.L. 2135, Prince Edward
Road.
39 European houses on the Kowloon Tong Estate.
34. Valuation and Resumption. The total valuations made during the year 1928 comprised 1399 properties with a total estimated value of $29,789,936.31.
Valuations were made for the purpose of resumptions for street widening and the development of areas in accordance with the approved Town Planning Scheme.
Resumptions shown in Schedule A below were actually
effected:-
Q 19
SCHEDULE A.
B. O. O. Work.
Resumptions in connection with Street Widening, New
Roads, Improvement Schemes etc, etc.
'urpose of Resumption.
Vote dobited.
Number of properties dealt with
Total area in
Amount paid
sq. ft.
HONG KONG.
$
) Street Widenings
Head 31, Sub-head 37
21,750.00
870
) Sundry purposes
do.
2
40,000.00
2.160
) Development Schemes
do.
14 village lots
17.229.79
KOWLOON.
$7M 979.79
velopment
in accord-
Head 31,
2
2.700.00
735 5
ance with Town Plan-
Sub-head 61
aing Scheme.
do.
1
do.
18 village lots
600.00 22.501.78
800.
25.891.78
NEW KOWLOON.
evelopment in accord- ince with the Town Planning Scheme.
ii Tak Air Port
Head 31, Sub-head 89
203 village lots
28,732.86
Loan Account
N.K.I.L. 133 Secs. L.M. and V.
84,385.00
B. 0. 0. Work.
20
SCHEDULE B.
Included in Schedule A certain cases were submitted to Arbitration with results as detailed in Schedule B below.
Lots resumed,
Government's offer based on Valuation and
Resumption Officer's valuations
Amount of claim submitted.
Results of proceedings.
$
Wong Nei Chong Lots 6, 11, 14 S.A. 77 and 97.
5,141.00
No claim
submitted.
Board awarded
$4,917.00
Hok Un Lot Nos. 22, 29
and 86.
7,404.66
do.
7,404.66
S.D. IV Lots 432, 435,
469 and 470.
936.55
do.
936.55
S.D. 1 Lot 6628
13.08
do.
13.08
N.K.I.L. 133 Sections
60,500.00
$107,000.00
84,385.00
L, M and V.
No claim
*K.I.L. 818.
1,500.00
submitted.
1,500.00
*K.I.L. 709.
2,500.00
2,500.00
*Paid in 1927. Not included in Schedule A.
Q 21
B. 0. 0. Work.
In addition to the valuations as shown in Schedule A the undermentioned valuations for other purposes were made:-
1. For Resumptions not effected 102 properties totalling
$545,161.60.
2. Special valuations required by Government of sundry
properties-52 properties totalling $4,424,933.00.
3. Confidential Valuations required by Government-9
properties totalling $784,400.00.
4. For Captain Superintendent of Police-1 property
value $792,300.00.
5. Government Civil Hospital Site-1 property value
$2,128,000.00.
6. For Resumption of areas required for flight gap in connection with the aerodrome for Civil Aviation on the Kai Tak Reclamation-80 lots totalling $39,735.77.
7. For Estate Duty Commissioner-714 properties
totalling $16,933,869.51.
8. For Stamp Duties-7.properties totalling $58,050.00
9. For Registrar of Supreme Court-18 properties
totalling $105,250.00.
10. For Registrar of Companies-35 properties totalling
$784,730.00.
11. For Official Trustee for Security-36 properties
totalling $292,755.00.
12. For Official
$25,000.00.
Administrator-1 property value
13. For Official Receiver-3 properties totalling
$359,500.00.
14. For Treasury Solicitor-93 properties totalling
$2,298,262.00,
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
Q 22
PUBLIC WORKS, RECURRENT.
HONG KONG.
35. Maintenance of Buildings.-Government Buildings were kept in a goal state of repair and general renovation work was carried out wordance with the recurring programme.
Extoruates, Sup Vote,
Expenditure,
$170,000.00 $ 26,000.00
$196,000.00 $181,548.59
36. Improvements to Buildings.-The principal improve- ments carried out under this heading were the following:—
Harbour View.-New partitions and minor alterations to convert the building for use as a Police Station. Caine Road Police Quarters-Insert folding doors between the Bedroom and Dining Room. K.T. Slaughter House-Erect hanging rails for carcases. Wong Nei Chung Gap Police Station-Extension of Dormitory to accommodate more Police. Central Police Station-Various alterations to form Lounge in the Old Barrack Block. Supreme Court-Erect partitions in the Accounts Office. Gough Hill Police Station-Erect a small Motor Garage.
Estimates, Sup. Votes,
$26,000.00 $ 5,150.00
a
Expenditure,
$31,150.00
$25,382.61
37. Maintenance of Lighthouses.-Lighthouses were main- tained in a good state of repair and renovations were carried out under the usual recurring programme.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$8,000.00 $7,437.94
38. Maintenance of Furniture.-During the year 3 complete sets of furniture were supplied to Senior Officers and 3 com- plete sets to Subordinate Officers Quarters. In addition 14 part sets were supplied where necessary and 390 articles were pro- vided for Police Stations, offices and schools. Repairs were effected to many existing articles for their proper maintenance.
Estimates, Sup. Vote,
Expenditure,
$15,000:00
$10,335.00
$25,335.00
$23,546.33
23
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
39. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges in City. Improvements to Roads and Bridges in City.
} Approxi-
mately 64 miles of roads.—The road surfaces were maintained in a satisfactory condition. The asphaltum treatment of the carriageways was further extended throughout the City.
The following figures show the extent of the operations carried out at the Government Quarry, Tsat Tse Mui, during the year:
Stone, Various grades passed through crushers :-
A total quantity of 19,831 cubic yards of which 4,472 cubic yards were made into tar macadam, 634 cubic yards into sand carpeting and 14,725 cubic yards were delivered to various works as the material came from the crushers. Further 30,762 granite paving slabs were provided for use on footways; 81 reinforced concrete standards for railings, and 25 notice boards were made.
Park Road was widened between Bonham Road and Breezy Point Quarters and footpaths were provided in Lower Albert Road between Garden Road and P.W.D. Oflices. Flat channels were laid in Jervois Street and Bonham Strand. Garden Road was widened at the Lower Peak Tram Station to form a car- Park.
The following are particulars of the additional areas laid with improving surfacing during the year.
Substitution of 2′′ asphaltum laid on
Square yards.
cement concrete bed for macadam,
3,600
Tarring and sanding,
54,234
24" granolithic paving slabs laid on foot-
ways,
3,210
Substitution of tar macadam for ordinary
macadam,
4,011
Estimates,
$125,000.00
Expenditure,
$124,525.30
40. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges, outside City. Improvements to Roads and Bridges, outside City. Approximately 78 miles of roads.—The road surfaces generally were maintained in a satisfactory manner.
Shek O Road was surfaced with an additional coat of water- bound macadam and tarpainted. Rubble parapet walls were erected at dangerous points on the road around the Island.
·
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
Q 24
The Beach Road at Repulse Bay was widened to 20 feet between the main road Bridge and the main nullah and several dangerous corners on the Island Road were cut back.
The surface channels and outlets in Stubbs Road between Bowen Road and Magazine Gap and in Wongneicheong Gap Road between Bowen Road and Repulse Bay were improved.
The following are particulars of the improved surfacing in- troduced on a number of roads in addition to those mentioned in previous reports:
Tarring and sand,
24′′ granolithic paving slabs. laid on foot-
ways,
Substitution of tar macadam for ordinary
macadam,
Estimates,
Expenditure,
Square yards.
31,900
780
4,000
$136,000.00 $134,859.34
41. Maintenance of Telephones, including all cables.—The lines and instruments were maintained in good order and thirteen exchange telephones, five extensions and two direct lines were installed during the year.
lines.
Alterations and improvements were effected to existing
A considerable amount of buried cable work was carried out for the Military Authorities during the year.
A new 101 pair submarine cable was laid across the harbour between Hong Kong and Kowloon in July, and the old cables removed.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 $ 8,004.05
42. Maintenance of Sewers, Nullahs, &c.-The sewers, stormwater drains, and trained nullahs generally were cleansed, repaired and maintained in good condition, the open nullahs and channels in the City of Victoria and in the Shau Ki Wan dis- trict being cleansed by the Sanitary Department. The auto- matic flushing tanks were operated during periods of low tide. Sand deposits were cleared as they occurred.
The Septic Tanks at Lugard Road, Repulse Bay, Deep Water Bay, near R.B.L. 137, Pokfulam Road, and at F.L.'s 29 and 30, Pokfulam, were periodically sludged.-
1
Q 25
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
All metal work in connection with the various drainage systems was inspected, and, where found necessary, repaired and tarred.
Repairs were also effected to septic tanks, sewers, storm- water drains, nullahs and channels, the most important being to those situated as shewn below :·
Sewers.
In Seymour Road opposite I.L. 509, south of Police Quarters Caine Road; op- posite I.L. 2270 Village Road; at the junction of Des Voeux Road Central and Jackson Road; near R.B.L. 199 Mount Kellett; at foot of steps from Ar- buthnot Road to Caine Road; at the junction of Des Voeux Road Central and Morrison Street; op- posite "The Birdcage" Con- duit Road; opposite Govern- ment Quarters, Park Road.
Nullahs.
At Sookunpoo, west of new Tung Wah Hospital Site; adjoining I.L. 1891 Ken-, nedy Town; at Babington Path; on Crown land at rear of No. 13, Shaukiwan Road; south of Macdonnell Road, west of Peak Tramway.
Storm Water Drains.
In Jervois Street, junction of Hillier Street; in Des Voeux Road Central, junction of Pedder Street; at "The Falls" Peak; in front of Central Fire Station; in Connaught Road, junction of Ice House Street; in Queen's Road Central op- posite Beaconsfield Arcade; on Stubbs Road, south of No. 294 The Peak.
Channels.
East of Macdonnell Road Garages and east of I.L. 1390; near R.B.L. 158, Re- pulse Bay; at R.B.L. 54 No. 180 Mount Kellett, The Peak.
Many defective traps, gullies, gratings, etc. were renewed, and a number of old disused drains of various sizes and types destroyed and filled in.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$20,000.00 $19,122.11
43. Gas Lighting,-City, Suburbs and Hill District.-The total number of lamps in use at the end of the year in the City and its precincts was 1,634, an increase of 42 over the figures for the previous year, and in the Hill District 225, an increase of 2 as compared with last year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$95,000.00
$94,723.47
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
26
44. Electrict Lighting,-City, Hill District and Shaukiwan. The numbers and positions of incandescent lamps in the principal roads of the City are as under :-
Along tramway route,
City of Victoria
53
400 C.P.
Chater Road junction with Jack-
son Road,
1
M
300
Chater Road junction with Mur-
ray Road,
2
100
''
Connaught Road Central near the
Star Ferry Wharf
1
200*
Des Voeux Road Central junction
with Jackson Road,
1
300
2)
2 -1,000
Aberdeen Village,
Pedder Street,
Pedder Street junction with Con-
naught Road Central,
Various Roads,
Aberdeen,
1 -1,000 60 -1,000
25
2
"
100
17

100
,,
Applichau Village,
12
100
"
Ah Kung Nam Village,
7
100
Barker Road Tram Station,
2
16
1
Bowen Road,
25
32
""
Breezy Point Government Quarters,..
1
50
""
Brewin Path,
6
32
71
Caroline Hill Road,
7
100
Excelsior Terrace,
4
32
Harlech Road,
18
32
Homestead Path,
8
100
Kennedy Town Cattle Pier,
1
50
Lugard Road,
26
32
Latrine Lights,
87
8
Magazine Gap Road,
25
32
Morrison Hill Road,
5
100
>
Mount Cameron Road,
11
100
Mount Davis Road,
22
100
North Point Cable Area,
1
100
·
Pokfulam Road,
26
100
Queen's Pier,
2
32
do.
600
do.
5
200
31
Quarry Bay,
9
50
Sai Wan Ho,
16
50
1
do.
9
100
Sassoon Road,
11
100
"}
Shaukiwan Road,
3
50
""
do.
26.
100
""
Shaukiwan Village,
7
100
""
Stanley,
12
32
12
Stubbs Road,
.103
100
Tregunter Path,
18
32
Wanchai Gap to Bowen Road,
20
100
Wongneicheong Recreation Grounds,
5
100
- Q 27
Traffic Control Lights.
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
Bottom of Seymour Road, Bottom of Garden Road,
2
32 C.P.
3
32
·
Junction of Stubbs Road & Gap Road,
Junction of Queen's Road West and
Pokfulam Road,
2
32
6
32
Caine Road junction with Arbuthnot
Road,
3
50
Junction of Garden Road and Lower
Albert Road,
3
50
13
Junction of Queen's Road East and
Arsenal St.
2
50
Junction of Bonham Road and Pokfu-
lam Road,
3
50
In addition to these, the Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Co. of Hong Kong provide 10 lamps, each having a cluster of three-100 Č.P. incandescent lamps for lighting the road adja- cent to their property, and the Taikoo Sugar Refinery Coy. also provide and light seven 2,000 C.P. incandescent lamps for the roads adjacent to their property.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$43,000.00 $42,758.97
45. Extension of Lighting.-90 lamps were installed during the year, 46 being electric and 44 gas.
Estimate, Expenditure,
$3,000.00 $2,371.05
7
46. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages.-The following works suffered some rainstorm damage:-Walls encircling Queen's College Site; Albany nullah and its tributaries; Wong- neichong Development-Site and Road; Wongneichong Village Development (Houses); Tai Hang Road Construction; Walls and inverts of nullah below Plunkett's Road, Peak; Path to Pier at Cape D'Aguilar Wireless Station.
Certain roads not treated with tar were scoured. A land- slide blocked the south side of Shaukiwan Road opposite the Taikoo Dockyard to traffic for a few hours; otherwise, the damage was comparatively slight.
Sand &c. were cleared from: -the invert of Colonial Ceme- fery nullah, Happy Valley; 3'6" culvert, Caroline Hill Road; nullah at south-west corner of I.L. 2138, Upper Conduit Road; culvert at North Point; Tai Hang nullah; nullah at side of Indian School; Shing On Street nullah, Sai Wan Ho; sandpits at S.I.L. 454, Sai Wan Ho; 18" culvert Tunglowan to Tai Hang; branch channel at side of Sookunpoo nullah. General works were
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
Q 28
carried out as follows:-rock removed and channels repaired below No. 189, Mount Kellett and below Matilda Hospital, Peak; dry rubble wall built and boulders removed at rear of I.L. 2456, Village Road; grille fixed in nullah at "Craig Ryrie", Mount Austin.
year.
All of the above works were completed by the end of the
Estimates, Expenditure,
$100,000.00 $ 64,818.33
47. Maintenance of City and Hill District Water Works.— The year opened with a restricted supply in all Rider Main Dis- tricts West of Eastern Street.
The following table shows the restrictions which were in operation during the year:
Districts.
Period.
West of Eastern
Street,
Jan. 1st to Jan.
2nd
Whole City,
Whole City,
West of Eastern
Street,
West of Garden
Road,
Jan. 3rd to Jan.
20th
Jan. 24th to May
31st
July 12th to July
14th
July 15th to Aug.
8th
Whole City,
Sept. 10th to Oct.
31st
Remarks.
2 hours supply daily by Rider Mains.
Total period of such restricted supply --228 days.
Whole City,
Nov. 1st to Dec.
31st
Constant Supply by
Street Fountains only (61 days).
**
From the above Table it will be seen that a full supply. was given on 77 days only during the year.
Q 29
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
The rainfall for the year was well below the average, this being the first occasion since 1922.
The rainfall for the 6 months ending 31st December was only 22.89 inches being the lowest ever recorded.
A comparative statement of the local rainfall in inches for the year at various points is given on page 33.
The highest comsumption occurred in August when the record weekly figure of 83.62 million gallons was reached, equi- valent to a daily average of 11.94 million gallons.
The total quantity of water stored in the impounding reser- voirs on the 1st. of January amounted to 1,448.25 million gal- lons, of which 325.37 million gallons were in the gravitation reservoirs and 1,122.88 million gallons in the low-level reservoirs requiring pumping. Storage reached a minimum on the 21st. April when the total was 856.20 million gallons of which 238.85 million gallons were in the gravitation reservoirs.
The reservoirs were at or over their permanent overflow levels for the following periods:-
Reservoirs.
Capacity to per- manent overflow
Periods.
Tai Tam,
level (Million gallons.)
384.80
16 days from 1st to
16th June.
Tai Tam Bywash,
22.37
Tai Tam Interme-
diate.
195.90
Tai Tam Tuk,
1,419.00
Wong Nei Chong,
30.34
Pokfulam,
66.00
12 days between 1st
June to 13th June.
174 days between 17th May and 17th November.
56 days between 3rd June and 28th July.
4 days from 1st June to 4th June.
5 days from 1st to
5th June.
P.W.R. Hong Kong..
Q 30
The rainfall for the year amounted to 71.16 inches (Obser- tory) or 36.71 inches less than last year and was 14.56 inches below the average for the last forty-five years. Although there was considerable rainfall during March and April, the wet season did not set in until May. The first heavy rain fell on the 22nd. April when the reservoirs commenced to rise, but the dry season set in early, the last considerable rain falling on the 31st August.
The maximum quantity of water impounded in all reservoirs during the year amounted to 2,118.41 million gallons on 4th June.
The total quantity of water remaining at the end of the year was 1,004.05 million gallons.
The total quantity of water pumped from Tai Tam Tuk Reservoir during the year amounted to 1,713.10 million gallons (the highest ever recorded) of which 1,574.33 million gallons were pumped by the new Simpson Engine and 138.77 million gallons by the Tangye Engines. This total exceeds that of last year by 408.49 million gallons.
No. 1 Engine (Tangye) ran
20 days.
No. 2
101
"
No. 3
(Simpson)
197
"
No. 4
159
""
>>
19
No. 5
186
33
The following is a statement of the cost of pumping during 1927 and 1928:
TAI TAM TUK PUMPING STATION:
1927.
1928.
C.
$ c.
Coal,
55,644.50
72,038.40*
Wages,
16,663.81
15,668.37
Miscellaneous, including repairs
and stores other than coal,
7,697.45
7,653.33
TOTAL,
$
80,005.76
95,360.10
*This is the value of coal consumed during the year.
Coal to the value
of $12,325.00 was carried forward from 1927 to 1928, and coal to the value of $16,466.60 was carried forward from 1928 to 1929. The price of coal was $14.65 per ton during the whole year in 1928.
31
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
The total quantity of water supplied during the year amounted to 2,980.76 million gallons filtered, and 35.67 million gallons unfiltered, making a grand total of 3,016.43 million gal- lons or 314.24 million gallons less than during 1927.
The average consumption of filtered water per head per day for all purposes throughout the year was about 19.2 gallons. In arriving at this figure the population has been estimated at 423,960. Full details of consumption, etc., will be found in Annexes C and D.
The analyses made by the Government Analyst show that the water was of good quality throughout the year, whilst the results obtained by bacteriological examination were most satis- factory.
The quantity of water pumped to the High Level District of the City was 165.93 million gallons, equal to an average daily consumption of about 453,000 gallons, whilst 80.96 million gallons were pumped to the Hill District, giving an average daily consumption of 221,000 gallons.
As compared with 1927 there was a decrease of 15.70 million gallons pumped to the High Level District and an increase of .53 million gallons to the Hill District.
1
The grand total pumped during the year to the High Level District amounted to 246.89 million gallons as compared with 262.06 million gallons in 1927, a decrease of 15.17 million gal- lons. Tabulated statements containing particulars of the quan- tities of water pumped to the High Levels of the City and to Hill District respectively will be found in Annexe E.
All engines, motors and station buildings have been kept in good order throughout the year. The work of overhauling the valves on the principal mains in the City was continued during the year, 377 being thoroughly repaired.
The number of meters in use at the end of the year aggre- gated 3,532 in the City and 251 in the Hill District making a grand total of 3,783, as compared with 3,266 and 245 or a total of 3,511 at the end of 1927. These figures do not include 63 meters in use at Pokfulam.
The quantity of water supplied by meters was as follows:- Filtered:
Government Buildings, for all purposes, free of charge,
157.67 million gallons.
Trade,
378.15
12
Domestic,
243.23
""
??
(High Level District),
105.73
17
(Peak District),
Unfiltered,
58.80 35.67
''
15
21
TOTAL,
979.25
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
32
These figures show a decrease of 13.20 million gallons in the quantity supplied by meters as compared with 1927.
New services were constructed or old ones altered, improved, repaired, or connected to the mains to the number of 5,433 and 69 supplies were laid on for building purposes.
The number of inspections of services carried out was 23,380. Defective services were found in 192 cases all of which were put in proper repair after the usual notices had been served.
Estimates,
Sup. Votes,
$255,000.00
$ 25,000.00
Expenditure,
$265,364.30
Q 33
A comparative statement of the local rainfall for the year at various points is given in the following table:
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
Shek Lei
Month.
Royal
Observa-
tory.
Tai Tam
Wong Nei Public Tai Tam Tuk Pokfulam Chong Tai Po Gardens. Reservoir. Reservoir. Reservoir. Reservoir. Quarters.
No. 1.
Shing Mun Shing Mun Shing Mun Reservoir Reservoir Reservoir No. 2. No. 3.
Kowloon
Reservoir
No. 4.
Pui
Reservoir
No. 5.
January
1.880
2.17
1.63
1.68
1.62
1.57
1.19
2.48
2.68
2.32
1.74
1:10
February
3.570
3.87
2.75
2.59
2.99
2.46
2.18
2.49
2.74
2.48
3.26
2.61
March
5.185
6.37
4.95
5.01
4.24
4.66
3.26
3.89
4.05
3.93
5.05
3.84
April
4.105
6.68
8.77
10.11
8.17
7.96
4.81
4.17
4.34
3.98
4.09
3.29
May
18.410
19.13
20.55
23.22
10.26
16.99
13.61
19.22
19.58
19.25
15.43
13.90
June
15.130
13.64
18.34
11.93
13.26
15.12
16.91
14.88
14.89
14.41
18.20
15.63
July
4.780
3.37
3.42
3.37
3.46
4.52
3.71
5.24
5.46
5.06
6.96
5.36
August
12.910
17.38
12.26
10.70
14.08.
11.50
8.63
11.05
11.60
10.68
13.06
9.67
September
3.915
6.34
4.77
4.49
4.76
3.63
3.50
5.56
6.06
4.95
4.29
3.36
October
0.435
0.38
1.23
0.53
0.55
0.64
0.09
0.14
0.15
0.07
0.44
0.17
November
0.815
0.94
1.00
1.06
0.70
0.36
3.94
3.19.
3.52
3.00
3.12
2.24
December
0.020
0.02
0.06
0.04
0.08
Total, 1928,
71.155
80.29
79.67
74.69
64.09
69.41
61.83
72.37
75.11
70.21
75.64
61.17
Total, 1927,
107.865
120.12
114.64
99.52
97.13
114.03
95.20
107.08
128.58
116.46
109.23
86.16
Increase or Decrease.
-36.710
-39.83
-34.97
-24.83
-33.04
-44.62
-33.37
-34.71
-53.47
-46.25
-33.59
-24.99
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
34
-A con-
48. Maintenance of Water Works, Shau Ki Wan: stant supply of water by fountains was maintained throughout the year, which was rendered possible by the temporary connec tion to the City Mains, the total quantity of water drawn there- from amounting to 8.00 million gallons.
The total consumption of filtered water for the year was 71.58 million gallons which includes 2.83 million gallons supplied to the boat population giving an average of 195,000 gallons per day. An unfiltered supply of 3.07 million gallons was given to the Barracks at Sai Wan, which with the total of the filtered supply stated above amounted to 74.65 million gallons or 204,000 gallons per day. The details of the consumption are given in Annexe F.
There were 65 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,200.00 $ 935.60
49. Maintenance of Water Works Aberdeen.-A satisfactory supply of water was maintained throughout the year, the total consumption being 31.44 million gallons inclusive of 4.37 million. gallons supplied through the water-boat station, as compared with a total consumption of 31.16 million gallons and a water- boat supply of 3.45 million gallons during 1927.
The average consumption throughout the year was 86,000 gallons per day, the details of which are given in Annexe G.
There were 19 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,200.00 $ 747.62
50. Maintenance of Water Works, Repulse Bay. The total quantity of water supplied during the year amounted to 7.85 million gallons or an average consumption of 21,000 gallons per day against a total supply of 6.42 million gallons and an average consumption of 17,000 gallons per day during 1927.
There were 23 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,000.00 $ 747.20
51. Water Account (Melers, etc.).-The number of meters examined and repaired during the year was 1,715. A systematic overhaul of all meters is being carried out.
The total expenditure for the year was
Estimates, Sup. Vote, Expenditure,
$24,000.00
$ 5,000.00 $28,639.75
|.
35
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
52. Maintenance of Praya Walls and Piers.-This work was under the supervision of the Roads Office until the end of June when it was transferred to the control of the Port Works Office.
To maintain the above works in a satisfactory condition during the year involved repairs to the following piers:
Eastern Street, Jubilee Street, Keng Shan, Murray, Queen's, Sai Wan Ho, Shaukiwan and Western Market.
Estimate,
Expenditure,
$20,000.00 $18,028.80
53. Maintenance of Public Cemeteries.-The cemeteries generally were maintained in a satisfactory condition. Most of the paths in the Colonial Cemetery were relaid with 21" grano- lithic cement concrete.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$2,500.00 $2,852.05
54. Maintenance of Chinese Cemeteries.—Work carried out under this heading has already been alluded to in paragraph 31 of this report.
Estimates, Expenditure,
55. Maintenance
$2,500.00
$2,493.10
of of Public Recreation Grounds. The various, grounds were maintained in a good order. The use of departmental labour for the purpose of mowing the grass, cleans- ing ditches etc. was continued.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$4,000.00:
$2,408.40
56. Dredging Foreshores. The principal operations under this head were the removal of silt to maintain the depths along- side Public Piers and Refuse Boat Depots. Towards the end of the year Government purchased the Praya East Reclamation Grab Dredger making it possible to commence the removal of the accumulation of silt in the Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter.
The total amount of silt dredged during the year was 39,171 cu. yds., the dredged materials were dumped at Cheung Sha Wan,
P.W.R. Hong Kong.
36
The dredgers were maintained in satisfactory repair.
Estimates, Sup. Vote,
$14,000.00
$ 3,500.00
$17,500.00
$15,691.49
Expenditure,
57. Stores Depreciation.-The adjustment of store values and reconditioning of old stores have been met from this vote, amounting to $2,915.28.
The following sums were credited to this vote: -$2,546.34 being rebate on Freight Charges in connection with stores pur- chased in England through the Crown Agents; $293.29 being the value of stores returned which had been issued prior to 1928.
The result showed a net expenditure on this vote of $75.65.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$100.00 $ 75.65
58. Boundary. Stones.-A statement of the boundary stones fixed is given in paragraph 23 of this Report.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$5,000.00 $3,992.62
59. Survey of Colony.-An account of the principal survey work executed during the year is given in paragraphs 19, 20, 21, 22, and 24 of this Report.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$5,000.00
$3,769.07
60. Bathing Places.-This work was referred to in para- graph 200 of last, year's Report.
The usual facilities were provided at Kennedy Town, North Point, Repulse Bay and Tai Wan.
The attendance for the season was better at all the beaches than last year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$13,000.00
$11,641.27
Q 37
P.W.R. KOWLOON.
P.W.R. Kowloon.
61. Maintenance of Buildings.—General renovation and re- pairs to Government Buildings were executed in accordance with the usual recurring programme, and they were maintained in a satisfactory condition.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$30,000.00 $23,195.89
62. Improvements to Buildings.-The works executed under this heading were small and of a minor nature of which the outstanding items were (i) the provision of two additional kit- chens at Kowloon Hospital and (ii) the fixing of grilles to certain doors at Yaumati Police Station.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 $ 6,653.92
63. Maintenance of Furniture.-During the year 2 part sets of Subordinate Officers furniture were supplied.
25 single articles were supplied where necessary for Police Stations, offices and schools Repairs were effected to many existing articles for their proper maintenance.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$5,000.00 $3,171.24
64. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges, Improvements to Roads and Bridges, Approximately 37 miles of roads.—The road surfaces were generally maintained in a satisfactory manner.
The following are particulars of the additional areas laid with improved surfacing during the year:—
Tarring and sanding,
24" granolithic paving slabs laid on foot-
ways;
Estimates, Expenditure,
Square yards.
68,206
2,846
$72,500.00 $69,754.10
65. Maintenance of Telephones.-The lines and instruments were maintained in good order. Six new instruments were in- stalled and a number of improvements effected to existing lines.
Alterations and improvements were carried out to the in- struments used by the Kowloon-Canton Railway.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$2,500.00 $2,290.52
P.W.R.. Kowloon.
38
66. Maintenance of Sewers, Nullahs, &c.-The sewers, stormwater drains, and trained nullahs were cleansed, repaired and maintained in good condition, the open channels and nullahs being cleansed by the Sanitary Department. The automatic flushing tanks were kept working continuously and sand deposits as they accumulated were removed.
Repairs were made to the sewers, stormwater drains, nul- lahs, and channels, the most important being to those situated as shewn below:
Sewers and Storm Water
Drains.
Nullah,
At outfall, Nanchang Street
Nullah.
Outfalls at Ching Lung Street and Kau Pui Shek Road; from Septic Tank, Kowloon Hospital; at Temple Street, near Austin Road; in Julia and Soares Avenue, Ho Mun Tin; in Salisbury, Gascoigne, Jordan, Canton and Kowloon City Roads; East of Diocesan Boys' School side of Tong Mi Road in Prince Edward Road. Storm Water Drain.
Channel.
Many defective traps, gullies, gratings etc.. were removed, and a number of old disused drains destroyed and filled in.
All metal work in connection with the drainage systems was inspected, and, where found necessary, repaired and tarred.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$9,000.00 $6,343.01
67. Gas Lighting. The total number of lamps in use at the end of the year was 534, a decrease of 2 over the previous year, due to electric lights being substituted in Nathan Road.
Estimates Expenditure,
$32,000.00 $26,893.94
68. Electric Lighting.-The total number of lamps in use at the end of the year, all of which are incandescent, was 352, an increase of 64 as compared with the previous year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$20,000:00 $19,578.06
69. Extension of Lighting.66 electric lamps were installed during the year, in the Kowloon District.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,500.00
$1,478,72
:
:
39
P.W.R. Kowloon.
70. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages.-Slight damage in the form of small washouts and landslides were caused to the following works:-Waterloo Road Extension to Kowloon Boun- dary; Tai Shek Ku (opposite Kowloon Hospital); To Kwa Wan Road.
Reinstatement was completed by the end of the y Kam- storm Damage prevention work was also carried out in connee- tion with the first two items by the construction of chito ls. bunding and toewalls.
------
Sand was cleared from: -Waterloo Road nullah from h way Bridge eastward; Waterloo Road nullah from Railwa Bridge westward; nullah in Gascoigne Road from the Club de Recreio up to the Railway Quarters; nullah at Lo Lung Hang up to Cook Street. Dry rubble walling was rebuilt at Lo Lung Hang nullah.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$P***0.00 #68.85
71. Maintenance of Water Works.—A constant supply was maintained in all districts throughout the year, and as antici- pated the consumption reached a new record figure being 15% in excess of the consumption during 1927.
The large increase in consumption is man! increase in metered services.
Owing to the inadequacy of the trunk mains at sible to maintain a 100% full supply during the sunt and although no public notification was made, th in most districts were slightly reduced in order to constant supply.
to the
t pos- months
Mesures
On a
On numerous occasions the daily consumption million gallons and had normal pressures been mantand it would have exceeded 4 million gallons.
During the year 777.38 million gallons from the S. Man River were delivered through the Tunnels into the Kereptun Reservoir.
The total quantity supplied was 1,246.55 million 2016 giving an average daily consumption of 3.40 million gallons or 20.6 gallons per head per day, making an estimated population of 165,700. The details are given in Annexe H.
The quantity of water stored in the impounding reservoirs on 1st of January amounted to 404.03 million gallons and t reached a minimum on the 14th May with 282.11 million gal lons. The reservoir was at or above its permanent, overflow level from 2nd June to 28th November on various dates. The quantity of water remaining in the reservoirs at the end of the year amounted to 395.11 million gallons.
P.W.R. Kowloon.
Q 40
The analyses made by the Government Analyst and the examination by the Bacteriologist were satisfactory.
The various buildings were kept in a good state of repair during the year. There were 2,777 meters in use at the close of the year, an increase of 840 as compared with 1927.
House services were constructed, altered or repaired in 1,054 instances and 62 supplies were laid on for building purposes.
The quantity of water supplied by meters was as follows:- Million gallons.
*Government Buildings, for all purposes,
free of charge,
Trade,
Domestic,
TOTAL,
42.73
208.26
266.80
517.79
*Owing to the shortage of water meters in Kowloon, most of the meters were removed from Government Buildings i.e., Latrines, Urinals and Markets &c., and were used for building, trade and domestic purposes.. The water supplied "Free of Charge" could therefore not be accurately calculated.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$35,000.00 $34,465.45
72. Water Account (Meters, etc.).—The number of meters examined and repaired during the year was 779.
Estimates, Sup. Votes, Expenditure,
$15,000.00
$27,500.00
$42,373.91
73. Maintenance of Praya Walls and Piers.-The work was under the supervision of the Roads Office until the end of June when it was transferred to the control of the Port Works Office.
The Praya Walls and Piers were maintained in a satisfactory condition No extensive repairs were necessary except to the Public Per at Kowloon Point. The cost of this work was de- frayed from a separate vote.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$17,000.00 $ 3,097.71
74. Maintenance of Chinese Cemeteries.-Work carried out under this heading has already been alluded to in paragraph 31 of this report.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,000.00 $ 995.85
41
www
P.W.R. New Kowloon.
75. Maintenance of Recreation
Grounds.-The various
grounds were maintained in good condition. Departmental gangs were employed for the purpose of mowing grass, cleaning ditches etc.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$2,500.00
$1,763.11
P. W. R. NEW KOWLOON.
76. Maintenance of Buildings.-Government Buildings were maintained in a good state of repair and renovations were carried out under the usual recurring programme.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$7,0******
$4,619.2
77. Improvements to Buildings.-A few minor inves ments only were carried out under this heading during the year.
Estimates,
$2,000.00
Expenditure,
$ 364.80
78. Maintenance of Furniture.—31 single articles were sup- plied where necessary and sundry repairs and renovations carries out during the year.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
79. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges.
Improvements to Roads and Bridges.
$1,000.00
$ 130.80
Approximately
75 miles of roads.-The road surfaces were generally maintained in a satisfactory manner. The following are particolars of the additional areas laid with improved surfacing during the sear:-
Tarring and sanding,
Square yards –
62,583
21" granolithic paving slabs laid on
footways,
Estimates,
Expenditure,
3.79
$22,000***
$21,420.12
P.W.R. New Kowloon.
42
80. Maintenance of Telephones.-The lines and instru- ments were maintained in good order. Two new telephones
were installed and a number of improvements and alterations carried out to existing circuits.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$500.00
$387.63
81. Maintenance of Sewers, Nullahs, etc.-The sewers, stormwater drains, and trained nullahs were cleansed, repaired, and maintained in good condition, the open channels and nullahs being cleansed by the Sanitary Department. Sand deposits, as they accumulated were removed.
All metal work in connection with the drainage systems was inspected, and, where found necessary, repaired and tarred.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,500.00 $1,371.94
82. Gas and Electric Lighting-The number of electric Lamps in use at the end of the year, all of which are incandes- cent, was 308, an increase of 96 over the previous year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$15,000.00 $12,146.97
83. Extension of Lighting.-Ninety six electric lamps were installed during the year.
Estimates. Expenditure,
$250.00
Nil.
84. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages. The rainstorms during the year caused damage only of which the following are the principal items:-(a) Kowloon Tong Development Site. (b) Kowloon Tong Development Scheme-Nullah East Side of Kowloon Tong Estate. (c) Kowloon Tong Development Area- Connection of Stream North of Hill Area to Main Nullah.
Under Item (a) the invert of the stream on the west side of the Kowloon Tong Estate which passes through the Railway Culvert was cleared of silt. Handpacked stone toe walls and earthbunds were constructed, whilst the slopes were turfed to prevent as far as possible any further rainstorm damage. Under items (b) and (c), the nullahs were cleared of silt and the in- verts made good where necessary.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$30,000.00
$4,985.24
Q 43 P.W.R. New Territories.
85. Maintenance of Water Works at Lai Chi Kok.—The total quantity of water supplied during the year was 143.20 million gallons which is a decrease of 22.02 million gallons over the figures for 1927 or an average consumption of 391,000 gallons per day.
Since September the Union Water-boat Company drew water largely from Messrs. Butterfield and Swire's Taikoo Sugar Works Supply.
Details of consumption are given in Annexe J.
There were 24 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$4,000.00
$3,718.00
!
86. Water Account (Meters, etc.).—The number of meters examined and repaired during the year was 60.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$1,200.00 $1,123.34
87. Maintenance of Praya Walls and Piers.-The work was under the supervision of the Roads Office until the end of June when it was transferred to the control of the Port Works Office,
The Praya Walls and Piers were maintained in a satisfac- tory condition. Only minor repairs were necessary.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 $ 390.88
88. Maintenance of Chinese Cemeteries.-No work was carried out under this heading during the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$100.00 Nil.
P. W. R. NEW TERRITORIES.
89. Maintenance of Buildings.-Government Buildings were maintained in a good state of repair and renovations were carried out under the recurring programme.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$25,000.00 $15,697.39
90. Improvements to Buildings.-A few minor improve- ments only were carried out and under this head of which the principal items were-Ping Shan Land Office-Fixing jalousies to the exposed elevation. Castle Peak and Tsun Wan Police Stations Fixing mosquito gauze. Sha Tau Kok Police Station-Laying surface channels in cement.
P.W.R. New Territories. Q 44
Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 $ 4.382.53
91. Maintenance of Furniture.-2 part sets of Subordinate Officers furniture and 16 single articles were supplied to Police Stations and schools. Numerous repairs were also effected during the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
92. Maintenance of Roads and Bridges.
$1,500.00 $ 917.00
Improvements to Roads and Bridges. } Approximately
75 miles of roads.-The road surfaces were generally maintained in a satisfactory manner. The strengthening and improvement of the roads was commenced, an additional layer of 4′′ macadam being laid over the existing surface and tar painted between Un Long and Ping Shan and from Castle Peak in the direction of Tai Lam Chung.
The following are particulars of the areas laid during the year:-
Tarring and sanding,
21" granolithic paving slabs laid on
footways,
Estimates,
Square yards.
56,416
133 $65,000.00
$64,916.74
Expenditure,
93. Maintenance of Telephones.-The lines and instruments were maintained in good order. Two new instruments were installed.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$6,500.00 $5,345.97
94. Maintenance of Sewers, Nullahs, &c. The sewers, stormwater drains, trained nullähs and concrete channels were cleansed, repaired, and maintained in good condition. Repairs were effected to the nullahs South-East of "White Cottage" and North-west of "Rampart", Tai Po.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$500.00 $140.78
95. Typhoon and Rainstorm Damages.-Damage caused by rainstorm was very small and repairs of a minor character only were necessary.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$40,000.00 $ 4,323.06
96. Maintenance of Water Works at Fanling.-The total quantity of water supplied during the year was 6.53 million gal- lons or an average consumption of 18,000 gallons per day.
There were 21 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$700.00
$141.19
45
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
97. Maintenance of Water Works at Taipo.-The total quantity of water supplied during the year was 14.24 million gallons or an average consumption of 39,000 gallons per day.
There were 36 meters in use at the close of the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$700.00 $662.85
98. Water Account (Meters, etc.).-16 meters were ex- amined and repaired during the year.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$600.00 $473.08
99. Maintenance of Chinese Cemeteries.-No work was carried out under this heading during the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$100.00 Nil.
100. Maintenance of Praya Walls and Piers.-The work was under the supervision of the Roads Office until the end of June when it was transferred to the control of the Port Works Office.
The principal works under this head were repairs to Cheung Chau Pier and the removal of rubble obstructing the approach to the pier.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$2,500.00 $ 700.95
PUBLIC WORKS EXTRAORDINARY.
HONG KONG.
101. Additional Quarters-Ventris Road.-This work was reported as completed in paragraph 101 of last year's Report.
The only charge against this year's vote was the payment of Retention Money.
1928 Estimates, $10,000.00 1928 Expenditure, . $10,000.00
Expenditure up
to 31.12.28, $1,707,630.95
102. New Hospital Block, Victoria Gaol.-This work is described in section (d) of paragraph 117 of last year's Report.
The building was completed, furnished and occupied by the month of June.
1928 Estimates,
$37,000.00 Total Estimates,
$62,000.00
1928 Expenditure, . $29,373.01 Expenditure up
to 31.12.28,
$54,378.01
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q 46
103. Garage for Motor Vans and Cars at Central Police Station. This work, referred to in paragraph 108 of last year's Report was completed in September 1927, the final payment of Retention Money being made in 1928.
1928 Estimates, $1,000.00 Total Estimates,

$10,000.00
Expenditure up
....$ 7,393.78
1928 Expenditure, .. $1,000.00 to 31.12.28,
104. Wongneichong Village Development (Houses).-This work was referred to in paragraph 102 of last year's Report.
The four blocks, totalling 32 houses, situated on the East side of the nullah were completed and handed over to the Secre- tary for Chinese Affairs. Occupation of all the houses took place between the 15th. July and the first week in August.
The remaining 20 houses on the West side of the nullah were completed towards the end of the year but will not be occupied until the completion of the sewer work in 1929.
$28,000.00 Total Estimates,
7,000.00
1928 Estimates,
1928 Sup. Vote, ...
1928 Expenditure, . $34,831.24
$35,000.00 Expenditure up
to 31.12.28,
$58,000.00
$57,960.20
105. Victoria Gaol, Reception Block.-Tenders were ob- tained during the month of February and that submitted by Messrs. Tat Lee & Co. for $33,158.57 was accepted.
Work was commenced on March 14th and proceeded satis- factorily during the year, the building being completed and occupied in the month of December.
The building is of two floors and contains the following ac- commodation: -Ground Floor, Reception and Registration Room, Bath House and Disinfecting Room; First Floor-Visit- ing Rooms, Solicitors Rooms, Clothes Store and Photographic Room. Forty-two fan and light points were installed.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$30,000.00 $25,586.33
106. Victoria Gaol Improvement of Ventilation to “D” Hall. The work, which was executed under the Maintenance of Buildings Contract by Messrs. Sang Lee and Co. consisted of the construction of grilled openings above all Cell Doors. The work was commenced during the month of November and com- pleted before the end of December.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$5,000.00
*
$1,474.80
47
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
107. Wongneichong Village Development-Removing exist- ing school and latrine and re-erecting on new site.—Under the above heading were comprised the following works:-
(a.) The construction a new school consisting of 3 rooms with accommodation for 90 pupils to replace the old village. school which was demolished to permit of the development of the area to Town-Planning layout. The contract was let to Messrs. Yun Tai & Co. on the 24th of September for the sum of $8,961.30 and the work was nearing completion by the end of the year.
(b.) The construction of a water flushed latrine with accom- modation of 22 seats for men and 6 seats for women to replace the existing latrine which had to be demolished to conform with the development of the district.
A contract for this work was let to Messrs. Po Yick & Co. on 12th July for the sum of $6,279.60. The work was com- pleted by the end of the year and the latrine handed over to the Sanitary Department.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
General Works::
$16,000.00
$14,131.39
108. Roads:-The following is a brief statement :-
Consequent upon the erection of new buildings, kerbing and channelling operations were executed on the following roads, the footpaths being paved and any necessary alterations in levels or alignment being effected:--
Aberdeen District,
Bonham Road,
Cross Street, High Street, Jervois Street, Leighton Hill Road. Magazine Gap Road, Peel Street,
Queen's Road Central,
Estimates,
Expenditure,
Queen's Road East, Queen's Road West, Shaukiwan Road, Shaukiwan West, Sai Wan Ho District, Tin Hau Temple Road, Wanchai Road, Western Street. Whitfield Road.
$40,000.00
$32,715.80
P.W.E. Hong Kong..
Q 48
109. Training Nullahs.-The following are the most im- portant stream courses dealt with during the year:
STREAM COURSES.
Length
Re-
Locality.
Position of stream course.
trained
marks.
(in feet).
Barker Road
East of R.B.L. 102 Barker
Road
Com- 99' pleted.
Conduit Road
East of I.L. 2138 Conduit
Road
101'
J9
do.
At I.L. 2429 Conduit Road.......
243'
"
Mt. Kellett
North of R.B.L. 54 from Mt. Kellett Road to a point below 6" sewer contouring hillside, Mt. Kellett......................
355'
""
Sing Woo Road ... Sing Woo Road nullah
40'
Pokfulam
Between R.B.L.'s 194 and
196 Sassoon Road
220'
>>
Estimates,
Expenditure, (from Government
funds),
Expenditure, (contributions by
various lessees),
$10,000.00
$6,420.47
978.42
$ 7,398.89
- Q 49
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
110. Sewage and Stormwater Drains.-The undermentioned are the most important stormwater drains and sewers which were laid during the year:
Size.
Description. Length.
Locality.
Position
Remarks.
36"
Stormwater drain
150' Tai Hang
At
rear of Tai
24"
>>
18"
Hang
To be
Village from existing completed 3'0′′ culvert to nullah
in 1929.
near I.L. 2461.
482' Wong Nei Chong Across I.L. 2551 and to Completed.
58'
57
18" & 39"
Sewer and S.W.D.
15"
Culvert
North Point
the S.W. corner of the Jews' Cemetery.
Across Wong Nei Chong Road, corner of Yeung Wo Nursing Home Village Road.
Outfall sections at sea wall of M. Ls. 430 & 431.
234' Causeway Bay From 30" S.W.D. in Shau-
kiwan Road to Tin Hau Temple.
35
9"
Sewer
740'
Sookunpoo
To New Tung Wah
Hospital Site.
9"
95
9"
8" &
6"
6"
6"
"
119' Wong Nei Chong At head of Shing Wo
93
Road from I.L. 2644 to I.L. 2660.
230 Jervois Street
Jervois Street.
"
440'
Praya East
New Sailors & Soldiers
Home on I.L. 2616.
27'
Sai Wan Ho
In Scavenging lane at Sai Wan Ho from S.I.L. 493 to S.I.L. 538.
"
124' Wong Nei Chong In Scavenging lane at Wong
Nei Chong New Village Site from I.L. 2523 to I.L. 2643.
وو
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q 50
Size. Description. Length. Locality.
Position
Remark
6"
Sewer
6"
6"
6"
114' Wong Nei Chong In Scavenging lane at Complete
137'
>>
99
1,090′ | Conduit Road
Wong Nei Chong New
Village Site from I.L. 2644 to I.L. 2659.
at
""
In Scavenging lane
Wong Nei Chong New Village Site from I.L. 2660 to I.L. 2667.
In New Road south of Conduit Road from I.L. 2422 to I.L. 2426.
6"
"2
136'
Tai Hang
East of I.L. 2461.
22
62' Queen's Road
East
In Man Ming Lane from Queen's Road East to I.L. 365.
6"
112'
""
Conduit Road
Conduit Road.
6"
Sewers
Gullies & connections
155'
Tai Hang
In lanes, I.L. 2461.
Queen's Road East
From Garden Road to
""
Arsenal Street.
to S.W.D.
The number of drain connections made was 74.
Many new gullies with flat gully gratings were constructed and connected to the stormwater drainage system.
Estimates,
Supplementary Vote,
$25,000.00
9,100.00
$34,100.00
Expenditure, (from Government
funds),
$20,221.42
Expenditure, (contributions by
various lessees),
7,068.50
$27,289.92
Q 51
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
111. Miscellaneous.-The following is a brief description of the principal works carried out under this heading:
P. & O. Building-Erection of various partitions to subdivide a floor in this building rented to accom- modate the Government Marine Surveyor and his staff.
Colonial Secretariat-Erection of wall book-cases in the
Hon. Colonial Secretary's Office.
Ellis Kadoorie School,-Resurfacing the Volley Ball
Court.
Estimates,
$15,000.00
Sup: Vote,
$10,000.00
Total,
$25,000.00
Expenditure,
$21,186.84
112. Waterworks.-The following is a statement of the works carried out under this heading:--
(a.) 18′′ main between Kennedy Road and Bowen Service Reservoir-This completes the new 18" supply main from the Rapid Gravity Filters at Bowen Road to the City.
(b.) Pedestal Hydrants-5 new Pedestal Hydrants were
fixed.
(c.) Additional Chlorine Cylinders-50 new Cylinders for Liquid Chlorine were purchased from England. (d.) Filtering Sand-250 cubic yards of sand were pur-
chased for Elliot Filter Beds.
(e.) W.Cs. at Elliot and West Point-Native type W.Cs. and the necessary sewers were constructed at Elliot and West Point Filters; the West Point installation was not completed by the end of the year. Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 $ 8,117,55
113. Port Works.-These works were referred to in para- graph 109 (e) of last year's Report.
Only minor works of a miscellaneous nature were carried out during the year.
Estimates, Expenditure,
Communications :
$5,000.00
$1,023.74
114. Wong Nei Chong Development-Site Formation and Road Construction.—This work was referred to in paragraph 114 (g) of the Report for 1926 and in paragraph 110 (b.) of last year's Report.
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q 52
The work was completed by the end of the year.
1928 Estimates,
1928 Sup. Vote,
$1,000.00 Total Estimates, .. $130,000.00
14,800.00
$15,800.00 Expenditure up
1928 Expenditure, . $14,279.18
to 31.12.28,
$ 21,897.34
115. Stubbs Road, Improvements to junction with Morrison Gap Road. The work, which was referred to in paragraph 110 (d) of last year's Report, was completed early in the year:-
Estimates, Expenditure,
$10,000.00 359.40
116. Approach Road to New Tung Wah Hospital Site at Soo Kun Poo. A road 16 feet wide and about 830 feet long was con- structed from the Eastern part of the road encircling Caroline Hill site to give an access to the new Tung Wah Hospital Site.
A contract was let to Mr. Li Yau for a sum of $3,232.80 on 16th May and the work was completed by end of August.
Estimates, Expenditure,
Drainage :-
Training Nullahs :·
$5,500.00 $2,661.40
117. Reconstruction of Wong Nei Chong Nullah, Section No. 3, from Bowrington Canal to Chinese Stand. This work, which was referred to in paragraph 111 (c) of last year's Report, was completed towards the end of November.
1928 Estimates,
1928 Sup. Vote,
$75,000.00 Total Estimates,
20,653.00
1928 Expenditure, . $95,652.80
$95,653.00 Expenditure up
to 31.12.28,
$150,000.00
$137,658.33
118. Construction of nullah through site of new Tung Wah Hospital at Sookunpoo.—This work, for which a Contract was let in May, was commenced towards the end of that month and completed in September.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$7,000.00 $2,230.03
119. Reconstruction of Wong Nei Chong Nullah, Section No. 4, in front of Jockey Club Stand.-A Contract was let, and work was commenced in the middle of March. The foundations, wall- ing and flooring were nearly completed. Very good progress was made with the reinforced concrete decking. 1928 Estimates, $130,000.00
1928 Expenditure, $ 84,922.83
Total Estimates, Expenditure up to 31.12.28,
$200,000.00
$ 84,922.83
I
T
Q 53
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Miscellaneous:
120. Reinstatement of Government Retaining Walls.-The general survey of the Retaining Walls in the colony referred to in paragraph 113 of last year's Report was completed during the year-end of January.
The whole of the Island of Hong Kong, Kowloon and New Kowloon to the foot of the hills was covered, and a total of two thousand and sixteen walls were examined and their construction and general condition recorded.
The work on the retaining wall at D'Aguilar Street was completed early in the year.
Further small precautionary works were done on Wanchai Road Wall. Tell-tales were fixed and observations taken from time to time to ascertain if any movement took place.
1928 Estimates, .... $28,000.00 Total Estimates, .. $150,000.00
Expenditure up
1928 Expenditure, . $ 1,642.40 to 31.12.28,
$ 20,861.73
121. Rent Allowance to Old Inhabitants. Wong Nei Chong Village.--In connection with the demolition of the old village, Government is erecting some new houses for housing the dis- placed villagers (see paragraph No. 104) and until these houses were completed, rent allowances were provided. Fifty three houses were erected and occupied by August.
The remaining eight houses will be completed in 1929. ·
Estimates, Expenditure,
$2,200.00 $2,088.00
122. Damage by rainstorm of July, 19th, 1926.-This work was referred to in paragraph 121 of last year's Report.
The completion of the Reconstruction of Albany nullah and its tributaries was completed early, in the year.
Water service and lighting to Tai Hang Market Reconstruc- tion was also completed early in the year.
1928 Estimates,
1928 Sup. Vote, ...
1928 Expenditure,
$ 9,000.00 Total Estimates,.. $907,660.00
2,000.00
$11,000.00 Expenditure up. $10,991.58 to 31.12.28,
$892,385.17
123. Chinese Cemeteries, Laying out' new arcas. -Works carried out under this head has already been alluded to in paragraph 31 of this Report.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$6,000.00
$5,977.68
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q. 54
124. Revolver Range for Police at Tai Hang.-The site at Tai Hang was abandoned for a more suitable and convenient one adjoining the Albany Filter Beds and Ladies' Recreation Club, Bowen Road.
The work consisted of the erection of a one storey building of brick walls and wooden roof. Special arrangements were made at the eaves and in the construction of the roof for ade- quate ventilation to ensure the escape of the foul air caused by revolver firing.
The interior was fitted up with the necessary banks, butts, travelling, bobbing, running and dropping targets which are mechanically worked from a Control Room.
Twenty-four fan and light points were installed.
A Contract was let to Messrs. Po Yick & Co. in July and by the end of the year the work was practically completed with the exception of a few of the mechanical fittings to the targets.
A Contract was let to Messrs. Yun Tai & Co. on 15th Octo- ber for a sum of $1,396.50 for the Construction of an access path from the junction of Bowen Road and Garden Road to the range.
The path was 5 feet wide and approximately 500 feet long.
By the end of the year this work was completed.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$20,000.00 $10,773.23
125. Victoria Gaol-Fire Fighting Appliances.-This work consisted of purchasing and installing a number of Fire Extinc- tures and lengths of Hose-pipe in advantageous positions re- commended by the Fire Brigade in the various Government Buildings.
The work was commenced in November and satisfactorily completed in December.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$6,400.00
$2,620.30
126. Rewiring Government Buildings (Queen's Gardens.). -Thirty hats at Queen's Gardens were rewired. Total number of fan and light points six hundred and thirty-one, bell points one hundred and five.
Estimates,
Expenditure,
$9,250.00
$7,193.75
Q 55
P.W.E, Hong Kong.
Waterworks:-
127. Eastern Filter Beds Scheme. This work was referred to in paragraph 122 of last year's Report.
The scheme, which is primarily intended to supply the Eastern end of the City from Arsenal Street to North Point in- cluding the new Praya East Reclamation and also to relieve the present Bowen Road Conduit by taking its supply direct from the West end of the Tytam Tunnel, is now completed.
The scheme comprised the following works:-
(a.) An 18′′ C.I. Pipe line from Tytam Tunnel to the
new Gauge Basin at the site of the new Filters.
(b.) A Gauge Basin for the new Filters.
(c.) 11 No. Slow Sand Filters.
(d.) A covered concrete Service Reservoir.
(e.) Access Road to site of Filter Beds.
(f.) Watchmen's Quarters at Filter Beds.
(g.) An 18′′ C.I. Distribution Main from the Server Reservoir to the Monument at Happy Valley.
(h.) Overseers Quarters.
In 1919 & 1920 the necessity for this work became so urgent that surveys were made, Indents sent to England for the neces sary pipes, Valves &c, and also as a temporary measure, in anti- cipation of the scheme, Grit Filters were constructed alongside Bowen Road Conduit at a point about 900 yards from the West end of the Tytam Tunnel, a 12" temporary C.I. main was laid from the Grit Filters to the South end of Happy Valley and from thence to the Monument, an 18′′ C.I. main was laid the latter forming part of the permanent scheme. These preliminary works were constructed at a cost of $31,142.72 and this amount was included in the preliminary estimate of $575,000.00 for the whole scheme.
In reference to:-
(a.) An 18" C.I. Pipe line from Tytam Tunnel to the Gauge Basin. This work was carried out by Messrs. Kin Lee under the Annual Contract. It consisted of 1,620 lineal feet of main generally contouring the hillside below Bowen Road and and on piers across stream courses and having an 18′′ Penstock VJ, at the Tunnel end with a 15" Sluice Valve at the Gauge Basın
(b.), (c.), (a.), (e.), and (f).-These items comprised Con- tract No. 12 of 1922 which was let to Messrs. Wing Out a Contract Price of $392,345.36.
The Filter Beds which are of the Slow Sand Type were constructed in two tiers, the upper tier at cope level of 33 A.O.D. and having 5 Beds and the Lower Tier at a cope lovei
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q 56
of 315 A.O.D. and having 6 Beds, the inverts of Beds at the outlet in both cases being 6.25′ below cope. The Beds have a total filtering area of 6,338 sq. yds. and are capable of supplying 2.54 million gallons of filtered water per day.
The Gauge Basin 12′ x 20′ (inside dimensions) is, below ground level, constructed of 1:2:4 cement concrete and above ground level of rock faced Ashlar granite. It is provided with a 1 Inlet and an 18′′ Outlet and has a 6'0" Rectangular Gauge for measuring the quantity of water passed.
Water from the Gauge Basin is delivered to each tier of Beds by means of 18′′, 15′′ and 12′′ C.I. Pipes which discharge into a Conduit 2′0′′ wide x 3′0′′ deep and covered by concrete Slabs running the whole length of the Beds. Between the Con-
it and the Beds are open Prefilters, 2 No. to each bed, 4′0′′ wide by 3′0′′ deep controlled by 8" Penstocks. The water from the Conduit enters the Prefilters at the bottom and rises through a 4′′ layer of Pea Gravel, supported on perforated tiles and con- crete bars, and then passes over a cill into the Filter Beds proper. The Invert and Walls of the Conduits and Prefilters are of 1:2:4 cement concrete and finished with a fine Punched Granite Cope.
The inverts of the Filter Beds are of 1:2:4 cement concrete laid in slabs 12′ square the joints between slabs being filled with asphalte.
The side walls are of 1:2:4 cement concrete and the division wall between beds are of 1:2:4 displacer cement concrete. All walls are finished with a fine punched granite ashlar cope.
The filtering medium consists of a layer a sand 2'6" thick over a 4′′ layer of pea gravel and is laid on perforated tiles supported by Vitrified bricks.
The filtered water from a bed enters an outlet well and after passing over a V-Gauge is conveyed to the Service Reser- voir by C.1. Pipes.
A. total area of 3,096 sq. yds. has been provided with a concrete invert and kerbs around for washing Sand.
The Service Reservoir has a capacity of 4.906 million gal- lons, an average depth of 24′ of water, is divided into two ap- proximately equal parts by a division wall and has an area at T.W.L. 1060 sq. ft. The top water level is 304 A.O.D. Each halt of the Reservoir is capable of being filled or drawn off、 separately as means of 18′′ Inlets at 304.75 and 18′′ draw offs at 279.75 1 O.D.
57
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
The invert of the Reservoir is composed of 1:2:4 cement concrete laid in slabs 12′ square with asphalte joints and having a fall of 1 in 100 to the draw off sumps. The side and division walls, of gravity section, are constructed of 1:3:5 displacer cement concrete with a " layer of cement mortar on the inside face. The walls are also provided with expansion joints. The roof is constructed of reinforced cement concrete of the flat slab and beam type, supported on R.C. Piers at 12′ centres and is laid to a fall similar to that of the invert the dimension from invert to top of roof slab being 26′6′′. The roof is covered with a 12′′ layer of earth and turf and is drained into channels sur- mounting the side walls.
A 18" C.I. Byepass main is also provided to divert the water direct from the Filter Beds to the 18′′ Distribution main and was laid around the West end of the Reservoir.
The Access Road is from Stubbs Road at about 50 yards below where it is crossed by Bowen Road. The roadway is 7' wide, has a concrete channel on one side and a concrete kerb on the other, and is surfaced with 4′′ of lime and cement con- crete finished with pea gravel in cement mortar. The gradient to the upper beds is 1 in 10' from thence to the Lower Beds is 1 in 8.
The Watchmen's Quarters have accommodation for Watch- men, 14 Coolies with sleeping and living Rooms, Kitchen, Store, Bath-room and Latrines. The building is single storied in brick work, having a concrete floor and double roll and pan roof.
To form a spoil site for the excavation and to deal with the drainage it was necessary to construct a covered nullah 615' in length. This was built of 1:2:4 cement concrete, 242 lineal feet being under the filter beds.
The works under this Contract were commenced in April 1922 and finally completed in June 1928, portions of the work being brought into use as they were completed.
Messrs. Wing On's final account which did not include C.I. Valves, Pipes, Reinforcement, Bricks and Tiles amounted to $393,149.32.
· (g.) 18" C.I. Distribution Main from Reservoir to Monu- ment Happy Valley.-A length of 2,100 lineal feet of this main from the Monument to the South end of Happy Valley was laid in 1920. A further length of 1,000 lineal feet from the South end of the above section to the South end of Wong Nei Chong Old Village was laid in 1924. From this point to a point 110' North of the Reservoir a length of 1,100', it has not been possible to lay the main owing to the fact that the proposed road has not been formed and a temporary diversion consisting of a 12′′ C.I. Pipe is at present in use on this section. The remaining section from the Reservoir to 110' North thereof was laid in 1926 when the East half of the reservoir was first brought into use,
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58
(h.) Overseers Quarters. It was decided not to erect these for the present.
The following quantities were used in the work: ·---
Soft Excavation
Rock
82,762 cubic yards.
16,832
""
Filling (Earth)
12,750
:>
""
Cement Concrete 1:2:4
5,564
"
""
1:3:5
7,161
1:2:4 R.C..
1,806
"
19
1,061
237
17
Lime and Cement Concrete
Lime Concrete
Lime & Cement Concrete surfacing
of Paths and Access Road
Ashlar Masonry
Reinforcement (Steel)
Turfing
3" Drain Pipes
2,112 square yds.
3,002 cubic feet.
93 Tons.
1,928 squares.
1,965 Lineal yds.
286
513
2,889
4"
22
"
22
6"
Drainage Channels
The following are the lengths of Permanent C.I. Water Mains laid:-
18"
15"
12′′
10′′
8"
6"
5,360 lineal feet
90
600
29
"}
360
""
45
""
720
1928 Estimates,
1928 Sup. Vote,
1928 Expenditure,
.
$25,000.00 Total Estimates, . $575,000.00
15,000.00
Expenditure up
$40,000.00 to 31.12.28, $39,521.05

$537,861.85
128. Water Supply to Aplichau.-This work was referred to in paragraph 127 of last year's Report.
The work comprised the laying of a 2′′ Steel flanged main on the bed of Aberdeen Harbour to convey water from the 3′′ main on the Island Road at Aberdeen to Aplichau Island.
Special flanged W.I. Pipes of 2" internal diameter in lengths of 20 feet were joined up on shore into sections 140 feet long, at one end of which a special ball and socket joint was fixed to take up the inequalities of the harbour bottom. These 140 feet sections were floated out into position attached to sampans, joined up on the surface, and lowered to the bottom, section by section, an examination of the pipe when laid being made by a diver. The length of this section was 540 feet.
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P.W.E. Hong Kong.
From the Aplichau end of this section a length of ordinary 2" W.I. Pipe 130 feet long was laid on shore and also 675 feet of 11" W.I. Pipe was laid along the main street terminating in a street fountain.
1928 Estimates,
1928 Expenditure,
$1,000.00 Total Estimates,
Expenditure up
$ 954.91 to 31.12.28,
$3,500.00
$1,691.48
129. Reconstruction and Installation of No. 3 Motor at Bowen Road Filter Beds.--Particulars of suitable types of Tur- bines were obtained from manufacturers in England but no ex- penditure has been incurred.
Estimates, Expenditure,
$20,000.00 2.32
New Principal Water Mains in City.-A duplicate (1 main 12" in diameter was laid in Queen's Road East Arsenal Street to Garden Road, a distance of 2,450 feet
This main enables more water from the new Rapid *** Filters at Bowen Road to be delivered to the Central the City.
1928 Estimates,
tram
12.7.28 Sup. Vote,
$15,000.00
4,000.00
$19,000.00
$19,000.00
1928 Expenditure,
130. Praya East Reclamation :·
(a.) Contribution by Government towards Funds for
the Reclamation.
(b.) Morrison Hill Development, Retaining Walls and
Drains.
This work was referred to in paragraph 129 of last year's Report.
of
(a.) Filling. The difficulties of obtaining suitable filling materials from Morrison Hill increased to such an extent that, as from 1st April, the Contractor failed to deposit filling in the reclamation area at the rate laid down by the Committa, Engineers in consequence, he was paid no bonus on the tract from the above date. In order to expedite the esoph of this work, arrangements were made with the lesse Point Hill to permit the Contractor to obtain filling in 4. from excavations on this site. The quantity of filling mater
rid deposited in the Reclamation area during the year amounted t about 123,300 cube yards, making a total of 3,093.162
The total area of land formed was approximats i
yards.
cres.
T
3
P.W.E. Hong Kong.
Q 60
Sea Wall.-A length of about 4,770 lineal feet of sea wall had been completed at the end of the year. Work on the un- completed portion of sea wall-about 165 lineal feet-was sus pended pending a decision regarding the construction of a wet dock on portion of the reclamation area at its north east corner.
The Sea wall foundations were strengthened over the length of the displacement referred to in last year's Report, and the Sea wall completed to proper levels on the position it occupied alter displacement.
Quay Wall. This work was completed. The total length of the quay wall is about 190 feet and provides a depth of 16 feet 10 inches of water alongside at L.W.O.S.T. The piles and stanchions were fixed in position to connect the quay wall with the adjacent Admiralty Wharf.
Public Pier A.-The lower walings and struts were con- structed during the year.
Public Pier B.-The construction of this pier was completed except the surfacing of the deck.
Refuse Boat Pier.-The deck level of this pier was raised 3 feet 6 inches for a width of 25 feet to meet the requirements of the Sanitary Department. The chutes, navigation lights and water mains were fixed and the pier opened for use at the end of the year.
Sewers. The following lengths of sewers were completed at the end of the year:
21" diameter sewers 3,680 L.F. equivalent to 97% of
the total.
27′′ diameter sewers 600.5 L.F. equivalent to 100% of
the total.
Storm Water Drains and Nullah work. Storm water Drains totalling 15,340 lin. ft. and varying from 9 inches to 11 feet 6 inches in diameter were completed.
The 36 feet wide null